Science.gov

Sample records for juvenile cyprinid eupallasella

  1. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in 0+ juvenile cyprinids and sediments of the Po River.

    PubMed

    Viganò, Luigi; Roscioli, Claudio; Erratico, Claudio; Guzzella, Licia

    2008-08-01

    PBDE and PCB content has been determined in 0+ bleak (Cyprinus alburnus), nase (Chondrostoma soetta), gudgeon (Cyprinus gobio), chub (Cyprinus cephalus), and barbel (Barbus sp.) as well as in bed sediments sampled from the River Po upstream and downstream of the confluence of a tributary draining a highly industrialized and urbanized subbasin. Both groups of chemicals were present at higher levels in fish and sediments downstream from the confluence. In addition, whole-body concentrations of PBDEs and PCBs were different among species despite the young specimen age. The fact that PBDEs and PCBs were higher in benthivorous versus planktivorous fish, as well as in carnivorous versus herbivorous species, suggests that feeding behavior is a major controlling factor that may help differentiate the accumulation levels of 0+ juveniles. Of the five species, the pelagic/planktivorous cyprinid bleak (C. alburnus) showed the lowest concentrations (111 ng PBDE/g lipid weight [l.w.], 2016 ng PCB/g l.w.), whereas the benthic dweller and feeder barbel (Barbus sp.) had the highest concentrations of both groups of chemicals (259 ng PBDE/g l.w., 4785 ng PCB/g l.w.). The rank order of species contamination was essentially stable upstream and downstream from the tributary, and the congener contribution of PBDEs was also similar. In general, BDE-47 was the dominant congener, followed by BDE-100, -154, -153, and -28. BDE-209 dominated the PBDE congener profiles of sediments but was not found in any fish sample. Conversely, an unidentified hexa-BDE congener, which was not detected in sediments, was found in all fish species. The levels of PBDEs and PCBs determined in adult goby (Padogobius martensii), a small demersal predator also examined in the same river stretches, provided additional useful insights with which to interpret results. PMID:18213478

  2. Morphodynamic effects on the habitat of juvenile cyprinids (Chondrostoma nasus) in a restored Austrian lowland river.

    PubMed

    Hauer, Christoph; Unfer, Günther; Schmutz, Stefan; Habersack, Helmut

    2008-08-01

    At the Sulm River, an Austrian lowland river, an ecologically orientated flood protection project was carried out from 1998-2000. Habitat modeling over a subsequent 3-year monitoring program (2001-2003) helped assess the effects of river bed embankment and of initiating a new meander by constructing a side channel and allowing self-developing side erosion. Hydrodynamic and physical habitat models were combined with fish-ecological methods. The results show a strong influence of riverbed dynamics on the habitat quality and quantity for the juvenile age classes (0+, 1+, 2+) of nase (Chondrostoma nasus), a key fish species of the Sulm River. The morphological conditions modified by floods changed significantly and decreased the amount of weighted usable areas. The primary factor was river bed aggradation, especially along the inner bend of the meander. This was a consequence of the reduced sediment transport capacity due to channel widening in the modeling area. The higher flow velocities and shallower depths, combined with the steeper bank angle, reduced the Weighted Useable Areas (WUAs) of habitats for juvenile nase. The modeling results were evaluated by combining results of mesohabitat-fishing surveys and habitat quality assessments. Both, the modeling and the fishing results demonstrated a reduced suitability of the habitats after the morphological modifications, but the situation was still improved compared to the pre-restoration conditions at the Sulm River. PMID:18437454

  3. When Anthropogenic River Disturbance Decreases Hybridisation between Non-Native and Endemic Cyprinids and Drives an Ecomorphological Displacement towards Juvenile State in Both Species

    PubMed Central

    Sinama, Melthide; Costedoat, Caroline; Chappaz, Rémi; Gilles, André

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the impact of non-native species on native species is a major challenge in molecular ecology, particularly for genetically compatible fish species. Invasions are generally difficult to study because their effects may be confused with those of environmental or human disturbances. Colonized ecosystems are differently impacted by human activities, resulting in diverse responses and interactions between native and non-native species. We studied the dynamics between two Cyprinids species (invasive Chondrostoma nasus and endemic Parachondrostoma toxostoma) and their hybrids in 16 populations (from allopatric to sympatric situations and from little to highly fragmented areas) corresponding to 2,256 specimens. Each specimen was assigned to a particular species or to a hybrid pool using molecular identification (cytochrome b and 41 microsatellites). We carried out an ecomorphological analysis based on size, age, body shape, and diet (gut vacuity and molecular fecal contents). Our results contradicted our initial assumptions on the pattern of invasion and the rate of introgression. There was no sign of underperformance for the endemic species in areas where hybridisation occurred. In the unfragmented zone, the introduced species was found mostly downstream, with body shapes similar to those in allopatric populations while both species were found to be more insectivorous than the reference populations. However, high level of hybridisation was detected, suggesting interactions between the two species during spawning and/or the existence of hybrid swarm. In the disturbed zone, introgression was less frequent and slender body shape was associated with diatomivorous behaviour, smaller size (juvenile characteristics) and greater gut vacuity. Results suggested that habitat degradation induced similar ecomorphological trait changes in the two species and their hybrids (i.e. a transition towards a pedomorphic state) where the invasive species is more affected than the

  4. When Anthropogenic River Disturbance Decreases Hybridisation between Non-Native and Endemic Cyprinids and Drives an Ecomorphological Displacement towards Juvenile State in Both Species.

    PubMed

    Corse, Emmanuel; Pech, Nicolas; Sinama, Melthide; Costedoat, Caroline; Chappaz, Rémi; Gilles, André

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the impact of non-native species on native species is a major challenge in molecular ecology, particularly for genetically compatible fish species. Invasions are generally difficult to study because their effects may be confused with those of environmental or human disturbances. Colonized ecosystems are differently impacted by human activities, resulting in diverse responses and interactions between native and non-native species. We studied the dynamics between two Cyprinids species (invasive Chondrostoma nasus and endemic Parachondrostoma toxostoma) and their hybrids in 16 populations (from allopatric to sympatric situations and from little to highly fragmented areas) corresponding to 2,256 specimens. Each specimen was assigned to a particular species or to a hybrid pool using molecular identification (cytochrome b and 41 microsatellites). We carried out an ecomorphological analysis based on size, age, body shape, and diet (gut vacuity and molecular fecal contents). Our results contradicted our initial assumptions on the pattern of invasion and the rate of introgression. There was no sign of underperformance for the endemic species in areas where hybridisation occurred. In the unfragmented zone, the introduced species was found mostly downstream, with body shapes similar to those in allopatric populations while both species were found to be more insectivorous than the reference populations. However, high level of hybridisation was detected, suggesting interactions between the two species during spawning and/or the existence of hybrid swarm. In the disturbed zone, introgression was less frequent and slender body shape was associated with diatomivorous behaviour, smaller size (juvenile characteristics) and greater gut vacuity. Results suggested that habitat degradation induced similar ecomorphological trait changes in the two species and their hybrids (i.e. a transition towards a pedomorphic state) where the invasive species is more affected than the

  5. Body size is negatively correlated with trophic position among cyprinids

    PubMed Central

    Burress, Edward D.; Holcomb, Jordan M.; Bonato, Karine Orlandi; Armbruster, Jonathan W.

    2016-01-01

    Body size has many ecological and evolutionary implications that extend across multiple levels of organization. Body size is often positively correlated with species traits such as metabolism, prey size and trophic position (TP) due to physiological and mechanical constraints. We used stable isotope analysis to quantify TP among minnows across multiple assemblages that differed in their species composition, diversity and food web structure. Body size significantly predicted TP across different lineages and assemblages, and indicated a significant negative relationship. The observed negative relationship between body size and TP is contrary to conventional knowledge, and is likely to have arisen owing to highly clade-specific patterns, such that clades consist of either large benthic species or small pelagic species. Cyprinids probably subvert the physiological and mechanical constraints that generally produce a positive relationship between body size and TP using anatomical modifications and by consuming small-bodied prey, respectively. The need for herbivorous cyprinids to digest cellulose-rich foods probably selected for larger bodies to accommodate longer intestinal tracts and thereby to facilitate digestion of nutrient-poor resources, such as algae. Therefore, body size and TP are likely to have coevolved in cyprinids in association with specialization along the benthic to pelagic resource axis. PMID:27293777

  6. Body size is negatively correlated with trophic position among cyprinids.

    PubMed

    Burress, Edward D; Holcomb, Jordan M; Bonato, Karine Orlandi; Armbruster, Jonathan W

    2016-05-01

    Body size has many ecological and evolutionary implications that extend across multiple levels of organization. Body size is often positively correlated with species traits such as metabolism, prey size and trophic position (TP) due to physiological and mechanical constraints. We used stable isotope analysis to quantify TP among minnows across multiple assemblages that differed in their species composition, diversity and food web structure. Body size significantly predicted TP across different lineages and assemblages, and indicated a significant negative relationship. The observed negative relationship between body size and TP is contrary to conventional knowledge, and is likely to have arisen owing to highly clade-specific patterns, such that clades consist of either large benthic species or small pelagic species. Cyprinids probably subvert the physiological and mechanical constraints that generally produce a positive relationship between body size and TP using anatomical modifications and by consuming small-bodied prey, respectively. The need for herbivorous cyprinids to digest cellulose-rich foods probably selected for larger bodies to accommodate longer intestinal tracts and thereby to facilitate digestion of nutrient-poor resources, such as algae. Therefore, body size and TP are likely to have coevolved in cyprinids in association with specialization along the benthic to pelagic resource axis. PMID:27293777

  7. Characterizing the trophic niches of stocked and resident cyprinid fishes: consistency in partitioning over time, space and body sizes.

    PubMed

    Bašić, Tea; Britton, J Robert

    2016-07-01

    Hatchery-reared fish are commonly stocked into freshwaters to enhance recreational angling. As these fishes are often of high trophic position and attain relatively large sizes, they potentially interact with functionally similar resident fishes and modify food-web structure. Hatchery-reared barbel Barbus barbus are frequently stocked to enhance riverine cyprinid fish communities in Europe; these fish can survive for over 20 years and exceed 8 kg. Here, their trophic consequences for resident fish communities were tested using cohabitation studies, mainly involving chub Squalius cephalus, a similarly large-bodied, omnivorous and long-lived species. These studies were completed over three spatial scales: pond mesocosms, two streams and three lowland rivers, and used stable isotope analysis. Experiments in mesocosms over 100 days revealed rapid formation of dietary specializations and discrete trophic niches in juvenile B. barbus and S. cephalus. This niche partitioning between the species was also apparent in the streams over 2 years. In the lowland rivers, where fish were mature individuals within established populations, this pattern was also generally apparent in fishes of much larger body sizes. Thus, the stocking of these hatchery-reared fish only incurred minor consequences for the trophic ecology of resident fish, with strong patterns of trophic niche partitioning and diet specialization. Application of these results to decision-making frameworks should enable managers to make objective decisions on whether cyprinid fish should be stocked into lowland rivers according to ecological risk. PMID:27547336

  8. Acute toxicity, respiratory reaction, and sensitivity of three cyprinid fish species caused by exposure to four heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongjun; Liang, Youguang; Li, Sixin; Chang, Jianbo

    2013-01-01

    Using 3 cyprinid fish species zebra fish, rare minnow, and juvenile grass carp, we conducted assays of lethal reaction and ventilatory response to analyze sensitivity of the fish to 4 heavy metals. Our results showed that the 96 h LC50 of Hg(2+) to zebra fish, juvenile grass carp, and rare minnow were 0.14 mg L(-1), 0.23 mg L(-1), and 0.10 mg L(-1), respectively; of Cu(2+)0.17 mg L(-1), 0.09 mg L(-1), and 0.12 mg L(-1) respectively; of Cd(2+)6.5 mg L(-1), 18.47 mg L(-1), 5.36 mg L(-1), respectively; and of Zn(2+)44.48 mg L(-1), 31.37 mg L(-1), and 12.74 mg L(-1), respectively. Under a 1-h exposure, the ventilatory response to the different heavy metals varied. Ventilatory frequency (Vf) and amplitude (Va) increased in zebra fish, juvenile grass carp, and rare minnows exposed to Hg(2+) and Cu(2+) (P<0.05), and the Vf and Va of the 3 species rose initially and then declined when exposed to Cd(2+). Zn(2+) had markedly different toxic effects than the other heavy metals, whose Vf and Va gradually decreased with increasing exposure concentration (P<0.05). The rare minnow was the most highly susceptible of the 3 fish species to the heavy metals, with threshold effect concentrations (TEC) of 0.019 mg L(-1), 0.046 mg L(-1), 2.142 mg L(-1), and 0.633 mg L(-1) for Hg(2+), Cu(2+), Cd(2+), and Zn(2+), respectively. Therefore, it is feasible to use ventilatory parameters as a biomarker for evaluating the pollution toxicity of metals and to recognize early warning signs by using rare minnows as a sensor. PMID:23755209

  9. Who Is Who: An Anomalous Predator-Prey Role Exchange between Cyprinids and Perch.

    PubMed

    Vejřík, Lukáš; Matějíčková, Ivana; Seďa, Jaromír; Blabolil, Petr; Jůza, Tomáš; Vašek, Mojmír; Ricard, Daniel; Matěna, Josef; Frouzová, Jaroslava; Kubečka, Jan; Říha, Milan; Čech, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Piscivory in cyprinids (Cyprinidae) is extremely rare. Specifically, common bream (Abramis brama) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) are zooplanktivorous fish in deep lentic waters. Nevertheless, we observed predation by these two cyprinids under natural conditions in the Vír Reservoir, Czech Republic. We conducted diet analysis for cyprinids caught by trawling and gillnets and the large amount of young-of-the-year (YOY) perch (Perca fluviatilis), with sizes of 37-52 mm standard length, were found in their digestive tracts. In 2010, a large amount of YOY perch caused a significant decrease in Daphnia spp. size and abundance in the reservoir. Hence, a food deficit was induced for the cyprinids, apparent also from the poor nutritional condition of common bream which was much worse than the condition of those in similar reservoirs. Common carp and common bream shifted to forced piscivory, and they utilized the YOY perch as an alternative food source. In contrast, smaller species, such as roach (Rutilus rutilus) and bleak (Alburnus alburnus), widely utilized planktonic cyanobacteria. In the following year, YOY perch occurred in significantly lower numbers and conversely, Daphnia spp. size and abundance were significantly higher. The forced piscivory was not observed. Our results indicate a switch to forced piscivory by cyprinids, which was caused by a shortage of their natural food source. Moreover, this phenomenon presents an effective mechanism for reduction in the numbers of YOY perch, ensuring the stability of the ecosystem. PMID:27276078

  10. Who Is Who: An Anomalous Predator-Prey Role Exchange between Cyprinids and Perch

    PubMed Central

    Blabolil, Petr; Jůza, Tomáš; Vašek, Mojmír; Ricard, Daniel; Matěna, Josef; Frouzová, Jaroslava; Kubečka, Jan; Říha, Milan

    2016-01-01

    Piscivory in cyprinids (Cyprinidae) is extremely rare. Specifically, common bream (Abramis brama) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) are zooplanktivorous fish in deep lentic waters. Nevertheless, we observed predation by these two cyprinids under natural conditions in the Vír Reservoir, Czech Republic. We conducted diet analysis for cyprinids caught by trawling and gillnets and the large amount of young-of-the-year (YOY) perch (Perca fluviatilis), with sizes of 37–52 mm standard length, were found in their digestive tracts. In 2010, a large amount of YOY perch caused a significant decrease in Daphnia spp. size and abundance in the reservoir. Hence, a food deficit was induced for the cyprinids, apparent also from the poor nutritional condition of common bream which was much worse than the condition of those in similar reservoirs. Common carp and common bream shifted to forced piscivory, and they utilized the YOY perch as an alternative food source. In contrast, smaller species, such as roach (Rutilus rutilus) and bleak (Alburnus alburnus), widely utilized planktonic cyanobacteria. In the following year, YOY perch occurred in significantly lower numbers and conversely, Daphnia spp. size and abundance were significantly higher. The forced piscivory was not observed. Our results indicate a switch to forced piscivory by cyprinids, which was caused by a shortage of their natural food source. Moreover, this phenomenon presents an effective mechanism for reduction in the numbers of YOY perch, ensuring the stability of the ecosystem. PMID:27276078

  11. Cyprinid fishes of the genus Neolissochilus in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Khaironizam, M Z; Akaria-Ismail, M; Armbruster, Jonathan W

    2015-01-01

    Meristic, morphometric and distributional patterns of cyprinid fishes of the genus Neolissochilus found in Peninsular Malaysia are presented. Based on the current concept of Neolissochilus, only two species are present: N. soroides and N. hendersoni. Neolissochilus hendersoni differs from N. soroides by having lower scale and gill raker counts. Neolissochilus soroides has three mouth types (normal with a rounded snout, snout with a truncate edge, and lobe with a comparatively thick lower lip). A PCA of log-transformed measurements did not reveal significant differences between N. hendersoni and N. soroides, or between any of the morphotypes of N. soroides; however, a CVA of log-transformed measurements successfully classified 87.1% of all specimens. Removing body size by running a CVA on all of the principal components except PC1 (which was correlated with length) only slightly decreased the successful classification rate to 86.1%. Differences in morphometrics were as great between the three morphotypes of N. soroides as between any of the morphotypes and N. hendersoni suggesting that the morphotypes should be examined in greater detail with genetic tools. The PCA of morphometrics revealed separate clouds for N. hendersoni and N. soroides, but no differences between the N. soroides morphotypes. This study revealed that N. hendersoni is recorded for the first time in the mainland area of Peninsular Malaysia. Other nominal species of Neolissochilus reported to occur in the river systems of Peninsular Malaysia are discussed. Lissochilus tweediei Herre in Herre & Myers 1937 and Tor soro Bishop 1973 are synonyms of Neolissochilus soroides. PMID:26249381

  12. Vision in two cyprinid fish: implications for collective behavior

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Bret A.; Tyrrell, Luke P.; Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

    2015-01-01

    Many species of fish rely on their visual systems to interact with conspecifics and these interactions can lead to collective behavior. Individual-based models have been used to predict collective interactions; however, these models generally make simplistic assumptions about the sensory systems that are applied without proper empirical testing to different species. This could limit our ability to predict (and test empirically) collective behavior in species with very different sensory requirements. In this study, we characterized components of the visual system in two species of cyprinid fish known to engage in visually dependent collective interactions (zebrafish Danio rerio and golden shiner Notemigonus crysoleucas) and derived quantitative predictions about the positioning of individuals within schools. We found that both species had relatively narrow binocular and blind fields and wide visual coverage. However, golden shiners had more visual coverage in the vertical plane (binocular field extending behind the head) and higher visual acuity than zebrafish. The centers of acute vision (areae) of both species projected in the fronto-dorsal region of the visual field, but those of the zebrafish projected more dorsally than those of the golden shiner. Based on this visual sensory information, we predicted that: (a) predator detection time could be increased by >1,000% in zebrafish and >100% in golden shiners with an increase in nearest neighbor distance, (b) zebrafish schools would have a higher roughness value (surface area/volume ratio) than those of golden shiners, (c) and that nearest neighbor distance would vary from 8 to 20 cm to visually resolve conspecific striping patterns in both species. Overall, considering between-species differences in the sensory system of species exhibiting collective behavior could change the predictions about the positioning of individuals in the group as well as the shape of the school, which can have implications for group

  13. Juvenile Arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    Juvenile arthritis (JA) is arthritis that happens in children. It causes joint swelling, pain, stiffness, and loss of motion. It can affect any joint, but ... of JA that children get is juvenile idiopathic arthritis. There are several other forms of arthritis affecting ...

  14. Juvenile Firesetting.

    PubMed

    Peters, Brittany; Freeman, Bradley

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile firesetting is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Male gender, substance use, history of maltreatment, interest in fire, and psychiatric illness are commonly reported risk factors. Interventions that have been shown to be effective in juveniles who set fires include cognitive behavior therapy and educational interventions, whereas satiation has not been shown to be an effective intervention. Forensic assessments can assist the legal community in adjudicating youth with effective interventions. Future studies should focus on consistent assessment and outcome measures to create more evidence for directing evaluation and treatment of juvenile firesetters. PMID:26593122

  15. Juvenile Prostitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csapo, Marg

    1986-01-01

    Recent research and Canadian government committee reports concerning juvenile prostitution are reviewed. Proposals are made in the realms of law and social policy; and existing programs are described. (DB)

  16. Viable metacercariae of Opisthorchis viverrini in northeastern Thai cyprinid fish dishes--as part of a rational program for control of O. viverrini-associated cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Prasongwatana, Jiraporn; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Boonmars, Thidarut; Pinlaor, Somchai

    2013-03-01

    Among the various types of chronic helminthic infections, only schistosomiasis hematobium, opisthorchiasis, and clonorchiasis in a long-standing inflammation are found to be causative agents of cancer. Opisthorchiasis and Opisthorchis viverrini-associated bile duct cancer are prevalent among the residents in northeastern Thailand, who prefer consuming raw or improperly cooked cyprinid fish. Although numerous studies have reported on the presence of O. viverrini metacercariae in freshwater cyprinid fishes, none of the data has been derived directly from cyprinid fish dishes. Here, we have demonstrated the presence of viable metacercariae in a number of cyprinid fish dishes that are among the favorite foods of northeastern Thais. Traditional salt-fermented and grilled cyprinid fish were found to be safe to consume, but not raw fish salad or cyprinid fish fermented in sticky rice for 69 h. This information could be used as part of a rational and sustainable control program for O. viverrini-associated bile duct cancer. PMID:23052784

  17. Relations among habitat characteristics, exotic species, and turbid-river cyprinids in the Missouri River drainage of Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quist, M.C.; Hubert, W.A.; Rahel, F.J.

    2004-01-01

    We used data from 91 stream reaches in the Missouri River drainage of Wyoming to determine whether abiotic and biotic factors were related to the abundance of four cyprinid species associated with turbid-river environments: flathead chub Platygobio gracilis, sturgeon chub Macrhybopsis gelida, plains minnow Hybognathus placitus, and western silvery minnow H. argyritis. The abundance of these cyprinids was positively related to the percentage of fine substrate in a reach and inversely related to the percentage of gravel substrate, the percentage of large rocky substrate, and the abundance of exotic piscivores. Differences in substrate composition and abundance of exotic piscivores were largely explained by the presence and location of large, mainstem impoundments. Reaches without any large impoundments in their watershed had a high percentage of fine substrate, high catch rates of turbid-river cyprinids, few exotic piscivores, and little gravel or large rocky substrate. Reaches with a downstream impoundment (i.e., within 200 km) had habitat characteristics similar to those without impoundments but had few turbid-river cyprinids and many exotic piscivores. Reaches with an upstream impoundment (i.e., within 200 km) had little fine substrate, a high percentage of large rocky substrate, few turbid-river cyprinids, and many exotic piscivores. Our results suggest that impoundments have had a substantial influence on the distribution and abundance of cyprinid species adapted to hydrologically dynamic, turbid prairie streams and that conserving these species is dependent on maintaining natural flow and sediment transport regimes and on reducing habitat suitability for exotic piscivores.

  18. Selective Herbivory by an Invasive Cyprinid, the Rudd Scardinius erythrophthalmus

    SciTech Connect

    Kapuscinski, Kevin L; John, Farrell M; Stehman, Stephen V; Boyer, Gregory L; Fernando, Danilo D; Teece, Mark A; Tschaplinski, Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    1. Herbivory by non-native animals is a problem of growing concern globally, especially for ecosystems where significant native herbivores did not previously exist or have been replaced by non-natives. The rudd (Scardinius erythrophthalmus) is an omnivorous cyprinid that has a nearly global longitudinal distribution due to human translocations, yet it is unknown whether the rudd feeds selectively among aquatic macrophyte species common to North American waters. 2. We tested a null hypothesis of non-selective feeding by rudds using five species of aquatic macrophytes: Ceratophyllum demersum, Elodea canadensis, Najas flexilis, Stuckenia pectinata, and Vallisneria americana. Four rudds were placed in 15 different 890-L tanks and presented with known quantities of each macrophyte species (each tank serving as a block in a randomized complete block design). Each macrophyte bundle was weighed on six dates during a 13 d experiment. Differences in mean percent weight remaining among macrophyte species were tested using repeated measures analysis of variance. We also quantified differences among chemical attributes of the five macrophyte species and qualitatively determined if selective feeding by rudds was related to dry matter content (DMC), percent C by dry weight (%C), percent N by dry weight (%N), and the concentrations of total soluble proteins, two organic acids (aconitic and oxalic acid), total soluble phenolic compounds (<1,000 Da), nine soluble phenolic metabolites, and total phenolic compounds. 3. Selective feeding by rudds was evident, with the order of macrophyte removal (from highest to lowest) being: N. flexilis > E. canadensis > S. pectinata > V. americana > C. demersum. Selection was positively related to %C and atomic C:N, but not DMC, %N, or concentration of total soluble proteins, contrary to the expectation that rudds would select the most nutritious plants available. The concentration of aconitic acid was greatest in N. flexilis, a preferred macrophyte

  19. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA); Juvenile chronic polyarthritis; Still disease; Juvenile spondyloarthritis ... The cause of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is not known. It ... illness . This means the body attacks and destroys healthy body ...

  20. Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Is Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis the same as Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis? Yes, Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) is a new ... of chronic inflammatory diseases that affect children. Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis (JRA) is the older term that was used ...

  1. Adaptive evolution of cone opsin genes in two colorful cyprinids, Opsariichthys pachycephalus and Candidia barbatus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng Yu; Chung, Wen Sung; Yan, Hong Young; Tzeng, Chyng Shyan

    2008-07-01

    Opsariichthys pachycephalus and Candidia barbatus are two phylogenetically related freshwater cyprinids that both exhibit colorful, yet quite different nuptial coloration. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that differences in nuptial coloration between two species could reflect differences in color perception ability and the opsin genes that coded for it. Genes encoding the visual pigments of these two species were cloned and sequenced, lambda(max) of cone photoreceptors and the reflectance spectra of their body coloration were measured to test the hypothesis. The 14-nm spectral shift between green-light-sensitive photoreceptors of these two cyprinids is found to correlate well with differences in their reflective spectra. The spectral shift could result from differential expression of opsin genes and the interactive effects of the amino acid replacements in various minor sites. These results support our hypothesis that nuptial coloration is tied to color perception ability and opsin genes. PMID:18571688

  2. Juvenile Spondyloarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Gmuca, Sabrina; Weiss, Pamela F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review To provide a comprehensive update of the pathogenesis, diagnostic imaging, treatments, and disease activity measurements of juvenile spondyloarthritis (JSpA). Recent findings Genetic and microbiome studies have provided new information regarding possible pathogenesis of JSpA. Recent work suggests that children with JSpA have decreased thresholds for pain in comparison to healthy children. Additionally, pain on physical examination and abnormalities on ultrasound of the entheses are not well correlated. Treatment guidelines for juvenile arthritis, including JSpA, were published by the American College of Rheumatology and are based on active joint count and presence of sacroiliitis. Recent studies have established the efficacy of tumor necrosis factor inhibitors in the symptomatic treatment of axial disease, though their efficacy for halting progression of structural damage is less clear. Newly developed disease activity measures for JSpA include the Juvenile Arthritis Disease Activity Score and the JSpA Disease Activity index. In comparison to other categories of juvenile arthritis, children with JSpA are less likely to attain and sustain inactive disease. Summary Further microbiome and genetic research may help elucidate JSpA pathogenesis. More randomized therapeutic trials are needed and the advent of new composite disease activity measurement tools will hopefully allow for the design of these greatly needed trials. PMID:26002028

  3. Juvenile Spondyloarthropathies.

    PubMed

    Adrovic, Amra; Barut, Kenan; Sahin, Sezgin; Kasapcopur, Ozgur

    2016-08-01

    Juvenile spondyloarthropathies represent a clinical entity separate from the adult disease. Initial clinical signs of juvenile spondyloarthropathies often include lower extremity arthritis and enthesopathy, without axial involvement at the disease onset. Asymmetrical oligoarthritis of lower extremities is typically seen in this type of arthritis. Enthesopathy, which is the hallmark of the disease, is most commonly seen in the Achilles tendon, being manifested by heel pain. Anterior uveitis and HLA-B27 positivity are seen in a proportion of cases. Sacroiliitis is generally asymptomatic in the pediatric population. Ineffective treatment of childhood disease results in disease progression to typical adult form of ankylosing spondylitis. Therefore, early diagnosis and classification remains one of the most relevant questions in pediatric rheumatology. It should be kept in mind that the disease could be misdiagnosed as FMF or Behçet's syndrome in countries with a high incidence of those conditions. This review revises available classification criteria, clinical manifestations and therapeutic options for patients with juvenile spondyloarthropathies. PMID:27402112

  4. Development of a polymerase chain reaction assay to detect cyprinid herpesvirus 2 in goldfish.

    PubMed

    Waltzek, Thomas B; Kurobe, Tomofumi; Goodwin, Andrew E; Hedrick, Ronald P

    2009-03-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV2) has been associated with epidemic mortality among cultured populations of goldfish Carassius auratus. As the principal target tissues are hematopoietic cells in the kidney and spleen, the disease is designated herpesviral hematopoietic necrosis (HVHN). Originally described from Japan, the virus is present in at least five other countries and probably has a global distribution in goldfish. Preventing the further spread of the virus via control programs that exploit sensitive viral detection methods is critical. We developed a conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test based on unique sequences found in the putative helicase gene of CyHV2 and completed initial steps toward the validation of this test. The helicase CyHV2 PCR has an analytic sensitivity of at least 78 copies of the target sequence per reaction in serially diluted plasmid and 84 copies/microg of DNA from the kidney and spleen of goldfish experimentally infected with CyHV2. The analytic specificity of the helicase CyHV2 PCR was demonstrated by the lack of amplification of genomic DNA from cyprinid herpesvirus 1, cyprinid herpesvirus 3, and ictalurid herpesvirus 1 (IcHV1). The helicase CyHV2 PCR effectively detected DNA from CyHV2 from goldfish over a broad geographic range, including Japan, California, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. The performance of the helicase CyHV2 PCR was compared with that of the previously described real-time TaqMan PCR for CyHV2 on a set of 37 samples of DNA from goldfish after experimental or natural exposure to CyHV2. The two tests had very strong agreement (kappa coefficient = 0.907) in classifying fish as positive or negative for CyHV2. The helicase CyHV2 PCR therefore complements the real-time PCR test as a conventional diagnostic method for preventing the further spread of CyHV2. PMID:19485127

  5. Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... joints. This form of JIA may turn into rheumatoid arthritis. It may involve five or more large and ... no known prevention for JIA. Alternative Names Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA); Juvenile chronic polyarthritis; Still disease; Juvenile spondyloarthritis ...

  6. Molecular characterisation and prevalence of a new genotype of Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 in mainland China.

    PubMed

    Li, Lijuan; Luo, Yangzhi; Gao, Zexia; Huang, Jian; Zheng, Xianghai; Nie, Huihui; Zhang, Junmei; Lin, Li; Yuan, Junfa

    2015-06-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2, species Cyprinid herpesvirus 2) has been confirmed as a causative agent of the acute haematopoietic necrosis disease outbreak in farmed goldfish (Carassius auratus L.) and gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch). In this study, we present the genomic characteristics of a variant CyHV-2 strain (SY-C1) isolated from farmed gibel carp in mainland China and its comparative genomics analysis with the CyHV-2 reference strain ST-J1. Overall, the full-length genome of SY-C1 shares 98.8% homology with that of ST-J1. Sequence comparisons between SY-C1 and ST-J1 indicate that the variations include single-nucleotide mutations, insertions, deletions, and rearrangements, which suggested that SY-C1 is different from ST-J1 and represents a new genotype. Therefore, we propose that the identified CyHV-2 can be divided into 2 different genotypes and be named China genotype (C genotype) and Japan genotype (J genotype) according to their isolation loci. Furthermore, epidemiological surveys indicate that the dominant genotype of CyHV-2 circulating in mainland China is closer to the China genotype than the Japan genotype. PMID:25900131

  7. Coordinated and sequential transcription of the cyprinid herpesvirus-3 annotated genes.

    PubMed

    Ilouze, Maya; Dishon, Arnon; Kotler, Moshe

    2012-10-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) is the cause of a fatal disease in carp and koi fish. The disease is seasonal and appears when water temperatures range from 18 to 28°C. CyHV-3 is a member of the Alloherpesviridae, a family in the Herpesvirales order that encompasses mammalian, avian and reptilian viruses. CyHV-3 is a large double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) herpesvirus with a genome of approximately 295kbp, divergent from other mammalian, avian and reptilian herpesviruses, but bearing several genes similar to cyprinid herpesvirus-1 (CyHV-1), CyHV-2, anguillid herpesvirus-1 (AngHV-1), ictalurid herpesvirus-1 (IcHV-1) and ranid herpes virus-1 (RaHV-1). Here we show that viral DNA synthesis commences 4-8h post-infection (p.i.), and is completely inhibited by pre-treatment with cytosine β-d-arabinofuranoside (Ara-C). Transcription of CyHV-3 genes initiates after infection as early as 1-2h p.i., and precedes viral DNA synthesis. All 156 annotated open reading frames (ORFs) of the CyHV-3 genome are transcribed into RNAs, most of which can be classified into immediate early (IE or α), early (E or β) and late (L or γ) classes, similar to all other herpesviruses. Several ORFs belonging to these groups are clustered along the viral genome. PMID:22841491

  8. Transcriptional quiescence of paternal mtDNA in cyprinid fish embryos.

    PubMed

    Wen, Ming; Peng, Liangyue; Hu, Xinjiang; Zhao, Yuling; Liu, Shaojun; Hong, Yunhan

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial homoplasmy signifies the existence of identical copies of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and is essential for normal development, as heteroplasmy causes abnormal development and diseases in human. Homoplasmy in many organisms is ensured by maternal mtDNA inheritance through either absence of paternal mtDNA delivery or early elimination of paternal mtDNA. However, whether paternal mtDNA is transcribed has remained unknown. Here we report that paternal mtDNA shows late elimination and transcriptional quiescence in cyprinid fishes. Paternal mtDNA was present in zygotes but absent in larvae and adult organs of goldfish and blunt-snout bream, demonstrating paternal mtDNA delivery and elimination for maternal mtDNA inheritance. Surprisingly, paternal mtDNA remained detectable up to the heartbeat stage, suggesting its late elimination leading to embryonic heteroplasmy up to advanced embryogenesis. Most importantly, we never detected the cytb RNA of paternal mtDNA at all stages when paternal mtDNA was easily detectable, which reveals that paternal mtDNA is transcriptionally quiescent and thus excludes its effect on the development of heteroplasmic embryos. Therefore, paternal mtDNA in cyprinids shows late elimination and transcriptional quiescence. Clearly, transcriptional quiescence of paternal mtDNA represents a new mechanism for maternal mtDNA inheritance and provides implications for treating mitochondrion-associated diseases by mitochondrial transfer or replacement. PMID:27334806

  9. Transcriptional quiescence of paternal mtDNA in cyprinid fish embryos

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Ming; Peng, Liangyue; Hu, Xinjiang; Zhao, Yuling; Liu, Shaojun; Hong, Yunhan

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial homoplasmy signifies the existence of identical copies of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and is essential for normal development, as heteroplasmy causes abnormal development and diseases in human. Homoplasmy in many organisms is ensured by maternal mtDNA inheritance through either absence of paternal mtDNA delivery or early elimination of paternal mtDNA. However, whether paternal mtDNA is transcribed has remained unknown. Here we report that paternal mtDNA shows late elimination and transcriptional quiescence in cyprinid fishes. Paternal mtDNA was present in zygotes but absent in larvae and adult organs of goldfish and blunt-snout bream, demonstrating paternal mtDNA delivery and elimination for maternal mtDNA inheritance. Surprisingly, paternal mtDNA remained detectable up to the heartbeat stage, suggesting its late elimination leading to embryonic heteroplasmy up to advanced embryogenesis. Most importantly, we never detected the cytb RNA of paternal mtDNA at all stages when paternal mtDNA was easily detectable, which reveals that paternal mtDNA is transcriptionally quiescent and thus excludes its effect on the development of heteroplasmic embryos. Therefore, paternal mtDNA in cyprinids shows late elimination and transcriptional quiescence. Clearly, transcriptional quiescence of paternal mtDNA represents a new mechanism for maternal mtDNA inheritance and provides implications for treating mitochondrion-associated diseases by mitochondrial transfer or replacement. PMID:27334806

  10. Fighting Juvenile Gun Violence. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, David; Grant, Heath; Rowe, Wendy; Jacobs, Nancy

    This bulletin describes the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention's efforts to fight juvenile gun violence. The Office awarded four community demonstration grants to implement "Partnerships To Reduce Juvenile Gun Violence." Partnership goals include increasing the effectiveness of existing strategies by enhancing and coordinating…

  11. Rational development of an attenuated recombinant cyprinid herpesvirus 3 vaccine using prokaryotic mutagenesis and in vivo bioluminescent imaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is causing severe economic losses worldwide in the carp industry, and a safe and efficacious attenuated vaccine compatible with mass vaccination is needed. We produced single deleted recombinants using prokaryotic mutagenesis. When producing a recombinant lacking open...

  12. Juvenile Justice & Youth Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, James C.

    Youth violence and the juvenile justice system in the United States are explored. Part 1 takes stock of the situation. The first chapter discusses the origins and evaluation of the juvenile justice system, and the second considers the contributions of the Federal Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act to the existing juvenile justice…

  13. [Juvenile arthritides].

    PubMed

    Horneff, G

    2010-10-01

    Arthritis in children represents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. The diagnostic spectrum is broad and a very precise indication for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, especially in small children, is important. In addition to acute arthritides - viral arthritis, reactive arthritis, Lyme arthritis and septic arthritis - secondary chronic arthritis related to an underlying disease as well as juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), the most common chronic inflammatory systemic disease in children, need to be considered. This overview is a guide to the diagnosis of arthritis in childhood and to evidence-based therapy of JIA in particular. This consists of a combination of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, systemic and intraarticular corticosteroids, traditional DMARDs such as sulfasalazine, methotrexate and leflunomide, the TNF inhibitors etanercept, adalimumab and, with restrictions, infliximab, other biopharmaceuticals such as anakinra, canakinumab and rilonacept, and tocilizumab and finally, abatacept. PMID:20798949

  14. Cyprinid herpesvirus 3: an interesting virus for applied and fundamental research

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3), a member of the family Alloherpesviridae is the causative agent of a lethal, highly contagious and notifiable disease in common and koi carp. The economic importance of common and koi carp industries together with the rapid spread of CyHV-3 worldwide, explain why this virus became soon after its isolation in the 1990s a subject of applied research. In addition to its economic importance, an increasing number of fundamental studies demonstrated that CyHV-3 is an original and interesting subject for fundamental research. In this review, we summarized recent advances in CyHV-3 research with a special interest for studies related to host-virus interactions. PMID:24073814

  15. Barcoding and Border Biosecurity: Identifying Cyprinid Fishes in the Aquarium Trade

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Rupert A.; Armstrong, Karen F.; Meier, Rudolf; Yi, Youguang; Brown, Samuel D. J.; Cruickshank, Robert H.; Keeling, Suzanne; Johnston, Colin

    2012-01-01

    Background Poorly regulated international trade in ornamental fishes poses risks to both biodiversity and economic activity via invasive alien species and exotic pathogens. Border security officials need robust tools to confirm identifications, often requiring hard-to-obtain taxonomic literature and expertise. DNA barcoding offers a potentially attractive tool for quarantine inspection, but has yet to be scrutinised for aquarium fishes. Here, we present a barcoding approach for ornamental cyprinid fishes by: (1) expanding current barcode reference libraries; (2) assessing barcode congruence with morphological identifications under numerous scenarios (e.g. inclusion of GenBank data, presence of singleton species, choice of analytical method); and (3) providing supplementary information to identify difficult species. Methodology/Principal Findings We sampled 172 ornamental cyprinid fish species from the international trade, and provide data for 91 species currently unrepresented in reference libraries (GenBank/Bold). DNA barcodes were found to be highly congruent with our morphological assignments, achieving success rates of 90–99%, depending on the method used (neighbour-joining monophyly, bootstrap, nearest neighbour, GMYC, percent threshold). Inclusion of data from GenBank (additional 157 spp.) resulted in a more comprehensive library, but at a cost to success rate due to the increased number of singleton species. In addition to DNA barcodes, our study also provides supporting data in the form of specimen images, morphological characters, taxonomic bibliography, preserved vouchers, and nuclear rhodopsin sequences. Using this nuclear rhodopsin data we also uncovered evidence of interspecific hybridisation, and highlighted unrecognised diversity within popular aquarium species, including the endangered Indian barb Puntius denisonii. Conclusions/Significance We demonstrate that DNA barcoding provides a highly effective biosecurity tool for rapidly identifying

  16. Development of a rapid cyprinid herpesvirus 2 detection method by loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

    PubMed

    Liang, L-G; Xie, J; Luo, D

    2014-10-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV2) is a pathogen that causes severe disease and high mortality in goldfish and Prussian carp. We developed a six primer loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting the intercapsomeric triplex protein gene. CyHV-2 DNA was 10-fold serially diluted (10(8)-10(0) copies μl(-1)) and was used as the template to determine primer sensitivity. LAMP assays were performed with DNA templates from other pathogens to determine specificity. The LAMP assay had an unequivocal detection limit of 10 copies μl(-1), which was 100 times lower than that of the polymerase chain reaction. Other pathogen strains were not amplified by the LAMP primers, indicating good specificity. SYBR Green I was added to visually detect the amplification products. Assay applicability was evaluated in 120 samples of Carassius auratus gibelio, and a positive rate of 92·5% was obtained. In conclusion, a conventional LAMP assay has high convenience, rapidity, sensitivity and specificity for detecting CyHV-2 in infected aquatic organisms. Significance and impact of the study: Herpesviral haematopoietic necrosis, caused by cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2), is a severe disease of goldfish and Prussian carp associated with high mortality. We developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay to detect CyHV-2 at relatively low plasmid DNA copy levels. The results show that the LAMP assay has a number of advantages (simple, sensitive, rapid and specific) over the conventional polymerase chain reaction and can be applied in the laboratory and field. Particularly, the method is highly applicable to facilitate surveillance and early diagnosis of CyHV-2. PMID:24935791

  17. Juvenile Delinquency: An Introduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Carolyn A.

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile Delinquency is a term which is often inaccurately used. This article clarifies definitions, looks at prevalence, and explores the relationship between juvenile delinquency and mental health. Throughout, differences between males and females are explored. (Contains 1 table.)

  18. Juvenile Arrests 1996. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Howard N.

    In 1996, law enforcement agencies in the United States made an estimated 2.9 million arrests of persons under the age of 18. According to Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) figures, juveniles accounted for 19% of all arrests and 19% of all violent crime in 1996. The substantial growth in juvenile crime that began in the late 1980s peaked in…

  19. Juvenile Arrests, 1999. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Howard N.

    This bulletin presents a summary and analysis of national and state juvenile arrest data for 1999. Data come from the FBI's annual "Crime in the United States" report, which offers the estimated number of crimes reported to law enforcement agencies. The 1999 murder rate was the lowest since 1966. Of the nearly 1,800 juveniles murdered in 1999, 33…

  20. Juvenile Arrests, 2007. Juvenile Justice Bulletin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puzzanchera, Charles

    2009-01-01

    This Bulletin summarizes 2007 juvenile crime and arrest data reported by local law enforcement agencies across the country and cited in the FBI report, "Crime in the United States 2007." The Bulletin describes the extent and nature of juvenile crime that comes to the attention of the justice system. It serves as a baseline for comparison for…

  1. Juvenile Arrests, 2000. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Howard N.

    This bulletin examines the national and state juvenile arrest rate in 2000 using data reported annually by local law enforcement agencies nationwide to the FBI's Uniform Crime Reporting program. Results indicate that the murder rate in 2000 was the lowest since 1965; juvenile arrests for violence in 2000 were the lowest since 1988; few juveniles…

  2. Juvenile Arrests, 1998. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Howard N.

    This report provides a summary and analysis of national and state juvenile arrest data in the United States. In 1998, law enforcement agencies made an estimated 2.6 million arrests of persons under age 18. Federal Bureau of Investigations statistics indicate that juveniles account for 18% of all arrests, and 17% of all violent crime arrests in…

  3. Juveniles in court.

    PubMed

    Soulier, Matthew F; Scott, Charles L

    2010-01-01

    Nineteenth-century American reformers were concerned about the influence of immaturity and development in juvenile offenses. They responded to their delinquent youths through the creation of juvenile courts. This early American juvenile justice system sought to treat children as different from adults and to rehabilitate wayward youths through the state's assumption of a parental role. Although these rehabilitative goals were never fully realized, the field of American child psychiatry was spawned from these efforts on behalf of delinquent youths. Early child psychiatrists began by caring for juvenile offenders. The function of a child psychiatrist with juvenile delinquents expanded beyond strictly rehabilitation, however, as juvenile courts evolved to resemble criminal adult courts-due to landmark Supreme Court decisions and also juvenile legislation between 1966 and 1975. In response to dramatically increased juvenile violence and delinquency rates in the 1980s, juvenile justice became more retributional, and society was forced to confront issues such as capital punishment for juveniles, their transfer to adult courts, and their competency to stand trial. In the modern juvenile court, child psychiatrists are often asked to participate in the consideration of such issues because of their expertise in development. In that context we review the role of psychiatrists in assisting juvenile courts. PMID:21080770

  4. Concepts Shaping Juvenile Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Rob

    2008-01-01

    Rob White's paper explores ways in which community building can be integrated into the practices of juvenile justice work. He provides a model of what can be called "restorative social justice", one that builds upon the juvenile conferencing model by attempting to fuse social justice concerns with progressive juvenile justice practices.

  5. Juvenile Court Statistics - 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Youth Development (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    This report is a statistical study of juvenile court cases in 1972. The data demonstrates how the court is frequently utilized in dealing with juvenile delinquency by the police as well as by other community agencies and parents. Excluded from this report are the ordinary traffic cases handled by juvenile court. The data indicate that: (1) in…

  6. Identification of B Cells as a Major Site for Cyprinid Herpesvirus 3 Latency

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Aimee N.; Izume, Satoko; Dolan, Brian P.; LaPatra, Scott; Kent, Michael; Dong, Jing

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3), commonly known as koi herpesvirus (KHV), is a member of the Alloherpesviridae, and is a recently discovered emerging herpesvirus that is highly pathogenic for koi and common carp. Our previous study demonstrated that CyHV-3 becomes latent in peripheral white blood cells (WBC). In this study, CyHV-3 latency was further investigated in IgM+ WBC. The presence of the CyHV-3 genome in IgM+ WBC was about 20-fold greater than in IgM− WBC. To determine whether CyHV-3 expressed genes during latency, transcription from all eight open reading frames (ORFs) in the terminal repeat was investigated in IgM+ WBC from koi with latent CyHV-3 infection. Only a spliced ORF6 transcript was found to be abundantly expressed in IgM+ WBC from CyHV-3 latently infected koi. The spliced ORF6 transcript was also detected in vitro during productive infection as early as 1 day postinfection. The ORF6 transcript from in vitro infection begins at −127 bp upstream of the ATG codon and ends +188 bp downstream of the stop codon, +20 bp downstream of the polyadenylation signal. The hypothetical protein of ORF6 contains a consensus sequence with homology to a conserved domain of EBNA-3B and ICP4 from Epstein-Barr virus and herpes simplex virus 1, respectively, both members of the Herpesviridae. This is the first report of latent CyHV-3 in B cells and identification of gene transcription during latency for a member of the Alloherpesviridae. IMPORTANCE This is the first demonstration that a member of the Alloherpesviridae, cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3), establishes a latent infection in the B cells of its host, Cyprinus carpio. In addition, this is the first report of identification of gene transcription during latency for a member of Herpesvirales outside Herpesviridae. This is also the first report that the hypothetical protein of latent transcript of CyHV-3 contains a consensus sequence with homology to a conserved domain of EBNA-3B from Epstein

  7. Integrated circoviral rep-like sequences in the genome of cyprinid fish.

    PubMed

    Fehér, Enikő; Székely, Csaba; Lőrincz, Márta; Cech, Gábor; Tuboly, Tamás; Singh, Hridaya Shanker; Bányai, Krisztián; Farkas, Szilvia L

    2013-10-01

    Recently a new group of circoviruses have been detected in tissues of Barbel fish and European catfish in Hungary. In our study circovirus genomes were screened in eight additional fish species for the detection and characterization of circoviruses. Two species of these bore circoviral sequences based on conventional PCR assay targeting the replication-associated protein coding gene fragments. Interestingly, the methods successfully used before failed to amplify other parts of the circular viral genome, suggesting the presence of partial, integrated genetic elements in the genome of the host. The successfully sequenced fragments of the Indian rohu (Labeo rohita) encoded mutations which may cause frameshifts or termination in the coding region described previously in other vertebrates. Phylogenetic analyses presumed that integration of the viral genetic elements might have progressed concurrently or following the diversification of cyprinid fish. Further studies on the nature of whole circovirus genomes and integrated elements may help to understand their potential role and evolution in different fish species. PMID:23780219

  8. Characteristics of cyprinid herpesvirus 3 in different phases of infection: implications for disease transmission and control.

