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Sample records for juvenile snake river

  1. Hydraulic Characteristics of the Lower Snake River During Periods of Juvenile Fall Chinook Migration

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, Chris B.; Dibrani, Berhon; Richmond, Marshall C.; Bleich, Matthew D.; Titzler, P. Scott; Fu, Tao

    2006-01-30

    This report documents a four-year study to assess hydraulic conditions in the lower Snake River. The work was conducted for the Bonneville Power Administration, U.S. Department of Energy, by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Cold water released from the Dworshak Reservoir hypolimnion during mid- to late-summer months cools the Clearwater River far below equilibrium temperature. The volume of released cold water augments the Clearwater River, and the combined total discharge is on the order of the Snake River discharge when the two rivers meet at their confluence near the upstream edge of Lower Granite Reservoir. With typical temperature differences between the Clearwater and Snake rivers of 10°C or more during July and August, the density difference between the two rivers during summer flow augmentation periods is sufficient to stratify Lower Granite Reservoir as well as the other three reservoirs downstream. Because cooling of the river is desirable for migrating juvenile fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) during this same time period, the amount of mixing and cold water entrained into Lower Granite Reservoir’s epilimnion at the Clearwater/Snake River confluence is of key biological importance to juvenile fall Chinook salmon. Data collected during this project indicates the three reservoirs downstream of Lower Granite also stratify as direct result of flow augmentation from Dworshak Reservoir. These four lower Snake reservoirs are also heavily influenced by wind forcing at the water’s surface, and during periods of low river discharge, often behave like a two-layer lake. During these periods of stratification, lower river discharge, and wind forcing, the water in the upper layer of the reservoir is held in place or moves slightly upstream. This upper layer is also exposed to surface heating and may warm up to temperatures close to equilibrium temperature. The depth of this upper warm layer and its direction of travel may also be of key

  2. Snake River Sockeye Salmon, Sawtooth Valley Project : 1992 Juvenile and Adult Trapping Program : Final Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-04-01

    Sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) runs in the Snake River Basin have severely declined. Redfish Lake near Stanley, Idaho is the only lake in the drainage known to still support a run. In 1989, two adults were observed returning to this lake and in 1990, none returned. In the summer of 1991, only four adults returned. If no action is taken, the Snake River sockeye salmon will probably cease to exist. On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) declared the Snake River sockeye salmon ``endangered`` (effective December 20, 1991), pursuant to the Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973. In 1991, in response to a request from the Idaho Department of Fish and Game and the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funded efforts to conserve and begin rebuilding the Snake River sockeye salmon run. The initial efforts were focused on Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Valley of southcentral Idaho. The 1991 measures involved: trapping some of the juvenile outmigrants (O. nerka) from Redfish Lake and rearing them in the Eagle Fish Health Facility (Idaho Department of Fish and Game) near Boise, Idaho; Upgrading of the Eagle Facility where the outmigrants are being reared; and trapping adult Snake River sockeye salmon returning to Redfish Lake and holding and spawning them at the Sawtooth Hatchery near Stanley, Idaho. This Environmental Assessment (EA) evaluates the potential environmental effects of the proposed actions for 1992. It has been prepared to meet the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 and section 7 of the ESA of 1973.

  3. Disease Susceptibility of Hatchery Snake River Spring-Summer Chinook Salmon with Different Juvenile Migration Histories in the Columbia River.

    PubMed

    Arkoosh, Mary R; Kagley, Anna N; Anulacion, Bernadita F; Boylen, Deborah A; Sandford, Benjamin P; Loge, Frank J; Johnson, Lyndal L; Collier, Tracy K

    2006-12-01

    Various methods have been developed to mitigate the effects of dams on juvenile Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. migrating to the Pacific Ocean through the Columbia River basin. In this study, we examined the health of hatchery Snake River spring and summer Chinook salmon relative to two mitigating strategies: dam bypass and transportation (e.g., barging). The health of out-migrants was assessed in terms of the difference in the incidence of mortality among fish, categorically grouped into no-bypass, bypass, and transportation life histories, in response to challenge with the marine pathogen Listonella anguillarum during seawater holding. These three life histories were defined as follows: (1) fish that were not detected at any of the juvenile bypass systems above Bonneville Dam were classified as having a no-bypass life history; (2) fish that were detected at one or more juvenile bypass systems above Bonneville Dam were classified as having a bypass life history; and (3) fish that were barged were classified as having the transportation life history. Barged fish were found to be less susceptible to L. anguillarum than in-river fish-whether bypassed or not-which suggests that transportation may help mitigate the adverse health effects of the hydropower system of the Columbia River basin on Snake River spring-summer Chinook salmon. The findings of this study are not necessarily transferable to other out-migrant stocks in the Columbia River basin, given that only one evolutionarily significant unit, that is, Snake River spring-summer Chinook salmon, was used in this study. PMID:26599158

  4. Hydraulic Characteristics of the Lower Snake River during Periods of Juvenile Fall Chinook Salmon Migration, 2002-2006 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, C.; Dibrani, B.; Richmond, M.; Bleich, M.; Titzler, P..; Fu, T.

    2006-01-01

    This report documents a four-year study to assess hydraulic conditions in the lower Snake River. The work was conducted for the Bonneville Power Administration, U.S. Department of Energy, by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Cold water released from the Dworshak Reservoir hypolimnion during mid- to late-summer months cools the Clearwater River far below equilibrium temperature. The volume of released cold water augments the Clearwater River, and the combined total discharge is on the order of the Snake River discharge when the two rivers meet at their confluence near the upstream edge of Lower Granite Reservoir. With typical temperature differences between the Clearwater and Snake rivers of 10 C or more during July and August, the density difference between the two rivers during summer flow augmentation periods is sufficient to stratify Lower Granite Reservoir as well as the other three reservoirs downstream. Because cooling of the river is desirable for migrating juvenile fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) during this same time period, the amount of mixing and cold water entrained into Lower Granite Reservoir's epilimnion at the Clearwater/Snake River confluence is of key biological importance. Data collected during this project indicates the three reservoirs downstream of Lower Granite also stratify as direct result of flow augmentation from Dworshak Reservoir. These four reservoirs are also heavily influenced by wind forcing at the water's surface and during periods of low river discharge often behave like a two-layer lake. During these periods of stratification, lower river discharge, and wind forcing, the water in the upper layer of the reservoir is held in place or moves slightly upstream. This upper layer is also exposed to surface heating and may warm up to temperatures close to equilibrium temperature. The thickness (depth) of this upper warm layer and its direction of travel may be of key biological importance to juvenile fall Chinook

  5. Significance of Selective Predation and Development of Prey Protection Measures for Juvenile Salmonids in the Columbia and Snake River Reservoirs: Annual Progress Report, February 1993-February 1994.

    SciTech Connect

    Poe, Thomas P.

    1994-08-01

    This report addresses the problem of predator-prey interactions of juvenile salmonids in the Columbia and Snake River. Six papers are included on selective predation and prey protection. Attention is focused on monitoring the movements, the distribution, and the behavior of juvenile chinook salmon and northern squawfish.

  6. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Juvenile Salmonids through Snake River Dams and Reservoirs, 1996 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven G.

    1998-02-01

    In 1996, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the fourth year of a multi-year study to estimate survival of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake River. Actively migrating smolts were collected near the head of Lower Granite Reservoir and at Lower Granite Dam, tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags, and released to continue their downstream migration. Individual smolts were subsequently detected at PIT-tag detection facilities at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, McNary, John Day and Bonneville Dams. Survival estimates were calculated using the Single-Release (SR) and Paired-Release (PR) Models. Timing of releases of tagged hatchery steelhead (O. mykiss) from the head of Lower Granite Reservoir and yearling chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) from Lower Granite Dam in 1996 spanned the major portion of their juvenile migrations. Specific research objectives in 1996 were to (1) estimate reach and project survival in the Snake River using the Single-Release and Paired-Release Models throughout the yearling chinook salmon and steelhead migrations, (2) evaluate the performance of the survival-estimation models under prevailing operational and environmental conditions in the Snake River, and (3) synthesize results from the 4 years of the study to investigate relationships between survival probabilities, travel times, and environmental factors such as flow levels and water temperature.

  7. Effect of multiple turbine passage on juvenile Snake River salmonid survival

    SciTech Connect

    Ham, K. D.; Anderson, J. J.; Vucellck, J. A.

    2005-09-01

    Juvenile salmonids originating in the Snake River upstream of Lower Granite Dam must pass up to eight hydroelectric projects during their downstream migration to the Pacific Ocean. Fish may pass a project through a turbine or a spillbay or be screened into a bypass system that either collects fish into a barge or releases them downstream of the project. Previous reviews of studies of downstream passage for salmon at hydroelectric projects in the Columbia River basin found higher mean mortality at turbines than for spillways or bypass systems. The potential mechanisms of mortality during turbine passage may include pressure changes, cavitation, shear, turbulence, strike, or grinding. Observing those mechanisms is challenging in the field, but laboratory studies have demonstrated that a single exposure to shear or pressure changes similar to turbine passage conditions can result in injury for some individuals. Because fish pass several dams along their migration, individuals experience a series of passage events. If estimates of surviving the passage of a single project are applied to each passage event, then the underlying assumption is that the mortality at each project is independent of previous exposure. If individuals approaching a project were already sub-lethally stressed, higher than expected mortality rates might occur upon subsequent passage events. Report presents the hypothesis that fish passing more than one turbine will experience a greater than expected rate of mortality. Because measuring an incremental increase in mortality would be challenging in the field, scientists developed an approach to first assess whether such an increment has any potential to influence a fish population. This approach identified populations at risk and will help design laboratory or field experiments to address those risks.

  8. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Spring-Migrating Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2008.

    SciTech Connect

    Faulkner, James R.; Smith, Steven G.; Muir, William D.

    2009-06-23

    In 2008, the National Marine Fisheries Service completed the sixteenth year of a study to estimate survival and travel time of juvenile salmonids Oncorhynchus spp. passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. All estimates were derived from detections of fish tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags. We PIT tagged and released a total of 18,565 hatchery steelhead O. mykiss, 15,991 wild steelhead, and 9,714 wild yearling Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha at Lower Granite Dam in the Snake River. In addition, we utilized fish PIT tagged by other agencies at traps and hatcheries upstream from the hydropower system and at sites within the hydropower system in both the Snake and Columbia Rivers. These included 122,061 yearling Chinook salmon tagged at Lower Granite Dam for evaluation of latent mortality related to passage through Snake River dams. PIT-tagged smolts were detected at interrogation facilities at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, Ice Harbor, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams and in the PIT-tag detector trawl operated in the Columbia River estuary. Survival estimates were calculated using a statistical model for tag-recapture data from single release groups (the single-release model). Primary research objectives in 2008 were to: (1) estimate reach survival and travel time in the Snake and Columbia Rivers throughout the migration period of yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead, (2) evaluate relationships between survival estimates and migration conditions, and (3) evaluate the survival estimation models under prevailing conditions. This report provides reach survival and travel time estimates for 2008 for PIT-tagged yearling Chinook salmon (hatchery and wild), hatchery sockeye salmon O. nerka, hatchery coho salmon O. kisutch, and steelhead (hatchery and wild) in the Snake and Columbia Rivers. Additional details on the methodology and statistical models used are provided in previous reports cited here. Survival

  9. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Juvenile Salmonids through Snake River Dams and Reservoirs, 1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Muir, William D.

    1995-02-01

    In 1994, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the second year of a multi-year study to estimate survival of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) passing through the dams and reservoirs of the Snake River. Actively migrating smolts were collected at selected locations above, at, and below Lower Granite Dam, tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags, and released to continue their downstream migration. Survival estimates were calculated using the Single-Release, Modified Single-Release, and Paired-Release Models.

  10. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 1998 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven G.

    2000-03-01

    This report provides reach survival and travel time estimates for PIT-tagged hatchery and wild juvenile steelhead and yearling chinook salmon in the Snake and Columbia Rivers during 1998. Estimates of post-detection bypass survival for yearling chinook salmon at McNary Dam are also reported. Results are reported primarily in the form of data tables and figures with minimal description of methods and analysis. Detailed information on the methodology and statistical models used for this report is provided in five previous annual reports on this study, which are cited here.

  11. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Juvenile Chinook Salmon through Snake River Dams and Reservoirs, 1993 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Iwamoto, Robert N.; Sandford, Benjamin P.; McIntyre, Kenneth W.

    1994-04-01

    A pilot study was conducted to estimate survival of hatchery-reared yearling chinook salmon through dams and reservoirs on the Snake River. The goals of the study were to: (1) field test and evaluate the Single-Release, Modified-Single-Release, and Paired-Release Models for the estimation of survival probabilities through sections of a river and hydroelectric projects; (2) identify operational and logistical constraints to the execution of these models; and (3) determine the usefulness of the models in providing estimates of survival probabilities. Field testing indicated that the numbers of hatchery-reared yearling chinook salmon needed for accurate survival estimates could be collected at different areas with available gear and methods. For the primary evaluation, seven replicates of 830 to 1,442 hatchery-reared yearling chinook salmon were purse-seined from Lower Granite Reservoir, PIT tagged, and released near Nisqually John boat landing (River Kilometer 726). Secondary releases of PIT-tagged smolts were made at Lower Granite Dam to estimate survival of fish passing through turbines and after detection in the bypass system. Similar secondary releases were made at Little Goose Dam, but with additional releases through the spillway. Based on the success of the 1993 pilot study, the authors believe that the Single-Release and Paired-Release Models will provide accurate estimates of juvenile salmonid passage survival for individual river sections, reservoirs, and hydroelectric projects in the Columbia and Snake Rivers.

  12. Seasonal use of shallow water habitat in the Lower Snake River reservoirs by juvenile fall Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Connor, William P.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE) is preparing a long term management plan for sediments that affect the authorized project purposes of the Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, and Ice Harbor reservoirs (hereafter, the lower Snake River reservoirs), and the area from the mouth of the Snake River to Ice Harbor Dam. We conducted a study from spring 2010 through winter 2011 to describe the habitat use by juvenile Chinook salmon within a selected group of shallow water habitat complexes (< 6 m deep) in the lower Snake River reservoirs to help inform the long-term plan. Natural fry and parr were present within all four shallow water habitat complexes that we studied from early spring through early summer, and parr ( = 40,345 ± 18,800 [error bound]) were more abundant than fry ( = 24,615 ± 5,701). Water < 2 m deep was highly used for rearing by natural fall Chinook salmon subyearlings (fry and parr combined; hereafter natural subyearlings) based on duration of use and relative group abundances during spring and summer, whereas the 2–6 m depth interval was more highly used by migratory hatchery fall Chinook salmon subyearlings and spring, summer, and fall Chinook salmon yearlings. Overall mean spring-summer apparent density of natural subyearlings was 15.5 times higher within the < 2 m depth interval than within the 2–6 m depth interval. Density of natural subyearlings also decreased as the distance a given shallow water habitat complex was located from the riverine spawning areas increased. Reservoir-type juveniles (or fish likely destined to become reservoir-type juveniles) were present in the lower Snake River reservoirs from fall 2010 through winter 2011; however, use of shallow water habitat by reservoir-type juveniles was limited during our study. We only collected 38 reservoir-type juveniles in shallow water habitat sites in beach and lampara seines during the fall. Radiotelemetry data revealed that though many tagged fish passed shallow water

  13. Comparative evaluation of molecular diagnostic tests for Nucleospora salmonis and prevalence in migrating juvenile salmonids from the Snake River, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Badil, Samantha; Elliott, Diane G.; Kurobe, Tomofumi; Hedrick, Ronald P.; Clemens, Kathy; Blair, Marilyn; Purcell, Maureen K.

    2011-01-01

    Nucleospora salmonis is an intranuclear microsporidian that primarily infects lymphoblast cells and contributes to chronic lymphoblastosis and a leukemia-like condition in a range of salmonid species. The primary goal of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of N. salmonis in out-migrating juvenile hatchery and wild Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss from the Snake River in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. To achieve this goal, we first addressed the following concerns about current molecular diagnostic tests for N. salmonis: (1) nonspecific amplification patterns by the published nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) test, (2) incomplete validation of the published quantitative PCR (qPCR) test, and (3) whether N. salmonis can be detected reliably from nonlethal samples. Here, we present an optimized nPCR protocol that eliminates nonspecific amplification. During validation of the published qPCR test, our laboratory developed a second qPCR test that targeted a different gene sequence and used different probe chemistry for comparison purposes. We simultaneously evaluated the two different qPCR tests for N. salmonis and found that both assays were highly specific, sensitive, and repeatable. The nPCR and qPCR tests had good overall concordance when DNA samples derived from both apparently healthy and clinically diseased hatchery rainbow trout were tested. Finally, we demonstrated that gill snips were a suitable tissue for nonlethal detection of N. salmonis DNA in juvenile salmonids. Monitoring of juvenile salmonid fish in the Snake River over a 3-year period revealed low prevalence of N. salmonis in hatchery and wild Chinook salmon and wild steelhead but significantly higher prevalence in hatchery-derived steelhead. Routine monitoring of N. salmonis is not performed for all hatchery steelhead populations. At present, the possible contribution of this pathogen to delayed mortality of steelhead has not been determined.

  14. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Spring-Migrating Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Zabel, Richard; Smith, Steven G.; Muir, William D.

    2001-02-01

    In 2000, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the eight year of a study to estimate survival of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. A total of 20,313 hatchery steelhead were tagged with passive integrated transpoder (PIT) tags and released at Lower Granite Dam for reach survival estimation. They did not PIT tag any yearlying chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) for reach survival estimates in 2000 because sufficient numbers for these estimates were available from other studies. Primary research objectives in 2000 were (1) to estimate reach and project survival in the Snake and Columbia Rivers throughout the yearling chinook salmon and steelhead migrations, and (2) to evaluate the survival-estimation models under prevailing conditions. In addition, they estimated survival from point of release to Lower Granite Dam and below for chinook salmon, steelhead, and sockeye salmon (O.nerka) PIT tagged and released at Snake River basin hatcheries and chinook salmon and steelhead PIT tagged and released at Snake River basin hatcheries and chinook salmon and steelhead PIT tagged and released at Snake River basin smolt traps. This report provides reach survival and travel time estimates for 2000 for PIT-tagged yearling chinook salmon and steelhead (hatchery and wild) in the Snake and Columbia Rivers. Results are reported primarily in the form of tables and figures. Further details on methodology and statistical models used are provided in previous reports cited in the text.

  15. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Juvenile Salmonids through Snake River Dams and Reservoirs, 1997 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hockersmith, Eric E.

    1999-03-01

    This report consists of two parts describing research activities completed during 1997 under Bonneville Power Administration Project Number 93-29. Part 1 provides reach survival and travel time estimates for 1997 for PIT-tagged hatchery steelhead and yearling chinook salmon in the Snake and Columbia Rivers. The results are reported primarily in the form of tables and figures with a minimum of text. More detailed information on methodology and the statistical models used in the analysis are provided in previous annual reports cited in the text. Analysis of the relationships among travel time, survival, and environmental factors for 1997 and previous years of the study will be reported elsewhere. Part 2 of this report describes research to determine areas of loss and delay for juvenile hatchery salmonids above Lower Granite Reservoir.

  16. Juvenile Passage Program : A Plan for Estimating Smolt Travel Time and Survival in the Snake and Columbia Rivers

    SciTech Connect

    Skalski, J. R.; Giorgi, Albert E.

    1993-10-01

    A plan for developing a program to evaluate juvenile salmon passage is presented that encompasses the Snake (Lower Granite to McNary Dams), Mid-Columbia (Wells to McNary Dams), and Lower Columbia (McNary to Bonneville Dams) segments of the Snake/Columbia River system. This plan focuses on the use of PIT-tag technology to routinely estimate travel times and reach survival of outmigrating yearling and subyearling Chinook, sockeye, and steelhead during spring and summer months. The proposed program outlines tagging studies that could be implemented in (a) 1992, (b) near term (1993--94), and (c) long term (1995 to the next decade). The evolution of this program over time parallels plans to establish additional PIT-tag detector and slide-gate systems at Little Goose, Lower Monumental, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams. The eventual ability to concurrently estimate travel time and survival of release groups will permit evaluation of travel time-survival-flow relationships and identify possible mortality {open_quotes}hot spots{close_quotes} for remediation.

  17. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Juveniles, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Achord, Stephen; Hodge, Jacob M.; Sandford, Benjamin P.

    2005-06-01

    This report provides information on PIT-tagging of wild Chinook salmon parr in Idaho in 2003 and the subsequent monitoring of these fish and similarly tagged fish from Oregon. We report estimated parr-to-smolt survival and arrival timing of these fish at Lower Granite Dam, as well as interrogation data collected at several other sites throughout the Snake and Columbia River system. This research continues studies that began under Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funding in 1991. Results from previous study years were reported by Achord et al. (1994; 1995a,b; 1996a; 1997; 1998; 2000; 2001a,b; 2002, 2003, 2004). Goals of this ongoing study are: (1) Characterize the migration timing and estimate parr-to-smolt survival of different stocks of wild Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon smolts at Lower Granite Dam. (2) Determine whether consistent migration patterns are apparent. (3) Determine what environmental factors influence migration patterns. (4) Characterize the migration behavior and estimate survival of different wild juvenile fish stocks as they emigrate from their natal rearing areas. This study provides critical information for recovery planning, and ultimately recovery for these ESA-listed wild fish stocks. In 2003-2004, we also continued to measure water temperature, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, turbidity, water depth, and pH at five monitoring stations in the Salmon River Basin, Idaho for the Baseline Environmental Monitoring Program. These data, along with parr/smolt migration, survival, and timing data, will help to discern patterns or characteristic relationships between fish movement/survival and environmental factors.

  18. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Juveniles, 2007-2008

    SciTech Connect

    Achord, Stephen; Sandford, Benjamin P.; Hockersmith, Eric E.

    2009-07-09

    This report provides results from an ongoing project to monitor the migration behavior and survival of wild juvenile spring/summer Chinook salmon in the Snake River Basin. Data reported is from detections of PIT tagged fish during late summer 2007 through mid-2008. Fish were tagged in summer 2007 by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) in Idaho and by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) in Oregon. Our analyses include migration behavior and estimated survival of fish at instream PIT-tag monitors and arrival timing and estimated survival to Lower Granite Dam. Principal results from tagging and interrogation during 2007-2008 are: (1) In July and August 2007, we PIT tagged and released 7,390 wild Chinook salmon parr in 12 Idaho streams or sample areas. (2) Overall observed mortality from collection, handling, tagging, and after a 24-hour holding period was 1.4%. (3) Of the 2,524 Chinook salmon parr PIT tagged and released in Valley Creek in summer 2007, 218 (8.6%) were detected at two instream PIT-tag monitoring systems in lower Valley Creek from late summer 2007 to the following spring 2008. Of these, 71.6% were detected in late summer/fall, 11.9% in winter, and 16.5% in spring. Estimated parr-to-smolt survival to Lower Granite Dam was 15.5% for the late summer/fall group, 48.0% for the winter group, and 58.5% for the spring group. Based on detections at downstream dams, the overall efficiency of VC1 (upper) or VC2 (lower) Valley Creek monitors for detecting these fish was 21.1%. Using this VC1 or VC2 efficiency, an estimated 40.8% of all summer-tagged parr survived to move out of Valley Creek, and their estimated survival from that point to Lower Granite Dam was 26.5%. Overall estimated parr-to-smolt survival for all summer-tagged parr from this stream at the dam was 12.1%. Development and improvement of instream PIT-tag monitoring systems continued throughout 2007 and 2008. (4) Testing of PIT-tag antennas in lower Big Creek during 2007

  19. Incidence of Renibacterium salmoninarum infections in juvenile hatchery spring chinook salmon in the Columbia and Snake Rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maule, A.G.; Rondorf, D.W.; Beeman, J.W.; Haner, P.V.

    1996-01-01

    From 1988 through 1992, we assessed the prevalence (frequency of occurrence) and severity (degree of infection) of Renibacterium salmoninarum (RS) among fish in marked groups of Columbia River basin and Snake River basin hatchery spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha before release and during their seaward migration. During the study, prevalence of RS infection decreased (from >90% to <65%) in six of the eight hatchery groups. We attributed this decrease to changes in hatchery practices that reduced vertical and horizontal transmission. Fish from Snake River hatcheries had a higher prevalence of infection when sampled at dams (mean >90%) than in the hatchery (mean <70%), but there were no differences in similar comparisons of Columbia River fish. Although prevalence and severity of RS infection were not correlated in the groups studied, it appears that fish from the Snake River were more severely infected than those from the Columbia River. Some groups of Snake River fish had higher severity of infection at dams than in the hatchery, but infection in fish from Columbia River hatcheries did not change. These differences between Snake River and Columbia River fish might have resulted from differences in river conditions and the distances from hatcheries to dams.

  20. System-Wide Significance of Predation on Juvenile Salmonids in the Columbia and Snake River Reservoirs : Annual Report of Research 1991.

    SciTech Connect

    Shively, R.S.

    1991-01-01

    We indexed consumption rates of northern squawfish (Ptychoch oregonensis) preying upon juvenile salmonids in four lower Snake River reservoirs. Stomach contents were also collected from smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui), channel catfish (Ictaluris gunctatus), and walleye (Stizostedion vitreum). Northern squawfish digestive tracts were analyzed and the overall diet (% weight) was dominated by fish and crustaceans. Examination of stomach contents smallmouth bass showed that crustaceans (primarily crayfish) dominated their diets. Overall, the consumption rate of juvenile salmonids by smallmouth bass was low. The northern squawfish consumption index (CI) at Snake River locations ranged from zero at all mid-reservoir locations to 1.2 at Lower Granite forebay. In John Day Reservoir, CI values ranged from 0.5 to 1.9 in May and from 0.9 to 3.0 in July. Consumption index values were highest in forebay and tailrace areas, and were slightly higher in BRZs than in non-restricted zones.

  1. Assessing juvenile salmon rearing habitat and associated predation risk in a lower Snake River reservoir

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Hatten, James R.; Trachtenbarg, David A

    2015-01-01

    Subyearling fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Columbia River basin exhibit a transient rearing strategy and depend on connected shoreline habitats during freshwater rearing. Impoundment has greatly reduced the amount of shallow-water rearing habitat that is exacerbated by the steep topography of reservoirs. Periodic dredging creates opportunities to strategically place spoils to increase the amount of shallow-water habitat for subyearlings while at the same time reducing the amount of unsuitable area that is often preferred by predators. We assessed the amount and spatial arrangement of subyearling rearing habitat in Lower Granite Reservoir on the Snake River to guide future habitat improvement efforts. A spatially explicit habitat assessment was conducted using physical habitat data, two-dimensional hydrodynamic modelling and a statistical habitat model in a geographic information system framework. We used field collections of subyearlings and a common predator [smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu)] to draw inferences about predation risk within specific habitat types. Most of the high-probability rearing habitat was located in the upper half of the reservoir where gently sloping landforms created low lateral bed slopes and shallow-water habitats. Only 29% of shorelines were predicted to be suitable (probability >0.5) for subyearlings, and the occurrence of these shorelines decreased in a downstream direction. The remaining, less suitable areas were composed of low-probability habitats in unmodified (25%) and riprapped shorelines (46%). As expected, most subyearlings were found in high-probability habitat, while most smallmouth bass were found in low-probability locations. However, some subyearlings were found in low-probability habitats, such as riprap, where predation risk could be high. Given their transient rearing strategy and dependence on shoreline habitats, subyearlings could benefit from habitat creation efforts in the lower

  2. The effects of river impoundment and hatchery rearing on the migration behavior of juvenile steelhead in the Lower Snake River, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plumb, J.M.; Perry, R.W.; Adams, N.S.; Rondorf, D.W.

    2006-01-01

    We used radiotelemetry to monitor the migration behavior of juvenile hatchery and wild steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss as they migrated through Lower Granite Reservoir and Dam on the lower Snake River, Washington. From 1996 to 2001, we surgically implanted radio transmitters in 1,540 hatchery steelhead and 1,346 wild steelhead. For analysis, we used the inverse Gaussian distribution to describe travel time distributions for cohorts (>50 fish) of juvenile steelhead as they migrated downriver. Mean travel rates were significantly related to reach- and discharge-specific water velocities. Also, mean travel rates near the dam were slower for a given range of water velocities than were mean travel rates through the reservoir, indicating that the presence of the dam caused delay to juvenile steelhead over and above the effect of water velocity. Hatchery steelhead took about twice as long as wild steelhead to pass the dam as a result of the higher proportions of hatchery steelhead traveling upriver from the dam. Because upriver travel and the resulting migration delay might decrease survival, it is possible that hatchery steelhead survive at lower rates than wild steelhead. Our analysis identified a discharge threshold (???2,400 m3/s) below which travel time and the percentage of fish traveling upriver from the dam increased rapidly, providing support for the use of minimum flow targets to mitigate for fish delay and possibly enhance juvenile steelhead survival.

  3. Downstream movement of fall Chinook salmon juveniles in the lower Snake River reservoirs during winter and early spring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Kock, Tobias J.; Connor, William P.; Mullins, Frank; Steinhorst, R. Kirk

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a 3-year radiotelemetry study in the lower Snake River to (1) determine whether juvenile fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha pass dams during winter, when bypass systems and structures designed to prevent mortality are not operated; (2) determine whether downstream movement rate varies annually, seasonally, and from reservoir to reservoir; and (3) identify some of the factors that contribute to annual, seasonal, and spatial variation in downstream movement rate. Fall Chinook salmon juveniles moved downstream up to 169 km and at a sufficiently fast rate (7.5 km/d) such that large percentages (up to 93%) of the fish passed one or more dams during the winter. Mean downstream movement rate varied annually (9.2–11.3 km/d), increased from winter (7.5 km/d) to spring (16.4 km/d), and increased (from 6.9 to 16.8 km/d) as fish moved downstream from reservoir to reservoir. Fish condition factor at tagging explained some of the annual variation in downstream movement rate, whereas water particle velocity and temperature explained portions of the seasonal variation. An increase in migrational disposition as fish moved downstream helped to explain the spatial variation. The potential cost of winter movement might be reduced survival due to turbine passage at a time when the bypass systems and spillway passage structures are not operated. Efforts to understand and increase passage survival of winter migrants in large impoundments might help to rehabilitate some imperiled anadromous salmonid populations.

  4. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Spring-Migrating Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven G.; Muir, William D.; Marsh, Douglas M.

    2006-05-01

    In 2005, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the thirteenth year of a study to estimate survival and travel time of juvenile salmonids Oncorhynchus spp. passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. All estimates were derived from detections of fish tagged with passive integrated transponder tags (PIT tags). We PIT tagged and released a total of 18,439 hatchery steelhead, 5,315 wild steelhead, and 6,964 wild yearling Chinook salmon at Lower Granite Dam in the Snake River. In addition, we utilized fish PIT tagged by other agencies at traps and hatcheries upstream from the hydropower system and at sites within the hydropower system in both the Snake and Columbia Rivers. PIT-tagged smolts were detected at interrogation facilities at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, Ice Harbor, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams and in the PIT-tag detector trawl operated in the Columbia River estuary. Survival estimates were calculated using a statistical model for tag-recapture data from single release groups (the ''single-release model''). Primary research objectives in 2005 were: (1) Estimate reach survival and travel time in the Snake and Columbia Rivers throughout the migration period of yearling Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss. (2) Evaluate relationships between survival estimates and migration conditions. (3) Evaluate the survival estimation models under prevailing conditions. This report provides reach survival and travel time estimates for 2005 for PIT-tagged yearling Chinook salmon (hatchery and wild), hatchery sockeye salmon O. nerka, hatchery coho salmon O. kisutch, and steelhead (hatchery and wild) in the Snake and Columbia Rivers. Additional details on the methodology and statistical models used are provided in previous reports cited here.

  5. 50 CFR 226.205 - Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of the USGS publication and maps may be... salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. 226.205 Section... Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer...

  6. 50 CFR 226.205 - Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of the USGS publication and maps may be... salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. 226.205 Section... Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer...

  7. Effect of Multiple Turbine Passage on Juvenile Snake River Salmonid Survival

    SciTech Connect

    Ham, Kenneth D.; Anderson, James J.; Vucelick, Jessica A.

    2005-10-14

    This report describes a study conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to identify populations of migrating juvenile salmonids with a potential to be impacted by repeated exposure to turbine passage conditions. This study is part of a research program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Wind/Hydropower Program. The program's goal is to increase hydropower generation and capacity while enhancing environmental performance. Our study objective is to determine whether the incremental effects of turbine passage during downstream migration impact populations of salmonids. When such a potential is found to exist, a secondary objective is to determine what level of effect of passing multiple turbines is required to decrease the number of successful migrants by 10%. This information will help identify whether future laboratory or field studies are feasible and design those studies to address conditions that present the greatest potential to improve dam survival and thus benefit fish and power generation.

  8. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Spring-Migrating Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven G.; Muir, William D.; Zabel, Richard W.

    2004-01-01

    For juvenile chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, sockeye salmon O. nerka, and steelhead O. mykiss that migrate through reservoirs, hydroelectric projects, and free-flowing sections of the Snake and Columbia Rivers, survival estimates are essential to develop effective strategies for recovering depressed stocks. Many management strategies were based on estimates of system survival (Raymond 1979; Sims and Ossiander 1981) derived in a river system considerably different from today's (Williams and Matthews 1995; Williams et al. 2001). Knowledge of the magnitude, locations, and causes of smolt mortality under present passage conditions, and under conditions projected for the future, are necessary to develop strategies that will optimize smolt survival during migration. From 1993 through 2002, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) and the University of Washington (UW) demonstrated the feasibility of using three statistical models to estimate survival of PIT-tagged (Prentice et al. 1990a) juvenile salmonids passing through Snake River dams and reservoirs (Iwamoto et al. 1994; Muir et al. 1995, 1996, 2001a, 2003; Smith et al. 1998, 2000a,b; Hockersmith et al. 1999; Zabel et al. 2001, 2002). Evaluation of assumptions for these models indicated that all were generally satisfied, and accurate and precise survival estimates were obtained. In 2003, NMFS and UW completed the eleventh year of the study. Flow levels during the early portion of the 2003 spring migration were similar to 2002, and only slightly higher than in the drought conditions during 2001. However, flow levels were much greater during the later part of the migration in 2003. Spill levels were similar to 2002, much higher than in 2001. Research objectives were to: (1) estimate reach survival and travel time in the Snake and Columbia Rivers throughout the yearling chinook salmon and steelhead migrations; (2) evaluate relationships between survival estimates and migration conditions; and (3) evaluate

  9. Survival of Seaward-Migrating PIT and Acoustic-Tagged Juvenile Chinook Salmon in the Snake and Columbia Rivers: An Evaluation of Length-Specific Tagging Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Richard S.; Oldenburg, Eric W.; Seaburg, Adam; Cook, Katrina V.; Skalski, John R.; Eppard, M. B.; Deters, Katherine A.

    2013-06-12

    Studies examining the survival of juvenile salmon as they emigrate to the ocean provide important information regarding the management of regulated river systems. Acoustic telemetry is a widely used tool for evaluating the behavior and survival of juvenile salmonids in the Columbia River basin. Thus, it is important to understand how the surgical tagging process and the presence of a transmitter affect survival so any biases can be accounted for or eliminated. This study evaluated the effects of fish length and tag type on the survival of yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon during their seaward migrations through the Snake and Columbia rivers during 2006, 2007, and 2008. Fish were collected at Lower Granite Dam on the Snake River (river kilometer 695) and implanted with either only a passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag (PIT fish) or both a PIT tag and an acoustic transmitter (AT fish). Survival was estimated from release at Lower Granite Dam to multiple downstream locations (dams) using the Cormack–Jolly–Seber single release model, and analysis of variance was used to test for differences among length-classes and between tag types. No length-specific tag effect was detected between PIT and AT fish (i.e., length affected the survival of PIT fish in a manner similar to which it affected the survival of AT fish). Survival among the smallest length class (i.e., 80–89 mm) of both PIT and AT subyearling Chinook salmon was markedly low (i.e., 4%). Fish length was positively correlated with the survival of both PIT and AT fish. Significant differences in survival were detected between tag types; the survival of PIT fish was generally greater than that of AT fish. However, confounding variables warrant caution in making strong inferences regarding this factor. Further, results suggest that tag effects may be due to the process of surgically implanting the transmitter rather than the presence of the transmitter.

  10. Effects of Summer Flow Augmentation on the Migratory Behavior and Survival of Juvenile Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon; 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Connor, William P.

    2006-03-01

    This report summarizes results of research activities conducted in 2004 and years previous to aid in the management and recovery of fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the Columbia River basin. For detailed summaries, we refer the reader to the abstracts given on the second page of each chapter. The Annual Reporting section includes information provided to fishery managers in-season and post-season, and it contains a detailed summary of life history and survival statistics on wild Snake River fall Chinook salmon juveniles for the years 1992-2004. Publication is a high priority of our staff. Publication provides our results to a wide audience, and it insures that our work meets high scientific standards. The Bibliography of Published Journal Articles section provides citations for peer-reviewed papers co-authored by personnel of project 1991-02900 that were written or published from 1998 to 2005.

  11. Effects of Summer Flow Augmentation on the Migratory Behavior and Survival of Juvenile Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon; 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Haskell, Craig A.; Connor, William P.

    2003-10-01

    This report summarizes results of research activities conducted in 2002 and years previous to aid in the management and recovery of fall chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the Columbia River basin. The report is divided into self-standing chapters. For detailed summaries, we refer the reader to the abstracts given on the second page of each chapter. The Annual Reporting section includes information provided to fishery managers in-season and post-season, and it contains a detailed summary of life history and survival statistics on wild Snake River fall chinook salmon juveniles for the years 1992-2002. Peer-review publication remains a high priority of this research project, and it insures that our work meets high scientific standards. The Bibliography of Published Journal Articles section provides citations for peer-reviewed papers coauthored by personnel of project 199102900 that were written or published from 1998 to 2003.

  12. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Spring-Migrating Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Zabel, Richard; Williams, John G.; Smith, Steven G.

    2002-06-01

    In 2001, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the ninth year of a study to estimate survival and travel time of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. All estimates were derived from passive integrated transponder (PIT)-tagged fish. We PIT tagged and released at Lower Granite Dam a total of 17,028 hatchery and 3,550 wild steelhead. In addition, we utilized fish PIT tagged by other agencies at traps and hatcheries upstream of the hydropower system and sites within the hydropower system. PIT-tagged smolts were detected at interrogation facilities at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams and in the PIT-tag detector trawl operated in the Columbia River estuary. Survival estimates were calculated using the Single-Release Model. Primary research objectives in 2001 were to: (1) estimate reach and project survival and travel time in the Snake and Columbia Rivers throughout the yearling chinook salmon and steelhead migrations; (2) evaluate relationships between survival estimates and migration conditions; and (3) evaluate the survival-estimation models under prevailing conditions. This report provides reach survival and travel time estimates for 2001 for PIT-tagged yearling chinook salmon and steelhead (hatchery and wild) in the Snake and Columbia Rivers. Results are reported primarily in the form of tables and figures with a minimum of text. More details on methodology and statistical models used are provided in previous reports cited in the text. Results for summer-migrating chinook salmon will be reported separately.

  13. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Muir, William D.; Smith, Steven G.; Zabel, Richard W.

    2003-07-01

    In 2002, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the tenth year of a study to estimate survival and travel time of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. All estimates were derived from detections of fish tagged with passive integrated transponder tags (PIT tags). We PIT tagged and released a total of 19,891 hatchery steelhead at Lower Granite Dam. In addition, we utilized fish PIT tagged by other agencies at traps and hatcheries upstream from the hydropower system and sites within the hydropower system. PIT-tagged smolts were detected at interrogation facilities at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams and in the PIT-tag detector trawl operated in the Columbia River estuary. Survival estimates were calculated using a statistical model for tag-recapture data from single release groups (the ''Single-Release Model''). Primary research objectives in 2002 were to (1) estimate reach and project survival and travel time in the Snake and Columbia Rivers throughout the migration period of yearling chinook salmon O. tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss; (2) evaluate relationships between survival estimates and migration conditions; and (3) evaluate the survival-estimation models under prevailing conditions. This report provides reach survival and travel time estimates for 2002 for PIT-tagged yearling chinook salmon (hatchery and wild), hatchery sockeye salmon O. nerka, hatchery coho salmon O. kisutch, and steelhead (hatchery and wild) in the Snake and Columbia Rivers. Results are reported primarily in the form of tables and figures; details on methodology and statistical models used are provided in previous reports cited here. Results for summer-migrating chinook salmon will be reported separately.

  14. Movements and Distribution of Northern Squawfish Downstream of Lower Snake River Dams Relative to the Migration of Juvenile Salmonids, 1992-1993 Completion Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Isaak, D.J.; Bjornn, T.C.

    1996-03-01

    Northern squawfish Ptychocheilus oregonensis movements were monitored downstream of two lower Snake River dams during the juvenile salmonid migrations of 1992 and 1993. During a high flow year in 1993, the abundance of squawfish in the tailrace of Lower Granite Dam peaked in July, after the majority of juveniles had moved past Lower Granite Dam, and peak abundance was inversely related to river discharge. Few squawfish moved into the tailrace of Ice Harbor Dam in 1993 because of the extended period of spill. Distributions of squawfish in the tailrace of Lower Granite Dam varied between and within years and shifted in response to changing prey densities, flow patterns, water temperature, and diel cycles, but fish consistently used low velocity habitats. Data from Ice Harbor Dam is less extensive, but squawfish distributions there appeared to be affected by changing flow patterns and fish used low velocity habitats. The changes in distribution and abundance of squawfish in tailrace areas are evidence that predation on seaward migrating salmonids depends on the timing of migration and size and timing of runoff. Juvenile salmonids migrating in the spring and early summer will probably be less affected by squawfish predation in tailrace areas than salmon that migrate later in the summer.

  15. Identification of juvenile fall versus spring chinook salmon migrating through the lower Snake River based on body morphology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, K.F.; Rondorf, D.W.; Garland, R.D.; Verhey, P.A.

    2000-01-01

    We tested the use of body morphology to distinguish among subyearling fall-run, subyearling spring-run, and yearling spring-run smolts of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha at two lower Snake River dams during the summer emigration. Based on principal-components analysis, subyearling fall-run chinook salmon had smaller heads and eyes, deeper bodies, and shorter caudal peduncles than yearling spring-run chinook salmon. Subyearling spring-run chinook salmon had characteristics of both subyearling fall-run and yearling spring-run chinook salmon. Subyearling fall-run and yearling spring-run chinook salmon were classified with more than 80% accuracy by means of discriminant analysis. Classification accuracy for subyearling spring-run chinook salmon was only 26%. We conclude that body morphology can be used to accurately identify the age of chinook salmon smolts but not the run. Therefore, genetic analyses are the only means of reliably determining the run composition of summer migrants in the lower Snake River.

  16. Transportation as a Means of Increasing Wild Juvenile Salmon Survival : Recovery Issues for Threatened and Endangered Snake River Salmon : Technical Report 4 of 11.

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Donn L.

    1993-06-01

    Smolt transportation on the Snake and Columbia Rivers has been under nearly continuous study for 25 years. Most controversy surrounds transport of spring/summer chinook, so most analyses and discussion are devoted to that species. Sockeye migrate at the same time as spring/summer chinook as do the earliest of the fall chinook. Therefore, action taken o spring/summer chinook will also affect sockeye and fall chinook. Many factors influenced transportation study results including population structure change -- the shift from nearly all wild fish to nearly all hatchery fish; new dams; the number of turbines at Snake River dams alone increased from 3 in 1968 to 24 by 1979; installation of juvenile fish pass facilities; and calamitous natural events such as the 1977 drought. All the above had negative effects on the survival of wild fish in general and on transport test results specifically, except that when smolts were transported from the upper dam their survival was not influenced by new or existing structures downstream from the transport site.

  17. Evaluation of a Prototype Surface Flow Bypass for Juvenile Salmon and Steelhead at the Powerhouse of Lower Granite Dam, Snake River, Washington, 1996-2000

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Anglea, Steven M.; Adams, Noah S.; Wik, Timothy O.

    2005-02-28

    A surface flow bypass provides a route in the upper water column for naturally, surface-oriented juvenile salmonids to safely migrate through a hydroelectric dam. Surface flow bypasses were recommended in several regional salmon recovery plans as a means to increase passage survival of juvenile salmonids at Columbia and Snake River dams. A prototype surface flow bypass, called the SBC, was retrofit on Lower Granite Dam and evaluated from 1996 to 2000 using biotelemetry and hydroacoustic techniques. In terms of passage efficiency, the best SBC configurations were a surface skimmer (99 m3/s [3,500 cfs], three entrances 5 m wide, 5 m deep and one entrance 5 m wide, 15 m deep) and a single chute (99 m3/s, one entrance 5 m wide, 8.5 m deep). They each passed 62 ? 3% (95% confidence interval) of the total juvenile fish population that entered the section of the dam with the SBC entrances (Turbine Units 4-5). Smooth entrance shape and concentrated surface flow characteristics of these configurations are worth pursuing in designs for future surface flow bypasses. In addition, a guidance wall in the Lower Granite Dam forebay diverted the following percentages of juvenile salmonids away from Turbine Units 1-3 toward other passage routes, including the SBC: run-at-large 79 ? 18%; hatchery steelhead 86%; wild steelhead 65%; and yearling chinook salmon 66%. When used in combination with spill or turbine intake screens, a surface flow bypass with a guidance wall can produce a high level (> 90% of total project passage) of non-turbine passage and provide operational flexibility to fisheries managers and dam operators responsible for enhancing juvenile salmonid survival.

  18. System-Wide Significance of Predation on Juvenile Salmonids in Columbia and Snake River Reservoirs : Annual Report of Research 1990.

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, C.J.