    PubMed

    Sunarto, Agus; McColl, Kenneth A; Crane, Mark St J; Schat, Karel A; Slobedman, Barry; Barnes, Andrew C; Walker, Peter J

    2014-08-01

    Koi herpesvirus disease (KHVD) is an emerging and highly contagious viral disease of koi and common carp (Cyprinus carpio), causing mass mortalities and huge economic losses to the carp aquaculture industry. The disease has spread rapidly to 28 countries worldwide. However, mechanisms of koi herpesvirus (species Cyprinid herpesvirus 3; CyHV-3) transmission remain unclear. A potential experimental model of CyHV-3 infection in carp was used to characterise CyHV-3 in different phases of infection and to demonstrate that CyHV-3 persists in survivor fish and has the capacity to reactivate and transmit the disease to healthy fish. During acute infection, which occurred when fish were maintained at 22°C, viral genes were abundantly expressed and infectious virus was produced in association with tissue damage, clinical disease and mortality. In fish maintained at a lower temperature (11°C), viral DNA was present but viral gene expression was absent or greatly restricted, infectious virus was not recovered and there was no evidence of disease. Productive replication was re-initiated following an increase in water temperature to 22°C, resulting in 45% mortality. Shedding of reactivated virus killed 75% of cohabitating naïve fish, suggesting a potential risk for disease transmission. PMID:24704574

  9. A Foraging Cost of Migration for a Partially Migratory Cyprinid Fish

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Ben B.; Eriksen, Anders; Baktoft, Henrik; Brodersen, Jakob; Nilsson, P. Anders; Hulthen, Kaj; Brönmark, Christer; Hansson, Lars-Anders; Grønkjær, Peter; Skov, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Migration has evolved as a strategy to maximise individual fitness in response to seasonally changing ecological and environmental conditions. However, migration can also incur costs, and quantifying these costs can provide important clues to the ultimate ecological forces that underpin migratory behaviour. A key emerging model to explain migration in many systems posits that migration is driven by seasonal changes to a predation/growth potential (p/g) trade-off that a wide range of animals face. In this study we assess a key assumption of this model for a common cyprinid partial migrant, the roach Rutilus rutilus, which migrates from shallow lakes to streams during winter. By sampling fish from stream and lake habitats in the autumn and spring and measuring their stomach fullness and diet composition, we tested if migrating roach pay a cost of reduced foraging when migrating. Resident fish had fuller stomachs containing more high quality prey items than migrant fish. Hence, we document a feeding cost to migration in roach, which adds additional support for the validity of the p/g model of migration in freshwater systems. PMID:23723967

  10. Heavy metal accumulations in water, sediment, and some cyprinid species in Porsuk Stream (Turkey).

    PubMed

    Köse, Esengül; Çiçek, Arzu; Uysal, Kazim; Tokatlı, Cem; Emiroğlu, Özgür; Arslan, Naime

    2015-03-01

    Porsuk Stream is one of Turkey's most important river systems and also one of the most important branches of the Sakarya River. It provides drinking and utility water for two Turkish cities (Kütahya and Eskişehir) with a total population of one million. In this study, water, sediment, and some tissues (liver, gill, and muscle) of five cyprinid fish species were collected seasonally (2010-2011) from eight stations on the Porsuk Stream, and the zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and arsenic (As) levels of collected samples were determined. The data observed were evaluated with national and international quality criteria. Based on the data observed, it was determined that the Porsuk Stream is affected by significant inorganic pollution from the Kütahya and Eskişehir Provinces. It was also determined that the Porsuk Dam Lake has an important cleaning capacity and that the water and sediment quality of the Porsuk Stream improves after the output of the dam lake. PMID:25842529

  11. First detection of Cyprinid Herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) in goldfish (Carassius auratus) in France.

    PubMed

    Boitard, P-M; Baud, M; Labrut, S; de Boisséson, C; Jamin, M; Bigarré, L

    2016-06-01

    Massive mortalities of Carassius auratus (L.) occurred in a farm in France during summer 2014. Fish presented anorexia, loss of scales and large amounts of mucus on the gills. Necrosis of the distal tip of the filament and the lamellae, combined with fusion of the lamellae, was observed, as well as necrosis in the hematopoietic organs and in the digestive tract. The histological examination led to hypothesize the implication of a virus in the mortality. The presence of cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) in dead fish was demonstrated by amplification and sequencing of portions of the DNA polymerase and helicase genes, both sequences exhibiting 100% identity with CyHV-2 from Japan. In an attempt to find genetic markers of variation, two regions containing tandem repeats in the Japanese genome were amplified from a virus-positive sample from the present outbreak. A first region (mB) was fully identical to the Japanese isolate. However, the second region (mA) exhibited a range of deletions and substitutions compared to CyHV-2 from Japan. This is the first report of CyHV-2 in France in association with mortality of goldfish and the first identification of a molecular marker for its tracing. PMID:26173014

  12. Seasonal reactivation enables Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 to persist in a wild host population.

    PubMed

    Uchii, Kimiko; Minamoto, Toshifumi; Honjo, Mie N; Kawabata, Zen'ichiro

    2014-02-01

    Emerging infectious diseases are of growing concern in wildlife conservation and animal health. To better understand the consequences of these diseases, a key question lies in how they persist in host populations after they emerge. Using a gene expression approach, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the persistence of an emerging virus, Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3), which has been spreading to wild populations of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in Japan since 2003. Seasonal expression patterns of CyHV-3 genes in wild seropositive carp indicated that replication-related genes were transcribed only during the spring when water temperatures were permissive to CyHV-3 replication. In contrast, possible latency-related genes, which are expressed when CyHV-3 do not multiply, were also transcribed under nonpermissive conditions. These observations suggest that CyHV-3 may persist in carriers by establishing latent infection and then reactivating periodically coincident with the spring temperature increase when carp aggregate for mating, allowing successive virus transmissions between hosts during mating every year. Our results revealed that the life cycle of CyHV-3 may fit perfectly into the ecology of its host, resulting in the long-term persistence of this emerging virus in wild common carp populations. PMID:24256414

  13. Rapid Detection of Cyprinid Herpesvirus 3 in Latently Infected Koi by Recombinase Polymerase Amplification.

    PubMed

    Prescott, Meagan A; Reed, Aimee N; Jin, Ling; Pastey, Manoj K

    2016-09-01

    Since the emergence of cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3), outbreaks have been devastating to Common Carp Cyprinus carpio and koi (a variant of Common Carp), leading to high economic losses. Current diagnostics for detecting CyHV-3 are limited in sensitivity and are further complicated by latency. Here we describe the detection of CyHV-3 by recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA). The RPA assay can detect as low as 10 copies of the CyHV-3 genome by an isothermal reaction and yields results in approximately 20 min. Using the RPA assay, the CyHV-3 genome can be detected in the total DNA of white blood cells isolated from koi latently infected with CyHV-3, while less than 10% of the latently infected koi can be detected by a real-time PCR assay in the total DNA of white blood cells. In addition, RPA products can be detected in a lateral flow device that is cheap and fast and can be used outside of the diagnostic lab. The RPA assay and lateral flow device provide for the rapid, sensitive, and specific amplification of CyHV-3 that with future modifications for field use and validation could lead to enhanced surveillance and early diagnosis of CyHV-3 in the laboratory and field. Received September 14, 2015; accepted April 9, 2016. PMID:27485254

  14. The effects of caudal fin loss and regeneration on the swimming performance of three cyprinid fish species with different swimming capacities.

    PubMed

    Fu, Cheng; Cao, Zhen-Dong; Fu, Shi-Jian

    2013-08-15

    In nature, the caudal fins of fish species are frequently lost to some extent by aggressive behaviour, predation and diseases. To test whether the swimming performance of fish with different swimming capacities would be differentially affected due to caudal fin loss and regeneration, we investigated the critical swimming speed (Ucrit), swimming metabolic rate (M(O2)), tail beat frequency (f(TB)) and tail beat amplitude (A(TB)) after caudal fin loss and regeneration (20 days) in juveniles of three cyprinid fish species: the qingbo (Spinibarbus sinensis; strong swimmer), the common carp (Cyprinus carpio; intermediate swimmer) and the goldfish (Carassius auratus; poor swimmer). The Ucrit values of the caudal-fin-lost qingbo, common carp and goldfish were 49, 32 and 35% significantly lower than those of the control groups, respectively. The maximum tail beat amplitude (A(TBmax)) (all three fishes), the maximum tail beat frequency (f(TBmax)) (only the common carp and the goldfish) and/or the active metabolic rate (M(O2active)) (only the common carp) of the caudal-fin-lost fish were significantly higher than those of the control groups. After 20 days of recovery, the caudal fins recovered to 41, 47 and 24% of those of the control groups for the qingbo, the common carp and the goldfish, respectively. However, the Ucrit values of the fin-regenerated qingbo, common carp and goldfish recovered to 86, 91 and 95% of those of the control group, respectively. The caudal-fin-regenerated qingbo and common carp showed a significantly higher A(TBmax) and f(TBmax), respectively, compared with those of the control groups. The qingbo had a higher f(TBmax) but a lower A(TBmax) than the common carp and the goldfish, which suggested that a strong swimmer may maintain swimming speed primarily by maintaining a greater f(TBmax), for which the caudal fin plays a more important role during swimming, than a poor swimmer. The M(O2active) of fish (common carp) with a redundant respiratory

  15. Quantification of Cyprinid Herpesvirus 3 in Environmental Water by Using an External Standard Virus▿

    PubMed Central

    Honjo, Mie N.; Minamoto, Toshifumi; Matsui, Kazuaki; Uchii, Kimiko; Yamanaka, Hiroki; Suzuki, Alata A.; Kohmatsu, Yukihiro; Iida, Takaji; Kawabata, Zen'ichiro

    2010-01-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3), a lethal DNA virus that spreads in natural lakes and rivers, infects common carp and koi. We established a quantification method for CyHV-3 that includes a viral concentration method and quantitative PCR combined with an external standard virus. Viral concentration methods were compared using the cation-coated filter and ultrafiltration methods. The recovery of virus-like particles was similar for the two methods (cation-coated filter method, 44% ± 19%, n = 3; ultrafiltration method, 50% ± 3%, n = 3); however, the former method was faster and more suitable for routine determinations. The recovery of seeded CyHV-3 based on the cation-coated filter method varied by more than 3 orders of magnitude among the water samples. The recovery yield of CyHV-3 was significantly correlated with that of the seeded λ phage, and the average ratio of λ to the CyHV-3 recovery yield was 1.4, indicating that λ is useful as an external standard virus for determining the recovery yield of CyHV-3. Therefore, to quantify CyHV-3 in environmental water, a known amount of λ was added as an external standard virus to each water sample. Using this method, CyHV-3 DNA was detected in 6 of the 10 (60%) types of environmental water tested; the highest concentration of CyHV-3 DNA was 2 × 105 copies liter−1. The lowest recovery limit of CyHV-3 DNA was 60 copies liter−1. This method is practical for monitoring CyHV-3 abundance in environmental water. PMID:19915032

  16. Skin mucus of Cyprinus carpio inhibits cyprinid herpesvirus 3 binding to epidermal cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is the aetiological agent of a mortal and highly contagious disease in common and koi carp. The skin is the major portal of entry of CyHV-3 in carp after immersion in water containing the virus. In the present study, we used in vivo bioluminescence imaging to investigate the effect of skin mucus removal and skin epidermis lesion on CyHV-3 entry. Physical treatments inducing removal of the mucus up to complete erosion of the epidermis were applied on a defined area of carp skin just before inoculation by immersion in infectious water. CyHV-3 entry in carp was drastically enhanced on the area of the skin where the mucus was removed with or without associated epidermal lesion. To investigate whether skin mucus inhibits CyHV-3 binding to epidermal cells, tail fins with an intact mucus layer or without mucus were inoculated ex vivo. While electron microscopy examination revealed numerous viral particles bound on the fins inoculated after mucus removal, no particle could be detected after infection of mucus-covered fins. Finally, anti-CyHV-3 neutralising activity of mucus extract was tested in vitro. Incubation of CyHV-3 with mucus extract reduced its infectivity in a dose dependent manner. The present study demonstrates that skin mucus removal and epidermal lesions enhance CyHV-3 entry in carp. It highlights the role of fish skin mucus as an innate immune protection against viral epidermal entry. PMID:21816061

  17. Distribution and Abundance of Opisthorchis viverrini Metacercariae in Cyprinid Fish in Northeastern Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Onsurathum, Sudarat; Boonmars, Thidarut; Pinlaor, Porntip; Hongsrichan, Nuttanan; Chaidee, Apisit; Haonon, Ornuma; Limviroj, Wutipong; Tesana, Smarn; Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Sithithaworn, Paiboon

    2013-01-01

    To increase public health awareness for prevention of opisthorchiasis caused by eating raw freshwater fish, the distribution and abundance of Opisthorchis viverrini metacercariae (OV MC) was investigated in freshwater fish obtained from 20 provinces in northeastern Thailand between April 2011 and February 2012. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 12,890 fish consisting of 13 species randomly caught from 26 rivers, 10 dams, and 38 ponds/lakes. Fish, were collected in each of the rainy and winter seasons from each province. Fish were identified, counted, weighed, and digested using pepsin-HCl. Samples were examined for OV MC by a sedimentation method, and metacercariae were identified under a stereomicroscope. OV MC were found in 6 species of fish; i.e., Cyclocheilichthys armatus, Puntius orphoides, Hampala dispar, Henicorhynchus siamensis, Osteochilus hasselti, and Puntioplites proctozysron from localities in 13 provinces. Among the sites where OV MC-infected fish were found, 70.0% were dams, 23.7% were ponds/lakes, and 7.7% were rivers. The mean intensity of OV MC ranged from 0.01 to 6.5 cysts per fish (or 1.3-287.5 cysts per kg of fish). A high mean intensity of OV MC per fish (>3 cysts) was found in 5 provinces: Amnat Charoen (6.5 cysts), Nakhon Phanom (4.3), Mukdahan (4.1), Khon Kaen, (3.5) and Si Sa Ket (3.4). In conclusion, OV MC are prevalent in natural cyprinid fish, with the infection rate varying according to fish species and habitats. PMID:24516277

  18. Hematological and Histological Changes in Prussian Carp Carassius gibelio Infected with Cyprinid Herpesvirus 2.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jun; Lu, Hongda; Cao, Genping

    2016-09-01

    Outbreaks of cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) disease, also known as herpesviral hematopoietic necrosis, among cultured Prussian Carp Carassius gibelio has occurred each year in Jiangsu province, China, since 2009. In autumn 2014, hematological, blood biochemical, and histological changes in naturally infected moribund Prussian Carp were investigated after CyHV-2 was confirmed as the sole etiologic agent by etiological analyses. Total erythrocyte count, total leukocyte count, hemoglobin concentration, and thrombocyte count were significantly reduced (P < 0.01), whereas erythrocyte osmotic brittleness was significantly increased (P < 0.01) in infected fish compared with control fish. In addition, monocyte count was higher (P < 0.01) and lymphocyte count was lower (P < 0.01) in diseased fish than in control fish. The blood biochemical analyses indicated significant increases (P < 0.01) in the activities of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase as well as in the levels of total protein, globulin, total bilirubin, creatinine, and urea along with significant decreases (P < 0.01) in glucose and albumin in the diseased group. Histopathological examinations indicated that the kidneys and spleens of moribund Prussian Carp were the most severely lesioned organs, followed by the gills and hearts. Hypertrophied nuclei with marginated chromatin also appeared in the hearts and renal tubular epithelia from diseased fish. Pathological analysis of blood cells showed that approximately 78% of erythrocytes and 94% of leukocytes were lesioned with different levels of degeneration and necrosis in the diseased group. These previously unreported observations may be useful in the diagnosis of CyHV-2 disease. Received May 11, 2015; accepted March 24, 2016. PMID:27484729

  19. Comparative analysis of testis transcriptomes from triploid and fertile diploid cyprinid fish.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kang; Wen, Ming; Duan, Wei; Ren, Li; Hu, Fangzhou; Xiao, Jun; Wang, Jing; Tao, Min; Zhang, Chun; Wang, Jun; Zhou, Yi; Zhang, Yi; Liu, Yun; Liu, Shaojun

    2015-04-01

    The fertility of fish is a key factor in fish breeding. RNA-seq is widely used in high-throughput sequencing and provides a rapid method to examine the molecular mechanisms underlying a biological process. To probe fertility-related molecular mechanisms, we obtained testis transcriptomes from diploid and triploid cyprinid fish and tested for differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the testis. A total of 6730 transcripts were differentially expressed between the triploid and diploid fish. In these transcripts, 2428 transcripts showed reduced expression and 4302 transcripts were overexpressed in triploid fish compared to the diploid fish. Functional analyses revealed that partial genes related to reproductive, developmental, and locomotion processes, and the axoneme, were differentially expressed in triploid fish relative to diploid fish. Pathway analysis indicated that variations in the gene expression levels of the "ubiquinone and other terpenoid-quinone biosynthesis pathway" and the "apoptotic pathway" played a central role in the sterility of triploid male fish. A series of genes (DNAHs, DNAL1, IFTs, and DNAAF1) associated with sperm flagellar assembly and motility, and testis-specific candidate markers (Tcte1, Tekt1, Tekt4, Spag17, Spag5, Spag9a, Spag1b, and Spef2), had low expression levels in the testis of triploid fish. We validated these DEGs in triploid fish using quantitative PCR to quantify expression of eight representative genes. Furthermore, 276 putative transcription factors, 6 chromatin remodeling factors, and 35 transcription cofactors exhibited differential expression in triploid compared to diploid fish. This study provides insight into the regulatory mechanisms causing sterility in male triploid fish. PMID:25761592

  20. Thermal acclimation effects differ between voluntary, maximum, and critical swimming velocities in two cyprinid fishes.

    PubMed

    O'Steen, Shyril; Bennett, Albert F

    2003-01-01

    Temperature acclimation may be a critical component of the locomotor physiology and ecology of ectothermic animals, particularly those living in eurythermal environments. Several studies of fish report striking acclimation of biochemical and kinetic properties in isolated muscle. However, the relatively few studies of whole-animal performance report variable acclimation responses. We test the hypothesis that different types of whole-animal locomotion will respond differently to temperature acclimation, probably due to divergent physiological bases of locomotion. We studied two cyprinid fishes, tinfoil barbs (Puntius schwanenfeldii) and river barbels (Barbus barbus). Study fish were acclimated to either cold or warm temperatures for at least 6 wk and then assayed at four test temperatures for three types of swimming performance. We measured voluntary swimming velocity to estimate routine locomotor behavior, maximum fast start velocity to estimate anaerobic capacity, and critical swimming velocity to estimate primarily aerobic capacity. All three performance measures showed some acute thermal dependence, generally a positive correlation between swimming speed and test temperature. However, each performance measure responded quite differently to acclimation. Critical speeds acclimated strongly, maximum speeds not at all, and voluntary speeds uniquely in each species. Thus we conclude that long-term temperature exposure can have very different consequences for different types of locomotion, consistent with our hypothesis. The data also address previous hypotheses that predict that polyploid and eurythermal fish will have greater acclimation abilities than other fish, due to increased genetic flexibility and ecological selection, respectively. Our results conflict with these predictions. River barbels are eurythermal polyploids and tinfoil barbs stenothermal diploids, yet voluntary swimming acclimated strongly in tinfoil barbs and minimally in river barbels, and

  1. Juvenile Confinement in Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendel, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    For more than a century, the predominant strategy for the treatment and punishment of serious and sometimes not-so-serious juvenile offenders in the United States has been placement into large juvenile corrections institutions, alternatively known as training schools, reformatories, or youth corrections centers. America's heavy reliance on…

  2. Helpful Juvenile Detention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roush, David W.

    1999-01-01

    Presents a comprehensive, research-based rationale for rejecting "get-tough," punitive approaches to juvenile detention and implementing "helpful programs" in detention settings instead. Offers a review of the information that explains why and how juvenile detention should be a first step in the treatment of young offenders, rather than simply a…

  3. Standards for Juvenile Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flicker, Barbara

    1977-01-01

    The Juvenile Justice Standards Project at New York University has proposed a plan to restructure family court procedure. These standards, outlined here by a former project director, cover significant aspects of the relationship of juveniles to social institutions. (Editor/RK)

  4. Juvenile giant fibroadenoma

    PubMed Central

    Yagnik, Vipul D.

    2011-01-01

    Fibroadenomas are benign solid tumor associated with aberration of normal lobular development. Juvenile giant fibroadenoma is usually single and >5 cm in size /or >500 gms in weight. Important differential diagnoses are: phyllodes tumor and juvenile gigantomastia. Simple excision is the treatment of choice. PMID:24765310

  5. Guide to Juvenile Restitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Anne L., Ed.

    This guide is designed to assist programs in developing, expanding, or improving restitution activities for juvenile offenders. The guide is divided into five major sections. Part I focuses on the most fundamental decisions for restitution programs: program philosophy and goals, organizational structure, location within the juvenile justice…

  6. Juvenile Firesetter Intervention Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaynor, Jessica

    This handbook is designed to teach communities how to develop an effective juvenile firesetter intervention program. The six chapters of this handbook can be viewed as the six building blocks essential to construct a successful program. The cornerstone of the blueprint is understanding the personality profiles of juvenile firesetters and their…

  7. Juvenile Delinquency in China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Irving, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Contains nine articles which describe the causes and treatment of juvenile delinquency in China. Focuses on the social causes of delinquency, family factors shaping juvenile crimes and mistakes, criminal peer groups, psychological factors related to delinquency, and the role of education in prevention of delinquency. (JDH)

  8. Renewing Juvenile Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macallair, Daniel; Males, Mike; Enty, Dinky Manek; Vinakor, Natasha

    2011-01-01

    The Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice (CJCJ) was commissioned by Sierra Health Foundation to critically examine California's juvenile justice system and consider the potential role of foundations in promoting systemic reform. The information gathered by CJCJ researchers for this report suggests that foundations can perform a key leadership…

  9. Juvenile Justice in California, 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Justice, Sacramento. Bureau of Criminal Statistics and Special Services.

    This publication provides an overview of the processing of juvenile delinquency cases through the California juvenile justice system; provides information to aid administrators, planners, and researchers in the administration of juvenile justice; and maintains baseline data for further studies of the system. Information on juvenile arrests and…

  10. Juvenile Sex Offenders.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Eileen P; Otonichar, Joseph M

    2016-07-01

    Sexual offending by juveniles accounts for a sizable percentage of sexual offenses, especially against young children. In this article, recent research on female juvenile sex offenders (JSOs), risk factors for offending in juveniles, treatment, and the ways in which these youth may differ from general delinquents will be reviewed. Most JSOs do not go on to develop paraphilic disorders or to commit sex offenses during adulthood, and as a group, they are more similar to nonsexual offending juvenile delinquents than to adult sex offenders. Recent research has elucidated some differences between youth who commit sex offenses and general delinquents in the areas of atypical sexual interests, the use of pornography, and early sexual victimization during childhood. PMID:27222141

  11. Polyneuropathy in juvenile dermatomyositis.

    PubMed

    Vogelgesang, S A; Gutierrez, J; Klipple, G L; Katona, I M

    1995-07-01

    We describe 2 patients in whom juvenile dermatomyositis (DM) was associated with well defined clinical polyneuropathies, and review the clinical and serological data. Light and electron microscopy were used to study muscle and nerve tissues from one patient. Neuropathy in our patients was associated with ulcerative skin lesions and elevated serum levels of factor VIII related antigen. Light microscopic studies of muscle revealed perifascicular atrophy and microinfarcts consistent with juvenile DM. Light microscopy of the affected sural nerve showed axonal degeneration. Electron microscopy of the same nerve demonstrated capillary endothelial inclusions characteristic of those observed as manifestations of early endothelial injury in juvenile DM muscle tissue. Polyneuropathy in patients with juvenile DM is a rare complication and is likely due to ischemia secondary to endothelial damage. PMID:7562774

  12. Genetics Home Reference: juvenile polyposis syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... In the third type, known as juvenile polyposis coli, affected individuals develop polyps only in their colon. People with generalized juvenile polyposis and juvenile polyposis coli typically develop polyps during childhood. Most juvenile polyps ...

  13. Paedocypris, a new genus of Southeast Asian cyprinid fish with a remarkable sexual dimorphism, comprises the world's smallest vertebrate.

    PubMed

    Kottelat, Maurice; Britz, Ralf; Hui, Tan Heok; Witte, Kai-Erik

    2006-04-22

    Paedocypris is a new genus of paedomorphic cyprinid fish from highly acidic blackwater peat swamps in Southeast Asia. It includes two new species, one of which (Paedocypris progenetica) appears to be the smallest fish and vertebrate known, with the smallest mature female measuring a mere 7.9 mm. Paedocypris has many 'larval' features typically associated with paedomorphic fish (e.g. narrow frontals that leave the brain unprotected dorsally by bone and a precaudal larval-fin-fold), but, uniquely among fishes, males also possess highly modified pelvic fins with hypertrophied muscles and a keratinized pad in front of the pelvic girdle, which, we hypothesize, function together as a clasping or holding device, thereby suggesting an unusual reproductive mode. Unfortunately, habitat destruction jeopardizes the survival of these fishes and thus opportunities for further research. PMID:16627273

  14. Growth and longevity of the cui-ui and longevity of other catostomids and cyprinids in western North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scoppettone, G.G.; Coleman, M.E.

    1988-01-01

    Annulus formation on opercula of the cui-ui Chasmistes cujus in Pyramid Lake, Nevada, was validated over an 8-year interval. Many fish were old, as old as 41 years of age, As many as three annuli were hidden (covered by supporting bone) in older fish. Growth was rapid during the first 10 years, slow from 10 to 20 years, and extremely slow or nil after 20 years. Age and growth were strongly correlated for about the first 10 years of life, but less so when fish became sexually mature. Examination of opercula of 15 additional species of large catostomids and cyprinids of western North America revealed that they were older than had previously been thought.

  15. Immune response and protection in gibel carp, Carassius gibelio, after vaccination with β-propiolactone inactivated cyprinid herpesvirus 2.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Linlin; Ma, Jie; Fan, Yuding; Zhou, Yong; Xu, Jin; Liu, Wenzhi; Gu, Zemao; Zeng, Lingbing

    2016-02-01

    Herpesviral haematopoietic necrosis (HVHN) of gibel carp (Carassius gibelio) is a newly emerged infectious disease caused by cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) and has caused huge economic losses in aquaculture operations. Currently, no effective methods are available for the control of the disease. In this study, β-propiolactone inactivated cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) vaccine was prepared, and the immune response and protection in cultured gibel carp after vaccination was thoroughly investigated. This included blood cell counting and classification, phagocytic activity, lysozyme and superoxide dismutase activity, neutralizing antibody titration, immune gene expression analysis, and determination of the relative percent survival in vaccinated gibel carp. The results of blood cell counts indicated that the numbers of the red and white blood cells in the peripheral blood of immunized gibel carp increased significantly at day 4 and day 7 after vaccination (p < 0.01). The differential leukocyte count of neutrophils and monocytes were significantly different compared to the control group at day 4 and 7 and the percentage of lymphocytes reached a peak at day 21. The phagocytic percentage and phagocytic index peaked at day 4 post-vaccination. The lysozyme activity and superoxide dismutase activity were significantly increased compared to the control group (p < 0.01). The serum neutralizing antibody titer peaked (203.03 ± 13.44) at day 21. The qPCR analysis revealed that the expression of the immune genes interlukin 11 and complement component C3 were significantly up-regulated in the immunized group. The challenge test demonstrated that the immunized group had a relative survival rate of 71.4%. These results indicate that the inactivated CyHV-2 vaccine induced both non-specific and specific anti-viral immune responses that resulted in significant protection against HVHN disease and mortality in gibel carp. PMID:26772479

  16. Juvenile Incarceration and Health.

    PubMed

    Barnert, Elizabeth S; Perry, Raymond; Morris, Robert E

    2016-03-01

    Addressing the health status and needs of incarcerated youth represents an issue at the nexus of juvenile justice reform and health care reform. Incarcerated youth face disproportionately higher morbidity and higher mortality compared to the general adolescent population. Dental health, reproductive health, and mental health needs are particularly high, likely as a result of lower access to care, engagement in high-risk behaviors, and underlying health disparities. Violence exposure and injury also contribute to the health disparities seen in this population. Further, juvenile incarceration itself is an important determinant of health. Juvenile incarceration likely correlates with worse health and social functioning across the life course. Correctional health care facilities allow time for providers to address the unmet physical and mental health needs seen in this population. Yet substantial challenges to care delivery in detention facilities exist and quality of care in detention facilities varies widely. Community-based pediatricians can serve a vital role in ensuring continuity of care in the postdetention period and linking youth to services that can potentially prevent juvenile offending. Pediatricians who succeed in understanding and addressing the underlying social contexts of their patients' lives can have tremendous impact in improving the life trajectories of these vulnerable youth. Opportunities exist in clinical care, research, medical education, policy, and advocacy for pediatricians to lead change and improve the health status of youth involved in the juvenile justice system. PMID:26548359

  17. Epidemiology of juvenile violence.

    PubMed

    Farrington, D P; Loeber, R

    2000-10-01

    It is difficult to review the epidemiology of juvenile violence because few studies focus specifically on this topic as opposed to childhood aggression or delinquency in general. More research is needed specifically on juvenile violence, which is generally measured using official records or self-reports. Self-report research shows that a substantial fraction of the male juvenile population commits violence, and that very few violent acts are followed by arrests or convictions. Racial differences in violence may be explainable by reference to racial differences in community contexts. There is a great deal of versatility in juvenile violence. Juveniles who commit one type of violent offense also tend to commit other types and nonviolent offenses. Violent offenders tend to be persistent or frequent offenders, and there is little difference between violent offenders and nonviolent but equally frequent offenders. Nevertheless, there is some degree of specialization in violence. More research is needed to investigate whether risk factors exist for violence that are not risk factors for serious nonviolent delinquency (e.g., biologic factors). Violent juveniles tend to have co-occurring problems such as victimization, substance abuse, and school failure. Often, they might be described as multiple-problem youth. There is considerable continuity from childhood aggression to juvenile violence. An early age of onset of violence predicts a large number of violent offenses. The major long-term risk factors for juvenile violence are individual (high impulsiveness and low intelligence, possibly linked to the executive functions of the brain), family (poor supervision, harsh discipline, child physical abuse, a violent parent, large family size, poverty, a broken family), peer delinquency, gang membership, urban residence, and living in a high-crime neighborhood (characterized by gangs, guns, and drugs in the United States). More research is needed on interactions among risk factors

  18. Juvenile Sex Offenders.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Eileen P

    2016-01-01

    Public policy has tended to treat juvenile sex offenders (JSOs) as adult sex offenders in waiting, despite research that contradicts this notion. Although as a group, JSOs are more similar to general delinquents than to adult sex offenders, atypical sexual interests and sexual victimization during childhood may be a pathway for sexual offending that differentiates some JSOs from their nonsexually delinquent peers. Developmental considerations must be considered in risk assessment evaluations of these youth. This article reviews theories of sexual offending in youth, risk factors for juvenile offending and reoffending, psychopathology in JSOs, risk assessment, and treatment. PMID:26593121

  19. Juvenile Battens Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gayton, Romayne

    1987-01-01

    Ten children diagnosed with juvenile Battens disease were tested over a three-year period in general intelligence, memory, listening and speech, motor skills, and general learning. Results showed that the patients followed a predetermined pattern but that the time span for development of memory, communication, and behavior problems varied greatly.…

  20. Treating the Juvenile Offender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoge, Robert D., Ed.; Guerra, Nancy G., Ed.; Boxer, Paul, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    This authoritative, highly readable reference and text is grounded in the latest knowledge on how antisocial and criminal behavior develops in youth and how it can effectively be treated. Contributors describe proven ways to reduce juvenile delinquency by targeting specific risk factors and strengthening young people's personal, family, and…

  1. Protective immunity in gibel carp, Carassius gibelio of the truncated proteins of cyprinid herpesvirus 2 expressed in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yong; Jiang, Nan; Ma, Jie; Fan, Yuding; Zhang, Linlin; Xu, Jin; Zeng, Lingbing

    2015-12-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) infection is a newly emerged infectious disease of farmed gibel carp (Carassius gibelio) in China and causes huge economic losses to the aquaculture industry. In this study, the three membrane proteins encoded by genes ORF25, ORF25C, and ORF25D of CyHV-2 were truncated and expressed in yeast, Pichia pastoris. Screening of the recombinant yeasts was done by detecting the truncated proteins using Western blot. Through immunogold labeling, it was shown that proteins binding the colloidal gold were presented on the surface of cells. In the experiment of inhibition of virus binding by the recombinant truncated proteins, the TCID50 of the tORF25 group (10(4.1)/ml) was lower than that of tORF25C (10(4.6)/ml) or tORF25D groups (10(5)/ml). These results suggested that the proteins may be involved in attachment of the virus to the cell surface. Healthy gibel carp were immunized with 20 μg of tORF25, tORF25C, and tORF25D proteins, and the control group received PBS. Interleukin 11 (IL-11) expression in the spleens of the immunized fish peaked at day 4 and the complement component C3 (C3) genes were significantly up-regulated at day 7 post-immunization. Specific antibodies were measured in the three immunized groups and the titer detected in the tORF25 group reached 327, that was significantly higher than the tORF25C (247) or tORF25D (228) groups. When the immunized fish were challenged with live CyHV-2 by intraperitoneal injection the relative percent survival (RPS) of the tORF25, tORF25C, and tORF25D immunized groups was 75%, 63%, and 54%, respectively. The feasibility of the P. pastoris yeast expression system for the production of the recombinant truncated proteins and their apparent bioactivity suggests that tORF25, tORF25C, and tORF25D are potential candidate vaccines against Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 infection in gibel carp. PMID:26564473

  2. [Pauciarticular juvenile chronic arthritis].

    PubMed

    Hertzberger-ten Cate, R; Fiselier, T

    1991-10-01

    On basis of clinical and immunogenetic factors most children with pauciarticular juvenile chronic arthritis can be included in one of the subtypes: type 1 and type 2 pauciarticular JCA. Type 1 occurs in young children, mainly girls, with involvement of knees, ankles or elbows. In the majority of children antinuclear antibodies can be detected. The presence of these autoantibodies is associated with chronic anterior uveitis. Type 2 or the juvenile spondylarthropathies include morbus Bechterew, the reactive arthritides and arthritis associated with psoriasis and inflammatory bowel diseases. Large joints of the lower extremities are involved, back pain is unusual at onset, but enthesitis is frequently present. There is a strong association with HLA-B27. Treatment of both subsets consists of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, application of intra-articular steroids, physio- and hydrotherapy and splinting. In children with a polyarticular course of type 1, or a prolonged course of type 2 disease modifying drugs are often needed. PMID:1957301

  3. [Juvenile psoriatic arthritis].

    PubMed

    Lu, Shan; Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Qian; Yu, Xin-Ying; Liu, Dong-Ming; Liu, Xiang-Yuan

    2007-08-01

    A case of juvenile psoriatic arthritis in a 12 year-old boy was reported. The patient had a history of one and half a year of bilateral heel pain, followed by pain in the right knee and ankle and right hip joint. He developed psoriatic lesions affecting his nails and skin. He had increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) contents. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) B27 was detected but serum rheumatoid factor was not in the patient. A skin biopsy revealed psoriasis and ultrasonography demonstrated synovitis in right knee and ankle. Juvenile psoriatic arthritis was diagnosed based on his physical, laboratory and skin biopsy findings. A treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and sulfasalazine produced no effect. Leflunomide in conjunction with anti-TNF biologic agents (Etanercept) was administered, followed by symptomatic improvement 2 weeks later. PMID:17706035

  4. Life history change in response to fishing and an introduced predator in the East African cyprinid Rastrineobola argentea

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, Diana M T; Wandera, Silvester B; Chapman, Lauren J

    2012-01-01

    Fishing and introduced species are among the most important stressors affecting freshwaters and can also be strong selective agents. We examined the combined effects of commercial fishing and an introduced predator (Nile perch, Lates niloticus) on life history traits in an African cyprinid fish (Rastrineobola argentea) native to the Lake Victoria basin in East Africa. To understand whether these two stressors have driven shifts in life history traits of R. argentea, we tested for associations between life history phenotypes and the presence/absence of stressors both spatially (across 10 Ugandan lakes) and temporally (over four decades in Lake Victoria). Overall, introduced Nile perch and fishing tended to be associated with a suite of life history responses in R. argentea, including: decreased body size, maturation at smaller sizes, and increased reproductive effort (larger eggs; and higher relative fecundity, clutch volume, and ovary weight). This is one of the first well-documented examples of fisheries-induced phenotypic change in a tropical, freshwater stock; the magnitude of which raises some concerns for the long-term sustainability of this fishery, now the most important (by mass) in Lake Victoria. PMID:23144655

  5. Detection of Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 in association with an Aeromonas sobria infection of Carassius carassius (L.), in Italy.

    PubMed

    Fichi, G; Cardeti, G; Cocumelli, C; Vendramin, N; Toffan, A; Eleni, C; Siemoni, N; Fischetti, R; Susini, F

    2013-10-01

    Sixteen specimens of female crucian carp, Carassius carassius (L.), during the breeding season, were investigated for post-mortem and full diagnostic examination during a mortality outbreak in a tributary stream of the Arno River in Tuscany in 2011. Necropsy highlighted the presence of a swollen anus and widespread haemorrhages in the body, fins, gills and eyes. Haemorrhages in internal organs and spleen granulomas were also observed. Bacteria isolated from the brain, kidney and spleen of affected fish were identified as A. sobria. Microscopic lesions observed in gills were characterized by necrosis of the secondary lamellae, congestion and multifocal lamellar fusion. The kidney showed necrosis, oedema, fibrin exudation and areas of haemorrhages, while in the spleen the main lesions were by multifocal necrosis of the lymphoid tissue. In the gills, transmission electron microscopy revealed herpesvirus-like particles, subsequently identified as Cyprinid herpesvirus-2 (CyHV-2) with a nested PCR protocol. Although it was not possible to attribute a pathogenic role to CyHV-2 in this mortality event, the identification of this herpesvirus in crucian carp increases the concern about its potential role in this species. PMID:23488630

  6. Evidence for skipped spawning in a potamodromous cyprinid, humpback chub (Gila cypha), with implications for demographic parameter estimates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearson, Kristen Nicole; Kendall, William; Winkelman, Dana L.; Persons, William R.

    2015-01-01

    Our findings reveal evidence for skipped spawning in a potamodromous cyprinid, humpback chub (HBC; Gila cypha  ). Using closed robust design mark-recapture models, we found, on average, spawning HBC transition to the skipped spawning state () with a probability of 0.45 (95% CRI (i.e. credible interval): 0.10, 0.80) and skipped spawners remain in the skipped spawning state () with a probability of 0.60 (95% CRI: 0.26, 0.83), yielding an average spawning cycle of every 2.12 years, conditional on survival. As a result, migratory skipped spawners are unavailable for detection during annual sampling events. If availability is unaccounted for, survival and detection probability estimates will be biased. Therefore, we estimated annual adult survival probability (S), while accounting for skipped spawning, and found S remained reasonably stable throughout the study period, with an average of 0.75 ((95% CRI: 0.66, 0.82), process varianceσ2 = 0.005), while skipped spawning probability was highly dynamic (σ2 = 0.306). By improving understanding of HBC spawning strategies, conservation decisions can be based on less biased estimates of survival and a more informed population model structure.

  7. Juvenile Mentoring Program: A Progress Review. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novotney, Laurence C.; Mertinko, Elizabeth; Lange, James; Baker, Tara Kelley

    The greatest support offered by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention for youth mentoring has been through the Juvenile Mentoring Program (JUMP), which provides one-to-one mentoring for youth at risk of delinquency, gang involvement, educational failure, or dropping out of school. Information on JUMP has been collected through…

  8. Juvenile psittacine environmental enrichment.

    PubMed

    Simone-Freilicher, Elisabeth; Rupley, Agnes E

    2015-05-01

    Environmental enrichment is of great import to the emotional, intellectual, and physical development of the juvenile psittacine and their success in the human home environment. Five major types of enrichment include social, occupational, physical, sensory, and nutritional. Occupational enrichment includes exercise and psychological enrichment. Physical enrichment includes the cage and accessories and the external home environment. Sensory enrichment may be visual, auditory, tactile, olfactory, or taste oriented. Nutritional enrichment includes variations in appearance, type, and frequency of diet, and treats, novelty, and foraging. Two phases of the preadult period deserve special enrichment considerations: the development of autonomy and puberty. PMID:25902270

  9. Juvenile Justice in Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jankovic, Joanne, Ed.; And Others

    Producing a much-needed organized body of literature about rural juvenile justice, 14 papers (largely from the 1979 National Symposium on Rural Justice) are organized to identify current issues, identify forces causing changes in current systems, review programs responding to rural juvenile justice problems, and provide planning models to aid…

  10. Psychopathology in Female Juvenile Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Angela; Howie, Pauline; Starling, Jean

    2004-01-01

    Background: The aim was to document the spectrum of present and lifetime psychological disorders in female juvenile offenders, and to examine the relations between mental health status and socio-demographic, family and trauma variables. Method: One hundred juvenile offenders were matched with a comparison group of 100 females on age and…

  11. Iatrogenic Effect of Juvenile Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatti, Uberto; Tremblay, Richard E.; Vitaro, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Background: The present study uses data from a community sample of 779 low-SES boys to investigate whether intervention by the juvenile justice system is determined, at least in part, by particular individual, familial and social conditions, and whether intervention by the juvenile courts during adolescence increases involvement in adult crime.…

  12. Juvenile Crime. Opposing Viewpoints Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadler, A. E., Ed.

    Books in the Opposing Viewpoints Series present debates about current issues that can be used to teach critical reading and thinking skills. The variety of opinions expressed in this collection of articles and book excerpts explores many aspects of juvenile crime. It is a commonly held view that the number of crimes committed by juveniles is…

  13. Mental Illness and Juvenile Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Underwood, Lee A.; Washington, Aryssa

    2016-01-01

    Within the past decade, reliance on the juvenile justice system to meet the needs of juvenile offenders with mental health concerns has increased. Due to this tendency, research has been conducted on the effectiveness of various intervention and treatment programs/approaches with varied success. Recent literature suggests that because of interrelated problems involved for youth in the juvenile justice system with mental health issues, a dynamic system of care that extends beyond mere treatment within the juvenile justice system is the most promising. The authors provide a brief overview of the extent to which delinquency and mental illness co-occur; why treatment for these individuals requires a system of care; intervention models; and the juvenile justice systems role in providing mental health services to delinquent youth. Current and future advancements and implications for practitioners are provided. PMID:26901213

  14. Mental Illness and Juvenile Offenders.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Lee A; Washington, Aryssa

    2016-02-01

    Within the past decade, reliance on the juvenile justice system to meet the needs of juvenile offenders with mental health concerns has increased. Due to this tendency, research has been conducted on the effectiveness of various intervention and treatment programs/approaches with varied success. Recent literature suggests that because of interrelated problems involved for youth in the juvenile justice system with mental health issues, a dynamic system of care that extends beyond mere treatment within the juvenile justice system is the most promising. The authors provide a brief overview of the extent to which delinquency and mental illness co-occur; why treatment for these individuals requires a system of care; intervention models; and the juvenile justice systems role in providing mental health services to delinquent youth. Current and future advancements and implications for practitioners are provided. PMID:26901213

  15. Down-regulation of the cyprinid herpesvirus-3 annotated genes in cultured cells maintained at restrictive high temperature.

    PubMed

    Ilouze, Maya; Dishon, Arnon; Kotler, Moshe

    2012-10-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) is a member of the Alloherpesviridae, in the order Herpesvirales. It causes a fatal disease in carp and koi fish. The disease is seasonal and is active when water temperatures ranges from 18 to 28 °C. Little is known about how and where the virus is preserved between the permissive seasons. The hallmark of the herpesviruses is their ability to become latent, persisting in the host in an apparently inactive state for varying periods of time. Hence, it could be expected that CyHV-3 enter a latent period. CyHV-3 has so far been shown to persist in fish maintained under restrictive temperatures, while shifting the fish to permissive conditions reactivates the virus. Previously, we demonstrated that cultured cells infected with CyHV-3 at 22 °C and subsequently transferred to a restrictive temperature of 30 °C preserve the virus for 30 days. The present report shows that cultured carp cells maintained and exposed to CyHV-3 at 30 °C are abortively infected; that is, autonomous viral DNA synthesis is hampered and the viral genome is not multiplied. Under these conditions, 91 of the 156 viral annotated ORFs were initially transcribed. These transcripts were down-regulated and gradually shut off over 18 days post-infection, while two viral transcripts encoded by ORFs 114 and 115 were preserved in the infected cells for 18 days p.i. These experiments, carried out in cultured cells, suggest that fish could be infected at a high non-permissive temperature and harbor the viral genome without producing viral particles. PMID:22841492

  16. Feeding Cyprinus carpio with infectious materials mediates cyprinid herpesvirus 3 entry through infection of pharyngeal periodontal mucosa

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3), also known as Koi herpesvirus, is the etiological agent of a mortal disease in common and koi carp. Recently, we investigated the entry of CyHV-3 in carp using bioluminescence imaging and a CyHV-3 recombinant strain expressing luciferase (LUC). We demonstrated that the skin is the major portal of entry after inoculation of carp by immersion in water containing CyHV-3. While this model of infection mimics some natural conditions in which infection takes place, other epidemiological conditions could favour entry of virus through the digestive tract. Here, we investigated whether ingestion of infectious materials mediates CyHV-3 entry through the digestive tract. Carp were fed with materials contaminated with the CyHV-3 LUC recombinant (oral contamination) or immersed in water containing the virus (contamination by immersion). Bioluminescence imaging analyses performed at different times post-infection led to the following observations: (i) the pharyngeal periodontal mucosa is the major portal of entry after oral contamination, while the skin is the major portal of entry after contamination by immersion. (ii) Both modes of inoculation led to the spreading of the infection to the various organs tested. However, the timing and the sequence in which some of the organs turned positive were different between the two modes of inoculation. Finally, we compared the disease induced by the two inoculation modes. They led to comparable clinical signs and mortality rate. The results of the present study suggest that, based on epidemiological conditions, CyHV-3 can enter carp either by skin or periodontal pharyngeal mucosal infection. PMID:22276598

  17. Rational development of an attenuated recombinant cyprinid herpesvirus 3 vaccine using prokaryotic mutagenesis and in vivo bioluminescent imaging.

    PubMed

    Boutier, Maxime; Ronsmans, Maygane; Ouyang, Ping; Fournier, Guillaume; Reschner, Anca; Rakus, Krzysztof; Wilkie, Gavin S; Farnir, Frédéric; Bayrou, Calixte; Lieffrig, François; Li, Hong; Desmecht, Daniel; Davison, Andrew J; Vanderplasschen, Alain

    2015-02-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV 3) is causing severe economic losses worldwide in common and koi carp industries, and a safe and efficacious attenuated vaccine compatible with mass vaccination is needed. We produced single deleted recombinants using prokaryotic mutagenesis. When producing a recombinant lacking open reading frame 134 (ORF134), we unexpectedly obtained a clone with additional deletion of ORF56 and ORF57. This triple deleted recombinant replicated efficiently in vitro and expressed an in vivo safety/efficacy profile compatible with use as an attenuated vaccine. To determine the role of the double ORF56-57 deletion in the phenotype and to improve further the quality of the vaccine candidate, a series of deleted recombinants was produced and tested in vivo. These experiments led to the selection of a double deleted recombinant lacking ORF56 and ORF57 as a vaccine candidate. The safety and efficacy of this strain were studied using an in vivo bioluminescent imaging system (IVIS), qPCR, and histopathological examination, which demonstrated that it enters fish via skin infection similar to the wild type strain. However, compared to the parental wild type strain, the vaccine candidate replicated at lower levels and spread less efficiently to secondary sites of infection. Transmission experiments allowing water contamination with or without additional physical contact between fish demonstrated that the vaccine candidate has a reduced ability to spread from vaccinated fish to naïve sentinel cohabitants. Finally, IVIS analyses demonstrated that the vaccine candidate induces a protective mucosal immune response at the portal of entry. Thus, the present study is the first to report the rational development of a recombinant attenuated vaccine against CyHV 3 for mass vaccination of carp. We also demonstrated the relevance of the CyHV 3 carp model for studying alloherpesvirus transmission and mucosal immunity in teleost skin. PMID:25700279

  18. A new fish-based multi-metric assessment index for cyprinid streams in the Iranian Caspian Sea Basin

    PubMed Central

    Mostafavi, Hossein; Schinegger, Rafaela; Melcher, Andreas; Moder, Karl; Mielach, Carina; Schmutz, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    A major issue for water resource management is the assessment of environmental degradation of lotic ecosystems. The overall aim of this study is to develop a multi-metric fish index for the cyprinid streams of the Caspian Sea Basin (MMICS) in Iran. As species diversity and composition as well as population structure in the studied streams are different to other regions, there is a substantial need to develop a new fish index. We sampled fish and environmental data of 102 sites in medium sized streams. We analysed human pressures at different spatial scales and determined applicable fish metrics showing a response to human pressures. In total, five structural and functional types of metrics (i.e. biodiversity, habitat, reproduction, trophic level and water quality sensitivity) were considered. In addition, we used 29 criteria describing major anthropogenic human pressures at sampling sites and generated a regional pressure index (RPI) that accounted for potential effects of multiple human pressures. For the MMICS development, we first defined reference sites (least disturbed) and secondly quantified differences of fish metrics between reference and impaired sites. We used a Generalised Linear Model (GLM) to describe metric responses to natural environmental differences in least disturbed conditions. By including impaired sites, the residual distributions of these models described the response range of each metric to human pressures, independently of natural environmental influence. Finally, seven fish metrics showed the best ability to discriminate between impaired and reference sites. The multi-metric fish index performed well in discriminating human pressure classes, giving a significant negative linear response to a gradient of the RPI. These methods can be used for further development of a standardised monitoring tool to assess the ecological status and trends in biological condition for streams of the whole country, considering its complex and diverse geology

  19. Functional characterization of viral tumor necrosis factor receptors encoded by cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV3) genome.

    PubMed

    Yi, Yang; Qi, Hemei; Yuan, Jimin; Wang, Rui; Weng, Shaoping; He, Jianguo; Dong, Chuanfu

    2015-08-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV3) is a large double-stranded DNA virus of Alloherpesviridae family in the order Herpesvirales. It causes significant morbidity and mortality in common carp and its ornamental koi variety, and threatens the aquaculture industries worldwide. Mimicry of cytokines and cytokine receptors is a particular strategy for large DNA viruses in modulating the host immune response. Here, we report the identification and characterization of two novel viral homologues of tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) encoded by CyHV3-ORF4 and -ORF12, respectively. CyHV3-ORF4 was identified as a homologue of HVEM and CyHV3-ORF12 as a homologue of TNFRSF1. Overexpression of ORF4 and ORF12 in zebrafish embryos results in embryonic lethality, morphological defects and increased apoptosis. Although we failed to identify any interaction between the two vTNFRs and their potential ligands in zebrafish TNF superfamily by yeast two-hybrid system, the expression of some genes in TNF superfamily or TNFR superfamily were mis-regulated in ORF4 or ORF12-overexpressing embryos, especially the death receptor zHDR and its cognate ligand DL1b. Further studies showed that the apoptosis induced by the both CyHV3 vTNFRs is mainly activated through the intrinsic apoptotic pathway and requires the crosstalk between the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathway. Additionally, using RT-qPCR and Western blot assays, the expression patterns of the both vTNFRs were also analyzed during CyHV3 productive infection. Collectively, this is the first functional study of two unique vTNFRs encoded by a herpesvirus infecting non-mammalian vertebrates, which may provide novel insights into viral immune regulation mechanism and the pathogenesis of CyHV3 infection. PMID:26052019

  20. Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) enters the food web of the River Po and is metabolically debrominated in resident cyprinid fishes.

    PubMed

    Viganò, Luigi; Roscioli, Claudio; Guzzella, Licia

    2011-11-01

    Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209), the primary constituent of a widely used flame retardant formulation, is present at relatively high levels in sediments and macroinvertebrates of the River Po. Since it was demonstrated that BDE-209 can be biotransformed to smaller and more toxic polybrominated dipheyl ethers (PBDEs), the main objective of this study was to assess whether the large quantities of BDE-209 present in the River Po are bioavailable to the higher levels of the food web and are biotransformed in feral fishes. To this aim, 23 cyprinids, mainly common carp, were analysed for the hepatic contents of PBDEs. Contrary to sediments and invertebrates of the same area, no fish sample contained detectable levels of BDE-209. All fishes contained typical PBDE representatives, e.g. BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-100, BDE-153 and BDE-154, but more importantly they contained three congeners, i.e. BDE-179, BDE-188 and BDE-202, which are not present in any technical formulations and are known products of BDE-209 debromination in fish. The age of carps had no effects on the bioaccumulation of PBDEs. Conversely, the contents of PCBs, which also were determined in the same fish samples, showed a positive correlation with age. Both groups of chemicals displayed a tendency to a higher contamination in male fish. This study shows that BDE-209 enters the food web of the River Po contributing to the load of lower brominated PBDEs and thus to the load of chemical stressors threatening the aquatic life of the major Italian watercourse. PMID:21925710

  1. Rational Development of an Attenuated Recombinant Cyprinid Herpesvirus 3 Vaccine Using Prokaryotic Mutagenesis and In Vivo Bioluminescent Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Boutier, Maxime; Ronsmans, Maygane; Ouyang, Ping; Fournier, Guillaume; Reschner, Anca; Rakus, Krzysztof; Wilkie, Gavin S.; Farnir, Frédéric; Bayrou, Calixte; Lieffrig, François; Li, Hong; Desmecht, Daniel; Davison, Andrew J.; Vanderplasschen, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is causing severe economic losses worldwide in common and koi carp industries, and a safe and efficacious attenuated vaccine compatible with mass vaccination is needed. We produced single deleted recombinants using prokaryotic mutagenesis. When producing a recombinant lacking open reading frame 134 (ORF134), we unexpectedly obtained a clone with additional deletion of ORF56 and ORF57. This triple deleted recombinant replicated efficiently in vitro and expressed an in vivo safety/efficacy profile compatible with use as an attenuated vaccine. To determine the role of the double ORF56-57 deletion in the phenotype and to improve further the quality of the vaccine candidate, a series of deleted recombinants was produced and tested in vivo. These experiments led to the selection of a double deleted recombinant lacking ORF56 and ORF57 as a vaccine candidate. The safety and efficacy of this strain were studied using an in vivo bioluminescent imaging system (IVIS), qPCR, and histopathological examination, which demonstrated that it enters fish via skin infection similar to the wild type strain. However, compared to the parental wild type strain, the vaccine candidate replicated at lower levels and spread less efficiently to secondary sites of infection. Transmission experiments allowing water contamination with or without additional physical contact between fish demonstrated that the vaccine candidate has a reduced ability to spread from vaccinated fish to naïve sentinel cohabitants. Finally, IVIS analyses demonstrated that the vaccine candidate induces a protective mucosal immune response at the portal of entry. Thus, the present study is the first to report the rational development of a recombinant attenuated vaccine against CyHV-3 for mass vaccination of carp. We also demonstrated the relevance of the CyHV-3 carp model for studying alloherpesvirus transmission and mucosal immunity in teleost skin. PMID:25700279

  2. Miranda Rights: Implications for Juveniles with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsiyannis, Antonis; Barrett, David E.; Losinski, Mickey L.

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency in the United States has been a persistent concern for decades. Consequently, because more juveniles have been referred to juvenile court and the arrest rate of preteen offenders has increased to almost three times that of older youth, the persistent and often controversial issue of the capacity of juvenile offenders to waive…

  3. Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma.

    PubMed

    Makhasana, Jashika Adil Shroff; Kulkarni, Meena A; Vaze, Suhas; Shroff, Adil Sarosh

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) is a rare benign tumor arising predominantly in the nasopharynx of adolescent males. It is an aggressive neoplasm and shows a propensity for destructive local spread often extending to the base of the skull and into the cranium. Clinically, however, it is obscure with painless, progressive unilateral nasal obstruction being the common presenting symptom with or without epistaxis and rhinorrhea. Diagnosis of JNA is made by complete history, clinical examination, radiography, nasal endoscopy and by using specialized imaging techniques such as arteriography, computer tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Histopathology reveals a fibrocellular stroma with spindle cells and haphazard arrangement of collagen interspersed with an irregular vascular pattern. A case report of JNA with rare intra-oral manifestation in a 17-year-old male patient is presented in the article. JNA being an aggressive tumor may recur posttreatment. Thus, early diagnosis, accurate staging, and adequate treatment are essential in the management of this lesion. PMID:27601836

  4. Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

    PubMed Central

    Makhasana, Jashika Adil Shroff; Kulkarni, Meena A; Vaze, Suhas; Shroff, Adil Sarosh

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) is a rare benign tumor arising predominantly in the nasopharynx of adolescent males. It is an aggressive neoplasm and shows a propensity for destructive local spread often extending to the base of the skull and into the cranium. Clinically, however, it is obscure with painless, progressive unilateral nasal obstruction being the common presenting symptom with or without epistaxis and rhinorrhea. Diagnosis of JNA is made by complete history, clinical examination, radiography, nasal endoscopy and by using specialized imaging techniques such as arteriography, computer tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Histopathology reveals a fibrocellular stroma with spindle cells and haphazard arrangement of collagen interspersed with an irregular vascular pattern. A case report of JNA with rare intra-oral manifestation in a 17-year-old male patient is presented in the article. JNA being an aggressive tumor may recur posttreatment. Thus, early diagnosis, accurate staging, and adequate treatment are essential in the management of this lesion. PMID:27601836

  5. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Bhatt, Krupa H; Karjodkar, Freny R; Sansare, Kaustubh; Patil, Darshana

    2014-01-01

    Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) is the most chronic musculoskeletal disease of pediatric population. The chronic course of disease has a great impact on oral health. Temporomandibular joint is involved in JIA causing limited mouth opening with progressive open bite, retrognathia, microgenia and bird like appearance. Joints of upper and lower extremities are also involved. Effect on upper limb function leads to difficulty with fine motor movements required for brushing and flossing. This increases incidence of caries and periodontal disease in children. The cause of JIA is still poorly understood and none of the available drugs for JIA can cure the disease. However, prognosis has improved as a result of progress in disease classification and management. The dental practitioner should be familiar with the symptoms and oral manifestations of JIA to help manage as multidisciplinary management is essential. PMID:24808703

  6. Molecular cytogenetic analysis of the Appenine endemic cyprinid fish Squalius lucumonis and three other Italian leuciscines using chromosome banding and FISH with rDNA probes.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Anna Rita; Milana, Valentina; Hett, Anne Kathrin; Tancioni, Lorenzo

    2012-12-01

    Karyotype and other chromosomal characteristics of the Appenine endemic cyprinid fish, Toscana stream chub Squalius lucumonis, were analysed using conventional banding and FISH with 45S and 5S rDNA probes. The diploid chromosome number (2n = 50) and karyotype characteristics including pericentromeric heterochromatic blocks and GC-rich CMA(3)-positive sites corresponding to both positive Ag-NORs and 45S rDNA loci on the short arms of a single medium-sized submetacentric chromosome pair were consistent with those found in most European leuciscine cyprinids. On other hand, 5S rDNA FISH in the Toscana stream chub and three other Italian leuciscines, S. squalus, Rutilus rubilio and Telestes muticellus, revealed a species-specific hybridization pattern, i.e. signals on four (S. lucumonis), three (S. squalus and R. rubilio) and two (T. muticellus) chromosome pairs. Whereas all the species shared the 5S rDNA loci on the largest subtelocentric chromosome pair, a "leuciscine" cytotaxonomic marker, S. lucumonis showed both classes of rDNA loci tandem aligned on the short arms of chromosome pair No. 12. The present findings suggest that the observed high variability of 5S rDNA loci provides a powerful tool for investigation of karyotype differentiation in karyologically conservative leuciscine fishes. PMID:23238894

  7. Detection of cyprinid herpesvirus 2 in peripheral blood cells of silver crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch), suggests its potential in viral diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Xu, Lj; Lu, Lq

    2016-02-01

    Epidemics caused by cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) in domestic cyprinid species have been reported in both European and Asian countries. Although the mechanisms remain unknown, acute CyHV-2 infections generally result in high mortality, and the surviving carps become chronic carriers displaying no external clinical signs. In this study, in situ hybridization analysis showed that CyHV-2 tended to infect peripheral blood cells during either acute or chronic infections in silver crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch). Laboratory challenge experiments coupled with real-time PCR quantification assays further indicated that steady-state levels of the viral genomic copy number in fish serum exhibited a typical 'one-step' growth curve post-viral challenge. Transcriptional expression of open reading frames (ORF) 121, which was selected due to its highest transcriptional levels in almost all tested tissues, was monitored to represent the replication kinetics of CyHV-2 in peripheral blood cells. Similar kinetic curve of active viral gene transcription in blood cells was obtained as that of serum viral load, indicating that CyHV-2 replicated in peripheral blood cells as well as in other well-characterized tissues. This study should pave the way for designing non-invasive and cost-effective serum diagnostic methods for quick detection of CyHV-2 infection. PMID:25630360

  8. Juvenile Angiofibroma: Evolution of Management

    PubMed Central

    Nicolai, Piero; Schreiber, Alberto; Bolzoni Villaret, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Juvenile angiofibroma is a rare benign lesion originating from the pterygopalatine fossa with distinctive epidemiologic features and growth patterns. The typical patient is an adolescent male with a clinical history of recurrent epistaxis and nasal obstruction. Although the use of nonsurgical therapies is described in the literature, surgery is currently considered the ideal treatment for juvenile angiofibroma. Refinement in preoperative embolization has provided significant reduction of complications and intraoperative bleeding with minimal risk of residual disease. During the last decade, an endoscopic technique has been extensively adopted as a valid alternative to external approaches in the management of small-intermediate size juvenile angiofibromas. Herein, we review the evolution in the management of juvenile angiofibroma with particular reference to recent advances in diagnosis and treatment. PMID:22164185

  9. Managing juvenile Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Quarrell, Oliver W J; Nance, Martha A; Nopoulos, Peggy; Paulsen, Jane S; Smith, Jonathan A; Squitieri, Ferdinando

    2013-06-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a well-recognized progressive neurodegenerative disorder that follows an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. Onset is insidious and can occur at almost any age, but most commonly the diagnosis is made between the ages of 35 and 55 years. Onset ≤20 years of age is classified as juvenile HD (JHD). This age-based definition is arbitrary but remains convenient. There is overlap between the clinical pathological and genetic features seen in JHD and more traditional adult-onset HD. Nonetheless, the frequent predominance of bradykinesia and dystonia early in the course of the illness, more frequent occurrence of epilepsy and myoclonus, more widespread pathology, and larger genetic lesion means that the distinction is still relevant. In addition, the relative rarity of JHD means that the clinician managing the patient is often doing so for the first time. Management is, at best, symptomatic and supportive with few or no evidence-based guidelines. In this article, the authors will review what is known of the condition and present some suggestions based on their experience. PMID:24416077

  10. Using bioenergetics modeling to estimate consumption of native juvenile salmonids by nonnative northern pike in the Upper Flathead River System, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhlfeld, C.C.; Bennett, D.H.; Kirk, Steinhorst R.; Marotz, B.; Boyer, M.

    2008-01-01

    Introductions of nonnative northern pike Esox lucius have created recreational fisheries in many waters in the United States and Canada, yet many studies have shown that introduced northern pike may alter the composition and structure of fish communities through predation. We estimated the abundance of nonnative northern pike (2002-2003) and applied food habits data (1999-2003) to estimate their annual consumption of native bull trout Salvelinus confluentus and westslope cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi juveniles in the upper Flathead River system, Montana. Population estimates were generally consistent among years and ranged from 1,200 to 1,300 individuals. Westslope cutthroat trout were present in the diet of younger (???600 mm) and older (>600 mm) northern pike during all seasons and bull trout were found only in larger northern pike during all seasons but summer. Bioenergetics modeling estimated that the northern pike population annually consumed a total of 8.0 metric tons (mt) of fish flesh; the highest biomass was composed of cyprinids (4.95 mt) followed by whitefishes Prosopium spp. (1.02 mt), bull trout (0.80 mt), westslope cutthroat trout (0.68 mt), yellow perch Perca flavescens (0.41 mt),1 and other fishes (centrarchids and cottids; 0.14 mt). Numerically, the northern pike population consumed more than 342,000 fish; cyprinids and catostomids comprised approximately 82% of prey fish (278,925), whereas over 13,000 westslope cutthroat trout and nearly 3,500 bull trout were eaten, comprising about 5% of the prey consumed. Our results suggest that predation by introduced northern pike is contributing to the lower abundance of native salmonids in the system and that a possible benefit might accrue to native salmonids by reducing these predatory interactions. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  11. Genetics Home Reference: juvenile Paget disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... juvenile Paget disease: Genetic Testing Registry: Hyperphosphatasemia with bone disease These resources from MedlinePlus offer information about the ... familial osteoectasia hyperostosis corticalis deformans juvenilis hyperphosphatasemia ... idiopathic idiopathic hyperphosphatasia JPD juvenile Paget's ...

  12. New Treatments Helping Kids with Juvenile Arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... 159984.html New Treatments Helping Kids With Juvenile Arthritis Several biologics have been approved by the FDA ... 20, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- New treatments for juvenile arthritis offer hope to children with the chronic autoimmune ...

  13. Characteristics of adopted juvenile delinquents.

    PubMed

    Kim, W J; Zrull, J P; Davenport, C W; Weaver, M

    1992-05-01

    There have been many reports describing the uniqueness of adopted children and adolescents' delinquent behaviors in terms of both their delinquent characteristics and courts' treatment of them. A total of 43 adopted juveniles, 32 extrafamilial (1.0%) and 11 intrafamilial (0.3%) adoptions were initially identified out of 3,280 juvenile delinquents. The adopted subjects were then compared with the demographically matched and offense matched nonadopted subjects. The family variables, such as marital and employment status of parents, were significantly different. However, there were only a few discernible trends, and in general there were no significant differences between the adopted and nonadopted juveniles in terms of their offense characteristics and dispositions. PMID:1592787

  14. Comparative bacteriology of juvenile periodontitis.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, W E; Holdeman, L V; Cato, E P; Smibert, R M; Burmeister, J A; Palcanis, K G; Ranney, R R

    1985-01-01

    Statistical comparisons of the floras associated with juvenile periodontitis, severe periodontitis, and moderate periodontitis indicated that differences in the bacterial compositions of affected sites in these populations were not statistically significant. The subgingival flora of affected juvenile periodontitis sites was statistically significantly different from the adjacent supragingival flora and from the subgingival floras of people with healthy gingiva and of children with developing (experimental) gingivitis. However, the subgingival flora of affected juvenile periodontitis sites was not significantly different from the flora of sites with gingival index scores of 1 or 2 in adults with developing (experimental) gingivitis. Of 357 bacterial taxa among over 18,000 isolates, 54 non-treponemal species, 2 treponemal species, and mycoplasma were most associated with diseased periodontal sulci. These species comprised an increasing proportion of the flora during developing gingivitis and constituted over half of the cultivable flora of diseased sites. PMID:3988344

  15. Families, Juvenile Justice and Children's Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McManus, Marilyn C., Ed.

    1997-01-01

    The theme issue of this bulletin is a discussion of youth with emotional disturbances who are in the juvenile justice system and how to meet their needs. Articles include: (1) "Responding to the Mental Health Needs of Youth in the Juvenile Justice System" (Susan Rotenberg); (2) "Prevalence of Mental Disorders among Youth in the Juvenile Justice…

  16. Sex Differences in Attributions of Juvenile Delinquency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagatun, Inger J.

    This paper is an application of attribution theory to the processing of juvenile delinquents in an attempt to understand the differential treatment of female and male offenders within the juvenile justice system. The paper explores the attributions of juvenile delinquency both by male and female minors, by male and female parents, and by male and…

  17. Guidelines for Juvenile Information Sharing. OJJDP Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mankey, Jennifer; Baca, Patricia; Rondenell, Stephanie; Webb, Marilyn; McHugh, Denise

    2006-01-01

    The juvenile information sharing (JIS) guidelines were prepared by the Center for Network Development (CND) for the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP). The guidelines suggest a course of action for key agency and organization stakeholders involved in a state or local effort to implement and sustain juvenile information…

  18. On the Prevention of Juvenile Crime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lelekov, V. A.; Kosheleva, E. V.

    2008-01-01

    Crimes committed by juveniles are among the most urgent social problems. Juvenile crime is as prevalent as crime itself is, and it has not been solved completely in any society and cannot be solved through law enforcement measures alone. In this article, the authors discuss the dynamics and structure of juvenile crime in Russia and present data…

  19. Reforming Our Expectations about Juvenile Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Pamela F.; Baille, Daphne M.

    2010-01-01

    Typing the term "juvenile justice reform" into a Google[TM] search will result in 60 pages of entries. But what is meant by juvenile justice reform? What does it look like? How will one know when it is achieved? This article defines juvenile justice reform, discusses the principles of effective reform, and describes the practice of juvenile…

  20. Do Juveniles Bully More than Young Offenders?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ireland, Jane L.

    2002-01-01

    Study compares bullying behavior among juvenile and young offenders. Ninety-five male juvenile and 196 male young offenders completed two questionnaires, measuring bullying directly and behaviors indicative of "being bullied" or of "bullying others". Juveniles perceived a higher extent of bullying and reported significantly more physical,…

  1. Intensive Reading Instruction in Juvenile Correctional Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jacob L.; Wexler, Jade; Roberts, Greg; Carpenter, Clint

    2011-01-01

    Despite 60 years of evidence linking juvenile illiteracy and delinquency, practitioners and policymakers have been painfully slow in the implementation of evidence-based reading interventions for incarcerated juveniles. We will present the Texas Juvenile Justice Tiered Instructional Model, an evidence-based reading program model created…

  2. Mobilizing Communities To Prevent Juvenile Crime. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bownes, Donna; Ingersoll, Sarah

    Through Title V Incentive Grants for Local Delinquency Prevention Programs (Community Prevention Grants), the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) allocated $20 million in fiscal year 1997 to states to complement law enforcement and justice system efforts by helping local communities foster strong families and nurture…

  3. Special Education and the Juvenile Justice System. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrell, Sue; Warboys, Loren

    This bulletin summarizes provisions of federal law as they pertain to special education and juvenile justice. It discusses provisions of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act 1997 including: the definition of disability; free appropriate public education; identification, referral, and evaluation; the individualized education program…

  4. Race as a Factor in Juvenile Arrests. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Carl E.; Snyder, Howard E.

    This bulletin examines the effect of race on police decisions to take juvenile offenders into custody. Analysis of 1997 and 1998 data on 17 states from the Federal Bureau of Investigation's National Incident-Based Reporting System indicates that there is no evidence to support the hypothesis that police are more likely to arrest nonwhite juvenile…

  5. Prevention of Serious and Violent Juvenile Offending. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Gail A.; Miller, Laurie S.; Cothern, Lynn

    This bulletin explores the proximal risk factors for juvenile offending, reviews the early developmental precursors to violent offending, and summarizes approaches to prevention. It also discusses components of intervention programs, limitations of single-focus prevention, examples of multi systemic interventions, and limitations of prevention…

  6. Factors affecting attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Sahlstrom, Kimberly J; Jeglic, Elizabeth L

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and factors influencing those attitudes. Additionally, the influences of perpetrator characteristics such as age, gender, and ethnicity on societal attitudes towards intervention requirements were also investigated. Overall, attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and their treatment amenability were negative. No differences in attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders were found between those who had been victims of sexual abuse and those that had not. Sex offenses committed by juvenile female sex offenders were viewed to be more serious and require more intervention than those committed by juvenile male sex offenders. PMID:19042245

  7. Transfer of Juvenile Cases to Criminal Court.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo Jung; Kraus, Louis J

    2016-01-01

    The first juvenile court was founded in 1899 with the focus on rehabilitation of a juvenile offender as opposed to punishment in adult court. Determining culpability and disposition for adolescents has become a source of much discussion. With serious crimes, juvenile delinquents may be transferred from juvenile court to adult criminal court; this practice became more prevalent in the past century. However, growing knowledge of adolescent development has mitigated the culpability of youth offenders and resulted in judicial decisions influential to juvenile dispositions. PMID:26593117

  8. [Sex-linked juvenile retinoschisis].

    PubMed

    François, P; Turut, P; Soltysik, C; Hache, J C

    1976-02-01

    About 13 observations of sexe linked juvenile retinoschisis, the authors describe the ophthalmoscopic, fluorographic and functional aspects of the disease whose caracteristics are:--its sexe linked recessive heredity; --its clinical characterestics associating: a microcystic macular degeneration, peripheral retinal lesions, vitreous body alterations, --an electroretinogram of the negative type. PMID:132916

  9. Juvenile Court: Today and Tomorrow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Update on Law-Related Education, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Discusses whether juveniles who commit criminal law violations should be tried in the same courts as adults. Addresses the issue of transfers that is a legal mechanism used to move youth to criminal court. Considers alternative proposals for handling youth brought to the judicial system and the role of the federal government. (CMK)

  10. Juvenile Criminals: Who Are They?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antonov, A. I.; Lebed, O. L.

    2005-01-01

    Many adolescents who were born in the late 1970s and 1980s in Russia became juvenile criminals due to the change in the social structure, the proclamation of the values of the comfortable way of life, the institution of property ownership and so forth. Many young people have to help relatives who are in need, and this as well often causes them to…

  11. Juvenile Justice and Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chassin, Laurie

    2008-01-01

    Laurie Chassin focuses on the elevated prevalence of substance use disorders among young offenders in the juvenile justice system and on efforts by the justice system to provide treatment for these disorders. She emphasizes the importance of diagnosing and treating these disorders, which are linked both with continued offending and with a broad…

  12. Juvenile Diabetes and Rehabilitation Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, J. Blair; Gregg, Charles H.

    1981-01-01

    Severe complications of diabetes are more likely to occur with the juvenile diabetic and problems of psychosocial adjustment are recurring and difficult. Implications for the rehabilitation counselor are discussed in terms of employment considerations, the effects of complications, genetic counseling, and cooperation with other professionals.…

  13. Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice. Panel on Juvenile Crime: Prevention, Treatment, and Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCord, Joan, Ed.; Widom, Cathy Spatz, Ed.; Crowell, Nancy A., Ed.

    This book discusses patterns and trends in crimes committed by children and adolescents, analyzing youth crime as a subset of general crime and studying the impact of race and gender. It evaluates different approaches to forecasting future crime rates. Data come from a national panel that examined what is known about juvenile crime and its…

  14. A Practical Approach to Juvenile Dermatomyositis and Juvenile Scleroderma.

    PubMed

    McCann, Liza J; Pain, Clare E

    2016-02-01

    Juvenile dermatomyositis and juvenile scleroderma are rare multisystem autoimmune disorders. Although they share some pathognomonic hallmarks with adult onset myositis or scleroderma, there are significant differences in presentation, characteristics and associated features when the diseases present in childhood. In view of this, and the rarity of the conditions, it is important for care to be led by teams with expertise in pediatric rheumatology conditions. Prognosis has improved significantly in the West; likely due to early diagnosis and aggressive treatment with immunosuppressive medications. However, this trend is not replicated in the developing world. Early recognition of these diseases is crucial to achieve rapid and sustained remission and prevent disease or medication associated complications. This article aims to provide a practical overview for recognition, diagnosis and treatment of these conditions. PMID:26489640

  15. Morphological and molecular characterization of Myxobolus mucosus sp. n. (Myxosporea: Myxobolidae) with basifilamental sporulation in two cyprinid fishes, Rutilus rutilus (L.) and Leuciscus leuciscus (L.) in Russia.

    PubMed

    Liu, X H; Voronin, V N; Dudin, A S; Zhang, J Y

    2016-03-01

    A new Myxobolus species, Myxobolus mucosus sp. n., was found in the basifilamental location of roach, Rutilus rutilus, and common dace, Leuciscus leuciscus, during the investigation of fish myxosporean fauna in Finnish Bay of Baltic Sea and Lake Ladoga in 2014. Plasmodia from the two hosts share similar morphometric and morphological features which are whitish and slightly elongated oval and measured 300-500 μm in diameter. Mature spores of M. mucosus sp. n. are ellipsoidal in frontal view and lemon shaped in sutural view, measuring 13.6 ± 0.62 (12.8-14.2) μm in length, 10.7 ± 0.51 (10.3-11.4) μm in width, 7.8 ± 0.41 (7.2-8.3) μm in thickness and 13.0 ± 0.89 (11.5-14.2) μm in length, 10.8 ± 0.77 (10.2-11.5) μm in width, 7.7 ± 0.52 (7.3-8.0) μm in thickness from roach and common dace, respectively. Polar capsules were pyriform, equal in size, converging anteriorly, with 5.9 ± 0.22 (5.7-6.3) μm in length and 3.9 ± 0.3 (3.5-4.1) μm in width and 5.6 ± 0.38 (5.1-6.2) μm in length and 3.8 ± 0.24 (3.5-4.0) μm in width from roach and common dace, respectively. Spore valves are relatively thin, symmetrical, and smooth. The most remarkable morphological character of this new Myxobolus species is the distinct mucous envelope, surrounding the full myxospore valves, up to 25 and 32 μm, respectively, in roach and common dace. The partial 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence variation of myxospores from two hosts is very tiny (below 0.8 %) but significantly differing from all available sequences of myxosporeans in GenBank. Therefore, it can be concluded that this myxosporean from these two closely related cyprinids are conspecific by combining morphological characteristics, tissue specificity, and molecular data. Phylogenetic analysis showed that this newly described species cluster with several gill-infecting Myxobolus species from cyprinid fish inhabiting in Eastern Europe. PMID:26660693

  16. Juvenile morphology in baleen whale phylogeny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Cheng-Hsiu; Fordyce, R. Ewan

    2014-09-01

    Phylogenetic reconstructions are sensitive to the influence of ontogeny on morphology. Here, we use foetal/neonatal specimens of known species of living baleen whales (Cetacea: Mysticeti) to show how juvenile morphology of extant species affects phylogenetic placement of the species. In one clade (sei whale, Balaenopteridae), the juvenile is distant from the usual phylogenetic position of adults, but in the other clade (pygmy right whale, Cetotheriidae), the juvenile is close to the adult. Different heterochronic processes at work in the studied species have different influences on juvenile morphology and on phylogenetic placement. This study helps to understand the relationship between evolutionary processes and phylogenetic patterns in baleen whale evolution and, more in general, between phylogeny and ontogeny; likewise, this study provides a proxy how to interpret the phylogeny when fossils that are immature individuals are included. Juvenile individuals in the peramorphic acceleration clades would produce misleading phylogenies, whereas juvenile individuals in the paedomorphic neoteny clades should still provide reliable phylogenetic signals.

  17. Juvenile morphology in baleen whale phylogeny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Cheng-Hsiu; Fordyce, R. Ewan

    2014-08-01

    Phylogenetic reconstructions are sensitive to the influence of ontogeny on morphology. Here, we use foetal/neonatal specimens of known species of living baleen whales (Cetacea: Mysticeti) to show how juvenile morphology of extant species affects phylogenetic placement of the species. In one clade (sei whale, Balaenopteridae), the juvenile is distant from the usual phylogenetic position of adults, but in the other clade (pygmy right whale, Cetotheriidae), the juvenile is close to the adult. Different heterochronic processes at work in the studied species have different influences on juvenile morphology and on phylogenetic placement. This study helps to understand the relationship between evolutionary processes and phylogenetic patterns in baleen whale evolution and, more in general, between phylogeny and ontogeny; likewise, this study provides a proxy how to interpret the phylogeny when fossils that are immature individuals are included. Juvenile individuals in the peramorphic acceleration clades would produce misleading phylogenies, whereas juvenile individuals in the paedomorphic neoteny clades should still provide reliable phylogenetic signals.

  18. JUVENILE DELINQUENCY AND YOUTH CRIME, TASK FORCE REPORT, REPORT ON JUVENILE JUSTICE AND CONSULTANTS PAPERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice, Washington, DC.

    THIS REPORT CONSISTS OF A DETAILED DISCUSSION OF THE JUVENILE COURT SYSTEM AND THE PREVENTION OF DELINQUENCY. THE COMMISSION'S RECOMMENDATIONS ON JUVENILE DELINQUENCY INCLUDE THE AREAS OF THE JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEM, HOUSING AND RECREATION, FAMILIES, INVOLVING YOUTHS IN COMMUNITY LIFE, SCHOOLS, AND EMPLOYMENT. THE APPENDIXES, WHICH CONSTITUTE THE…

  19. The JDAI Story: Building a Better Juvenile Detention System. Pathways to Juvenile Detention Reform. Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanfield, Rochelle

    This monograph describes the work of five Juvenile Detention Alternatives Initiative (JDAI) sites designed to streamline and rationalize local juvenile detention systems and to reduce overcrowding in juvenile detention centers, thus improving conditions and saving jurisdictions money in overtime and additional staff and millions of dollars to…

  20. Black Juveniles in the Juvenile Justice System: A Cause for Alarm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeFlore, Larry

    This report examines the representation of black youth in the juvenile justice system, describes changes in juvenile justice philosophy, and discusses policy implications. Black youth are overrepresented at all stages of the juvenile justice system compared to white youth. Positivist theories explain this overrepresentation as the result of…

  1. A Juvenile Justice System for the 21st Century. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilchik, Shay

    This bulletin describes the objectives and elements of an effective juvenile justice system and suggests legislative and administrative strategies for its implementation. An effective juvenile justice system must meet the three objectives of holding the juvenile offender accountable, enabling the offender to become a capable and productive…

  2. National Implications in Juvenile Justice: The Influence of Juvenile Mentoring Programs on At Risk Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belshaw, Scott H.; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2007-01-01

    In 1972 the federal government created the Juvenile Justice Delinquency Prevention Act that procured funding for various governmental programs to combat the sudden increase in juvenile crime. A provision of this Act set out the creation of mentoring programs to help decrease the juvenile crime rate and dropout rates in secondary schools. This…

  3. Runaway Juvenile Crime? The Context of Juvenile Arrests in America. Research in Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziedenberg, Jason; Schiraldi, Vincent

    The Violent and Repeat Juvenile Offender Act of 1997 (S-10) was to be debated in the Senate in spring 1998. This bill would blur the distinction between juvenile and adult criminal systems, making it easier to imprison children as young as 14. Supporters of S-10 were citing statistics to indicate that juvenile crime was on the rise. In fact, the…

  4. A Handbook for Juveniles and Parents on Maine's Juvenile Justice System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehnert, Irene

    This guide explains Maine's juvenile justice system so that juveniles and/or their parents can know what to expect or what to do in a situation involving juveniles, public officials and the law. Although it is geographically specific, it could serve as a model to other states. The booklet can serve as a checklist to make sure law enforcement…

  5. Invasive Cyprinid Fish in Europe Originate from the Single Introduction of an Admixed Source Population Followed by a Complex Pattern of Spread

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Andrea; Britton, Robert; Gozlan, Rodolphe; van Oosterhout, Cock; Volckaert, Filip A. M.; Hänfling, Bernd

    2011-01-01

    The Asian cyprinid fish, the topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva), was introduced into Europe in the 1960s. A highly invasive freshwater fish, it is currently found in at least 32 countries outside its native range. Here we analyse a 700 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene to examine different models of colonisation and spread within the invasive range, and to investigate the factors that may have contributed to their invasion success. Haplotype and nucleotide diversity of the introduced populations from continental Europe was higher than that of the native populations, although two recently introduced populations from the British Isles showed low levels of variability. Based on coalescent theory, all introduced and some native populations showed a relative excess of nucleotide diversity compared to haplotype diversity. This suggests that these populations are not in mutation-drift equilibrium, but rather that the relative inflated level of nucleotide diversity is consistent with recent admixture. This study elucidates the colonisation patterns of P. parva in Europe and provides an evolutionary framework of their invasion. It supports the hypothesis that their European colonisation was initiated by their introduction to a single location or small geographic area with subsequent complex pattern of spread including both long distance and stepping-stone dispersal. Furthermore, it was preceded by, or associated with, the admixture of genetically diverse source populations that may have augmented its invasive-potential. PMID:21674031

  6. Isolation of a rhabdovirus during outbreaks of disease in cyprinid fish species at fishery sites in England.

    PubMed

    Way, K; Bark, S J; Longshaw, C B; Denham, K L; Dixon, P F; Feist, S W; Gardiner, R; Gubbins, M J; Le Deuff, R M; Martin, P D; Stone, D M; Taylor, G R

    2003-12-01

    A virus was isolated during disease outbreaks in bream Abramis brama, tench Tinca tinca, roach Rutilis rutilis and crucian carp Carassius carassius populations at 6 fishery sites in England in 1999. Mortalities at the sites were primarily among recently introduced fish and the predominant fish species affected was bream. The bream stocked at 5 of the 6 English fishery sites were found to have originated from the River Bann, Northern Ireland. Most fish presented few consistent external signs of disease but some exhibited clinical signs similar to those of spring viraemia of carp (SVC), with extensive skin haemorrhages, ulceration on the flanks and internal signs including ascites and petechial haemorrhages. The most prominent histopathological changes were hepatocellular necrosis, interstitial nephritis and splenitis. The virus induced a cytopathic effect in tissue cultures (Epithelioma papulosum cyprini [EPC] cells) at 20 degrees C and produced moderate signals in an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for the detection of SVC virus. The virus showed a close serological relationship to pike fry rhabdovirus in both EIA and serum neutralisation assays and to a rhabdovirus isolated during a disease outbreak in a bream population in the River Bann in 1998. A high degree of sequence similarity (> or = 99.5% nucleotide identity) was observed between the English isolates and those from the River Bann. Experimental infection of juvenile bream, tench and carp with EPC cell-grown rhabdovirus by bath and intraperitoneal injection resulted in a 40% mortality of bream in the injection group only. The virus was re-isolated from pooled kidney, liver and spleen tissue samples from moribund bream. The field observations together with the experimental results indicate that this rhabdovirus is of low virulence but may have the potential to cause significant mortality in fishes under stress. PMID:14735920

  7. Biologic agents in juvenile spondyloarthropathies.

    PubMed

    Katsicas, María Martha; Russo, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    The juvenile spondyloarthropathies (JSpA) are a group of related rheumatic diseases characterized by involvement of peripheral large joints, axial joints, and entheses (enthesitis) that begin in the early years of life (prior to 16(th) birthday).The nomenclature and concept of spondyloarthropathies has changed during the last few decades. Although there is not any specific classification of JSpA, diseases under the spondyloarthropathy nomenclature umbrella in the younger patients include: the seronegative enthesitis and arthropathy (SEA) syndrome, juvenile ankylosing spondylitis, reactive arthritis, and inflammatory bowel disease-associated arthritis. Moreover, the ILAR criteria for Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis includes two categories closely related to spondyloarthritis: Enthesitis-related arthritis and psoriatic arthritis.We review the pathophysiology and the use of biological agents in JSpA. JSpA are idiopathic inflammatory diseases driven by an altered balance in the proinflammatory cytokines. There is ample evidence on the role of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-17 in the physiopathology of these entities. Several non-biologic and biologic agents have been used with conflicting results in the treatment of these complex diseases. The efficacy and safety of anti-TNF agents, such as etanercept, infliximab and adalimumab, have been analysed in controlled and uncontrolled trials, usually showing satisfactory outcomes. Other biologic agents, such as abatacept, tocilizumab and rituximab, have been insufficiently studied and their role in the therapy of SpA is uncertain. Interleukin-17-blocking agents are promising alternatives for the treatment of JSpA patients in the near future. Recommendations for the treatment of patients with JSpA have recently been proposed and are discussed in the present review. PMID:26968522

  8. Juvenile justice and substance use.

    PubMed

    Chassin, Laurie

    2008-01-01

    Laurie Chassin focuses on the elevated prevalence of substance use disorders among young offenders in the juvenile justice system and on efforts by the justice system to provide treatment for these disorders. She emphasizes the importance of diagnosing and treating these disorders, which are linked both with continued offending and with a broad range of negative effects, such as smoking, risky sexual behavior, violence, and poor educational, occupational, and psychological outcomes. The high rates of substance use problems among young offenders, says Chassin, suggest a large need for treatment. Although young offenders are usually screened for substance use disorders, Chassin notes the need to improve screening methods and to ensure that screening takes place early enough to allow youths to be diverted out of the justice system into community-based programs when appropriate. Cautioning that no single treatment approach has been proven most effective, Chassin describes current standards of "best practices" in treating substance use disorders, examines the extent to which they are implemented in the juvenile justice system, and describes some promising models of care. She highlights several treatment challenges, including the need for better methods of engaging adolescents and their families in treatment and the need to better address environmental risk factors, such as family substance use and deviant peer networks, and co-occurring conditions, such as learning disabilities and other mental health disorders. Chassin advocates policies that encourage wider use of empirically validated therapies and of documented best practices for treating substance use disorders. High relapse rates among youths successfully treated for substance use disorders also point to a greater need for aftercare services and for managing these disorders as chronic illnesses characterized by relapse and remission. A shortage of aftercare services and a lack of service coordination in the

  9. Juvenile xanthogranuloma: unusual intraoral finding.

    PubMed

    Collins, L; Banks, R; Robinson, M

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile xanthogranuloma is a rare non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis that usually presents as a self-limiting dermatological condition in young children. Rarely, extracutaneous sites may also be involved. We report a case in a 3-year-old girl that presented intraorally as a solitary, well-defined, soft, purple palatal swelling. Patients with these rare intraoral lesions may present to dentists and subsequently to oral and maxillofacial surgeons. Diagnosis requires histopathological analysis and immunohistochemical staining. Further investigation from other specialties is required to rule out involvement of other organ systems. PMID:25300889

  10. Juvenile Competency to Stand Trial.

    PubMed

    Stepanyan, Sofia T; Sidhu, Shawn S; Bath, Eraka

    2016-01-01

    Competency to stand trial is interpreted as a protected due process right for all defendants and is defined as a defendant's fundamental knowledge and understanding of the criminal charges being filed, roles and procedures within the courtroom, and a general ability to work with the defense counsel. Questions of competency are most often raised by the judge, defense, or the prosecution, and competency evaluations are most often completed by psychiatrists or psychologists with forensic training or work experience. Mental illness, intellectual disability, developmental disorders, and developmental immaturity are the 4 main factors considered in most juvenile competency evaluations. PMID:26593118

  11. Juvenile Obesity, Physical Activity, and Lifestyle Changes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bar-Or, Oded

    2000-01-01

    Because many obese children become obese adults, the recent rapid increase in juvenile obesity poses a major public health challenge. Enhanced physical activity is a cornerstone in a multidisciplinary approach to preventing and treating juvenile obesity. Giving exercise recommendations focused for obese youth is critical. Cutting down on sedentary…

  12. Special Education in Wisconsin's Juvenile Detention System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zenz, Tamara; Langelett, George

    2004-01-01

    This study looks at incarcerated youth in the public juvenile detention facilities of Wisconsin. State percentages of youth in Wisconsin public schools with Emotional, Learning, Cognitive, and/or Low Incidence Disabilities are compared to percentages reported from the state and county operated juvenile detention facilities. The study investigates…

  13. Juvenile Justice in Indiana: Facing the Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Doreen L.

    The Indiana juvenile justice system is charged with intervening on behalf of youthful offenders for the purposes of providing care, treatment, protection, or rehabilitation. This report provides an overview of the state's juvenile justice system, which has fallen under widespread criticism for many years. The following issues are identified: data…

  14. Role Socialization of Juvenile Court Probation Officers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petronio, Richard J.

    1982-01-01

    Tested the degree of association between probation officers' sent and received roles and role behavior in four juvenile courts. Found the role communicated to probation officers by their superiors was predictive of the role the probation officers perceived but not of the role as enacted with juveniles. (Author)

  15. Juvenile dispersal in Calomys venustus (Muridae: Sigmodontinae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priotto, José; Steinmann, Andrea; Provensal, Cecilia; Polop, Jaime

    2004-05-01

    Both spacing behaviour and dispersal movement are viewed as hierarchical processes in which the effects may be expressed at spatial scale. This research was carried out to examine the hypothesis that the presence of parents promotes the dispersal of juveniles from their natal nest and their father or mother home-range, in Calomys venustus.The study was carried out in four 0.25 ha fences (two controls and two experimentals), in a natural pasture. This study had two periods: Father Removal (FR) (August and December 1997; year one) and Mother Removal (MR) (August 1998 and January 1999; year two). For the FR treatment fathers were removed after juveniles were born, but in the MR treatment mothers were removed after the juveniles were weaned. The effect of parents on the dispersal distance of juveniles was analysed with respect to their natal nest and their mother and father home-range. Dispersal distance from the nest of C. venustus was independent of either male or female parent. Juveniles were more dispersing in relation to the centre of activity of their mothers than to that of their fathers, and females were more dispersing than males. Female juveniles overlap their home-range with their parents less than male juveniles do. The differences observed between female and male juveniles would be related to their different sexual maturation times, as well as to the female territoriality.

  16. Juveniles' Motivations for Remaining in Prostitution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Shu-Ling; Bedford, Olwen

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative data from in-depth interviews were collected in 1990-1991, 1992, and 2000 with 49 prostituted juveniles remanded to two rehabilitation centers in Taiwan. These data are analyzed to explore Taiwanese prostituted juveniles' feelings about themselves and their work, their motivations for remaining in prostitution, and their difficulties…

  17. Juvenile Offender Comprehensive Reentry Substance Abuse Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Donnie W.