    1991-03-01

    The consumption rates of northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) preying upon juvenile salmonids were indexed in four reservoirs (Bonneville, The Dalles, John Day and McNary) of the lower Columbia River. During the spring and summer of 1990, over 2000 northern squawfish were collected from dam forebays, dam tailraces and mid-reservoir locations. Gut content data, predator weight and water temperature were used to compute a consumption index (CI) for northern squawfish. Juvenile salmonids were found in 435 of 1598 northern squawfish guts analyzed. Besides salmonids and other preyfish, crustaceans formed a significant portion of the diet. The CI of northern squawfish varied by season and location. At most locations, summer CI's of northern squawfish were higher than in the spring. Efforts to match sample collection with times of highest juvenile salmonid passage were successful except during July at The Dalles and Bonneville Reservoirs. Consumption indices were moderate to high at several locations even when passage was relatively low, suggesting salmonid predation rate by northern squawfish was not always a function of prey density. 19 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs.

  19. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Juveniles, 2007-2008 Report of Research.

    SciTech Connect

    Achord, Stephen; Sandford, Benjamin P.; Hockersmith, Eric E.

    2009-05-26

    This report provides results from an ongoing project to monitor the migration behavior and survival of wild juvenile spring/summer Chinook salmon in the Snake River Basin. Data reported is from detections of PIT tagged fish during late summer 2007 through mid-2008. Fish were tagged in summer 2007 by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) in Idaho and by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) in Oregon. Our analyses include migration behavior and estimated survival of fish at instream PIT-tag monitors and arrival timing and estimated survival to Lower Granite Dam. Principal results from tagging and interrogation during 2007-2008 are listed below: (1) In July and August 2007, we PIT tagged and released 7,390 wild Chinook salmon parr in 12 Idaho streams or sample areas. (2) Overall observed mortality from collection, handling, tagging, and after a 24-hour holding period was 1.4%. (3) Of the 2,524 Chinook salmon parr PIT tagged and released in Valley Creek in summer 2007, 218 (8.6%) were detected at two instream PIT-tag monitoring systems in lower Valley Creek from late summer 2007 to the following spring 2008. Of these, 71.6% were detected in late summer/fall, 11.9% in winter, and 16.5% in spring. Estimated parr-to-smolt survival to Lower Granite Dam was 15.5% for the late summer/fall group, 48.0% for the winter group, and 58.5% for the spring group. Based on detections at downstream dams, the overall efficiency of VC1 (upper) or VC2 (lower) Valley Creek monitors for detecting these fish was 21.1%. Using this VC1 or VC2 efficiency, an estimated 40.8% of all summer-tagged parr survived to move out of Valley Creek, and their estimated survival from that point to Lower Granite Dam was 26.5%. Overall estimated parr-to-smolt survival for all summer-tagged parr from this stream at the dam was 12.1%. Development and improvement of instream PIT-tag monitoring systems continued throughout 2007 and 2008. (4) Testing of PIT-tag antennas in lower Big Creek during

  20. System-Wide Significance of Predation on Juvenile Salmonids in Columbia and Snake River Reservoirs : Annual Report 1992.

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, James H.; Poe, Thomas P.

    1993-12-01

    Northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) predation on juvenile salmonids was characterized during 1992 at ten locations in the Columbia River below Bonneville Dam and at three locations in John Day Reservoir. During the spring and summer, 1,487 northern squawfish were collected in the lower Columbia River and 202 squawfish were sampled in John Day Reservoir. Gut content data, predator weight, and water temperature were used to compute a consumption index (CI) for northern squawfish, and overall diet was also described. In the Columbia River below Bonneville Dam, northern squawfish diet was primarily fish (spring 69%; summer 53%), most of which were salmonids. Salmonids were also the primary diet component in the Bonneville Dam tailrace, John Day Dam forebay, and the McNary Dam tailrace. Crustaceans were the dominant diet item at the John Day mid-reservoir location, although sample sizes were small. About half of the non-salmonid preyfish were sculpins. The consumption index (CI) of northern squawfish was generally higher during summer than during spring. The highest CI`s were observed during summer in the tailrace boat restricted zones of Bonneville Dam (CI = 7.8) and McNary Dam (CI = 4.6). At locations below Bonneville Dam, CI`s were relatively low near Covert`s Landing and Rooster Rock, higher at four locations between Blue Lake and St. Helens, and low again at three downriver sites (Kalama, Ranier, and Jones Beach). Northern squawfish catches and CI`s were noticeably higher throughout the lower Columbia compared to mid-reservoir sites further upriver sampled during 1990--92. Predation may be especially intense in the free-flowing section of the Columbia River below Bonneville Dam. Smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui; N = 198) ate mostly fish -- 25% salmonids, 29% sculpins, and 46% other fish. Highest catches of smallmouth bass were in the John Day Dam forebay.

  1. 33 CFR 117.1058 - Snake River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Snake River. 117.1058 Section 117... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Washington § 117.1058 Snake River. (a) The draw of the Burlington Northern Santa Fe railroad bridge across the Snake River at mile 1.5 between Pasco and Burbank...

  2. 33 CFR 117.1058 - Snake River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Snake River. 117.1058 Section 117... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Washington § 117.1058 Snake River. (a) The draw of the Burlington Northern Santa Fe railroad bridge across the Snake River at mile 1.5 between Pasco and Burbank...

  3. Evaluation of a prototype surface flow bypass for juvenile salmon and steelhead at the powerhouse of Lower Granite Dam, Snake River, Washington, 1996-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, G.E.; Anglea, S.M.; Adams, N.S.; Wik, T.O.

    2005-01-01

    A surface flow bypass takes advantage of the natural surface orientation of most juvenile salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead O. mykiss by providing a route in the upper water column that downstream migrant fishes can use to pass a hydroelectric dam safely. A prototype structure, called the surface bypass and collector (SBC), was retrofitted on the powerhouse of Lower Granite Dam and was evaluated annually with biotelemetry and hydroacoustic techniques during the 5-year life span of the structure (1996-2000) to determine the entrance configuration that maximized passage efficiency and minimized forebay residence time. The best tested entrance configuration had maximum inflow (99 m 3/s) concentrated in a single surface entrance (5 m wide, 8.5 m deep). We identified five important considerations for future surface flow bypass development in the lower Snake River and elsewhere: (1) an extensive flow net should be formed in the forebay by use of relatively high surface flow bypass discharge (>7% of total project discharge); (2) a gradual increase in water velocity with increasing proximity to the surface flow bypass (ideally, acceleration 3 m/s) to entrain the subject juvenile fishes; (4) the shape and orientation of the surface entrance(s) should be adapted to fit site-specific features; and (5) construction of a forebay wall to increase fish availability to the surface flow bypass should be considered. The efficiency of the SBC was not high enough (maximum of 62% relative to passage at turbine units 4-5) for the SBC to operate as a stand-alone bypass. Anywhere that surface-oriented anadromous fish must negotiate hydroelectric dams, surface flow bypass systems can provide cost-effective use of typically limited water supplies to increase the nonturbine passage, and presumably survival, of downstream migrants. ??Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  4. Genetic characterization of naturally spawned Snake River fall-run Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marshall, A.R.; Blankenship, H.L.; Connor, W.P.

    1999-01-01

    We sampled juvenile Snake River chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to genetically characterize the endangered Snake River fall-run population. Juveniles from fall and spring–summer lineages coexisted in our sampling areas but were differentiated by large allozyme allele frequency differences. We sorted juveniles by multilocus genotypes into putative fall and spring lineage subsamples and determined lineage composition using maximum likelihood estimation methods. Paired sMEP-1* and PGK-2* genotypes—encoding malic enzyme (NADP+) and phosphoglycerate kinase, respectively—were very effective for sorting juveniles by lineage, and subsamples estimated to be 100% fall lineage were obtained in four annual samples. We examined genetic relationships of these fall lineage juveniles with adjacent populations from the Columbia River and from Lyons Ferry Hatchery, which was established to perpetuate the Snake River fall-run population. Our samples of naturally produced Snake River fall lineage juveniles were most closely aligned with Lyons Ferry Hatchery samples. Although fall-run strays of Columbia River hatchery origin found on spawning grounds threaten the genetic integrity of the Snake River population, juvenile samples (a) showed distinctive patterns of allelic diversity, (b) were differentiated from Columbia River populations, and (c) substantiate earlier conclusions that this population is an important genetic resource. This first characterization of naturally produced Snake River fall chinook salmon provides a baseline for monitoring and recovery planning.

  5. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Spring-Migrating Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven G.; Muir, William D.; Marsh, Douglas M.

    2005-10-01

    In 2004, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the twelfth year of a study to estimate survival and travel time of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. All estimates were derived from detections of fish tagged with passive integrated transponder tags (PIT tags). We PIT tagged and released a total of 19,621 hatchery steelhead, 8,128 wild steelhead, and 9,227 wild yearling Chinook salmon at Lower Granite Dam. In addition, we utilized fish PIT tagged by other agencies at traps and hatcheries upstream from the hydropower system and sites within the hydropower system. PIT-tagged smolts were detected at interrogation facilities at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams and in the PIT-tag detector trawl operated in the Columbia River estuary. Survival estimates were calculated using a statistical model for tag-recapture data from single release groups (the single-release model). Primary research objectives in 2004 were to (1) estimate reach survival and travel time in the Snake and Columbia Rivers throughout the migration period of yearling Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss; (2) evaluate relationships between survival estimates and migration conditions; and (3) evaluate the survival-estimation models under prevailing conditions. This report provides reach survival and travel time estimates for 2004 for PIT-tagged yearling Chinook salmon (hatchery and wild), hatchery sockeye salmon O. nerka, hatchery coho salmon O. kisutch, and steelhead (hatchery and wild) in the Snake and Columbia Rivers. Results are reported primarily in the form of tables and figures; details on methodology and statistical models used are provided in previous reports cited here. Survival and detection probabilities were estimated precisely for most of the 2004 yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead migrations. Hatchery and

  6. Movement, swimming speed, and oxygen consumption of juvenile white sturgeon in response to changing flows, water temperatures, and light level in the Snake River, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David R.; Brown, Richard S.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Brink, Steve R.; Lepla, Kenneth B.; Bates, Phil; Chandler, James A.

    2005-07-01

    The flow of the Snake River downstream of Hells Canyon Dam, Idaho, frequently fluctuates as the dam responds to power production requirements. These flow fluctuations have the potential to increase the energy used by individual juvenile white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) that move to avoid unfavorable habitat or that alter their swimming speeds to maintain position over a range of velocities. Following swimming respirometry experiments, a field study using electromyogram (EMG) and sonic telemetry evaluated whether sturgeon were being negatively affected by operations of Hells Canyon Dam during three study periods where flows were artificially fluctuated (247 to 856 m3/s), held high and stable (438 to 600 m3/s), or held low and stable (275 to 284 m3/s). Respirometry results confirmed that oxygen consumption of juvenile sturgeon increased with swim speed and was temperature dependent, and when corrected for fish mass, ranged from 140.2 to 306.5 mg O2 kg-1 h-1. The telemetry study showed that movements and activity levels, as measured by swimming speeds and oxygen consumption, of sturgeon were variable among fish and across study periods. When flows were held low and stable, sturgeon movement increased while activity levels decreased when compared to the study periods when flows were variable or were high and stable. Although the overall trend was for activity levels to be less during the study period when flows were low and stable, the majority of differences between study periods appeared to be due to differences in water temperature and light levels that changed during the three-month investigation. The results suggest high flows, even those of relatively short durations such as what occurs during load-following operations, restrict the movement of juvenile sturgeon, but do not result in an increase of energy expenditure, possibly because of morphological and behavioral adaptations to living in a high-velocity environment. This may have significant

  7. 1. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT DAM, VIEW OF NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT DAM, VIEW OF NORTH ELEVATION OF INTAKE ON EAST SIDE OF DAM - Snake River Valley Irrigation District, East Side of Snake River (River Mile 796), Shelley, Bingham County, ID

  8. 5. GENERAL VIEW FROM SOUTH BANK OF SNAKE RIVER LYONS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. GENERAL VIEW FROM SOUTH BANK OF SNAKE RIVER LYONS FERRY BRIDGE TO THE RIGHT, JOSO HIGH (UNION PACIFIC RAILROAD) BRIDGE TO THE LEFT - Snake River Bridge at Lyons' Ferry, State Route 261 spanning Snake River, Starbuck, Columbia County, WA

  9. 3. NORTH SIDE OF DIVERSION DAM ON THE SNAKE RIVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. NORTH SIDE OF DIVERSION DAM ON THE SNAKE RIVER SHOWING HEADGATE ON THE NORTH BANK. VIEW IS TO THE NORTH-NORTHWEST. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  10. 2. UPSTREAM SIDE OF DIVERSION DAM ON THE SNAKE RIVER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. UPSTREAM SIDE OF DIVERSION DAM ON THE SNAKE RIVER, LOOKING SOUTH-SOUTHWEST. NOTE BANK REINFORCEMENT ON LEFT AND SPILLWAY ON RIGHT. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  11. 4. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT, PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF DRAWING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT, PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF DRAWING, PROPOSED SECTION OF DIVERSION DAM ACROSS SNAKE RIVER, SHEET 1 OF 5, 1924 (on file at the Idaho State Office of Water Resources, Boise, Idaho) - Snake River Valley Irrigation District, East Side of Snake River (River Mile 796), Shelley, Bingham County, ID

  12. 3. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT, PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF DRAWING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT, PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF DRAWING, PROFILE AND ALIGNMENT OF DAM ACROSS WEST CHANNEL OF SNAKE RIVER, SHEET 3 OF 5, 1924 (on file at the Idaho State Office of Water Resources, Boise, Idaho) - Snake River Valley Irrigation District, East Side of Snake River (River Mile 796), Shelley, Bingham County, ID

  13. 33 CFR 117.385 - Snake River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Snake River. 117.385 Section 117.385 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Idaho § 117.385 Snake River. The drawspan of the U.S. 12...

  14. 33 CFR 117.385 - Snake River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Snake River. 117.385 Section 117.385 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Idaho § 117.385 Snake River. The drawspan of the U.S. 12...

  15. 33 CFR 117.385 - Snake River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Snake River. 117.385 Section 117.385 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Idaho § 117.385 Snake River. The drawspan of the U.S. 12...

  16. 33 CFR 117.385 - Snake River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Snake River. 117.385 Section 117.385 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Idaho § 117.385 Snake River. The drawspan of the U.S. 12...

  17. 33 CFR 117.385 - Snake River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Snake River. 117.385 Section 117.385 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Idaho § 117.385 Snake River. The drawspan of the U.S. 12...

  18. Early life history and survival of natural subyearling fall chinook salmon in the Snake and Clearwater rivers in 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Connor, William P.; Bjornn, Theodore C.; Burge, Howard L.; Garcia, Aaron P.; Rondorf, Dennis W.

    1997-01-01

    The objectives of this segment of our study were to (1) describe the early life history characteristics of naturally produced subyearling fall chinook salmon in the Snake and Clearwater rivers, and (2) estimate survival for juvenile fall chinook salmon emigrating from the Snake and Clearwater rivers to the tail race of Lower Granite Dam.

  19. Magnitude and Dynamics of Predation on Juvenile Salmonids in Columbia and Snake River Reservoirs, Annual Report of Research, 1989-1990.

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, J.H.

    1990-07-01

    Three aspects of predation upon juvenile salmonids in the Columbia River are addressed in this report: (1) Indexing predator consumption. During 1989--1990, two indices of northern squawfish consumption upon juvenile salmonids were developed for use throughout the Columbia River Basin. The direct Consumption Index (CI) is based upon the concept of meal turnover time and takes into account number of salmonids, temperature, total gut content weight and predator weight. A Bioenergetics Index (BI) for consumption indexing was also developed to complement the direct CI. In the BI, growth, consumption, excretion/evacuation and respiration processes are modeled to predict the consumption required to produce an observed growth increment. (2) Studies on predator-smolt dynamics. Northern squawfish consumption data were collected in the McNary Dam tailrace during nine days in July 1988 to improve our understanding of the predator-smolt functional response. (3) Selective predation by northern squawfish. Laboratory and field protocols were developed to evaluate northern squawfish selection and prey vulnerability. Results from laboratory studies suggest that northern squawfish prefer dead over live prey and that descaled prey may be more vulnerable to predation than non-descaled prey. Stressed and unstressed prey were consumed in equal proportions when predation occurred for 6 or 24 h. Physiological and behavioral effects of stress on juvenile salmon are presented. 100 refs., 13 figs., 12 tabs.

  20. 50 CFR Table 3 to Part 226 - Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River Spring/Summer and Fall Chinook Salmon 3 Table 3 to... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT Pt. 226, Table 3 Table 3 to Part 226—Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake...

  1. 50 CFR Table 3 to Part 226 - Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River Spring/Summer and Fall Chinook Salmon 3 Table 3 to... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT Pt. 226, Table 3 Table 3 to Part 226—Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake...

  2. 50 CFR Table 3 to Part 226 - Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River Spring/Summer and Fall Chinook Salmon 3 Table 3 to... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT Pt. 226, Table 3 Table 3 to Part 226—Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake...

  3. System-Wide Significance of Predation on Juvenile Salmonids in Columbia and Snake River Reservoirs and Evaluation of Predation Control Measures : Annual Report 1993.

    SciTech Connect

    Gadomski, Dena M.; Petersen, James H.; Poe, Thomas P.

    1993-12-01

    This project had three major goals. The first was to assist the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife with predation indexing as part of an effort to estimate the relative magnitude of juvenile salmonid losses to northern squawfish Ptychocheilus oregonensis in reservoirs throughout the Columbia River Basin. The second goal was to evaluate the northern squawfish control program and test critical assumptions about mid-reservoir predation processes. The final goal was to determine mechanisms underlying northern squawfish recruitment and factors affecting year-class strength.

  4. 2. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT DAM, PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT DAM, PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF DRAWING, PLAN, SHEET 5 OF 5, 1924 (on file at the Idaho State Office of Water Resources, Boise, Idaho) - Snake River Valley Irrigation District, East Side of Snake River (River Mile 796), Shelley, Bingham County, ID

  5. 50 CFR 226.205 - Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of the USGS publication and maps may be... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.205 Critical habitat...

  6. 50 CFR 226.205 - Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of the USGS publication and maps may be... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.205 Critical habitat...

  7. 50 CFR 226.205 - Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of the USGS publication and maps may be... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.205 Critical habitat...

  8. WATER QUALITY OF THE MIDDLE SNAKE RIVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Clear Spring Foods, Inc., conducted a year-long study in the Middle Snake River to provide a perspective on water quality issues and the impact of aquaculture activities on water quality. The study area extended from Shoshone Falls Park to below Box Canyon. Physical and chemical ...

  9. MIDDLE SNAKE RIVER PRODUCTIVITY AND NUTRIENT ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    From 1992 to 1994, the University of Idaho conducted a research project on the water quality- limited section of the MIddle Snake River from Twin Falls downstream to Upper Salmon Falls Dam in an effort to determine the relationship between the nutrients and sediments entering thi...

  10. Snake and Columbia Rivers Sediment Sampling Project

    SciTech Connect

    Pinza, M. R.; Word, J. Q.; Barrows, E. S.; Mayhew, H. L.; Clark, D. R.

    1992-12-01

    The disposal of dredged material in water is defined as a discharge under Section 404 of the Clean Water Act and must be evaluated in accordance with US Environmental Protection Agency regulation 40 CFR 230. Because contaminant loads in the dredged sediment or resuspended sediment may affect water quality or contaminant loading, the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Walla Walla District, has requested Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory to collect and chemically analyze sediment samples from areas that may be dredged near the Port Authority piers on the Snake and Columbia rivers. Sediment samples were also collected at River Mile (RM) stations along the Snake River that may undergo resuspension of sediment as a result of the drawdown. Chemical analysis included grain size, total organic carbon, total volatile solids, ammonia, phosphorus, sulfides, oil and grease, total petroleum hydrocarbons, metals, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and 21 congeners of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans.

  11. Significance of Selective Predation and Development of Prey Protection Measures for Juvenile Salmonids in the Columbia and Snake River Reservoirs: Annual Progress Report, February 1991-February 1992.

    SciTech Connect

    Poe, Thomas P.

    1992-12-31

    This document is the 1991 annual report of progress for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) research Project conducted by the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS). Our approach was to present the progress achieved during 1991 in a series of separate reports for each major project task. Each report is prepared in the format of a scientific paper and is able to stand alone, whatever the state of progress or completion. This project has two major goals. One is to understand the significance of selective predation and prey vulnerability by determining if substandard juvenile salmonids (dead, injured, stressed, diseased, or naive) are more vulnerable to predation by northern squawfish, than standard or normal juvenile salmonids. The second goal is to develop and test prey protection measures to control predation on juvenile salmonids by reducing predator-smolt encounters or predator capture efficiency.

  12. Influence of multiple dam passage on survival of juvenile Chinook salmon in the Columbia River estuary and coastal ocean.

    PubMed

    Rechisky, Erin L; Welch, David W; Porter, Aswea D; Jacobs-Scott, Melinda C; Winchell, Paul M

    2013-04-23

    Multiple dam passage during seaward migration is thought to reduce the subsequent survival of Snake River Chinook salmon. This hypothesis developed because juvenile Chinook salmon from the Snake River, the Columbia River's largest tributary, migrate >700 km through eight hydropower dams and have lower adult return rates than downstream populations that migrate through only 3 or 4 dams. Using a large-scale telemetry array, we tested whether survival of hatchery-reared juvenile Snake River spring Chinook salmon is reduced in the estuary and coastal ocean relative to a downstream, hatchery-reared population from the Yakima River. During the initial 750-km, 1-mo-long migration through the estuary and coastal ocean, we found no evidence of differential survival; therefore, poorer adult returns of Snake River Chinook may develop far from the Columbia River. Thus, hydrosystem mitigation efforts may be ineffective if differential mortality rates develop in the North Pacific Ocean for reasons unrelated to dam passage. PMID:23576733

  13. Significance of Selective Predation and Development of Prey Protection Measures for Juvenile Salmonids in the Columbia and Snake River Reservoirs: Annual Report, February 1992-February 1993.

    SciTech Connect

    Poe, Thomas P.; Gadomski, Dena M.

    1994-09-01

    This document is the 1992 annual report of progress for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) research Project No. 82-003 conducted by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), the Oregon Cooperative Fishery Research Unit (OCFRU), and the Idaho Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit (ICFWRU). The approach was to present the progress achieved during 1992 in a series of separate reports for each major project task. Each report is prepared in the format of a scientific paper and is able to stand alone, whatever the state of progress or completion. Reports 1, 2, and 4 consist of the Abstract only (journal papers were submitted in lieu of reports). This project has two major goals. One is to understand the significance of selective predation and prey vulnerability by determining if substandard juvenile salmonids (dead, injured, stressed, diseased, or naive) are more vulnerable to predation by northern squawfish, Ptychocheilus oregonensis, than standard or normal juvenile salmonids. The second goal is to develop and test prey protection measures to control predation on juvenile salmonids by reducing predator-smolt encounters or predator capture efficiency. Separate abstracts have been submitted to the database for the seven articles in this report.

  14. ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT FOR THE MIDDLE SNAKE RIVER, IDAHO

    EPA Science Inventory

    An ecological risk assessment was completed for the Middle Snake River, Idaho. In this assessment, mathematical simulations and field observations were used to analyze exposure and ecological effects and to estimate risk.

    The Middle Snake River which refers to a 100 km stret...

  15. 27 CFR 9.208 - Snake River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Snake River Valley. 9.208 Section 9.208 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.208 Snake River Valley. (a) Name. The name of...

  16. Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Life History Investigations, Annual Report 2008.

    SciTech Connect

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Connor, William P.; Bellgraph, Brian J.

    2009-09-15

    This study was initiated to provide empirical data and analyses on the dam passage timing, travel rate, survival, and life history variation of fall Chinook salmon that are produced in the Clearwater River. The area of interest for this study focuses on the lower four miles of the Clearwater River and its confluence with the Snake River because this is an area where many fish delay their seaward migration. The goal of the project is to increase our understanding of the environmental and biological factors that affect juvenile life history of fall Chinook salmon in the Clearwater River. The following summaries are provided for each of the individual chapters in this report.

  17. 50 CFR Table 3 to Part 226 - Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River Spring/Summer and Fall Chinook Salmon 3 Table 3 to... Spring/Summer and Fall Chinook Salmon Hydrologic unit name Hydrologic unit number Sockeye salmon...

  18. 50 CFR Table 3 to Part 226 - Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River Spring/Summer and Fall Chinook Salmon 3 Table 3 to... Spring/Summer and Fall Chinook Salmon Hydrologic unit name Hydrologic unit number Sockeye salmon...

  19. Research and Recovery of Snake River Sockeye Salmon, 1995-1996 Annual Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kline, Paul A.

    1997-04-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Services listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the Idaho Department of Fish and Game initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. The first planning of hatchery-produced juvenile sockeye salmon from a captive broodstock occurred in 1994 with the release of 14,119 fish to Redfish Lake. Two release strategies were used with four broodstock lineages represented. In 1995, 95,411 hatchery-produced juvenile sockeye salmon were planted to Stanley Basin waters, including the release of additional broodstock lineage groups and release strategies in Redfish Lake, a yearling smolt release to Redfish Lake Creek, and a direct release to Pettit Lake.

  20. Snake River Plain FORGE Site Characterization Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Robert Podgorney

    2016-04-18

    The site characterization data used to develop the conceptual geologic model for the Snake River Plain site in Idaho, as part of phase 1 of the Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy (FORGE) initiative. This collection includes data on seismic events, groundwater, geomechanical models, gravity surveys, magnetics, resistivity, magnetotellurics (MT), rock physics, stress, the geologic setting, and supporting documentation, including several papers. Also included are 3D models (Petrel and Jewelsuite) of the proposed site. Data for wells INEL-1, WO-2, and USGS-142 have been included as links to separate data collections. These data have been assembled by the Snake River Geothermal Consortium (SRGC), a team of collaborators that includes members from national laboratories, universities, industry, and federal agencies, lead by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Other contributors include the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CEAS), the University of Idaho, Idaho State University, Boise State University, University of Wyoming, University of Oklahoma, Energy and Geoscience Institute-University of Utah, US Geothermal, Baker Hughes Campbell Scientific Inc., Chena Power, US Geological Survey (USGS), Idaho Department of Water Resources, Idaho Geological Survey, and Mink GeoHydro.

  1. Snake River Plain FORGE Well Data for USGS-142

    DOE Data Explorer

    Robert Podgorney

    2015-11-23

    Well data for the USGS-142 well located in eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho. This data collection includes lithology reports, borehole logs, and photos of rhyolite core samples. This collection of data has been assembled as part of the site characterization data used to develop the conceptual geologic model for the Snake River Plain site in Idaho, as part of phase 1 of the Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy (FORGE) initiative. They were assembled by the Snake River Geothermal Consortium (SRGC), a team of collaborators that includes members from national laboratories, universities, industry, and federal agencies, lead by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL).

  2. UPPER SNAKE RIVER BASIN WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT, 1976

    EPA Science Inventory

    This package contains information for the Upper Snake River Basin, Idaho (170402, 17040104). The report contains a water quality assessment approach which will assist EPA planners, land agencies, and state and local agencies in identifying probably nonpoint sources and determini...

  3. COLUMBIA/SNAKE RIVER TEMPERATURE TOTAL MAXIMUM DAILY LOAD (TMDL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA and the States of Idaho, Oregon and Washington are working in coordination with the Columbia River Tribes to establish a temperature TMDL for the mainstems of the Columbia and Snake Rivers. Both rivers are on state 303(d) lists of impaired waters for exceedances of water qua...

  4. Fall Chinook Salmon Survival and Supplementation Studies in the Snake River and Lower Snake River Reservoirs, 1997 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Muir, William D.; Connor, William P.; Arnsberg, Billy D.

    1999-03-01

    In 1997, the National Marine Fisheries Service, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the Nez Perce Tribe completed the third year of research to investigate migrational characteristics of subyearling fall chinook salmon in the Snake River Basin.

  5. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research; 1998 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Bert; Griswold, Robert G.; Taki, Doug

    2000-05-01

    In March of 1990, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list the Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) as endangered. As a result of that petition the Snake River sockeye salmon was officially listed as endangered in November 1991 under the Endangered Species Act (56 FR 58619). In 1991 the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research Program was implemented (Project Number 91-71, Intergovernmental Contract Number DE-BI79-91bp22548). This project is part of an inter-agency effort to save the Redfish Lake stock of O. nerka from extinction. This report summarizes activities conducted by Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department personnel during the calendar year of 1998. Project objectives included; (1) monitor over-winter survival and emigration of juvenile anadromous O. nerka released from the captive rearing program into Pettit and Alturas lakes; (2) fertilize Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes; (3) conduct kokanee (non-anadromous O. nerka) population surveys; (4) monitor spawning kokanee escapement and estimate fry recruitment on Fishhook, Alturas Lake, and Stanley Lake creeks; (5) control the number of spawning kokanee in Fishhook Creek; (6) evaluate potential competition and predation between stocked juvenile O. nerka and a variety of fish species in Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes; (7) monitor limnological parameters of Sawtooth Valley lakes to assess lake productivity. Results by objective are summarized.

  6. Spawning Distribution of Fall Chinook Salmon in the Snake River : Annual Report 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, Aaron P.

    2001-08-01

    Pittsburgh Landing, three from Big Canyon Creek, and three from the Captain John area. All of the fish from Pittsburgh Landing spawned in the Snake River (nine in the upper half, and one in the lower half). All of the fish from Big Canyon Creek spawned in the Clearwater River, and all of the fish from Captain John area spawned in the lower half of the Snake River study area. We also tagged and tracked six adult natural fish. These fish were initially captured and PIT-tagged in the Snake River when they were juveniles, and, based on our observations, all spawned in the Snake River and did not wander into other rivers after crossing Lower Granite Dam. Our results indicate that the supplementation program will accomplish its objective in terms of spawning distribution, although currently the sample size for some groups is too small for the results to be conclusive. To finish the study we plan to tag 340 fish in the fall-winter of 2001-2002, and complete the final report by November 2002.

  7. Estuarine and early-marine survival of transported and in-river migrant Snake River spring Chinook salmon smolts.

    PubMed

    Rechisky, Erin L; Welch, David W; Porter, Aswea D; Jacobs-Scott, Melinda C; Winchell, Paul M; McKern, John L

    2012-01-01

    Many juvenile Snake River Chinook salmon are transported downriver to avoid hydroelectric dams in the Columbia River basin. As mortality to the final dam is ∼50%, transported fish should return as adults at roughly double the rate of nontransported fish; however, the benefit of transportation has not been realized consistently. "Delayed" mortality caused by transportation-induced stress is one hypothesis to explain reduced returns of transported fish. Differential timing of ocean entry is another. We used a large-scale acoustic telemetry array to test whether survival of transported juvenile spring Chinook is reduced relative to in-river migrant control groups after synchronizing ocean entry timing. During the initial 750 km, 1 month long migration after release, we found no evidence of decreased estuarine or ocean survival of transported groups; therefore, decreased survival to adulthood for transported Chinook is likely caused by factors other than delayed effects of transportation, such as earlier ocean entry. PMID:22690317

  8. Interim Columbia and Snake rivers flow improvement measures for salmon: Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    Public comments are sought on this final SEIS, which supplements the 1992 Columbia River Salmon Flow Measures Options Analysis (OA)/Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). The Corps of Engineers, in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration and the Bureau of Reclamation proposes five alternatives to improve flows of water in the lower Columbia-Snake rivers in 1993 and future years to assist the migration of juvenile and adult anadromous fish past eight hydropower dams. These are: (1) Without Project (no action) Alternative, (2) the 1992 Operation, (3) the 1992 Operation with Libby/Hungry Horse Sensitivity, (4) a Modified 1992 Operation with Improvements to Salmon Flows from Dworshak, and (5) a Modified 1992 Operation with Upper Snake Sensitivity. Alternative 4, Modified 1992 Operations, has been identified as the preferred alternative.

  9. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research : 2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Taki, Doug; Kohler, Andre E.; Griswold, Robert G.; Gilliland, Kim

    2006-07-14

    In March 1990, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) as endangered. Snake River sockeye salmon were officially listed as endangered in November 1991 under the Endangered Species Act (56 FR 58619). In 1991, the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research Project was implemented. This project is part of an interagency effort to prevent the extinction of the Redfish Lake stock of Snake River sockeye salmon. The Shoshone-Bannock Tribal goal for this project is two tiered: The immediate goal is to increase the population of Snake River sockeye salmon while preserving the unique genetic characteristics of the Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU). The Tribes long term goal is to maintain a viable population that warrants delisting and provides Tribal harvest opportunities. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides funding for this interagency recovery. Collaborators in the recovery effort include the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the University of Idaho (UI), and the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT). This report summarizes activities conducted by Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department personnel during the 2005 calendar year. Project tasks include: (1) monitor limnological parameters of the Sawtooth Valley lakes to assess lake productivity; (2) conduct lake fertilization in Pettit and Alturas lakes; (3) reduce the number of mature kokanee spawning in Fishhook and Alturas Lake creeks; (4) monitor and enumerate sockeye salmon smolt migration from Pettit and Alturas lakes; (5) monitor spawning kokanee escapement and estimate fry recruitment in Fishhook, Alturas Lake, and Stanley Lake creeks; (6) conduct sockeye and kokanee salmon population surveys; (7) evaluate potential competition and predation between stocked juvenile sockeye salmon and a variety of fish species in

  10. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research : 2008 Annual Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kohler, Andre E.; Griswold, Robert G.; Taki, Doug

    2009-07-31

    In March 1990, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) as endangered. Snake River sockeye salmon were officially listed as endangered in November 1991 under the Endangered Species Act (56 FR 58619). In 1991, the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research Project was implemented. This project is part of an interagency effort to prevent the extinction of the Redfish Lake stock of Snake River sockeye salmon. The Shoshone-Bannock Tribal goal for this project is two tiered: the immediate goal is to increase the population of Snake River sockeye salmon while preserving the unique genetic characteristics of the evolutionarily significant unit (ESU). The Tribes long term goal is to maintain a viable population that warrants delisting and provides Tribal harvest opportunities. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides funding for this interagency Recovery effort. Collaborators in the recovery effort include the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the University of Idaho (UI), and the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT). This report summarizes activities conducted by Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department personnel during the 2008 calendar year. Project tasks include: (1) monitor limnological parameters of the Sawtooth Valley lakes to assess lake productivity; (2) conduct lake fertilization in Pettit and Alturas lakes; (3) reduce the number of mature kokanee salmon spawning in Alturas Lake Creek; (4) monitor, enumerate, and evaluate sockeye salmon smolt migration from Pettit and Alturas lakes; (5) monitor spawning kokanee salmon escapement and estimate fry recruitment in Fishhook and Alturas Lake creeks; (6) conduct sockeye and kokanee salmon population surveys; (7) evaluate potential competition and predation between stocked juvenile sockeye salmon and a variety of fish species in

  11. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research; 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kohler, Andre E.; Taki, Doug; Griswold, Robert G.

    2004-08-01

    In March 1990, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list the Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) as endangered. As a result of that petition the Snake River sockeye salmon was officially listed as endangered in November 1991 under the Endangered Species Act (56 FR 58619). In 1991, the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research Program was implemented (Project Number 91-71, Intergovernmental Contract Number DE-BI79-91bp22548). This project is part of an interagency effort to prevent the extinction of the Redfish Lake stock of O. nerka. The Shoshone-Bannock Tribal goal for this project is two tiered: The immediate goal is to increase the population of Snake River sockeye salmon while preserving the unique genetic characteristics of the Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU). The Tribes long term goal is to maintain a viable population that warrants delisting and provides Tribal harvest opportunities. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides funding for this interagency recovery program through the Northwest Power Planning Council Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPCFWP). Collaborators in the recovery effort include the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the University of Idaho (UI), U.S. Forest Service (USFS), and the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe (SBT). This report summarizes activities conducted by Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department personnel during the 2002 calendar year. Project objectives include: (1) monitor over-winter survival and emigration of juvenile anadromous O. nerka stocked from the captive rearing program; (2) fertilize Redfish Lake (3) conduct kokanee salmon (non-anadromous O. nerka) population surveys; (4) monitor spawning kokanee escapement and estimate fry recruitment on Fishhook, Alturas Lake, and Stanley Lake creeks; (5) evaluate potential competition and predation between stocked juvenile O. nerka and a

  12. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research; 2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Taki, Doug; Kohler, Andre E.; Griswold, Robert G.

    2004-01-01

    In March 1990, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list the Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) as endangered. As a result of that petition, the Snake River sockeye salmon was officially listed as endangered in November 1991 under the Endangered Species Act (56 FR 58619). In 1991, the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research Program was implemented (Project Number 1991-071-00). This project is part of an interagency effort to prevent the extinction of the Redfish Lake stock of sockeye salmon. The Shoshone-Bannock Tribal goal for this project is two tiered: The immediate goal is to increase the population of Snake River sockeye salmon while preserving the unique genetic characteristics of the Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU). The Tribes long term goal is to maintain a viable population that warrants delisting and provides Tribal harvest opportunities. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides funding for this interagency recovery program through the Northwest Power and Conservation Council Fish and Wildlife Program (NPCCFWP). Collaborators in the recovery effort include the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the University of Idaho (UI), and the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT). This report summarizes activities conducted by Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department personnel during the 2003 calendar year. Project objectives include: (1) monitor limnological parameters of the Sawtooth Valley lakes to assess lake productivity; (2) reduce the number of mature kokanee spawning in Fishhook Creek; (3) monitor sockeye salmon smolt migration from the captive rearing program release of juveniles into Pettit and Alturas lakes; (4) monitor spawning kokanee escapement and estimate fry recruitment in Fishhook, Alturas Lake, and Stanley Lake creeks; (5) conduct sockeye and kokanee salmon population surveys; (6

  13. Snake River fall Chinook salmon life history investigations, 1/1/2012 - 12/31/2012: Annual report 2002-032-00

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Connor, Willam P.; Bellgraph, Brian J.; Chittaro, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    Finally, we examined the role of different invasive invertebrates in lower Snake River reservoir food webs that are food, or competitors for food, for juvenile fall Chinook salmon. The Siberian prawn, a relatively new invader, is relatively abundant but its role on the food web is largely unexplored. Prawns are successfully reproducing and their diet is 81% Neomysis (an invasive opossum shrimp) which is heavily used at times by juvenile salmon for food. Neomysis has become very abundant in lower Snake River reservoirs in recent years and may be a profitable food item for many fish species.

  14. Snake River Plain FORGE Well Data for WO-2

    DOE Data Explorer

    Robert Podgorney

    1991-07-29

    Well data for the WO-2 well located in eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho. This data collection includes lithology reports, borehole logs, temperature at depth data, neutron density and gamma data, and rock strength parameters for the WO-2 well. This collection of data has been assembled as part of the site characterization data used to develop the conceptual geologic model for the Snake River Plain site in Idaho, as part of phase 1 of the Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy (FORGE) initiative. They were assembled by the Snake River Geothermal Consortium (SRGC), a team of collaborators that includes members from national laboratories, universities, industry, and federal agencies, lead by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL).

  15. Snake River Plain FORGE Well Data for INEL-1

    DOE Data Explorer

    Robert Podgorney

    1979-03-01

    Well data for the INEL-1 well located in eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho. This data collection includes caliper logs, lithology reports, borehole logs, temperature at depth data, neutron density and gamma data, full color logs, fracture analysis, photos, and rock strength parameters for the INEL-1 well. This collection of data has been assembled as part of the site characterization data used to develop the conceptual geologic model for the Snake River Plain site in Idaho, as part of phase 1 of the Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy (FORGE) initiative. They were assembled by the Snake River Geothermal Consortium (SRGC), a team of collaborators that includes members from national laboratories, universities, industry, and federal agencies, lead by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL).

  16. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research; 2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kohler, Andre E.; Taki, Doug; Griswold, Robert G.

    2004-06-01

    In March 1990, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list the Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) as endangered. Snake River sockeye salmon were officially listed as endangered in November 1991 under the Endangered Species Act (56 FR 58619). In 1991, the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research Program was implemented (Project Number 1991-071-00). This project is part of an interagency effort to prevent the extinction of the Redfish Lake stock of sockeye salmon. The Shoshone-Bannock Tribal goal for this project is two tiered: The immediate goal is to increase the population of Snake River sockeye salmon while preserving the unique genetic characteristics of the Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU); The Tribe's long term goal is to maintain a viable population that warrants delisting and provides Tribal harvest opportunities. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides funding for this interagency recovery program through their Integrated Fish and Wildlife Program. Collaborators in the recovery effort include the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the University of Idaho (UI), and the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT). This report summarizes activities conducted by Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department personnel during the 2004 calendar year. Project tasks include: (1) monitor limnological parameters of the Sawtooth Valley lakes to assess lake productivity; (2) conduct lake fertilization in Pettit Lake; (3) reduce the number of mature kokanee salmon spawning in Fishhook Creek; (4) monitor and enumerate sockeye salmon smolt migration from Pettit and Alturas lakes; (5) monitor spawning kokanee salmon escapement and estimate fry recruitment in Fishhook, Alturas Lake, and Stanley Lake creeks; (6) conduct sockeye salmon and kokanee salmon population surveys; (7) evaluate potential competition and predation between

  17. MIDDLE REACH OF THE SNAKE RIVER: WATER QUALITY MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the project was to collect, analyze, assemble, and assess water quality data and resulting chemical/nutrient loads entering and transported in the Middle Snake River Reach of Idaho, between Milner Dam and King Hill. Studies were conducted during the period of 1990 ...

  18. WATER QUALITY CONTROL STUDY, MIDDLE SNAKE RIVER WATER RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    On February 5, 1964, the Federal Power Commission issued a license to Pacific Northwest Power Company for construction and operation of its proposed High Mountain Sheep Project on the Snake River (170602, 170501). This investigation by the Federal Water Pollution Control Adminis...

  19. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research; 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Griswold, Robert G.; Taki, Doug; Lewis, Bert

    2001-01-15

    In March 1990, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list the Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) as endangered. As a result of that petition the Snake River sockeye salmon was officially listed as endangered in November 1991 under the Endangered Species Act (56 FR 58619). In 1991 the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research Program was implemented (Project Number 91-71, Intergovernmental Contract Number DE-BI79-91bp22548). This project is part of an interagency effort to prevent the extinction of the Redfish Lake stock of O. nerka. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides funding for this inter-agency recovery program through the Northwest Power Planning Council Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPCFWP). Collaborators in the recovery effort include the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the University of Idaho (UI), U.S. Forest Service (USFS), and the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe (SBT). This report summarizes activities conducted by Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department personnel during the 1999 calendar year. Project objectives include: (1) monitor over-winter survival and emigration of juvenile anadromous O. nerka stocked from the captive rearing program; (2) fertilize Pettit, and Alturas lakes, fertilization of Redfish Lake was suspended for this year; (3) conduct kokanee (nonanadromous O. nerka) population surveys; (4) monitor spawning kokanee escapement and estimate fry recruitment on Fishhook, Alturas Lake, and Stanley Lake creeks; (5) evaluate potential competition and predation interactions between stocked juvenile O. nerka and a variety of fish species in Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes; (6) examine diet of emigrating O. nerka smolts; (7) monitor limnological parameters of Sawtooth Valley lakes to assess lake productivity.

  20. Ecology of nonnative Siberian prawn (Palaemon modestus) in the lower Snake River, Washington, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erhardt, John M.; Tiffan, Kenneth F.

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the abundance, distribution, and ecology of the nonnative Siberian prawn Palaemon modestus in the lower Snake River, Washington, USA. Analysis of prawn passage abundance at three Snake River dams showed that populations are growing at exponential rates, especially at Little Goose Dam where over 464,000 prawns were collected in 2015. Monthly beam trawling during 2011–2013 provided information on prawn abundance and distribution in Lower Granite and Little Goose Reservoirs. Zero-inflated regression predicted that the probability of prawn presence increased with decreasing water velocity and increasing depth. Negative binomial models predicted higher catch rates of prawns in deeper water and in closer proximity to dams. Temporally, prawn densities decreased slightly in the summer, likely due to the mortality of older individuals, and then increased in autumn and winter with the emergence and recruitment of young of the year. Seasonal length frequencies showed that distinct juvenile and adult size classes exist throughout the year, suggesting prawns live from 1 to 2 years and may be able to reproduce multiple times during their life. Most juvenile prawns become reproductive adults in 1 year, and peak reproduction occurs from late July through October. Mean fecundity (189 eggs) and reproductive output (11.9 %) are similar to that in their native range. The current use of deep habitats by prawns likely makes them unavailable to most predators in the reservoirs. The distribution and role of Siberian prawns in the lower Snake River food web will probably continue to change as the population grows and warrants continued monitoring and investigation.

  1. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research; 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kohler, Andre E.; Taki, Doug; Griswold, Robert G.

    2004-08-01

    In March 1990, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list the Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered. As a result of that petition the Snake River sockeye salmon was officially listed as endangered in November 1991 under the Endangered Species Act (56 FR 58619). In 1991, the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research Program was implemented (Project Number 91-71, Intergovernmental Contract Number DE-BI79-91bp22548). This project is part of an interagency effort to prevent the extinction of the Redfish Lake stock of O. nerka. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides funding for this interagency recovery program through the Northwest Power Planning Council Fish and Wildlife Program (Council). Collaborators in the recovery effort include the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the University of Idaho (UI), U.S. Forest Service (USFS), and the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe (SBT). This report summarizes activities conducted by Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department personnel during the 2001 calendar year. Project objectives include: (1) monitor over-winter survival and emigration of juvenile anadromous O. nerka stocked from the captive rearing program; (2) fertilize Redfish Lake, fertilization of Pettit and Alturas lakes was suspended for this year; (3) conduct kokanee (non-anadromous O. nerka) population surveys; (4) monitor spawning kokanee escapement and estimate fry recruitment on Fishhook, Alturas Lake, and Stanley Lake creeks; (5) evaluate potential competition and predation interactions between stocked juvenile O. nerka and a variety of fish species in Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes; (6) monitor limnological parameters of Sawtooth Valley lakes to assess lake productivity.

  2. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research; 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kohler, Andre E.; Griswold, Robert G.; Taki, Doug

    2002-12-01

    In March 1990, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list the Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) as endangered. As a result of that petition the Snake River sockeye salmon was officially listed as endangered in November 1991 under the Endangered Species Act (56 FR 58619). In 1991 the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research Program was implemented (Project Number 91-71, Intergovernmental Contract Number DE-BI79-91bp22548). This project is part of an interagency effort to prevent the extinction of the Redfish Lake stock of O. nerka. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides funding for this inter-agency recovery program through the Northwest Power Planning Council Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPCFWP). Collaborators in the recovery effort include the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the University of Idaho (UI), U.S. Forest Service (USFS), and the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe (SBT). This report summarizes activities conducted by Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department personnel during the 2000 calendar year. Project objectives include: (1) monitor over-winter survival and emigration of juvenile anadromous O. nerka stocked from the captive rearing program; (2) fertilize Pettit, and Alturas lakes, fertilization of Redfish Lake was suspended for this year; (3) conduct kokanee (nonanadromous O. nerka) population surveys; (4) monitor spawning kokanee escapement and estimate fry recruitment on Fishhook, Alturas Lake, and Stanley Lake creeks; (5) evaluate potential competition and predation interactions between stocked juvenile O. nerka and a variety of fish species in Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes; (6) examine diet of emigrating O. nerka smolts; (7) monitor limnological parameters of Sawtooth Valley lakes to assess lake productivity.

  3. Fall Chinook Salmon Survival and Supplementation Studies in the Snake River and Lower Snake River Reservoirs, 1995 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, John G.; Bjomn , Theodore C.

    1997-03-01

    In 1994, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the US Fish and Wildlife Service began a cooperative study to investigate migrational characteristics of subyearling fall chinook salmon in the Snake River. The primary study objectives were to (1) determine the feasibility of estimating detection and passage survival probabilities of natural and hatchery subyearling fall chinook salmon released in the Snake River (Chapter 1), (2) investigate relationships between detection and passage survival probabilities and travel time of subyearling fall chinook salmon and environmental influences such as flow volume and water temperature (Chapter 1), (3) monitor and evaluate dispersal of hatchery subyearling chinook salmon into nearshore rearing areas used by natural fish (Chapter 2), and (4) monitor and evaluate travel time to Lower Granite Dam, growth from release in the Snake River to recapture at Lower Granite Dam, ATPase levels of fish recaptured at Lower Granite Dam, and survival from release in the free-flowing Snake River to the tailrace of Lower Granite Dam (Chapter 2).

  4. Proteomic Analysis of the Ontogenetic Variability in Plasma Composition of Juvenile and Adult Bothrops jararaca Snakes

    PubMed Central

    de Morais-Zani, Karen; Grego, Kathleen Fernandes; Tanaka, Aparecida Sadae; Tanaka-Azevedo, Anita Mitico

    2013-01-01

    The ontogenetic variability in venom composition of some snake genera, including Bothrops, as well as the biological implications of such variability and the search of new molecules that can neutralize the toxic components of these venoms have been the subject of many studies. Thus, considering the resistance of Bothrops jararaca to the toxic action of its own venom and the ontogenetic variability in venom composition described in this species, a comparative study of the plasma composition of juvenile and adult B. jararaca snakes was performed through a proteomic approach based on 2D electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, which allowed the identification of proteins that might be present at different levels during ontogenetic development. Among the proteins identified by mass spectrometry, antihemorrhagic factor Bj46a was found only in adult plasma. Moreover, two spots identified as phospholipase A2 inhibitors were significantly increased in juvenile plasma, which can be related to the higher catalytic PLA2 activity shown by juvenile venom in comparison to that of adult snakes. This work shows the ontogenetic variability of B. jararaca plasma, and that these changes can be related to the ontogenetic variability described in its venom. PMID:24062950

  5. Survey of pathogens in hatchery Chinook salmon with different out-migration histories through the Snake and Columbia rivers.

    PubMed

    Van Gaest, A L; Dietrich, J P; Thompson, D E; Boylen, D A; Strickland, S A; Collier, T K; Loge, F J; Arkoosh, M R

    2011-06-01

    The operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) has negatively affected threatened and endangered salmonid populations in the Pacific Northwest. Barging Snake River spring Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha through the FCRPS is one effort to mitigate the effect of the hydrosystem on juvenile salmon out-migration. However, little is known about the occurrence and transmission of infectious agents in barged juvenile salmon relative to juvenile salmon that remain in-river to navigate to the ocean. We conducted a survey of hatchery-reared spring Chinook salmon at various points along their out-migration path as they left their natal hatcheries and either migrated in-river or were barged through the FCRPS. Salmon kidneys were screened by polymerase chain reaction for nine pathogens and one family of water molds. Eight pathogens were detected; the most prevalent were Renibacterium salmoninarum and infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus. Species in the family Saprolegniaceae were also commonly detected. Pathogen prevalence was significantly greater in fish that were barged through the FCRPS than in fish left to out-migrate in-river. These results suggest that the transmission of infectious agents to susceptible juvenile salmon occurs during the barging process. Therefore, management activities that reduce pathogen exposure during barging may increase the survival of juvenile Chinook salmon after they are released. PMID:21834329

  6. Evaluation of Bull Trout Movements in the Tucannon and Lower Snake Rivers, 2002-2006 Project Completion Summary.

    SciTech Connect

    Faler, Michael P.; Mendel, Glen; Fulton, Carl

    2008-11-20

    was small (n=6). In spite of this project's shortcomings, bull trout continue to be observed in low numbers at Snake River dam fish facilities. It is highly possible that bull trout observed at the Snake River dam fish facilities are originating from sources other than the Tucannon River. We suggest that these fish might come from upstream sources like the Clearwater or Salmon rivers in Idaho, and are simply following the outmigration of juvenile anadromous fish (a food supply) as they emigrate toward the Pacific Ocean. Based on our study results, we recommend abandoning radio telemetry as a tool to monitor bull trout movements in the mainstem Snake River. We do recommend continuing PIT tagging and tag interrogation activities to help determine the origin of bull trout using the Snake River hydropower facilities. As a complementary approach, we also suggest the use of genetic assignment tests to help determine the origin of these fish. Lastly, several recommendations are included in the report to help manage and recover bull trout in the Tucannon subbasin.

  7. A simulation study of factors controlling white sturgeon recruitment in the Snake River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jager, H.I.; Van Winkle, W.; Chandler, James Angus; Lepla, K.B.; Bates, P.; Counihan, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    Five of the nine populations of white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus, located between dams on the Middle Snake River, have declined from historical levels and are now at risk of extinction. One step towards more effectively protecting and managing these nine populations is ranking factors that influence recruitment in each of these river segments. We developed a model to suggest which of seven mechanistic factors contribute most to lost recruitment in each river segment: (1) temperature-related mortality during incubation, (2) flow-related mortality during incubation, (3) downstream export of larvae, (4) limitation of juvenile and adult habitat, (5) mortality of all ages during summer episodes of poor water quality in reservoirs, (6) entrainment mortality of juveniles and adults, and (7) angling mortality. We simulated recruitment with, and without, each of the seven factors, over a typical series of hydrologic years. We found a hierarchical pattern of limitation. In the first tier, river segments with severe water quality problems grouped together. Poor water quality during summer had a strong negative effect on recruitment in the river segments between Swan Falls Dam and Hell's Canyon Dam. In the second tier, river segments with better water quality divided into short river segments and longer river segments. Populations in short river segments were limited by larval export. Populations in longer river segments tended to be less strongly limited by any one factor. We also found that downstream effects could be important, suggesting that linked populations cannot be viewed in isolation. In two cases, the effects of a factor on an upstream population had a significant influence on its downstream neighbors. ?? 2002 by the American Fisheries Society.

  8. Riparian vegetation of the Snake River in Washington State

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, R.C.; Mettler, L.

    1994-06-01

    In January 1992, the US Army Corps of Engineers selected reservoir drawdown and lowered pool elevation as the preferred alternative in the Columbia River Salmon Flow Measured Options Analysis/Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). During March 1992, reservoirs upstream from Lower Granite and Little Goose Dams on the Snake River were drawn down below the minimum operating pool (MOP), which is 5 vertical feet below ordinary high water level (0@) level. The reservoir upstream from Lower Granite Dam was drawn down to approximately 37 ft below 0 while that upstream of Little Goose Dam was drawn down to approximately 15 ft (4.5 m) below MOP. Following the drawdown (March 1--31, 1992), the reservoirs of all four dams in the Snake River of Washington State (Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, Ice Harbor) were maintained at MOP (April 1--July 31,1992). This allowed a defined portion of shoreline to be exposed for an extended period. The objectives of the study were to monitor impacts to the associated upland, riparian/wetland, and aquatic vegetation and newly exposed shorelines of four reservoirs of the Snake River during the flow measures study; and monitor the newly exposed shorelines for invasion of pioneering species during the entire period of the wildlife monitoring study.

  9. Effects of hyporheic exchange flows on egg pocket water temperature in Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning areas

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrahan, T. P.; Geist, D. R.; Arntzen, E. V.; Abernethy, C. S.

    2004-09-01

    The development of the Snake River hydroelectric system has affected fall Chinook salmon smolts by shifting their migration timing to a period (mid- to late-summer) when downstream reservoir conditions are unfavorable for survival. Subsequent to the Snake River Chinook salmon fall-run Evolutionary Significant Unit being listed as Threatened under the Endangered Species Act, recovery planning has included changes in hydrosystem operations (e.g., summer flow augmentation) to improve water temperature and flow conditions during the juvenile Chinook salmon summer migration period. In light of the limited water supplies from the Dworshak reservoir for summer flow augmentation, and the associated uncertainties regarding benefits to migrating fall Chinook salmon smolts, additional approaches for improved smolt survival need to be evaluated. This report describes research conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that evaluated relationships among river discharge, hyporheic zone characteristics, and egg pocket water temperature in Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning areas. This was a pilot-scale study to evaluate these relationships under existing operations of Hells Canyon Dam (i.e., without any prescribed manipulations of river discharge) during the 2002–2003 water year.

  10. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project Conservation and Rebuilding Program : Supplemental Fnal Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-03-01

    This document announces Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) proposal to fund three separate but interrelated actions which are integral components of the overall Sawtooth Valley Project to conserve and rebuild the Snake River Sockeye salmon run in the Sawtooth Valley of south-central Idaho. The three actions are as follows: (1) removing a rough fish barrier dam on Pettit Lake Creek and constructing a weir and trapping facilities to monitor future sockeye salmon adult and smolt migration into and out of Pettit Lake; (2) artificially fertilizing Readfish Lake to enhance the food supply for Snake River sockeye salmon juveniles released into the lake; and (3) trapping kokanee fry and adults to monitor the fry population and to reduce the population of kokanee in Redfish Lake. BPA has prepared a supplemental EA (included) which builds on an EA compled in 1994 on the Sawtooth Valley Project. Based on the analysis in this Supplemental EA, BPA has determined that the proposed actions are not major Federal actions significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. Therefore an Environmental Impact Statement is not required.

  11. 75 FR 6020 - Electrical Interconnection of the Lower Snake River Wind Energy Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... Bonneville Power Administration Electrical Interconnection of the Lower Snake River Wind Energy Project... their proposed Lower Snake River Wind Energy Project (Wind Project) in Garfield and Columbia counties, Washington. To interconnect the Wind Project, BPA will construct a new substation (Central Ferry...

  12. LIMNOLOGY OF THE LOWER SNAKE RIVER RESERVOIRS IN IDAHO AND WASHINGTON

    EPA Science Inventory

    This interim report highlights research completed in 1975 and 1976 on the joint Washington State University-University of Idaho limnological study on the lower Snake River (17050201, 170601). The objective of this study was to describe the aquatic ecology of the Snake River just...

  13. Spawning Distribution of Fall Chinook Salmon in the Snake River : Annual Report 1999.

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, Aaron P.

    2000-04-01

    This report is separated into 2 chapters. The chapters are (1) Progress toward determining the spawning distribution of supplemented fall chinook salmon in the Snake River in 1999; and (2) Fall chinook salmon spawning ground surveys in the Snake River, 1999.

  14. New storage on Snake River for irrigation use above Milner, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crandall, Lynn

    1955-01-01

    With Palisades reservoir in operation there will be many years when the available water supply on Snake River above Milner will be fully utilized by storage in the then existing reservoirs under their established priority rights. Surplus water spilling to waste in past years is shown by the record of flow at the Milner gaging station on Snake River as follows.

  15. Snakes! Snakes! Snakes!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nature Naturally, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Designed for students in grades 4-6, the teaching unit presents illustrations and facts about snakes. Topics include common snakes found in the United States, how snakes eat, how snakes shed their skin, poisonous snakes, the Eastern Indigo snake, and the anatomy of a snake. A student page includes a crossword puzzle and surprising snake facts. A…

  16. Feeding response by northern squawfish to a hatchery release of juvenile salmonids in the Clearwater River, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shively, R.S.; Poe, T.P.; Sauter, S.T.

    1996-01-01

    We collected gut contents from northern squawfish Ptychocheilus oregonensis captured in the Clearwater River, Idaho, 0–6 km from its confluence with the Snake River, following the release of 1.1 million yearling chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha from the Dworshak National Fish Hatchery. Before the hatchery release, northern squawfish gut contents (by weight) in the study area were 38% crayfish Pacifastacus spp., 26% insects, 19% nonsalmonid fish, and 16% wheat kernels Triticum spp. Juvenile salmonids constituted 54% of gut contents about 24 h after the hatchery release, 78% after 5 d, and 86% after 7 d. The mean number of salmonids per gut (1.2) after release was higher than typically seen in guts from northern squawfish collected in mid-reservoir areas away from hydroelectric dams on the Snake and Columbia rivers. Length-frequency distributions of juvenile salmonids eaten and those captured in a scoop trap 4 km upstream of the study area indicated that northern squawfish were selectively feeding on the smaller individuals. We attribute the high rates of predation in the study area to the artificially high density of juvenile salmonids resulting from the hatchery release and to the physical characteristics of the study area in which the river changed from free flowing to impounded. Our results suggest that northern squawfish can quickly exploit hatchery releases of juvenile salmonids away from release sites in the Columbia River basin.

  17. Effects of Dissolved Gas Supersaturation on Fish Residing in the Snake and Columbia Rivers, 1996 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Schrank, Boyd P.

    1998-03-01

    Increased spill at dams has commonly brought dissolved gas supersaturation higher than levels established by state and federal water quality criteria in the Columbia and Snake Rivers. These increased spill volumes are intended to provide safe passage for migrating juvenile salmon. However, dissolved gas supersaturation resulting from spill in past decades has led to gas bubble disease (GBD) in fish. Therefore, during the period of high spill in 1996, the authors monitored the prevalence and severity of gas bubble disease by sampling resident fish in Priest Rapids Reservoir and downstream from Bonneville, Priest Rapids, and Ice Harbor Dams.

  18. White sturgeon spawning areas in the lower Snake River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsley, M.J.; Kappenman, K.M.

    2000-01-01

    We documented 17 white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus spawning locations in the Snake River from the mouth to Lower Granite Dam (river km 0 to 173). Spawning locations were determined by the collection of fertilized eggs on artificial substrates or in plankton nets. We collected 245 eggs at seven locations in McNary Reservoir, 22 eggs at three locations in Ice Harbor Reservoir, 30 eggs from two locations in Lower Monumental Reservoir, and 464 eggs at five locations in Little Goose Reservoir. All 17 locations were in high water velocity areas and between 1.0 and 7.0 km downstream from a hydroelectric dam. The documentation of spawning areas is important because this habitat is necessary to maintain natural and viable populations.

  19. Migration depths of juvenile Chinook salmon and steelhead relative to total dissolved gas supersaturation in a Columbia River reservoir

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeman, J.W.; Maule, A.G.

    2006-01-01

    The in situ depths of juvenile salmonids Oncorhynchus spp. were studied to determine whether hydrostatic compensation was sufficient to protect them from gas bubble disease (GBD) during exposure to total dissolved gas (TDG) supersaturation from a regional program of spill at dams meant to improve salmonid passage survival. Yearling Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha and juvenile steelhead O. mykiss implanted with pressure-sensing radio transmitters were monitored from boats while they were migrating between the tailrace of Ice Harbor Dam on the Snake River and the forebay of McNary Dam on the Columbia River during 1997-1999. The TDG generally decreased with distance from the tailrace of the dam and was within levels known to cause GBD signs and mortality in laboratory bioassays. Results of repeated-measures analysis of variance indicated that the mean depths of juvenile steelhead were similar throughout the study area, ranging from 2.0 m in the Snake River to 2.3 m near the McNary Dam forebay. The mean depths of yearling Chinook salmon generally increased with distance from Ice Harbor Dam, ranging from 1.5 m in the Snake River to 3.2 m near the forebay. Juvenile steelhead were deeper at night than during the day, and yearling Chinook salmon were deeper during the day than at night. The TDG level was a significant covariate in models of the migration depth and rates of each species, but no effect of fish size was detected. Hydrostatic compensation, along with short exposure times in the area of greatest TDG, reduced the effects of TDG exposure below those generally shown to elicit GBD signs or mortality. Based on these factors, our results indicate that the TDG limits of the regional spill program were safe for these juvenile salmonids.

  20. Rhyolitic volcanism of the central Snake River Plain: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, B. S.; Wolff, J. A.; Boroughs, S.; Mark, D. F.; Starkel, W. A.; Bonnichsen, B.

    2013-08-01

    The central Snake River Plain (CSRP) of southern Idaho and northern Nevada, USA, forms part of the Columbia River-Yellowstone large igneous province. Volcanic rocks of the province are compositionally bimodal (basalt-rhyolite), and the rhyolites produce a broadly time-transgressive record of a hotspot which is currently located under Yellowstone. Snake River Plain rhyolites represent hot (>850 °C), dry magmas and have field characteristics consistent with high emplacement temperatures. Individual ignimbrite sheets reach 1,000 km3 and exhibit little to no compositional zonation on a large scale but reveal considerable complexity on a crystal scale, particularly with regard to pyroxene compositions. Multiple pyroxene compositions may exist in a single ignimbrite which, along with multiple glass compositions in widely dispersed fallout tephra, suggests complex storage of rhyolite prior to eruption. Unlike most igneous rocks, the mineral cargo of the CSRP rhyolites exhibits little isotopic variability, with unimodal 87Sr/86Sr values returned from plagioclase grains inferred to represent the combination of strong crystal-melt coupling and rapid diffusional re-equilibriation. All the rhyolites within the CSRP have a characteristic low- δ 18O signature; with >20,000 km3 of rhyolite exhibiting this depletion, the CSRP represents the largest low- δ 18O province on Earth. The low-18O nature of the rhyolites requires assimilation of hydrothermally altered materials which may be from altered Eocene batholithic rocks or from down-dropped intra-caldera tuffs. The wide range of crustal assimilants, with highly variable radiogenic isotope characteristics, available in the CSRP is permissive of a variety of petrogenetic models based on radiogenic isotopic data.

  1. Snakes of the Savannah River Plant with Information About Snakebite Prevention and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Whit

    This booklet is intended to provide information on the snakes of South Carolina, to point out the necessary steps to avoid a snakebite, and to indicate the current medical treatment for poisonous snakebite. It includes a checklist of South Carolina reptiles and a taxonomic key for the identification of snakes in the Savannah River Plant. Three…

  2. UPPER/MIDDLE SNAKE RIVER WATER QUALITY ANALYSIS, MAY 1973 TO MAY 1974

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was an attempt to determine the behavior of incoming nutrients in the upper Snake reservoir system and to track their flow through the upper and central Snake River (17040104, 170402, 170501). The study found that American Falls Reservoir is an overall sink for total ...

  3. UPPER SNAKE RIVER PRIORITY BASIN ACCOMPLISHMENT PLAN, APRIL 1973

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Upper Snake Accomplishment Basin (17040104, 170402, 170501) is defined as the Idaho and Oregon portions of 2 STORET Basins, the Upper Snake Basin and the Central Snake Basin. The Basin drains approximately 62,100 square miles in Southern Idaho and Southeastern Oregon. Four ...

  4. Bimodal basalt-rhyolite magmatism in the central and western Snake River Plain, Idaho and Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCurry, M.; Bonnichsen, B.; White, C.; Godchaux, M.M.; Hughes, S.S.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this trip is to examine Miocene to Pleistocene basalt and rhyolite flows, ignimbrites and hypabyssal intrusions in a transect from the western Snake River Plain graben across the older part of the Snake River Plain "hot-spot-track." The earlier, dominantly explosive rhyolitic phase of volcanism will be examined primarily in the Cassia Mountains, near Twin Falls, Idaho. The second day of the field trip will focus on the Graveyard Point intrusion, a strongly differentiated diabase sill in easternmost Oregon. This late Tertiary sill is well exposed from floor to roof in sections up to 150 m thick, and is an example of the type of solidified shallow magma chamber that may be present beneath some Snake River Plain basalt volcanoes. The field trip will conclude with an examination of the diverse styles of effusive and explosive basaltic volcanism in the central and western Snake River Plain.

  5. SNAKE AND CLEARWATER RIVERS, PRESENT AND POST-IMPOUNDMENT WATER QUALITY CONDITIONS, 1964

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents information on present water quality conditions in the Snake and Clearwater Rivers (17060107, 17060103, 17060306) in the vicinity of Lewiston, Idaho and Clarkston, Washington. It discusses how changes in the streams characteristics resulting from the constru...

  6. HENRY'S FORK AND SNAKE RIVER BASIN, IDAHO - WATER QUALITY REPORT, 1973

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reported problems in the Henrys Fork and Snake River Basin (17040202, 17040203, 17040201) include bacteria levels exceeding water quality standards, dissolved oxygen standards violations, and excessive algal blooms resulting in aesthetic problems and contributing to DO depression...

  7. 77 FR 42327 - Proposed Supplementary Rules for the Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-18

    ... been damaged by paintball gun use. Prohibiting paintball activities within the Snake River Canyon and... backward leaps to control the descent. Improved Campsite: A specific location identified by the BLM...

  8. Compilation of references on geology and hydrology of the Snake River drainage basin above Weiser, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bassick, M.D.

    1986-01-01

    More than 1,100 references concerning geology and hydrology of the Snake River drainage basin above Weiser, Idaho, are compiled as part of the U.S. Geological Survey 's RASA (Regional Aquifer-System Analysis) study of the Snake River Plain. The list of references is intended as a primary source of information for investigators concerned with previous studies in the basin. Reference numbers correlate with a key-word index to help the user select and locate desired references. (USGS)

  9. WATER QUALITY INVESTIGATIONS OF SNAKE RIVER AND PRINCIPAL TRIBUTARIES FROM WALTERS FERRY TO WEISER, IDAHO. 1971

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stream surveys conducted from 18 October to 10 November 1971 revealed that water upstream of the Boise River was relatively unpolluted, however, bacterial standards were violated. In the reach of the Snake River between the mouth of the Boise River and Weiser (170501), gross vio...

  10. Streamflow gains and losses in the Snake River and ground-water budgets for the Snake River plain, Idaho and eastern Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kjelstrom, L.C.

    1995-01-01

    Streamflow gains and losses in the Snake River demonstrate ground-water and surface-water relations and are used to develop ground-water budgets for the Snake River plain. Budgets indicate the storage in the eastern plain increased by 24 million acre-feet from 1880 to 1952 and, in the western plain, increased by about 3 million acre-feet from 1930 to 1972. Ground-water storage throughout the plain has declined in recent years, owing to climatic variations and changing irrigation practices.

  11. Factors affecting route selection and survival of steelhead kelts at Snake River dams in 2012 and 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Harnish, Ryan A.; Colotelo, Alison H. A.; Li, Xinya; Fu, Tao; Ham, Kenneth D.; Deng, Zhiqun; Green, Ethan D.

    2015-03-31

    In 2012 and 2013, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted a study that summarized the passage route proportions and route-specific survival rates of steelhead kelts that passed through Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) dams. To accomplish this, a total of 811 steelhead kelts were tagged with Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) transmitters. Acoustic receivers, both autonomous and cabled, were deployed throughout the FCRPS to monitor the downstream movements of tagged kelts. Kelts were also tagged with passive integrated transponder tags to monitor passage through juvenile bypass systems (JBS) and detect returning fish. The current study evaluated data collected in 2012 and 2013 to identify environmental, temporal, operational, individual, and behavioral variables that were related to forebay residence time, route of passage, and survival of steelhead kelts at FCRPS dams on the Snake River. Multiple approaches, including 3-D tracking, bivariate and multivariable regression modeling, and decision tree analyses were used to identify the environmental, temporal, operational, individual, and behavioral variables that had the greatest effect on forebay residence time, route of passage, and route-specific and overall dam passage survival probabilities for tagged kelts at Lower Granite (LGR), Little Goose (LGS), and Lower Monumental (LMN) dams. In general, kelt behavior and discharge appeared to work independently to affect forebay residence times. Kelt behavior, primarily approach location, migration depth, and “searching” activities in the forebay, was found to have the greatest influence on their route of passage. The condition of kelts was the single most important factor affecting their survival. The information gathered in this study may be used by dam operators and fisheries managers to identify potential management actions to improve in-river survival of kelts or collection methods for kelt reconditioning programs to aid

  12. Research, monitoring, and evaluation of emerging issues and measures to recover the Snake River fall Chinook salmon ESU, 1/1/2014 - 12/31/2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Connor, William P.; Mullins, Frank L; Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Perry, Russell W.; Erhardt, John M.; St John, Scott J.; Bickford, Brad; Rhodes, Tobyn

    2015-01-01

    The portion of the Snake River fall Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ESU that spawns upstream of Lower Granite Dam transitioned from low to high abundance during 1992–2014 in association with U.S. Endangered Species Act recovery efforts and other Federally mandated actions. This annual report focuses on (1) numeric and habitat use responses by natural- and hatchery-origin spawners, (2) phenotypic and numeric responses by natural-origin juveniles, and (3) predator responses in the Snake River upper and lower reaches as abundance of adult and juvenile fall Chinook Salmon increased. Spawners have located and used most of the available spawning habitat and that habitat is gradually approaching redd capacity. Timing of spawning and fry emergence has been relatively stable; whereas the timing of parr dispersal from riverine rearing habitat into Lower Granite Reservoir has become earlier as apparent abundance of juveniles has increased. Growth rate (g/d) and dispersal size of parr also declined as apparent abundance of juveniles increased. Passage timing of smolts from the two Snake River reaches has become earlier and downstream movement rate faster as estimated abundance of fall Chinook Salmon smolts in Lower Granite Reservoir has increased. In 2014, consumption of subyearlings by Smallmouth Bass was highest in the upper reach which had the highest abundance of Bass. With a few exceptions, predation tended to decrease seasonally from April through early July. A release of hatchery fish in mid-May significantly increased subyearling consumption by the following day. We estimated that over 600,000 subyearling fall Chinook Salmon were lost to Smallmouth Bass predation along the free-flowing Snake River in 2014. More information on predation is presented in Appendix A.3 (page 51). These findings coupled with stock-recruitment analyses presented in this report provide evidence for density-dependence in the Snake River reaches and in Lower Granite Reservoir that was

  13. Tree ring record of streamflow and drought in the upper Snake River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wise, Erika K.

    2010-11-01

    Tree ring samples collected near the Snake River headwaters were augmented with preexisting tree ring chronologies to create a 415 year reconstruction of upper Snake River streamflow, extending the short instrumental record and providing the first description of multicentury water supply variability in this river. Results indicate that the region's early 21st century drought is severe even in the context of long-term climatic variability and that the instrumental record is representative of low-flow individual years. In terms of overall magnitude, droughts of the recent past are eclipsed by a sustained low-flow period lasting for over 30 years in the early to mid-1600s. A comparison of reconstructed Snake River flow with streamflow reconstructions of the Colorado, Sacramento, and Verde rivers suggests that changes in the predominance of zonal versus meridional atmospheric flow may have influenced drought patterns in the western United States through time.

  14. Residence times and diel passage distributions of radio-tagged juvenile spring chinook salmon and steelhead in a gatewell and fish collection channel of a Columbia River Dam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeman, J.W.; Maule, A.G.

    2001-01-01

    The amount of time radio-tagged juvenile spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and juvenile steelhead O. mykiss spent within a gatewell and the juvenile collection channel at McNary Dam, Columbia River, USA, was measured to determine the diel passage behavior and residence times within these portions of the juvenile bypass system. The median gatewell residence times were 8.9 h for juvenile chinook salmon and 3.2 h for steelhead. Juvenile spring chinook salmon spent 83% of their time in the 18-m-deep gatewell at depths of 9 m or less, and juvenile steelhead spent 96% of their time in the upper 11 m. Fish released during midday and those released in the evening generally exited the gatewell in the evening, indicating that fish entering the gatewell during daylight will have prolonged residence times. Median collection-channel residence times of juvenile chinook salmon were much shorter (2.3 min) than those of steelhead (28.0 min), most likely because of the greater size of the steelhead and the high water velocities within the channel (2.1 m/s). This and other studies indicate most juvenile salmonids enter gatewells of several Columbia and Snake river dams in the evening and pass into the collection channels quickly. However, this is not consistent with the natural in-river migration patterns of these species and represents a delay in dam passage.

  15. Habitats of Weak Salmon Stocks of the Snake River Basin and Feasible Recovery Measures : Recovery Issues for Threatened and Endangered Snake River Salmon : Technical Report 1 of 11.

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, D.W.; Witty, Kenneth L.

    1993-06-01

    This report describes spawning aggregations of Snake River salmon listed under the Endangered Species Act, and numerical status of aggregations. It summarizes habitat quality and problems between the natal area and the open ocean. It reviews critical habitat designation, identifies mitigative measures and suggests monitoring and research.

  16. Influence of flow and temperature on survival of wild subyearling fall chinook salmon in the Snake River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Connor, W.P.; Burge, H.L.; Yearsley, J.R.; Bjornn, T.C.

    2003-01-01

    Summer flow augmentation to increase the survival of wild subyearling fall chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha is implemented annually to mitigate for the development of the hydropower system in the Snake River basin, but the efficacy of this practice has been disputed. We studied some of the factors affecting survival of wild subyearling fall chinook salmon from capture, tagging, and release in the free-flowing Snake River to the tailrace of the first dam encountered by smolts en route to the sea. We then assessed the effects of summer flow augmentation on survival to the tailrace of this dam. We tagged and released 5,030 wild juvenile fall chinook salmon in the free-flowing Snake River from 1998 to 2000. We separated these tagged fish into four sequential within-year release groups termed cohorts (N = 12). Survival probability estimates (mean ?? SE) to the tailrace of the dam for the 12 cohorts when summer flow augmentation was implemented ranged from 36% ?? 4% to 88% ?? 5%. We fit an ordinary least-squares multiple regression model from indices of flow and temperature that explained 92% (N = 12; P < 0.0001) of the observed variability in cohort survival. Survival generally increased with increasing flow and decreased with increasing temperature. We used the regression model to predict cohort survival for flow and temperature conditions observed when summer flow augmentation was implemented and for approximated flow and temperature conditions had the summer flow augmentation not been implemented. Survival of all cohorts was predicted to be higher when flow was augmented than when flow was not augmented because summer flow augmentation increased the flow levels and decreased the temperatures fish were exposed to as they moved seaward. We conclude that summer flow augmentation increases the survival of young fall chinook salmon.

  17. Columbia River White Sturgeon Genetics and Early Life History: Population Segregation and Juvenile Feeding Behavior, 1987 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Brannon, Ernest L.

    1988-06-01

    The geographic area of the genetics study broadly covered the distribution range of sturgeon in the Columbia from below Bonneville Dam at Ilwaco at Lake Roosevelt, the Upper Snake River, and the Kootenai River. The two remote river sections provided data important for enhancement considerations. There was little electrophoretic variation seen among individuals from the Kootenai River. Upper Snake river sturgeon showed a higher percentage of polymorphic loci than the Kootenai fish, but lower than the other areas in the Columbia River we sampled. Sample size was increased in both Lake Roosevelt and at Electrophoretic variation was specific to an individual sampling area in several cases and this shaped our conclusions. The 1987 early life history studies concentrated on the feeding behavior of juvenile sturgeon. The chemostimulant components in prey attractive to sturgeon were examined, and the sensory systems utilized by foraging sturgeon were determined under different environmental conditions. These results were discussed with regard to the environmental changes that have occurred in the Columbia River. Under present river conditions, the feeding mechanism of sturgeon is more restricted to certain prey types, and their feeding range may be limited. In these situations, enhancement measures cannot be undertaken without consideration given to the introduction of food resources that will be readily available under present conditions. 89 refs., 7 figs., 11 tabs.

  18. Fall Chinook Salmon Survival and Supplementation Studies in the Snake River Reservoirs, 1996 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, John G.; Bjornn , Theodore C.

    1998-05-01

    In 1996, the National Marine Fisheries Service, the Nez Perce Tribe, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service completed the second year of cooperative research to investigate migrational characteristics of subyearling fall chinook salmon in the Snake River Basin. In spring and early summer, we captured natural subyearling fall chinook salmon by beach seine, PIT tagged them, and released them in two reaches of the Snake River. Also, subyearling fall chinook salmon reared at Lyons Ferry Hatchery were PIT tagged at the hatchery, transported, and released weekly at Pittsburg Landing on the Snake River and Big Canyon Creek on the Clearwater River to collect data on survival detection probabilities, and travel time.

  19. Plasma insulin-like growth factor-I concentrations in yearling chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) migrating from the Snake River Basin, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Congleton, J.L.; Biga, P.R.; Peterson, B.C.

    2003-01-01

    During the parr-to-smolt transformation (smoltification) of juvenile salmonids, preadaptive changes in osmoregulatory and ionoregulatory ability are regulated in part by the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) axis. If food intake is sufficient, plasma IGF-I increases during smoltification. On the other hand, plasma IGF-I typically decreases in fasting fish and other vertebrate animals. Because food availability is limited for juvenile salmonids undertaking an extended 6- to 12-week spring migration to and through the Snake-Columbia River hydropower system (northwestern USA), IGF-I concentrations might be expected to decrease, potentially compromising seawater tolerance. To address this possibility, yearling chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha reared in three Snake River Basin hatcheries were sampled before release and at two downstream dams. Dry masses of migrating fish either did not increase during the migration (in 2000, an average-flow year), or decreased significantly (in 2001, a low-flow year). In both years, plasma IGF-I levels were significantly higher (1.6-fold in 2000, 3.7-fold in 2001) for fish sampled at the last dam on the lower Columbia River than for fish sampled prior to release. Plasma IGF-I concentrations in migrating fish may, nonetheless, have been nutritionally down-regulated to some degree, because plasma IGF-I concentrations in juvenile chinook salmon captured at a Snake River dam and transported to the laboratory increased in fed groups, but decreased in unfed groups. The ability of migrating smolts to maintain relatively elevated IGF-I levels despite restricted food intake and loss of body mass is likely related to smoltification-associated changes in hormonal balance. ?? 2004 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  20. TRIBUTARY AND MAINSTEM WATER QUALITY MONITORING OF THE MIDDLE SNAKE RIVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Idaho Department of Health and Welfare, Division of Environmental Quality conducted water quality sampling in the mainstem and major tributaries of the Snake River between Twin Falls Reservoir and Upper Salmon Falls Dam. Sampling was conducted at nine river mainstem stations ...

  1. Effects of Hyporheic Exchange Flows on Egg Pocket Water Temperature in Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Geist, David R.; Arntzen, Evan V.; Abernethy, Cary S.

    2004-09-24

    The development of the Snake River hydroelectric system has affected fall chinook salmon smolts by shifting their migration timing to a period when downstream reservoir conditions are unfavorable for survival. Subsequent to the Snake River chinook salmon fall-run Evolutionary Significant Unit being listed as Threatened under the Endangered Species Act, recovery planning has included changes in hydrosystem operations to improve water temperature and flow conditions during the juvenile chinook salmon summer migration period. In light of the limited water supplies from the Dworshak reservoir for summer flow augmentation, and the associated uncertainties regarding benefits to migrating fall chinook salmon smolts, additional approaches for improved smolt survival need to be evaluated. This report describes research conducted by PNNL that evaluated relationships among river discharge, hyporheic zone characteristics, and egg pocket water temperature in Snake River fall chinook salmon spawning areas. The potential for improved survival would be gained by increasing the rate at which early life history events proceed (i.e., incubation and emergence), thereby allowing smolts to migrate through downstream reservoirs during early- to mid-summer when river conditions are more favorable for survival. PNNL implemented this research project throughout 160 km of the Hells Canyon Reach (HCR) of the Snake River. The hydrologic regime during the 2002?2003 sampling period exhibited one of the lowest, most stable daily discharge patterns of any of the previous 12 water years. The vertical hydraulic gradients (VHG) between the river and the riverbed suggested the potential for predominantly small magnitude vertical exchange. The VHG also showed little relationship to changes in river discharge at most sites. Despite the relatively small vertical hydraulic gradients at most sites, the results from the numerical modeling of riverbed pore water velocity and hyporheic zone temperatures

  2. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program Research Elements : 2007 Annual Project Progess Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Mike; Plaster, Kurtis; Redfield, Laura; Heindel, Jeff; Kline, Paul

    2008-12-17

    On November 20, 1991, the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT) and Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Restoration efforts are focused on Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes within the Sawtooth Valley. The first release of hatchery-produced adults occurred in 1993. The first release of juvenile sockeye salmon from the captive broodstock program occurred in 1994. In 1999, the first anadromous adult returns from the captive broodstock program were recorded when six jacks and one jill were captured at the IDFG Sawtooth Fish Hatchery. In 2007, progeny from the captive broodstock program were released using four strategies: (1) eyed-eggs were planted in Pettit Lake in November; (2) age-0 presmolts were released to Alturas, Pettit, and Redfish lakes in October; (3) age-1 smolts were released into Redfish Lake Creek and the upper Salmon River in May; and (4) hatchery-produced adult sockeye salmon were released to Redfish Lake for volitional spawning in September. Oncorhynchus nerka population monitoring was conducted on Redfish, Alturas, and Pettit lakes using a midwater trawl in September 2007. Population abundances were estimated at 73,702 fish for Redfish Lake, 124,073 fish for Alturas Lake, and 14,746 fish for Pettit Lake. Angler surveys were conducted from May 26 through August 7, 2007 on Redfish Lake to estimate kokanee harvest. On Redfish Lake, we interviewed 102 anglers and estimated that 56 kokanee were harvested. The calculated kokanee catch rate was 0.03 fish/hour for each kokanee kept. The juvenile out-migrant trap on Redfish Lake Creek was operated from April 14 to June 13, 2007. We estimated that 5,280 natural origin and 14,256 hatchery origin sockeye salmon smolts out-migrated from

  3. History of Snake River Canyon Indicated by Revised Stratigraphy of Snake River Group Near Hagerman and King Hill, Idaho: With a Section on Paleomagnetism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Malde, Harold E.; Cox, Allan

    1971-01-01

    A discovery that debris left by the Bonneville Flood (Melon Gravel) overlies McKinney Basalt about 200 feet above the Snake River near King Hill requires that the stratigraphy of the Snake River Group be revised. In former usage, the McKinney Basalt and its immediately older companion, the Wendell Grade Basalt, were considered on the basis of equivocal field relations to be younger than the Melon Gravel and were assigned to the Recent. These lava flows are here reclassified as Pleistocene. The Bancroft Springs Basalt, which consists of both subaerial lava and pillow lava in a former Snake River canyon, was previously separated from the McKinney but is now combined with the McKinney. Accordingly, the name Bancroft Springs Basalt is here abandoned. This revised stratigraphy is first described from geomorphic relations of the McKinney Basalt near King Hill and is then discussed in the light of drainage changes caused by local lava flows during entrenchment of the Snake River. Near King Hill, a former Snake River canyon was completely filled by McKinney Basalt at the place called Bancroft Springs, hut the depth of this lava in the next several miles of the canyon downstream (along a route that approximately coincides with the present canyon) steadily decreased. This ancestral geomorphology is inferred from the former canyon route and, also, from the continuity in gradient of the McKinney lava surface downstream from Bancroft Springs. The drainage history recorded by various lava flows and river deposits of the Snake River Group indicates that the McKinney and Wendell Grade Basalts erupted after the Snake River canyon had reached its present depth of about 500 feet. The Snake River of that time, as far downstream as Bliss, flowed approximately along its present route. The Wood River of that time, however, skirted the north flank of Gooding Butte and joined the ancestral Snake at a junction, now concealed by lava, north of the present canyon about 3 miles west of Bliss

  4. Size-based trends and management implications of microhabitat utilization by Brown Treesnakes, with an emphasis on juvenile snakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodda, Gordon H.; Reed, Robert N.

    2007-01-01

    The brown treesnake (Boiga irregularis, or BTS), a costly invasive species, has been the subject of intensive research on Guam over the past two decades. The behavior and habitat use of hatchling and juvenile snakes, however, remain largely unknown. We used a long-term dataset of BTS captures (N = 2,415) and a dataset resulting from intensive sampling within and immediately around a 5-ha fenced population (N = 2,541) to examine habitat use of BTS. Small snakes were almost exclusively arboreal and that they appeared to prefer tangantangan (Leucaena leucocephala) habitats. In contrast, large snakes used arboreal and terrestrial habitats in roughly equal proportion, and were less frequently found in tangantangan. Among snakes found in trees, there were no clear size-based preferences for certain heights above ground, nor for size-based choice of perch diameters. We discuss these results as they relate to management and interdiction implications for brown treesnakes on Guam and in potential incipient populations on other islands.

  5. Effects of Dissolved Gas Supersaturation on Fish Residing in the Snake and Columbia Rivers, 1997 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, Brad A.

    1998-04-01

    Large amounts of spill at dams has commonly generated levels of dissolved gas supersaturation that are higher than levels established by state and federal agencies setting criteria for acceptable water quality in the Columbia and Snake Rivers. Large spill volumes are sometimes provided voluntarily to increase the proportion of migrating juvenile salmon that pass dams through nonturbine routes. However, total dissolved gas supersaturation (TDGS) resulting from spill in past decades has led to gas bubble disease (GBD) in fish. Therefore, during the period of high spill in 1997, the authors monitored the prevalence and severity of gas bubble disease by sampling resident fish in Ice Harbor reservoir and downstream from Ice Harbor and Bonneville Dams.

  6. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Research Element, 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Willard, Catherine; Hebdon, J. Lance; Castillo, Jason

    2004-06-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and Idaho Department of Fish and Game initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Restoration efforts are focusing on Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes within the Sawtooth Valley. The first release of hatchery-produced juvenile sockeye salmon from the captive broodstock program occurred in 1994. The first anadromous adult returns from the captive broodstock program were recorded in 1999 when six jacks and one jill were captured at IDFG's Sawtooth Fish Hatchery. In 2002, progeny from the captive broodstock program were released using four strategies: age-0 presmolts were released to Alturas, Pettit, and Redfish lakes in August and to Pettit and Redfish lakes in October, age-1 smolts were released to Redfish Lake Creek in May, eyed-eggs were planted in Pettit Lake in December, and hatchery-produced and anadromous adult sockeye salmon were released to Redfish Lake for volitional spawning in September. Oncorhynchus nerka population monitoring was conducted on Redfish, Alturas, and Pettit lakes using a midwater trawl in September 2002. Age-0, age-1, and age-2 O. nerka were captured in Redfish Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 50,204 fish. Age-0, age-1, age-2, and age-3 kokanee were captured in Alturas Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 24,374 fish. Age-2 and age-3 O. nerka were captured in Pettit Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 18,328 fish. The ultimate goal of the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) captive broodstock development and evaluation efforts is to recover sockeye salmon runs in Idaho waters. Recovery is defined as reestablishing sockeye salmon runs and providing for utilization of sockeye salmon and kokanee resources by anglers. The

  7. Paleomagnetism of Cougar Point Tuff XII, Snake River Plane Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, E. D.; Finn, D. R.; Coe, R. S.; Rea-Downing, G. H.; Branney, M. J.; Knott, T.; Reichow, M. K.

    2014-12-01

    Yellowstone hotspot center migration during the mid-Miocene northeast along the Snake River Plain (SRP) resulted in a succession of explosive caldera-forming super-eruptions, often involving 1000's of km3 of ejecta and covering 10,000's of km2. The frequency and volume of the rhyolitic eruptions in the SRP are of both academic and societal interest, yet remain poorly known. Identification and correlation of individual eruption deposits are critical for evaluating eruption volumes and frequency over time and the relationship with climate and tectonics. Rhyolitic ash-flow deposits flank both the northern and southern margins of the SRP, but have not been successfully correlated because of their similarity in both outcrop appearance and chemical composition. Paleomagnetic correlation using the stable magnetic remanence direction has the advantage of very high temporal resolution, on the order of centuries because of the geologically rapid rate of geomagnetic secular variation and the high accuracy in which extrusive volcanic rocks may record the instantaneous direction of the magnetic field. The strength of a paleomagnetic correlation increases with the rarity of the field direction recorded by the ash flow. Here we demonstrate correlation of SRP ignimbrites by sampling the Cougar Point Tuff (CPT) Xll at three widely spaced (~25 km) locations. The transitional polarity recorded by titanomagnetite in CPT Xll enables a strong paleomagnetic correlation. CPT Xll, however, is weakly magnetized because it was erupted during a polarity transition of Earth's magnetic field, and therefore is more susceptible to magnetic overprinting. Nonetheless, careful alternating-field demagnetization coupled with line- fit and great-circle analysis, yields well-constrained directions of stable remanence. Gyroremanent magnetization, a spurious component produced by demagnetization at the higher field steps, is dealt with satisfactorily by taking small alternating-field steps and by

  8. Snake River Plain Play Fairway Analysis - Phase 1 Report

    SciTech Connect

    Shervais, John W.; Glen, Jonathan M.; Liberty, Lee M.; Dobson, Patrick; Gasperikova, Erika; Sonnenthal, Eric; Visser, Charles; Nielson, Dennis; Garg, Sabodh; Evans, James P.; Siler, Drew; DeAngelo, Jacob; Athens, Noah; Burns, Erick

    2015-09-02

    The Snake River volcanic province (SRP) overlies a thermal anomaly that extends deep into the mantle; it represents one of the highest heat flow provinces in North America. Our goals for this Phase 1 study are to: (1) adapt the methodology of Play Fairway Analysis for geothermal exploration to create a formal basis for its application to geothermal systems, (2) assemble relevant data for the SRP from publicly available and private sources, and (3) build a geothermal play fairway model for the SRP and identify the most promising plays, using software tools that are standard in the petroleum industry. The success of play fairway analysis in geothermal exploration depends critically on defining a systematic methodology that is grounded in theory (as developed within the petroleum industry over the last two decades) and within the geologic and hydrologic framework of real geothermal systems. Our preliminary assessment of the data suggests that important undiscovered geothermal resources may be located in several areas of the SRP, including the western SRP (associated with buried lineaments defined by gravity or magnetic anomalies, and capped by extensive deposits of lacustrine sediment), at lineament intersections in the central SRP (along the Banbury-Hagerman trend NW of Twin Falls, and along the northern margin of the Mt Bennett Hills-Camas Prairie area), and along the margins of the eastern SRP. Additional high temperature resources are likely associated with rhyolite domes and crypto-domes in the eastern SRP, but are masked by shallow groundwater flow leading to low upper crustal heat flow values. These blind resources may be exploitable with existing deep drilling technology. Groundwater modeling planned for later phases of the PFA project will address whether temperatures at viable producing depths are sufficient to support electricity production.