    2004-01-01

    The literature provides ample evidence of the relationship of substance abuse to crime. Research over the last 20 years has established a strong correlation between substance abuse and juvenile delinquency (held, 1998). Currently, there are more than 350,000 juveniles on probation and in continuing care programs in the U.S. who have substance…

  18. Peer Relationships Among Institutionalized Juvenile Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preveaux, Neal E.; Ray, Glen E.; LoBello, Steven G.; Mehta, Sheila

    2004-01-01

    This study examined peer relationships (sociometric status and friendship) of institutionalized juvenile males ages 12 to 18. Results replicated previous studies using "normal" nondelinquent samples demonstrating that sociometrically popular status juveniles were evaluated higher on sociability and leadership than were average- or rejected-status…

  19. Genetic and clinical evaluation of juvenile retinoschisis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Judy E; Ruttum, Mark S; Koeberl, Matthew J; Hassemer, Eryn L; Sidjanin, D J

    2009-04-01

    Juvenile retinoschisis is a rare retinal dystrophy caused by RS1 gene mutations.(1) Clinical examinations and molecular testing definitively diagnosed juvenile retinoschisis in 2 male infants, one of whom had a novel mutation not previously reported in the United States. Genetic testing may be the simplest way to confirm this diagnosis in infants. PMID:19393523

  20. Genetic and clinical evaluation of juvenile retinoschisis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Judy E.; Ruttum, Mark S.; Koeberl, Matthew J.; Hassemer, Eryn L.; Sidjanin, D. J.

    2014-01-01

    Juvenile retinoschisis is a rare retinal dystrophy caused by RS1 gene mutations.1 Clinical examinations and molecular testing definitively diagnosed juvenile retinoschisis in 2 male infants, one of whom had a novel mutation not previously reported in the United States. Genetic testing may be the simplest way to confirm this diagnosis in infants. PMID:19393523

  1. Juvenile Anorexia Nervosa: Family Therapy's Natural Niche

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishman, H. Charles

    2006-01-01

    Juvenile Anorexia Nervosa (AN) is a severe problem both in terms of presenting symptomatology and its tendency toward chronicity. Researchers have consistently shown that family-based approaches are superior to individual approaches for the treatment of juvenile AN. This article addresses the capacity deficit of trained family therapists to treat…

  2. Moral Development of Solo Juvenile Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Vugt, Eveline; Stams, Geert Jan; Dekovic, Maja; Brugman, Daan; Rutten, Esther; Hendriks, Jan

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the moral development of solo juvenile male sex offenders (n = 20) and juvenile male non-offenders (n = 76), aged 13-19 years, from lower socioeconomic and educational backgrounds. The Moral Orientation Measure (MOM) was used to assess punishment- and victim-based moral orientation in sexual and non-sexual situations. Moral…

  3. Juvenile Offenders and Victims: 2006 National Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Howard N.; Sickmund, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    This report presents comprehensive information on juvenile crime, violence, and victimization and on the juvenile justice system. This report brings together the latest available statistics from a variety of sources and includes numerous tables, graphs, and maps, accompanied by analyses in clear, nontechnical language. The report offers Congress,…

  4. Juvenile Offenders and Victims: 1999 National Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Howard N.; Sickmund, Melissa

    This report offers the Congress, state legislators, and other state and local policymakers, professors and teachers, juvenile justice professionals, and concerned citizens solid answers to the most frequently asked questions about the nature of juvenile crime and victimization and about the justice system's response. Citing FBI and other data…

  5. Factors Affecting Attitudes toward Juvenile Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahlstrom, Kimberly J.; Jeglic, Elizabeth L.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and factors influencing those attitudes. Additionally, the influences of perpetrator characteristics such as age, gender, and ethnicity on societal attitudes towards intervention requirements were also investigated. Overall, attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and their treatment…

  6. Psychiatric Disorder in a Juvenile Assessment Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McReynolds, Larkin S.; Wasserman, Gail A.; DeComo, Robert E.; John, Reni; Keating, Joseph M.; Nolen, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile assessment centers (JACs) were developed to address service fragmentation and promote the sharing of information among agencies providing services to youth involved with the juvenile justice system. To date, there are no reports that describe the diagnostic profiles of the youth served by such centers. The authors hypothesize that the…

  7. Juvenile Delinquency: Research, Theory, and Comment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Bernice Milburn

    While this booklet on juvenile delinquency does not attempt a full review of the literature, it has been designed to further an understanding and appreciation of the social-psychological problems of deviant behavior. The booklet briefly covers the publicity which juvenile delinquency has been given in recent years, as well as the difficulties…

  8. Literacy Levels of Male Juvenile Justice Detainees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheldall, Kevin; Watkins, Renae

    2004-01-01

    The assessment records detailing the reading and spelling performance of a group of male juvenile justice detainees admitted over a 3-month period were examined in an attempt to quantify the basic literacy levels of juvenile offenders. Results of student self-ratings of their reading ability were also analysed. The participants comprised 68 males…

  9. Genetic heterogeneity in juvenile NCL

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, Y.M.; Andermann, E.; Mitchison, H.M.

    1994-09-01

    The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCL) are a group of related lysosomal storage diseases classified according to the age of onset, clinical syndrome, and pathology. The clinical syndromes include myoclonus, visual failure, progressive dementia, ataxia and generalized tonic clonic seizures in varying combinations depending on the age of onset and pathology. The mode of inheritance is autosomal recessive in most cases, except for several families with the adult form (Kufs` disease) which have autosomal dominant inheritance. Linkage for the infantile (Halatia-Santavuori) form (CLN1), characterized ultrastructurally by lysosomal granular osmiophilic deposits (GROD), has been demonstrated with markers on chromosome lp, while the gene for the typical juvenile (Spielmeyer-Vogt) form (CLN3), characterized by fingerprint-profile inclusions, has been linked to chromosome 16p. The gene locations of the late infantile (Jansky-Bielschowsky) and adult (Kufs` disease) forms are unknown, although it has recently been shown that the late infantile form does not link to chromosome 16p. We describe three siblings, including a pair of monozygotic twins, with juvenile onset NCL with GROD in whom linkage to the CLN3 region of chromsome 16p has been excluded. This would suggest that there is genetic heterogeneity not only among the different clinical syndromes, but also among identical clinical syndromes with different ultrastructural characteristics. Preliminary studies of linkage to chromosome 1p employing the microsatellite marker HY-TM1 have been uninformative. Further studies with other chromosome 1 markers are underway.

  10. Juvenile delinquency and adolescent fatherhood.

    PubMed

    Khurana, Atika; Gavazzi, Stephen M

    2011-08-01

    This study examined ecological risk factors associated with teen paternity in a sample of 2,931 male adolescents coming to the attention of juvenile courts across five midwestern counties. In contrast to previous studies documenting significantly higher rates of teen paternity among African American youth, we found that the European American court-involved youth in our sample were as likely to be teen fathers as their African American counterparts. However, an in-depth examination of the social ecologies of these court-involved youth revealed significant racial differences (regardless of the paternity status), with African American males reporting more prior offenses, delinquent peer associations, traumatic pasts, risky sexual behaviors, and educational risks as compared to European American youth, who reported greater involvement in substance use. Furthermore, logistic regression analyses revealed that after controlling for age and racial background, youth who reported greater exposure to trauma and prior offenses had significantly greater odds of having fathered a child. Surprisingly, youth who were teen fathers reported lower rates of behavioral problems as compared to their nonfathering peers. Given the cross-sectional nature of our data, interpretation of this result is limited. Overall, our findings underscore the need for developing a comprehensive understanding of the ecological risk and protective factors present in the lives of teen fathers coming in contact with the juvenile justice system, as an essential first step in designing effective and relevant intervention programs and services for this at-risk population. PMID:20508087

  11. Family transitions and juvenile delinquency.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Ryan D; Osgood, Aurea K; Oghia, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    There is a large body of research that shows children from non-intact homes show higher rates of juvenile delinquency than children from intact homes, partially due to weaker parental control and supervision in non-intact homes. What has not been adequately addressed in the research is the influence of changes in family structure among individual adolescents over time on delinquent offending. Using the first and third waves of the National Youth Study, we assess the effect of family structure changes on changes in delinquent offending between waves through the intermediate process of changes in family time and parental attachment. Although prior research has documented adolescents in broken homes are more delinquent than youth in intact homes, the process of family dissolution is not associated with concurrent increases in offending. In contrast, family formation through marriage or cohabitation is associated with simultaneous increases in offending. Changes in family time and parental attachment account for a portion of the family formation effect on delinquency, and prior parental attachment and juvenile offending significantly condition the effect of family formation on offending. PMID:20879178

  12. Juvenile Gaucher disease simulating osteomyelitis

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.H.; Ortega, J.A.; Heisel, M.A.

    1981-10-01

    A case in which several imaging procedures suggested juvenile Gaucher disease in a child who presented with symptomatology of osteomyelitis is discussed. The 20-month girl was given a Technetium-99m radionuclide skeletal examination which revealed intense uptake of tracer agents along the shaft of the right femur. It was also found that the liver and spleen were dramatically Ga-67 avid. The bone pain symptomatology suggested an osteomyelitis of the femur, but skeletal scintigraphy with Tc-99m-labeled bone tracer demonstrated photopenic areas involving the femur, suggesting that the bone pain may have been due to marrow packed with Gaucher cells. This overexpansion of the marrow may lead to microfractures with remodeling seen radiographically as periosteal new bone and scintigraphically as increased periosteal deposition of tracer agent. The radiogallium study was useful to exclude an underlying osteomyelitis in the involved femurs. Although juvenile Gaucher disease is unusual, it should be considered in any child who presents with the constellation of hepatosplenomegaly and bone pain simulating osteomyelitis.

  13. Ascent ability of brown trout, Salmo trutta, and two Iberian cyprinids − Iberian barbel, Luciobarbus bocagei, and northern straight-mouth nase, Pseudochondrostoma duriense − in a vertical slot fishway

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanz-Ronda, Fco. Javier; Bravo-Cordoba, F.J.; Fuentes-Perez, J.F.; Castro-Santos, Theodore R.

    2016-01-01

    Passage performance of brown trout (Salmo trutta), Iberian barbel (Luciobarbus bocagei), and northern straight-mouth nase (Pseudochondrostoma duriense) was investigated in a vertical slot fishway in the Porma River (Duero River basin, Spain) using PIT telemetry. We analysed the effects of different fishway discharges on motivation and passage success. Both cyprinid species ascended the fishway easily, performing better than the trout despite their theoretically weaker swimming performance. Fishway discharge affected fish motivation although it did not clearly influence passage success. Observed results can guide design and operation criteria of vertical slot fishways for native Iberian fish.

  14. Challenging the Myths: 1999 National Report Series. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Howard N.; Sickmund, Melissa

    This bulletin, extracted from "Juvenile Offenders and Victims: 1999 National Report," examines juvenile crime statistics, demonstrating that the predictions in the early 1990s of the emergence of juvenile superpredators (juveniles for whom violence is a way of life) is not supported by current data. Research indicates that levels of predatory…

  15. 8 CFR 236.3 - Detention and release of juveniles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Detention and release of juveniles. 236.3 Section 236.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION... Aliens Prior to Order of Removal § 236.3 Detention and release of juveniles. (a) Juveniles. A juvenile...

  16. Juvenile Offenders with Mental Health Needs: Reducing Recidivism Using Wraparound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pullmann, Michael D.; Kerbs, Jodi; Koroloff, Nancy; Veach-White, Ernie; Gaylor, Rita; Sieler, Dede

    2006-01-01

    The rate of youth with mental health needs is disproportionately high in juvenile justice. Wraparound planning involves families and providers in coordinating juvenile justice, mental health, and other services and supports. This study compares data from two groups of juvenile offenders with mental health problems: 106 youth in a juvenile justice…

  17. Phylogeography, historical demography and habitat suitability modelling of freshwater fishes inhabiting seasonally fluctuating Mediterranean river systems: a case study using the Iberian cyprinid Squalius valentinus.

    PubMed

    Perea, S; Doadrio, I

    2015-07-01

    The Mediterranean freshwater fish fauna has evolved under constraints imposed by the seasonal weather/hydrological patterns that define the Mediterranean climate. These conditions have influenced the genetic and demographic structure of aquatic communities since their origins in the Mid-Pliocene. Freshwater species in Mediterranean-type climates will likely constitute genetically well-differentiated populations, to varying extents depending on basin size, as a consequence of fragmentation resulting from drought/flood cycles. We developed an integrative framework to study the spatial patterns in genetic diversity, demographic trends, habitat suitability modelling and landscape genetics, to evaluate the evolutionary response of Mediterranean-type freshwater fish to seasonal fluctuations in weather. To test this evolutionary response, the model species used was Squalius valentinus, an endemic cyprinid of the Spanish Levantine area, where seasonal weather fluctuations are extreme, although our findings may be extrapolated to other Mediterranean-type species. Our results underscore the significant role of the Mediterranean climate, along with Pleistocene glaciations, in diversification of S. valentinus. We found higher nuclear diversity in larger drainage basins, but higher mitochondrial diversity correlated to habitat suitability rather than basin size. We also found strong correlation between genetic structure and climatic factors associated with Mediterranean seasonality. Demographic and migration analyses suggested population expansion during glacial periods that also contributed to the current genetic structure of S. valentinus populations. The inferred models support the significant contribution of precipitation and temperature to S. valentinus habitat suitability and allow recognizing areas of habitat stability. We highlight the importance of stable habitat conditions, fostered by typical karstic springs found on the Mediterranean littoral coasts, for the

  18. Transcriptomic analysis of koi (Cyprinus carpio) spleen tissue upon cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV3) infection using next generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Xuezhu; Yi, Yang; Weng, Shaoping; Zeng, Jie; Zhang, Hetong; He, Jianguo; Dong, Chuanfu

    2016-02-01

    Cyprinid Herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) can infect and specifically cause a huge economic loss in both common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and its ornamental koi variety. The molecular mechanisms underlying CyHV-3 infection are not well understood. In this study, koi spleen tissues of both mock and CyHV-3 infection groups were collected, and high-throughput sequencing technology was used to analyze the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) at the transcriptome level. A total of 105,356,188 clean reads from two libraries were obtained. After the de novo assembly of the transcripts, 129,314 unigenes were generated. Of these unigenes, 70,655 unigenes were matched to the known proteins in the database, while 2190 unigenes were predicted by ESTScan software. Comparing the infection group to the mock group, a total of 23,029 significantly differentially expressed unigenes were identified, including 10,493 up-regulated DEGs and 12,536 down-regulated DEGs. GO (Gene Ontology) annotation and functional enrichment analysis indicated that all of the DEGs were annotated into GO terms in three main GO categories: biological process, cellular component and molecular function. KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) analysis of the DEGs showed that a total of 12,002 DEG unigenes were annotated into 256 pathways classified into 6 main categories. Additionally, 20 differentially expressed genes were validated by quantitative real-time PCR. As the first report of a transcriptome analysis of koi carp with CyHV-3 infection, the data presented here provide knowledge of the innate immune response against CyHV-3 in koi carp and useful data for further research of the molecular mechanism of CyHV-3 infection. PMID:26690666

  19. Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) disturbs osmotic balance in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)--A potential cause of mortality.

    PubMed

    Negenborn, J; van der Marel, M C; Ganter, M; Steinhagen, D

    2015-06-12

    Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) causes a fatal disease in carp (Cyprinus carpio) and its ornamental koi varieties which seriously affects production and trade of this fish species globally. Up to now, the pathophysiology of this disease remains unclear. Affected individuals develop most prominent lesions in gills, skin and kidney, in tissues which are involved in the osmotic regulation of freshwater teleosts. Therefore, here serum and urine electrolyte levels were examined during the course of an experimental infection of carp with CyHV-3. In infected carp an interstitial nephritis with a progressive deterioration of nephric tubules developed, which was paralleled by elevated electrolyte losses, mainly Na(+) in the urine. The urine/plasma ratio for Na(+) increased from 0.03 in uninfected carp to 0.43-0.83 in carp under CyHV-3 infection, while concentration of divalent ions were not significantly changed. These electrolyte losses could not be compensated since plasma osmolality and Na(+) concentration dropped significantly in CyHV-3 infected carp. This was most probably caused by the progressive deterioration of the branchial epithelium, which in teleosts plays a prominent role in osmoregulation, and which was seen concomitantly with decreasing electrolyte levels in the serum of carp under CyHV-3 infection. Immediately after infection with CyHV-3, by day 2 post exposure, affected carp showed severe anaemia and prominent leucocytosis indicating the development of an acute inflammation, which could intensify the observed hydro-mineral imbalances. The data presented here show that an infection with CyHV-3 induces an acute inflammation and a severe dysfunction of osmoregulation in affected carp or koi, which may lead to death in particular in the case of acute disease progression. PMID:25888311

  20. Sensitivity and permissivity of Cyprinus carpio to cyprinid herpesvirus 3 during the early stages of its development: importance of the epidermal mucus as an innate immune barrier.

    PubMed

    Ronsmans, Maygane; Boutier, Maxime; Rakus, Krzysztof; Farnir, Frédéric; Desmecht, Daniel; Ectors, Fabien; Vandecan, Michaël; Lieffrig, François; Mélard, Charles; Vanderplasschen, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) causes a lethal disease in common and koi carp (Cyprinus carpio). The present study investigated the ability of CyHV-3 to infect common carp during the early stages of its development (from embryos to fingerlings) after inoculation by immersion in water containing the virus. Fish were inoculated at different times after hatching with a pathogenic recombinant CyHV-3 strain expressing luciferase. The sensitivity and permissivity of carp to CyHV-3 were investigated using in vivo bioluminescence imaging. The susceptibility of carp to CyHV-3 disease was investigated by measuring the survival rate. Carp were sensitive and permissive to CyHV-3 infection and susceptible to CyHV-3 disease at all stages of development, but the sensitivity of the two early developmental stages (embryo and larval stages) was limited compared to later stages. The lower sensitivity observed for the early developmental stages was due to stronger inhibition of viral entry into the host by epidermal mucus. In addition, independent of the developmental stage at which inoculation was performed, the localization of light emission suggested that the skin is the portal of CyHV-3 entry. Taken together, the results of the present study demonstrate that carp are sensitive and permissive to CyHV-3 at all stages of development and confirm that the skin is the major portal of entry after inoculation by immersion in infectious water. The results also stress the role of epidermal mucus as an innate immune barrier against pathogens even and especially at the early stages of development. PMID:25281322

  1. Juvenile curfews: are they an effective and constitutional means of combating juvenile violence?

    PubMed

    Fried, C S

    2001-01-01

    Curfew ordinances have become a popular way to attempt to combat juvenile crime and victimization. Although the Supreme Court has yet to hear a curfew case, several constitutional challenges have been brought in lower federal courts. The cases are replete with psychological assumptions for which there is limited empirical evidence. In applying the "strict scrutiny" standard, several courts have also questioned whether juvenile curfews are narrowly tailored to further the State's interest in reducing juvenile crime and victimization. While public opinion and reports from several police jurisdictions support the utility of juvenile curfews, recent empirical studies indicate that curfews are not effective at reducing juvenile offending or victimization. This paper argues that the emerging evidence does not support the use of juvenile curfews and urges policy makers and the courts to examine the efficacy of curfew legislation. Directions for future research that could be helpful to the courts in applying the Bellotti factors to curfew cases are also suggested. PMID:11241685

  2. Law & psychiatry: punishing juveniles who kill.

    PubMed

    Appelbaum, Paul S

    2012-10-01

    Punishment of juvenile murderers forces policy makers to weigh the developmental immaturity of adolescents against the heinousness of their crimes. The U.S. Supreme Court has progressively limited the severity of punishments that can be imposed on juveniles, holding that their impulsivity, susceptibility to peer pressure, and more fluid character render them less culpable for their actions. Having eliminated the death penalty as a punishment, the Court recently struck down mandatory life sentences without prospect of parole. The decision is interesting for its emphasis on rehabilitation, opening the door to further restrictions on punitive sentences for juveniles-and perhaps for adults too. PMID:23032673

  3. Juvenile Huntington disease in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Gatto, Emilia Mabel; Parisi, Virginia; Etcheverry, José Luis; Sanguinetti, Ana; Cordi, Lorena; Binelli, Adrian; Persi, Gabriel; Squitieri, Ferdinando

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed demographic, clinical and genetic characteristics of juvenile Huntington disease (JHD) and it frequency in an Argentinean cohort. Age at onset was defined as the age at which behavioral, cognitive, psychiatric or motor abnormalities suggestive of JHD were first reported. Clinical and genetic data were similar to other international series, however, in this context we identified the highest JHD frequency reported so far (19.72%; 14/71). Age at onset of JHD is challenging and still under discussion. Our findings reinforce the hypothesis that clinical manifestations, other than the typical movement disorder, may anticipate age at onset of even many years. Analyses of JHD cohorts are required to explore it frequency in populations with different backgrounds to avoid an underestimation of this rare phenotype. Moreover, data from selected populations may open new pathways in therapeutic approaches and may explain new potential correlations between HD presentations and environmental or biological factors. PMID:26602194

  4. Sociologic perspectives on juvenile violence.

    PubMed

    Currie, E

    2000-10-01

    In sum, there are four sets of social factors that help us understand why juvenile violence appears when, and where, it does, and why some communities and entire societies are persistently wracked by youth violence whereas others are largely spared its worst expressions. When it comes to the first three factors in particular--deprivation, disorganization, and brutalization--the evidence for these links is as strong as anything in social science, and that evidence is supported by a variety of sources and a variety of methods of investigation. Such investigation includes the knowledge we gain through social intervention. Some of the most effective violence prevention programs are successful precisely because they confront and deflect the social forces that otherwise often lead to violence. Consider, for example, the home-visiting programs that work with poor parents in disorganized communities to lower the risks of child abuse; and some of the more "holistic" or "multisystemic" efforts to work with violent juvenile offenders. The best of these programs work by tackling the problems of social isolation and lack of supports in the community, as well as immediate issues of economic survival for vulnerable families and children. More generally, we know that the availability of steady and rewarding work in the future, of the kind that can reliably sustain a family, is one of the most important factors allowing some youths to "desist" from violence as they mature. These conclusions give us much to be encouraged about, and much to be alarmed about. On the one hand, understanding that youth violence often is rooted in a set of adverse social conditions that are identifiable, and potentially modifiable, is a fundamentally optimistic message. It reminds us that the level of juvenile violence we suffer in America today is neither fated nor inevitable. Other societies that are in many respects much like us suffer far less of it; so could we, and we increasingly understand some

  5. Social reward among juvenile mice

    PubMed Central

    Panksepp, J B; Lahvis, G P

    2007-01-01

    Mammalian social relationships, such as mother–offspring attachments and pair bonds, can directly affect reproductive output. However, conspecifics approach one another in a comparatively broad range of contexts, so conceivably there are motivations for social congregation other than those underlying reproduction, parental care or territoriality. Here, we show that reward mediated by social contact is a fundamental aspect of juvenile mouse sociality. Employing a novel social conditioned place preference (SCPP) procedure, we demonstrate that social proximity is rewarding for juvenile mice from three inbred strains (A/J, C57BL/6J and DBA/2J), while mice from a fourth strain (BALB/cJ) are much less responsive to social contact. Importantly, this strain-dependent difference was not related to phenotypic variability in exploratory behavior or contextual learning nor influenced by the genetic background associated with maternal care or social conditioning. Furthermore, the SCPP phenotype was expressed early in development (postnatal day 25) and did not require a specific sex composition within the conditioning group. Finally, SCPP responses resulted from an interaction between two specifiable processes: one component of the interaction facilitated approach toward environments that were associated with social salience, whereas a second component mediated avoidance of environmental cues that predicted social isolation. We have thus identified a genetically prescribed process that can attribute value onto conditions predicting a general form of social contact. To our knowledge, this is the first definitive evidence to show that genetic variation can influence a form of social valuation not directly related to a reproductive behavior. PMID:17212648

  6. Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis with cardiac tamponade.

    PubMed Central

    Majeed, H A; Kvasnicka, J

    1978-01-01

    A 4-year-old girl with seronegative systemic juvenile rheumatoid arthritis developed acute cardiac tamponade. Pericardiocentesis and systemic corticosteroids resulted in complete recovery of the pericardial involvement. This was followed by complete remission of rheumatoid disease. Images PMID:686861

  7. Juvenile Arthritis: Discoveries Lead to Newer Treatments

    MedlinePlus

    ... Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Juvenile Arthritis: Discoveries Lead to Newer Treatments Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... better for different subgroups of the disease. In recent years, FDA has approved several of these treatments. ...

  8. Screening Incarcerated Juveniles Using the MAYSI-2.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Amy L; Grande, Todd L; Hallman, Janelle; Underwood, Lee A

    2015-01-01

    The high prevalence of mental health disorders among incarcerated juveniles is a matter of national and global concern. Juvenile justice personnel need accurate screening measures that identify youth requiring immediate mental health services. The purpose of this study was threefold: (a) to examine the utility of the Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument, Version 2 (MAYSI-2) in identifying juveniles with mental health concerns in a large sample of juveniles (N = 4,009), (b) to provide data regarding rates of identified mental health needs in incarcerated youth, and (c) to provide descriptive comparisons to other studies using the MAYSI-2. Mean scores of subscales were compared with the MAYSI-2 normative samples and other recent studies. Results indicated that this population has a high occurrence of mental health symptoms and there is high variability in the severity of the symptoms. In addition, a multivariate analysis of variance test found significant differences in mental health problems across ethnic groups. PMID:25431437

  9. Genetics Home Reference: juvenile primary osteoporosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... caused by a shortage of calcium and other minerals in bones (decreased bone mineral density), which makes the bones brittle and prone ... protein is involved in the regulation of bone mineral density. LRP5 gene mutations that cause juvenile primary ...

  10. Group sexual offending by juvenile females.

    PubMed

    Wijkman, Miriam; Weerman, Frank; Bijleveld, Catrien; Hendriks, Jan

    2015-06-01

    This study examined all group sexual offending cases in the Netherlands between 1995 and 2009 (n = 26) in which at least one juvenile female offender (n = 35) had been adjudicated. Information from court files showed that the majority of juvenile female group sexual offenders have (inter)personal problems and (sexual) abuse experiences. The aims of the offender groups in committing the offense could be categorized in three themes: harassing the victim, sexual gratification, and taking revenge. The reasons why juvenile female offenders participated in a group could be categorized into group dynamics versus instrumental reasons. The findings are contrasted with findings on juvenile male group sexual offenders. Implications of the findings for research and treatment are discussed. PMID:25504258

  11. Defective neutrophil chemotaxis in juvenile periodontitis.

    PubMed Central

    Clark, R A; Page, R C; Wilde, G

    1977-01-01

    Neutrophil chemotaxis was evaluated in nine patients with juvenile periodontitis, with normal subjects and patients with the adult form of periodontitis as controls. Defective chemotactic responses were observed in neutrophils from seven of nine juvenile patients, and a reduced level of complement-derived chemotactic activity was demonstrated in serum from four patients. These determinations were normal in all the patients with adult periodontitis. Serum from five of the juvenile patients contained a heat-stable, non-dialyzable factor that markedly inhibited the chemotaxis of normal neutrophils. Thus the characteristic tissue destruction seen in juvenile periodontitis may be, at least in part, a consequence of a failure of host defense mechanisms. PMID:591063

  12. Juvenile participation in conversations with probation officers.

    PubMed

    van Nijnatten, Carolus; Stevens, Gonneke

    2012-05-01

    Juvenile probation work comprises a mixture of repressive and empowering strategies, since probation officers need to control young offenders' conduct and at the same time help the offender to take responsibility and live life within the margins of society. This ambiguous nature of juvenile probation work may confuse the communication between probation officers and juveniles. Interviews with offenders of Moroccan origin and their probation officers in the Netherlands show that both parties are unhappy with the mutual communication. According to the youngsters, a restrictive policy is inevitable but might be more effective if this would go together with an empowering approach. Interactional analysis of the conversations shows that the lack of juvenile participation is caused by professional conversational dominance, as seen in topic control, poor role clarification, and a cross-examining style of the conversations. PMID:21429957

  13. The Structure of the Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 ORF112-Zα·Z-DNA Complex Reveals a Mechanism of Nucleic Acids Recognition Conserved with E3L, a Poxvirus Inhibitor of Interferon Response.

    PubMed

    Kuś, Krzysztof; Rakus, Krzysztof; Boutier, Maxime; Tsigkri, Theokliti; Gabriel, Luisa; Vanderplasschen, Alain; Athanasiadis, Alekos

    2015-12-25

    In vertebrate species, the innate immune system down-regulates protein translation in response to viral infection through the action of the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-activated protein kinase (PKR). In some teleost species another protein kinase, Z-DNA-dependent protein kinase (PKZ), plays a similar role but instead of dsRNA binding domains, PKZ has Zα domains. These domains recognize the left-handed conformer of dsDNA and dsRNA known as Z-DNA/Z-RNA. Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 infects common and koi carp, which have PKZ, and encodes the ORF112 protein that itself bears a Zα domain, a putative competitive inhibitor of PKZ. Here we present the crystal structure of ORF112-Zα in complex with an 18-bp CpG DNA repeat, at 1.5 Å. We demonstrate that the bound DNA is in the left-handed conformation and identify key interactions for the specificity of ORF112. Localization of ORF112 protein in stress granules induced in Cyprinid herpesvirus 3-infected fish cells suggests a functional behavior similar to that of Zα domains of the interferon-regulated, nucleic acid surveillance proteins ADAR1 and DAI. PMID:26559969

  14. Subcutaneous Immunoglobulin in Refractory Juvenile Dermatomyositis.

    PubMed

    de Inocencio, Jaime; Enríquez-Merayo, Eugenia; Casado, Rocío; González-Granado, Luis Ignacio

    2016-04-01

    Juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) is the most common form of juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathy. We report a child with steroid-dependent JDM refractory to hydroxychloroquine and subcutaneous methotrexate who experienced systemic reactions to intravenous immunoglobulin and was successfully treated with subcutaneous immunoglobulin. This form of therapy has been shown to be safe, has a very low rate of adverse effects, does not require hospital admission, reduces the number of missed school days, and decreases the costs associated with treatment. PMID:26966131

  15. Social factors leading to juvenile delinquency.

    PubMed

    Sakuta, T

    1996-12-01

    According to the White Paper on Crime 1994 published by the Ministry of Justice in Japan, the delinquent rate in Japan was highest when juveniles were approximately 14 to 16 years old, and declined as they grew older. The analysis of juvenile offenders in Japan showed that 70% of them had two living parents, 90% of them from families which were financially stable or affluent. The breakdown of their parents attitudes showed, however, that 48.2% were classified as neglectful, followed by harshness at 30.3% and spoiling or overprotection at 17.3% in 1993 in Japan. In the following, social factors leading to juvenile delinquency were reviewed. Factors leading to juvenile delinquency were classified into social factors, school factors and home factors, and recent findings concerning those three factors were explained. A fairly clear outlook on the efforts required by society, schools and families to reduce juvenile delinquency was shown by revealing important factors leading juveniles to delinquency. PMID:9023445

  16. An Empirical Evaluation of Juvenile Awareness Programs in the United States: Can Juveniles Be "Scared Straight"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klenowski, Paul M.; Bell, Keith J.; Dodson, Kimberly D.

    2010-01-01

    Juvenile awareness programs like Scared Straight became popular crime prevention strategies during the 1970s. Juvenile offenders and at-risk youth who participate in these programs are taken to prisons where inmates use confrontational methods to recount stories about violence, sex, and abuse perpetrated by fellow inmates while living a life…

  17. Reducing Racial Disparities in Juvenile Detention. Pathways to Juvenile Detention Reform 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoytt, Eleanor Hinton; Schiraldi, Vincent; Smith, Brenda V.; Ziedenberg, Jason

    In 1992, the Annie E. Casey Foundation launched a multiyear, multisite project known as the Juvenile Detention Alternatives Initiative (JDAI). This report focuses on reducing racial disparities in juvenile detention. The number of youth held in secure detention nationwide increased by 72% from 1985 to 1995. During this period, the number of white…

  18. Collaboration and Leadership in Juvenile Detention Reform. Pathways to Juvenile Detention Reform 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feely, Kathleen

    This report addresses governance and leadership prerequisites for implementing specific strategies essential to juvenile detention reform. Chapter 1, "Why Are Collaboration and Leadership Essential to Detention Reform?" discusses principles of collaboration and leadership that emerged from the Juvenile Detention Alternatives Initiative (JDAI).…

  19. Tracking Juvenile Recidivists: Three Options for Creating Statewide, Longitudinal Records of Juvenile Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rooney, Teresa L.

    This document describes three options for a statewide statistical system for tracking recidivism of juvenile delinquents placed outside their homes in treatment programs. The information is intended for use by the state in allocating resources. The options described involve potential use of juvenile court records, placement data, and/or…

  20. Characteristics of Crimes against Juveniles. Crimes against Children Series. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkelhor, David; Ormrod, Richard

    This Bulletin reviews data from the Federal Bureau of Investigation's 1997 National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) data file that pertain to juvenile victims, revealing that while juveniles made up 26% of the population of the 12 states participating in NIBRS in 1997, they accounted for only 12% of the reported crime victims. At the same…

  1. Academic Achievement Among Juvenile Detainees.

    PubMed

    Grigorenko, Elena L; Macomber, Donna; Hart, Lesley; Naples, Adam; Chapman, John; Geib, Catherine F; Chart, Hilary; Tan, Mei; Wolhendler, Baruch; Wagner, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The literature has long pointed to heightened frequencies of learning disabilities (LD) within the population of law offenders; however, a systematic appraisal of these observations, careful estimation of these frequencies, and investigation of their correlates and causes have been lacking. Here we present data collected from all youth (1,337 unique admissions, mean age 14.81, 20.3% females) placed in detention in Connecticut (January 1, 2010-July 1, 2011). All youth completed a computerized educational screener designed to test a range of performance in reading (word and text levels) and mathematics. A subsample (n = 410) received the Wide Range Achievement Test, in addition to the educational screener. Quantitative (scale-based) and qualitative (grade-equivalence-based) indicators were then analyzed for both assessments. Results established the range of LD in this sample from 13% to 40%, averaging 24.9%. This work provides a systematic exploration of the type and severity of word and text reading and mathematics skill deficiencies among juvenile detainees and builds the foundation for subsequent efforts that may link these deficiencies to both more formal, structured, and variable definitions and classifications of LD, and to other types of disabilities (e.g., intellectual disability) and developmental disorders (e.g., ADHD) that need to be conducted in future research. PMID:24064502

  2. 78 FR 65297 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... JUVENILE JUSTICE AND DELINQUENCY PREVENTION Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention AGENCY: Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency...

  3. 77 FR 50486 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ... JUVENILE JUSTICE AND DELINQUENCY PREVENTION Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention AGENCY: Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency...

  4. 77 FR 24687 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ... JUVENILE JUSTICE AND DELINQUENCY PREVENTION Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention AGENCY: Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency...

  5. 77 FR 3453 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-24

    ... JUVENILE JUSTICE AND DELINQUENCY PREVENTION Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention AGENCY: Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency...

  6. 76 FR 61672 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ... JUVENILE JUSTICE AND DELINQUENCY PREVENTION Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention AGENCY: Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency...

  7. 76 FR 39075 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ... JUVENILE JUSTICE AND DELINQUENCY PREVENTION Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention AGENCY: Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency...

  8. Development of cooperative territoriality in juvenile lions.

    PubMed

    Heinsohn, R; Packer, C; Pusey, A E

    1996-04-22

    African lions, Panthera leo, engage in many cooperative activities including hunting, care of young, and group territoriality, but the contribution of juvenile lions to these activities has never been documented. Here we present experimental evidence that juvenile lionesses make a gradual transition to group-territorial defence between weaning (8 months) and sexual maturity (42 months). When challenged by simulated intruders played from a loud-speaker, juvenile females (but not males) become progressively more likely to join the adult females in territorial defence with age, and their behaviour is affected by both the number of defending adults and the number of intruders. We interpret the ability of juveniles to assess relative numbers as an adaptation for assessing the risk of territorial conflict according to their own fighting ability, and the ability of their pride of successfully defend the territory. The difference between the sexes reflects the greater value of the natal territory to philopatric females. Adult females display a variety of strategies when defending the territory, including unconditional and conditional forms of cooperation. We show here that individuals display the rudiments of these strategies as juveniles. PMID:8637927

  9. SEASONAL VARIATION IN PLASMA SEX STEROID CONCENTRATION IN JUVENILE ALLIGATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seasonal variation in plasma sex steroid concentrations is common in mature vertebrates, and is occasionally seen in juvenile animals. In this study, we examine the seasonal pattern of sex hormone concentration in juvenile American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) and make...

  10. Psychiatric and Medical Health Care Policies in Juvenile Detention Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pajer, Kathleen A.; Kelleher, Kelly; Gupta, Ravindra A.; Rolls, Jennifer; Gardner, William

    2007-01-01

    A study aims to examine the existing health care policies in U.S. juvenile detention centres. The results conclude that juvenile detention facilities have many shortfalls in providing care for adolescents, particularly mental health care.

  11. Corporal and capital punishment of juveniles.

    PubMed

    Frazier, H C

    1990-01-01

    There is a previously unobserved connection between corporal punishment of public school children and capital punishment of juveniles. Both are barometers of acceptable levels of violent punishment and their elimination is a hallmark of a maturing and decent society. Within a majority of the eighteen states where school authorities most frequently strike children are housed 25 of the nation's 28 juvenile death row inmates. On average, the homicide rates of these jurisdictions are two and a half times greater than those that have abolished both state-sanctioned corporal and capital punishment or limit death sentences to those age eighteen and older at the time of their crime(s). Most of the eighteen state abolitions of corporal punishment occurred in the 1980's. The US Supreme Court has ruled both corporal and capital punishment of juveniles constitutional. Additional state legislative abolition of both is anticipated in the 1990s. PMID:2122167

  12. Immunization Coverage Among Juvenile Justice Detainees.

    PubMed

    Gaskin, Gregory L; Glanz, Jason M; Binswanger, Ingrid A; Anoshiravani, Arash

    2015-07-01

    This study sought to (1) quantify the baseline immunization coverage of adolescents entering the juvenile justice system and (2) assess the effect of detention-based care on immunization coverage in youth. A cross-sectional retrospective chart review was performed of 279 adolescents detained at a large juvenile detention facility. Only 3% of adolescents had received all study immunizations prior to detention. Before detention, immunization coverage was significantly lower than that for the general adolescent population for all vaccines except the first doses of hepatitis A and varicella-zoster virus vaccines. Subsequent to detention, most individual immunization coverage levels increased and were significantly higher than in the general adolescent population. The routine administration of immunizations in the juvenile justice setting can help detained youth achieve levels of immunization coverage similar to their nondetained peers. PMID:26084948

  13. Psammomatoid juvenile ossifying fibroma of the jaws

    PubMed Central

    Malathi, N; Radhika, T; Thamizhchelvan, H; Ravindran, C; Ramkumar, S; Giri, GVV; Gopal, Deepika

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile ossifying fibroma is an uncommon, benign, bone-forming neoplasm with aggressive local growth that is distinguished from other fibro-osseous lesions primarily by its age of onset, clinical presentation and aggressive behavior. Although a benign entity, juvenile ossifying fibroma is known to be locally aggressive and has a high tendency to recur. Two distinctive microscopic patterns have been described: A trabecular variant and a psammomatoid variant. This latter variant is predominantly a craniofacial lesion and occurs rarely in the jaws. We present herein two cases of psammomatoid juvenile ossifying fibroma involving the jaws. The first case was a mandibular lesion in a 31-year-old female whereas the second case presented with maxillary involvement in a 46-year-old female. In addition, the pathology of the lesion was analyzed with confocal laser scanning microscopy. PMID:22144839

  14. Psammomatoid juvenile ossifying fibroma of the jaws.

    PubMed

    Malathi, N; Radhika, T; Thamizhchelvan, H; Ravindran, C; Ramkumar, S; Giri, Gvv; Gopal, Deepika

    2011-09-01

    Juvenile ossifying fibroma is an uncommon, benign, bone-forming neoplasm with aggressive local growth that is distinguished from other fibro-osseous lesions primarily by its age of onset, clinical presentation and aggressive behavior. Although a benign entity, juvenile ossifying fibroma is known to be locally aggressive and has a high tendency to recur. Two distinctive microscopic patterns have been described: A trabecular variant and a psammomatoid variant. This latter variant is predominantly a craniofacial lesion and occurs rarely in the jaws. We present herein two cases of psammomatoid juvenile ossifying fibroma involving the jaws. The first case was a mandibular lesion in a 31-year-old female whereas the second case presented with maxillary involvement in a 46-year-old female. In addition, the pathology of the lesion was analyzed with confocal laser scanning microscopy. PMID:22144839

  15. Juvenile probation officers' mental health decision making.

    PubMed

    Wasserman, Gail A; McReynolds, Larkin S; Whited, Andria L; Keating, Joseph M; Musabegovic, Hana; Huo, Yanling

    2008-09-01

    We reviewed case records for 583 juvenile delinquency intakes in four county juvenile probation offices; 14.4% were receiving mental health or substance use services at case opening, and 24.9% were newly identified during probation contact. Youths were significantly more likely to be newly identified if they were repeat offenders, if their probation officer knew more about mental health and if they resided in a county without a shortage of available mental health professionals. Probation officers were especially likely to underidentify internalizing disorders. Policy implications for promoting identification of mental health needs and improving linkage to community service providers are discussed. PMID:18642071

  16. Juveniles in Adult Jails and Lockups: It's Your Move.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Champaign. Community Research Center.

    Issues relevant to juveniles in adult jails are discussed in this guide which is designed to aid concerned citizens who want to promote public interest and support for the removal of juveniles from adult jails and lockups. Statistics on the number of juveniles in adult jails, their ages, seriousness of offenses, and suicide rate are given. The…

  17. Juvenile Justice and Public Policy: Toward a National Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Ira M., Ed.

    Some of the most critical and troubling issues in juvenile justice are addressed to serve as a catalyst and resource for developing sound juvenile justice public policy decisions. The following chapters examine juvenile court policies, special issues, and cost-effective interventions, and present findings of a national survey of public attitudes…

  18. Kids Who Commit Adult Crimes: Serious Criminality by Juvenile Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, R. Barri

    The increasingly serious nature of juvenile criminal behavior has led to greater efforts to understand the roots, causes, and correlates of juvenile violence and chronic delinquency, as well as develop more effective means of identifying at-risk youth and treating serious and violent juvenile offenders. This book examines the realities and…

  19. Contagion and Repeat Offending among Urban Juvenile Delinquents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mennis, Jeremy; Harris, Philip

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates the role of repeat offending and spatial contagion in juvenile delinquency recidivism using a database of 7166 male juvenile offenders sent to community-based programs by the Family Court of Philadelphia. Results indicate evidence of repeat offending among juvenile delinquents, particularly for drug offenders. The…

  20. Programa Shortstop: A Culturally Focused Juvenile Intervention for Hispanic Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cervantes, Richard C.; Ruan, Karen; Duenas, Norma

    2004-01-01

    Culturally sensitive juvenile delinquency and substance abuse interventions are relatively limited and unavailable to many first-time Hispanic juvenile offenders. The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of a culturally focused juvenile and substance abuse intervention program for first time Hispanic youth offenders. The intent of…

  1. Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents: Profiles of Juvenile Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowder, Melissa H.; Cummings, Jack A.; McKinney, Robert

    2010-01-01

    An exploratory study of resiliency profiles of male and female juvenile offenders committed to a juvenile correctional facility was conducted. The goal of the present study was to examine juvenile offenders' positive characteristics (e.g., adaptability, optimism, self-efficacy, tolerance of differences). To assess positive characteristics and…

  2. American Youth Violence: Implications for National Juvenile Justice Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimring, Franklin E.

    2000-01-01

    Argues that the perception of increasing youth violence is based on fiction rather than fact. Provides the facts involved in the juvenile justice policy focusing on the differences between juvenile and adult violence, youth violence trends, population trends, and three legal policy issues toward adolescent violence. Offers juvenile crime…

  3. Promoting Better Interaction between Juvenile Court, Schools, and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garfinkel, Lili Frank; Nelson, Renelle

    2004-01-01

    The PACER Center is advocating for greater involvement of parents whose children have become involved in the juvenile justice system. Coalition for Juvenile Justice reported in January 2004 that of the 300,000 to 600,000 juveniles who cycle through detention facilities after arrest awaiting legal action, more than half are under 16 years of age…

  4. Best Practices in Juvenile Accountability: Overview. JAIBG Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyer, Marty

    This bulletin examines the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention's Juvenile Accountability Incentive Block Grants (JAIBG) program, which asserts that juvenile offenders should be held accountable for their crimes as a matter of basic justice and to prevent and deter delinquency. It reviews the developmental perspective shaping…

  5. Race, Legal Representation, and Juvenile Justice: Issues and Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guevara, Lori; Spohn, Cassia; Herz, Denise

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the influence of type of counsel across race on juvenile court outcomes. Using data from a sample of juvenile court referrals from two midwestern juvenile courts, this study examined the interaction of race and type of counsel on disposition outcome. The results indicated that youth without an attorney…

  6. The challenges of the first migration: movement and behaviour of juvenile vs. adult white storks with insights regarding juvenile mortality.

    PubMed

    Rotics, Shay; Kaatz, Michael; Resheff, Yehezkel S; Turjeman, Sondra Feldman; Zurell, Damaris; Sapir, Nir; Eggers, Ute; Flack, Andrea; Fiedler, Wolfgang; Jeltsch, Florian; Wikelski, Martin; Nathan, Ran

    2016-07-01

    Migration conveys an immense challenge, especially for juvenile birds coping with enduring and risky journeys shortly after fledging. Accordingly, juveniles exhibit considerably lower survival rates compared to adults, particularly during migration. Juvenile white storks (Ciconia ciconia), which are known to rely on adults during their first fall migration presumably for navigational purposes, also display much lower annual survival than adults. Using detailed GPS and body acceleration data, we examined the patterns and potential causes of age-related differences in fall migration properties of white storks by comparing first-year juveniles and adults. We compared juvenile and adult parameters of movement, behaviour and energy expenditure (estimated from overall dynamic body acceleration) and placed this in the context of the juveniles' lower survival rate. Juveniles used flapping flight vs. soaring flight 23% more than adults and were estimated to expend 14% more energy during flight. Juveniles did not compensate for their higher flight costs by increased refuelling or resting during migration. When juveniles and adults migrated together in the same flock, the juvenile flew mostly behind the adult and was left behind when they separated. Juveniles showed greater improvement in flight efficiency throughout migration compared to adults which appears crucial because juveniles exhibiting higher flight costs suffered increased mortality. Our findings demonstrate the conflict between the juveniles' inferior flight skills and their urge to keep up with mixed adult-juvenile flocks. We suggest that increased flight costs are an important proximate cause of juvenile mortality in white storks and likely in other soaring migrants and that natural selection is operating on juvenile variation in flight efficiency. PMID:27046512

  7. Cyprinid Herpesvirus 3 Il10 Inhibits Inflammatory Activities of Carp Macrophages and Promotes Proliferation of Igm+ B Cells and Memory T Cells in a Manner Similar to Carp Il10.