  9. Snake River Plain Play Fairway Analysis – Phase 1 Report

    SciTech Connect

    Shervais, John W.; Glen, Jonathan M.; Liberty, Lee M.; Dobson, Patrick; Gasperikova, Erika

    2015-09-01

    The Snake River volcanic province (SRP) overlies a thermal anomaly that extends deep into the mantle; it represents one of the highest heat flow provinces in North America. Our goals for this Phase 1 study are to: (1) adapt the methodology of Play Fairway Analysis for geothermal exploration to create a formal basis for its application to geothermal systems, (2) assemble relevant data for the SRP from publicly available and private sources, and (3) build a geothermal play fairway model for the SRP and identify the most promising plays, using software tools that are standard in the petroleum industry. The success of play fairway analysis in geothermal exploration depends critically on defining a systematic methodology that is grounded in theory (as developed within the petroleum industry over the last two decades) and within the geologic and hydrologic framework of real geothermal systems. Our preliminary assessment of the data suggests that important undiscovered geothermal resources may be located in several areas of the SRP, including the western SRP (associated with buried lineaments defined by gravity or magnetic anomalies, and capped by extensive deposits of lacustrine sediment), at lineament intersections in the central SRP (along the Banbury-Hagerman trend NW of Twin Falls, and along the northern margin of the Mt Bennett Hills-Camas Prairie area), and along the margins of the eastern SRP. Additional high temperature resources are likely associated with rhyolite domes and crypto-domes in the eastern SRP, but are masked by shallow groundwater flow leading to low upper crustal heat flow values. These blind resources may be exploitable with existing deep drilling technology. Groundwater modeling planned for later phases of the PFA project will address whether temperatures at viable producing depths are sufficient to support electricity production.

  10. Hunting the fifth force on the Snake River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Wm. R.

    2001-11-01

    A modulated-source Eötvös experiment was performed at the Little Goose Lock on the Snake River during the summers of 1988 and 1990. Although results of the first experiment were published by the author in 1989, the results from a more sophisticated version of the experiment performed in 1990 are published here for the first time. The 1990 experiment involved a freely oscillating toroidal Cu-Pb pendulum suspended from a 5-μm tungsten fiber having a period of 790 sec and a torsion constant of 0.00035 erg/rad. The lock contained ≈1.7×108 kg of water which could be filled or drained within about ten minutes. Results from 40 2-hr runs (during half of which the pendulum was rotated 180°) showed no differential acceleration on the Cu-Pb masses from the water with a limit of ±2.4×10-9 cm/sec2. Angular deflection measurements were based on a time-interval method developed previously by the author. Fiber drift was roughly constant during runs and always in the counterclockwise direction looking down on the apparatus, a result which may have arisen through interaction of the Coriolis force with vertical vibration of the pendulum. The principal error in measurement was from small discontinuous changes in the fiber drift-rate. The fiber motion suggested the presence of a small amount of second harmonic which was removed from the data by digital filtering. Direct measurement showed that pendulum tilt was a negligible source of systematic error. A 2-σ limit was set on the "isospin coupling constant" of α0=±0.001 at λ=100-m.

  11. Enhanced Geothermal System Potential for Sites on the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Robert K Podgorney; Thomas R. Wood; Travis L McLing; Gregory Mines; Mitchell A Plummer; Michael McCurry; Ahmad Ghassemi; John Welhan; Joseph Moore; Jerry Fairley; Rachel Wood

    2013-09-01

    The Snake River volcanic province overlies a thermal anomaly that extends deep into the mantle and represents one of the highest heat flow provinces in North America (Blackwell and Richards, 2004). This makes the Snake River Plain (SRP) one of the most under-developed and potentially highest producing geothermal districts in the United States. Elevated heat flow is typically highest along the margins of the topographic SRP and lowest along the axis of the plain, where thermal gradients are suppressed by the Snake River aquifer. Beneath this aquifer, however, thermal gradients rise again and may tap even higher heat flows associated with the intrusion of mafic magmas into the mid-crustal sill complex (e.g., Blackwell, 1989).

  12. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Achord, Stephen; Matthews, Gene M.; Kamikawa, Daniel J.

    1995-09-01

    The goals of this study are to (1) characterize the outmigration timing of different wild stocks of spring/summer chinook salmon smolts at dams on the Snake and Columbia Rivers, (2) determine if consistent patterns are apparent, and (3) determine what environmental factors influence outmigration timing. The authors PIT tagged wild spring/summer chinook salmon parr in the Snake River Basin in 1993, and subsequently monitored these fish during their smolt migration through Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, and McNary Dams during spring, summer, and fall 1994. This report details their findings.

  13. A molecular phylogeny of aquatic gastropods provides a new perspective on biogeographic history of the Snake River Region.

    PubMed

    Hershler, Robert; Liu, Hsiu-Ping

    2004-09-01

    Mitochondrial DNA sequences of aquatic gastropods of the subgenus Pyrgulopsis (Natricola) were analyzed to test a commonly accepted hypothesis concerning the early history of the Snake River in the northwestern US. Distributions of Natricola and other regional biota were previously used to infer that the Snake River flowed to the Pacific through southeastern Oregon and northern California during the Neogene prior to its capture by the Columbia River in the late Pliocene (2 Ma). A molecular phylogeny based on partial sequences of COI and NDI (1149 bp) indicates that the Natricola clade is restricted to the modern Snake-Columbia River Basin and the Oregon Lakes region whereas northern California populations previously assigned to this subgenus belong to other lineages. The Natricola clade is not deeply subdivided into Oregon Lakes and Snake River Basin units consistent with late Pliocene fragmentation of the hypothesized paleodrainage, but instead is shallowly structured and contains multiple transitions among these two geographic areas. The strongly supported sister relationship between Natricola and a species from northwest Nevada (P. imperialis) is consistent with a recent proposal that the ancestral Snake River did not flow through southeast Oregon but instead flowed south to the Humboldt River. Within the context of this hypothesis, the multiple transitions between the Snake River Basin and the Oregon Lakes region that occurred within Natricola may be attributed to a late Pleistocene connection between these areas that was unrelated to the early course of the Snake River. PMID:15288067

  14. Statistical Evaluation of Travel Time Estimation Based on Data from Freeze-Branded Chinook Salmon on the Snake River, 1982-1990.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven G.; Skalski, J.R.; Giorgi, Albert E.

    1993-10-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to assess the strengths and limitations of existing freeze brand recapture data in describing the migratory dynamics of juvenile salmonids in the mainstream, impounded sections of the Snake and Columbia Rivers. With the increased concern over the threatened status of spring and summer chinook salmon in the Snake River drainage, we used representative stocks for these races as our study populations. However, statistical considerations resultant from these analyses apply to other species and drainages as well. This report describes analyses we conducted using information derived from freeze-branded groups. We examined both index production groups released from hatcheries upstream from Lower Granite Dam (1982--1990) and freeze-branded groups used as controls in smolt transportation evaluations conducted by the National Marine Fisheries Service (1986, 1989). The scope of our analysis was limited to describing travel time estimates and derived relationships, as well as reach survival estimates through the mainstem Snake River from Lower Granite to McNary Dam.

  15. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Research Element, 2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Willard, Catherine; Plaster, Kurtis; Castillo, Jason

    2005-01-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT) and Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Restoration efforts are focused on Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes within the Sawtooth Valley. The first release of hatchery-produced adults occurred in 1993. The first release of juvenile sockeye salmon from the captive broodstock program occurred in 1994. In 1999, the first anadromous adult returns from the captive broodstock program were recorded when six jacks and one jill were captured at the IDFG Sawtooth Fish Hatchery. In 2003, progeny from the captive broodstock program were released using three strategies: eyed-eggs were planted in Pettit and Alturas lakes in November and December, age-0 presmolts were released to Alturas, Pettit, and Redfish lakes in October, and hatchery-produced adult sockeye salmon were released to Redfish Lake for volitional spawning in September. Oncorhynchus nerka population monitoring was conducted on Redfish, Alturas, and Pettit lakes using a midwater trawl in September 2003. Age-0 through age-4 O. nerka were captured in Redfish Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 81,727 fish. Age-0 through age-3 O. nerka were captured in Alturas Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 46,234 fish. Age-0 through age-3 O. nerka were captured in Pettit Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 11,961 fish. Angler surveys were conducted from May 25 through August 7, 2003 on Redfish Lake to estimate kokanee harvest. On Redfish Lake, we interviewed 179 anglers and estimated that 424 kokanee were harvested. The calculated kokanee catch rate was 0.09 fish/hour. The juvenile out-migrant trap on Redfish Lake Creek was operated from April 15 to May 29

  16. Water-quality conditions near the confluence of the Snake and Boise Rivers, Canyon County, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Molly S.; Etheridge, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) have been established under authority of the Federal Clean Water Act for the Snake River-Hells Canyon reach, on the border of Idaho and Oregon, to improve water quality and preserve beneficial uses such as public consumption, recreation, and aquatic habitat. The TMDL sets targets for seasonal average and annual maximum concentrations of chlorophyll-a at 14 and 30 micrograms per liter, respectively. To attain these conditions, the maximum total phosphorus concentration at the mouth of the Boise River in Idaho, a tributary to the Snake River, has been set at 0.07 milligrams per liter. However, interactions among chlorophyll-a, nutrients, and other key water-quality parameters that may affect beneficial uses in the Snake and Boise Rivers are unknown. In addition, contributions of nutrients and chlorophyll-a loads from the Boise River to the Snake River have not been fully characterized. To evaluate seasonal trends and relations among nutrients and other water-quality parameters in the Boise and Snake Rivers, a comprehensive monitoring program was conducted near their confluence in water years (WY) 2009 and 2010. The study also provided information on the relative contribution of nutrient and sediment loads from the Boise River to the Snake River, which has an effect on water-quality conditions in downstream reservoirs. State and site-specific water-quality standards, in addition to those that relate to the Snake River-Hells Canyon TMDL, have been established to protect beneficial uses in both rivers. Measured water-quality conditions in WY2009 and WY2010 exceeded these targets at one or more sites for the following constituents: water temperature, total phosphorus concentrations, total phosphorus loads, dissolved oxygen concentration, pH, and chlorophyll-a concentrations (WY2009 only). All measured total phosphorus concentrations in the Boise River near Parma exceeded the seasonal target of 0.07 milligram per liter. Data collected

  17. Juvenile salmon usage of the Skeena River estuary.

    PubMed

    Carr-Harris, Charmaine; Gottesfeld, Allen S; Moore, Jonathan W

    2015-01-01

    Migratory salmon transit estuary habitats on their way out to the ocean but this phase of their life cycle is more poorly understood than other phases. The estuaries of large river systems in particular may support many populations and several species of salmon that originate from throughout the upstream river. The Skeena River of British Columbia, Canada, is a large river system with high salmon population- and species-level diversity. The estuary of the Skeena River is under pressure from industrial development, with two gas liquefaction terminals and a potash loading facility in various stages of environmental review processes, providing motivation for understanding the usage of the estuary by juvenile salmon. We conducted a juvenile salmonid sampling program throughout the Skeena River estuary in 2007 and 2013 to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of different species and populations of salmon. We captured six species of juvenile anadromous salmonids throughout the estuary in both years, and found that areas proposed for development support some of the highest abundances of some species of salmon. Specifically, the highest abundances of sockeye (both years), Chinook in 2007, and coho salmon in 2013 were captured in areas proposed for development. For example, juvenile sockeye salmon were 2-8 times more abundant in the proposed development areas. Genetic stock assignment demonstrated that the Chinook salmon and most of the sockeye salmon that were captured originated from throughout the Skeena watershed, while some sockeye salmon came from the Nass, Stikine, Southeast Alaska, and coastal systems on the northern and central coasts of British Columbia. These fish support extensive commercial, recreational, and First Nations fisheries throughout the Skeena River and beyond. Our results demonstrate that estuary habitats integrate species and population diversity of salmon, and that if proposed development negatively affects the salmon populations that

  18. Juvenile Salmon Usage of the Skeena River Estuary

    PubMed Central

    Carr-Harris, Charmaine; Gottesfeld, Allen S.; Moore, Jonathan W.

    2015-01-01

    Migratory salmon transit estuary habitats on their way out to the ocean but this phase of their life cycle is more poorly understood than other phases. The estuaries of large river systems in particular may support many populations and several species of salmon that originate from throughout the upstream river. The Skeena River of British Columbia, Canada, is a large river system with high salmon population- and species-level diversity. The estuary of the Skeena River is under pressure from industrial development, with two gas liquefaction terminals and a potash loading facility in various stages of environmental review processes, providing motivation for understanding the usage of the estuary by juvenile salmon. We conducted a juvenile salmonid sampling program throughout the Skeena River estuary in 2007 and 2013 to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of different species and populations of salmon. We captured six species of juvenile anadromous salmonids throughout the estuary in both years, and found that areas proposed for development support some of the highest abundances of some species of salmon. Specifically, the highest abundances of sockeye (both years), Chinook in 2007, and coho salmon in 2013 were captured in areas proposed for development. For example, juvenile sockeye salmon were 2–8 times more abundant in the proposed development areas. Genetic stock assignment demonstrated that the Chinook salmon and most of the sockeye salmon that were captured originated from throughout the Skeena watershed, while some sockeye salmon came from the Nass, Stikine, Southeast Alaska, and coastal systems on the northern and central coasts of British Columbia. These fish support extensive commercial, recreational, and First Nations fisheries throughout the Skeena River and beyond. Our results demonstrate that estuary habitats integrate species and population diversity of salmon, and that if proposed development negatively affects the salmon populations

  19. Survival of Hatchery Subyearling Fall Chinook Salmon in the Free-Flowing Snake River and Lower Snake River Reservoirs, 1998-2001 Summary Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven G.; Muir, William D.

    2002-09-01

    We report results from four years (1998-2001) of an ongoing study of survival and travel time of subyearling fall chinook salmon in the Snake River. We report analyses of associations among river conditions and survival and travel time estimates, which include data from 1995 through 1997. At weekly intervals from early June to early July each year (mid-May to late June in 2001), hatchery-reared subyearling fall chinook salmon were PIT tagged at Lyons Ferry Hatchery, trucked upstream, acclimated, and released above Lower Granite Dam at Pittsburgh Landing and Billy Creek on the Snake River and at Big Canyon Creek on the Clearwater River. Each year, a small proportion of fish released were not detected until the following spring. However, the number that overwintered in the river and migrated seaward as yearlings the following spring was small and had minimal effect on survival estimates. Concurrent with our studies, a number of subyearling fall chinook salmon that reared naturally in the Snake River were caught by beach seine, PIT tagged, and released. We compared a number of characteristics of hatchery and wild fish. Hatchery and wild fish were similar in 2001, and from 1995 through 1997. Results for 1998 through 2000 showed some relatively large differences between hatchery and wild fish. However, recent information suggests that a considerable proportion of wild subyearling chinook salmon migrating in a given year may actually be stream-type (spring/summer), rather than ocean-type (fall) fish, which may account for some of the differences we have observed.

  20. Phase I Water Rental Pilot Project : Snake River Resident Fish and Wildlife Resources and Management Recommendations.

    SciTech Connect

    Riggin, Stacey H.; Hansen, H. Jerome

    1992-10-01

    The Idaho Water Rental Pilot Project was implemented as a part of the Non-Treaty Storage Fish and Wildlife Agreement (NTSA) between Bonneville Power Administration and the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority. The goal of the project is to improve juvenile and adult salmon and steelhead passage in the lower Snake River with the use of rented water for flow augmentation. The primary purpose of this project is to summarize existing resource information and provide recommendations to protect or enhance resident fish and wildlife resources in Idaho with actions achieving flow augmentation for anadromous fish. Potential impacts of an annual flow augmentation program on Idaho reservoirs and streams are modeled. Potential sources of water for flow augmentation and operational or institutional constraints to the use of that water are identified. This report does not advocate flow augmentation as the preferred long-term recovery action for salmon. The state of Idaho strongly believes that annual drawdown of the four lower Snake reservoirs is critical to the long-term enhancement and recovery of salmon (Andrus 1990). Existing water level management includes balancing the needs of hydropower production, irrigated agriculture, municipalities and industries with fish, wildlife and recreation. Reservoir minimum pool maintenance, water quality and instream flows are issues of public concern that will be directly affected by the timing and quantity of water rental releases for salmon flow augmentation, The potential of renting water from Idaho rental pools for salmon flow augmentation is complicated by institutional impediments, competition from other water users, and dry year shortages. Water rental will contribute to a reduction in carryover storage in a series of dry years when salmon flow augmentation is most critical. Such a reduction in carryover can have negative impacts on reservoir fisheries by eliminating shoreline spawning beds, reducing available fish habitat

  1. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Achord, Stephen

    2001-08-01

    This report details the 2000 results from an ongoing project to monitor the migration behavior of wild spring/summer chinook salmon smolts in the Snake River Basin. The report also discusses trends in the cumulative data collected for this project from Oregon and Idaho streams since 1989.

  2. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Achord, Stephen

    2001-06-01

    This report details the 1999 results from an ongoing project to monitor the migration behavior of wild spring/summer chinook salmon smolts in the Snake River Basin. The report also discusses trends in the cumulative data collected for this project from Oregon and Idaho streams since 1989.

  3. BACTERIOLOGY AND ALGAL ASSAYS, LOWER SNAKE RIVER RESERVOIRS, IDAHO AND WASHINGTON, 1977

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this portion of the study is to determine 1) the overall water quality of the impoundment area, and 2) to determine the effect of impoundment on bacterial water quality. Data from the pre-impoundment study indicated that the Snake and Clearwater Rivers (17060103) ...

  4. Performance of Yellowstone and Snake River Cutthroat Trout Fry Fed Seven Different Diets.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five commercial diets and two formulated feeds were fed to initial-feeding Yellowstone cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii bouvieri fry and Snake River cutthroat trout O. clarkii spp. (currently being petitioned for classification as O. clarkii behnkei) fry for 18 weeks to evaluate fish performance...

  5. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 1993 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Achord, Stephen; Kamikawa, Daniel J.; Sandford, Benjamin P.

    1995-01-01

    The goals of this study are to (1) characterize the outmigration timing of different wild stocks of spring/summer chinook salmon smolts at dams on the Snake and Columbia Rivers, (2) determine if consistent patterns are apparent, and (3) determine what environmental factors influence outmigration timing.

  6. MIDDLE REACH OF THE SNAKE RIVER: WATER QUALITY AND BENTHIC BIOMONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study examined spatial and temporal trends in water quality, sestonic and benthic algal concentrations, and benthic macroinvertebrate taxa richness, population density, and biomass at nine stations along the Middle Snake River from Pillar Falls to Upper Salmon Falls Dam. Pri...

  7. Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Brood-Stock Program, 1984 Annual Report of Research.

    SciTech Connect

    Harrell, Lee W.

    1985-02-01

    The objective is the enhancement of upriver stocks through research and development of an eggbank source. Viable gametes, produced from fish held to maturity in sea pens, will be made available for restoration purposes on the Snake River. Seawater entry trials with 0+-age and 1+-age fish have shown that 0+-age Snake River fall chinook salmon are not amenable to seawater entry and will either die or require up to 6 months to fully adapt to seawater. However, 1+-age smolts experience little problem at seawater entry; it is therefore suggested that Snake River fall chinook salmon be released as 1+ smolting fish in hatchery situations. Important marine mortalities occurring from osmoregulatory dysfunction, Bacterial Kidney Disease, and precocity at various life stages have been documented. Also, a previously unreported marine fungal pathogen has been identified. Mortality from this pathogen occurs from 3-years of age to maturity and can exceed 0.5% per day (resulting in losses to 90+%). At the end of December 1984, Snake River fall chinook salmon from 1980 (n = 67), 1981 (n = 876), 1982 (n = 4809), and 1983 (n = 7100) broods were under production. Because of the extensive mortality due to the marine fungal pathogen, only seven spawners were obtained from the 1980 stock in fall 1984. The 1980-brood spawners produced only minimal eggs and these will be used to investigate possible vertical transmission of the fungal pathogen. 4 figs.

  8. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring and Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Achord, Stephen; Marsh, Douglas M.; Kamikawa, Daniel J.

    1994-09-01

    We PIT tagged wild spring and summer chinook salmon parr in the Snake River Basin in 1991, and subsequently monitored these fish during their smolt migration through Lower Granite, Little Goose, and McNary Dams during spring and summer 1992. This report details our findings.

  9. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 1996 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Achord, Stephen; Sandford, Benjamin P.; Hockersmith, Eric E.

    1997-07-01

    We PIT tagged wild spring/summer chinook salmon parr in the Snake River Basin in 1995 and subsequently monitored these fish during their smolt migration through Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams during spring and summer 1996.

  10. Salmonid Gamete Preservation in the Snake River Basin, 1998 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, Robyn; Kucera, Paul A.

    1999-03-01

    Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)populations in the Northwest are decreasing. The Nez Perce Tribe (Tribe) was funded in 1998 by the Bonneville Power Administration to coordinate gene banking of male gametes from Endangered Species Act (ESA) listed steelhead and spring and summer chinook salmon in the Snake River basin.

  11. MIDDLE SNAKE RIVER, IDAHO WATER QUALITY STUDY, PHASE I. 1990-1991

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality samples from 55 stations in the Middle Snake River (17060103, 17060101) for the period June 1990 through July 1991 were successfully obtained and field and laboratory data entered into the database. Weekly sampling on aquaculture facilities, and biweekly sampling o...

  12. Sediment transport in the lower Snake and Clearwater River Basins, Idaho and Washington, 2008–11

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Gregory M.; Fosness, Ryan L.; Wood, Molly S.

    2013-01-01

    Sedimentation is an ongoing maintenance problem for reservoirs, limiting reservoir storage capacity and navigation. Because Lower Granite Reservoir in Washington is the most upstream of the four U.S. Army Corps of Engineers reservoirs on the lower Snake River, it receives and retains the largest amount of sediment. In 2008, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the U.S. Geological Survey began a study to quantify sediment transport to Lower Granite Reservoir. Samples of suspended sediment and bedload were collected from streamgaging stations on the Snake River near Anatone, Washington, and the Clearwater River at Spalding, Idaho. Both streamgages were equipped with an acoustic Doppler velocity meter to evaluate the efficacy of acoustic backscatter for estimating suspended-sediment concentrations and transport. In 2009, sediment sampling was extended to 10 additional locations in tributary watersheds to help identify the dominant source areas for sediment delivery to Lower Granite Reservoir. Suspended-sediment samples were collected 9–15 times per year at each location to encompass a range of streamflow conditions and to capture significant hydrologic events such as peak snowmelt runoff and rain-on-snow. Bedload samples were collected at a subset of stations where the stream conditions were conducive for sampling, and when streamflow was sufficiently high for bedload transport. At most sampling locations, the concentration of suspended sediment varied by 3–5 orders of magnitude with concentrations directly correlated to streamflow. The largest median concentrations of suspended sediment (100 and 94 mg/L) were in samples collected from stations on the Palouse River at Hooper, Washington, and the Salmon River at White Bird, Idaho, respectively. The smallest median concentrations were in samples collected from the Selway River near Lowell, Idaho (11 mg/L), the Lochsa River near Lowell, Idaho (11 mg/L), the Clearwater River at Orofino, Idaho (13 mg

  13. River Incision and Knickpoints on the Flank of the Yellowstone Hotspot — Alpine Canyon of the Snake River, Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuzlak, D.; Pederson, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding patterns of deformation and testing geophysical models in the dynamic region of the Yellowstone Hotspot requires Quaternary-scale records of incision and uplift, which are currently absent. This study examines fluvial terraces and longitudinal-profile metrics along Alpine Canyon of the Snake River, WY. Because the Snake is the only regional river crossing from the uplifting Yellowstone Plateau and flowing into the subsiding Eastern Snake River Plain, it provides an opportunity to investigate both ends of the phenomenon. Field observations through Alpine Canyon indicate that Pleistocene incision rates in this region are relatively high for the interior western U.S., that the river switches between bedrock and alluvial forms, and that incision/uplift is not uniform. Two endmembers of regional deformation may be tested: 1) the arch of high topography surrounding Yellowstone is uplifting and terraces converge downstream as incision rates decrease towards the Snake River Plain, or 2) baselevel fall originates at the subsiding Snake River Plain and terraces diverge as incision rates increase downstream. Datasets include surficial mapping, rock strength measurements, surveying of the longitudinal profile and terraces using RTK-GPS, optically stimulated luminescence dating of fluvial-terrace deposits, and investigation of drainages through ksn and χ analyses. Initial results indicate that there are four primary terrace deposits along the canyon, three of which are timed with glacial epochs. Considering the relative heights of terrace straths and preliminary ages, incision rates are indeed relatively high. There is a major knickzone covering the last 15 km of the canyon that is also reflected in tributary profiles and is consistent with a wave of incision propagating upstream, favoring the second endmember of active baselevel fall downstream.

  14. Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2003-04-23

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to fund the White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam Project. The project proposes to continue to carry out harvest monitoring and stock status updates coordinated with fisheries management planning, annual young-of-the year recruitment indexing, research, experimental artificial propagation, and transport of white sturgeon to less densely populated areas of the river(s). Additionally, release of hatchery-reared juveniles is proposed to evaluate release strategies. Actions will take place in the following Columbia River mainstem reaches: Bonneville, The Dalles, John Day, and McNary Reservoirs; Hanford Reach, as well as the Wanapum and Rock Island Reservoirs; and the following Snake River mainstem reaches: Ice Harbor, Lower Monumental and Little Goose Reservoirs. Spawning and rearing are undertaken at established hatcheries at McNary Dam and also the Abernathy Fish Technology Center. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1367, April 2003) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and BPA is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  15. ANATOMY OF A RIVER, AN EVALUATION OF WATER REQUIREMENTS FOR THE HELL'S CANYON REACH OF THE SNAKE RIVER, IDAHO, 1973

    EPA Science Inventory

    This evaluation began in March 1973, involving more than 30 state and federal agencies and private entities. 79 specialists monitored the effects of 5 controlled flows on the biological community and mans use of the Middle Snake River (17060103, 17060101). The total program inv...

  16. Mercury cycling in the Hells Canyon Complex of the Snake River, Idaho and Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Gregory M.; Naymik, Jesse; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Aiken, George R.; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark C.; Harris, Reed C.; Myers, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    The Hells Canyon Complex (HCC) is a hydroelectric project built and operated by the Idaho Power Company (IPC) that consists of three dams on the Snake River along the Oregon and Idaho border (fig. 1). The dams have resulted in the creation of Brownlee, Oxbow, and Hells Canyon Reservoirs, which have a combined storage capacity of more than 1.5 million acre-feet and span about 90 miles of the Snake River. The Snake River upstream of and through the HCC historically has been impaired by water-quality issues related to excessive contributions of nutrients, algae, sediment, and other pollutants. In addition, historical data collected since the 1960s from the Snake River and tributaries near the HCC have documented high concentrations of mercury in fish tissue and sediment (Harris and Beals, 2013). Data collected from more recent investigations within the HCC continue to indicate elevated concentrations of mercury and methylmercury in the water column, bottom sediments, and biota (Clark and Maret, 1998; Essig, 2010; Fosness and others, 2013). As a result, Brownlee and Hells Canyon Reservoirs are listed as impaired for mercury by the State of Idaho, and the Snake River from the Oregon and Idaho border through the HCC downstream to the Oregon and Washington border is listed as impaired for mercury by the State of Oregon.

  17. Geologic map and profiles of the north wall of the Snake River Canyon, Pasadena Valley and Ticeska quadrangles, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Covington, H.R.; Weaver, Jean N.

    1990-01-01

    The Snake River Plain is a broad, arcuate region of low relief that extends more than 300 mi across southern Idaho. The Snake River enters the plain near Idaho Falls and flows westward along the southern margin of the eastern Snake River Plain (fig. 1), a position mainly determined by the basaltic lava flows that erupted near the axis of the plain. The highly productive Snake River Plain aquifer north of the Snaked River underlies the most of the eastern plain. The aquifer is composed of basaltic ricks that are interbedded with fluvial and lacustrine sedimentary rocks. The top of the aquifer (water table) is typically less than 500 ft below the land surface, but is deeper than 1,000 ft in few areas. The Snake River had excavated a canyon into the nearly flat-lying basaltic and sedimentary rocks of the eastern Snake River Plain between Milner Dam and King Hill (fig. 2), a distance of almost 90 mi. For much of its length the canyon intersects the Snake River Plain aquifer, which discharges from the north canyon wall as springs of variable size, spacing, and altitude. Geologic controls on springs are of importance because nearly 60 percent of the aquifer's discharge occurs as spring flow along this reach of the canyon. This report is one of several that describes the geologic occurrence of springs along the northern wall of the Snake River canyon from Milner Dam to King Hill. To understand the local geologic controls on springs, the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey initiated a geologic mapping project as part of their Snake River Plain Regional Aquifer System-Analysis Program. Objectives of the project were (1) to prepare a geologic map of a strip of land immediately north of the Snake River canyon, (2) to map the geology of the north canyon wall in profile, (3) to locate spring occurrences along the north side of the Snake River between Milner Dam and King Hill, and (4) to estimate spring discharge from the north wall of the canyon.

  18. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 1994-1995 Progress (Annual) Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Achord, Stephen

    1996-09-01

    We PIT tagged wild spring/summer chinook-salmon parr in the Snake River Basin in 1994 and subsequently monitored these fish during their smolt migration through Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Darns during spring, summer, and fall 1995. This report details our findings. The goals of this study are to (1) characterize the migration timing of different wild stocks of Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon smolts at dams on the Snake and Columbia Rivers, (2) determine if consistent patterns are apparent, and (3) determine what environmental factors influence migration timing.

  19. Effects of Hyporheic Exchange Flows on Egg Pocket Water Temperature in Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Areas, 2002-2003 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrahan, T.; Geist, D.; Arntzen, C.

    2004-09-01

    The development of the Snake River hydroelectric system has affected fall Chinook salmon smolts by shifting their migration timing to a period (mid- to late-summer) when downstream reservoir conditions are unfavorable for survival. Subsequent to the Snake River Chinook salmon fall-run Evolutionary Significant Unit being listed as Threatened under the Endangered Species Act, recovery planning has included changes in hydrosystem operations (e.g., summer flow augmentation) to improve water temperature and flow conditions during the juvenile Chinook salmon summer migration period. In light of the limited water supplies from the Dworshak reservoir for summer flow augmentation, and the associated uncertainties regarding benefits to migrating fall Chinook salmon smolts, additional approaches for improved smolt survival need to be evaluated. This report describes research conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that evaluated relationships among river discharge, hyporheic zone characteristics, and egg pocket water temperature in Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning areas. This was a pilot-scale study to evaluate these relationships under existing operations of Hells Canyon Dam (i.e., without any prescribed manipulations of river discharge) during the 2002-2003 water year. The project was initiated in the context of examining the potential for improving juvenile Snake River fall Chinook salmon survival by modifying the discharge operations of Hells Canyon Dam. The potential for improved survival would be gained by increasing the rate at which early life history events proceed (i.e., incubation and emergence), thereby allowing smolts to migrate through downstream reservoirs during early- to mid-summer when river conditions are more favorable for survival. PNNL implemented this research project at index sites throughout 160 km of the Hells Canyon Reach (HCR) of the Snake River. The HCR extends from Hells Canyon Dam (river kilometer [rkm] 399

  20. Basaltic Volcanism of the Snake River Volcanic Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shervais, J. W.; Hanan, B. B.; Vetter, S.

    2012-12-01

    The Yellowstone-Snake River Plain (YSRP) volcanic province is the world's best modern example of a time-transgressive hotspot track beneath continental crust. Tomographic images document a thermal anomaly which pierces the Farallon plate at depth and appears to extend to depths of over 1000 km. Many investigators attribute this anomaly to a deep mantle plume, while others recognize the sheet-like aspect of the velocity anomaly and attribute it to lower mantle flow around a fragmented remnant of the Farallon plate. Tholeiitic basalts of the SRP have major element compositions similar to ocean island basalts (OIB), with higher FeO, TiO2, P2O5 and K2O than mid-ocean ridge basalts over a similar range in MgO. Their trace element concentrations also mimic OIB tholeiites, with moderately enriched LREE/HREE ratios, OIB-like HFSE ratios and Nb-Y-Zr systematics. Most SRP basalts show little evidence of crustal assimilation: oxygen isotope compositions are mantle-like, K2O is low and does not increase relative to other incompatible elements during fractionation (e.g., P2O5), and silica contents are consistently low. In contrast, evidence suggests that these basalts evolve primarily through fractional crystallization in relatively shallow magma chambers with episodic magma recharge. Trace element concentration patterns are nearly identical to OIB tholeiites, with somewhat lower slopes on multi-element variations diagrams, consistent with 7-12% partial melting of spinel-facies peridotite (9-18 kb, 40-65 km) with a composition similar to the source of OIB or EMORB. Models show that depleted MORB asthenosphere or primitive mantle peridotite composition sources cannot yield SRP tholeiites, even with residual garnet in the source region to raise LREE/HREE ratios in the melt. There is no indication of residual garnet in the source - which requires that either the lithosphere was relatively thin during formation of the SRP, or that the melts originated within the lithosphere itself

  1. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program Hatchery Element : Project Progress Report 2007 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Dan J.; Heindel, Jeff A.; Green, Daniel G.; Kline, Paul A.

    2008-12-17

    Numbers of Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka have declined dramatically in recent years. In Idaho, only the lakes of the upper Salmon River (Sawtooth Valley) remain as potential sources of production (Figure 1). Historically, five Sawtooth Valley lakes (Redfish, Alturas, Pettit, Stanley, and Yellowbelly) supported sockeye salmon (Bjornn et al. 1968; Chapman et al. 1990). Currently, only Redfish Lake receives a remnant anadromous run. On April 2, 1990, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries Service (NOAA - formerly National Marine Fisheries Service) received a petition from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT) to list Snake River sockeye salmon as endangered under the United States Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973. On November 20, 1991, NOAA declared Snake River sockeye salmon endangered. In 1991, the SBT, along with the Idaho Department of Fish & Game (IDFG), initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project (Sawtooth Valley Project) with funding from the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The goal of this program is to conserve genetic resources and to rebuild Snake River sockeye salmon populations in Idaho. Coordination of this effort is carried out under the guidance of the Stanley Basin Sockeye Technical Oversight Committee (SBSTOC), a team of biologists representing the agencies involved in the recovery and management of Snake River sockeye salmon. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries Service ESA Permit Nos. 1120, 1124, and 1481 authorize IDFG to conduct scientific research on listed Snake River sockeye salmon. Initial steps to recover the species involved the establishment of captive broodstocks at the Eagle Fish Hatchery in Idaho and at NOAA facilities in Washington State (for a review, see Flagg 1993; Johnson 1993; Flagg and McAuley 1994; Kline 1994; Johnson and Pravecek 1995; Kline and Younk 1995; Flagg et al. 1996; Johnson and Pravecek 1996; Kline and Lamansky 1997; Pravecek and

  2. Summary of Radiological Monitoring of Columbia and Snake River Sediment, 1988 Through 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, Gregory W.; Dirkes, Roger L.

    2007-10-01

    From 1988 through 2004, samples of upper-layer sediments from the Columbia River and Snake River were collected under the Hanford Site Surface Environmental Surveillance Project to document concentrations and trends of radionuclides. Low concentrations of potassium-40, cesium-137, uranium isotopes, and plutonium isotopes were detected consistently in sediment samples over the entire sampling period. The concentrations of most radionuclides were similar to values measured upstream of the Hanford Site behind Priest Rapids Dam. For all locations, the concentrations of radionuclides in sediment samples from the Columbia and Snake rivers were below concentrations that would result in a 1-mrem effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical exposed individual using a shoreline exposure scenario (i.e., 500 hr/yr of external dose). The DOE limit for public exposure is 100 mrem/yr.

  3. Evaluation of seepage and discharge uncertainty in the middle Snake River, southwestern Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Molly S.; Williams, Marshall L.; Evetts, David M.; Vidmar, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the State of Idaho, Idaho Power Company, and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, evaluated seasonal seepage gains and losses in selected reaches of the middle Snake River, Idaho, during November 2012 and July 2013, and uncertainty in measured and computed discharge at four Idaho Power Company streamgages. Results from this investigation will be used by resource managers in developing a protocol to calculate and report Adjusted Average Daily Flow at the Idaho Power Company streamgage on the Snake River below Swan Falls Dam, near Murphy, Idaho, which is the measurement point for distributing water to owners of hydropower and minimum flow water rights in the middle Snake River. The evaluated reaches of the Snake River were from King Hill to Murphy, Idaho, for the seepage studies and downstream of Lower Salmon Falls Dam to Murphy, Idaho, for evaluations of discharge uncertainty. Computed seepage was greater than cumulative measurement uncertainty for subreaches along the middle Snake River during November 2012, the non-irrigation season, but not during July 2013, the irrigation season. During the November 2012 seepage study, the subreach between King Hill and C J Strike Dam had a meaningful (greater than cumulative measurement uncertainty) seepage gain of 415 cubic feet per second (ft3/s), and the subreach between Loveridge Bridge and C J Strike Dam had a meaningful seepage gain of 217 ft3/s. The meaningful seepage gain measured in the November 2012 seepage study was expected on the basis of several small seeps and springs present along the subreach, regional groundwater table contour maps, and results of regional groundwater flow model simulations. Computed seepage along the subreach from C J Strike Dam to Murphy was less than cumulative measurement uncertainty during November 2012 and July 2013; therefore, seepage cannot be quantified with certainty along this subreach. For the uncertainty evaluation, average

  4. Geologic map and profiles of the north wall of the Snake River Canyon, Bliss, Hagerman, and Tuttle quadrangles, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Covington, H.R.; Weaver, Jean N.

    1990-01-01

    The Snake River Plain is a broad, arcuate region of low relief that extends more than 300 mi across southern Idaho. The Snake River enters the plain near Idaho Falls and flows westward along the southern margin of the eastern Snake River Plain (fig. 1), a position mainly determined by the basaltic lava flows that erupted near the axis of the plain. The highly productive Snake River Plain aquifer north of the Snake River underlies most of the eastern plain. The aquifer is composed of basaltic rocks that are interbedded with fluvial and lacustrine sedimentary rocks. The top of the aquifer (water table) is typically less than 500 ft below the land surface, but is deeper than 1,000 ft in a few areas. The Snake River has excavated a canyon into the nearly flat-lying basaltic and sedimentary rocks of the eastern Snake River Plain between Milner Dam and King Hill (fig. 2), a distance of almost 90 mi. For much of its length the canyon wall as springs of variable size, spacing, and altitude. Geologic controls on springs are of importance because nearly 60 percent of the aquifer's discharge occurs as spring flow along this reach of the canyon. This report is one of several that describes the geologic occurrence of springs along the northern wall of the Snake River canyon from Milner Dam to King Hill (fig. 1). To understand the local geologic controls on springs, the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey initiated a geologic mapping project as part of their Snake River Plain Regional Aquifer System-Analysis Program. Objectives of the project were (1) to prepare a geologic map of a strip of land immediately north of the Snake River canyon, (2) to map the geology of the north canyon wall in profile, (3) to locate spring occurrences along the north side of the Snake River between Milner Dam and King Hill, and (4) to estimate spring discharge from the north wall of the canyon.

  5. Harvest Management and Recovery of Snake River Salmon Stocks : Recovery Issues for Threatened and Endangered Snake River Salmon : Technical Report 7 of 11.

    SciTech Connect

    Lestelle, Lawrence C.; Gilbertson, Larry G.

    1993-06-01

    Management measures to regulate salmon fishing harvest have grown increasingly complex over the past decade in response to the needs for improved protection for some salmon runs and to alter harvest sharing between fisheries. The development of management plans that adequately address both needs is an immensely complicated task, one that involves a multitude of stocks, each with its own migration patterns and capacity to sustain exploitation. The fishing industry that relies on these fish populations is also highly diverse. The management task is made especially difficult because the stocks are often intermingled on the fishing grounds, creating highly mixed aggregates of stocks and species on which the fisheries operate. This situation is the one confronting harvest managers attempting to protect Snake River salmon. This report provides an overview of some of the factors that will need to be addressed in assessing the potential for using harvest management measures in the recovery of Snake River salmon stocks. The major sections of the report include the following: perspectives on harvest impacts; ocean distribution and in-river adult migration timing; description of management processes and associated fisheries of interest; and altemative harvest strategies.

  6. Mortality of Yearling Chinook Salmon Prior to Arrival at Lower Granite Dam, on the Snake River : Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Giorgi, Albert E.

    1991-10-01

    Efforts have been initiated to develop a research plan that will provide insight into causes of, and ultimately solutions to, the apparent excessive mortality of juvenile chinook upstream from Lower Granite Dam on the Snake River. In the context of the proposed salmon stock listings under the Endangered Species Act, issues that potentially affect wild stocks of spring chinook salmon probably warrant immediate consideration and resolution. Mark-recapture data at Lower Granite Dam indicate that few yearling chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) smolts survive to that site after release from various hatcheries. Upriver stocks of yearling spring and summer chinook exhibit pronounced losses en route to the dam. In 1989 and 1990, only about 8 to 18% of PIT-tagged representatives from McCall or Sawtooth hatchery were detected at the dam. General survival indices for these stocks indicate that perhaps only 15 to 35% of the yearlings survived to that site. This suggests these stocks may sustain as much mortality traversing this unobstructed reach of river as the general population would passing through the entire hydroelectric complex.

  7. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program, Research Element : Project Progress Report, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hebdon, J. Lance; Castillo, Jason; Kline, Paul A.

    2002-08-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and Idaho Department of Fish and Game initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Restoration efforts are focusing on Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes within the Sawtooth Valley. The first release of hatchery-produced juvenile sockeye salmon from the captive broodstock program occurred in 1994. The first anadromous adult returns from the captive broodstock program were recorded in 1999 when six jacks and one jill were captured at Idaho Department of Fish and Game's Sawtooth Fish Hatchery. In 2000, progeny from the captive broodstock program were released using four strategies: eyed-eggs were placed in Pettit Lake; age-0 presmolts were released to all three lakes in October; age-1 smolts were released to Redfish Lake Creek, and hatchery-produced adult sockeye salmon were released to Redfish and Alturas lakes for volitional spawning in September. Anadromous adult sockeye salmon were released to all three lakes. Total kokanee abundance in Redfish Lake was estimated at 10,268, which was the lowest abundance since 1991. Abundance of kokanee in Alturas Lake was estimated at 125,462, which was one of the highest values recorded since 1991. Abundance of kokanee in Pettit Lake was estimated at 40,599, which is the third highest value recorded since 1991. Upon the recommendation of the Stanley Basin Sockeye Technical Oversight Committee, the National Marine Fisheries Service reopened the kokanee fishery on Redfish Lake in 1995 in an attempt to reduce kokanee numbers. Anglers fished an estimated 3,063 hours and harvested approximately 67 kokanee during the 2000 season. Angler effort and harvest were also monitored on Alturas Lake during 2000. Effort on Alturas Lake was 5,190 hours, and harvest of kokanee

  8. Salmonid Gamete Preservation in the Snake River Basin, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, Robyn; Kucera, Paul

    2002-06-01

    Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) populations in the Northwest are decreasing. Genetic diversity is being lost at an alarming rate. Along with reduced population and genetic variability, the loss of biodiversity means a diminished environmental adaptability. The Nez Perce Tribe (Tribe) strives to ensure availability of genetic samples of the existing male salmonid population by establishing and maintaining a germplasm repository. The sampling strategy, initiated in 1992, has been to collect and preserve male salmon and steelhead genetic diversity across the geographic landscape by sampling within the major river subbasins in the Snake River basin, assuming a metapopulation structure existed historically. Gamete cryopreservation conserves genetic diversity in a germplasm repository, but is not a recovery action for listed fish species. The Tribe was funded in 2001 by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Lower Snake River Compensation Plan (LSRCP) to coordinate gene banking of male gametes from Endangered Species Act (ESA) listed steelhead and spring and summer chinook salmon in the Snake River basin. In 2001, a total of 398 viable chinook salmon semen samples from the Lostine River, Catherine Creek, upper Grande Ronde River, Lookingglass Hatchery (Imnaha River stock), Lake Creek, the South Fork Salmon River weir, Johnson Creek, Big Creek, Capehorn Creek, Marsh Creek, Pahsimeroi Hatchery, and Sawtooth Hatchery (upper Salmon River stock) were cryopreserved. Also, 295 samples of male steelhead gametes from Dworshak Hatchery, Fish Creek, Grande Ronde River, Little Sheep Creek, Pahsimeroi Hatchery and Oxbow Hatchery were also cryopreserved. The Grande Ronde chinook salmon captive broodstock program stores 680 cryopreserved samples at the University of Idaho as a long-term archive, half of the total samples. A total of 3,206 cryopreserved samples from Snake River basin steelhead and

  9. Irrigation Depletions 1928-1989 : 1990 Level of Irrigation, Snake Yakima and Deschutes River Basins.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administation; A.G. Crook Company

    1993-07-01

    The vast amount of irrigation in relation to the available water and extensive system of reservoirs located in the Snake River Basin above Brownlee reservoir precludes this area from using methods such as Blaney-Criddle for estimating irrigation depletions. Also the hydrology, irrigation growth patterns, and water supply problems are unique and complex. Therefore regulation studies were utilized to reflect the net effect on streamflow of the changes in irrigated acreage in terms of corresponding changes in storage regulation and in the amount of water depleted and diverted from and returned to the river system. The regulation study for 1990 conditions was conducted by the Idaho Department of Water Resources. The end product of the basin simulation is 61 years of regulated flows at various points in the river system that are based on 1990 conditions. Data used by the Idaho Department of Water Resources is presented in this section and includes natural gains to the river system and diversions from the river system based on a 1990 level of development and operation criteria. Additional information can be obtained for an Idaho Department of Water Resources Open-File Report ``Stream Flows in the Snake River Basin 1989 Conditions of Use and Management`` dated June 1991. Similar considerations apply to the Yakima and Deschutes river basins.

  10. Life history diversity of Snake River finespotted cutthroat trout: managing for persistence in a rapidly changing environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Homel, Kristen M.; Gresswell, Robert E.; Kershner, Jeffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last century, native trout have experienced dramatic population declines, particularly in larger river systems where habitats associated with different spawning life history forms have been lost through habitat degradation and fragmentation. The resulting decrease in life history diversity has affected the capacity of populations to respond to environmental variability and disturbance. Unfortunately, because few large rivers are intact enough to permit full expression of life history diversity, it is unclear what patterns of diversity should be a conservation target. In this study, radiotelemetry was used to identify spawning and migration patterns of Snake River Finespotted Cutthroat Trout Oncorhynchus clarkii behnkei in the upper Snake River. Individuals were implanted with radio tags in October 2007 and 2008, and monitored through October 2009. Radio-tagged cutthroat trout in the upper Snake River exhibited variation in spawning habitat type and location, migration distance, spawn timing, postspawning behavior, and susceptibility to mortality sources. Between May and July, Cutthroat Trout spawned in runoff-dominated tributaries, groundwater-dominated spring creeks, and side channels of the Snake River. Individuals migrated up to 101 km from tagging locations in the upper Snake River to access spawning habitats, indicating that the upper Snake River provided seasonal habitat for spawners originating throughout the watershed. Postspawning behavior also varied; by August each year, 28% of spring-creek spawners remained in their spawning location, compared with 0% of side-channel spawners and 7% of tributary spawners. These spawning and migration patterns reflect the connectivity, habitat diversity, and dynamic template of the Snake River. Ultimately, promoting life history diversity through restoration of complex habitats may provide the most opportunities for cutthroat trout persistence in an environment likely to experience increased variability from

  11. Irrigated acreage and other land uses on the Snake River Plain, Idaho and eastern Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindholm, Gerald F.; Goodell, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    Prompted by the need for a current, accurate, and repeatable delineation of irrigated acreage on the Snake River Plain, the U.S. Geological Survey entered into a cooperative agreement with the Idaho Department of Water Resources Image Analysis Facility and the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation to delineate 1980 land use form Landsat data. Irrigated acreage data were needed as input to groundwater flow models developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in a study of the regional aquifer system underlying the Snake River Plain. Single-date digital multispectral scanner data analyzed to delineate land-use classes. Source of irrigation water (surface water, ground water, and combined) was determined from county maps of 1975 water-related land use, data from previous investigations, and field checking. Surface-water diversions for irrigation on the Snake River Plain began in the 1840's. With the stimulus of Federal aid authorized by the Desert Land Act, Carey Act, and Reclamation Act, irrigated area increased rapidly in the early 1900's. By 1929, 2.2 million acres were irrigated. Ground water became and important source of irrigation water after World War II. In 1980, about 3.1 million acres of the Snake River Plain were irrigate: 2.0 million acres with surface water, 1.0 million with ground water, and 0.1 million with combined surface and ground water. About 5.2 million acres (half of the plain) are undeveloped rangeland, 1.0 million acres (one-tenth) are classified as barren. The remaining land is a mixture of dryland agriculture, water bodies, wetland, forests, and urban areas.

  12. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 1998 Annual Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kline, Paul A.; Heindel, Jeff A.

    1999-12-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and NMFS initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 1998 and December 31, 1998, are presented in this report.

  13. Geothermal alteration of basaltic core from the Snake River Plain, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sant, Christopher J.

    The Snake River Plain is located in the southern part of the state of Idaho. The eastern plain, on which this study focuses, is a trail of volcanics from the Yellowstone hotspot. Three exploratory geothermal wells were drilled on the Snake River Plain. This project analyzes basaltic core from the first well at Kimama, north of Burley, Idaho. The objectives of this project are to establish zones of geothermal alteration and analyze the potential for geothermal power production using sub-aquifer resources on the axial volcanic zone of the Snake River Plain. Thirty samples from 1,912 m of core were sampled and analyzed for clay content and composition using X-ray diffraction. Observations from core samples and geophysical logs are also used to establish alteration zones. Mineralogical data, geophysical log data and physical characteristics of the core suggest that the base of the Snake River Plain aquifer at the axial zone is located 960 m below the surface, much deeper than previously suspected. Swelling smectite clay clogs pore spaces and reduces porosity and permeability to create a natural base to the aquifer. Increased temperatures favor the formation of smectite clay and other secondary minerals to the bottom of the hole. Below 960 m the core shows signs of alteration including color change, formation of clay, and filling of other secondary minerals in vesicles and fractured zones of the core. The smectite clay observed is Fe-rich clay that is authigenic in some places. Geothermal power generation may be feasible using a low temperature hot water geothermal system if thermal fluids can be attained near the bottom of the Kimama well.

  14. Population dynamics of the Concho Water Snake in rivers and reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whiting, M.J.; Dixon, J.R.; Greene, B.D.; Mueller, J.M.; Thornton, O.W., Jr.; Hatfield, J.S.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    The Concho Water Snake (Nerodia harteri paucimaculata) is confined to the Concho-Colorado River valley of central Texas, thereby occupying one of the smallest geographic ranges of any North American snake. In 1986, N. h. paucimaculata was designated as a federally threatened species, in large part because of reservoir projects that were perceived to adversely affect the amount of habitat available to the snake. During a ten-year period (1987-1996), we conducted capture-recapture field studies to assess dynamics of five subpopulations of snakes in both natural (river) and man-made (reservoir) habitats. Because of differential sampling of subpopulations, we present separate results for all five subpopulations combined (including large reservoirs) and three of the five subpopuiations (excluding large reservoirs). We used multistate capture-recapture models to deal with stochastic transitions between pre-reproductive and reproductive size classes and to allow for the possibility of different survival and capture probabilities for the two classes. We also estimated both the finite rate of increase (??) for a deterministic, stage-based, female-only matrix model using the average litter size, and the average rate of adult population change, ??, which describes changes in numbers of adult snakes, using a direct capture-recapture approach to estimation. Average annual adult survival was about 0.23 and similar for males and females. Average annual survival for subadults was about 0.14. The parameter estimates from the stage-based projection matrix analysis all yielded asymptotic values of ?? < 1, suggesting populations that are not viable. However, the direct estimates of average adult ?? for the three subpopulations excluding major reservoirs were ?? = 1.26, SE??(??) = 0.18 and ?? = 0.99, SE??(??) = 0.79, based on two different models. Thus, the direct estimation approach did not provide strong evidence of population declines of the riverine subpopulations, but the

  15. Research, monitoring, and evaluation of emerging issues and measures to recover the Snake River fall Chinook salmon ESU, 1/1/2012 – 12/31/2013: Annual report, 1991-029-00

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Connor, William P.; Mullins, Frank; Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Perry, Russell W.; Erhardt, John M.; St. John, Scott J.; Bickford, Brad; Rhodes, Tobyn

    2014-01-01

    The portion of the Snake River fall Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ESU that spawns upstream of Lower Granite Dam transitioned from low to high abundance during 1992–2014 in association with U.S. Endangered Species Act recovery efforts and other Federally mandated actions. This annual report focuses on (1) numeric and habitat use responses by natural- and hatchery-origin spawners, (2) phenotypic and numeric responses by natural-origin juveniles, and (3) predator responses in the Snake River upper and lower reaches as abundance of adult and juvenile fall Chinook Salmon increased. Spawners have located and used most of the available spawning habitat and that habitat is gradually approaching redd capacity. Timing of spawning and fry emergence has been relatively stable; whereas the timing of parr dispersal from riverine rearing habitat into Lower Granite Reservoir has become earlier as apparent abundance of juveniles has increased. Growth rate (g/d) and dispersal size of parr also declined as apparent abundance of juveniles increased. Passage timing of smolts from the two Snake River reaches has become earlier and downstream movement rate faster as estimated abundance of fall Chinook Salmon smolts in Lower Granite Reservoir has increased. In 2014, consumption of subyearlings by Smallmouth Bass was highest in the upper reach which had the highest abundance of Bass. With a few exceptions, predation tended to decrease seasonally from April through early July. A release of hatchery fish in mid-May significantly increased subyearling consumption by the following day. We estimated that over 600,000 subyearling fall Chinook Salmon were lost to Smallmouth Bass predation along the free-flowing Snake River in 2014. More information on predation is presented in Appendix A.3 (page 51). These findings coupled with stock-recruitment analyses presented in this report provide evidence for density-dependence in the Snake River reaches and in Lower Granite Reservoir that was

  16. Phase II Water Rental Pilot Project: Snake River Resident Fish and Wildlife Resources and Management Recommendations.

    SciTech Connect

    Stovall, Stacey H.

    1994-08-01

    The Idaho Water Rental Pilot Project was implemented in 1991 as part of the Non-Treaty Storage Fish and Wildlife Agreement between Bonneville Power Administration and the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority. The goal of the project is to quantify resident fish and wildlife impacts resulting from salmon flow augmentation releases made from the upper Snake River Basin. Phase I summarized existing resource information and provided management recommendations to protect and enhance resident fish and wildlife habitat resulting from storage releases for the I improvement of an adromous fish migration. Phase II includes the following: (1) a summary of recent biological, legal, and political developments within the basin as they relate to water management issues, (2) a biological appraisal of the Snake River between American Falls Reservoir and the city of Blackfoot to examine the effects of flow fluctuation on fish and wildlife habitat, and (3) a preliminary accounting of 1993--1994 flow augmentation releases out of the upper Snake, Boise, and Payette river systems. Phase III will include the development of a model in which annual flow requests and resident fish and wildlife suitability information are interfaced with habitat time series analysis to provide an estimate of resident fish and wildlife resources.

  17. Monitoring and mapping selected riparian habitat along the lower Snake River

    SciTech Connect

    Downs, J. L; Tiller, B. L; Witter, M.; Mazaika, R.

    1996-01-01

    Studies in this document were initiated to establish baseline information on riparian and wetland habitat conditions at the areas studied under the current reservoir operations on the lower Snake River. Two approaches were used to assess habitat at 28 study sites selected on the four pools on the lower Snake River. These areas all contribute significant riparian habitat along the river, and several of these areas are designated habitat management units. At 14 of the 28 sites, we monitored riparian habitat on three dates during the growing season to quantify vegetation abundance and composition along three transects: soil nutrients, moisture, and pH and water level and pH. A second approach involved identifying any differences in the extent and amount of riparian/wetland habitat currently found at the study areas from that previously documented. We used both ground and boat surveys to map and classify the changes in vegetative cover along the shoreline at the 14 monitoring sites and at 14 additional sites along the lower Snake selected to represent various riparian/wetland habitat conditions. Results of these mapping efforts are compared with maps of cover types previously generated using aerial photography taken in 1987.

  18. South Fork Snake River/Palisades Wildlife Mitigation Project: Environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    BPA proposes to fund the implementation of the South Fork Snake River Programmatic Management Plan to compensate for losses of wildlife and wildlife habitat due to hydroelectric development at Palisades Dam. The Idaho Department of Fish and Game drafted the plan, which was completed in May 1993. This plan recommends land and conservation easement acquisition and wildlife habitat enhancement measures. These measures would be implemented on selected lands along the South Fork of the Snake River between Palisades Dam and the confluence with the Henry`s Fork, and on portions of the Henry`s Fork located in Bonneville, Madison, and Jefferson Counties, Idaho. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment evaluating the proposed project. The EA also incorporates by reference the analyses in the South Fork Snake River Activity/Operations Plan and EA prepared jointly in 1991 by the Bureau of Land Management and the Forest Service. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI.

  19. Evaluate the Restoration Potential of Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Habitat, Status Report 2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrahan, T.P.

    2009-01-08

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Project 2003-038-00, Evaluate the restoration potential of Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat, began in FY04 (15 December 2003) and continues into FY06. This status report is intended to summarize accomplishments during FY04 and FY05. Accomplishments are summarized by Work Elements, as detailed in the Statement of Work (see BPA's project management database PISCES). This project evaluates the restoration potential of mainstem habitats for fall Chinook salmon. The studies address two research questions: 'Are there sections not currently used by spawning fall Chinook salmon within the impounded lower Snake River that possess the physical characteristics for potentially suitable fall Chinook spawning habitat?' and 'Can hydrosystem operations affecting these sections be adjusted such that the sections closely resemble the physical characteristics of current fall Chinook salmon spawning areas in similar physical settings?' Efforts are focused at two study sites: (1) the Ice Harbor Dam tailrace downstream to the Columbia River confluence, and (2) the Lower Granite Dam tailrace. Our previous studies indicated that these two areas have the highest potential for restoring Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat. The study sites will be evaluated under existing structural configurations at the dams (i.e., without partial removal of a dam structure), and alternative operational scenarios (e.g., varying forebay/tailwater elevations). The areas studied represent tailwater habitat (i.e., riverine segments extending from a dam downstream to the backwater influence from the next dam downstream). We are using a reference site, indicative of current fall Chinook salmon spawning areas in tailwater habitat, against which to compare the physical characteristics of each study site. The reference site for tailwater habitats is the section extending downstream from the Wanapum Dam tailrace on the Columbia River. Escapement

  20. Gas bubble disease in smallmouth bass and northern squawfish from the Snake and Columbia Rivers

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, J.C.; Becker, C.D.

    1980-11-01

    In 1975 and 1976, 179 smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui) and 85 northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) were collected by angling from the lower Snake and mid-Columbia rivers, southeastern Washington. All fish were examined externally for gas bubble syndrome. Emboli were found beneath membranes of the opercula, body, and fins of 72% of the smallmouth bass and 84% of the northern squawfish. Hemorrhage was also noted on the caudal, anal, and pectoral fins of several smallmouth bass. Presence of gas bubble syndrome corresponded to the spring runoff when total dissolved gas supersaturations in river water exceeded 115%.

  1. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Research Element, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hebdon, J. Lance; Castillo, Jason; Willard, Catherine

    2003-12-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and Idaho Department of Fish and Game initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Restoration efforts are focusing on Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes within the Sawtooth Valley. The first release of hatchery-produced juvenile sockeye salmon from the captive broodstock program occurred in 1994. The first anadromous adult returns from the captive broodstock program were recorded in 1999, when six jacks and one jill were captured at Idaho Department of Fish and Game's Sawtooth Fish Hatchery. In 2001, progeny from the captive broodstock program were released using four strategies: age-0 presmolts were released to all three lakes in October and to Pettit and Alturas lakes in July; age-1 smolts were released to Redfish Lake Creek, and hatchery-produced adult sockeye salmon were released to Redfish Lake for volitional spawning in September along with anadromous adult sockeye salmon that returned to the Sawtooth basin and were not incorporated into the captive broodstock program. Kokanee population monitoring was conducted on Redfish, Alturas, and Pettit lakes using a midwater trawl in September. Only age-0 and age-1 kokanee were captured on Redfish Lake, resulting in a population estimate of 12,980 kokanee. This was the second lowest kokanee abundance estimated since 1990. On Alturas Lake age-0, age-1, and age-2 kokanee were captured, and the kokanee population was estimated at 70,159. This is a mid range kokanee population estimate for Alturas Lake, which has been sampled yearly since 1990. On Pettit Lake only age-1 kokanee were captured, and the kokanee population estimate was 16,931. This estimate is in the midrange of estimates of the kokanee population in Pettit Lake, which has been sampled

  2. Metabolic turnover rates of carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes in captive juvenile snakes.

    PubMed

    Fisk, Aaron T; Sash, Kim; Maerz, John; Palmer, William; Carroll, John P; Macneil, M Aaron

    2009-01-01

    Metabolic turnover rates (m) of delta(15)N and delta(13)C were assessed in different tissues of newly hatched captive-raised corn snakes (Elaphe guttata guttata) fed maintenance diets consisting of earthworms (Eisenia foetida) that varied substantially in delta(15)N (by 644 per thousand) and delta(13)C (by 5.0 per thousand). Three treatments were used during this 144 day experiment that consisted of the same diet throughout (control), shifting from a depleted to an enriched stable isotope signature diet (uptake), and shifting from an enriched to depleted stable isotope signature diet (elimination). Values of delta(13)C in the liver, blood, and muscle of the control snakes reached equilibrium with and were, respectively, 1.73, 2.25 and 2.29 greater than in their diet, this increase is called an isotopic discrimination factor (Deltadelta(13)C = delta(13)C(snake) - delta(13)C(food)). Values of delta(15)N in snake tissues did not achieve equilibrium with the diets in any of the exposures and thus Delta(15)N could not be estimated. Values of metabolic turnover rates (m) for delta(13)C and delta(15)N were greater in liver than in muscle and blood, which were similar, and relative results remained the same if the fraction of (15)N and (13)C were modeled. Although caution is warranted because equilibrium values of stable isotopes in the snakes were not achieved, values of m were greater for delta(13)C than delta(15)N, resulting in shorter times to dietary equilibrium for delta(13)C upon a diet shift, and for both stable isotopes in all tissues, greater during an elimination than in an uptake shift in diet stable isotope signature. Multiple explanations for the observed differences between uptake and elimination shifts raise new questions about the relationship between animal and diet stable isotope concentrations. Based on this study, interpretation of feeding ecology using stable isotopes is highly dependent on the kind of stable isotope, tissue, direction of diet switch

  3. Salmonid Gamete Preservation in the Snake River Basin, Annual Report 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Young, William; Kucera, Paul

    2003-07-01

    In spite of an intensive management effort, chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) populations in the Northwest have not recovered and are currently listed as threatened species under the Endangered Species Act. In addition to the loss of diversity from stocks that have already gone extinct, decreased genetic diversity resulting from genetic drift and inbreeding is a major concern. Reduced population and genetic variability diminishes the environmental adaptability of individual species and entire ecological communities. The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), in cooperation with Washington State University and the University of Idaho, established a germplasm repository in 1992 in order to preserve the remaining salmonid diversity in the region. The germplasm repository provides long-term storage for cryopreserved gametes. Although only male gametes can be cryopreserved, conserving the male component of genetic diversity will maintain future management options for species recovery. NPT efforts have focused on preserving salmon and steelhead gametes from the major river subbasins in the Snake River basin. However, the repository is available for all management agencies to contribute gamete samples from other regions and species. In 2002 a total of 570 viable semen samples were added to the germplasm repository. This included the gametes of 287 chinook salmon from the Lostine River, Catherine Creek, upper Grande Ronde River, Imnaha River (Lookingglass Hatchery), Lake Creek, South Fork Salmon River, Johnson Creek, Big Creek, Capehorn Creek, Marsh Creek, Pahsimeroi River (Pahsimeroi Hatchery), and upper Salmon River (Sawtooth Hatchery) and the gametes of 280 steelhead from the North Fork Clearwater River (Dworshak Hatchery), Fish Creek, Little Sheep Creek, Pahsimeroi River (Pahsimeroi Hatchery) and Snake River (Oxbow Hatchery). In addition, gametes from 60 Yakima River spring chinook and 34 Wenatchee River coho salmon were added to the

  4. Distinguishing between natural and hatchery Snake River fall Chinook salmon subyearlings in the field using body morphology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, K.F.; Connor, W.P.

    2011-01-01

    We used body morphology to distinguish between natural- and hatchery-origin subyearling fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in rearing areas of the Snake River and at a downstream dam during seaward migration. Using subjective eye and body shape characteristics, field personnel correctly classified 88.9–100% of natural subyearlings (N = 626) and 90.0–100% of hatchery subyearlings (N = 867) in rearing areas from 2001 to 2008. The morphological characteristics used by these personnel proved to have a quantitative basis, as was shown by digital photography and principal components analysis. Natural subyearlings had smaller eyes and pupils, smaller heads, deeper bodies, and shorter caudal peduncles than their hatchery counterparts during rearing and at the dam. A discriminant function fitted from this set of morphological characteristics classified the origin of fish during rearing and at the dam with over 97% accuracy. We hypothesize that these morphological differences were primarily due to environmental influences during incubation and rearing because it is highly probable that a large portion of the natural juveniles we studied were the offspring of hatchery × hatchery mating in the wild. The findings in this paper might provide guidance for others seeking to differentiate between natural and hatchery fish.

  5. Review of potential interactions between stocked rainbow trout and listed Snake River sockeye salmon in Pettit Lake Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Teuscher, D.

    1996-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if hatchery rainbow trout compete with or prey on juvenile Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka in Pettit Lake, Idaho. In 1995, a total of 8,570 age-0 sockeye and 4,000 hatchery rainbow trout were released in Pettit Lake. After releasing the fish, gillnets were set in the pelagic and littoral zones to collected diet and spatial distribution data. Interactions were assessed monthly from June 1995 through March 1996. Competition for food was discounted based on extremely low diet overlap results observed throughout the sample period. Conversely, predation interactions were more significant. A total of 119 rainbow trout stomachs were analyzed, two contained O. nerka. The predation was limited to one sample period, but when extrapolated to the whole rainbow trout populations results in significant losses. Total consumption of O. nerka by rainbow trout ranged from an estimated 10 to 23% of initial stocking numbers. Predation results contradict earlier findings that stocked rainbow trout do not prey on wild kokanee or sockeye in the Sawtooth Lakes. The contradiction may be explained by a combination of poorly adapted hatchery sockeye and a littoral release site that forced spatial overlap that was not occurring in the wild populations. Releasing sockeye in the pelagic zone may have reduced or eliminated predation losses to rainbow trout.

  6. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, David L.; Kern, J. Chris; Hughes, Michele L.

    2004-02-01

    We report on our progress from April 2002 through March 2003 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam.

  7. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, David L.; Kern, J. Chris; Hughes, Michele L.

    2003-12-01

    We report on our progress from April 2001 through March 2002 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam.

  8. Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Maynard, Desmond J.; McAuley, W. Carlin

    2004-08-01

    In 1995, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), and the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) established captive broodstock programs to aid in the recovery of Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) listed as endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). These programs are intended to provide safety nets for Salmon and Grande Ronde River Basins spring/summer chinook salmon stocks. They also provide a basis of examining the efficacy of captive rearing and captive breeding programs as tools for recovering listed salmonid populations. In years when no or few naturally produced fish return from the sea, captive fish and their progeny can be used to maintain populations in these two Snake River Basin tributaries. The NMFS facility at Manchester, WA provides the crucial seawater environment needed to culture anadromous salmonids during the marine phase of their life cycle. At the Manchester Research Station, the fish are cultured in 6.1m diameter circular tanks housed in a fully enclosed and secure building. The tanks are supplied with seawater that has been processed to eliminate most marine pathogens. The fish are fed a commercially prepared diet and held at densities and loading rates intended to maximize fish quality. When fish begin to mature, they are transferred to ODFW or IDFG freshwater facilities in Oregon and Idaho for final maturation. The states then release the mature fish (Idaho) or their progeny (Oregon) back into their native Snake River tributary waters in restoration efforts. In FY 2003, NMFS cultured 1998, 1999, 2000, and 2001 broodyear fish at its Manchester Facility. This report addresses program activities from September 1, 2002 to August 31, 2003.

  9. Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    McAuley, W. Carlin; Flagg, Thomas N.

    2003-03-01

    In 1995, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), and the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) established captive broodstock programs to aid in the recovery of Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) listed as endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). These programs were intended to provide safety nets for Salmon and Grande Ronde River Basins spring/summer chinook salmon stocks. They also provide a basis of examining the efficacy of captive rearing and captive breeding programs as tools for recovering listed salmonid populations. In years when no or few naturally produced fish return from the sea, captive fish and their progeny can be used to maintain populations in these two Snake River Basin tributaries. The NMFS facility at Manchester, WA, provides the crucial seawater environment needed to culture anadromous salmonids during the marine phase of their life cycle. At the Manchester Research Station, the fish are cultured in 6.1m diameter circular tanks housed in a fully enclosed and secure building. The tanks are supplied with seawater that has been processed to eliminate most marine pathogens. The fish are fed a commercially prepared diet and held at densities and loading rates designed to maximize fish quality. When fish begin to mature, they are transferred to ODFW or IDFG freshwater facilities in Oregon and Idaho for final maturation. The states then release the mature fish (Idaho) or their progeny (Oregon) back into their native Snake River tributary waters in restoration efforts. In FY 2001, NMFS cultured 1996, 1997, 1998, and 1999 broodyear fish at its Manchester Facility. This report addresses program activities from September 1, 2000 to August 31, 2001.

  10. Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    McAuley, W. Carlin; Maynard, Desmond J.

    2003-03-01

    In 1995, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), and the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) established captive broodstock programs to aid in the recovery of Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) listed as endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). These programs were intended to provide safety nets for Salmon and Grande Ronde River Basins spring/summer chinook salmon stocks. They also provide a basis of examining the efficacy of captive rearing and captive breeding programs as tools for recovering listed salmonid populations. In years when no or few naturally produced fish return from the sea, captive fish and their progeny can be used to maintain populations in these two Snake River Basin tributaries. The NMFS facility at Manchester, WA, provides the crucial seawater environment needed to culture anadromous salmonids during the marine phase of their life cycle. At the Manchester Research Station, the fish are cultured in 6.1m diameter circular tanks housed in a fully enclosed and secure building. The tanks are supplied with seawater that has been processed to eliminate most marine pathogens. The fish are fed a commercially prepared diet and held at densities and loading rates designed to maximize fish quality. When fish begin to mature, they are transferred to ODFW or IDFG freshwater facilities in Oregon and Idaho for final maturation. The states then release the mature fish (Idaho) or their progeny (Oregon) back into their native Snake River tributary waters in restoration efforts. In FY 2002, NMFS cultured 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, and 2000 broodyear fish at its Manchester Facility. This report addresses program activities from September 1, 2001 to August 31, 2002.

  11. Evaluating Effects of Floodplain Constriction Along a High Energy Gravel-Bed River: Snake River, WY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, Christina M.

    This study examined approximately 66 km of the Snake River, WY, USA, spanning a natural reach within Grand Teton National Park and a reach immediately downstream that is confined by artificial levees. We linked the channel adjustments observed within these two reaches between 2007 and 2012 to sediment transport processes by developing a morphological sediment budget. A pair of digital elevation models (DEMs) was generated by fusing LiDAR topography with depth estimates derived from optical image data within wetted channels. Errors for both components of the DEMs (LiDAR and optical bathymetry) were propagated through the DEM of difference and sediment budget calculations. Our results indicated that even with the best available methods for acquiring high resolution topographic data over large areas, the uncertainty associated with bed elevation estimates implied that net volumetric changes were not statistically significant. In addition to the terrain analysis, we performed a tracer study to assess the mobility of different grain size classes in different morphological units. Grain sizes, hydraulic conditions, and flow resistance characteristics along cross-sections were used to calculate critical discharges for entrainment, but this bulk characterization of fluid driving forces failed to predict bed mobility. Our results indicated that over seasonal timescales specific grain classes were not preferentially entrained. Surface and subsurface grain size data were used to calculate armoring and dimensionless sediment transport ratios for both reaches; sediment supply exceeded transport capacity in the natural reach and vice versa in the confined reach. We used a conceptual model to describe channel adjustments to lateral constriction by levees. Initially we suggest levees focused flow energy and incised the bed, resulting in bed armoring. Bed armoring promoted channel widening, but levees prevented this and instead the channel migrated more rapidly within the

  12. Salmonid Gamete Preservation in the Snake River Basin : 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, Robyn; Kucera, Paul A.

    2001-06-01

    Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) populations in the Northwest are decreasing. Genetic diversity is being lost at an alarming rate. The Nez Perce Tribe (Tribe) strives to ensure availability of genetic samples of the existing male salmonid population by establishing and maintaining a germplasm repository. The sampling strategy, initiated in 1992, has been to collect and preserve male salmon and steelhead genetic diversity across the geographic landscape by sampling within the major river subbasins in the Snake River basin, assuming a metapopulation structure existed historically. Gamete cryopreservation conserves genetic diversity in a germplasm repository, but is not a recovery action for listed fish species. The Tribe was funded in 2000 by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Lower Snake River Compensation Plan (LSRCP) to coordinate gene banking of male gametes from Endangered Species Act listed steelhead and spring and summer chinook salmon in the Snake River basin. In 2000, a total of 349 viable chinook salmon semen samples from the Lostine River, Catherine Creek, upper Grande Ronde River, Lookingglass Hatchery (Imnaha River stock), Rapid River Hatchery, Lake Creek, the South Fork Salmon River weir, Johnson Creek, Big Creek, Capehorn Creek, Marsh Creek, Pahsimeroi Hatchery, and Sawtooth Hatchery (upper Salmon River stock) were cryopreserved. Also, 283 samples of male steelhead gametes from Dworshak Hatchery, Fish Creek, Grande Ronde River, Imnaha River, Little Sheep Creek, Pahsimeroi Hatchery and Oxbow Hatchery were also cryopreserved. The Tribe acquired 5 frozen steelhead samples from the Selway River collected in 1994 and 15 from Fish Creek sampled in 1993 from the U.S. Geological Survey, for addition into the germplasm repository. Also, 590 cryopreserved samples from the Grande Ronde chinook salmon captive broodstock program are being stored at the University of Idaho as

  13. Characteristics of fish assemblages and related environmental variables for streams of the upper Snake River basin, Idaho and western Wyoming, 1993-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maret, Terry R.

    1997-01-01

    limited designation for the middle reach of the Snake River between Milner Dam and King Hill and provide a framework for developing indices of biotic integrity by using fish assemblages to evaluate water quality of streams in the upper Snake River Basin.

  14. Geologic map and profile of the north wall of the Snake River Canyon, Eden, Murtaugh, Milner Butte, and Milner quadrangles, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Covington, H.R.; Weaver, Jean N.

    1990-01-01

    The Snake River Plain is a broad, arcuate region of low relief that extends more than 300 mi across southern Idaho. The Snake River enters the plain near Idaho Falls and flows westward along the southern margin of the eastern Snake River Plain (fig 1), a position mainly determined by the basaltic lava flows that erupted near the axis of the plain. The highly productive Snake River Plain aquifer (water table) is typically less than 500 ft below the land surface, but us deeper than 1,000 ft in a few areas. The Snake River has excavated a canyon into the nearly flat lying basaltic and sedimentary rocks of the  eastern Snake River Plain between Milner Dam and King Hill (fig. 2), a distance of almost 90 mi. For much of its length the canyon intersects the Snake River Plain aquifer, which discharges form the northern canyon wall as springs of variable size, spacing and altitude. Geologic controls on wprings are of importance because nearly 60 percent of the aquifer's discharge occurs as spring flow along this reach of the canyon. This report is one of the several that describes the geologic occurrence of the springs along the northern wall of the Snake River canyone from Milner Dam to King Hill. 

  15. Reevalution of background iodine-129 concentrations in water from the Snake River Plain Aquifer, Idaho, 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cecil, L. DeWayne; Hall, L. Flint; Green, Jaromy R.

    2003-01-01

    Background concentrations of iodine-129 (129I, half-life = 15.7 million years) resulting from natural production in the earth?s atmosphere, in situ production in the earth by spontaneous fission of uranium-238(238U), and fallout from nuclear weapons tests conducted in the 1950s and 1960s were reevaluated on the basis of 52 analyses of ground- and surface-water samples collected from the eastern Snake River Plain in southeastern Idaho. The background concentration estimated using the results of a subset of 30 ground-water samples analyzed in this reevaluation is 5.4 attocuries per liter (aCi/L; 1 aCi = 10-18 curies) and the 95-percent nonparametric confidence interval is 5.2 to 10.0 aCi/L. In a previous study, a background 129I concentration was estimated on the basis of analyses of water samples from 16 sites on or tributary to the eastern Snake River Plain. At the 99-percent confidence level, background concentrations of 129I in that study were less than or equal to 8.2 aCi/L. During 1993?94, 34 water samples from 32 additional sites were analyzed for 129I to better establish the background concentrations in surface and ground water from the eastern Snake River Plain that is presumed to be unaffected by wastedisposal practices at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Surface water contained larger 129I concentrations than water from springs and wells contained. Because surface water is more likely to be affected by anthropogenic fallout and evapotranspiration, background 129I concentrations were estimated in the current research using the laboratory results of ground-water samples that were assumed to be unaffected by INEEL disposal practices.

  16. Research and Recovery of Snake River Sockeye Salmon, 1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kline, Paul A.

    1995-08-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe and the Idaho Department of Fish and Game initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. In 1994, the authors estimated the total September Redfish Lake O. nerka population at 51,529 fish (95% CI, {+-} 33,179). The Alturas Lake O. nerka population was estimated at 5,785 fish ({+-} 6,919). The total density and biomass of Alturas Lake was estimated at 27 fish/hectare ({+-} 33) and 0.7 kg/hectare, respectively. The total O. nerka population estimate for Pettit Lake was 14,743 fish ({+-} 3,683). Stanley Lake O. nerka total population size, density, and biomass was estimated at 2,695 fish ({+-} 963), 37 fish/hectare ({+-} 13), and 0.5 kg/hectare, respectively. Estimated numbers of O. nerka outmigrant smolts passing Redfish Lake Creek and Salmon River trapping sites increased in 1994. The authors estimated 1,820 (90% CI 1,229--2,671) and 945 (90% CI 331--13,000) smolts left Redfish and Alturas lakes, respectively. The total PIT tag detection rate at mainstem dams for Redfish Lake outmigrants was 21% in 1994. No Alturas Lake outmigrants were detected at any of the downstream facilities with detection capabilities (zero of 50 fish).

  17. Paleomagnetic correlation of ignimbrites along the southern margin of the central Snake River Plain, Yellowstone hotspot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finn, D. R.; Coe, R. S.; Spinardi, F.; Reichow, M. K.; Knott, T.; McDonnell, L.; Cunningham, D.; Branney, M.

    2011-12-01

    Mid-late Miocene explosive volcanism associated with the Yellowstone hotspot occurred in the central Snake River Plain, for example at the 12.5-11.3 Ma Bruneau-Jarbidge and 10-8.6 Ma Twin Falls eruptive centres. The volcanism was characterized by high-temperature rhyolitic caldera-forming super-eruptions, some exceeding 450 km3. To determine the number and scales and of these giant eruptions we are investigating successions of outflow ignimbrites at the southern and northern margins of the plain. The ignimbrites are exposed discontinuously in widely spaced (50-200 km) mountain ranges and are typically extensive, intensely welded and rheomorphic. Paleomagnetic characterization of individual (paleosol-bounded) eruption-units together with field, petrographic and chemical characterization will aid in stratigraphic correlation between distant sections. By correlating and mapping the eruption-units we can better estimate how the frequencies and volumes of the super-eruptions changed during eastward progression of Yellowstone hotspot volcanism. This information helps distinguish between effects of thermal flux, crustal structure, and tectonics on magmatic history of this continental large igneous province. Additionally, large caldera collapse events dramatically modify landscapes, and location and scale of calderas may have significantly contributed to Snake River Plain topography. Over 300 paleomagnetic cores were collected in September 2010 from the Cassia Hills, Rogerson Graben, and Bruneau-Jarbidge regions in the southern margin of the Snake River Plain. We drilled 10 oriented cores per eruption unit at reference sections from each location and demagnetized them with alternating-field (AF) and thermal demagnetization techniques. In some cases AF treatment up to 200 mT was unable to completely destroy a specimen's natural remnant magnetization and so thermal treatment was used to finish the experiment. Zjiderveld diagrams from AF, thermal and hybrid experiments show

  18. Characterization and mapping of the Browns Creek rhyolite: Western Snake River Plain, ID, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clippinger, D. T.; Boroughs, S.; Bonnichsen, B.

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to map and characterize the geologic units that comprise the Brown's Creek region of the western Snake River Plain, with a focus on the eruptive behavior and physical characteristics of the exposed rhyolite. Located near Oreana ID, southeast of the Owyhee Front, the rhyolite in Browns Creek and adjacent rocks has never been mapped in detail. The volcanics in the Browns Creek area are predominantly comprised of low to high silica rhyolite (73%-78% SiO2), and a previously published 40Ar/39Ar date returned an age of 11.20 ± .02 Ma. The rhyolites have phenocryst assemblages of Na-plagioclase, quartz, K-feldspar, pyroxene, oxides, and zircon. Both phenocryst content and crystal size vary widely from approximately 15-50% and 1-10 mm respectively. The rhyolite in the Browns Creek region has a δ18O value of 8.5‰ and marks a very sharp boundary (<10 km) between normal δ18O rhyolites of the Western Snake River plain to the northwest, and the roughly contemporaneous and much more voluminous low-δ18O rhyolites of the Central Snake River Plain to the southeast. The earliest, large scale mapping suggested that the rhyolite in the Browns Creek region was a rheomorphic ignimbrite, sourced from the North, while later workers proposed that the unit was composed of an early, small, non-welded ignimbrite, followed by two separate lava flows. Detailed field work and sample collection from this study indicates that the outcrops of rhyolite lava display a continuum of phenocryst contents and structural features, consistent with a single evolving magma which effused from multiple vent areas. Steeply dipping flow features are pervasive, basal and marginal breccias are common, and the unit rarely displays the lower aspect ratio outcrops typical of other large lava flows in the region. Currently, our preferred explanation for these observations is that of a single magma showing an evolutionary trend of crystallization and fractionation, with periodic

  19. Tritium concentrations in flow from selected springs that discharge to the Snake River, Twin Falls-Hagerman area, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mann, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    Concern has been expressed that some of the approximately 30,900 curies of tritium disposed to the Snake River Plain aquifer from 1952 to 1988 at the INEL (Idaho National Engineering Laboratory) have migrated to springs discharging to the Snake River in the Twin Falls-Hagerman area. To document tritium concentrations in springflow, 17 springs were sampled in November 1988 and 19 springs were sampled in March 1989. Tritium concentrations were less than the minimum detectable concentration of 0.5 pCi/mL (picocuries/mL) in November 1988 and less than the minimum detectable concentration of 0.2 pCi/mL in March 1989; the minimum detectable concentration was smaller in March 1989 owing to a longer counting time in the liquid scintillation system. The maximum contaminant level of tritium in drinking water as established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is 20 pCi/mL. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sample analyses indicate that the tritium concentration has decreased in the Snake River near Buhl since the 1970's. In 1974-79, tritium concentrations were less than 0.3 +/-0.2 pCi/mL in 3 of 20 samples; in 1983-88, 17 of 23 samples contained less than 0.3 +/-0.2 pCi/mL of tritium; the minimum detectable concentration is 0.2 pCi/mL. On the basis of decreasing tritium concentrations in the Snake River, their correlation to cessation of atmospheric weapons tests tritium concentrations in springflow less than the minimum detectable concentration, and the distribution of tritium in groundwater at the INEL, aqueous disposal of tritium at the INEL has had no measurable effect on tritium concentrations in springflow from the Snake River Plain aquifer and in the Snake River near Buhl. (USGS)

  20. Population dynamics of the Concho water snake in rivers and reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whiting, M.J.; Dixon, J.R.; Greene, B.D.; Mueller, J.M.; Thornton, O.W., Jr.; Hatfield, J.S.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    The Concho Water Snake (Nerodia harteri paucimaculata) is confined to the Concho-Colorado River valley of central Texas, thereby occupying one of the smallest geographic ranges of any North American snake. In 1986, N. h. paucimaculata was designated as a federally threatened species, in large part because of reservoir projects that were perceived to adversely affect the amount of habitat available to the snake. During a ten-year period (1987-1996), we conducted capture-recapture field studies to assess dynamics of five subpopulations of snakes in both natural (river) and man-made (reservoir) habitats. Because of differential sampling of subpopulations, we present separate results for all five subpopulations combined (including large reservoirs) and three of the five subpopulations (excluding large reservoirs). We used multistate capture-recapture models to deal with stochastic transitions between pre-reproductive and reproductive size classes and to allow for the possibility of different survival and capture probabilities for the two classes. We also estimated both the finite rate of increase (l) for a deterministic, stage-based, female-only matrix model using the average litter size, and the average rate of adult population change, l 8 , which describes changes in numbers of adult snakes, using a direct capture-recapture approach to estimation. Average annual adult survival was about 0.23 and similar for males and females. Average annual survival for subadults was about 0.14. The parameter estimates from the stage-based projection matrix analysis all yielded asymptotic values of 8 < 1, suggesting populations that are not viable. However, the direct estimates of average adult l for the three subpopulations excluding major reservoirs were l 8 = 1.26, SE8(l 8 ) = 0.18 and l 8 = 0.99, SE8(l 8 ) = 0.79, based on two different models. Thus, the direct estimation approach did not provide strong evidence of population declines of the riverine subpopulations, but the

  1. Habitat quality of historic Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning locations and implications for incubation survival: part 1, substrate quality

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Geist, David R.; Arntzen, Evan V.

    2005-07-01

    We evaluated substrate quality at two historic fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawning sites in the Snake River, Idaho, USA. The primary objective of this evaluation was to measure sediment permeability within these areas to determine the potential quality of the habitat in the event that anadromous salmonids are reintroduced to the upper Snake River. Riverbed sediments within the two sites in the upper Snake River were sampled using freeze cores and hydraulic slug tests. Sediment grain size distributions at both sites were typical of gravel-bed rivers with the surface layer coarser than the underlying substrate, suggesting the riverbed surface was armored. Despite the armored nature of the bed, the size of the largest material present on the riverbed surface was well within the size limit of material capable of being excavated by spawning fall Chinook salmon. The percentage of fines was low, suggesting good quality substrate for incubating salmon embryos. Geometric mean particle sizes found in this study compared to a 55% to 80% survival to emergence based on literature values. Hydraulic slug tests showed moderate to high hydraulic conductivity and were comparable to values from current fall Chinook salmon spawning areas in the Hells Canyon Reach of the Snake River and the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. Predicted estimates of mean egg survival at both sites (48% and 74%) equaled or exceeded estimates from fall Chinook salmon spawning areas in the Hells Canyon Reach and the Hanford Reach.

  2. Monitoring and Simulating the 3-D Density Currents at the Confluence of the Snake and Clearwater Rivers

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, Chris B.; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2004-12-01

    Summer temperatures in the Lower Snake River can be altered by releasing cold waters that originate from deep depths within Dworshak Reservoir. These cold releases are used to lower temperatures in the Clearwater River, a major tributary to the Lower Snake River, and to improve hydrodynamic and water quality conditions for migrating aquatic species. This project monitored the complex three-dimensional density currents at the Clearwater and Snake River confluence and the processes that led to stratification of Lower Granite Reservoir (LGR) during the late spring, summer, and fall of 2002. In addition to monitoring the LGR environment, a three-dimensional hydrodynamic and water quality model was also applied. By utilizing both field data and a numerical model, a more holistic view of the 3-D density currents was discovered than by either method alone. During this process, it was discovered that several predictable stratification patterns would develop depending upon the discharge ratio and the thermal gradient between the two rivers. These results illustrate the complex hydrodynamic structure at the confluence of the Clearwater and Snake Rivers, which has previously been shown by fish biologists to be a difficult passage zone for migrating salmonids of various life stages.

  3. Water-quality assessment of the upper Snake River basin, Idaho and western Wyoming; environmental setting, 1980-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maupin, Molly A.

    1995-01-01

    Idaho leads the Nation in trout production for commercial sale. Combined mean annual discharges from 12 aquacultural facilities in the basin (1985-90) were about 787,000 acre-feet. These facilities are clustered in a reach of the Snake River between Milner Dam and King Hill where ground-water discharge is from many seeps and springs that provide sufficient quantities of good-quality water. Other facilities that release effluent to the Snake River include 13 municipal wastewater treatment plants and 3 industrial facilities.

  4. Major sources of nitrogen input and loss in the upper Snake River basin, Idaho and western Wyoming, 1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rupert, Michael

    1996-01-01

    A mass balance of total nitrogen input and loss in Gooding, Jerome, Lincoln, and Twin Falls Counties suggests that more than 6,000,000 kg (6,600 tons) of total nitrogen is input in this four-county area than is discharged by the Snake River. This excess nitrogen probably is utilized by aquatic vegetation in the Snake River (causing eutrophication), stored as nitrogen in soil, stored as nitrate in the ground water and eventually discharged through the springs, utilized by noncrop vegetation, and lost through denitrification.