    PubMed

    Piazzon, M Carla; Wentzel, Annelieke S; Tijhaar, Edwin J; Rakus, Krzysztof Ł; Vanderplasschen, Alain; Wiegertjes, Geert F; Forlenza, Maria

    2015-10-15

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is the causative agent of a lethal disease of carp and encodes for an Il10 homolog (ORF134). Our previous studies with a recombinant ORF134-deleted strain and the derived revertant strain suggested that cyprinid herpesvirus 3 Il10 (CyHV-3 Il10 [cyhv3Il10]) is not essential for viral replication in vitro, or virulence in vivo. In apparent contrast, cyhv3Il10 is one of the most abundant proteins of the CyHV-3 secretome and is structurally very similar to carp Il10 and also human IL10. To date, studies addressing the biological activity of cyhv3Il10 on cells of its natural host have not been performed. To address the apparent contradiction between the presence of a structurally conserved Il10 homolog in the genome of CyHV-3 and the lack of a clear phenotype in vivo using recombinant cyhv3Il10-deleted viruses, we used an in vitro approach to investigate in detail whether cyhv3Il10 exerts any biological activity on carp cells. In this study, we provide direct evidence that cyhv3Il10 is biologically active and, similarly to carp Il10, signals via a conserved Stat3 pathway modulating immune cells of its natural host, carp. In vitro, cyhv3Il10 deactivates phagocytes with a prominent effect on macrophages, while also promoting proliferation of Igm(+) B cells and memory T cells. Collectively, this study demonstrates a clear biological activity of cyhv3Il10 on cells of its natural host and indicates that cyhv3Il10 is a true viral ortholog of carp Il10. Furthermore, to our knowledge, this is the first report on biological activities of a nonmammalian viral Il10 homolog. PMID:26371255

  8. Criminal Profiles of Violent Juvenile Sex and Violent Juvenile Non-Sex Offenders: An Explorative Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Wijk, Anton Ph.; Mali, Bas R. F.; Bullens, Ruud A. R.; Vermeiren, Robert R.

    2007-01-01

    Few studies have longitudinally investigated the criminal profiles of violent juvenile sex and violent juvenile non-sex offenders. To make up for this lack, this study used police records of juveniles to determine the nature of the criminal profiles of violent sex offenders (n = 226) and violent non-sex offenders (n = 4,130). All offenders…

  9. Juvenile penalty or leniency: Sentencing of juveniles in the criminal justice system.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Kareem L; McNeal, Brittani A

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of being juvenile on sentencing in the criminal justice system. More specifically, youth transferred to criminal court are compared to adults in terms of likelihood of incarceration, jail length, and prison length. In this study, 2 national data sets are merged. The juvenile sample includes 3,381 convicted offenders, and the adult sample is comprised of 6,529 convicted offenders. The final sample is 9,910 offenders across 36 U.S. counties. The key independent variable is juvenile status, and the dependent variables are incarceration, jail length, and prison length. Because of the multilevel nature of the data, hierarchical linear modeling is used across all models. Juveniles are punished less severely in the jail incarceration decision. However, when youth are actually sentenced to incarceration (either jail or prison), they are given longer confinement time than adults. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26974365

  10. Serological subsets of juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathies--an update.

    PubMed

    Tansley, Sarah L; McHugh, Neil J

    2016-01-01

    In this review we explore the different characteristics of the serological phenotypes identified in juvenile-onset myositis and consider how the serological sub-classification of patients with juvenile myositis can be advantageous both in terms of reaching what can be a difficult diagnosis and informing on prognosis. Recent studies have described the autoantibody associated disease phenotypes and outcome for those with juvenile-onset disease and include analyses of large juvenile-onset myositis cohorts. Here we describe the autoantibody associated disease features for patients within juvenile-onset myositis in detail and discuss the expanding opportunities and strategies for myositis specific autoantibody testing in clinical practice. PMID:26651264

  11. Costs of Juvenile Violence: Policy Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Ted; Fisher, Deborah A.; Cohen, Mark A.

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the magnitude of juvenile violence in Pennsylvania in terms of victimization and perpetration. Used archival data on violent crimes in Pennsylvania during 1993 to develop cost estimates reflecting the costs incurred by society for both victims and perpetrators. Overall, violence against children and adolescents proved to be a much…

  12. Effective Instructional Practices in Juvenile Justice Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathur, Sarup R.; Schoenfeld, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    The majority of youths involved with the juvenile justice system struggle to make academic progress. This article reviews the characteristics of youths in these settings and highlights evidence-based instructional practices that are effective with struggling students, as well as practices that have been documented as successful in secure…

  13. Predictors of juveniles' noncompliance with probation requirements.

    PubMed

    NeMoyer, Amanda; Goldstein, Naomi E S; McKitten, Rhonda L; Prelic, Ana; Ebbecke, Jenna; Foster, Erika; Burkard, Casey

    2014-12-01

    Probation is the most common disposition for adjudicated youth, but little is known about which specific requirements are commonly imposed on juveniles, the requirements with which juveniles most often fail to comply, and how certain youth characteristics and/or imposed requirements might relate to probation noncompliance. An investigation of 120 archived files of youth represented by an urban public defender's office identified 29 probation requirements imposed on youth and 18 requirements with which youth commonly failed to comply. Results revealed that 52% of youth failed to comply with at least one probation requirement; prior probation noncompliance and race were both significantly associated with noncompliance in the examined probation disposition. In addition, the probability of probation noncompliance was significantly higher when youth received either of two substance-related probation requirements: drug tests or drug and alcohol counseling. Such results may prompt further investigation of juvenile probation-related predictors, identify areas of need for clinical service provision to foster successful completion of probation requirements, and help identify areas of potential biases among juvenile court personnel. PMID:24933176

  14. Mineral Oil Aspiration Related Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Andrew D.; Fischer, Philip R.; Reed, Ann M.; Wylam, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    We describe the development of rheumatoid factor-positive migratory polyarthritis in a 5-year-old male who had been administered bidaily oral mineral oil as a laxative since birth. Minor respiratory symptoms, radiographic and bronchoscopic findings were consistent with chronic lipoid pneumonia. We speculate that immune sensitization to mineral oil promoted the clinical syndrome of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. PMID:26171269

  15. Mineral Oil Aspiration Related Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Andrew D; Fischer, Philip R; Reed, Ann M; Wylam, Mark E

    2015-01-01

    We describe the development of rheumatoid factor-positive migratory polyarthritis in a 5-year-old male who had been administered bidaily oral mineral oil as a laxative since birth. Minor respiratory symptoms, radiographic and bronchoscopic findings were consistent with chronic lipoid pneumonia. We speculate that immune sensitization to mineral oil promoted the clinical syndrome of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. PMID:26171269

  16. 76 FR 54978 - Special Immigrant Juvenile Petitions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-06

    ... Congress did not intend for married juveniles to be eligible for SIJ classification. See 58 FR 42843-51...-162, and Public Law 110-457. 74 FR 30312. The one comment that USCIS received on the revised form did... not receive any further comments. 74 FR 46216. On December 30, 2009, the Office of Management...

  17. Bilateral spontaneous hyphema in juvenile xanthogranuloma.

    PubMed

    Vijayalakshmi, P; Shetty, Shashikant; Jethani, Jitendra; Devi, T B Uma

    2006-03-01

    This report describes a rare occurrence of bilateral, spontaneous, nontraumatic hyphema in a 6 weeks old infant, associated with a small, multiple skin lesions. The diagnosis of juvenile xanthogranuloma was confirmed by histopathological examination of the cutaneous lesions. The hyphaema cleared gradually in 2 weeks time with conservative management. PMID:16531672

  18. Application of Megan's Law to Juveniles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trivits, Lisa C.; Reppucci, N. Dickon

    2002-01-01

    Examines the history of registration and notification statutes for sex offenders and concerns and legal challenges they have faced, noting psychology's limited knowledge about normal versus abnormal sexual development and research suggesting that recidivism rates for sexual offenses may be lower for juveniles than adults who have received…

  19. Evaluation of a Comprehensive Juvenile Delinquency Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Howard; And Others

    This paper discribes a comprehensive juvenile delinquency diversion program serving a poverty community in a large urban center, and attempts to evaluate the problems and effects of the program. The target population was primarily minority-group truants, aged 10-15, who had been in trouble with the authorities. The program included recreational…

  20. Rehabilitation of the Personality of Juvenile Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaitsev, G. K.; Zaitsev, A. G.; Dmitriev, M. G.; Apal'kova, I. Iu.

    2009-01-01

    Russian youth has in recent years been increasingly involved in crime, narcotics addiction, and alcoholism, possibly due to a failure of socialization in childhood. Researchers are seeking the origins of this phenomenon and searching for ways to combat it through rehabilitation of juvenile offenders. The essential nature of social and pedagogical…

  1. Calcinosis in juvenile dermatomyositis mimicking cold abscess.

    PubMed

    Nagar, Rajendra P; Bharati, Joyita; Sheriff, Abraar; Priyadarshini, Praytusha; Chumber, Sunil; Kabra, S K

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of dystrophic calcification presenting as soft cystic swelling in a patient with juvenile dermatomyositis. A 15-year-old boy with lumbosacral cystic swelling, which was considered a cold abscess clinically, was evaluated for nonresponse to antitubercular therapy. The cystic swelling had liquefied calcium with a well circumscribed calcified wall on imaging, which was subsequently excised. PMID:27586213

  2. Predictors of Juvenile Delinquency and Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daley, Christine E.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    Violence among youth has reached epidemic proportions. Every five minutes a child is arrested for a violent crime. To understand this trend, this paper examines characteristics of adolescent males who come into contact with the juvenile justice system. The study focuses on drug and alcohol involvement, the relevance of education, sexual practices,…

  3. Program Performance Inventory: Six Juvenile Offender Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomalla, Terri Groff; Dougherty, Victoria J.

    This report describes the performance of 6 Connecticut juvenile justice alternative sanction programs in 14 qualitative areas: community reintegration; outcomes and evaluation; assessment methods; risk factors; escalation of criminal activity; family involvement; community involvement; work ethic and vocational training; education and life skills;…

  4. Youth for Justice. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nessel, Paula A.

    Youth for Justice uses the power of active learning to teach youth practical information about the law while addressing the risks associated with being young in the United States today. This unique initiative is a law-related education (LRE) program supported by the United States Department of Justice's Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency…

  5. Attachment Theory Applied to Juvenile Sex Offending.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrow, Kenneth K.; Lim, Mee-Gaik

    1998-01-01

    Attachment theory is applied to identify systemic patterns encouraging juveniles to commit sexual offenses. The role of the helping system in perpetuating offenses is reviewed. The priority of family integrity and the role of professionals in breaking cycles of abuse and repairing earlier destructive emotional attachments are discussed. (EMK)

  6. Juvenile Sex Offenders: Development and Correction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Gail; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Three case histories elucidate a discussion of the developmental nature of the behaviors of juvenile male sexual offenders. The sexual assault cycle is defined in the stages of negative self-image, predicting rejection, isolation, fantasies, planning the offense, and committing the offense. Tools for treating the offender are outlined. (Author/JDD)

  7. Factors Involved in Juveniles' Decisions about Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cimler, Edward; Beach, Lee Roy

    1981-01-01

    Investigated whether delinquency is the result of a rational decision. The Subjective Expected Utility (SEU) model from decision theory was used with male juvenile offenders (N=45) as the model of the decision process. Results showed that the SEU model predicted 62.7 percent of the subjects' decisions. (Author/RC)

  8. Prevention of Potential Juvenile Delinquency Through Camping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiddie Kamp Corp., Boston, MA.

    A two-year demonstration project, to determine whether a short-term (30 days) summer camp experience could contribute to prevention of juvenile delinquency, found that camping induced positive attitudinal change and improved adjustment to school. The project involved 200 adolescent boys from varied social backgrounds who were selected on evidence…

  9. Juvenile Delinquency and Victimization: A Theoretical Typology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuevas, Carlos A.; Finkelhor, David; Turner, Heather A.; Ormrod, Richard K.

    2007-01-01

    It is a widely voiced notion that juvenile delinquency and victimization co-occur extensively in the youth population, in particular because delinquent youth engage in risky activities. But theory from the bullying and traumatic stress literatures suggests that there may be additional pathways by which delinquency and victimization are connected.…

  10. The Need To Know: Juvenile Record Sharing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, James A.; And Others

    Responding to the needs of children, particularly juvenile offenders, requires both good judgment and good information. Knowledge and awareness of a child's background and problems gives teachers, counselors, administrators, police, and other legal professionals guidance in developing proper education, programs, and counsel for the child.…

  11. Metamorphosis: How Missouri Rehabilitates Juvenile Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubin, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Juveniles convicted of serious offenses usually end up in large correctional facilities that focus on punishment--not rehabilitation. The state of Missouri, however, has found a better way to help end the cycle of crime: by creating a network of small facilities that provide therapy and educational opportunities, it has dramatically reduced…

  12. The Intensive Juvenile Delinquency Prevention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAfee, James K.; MacDonald, Scott; Murphy, Craig

    1999-01-01

    Provides an overview of the Intensive Juvenile Delinquency Prevention Program, a community-based, multi-agency, multimodal delinquency prevention program. Highlights how the six organizations involved in the program overcame three common barriers to interagency collaboration-funding, climate, and communication. (GCP)

  13. Multiple Substance Use Disorders in Juvenile Detainees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, Gary M.; Elkington, Katherine S.; Teplin, Linda A.; Abram, Karen M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the 6-month prevalence of multiple substance use disorders (SUDs) among juvenile detainees by demographic subgroups (sex, race/ethnicity, age). Method: Participants were a randomly selected sample of 1,829 African American, non-Hispanic white, and Hispanic detainees (1,172 males, 657 females, aged 10 to 18). Patterns and…

  14. Juvenile Spring Eruption: A Variant of Perniosis?

    PubMed

    Nabatian, Adam S; Rosman, Ilana S; Sturza, Jeffrey; Jacobson, Mark

    2015-09-01

    Juvenile spring eruption (JSE) is a unique condition that typically affects the helices of the ears of boys and young men. The classical clinical picture of JSE includes the abrupt onset of lesions after spending time outdoors in the early spring. Because of the papulovesicular nature of the rash and the history of sun exposure, JSE is considered a variant of polymorphous light eruption. In addition to the term "juvenile spring eruption," this entity has also been described under other less common terms such as "perniosis juvenilis vernalis aurium" or "spring perniosis," which emphasizes the onset in the spring and the possible pathogenic role of cold weather. We present a case of likely JSE with histopathologic features more consistent with perniosis than polymorphous light eruption and present a review the literature. PMID:26291421

  15. [Juvenile idiopathic arthritis: Definition and classification].

    PubMed

    Deslandre, C

    2016-04-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a group of diseases defined by the presence of arthritis of more than 6weeks duration in patients aged less than 16years and with unknown etiology. The international classification based on clinical and biological criteria define each type of JIA: systemic, oligoarticular, polyarticular with and without rheumatoid factor, enthesitis-related arthritis, and psoriatic arthritis. However, some discussions persist concerning systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis, whose clinical symptoms and pathogenic mechanisms are quite similar to those observed in autoinflammatory diseases, arthritis with antinuclear factors (poly- and oligoarticular) that could be considered as a homogenous group, and a family history of psoriasis that frequently led to unclassified arthritis. Better knowledge of the pathogenic mechanisms should improve the initial clinical classification with more homogeneous groups of patients and reduce the number of unclassified cases of arthritis. PMID:26968301

  16. Body size prediction from juvenile skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Ruff, Christopher

    2007-05-01

    There are currently no methods for predicting body mass from juvenile skeletal remains and only a very limited number for predicting stature. In this study, stature and body mass prediction equations are generated for each year from 1 to 17 years of age using a subset of the Denver Growth Study sample, followed longitudinally (n = 20 individuals, 340 observations). Radiographic measurements of femoral distal metaphyseal and head breadth are used to predict body mass and long bone lengths are used to predict stature. In addition, pelvic bi-iliac breadth and long bone lengths are used to predict body mass in older adolescents. Relative prediction errors are equal to or smaller than those associated with similar adult estimation formulae. Body proportions change continuously throughout growth, necessitating age-specific formulae. Adult formulae overestimate stature and body mass in younger juveniles, but work well in 17-year-olds from the sample, indicating that in terms of body proportions they are representative of the general population. To illustrate use of the techniques, they are applied to the juvenile Homo erectus (ergaster) KNM-WT 15000 skeleton. New body mass and stature estimates for this specimen are similar to previous estimates derived using other methods. Body mass estimates range from 50 to 53 kg, and stature was probably slightly under 157 cm, although a precise stature estimate is difficult to determine due to differences in linear body proportions between KNM-WT 15000 and the Denver reference sample. PMID:17295297

  17. [Optimal feeding strategy for juvenile Hucho taimen].

    PubMed

    Guo, Wen-Xue; Yin, Jia-Sheng; Zhang, Yong-Quan; Tong, Guang-Xiang; Bai, Qing-Li

    2013-11-01

    Three experiments including starvation and re-feeding, starvation and re-feeding recovery, and feeding frequency per day were conducted to approach the optimal feeding strategy for the growth and survival of juvenile Hucho taimen. In the experiment of starvation and re-feeding, all groups of restricted feeding showed non-compensatory growth. However, in the experiment of starvation and re-feeding recovery, different degrees of compensatory growth appeared in different starving groups, among which, the half a day starvation and half a day feeding group (S1/2) had a weight increment approximately the same as the control, and showed completely compensatory growth, indicating that the S1/2 could be a useful feeding strategy for the juvenile H. taimen at its early growth stage with the body mass from 0 to 2 g and at the water temperature from 9 to 15.3 degrees C. In feeding frequency experiment, the group T3 (three meals per day) had the highest body length, body mass, specific growth rate, and relatively high food conversion ratio, indicating that three meals a day could be more effective for improving the growth performance of juvenile H. taimen at its late stage with the body mass from 2 to 21 g and at the water temperature from 8.8 to 15.5 degrees C. PMID:24564159

  18. Chapter 15 Juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Orban, Paul; Devon, Rebecca S; Hayden, Michael R; Leavitt, Blair R

    2007-01-01

    Several forms of genetically defined juvenile amy-otrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have now been charac-terized and discussion of these conditions will form the basis for this chapter. ALS2 is an autosomal recessive form of ALS with a juvenile onset and very slow progression that mapped to chromosome 2q33. Nine different mutations have been identified in the ALS2 gene that result in premature stop codons, suggesting a loss of function in the gene product, alsin. The alsin protein is thought to function as a guanine-nucleotide exchange factor for GTPases and may play a role in vesicle transport or membrane trafficking processes. ALS4 is an autosomal dominant form of juvenile onset ALS associated with slow progression, severe muscle weakness and pyramidal signs, in the absence of bulbar and sensory abnormalities. Mutations in the SETX gene cause ALS4, and the SETX gene product senataxin may have DNA and RNA helicase activity and play a role in the regulation of RNA and/or DNA in the cell. A third form of juvenile-onset ALS (ALS5) is associated with slowly progressing lower motor neuron signs (weak-ness and atrophy) initially of the hands and feet, with eventual bulbar involvement. Progressive upper motor neuron disease becomes more obvious with time. ALS5 has been linked to a 6 cM region of chromosome 15q15.1-q21.1, but the causative gene mutation for ALS5 has yet to be identified. The high degree of clin-ical and genetic heterogeneity in the various forms of juvenile ALS can make differential diagnosis difficult, other genetic disorders that must be considered include: spinal muscular atrophy, hereditary spastic paraplegia, SBMA, GM2 gangliosidosis and the hereditary motor neuronopathies/motor forms of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. Acquired disorders that must also be consid-ered include heavy metal intoxications (especially lead), multifocal motor neuropathy, paraneoplastic syndromes, vitamin deficiencies (B12) and infections (HTLV-II, HIV and poliomyelitis). PMID

  19. Juvenile nephropathy in two related Pembroke Welsh corgi puppies.

    PubMed

    McKay, L W; Seguin, M A; Ritchey, J W; Levy, J K

    2004-11-01

    Juvenile nephropathy has been documented in many breeds. Two related Pembroke Welsh corgi puppies presented at three and five months of age, respectively, for evaluation of lethargy, diarrhoea, poor body condition, polyuria and proteinuria. Based upon the clinical presentation, urinalysis and serum biochemistry, chronic renal failure was diagnosed. Renal histopathology was consistent with juvenile nephropathy, revealing lesions similar to the juvenile renal disease of dobermann dogs. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of juvenile nephropathy in related Pembroke Welsh corgi dogs. Familial nephropathy should now be considered as a differential diagnosis in cases of young Pembroke Welsh corgi dogs presenting with clinical signs indicating renal failure. PMID:15553196

  20. Eliminating the Competency Presumption in Juvenile Delinquency Cases.

    PubMed

    Katner, David R

    2015-01-01

    The legal presumption used in virtually all juvenile delinquency cases in the U.S. is that all juveniles are competent to stand trial. This Article calls for the elimination of that legal presumption, which is historically based on the Dusky v. United States decision and in the adult criminal justice system. The recent decisions of the U.S. Supreme Court recognize the developmental and organic brain differences between adults and juveniles. Current research demonstrates a higher frequency rate of incompetence based on intellectual deficiencies among children when compared with adults found to be not legally competent to stand trial. By eliminating the competency presumption for juveniles in both delinquency and adult criminal proceedings, the party seeking an adjudication would be responsible for establishing that the accused juvenile is in fact, competent to stand trial. Foreign jurisdictions in Europe, Asia, Africa, and South America have long required higher thresholds--at least fourteen years of age--for holding juveniles accountable for criminal misconduct, none of them presuming that juveniles are competent to go to trial. In the alternative, by expanding the factors currently in use for determination of juvenile competency by adding developmental immaturity and mental illness, juvenile justice systems could identify the reduction of recidivist offending as the primary systemic objective. PMID:26809160

  1. Natal homing in juvenile loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta).

    PubMed

    Bowen, Brian W; Bass, Anna L; Chow, Shaio-Mei; Bostrom, Meredith; Bjorndal, Karen A; Bolten, Alan B; Okuyama, Toshinori; Bolker, Benjamin M; Epperly, Sheryan; Lacasella, Erin; Shaver, Donna; Dodd, Mark; Hopkins-Murphy, Sally R; Musick, John A; Swingle, Mark; Rankin-Baransky, Karen; Teas, Wendy; Witzell, Wayne N; Dutton, Peter H

    2004-12-01

    Juvenile loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) from West Atlantic nesting beaches occupy oceanic (pelagic) habitats in the eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean, whereas larger juvenile turtles occupy shallow (neritic) habitats along the continental coastline of North America. Hence the switch from oceanic to neritic stage can involve a trans-oceanic migration. Several researchers have suggested that at the end of the oceanic phase, juveniles are homing to feeding habitats in the vicinity of their natal rookery. To test the hypothesis of juvenile homing behaviour, we surveyed 10 juvenile feeding zones across the eastern USA with mitochondrial DNA control region sequences (N = 1437) and compared these samples to potential source (nesting) populations in the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea (N = 465). The results indicated a shallow, but significant, population structure of neritic juveniles (PhiST = 0.0088, P = 0.016), and haplotype frequency differences were significantly correlated between coastal feeding populations and adjacent nesting populations (Mantel test R2 = 0.52, P = 0.001). Mixed stock analyses (using a Bayesian algorithm) indicated that juveniles occurred at elevated frequency in the vicinity of their natal rookery. Hence, all lines of evidence supported the hypothesis of juvenile homing in loggerhead turtles. While not as precise as the homing of breeding adults, this behaviour nonetheless places juvenile turtles in the vicinity of their natal nesting colonies. Some of the coastal hazards that affect declining nesting populations may also affect the next generation of turtles feeding in nearby habitats. PMID:15548292

  2. 77 FR 70473 - Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention; Agency Information Collection Activities...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention; Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed..., Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, will be submitting the following information... contact Brecht Donoghue, (202) 305-1270, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office...

  3. 78 FR 40189 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Juvenile...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ... of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed... Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, will be submitting the following... information, please contact Brecht Donoghue, (202) 305-1270, Office of Juvenile Justice and...

  4. 75 FR 17956 - Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention; Agency Information Collection Activities...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-08

    ... of Justice Programs Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention; Agency Information...-9258, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, US Department... form number is CJ-15, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, United States...

  5. Adolescent neglect, juvenile delinquency and the risk of recidivism.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Joseph P; Williams, Abigail B; Courtney, Mark E

    2013-03-01

    Victims of child abuse and neglect are at an increased risk of involvement with the juvenile justice and adult correctional systems. Yet, little is known about the continuation and trajectories of offending beyond initial contact with law enforcement. Neglect likely plays a critical role in continued offending as parental monitoring, parental rejection and family relationships are instrumental in explaining juvenile conduct problems. This study sought to determine whether neglect is associated with recidivism for moderate and high risk juvenile offenders in Washington State. Statewide risk assessments and administrative records for child welfare, juvenile justice, and adult corrections were analyzed. The sample was diverse (24 % female, 13 % African American, 8 % Hispanic, 5 % Native American) and included all moderate and high risk juvenile offenders screened by juvenile probation between 2004 and 2007 (n = 19,833). Official records from child protection were used to identify juvenile offenders with a history of child neglect and to identify juvenile offenders with an ongoing case of neglect. Event history models were developed to estimate the risk of subsequent offending. Adolescents with an ongoing case neglect were significantly more likely to continue offending as compared with youth with no official history of neglect. These findings remain even after controlling for a wide range of family, peer, academic, mental health, and substance abuse covariates. Interrupting trajectories of offending is a primary focus of juvenile justice. The findings of the current study indicate that ongoing dependency issues play a critical role in explaining the outcomes achieved for adolescents in juvenile justice settings. The implications for improved collaboration between child welfare and juvenile justice are discussed. PMID:23334336

  6. Increasing School Safety through Juvenile Accountability Programs. Juvenile Accountability Incentive Block Grants (JAIBG) Program Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Scott H.

    This bulletin explores promotion of school safety by increasing students' accountability for their behavior. It provides information to facilitate the development of constructive, well-conceived, accountability-based programs that work with juvenile offenders. These programs also address the issues of violence, disorder, and fear. The bulletin…

  7. Juvenile Justice in Australia 2009-10. Juvenile Justice Series. Number 8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aalders, Rachel; Morgan, Kirsten

    2011-01-01

    In Australia, the state and territory governments are responsible for dealing with young people who are involved in crime. One major aspect of the juvenile justice system is the supervision of children and young people who have committed or are alleged to have committed an offence. This report presents information on the young people under…

  8. A Guide to Our Juvenile Delinquent System: The Family Court and the Juvenile Transgressor. [Volume II].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addelston, Lorraine W., Ed.

    A study of the criminal justice system in New York City led to the publication in December 1982 of "A Guide to Our Criminal Justice System." A portion of the guide dealt with the steps involved in the arrest to disposition of a juvenile. On July 1, 1983, the New York State Legislature's Act to "Recodify the Family Court Act" went into effect. The…

  9. Toward a Classification of Juvenile Offenders: Subgroups of Serious Juvenile Offenders and Severity of Recidivism.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Eva; Brand, Eddy; Bullens, Ruud; van Marle, Hjalmar

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify subgroups of serious juvenile offenders on the basis of their risk profiles, using a data-driven approach. The sample consists of 1,147 of the top 5% most serious juvenile offenders in the Netherlands. A part of the sample, 728 juvenile offenders who had been released from the institution for at least 2 years, was included in analyses on recidivism and the prediction of recidivism. Six subgroups of serious juvenile offenders were identified with cluster analysis on the basis of their scores on 70 static and dynamic risk factors: Cluster 1, antisocial identity; Cluster 2, frequent offenders; Cluster 3, flat profile; Cluster 4, sexual problems and weak social identity; Cluster 5, sexual problems; and Cluster 6, problematic family background. Clusters 4 and 5 are the most serious offenders before treatment, committing mainly sex offences. However, they have significantly lower rates of recidivism than the other four groups. For each of the six clusters, a unique set of risk factors was found to predict severity of recidivism. The results suggest that intervention should aim at different risk factors for each subgroup. PMID:21131311

  10. Community-Based Juvenile Reentry Services: The Effects of Service Dosage on Juvenile and Adult Recidivism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Laura S.; Terry, Diane; Franke, Todd M.

    2011-01-01

    In this study the authors examined the influence of length of participation in a community-based reentry program on the odds of reconviction in the juvenile and adult criminal justice systems. A structured telephone survey of reentry program alumni was conducted with 75 transition-age (18-25 year-old) young men. Binary logistic regression analysis…

  11. Curfew: An Answer to Juvenile Delinquency and Victimization? Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBoeuf, Donni

    Many jurisdictions have implemented curfews in reaction to increased juvenile delinquency and other social trends. This bulletin explores developments in curfew ordinances, legal issues related to curfews, how community based jurisdictions have responded to these issues, and the elements of sound curfew programs as illustrated in seven…

  12. The Juvenile Counseling and Assessment Model and Program: A Conceptualization and Intervention for Juvenile Delinquency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, Georgia B.; Glaser, Brian A.; Bartolomucci, Christi L.

    2001-01-01

    Presents a model of conceptualization and intervention for juvenile delinquency. Model includes the characteristics of the adolescent, ecological context in which the adolescent lives, and the interaction among these variables. Describes a specific integrated service, training, and research project based on the model. The project utilizes a…

  13. Predictors of Support for Juvenile Sex Offender Registration: Educated Individuals Recognize the Flaws of Juvenile Registration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Margaret C.; Smith, Amy C.; Sekely, Ady; Farnum, Katlyn S.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated demographic predictors of support for juvenile sex offender registration policies, including education level, gender, political orientation, and age. Participants were 168 individuals recruited from public places in a Midwest community (45% women; M age = 42). In line with hypotheses, as education level increased, support for…

  14. Colour preferences of juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus).

    PubMed

    Li, Xian; Chi, Liang; Tian, Huiqin; Meng, Lingjie; Zheng, Jimeng; Gao, Xiaolong; Liu, Ying

    2016-03-15

    The background colour of aquaculture tanks is normally chosen based on practical experience and/or observations of fish behaviour and the growth rates achieved. However, some farmed species, including turbot, are sentient and can show a preference for a particular environment. In the current study, a self-referent colour preference device was developed and the self-referent colour preference of farmed fish investigated. In experiment 1, the background colour preference of juvenile turbot cultured under a grey background for >3months post-incubation was evaluated. Based on these results, in experiment 2, juvenile turbot were adapted to blue, pink, white, or black backgrounds for 50days and their preferences established. Meanwhile, the growth rates, feed intake, and metabolic rates (including oxygen consumption rate, and ammonia excretion rate) of the turbot were evaluated. The results showed that turbot farmed under a grey background, or after long-term white, blue, pink and black colour adaptation, always displayed a preference for a white background and a dislike for black, red, or brown backgrounds, although their body colour was greyish. Long-term adaptation influenced the frequency of juveniles selecting white, black, pink or blue backgrounds. They showed the highest growth rate, feed intake, and metabolic rates under blue and white backgrounds, and the lowest under a black background in accordance with their preferences shown in experiment 1. Although it is unclear how turbot determine their self-referent colour preferences over such a short period of time, these results indicate that dark colours are unsuitable for the aquaculture of turbot culture in terms of the welfare of the fish. PMID:26792527

  15. [Explanation and forecast: relapse of juvenile offenders].

    PubMed

    Giebel, S M

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of n=82 juvenile offenders from a prison for juvenile offenders in Rheinland Pfalz the model of the logistic regression is compared with a procedure from the family of the neural nets in its efficiency to explain and predict "relapse" in form of a renewed imprisonment or prosecution /police search after dismissal. The group which can be examined is limited by the population of the prison for juvenile offenders and the explaining variables for "relapse" as "addicted to drugs" present non-metric scaling. For the explanation only probabilities for "relapse" can be indicated in this connection. By means of this probability it is possible to classify the individual case. The forecast is simulated by coincidental dividing of the data: the first part of the data is used for the explanation, the second for the forecast. With the comparison of the logistic regression with the neural nets, the superiority of neural nets in the explanation of "relapse" can be shown, since the neural nets are able to consider dependence between the explaining variables and according to that they offer a differentiated explanation. Their efficiency to predict "relapse" depends on the comparability of the distribution in the two coincidentally provided samples, the training data record for determining the explanation and the test case for the use of the explanation regarding the forecast. For optimal explanation and forecast neural nets are to be preferred to the logistic regression, since in the model with the better explanation also includes the potential for a usable better forecast. Moreover the model of the logistic regression is in fact a special case of the neural net, with a reduced complexity of the net. PMID:17124800

  16. Detection of goldfish haematopoietic necrosis herpes virus (Cyprinid herpesvirus-2) with multi-drug resistant Aeromonas hydrophila infection in goldfish: First evidence of any viral disease outbreak in ornamental freshwater aquaculture farms in India.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, P K; Swaminathan, T Raja; Abraham, Thangapalam Jawahar; Kumar, Raj; Pattanayak, S; Mohapatra, A; Rath, S S; Patra, Avijit; Adikesavalu, Harresh; Sood, Neeraj; Pradhan, P K; Das, B K; Jayasankar, P; Jena, J K

    2016-09-01

    This outbreak report details of a mortality event where Cyprinid herpes virus-2 (CyHV-2) was detected in association with multidrug-resistant Aeromonas hydrophila infection in goldfish, Carassius auratus, from commercial farms. The goldfish exhibited large scale haemorrhages on the body, fins and gills, lepidorthosis, necrosed gills, protruded anus and shrunken eyes. White nodular necrotic foci in spleen and kidneys were noticed, along with necrosis and fusion of gill lamellae. Transmission electron microscopy of affected tissues revealed the presence of mature virus particles. Involvement of CyHV-2 was confirmed by PCR, sequencing and observed cytopathic effect in koi carp fin cell line along with experimental infection study. A bacterium isolated from the internal organs of affected fish was found to be pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila having resistance to more than 10 classes of antibiotics. We postulate that CyHV-2 was the primary etiological agent responsible for this outbreak with secondary infection by A. hydrophila. The experimental infection trials in Labeo rohita and koi carp by intraperitoneal challenge with CyHV-2 tissue homogenates failed to reproduce the disease in those co-cultured fish species. This is the first report of a viral disease outbreak in organised earthen ornamental fish farms in India and bears further investigation. PMID:27172876

  17. Pneumatosis Intestinalis Associated with Juvenile Dermatomyositis

    PubMed Central

    Miyamae, Takako; Ishiguro, Naoko; Yonezawa, Maria; Tokushige, Katsutoshi; Yamanaka, Hisashi

    2016-01-01

    We herein report a case of pneumatosis intestinalis (PI), a condition characterized by the presence of gas within the wall of the digestive tract, associated with juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM). A 16-year-old girl, diagnosed with JDM at the age of 10, presented with abdominal pain and distention. She developed PI based on radiological findings that also included a dilated large intestine, extraluminal gas, and secondary diaphragmatic elevation. She was observed with medical therapy including bowel rest and hyperbaric oxygen therapy. However, she ultimately developed a strangulated obstruction 5 years after presentation with PI and large intestine resection and colostomy were performed emergently. PMID:27242944

  18. Pneumatosis Intestinalis Associated with Juvenile Dermatomyositis.

    PubMed

    Miyamae, Takako; Ishiguro, Naoko; Yonezawa, Maria; Tokushige, Katsutoshi; Yamanaka, Hisashi

    2016-01-01

    We herein report a case of pneumatosis intestinalis (PI), a condition characterized by the presence of gas within the wall of the digestive tract, associated with juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM). A 16-year-old girl, diagnosed with JDM at the age of 10, presented with abdominal pain and distention. She developed PI based on radiological findings that also included a dilated large intestine, extraluminal gas, and secondary diaphragmatic elevation. She was observed with medical therapy including bowel rest and hyperbaric oxygen therapy. However, she ultimately developed a strangulated obstruction 5 years after presentation with PI and large intestine resection and colostomy were performed emergently. PMID:27242944

  19. Idiopathic Juvenile Osteoporosis: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Altan, Halenur; Tosun, Gül; Şen, Yaşar

    2015-08-01

    Idiopathic Juvenile Osteoporosis (IJO) is a very rare disease, self restrictive and shows marked, spontaneous improvement during adolescence. The major clinical features were pain with difficulty walking, growth retardation, oral and dental abnormalities with radiographically porous bone structure. A 13-year-old male referred to paediatric dentistry clinic for toothache. The observations made with extra-intraoral clinic examination that one revealed short and skinny stature, diffuse caries in deciduous teeth, abraded lower incisor, deep bite and dysmorphic appearance in permanent incisor. This report emphasizes the recognized features of IJO as well as describes facio-dental findings that could aid in the diagnosis and management of these patients. PMID:26436063

  20. Empirically Based Strategies for Preventing Juvenile Delinquency.

    PubMed

    Pardini, Dustin

    2016-04-01

    Juvenile crime is a serious public health problem that results in significant emotional and financial costs for victims and society. Using etiologic models as a guide, multiple interventions have been developed to target risk factors thought to perpetuate the emergence and persistence of delinquent behavior. Evidence suggests that the most effective interventions tend to have well-defined treatment protocols, focus on therapeutic approaches as opposed to external control techniques, and use multimodal cognitive-behavioral treatment strategies. Moving forward, there is a need to develop effective policies and procedures that promote the widespread adoption of evidence-based delinquency prevention practices across multiple settings. PMID:26980128

  1. Idiopathic Juvenile Osteoporosis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Tosun, Gül; Şen, Yaşar

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic Juvenile Osteoporosis (IJO) is a very rare disease, self restrictive and shows marked, spontaneous improvement during adolescence. The major clinical features were pain with difficulty walking, growth retardation, oral and dental abnormalities with radiographically porous bone structure. A 13-year-old male referred to paediatric dentistry clinic for toothache. The observations made with extra-intraoral clinic examination that one revealed short and skinny stature, diffuse caries in deciduous teeth, abraded lower incisor, deep bite and dysmorphic appearance in permanent incisor. This report emphasizes the recognized features of IJO as well as describes facio-dental findings that could aid in the diagnosis and management of these patients. PMID:26436063

  2. Systemic Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: Diagnosis and Management.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sathish

    2016-04-01

    Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA) is an inflammatory condition characterized by fever, lymphadenopathy, arthritis, rash and serositis. In sJIA, systemic inflammation has been associated with dysregulation of the innate immune system, suggesting that it is an autoinflammatory disorder. IL-1 and IL-6 play a major role in the pathogenesis of sJIA and treatment with IL-1 and IL-6 inhibitors has shown to be highly effective. Recent data suggests that early cytokine blockage might abrogate chronic, destructive, therapy resistant arthritis phase, reflecting a potential "window of opportunity" in the care of children with sJIA. PMID:26916892

  3. Decreased fibrinolytic activity in juvenile chronic arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Mussoni, L; Pintucci, G; Romano, G; De Benedetti, F; Massa, M; Martini, A

    1990-01-01

    The basal fibrinolytic activity in 17 children with active juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA) was investigated. It was found that patients with JCA, and particularly those with the systemic form, show decreased plasma fibrinolytic activity and a marked increase in plasminogen activator inhibitor. Additionally, it was found that patients with systemic JCA, but not those with the polyarticular or pauciarticular form, have increased circulating levels of tissue-type plasminogen activator, and endothelial cell protein, suggesting possible endothelial cell participation in systemic JCA. PMID:2125408

  4. Minority Youth in the Juvenile Justice System: A Judicial Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juvenile & Family Court Journal, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Minority youth are disproportionately represented in the juvenile justice system, and their numbers in arrest statistics and in correctional facilities suggest that comprehensive strategies are needed to address these problems. The National Council of Juvenile Family Court Judges has undertaken an intensive examination of the problems of…

  5. REPLICATION OF "UNRAVELING JUVENILE DELINQUENCY" IN PUERTO RICO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GLUECK, SHELDON; AND OTHERS

    THE 1ST YEAR OF A 5- TO 6-YEAR PROJECT TO REPLICATE A BOSTON STUDY OF JUVENILE DELINQUENCY IN PUERTO RICO WAS REPORTED. THIS FINAL REPORT COVERS ONLY THE PILOT PHASE OF THE PROJECT. THE PROBLEM ON WHICH THE RESEARCH IS FOCUSED IS TO DETERMINE WHICH OF THE FINDINGS OF "UNRAVELING JUVENILE DELINQUENCY," AS THE STARTING POINT FOR THE PUERTO RICAN…

  6. Extinguishing All Hope: Life-without-Parole for Juveniles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Sentencing juveniles to life-without-parole (JLWOP) is a practice fraught with ethical dilemmas. Through in-depth interviews with 11 men living sentences of JLWOP, their narratives of their backgrounds and experiences as juveniles were studied. Common themes were identified, and 3 general categories of cases emerged from the narratives. Ethical…

  7. Manual of Standards for Juvenile Training Schools and Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Accreditation for Corrections, Rockville, MD.

    This manual of standards for juvenile training schools and services contains 487 American Correctional Association standards for the accreditation of juvenile training schools (youth development centers, villages, correction centers, treatment centers, service centers, homes for boys and girls, camps, and ranches). Standards presented are…

  8. Current Juvenile Corrections Professional Development Practices and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagnon, Joseph C.; Houchins, David E.; Murphy, Kristin M.

    2012-01-01

    Personnel in juvenile corrections (JC) work with students who have challenging academic, behavioral, and mental health needs. The complexity of the JC setting requires personnel to be highly skilled in effective practices to meet the demands of their job. Unfortunately, juvenile correctional personnel are neglected as an important link in the…

  9. Community Treatment Programs for Juveniles: A Best-Evidence Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Lee A.; von Dresner, Kara Sandor; Phillips, Annie L.

    2006-01-01

    A significant challenge facing the juvenile justice system is the task of transitioning and reintegrating juveniles from youth corrections facilities back into the community. This challenge, in part, is related to determining whether the referred community programs are effective. This article summarizes the literature on the effectiveness of…

  10. Kids and Guns. 1999 National Report Series. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Justice, Washington, DC. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

    This report provides information about the use of guns by children and adolescents, with related information on juvenile homicides and suicides. The annual number of juveniles killed with a firearm increased substantially between 1987 and 1993 as occurrences of other types of homicide remained constant. Since 1980, one in four murders of juveniles…

  11. Suicidal Ideation and Behaviors among Youths in Juvenile Detention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abram, Karen M.; Choe, Jeanne Y.; Washburn, Jason J.; Teplin, Linda A.; King, Devon C.; Dulcan, Mina K.

    2008-01-01

    An epidemiological study used data from the Northwestern Juvenile Project to examine the association between psychiatric diagnosis and suicide risk among newly detained youths in the US juvenile system. Results concluded that psychiatric disorders were associated with suicide attempts, and females were found at a higher risk than males.

  12. Psychiatric Disorders of Youth in Detention. Juvenile Justice Bulletin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teplin, Linda A.; Abram, Karen M.; McClelland, Gary M.; Mericle, Amy A.; Dulcan, Mina K.; Washburn, Jason J.

    2006-01-01

    This bulletin examines the prevalence of alcohol, drug, and mental disorders among youth at the Cook County (Illinois) Juvenile Temporary Detention Center, by gender, race/ethnicity, and age. Drawing on research conducted by the Northwestern Juvenile Project, this bulletin finds that nearly two-thirds of males and three-quarters of females studied…

  13. Integrating Research, Policy, and Practice in Juvenile Justice Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blomberg, Thomas G.; Waldo, Gordon P.

    2002-01-01

    Provides an overview and a context leading to Florida's efforts to implement an evaluation-driven research and associated quality assurance system for its juvenile justice education policies and practices. The Juvenile Justice Educational Enhancement Program described began implementing Florida's evaluation research and quality assurance system in…

  14. The Juvenile Addiction Risk Rating: Development and Initial Psychometrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Michael; Newgent, Rebecca A.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the development and psychometrics of the Juvenile Addiction Risk Rating. The Juvenile Addiction Risk Rating is a brief screening of addiction potential based on 10 risk factors predictive of youth alcohol and drug-related problems that assists examiners in more accurate treatment planning when self-report information is…

  15. Correlates of Male and Female Juvenile Offender Abuse Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dembo, Richard; Schmeidler, James; Childs, Kristina

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the results of developing and evaluating a classification of 315 arrested youth processed at the Hillsborough County Juvenile Assessment Center from September 1, 1994 to January 31, 1998. Youth were characterized as physically or sexually abused if they reported abuse or if they had been referred to juvenile court for abuse.…

  16. Juvenile Probation Initiatives in California and Their Effects. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Susan; Fain, Terry

    2005-01-01

    Over the past ten years, probation departments across the state of California have undertaken five major initiatives aimed at juvenile offenders and at-risk youths. Although these initiatives were concomitant with reductions in juvenile arrests and other positive outcomes, we cannot definitively attribute such observed statewide trends to these…

  17. A Structural Equation Modeling Analysis of Influences on Juvenile Delinquency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, David E.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Zhang, Dalun; Zhang, Dake

    2014-01-01

    This study examined influences on delinquency and recidivism using structural equation modeling. The sample comprised 199,204 individuals: 99,602 youth whose cases had been processed by the South Carolina Department of Juvenile Justice and a matched control group of 99,602 youth without juvenile records. Structural equation modeling for the…

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF JUVENILE COURT SYSTEMS IN RURAL AREAS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FELTON, JOSEPH B.

    THIS PAPER STATES THAT THE JUVENILE COURT IS RELATIVELY NEW IN AMERICAN JURISPRUDENCE, THE FIRST ONE HAVING BEEN ESTABLISHED IN 1899. UNIFORM STANDARDS WERE DEVELOPED IN 1923 AND HAVE BEEN REVISED FIVE TIMES SINCE, BUT ADOPTION INTO STATE LAWS HAS BEEN SLOW. PHILOSOPHY OF THE JUVENILE COURT IS PERSONALIZED AND INDIVIDUALIZED JUSTICE. TO CARRY OUT…

  19. Restitution by Juvenile Offenders: An Alternative to Incarceration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. for Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (Dept. of Justice/LEAA), Washington, DC.

    This manual describes a grant program sponsored by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. The aim of the program is to support sound cost-effective projects which will help assure greater accountability on the part of convicted juveniles towards their victims and communities. This manual also includes two papers. One reviews…

  20. 100th Anniversary of the Juvenile Court, 1899-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juvenile Justice, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This issue commemorates the 100th anniversary of the creation of the juvenile court and the recognition that the developmental differences between children and adults require differences in the ways they are treated by the court system. The feature article, "An Evolving Juvenile Court: On the Front Lines with Judge J. Dean Lewis," reviews the…

  1. Reintegration, Supervised Release, and Intensive Aftercare. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altschuler, David M.; Armstrong, Troy L.; MacKenzie, Doris Layton

    Interest in the issue of aftercare for juvenile offenders continues to grow. Jurisdictions seek new ways to reintegrate youth being released from confinement back into their communities, while also ensuring for public safety. Juvenile justice policymakers and professionals are experimenting with aftercare and other reintegration models. After…

  2. Criminal Justice Information Policy. Privacy and Juvenile Justice Records.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belair, Robert R.

    Elected officials, justice professionals, courts and other institutions of our society are contributing to a reevaluation of juvenile justice information policy. The tenet that juveniles who commit crimes are not culpable is being challenged as the public's safety and economic well being is increasingly threatened by children engaged in criminal…

  3. Assessing Youth Strengths in a Residential Juvenile Correctional Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, William H.; Mackin, Juliette R.; Fields, Jerrold

    2006-01-01

    Assessments and case plans that identify and build upon the strengths of clients, their families and communities are increasingly being used in many fields of practice, but are only beginning to be introduced in juvenile justice settings. This article describes a strengths-based assessment tool developed specifically for use in juvenile justice…

  4. IDEA-Related Professional Development in Juvenile Corrections Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagnon, Joseph Calvin; Steinberg, Mary Anne; Crockett, Jean; Murphy, Kristin M.; Gaddis, Justin

    2013-01-01

    Incarcerated youth are among the least academically and behaviorally competent students in the United States. In spite of juvenile justice reform efforts, including state and federal guarantees of appropriate education, educational services in juvenile corrections (JC) schools, especially for youth with disabilities, are lacking (Houchins,…

  5. Prosecution in the Juvenile Courts: Guidelines for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkelstein, M. Marvin; And Others

    This monograph analyses the functions of the prosecutor in the juvenile system. The authors examined in detail the existing prosecution system in the Boston Juvenile Court and surveyed procedures in a number of other cities. The findings show a wide disparity in practice and in the quality of justice dispensed. For example, in the Boston sample…

  6. The Challenges in Providing Needed Transition Programming to Juvenile Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Platt, John S.; Bohac, Paul D.; Wade, Wanda

    2015-01-01

    The transition to and from juvenile justice settings is a complex and challenging process. Effectively preparing juvenile justice personnel to address the transition needs of incarcerated students is an essential aspect of reducing the negative effects of the school-to-prison pipeline. This article examines program and professional development…

  7. 28 CFR 0.57 - Criminal prosecutions against juveniles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Criminal prosecutions against juveniles. 0.57 Section 0.57 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Criminal Division § 0.57 Criminal prosecutions against juveniles. The Assistant Attorney...

  8. 28 CFR 0.57 - Criminal prosecutions against juveniles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Criminal prosecutions against juveniles. 0.57 Section 0.57 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Criminal Division § 0.57 Criminal prosecutions against juveniles. The Assistant Attorney...

  9. Dating Violence and Girls in the Juvenile Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Patricia J.; Cheng, An-Lin; Peralez-Dieckmann, Esther; Martinez, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the prevalence and associated behaviors of dating violence among a population of girls in the juvenile justice system. A sample of 590 girls from an urban juvenile justice system completed a questionnaire assessing attitudes and self-efficacy about and occurrence of dating violence. The analysis developed a…

  10. The YouthARTS Development Project. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clawson, Heather J.; Coolbaugh, Kathleen

    The arts enrich the culture and individual lives immeasurably, but what impact do arts-based programs have in preventing juvenile delinquency? To address this question, the YouthARTS Development Project, with the technical assistance of the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), brought together Federal agencies, national…

  11. Juvenile Courts and Public Schools in the 1980s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guernsey, Carl E.

    This paper calls for a coordinated effort of the public, the juvenile court system, and the schools to alleviate juvenile problems in the 1980s. The following needs are discussed and deemed necessary to this common effort: to identify the problem child at the earliest possible stage; to develop new approaches to the challenge of the child advocate…

  12. 28 CFR 0.57 - Criminal prosecutions against juveniles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criminal prosecutions against juveniles... JUSTICE Criminal Division § 0.57 Criminal prosecutions against juveniles. The Assistant Attorney General in charge of the Criminal Division and his Deputy Assistant Attorneys General are each authorized...

  13. Predictors of Sexual Aggression among Male Juvenile Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeater, Elizabeth A.; Lenberg, Kathryn L.; Bryan, Angela D.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a longitudinal examination of predictors of sexual aggression among male juvenile offenders. Four hundred and four adolescent males between the ages of 14 and 17 years were recruited from juvenile probation offices to take part in a prospective study of substance use and sexual risk. At baseline,…

  14. Assessing Juvenile Sex Offenders to Determine Adequate Levels of Supervision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerdes, Karen E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study analyzed the internal consistency of four inventories used by Utah probation officers to determine adequate and efficacious supervision levels and placement for juvenile sex offenders. Three factors accounted for 41.2 percent of variance (custodian's and juvenile's attitude toward intervention, offense characteristics, and historical…

  15. Report to Congress on Juvenile Violence Research. OJJDP Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquent Prevention (Dept. of Justice), Washington, DC.

    This report presents the collective results of studies funded under the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention congressional directive. The studies confirm that young African-American males are disproportionately involved as offenders and victims of violence, that firearms play a large role in juvenile violence, and that gang…

  16. The Community Assessment Center Concept. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oldenettel, Debra; Wordes, Madeline

    This bulletin is intended to inform juvenile justice practitioners and other youth service providers about the work of the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) in developing and demonstrating a Community Assessment Center (CAC) model, and to increase awareness about some of the challenges associated with its…

  17. Female Juvenile Offending: A Review of Characteristics and Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullis, Ronald L.; Cornille, Thomas A.; Mullis, Ann K.; Huber, Jessica

    2004-01-01

    We reviewed current literature on female juvenile offending including the scope and nature of offending by female adolescents and the risk and protective factors across ecological contexts. We suggested that female juvenile offending is best viewed within a multidimensional framework in which female adolescent developmental characteristics as well…

  18. Resiliency, Risk, and Substance Use among Hispanic Urban Juvenile Detainees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Elizabeth R.; Karcher, Michael J.; Kelly, Patricia J.; Valescu, Smaranda

    2003-01-01

    A study of resiliency was conducted among 236 urban juvenile detainees. Findings reveal that resiliency processes related differently to risk and protective factors, differed among ethnic groups, and varied by age and gender among juvenile detainees. (Contains 48 references and 4 tables.) (Author)

  19. 28 CFR 0.57 - Criminal prosecutions against juveniles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Criminal prosecutions against juveniles... JUSTICE Criminal Division § 0.57 Criminal prosecutions against juveniles. The Assistant Attorney General in charge of the Criminal Division and his Deputy Assistant Attorneys General are each authorized...

  20. 28 CFR 0.57 - Criminal prosecutions against juveniles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Criminal prosecutions against juveniles... JUSTICE Criminal Division § 0.57 Criminal prosecutions against juveniles. The Assistant Attorney General in charge of the Criminal Division and his Deputy Assistant Attorneys General are each authorized...

  1. Family and Community Perceptions of Quality in Juvenile Justice Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selber, Katherine; Streeter, Calvin

    2004-01-01

    The conceptualization and empirical assessment of service quality in juvenile justice remains limited. There are few reports on programmatic attempts to assess satisfaction in juvenile justice programs or attempts to include what constitutes quality of service from multiple customer perspectives. This article describes a potential model, the Gap…

  2. Juvenile Justice Reform and Treatment for Children Who Hate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troup, Robin

    2001-01-01

    Article challenges the prevailing political and public attitudes about locking up children who hate in juvenile facilities. Three promising reforms are discussed: information-networking systems that facilitate coordination of services among juvenile justice stakeholders; alternatives to detention programs; and Multisystemic Therapy. A…

  3. Preventing Juvenile Offending in South Africa: Workshop Proceedings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glanz, Lorraine, Ed.

    An extensive research project to develop a national strategy to prevent juvenile offending was undertaken in South Africa. The following proceedings of a workshop, which involved representatives of relevant organizations, are reported in this book: "Setting Goals" (Lorraine Glanz); "The Prevention of Juvenile Offending: Problems and Solutions"…

  4. Adapting Law-Related Education to Juvenile Justice Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curd-Larkin, Mary C.

    1987-01-01

    Notes that juvenile justice systems are increasingly turning to law-related education (LRE) programs as a means of providing youths with some of the skills and knowledge which might deter continued delinquent behavior. Describes issues which must be addressed when implementing LRE in juvenile justice settings. (JDH)

  5. A Protocol for Reducing Juvenile Recidivism through Relapse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roget, Nancy A.; Fisher, Gary L.; Johnson, Michael L.

    1998-01-01

    The connection between alcohol and other drug use and juvenile crime activities is well established. The source of this connection and specific interventions with juvenile offenders involved in alcohol and drug use is unclear. Reviews existing literature and presents an adolescent-specific relapse-prevention protocol that provides a structure for…

  6. The Moral Judgment of Juvenile Delinquents: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stams, Geert Jan; Brugman, Daniel; Dekovic, Maja; van Rosmalen, Lenny; van der Laan, Peter; Gibbs, John C.

    2006-01-01

    A meta-analysis of 50 studies was conducted to investigate whether juvenile delinquents use lower levels of moral judgment than their nondelinquent age-mates and, if so, what factors may influence or moderate the developmental delay. The results show a lower stage of moral judgment for juvenile delinquents (d = 0.76). Effect sizes were large for…

  7. Delinquency Cases in Juvenile Court, 2002. OJJDP Fact Sheet #02

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahl, Anne L.

    2006-01-01

    This fact sheet presents statistics on delinquency cases processed by juvenile courts in 2002. The number of delinquency cases handled by juvenile courts decreased 11 percent between 1997 and 2002. During this time, the number of person offense cases decreased 2 percent, property offense cases decreased 27 percent, drug law violation cases…

  8. Rural Juvenile Delinquency: Problems & Needs in East Tennessee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolton, William Dan; Brown, David W.

    Juvenile delinquency problems and ways to improve youth services were explored in a survey conducted in 1975 in 15 East Tennessee counties surrounding Knoxville. The 51 persons interviewed were associated with law enforcement, judicial, and counseling services; respondents believed that juvenile delinquency was on the increase in rural areas and…

  9. Social Work and Juvenile Probation: Historical Tensions and Contemporary Convergences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Clark M.

    2011-01-01

    Social work's weak presence in the field of corrections is peculiar, given that those involved in the criminal and juvenile justice systems are undeniably among the vulnerable and oppressed populations that the profession has traditionally served. The field of juvenile probation shares roots with the profession of social work but lacks a strong…

  10. Use of the Adolescent SASSI in a Juvenile Correctional Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, L. A. R.; Lebeau-Craven, Rebecca; Martin, Rosemarie; Colby, Suzanne M.; Barnett, Nancy P.; Golembeske, Charles, Jr.; Penn, Joseph V.

    2005-01-01

    The Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory-Adolescent (SASSI-A) is used in evaluation and treatment planning for incarcerated juveniles. Validity of the SASSI-A in a juvenile correctional facility was examined using archival data. Findings generally support the validity of SASSI-A substance use scales. However, there is concern regarding the…

  11. Effects of Juvenile Court Exposure on Crime in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petitclerc, Amelie; Gatti, Uberto; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The juvenile justice system's interventions are expected to help reduce recidivism. However, previous studies suggest that official processing in juvenile court fails to reduce adolescents' criminal behavior in the following year. Longer term effects have not yet been investigated with a rigorous method. This study used…

  12. Trauma and Juvenile Delinquency: Theory, Research, and Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwald, Ricky, Ed.

    This book addresses the connection between childhood trauma and juvenile delinquency. It includes theoretical models of this relationship and examinations of its most important aspects, explorations of trauma-related assessment issues, and practical therapeutic interventions for use with juvenile delinquents. Chapters include: (1) "The Role of…

  13. Treatment for Juveniles Who Sexually Offend in a Southwestern State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikomi, Philip A.; Harris-Wyatt, Georgetta; Doucet, Geraldine; Rodney, H. Elaine

    2009-01-01

    A 25-item questionnaire was mailed to sex offender treatment providers from counties with 60 or more reported juvenile sex offenders in a Southwestern state to determine the most effective treatment for juvenile sex offenders. Results indicated that cognitive behavioral therapy was the most successful reported approach to treatment with an average…

  14. Juvenile Crime and Criminal Justice: Resolving Border Disputes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Rising juvenile crime rates during the 1970s and 1980s spurred state legislatures across the country to exclude or transfer a significant share of offenders under the age of eighteen to the jurisdiction of the criminal court, essentially redrawing the boundary between the juvenile and adult justice systems. Jeffrey Fagan examines the legal…

  15. Treatment of Juveniles Who Sexually Offend: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Efta-Breitbach, Jill; Freeman, Kurt A.

    2004-01-01

    Juvenile sexual offending is increasingly being recognized as a serious crime among youth. The prevalence of sexual offending and sexual reoffending suggests that many juvenile sex offenders (JSOs) may repeat their offending behaviors if not treated. However, clinical trials evaluating specific interventions are virtually nonexistent. Instead, the…

  16. The Content Validity of Juvenile Psychopathy: An Empirical Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynam, Donald R.; Derefinko, Karen J.; Caspi, Avshalom; Loeber, Rolf; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the content validity of a juvenile psychopathy measure, the Childhood Psychopathy Scale (CPS; D. R. Lynam, 1997), based on a downward translation of an adult instrument, the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; R. D. Hare, 1991). The CPS was compared with two other indices of juvenile psychopathy: (a) an index derived…

  17. Reform the Nation's Juvenile Justice System. Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annie E. Casey Foundation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Across the nation, juvenile courts and corrections systems are littered with poorly conceived strategies that increase crime, endanger young people and damage their future prospects, waste billions of taxpayer dollars, and violate people's deepest held principles about equal justice under the law. While juvenile justice is largely a state and…

  18. 28 CFR 115.114 - Juveniles and youthful detainees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Juveniles and youthful detainees. 115.114 Section 115.114 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Prevention Planning § 115.114 Juveniles and youthful...

  19. 28 CFR 115.114 - Juveniles and youthful detainees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Juveniles and youthful detainees. 115.114 Section 115.114 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Prevention Planning § 115.114 Juveniles and youthful...

  20. 28 CFR 115.114 - Juveniles and youthful detainees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Juveniles and youthful detainees. 115.114 Section 115.114 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Prevention Planning § 115.114 Juveniles and youthful...

  1. Juvenile crime and criminal justice: resolving border disputes.

    PubMed

    Fagan, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Rising juvenile crime rates during the 1970s and 1980s spurred state legislatures across the country to exclude or transfer a significant share of offenders under the age of eighteen to the jurisdiction of the criminal court, essentially redrawing the boundary between the juvenile and adult justice systems. Jeffrey Fagan examines the legal architecture of the new boundary-drawing regime and how effective it has been in reducing crime. The juvenile court, Fagan emphasizes, has always had the power to transfer juveniles to the criminal court. Transfer decisions were made individually by judges who weighed the competing interests of public safety and the possibility of rehabilitating young offenders. This authority has now been usurped by legislators and prosecutors. The recent changes in state law have moved large numbers of juveniles into the adult system. As many as 25 percent of all juvenile offenders younger than eighteen, says Fagan, are now prosecuted in adult court. Many live in states where the age boundary between juvenile and criminal court has been lowered to sixteen or seventeen. The key policy question is: do these new transfer laws reduce crime? In examining the research evidence, Fagan finds that rates of juvenile offending are not lower in states where it is relatively more common to try adolescents as adults. Likewise, juveniles who have been tried as adults are no less likely to re-offend than their counterparts who have been tried as juveniles. Treating juveniles as adult criminals, Fagan concludes, is not effective as a means of crime control. Fagan argues that the proliferation of transfer regimes over the past several decades calls into question the very rationale for a juvenile court. Transferring adolescent offenders to the criminal court exposes them to harsh and sometimes toxic forms of punishment that have the perverse effect of increasing criminal activity. The accumulating evidence on transfer, the recent decrease in serious juvenile

  2. Estimating survival rates from banding of adult and juvenile birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, D.H.

    1974-01-01

    The restrictive assumptions required by most available methods for estimating survival probabilities render them unsuitable for analyzing real banding data. A model is proposed which allows survival rates and recovery rates to vary with the calendar year, and also allows juveniles to have rates different from adults. In addition to survival rates and recovery rates, the differential vulnerability factors of juveniles relative to adults are estimated. Minimum values of the variances of the estimators are also given. The new procedure is applied to sets of duck and goose data in which reasonably large numbers of adult and juvenile birds were banded. The results are shown to be generally comparable to those procured by other methods, but, in addition, insight into the extent of annual variation is gained. Combining data from adults and juveniles also increases the effective sample size, since the juveniles are assumed to enter the adult age class after surviving their initial year.

  3. Systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Cimaz, Rolando

    2016-09-01

    Systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis (SoJIA) is a systemic inflammatory disease which has up to now been classified as a category of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. However, in this context, systemic inflammation has been associated with dysregulation of the innate immune system, suggesting that it may rather be part of the spectrum of autoinflammatory disorders. The disease is in fact unique with regard to the other JIA categories, in terms of clinical manifestations, prognosis, and response to conventional immunosuppressant therapies. It is characterized clinically by fever, lymphadenopathy, arthritis, rash, and serositis. IL-1 and IL-6 play a major role in the pathogenesis of SoJIA, and treatment with IL-1 and IL-6 inhibitors has shown to be highly effective. However, complications of SoJIA, including macrophage activation syndrome, limitations in functional outcome by arthritis and long-term damage from chronic inflammation continue to be a major issue in patients' care. Recent advances on the pathogenesis and treatment have revolutionized the care and prognosis of this potentially life-threatening pediatric condition. PMID:27392503

  4. MULTIPLE SUBSTANCE USE DISORDERS IN JUVENILE DETAINEES

    PubMed Central

    McClelland, Gary M.; Elkington, Katherine S.; Teplin, Linda A.; Abram, Karen M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To estimate six-month prevalence of multiple substance use disorders (SUDs) among juvenile detainees by demographic subgroups (sex, race/ethnicity, age). Method Participants were a randomly selected sample of 1829 African American, non-Hispanic white and Hispanic detainees (1172 males, 657 females, ages 10–18). Patterns and prevalence of DSM-III-R multiple SUDs were assessed using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC 2.3). We used 2-tailed F- and t-tests with an alpha of 0.05 to examine combinations of SUDs by sex, race/ethnicity, and age. Results Nearly half of detainees had one or more SUDs; over 21% had two or more SUDs. The most prevalent combination of SUDs was alcohol and marijuana use disorders (17.25% females, 19.42% males). Among detainees with any SUD, almost half had multiple SUDs. Among detainees with alcohol use disorder, over 80% also had one or more drug use disorders. Among detainees with a drug use disorder, approximately 50% also had an alcohol use disorder. Conclusions Among detained youth with any SUD, multiple SUDs are the rule, not the exception. Substance abuse treatments need to target detainees with multiple SUDs who, upon release, return to communities where services are often unavailable. Clinicians can help ensure continuity of care by working with juvenile courts and detention centers. PMID:15381888

  5. Neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease and juvenile parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, J D; Hanagasi, H A; Daniel, S E; Tidswell, P; Davies, S W; Lees, A J

    2000-09-01

    Juvenile parkinsonism (onset age <20 yrs) is uncommon and few cases with neuropathologic confirmation have been reported. We present the case of a 17-year-old boy who presented with asymmetric arm tremor and bulbar symptoms. His paternal great aunt had parkinsonism with onset at age 22 years. Examination revealed parkinsonism in the absence of additional neurologic signs except for delayed pupillary responses to light. He responded well to levodopa but developed motor fluctuations and disabling dyskinesias after 3 years of treatment. Following attempted withdrawal of levodopa at age 24 years, he developed severe aspiration pneumonia complicated by cardiorepiratory arrests and he died 6 months later. At autopsy, the dominant histologic feature was wide-spread neuronal hyaline intranuclear inclusions. Neuronal depletion was observed in the substantia nigra, locus ceruleus, and, to a lesser extent, in the frontal cortex, and inclusions were particularly prominent in these areas. Inclusions were immunoreactive for ubiquitin and were typical of those seen in neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease (NIID), a rare, multisytem neurodegenerative disease. NIID should be considered in the differential diagnosis of juvenile parkinsonism. A link between NIID and hereditary neurodegenerative disorders characterized by expanded polyglutamine tracts is supported by the similar appearance of intranuclear inclusions in both conditions and by a family history in some cases of NIID. PMID:11009211

  6. Developing a Policy for Controlled Substance Testing of Juveniles. Juvenile Accountability Incentive Block Grants (JAIBG) Program Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowe, Ann H.; Sydney, Linda

    This bulletin provides an overview of substance testing, describes major indicators of the need for such testing, and summarizes the research for recent trends in substance abuse. It examines the practices of implementing a policy of controlled substance testing for appropriate categories of juveniles within the juvenile justice system. A summary…

  7. Juvenile Delinquency and Teenage Pregnancy: A Comparison of Ecological Risk Profiles among Midwestern White and Black Female Juvenile Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khurana, Atika; Cooksey, Elizabeth C.; Gavazzi, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined ecological risk factors associated with teen pregnancy with a sample of 1,190 court-involved female juvenile offenders between 11 and 18 years of age. Data were obtained from five Midwestern juvenile county courts using a recently developed youth risk assessment instrument called the global risk assessment device (GRAD). In…

  8. Characteristics and Patterns of At-Risk Juveniles and Factors That Contribute to Violence Committed by or against Juveniles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Intervention Report, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Research into the characteristics of at-risk juveniles that contribute to violence and the patterns of behavior and neighborhood characteristics and patterns that are associated with youth violence or victimization are reviewed. The results of the studies reviewed cannot be generalized to the total population of juveniles, but the findings of…

  9. The Mentally Retarded and the Juvenile Court Project CAMIO, Volume 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskins, Jimmy R.; Friel, Charles M.

    Studied was the relationship of the mentally retarded (MR) and the juvenile court through an attempt to determine the incidence of MR juveniles adjudicated by the juvenile court in one metropolitan county in Texas, to determine the attitude of juvenile probation officers toward the MR delinquent, and to determine the availability of community…

  10. Critical Factors in Mental Health Programming for Juveniles in Corrections Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Lee A.; Phillips, Annie; von Dresner, Kara; Knight, Pamela D.

    2006-01-01

    Juveniles with mental health and other specialized needs are overrepresented in the juvenile justice system, and while juvenile corrections have not historically provided standardized and evidence-based mental health services for its incarcerated youth, the demand is evident. The reality is that juveniles with serious mental illness are committed…

  11. Juvenile Correctional Workers' Perceptions of Suicide Risk Factors and Mental Health Issues of Incarcerated Juveniles

    PubMed Central

    Penn, Joseph V.; Esposito, Christianne; Stein, L. A. R.; Lacher-Katz, Molly; Spirito, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    Correctional staff knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of incarcerated juveniles' mental health needs, including suicide prevention, have not been studied empirically. This study measured juvenile correctional officers' knowledge and attitudes regarding suicide risk factors and mental health and substance abuse issues through administration of the Mental Health Knowledge and Attitude Test (MHKAT) before and after a staff training on suicide prevention. Seventy-six participants completed the pre- and post-training MHKAT. They demonstrated significant improvement in knowledge of and attitudes toward mental health treatment of incarcerated youth as reflected by higher post-training MHKAT scores. Findings suggest that correctional staff are receptive to increasing knowledge of critical mental health issues. Studies of the retention and implementation of this new knowledge by direct care staff over time and the optimal type and frequency of new staff training and continuing education are indicated. PMID:19809578

  12. Laser capture microdissection of gonads from juvenile zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Investigating gonadal gene expression is important in attempting to elucidate the molecular mechanism of sex determination and differentiation in the model species zebrafish. However, the small size of juvenile zebrafish and correspondingly their gonads complicates this type of investigation. Furthermore, the lack of a genetic sex marker in juvenile zebrafish prevents pooling gonads from several individuals. The aim of this study was to establish a method to isolate the gonads from individual juvenile zebrafish allowing future investigations of gonadal gene expression during sex determination and differentiation. Methods The laser capture microdissection technique enables isolation of specific cells and tissues and thereby removes the noise of gene expression from other cells or tissues in the gene expression profile. A protocol developed for laser microdissection of human gonocytes was adjusted and optimised to isolate juvenile zebrafish gonads. Results The juvenile zebrafish gonad is not morphologically distinguishable when using dehydrated cryosections on membrane slides and a specific staining method is necessary to identify the gonads. The protocol setup in this study allows staining, identification, isolation and subsequent RNA purification and amplification of gonads from individual juvenile zebrafish thereby enabling gonadal gene expression profiling. Conclusion The study presents a protocol for isolation of individual juvenile zebrafish gonads, which will enable future investigations of gonadal gene expression during the critical period of sex differentiation. Furthermore, the presented staining method is applicable to other species as it is directed towards alkaline phosphatase that is expressed in gonocytes and embryonic stem cells, which is conserved among vertebrate species. PMID:19747405

  13. Offense related characteristics and psychosexual development of juvenile sex offenders

    PubMed Central

    Hart-Kerkhoffs, Lisette 't A; Doreleijers, Theo AH; Jansen, Lucres MC; van Wijk, Anton PH; Bullens, Ruud AR

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This article reports on offense related characteristics and the psychosexual development in subgroups of juvenile sex offenders as measured by the Global Assessment Instrument for Juvenile Sex Offenders (GAIJSO). The predictive validity of these characteristics for persistent (sexual) offensive behavior in subgroups of juvenile sex offenders was investigated. Methods: One hundred seventy four sex offenders (mean age 14.9 SD 1.4) referred by the police to the Dutch Child Protection Board were examined. Offense related characteristics were assessed by means of the GAIJSO and the BARO (a global assessment tool for juvenile delinquents), and criminal careers of the subjects were ascertained from official judicial records. Results: Serious need for comprehensive diagnostics were found on the domains sexual offense and psychosexual development in juvenile sex offenders, especially in the group of child molesters. These youngsters displayed more internalizing and (psychosexual) developmental problems and their sexual offense was more alarming as compared to the other juvenile sex offender subgroups. Although one third of the juveniles had already committed one or more sex offenses prior to the index offense, at follow up (mean follow up period: 36 months SD 18 months) almost no sexual recidivism was found (0.6% of the entire sample). However, a substantial proportion of the entire sample of juvenile sex offenders showed non-sexual (55.6%) and violent recidivism (32.1%). Several predictors for a history of multiple sex offending and non-sexual recidivism were identified. Conclusion: This study revealed numerous problems in juvenile sex offenders. Assessment using the GAIJSO is helpful in order to identify indicators for extensive diagnostic assessment. In order to investigate the predictive validity for sexual reoffending a longer follow up period is necessary. PMID:19594889

  14. Hydroxy juvenile hormones: new putative juvenile hormones biosynthesized by locust corpora allata in vitro.

    PubMed

    Darrouzet, E; Mauchamp, B; Prestwich, G D; Kerhoas, L; Ujváry, I; Couillaud, F

    1997-11-26

    The in vitro production of sesquiterpenoids was investigated by using corpora allata (CA) of the African locust Locusta migratoria migratorioides. Labeled products from unstimulated biosynthesis were extracted, purified by normal phase HPLC, and derivatized to determine the functional groups present. An extra hydroxyl group was detected in each of two juvenile hormone (JH) biosynthetic products. One compound, NP-8, was found to co-migrate with a chemically-synthesized (Z)-hydroxymethyl isomer, 12'-OH JH-III, but not with the (E)-hydroxymethyl isomer, 12-OH JH III. Mass spectral analyses further supported the identity of the synthetic material with that biosynthesized by the corpora allata. A second compound was identified as the 8'-OH JH-III based on spectroscopic analyses. 12'-OH JH-III exhibited morphogenetic activity when tested on the heterospecific Tenebrio test. These data suggest that 12'-OH JH-III and 8'-OH JH-III are additional biosynthetically-produced and biologically-active juvenile hormones, and constitute the first known members of the class of hydroxy juvenile hormones (HJHs). PMID:9398639

  15. Examining Antisocial Behavioral Antecedents of Juvenile Sexual Offenders and Juvenile Non-Sexual Offenders.

    PubMed

    McCuish, Evan C; Lussier, Patrick; Corrado, Raymond R

    2015-08-01

    In prospective longitudinal studies of juvenile offenders, the presence of multiple developmental pathways of antisocial behaviors has consistently been identified. An "antisocial" type of juvenile sex offender (JSO) has also been identified; however, whether antisocial JSOs follow different antisocial pathways has not been examined. In the current study, differences in antisocial pathways within JSOs and between JSOs and juvenile non-sex offenders (JNSOs) were examined. Data on Canadian male incarcerated adolescent offenders were used to identify whether behavioral antecedents differed within JSOs and between JSOs (n = 51) and JNSOs (n = 94). Using latent class analysis (LCA), three behavioral groups were identified. For both JSOs and JNSOs, there was a Low Antisocial, Overt, and Covert group. Overall, there were important within-group differences in the behavioral patterns of JSOs, but these differences resembled differences in the behavioral patterns of their JNSO counterpart. Risk factors including offense history, abuse history, and family history were more strongly associated with the Overt and Covert groups compared with the Low Antisocial group. Implications for JSO assessment practices were discussed. PMID:24487119

  16. The case of juvenile polygraphy as a clinical ethics dilemma.

    PubMed

    Chaffin, Mark

    2011-09-01

    Polygraph interrogations are used by half of all surveyed juvenile sex offender (JSO) treatment programs in the United States. This is a distinctive and controversial practice that is rarely if ever used with other juvenile delinquent populations, and that is rarely used or is banned from JSO treatment programs in other countries. Clinical polygraphy is an ethically sensitive issue because it involves mental health therapists in involuntary coercive interrogations of minors. This article reviews core mental health professional ethics principles for juveniles. JSO polygraphy is used as an illustrative issue for applying human rights principles to a practice in light of its benefits, risks, and available alternatives. PMID:20944059

  17. New Ultrasound Biomicroscopy Iris Findings in Juvenile Xanthogranuloma.

    PubMed

    Syed, Zeba A; Chen, Teresa C

    2016-08-01

    We report a case of juvenile xanthogranuloma in a 12-month-old girl presenting with heterochromia, hyphema, and elevated intraocular pressure. This case demonstrates new ultrasound biomicroscopy iris findings of a generalized bumpy iris contour, suggesting diffuse heterogeneous involvement. This imaging finding has not been previously described. Untreated, iris juvenile xanthogranuloma may lead to corneal blood staining, glaucoma, and amblyopia. An understanding of the full range of ultrasound features of juvenile xanthogranuloma expands our appreciation for the clinical findings in this condition. PMID:27483333

  18. Institutional games played by confined juveniles.

    PubMed

    Bartollas, C; Sieverdes, C M

    1983-01-01

    This study examined the games played by 561 juvenile offenders confined in six coeducational correctional facilities in one state. The types of games these residents used against staff and peers within the confines of the institution varied considerably. The study documented nineteen games used by males and females, twelve to deal with staff and seven to deal with peers. The games were defined as therapeutic games, material games, psychological games, and physical games. Peer-oriented games included attention-seeking activities and a variety of dominance games. Additionally, these games were described and tabulated according to the sex and race of the residents. The conclusion was that game-playing behavior was no less frequent in coeducational institutions than it was in single-sex institutions. PMID:6650271

  19. Landmark learning by juvenile salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum).

    PubMed

    Heuring, Whitney L; Mathis, Alicia

    2014-10-01

    Learning to use a landmark as a beacon to locate resources is one of the simplest forms of spatial learning. We tested whether landmark learning occurs in a semifossorial salamander that migrates annually to breeding ponds as adults. Juvenile spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum) were tested in square containers with a plastic feeding dish in each corner, and a piece of earthworm was placed in one randomly-chosen dish. For landmark-trained salamanders, a rock was placed beside the dish containing the prey. For control salamanders, the rock was placed beside a randomly selected feeding dish. Each salamander was trained once every 2 days for 30 days. Significantly more landmark-trained salamanders than control salamanders entered the landmark area first, and landmark-trained individuals had faster latencies to enter the landmark area and longer stay-times. These results suggest that spotted salamanders are able to locate resources by associating their positions with landmarks. PMID:25444775

  20. Neuropsychology and behavior in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Bettina; Yacubian, Elza Marcia; Feucht, Martha; Hermann, Bruce; Trimble, Michael

    2013-07-01

    Following decades of neglect, there has been an increasing interest in the behavioral aspects of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) in the recent literature. A number of authors have investigated psychiatric comorbidity, cognitive profiles, and related behavioral features associated with JME. Although these findings are not entirely uniform, most studies suggest an increased incidence in psychiatric comorbidity and specific cognitive deficits that explain some of the clinical observations of poor compliance and other unhealthy behaviors in people suffering from JME. Neuropsychological profiles in JME are suggestive of subtle frontal dysfunctions, and some of the observations have been linked with sophisticated structural and functional imaging findings. Taken together, there is evidence that JME is associated with dysfunctions in networks linking motor and cognitive neuronal centers. Interestingly, there is evidence from family studies that the behavioral abnormalities in JME are genetically determined, suggesting an underlying developmental disorder. PMID:23756486

  1. Juvenile myasthenia gravis: a paediatric perspective.

    PubMed

    Finnis, Maria F; Jayawant, Sandeep

    2011-01-01

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disease in which antibodies are directed against the postsynaptic membrane of the neuromuscular junction, resulting in muscle weakness and fatigability. Juvenile myasthenia gravis (JMG) is a rare condition of childhood and has many clinical features that are distinct from adult MG. Prepubertal children in particular have a higher prevalence of isolated ocular symptoms, lower frequency of acetylcholine receptor antibodies, and a higher probability of achieving remission. Diagnosis in young children can be complicated by the need to differentiate from congenital myasthenic syndromes, which do not have an autoimmune basis. Treatment commonly includes anticholinesterases, corticosteroids with or without steroid-sparing agents, and newer immune modulating agents. Plasma exchange and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) are effective in preparation for surgery and in treatment of myasthenic crisis. Thymectomy increases remission rates. Diagnosis and management of children with JMG should take account of their developmental needs, natural history of the condition, and side-effect profiles of treatment options. PMID:22110902

  2. The Genomic Landscape of Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Tiffany Y.; Gelston, Laura C.; Wang, Yong-Dong; Mazor, Tali; Esquivel, Emilio; Yu, Ariel; Seepo, Sara; Olsen, Scott; Rosenberg, Mara; Archambeault, Sophie L.; Abusin, Ghada; Beckman, Kyle; Brown, Patrick A.; Briones, Michael; Carcamo, Benjamin; Cooper, Todd; Dahl, Gary V.; Emanuel, Peter D.; Fluchel, Mark N.; Goyal, Rakesh K.; Hayashi, Robert J.; Hitzler, Johann; Hugge, Christopher; Liu, Y. Lucy; Messinger, Yoav H.; Mahoney, Donald H.; Monteleone, Philip; Nemecek, Eneida R.; Roehrs, Philip A.; Schore, Reuven J.; Stine, Kimo C.; Takemoto, Clifford M.; Toretsky, Jeffrey A.; Costello, Joseph F.; Olshen, Adam B.; Stewart, Chip; Li, Yongjin; Ma, Jing; Gerbing, Robert B.; Alonzo, Todd A.; Getz, Gad; Gruber, Tanja; Golub, Todd; Stegmaier, Kimberly; Loh, Mignon L.

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) is a myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) of childhood with a poor prognosis. Mutations in NF1, NRAS, KRAS, PTPN11 and CBL occur in 85% of patients, yet there are currently no risk stratification algorithms capable of predicting which patients will be refractory to conventional treatment and therefore be candidates for experimental therapies. In addition, there have been few other molecular pathways identified aside from the Ras/MAPK pathway to serve as the basis for such novel therapeutic strategies. We therefore sought to genomically characterize serial samples from patients at diagnosis through relapse and transformation to acute myeloid leukemia in order to expand our knowledge of the mutational spectrum in JMML. We identified recurrent mutations in genes involved in signal transduction, gene splicing, the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) and transcription. Importantly, the number of somatic alterations present at diagnosis appears to be the major determinant of outcome. PMID:26457647

  3. Light demands of juvenile Laminaria japonica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Xiugeng; Jiang, Benyu; Ding, Meili; Wu, Yajing; Huang, Ruyi; Li, Hanchang

    1989-03-01

    The light demands of seaweeds is an interesting and rather complex phenomenon because they depend not only on the species but also on their different development stages. Even different parts of the same plant sometimes have different light demands. Light control is an important procedure at large scale Laminaria nursery stations in China. Technicians and scientists have different viewpoints on the best method to regulate light. A culture study on Laminaria japonica starting from zoospores to several centimeter sporophytes to find the optimal and critical irradiance ranges for juvenile Laminaria at different development stages added more knowledge on this aspect. Experiment results show gametophytes can not tolerate irradiance of more than 150 μE m-2s-1 while sporophytes can tolerate more than 519 μE m-2s-1. This big difference starts from the very early stage of 1-to 2-celled sporophytes. The biological basis and mechanism of this phenomenon need further research.

  4. Computer-Tailored Intervention for Juvenile Offenders

    PubMed Central

    LEVESQUE, DEBORAH A.; JOHNSON, JANET L.; WELCH, CAROL A.; PROCHASKA, JANICE M.; FERNANDEZ, ANNE C.

    2012-01-01

    Studies assessing the efficacy of juvenile justice interventions show small effects on recidivism and other outcomes. This paper describes the development of a prototype of a multimedia computer-tailored intervention (“Rise Above Your Situation”or RAYS) that relies on an evidence-based model of behavior change, the Transtheoretical Model, and expert system technology to deliver assessments, feedback, printed reports, and counselor reports with intervention ideas. In a feasibility test involving 60 system-involved youths and their counselors, evaluations of the program were favorable: 91.7% of youths agreed that the program could help them make positive changes, and 86.7% agreed that the program could give their counselor helpful information about them. PMID:23264754

  5. [Screening of psychopathology with juvenile deviants].

    PubMed

    Gutschner, Daniel; Völkl-Kernstock, Sabine; Perret, Aïsha; Doreleijers, Theo; Vermeiren, Robert; Fegert, Jörg M; Schmeck, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to describe the psychometric properties of the German version of the BARO (Basis Raads Onderzoek/ Basic Council Examination), a mental health screening instrument for delinquent adolescents which are referred to juvenile court. The BARO was developed in 1999 by Theo Doreleijers in the Netherlands. The present article reports on a validation study concerning the German BARO. For this study, a sample of 125 Swiss German speaking youth, referred to forensic investigation for having committed an offence, was used. For purposes of validation, besides the BARO, the DIPS (Diagnostic interview for psychiatric disorders) and the SKID II (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders) were conducted. A specifically for this goal created questionnaire was filled out by the users, in order to judge the applicability of the BARO. With respect to reliability, both internal consistency, and interrater reliability ranged from good to very good (α = .80 and r= .84). For analysing the validity, a ROC estimation (receiver operator curve) was performed and showed an AUC (area under the curve) of .88 for the presence of a mental health disorder. This result can be considered as very good. An optimal cut-off-point of 16.5 corresponds with a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 84%. The applicability of the BARO was rated as satisfying by the mental health professionals who used the instruments. The good psychometric properties and discriminative power of the BARO indicates that it is a useful mental health screening instrument for youth in contact with juvenile justice. Further research should focus on the usefulness in other populations and on the predictive validity for long-term outcome. PMID:21486541

  6. Impact of juvenile idiopathic arthritis on schooling

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common arthropathy of childhood. Different diseases affect school attendance to varying degrees. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) on Moroccan children’s schooling. Methods Thirty-three children with JIA were included in this study, having been previously diagnosed according to the classification criteria of the International League of Associations for Rheumatology (ILAR). Seventy-four healthy children were recruited to serve as controls. Data was obtained for all children on their school level, educational performance, and attendance. The rate of absenteeism due to health complications was noted. Results All healthy children were able to attend school (p<0.0001), while 33% of children with JIA were unable to attend school due to their condition. The students with JIA who were able to attend school were absent much more often than controls (63% compared to 20%), with a highly significant p value (p<0.0001). Slightly less than half of the JIA patients (48.5%) failed in their schooling. In univariate analysis, there was an association between absenteeism and tender joints (p=0.02), disease activity score (DAS28) (p=0.007), Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire (CHAQ) (p=0.01), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (p=0.03). In multivariate analysis, the only association persisted between DAS28 and absenteeism. Conclusions Our study suggested that the schooling of children with JIA was negatively impacted due to the disorder. More studies, with a larger sample of children, are needed to confirm our findings. PMID:23289498

  7. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked juvenile retinoschisis

    MedlinePlus

    ... to the retina impairs the sharpness of vision (visual acuity) in both eyes. Typically, X-linked juvenile ... in the same direction (strabismus) and farsightedness ( hyperopia ). Visual acuity often declines in childhood and adolescence but ...

  8. Bite force and temporomandibular disorder in juvenile chronic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Wenneberg, B; Kjellberg, H; Kiliaridis, S

    1995-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the functional condition of the stomatognathic system in children suffering from juvenile chronic arthritis, with respect to bite force and temporomandibular disorder in relation to radiographic abnormalities of the mandibular condyle, occlusal factors and systemic disease parameters. Thirty-five children with juvenile chronic arthritis were compared to 89 healthy children with an Angle Class I occlusion and 62 children with an Angle Class II malocclusion. Subjective symptoms and clinical signs of temporomandibular disorder and radiographic mandibular condylar changes were more common in children with juvenile chronic arthritis than in the two comparison groups. Maximal molar and incisal bite forces and maximal molar bite force endurance times were also significantly reduced in children with juvenile chronic arthritis. It is concluded that the differences between the groups are caused mainly by the systemic inflammatory disease itself, but a functional influence of weakened masticatory muscles cannot be excluded. PMID:7472737

  9. Juvenile otosclerosis: a case presentation and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Markou, Konstantinos; Stavrakas, Marios; Karkos, Petros; Psillas, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    Otosclerosis in childhood and adolescence or juvenile otosclerosis is a rare disorder resulting in conductive hearing loss. A 9-year-old boy presented to our clinic, suffering from moderate hearing loss. According to his parents, his hearing acuity had progressively deteriorated over the past 2 years. Otoscopy and tympanometry revealed bilateral secretory otitis media and the patient underwent bilateral grommet insertion. However, he continued to report of hearing loss and a right exploratory tympanotomy was performed. Stapedial fixation was confirmed, being compatible with juvenile otosclerosis, and we proceeded to a right stapedotomy. One year later, follow-up showed satisfactory outcome with an air-bone gap closure to 10 dB. Juvenile otosclerosis with the coexistence of persistent secretory otitis media can be overlooked. Affected children from 9 years of age are strongly motivated to undergo stapes surgery for juvenile otosclerosis, following parental consent. PMID:27084899

  10. Parent Group Training Programs in Juvenile Courts: A National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windell, James O.; Windell, Ellen A.

    1977-01-01

    This survey of juvenile courts across the country indicates that only one of five courts have a parent group program and few use procedures reported in the growing literature relating to changing the behavior of agressive children. (Author)

  11. Prototypical analysis of adolescent psychopathy: investigating the juvenile justice perspective.

    PubMed

    Cruise, Keith R; Colwell, Lori H; Lyons, Phillip M; Baker, Michael D

    2003-01-01

    The past ten years have seen a dramatic increase in the empirical investigation of psychopathic characteristics in children and adolescents. In general, the focus of this research has been on the validation of assessment instruments to evaluate psychopathy as well as concurrent and predictive validity. Little attention has been directed toward elucidating the core characteristics of this construct. The current study expands on previous research by asking juvenile justice personnel (424 juvenile detention and probation officers) to identify the core characteristics of the construct via prototypical analysis for both male and female adolescents. Results of separate factor analyses by gender revealed five identifiable dimensions: juvenile delinquency, serious/violent conduct problems, narcissistic/manipulation of others, impulsivity/acting out, and family problems. The results suggest that juvenile justice personnel focus on a wide range of behavioral indicators as indicative of adolescent psychopathy in addition to affective and interpersonal characteristics typically viewed as crucial to the construct by clinicians. PMID:14696033

  12. Chloride cells and impaired osmoregulation in juvenile American shad

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zydlewski, J.; McCormick, S.D.

    1997-01-01

    In the laboratory, juvenile shad under a simulated natural temperature regime (SNT) in freshwater (FW) through the period of fall migration exhibited a 68% decline in plasma [Cl-] and a 3-fold increase in gill Na+K+-ATPase activity.

  13. Probiotic Feeding Experiments with Juvenile Channel Catfish and Nile Tilapia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Probiotic microbial feed supplements are gaining wide acceptance in livestock production, and may be applicable to aquaculture production systems. We have conducted a series of experiments using commercial probiotics added to diets of juvenile channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque), and...

  14. Paracoccidioidomycosis: acute-subacute clinical form, juvenile type*

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Silvio Alencar; Lastória, Joel Carlos; de Camargo, Rosangela Maria Pires; Marques, Mariangela Esther Alencar

    2016-01-01

    The authors report aspects of paracoccidioidomycosis, acute-subacute clinical form, juvenile type, in a 19-year-old female patient. Paracoccidioidomycosis, juvenile type, classically occurs in young patients, both sexes, with lymphoma-like aspects as initial presentation. However, following the natural history of the disease the lymph nodes assume patterns of infectious disease, as an abscess and fistulae. Systemic dissemination of the disease can occur and lethality and morbidity are significant in this clinical presentation.

  15. Occult infarct with acute hemorrhagic stroke in juvenile diabetic ketoacidosis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jainn-Jim; Lin, Kuang-Lin; Wang, Huei-Shyong; Wong, Alex Mun-Ching; Hsia, Shao-Hsuan

    2008-01-01

    Diabetes ketoacidosis (DKA) is one of the common complications of type I insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Neurological deterioration during an episode of DKA is usually assumed to be caused by cerebral edema and cerebral vascular accidents. However, hemorrhagic stroke is a very rare complication of juvenile DKA. We describe a girl who had newly diagnosed insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus with juvenile DKA developed intracerebral hemorrhage. PMID:17629647

  16. Paracoccidioidomycosis: acute-subacute clinical form, juvenile type.

    PubMed

    Marques, Silvio Alencar; Lastória, Joel Carlos; Camargo, Rosangela Maria Pires de; Marques, Mariangela Esther Alencar

    2016-01-01

    The authors report aspects of paracoccidioidomycosis, acute-subacute clinical form, juvenile type, in a 19-year-old female patient. Paracoccidioidomycosis, juvenile type, classically occurs in young patients, both sexes, with lymphoma-like aspects as initial presentation. However, following the natural history of the disease the lymph nodes assume patterns of infectious disease, as an abscess and fistulae. Systemic dissemination of the disease can occur and lethality and morbidity are significant in this clinical presentation. PMID:27438214

  17. The role of structuring benthos for juvenile flatfish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabaut, M.; Audfroid Calderón, M.; Van de Moortel, L.; van Dalfsen, J.; Vincx, M.; Degraer, S.; Desroy, N.

    2013-11-01

    Within coastal nurseries, the distribution of juvenile flatfish may depend on small-scale habitat variability. The presence of ecosystem engineers is known to have important impacts in coastal sediments. Lanice conchilega is a well-known marine ecosystem engineer of shallow soft bottom ecosystems, shaping the macrobenthic community and attracting flatfish. The present study examines the relation between juvenile flatfish and L. conchilega reefs through two experiments. In a field experiment in the Dutch part of the North Sea, the benthic habitat is evaluated by comparing relative differences in numbers of juvenile flatfish between ecosystem engineered habitats and adjacent bare sand (i.e. non-ecosystem engineered) habitats. The hypothetical shelter seeking behaviour was further examined using stomach content analyses. Results show that juvenile plaice Pleuronectes platessa was the dominant species within the tube worm habitat and the species selects specifically for this biogenic habitat. This selection was explained as feeding behaviour. In a complementary laboratory study, food was excluded and the shelter function of the ecosystem engineered habitat was investigated. This experiment quantifies the selection for this habitat by juveniles of the common sole Solea solea. Results from the flume experiment, manipulating the number of tube worms, show that distribution of sole was not random when current velocities are high. The selected habitat is the one with low density tube worm aggregations. Overall, we conclude that structuring benthos plays an important role for juvenile flatfish, both as refuge and as feeding ground.