  5. Evaluate Bull Trout Movements in the Tucannon and Lower Snake Rivers, 2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Faler, Michael P.; Mendel, Glen W.; Fulton, Carl

    2005-11-01

    We sampled and released 313 bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) from the Tucannon River in 2004. Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags were inserted in 231 of these individuals, and we detected existing PIT tags in an additional 44 bull trout. Twenty-five of these were also surgically implanted with radio-tags, and we monitored the movements of these fish throughout the year. Ten bull trout that were radio-tagged in 2003 were known to survive and carry their tags through the spring of 2004. One of these fish outmigrated into the Snake River in the fall, and remained undetected until February, when it's tag was located near the confluence of Alkali Flat Creek and the Snake River. The remaining 9 fish spent the winter between Tucannon River miles 2.1 (Powers Road) and 36.0 (Tucannon Fish Hatchery). Seven of these fish retained their tags through the summer, and migrated to known spawning habitat prior to September 2004. During June and July, radio-tagged bull trout again exhibited a general upstream movement into the upper reaches of the Tucannon subbasin. As in past years, we observed some downstream movements of radio-tagged bull trout in mid to late September and throughout October, suggesting post spawning outmigrations. By late November and early December, radio tagged bull trout were relatively stationary, and were distributed from river mile 42 at Camp Wooten downstream to river mile 17, near the Highway 12 bridge. As in previous years, we did not collect data associated with objectives 2, 3, or 4 of this study, because we were unable to monitor migratory movement of radio-tagged bull trout into the vicinity of the hydropower dams on the main stem Snake River. Transmission tests of submerged Lotek model NTC-6-2 nano-tags in Lower Granite Pool showed that audible detection and individual tag identification was possible at depths of 20, 30, and 40 ft. We were able to maintain tag detection and code separation at all depths from both a boat and 200 ft. above

  6. Anthropogenic Impacts of Recreational Use on Sandbars in Hells Canyon on the Snake River, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morehead, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    Sandbars along large rivers are important cultural, recreational, and natural resources. In modern, historic and prehistoric times the sandbars have been used for camping, hunting, fishing and recreational activities. Sandbars are a dynamic geomorphic unit of the river system that stores and exchanges sand with the main river channel. Both natural and anthropogenic changes to river systems affect the size, shape and dynamics of sandbars. During high spring flows, the Snake River can resupply and build the sand bars. During the lower flows of the summer and fall the sand is redistributed to lower levels by natural and anthropogenic forces, where it can be remobilized by the river and exported from the bar. During the summer and fall high use season many people camp and recreate on the bars and redistribute the sand. This study utilizes change detection from repeat high resolution terrestrial LiDAR scanning surveys to study the impacts humans have on the sandbars in Hells Canyon. Nearly a decade of annual LiDAR and Bathymetric surveys were used to place these recreational impacts into the context of overall sandbar dynamics.

  7. Effects of Jackson Lake Dam on the Snake River and its floodplain, Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marston, Richard A.; Mills, John D.; Wrazien, David R.; Bassett, Beau; Splinter, Dale K.

    2005-10-01

    In 1906, the Bureau of Reclamation created Jackson Lake Dam on the Snake River in what later became Grand Teton National Park. The geomorphic, hydrologic and vegetation adjustments downstream of the dam have yet to be documented. After a larger reservoir was completed further downstream in 1957, the reservoir release schedule from Jackson Lake Dam was changed in a manner that lowered the magnitude and frequency of floods. The stability of the Snake River exhibited a complex response to the change in flow regime. Close to major tributaries, the Snake River increased in total sinuosity and rates of lateral channel migration. Away from the influence of tributaries, the river experienced fewer avulsions and a decrease in sinuosity. Vegetation maps were constructed from 1945 and 1989 aerial photography and field surveys. Using these data, we determined how vegetation is directly related to the number of years since each portion of the floodplain was last occupied by the channel. The vegetation has changed from a flood-pulse dominated mosaic to a more terrestrial-like pattern of succession. Changes in the Snake River and its floodplain have direct implications on bald eagle habitat, moose habitat, fish habitat, safety of rafting and canoeing, and biodiversity at the community and species levels.

  8. Strain rates and contemporary deformation in the Snake River Plain and surrounding Basin and Range from GPS and seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, Suzette J.; McCaffrey, Robert; King, Robert W.

    2008-08-01

    We used new horizontal global positioning system (GPS) velocitiesalong with earthquakes, faults, and volcanic features to assesshow strain is accommodated in the northern Basin and Range Province.We estimated horizontal velocities for 132 stations within theSnake River Plain and the surrounding Basin and Range from GPSphase data collected from 1994 to 2007. These velocities showregional-scale clockwise rotation suggestive of driving forcesbeyond those associated with the Yellowstone hotspot. Withinthe western Centennial tectonic belt, the GPS measurements indicatethat the Basin and Range is extending at a rate an order ofmagnitude greater than the Snake River Plain, which explainsits low seismicity. Between these two regions, we discern the"Centennial shear zone," a NE-trending zone of right-lateralshear with estimated slip rates that increase northeastwardfrom 0.9 ± 0.3 mm/yr in the SW to 1.7 ± 0.2 mm/yrin NE. We interpret the new GPS velocities to indicate: (1)right-lateral shear may be accommodated by strike-slip earthquakeson NE-trending faults in the Centennial shear zone; (2) threeBasin and Range faults (Lost River, Lemhi, and Beaverhead) terminateat the Snake River Plain margin; and (3) extension in the SnakeRiver Plain occurs at a much lower rate than the rate of normalfaulting in the western Centennial tectonic belt.

  9. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Achord, Stephen; McNatt, Regan A.; Hockersmith, Eric E.

    2004-04-01

    Prior to 1992, decisions on dam operations and use of stored water relied on recoveries of branded hatchery fish, index counts at traps and dams, and flow patterns at the dams. The advent of PIT-tag technology provided the opportunity to precisely track the smolt migrations of many wild stocks as they pass through the hydroelectric complex and other monitoring sites on their way to the ocean. With the availability of the PIT tag, a more complete approach to these decisions was undertaken starting in 1992 with the addition of PIT-tag detections of several wild spring and summer chinook salmon stocks at Lower Granite Dam. Using data from these detections, we initiated development of a database on wild fish, addressing several goals of the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning Council and Conservation Act (NPPC 1980). Section 304(d) of the program states, ''The monitoring program will provide information on the migrational characteristics of the various stocks of salmon and steelhead within the Columbia Basin.'' Further, Section 201(b) urges conservation of genetic diversity, which will be possible only if wild stocks are preserved. Section 5.9A.1 of the 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program states that field monitoring of smolt movement will be used to determine the best timing for water storage releases and Section 5.8A.8 states that continued research is needed on survival of juvenile wild fish before they reach the first dam with special attention to water quantity, quality, and several other factors. The goals of this ongoing study are as follows (1) Characterize the migration timing and estimate parr-to-smolt survival of different stocks of wild Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon smolts at Lower Granite Dam. (2) Determine whether consistent migration patterns are apparent. (3) Determine what environmental factors influence these patterns. (4) Characterize the migrational behavior and estimate survival of

  10. Oxygen and strontium isotopic studies of basaltic lavas from the Snake River plain, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leeman, William P.; Whelan, Joseph F.

    1983-01-01

    The Snake Creek-Williams Canyon pluton of the southern Snake Range crops out over an area of about 30 km2, about 60 km southeast of Ely, Nev. This Jurassic intrusion displays large and systematic chemical and mineralogical zonation over a horizontal distance of 5 km. Major-element variations compare closely with Dalyls average andesite-dacite-rhyolite over an SiO2 range of 63 to 76 percent. For various reasons it was originally thought that assimilation played a dominant role in development of the Snake Creek-Williams Canyon pluton. However, based on modeling of more recently obtained trace element and isotopic data, we have concluded that the zonation is the result of in-situ fractional crystallization, with little assimilation at the level of crystallization. This report summarizes data available for each of the mineral species present in the zoned intrusion. Special attention has been paid to trends We present oxygen and strontium isotopic data for olivine tholeiites, evolved (that is, differentiated and (or) contaminated) lavas, rhyolites, and crustal- derived xenoliths from the Snake River Plain. These data show that the olivine tholeiites are fairly uniform in d80 (5.1 to 6.2) and 87Sr/86Sr (0.7056 to 0.7076) and reveal no correlation between these ratios. The tholeiites are considered representative of mantle-derived magmas that have not interacted significantly with crustal material or meteoric water. The evolved lavas display a wider range in d 80 (5.6 to 7.6) and 87Sr/86Sr (0.708 to 0.717) with positive correlations between these ratios in some suites but not in others. Crustal xenoliths have high and variable 8?Sr/86Sr (0.715 to 0.830) and d80 values that vary widely (6.7 to 9.2) and are a few permil greater than d80 values of the Snake River basalts. Thus, isotopic data for the evolved lavas are permissive of small degrees of contamination by crustal rocks similar to the most d80-depleted xenoliths. The d80 enrichments in some evolved lavas also are

  11. Evaluation of Reconnection Options for White Sturgeon in the Snake River Using a Population Viability Model

    SciTech Connect

    Jager, Yetta; Bevelhimer, Mark S; Chandler, James A.; Lepla, Ken B.; Van Winkle, Webb

    2007-01-01

    Abstract.- This paper describes a simulation study of reconnection options for white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus subpopulations in adjacent river segments above and below CJ Strike Dam on the Snake River, Idaho, USA. In contrast to the downstream river segment, the upstream river segment is long and has areas that are suitable for spawning during normal and wet hydrologic conditions. We evaluated demographic and genetic consequences of upstream and downstream passage using different model assumptions about trashrack spacing and density dependent effects on the spawning interval. Our genetic results predict that, although reconnection would introduce new alleles to the upstream subpopulation, it would also preserve alleles from the downstream subpopulation by propagating them in the larger subpopulation above the dam. Our demographic results predict that halving the space between trashracks would have large and unequivocal benefits, whereas the effects of reconnection would be smaller and more sensitive to model assumptions. Simulated upstream passage tended to benefit both subpopulations only in the absence of density dependent limitation. In the presence of density dependence, the combination of halved trashrack spacing and upstream and downstream passage produced the best results. Narrower trashracks kept spawning adults in the upstream segment with spawning habitat, while allowing their progeny to migrate downstream. Screening appears to be the best option for such a species in this configuration of a long river segment acting as a demographic source above a short one acting as a demographic sink.

  12. Analysis of the spatial and temporal variability of mountain snowpack and terrestrial water storage in the Upper Snake River, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The spatial and temporal relationships of winter snowpack and terrestrial water storage (TWS) in the Upper Snake River were analyzed for water years 2001–2010 at a monthly time step. We coupled a regionally validated snow model with gravimetric measurements of the Earth’s water...

  13. WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF THE UPPER SNAKE RIVER BASIN, IDAHO AND WESTERN WYOMING - ENVIRONMENTAL SETTING, 1980-92.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data summarized in this report are used in companion reports to help define the relations among land use, water use, water quality, and biological conditions. The upper Snake River Basin (1704) is located in southeastern Idaho and northwestern Wyoming and includes small parts of...

  14. Discovery of a Balkan fresh-water fauna in the Idaho formation of Snake River Valley, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dall, W.H.

    1925-01-01

    In 1866 Gabb described Melania taylori and Lithasia antiqua "from a fresh-water deposit on Snake River, Idaho Territory, on the road from Fort Boise to the Owyhee mining country. Collected by A. Taylor." He states that a small bivalve, perhaps a Sphaerium, was associated with them.

  15. Cryopreservation of Adult Male Spring and Summer Chinook Salmon Gametes in the Snake River Basin, 1997 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Faurot, Dave; Kucera, Paul A.; Armstrong, Robyn D.

    1998-06-01

    Chinook salmon populations in the Northwest are decreasing in number. The Nez Perce Tribe was funded in 1997 by the Bonneville Power Administration to coordinate and initiate gene banking of adult male gametes from Endangered Species Act (ESA) listed spring and summer chinook salmon in the Snake River basin.

  16. 78 FR 17227 - Notice of Intent To Amend the Snake River Resource Management Plan for the Pinedale Field Office...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-20

    ...In compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as amended, and the Federal Land Policy and Management Act (FLPMA) of 1976, as amended, the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Pinedale Field Office, Pinedale, Wyoming, intends to prepare a Resource Management Plan (RMP) amendment with an associated environmental assessment (EA) for the Snake River RMP and by this notice is......

  17. COLONIZATION OF BENTHIC INVERTEBRATES ON ARTIFICIAL SUBSTRATES IN THE SNAKE AND BEAR RIVER DRAINAGES, 1975-1976

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was conducted as part of a continuing monitoring program by the EPA on the physical, chemical, and biological parameters of waterways of the United States. The principal objective was to assess benthic invertebrate communities in the Snake and Bear River systems (1704...

  18. Use of surrogate technologies to estimate suspended sediment in the Clearwater River, Idaho, and Snake River, Washington, 2008-10

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Molly S.; Teasdale, Gregg N.

    2013-01-01

    Elevated levels of fluvial sediment can reduce the biological productivity of aquatic systems, impair freshwater quality, decrease reservoir storage capacity, and decrease the capacity of hydraulic structures. The need to measure fluvial sediment has led to the development of sediment surrogate technologies, particularly in locations where streamflow alone is not a good estimator of sediment load because of regulated flow, load hysteresis, episodic sediment sources, and non-equilibrium sediment transport. An effective surrogate technology is low maintenance and sturdy over a range of hydrologic conditions, and measured variables can be modeled to estimate suspended-sediment concentration (SSC), load, and duration of elevated levels on a real-time basis. Among the most promising techniques is the measurement of acoustic backscatter strength using acoustic Doppler velocity meters (ADVMs) deployed in rivers. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Walla Walla District, evaluated the use of acoustic backscatter, turbidity, laser diffraction, and streamflow as surrogates for estimating real-time SSC and loads in the Clearwater and Snake Rivers, which adjoin in Lewiston, Idaho, and flow into Lower Granite Reservoir. The study was conducted from May 2008 to September 2010 and is part of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Lower Snake River Programmatic Sediment Management Plan to identify and manage sediment sources in basins draining into lower Snake River reservoirs. Commercially available acoustic instruments have shown great promise in sediment surrogate studies because they require little maintenance and measure profiles of the surrogate parameter across a sampling volume rather than at a single point. The strength of acoustic backscatter theoretically increases as more particles are suspended in the water to reflect the acoustic pulse emitted by the ADVM. ADVMs of different frequencies (0.5, 1.5, and 3 Megahertz) were tested to

  19. 4. HEADGATE AND FLUME AT THE BEGINNING OF THE SNAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. HEADGATE AND FLUME AT THE BEGINNING OF THE SNAKE RIVER DITCH PASSING THROUGH BEAVER POND AREA, LOOKING EAST-SOUTHEAST. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  20. Evaluate Potential Means of Rebuilding Sturgeon Populations in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams, 1998 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, Scott R.; Tuell, Michael A.

    2002-03-01

    In 1998 white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) were captured, marked, and population data were collected in the Snake River between Lower Granite Dam and the mouth of the Salmon River. A total of 13,785 hours of setline effort and 389 hours of hook-and-line effort was employed in 1998. Of the 278 white sturgeon captured in the Snake River, 238 were marked for future identification. Three sturgeon were captured in the Salmon River and none were captured in the Clearwater River. Since 1997, 6.9% of the tagged fish have been recovered. Movement of recaptured white sturgeon ranged from 98.5 kilometers downstream to 60.7 kilometers upstream, however, less than 25% of the fish moved more than 16 kilometers (10 miles). In the Snake River, white sturgeon ranged in total length from 51.5 cm to 286 cm and averaged 118.9 cm. Differences were detected in the length frequency distributions of sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir and the free-flowing Snake River (Chi-Square test, P < 0.05). In addition, the proportion of white sturgeon greater than 92 cm (total length) in the free-flowing Snake River has shown an increase of 37% since the 1970's. Analysis of the length-weight relationship indicated that white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir were slightly larger than white sturgeon in the free-flowing Snake River.

  1. Comparison of migration rate and survival between radio-tagged and PIT-tagged migrant yearling chinook salmon in the Snake and Columbia rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hockersmith, E.E.; Muir, W.D.; Smith, S.G.; Sandford, B.P.; Perry, R.W.; Adams, N.S.; Rondorf, D.W.

    2003-01-01

    A study was conducted to compare the travel times, detection probabilities, and survival of migrant hatchery-reared yearling chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha tagged with either gastrically or surgically implanted sham radio tags (with an imbedded passive integrated transponder [PIT] tag) with those of their cohorts tagged only with PIT tags in the Snake and Columbia rivers. Juvenile chinook salmon with gastrically implanted radio tags migrated significantly faster than either surgically radio-tagged or PIT-tagged fish, while migration rates were similar among surgically radio-tagged and PIT-tagged fish. The probabilities of PIT tag detection at downstream dams varied by less than 5% and were not significantly different among the three groups. Survival was similar among treatments for median travel times of less than approximately 6 d (migration distance of 106 km). However, for both gastrically and surgically radio-tagged fish, survival was significantly less than for PIT-tagged fish, for which median travel times exceeded approximately 10 d (migration distance of 225 km). The results of this study support the use of radio tags to estimate the survival of juvenile chinook salmon having a median fork length of approximately 150 mm (range, 127-285 mm) and a median travel time of migration of less than approximately 6 d.

  2. Numerically Simulating the Hydrodynamic and Water Quality Environment for Migrating Salmon in the Lower Snake River

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, Chris B.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Coleman, Andre M.; Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Titzler, P. Scott; Bleich, Matthew D.

    2003-06-10

    Summer temperatures in the Lower Snake River can be altered by releasing cold waters that originate from deep depths within Dworshak Reservoir. These cold releases are used to lower temperatures in the Clearwater and Lower Snake Rivers, and improve hydrodynamic and water quality conditions for migrating aquatic species. This project monitored the complex three-dimensional hydrodynamic and thermal conditions at the confluence of the Clearwater and Snake Rivers and the processes that led to stratification of Lower Granite Reservoir (LGR) during the late spring, summer, and fall of 2002. Hydrodynamic, water quality, and meteorological conditions around the reservoir were monitored at frequent intervals, and this effort is currently continuing in 2003. Monitoring of the reservoir is a multi-year endeavor, and this report spans only the first year of data collection. In addition to monitoring the LGR environment, a three-dimensional hydrodynamic and water quality model has also been applied. This model uses collected field data as boundary conditions and has been applied to the entire 2002 field season. Numerous data collection sites were within the model domain and serve as both calibration and validation locations for the numerical model. Errors between observed and simulated data vary in magnitude from location to location and from one time to another. Generally, errors are small and within expected ranges, although model parameters may be improved in the future to minimize differences between observed and simulated values as additional 2003 field data become available. A two-dimensional laterally-averaged hydrodynamic and water quality model was applied to the three reservoirs downstream of LGR (the pools behind Little Goose, Lower Monumental, and Ice Harbor Dams). A two-dimensional model is appropriate for these reservoirs because observed lateral thermal variations during summer and fall 2002 were almost negligible, however vertical thermal variations were quite

  3. White Sturgeon Management Plan in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams; Nez Perce Tribe, 1997-2005 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Nez Perce Tribe Resources Management Staff,

    2005-09-01

    White sturgeon in the Hells Canyon reach (HCR) of the Snake River are of cultural importance to the Nez Perce Tribe. However, subsistence and ceremonial fishing opportunities have been severely limited as a result of low numbers of white sturgeon in the HCR. Hydrosystem development in the Columbia River Basin has depressed numbers and productivity of white sturgeon in the HCR by isolating fish in impounded reaches of the basin, restricting access to optimal rearing habitats, reducing the anadromous forage base, and modifying early life-history habitats. Consequently, a proactive management plan is needed to mitigate for the loss of white sturgeon production in the HCR, and to identify and implement feasible measures that will restore and rebuild the white sturgeon population to a level that sustains viability and can support an annual harvest. This comprehensive and adaptive management plan describes the goals, objectives, strategies, actions, and expected evaluative timeframes for restoring the white sturgeon population in the HCR. The goal of this plan, which is to maintain a viable, persistent population that can support a sustainable fishery, is supported by the following objectives: (1) a natural, stable age structure comprising both juveniles and a broad spectrum of spawning age-classes; (2) stable or increasing numbers of both juveniles and adults; (3) consistent levels of average recruitment to ensure future contribution to reproductive potential; (4) stable genetic diversity comparable to current levels; (5) a minimum level of abundance of 2,500 adults to minimize extinction risk; and (6) provision of an annual sustainable harvest of 5 kg/ha. To achieve management objectives, potential mitigative actions were developed by a Biological Risk Assessment Team (BRAT). Identified strategies and actions included enhancing growth and survival rates by restoring anadromous fish runs and increasing passage opportunities for white sturgeon, reducing mortality rates

  4. Mapping the response of riparian vegetation to possible flow reductions in the Snake River, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter Johnson, W.; Dixon, Mark D.; Simons, Robert; Jenson, Susan; Larson, Kevin

    1995-09-01

    This study was initiated to determine the general effects of potential flow reductions in the middle Snake River (Swan Falls Dam downstream to the Idaho-Oregon border) on its riparian vegetation. Considerable water from the river is currently used to irrigate the adjacent Snake River Plain, and increased demand for water in the future is likely. The problem was subdivided into several research components including: field investigation of the existing riparian vegetation and river environment, hydrological modeling to calculate the effects of one flow scenario on hydrological regime, and integration of vegetation and hydrological modeling results with a Geographic Information System (GIs) to map the riverbed, island, and bank conditions under the scenario flow. Field work was conducted in summer 1990. Riparian vegetation along 40 U.S. Geological Survey cross-sections was sampled at approximately 1.25 mile intervals within the 50 mile long study area. Cross-section and flow data were provided by the U.S. Geological. Survey. GIs mapping of land/water cover using ARC/INFO was based on 1987 aerial photographs. Riverbed contour maps were produced by linking cross-section data, topographic contouring software ( ANUDEM), and GIs. The maps were used to spatially display shallow areas in the channel likely to become vegetated under reduced flow conditions. The scenario would reduce flow by approximately 20% (160 MAF) and lower the river an average of 0.5 ft. The scenario flow could cause a drop in the elevation of the riparian zone comparable to the drop in mean river level and expansion of the lower riparian zone into shallow areas of the channel. The GIs maps showed that the shallow areas of the channel more likely to become vegetated under the scenario flow are located in wide reaches near islands. Some possible ecological consequences of the scenario flow include a greater area of riparian habitat, reduced flow velocity and sedimentation in shallow channels leading to

  5. Seasonal Juvenile Salmonid Presence and Migratory Behavior in the Lower Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, Jessica A.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Welch, Ian D.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Bellgraph, Brian J.

    2009-04-30

    To facilitate preparing Biological Assessments of proposed channel maintenance projects, the Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers contracted the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to consolidate and synthesize available information about the use of the lower Columbia River and estuary by juvenile anadromous salmonids. The information to be synthesized included existing published documents as well as data from five years (2004-2008) of acoustic telemetry studies conducted in the Columbia River estuary using the Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System. For this synthesis, the Columbia River estuary includes the section of the Columbia River from Bonneville Dam at river kilometer (Rkm) 235 downstream to the mouth where it enters the Pacific Ocean. In this report, we summarize the seasonal salmonid presence and migration patterns in the Columbia River estuary based on information from published studies as well as relevant data from acoustic telemetry studies conducted by NOAA Fisheries and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) between 2004 and 2008. Recent acoustic telemetry studies, conducted using the Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS; developed by the Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers), provided information on the migratory behavior of juvenile steelhead (O. mykiss) and Chinook salmon in the Columbia River from Bonneville Dam to the Pacific Ocean. In this report, Section 2 provides a summary of information from published literature on the seasonal presence and migratory behavior of juvenile salmonids in the Columbia River estuary and plume. Section 3 presents a detailed synthesis of juvenile Chinook salmon and steelhead migratory behavior based on use of the JSATS between 2004 and 2008. Section 4 provides a discussion of the information summarized in the report as well as information drawn from literature reviews on potential effects of channel maintenance activities to juvenile salmonids rearing in

  6. Extension of the Yellowstone plateau, eastern Snake River Plain, and Owyhee plateau

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, D.W.; Hackett, W.R.; Ore, H.T. )

    1990-11-01

    Formation of the late Cenozoic volcanic province comprising the Owyhee plateau, eastern Snake River Plain, and Yellowstone plateau has been accompanied by east-northeast-directed crustal extension. A new vector of 45 mm/yr, N56{degree}E for the migration of silicic volcanism across the volcanic province is calculated. If migration of volcanism reflects west-southwest continental drift over a mantle plume, a zone of crustal extension must separate the volcanic province from the more slowly moving North American craton. Space-time relations of basin fill in the adjacent Basin and Range province provide evidence for a zone of extension, about 125 km wide, coincident with and east of coeval silicic volcanism. Since 16 Ma, the zone of extension has migrated along with silicic volcanism, maintaining its position between the province and the unextended craton.

  7. Bimodal magmatism, basaltic volcanic styles, tectonics, and geomorphic processes of the eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hughes, S.S.; Smith, R.P.; Hackett, W.R.; McCurry, M.; Anderson, S.R.; Ferdock, G.C.

    1997-01-01

    Geology presented in this field guide covers a wide spectrum of internal and surficial processes of the eastern Snake River Plain, one of the largest components of the combined late Cenozoic igneous provinces of the western United States. Focus is on widespread Quaternary basaltic plains volcanism that produced coalescent shields and complex eruptive centers that yielded compositionally evolved magmas. The guide is constructed in several parts beginning with discussion sections that provide an overview of the geology followed by road directions, with explanations, for specific locations. The geology overview briefly summarizes the collective knowledge gained, and petrologic implications made, over the past few decades. The field guide covers plains volcanism, lava flow emplacement, basaltic shield growth, phreatomagmatic eruptions, and complex and evolved eruptive centers. Locations and explanations are also provided for the hydrogeology, groundwater contamination, and environmental issues such as range fires and cataclysmic floods associated with the region.

  8. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research; 1997 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Taki, Doug; Lewis, Bert; Griswold, Bob (Biolines, Stanley, ID

    1999-08-01

    Since the late 1980's, Snake River sockeye Oncorhynchus nerka adults have only returned to Redfish Lake, one of five lakes in the Sawtooth Basin which historically reared sockeye. 1997 project objectives included (1) characterization of the limnology of Sawtooth Valley lakes; (2) fertilization of Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes; (3) O.nerka lake population surveys; (4) estimation of kokanee escapement and fry production in Alturas Lake Creek, Stanley Lake Creek, and Fishhook Creek; (5) reduce the number of spawning kokanee in Fishook Creek; (6) evaluate hatchery rainbow trout overwinter survival and potential competition and predation interactions with O.nerka in Pettit Lake; (7) assess predation from bull trout Salvelinus malma, brook trout S.fontinalis, and northern squawfish Ptychocheilus oregonsis on lentic O.nerka; (8) establish screw tap and weir sites to monitor smolt emigration.

  9. Research and Recovery of Snake River Sockeye Salmon, 1995-1996 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Pravecek, Jay J.

    1997-07-01

    In 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Initial steps to recover the species include the establishment of captive broodstocks at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game`s Eagle Fish Hatchery in Eagle, Idaho. Research and recovery activities for sockeye conducted by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game at the Eagle Fish Hatchery during the period April 1, 1995 to April 1, 1996 are covered by this report. The performance of all captive broodstock groups held at Eagle Fish Hatchery is included in this report. No anadromous adults returned to Redfish Lake in 1995. Three adult residual males were captured in a merwin trap and used in the spawning of captive residual females held at Eagle Fish Hatchery.

  10. Willingness to pay for non angler recreation at the lower Snake River reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKean, J.R.; Johnson, D.; Taylor, R.G.; Johnson, R.L.

    2005-01-01

    This study applied the travel cost method to estimate demand for non angler recreation at the impounded Snake River in eastern Washington. Net value per person per recreation trip is estimated for the full non angler sample and separately for camping, boating, water-skiing, and swimming/picnicking. Certain recreation activities would be reduced or eliminated and new activities would be added if the dams were breached to protect endangered salmon and steelhead. The effect of breaching on non angling benefits was found by subtracting our benefits estimate from the projected non angling benefits with breaching. Major issues in demand model specification and definition of the price variables are discussed. The estimation method selected was truncated negative binomial regression with adjustment for self selection bias. Copyright 2005 National Recreation and Park Association.

  11. Groundwater ''fast paths'' in the Snake River plain aquifer: Radiogenic isotope ratios as natural groundwater tracers

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Thomas M.; Roback, Robert C.; McLing, Travis L.; Bullen, Thomas D.; DePaolo, Donald J.; Doughty, Christine; Hunt, Randall J.; Smith, Robert W.; Cecil, L. DeWayne; Murrell, Michael T.

    2000-09-01

    Preferential flow paths are expected in many groundwater systems and must be located because they can greatly affect contaminant transport. The fundamental characteristics of radiogenic isotope ratios in chemically evolving waters make them highly effective as preferential flow path indicators. These ratios tend to be more easily interpreted than solute-concentration data because their response to water-rock interaction is less complex. We demonstrate this approach with groundwater {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios in the Snake River Plain aquifer within and near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. These data reveal slow-flow zones as lower {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr areas created by prolonged interaction with the host basalts and a relatively fast flowing zone as a high {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr area.

  12. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program : Hatchery Element : Annual Progress Report, 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Kline, Paul A.; Willard, Catherine

    2001-04-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Marine Fisheries Service at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Marine Fisheries Service are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases are also reported under separate cover. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2000 are presented in this report.

  13. Isotopic and physical evidence for persistently high eruption temperatures for Yellowstone-Snake River Plain rhyolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loewen, M.; Bindeman, I. N.; Melnik, O. E.

    2015-12-01

    Low crystallinity rhyolite lavas and tuffs from the Yellowstone-Snake River plain system were long-thought to erupt at high 800-900 °C temperatures with evidence derived from experimental work and geothermometry (e.g., QUILF, Ti-in-quartz). Despite this evidence, newer experimental phase equilibria studies as well as a reformulation of zircon saturation temperatures support lower temperature magma eruption conditions. Here we present two independent lines of evidence for 850 °C and greater temperatures. We present high precision oxygen isotope thermometry for coexisting quartz, glass, pyroxene, and magnetite in order make temperature estimates independent of phase equilibria. For all analyzed Snake River Plain-Yellowstone rhyolites, we determine 800-1100 °C temperatures for clinopyroxene and 850-1100 °C temperatures for magnetite. Extremely slow oxygen diffusion in pyroxene will preserve oxygen isotope crystal composition for millions of years stored at magmatic temperatures. Interestingly, oxygen in magnetite will reequilibrate in <1000 years, so systematically higher magnetite-quartz temperatures suggests a short lifespan of magmas from liquidus crystallization to eruption. In an alternative approach, we have modeled the physical emplacement of the large volume (up to 70 km3) rhyolite lavas of the recent Central Plateau Member group. Using simple solutions to gravity-driven viscous fluid flow, we have made first-order estimates for extremely high discharge rates in order to enable effusion of sufficient volume in relatively axisymmetric morphologies—where glacial ice caps or prexisiting topography did not otherwise restrict flow. Using these results and simple conductive cooling models, we show that flows erupted at >800 °C and probably ~850 °C in order to be emplaced before cooling below the melt-glass transition and forming a more dome-like and lobate morphology.

  14. Mineralogy and geothermometry of high-temperature rhyolites from the central and western Snake River Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Honjo, N.; Bonnichsen, B.; Leeman, W.P.; Stormer, J.C., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Voluminous mid-Miocene rhyolitic ash-flow tuffs and lava flows are exposed along the northern and southern margins of the central and western Snake River Plain. These rhyolites are essentially anhydrous with the general mineral assemblage of plagioclase ??sanidine ?? quartz + augite + pigeonite ?? hypersthene ?? fayalitic olivine + Fe-Ti oxides + apatite + zircon which provides an opportunity to compare feldspar, pyroxene, and Fe-Ti oxide equilibration temperatures for the same rocks. Estimated pyroxene equilibration temperatures (based on the geothermometers of Lindsley and coworkers) range from 850 to 1000??C, and these are well correlated with whole-rock compositions. With the exception of one sample, agreement between the two-pyroxene thermometers tested is well within 50??C. Fe-Ti oxide geothermometers applied to fresh magnetite and ilmenite generally yield temperatures about 50 to 100??C lower than the pyroxene temperatures, and erratic results are obtained if these minerals exhibit effects of subsolidus oxidation and exsolution. Results of feldspar thermometry are more complicated, and reflect uncertainties in the thermometer calibrations as well as in the degree of attainment of equilibrium between plagioclase and sanidine. In general, temperatures obtained using the Ghiorso (1984) and Green and Usdansky (1986) feldspar thermometers agree with the pyroxene temperatures within the respective uncertainties. However, uncertainties in the feldspar temperatures are the larger of the two (and exceed ??60??C for many samples). The feldspar thermometer of Fuhrman and Lindsley (1988) produces systematically lower temperatures for many of the samples studied. The estimated pyroxene temperatures are considered most representative of actual magmatic temperatures for these rhyolites. This range of temperatures is significantly higher than those for rhyolites from many other suites, and is consistent with the hypothesis that the Snake River Plain rhyolitic magmas formed

  15. First Results from HOTSPOT: The Snake River Plain Scientific Drilling Project, Idaho, U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shervais, J. W.; Schmitt, D. R.; Nielson, D.; Evans, J. P.; Christiansen, E. H.; Morgan, L.; Shanks, W. C. Pat; Prokopenko, A. A.; Lachmar, T.; Liberty, L. M.; Blackwell, D. D.; Glen, J. M.; Champion, L. D.; Potter, K. E.; Kessler, J. A.

    2013-03-01

    HOTSPOT is an international collaborative effort to understand the volcanic history of the Snake River Plain (SRP). The SRP overlies a thermal anomaly, the Yellowstone-Snake River hotspot, that is thought to represent a deep-seated mantle plume under North America. The primary goal of this project is to document the volcanic and stratigraphic history of the SRP, which represents the surface expression of this hotspot, and to understand how it affected the evolution of continental crust and mantle. An additional goal is to evaluate the geothermal potential of southern Idaho. Project HOTSPOT has completed three drill holes. (1) The Kimama site is located along the central volcanic axis of the SRP; our goal here was to sample a long-term record of basaltic volcanism in the wake of the SRP hotspot. (2) The Kimberly site is located near the margin of the plain; our goal here was to sample a record of high-temperature rhyolite volcanism associated with the underlying plume. This site was chosen to form a nominally continuous record of volcanism when paired with the Kimama site. (3) The Mountain Home site is located in the western plain; our goal here was to sample the Pliocene-Pleistocene transition in lake sediments at this site and to sample older basalts that underlie the sediments. We report here on our initial results for each site, and on some of the geophysical logging studies carried out as part of this project. doi:10.2204/iodp.sd.15.06.2013

  16. A Genetic Monitoring and Evaluation Program for Supplemented Populations of Salmon and Steelhead in the Snake River Basin : 1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Waples, Robin S.

    1993-07-01

    This is the second report of research for an ongoing study to evaluate the genetic effects of using hatchery-reared fish to supplement natural populations of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (O. mykiss) in the Snake River Basin. The study plan involves yearly monitoring of genetic and meristic characteristics in hatchery, natural (supplemented), and wild (unsupplemented) populations in four different drainages for each species. This report summarizes the first two years of electrophoretic data for chinook salmon and steelhead and the first two years of meristic data for chinook salmon. Results obtained to date include the following: (1) Genetic variation was detected at 35 gene loci in chinook salmon and 50 gene loci in steelhead, both considerable increases over the number of polymorphic loci reported previously for Snake River populations. No substantial differences in levels of genetic variability were observed between years or between hatchery and natural/wild populations in either species. (2) In both species, statistically significant differences in allele frequency were typically found between years within populations. However, the temporal changes within populations were generally smaller than differences between populations. (3) Differences between chinook salmon populations classified as spring-and summer-run accounted for little of the overall genetic diversity; in contrast, substantial genetic differences were observed between ''B'' run steelhead from Dworshak Hatchery and ''A'' run populations from other study sites. (4) Estimates of the effective number of breeders per year (N,) derived from genetic data suggest that N{sub b} in natural and wild Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon populations is generally about one-quarter to three-quarters of the estimated number of adult spawners. (5) Analysis of the effects on data quality of sampling juveniles indicates that the small size of some wild fish may lead to a slight increase

  17. Heavy metal concentrations in northern water snakes (Nerodia sipedon) from East Fork Poplar Creek and the Little River, East Tennessee, USA.

    PubMed

    Campbell, K R; Campbell, T S; Burger, J

    2005-08-01

    We compared the levels of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury, and selenium in the blood, kidney, liver, muscle, and skin of northern water snakes (Nerodia sipedon) collected from the upper reach of East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) within the United States Department of Energy's (USDOE's) Y-12 National Security Complex with concentrations in tissues of northern water snakes from a reference reach of the Little River downstream from the Great Smoky Mountains National Park in East Tennessee. Our objectives were to determine whether concentrations of these metals were higher in tissues of water snakes collected from EFPC compared with the reference site and if northern water snakes were suitable bioindicators of metal contamination. Except for chromium, metal levels were significantly higher in tissues (kidney, liver, muscle, and skin) of EFPC northern water snakes compared with those in tissues of snakes from the reference site. Although female northern water snakes were significantly larger than male snakes, their tissues did not contain significantly higher metal concentrations compared with those from male snakes, possibly because of maternal transfer of metals to eggs. This study was the first to examine the accumulation of contaminants resulting from the operations of the USDOE's Oak Ridge Reservation in snakes. PMID:16001153

  18. Genetic Monitoring and Evaluation Program for Supplemented Populations of Salmon and Steelhead in the Snake River Basin, 1990-1991 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Waples, Robin S.; Teel, David J.; Aebersold, Paul B.

    1991-08-01

    This is the first report of research for an ongoing study to evaluate the genetic effects of using hatchery-reared fish to supplement natural populations of chinook salmon and steelhead in the Snake River Basin.

  19. Factors Affecting Route Selection and Survival of Steelhead Kelts at Snake River Dams in 2012 and 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Harnish, Ryan A.; Colotelo, Alison HA; Li, Xinya; Ham, Kenneth D.; Deng, Zhiqun

    2014-12-15

    In 2012 and 2013, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted a study that summarized the passage proportions and route-specific survival rates of steelhead kelts that passed through Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) dams. To accomplish this, a total of 811 steelhead kelts were tagged with Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) transmitters. Acoustic receivers, both autonomous and cabled, were deployed throughout the FCRPS to monitor the downstream movements of tagged-kelts. Kelts were also tagged with Passive Integrated Transponder tags to monitor passage through juvenile bypass systems and detect returning fish. The current study evaluated data collected in 2012 and 2013 to identify individual, behavioral, environmental and dam operation variables that were related to passage and survival of steelhead kelts that passed through FCRPS dams. Bayesian model averaging of multivariable logistic regression models was used to identify the environmental, temporal, operational, individual, and behavioral variables that had the highest probability of influencing the route of passage and the route-specific survival probabilities for kelts that passed Lower Granite (LGR), Little Goose (LGS), and Lower Monumental (LMN) dams in 2012 and 2013. The posterior probabilities of the best models for predicting route of passage ranged from 0.106 for traditional spill at LMN to 0.720 for turbine passage at LGS. Generally, the behavior (depth and near-dam searching activity) of kelts in the forebay appeared to have the greatest influence on their route of passage. Shallower-migrating kelts had a higher probability of passing via the weir and deeper-migrating kelts had a higher probability of passing via the JBS and turbines than other routes. Kelts that displayed a higher level of near-dam searching activity had a higher probability of passing via the spillway weir and those that did less near-dam searching had a higher probability of passing via the JBS and

  20. Post-Release Attributes and Survival of Hatchery and Natural Fall Chinook Salmon in the Snake River; 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Connor, William P.

    2003-02-01

    This report summarizes results of research activities conducted in 2000, 2001, and years previous to aid in the management and recovery of fall chinook salmon in the Columbia River basin. The report is divided into sections and self-standing chapters. For detailed summaries, we refer the reader to the abstracts given on the second page of each chapter. The Annual Reporting section includes information provided to fishery managers in-season and post-season, and it contains a detailed summary of life history and survival statistics on wild Snake River fall chinook salmon juveniles for the years 1992-2001. The Journal Manuscripts section includes complete copies of papers submitted or published during 2000 and 2001 that were not included in previous annual reports. Publication is a high priority for this project because it provides our results to a wide audience, it ensures that our work meets high scientific standards, and we believe that it is a necessary obligation of a research project. The Bibliography of Published Journal Articles section provides citations for peer-reviewed papers co-authored by personnel of project 199102900 that were published from 1998 to 2001.

  1. Methods to estimate annual mean spring discharge to the Snake River between Milner Dam and King Hill, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kjelstrom, L.C.

    1995-01-01

    Many individual springs and groups of springs discharge water from volcanic rocks that form the north canyon wall of the Snake River between Milner Dam and King Hill. Previous estimates of annual mean discharge from these springs have been used to understand the hydrology of the eastern part of the Snake River Plain. Four methods that were used in previous studies or developed to estimate annual mean discharge since 1902 were (1) water-budget analysis of the Snake River; (2) correlation of water-budget estimates with discharge from 10 index springs; (3) determination of the combined discharge from individual springs or groups of springs by using annual discharge measurements of 8 springs, gaging-station records of 4 springs and 3 sites on the Malad River, and regression equations developed from 5 of the measured springs; and (4) a single regression equation that correlates gaging-station records of 2 springs with historical water-budget estimates. Comparisons made among the four methods of estimating annual mean spring discharges from 1951 to 1959 and 1963 to 1980 indicated that differences were about equivalent to a measurement error of 2 to 3 percent. The method that best demonstrates the response of annual mean spring discharge to changes in ground-water recharge and discharge is method 3, which combines the measurements and regression estimates of discharge from individual springs.

  2. Large-scale spatial variability of riverbed temperature gradients in Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning areas

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrahan, Timothy P.

    2007-02-01

    In the Snake River basin of the Pacific northwestern United States, hydroelectric dam operations are often based on the predicted emergence timing of salmon fry from the riverbed. The spatial variability and complexity of surface water and riverbed temperature gradients results in emergence timing predictions that are likely to have large errors. The objectives of this study were to quantify the thermal heterogeneity between the river and riverbed in fall Chinook salmon spawning areas and to determine the effects of thermal heterogeneity on fall Chinook salmon emergence timing. This study quantified river and riverbed temperatures at 15 fall Chinook salmon spawning sites distributed in two reaches throughout 160 km of the Snake River in Hells Canyon, Idaho, USA, during three different water years. Temperatures were measured during the fall Chinook salmon incubation period with self-contained data loggers placed in the river and at three different depths below the riverbed surface. At all sites temperature increased with depth into the riverbed, including significant differences (p<0.05) in mean water temperature of up to 3.8°C between the river and the riverbed among all the sites. During each of the three water years studied, river and riverbed temperatures varied significantly among all the study sites, among the study sites within each reach, and between sites located in the two reaches. Considerable variability in riverbed temperatures among the sites resulted in fall Chinook salmon emergence timing estimates that varied by as much as 55 days, depending on the source of temperature data used for the estimate. Monitoring of riverbed temperature gradients at a range of spatial scales throughout the Snake River would provide better information for managing hydroelectric dam operations, and would aid in the design and interpretation of future empirical research into the ecological significance of physical riverine processes.

  3. Evaluate Bull Trout Movements in the Tucannon and Lower Snake Rivers, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Faler, Michael P.; Mendel, Glen W.; Fulton, Carl

    2003-06-01

    We collected, radio-tagged, and PIT-tagged 41 bull trout at the Tucannon River Hatchery trap from May 17, through June 14, 2002. An additional 65 bull trout were also collected and PIT tagged by June 24, at which time we ceased PIT tagging operations because water temperatures were reaching 16.0 C or higher on a regular basis. Six radio-tags were recovered shortly after tagging, and as a result, 35 remained in the river through November 30, 2002. During the month of July, radio-tagged bull trout exhibited a general upstream movement into the upper reaches of the Tucannon Subbasin. We began to observe some downstream movements of radio-tagged bull trout in mid to late September and throughout October. These movements appeared to be associated with post spawning migrations. As of November 30, radio tagged bull trout were relatively stationary, and distributed from the headwaters downstream to river mile 11.3, near Pataha Creek. None of the radio-tagged bull trout left the Tucannon Subbasin and entered the federal hydropower system on the mainstem Snake River. We conducted some initial transmission tests of submerged radio tags at depths of 25, 35, 45, and 55 ft. in Lower Monumental Pool to test our capability of detection at these depths. Equipment used included Lotek model MCFT-3A transmitters, an SRX 400 receiver, a 4 element Yagi antenna, and a Lotek ''H'' antenna. Test results indicated that depth transmission of these tags was poor; only the transmitter placed at 25 ft. was audibly detectable.

  4. Geothermal Systems In The Snake River Plain Idaho Characterized By The Hotspot Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielson, D. L.; Delahunty, C.; Shervais, J. W.

    2012-12-01

    The Snake River Plain (SRP) is potentially the largest geothermal province in the world. It is postulated that the SRP results from passage of the North American Plate over the Yellowstone mantle plume. This has resulted in felsic, caldera-related volcanism followed by voluminous eruptions of basalt. Compilations of subsurface temperature data demonstrate the masking effect of the Snake River Aquifer. As a consequence, here has been little serious geothermal exploration within the center of the plain; although there are numerous examples of low-temperature fluids, as well as the Raft River geothermal system, on the southern flanks of the SRP. Project Hotspot was designed to investigate the geothermal potential of the SRP through the coring and subsequent scientific evaluation of three holes, each representing a different geothermal environment. These are located at Kimama, north of Burley, in the center of the plain; at Kimberly near Twin Falls on the southern margin of the plain; and at Mountain Home Air Force base in the central part of the western SRP. Both the Kimberly and Mountain Home sites are located in areas that have warm wells and hot springs, whereas, the Kimama site has neither surface nor subsurface thermal manifestations. All of the sites studied here were sampled using slim hole coring techniques in conjunction with a bottom hole temperature probe developed by DOSECC. Our first hole at Kimama in the center of the eastern SRP was cored to a depth of 1,912 m. Temperature measurements showed the SRP fresh water aquifer extends to a depth of 965 m and masks the underlying high temperature gradient of 74.5oC/Km. The core hole at Kimberly reached a depth of 1,959 m and demonstrated a large low-temperature resource of >50oC below 800 m. A core hole at Mountain Home AFB in the eastern SRP reached a depth of 1,821 m and demonstrated the presence of an intermediate- to high-temperature artesian resource that has a clear magmatic association, with measured

  5. Constraining the origin of the Yellowstone-Snake River Plain volcanic province using seismic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, R. M.; Porritt, R. W.; Pollitz, F. F.; Hung, S.

    2012-12-01

    Since the inception of the whole-mantle plume hypothesis, the Yellowstone-Snake River Plain (YSRP) volcanic track has been a candidate location for such a plume. Various alternative hypotheses have also been proposed including a propagating rift (e.g. Christiansen et al., 2002) and, more recently, polodial flow in response to slab rollback (e.g. James et al, 2011). We use seismic imaging techniques, in conjunction with other geological and geochemical constraints, in an attempt to distinguish between these various hypotheses. Our 3D seismic velocity model, DNA12, uses data from the Earthscope and ANSS regional networks, and integrates teleseismic body- and surface-waves with ambient noise constraints. The resulting P- and S-velocity models constrain the structure of the crust, lithosphere and mantle to a depth of ~1000 km. The models have their best resolution beneath the western two thirds of the US. Beneath the YSRP we find the strongest low velocity anomaly found anywhere in the lithosphere. In the 50-250 km depth range the low velocities are elongated in a northeast-southwest direction along the Snake River Plain. Deeper, in the transition zone, the low velocity is more circular in shape and localized to the northwest of the Yellowstone Caldera with higher velocity anomalies surrounding it. In the deepest part of the model, down to 1000km, the low velocity anomaly becomes much broader again. While the propagating rift hypothesis is inconsistent with the tomographic images, the plume and polodial flow hypothesizes are consistent and complementary. A hybrid model consistent with the images has a deep to mid-mantle heat source (~1000 km or greater depth) feeding a plume conduit that flows in response to surrounding mantle forces. The early phases, before the 17Ma eruption of the Columbia River Basalts (CRB), would include a plume head buoyantly supporting the flattened Farallon slab. Existing weaknesses in the slab would eventually lead to slab fragmentation

  6. Assessment of habitat of wildlife communities on the Snake River, Jackson, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, Richard L.; Allen, Arthur W.

    1992-01-01

    The composition of the wildlife community in western riparian habitats is influenced by the horizontal and vertical distribution of vegetation, the physical complexity of the channel, and barriers to movement along the corridor. Based on information from the literature and a workshop, a model was developed to evaluate the wildlife community along the Snake River near Jackson, Wyoming. The model compares conditions of the current or future years with conditions in 1956, before constructions of levees along the river. Conditions in 1956 are assumed to approximate the desirable distribution of plant cover types and the associated wildlife community and are used as a standard of comparison in the model. The model may be applied with remotely sensed data and is compatible with a geographic information systems analysis. In addition to comparing existing or future conditions with conditions in 1956, the model evaluated floodplain and channel complexity and assesses anthropogenic disturbance and its potential effect on the quality of wildlife habitat and movements of wildlife in the riparian corridor.

  7. Geochronology and Geomorphology of the Pioneer Archaeological Site (10BT676), Upper Snake River Plain, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Keene, Joshua L.

    2015-04-01

    The Pioneer site in southeastern Idaho, an open-air, stratified, multi-component archaeological locality on the upper Snake River Plain, provides an ideal situation for understanding the geomorphic history of the Big Lost River drainage system. We conducted a block excavation with the goal of understanding the geochronological context of both cultural and geomorphological components at the site. The results of this study show a sequence of five soil formation episodes forming three terraces beginning prior to 7200 cal yr BP and lasting until the historic period, preserving one cultural component dated to ~3800 cal yr BP and multiple components dating to the last 800 cal yr BP. In addition, periods of deposition and stability at Pioneer indicate climate fluctuation during the middle Holocene (~7200-3800 cal yr BP), minimal deposition during the late Holocene, and a period of increased deposition potentially linked to the Little Ice Age. In addition, evidence for a high-energy erosion event dated to ~3800 cal yr BP suggest a catastrophic flood event during the middle Holocene that may correlate with volcanic activity at the Craters of the Moon lava fields to the northwest. This study provides a model for the study of alluvial terrace formations in arid environments and their potential to preserve stratified archaeological deposits.

  8. Geohydrology of the regional aquifer system, western Snake River plain, southwestern Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newton, G.D.

    1989-01-01

    A three dimensional groundwater flow model was developed to simulate steady state and nonsteady-state hydrologic conditions of the regional aquifer system in the western Snake River Plain of Idaho. Water budget analysis showed that groundwater recharge was about 1,400,000 acre-ft in 1980; groundwater pumpage was estimated to be 300,000 acre-ft. Two mass water level measurements were made in March and August 1980 to define the water table in the regional system. The model was discretized into 25 rows, 72 columns, and 3 layers. Each cell represented 4 sq mi. The model was calibrated to 1980 hydrologic conditions. Calibrated transmissivity of layer 1 (500 ft thick) ranged from 1,500 to 21,500 sq ft/day. Calibrated specific yield of unconfined aquifers was 0.10 and calibrated storage coefficient of confined aquifers ranged from 0.0004 to 0.007. The calibrated model was verified by simulating monthly water-level fluctuations for 1980. Simulated water levels matched measured levels in the Boise River Valley, but the match in other areas was poor. (USGS)

  9. Impacts of the Snake River drawdown experiment on fisheries resources in Little Goose and Lower Granite Reservoirs, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, D D; Geist, D R

    1992-09-01

    In March 1992, the US Army Corps of Engineers initiated a test to help evaluate physical and environmental impacts resulting from the proposed future drawdown of Snake River reservoirs. Drawdown would reduce water levels in Snake River reservoirs and is being proposed as a solution to decrease the time it takes for salmon and steelhead smolts to migrate to the ocean. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory evaluated impacts to specific fisheries resources during the drawdown experiment by surveying Lower Granite Reservoir to determine if fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawning areas and steelhead (0. mykiss) access to tributary creeks were affected. In addition, shoreline areas of Little Goose Reservoir were monitored to evaluate the suitability of these areas for spawning by fall chinook salmon. Relative abundance of fish species in nearshore areas was also determined during the drawdown, and stranded resident fish and other aquatic organisms were observed.

  10. Evaluate Bull Trout Movements in the Tucannon and Lower Snake Rivers, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Faler, Michael P.; Mendel, Glen W.; Fulton, Carl

    2004-04-01

    We collected 279 adult bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in the Tucannon River during the Spring and Fall of 2003. Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags were inserted in 191 of them, and we detected existing PIT tags in an additional 31bull trout. Thirty five of these were also surgically implanted with radio-tags, and we monitored the movements of these fish throughout the year. Fourteen radio-tags were recovered shortly after tagging, and as a result, 21 remained in the river through December 31, 2003. Four bull trout that were radio-tagged in spring 2002 were known to survive and carry their tags through the spring and/or summer of 2003. One of these fish spent the winter near river mile (RM) 13.0; the other 3 over-wintered in the vicinity of the Tucannon Hatchery between RM 34 and 36. Twenty-one radio tags from bull trout tagged in 2002 were recovered during the spring and summer, 2003. These tags became stationary the winter of 2002/2003, and were recovered between RM 11 and 55. We were unable to recover the remaining 15 tags from 2002. During the month of July, radio-tagged bull trout exhibited a general upstream movement into the upper reaches of the Tucannon subbasin. We observed some downstream movements of radio-tagged bull trout in mid to late September and throughout October. By late November and early December, radio tagged bull trout were relatively stationary, and were distributed from the headwaters downstream to river mile 6.4, near Lower Monumental Pool. As in 2002, we did not conduct work associated with objectives 2, 3, or 4 of this study, because we were unable to monitor migratory movement of radio-tagged bull trout into the Federal hydropower system on the mainstem Snake River. Transmission tests of submerged ATS model F1830 radio-tags in Lower Granite Pool showed that audible detection and individual tag identification was possible at depths of 20 and 30 ft. Tests were conducted using an ATS R-4000 Receiver equipped with an ''H

  11. Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Ground Surveys in the Snake River Basin Upriver of Lower Granite Dam, 2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, A.P.; Bradbury, S.; Arnsberg, B.D.; Rocklage, S.J.; Groves, P.A.

    2006-10-01

    Redd counts are routinely used to document the spawning distribution of fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Snake River basin upriver of Lower Granite Dam. The first reported redd counts were from aerial searches conducted intermittently between 1959 and 1978 (Irving and Bjornn 1981, Witty 1988; Groves and Chandler 1996)(Appendix 1). In 1986, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife began an annual monitoring program that, in addition to the Snake River, included aerial searches of the Grande Ronde River the first year (Seidel and Bugert 1987), and the Imnaha River in subsequent years (Seidel et al. 1988; Bugert et al. 1989-1991; Mendel et al. 1992). The U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Idaho Power Company began contributing to this effort in 1991 by increasing the number of aerial searches conducted each year and adding underwater searches in areas of the Snake River that were too deep to be searched from the air (Connor et al. 1993; Garcia et al. 1994a, 1994b, 1996-2005; Groves 1993; Groves and Chandler 1996). The Nez Perce Tribe added aerial searches in the Clearwater River basin beginning in 1988 (Arnsberg et. al 1992), and the Salmon River beginning in 1992. Currently searches are conducted cooperatively by the Nez Perce Tribe, Idaho Power Company, and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Our objective for this report was to consolidate the findings from annual redd searches into a single document, containing detailed information about the searches from the most recent spawning season, and summary information from previous years. The work conducted in 2005 was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration and Idaho Power Company.

  12. Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Ground Surveys in the Snake River Basin Upriver of Lower Granite Dam, Annual Report 2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, A.P.; Bradbury, S.M.; Arnsberg, B.D.

    2004-08-01

    Redd counts were used to document the spawning distribution of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Snake River basin upriver of Lower Granite Dam. The first reported redd counts were from aerial searches conducted intermittently between 1959 and 1978 (Irving and Bjornn 1981, Witty 1988; Groves and Chandler 1996)(Appendix 1). In 1986, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife began an annual monitoring program that, in addition to the Snake River, included aerial searches of the Grande Ronde River the first year (Seidel and Bugert 1987), and the Imnaha River in subsequent years (Seidel et al. 1988; Bugert et al. 1989-1991; Mendel et al. 1992). The U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Idaho Power Company began contributing to this effort in 1991 by increasing the number of aerial searches conducted each year and adding underwater searches in areas of the Snake River that were too deep to be searched from the air (Connor et al. 1993; Garcia et al. 1994a, 1994b, 1996-2003; Groves 1993; Groves and Chandler 1996). The Nez Perce Tribe added aerial searches in the Clearwater River basin beginning in 1988 (Arnsberg et. al 1992) and the Salmon River beginning in 1992. Currently searches are conducted cooperatively by the Nez Perce Tribe, Idaho Power Company, and U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Our objective for this report was to consolidate the findings from annual redd searches into a single document containing detailed information about the searches from the most recent spawning season, and summary information from previous years. The work conducted in 2003 was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (Projects 199801003, 199801004, 199403400, 198335003), Idaho Power Company, and Bureau of Land Management.

  13. Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Ground Surveys in the Snake River Basin Upriver of Lower Granite Dam, 2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, A.P.; Bradbury, S.; Arnsberg, B.D.; Rocklage, S.J.; Groves, P.A.

    2005-10-01

    Redd counts were used to document the spawning distribution of fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Snake River basin upriver of Lower Granite Dam. The first reported redd counts were from aerial searches conducted intermittently between 1959 and 1978 (Irving and Bjornn 1981, Witty 1988; Groves and Chandler 1996)(Appendix 1). In 1986, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife began an annual monitoring program that, in addition to the Snake River, included aerial searches of the Grande Ronde River the first year (Seidel and Bugert 1987), and the Imnaha River in subsequent years (Seidel et al. 1988; Bugert et al. 1989-1991; Mendel et al. 1992). The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Idaho Power Company began contributing to this effort in 1991 by increasing the number of aerial searches conducted each year and adding underwater searches in areas of the Snake River that were too deep to be searched from the air (Connor et al. 1993; Garcia et al. 1994a, 1994b, 1996-2004; Groves 1993; Groves and Chandler 1996). The Nez Perce Tribe added aerial searches in the Clearwater River basin beginning in 1988 (Arnsberg et. al 1992), and the Salmon River beginning in 1992. Currently searches are conducted cooperatively by the Nez Perce Tribe, Idaho Power Company, and U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Our objective for this report was to consolidate the findings from annual redd searches into a single document, containing detailed information about the searches from the most recent spawning season, and summary information from previous years. The work conducted in 2004 was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration, Idaho Power Company, and Bureau of Land Management.

  14. Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Ground Surveys in the Snake River Basin Upriver of Lower Granite Dam, Annual Report 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, Aaron P.; Bradbury, S.M.; Arnsberg, Billy D.

    2003-09-01

    Redd counts were used to document the spawning distribution of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Snake River basin upriver of Lower Granite Dam. The first reported redd counts were from aerial searches conducted intermittently between 1959 and 1978 (Irving and Bjornn 1981, Witty 1988; Groves and Chandler 1996)(Appendix 1). In 1986, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife began an annual monitoring program that, in addition to the Snake River, included aerial searches of the Grande Ronde River the first year (Seidel and Bugert 1987), and the Imnaha River in subsequent years (Seidel et al. 1988; Bugert et al. 1989-1991; Mendel et al. 1992). The U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Idaho Power Company began contributing to this effort in 1991 by increasing the number of aerial searches conducted each year and adding underwater searches in areas of the Snake River that were too deep to be searched from the air (Connor et al. 1993; Garcia et al. 1994a, 1994b, 1996-2001; Groves 1993; Groves and Chandler 1996). The Nez Perce Tribe added aerial searches in the Clearwater River basin beginning in 1988 (Arnsberg et. al 1992) and the Salmon River beginning in 1992. Currently searches are conducted cooperatively by the Nez Perce Tribe, Idaho Power Company, and U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Our objective for this report was to consolidate the findings from annual redd searches into a single document containing detailed information about the searches from the most recent spawning season, and summary information from previous years. The work conducted in 2002 was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (Projects 1998-01-003 and 1994-03-400) and the Idaho Power Company.

  15. Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Ground Surveys in the Snake River Basin Upriver of Lower Granite Dam, 2007 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, A.P.; Bradbury, S.; Arnsberg, B.D.; Groves, P.A.

    2008-11-25

    Redd counts are routinely used to document the spawning distribution of fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Snake River basin upriver of Lower Granite Dam. The first reported redd counts were from aerial searches conducted intermittently between 1959 and 1978 (Irving and Bjornn 1981, Witty 1988; Groves and Chandler 1996)(Appendix 1). In 1986, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife began an annual monitoring program that, in addition to the Snake River, included aerial searches of the Grande Ronde River the first year (Seidel and Bugert 1987), and the Imnaha River in subsequent years (Seidel et al. 1988; Bugert et al. 1989-1991; Mendel et al. 1992). The U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Idaho Power Company began contributing to this effort in 1991 by increasing the number of aerial searches conducted each year and adding underwater searches in areas of the Snake River that were too deep to be searched from the air (Connor et al. 1993; Garcia et al. 1994a, 1994b, 1996-2007; Groves 1993; Groves and Chandler 1996). The Nez Perce Tribe added aerial searches in the Clearwater River basin beginning in 1988 (Arnsberg et. al 1992), and the Salmon River beginning in 1992. Currently searches are conducted cooperatively by the Nez Perce Tribe, Idaho Power Company, and U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Our objective for this report was to consolidate the findings from annual redd searches counted upstream of Lower Granite Dam into a single document, containing detailed information about the searches from the most recent spawning season, and summary information from previous years. The work conducted in 2007 was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration and Idaho Power Company.

  16. Residence Times of Juvenile Salmon and Steelhead in Off-Channel Tidal Freshwater Habitats, Columbia River, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Sather, Nichole K.; Teel, D. J.

    2015-05-01

    We estimated seasonal residence times of acoustic-tagged juvenile salmonids in off-channel, tidal freshwater habitats of the Columbia River near the Sandy River delta (rkm 198; 2007, 2008, 2010, and 2011) and Cottonwood Island (rkm 112; 2012).

  17. Angler survey contributes to socially acceptable modification of harvest regulations to preserve cutthroat trout fishery in Snake River, Wyoming, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubert, Wayne A.; Gipson, Robert D.

    1996-09-01

    This is a case study that describes a survey of anglers that was used to assist in modifying fishing regulations for indigenous trout in the Snake River, Wyoming. A mail survey of anglers who purchased 1991 Wyoming fishing licenses in the two counties adjacent to the Snake River was conducted during fall 1992. Differences in angler preferences were noted between anglers who purchased licenses in two adjacent counties with different socioeconomic structures, as well as between residents and nonresidents in each county. Anglers who purchased licenses in Teton County, where there is extensive tourism and immigration by relatively wealthy residents, tended to be more specialized and less harvest oriented. Anglers in Lincoln County, which is largely agricultural and has substantially less tourism and immigration of residents, tended to fish in many different ways and indicated more desire to harvest fish. Anglers from the two counties segregated themselves; those from Teton County primarily used the upstream portion of the study reach, and those from Lincoln County primarily used a short downstream portion of the reach. Modification of fishing regulations to reduce harvest of spawning-size cutthroat trout in the Snake River probably was acceptable to most anglers due to spatial segregation and their attitudes toward harvest.

  18. Scientific Drilling in the Snake River Plain: Past, Present, and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shervais, J. W.; Hanan, B. B.; Hughes, S. S.; Geist, D.; Vetter, S. K.

    2006-12-01

    The Snake River-Yellowstone volcanic province has long been linked to the concept of lithospheric drift over a fixed mantle thermal anomaly or hotspot. This concept is reinforced by seismic tomography that images this anomaly to depths around 500 km, but alternative proposals still present a serious challenge. Basaltic volcanism spans a significant age range and basaltic volcanism in the western SRP lies well off the hotspot track and cannot be related directly to the hotspot in any simple way. The plume-track age progression is documented by rhyolite volcanic centers, but even these represent extended time periods that overlap in age with adjacent centers. Scientific drilling projects carried out over the last two decades have made significant contributions to our understanding of both basaltic and rhyolitic volcanism associated with the Snake River-Yellowstone hotspot system. Because these drill holes also intercept sedimentary interbeds or, in the case of the western SRP, thick sections of Pliocene and Pleistocene sediments, they have also contributed to our understanding of basin formation by thermal collapse in the wake of the hotspot passage or by rifting, paleoclimate of the interior west, and groundwater systems in volcanic rocks. Many of these drill holes are associated with the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in the eastern plain; others were drilled for geothermal or petroleum exploration. The latter include older holes that were not instrumented or logged in detail, but which still provide valuable stratigraphic controls. We focus here on the result of basalt drilling, which have been high-lighted in recent publications. Basaltic volcanism in the Snake River plain is dominated by olivine tholeiites that have major and trace element characteristics of ocean island basalt: the range in MgO is similar to MORB, but Ti, Fe, P, K, Sr, Zr and LREE/HREE ratios are all higher. Recent studies of basalts from the drill holes show that they evolved by fractionation

  19. Ecology of Juvenile Salmonids in Shallow Tidal Freshwater Habitats in the Vicinity of the Sandy River Delta, Lower Columbia River, 2007 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Sobocinski, Kathryn; Johnson, Gary; Sather, Nichole

    2008-03-17

    This document is the first annual report for the study titled 'Ecology of Juvenile Salmonids in Shallow Tidal Freshwater Habitats in the Vicinity of the Sandy River Delta in the Lower Columbia River'. Hereafter, we refer to this research as the Tidal Freshwater Monitoring (TFM) Study. The study is part of the research, monitoring, and evaluation effort developed by the Action Agencies (Bonneville Power Administration, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation) in response to obligations arising from the Endangered Species Act as a result of operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS). The project is performed under the auspices of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council's Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. The goal of the 2007-2009 Tidal Freshwater Monitoring Study is to answer the following questions: In what types of habitats within the tidal freshwater area of the lower Columbia River and estuary (LCRE; Figure 1) are yearling and subyearling salmonids found, when are they present, and under what environmental conditions?1 And, what is the ecological importance2 of shallow (0-5 m) tidal freshwater habitats to the recovery of Upper Columbia River spring Chinook salmon and steelhead and Snake River fall Chinook salmon? Research in 2007 focused mainly on the first question, with fish stock identification data providing some indication of Chinook salmon presence at the variety of habitat types sampled. The objectives and sub-objectives for the 2007 study were as follows: (1) Habitat and Fish Community Characteristics-Provide basic data on habitat and fish community characteristics for yearling and subyearling salmonids at selected sites in the tidal freshwater reach in the vicinity of the Sandy River delta. (1a) Characterize vegetation assemblage percent cover, conventional water quality, substrate composition, and beach slope at each of six sampling sites in various tidal freshwater habitat types. (1b) Determine fish

  20. Characteristics and origin of Earth-mounds on the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Tullis, J.A.

    1995-09-01

    Earth-mounds are common features on the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho. The mounds are typically round or oval in plan view, <0.5 m in height, and from 8 to 14 m in diameter. They are found on flat and sloped surfaces, and appear less frequently in lowland areas. The mounds have formed on deposits of multiple sedimentary environments. Those studied included alluvial gravel terraces along the Big Lost River (late Pleistocene/early Holocene age), alluvial fan segments on the flanks of the Lost River Range (Bull Lake and Pinedale age equivalents), and loess/slopewash sediments overlying basalt flows. Backhoe trenches were dug to allow characterization of stratigraphy and soil development. Each mound has features unique to the depositional and pedogenic history of the site; however, there are common elements to all mounds that are linked to the history of mound formation. Each mound has a {open_quotes}floor{close_quotes} of a sediment or basement rock of significantly different hydraulic conductivity than the overlying sediment. These paleosurfaces are overlain by finer-grained sediments, typically loess or flood-overbank deposits. Mounds formed in environments where a sufficient thickness of fine-grained sediment held pore water in a system open to the migration to a freezing front. Heaving of the sediment occurred by the growth of ice lenses. Mound formation occurred at the end of the Late Pleistocene or early in the Holocene, and was followed by pedogenesis. Soils in the mounds were subsequently altered by bioturbation, buried by eolian deposition, and eroded by slopewash runoff. These secondary processes played a significant role in maintaining or increasing the mound/intermound relief.

  1. Timing and development of the Heise volcanic field, Snake River Plain, Idaho, western USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, L.A.; McIntosh, W.C.

    2005-01-01

    The Snake River Plain (SRP) developed over the last 16 Ma as a bimodal volcanic province in response to the southwest movement of the North American plate over a fixed melting anomaly. Volcanism along the SRP is dominated by eruptions of explosive high-silica rhyolites and represents some of the largest eruptions known. Basaltic eruptions represent the final stages of volcanism, forming a thin cap above voluminous rhyolitic deposits. Volcanism progressed, generally from west to east, along the plain episodically in successive volcanic fields comprised of nested caldera complexes with major caldera-forming eruptions within a particular field separated by ca. 0.5-1 Ma, similar to, and in continuation with, the present-day Yellowstone Plateau volcanic field. Passage of the North American plate over the melting anomaly at a particular point in time and space was accompanied by uplift, regional tectonism, massive explosive eruptions, and caldera subsidence, and followed by basaltic volcanism and general subsidence. The Heise volcan ic field in the eastern SRP, Idaho, represents an adjacent and slightly older field immediately to the southwest of the Yellowstone Plateau volcanic field. Five large-volume (>0.5 km3) rhyolitic ignimbrites constitute a time-stratigraphic framework of late Miocene to early Pliocene volcanism for the study region. Field relations and high-precision 40Ar/39Ar age determinations establish that four of these regional ignimbrites were erupted from the Heise volcanic field and form the framework of the Heise Group. These are the Blacktail Creek Tuff (6.62 ?? 0.03 Ma), Walcott Tuff (6.27 ?? 0.04 Ma), Conant Creek Tuff (5.51 ?? 0.13 Ma), and Kilgore Tuff (4.45 ?? 0.05 Ma; all errors reported at ?? 2??). The fifth widespread ignimbrite in the regions is the Arbon Valley Tuff Member of the Starlight Formation (10.21 ?? 0.03 Ma), which erupted from a caldera source outside of the Heise volcanic field. These results establish the Conant Creek Tuff as a

  2. Neogene Palynology of the Snake River Plain: Climate Change and Volcanic Effects.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, O. K.; Ellis, B.; Link, P.; Wood, S.; Shervais, J. W.

    2006-12-01

    . Palynology of late Miocene - early Pliocene samples on the Snake River Plain (Banbury Basalt) is characterized by elevated percentages of Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthus pollen, abundant Sarcobatus pollen and low percentages of the pollen of oak, elm, and other deciduous forest taxa. High percentages of these types, found in the mid-Miocene Succor Creek deposits (Taggart and Cross, 1980) might result from a combination of factors, including late-Miocene subsidence of the western Snake River Plain and late-Miocene uplift of the Cascade Range.

  3. Project HOTSPOT: Borehole geophysics log interpretation from the Snake River Plain, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M. D.; Schmitt, D. R.; Chen, X.; Shervais, J. W.; Liberty, L. M.; Potter, K. E.; Kessler, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Snake River Plain (SRP), Idaho, hosts potential geothermal resources due to elevated groundwater temperatures associated with the thermal anomaly Yellowstone-Snake River hotspot. Project HOTSPOT has coordinated international institutions and organizations to understand subsurface stratigraphy and assess geothermal potential. Over 5.9km of core were drilled from three boreholes within the SRP in an attempt to acquire continuous core documenting the volcanic and sedimentary record of the hotspot: (1) Kimama, (2) Kimberely, and (3) Mountain Home. The most eastern drill hole is Kimama located along the central volcanic axis of the SRP and documents basaltic volcanism. The Kimberely drill hole was selected to document continuous volcanism when analysed in conjunction with the Kimama drill hole and is located near the margin of the plain. The Mountain Home drill hole is located along the western plain and documents older basalts overlain by sediment. A suite of ground and borehole geophysical surveys were carried out within the SRP between 2010 and 2012. The borehole geophysics logs included gamma ray (spectral and natural), neutron hydrogen index, electrical resistivity, magnetic susceptibility, ultrasonic borehole televiewer imaging, full waveform sonic, and vertical seismic profile. The borehole geophysics logs were qualitatively assessed through visual interpretation of lithological horizons and quantitatively through physical property specialized software and digital signal processing automated filtering process to identify step functions and high frequency anomalies. Preliminary results were published by Schmitt et al. (2012), Potter et al. (2012), and Shervais et al. (2013). The results are continuously being enhanced as more information is qualitatively and quantitatively delineated from the borehole geophysics logs. Each drill hole encounters three principal units: massive basalt flows, rhyolite, and sediments. Basalt has a low to moderate porosity and is

  4. Changes in Gas Bubble Disease Signs and Survival of Migrating Juvenile Salmonids Experimentally Exposed to Supersaturated Gasses, 1995-1996 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Absolon, Randall F.

    1997-11-01

    Research conducted in 1996 to evaluate (1) changes in GBD signs in juvenile salmonids resulting from passage through turbine intakes and bypass systems, and (2) relative survival during migration through the lower Snake River for juvenile salmonids experimentally exposed to supersaturation of dissolved gas.

  5. Development of a System Wide Predator Control Program: Stepwise Implementation of a Predation Index, Predator Control Fisheries, and Evaluation Plan in the Columbia River Basin; Section II: Evaluation; 1996 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Franklin R.

    1997-11-01

    Predator control fisheries aimed at reducing predation on juvenile salmonids by northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) were implemented for the seventh consecutive year in the mainstream Columbia and Snake rivers.

  6. White Sturgeon Mitgation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rein, Thomas A.; Hughes, Michele L.; Kern, J. Chris

    2005-08-01

    We report on our progress from April 2003 through March 2004 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete; therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported.

  7. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rien, Thomas A.; Hughes, Michele L.; Kern, J. Chris

    2006-03-01

    We report on our progress from April 2004 through March 2005 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete; therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported.

  8. Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Outmigration and Survival in the Lower Umatilla River Basin; 1996 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, Suzanne M.; Kern, J. Chris; Carmichael, Richard W.

    1997-01-01

    This is the second year report of a multi-year project that monitors the outmigration and survival of hatchery and naturally-produced juvenile salmonids in the lower Umatilla River. This project supplements and complements ongoing or completed fisheries projects in the Umatilla River basin. Knowledge gained on outmigration and survival will assist researchers and managers in adapting hatchery practices, flow enhancement strategies, canal operations, and supplementation and enhancement efforts for natural and restored fish populations. The authors also report on tasks related to evaluating juvenile salmonid passage at Three Mile Falls Dam and West Extension Canal.

  9. Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Outmigration and Survival in the Lower Umatilla River Basin; 1995 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, Suzanne M.; Cameron, William A.; Shapleigh, Stacey L.

    1995-12-01

    This is the first year report of a multi-year project that monitors the outmigration and survival of hatchery and naturally produced juvenile salmonids in the lower Umatilla River. This project supplements and complements ongoing or completed fisheries projects in the Umatilla river basin. Knowledge gained on outmigration and survival will assist researchers and managers in adapting hatchery practices, flow enhancement strategies, canal operations, and supplementation and enhancement efforts for natural fish populations. This project also completed tasks related to evaluating juvenile salmonid passage at Three Mile Falls Dam and West Extension Canal.

  10. Deep Geothermal Reservoir Temperatures in the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho using Multicomponent Geothermometry

    SciTech Connect

    Ghanashyam Neupane; Earl D. Mattson; Travis L. McLing; Carl D. Palmer; Robert W. Smith; Thomas R. Wood

    2014-02-01

    The U.S. Geological survey has estimated that there are up to 4,900 MWe of undiscovered geothermal resources and 92,000 MWe of enhanced geothermal potential within the state of Idaho. Of particular interest are the resources of the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) which was formed by volcanic activity associated with the relative movement of the Yellowstone Hot Spot across the state of Idaho. This region is characterized by a high geothermal gradient and thermal springs occurring along the margins of the ESRP. Masking much of the deep thermal potential of the ESRP is a regionally extensive and productive cold-water aquifer. We have undertaken a study to infer the temperature of the geothermal system hidden beneath the cold-water aquifer of the ESRP. Our approach is to estimate reservoir temperatures from measured water compositions using an inverse modeling technique (RTEst) that calculates the temperature at which multiple minerals are simultaneously at equilibrium while explicitly accounting for the possible loss of volatile constituents (e.g., CO2), boiling and/or water mixing. In the initial stages of this study, we apply the RTEst model to water compositions measured from a limited number of wells and thermal springs to estimate the regionally extensive geothermal system in the ESRP.

  11. Types of phreatomagmatic volcanoes in the western Snake River Plain, Idaho, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Godchaux, M.M.; Bonnichsen, B.; Jenks, M.D.

    1992-01-01

    The western Snake River Plain graben in southwestern Idaho includes a large hydrovolcanic field which was produced in late Miocene to Pleistocene time by the interaction of rising basaltic magmas with the waters and water-saturated deposits of an enormous freshwater lake, Lake Idaho. The phreatomagmatic volcanoes in this field may be grouped into three types: emergent, subaqueous and subaerial. Emergent volcanoes, which began erupting under water and built up above the lake level, are relatively large and symmetrical, are dominated by bedded tuffs and late magmatic deposits, and are excellent indicators of water depth at the time of the eruption. Subaqueous volcanoes, which never built up above the lake level, are relatively small and asymmetrical, are dominated by basal massive deposits, and are potentially useful in discriminating between deep- and very-deep-water settings. Subaerial volcanoes, which were formed when magmas intercepted buried aquifers and interacted explosively with water, are small tuff rings and maars with variable shapes, are composed of subequal (although variable) proportions of basal massive deposits, bedded tuffs and late magmatic deposits, and are useful in determining the stratigraphic successions underlying them. ?? 1992.

  12. Research and Recovery of Snake River Sockeye Salmon, 1994-1995 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Keith A.

    1996-09-01

    In 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Initial steps to recover the species include the establishment of captive broodstocks at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) Eagle Fish Hatchery in Eagle, Idaho. Research and recovery activities for sockeye salmon conducted by IDFG during the period of April 1994 to April 1995 are covered by this report. One female anadromous adult returned to the Redfish Lake Creek trap this year. She was spawned at Eagle Fish Hatchery on October 21, 1994. Her fecundity was 2,896. The mean fertilization rate and percent swim-up were 96% and 95%, respectively. Four hundred eighty eyed eggs were shipped to the NMFS Big Beef Creek Fish Hatchery in Washington state, leaving 2,028 fish on site at Eagle. Additionally, captive broodstock and wild residual sockeye salmon (captured at Redfish Lake) were spawned. Spawning data from 234 females spawned during this period are included in this report. Other spawning data (i.e., genetic cross and incubation temperature) are included in the Captive Broodstock Research section of this report.

  13. Seismic imaging through volcanic rocks of the Snake River Plain, Idaho for the ICDP Project Hotspot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liberty, L. M.; Schmitt, D. R.; Shervais, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    New high-resolution downhole and surface seismic reflection data tied to drill holes related to the Snake River Geothermal Drilling Project (ICDP Project Hotspot) provide insights into seismic imaging in volcanic terranes. The downhole data at the Kimberly and Kimama drill sites in southern Idaho show low seismic attenuation and large seismic velocity contrasts at volcanic flow boundaries. These lithologic and seismic boundaries tie to reflections in both borehole and surface seismic images. The Kimberly site drilled through 1,958 m of mostly rhyolite, with thin sedimentary interbeds throughout the section. Sedimentary interbeds at depth correspond with slow velocity zones that relate to reflections on surface seismic profiles. The reflection observed on 360-channel vibroseis seismic profiles that relates to a flow boundary at 300-400 m depth increases in depth with increasing elevation away from the Kimberly drill site, suggesting flow volumes may be estimated with surface seismic methods. The Kimama site drilled through 1,912 m of mostly basalt with sedimentary interbeds at depth. Downhole and surface vibroseis seismic results here also suggest seismic reflection methods are useful to image flow boundaries. Ongoing drilling at a third site in Mountain Home, Idaho will tie lithologies and measured physical properties to surface seismic data. These seismic data show key lithologic boundaries related to Quaternary basalts, lake sediments related to paleo Lake Idaho, and underlying Tertiary basalts. Ongoing analysis should help clarify the limits and capabilities of surface seismic imaging in volcanic terranes.

  14. Contemporary Tectonic Motion of the Eastern Snake River Plain: A Campaign Global Positioning System Study

    SciTech Connect

    Suzette Payne; John Chadwick; Dave Rodgers; Teresa Vanhove

    2007-11-01

    A comparison of precision campaign GPS data from 1995 and 2004 from ten benchmarks on the eastern Snake River Plain (eSRP) has revealed that the province moved 2.8 ± 0.3 mm/yr to the SW (232.4 ± 6.3°) relative to a fixed North American reference frame. The benchmarks had no measurable displacement relative to one another at the resolution of the GPS during the nine-year study, evidence that the province moves as a rigid, non-extending block. This scenario is supported by the aseismic nature of the province and the lack of measurable horizontal stress in boreholes. However, an additional small component of intra-plain extension must also be invoked to account for the observed NW-trending volcanic rift zones that transect the eSRP. We suggest that intra-plain extension is too slow (<1 mm/yr) to measure using our campaign GPS methods, but may be sufficient over millennial time scales to accommodate rift zone formation. Slower velocities measured on three benchmarks within the neighboring Basin and Range ‘seismic parabola’ are consistent with this region serving as a zone of detachment between the North American craton and the faster-moving eSRP.

  15. Snake River Plain Geothermal Play Fairway Analysis - Phase 1 Raster Files

    DOE Data Explorer

    John Shervais

    2015-10-09

    Snake River Plain Play Fairway Analysis - Phase 1 CRS Raster Files. This dataset contains raster files created in ArcGIS. These raster images depict Common Risk Segment (CRS) maps for HEAT, PERMEABILITY, AND SEAL, as well as selected maps of Evidence Layers. These evidence layers consist of either Bayesian krige functions or kernel density functions, and include: (1) HEAT: Heat flow (Bayesian krige map), Heat flow standard error on the krige function (data confidence), volcanic vent distribution as function of age and size, groundwater temperature (equivalue interval and natural breaks bins), and groundwater T standard error. (2) PERMEABILTY: Fault and lineament maps, both as mapped and as kernel density functions, processed for both dilational tendency (TD) and slip tendency (ST), along with data confidence maps for each data type. Data types include mapped surface faults from USGS and Idaho Geological Survey data bases, as well as unpublished mapping; lineations derived from maximum gradients in magnetic, deep gravity, and intermediate depth gravity anomalies. (3) SEAL: Seal maps based on presence and thickness of lacustrine sediments and base of SRP aquifer. Raster size is 2 km. All files generated in ArcGIS.

  16. Wintering bats of the upper Snake River Plain: occurrence in lava-tube caves

    SciTech Connect

    Genter, D.L.

    1986-04-30

    Distribution and habitat selection of hibernating bats at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and adjacent area are reported. Exploration of over 30 lava-tube caves revealed that two species, Myotis leibii and Plecotus townsendii, hibernate in the upper Snake River Plain. Five species, M. lucifugus, M. evotis, Eptesicus fuscus, Lasionycteris noctivagans, and Lasiurus cinereus are considered migratory. Myotis leibii and P. townsendii hibernate throughout much of the area, occasionally in mixed-species groups. Myotis leibii uses the dark and protected regions of the cave, usually wedged into tiny pockets and crevices near or at the highest portion of the ceiling. Individuals of P. townsendii may be found at any height or depth in the cave. Temperature appears to be primary limiting factor in habitat selection. Myotis leibii was found in significantly cooler air temperatures than P. townsendii. Neither species tolerated continuous temperatures below 1.5 C. Relative humidity does not seem to be a significant factor in the distribution or habitat selection of the two species in lava-tube caves. 18 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  17. The Geology of East Butte, a Rhyolitic Volcanic Dome on the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bretches, J. E.; King, J. S.

    1985-01-01

    East Butte is a prominent volcanic dome located on the eastern Snake River Plain. It is situated 51 km west of Idaho Fallls in the southeast corner of the Idaho National Engineering facility. East Butte rises 350 meters above the Quaternary basalt flows which encircle its 2.4 kilometer diameter base. Its maximum elevation is 2003 meters above sea level. East Butte is composed dominantly of rhyolite. Armstrong and others (1975) determined a K-Ar age of 0.6 +/- m.y. for a rhyolite sample from East Butte. Detailed geologic mapping revealed East Butte to be a single, large cumulo-dome composed dominantly of rhyolite. Major element geochemical analyses indicate that the rhyolite of East Butte is mildly peralkaline (molecular excess of Na2O and K2O over Al2O3 and compositionally homogeneous. Color variations in the East Butte rhyolite result from varying amounts of chemical and physical weathering and to the degree of devitrification that the glass in the groundmass of the rhyolite underwent.

  18. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 1998 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Achord, Stephen; Hockersmith, Eric E.; Axel, Gordon A.

    2000-12-01

    This reports details the 1998 study results from an ongoing project to monitor the migration behavior of wild spring/summer chinook salmon smolts in the Snake River Basin. The report also discusses trends observed in the cumulative data resulting from this project; data has been collected from Oregon and Idaho streams since 1989. The project was initiated after 3 years of detection data from PIT-tags (passive-integrated-transponder tags) had shown distinct differences in migration patterns between wild and hatchery fish. Data showing these patterns had originated from tagging and interrogation operations begun in 1988 to evaluate a smolt transportation program conducted by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) for the US Army Corps of Engineers. In 1991, the Bonneville Power Administration began a cooperative effort with NMFS to expand tagging and interrogation of wild fish for this project. Project goals were to characterize the outmigration timing of these fish, to determine whether consistent migration patterns would emerge, and to investigate the influence of environmental factors on the timing and distribution of these migrations. In 1992, the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) began an independent program of PIT tagging wild chinook salmon parr in the Grande Ronde and Imnaha River Basins in northeast Oregon. Since then, ODFW has reported all tagging, detection, and timing information on fish from these streams. However, with ODFW concurrence, NMFS will continue to report arrival timing of these fish at Lower Granite Dam. We continued to tag fish from Idaho in all years subsequent to 1992. Principal results from our tagging and interrogation efforts during 1997-1998 are given.

  19. Cost-effective management alternatives for Snake river chinook salmon: A biological-economic synthesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halsing, D.L.; Moore, M.R.

    2008-01-01

    The mandate to increase endangered salmon populations in the Columbia River Basin of North America has created a complex, controversial resource-management issue. We constructed an integrated assessment model as a tool for analyzing biological-economic trade-offs in recovery of Snake River spring- and summer-run chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). We merged 3 frameworks: a salmon-passage model to predict migration and survival of smolts; an age-structured matrix model to predict long-term population growth rates of salmon stocks; and a cost-effectiveness analysis to determine a set of least-cost management alternatives for achieving particular population growth rates. We assessed 6 individual salmon-management measures and 76 management alternatives composed of one or more measures. To reflect uncertainty, results were derived for different assumptions of effectiveness of smolt transport around dams. Removal of an estuarine predator, the Caspian Tern (Sterna caspia), was cost-effective and generally increased long-term population growth rates regardless of transport effectiveness. Elimination of adult salmon harvest had a similar effect over a range of its cost estimates. The specific management alternatives in the cost-effective set depended on assumptions about transport effectiveness. On the basis of recent estimates of smolt transport effectiveness, alternatives that discontinued transportation or breached dams were prevalent in the cost-effective set, whereas alternatives that maximized transportation dominated if transport effectiveness was relatively high. More generally, the analysis eliminated 80-90% of management alternatives from the cost-effective set. Application of our results to salmon management is limited by data availability and model assumptions, but these limitations can help guide research that addresses critical uncertainties and information. Our results thus demonstrate that linking biology and economics through integrated models can

  20. Iodine-129 in the Snake River Plain aquifer at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mann, L.J.; Chew, E.W.; Morton, J.S.; Randolph, R.B.

    1988-01-01

    From 1953 to 1983, an estimated 0.01 to 0.136 Ci (curies)/year of iodine-129 were contained in wastewater generated by the ICPP (Idaho Chemical Processing Plant) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The wastewater was directly discharged to the Snake River Plain aquifer through a deep disposal well until February 9, 1984, when the well was replaced by an unlined infiltration pond; a second pond was put into use on October 17, 1985. For 1984-86, the annual amount of iodine-129 in wastewater discharged to the ponds ranged from 0.0064 to 0.039 Ci. In August 1986, iodine-129 concentrations in water from 35 wells near the ICPP ranged from less than the reporting level to 3.6 +or-0.4 pCi/L (picocuries/L). By comparison, in April 1977 the water from 20 wells contained a maximum of 27 +or-1 pCi/L of iodine-129; in 1981, the maximum concentration in water from 32 wells was 41 +or-2 pCi/L. The average concentrations of iodine-129 in water from 18 wells that were sampled in 1977, 1981 and 1986 were 4.0, 6.7 and 1.3 pCi/L, respectively. The marked decrease in the iodine-129 concentration from 1981 to 1986 is the result of three factors: (1) The amount of iodine-129 disposed annually; (2) a change from the routine use of the disposal well to the infiltration ponds; and (3) a dilution of the iodine-129 in the aquifer by recharge from the Big Lost River. (USGS)

  1. Results of the 2004 GPS Study of Extension Rates in the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadwick, J.; Payne, S.

    2004-12-01

    Previous investigators suggest the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) is extending by dike intrusion, which enables it to keep pace with SW-NE extension that is occurring in the surrounding Basin and Range Province. Northwest-trending, linear eruptive fissures and aligned volcanic vents within ESRP volcanic rift zones provide observational evidence for dike intrusion in the ESRP as recent as 2000 yrs ago. To assess the amount of extension occurring in the ESRP, a campaign GPS survey was conducted in April of 2004 by Idaho State University and the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Twenty benchmarks located within the ESRP and adjacent northwest Basin and Range (Lost River and Beaverhead Ranges, Idaho) were each occupied for 48 to 96 hours using Trimble 4000 dual frequency GPS receivers supplied by UNAVCO. The University of Utah occupied these same benchmarks in 1995 and 2000, resulting in three occupations over nine years. Preliminary results suggest that benchmarks on the ESRP consistently moved southwest relative to a fixed North American reference, and rates systematically increased from northeast (near Rexburg, Idaho) to southwest (near Twin Falls, Idaho) for the nine year time period. Benchmarks in the adjacent northwest Basin and Range also moved southwest at comparable rates, and an increase in displacement rate from NE to SW is also apparent, although it is not as systematic. The preliminary results suggest the strain measured over nine years is similar in the ESRP and adjacent northwest Basin and Range, and thus, no differential movement is indicated. To supplement the GPS results, an interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) study of the ESRP is also underway using European Resource Satellite (ERS-1 and ERS-2) images. The anticipated results of the InSAR study will provide more spatially detailed and coherent information about differential movements within the ESRP, beyond what is shown by the GPS study.

  2. Cost-effective management alternatives for Snake River Chinook salmon: a biological-economic synthesis.

    PubMed

    Halsing, David L; Moore, Michael R

    2008-04-01

    The mandate to increase endangered salmon populations in the Columbia River Basin of North America has created a complex, controversial resource-management issue. We constructed an integrated assessment model as a tool for analyzing biological-economic trade-offs in recovery of Snake River spring- and summer-run chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). We merged 3 frameworks: a salmon-passage model to predict migration and survival of smolts; an age-structured matrix model to predict long-term population growth rates of salmon stocks; and a cost-effectiveness analysis to determine a set of least-cost management alternatives for achieving particular population growth rates. We assessed 6 individual salmon-management measures and 76 management alternatives composed of one or more measures. To reflect uncertainty, results were derived for different assumptions of effectiveness of smolt transport around dams. Removal of an estuarine predator, the Caspian Tern (Sterna caspia), was cost-effective and generally increased long-term population growth rates regardless of transport effectiveness. Elimination of adult salmon harvest had a similar effect over a range of its cost estimates. The specific management alternatives in the cost-effective set depended on assumptions about transport effectiveness. On the basis of recent estimates of smolt transport effectiveness, alternatives that discontinued transportation or breached dams were prevalent in the cost-effective set, whereas alternatives that maximized transportation dominated if transport effectiveness was relatively high. More generally, the analysis eliminated 80-90% of management alternatives from the cost-effective set. Application of our results to salmon management is limited by data availability and model assumptions, but these limitations can help guide research that addresses critical uncertainties and information. Our results thus demonstrate that linking biology and economics through integrated models can

  3. Body morphology differs in wild juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the Willamette River, Oregon, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Billman, E.J.; Whitman, L.D.; Schroeder, R.K.; Sharpe, C.S.; Noakes, David L. G.; Schreck, Carl B.