  18. Juvenility in the context of life history theory.

    PubMed

    Hochberg, Z

    2008-06-01

    Homo sapiens is unique in having four prolonged and pronounced postnatal pre-adult life history stages: infancy, which lasts for 30-36 months and ends with weaning from breast feeding in traditional societies; childhood, which lasts for an additional 2-4 years and concludes in a degree of independence as regards protection and food provision; a juvenile stage of 3-4 years that terminates with readiness for sexual maturation; and adolescence, which lasts for 3-5 years and culminates in fertility. Juvenility implies two transitional periods which are only experienced by humans: a transition from childhood to juvenility and from juvenility to adolescence. Juvenility, "the age of reason and responsibility" and concrete operation, coincides with elementary school age and offers opportunities to prepare for the social complexity of adolescence. Here I define the transition to juvenility by three variables: adrenarche (the onset of adrenal androgen generation), growth pattern (decelerating from a linear childhood growth velocity) and adiposity rebound acceleration of body mass index. The data presented suggest that this period is endowed with programming/predictive adaptive responses of body composition to the environment. PMID:18337281

  19. Sports Participation and Juvenile Delinquency: A Meta-Analytic Review.

    PubMed

    Spruit, Anouk; van Vugt, Eveline; van der Put, Claudia; van der Stouwe, Trudy; Stams, Geert-Jan

    2016-04-01

    Participation in sports activities is very popular among adolescents, and is frequently encouraged among youth. Many psychosocial health benefits in youth are attributed to sports participation, but to what extent this positive influence holds for juvenile delinquency is still not clear on both the theoretical and empirical level. There is much controversy on whether sports participation should be perceived as a protective or a risk factor for the development of juvenile delinquency. A multilevel meta-analysis of 51 published and unpublished studies, with 48 independent samples containing 431 effect sizes and N = 132,366 adolescents, was conducted to examine the relationship between sports participation and juvenile delinquency and possible moderating factors of this association. The results showed that there is no overall significant association between sports participation and juvenile delinquency, indicating that adolescent athletes are neither more nor less delinquent than non-athletes. Some study, sample and sports characteristics significantly moderated the relationship between sports participation and juvenile delinquency. However, this moderating influence was modest. Implications for theory and practice concerning the use of sports to prevent juvenile delinquency are discussed. PMID:26597782

  20. Psychopathology and offense types in detained male juveniles.

    PubMed

    Plattner, Belinda; Giger, Joël; Bachmann, Friedel; Brühwiler, Karl; Steiner, Hans; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Bessler, Cornelia; Aebi, Marcel

    2012-07-30

    A substantial proportion of violent crime is committed by juveniles. In detained juveniles, high rates of psychopathology have been found. The objective of this study was to determine psychopathology associated with offense characteristics in detained male adolescents. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview was used to assess juvenile detainees. The final sample included 275 males (mean age=16.45, S.D.=1.27 years). Multivariate logistic regressions yielded significant associations between psychopathology and specific offense types: The presence of substance use disorders (without alcohol) (SUD) was found to predict drug-related crimes, and the presence of alcohol use disorders (AUD) without further SUD were a predictor of violent crime, especially in older juveniles. The absence of anxiety disorder, especially in younger juveniles, was found to be relevant for the prediction of robbery. The results of the study suggest that the use and abuse of legal and illegal substances might be a trigger for serious violent and drug-related crimes in juveniles. In particular, the presence of AUD is presumed to have a pivotal role in the development of impulsive aggression. These findings are important when considering the serious social impact of violent behaviors in adolescents. PMID:22445705

  1. Juvenile delinquency treatment and prevention: a literature review.

    PubMed

    May, Jessica; Osmond, Kristina; Billick, Stephen

    2014-09-01

    In the last three decades there has been ample research to demonstrate that instituting Multisystemic Therapy for serious juvenile offenders, keeping them in the community with intensive intervention, can significantly reduce recidivism. When there is recidivism, it is less severe than in released incarcerated juveniles. Multisystemic Therapy provides 24 h available parental guidance, family therapy, individual therapy, group therapy, educational support and quite importantly a change of peer group. In New York City, there is the new mandate through the Juvenile Justice Initiative to implement interventions to keep juvenile offenders in the community rather than sending them to be incarcerated. However, this paper aims to examine how teaching prosocial values in early childhood can reduce the incidence of first-time juvenile delinquency. Programs such as the Perry School Project will be discussed to demonstrate that although somewhat expensive, these innovative programs nonetheless are quite cost-effective as the cost to society of adjudication, incarceration and victim damages are significantly greater. Along with teaching prosocial 0020 values, there has been renewed interest in early identification of youth at risk for developing Antisocial Personality Disorder. An update is given on the status of both promising approaches in early intervention to prevent serious juvenile delinquency and hence adult criminality. PMID:24610601

  2. Aedes aegypti juvenile hormone acid methyl transferase, the ultimate enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of juvenile hormone III, exhibits substrate control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report on the cloning, sequencing, characterization, 3D modeling and docking of Aedes aegypti juvenile hormone acid methyl transferase (AeaJHAMT), the enzyme that converts juvenile hormone acid (JHA) into juvenile hormone (JH). Purified recombinant AeaJHAMT was extensively characterized for enzym...

  3. Examination of the influence of juvenile Atlantic salmon on the feeding mode of juvenile steelhead in Lake Ontario tributaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, James H.; Waldt, Emily M.

    2014-01-01

    We examined diets of 1204 allopatric and sympatric juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in three tributaries of Lake Ontario. The diet composition of both species consisted primarily of ephemeropterans, trichopterans, and chironomids, although juvenile steelhead consumed more terrestrial invertebrates, especially at the sympatric sites. Subyearlings of both species consumed small prey (i.e. chironomids) whereas large prey (i.e. perlids) made up a higher percentage of the diet of yearlings. The diet of juvenile steelhead at the allopatric sites was more closely associated with the composition of the benthos than with the drift, but was about equally associated with the benthos and drift at the sympatric sites. The diet of both subyearling and yearling Atlantic salmon was more closely associated with the benthos than the drift at the sympatric sites. The evidence suggests that juvenile steelhead may subtly alter their feeding behavior in sympatry with Atlantic salmon. This behavioral adaptation may reduce competitive interactions between these species.

  4. Prevention and intervention programs for juvenile offenders.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Over the past decade researchers have identified intervention strategies and program models that reduce delinquency and promote pro-social development. Preventing delinquency, says Peter Greenwood, not only saves young lives from being wasted, but also prevents the onset of adult criminal careers and thus reduces the burden of crime on its victims and on society. It costs states billions of dollars a year to arrest, prosecute, incarcerate, and treat juvenile offenders. Investing in successful delinquency-prevention programs can save taxpayers seven to ten dollars for every dollar invested, primarily in the form of reduced spending on prisons. According to Greenwood, researchers have identified a dozen "proven" delinquency-prevention programs. Another twenty to thirty "promising" programs are still being tested. In his article, Greenwood reviews the methods used to identify the best programs, explains how program success is measured, provides an overview of programs that work, and offers guidance on how jurisdictions can shift toward more evidence-based practices The most successful programs are those that prevent youth from engaging in delinquent behaviors in the first place. Greenwood specifically cites home-visiting programs that target pregnant teens and their at-risk infants and preschool education for at-risk children that includes home visits or work with parents. Successful school-based programs can prevent drug use, delinquency, anti-social behavior, and early school drop-out. Greenwood also discusses community-based programs that can divert first-time offenders from further encounters with the justice system. The most successful community programs emphasize family interactions and provide skills to the adults who supervise and train the child. Progress in implementing effective programs, says Greenwood, is slow. Although more than ten years of solid evidence is now available on evidence-based programs, only about 5 percent of youth who should be eligible

  5. Immunosuppressive Treatment for Retinal Degeneration in Juvenile Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis (Juvenile Batten Disease).

    PubMed

    Drack, Arlene V; Mullins, Robert F; Pfeifer, Wanda L; Augustine, Erika F; Stasheff, Steven F; Hong, Sandy D

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis (JNCL) presents with progressive vision loss at 4-7 years of age. Blindness results within 2 years, followed by inexorable neurologic decline and death. There is no treatment or cure. Neuroinflammation is postulated to play a role in the neurodegeneration. The JNCL mouse model demonstrated decreased neuroinflammation and improved motor skills with immunosuppression. Based on this work, a short-term human clinical trial of mycophenolate mofetil has begun, however longer term effects, and whether immunosuppression modulates vision loss, have not been studied. We report a JNCL patient treated with immunosuppressive therapy in whom visual function was comprehensively characterized over 2 years. PMID:24547931

  6. Predator-induced neophobia in juvenile cichlids.

    PubMed

    Meuthen, Denis; Baldauf, Sebastian A; Bakker, Theo C M; Thünken, Timo

    2016-08-01

    Predation is an important but often fluctuating selection factor for prey animals. Accordingly, individuals plastically adopt antipredator strategies in response to current predation risk. Recently, it was proposed that predation risk also plastically induces neophobia (an antipredator response towards novel cues). Previous studies, however, do not allow a differentiation between general neophobia and sensory channel-specific neophobic responses. Therefore, we tested the neophobia hypothesis focusing on adjustment in shoaling behavior in response to a novel cue addressing a different sensory channel than the one from which predation risk was initially perceived. From hatching onwards, juveniles of the cichlid Pelvicachromis taeniatus were exposed to different chemical cues in a split-clutch design: conspecific alarm cues which signal predation risk and heterospecific alarm cues or distilled water as controls. At 2 months of age, their shoaling behavior was examined prior and subsequent to a tactical disturbance cue. We found that fish previously exposed to predation risk formed more compact shoals relative to the control groups in response to the novel disturbance cue. Moreover, the relationship between shoal density and shoal homogeneity was also affected by experienced predation risk. Our findings indicate predator-induced, increased cross-sensory sensitivity towards novel cues making neophobia an effective antipredator mechanism. PMID:26578223

  7. Modern management of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Brodie, Martin J

    2016-06-01

    Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is a common genetic epilepsy syndrome usually presenting in adolescence and characterized by myoclonic jerks, predominately in the arms, associated with tonic-clonic seizures and less often generalized absences. Although the evidence base for treating JME is weak, most experts regard sodium valproate as drug of first choice. The recent diktat from the European regulatory agency - recommending that sodium valproate should not be prescribed to female children, adolescents or women of childbearing potential unless other treatments were ineffective or not tolerated - has substantially changed the way JME is being managed in this population. This paper reviews the literature underpinning the pharmacological treatment of JME. Data reporting associated symptoms of frontal lobe dysfunction in some patients with JME are discussed, as is the importance of counselling on lifestyle issues as an essential component of management. Long-term studies examining pharmacological and quality-of-life outcomes are reviewed, indicating a range of different phenotypes and likely genotypes underpinning this fascinating disorder. Lastly, a practical approach to managing JME in young men and women is summarized. PMID:27082040

  8. The conundrum of juvenile psoriatic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Ravelli, Angelo; Consolaro, Alessandro; Schiappapietra, Benedetta; Martini, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile psoriatic arthritis (JPsA) has provided paediatric rheumatologists with a controversial topic for many years. The principal area of contention centres on the discordance between its treatment as a single diagnostic category in current classification schemes and the demonstration of its heterogeneous nature. A further point of debate is the distinctiveness of JPsA as an entity. Owing to these uncertainties, the concept of JPsA has evolved over the years and there have been several changes in its definition and diagnostic criteria. Recently, strong evidence has been provided that the spectrum of JPsA include at least two distinct subgroups, one that has the same characteristics as early-onset ANA-positive JIA, and another that is part of the spectrum of spondyloarthropathies and resembles the forms of psoriatic arthritis in adults that belong to the same disease family. These findings call for a revision of the classification of childhood arthritis, that refutes the assumptions that children with JPsA constitute a single homogeneous population and that JPsA should be considered an individual disease entity. PMID:26470604

  9. [Juvenile idiopathic arthritis and oral health].

    PubMed

    Kobus, Agnieszka; Kierklo, Anna; Sielicka, Danuta; Szajda, Sławomir Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common autoimmune inflammatory disease of connective tissue in children. It is characterized by progressive joint destruction which causes preserved changes in the musculoskeletal system. The literature describes fully clinical symptoms and radiological images in different subtypes of JIA. However, there is still a limited number of studies reporting on the medical condition of the oral cavity of ill children. JIA can affect hard and soft tissues of the oral cavity by: the general condition of the child's health, arthritis of the upper limbs, as the result of the pharmacotherapy, changes in secretion and composition of saliva, inflammation of the temporomandibular joint and facial deformity. The study summarizes the available literature on the condition of the teeth and periodontal and oral hygiene in the course of JIA. The presence of diverse factors that modify the oral cavity, such as facial growth, functioning of salivary glands, or the supervision and care provided by adults, prevents clear identification if JIA leads to severe dental caries and periodontal disease. Despite conflicting results in studies concerning the clinical oral status, individuals with JIA require special attention regarding disease prevention and maintenance of oral health. PMID:27180959

  10. Clinical aspects of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Genton, Pierre; Thomas, Pierre; Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenité, Dorothee G A; Medina, Marco Tulio; Salas-Puig, Javier

    2013-07-01

    Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is a recognizable, frequent epileptic syndrome. The most typical ictal phenomenon is bilateral myoclonia without loss of consciousness (M), with most patients also presenting with generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCSs) and some with absence seizures (ASs). The most striking features of JME are its onset around the time of puberty and the fact that seizure episodes occur after awakening from a sleep period or in the evening relaxation period and are facilitated by sleep deprivation and sudden arousal. Photic sensitivity is common in the EEG laboratory but uncommon or unrecognized in daily life. The clinical features of JME make it easy to diagnose. In recent years, awareness of JME has increased, and patients are often accurately diagnosed clinically before confirmation by EEG. The typical circumstance at diagnosis is a first GTCS episode, and one learns during the interview that the patient has had M in the morning for some time before the GTCS episode. There are only few differential diagnoses: the adolescent-onset progressive myoclonus epilepsies, or other forms of idiopathic generalized epilepsies of adolescence. With JME being so common, we propose that a first GTCS episode in a teenager should be considered as revealing JME until proven otherwise. PMID:23756488

  11. Cognitive Impairment in Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun-Young; Hwang, Yang-Ha; Lee, Ho-Won; Suh, Chung-Kyu; Kwon, Soon-Hak

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose Cognitive impairments are frequent consequences of epilepsy, with intellectual ability reportedly being lower in patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsies than in the general population. However, neuropsychological investigations have been rarely performed in patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME). We aimed to quantify the cognitive function in JME patients using various neuropsychological tests. Methods We compared cognitive function in 27 JME patients with that in 27 healthy volunteers using tests examining cognitive performance, such as the verbal and visual memory, frontal function, attention, IQ score, and mood. In the JME group, we examined risk factors for cognitive function such as age, sex, family history, education level, age at seizure onset, seizure frequency, EEG abnormality, disease duration, and previous intake of antiepileptic drugs. Results Verbal learning was significantly lower in JME patients than in controls, and attention and verbal fluency were impaired in JME patients compared with controls. However, general intellectual ability and mood did not differ between the groups. Early onset of seizure and long duration of disease were closely related to impaired cognitive function. Conclusions JME patients may exhibit impaired cognitive function, in terms of memory and execution, despite having normal intelligence and mood. PMID:19513297

  12. Macrophages - silent enemies in juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Świdrowska-Jaros, Joanna; Orczyk, Krzysztof; Smolewska, Elżbieta

    2016-01-01

    The inflammatory response by secretion of cytokines and other mediators is postulated as one of the most significant factors in the pathophysiology of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). The effect of macrophage action depends on the type of their activation. Classically activated macrophages (M1) are responsible for release of molecules crucial for joint inflammation. Alternatively activated macrophages (M2) may recognize self antigens by scavenger receptors and induce the immunological reaction leading to autoimmune diseases such as JIA. Molecules essential for JIA pathophysiology include: TNF-α, the production of which precedes synovial inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis; IL-1 as a key mediator of synovial damage; chemotactic factors for macrophages IL-8 and MCP-1; IL6, the level of which correlates with the radiological joint damage; MIF, promoting the secretion of TNF-α and IL-6; CCL20 and HIF, significant for the hypoxic synovial environment in JIA; GM-CSF, stimulating the production of macrophages; and IL-18, crucial for NK cell functions. Recognition of the role of macrophages creates the potential for a new therapeutic approach. PMID:27383571

  13. Inflammasome polymorphisms in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Pontillo, Alessandra; Reis, Edione C; Liphaus, Bernadete L; Silva, Clovis A; Carneiro-Sampaio, Magda

    2015-01-01

    Inflammasome is the cytoplasmic complex responsible for pro-IL1 β cleavage and secretion of IL-1β. Recently our group reported the first association between polymorphisms in the inflammasome receptor NLRP1 and adult-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) "di per se" and especially in SLE-associated renal disease, suggesting the involvement of NLRP1-inflammasome in the immune dysregulation characteristic of SLE patients. Considering that juvenile-onset SLE (JSLE) is more severe than adult SLE, and that the genetic background plays a major role in the early development of autoimmune diseases, we analysed selected polymorphisms in inflammasome genes (NLRP1, NLRP3, CARD8, IL1B, TNFAIP3) of children and adolescents with JSLE (n = 90) and in healthy controls (n = 144). A single polymorphism in IL1B, and not NLRP1, gene resulted in association with JSLE, suggesting that IL-1 β is involved in the pathogenesis of SLE, but different genes could play specific role in adult- or early-onset disease. PMID:26182076

  14. Hepatic manifestations in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    El-Shabrawi, Mortada H; Farrag, Mona I

    2014-01-01

    Juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by multisystem involvement and diverse clinical and serological manifestations. Clinically significant hepatic disease is generally regarded as unusual in JSLE, but many studies have showed that hepatic disease may be more common in SLE than was usually thought. Hepatic disease does not cause significant morbidity and mortality, but subclinical liver involvement is common. One of the hepatic disorders associated with JSLE is autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). The precise etiology of AIH and JSLE remains unknown, however both AIH and JSLE are associated with antinuclear antibody (ANA) and multisystem disease manifestations. A shared immunologic response and genetic predisposition were suggested. Recently, new approaches for treatment of SLE and recent patents that could develop into novel therapeutic agents in clinical management of SLE have been proposed. An array of promising new therapies is currently emerging or being developed including B-cell depletion therapies, agents targeting B-cell survival factors, blockade of T-cell co-stimulation and present review, we will also report the case of a 12-year old girl who developed JSLE four years after her preliminary diagnosis with AIH. PMID:24383439

  15. Management of Children with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, Vijay; Murray, Kevin J

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) comprises a group of heterogeneous disorders of chronic arthritis in childhood and remains the commonest pediatric rheumatic disease associated with significant long-term morbidity. Advances in understanding of the pathogenesis, better definition of disease control/remission measures, and the arrival of biological agents have improved the outcomes remarkably. Methotrexate (Mtx) remains the first-line disease modifying (DMARD) therapy for most children with JIA due to its proven efficacy and safety. Sulphosalazine (SSz) (especially for enthesitis) and leflunomide may also have a secondary role. Tumor necrosis factor inhibitors (TNF-I), alone or in combination with Mtx have shown tremendous benefit in children with polyarticular JIA, enthesitis related arthritis (ERA) and psoriatic arthritis. Tocilizumab appears very efficacious in systemic arthritis and abatacept and tocilizumab also appear to benefit polyarticular JIA; the role of rituximab remains unclear, though clearly beneficial in adult RA. TNF-I with Mtx is also effective in uveitis associated with JIA. Biologicals have demonstrated an impressive safety record in children with JIA, although close monitoring for rare but potentially dangerous adverse events, such as tuberculosis and other infections; paradoxical development of additional autoimmune diseases; and possibly an increased risk of cancers is warranted. PMID:26639461

  16. Managing juvenile Huntington’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Quarrell, Oliver W. J.; Nance, Martha A.; Nopoulos, Peggy; Paulsen, Jane S.; Smith, Jonathan A.; Squitieri, Ferdinando

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Huntington’s disease (HD) is a well-recognized progressive neurodegenerative disorder that follows an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. Onset is insidious and can occur at almost any age, but most commonly the diagnosis is made between the ages of 35 and 55 years. Onset ≤20 years of age is classified as juvenile HD (JHD). This age-based definition is arbitrary but remains convenient. There is overlap between the clinical pathological and genetic features seen in JHD and more traditional adult-onset HD. Nonetheless, the frequent predominance of bradykinesia and dystonia early in the course of the illness, more frequent occurrence of epilepsy and myoclonus, more widespread pathology, and larger genetic lesion means that the distinction is still relevant. In addition, the relative rarity of JHD means that the clinician managing the patient is often doing so for the first time. Management is, at best, symptomatic and supportive with few or no evidence-based guidelines. In this article, the authors will review what is known of the condition and present some suggestions based on their experience. PMID:24416077

  17. The selection of juvenile entrants to mining

    PubMed Central

    McLintock, J. S.

    1971-01-01

    McLintock, J. S. (1971). Brit. J. industr. Med., 28, 45-51. The selection of juvenile entrants to mining. In 1961/62 a special anthropometric study was made of 1 455 young persons entering the coal-mining industry in six mining areas. Five years later a check was made to find those who had left and those who remained. The average height (166·27 cm), sitting height (88·01 cm), and weight (55·0 kg) of those who continued in mining did not differ significantly from those of the leavers, and corresponded with published data on non-miners of the same age; but there were distinct regional differences in these mean figures. When comparing the other anthropometric factors of the `stayers' and `leavers', the former had significantly lower figures for upper arm girth (243·5 mm), peak flow rate (410·9 litres), strength (100·7 kg), genital development, and pubic hair. Nevertheless there were such regional differences that caution is required when extending conclusions in biological studies from one coal field to the industry as a whole. PMID:5101168

  18. The quest for juvenile myoclonic epilepsy genes.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Escueta, Antonio V; Koeleman, Bobby P C; Bailey, Julia N; Medina, Marco T; Durón, Reyna M

    2013-07-01

    Introduced into a specific population, a juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) mutation generates linkage disequilibrium (LD). Linkage disequilibrium is strongest when the JME mutation is of recent origin, still "hitchhiking" alleles surrounding it, as a haplotype into the next thousands of generations. Recombinations decay LD over tens of thousands of generations causing JME alleles to produce smaller genetic displacements, requiring other genes or environment to produce an epilepsy phenotype. Family-based linkage analysis captures rare epilepsy alleles and their "hitchhiking" haplotypes, transmitted as Mendelian traits, supporting the common disease/multiple rare allele model. Genome-wide association studies identify JME alleles whose linkage disequilibrium has decayed through thousands of generations and are sorting out the common disease/common allele versus rare allele models. Five Mendelian JME genes have been identified, namely, CACNB4, CASR, GABRa1, GABRD, and Myoclonin1/EFHC1. Three SNP alleles in BRD2, Cx-36, and ME2 and microdeletions in 15q13.3, 15q11.2, and 16p13.11 also contribute risk to JME. PMID:23756480

  19. Clinical presentations and outcomes of Filipino juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective Juvenile Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) varies by location and ethnicity. This study describes the clinical, laboratory profile and outcome of juvenile SLE seen at Philippine General Hospital (PGH) from 2004-2008. Method Medical charts of all Filipino Juvenile SLE cases admitted at PGH during the 5-year period were reviewed collecting demographic profile, clinical and laboratory manifestations and treatment during disease course. Results Seventy-eight cases of juvenile SLE were reviewed. There were 7 boys and 71 girls. The mean age at diagnosis was 14 years (SD 2.7) with a range of 8-18 years. Fever (52.5%) and malar rash (41.0%) were the most common features at disease onset. At the time of diagnosis, the most common features were malar rash (65.3%), renal involvement (62.8%) and photosensitivity (55.1%). Mucocutaneous (92.3%), renal (71.7%) and hematologic (69.2%) involvement were the most common features during the entire course of illness. Infection (34.5%) and neurologic (19.0%) complications were observed most frequently. Corticocosteroid treatment was given in most of the patients in the form of prednisone (97.4%) and concomitant methylprednisolone intravenous pulses (29.4%). Nine patients died during the study period. The overall 5-year mortality rate was 11.5%. Infection (77.0%) was the most frequent cause of death. Conclusion Malar rash was a common feature at disease onset and at diagnosis among Filipinos with juvenile SLE. Throughout the disease course, renal involvement occurs in 71.7% of patients. Infection was the leading cause of complication and death. The clinical presentations of Filipinos with juvenile SLE were similar to juvenile SLE in other countries. PMID:21306603

  20. Criminal history and future offending of juveniles convicted of the possession of child pornography.

    PubMed

    Aebi, Marcel; Plattner, Belinda; Ernest, Melanie; Kaszynski, Katie; Bessler, Cornelia

    2014-08-01

    Most child pornography is distributed online. It is estimated that 3% to 15% of child pornography consumers are juveniles. The present study analyzed a consecutive sample of 54 male juveniles convicted of the possession of child pornography. Demographic characteristics, criminal history, and subsequent offending were assessed from criminal files and official reports. Juvenile possessors of child pornography were compared to three different groups of juveniles: Juvenile possessors of other illegal pornography (n = 42), juveniles who committed a sexual contact offense against a child (n = 64), and juveniles who committed a sexual contact offense against a peer or adult (n = 104). Juvenile possessors of child pornography were found to have downloaded the illegal material more frequently and over a longer time period than juvenile possessors of other illegal pornography. Furthermore, juvenile possessors of child pornography differed from juveniles who had committed a sexual contact offense in terms of demographics and showed fewer previous and subsequent offending than juveniles who sexually offended against a peer or adult. We conclude that juvenile possessors of child pornography need a specific target intervention focusing on dysfunctional Internet use and sexually deviant arousal. PMID:23813492

  1. Serum neopterin is not increased in obese juveniles.

    PubMed

    Mangge, Harald; Freytag, Florian; Almer, Gunter; Weghuber, Daniel; Bauer-Denk, Carmen; Fuchs, Dietmar

    2011-01-01

    Objective. Cardiovascular disease is associated with inflammation and immune activation, concentrations of immune activation markers like neopterin predict outcome in adults. Methods. Serum neopterin concentrations and early metabolic and pre-atherosclerotic symptoms were analyzed in 295 obese juveniles and 101 normal weight controls of similar age. Additionally, the influence of a 12 months weight reduction program on neopterin levels was investigated in 31 obese juveniles. Results. Intima-media thickness of common carotid arteries (IMT) and the concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP) were increased in the obese juveniles (P < .001). Also triglycerides, oxidized LDL, fasted insulin levels, HOMA-index, leptin, liver transaminases and uric acid were increased compared to the controls. However, serum neopterin was decreased in the obese versus non-obese juveniles (P < .03). The intervention consisting of regular sports, nutritional devices, and a psychologic attendance led after 12 months to an increase of neopterin concentration (P < .05; paired test). Conclusions. Neopterin concentrations in juvenile obesity behaved considerably different from what was demonstrated in adults, levels did not correlate with metabolic and pre-atherosclerotic symptoms found in early phases although early vascular burden and chronic low grade inflammation was indicated by increased IMT and CRP. Neopterin concentrations increased after a 12 months intervention program. PMID:21274279

  2. Juvenile spondyloarthropathy: an important clinical lesson to remember.

    PubMed

    Sridharan, Radhika; Ngiu, Chai Soon; Shaharir, Syahrul Sazliyana; Said, Mohd Shahrir Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Spondyloarthropathy (SpA) is a group of inflammatory conditions that include spondylitis, sacroiliitis, asymmetrical peripheral arthritis and enthesitis. This condition is known as juvenile SpA when the diagnosis is made in patients up to 16 years of age. Enthesitis is a highly specific feature that occurs more often in juvenile SpA than in the adult form. In contrast to adult onset SpA, the initial manifestation of juvenile SpA rarely presents as inflammatory back pain. Peripheral arthritis is the more common presenting feature. We report a case of a 12-year-old boy who presented with a 1-year history of progressive low back pain, gluteal pain and thigh pain. There were no clinical symptoms of arthropathy of the distal extremities. MRI of the whole spine was performed twice, which, unfortunately, was unyielding. Finally, MRI of the sacroiliac joints revealed asymmetric sacroiliitis as well as enthesitis of the hips and pelvis. Further laboratory data showed negative rheumatoid factor and positive human leucocyte antigen (HLA) B27. A diagnosis of juvenile SpA with sacroiliitis and enthesitis was made. The imaging characteristics of juvenile SpA are highlighted. PMID:26677159

  3. Structural abnormalities of the thalamus in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Mory, Susana Barreto; Betting, Luiz E; Fernandes, Paula T; Lopes-Cendes, Iscia; Guerreiro, Marilisa M; Guerreiro, Carlos A M; Cendes, Fernando; Li, Li M

    2011-08-01

    Studies have suggested that the thalamus is a key structure in the pathophysiology of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. The objective of the present investigation was to examine the thalami of patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy using a combination of multiple structural neuroimaging modalities. The association between these techniques may reveal the mechanisms underlying juvenile myoclonic epilepsy and help to identify the neuroanatomical structures involved. Twenty-one patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (13 women, mean age=30±9 years) and a control group of 20 healthy individuals (10 women, mean age=31±8 years) underwent MRI in a 2-T scanner. The volumetric three-dimensional sequence was used for structural investigation. Evaluation of the thalamus comprised voxel-based morphometry, automatic volumetry, and shape analysis. Comparisons were performed between patient and control groups. Voxel-based morphometry analysis identified areas of atrophy located in the anterior portion of the thalamus. Post hoc analysis of automatic volumetry did not reveal significant differences between the groups. Shape analysis disclosed differences between patients and controls in the anterior and inferior portions of the right thalamus and in the anterior portion of the left thalamus. The present investigation confirms that thalami of patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy are structurally abnormal with impairments located mainly in the anterior and inferior sections. PMID:21700499

  4. Common raven juvenile survival in a human-augmented landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webb, W.C.; Boarman, W.I.; Rotenberry, J.T.

    2004-01-01

    Anthropogenic resource subsidies have contributed to the dramatic increase in the abundance of Common Ravens (Corvus corax) in the western Mojave Desert, California, during the past 30 years. To better understand the effects of these subsidies on raven demography, we examined whether survival to juvenile departure from the natal territory could be predicted by a set of environmental and morphological variables, such as nest proximity to anthropogenic resources and juvenile condition. We captured 240 juvenile ravens over 2 years and marked them prior to fledging. Nest proximity to anthropogenic resources and earlier fledging dates significantly predicted raven juvenile survival to departure from the natal territory. The best-fitting mark-recapture models predicted postdeparture survival as a function of time since fledging, nest proximity to anthropogenic resources, and year hatched. The positive effect of nest proximity to anthropogenic resources influenced postdeparture survival for at least 9 months after fledging, as revealed by the mark-recapture analysis. Annual survival was 47% for first-year, 81% for second-year, and 83% for third-year birds. Our results support the hypothesis that anthropogenic resources contribute to increasing raven numbers via increased juvenile survival to departure as well as increased postdeparture survival. We expect raven numbers to grow in concert with the growing human presence in the Mojave Desert unless raven access to anthropogenic resources is diminished.

  5. The neural correlates of emotion processing in juvenile offenders.

    PubMed

    Pincham, Hannah L; Bryce, Donna; Pasco Fearon, R M

    2015-11-01

    Individuals with severe antisocial behaviour often demonstrate abnormalities or difficulties in emotion processing. Antisocial behaviour typically onsets before adulthood and is reflected in antisocial individuals at the biological level. We therefore conducted a brain-based study of emotion processing in juvenile offenders. Male adolescent offenders and age-matched non-offenders passively viewed emotional images whilst their brain activity was recorded using electroencephalography. The early posterior negativity (EPN) and the late positive potential (LPP) components were used as indices of emotion processing. For both juvenile offenders and non-offenders, the EPN differentiated unpleasant images from other image types, suggesting that early perceptual processing was not impaired in the offender group. In line with normal emotion processing, the LPP was significantly enhanced following unpleasant images for non-offenders. However, for juvenile offenders, the LPP did not differ across image categories, indicative of deficient emotional processing. The findings indicated that this brain-based hypo-reactivity occurred during a late stage of cognitive processing and was not a consequence of atypical early visual attention or perception. This study is the first to show attenuated emotion processing in juvenile offenders at the neural level. Overall, these results have the potential to inform interventions for juvenile offending. PMID:25440113

  6. Detecting Mental Disorder in Juvenile Detainees: Who Receives Services

    PubMed Central

    Teplin, Linda A.; Abram, Karen M.; McClelland, Gary M.; Washburn, Jason J.; Pikus, Ann K.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives. We determined whether or not juvenile detainees with major mental disorders received treatment, and the variables that predicted who received services. Methods. Our sample was 1829 randomly selected juvenile detainees taking part in the Northwestern Juvenile Project. To determine need for mental health services, independent interviewers administered the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children and rated functional impairment using the Child Global Assessment Scale. Records on service provision were obtained from the juvenile justice and public health systems. Results. Among detainees who had major mental disorders and associated functional impairments, 15.4% received treatment in the detention center and 8.1% received treatment in the community by the time of case disposition or 6 months, whichever came first. Significantly more girls than boys were detected and treated. Receiving treatment was predicted by clinical variables (having a major mental disorder or reported treatment history or suicidal behavior) and demographic variables. Conclusions. The challenge to public health is to provide accessible, innovative, and effective treatments to juvenile detainees, a population that is often beyond the reach of traditional services. PMID:16186454

  7. Juvenile animal testing in drug development--is it useful?

    PubMed

    Baldrick, Paul

    2010-01-01

    In pharmaceutical drug development, there has been increased interest in the need to perform juvenile animal studies to support the safety of use of new medicines in the pediatric population. Although such studies are not new, the increased interest has been "formalized" in recent regulatory guidelines. As a result, companies are now performing many more studies in juvenile animals, even when there is a lack of robust knowledge of cross-species functional and kinetic differences among juveniles that means extrapolation of any toxicology study finding to an immature human may not be easy or even relevant, especially if performed in the wrong species at the wrong time. It will be shown by presentation of some basic considerations needed in order to perform such testing, that juvenile animal studies are indeed feasible. However, it will also be highlighted that (based on available knowledge) there are currently not enough clear-cut examples to answer the question of whether juvenile animal toxicology studies to support pediatric development (by affecting the performance or design of a pediatric clinical trial or identifying a potential different-from-adult safety risk in clinical use) are truly useful or necessary. PMID:20350578

  8. Maternal immune activation increases seizure susceptibility in juvenile rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ping; Zhang, Xin-Ting; Li, Jun; Yu, Lin; Wang, Ji-Wen; Lei, Ge-Fei; Sun, Ruo-Peng; Li, Bao-Min

    2015-06-01

    Epidemiological data suggest a relationship between maternal infection and a high incidence of childhood epilepsy in offspring. However, there is little experimental evidence that links maternal infection with later seizure susceptibility in juvenile offspring. Here, we asked whether maternal immune challenge during pregnancy can alter seizure susceptibility and seizure-associated brain damage in adolescence. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or normal saline (NS) on gestational days 15 and 16. At postnatal day 21, seizure susceptibility to kainic acid (KA) was evaluated in male offspring. Four groups were studied, including normal control (NS-NS), prenatal infection (LPS-NS), juvenile seizure (NS-KA), and "two-hit" (LPS-KA) groups. Our results demonstrated that maternal LPS exposure caused long-term reactive astrogliosis and increased seizure susceptibility in juvenile rat offspring. Compared to the juvenile seizure group, animals in the "two-hit" group showed exaggerated astrogliosis, followed by worsened spatial learning ability in adulthood. In addition, prenatal immune challenge alone led to spatial learning impairment in offspring but had no effect on anxiety. These data suggest that prenatal immune challenge causes a long-term increase in juvenile seizure susceptibility and exacerbates seizure-induced brain injury, possibly by priming astroglia. PMID:25982885

  9. Home range and movements of juvenile Puerto Rican parrots

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsey, G.D.; Arendt, W.J.; Kalina, J.; Pendleton, G.W.

    1991-01-01

    We studied home range and movements of 15 radio-marked, juvenile Puerto Rican parrots (Amazona vittata) fledging from wild nests during summer and fall, 1985-87. When juvenile parrots remained in the nest valley, home ranges during 1986 (.hivin.x = 32 .+-. 10 [SE] ha, n = 4) were larger (P = 0.0079) than during 1987 (.hivin.x = 13 .+-. 6 ha, n = 5). After radio-marked parrots integrated into adult flocks, home ranges during 1986 (.hivin.x = 1,075 .+-. 135 ha, n = 3) were similar (P = 0.10) to 1987 (.hivin.x = 416 .+-. 62 ha, n = 2). Juvenile parrots restricted their movements to nest valleys an average of 58 .+-. 29 days following fledging. After joining adult flocks, juvenile parrots routinely flew between the east and west slopes of the Luquillo Mountains but did not exhibit a seaonal pattern of movement. We recommend that captive-raised, juvenile parrots used in release programs be .gtoreq. 5 months old to ensure they are mature enough to integrate into wild flocks.

  10. Parental Low Self-Control, Family Environments, and Juvenile Delinquency.

    PubMed

    Meldrum, Ryan C; Connolly, George M; Flexon, Jamie; Guerette, Rob T

    2016-10-01

    Research consistently finds that low self-control is significantly correlated with delinquency. Only recently, however, have researchers started to examine associations between parental low self-control, family environments, and child antisocial behavior. Adding to this emerging area of research, the current study examines associations between parental low self-control, aspects of the family environment, and officially recoded juvenile delinquency among a sample (N = 101) of juveniles processed through a juvenile justice assessment facility located in the Southeastern United States. Furthermore, it considers whether aspects of family environments, particularly family cohesion, family conflict, and parental efficacy, mediate the influence of parental low self-control on delinquency. The results of a series of analyses indicate that parental low self-control is correlated with various aspects of family environments and juvenile delinquency, and that the association between parental low self-control and juvenile delinquency is mediated by family environments. Supplementary analyses also suggest that the association between parental low self-control and the family environment may be reciprocal. PMID:25943365

  11. Chemical Evolution of the Juvenile Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasserburg, G. J.; Qian, Y.-Z.

    2009-09-01

    Models of average Galactic chemical abundances are in good general agreement with observations for [Fe/H] > -1.5, but there are gross discrepancies at lower metallicities. Only massive stars contribute to the chemical evolution of the `juvenile universe' corresponding to [Fe/H] <~ -1.5. If Type II supernovae (SNe II) are the only relevant sources, then the abundances in the interstellar medium of the juvenile epoch are simply the sum of different SN II contributions. Both low-mass (~8-11 Msolar) and normal (~12-25 Msolar) SNe II produce neutron stars, which have intense neutrino-driven winds in their nascent stages. These winds produce elements such as Sr, Y and Zr through charged-particle reactions (CPR). Such elements are often called the `light r-process elements', but are considered here as products of CPR and not the r process. The observed absence of production of the low-A elements (Na through Zn including Fe) when the true r-process elements (Ba and above) are produced requires that only low-mass SNe II be the site if the r process occurs in SNe II. Normal SNe II produce the CPR elements in addition to the low-A elements. This results in a two-component model that is quantitatively successful in explaining the abundances of all elements relative to hydrogen for -3 <~ [Fe/H] <~ -1.5. This model explicitly predicts that [Sr/Fe] >= -0.32. Recent observations show that there are stars with [Sr/Fe] <~ -2 and [Fe/H] < -3. This proves that the two-component model is not correct and that a third component is necessary to explain the observations. The production of CPR elements associated with the formation of neutron stars requires that the third component must be massive stars ending as black holes. It is concluded that stars of ~25-50 Msolar (possibly up to ~100 Msolar) are the appropriate candidates. These produce hypernovae (HNe) that have very high Fe yields and are observed today. Stars of ~140-260 Msolar are completely disrupted upon explosion. However, they

  12. The Etiology of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Rigante, Donato; Bosco, Annalisa; Esposito, Susanna

    2015-10-01

    Over the years, the commonly used term to describe juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) has changed. By definition, JIA includes all types of arthritis with no apparent cause, lasting more than 6 weeks, in patients aged less than 16 years at onset. JIA pathogenesis is still poorly understood: the interaction between environmental factors and multiple genes has been proposed as the most relevant working mechanism to the development of JIA. The concept that various microbes that colonize or infect not only the mucosal surfaces, like the oral cavity, but also the airways and gut might trigger autoimmune processes, resulting in chronic arthritides, and JIA was first drafted at the outset of last century. JIA development might be initiated and sustained by the exposure to environmental factors, including infectious agents which affect people at a young age, depending on the underlying genetic predisposition to synovial inflammation. Many data from patients with JIA suggest a scenario in which different external antigens incite multiple antigen-specific pathways, cytotoxic T cell responses, activation of classical complement cascade, and production of proinflammatory cytokines. In this review, emphasis is paid not only to the potential role of parvovirus B19 and Epstein-Barr virus in primis but also to the general involvement of different bacteria as Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Campylobacter spp., Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Bartonella henselae, and Streptococcus pyogenes for the development of immune-mediated arthritides during childhood. No unequivocal evidence favoring or refuting these associations has been clearly proved, and today, the strict definition of JIA etiology remains unknown. The infection can represent a random event in a susceptible individual, or it can be a necessary factor in JIA development, always in combination with a peculiar genetic background. Further studies are needed in order to address the unsolved questions

  13. Segregation analysis of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy

    SciTech Connect

    Weissbecker, K.A.; Delgado-Escueta, A.V.; Medina, M.T.

    1994-09-01

    Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is a non-progressive epilepsy characterized by involuntary jerks and an adolescent age of onset. There conflicting reports regarding the mode of inheritance of JME - polygenic, autosomal recessive, and two-locus models have all been proposed. We performed a segregation analysis of 53 nuclear families of JME probands using the Elston and Stewart algorithm (S.A.G.E version 2.1). Relatives of the proband were classified as affected if they had a confirmed history of JME, absence or grand mal epilepsy, or if they were clinically asymptomatic but had 3.5-6 Hz multispike wave complexes on electroencephalography. Using these criteria, 40 relatives were affected in addition to the 53 probands. All Mendelian models were rejected when compared to the unrestricted model which estimated transmission probabilities. The environmental models were also rejected. Of the Mendelian modes, the most parsimonious model was the autosomal recessive model with 53% penetrance and a rate of sporadic cases of 0.0039. We conclude that although there is evidence for a genetic component contributing to the familiality of JME, this component can not be explained by a single major gene. These results, along with contradictory reports regarding the linkage of JME to the short arm of chromosome 6, suggest the presence of genetic heterogeneity and/or a more complex mode of inheritance, such as a two-locus model. Since lod score linkage analyses are dependent on the assumption of a single major gene mode, these findings emphasize the necessity of performing non-parametric linkage analyses when studying JME.

  14. [Malunited juvenile fractures in the foot region].

    PubMed

    Zwipp, H; Ranft, T

    1991-11-01

    Between 1971 and 1990 we treated 121 juvenile patients up to 14 years of age with fractures of the ankle joint and foot in the department of trauma surgery at Hannover Medical School. A total of 128 fractures were treated in these patients, excluding toe fractures. The distribution of fractures as referred to the anatomical-functional planes was as follows: Tibia-talar joint 69; talus 8; calcaneus 6; Chopart joint 5; Lisfranc joint 4 and metatarsal area 36. Clinical and radiological follow-up investigations were possible a mean of 8.7 years post trauma for all talar and calcaneal fractures, for 7 out of 9 Chopart/Lisfranc injuries and for 7 out of 35 of metatarsal fractures. In the case of talus fractures our results suggest that it is to restore the original length of the talus bone (medial column); this is important to prevent collapse of the longitudinal arch with subsequent early arthritis. The rare cases of sustained intraarticular damage to calcaneal fractures should be treated as in adults, i.e. by open, anatomical reconstruction. In children, Chopart/Lisfranc 2 fracture dislocations only occur if high-energy trauma is present (runover trauma in 4 out of 9 cases). Optimal treatment again is comparable to that in adults: open, anatomical reduction with Kirschner-wires followed by temporary, tibio-tarsal transfixation; this is important since no compensatory mechanisms develop if a subluxation is present after reduction. Metatarsal fractures often occur along the first and fifth rays and have a good prognosis. Conservative treatment is justified, since, according to our results, even in intraarticular fractures of the metatarsal head good remodeling to fragments occurs. PMID:1684652

  15. Immune Complexes in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Terry L.

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) reflects a group of clinically heterogeneous, autoimmune disorders in children characterized by chronic arthritis and hallmarked by elevated levels of circulating immune complexes (CICs) and associated complement activation by-products in their sera. Immune complexes (ICs) have been detected in patients’ sera with JIA utilizing a variety of methods, including the anti-human IgM affinity column, C1q solid-phase assay, polyethylene glycol precipitation, Staphylococcal Protein A separation method, anti-C1q/C3 affinity columns, and FcγRIII affinity method. As many as 75% of JIA patients have had IC detected in their sera. The CIC proteome in JIA patients has been examined to elucidate disease-associated proteins that are expressed in active disease. Evaluation of these ICs has shown the presence of multiple peptide fragments by SDS-PAGE and 2-DE. Subsequently, all isotypes of rheumatoid factor (RF), isotypes of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) antibodies, IgG, C1q, C4, C3, and the membrane attack complex (MAC) were detected in these IC. Complement activation and levels of IC correlate with disease activity in JIA, indicating their role in the pathophysiology of the disease. This review will summarize the existing literature and discuss the role of possible protein modification that participates in the generation of the immune response. We will address the possible role of these events in the development of ectopic germinal centers that become the secondary site of plasma cell development in JIA. We will further address possible therapeutic modalities that could be instituted as a result of the information gathered by the presence of ICs in JIA. PMID:27242784

  16. Phased activity in Heterorhabditis megidis infective juveniles.

    PubMed

    Dempsey, C M; Griffin, C T

    2002-06-01

    The infectivity of Heterorhabditis megidis infective juveniles (IJs) increases during storage in water. We investigated whether this change can be related to other features of the IJs' behaviour. IJs were stored in water for 4 weeks at 20 degrees C, and the following parameters were assessed at intervals: infectivity for Galleria mellonella, dispersal in sand, host-finding on agar, and the percentage of IJs active in water. In addition, the behaviour of the IJs in water was described using 7 categories. Immediately after emerging from the host cadaver, IJs were highly active (99% of IJs in water were active and 65% displayed 'waving', the normal method of forward movement). Maximum responsiveness to host volatiles in an agar plate assay was recorded on day 2 (69% of IJs moved from the point of application and 44% of all IJs in the agar arena moved towards a host) and maximum dispersal in sand (5.8 cm) on day 0. These tendencies declined gradually with age, while infectivity underwent a significant increase from 11 nematodes per insect on day 0 to 38 nematodes per insect on day 9. Three phases could be distinguished in the behaviour of H. megidis IJs: an initial dispersal phase, during which infectivity was low; an infective phase, during which dispersal tendency was declining, and a third phase during which all behaviours (dispersal, infectivity and activity) were declining. Over the 4-week storage period, infectivity of H. megidis IJs was correlated (R2 = 0.83) with the percentage time IJs engaged in 'head thrusting' (a behaviour that resembles penetration). There is no evidence that the observed increase in infectivity of H. megidis strain UK211 could be accounted for by a generally greater level of motor activity, nor by an increase in responsiveness to volatile host cues, and it is suggested that it is due to an increased tendency to attempt penetration. PMID:12118716

  17. Miglustat therapy in juvenile Sandhoff disease.

    PubMed

    Tallaksen, C M E; Berg, J E

    2009-12-01

    GM(2)-gangliosidosis is a rare and heterogeneous inherited metabolic disorder caused by autosomal recessive mutations in genes encoding the lysosomal enzyme β-hexosaminidase, resulting in the accumulation of ganglioside GM(2) in various tissues, particularly the central nervous system. It is characterized by progressive neurological deterioration that mainly affects motor and spinocerebellar function. Several forms of GM(2)-gangliosidosis exist, including the Sandhoff variant. Currently there is no treatment for these conditions, except for palliative care. Miglustat (Zavesca) is a reversible inhibitor of glucosylceramide synthase, which catalyses the first committed step in the synthesis of glucose-based glycolipids. Miglustat has pharmacokinetic properties that allow it to cross the blood-brain barrier, and preclinical data suggest that it may benefit neuronopathic lysosomal storage diseases. Here we present a case report of a Norwegian patient with Sandhoff disease treated with miglustat at our centre in Norway. The patient initially presented with ataxia and dysarthria at 2-3 years of age, which progressed slowly during childhood. At age 14, he experienced episodes of depression and apathy, leading to weight loss. He was diagnosed with Sandhoff disease at age 16. Following 2.5 years of treatment with miglustat, his body weight was stabilized and disease progression appeared to have slowed, as evidenced by the lack of progressive brain atrophy. His depressive symptoms were managed using electroconvulsive treatment (ECT), which improved general functioning. These findings suggest that miglustat may provide beneficial effects in patients with juvenile Sandhoff disease, and that ECT may alleviate depressive symptoms. PMID:19898953

  18. Immune Complexes in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Moore, Terry L

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) reflects a group of clinically heterogeneous, autoimmune disorders in children characterized by chronic arthritis and hallmarked by elevated levels of circulating immune complexes (CICs) and associated complement activation by-products in their sera. Immune complexes (ICs) have been detected in patients' sera with JIA utilizing a variety of methods, including the anti-human IgM affinity column, C1q solid-phase assay, polyethylene glycol precipitation, Staphylococcal Protein A separation method, anti-C1q/C3 affinity columns, and FcγRIII affinity method. As many as 75% of JIA patients have had IC detected in their sera. The CIC proteome in JIA patients has been examined to elucidate disease-associated proteins that are expressed in active disease. Evaluation of these ICs has shown the presence of multiple peptide fragments by SDS-PAGE and 2-DE. Subsequently, all isotypes of rheumatoid factor (RF), isotypes of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) antibodies, IgG, C1q, C4, C3, and the membrane attack complex (MAC) were detected in these IC. Complement activation and levels of IC correlate with disease activity in JIA, indicating their role in the pathophysiology of the disease. This review will summarize the existing literature and discuss the role of possible protein modification that participates in the generation of the immune response. We will address the possible role of these events in the development of ectopic germinal centers that become the secondary site of plasma cell development in JIA. We will further address possible therapeutic modalities that could be instituted as a result of the information gathered by the presence of ICs in JIA. PMID:27242784

  19. BLACK SPOT INFESTATION IN JUVENILE COHO SALMON AND THE INFLUENCE OF OREGON COASTAL STREAM SUMMER TEMPERATURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Freshwater survival and growth of juvenile salmon are affected by many factors, including high summer temperatures and other stressors such as parasitism. Delayed or suppressed growth related to stress can influence subsequent survival of juvenile salmonids in freshwater and mar...

  20. Bioassays of Compounds with Potential Juvenoid Activity on Drosophila melanogaster: Juvenile Hormone III, Bisepoxide Juvenile Hormone III and Methyl Farnesoates

    PubMed Central

    Harshman, Lawrence G.; Song, Ki-Duck; Casas, Josephina; Schuurmans, A.; Kuwano, Eichii; Kachman, Stephen D.; Riddiford, Lynn M.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2010-01-01

    Metabolites of the 6,7,10,11 bisepoxide juvenile hormone III (JHB3), and other potential juvenoids, were tested for juvenile hormone activity using early instar or early stage pupae of Drosophila melanogaster. Importantly, methyl farnesoates were tested as they might have JH-like activity on Dipteran juveniles. Larvae were exposed to compounds in medium, or the compounds were applied to white puparia. In the assays employed in the present study, there was no indication for JH activity associated with the metabolites of JHB3. The activity of methyl farnesoate (MF) was higher than that of JH III and far greater than bisepoxide JH III. As opposed to the two endogenous juvenile hormones, methyl farnesoate has weak activity in the white puparial bioassaay. When fluorinated forms of methyl farnesoate, which is unlikely to be converted to JH, were applied to Drosophila medium to which fly eggs were introduced, there was a high degree of larval mortality, but no evidence of subsequent mortality at the pupal stage. One possible explanation for the results is that methyl farnesoate is active as a hormone in larval stages, but has little activity at the pupal stage where only juvenile hormone has a major effect. PMID:20599543

  1. Juvenile Toxicology: Relevance and Challenges for Toxicologists and Pathologists

    PubMed Central

    Remick, Amera K.; Catlin, Natasha R.; Quist, Erin M.; Steinbach, Thomas J.; Dixon, Darlene

    2015-01-01

    The Society of Toxicologic Pathology (STP) Education Committee and the STP Reproductive Special Interest Group held a North Carolina regional meeting entitled, “Juvenile Toxicology: Relevance and Challenges for Toxicologists and Pathologists” on March 13, 2015, at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences/National Toxicology Program in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. The purpose of this regional meeting was to familiarize attendees with the topic of juvenile toxicity testing and discuss its relevance to clinical pediatric medicine, regulatory perspectives, challenges of appropriate study design confronted by toxicologists, and challenges of histopathologic examination and interpretation of juvenile tissues faced by pathologists. The 1-day meeting was a success with over 60 attendees representing industry, government, research organizations, and academia. PMID:26220944

  2. Treatment in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis and new treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Kasapçopur, Özgür; Barut, Kenan

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common chronic rheumatic disease of the childhood with the highest risk of disability. Active disease persists in the adulthood in a significant portion of children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis despite many developments in the diagnosis and treatment. Therefore, initiation of efficient treatment in the early period of the disease may provide faster control of the inflammation and prevention of long-term harms. In recent years, treatment options have also increased in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis owing to biological medications. All biological medications used in children have been produced to target the etiopathogenesis leading to disease including anti-tumor necrosis factor, anti-interleukin 1 and anti-interleukin 6 drugs. In this review, scientific data about biological medications used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and new treatment options will be discussed. PMID:26078691

  3. Multidisciplinary treatment for prepubertal juvenile myasthenia gravis with crisis.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Yusuke; Inoue, Masayoshi; Nabatame, Shin; Okumura, Meinoshin; Ozono, Keiichi

    2016-08-01

    The management of juvenile myasthenia gravis (MG) remains controversial. We report herein the case of a 12-year-old girl with prepubertal juvenile MG with respiratory crisis who underwent thymectomy following methylprednisolone pulse therapy. The patient initially developed progressively worsening fatigability, eyelid ptosis, and diplopia, followed by worsening generalized weakness, dysphagia, and dyspnea. Even after i.v. immunoglobulin, the patient presented with rapid onset of severe dyspnea requiring respiratory support with mechanical ventilation and was graded as Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America class V. After a course of i.v. methylprednisolone pulse therapy, successful control of respiratory crisis was achieved, and trans-sternal thymectomy was performed. Partial remission was achieved postoperatively with oral pyridostigmine without immunosuppressive agents such as steroids or calcineurin inhibitors for 18 months after thymectomy. Early thymectomy following induction methylprednisolone pulse therapy might be a treatment option for prepubertal juvenile MG with severe respiratory crisis. PMID:27324449

  4. Culturally competent practice with African American juvenile sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Venable, Victoria M; Guada, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    African American juveniles adjudicated for sexual offenses may struggle with the mistrust of both the judicial and treatment systems. Unlike general mental health services, juvenile sex offender treatment is often mandated by the court or child welfare services, thus these youths and their families must engage in the treatment process. Without clinicians and services that can acknowledge and respond to a minority youth's experience in a sensitive, culturally competent manner, there could be significant resistance to treatment. Traditional treatment approaches fail to prioritize issues involving cultural competence. This article addresses the unique challenges of African American juvenile sex offenders and makes recommendations for creating culturally competent practice for these youth and their families. PMID:24641684

  5. Treatment for juveniles who sexually offend in a Southwestern state.

    PubMed

    Ikomi, Philip A; Harris-Wyatt, Georgetta; Doucet, Geraldine; Rodney, H Elaine

    2009-11-01

    A 25-item questionnaire was mailed to sex offender treatment providers from counties with 60 or more reported juvenile sex offenders in a Southwestern state to determine the most effective treatment for juvenile sex offenders. Results indicated that cognitive behavioral therapy was the most successful reported approach to treatment with an average success rate of 87%. The most commonly used approach was cognitive behavioral therapy with relapse prevention. The most common sexual offense was indecency with a child involving sexual contact, contrary to studies that found that in the Probation Commission data, aggravated sexual offense was the most common. These results have ramifications for state policies on treatment for juvenile sex offenders. PMID:20183420

  6. Juvenile Toxicology: Relevance and Challenges for Toxicologists and Pathologists.

    PubMed

    Remick, Amera K; Catlin, Natasha R; Quist, Erin M; Steinbach, Thomas J; Dixon, Darlene

    2015-12-01

    The Society of Toxicologic Pathology (STP) Education Committee and the STP Reproductive Special Interest Group held a North Carolina regional meeting entitled, "Juvenile Toxicology: Relevance and Challenges for Toxicologists and Pathologists" on March 13, 2015, at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences/National Toxicology Program in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. The purpose of this regional meeting was to familiarize attendees with the topic of juvenile toxicity testing and discuss its relevance to clinical pediatric medicine, regulatory perspectives, challenges of appropriate study design confronted by toxicologists, and challenges of histopathologic examination and interpretation of juvenile tissues faced by pathologists. The 1-day meeting was a success with over 60 attendees representing industry, government, research organizations, and academia. PMID:26220944

  7. Biomass Estimation of Dry Tropical Woody Species at Juvenile Stage

    PubMed Central

    Chaturvedi, R. K.; Raghubanshi, A. S.; Singh, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate characterization of biomass in different forest components is important to estimate their contribution to total carbon stock. Due to lack of allometric equations for biomass estimation of woody species at juvenile stage, the carbon stored in this forest component is ignored. We harvested 47 woody species at juvenile stage in a dry tropical forest and developed regression models for the estimation of above-ground biomass (AGB). The models including wood-specific gravity (ρ) exhibited higher R2 than those without ρ. The model consisting of ρ, stem diameter (D), and height (H) not only exhibited the highest R2 value but also had the lowest standard error of estimate. We suggest that ρ-based regression model is a viable option for nondestructive estimation of biomass of forest trees at juvenile stage. PMID:22448139

  8. Envenomation by a juvenile Malayan pit viper (Agkistrodon rhodostoma).

    PubMed

    Vest, D K; Kardong, K V

    1980-05-01

    Following an accidental bite inflicted by a juvenile Malayan pit viper (Agkistrodon rhodostoma), the progress of envenomation was carefully monitored and subsequent laboratory work performed to determine the amount and quality of venom injected. Even a very small amount of venom from this species is capable of inducing noticeable local symptoms including edema, subcutaneous bleeding, and throbbing. Constitutional symptoms were present but minimal. The extent of inflammation present at any given time following envenomation was found to be a more accurate diagnostic signal than the speed with which it developed. This case is similar to that of bites by juveniles of other species of viperines and crotalines and may serve to aid in the diagnosis and treatment of bites by juvenile specimens of serpents in these families. PMID:7398218

  9. Assessing juvenile sex offenders to determine adequate levels of supervision.

    PubMed

    Gerdes, K E; Gourley, M M; Cash, M C

    1995-08-01

    The present study analyzed the internal consistency of four inventories currently being used by probation officers in the state of Utah to determine adequate and efficacious supervision levels and placement for juvenile sex offenders. The internal consistency or reliability of the inventories ranged from moderate to good. Factor analysis was utilized to significantly increase the reliability of the four inventories by collapsing them into the following three factors: (a) Custodian's and Juvenile's Attitude Toward Intervention; (b) Offense Characteristics; and (c) Historical Risk Factors. These three inventories/factors explained 41.2% of the variance in the combined inventories' scores. Suggestions are made regarding the creation of an additional inventory. "Characteristics of the Victim" to account for more of the variance. In addition, suggestions as to how these inventories can be used by probation officers to make objective and consistent decisions about adequate supervision levels and placement for juvenile sex offenders are discussed. PMID:7583754

  10. [Juvenile obesity with a focus on health promotion: integrative review].

    PubMed

    Luna, Izaildo Tavares; Moreira, Rosa Aparecida Nogueira; da Silva, Kelanne Lima; Caetano, Joselany Afio; Pinheiro, Patrícia Neyva da Costa; Rebouças, Cristiana Brasil de Almeida

    2011-06-01

    This integrative review summarizes nursing researches that contribute to study juvenile obesity with a focus on health promotion. 20 articles were identified in a bibliographical survey that followed the criteria: date, language, and the descriptors: nursing, adolescent, obesity and health promotion. The Pediatric Nursing Journal published seven of these papers (35%). Indexed papers were published in the last ten years in Portuguese and English. Results showed the construction of scientific knowledge in nursing that developed health promotion strategies in cases of juvenile obesity, thus contributing to the development of the profession. Showing the cumulative risk that juvenile obesity presents of turning subjects into obese adults is a precious resource to plan nursing actions for this population, and for these actions to achieve effective results. PMID:21988003

  11. Panniculitis in juvenile dermatomyositis: Report of a case and review of the published work.

    PubMed

    Salman, Andac; Kasapcopur, Ozgur; Ergun, Tulin; Durmus Ucar, Ayse Nigar; Demirkesen, Cuyan

    2016-08-01

    We report a 15-year-old girl who presented with indurated, subcutaneous nodules in addition to classical findings of juvenile dermatomyositis. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of panniculitis associated with juvenile dermatomyositis. Considering that panniculitis is a rare cutaneous manifestation of juvenile dermatomyositis, we present a patient with a brief review of the published work to highlight the importance of keeping juvenile dermatomyositis in mind among the etiologies of pediatric panniculitis. PMID:26971888

  12. Do naive juvenile seabirds forage differently from adults?

    PubMed

    Riotte-Lambert, Louise; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2013-10-01

    Foraging skills of young individuals are assumed to be inferior to those of adults. The reduced efficiency of naive individuals may be the primary cause of the high juvenile mortality and explain the deferment of maturity in long-lived species. However, the study of juvenile and immature foraging behaviour has been limited so far. We used satellite telemetry to compare the foraging movements of juveniles, immatures and breeding adult wandering albatrosses Diomedea exulans, a species where foraging success is positively influenced by the distance covered daily. We showed that juveniles are able to use favourable winds as soon as the first month of independence, but cover shorter distances daily and spend more time sitting on water than adults during the first two months after fledging. These reduced movement capacities do not seem to be the cause of higher juvenile mortality. Moreover, juveniles almost never restrict their movement to specific areas, as adults and immatures frequently do over shelf edges or oceanic zones, which suggest that the location of appropriate areas is learned through experience. Immatures and adults have equivalent movement capacities, but when they are central place foragers, i.e. when adults breed or immatures come to the colony to display and pair, immatures make shorter trips than adults. The long duration of immaturity in this species seems to be related to a long period of learning to integrate the foraging constraints associated with reproduction and central place foraging. Our results indicate that foraging behaviour of young albatrosses is partly innate and partly learned progressively over immaturity. The first months of learning appear critical in terms of survival, whereas the long period of immaturity is necessary for young birds to attain the skills necessary for efficient breeding without fitness costs. PMID:23926153

  13. Juvenile fish condition in estuarine nurseries along the Portuguese coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasconcelos, R. P.; Reis-Santos, P.; Fonseca, V.; Ruano, M.; Tanner, S.; Costa, M. J.; Cabral, H. N.

    2009-03-01

    Connectivity between estuarine fish nurseries and coastal adult habitats can be affected by variations in juvenile growth and survival. Condition indices are renowned proxies of juvenile nutritional status and growth rates and are valuable tools to assess habitat quality. Biochemical (RNA:DNA ratio) and morphometric (Fulton's condition factor K) condition indices were determined in juveniles of Solea solea, Solea senegalensis, Platichthys flesus, Diplodus vulgaris and Dicentrarchus labrax collected in putative nursery areas of nine estuaries along the Portuguese coast (Minho, Douro, Ria de Aveiro, Mondego, Tejo, Sado, Mira, Ria Formosa and Guadiana) in the Spring and Summer of two consecutive years (2005 and 2006) with distinct climatic characteristics. Individual condition showed significant variation amongst species. The combined use of both condition indices highlighted the low correlation between them and that RNA:DNA had a higher sensitivity. RNA:DNA varied between years but overall the site relative patterns in condition were maintained from one year to the other. Higher RNA:DNA values were found in Spring than in Summer in most species. Intra-estuarine variation also occurred in several cases. Species specific trends in the variability of condition amongst estuaries were highlighted. Some estuaries had higher juvenile condition for more than one species but results did not reveal an identical trend for all species and sites, hindering the hypotheses of one estuarine nursery promoting superior growth for all present species. Significant correlations were found between condition indices, juvenile densities and environmental variables (water temperature, salinity and depth) in the estuarine nurseries. These influenced juvenile nutritional condition and growth, contributing to the variability in estuarine nursery habitat quality. Management and conservation wise, interest in multi-species approaches is reinforced as assessments based on a single species may not

  14. Juvenile coral reef fish use sound to locate habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radford, C. A.; Stanley, J. A.; Simpson, S. D.; Jeffs, A. G.

    2011-06-01

    There is limited knowledge of the orientation cues used by reef fish in their movement among different habitats, especially those cues used during darkness. Although acoustic cues have been found to be important for settlement-stage fish as they seek settlement habitats, only a small number of studies support the possible role of acoustic cues in the orientation of post-settled and adult reef fish. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether habitat-specific acoustic cues were involved in the nocturnal movements of juvenile reef fish to small experimental patch reefs that were broadcasting sound previously recorded from different habitats (Fringing Reef, Lagoon, Silent). Juvenile fish arriving at each patch reef were caught the next morning by divers and were identified. There were a greater number of occasions when juvenile fish (from all species together) moved onto the patch reefs broadcasting Fringing Reef and Lagoon sound (43 and 38%, respectively) compared to Silent reefs (19%) (χ2 = 33.5; P < 0.05). There were significantly more occasions when juvenile fish from the family Nemipteridae were attracted to the patch reefs broadcasting Lagoon sound (63%) versus those reefs broadcasting either Fringing Reef sound (31%) or Silent (6%). In contrast, there were more occasions when juveniles from the family Pomacentridae were attracted to the patch reefs broadcasting Fringing Reef sound (56%) than either Lagoon (24%) or Silent patch reefs (20%) (χ2 = 19.5; P < 0.05). These results indicate that some juvenile fish use specific habitat sounds to guide their nocturnal movements. Therefore, the fish are able to not only use the directional information contained in acoustic cues, but can also interpret the content of the acoustic signals for relevant habitat information which is then used in their decision-making for orientation.

  15. Transporting juvenile salmonids around dams impairs adult migration.

    PubMed

    Keefer, Matthew L; Caudill, Christopher C; Peery, Christopher A; Lee, Steven R

    2008-12-01

    Mitigation and ecosystem-restoration efforts may have unintended consequences on both target and nontarget populations. Important effects can be displaced in space and time, making them difficult to detect without monitoring at appropriate scales. Here, we examined the effects of a mitigation program for juvenile salmonids on subsequent adult migration behaviors and survival. Juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (O. mykiss) were collected and uniquely tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags at Lower Granite Dam (Washington State, USA) on the Snake River and were then either transported downstream in barges in an effort to reduce out-migration mortality or returned to the river as a control group. Returning adults were collected and radio-tagged at Bonneville Dam (Washington-Oregon, USA) on the Columbia River 1-3 years later and then monitored during approximately 460 km of their homing migrations. The proportion of adults successfully homing was significantly lower, and unaccounted loss and permanent straying into non-natal rivers was higher, for barged fish of both species. On average, barged fish homed to Lower Granite Dam at rates about 10% lower than for in-river migrants. Barged fish were also 1.7-3.4 times more likely than in-river fish to fall back downstream past dams as adults, a behavior strongly associated with lower survival. These results suggest that juvenile transport impaired adult orientation or homing abilities, perhaps by disrupting sequential imprinting processes during juvenile out-migration. While juvenile transportation has clear short-term juvenile-survival benefits, the delayed effects that manifest in adult stages illustrate the need to assess mitigation success throughout the life cycle of target organisms, i.e., the use of fitness-based measures. In the case of Snake River salmonids listed under the Endangered Species Act, the increased straying and potential associated genetic and demographic

  16. Do naive juvenile seabirds forage differently from adults?

    PubMed Central

    Riotte-Lambert, Louise; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2013-01-01

    Foraging skills of young individuals are assumed to be inferior to those of adults. The reduced efficiency of naive individuals may be the primary cause of the high juvenile mortality and explain the deferment of maturity in long-lived species. However, the study of juvenile and immature foraging behaviour has been limited so far. We used satellite telemetry to compare the foraging movements of juveniles, immatures and breeding adult wandering albatrosses Diomedea exulans, a species where foraging success is positively influenced by the distance covered daily. We showed that juveniles are able to use favourable winds as soon as the first month of independence, but cover shorter distances daily and spend more time sitting on water than adults during the first two months after fledging. These reduced movement capacities do not seem to be the cause of higher juvenile mortality. Moreover, juveniles almost never restrict their movement to specific areas, as adults and immatures frequently do over shelf edges or oceanic zones, which suggest that the location of appropriate areas is learned through experience. Immatures and adults have equivalent movement capacities, but when they are central place foragers, i.e. when adults breed or immatures come to the colony to display and pair, immatures make shorter trips than adults. The long duration of immaturity in this species seems to be related to a long period of learning to integrate the foraging constraints associated with reproduction and central place foraging. Our results indicate that foraging behaviour of young albatrosses is partly innate and partly learned progressively over immaturity. The first months of learning appear critical in terms of survival, whereas the long period of immaturity is necessary for young birds to attain the skills necessary for efficient breeding without fitness costs. PMID:23926153

  17. Survival and causes of mortality in juvenile Puerto Rican parrots

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsey, G.D.; Arendt, W.J.; Kalina, J.

    1994-01-01

    Fifteen juvenile Puerto Rican Parrots (Amazona vittata) from wild nests in 1985, 1986 and 1987 were radio monitored an average of 110 +- 15.9 (SE) d (range 4-209 d) post-fledgling. Minimum survival was 67% (n = 3) in 1985, 100% (n = 4) in 1986 and 43% (n = 7) in 1987. Most mortality (three of five deaths) occurred during the first 35 d following fledgling. A major cause of mortality was predation by raptors. This research shows that additional studies are needed to define mortality causes to juvenile and adult free-flying Puerto Rican Parrots and to develop management guidelines to increase survival.

  18. ADHD in juvenile offenders: treatment issues nurses need to know.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Deborah; Pearson, Geraldine

    2005-09-01

    1. When working with juvenile offenders with ADHD, advanced practice nurses should consider prescribing stimulant medication in conjunction with other psychosocial interventions to achieve maximum treatment success. 2. Nurses working with young people with ADHD in the justice system must carefully coordinate care among all health care providers and juvenile justice personnel, including attorneys, probation/parole officers, and court assessment personnel. 3. Advocating for the individual needs of clients and their families is critical; often, this includes advocating for care that is not only evidence based, but also culturally competent. PMID:16252801

  19. Weapons Used by Juveniles and Adult Offenders in U.S. Parricide Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heide, Kathleen M.; Petee, Thomas A.

    2007-01-01

    In recent decades, attention has focused on juveniles who kill their parents. Research has indicated that increases in juvenile homicide have been associated with the availability of firearms, but little is known about the weapons juveniles use to kill their parents and whether their weapon usage is different from that of adult children who kill…

  20. Social Support, Motivation, and the Process of Juvenile Reentry: An Exploratory Analysis of Desistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panuccio, Elizabeth A.; Christian, Johnna; Martinez, Damian J.; Sullivan, Mercer L.

    2012-01-01

    Many scholarly works and studies have explored the experience of reentry and desistance for adult offenders, but fewer studies have focused on these processes among juvenile offenders. Using qualitative case studies of juveniles released from secure confinement, this study explores the desistance process during juvenile reentry by examining how…

  1. Comparing Male and Female Juveniles Charged with Homicide: Child Maltreatment, Substance Abuse, and Crime Details

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roe-Sepowitz, Dominique Eve

    2009-01-01

    This study examines a sample of 136 male and female juveniles charged with attempted homicide or homicide. The purpose of this study is to explore the differences between nondirect file male and female juvenile homicide offenders regarding individual, family, and crime circumstances. Findings suggest that compared to male juvenile offenders,…

  2. Los Angeles County Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act. Fiscal Year 2009-2010 Report. Technical Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fain, Terry; Turner, Susan; Ridgeway, Greg

    2012-01-01

    In 2000, the California State Legislature passed what is now known as the Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act (JJCPA). This effort was designed to provide a stable funding source to counties for juvenile programs that have been proven effective in curbing crime among juvenile probationers and young at-risk offenders. The Corrections Standards…

  3. The Education of Juveniles in Detention: Policy Considerations and Infrastructure Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geib, Catherine Foley; Chapman, John F.; D'Amaddio, Amy H.; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a discussion of the state of affairs pertaining to educating juvenile justice-involved youth. It summarizes general observations regarding the schooling of juveniles in pre-trial and post-trial incarceration settings, as well as, juveniles on probation or in community settings. The article selectively presents relevant…

  4. 28 CFR 2.4 - Same: Youth offenders and juvenile delinquents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Same: Youth offenders and juvenile... RECOMMITMENT OF PRISONERS, YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees § 2.4 Same: Youth offenders and juvenile delinquents. Committed youth offenders and...

  5. 28 CFR 2.4 - Same: Youth offenders and juvenile delinquents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Same: Youth offenders and juvenile... RECOMMITMENT OF PRISONERS, YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees § 2.4 Same: Youth offenders and juvenile delinquents. Committed youth offenders and...

  6. 28 CFR 2.4 - Same: Youth offenders and juvenile delinquents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Same: Youth offenders and juvenile... RECOMMITMENT OF PRISONERS, YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees § 2.4 Same: Youth offenders and juvenile delinquents. Committed youth offenders and...

  7. 28 CFR 2.4 - Same: Youth offenders and juvenile delinquents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Same: Youth offenders and juvenile... RECOMMITMENT OF PRISONERS, YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees § 2.4 Same: Youth offenders and juvenile delinquents. Committed youth offenders and...

  8. 28 CFR 2.4 - Same: Youth offenders and juvenile delinquents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Same: Youth offenders and juvenile... RECOMMITMENT OF PRISONERS, YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees § 2.4 Same: Youth offenders and juvenile delinquents. Committed youth offenders and...

  9. Drug Testing Guidelines and Practices for Juvenile Probation and Parole Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Probation and Parole Association, Lexington, KY.

    This document, intended as a resource manual, provides guidelines on drug testing. These topics are covered: (1) National Institute on Drug Abuse guidelines applicability; (2) introduction to legal issues, drug testing in juvenile probation and parole, and juvenile law; (3) mission of a juvenile parole agency; (4) purpose of testing; (5) drug…

  10. The Metamorphosis of Juvenile Correctional Education: Incidental Conception to Intentional Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, James H.

    2004-01-01

    Juvenile Correctional Education has been evolving in the United States for over 360 years. From inclusion in an indentured servant/foster care type of placement legislated in the Massachusetts Colony in 1642, it has become manifest today as an entitlement regardless of juvenile justice disposition. The education for juveniles was wrapped in the…

  11. [The effect of an injection of synthetic juvenile hormone on Locusta migratoria L].

    PubMed

    Roussel, J P

    1975-05-01

    Hyalophora cecropia synthetic juvenile hormone (Demoute and al., 1973) is injected at doses of 50, 100 or 200 mug in 10 mul of pure peanut oil in fourth stadium of Locusta migratoria migratorioides. This synthetic juvenile hormone shows high chromatotropic, gonadotropic, and juvenilizing actions which are very similar to those of one pair of corpora allata of the species. PMID:807387

  12. An Empirical Examination of the Work Ideologies of Juvenile and Adult Probation Officers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sluder, Richard D.; Reddington, Frances P.

    1993-01-01

    Collected data from 206 probation officers to examine work ideologies of juvenile versus adult probation officers. Findings revealed that juvenile and adult probation officers differed in their opinions about the best method of managing offenders under correctional supervision, with juvenile workers expressing more support for casework-type…

  13. Youth Crime and Juvenile Justice in California: A Report to the Legislature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwood, Peter W.; And Others

    This report, written for state legislators, law enforcers, and researchers, presents the results and recommendations of a study of youth crime and juvenile justice in California. Part I, The Control of Youth Crime in California Today, discusses juvenile crime rates, the processing of juvenile arrests, and arrest disposition patterns. Part II, The…

  14. Juvenile Drug Court: Enhancing Outcomes by Integrating Evidence-Based Treatments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henggeler, Scott W.; Halliday-Boykins, Colleen A.; Cunningham, Phillippe B.; Randall, Jeff; Shapiro, Steven B.; Chapman, Jason E.

    2006-01-01

    Evaluated the effectiveness of juvenile drug court for 161 juvenile offenders meeting diagnostic criteria for substance abuse or dependence and determined whether the integration of evidence-based practices enhanced the outcomes of juvenile drug court. Over a 1-year period, a four-condition randomized design evaluated outcomes for family court…

  15. Multiple Measures of Juvenile Drug Court Effectiveness: Results of a Quasi-Experimental Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Nancy; Webb, Vincent J.

    2004-01-01

    Prior studies of juvenile drug courts have been constrained by small samples, inadequate comparison groups, or limited outcome measures. The authors report on a 3-year evaluation that examines the impact of juvenile drug court participation on recidivism and drug use. A quasi-experimental design is used to compare juveniles assigned to drug court…

  16. History of Juvenile Arrests and Vocational Career Outcomes for At-Risk Young Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiesner, Margit; Kim, Hyoun K.; Capaldi, Deborah M.

    2010-01-01

    This study uses longitudinal data from the Oregon Youth Study (OYS) to examine prospective effects of juvenile arrests and of early versus late onset of juvenile offending on two labor market outcomes by age 29 or 30 years. It was expected that those with more juvenile arrests and those with an early onset of offending would show poorer outcomes…

  17. Violent Lives: A Lifestyle Model Linking Exposure to Violence to Juvenile Violent Offending

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nofziger, Stacey; Kurtz, Don

    2005-01-01

    Studies examining the consequences of juvenile exposure to violence focus largely on psychological outcomes and often ignore the ways in which exposure is associated with deviant peers and juvenile offending. Using data from the National Survey of Adolescents (NSA), a nationally representative sample of juveniles between the ages of 12 and 17, we…

  18. Intensive Aftercare for High-Risk Juveniles: A Community Care Model. Program Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altschuler, David M.; Armstrong, Troy L.

    Crowded juvenile correctional centers, escalating costs of confinement, and high rates of recidivism have renewed interest in bringing innovative ideas to juvenile aftercare philosophy, practice, and programming. This program summary details an Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention initiative designed to assist public and private…

  19. School and Community Interventions To Prevent Serious and Violent Offending. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catalano, Richard F.; Loeber, Rolf; McKinney, Kay C.

    Recent research indicates that children exposed to certain risk factors in their families, at school, among their peers, and in their communities are at greater risk of becoming serious violent juvenile (SVJ) offenders. The Study Group on Serious and Violent Juvenile Offenders, a group of 22 researchers convened by the Office of Juvenile Justice…

  20. The Link: Connecting Juvenile Justice and Child Welfare. Volume 6, Number 3, Winter 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shenk, Emily, Ed.; Price, Jennifer M., Ed.

    2008-01-01

    This issue of "The Link" newsletter contains the following articles: (1) Potential for Change: Public Attitudes and Policy Preferences for Juvenile Justice Systems Reform; (2) Rehabilitation versus Incarceration of Juvenile Offenders: Public Preferences in Four Models for Change States; and (3) Juvenile Justice Bulletin Brief (John Tuell).…

  1. Privacy and Juvenile Justice Records: A Mid-Decade Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belair, Robert R.

    In 1982, a national report examining law and policy for juvenile justice records concluded that the public's faith in the potential for rehabilitating juvenile offenders had eroded. To understand better the nature of juvenile crime, it was suggested that data surrounding this issue be systematically collected. Some of that information effort is…

  2. Gender Differences in Delinquency and Juvenile Justice Processing: Evidence from National Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracy, Paul E.; Kempf-Leonard, Kimberly; Abramoske-James, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    This article traces the historical coverage of the gender issue in the criminological literature. It also provides contemporary empirical evidence about differences and similarities between girls and boys with respect to juvenile crime and to processing by the juvenile justice system, by analyzing several national juvenile crime data series, all…

  3. Federal Juvenile Delinquency Programs: First Analysis and Evaluation. Volumes One and Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. for Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (Dept. of Justice/LEAA), Washington, DC.

    This publication outlines the activities of the Office of Juvenile Justice since its creation. It also reports on the entire Federal effort in delinquency prevention and juvenile justice. An introductory section describes the history and purpose of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-415). Other sections…

  4. 75 FR 22163 - Meeting of the Federal Advisory Committee on Juvenile Justice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ... Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, Justice ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) announces the Spring meeting of...)(2)(C-E) of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 2002. The FACJJ is composed of...

  5. 78 FR 56940 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Juvenile...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-16

    ..., Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of... is CJ-15, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, United States Department of Justice...: Juvenile Residential Facility Census (Extension, without change, of a currently approved collection)...

  6. 78 FR 43920 - Meeting (Webinar) of the Federal Advisory Committee on Juvenile Justice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ...: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice. ACTION: Notice of Webinar Meeting. SUMMARY: The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency... Section 223(f)(2)(C-E) of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 2002. The FACJJ...

  7. 77 FR 39511 - Meeting (Webinar) of the Federal Advisory Committee on Juvenile Justice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ...: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice. ACTION: Notice of Webinar Meeting. SUMMARY: The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency...) of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 2002. The FACJJ is composed...

  8. 78 FR 9070 - Meeting (Webinar) of the Federal Advisory Committee on Juvenile Justice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-07

    ...: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice. ACTION: Notice of Webinar meeting. SUMMARY: The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency...) of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 2002. The FACJJ is composed...

  9. 78 FR 69876 - Meeting of the Federal Advisory Committee on Juvenile Justice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-21

    ... Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) announces a...) of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 2002. The FACJJ is composed...

  10. Children in Custody: Public Juvenile Facilities, 1985. Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sickmund, Melissa; Baunach, Phyllis Jo

    A total of 1,040 publicly operated state and local juvenile detention, correction, and shelter facilities held 49,322 juvenile residents on February 1, 1985, an increase of 1% from the previous year. About 93% of the juveniles were accused of, or had been convicted for, acts which would be criminal offenses if committed by adults. Most of the rest…

  11. The Effect of the Juvenile Fiction on the Reading Skills of Junior High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkyilmaz, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to define the effect of the juvenile fiction on secondary school students' reading skills. In the study; 6th grade students', reading juvenile fiction, attitudes to reading, reading speed, comprehension ability of what's read are examined. The group of students reading juvenile fiction is compared…

  12. The Juvenile Transition: A Developmental Switch Point in Human Life History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Giudice, Marco; Angeleri, Romina; Manera, Valeria

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a new perspective on the transition from early to middle childhood (i.e., human juvenility), investigated in an integrative evolutionary framework. Juvenility is a crucial life history stage, when social learning and interaction with peers become central developmental functions; here it is argued that the "juvenile transition"…

  13. Police-Juvenile Diversion: An Alternative to Prosecution. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, Jack R.; Rothenberger, Dale M.

    This manual is the outcome of a one-year study of police action to divert youthful offenders from the juvenile justice system, an action advocated by every major commission examining the system since the early sixties. The manual is intended to guide police, social service agencies, and other concerned individuals and organizations through the…

  14. Response of Juvenile Pacific Lamprey to Turbine Passage

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, D.

    2009-09-14

    To help determine the Pacific lamprey’s ability to survive turbine passage, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientists conducted laboratory tests designed to simulate a fish’s passage through the turbine environment. Juvenile Pacific lamprey were subjected to two of three aspects of passage: pressure drop and shear stress. The third aspect, blade strike, was not tested.

  15. Juvenile sex offenders: Personality profile, coping styles and parental care.

    PubMed

    Margari, Francesco; Lecce, Paola Alessandra; Craig, Francesco; Lafortezza, Elena; Lisi, Andrea; Pinto, Floriana; Stallone, Valentina; Pierri, Grazia; Pisani, Rossella; Zagaria, Giuseppina; Margari, Lucia; Grattagliano, Ignazio

    2015-09-30

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in juvenile sex offenders showing that this population is highly heterogeneous. The aim of the present study was to identify possible different profiles that could help understand the motivation behind offending, comparing 31 Juvenile Sexual Offenders (JSOs), 31 Juvenile Sexual Non Offenders (JSNOs) and 31 Juvenile Non Offenders (Control Group). A data collection form, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent (MMPI-A) or Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2), the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) and the Parental Bonding Inventory (PBI) were administered to all participants. The results show that JSOs differs from JNSOs in some domains, such as living in single-parent homes, while maintain some common aspects such as academic failure and previous sexual intercourse. Moreover, JNSOs showed more abnormal personality traits, such as Authority Problems, MacAndrew Alcoholism, Acknowledgement and Alcohol-Drug Problem Proneness compared to JSOs and the Control Group, while JSOs and JNSOs use a coping strategy more oriented to Avoidance and Distraction compared to the Control group. Finally, JSOs described the relationships with fathers characterized by higher care and protection than JNSOs. These findings provide additional evidence with respect the prevention and treatment of criminal sexual behavior in adolescent. PMID:26233829

  16. Academic Predictors and Characteristics of Self-Reported Juvenile Firesetting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowling, Carrie Howell

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to address gaps in existing research by examining the relationship between academic performance and attention problems with juvenile firesetting. The other goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of firesetting in a large normative sample and identify if characteristics of firesetters in a non-clinical…

  17. Adolescent Neglect, Juvenile Delinquency and the Risk of Recidivism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Joseph P.; Williams, Abigail B.; Courtney, Mark E.

    2013-01-01

    Victims of child abuse and neglect are at an increased risk of involvement with the juvenile justice and adult correctional systems. Yet, little is known about the continuation and trajectories of offending beyond initial contact with law enforcement. Neglect likely plays a critical role in continued offending as parental monitoring, parental…

  18. Juvenile Justice and a Strengths Perspective: Complement or Clash?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    Does the new realm of positive psychology and strength-based strategies complement or clash with the remedial discipline of social control traditionally practiced in juvenile justice programs? Many welcome the balance of positive psychology, the strengths perspective, and coping and resilience studies. Although emerging from different disciplines,…

  19. Home Care Guide on Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis (For Parents).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giesecke, Linda L.; And Others

    The booklet, written by the medical staff of a children's hospital, provides information for parents of children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA). Arthritis is a swelling of the joint(s) in children and lasts for over 6 weeks (sometimes many years). Aspirin is the main medicine given for JRA, and it works not only to control pain but also,…

  20. The Juvenile Justice System: Where Pretense and Reality Clash.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binder, Arnold

    1979-01-01

    Outlines the history of juvenile justice from the Bible to the present time. At present neither offending children nor society are getting a fair return. The result is a tendency to treat young criminals exactly as adult criminals, and to limit the range of behaviors subject to court jurisdiction. (Author/CK)

  1. Vocational Training in Juvenile Detention: A Call for Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ameen, Edward J.; Lee, Debbiesiu L.

    2012-01-01

    Given high recidivism rates and the vulnerability of detained youth, the authors posit that juvenile detention centers may be most efficacious by serving as both place and process to create career opportunity through vocational training. The authors review the psychosocial factors contributing to delinquency and the primary theories of…

  2. Juvenile Delinquency and Some Measures to Control Its Increasing Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baginda, Abdullah Malim

    Based mainly on personal experience and conditions prevailing in Malaysia, this discussion of juvenile delinquency explores (1) the extent of the problem; (2) some causative factors from a theoretical viewpoint; (3) criminal justice system provisions for dealing with the problem; and (4) preventive measures. In Malaysia, between 1960 and 1980 the…

  3. Washington State Juvenile Justice Code: An Experiment in Justice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Champaign. Community Research Center.

    In the Washington State juvenile justice system, serious or repeat offenders receive the full panoply of due process rights and procedures, with the exception of jury trials; minor offenders are diverted to community boards that require community service or victim restitution; and status offenders are removed from the courts' jurisdiction and…

  4. Restorative Justice: New Horizons in Juvenile Offender Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryals, John S. Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Treatment strategies of the juvenile justice system focus singularly on rehabilitation of offenders, and victims and communities are excluded from the rehabilitative process. Restorative justice views victims and communities as essential components in rehabilitative efforts. In this article, the principles and practices of restorative justice,…

  5. Plato and Rawls on Correctional Rehabilitation of Juvenile Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiger, Brenda

    1996-01-01

    Adopting the perspectives of the philosophers Plato and Rawls, addresses the issues of juvenile offenders' rehabilitation and consent. Focuses on paternalistic intervention, autonomous decision-making ability, and moral immaturity. Discusses Plato's theme of rehabilitating offenders' sick souls, whether they agree or not, and Rawls more democratic…

  6. TOXICITY OF CHLORINE TO JUVENILE SPOT, LEIOSTOMUS XANTHURUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sensitivity of juvenile spot, Leiostomus xanthurus, to total residual chlorine (TRC) in flowing sea-water was investigated. Incipient LC50 bioassays, histopathology, avoidance tests and the combined effect of thermal stress and TRC were used to assess sensitivity. Estimated i...

  7. A Longitudinal Study of Cocaine Use among Juvenile Arrestees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dembo, Richard; Wareham, Jennifer; Schmeidler, James

    2007-01-01

    We report the results of latent growth model analyses examining the continuity of cocaine use among adolescents. This study examined a sample of 278 justice-involved juveniles completing at least one of three follow-up interviews as part of a National Institute on Drug Abuse funded study. Latent growth models were analyzed examining (1) changes in…

  8. The Ohio Department of Youth Services Juvenile Prison Library System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herring, Deidra N.

    2009-01-01

    The article is an introduction to The Ohio Department of Youth Services librarians and the services they provide. Information about each juvenile prison facility is revealed and provides an explanation of guidelines and standards for prison libraries. Sixty-eight questions were asked in four in-person interviews to present a profile of the…

  9. A Review of HIV Prevention Interventions for Juvenile Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Angela; Fasciano, John; Brown, Larry K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To conduct a critical review of all HIV prevention intervention studies conducted with adolescents in juvenile justice settings to inform future intervention development. Method PubMed and PsycInfo database searches were conducted for peer-reviewed, published HIV prevention intervention studies with juvenile offenders. Results Sixteen studies were identified (N = 3,700 adolescents). Half of the projects utilized rigorous methodologies to determine intervention effect on behavior change, such as conducting a randomized controlled trial (n = 8). Nine studies reported behaviors at least 3 months post-intervention and five out of nine showed decreases in sexual risk behavior. Conclusions Several HIV prevention programs with juvenile offenders have led to sexual risk reduction, although effect sizes are modest. Most existing programs have neglected to address the impact of family, mental health, and substance use on HIV risk. More work is needed to develop evidence-based interventions that include HIV prevention strategies relevant and appropriate for the juvenile justice setting. PMID:19741021

  10. Juvenile Correctional Schools: Characteristics and Approaches to Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagnon, Joseph C.; Barber, Brian R.; Van Loan, Christopher; Leone, Peter E.

    2009-01-01

    This study focused on school-level approaches to curriculum, as well as school, principal, and student characteristics in juvenile corrections (JC) schools for committed youth. A national random sample of 131 principals from these schools responded to a mail and on-line survey. No statistically significant differences existed between respondent…

  11. Myth Information and Bizarre Beliefs of Male Juvenile Sex Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakey, Joyce F.

    1992-01-01

    Describes mythical beliefs, thinking errors, and faulty attitudes collected from a group of 67 male juvenile sex offenders. Addresses four major thinking errors: pretentiousness, uniqueness, failure to assume responsibility, and distorted values. Notes that therapists need this information to develop effective treatment strategies for replacing…

  12. Animal Abuse and Youth Violence. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ascione, Frank R.

    The forms of abuse that animals are subjected to are similar to the forms of abuse children experience, such as physical abuse, serious neglect, and psychological abuse. This document describes psychiatric, psychological, and criminal research linking animal abuse to violence perpetrated by juveniles and adults. Particular attention is given to…

  13. Infant and juvenile growth in ancestral Pueblo Indians.

    PubMed

    Schillaci, Michael A; Nikitovic, Dejana; Akins, Nancy J; Tripp, Lianne; Palkovich, Ann M

    2011-06-01

    The present study examines patterns of infant and juvenile growth in a diachronic sample of ancestral Pueblo Indians (AD 1300-1680) from the American Southwest. An assessment of growth patterns is accompanied by an evaluation of pathological conditions often considered to be indicators of nutritional deficiencies and/or gastrointestinal infections. Growth patterns and the distribution of pathological conditions are interpreted relative to culturally relevant age categories defined by Puebloan rites of passage described in the ethnographic literature. A visual comparison of growth distance curves revealed that relative to a modern comparative group our sample of ancestral Pueblo infant and juveniles exhibited faltering growth beginning soon after birth to about 5 years of age. A comparison of curves describing growth relative to adult femoral length, however, indicated reduced growth occurring later, by around 2 years of age. Similar to previous studies, we observed a high proportion of nonsurvivors exhibiting porotic cranial lesions during the first 2 years of life. Contrary to expectations, infants and juveniles without evidence of porotic cranial lesions exhibited a higher degree of stunting. Our study is generally consistent with previous research reporting poor health and high mortality for ancestral Pueblo Indian infants and juveniles. Through use of a culturally relevant context defining childhood, we argue that the observed poor health and high mortality in our sample occur before the important transition from young to older child and the concomitant initial incorporation into tribal ritual organization. PMID:21469079

  14. Clinical Assessment of Psychopathology in Violent and Nonviolent Juvenile Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Linda M.; And Others

    The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and the Rorschach test are frequently used in juvenile justice settings to assess current psychological functioning and to predict future behavior. The Exner Comprehensive System, which standardized the Rorschach, made possible a comparison of the Rorschach and the MMPI in an investigation of…

  15. From High School to Juvenile Corrections: The Downward Spiral

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rueter, Jessica A.; Trice, John Nathan

    2011-01-01

    Students with emotional behavioral disorders (EBD) require pervasive supports that are typically addressed through behavior intervention plans. This article illustrates one student's ("Mark") journey from the general education high school campus, to an alternative discipline campus, and subsequent placement at a juvenile corrections setting. Also,…

  16. Training for Juvenile Probation Officers. A Workshop Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Bureau (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    This is the report of a workshop that was designed to examine the problems of training for probation officers in juvenile courts. The workshop was planned by the Children's Bureau and held from June 26 through June 30, 1960. Section I of the report discusses the purposes of the workshop, selection of the participants, and the workshop plan.…

  17. Law, Mental Disorders and the Juvenile Process. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dash, Samuel; And Others

    This five-year (1967-71) study of the District of Columbia's program for identification and treatment of delinquent juveniles with mental disorders found the child guidance clinic referral model to be ineffective and anachronistic. Volume 1 of the four-volume report examined referrals made to the clinic during the period May 1969-December 1969 and…

  18. What Massachusetts Does about the Apprehended Juvenile Offender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGerigle, Paul

    The report describes and discusses the legal procedures which Massachusetts employs in disposing of the cases of apprehended juvenile offenders, as well as the residential and community programs which normally deal with this group. The legal procedures and treatment programs are viewed as social responses to behavior socially defined as deviant.…

  19. Allegheny County, PA: Mobilizing To Reduce Juvenile Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsia, Heidi M.

    Juvenile crime and its immediate and long-term economic and human costs have become a national concern. Programs to prevent and reduce delinquency have developed across the country and one such program in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania (which includes Pittsburgh) is described in this bulletin. The Allegheny program exemplifies a large-scale,…

  20. Juvenile Suicides, 1981?1998. Youth Violence Research Bulletin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Howard N.; Swahn, Monica H.

    2004-01-01

    The Surgeon General?s report on youth violence, released in January 2001, notes that youth violence is a serious public health issue that affects millions of children and their families. A shared commitment to ending youth violence has led to a strong partnership between the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention and the Centers…