    2014-01-01

    Body morphology of juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the upper Willamette River, Oregon, U.S.A., was analysed to determine if variation in body shape is correlated with migratory life-history tactics followed by juveniles. Body shape was compared between migrating juveniles that expressed different life-history tactics, i.e. autumn migrants and yearling smolts, and among parr sampled at three sites along a longitudinal river gradient. In the upper Willamette River, the expression of life-history tactics is associated with where juveniles rear in the basin with fish rearing in downstream locations generally completing ocean ward migrations earlier in life than fish rearing in upstream locations. The morphological differences that were apparent between autumn migrants and yearling smolts were similar to differences between parr rearing in downstream and upstream reaches, indicating that body morphology is correlated with life-history tactics. Autumn migrants and parr from downstream sampling sites had deeper bodies, shorter heads and deeper caudal peduncles compared with yearling smolts and parr from the upstream sampling site. This study did not distinguish between genetic and environmental effects on morphology; however, the results suggest that downstream movement of juveniles soon after emergence is associated with differentiation in morphology and with the expression of life-history variation.

  4. How much 18O-depleted rhyolite in the Snake River Plain?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boroughs, S.; Bonnichsen, B.; Wolff, J.; Godchaux, M.; Larson, P.

    2006-12-01

    Oxygen isotope ratios were determined on quartz and feldspar phenocryst separates from 41 silicic units in the central Snake River Plain (CSRP), Owyhee-Humbolt (OH) region, and McDermitt caldera complex (MC), in southwestern Idaho. These rhyolites represent volcanism from a large scale, time transgressive, melting event that progressed from southern Oregon/northern Nevada to the Yellowstone Volcanic Plateau (YVP) from ~17 Ma to present. All CSRP/OH volcanic units erupted between ~14 Ma and 6 Ma have anomalously low δ18O values of less than 4‰ and represent a vast region of δ18O depleted rhyolites (>30,000 km2), from W113.5° to W117° and N42° to N43°. The units are dominantly densely welded ignimbrites and voluminous lava flows with minor non- welded deposits. The area of low δ18O rhyolites is bounded by rhyolites with more common signatures (6-11‰) in the ~17-16 Ma MC to the southwest, and by the 10.5-11.5 Ma Western Snake River Plain rhyolites to the northwest (7-10‰). Also, two significantly older units in the CSRP, the Rough Mountain and Jarbidge rhyolites, which both appear to be caldera infill, returned values of 7- 8‰. Samples from the MC are variable, from 6-11‰, but within the typical range for silicic magmas. We attribute the upper range of values (> 8.5‰) to either mild low temperature hydration/alteration after emplacement or the incorporation of a small component of high δ18O sedimentary material into some of the MC magmas. There seems to be little correlation between δ18O and geographic position within the region of depleted δ18O signatures, although the highest δ18O values, around 3.8‰ , are found in units at the eastern and western margins. Also, there is no significant correlation between eruptive style and magmatic δ18O values. It is generally accepted that δ18O values in fresh silicic igneous rocks below ~5.5‰ must be the result of high temperature interaction between meteoric water and the magma or source rock during

  5. Integrated geophysical studies of the Fort Worth Basin (Texas), Harney Basin (Oregon), and Snake River Plain (Idaho)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatiwada, Murari

    Geophysical methods such as seismic, gravity, magnetics, electric, and electromagnetics are capable of identifying subsurface features but each has a different spatial resolution. Although, each of these methods are stand-alone tools and have produced wonderful and reliable results for decades to solve geological problems, integrating geophysical results from these different methods with geological and geospatial data, adds an extra dimension towards solving geological problems. Integration techniques also involve comparing and contrasting the structural and tectonic evolution of geological features from different tectonic and geographic provinces. I employed 3D and 2D seismic data, passive seismic data, and gravity and magnetic data in three studies and integrated these results with geological, and geospatial data. Seismic processing, and interpretation, as well as filtering techniques applied to the potential filed data produced many insightful results. Integrated forward models played an important role in the interpretation process. The three chapters in this dissertation are stand-alone separate scientific papers. Each of these chapters used integrated geophysical methods to identify the subsurface features and tectonic evolution of the study areas. The study areas lie in the southeast Fort Worth Basin, Texas, Harney Basin, Oregon, and Snake River Plain, Idaho. The Fort Worth Basin is one of the most fully developed shale gas fields in North America. With the shallow Barnett Shale play in place, the Precambrian basement remains largely unknown in many places with limited published work on the basement structures underlying the Lower Paleozoic strata. In this research, I show how the basement structures relate to overlying Paleozoic reservoirs in the Barnett Shale and Ellenburger Group. I used high quality, wide-azimuth, 3D seismic data near the southeast fringe of the Fort Worth Basin. The seismic results were integrated with gravity, magnetic, well log, and

  6. Effects of Marine Mammals on Columbia River Salmon Listed under the Endangered Species Act : Recovery Issues for Threatened and Endangered Snake River Salmon : Technical Report 3 of 11.

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Donn L.

    1993-06-01

    Most research on the Columbia and Snake Rivers in recent years has been directed to downstream migrant salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) losses at dams. Comparatively little attentions has been given to adult losses. Recently an estimated 378,4000 adult salmon and steelhead (O. mykiss) were unaccounted-for from Bonneville Dam to terminal areas upstream. It is now apparent that some of this loss was due to delayed mortality from wounded by marine mammals. This report reviews the recent literature to define predatory effects of marine mammals on Columbia River salmon.

  7. Oxbow Fish Hatchery Snake River Sockeye Salmon Smolt Program, 2008 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, Duane D.

    2009-11-14

    This contract proposal is in response to the Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion Implementation Plan/Update Proposed Action (UPA) associated with increasing the number of Snake River sockeye smolts by 150,000. To accomplish this proposal the cooperation and efforts of three government entities has been planned (e.g., Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), and the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS)). Improvements at the IDFG Eagle Fish Hatchery and NMFS Burley Creek Hatchery will focus on increasing sockeye salmon captive broodstock and egg production. Improvements at the ODFW Oxbow Fish Hatchery will be made to accommodate the incubation, hatching and rearing of 150,000 sockeye salmon smolts for release into Idaho's Sawtooth Valley, Upper Salmon River near IDFG's Sawtooth Fish Hatchery and/or Redfish Lake Creek 1.4 km downstream of Redfish Lake. Modifications to Oxbow Fish Hatchery (ODFW) will include retro-fit existing pond drains so pond cleaning effluent water can be routed to the pollution abatement pond, and modifications to the abatement pond. Also included in this project as an added phase, was the rerouting of the hatchery building effluent water to meet state DEQ guidelines for the use of formalin to treat salmonid eggs. Some additional funding for the described Oxbow Hatchery modifications will come from Mitchell Act Funding. All personnel costs associated with this project will come from Mitchell Act funding. Due to heavy work load issues, being under staffed, and two emergency projects in the spring and summer of 2006, ODFW engineers were not able to complete all plans and get them out for bid in 2006. As a result of these circumstances retro-fitting pond drains and modifications to the abatement pond was carried over into fiscal year 2007-2008. A no cost time extension to the contract was approved by BPA. The format for this report will follow the standard format for Statement

  8. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Dan J,; Heindel, Jeff A.; Kline, Paul A.

    2005-08-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Marine Fisheries Service at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Marine Fisheries Service are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases are also reported under separate cover. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 1999 are presented in this report. In 1999, seven anadromous sockeye salmon returned to the Sawtooth Valley and were captured at the adult weir located on the upper Salmon River. Four anadromous adults were incorporated in the captive broodstock program spawning design for year 1999. The remaining three adults were released to Redfish Lake for natural spawning. All seven adults were adipose and left ventral fin-clipped, indicating hatchery origin. One sockeye salmon female from the anadromous group and 81 females from the captive broodstock group were spawned at the Eagle Fish Hatchery in 1999. Spawn pairings produced approximately 63,147 eyed-eggs with egg survival to eyed-stage of development averaging 38.97%. Eyed-eggs (20,311), presmolts (40,271), smolts (9,718), and adults (21) were planted or released into Sawtooth Valley waters in 1999. Supplementation strategies involved releases to Redfish Lake, Redfish Lake Creek

  9. Hydrologic conditions and distribution of selected radiochemical and chemical constituents in water, Snake River Plain aquifer, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho, 1989 through 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Bartholomay, R.C.; Orr, B.R.; Liszewski, M.J.; Jensen, R.G.

    1995-08-01

    Radiochemical and chemical wastewater discharged since 1952 to infiltration ponds and disposal wells at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has affected water quality in the Snake River Plain aquifer. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, maintains a continuous monitoring network at the INEL to determine hydrologic trends and to delineate the movement of radiochemical and chemical wastes in the aquifer. This report presents an analysis of water-level and water-quality data collected from the Snake River Plain aquifer during 1989-91. Water in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer moves principally through fractures and interflow zones in basalt, generally flows southwestward, and eventually discharges at springs along the Snake River. The aquifer is recharged principally from irrigation water, infiltration of streamflow, and ground-water inflow from adjoining mountain drainage basins. Water levels in wells throughout the INEL generally declined during 1989-91 due to drought. Detectable concentrations of radiochemical constituents in water samples from wells in the Snake River Plain aquifer at the INEL decreased or remained constant during 1989-91. Decreased concentrations are attributed to reduced rates of radioactive-waste disposal, sorption processes, radioactive decay, and changes in waste-disposal practices. Detectable concentrations of chemical constituents in water from the Snake River Plain aquifer at the INEL were variable during 1989-91. Sodium and chloride concentrations in the southern part of the INEL increased slightly during 1989-91 because of increased waste-disposal rates and a lack of recharge from the Big Lost River. Plumes of 1,1,1-trichloroethane have developed near the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant and the Radioactive Waste Management Complex as a result of waste disposal practices.

  10. Snake River fall Chinook salmon life history investigations: Annual report 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Connor, William P.; Buchanan, Rebecca A.; St John, Scott J.; Erhardt, John M.; Haskell, Craig A.

    2012-01-01

    This report summarizes three research activities conducted in 2010-2011. The first was a radiotelemetry study conducted in the lower Clearwater River. The second was a hydroacoustic study conducted in Lower Granite and Little Goose reservoirs. The third was an analysis of covariates affecting juvenile fall Chinook salmon survival and behavior. In 2010, we used radiotelemetry to evaluate the migratory behavior, delay, and relative mortality of subyearling fall Chinook salmon in the Clearwater River and Lower Granite Reservoir. We captured, tagged, and released a total of 100 run-at-large subyearlings in the Transition Zone of the lower Clearwater River in late July and monitored their downstream movement past fixed detection sites and by mobile tracking through the end of August. The Transition Zone is that portion of the river where it transitions from free-flowing to impounded habitat. Median residence time of fish that passed through the Transition Zone, Confluence, and Upper Reservoir reaches was relatively short (8.8-25.6 h). However, for fish that remained in the Transition Zone that were detected by mobile tracking, median residence time was over 30 d (N=6). Median migration rates through the study reaches were variable but slow (range 2.9-17.2 km/d) compared to that of more active migrants indicating that subyearlings from the Clearwater River were not actively migrating during July and August. The fate of radio-tagged subyearlings was determined from mobile tracking records. A total of 37 of the 71 fish detected during tracking were deemed to be dead, 22 were determined to be alive, and the fate of 16 was unknown. We also radio tagged 66 smallmouth bass in the Confluence reach and later detected 59 bass during mobile tracking. Predators were primarily located along shorelines in the Confluence reach, but a few fish did swim downstream into the Upper Reservoir reach. Most radio-tagged subyearlings that we determined to be dead were also located in shoreline

  11. Post-Release Performance of Natural and Hatchery Subyearling Fall Chinook Salmon in the Snake and Clearwater Rivers.

    SciTech Connect

    Connor, William P.

    2008-04-01

    In 2006, we continued a multi-year study to compare smolt-to-adult return rate (SAR) ratios between two groups of Snake River Basin fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha that reached the sea through a combination of either (1) transportation and inriver migration or (2) bypass and inriver migration. We captured natural subyearlings rearing along the Snake and Clearwater rivers and implanted them with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags, but knew in advance that sample sizes of natural fish would not be large enough for precise comparisons of SAR ratios. To increase sample sizes, we also cultured Lyons Ferry Hatchery subyearlings under a surrogate rearing strategy, implanted them with PIT tags, and released them into the Snake and Clearwater rivers to migrate seaward. The surrogate rearing strategy involved slowing growth at Dworshak National Fish Hatchery to match natural subyearlings in size at release as closely as possible, while insuring that all of the surrogate subyearlings were large enough for tagging (i.e., 60-mm fork length). Surrogate subyearlings were released from late May to early July 2006 to coincide with the historical period of peak beach seine catch of natural parr in the Snake and Clearwater rivers. We also PIT tagged a large representative sample of hatchery subyearlings reared under a production rearing strategy and released them into the Snake and Clearwater rivers in 2006 as part of new research on dam passage experiences (i.e., transported from a dam, dam passage via bypass, dam passage via turbine intakes or spillways). The production rearing strategy involved accelerating growth at Lyons Ferry Hatchery, sometimes followed by a few weeks of acclimation at sites along the Snake and Clearwater rivers before release from May to June. Releasing production subyearlings has been suggested as a possible alternative for making inferences on the natural population if surrogate fish were not available. Smoltto-adult return rates are not

  12. Rheological constraints on the deformation of Snake River-type ignimbrites: an experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert, G.; Andrews, G. D.; Whittington, A. G.

    2009-12-01

    We compare the rheology of two members of the Miocene Rogerson Formation (Andrews et al., 2008), Snake River Plain volcanic province, USA. We have studied by parallel-plate viscometry the rheology of two ashfall units associated with the eruption of the lava-like (sensu Branney & Kokelaar, 1992) and rheomorphic Grey’s Landing (GL) ignimbrite (a Snake River-type ignimbrite; Branney et al., 2008) and compared the results to the overlying Sand Springs (SS) ignimbrite. The GL and SS members are similar in whole rock and glass shard chemistry and mineralogy, but differ in crystal content and size fraction, porosity, and texture. Lava-like lithofacies of the GL ignimbrite are either crystallized, devitrified, or perlitized, and do not necessarily represent the original material that came out of the vent to be subsequently deposited, welded and deformed by flow (rheomorphism). We therefore chose to use the fused basal co-ignimbrite ashfall tuff and the upper co-ignimbrite tuff as potential “starting material” for the GL ignimbrite. The two ashfall tuffs and the ignimbrite form a single cooling unit; the tuffs are partly-fused against the bottom and top of the ignimbrite. The basal ash is laminated, moderately porous (~15%), and contains 10-20% crystals; in contrast the upper ash is massive, nearly aphyric, glassy and contains ~5% porosity. The non-rheomorphic SS ignimbrite is separated from the underlying GL ignimbrite by a non-welded ignimbrite and several paleosols. It is a strongly-welded, glassy tuff with a thin non-welded base and no underlying ashfall deposit. The basal ashfall tuff of the GL member and the SS ignimbrite have the same apparent viscosity at 900°C (log η = 10.80 & 10.85 Pa.s, respectively), within the resolution of the parallel-plate apparatus for viscosity. This is in agreement with the results of Lavallée et al. (2008) on a sample of the GL ignimbrite, and suggests that the rheology of those two units is melt-dominated, and is not

  13. Avoiding the Pitfalls of Anisotropy in Paleomagnetic Correlation of Snake River Plain Ignimbrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finn, D. R.; Coe, R. S.; Kelly, H.; Murphy, J.; Reichow, M. K.; Knott, T.; Branney, M.

    2013-12-01

    Migration of the Yellowstone hotspot center tracks northeast along the central Snake River Plain (cSRP), leaving a succession of calderas, bimodal rhyolitic and basaltic volcanism, and crustal deformation. Large-scale explosive volcanism common to this province between 12.5-8 Ma is characterized by unusually high-temperature, intensely welded, rheomorphic rhyolitic ignimbrites, typical of what is now known as ';Snake River (SR)-type volcanism'. Individual eruption volumes likely exceed 450 km3 but are poorly known due to the difficulty of correlating units between widely spaced (50-200 km) exposures along the north and south of the plain. Radiometric dating does not have the resolution to identify the eruptive units. Our goal is to use a combination of paleomagnetic, petrographic, chemical and field characterization to establish robust correlations and better constrain eruption volumes and frequencies. Paleomagnetic correlation using the stable remanence, which is the focus of this presentation, has the advantage of very high temporal resolution of the order of centuries. This is due to the geologically rapid rate of geomagnetic secular variation and high accuracy to which extrusive rocks may record the instantaneous direction of the magnetic field. We have collected more than 1200 paleomagnetic samples from over 90 sites to help build a regional stratigraphy between the dozens of known ignimbrite units in the cSRP. During this process, however, we have found that the use of paleomagnetism is complicated by the large variation in the paleomagnetic direction that sometimes exists both within and between sub-lithologies of the same flow. Individual SR-type ignimbrite cooling-units have an upper and lower glassy margin (vitrophyre) enclosing a lithoidal (microcrystalline) zone. These vitrophyre lithologies often have a shallow paleomagnetic direction compared to the lithoidal lithologies. Here we present preliminary results from a detailed paleomagnetic and rock

  14. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock; Research Element, 1993 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Keith A.

    1995-12-01

    In 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Initial steps to recover the species include the establishment of captive broodstocks at the Eagle Fish Hatchery in Eagle, Idaho. Research and recovery activities for sockeye conducted by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game during the period of April 1993 to April 1994 are covered by this report. Eight anadromous adults (two female and six male) returned to the Redfish Lake Creek trap this year and were spawned at the Sawtooth Hatchery near Stanley, Idaho. Fecundity was 3160 for each female. The mean fertilization rate was 52% for female {open_quotes}A{close_quotes} and 65% for female {open_quotes}B.{close_quotes} Captive broodstock also spawned as well as residual sockeye captured in a Merwin trap in Redfish Lake. Spawning data from 72 fish spawned during this period is included in this report. Captive broodstock also matured later than normal (winter and spring 1994). Fish were spawned and samples were taken to investigate reasons for poor fertilization rates. Twenty-four out migrants of 1991 were selected for return to Redfish Lake for volitional spawning. Releases were made in August of 1993. All fish were implanted with sonic tags and tracking of this group began soon after the release to identify spawning-related activities. A research project is being conducted on captive broodstock diets. The project will investigate the effect of diet modification on spawn timing, gamete quality, and fertilization rates. A second project used ultrasound to examine fish for sexual maturity. The goal was to obtain a group a fish to be released f or volitional spawning. A total of 44 fish were found to be mature. The performance of all captive groups held at Eagle are included in this report.

  15. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 1997 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kline, Paul A.; Heindel, Jeff A.; Willard, Catherine

    2003-08-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Marine Fisheries Service at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Marine Fisheries Service are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases (annual report to the Bonneville Power Administration for the research element of the program) are also reported under separate cover. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 1997 and December 31, 1997 are presented in this report. One hundred twenty-six female sockeye salmon from one captive broodstock group were spawned at the Eagle Fish Hatchery in 1997. Successful spawn pairings produced approximately 148,781 eyed-eggs with a cumulative mean survival to eyed-egg rate of 57.3%. Approximately 361,600 sockeye salmon were released to Sawtooth basin waters in 1997. Reintroduction strategies included eyed-eggs (brood year 1997), presmolts (brood year 1996), and prespawn adults for volitional spawning (brood year 1994). Release locations included Redfish Lake, Alturas Lake, and Pettit Lake. During this reporting period, four broodstocks and two unique production groups were in culture at the Eagle Fish Hatchery. Two of the four broodstocks were incorporated into the 1997 spawning design, and one broodstock was terminated following

  16. Lower crustal flow: The origin of Late Cenozoic extension north of the eastern Snake River Plain

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, M.H.; Hopper, J.R.; Abad, R.; Spiegelman, M. . Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory)

    1993-04-01

    Recent work has shown that the initiation of late Cenozoic faulting and concomitant footwall uplift north of the eastern Snake River Plain (eSRP) are much younger than previously thought. Examples of these young ages include the Centennial Range (< 2.0 Ma), Gravely Range (< 2.0 Ma), Lemhi Range (< 6.6 Ma), Beaverhead Mts. (< 6.6 Ma), Tendoy Mts. (< 6.6 Ma). Basins south of the eSRP exhibit a bi-modal distribution of growth ages during the Neogene. Seismic moment tensor and earthquake rupture data define extension directions that are both oblique to and symmetric about the axis of the eSRP. However, extension directions on the eSRP itself are parallel to the axis. The authors propose that the orientations of extension are a response to lower crustal flow in a conduit formed between the mid-crust and the upper mantle. Estimates of the lower crustal pressure gradients, geothermal gradient, and channel dimensions are used calculate a lower crustal flux between the extending regions north of the eSRP and the eSRP. This value is three orders of magnitude greater than the estimated flux based on geologically determined strain rates. These calculations suggest that lower crustal flow is a viable mechanism to explain extension north of the eSRP as well as to explain the origin of the extension throughout the Intermountain seismic belt. The advantage of this model is that upper crustal extension does not have to couple with upper mantle extension and thereby it is not necessary to invoke far field stress changes to explain changes in the local stress field.

  17. Partial Anhysteretic Anisotropy Measured in the Greys Landing Ignimbrite of the Central Snake River Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rea-Downing, G. H.; Finn, D. R.; Coe, R. S.; Brown, E. D.; Reichow, M. K.; Knott, T.; Branney, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    Magnetic remanence directions recorded in the glassy sub-lithologies of mid-Miocene rheomorphic Snake River Plain ignimbrites are often discrepant compared to the more reliable directions in crystalline centers and underlying baked paleosols. The rocks have undergone no tectonic strain, and the rheomorphic deformation preserved in the rock occurs at ˜800°C, above magnetic blocking temperatures. Accounting for the discrepantly shallow directions is critical for the use of magnetic remanence for stratigraphic correlation and structural/tectonic reconstructions. Here we present paleomagnetic and rock magnetic data from the Grey's Landing Ignimbrite that demonstrate a strong magnetic anisotropy carried by pseudo-single to single domain magnetite grains which deflect the remanence direction by up to 40°. Strongly lineated anisotropic samples collected at distant sections ( ˜20 km separation) have their remanence deflected toward the respective flow directions inferred from their directions of maximum magnetic susceptibility (K1). Shallow K1 directions in the basal vitrophyre cause a shallowing of magnetic remanence, while a range of steep to shallow K1 directions in the folded upper vitrophyre cause both a steepening and shallowing of the remanence, respectively. There is a strong relationship between the magnitudes of remanence deflection, anisotropy of thermal remanence, coercivity, and strength of natural remanent magnetization between individual samples. There is also a strong relationship between the magnitudes of partial anisotropy of anhysteretic remanent magnetization (pAARM) and the deflection of the remanence vector difference directions, which both increase significantly with higher alternating magnetic fields. Correction of the vector difference direction using the inverse of the pAARM tensor for the same AF range is moderately successful. Previous work suggests that curvilinear demagnetization trends in the basal vitrophyre of an ignimbrite were

  18. Heat flow and seismicity patterns in the vicinity of the eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Blackwell, D.D. Kelley, S.A.; Steele, J.L. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-04-01

    New heat flow data and thermal modeling are used to calculate crustal temperatures in and adjacent to the eastern Snake River Plain (SRP). The estimated crustal temperature are then used to investigate the relationship between crustal strength and the observed parabolic pattern of seismicity around the SRP. Heat flow below the SRP aquifer in deep wells on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) site near the northern margin of the SRP is 107 [plus minus] 15 mWm[sup [minus]2]. Heat flow values from deep wells on both the northern and southern margins of the eastern SRP average 100 [plus minus] 15 mWm[sup [minus]2]. 2-D finite-difference thermal models were developed to fit seismic and heat flow data in the vicinity of the SRP. The models have a shallow silicic magma chamber that is as wide as the SRP. The silicic chamber is underlain by mafic heat sources in the middle to lower crust and in the upper mantle. The heat flow data are best fit by models with deep heat sources that are wider than the SRP. These results are consistent with the presence of young basaltic centers that have been observed outside the SRP. The temperature from the authors thermal models were used to calculate strength envelopes for the crust in the SRP/Basin and Range region. The weakest part of the crust is along the edge of the Basin and Range, where it is heated by the SRP; thus the boundary to the two provinces may be a zone of weak coupling. Their modeling indicates that it is difficult to explain the earthquake pattern in the vicinity of the SRP as a thermomechanical effect related to the passage of the Yellowstone hot spot.

  19. Diet of juvenile and adult American Shad in the Columbia River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauter, Sally T.; Blubaugh, J, Timothy; Parsley, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    The diet of juvenile and adult American shad Alosa sapidissima captured from various locations in the Columbia River was investigated during 2007 and 2008. Collection efforts in 2007 were restricted to fish collected from existing adult and juvenile fish collection facilities located at Bonneville Dam and to adult shad captured by angling downstream from Bonneville Dam. In 2008, we used gillnets, electrofishing, beach seining, or cast nets to collect juvenile and adult shad from the saline estuary near Astoria (approximately river km 24) to just upstream from McNary Dam (approximately river km 472). We examined the stomach contents of 436 American shad captured in 2007 and 1,272 captured in 2008. Fish caught within the river were much more likely to contain food items than fish removed from fish collection facilities.


    The diet of age-0 American shad varied spatially and temporally, but was comprised primarily of crustaceans and insects. Prey diversity of age-0 American shad, as assessed by the Shannon Diversity Index, increased with decreasing distance to the estuary. Pre- and partial-spawn American shad primarily consumed Corophium spp. throughout the Columbia River; however, post-spawn adults primarily consumed gastropods upstream of McNary Dam

  20. Iodine-129 in the Snake River Plain aquifer at and near the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho, 1990-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mann, L.J.; Beasley, T.M.

    1994-01-01

    From 1953 to 1990, an estimated 0.56 to 1.18 curies of iodine-129 were contained in wastewater generated by the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The waste- water was discharged directly to the Snake River Plain aquifer through a deep disposal well prior to February 1984 and through unlined disposal ponds in 1984-90. The wastewater did not contain measurable concentrations of iodine-129 in 1989-90. Samples were collected from 51 wells that obtain water from the Snake River Plain aquifer and 1 well that obtains water from a perched ground-water zone. The samples were analyzed for iodine-129 using an accelerator mass spectrometer which is two to six orders of magnitude more sensitive than neutron- activation methods. Therefore, iodine-129 was detectable in samples from a larger number of wells distributed over a larger area than previously was possible. Ground-water flow velocities calculated using iodine-129 data are estimated to be at least 6 feet per day. These velocities compare favorably with those of 4 to 10 feet per day calculated from tritium data and tracer studies at wells down- gradient from the ICPP. In 1990-91, concentrations of iodine-129 in water samples from wells that obtain water from the Snake River Plain aquifer ranged from less than 0.0000006+0.0000002 to 3.82.+0.19 picocuries per liter (pCi/L). The mean concentration in water from 18 wells was 0.81+0.19 pCi/L as compared with 1.30+0.26 pCi/L in 1986. The decrease in the iodine-l29 concentrations from 1986 to 1990-91 chiefly was the result of a decrease in the amount of iodine-129 disposed of annually, and changes in disposal techniques.

  1. Evaluate Potential Means of Rebuilding Sturgeon Populations in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, Scott R.; Tuell, Michael A.

    2003-03-01

    The specific research goal of this project is to identify means to restore and rebuild the Snake River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) population to support a sustainable annual subsistence harvest equivalent to 5 kg/ha/yr (CBFWA 1997). Based on data collected, a white sturgeon adaptive management plan will be developed. This 2000 annual report covers the fourth year of sampling of this multi-year study. In 2000 white sturgeon were captured, marked, and population data were collected in the Snake and Salmon rivers. The Snake River was sampled between Lower Granite Dam (rkm 174) and the mouth of the Salmon River (rkm 303), and the Salmon River was sampled from its mouth upstream to Hammer Creek (rkm 84). A total of 53,277 hours of setline effort and 630 hours of hook-and-line effort was employed in 2000. A total of 538 white sturgeon were captured and tagged in the Snake River and 25 in the Salmon River. Since 1997, 32.8 percent of the tagged white sturgeon have been recaptured. In the Snake River, white sturgeon ranged in total length from 48 cm to 271 cm and averaged 107 cm. In the Salmon River, white sturgeon ranged in total length from 103 cm to 227 cm and averaged 163 cm. Using the Jolly-Seber open population estimator, the abundance of white sturgeon <60 cm, between Lower Granite Dam and the mouth of the Salmon River, was estimated at 2,725 fish, with a 95% confidence interval of 1,668-5,783. A total of 10 white sturgeon were fitted with radio-tags. The movement of these fish ranged from 54.7 km (34 miles) downstream to 78.8 km (49 miles) upstream; however, 43.6 percent of the detected movement was less than 0.8 km (0.5 mile). Both radio-tagged fish and recaptured white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir appear to move more than fish in the free-flowing segment of the Snake River. No seasonal movement pattern was detected, and no movement pattern was detected for different size fish. Differences were detected in the length frequency distributions of

  2. Seasonal dynamics of zooplankton in Columbia–Snake River reservoirs,with special emphasis on the invasive copepod Pseudodiaptomus forbesi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emerson, Joshua E; Bollens, Stephen M; Counihan, Timothy D.

    2014-01-01

    The Asian copepod Pseudodiaptomus forbesi has recently become established in the Columbia River. However, little is known about its ecology and effects on invaded ecosystems. We undertook a 2-year (July 2009 to June 2011) field study of the mesozooplankton in four reservoirs in the Columbia and Snake Rivers, with emphasis on the relation of the seasonal variation in distribution and abundance of P. forbesi to environmental variables. Pseudodiaptomus forbesi was abundant in three reservoirs; the zooplankton community of the fourth reservoir contained no known non-indigenous taxa. The composition and seasonal succession of zooplankton were similar in the three invaded reservoirs: a bloom of rotifers occurred in spring, native cyclopoid and cladoceran species peaked in abundance in summer, and P. forbesi was most abundant in late summer and autumn. In the uninvaded reservoir, total zooplankton abundance was very low year-round. Multivariate ordination indicated that temperature and dissolved oxygen were strongly associated with zooplankton community structure, with P. forbesi appearing to exhibit a single generation per year . The broad distribution and high abundance of P. forbesi in the Columbia–Snake River System could result in ecosystem level effects in areas intensively managed to improve conditions for salmon and other commercially and culturally important fish species. 

  3. Migratory Characteristics of Juvenile Spring Chinook Salmon in the Willamette River : Completion Report 1994.

    SciTech Connect

    Schreck, Carl B.; Snelling, J.C.; Ewing, R.E.; Bradford, C.S.; Davis, L.E.; Slater, C.H.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this research was to examine in detail the migration of juvenile spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Willamette River, Oregon. The authors wanted to determine characteristics of seaward migration of spring chinook smolts in relation to the oxygen supplementation practices at the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) Willamette Hatchery and use this information to strengthen the design of the oxygen supplementation project. There is little information available on the effects of oxygen supplementation at hatcheries on the migratory characteristics of juvenile salmon. Such information is required to assess the use of oxygen supplementation as a means of improving hatchery production, its effect on imprinting of juveniles, and finally the return of adults. In the event that oxygen supplementation provides for improved production and survival of juvenile chinook salmon at Willamette Hatchery, background information on the migration characteristics of these fish will be required to effectively utilize the increased production within the goals of the Willamette Fish Management Plan. Furthermore this technology may be instrumental in the goal of doubling the runs of spring Chinook salmon in the Columbia River. While evaluation of success is dependent on evaluation of the return of adults with coded wire tags, examination of the migratory characteristics of hatchery smolts may prove to be equally informative. Through this research it is possible to determine the rate at which individuals from various oxygenation treatment groups leave the Willamette River system, a factor which may be strongly related to adult return rate.

  4. Assessing juvenile native fish demographic responses to a steady flow experiment in a large regulated river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finch, Colton G.; Pine, William E., III; Yackulic, Charles B.; Dodrill, Michael J.; Yard, Michael D.; Gerig, Brandon S.; Coggins,, Lewis G., Jr.; Korman, Josh

    2016-01-01

    The Colorado River below Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona, is part of an adaptive management programme which optimizes dam operations to improve various resources in the downstream ecosystem within Grand Canyon. Understanding how populations of federally endangered humpback chub Gila cypha respond to these dam operations is a high priority. Here, we test hypotheses concerning temporal variation in juvenile humpback chub apparent survival rates and abundance by comparing estimates between hydropeaking and steady discharge regimes over a 3-year period (July 2009–July 2012). The most supported model ignored flow type (steady vs hydropeaking) and estimated a declining trend in daily apparent survival rate across years (99.90%, 99.79% and 99.67% for 2009, 2010 and 2011, respectively). Corresponding abundance of juvenile humpback chub increased temporally; open population model estimates ranged from 615 to 2802 individuals/km, and closed model estimates ranged from 94 to 1515 individuals/km. These changes in apparent survival and abundance may reflect broader trends, or simply represent inter-annual variation. Important findings include (i) juvenile humpback chub are currently surviving and recruiting in the mainstem Colorado River with increasing abundance; (ii) apparent survival does not benefit from steady fall discharges from Glen Canyon Dam; and (iii) direct assessment of demographic parameters for juvenile endangered fish are possible and can rapidly inform management actions in regulated rivers.

  5. Comparative Studies on the Fungi and Bio-Chemical Characteristics of Snake Gourd (Trichosanthes curcumerina Linn) and Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentus Mill) in Rivers State, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuku, E. C.; Ogbonna, D. N.; Onuegbu, B. A.; Adeleke, M. T. V.

    Comparative studies on the fungi and biochemical characteristics of Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentus Mill) and the Snake gourd (Trichosanthes curcumerina Linn) products were investigated in Rivers State using various analytical procedures. Results of the proximate analysis of fresh snake gourd and tomatoes show that the essential minerals such as protein, ash, fibre, lipid, phosphorus and niacin contents were higher in snake gourd but low in carbohydrate, calcium, iron, vitamins A and C when compared to the mineral fractions of tomatoes which has high values of calcium, iron, vitamins A and C. The mycoflora predominantly associated with the fruit rot of tomato were Fusarium oxysporium, Fusarium moniliforme, Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger, while other fungi isolates from Snake gourd include Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus tamari, Penicillium ita/icum and Neurospora crassa. Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger were common spoilage fungi to both the Tomato and Snake gourd. All the fungal isolates were found to be pathogenic. The duration for storage of the fruits at room temperature (28±1°C) showed that Tomato could store for 5 days while Snake gourd stored for as much as 7 days. Sensory evaluation shows that Snake gourd is preferred to Tomatoes because of its culinary and medicinal importance.

  6. Stratigraphy of the unsaturated zone and the Snake River Plain aquifer at and near the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, S.R.; Liszewski, M.J.

    1997-08-01

    The unsaturated zone and the Snake River Plain aquifer at and near the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are made up of at least 178 basalt-flow groups, 103 sedimentary interbeds, 6 andesite-flow groups, and 4 rhyolite domes. Stratigraphic units identified in 333 wells in this 890-mile{sup 2} area include 121 basalt-flow groups, 102 sedimentary interbeds, 6 andesite-flow groups, and 1 rhyolite dome. Stratigraphic units were identified and correlated using the data from numerous outcrops and 26 continuous cores and 328 natural-gamma logs available in December 1993. Basalt flows make up about 85% of the volume of deposits underlying the area.

  7. Age of irrigation water in ground water from the Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer, south-central Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plummer, L.N.; Rupert, M.G.; Busenberg, E.; Schlosser, P.

    2000-01-01

    Stable isotope data (2H and 18O) were used in conjunction with chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and tritium/helium-3 (3H/3He) data to determine the fraction and age of irrigation water in ground water mixtures from farmed parts of the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) Aquifer in south-central Idaho. Two groups of waters were recognized: (1) regional background water, unaffected by irrigation and fertilizer application, and (2) mixtures of irrigation water from the Snake River with regional background water. New data are presented comparing CFC and 3H/3He dating of water recharged through deep fractured basalt, and dating of young fractions in ground water mixtures. The 3H/3He ages of irrigation water in most mixtures ranged from about zero to eight years. The CFC ages of irrigation water in mixtures ranged from values near those based on 3H/3He dating to values biased older than the 3H/3He ages by as much as eight to 10 years. Unsaturated zone air had CFC-12 and CFC-113 concentrations that were 60% to 95%, and 50% to 90%, respectively, of modern air concentrations and were consistently contaminated with CFC-11. Irrigation water diverted from the Snake River was contaminated with CFC-11 but near solubility equilibrium with CFC-12 and CFC-113. The dating indicates ground water velocities of 5 to 8 m/d for water along the top of the ESRP Aquifer near the southwestern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Many of the regional background waters contain excess terrigenic helium with a 3He/4He isotope ratio of 7 x 10-6 to 11 x 10-6 (R/Ra = 5 to 8) and could not be dated. Ratios of CFC data indicate that some rangeland water may contain as much as 5% to 30% young water (ages of less than or equal to two to 11.5 years) mixed with old regional background water. The relatively low residence times of ground water in irrigated parts of the ESRP Aquifer and the dilution with low-NO3 irrigation water from the Snake River lower the potential for

  8. Wigwam River Juvenile Bull Trout and Fish Habitat Monitoring Program : 2001 Data Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Cope, R.S.; Morris, K.J.; Bisset, J.E.

    2002-03-01

    The Wigwam River juvenile bull trout and fish habitat monitoring program is a co-operative initiative of the British Columbia Ministry of Water, Land, and Air Protection and Bonneville Power Administration. The Wigwam River has been characterized as the single most important bull trout spawning stream in the Kootenay Region. This report provides a summary of results obtained during the second year (2001) of the juvenile bull trout enumeration and fish habitat assessment program. This project was commissioned in planning for fish habitat protection and forest development within the upper Wigwam River valley. The broad intent is to develop a better understanding of juvenile bull trout and Westslope cutthroat trout recruitment and the ongoing hydrologic and morphologic processes in the upper Wigwam River, especially as they relate to spawning and rearing habitat quality. Five permanent sampling sites were established August 2000 in the Wigwam river drainage (one site on Bighorn Creek and four sites on the mainstem Wigwam River). At each site, juvenile (0{sup +}, 1{sup +} and 2{sup +} age classes) fish densities and stream habitat conditions were measured over two stream meander wavelengths. Bull trout represented 95.1% of the catch and the mean density of juvenile bull trout was estimated to be 20.7 fish/100m{sup 2} (range 0.9 to 24.0 fish/100m{sup 2}). This compares to 17.2 fish/100m{sup 2} (+20%) for the previous year. Fry (0{sup +}) dominated the catch and this was a direct result of juvenile bull trout ecology and habitat partitioning among life history stages. Site selection was biased towards sample sites which favored high bull trout fry capture success. Comparison of fry density estimates replicated across both the preliminary survey (1997) and the current study (Cope and Morris 2001) illustrate the stable nature of these high densities. Bull trout populations have been shown to be extremely susceptible to habitat degradation and over-harvest and are

  9. Radiogenic isotopic constraints from the Project Hotspot Kimama core: implications for Hotspot-controlled lithosphere interactions beneath the Snake River Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, K. E.; Hanan, B. B.; Shervais, J. W.

    2013-12-01

    Project Hotspot, the Snake River Scientific Drilling Project, seeks to understand the evolution of Snake River Plain -Yellowstone Plateau volcanism through time. Radiogenic isotope chemistry, paleomagnetic stratigraphy, and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology from the Kimama core temporally constrain the mass proportions and flux of magma source components in Snake River Plain-Yellowstone Plateau (SRP-YP) basaltic volcanism. We present new radiogenic isotope data for the Kimama core of the central Snake River Plain that support the regional model of plume-continental lithosphere interaction and westward source variation over the past ~ 12 Ma. The 1912 m Kimama core provides a nearly continuous depositional record of basaltic lava flows on the central Snake River Plain from the late Miocene through Pleistocene. Most of the basalt flows are Snake River olivine tholeiites with MgO 6-10%, Fe2O3 < 16%, and K2O <0.9%. Compositionally evolved basalts similar to those erupted at Craters of the Moon (high K2O, Fe2O3, and Zr) were identified at various depths throughout the core. We analyzed 15 basalt samples from a range of geochemical compositions and depths within the Kimama core for Nd, Sr, Hf, and Pb. Radiogenic Pb isotope values for Kimama basalts ranged from 206Pb/204Pb ~18.0--18.5, 207Pb/204Pb ~15.6--15.7, and 208Pb/204Pb ~38.5--39.0. Radiogenic Hf isotopes range from 0.282683--0.282745. Evolved basalts span the same range of 177Hf/176Hf, 207Pb/204Pb, and 208Pb/204Pb as the more primitive basalt compositions (high MgO, Cr, and Ni). Ar/Ar and paleomagnetic dating establish a relatively linear basalt accumulation rate of 305 m/m.y. and a projected bottom hole age of 6.2 Ma.

  10. Time-dependent inversion of three-component GPS time series for steady and transient effects of the Yellowstone Hotspot on the Snake River Plain, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, S. J.; McCaffrey, R.; King, R. W.

    2009-12-01

    Crustal deformation in the Northern Basin and Range and Snake River Plain results from extension overprinted by volcanism associated with the Yellowstone Hotspot. The Snake River Plain is a seismically quiet, low-relief physiographic feature that extends from eastern Oregon through southern Idaho and into northwestern Wyoming. The Northern Basin and Range surrounds the Snake River Plain and is distinguished by its higher elevations, higher rates of seismicity, and active normal faulting. Horizontal GPS velocities indicate the strain rate in the Snake River Plain is an order of magnitude lower than in the Northern Basin and Range and that a zone of right-lateral shear extends along the northern Snake River Plain boundary to accommodate the different strain rates. The 2004-2009 inflation of the Yellowstone caldera and subsidence adjacent to northern caldera rim resulting from magma intrusion and withdrawal are transient effects embedded in GPS velocities and may impact interpretations of regional kinematics. We invert continuous GPS time series from Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) along with survey-mode GPS site time series to estimate simultaneously the long-term steady motions and short-term transient magma intrusion in the Snake River Plain and Northern Basin and Range. We model the magma intrusion as Mogi sources beneath the Yellowstone caldera at shallow depths. The steady motions are described by crustal block rotations and strain rates that together predict spatially smooth variations in surface velocities. We estimate fault locking and block rotations that have been corrected for transient motions resulting from magma intrusion. From this we estimate that the magmatic deformation outside of the caldera at distances of 160-180 km, where we observe the largest differential strain rates, contributes less than about 0.3 mm/yr to the overall velocities and does not contribute to the difference in strain rates currently observed.

  11. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kline, Paul A.; Willard, Catherine; Baker, Dan J.

    2003-08-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Marine Fisheries Service at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Marine Fisheries Service are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases (annual report to the Bonneville Power Administration for the research element of the program) are also reported separately. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 2001 and December 31, 2001 for the hatchery element of the program are presented in this report. In 2001, 26 anadromous sockeye salmon returned to the Sawtooth Basin. Twenty-three of these adults were captured at adult weirs located on the upper Salmon River and on Redfish Lake Creek. Three of the anadromous sockeye salmon that returned were observed below the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery weir and allowed to migrate upstream volitionally (following the dismantling of the weir on October 12, 2001). Nine anadromous adults were incorporated into the captive broodstock program spawning design in 2001. The remaining adults were released to Redfish Lake for natural spawning. Based on their marks, returning adult sockeye salmon originated from a variety of release options. Two sockeye salmon females from the anadromous group and 152 females from the brood year 1998 captive

  12. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Willard, Catherine; Baker, Dan J.; Heindel, Jeff A.

    2003-12-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases (annual report to the Bonneville Power Administration for the research element of the program) are also reported separately. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2002 for the hatchery element of the program are presented in this report. n 2002, 22 anadromous sockeye salmon returned to the Sawtooth Valley. Fifteen of these adults were captured at adult weirs located on the upper Salmon River and on Redfish Lake Creek. Seven of the anadromous sockeye salmon that returned were observed below the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery weir and allowed to migrate upstream volitionally (following the dismantling of the weir on September 30, 2002). All adult returns were released to Redfish Lake for natural spawning. Based on their marks, returning adult sockeye salmon originated from a variety of release options. Sixty-six females from brood year 1999 and 28 females from brood year 2000 captive broodstock groups were spawned at the Eagle Hatchery in 2002. Spawn pairings produced approximately 65

  13. Linking River Management-Induced Perturbations of Hydrologic and Sediment Regimes to Geomorphic Processes Along a Highly-Dynamic Gravel-Bed River: Snake River, WY.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, C.; Legleiter, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Encroachment of human development onto river floodplains creates a need to stabilize rivers and provide flood protection. Structural interventions, such as levees, often perturb hydrologic and sediment regimes and thus can initiate morphological responses. An understanding of how human activities affect river morphodynamics and trigger channel change is needed to anticipate future river responses and facilitate effective restoration. This study examines approximately 66 km of the Snake River, WY, USA, and links sediment transport processes to channel form and behavior by developing a morphological sediment budget that spans both a natural, unconfined reach and a reach confined by artificial levees. Sediment transport rates are inferred from the morphological sediment budget and a bed mobility study is used to estimate entrainment thresholds that allow us to link the hydrological regime during the sediment budget period to the observed channel changes. Results indicate that lateral constriction by levees triggers a positive feedback mechanism by incising the bed, focusing flow energy, thus increasing transport capacity, and leading to armoring of the bed. In other systems, armoring promotes widening of the channel but in this case levees prevent widening and the channel instead migrates across the braidplain rapidly, producing further erosion of bars and vegetated islands that is expressed as negative net volumetric changes and increased sediment transport rates. Furthermore, decreased slopes and reduced discharges due to dam regulation in the upstream unconfined reach cause gravel sheets to stall on bars and in other areas of storage, creating a spatial discontinuity in sediment conveyance downstream, and thus contributing to the sediment deficit within the leveed reach.

  14. Evaluate Potential Means of Rebuilding Sturgeon Populations in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, Scott R.; Tuell, Michael A.

    2003-03-01

    The specific research goal of this project is to identify means to restore and rebuild the Snake River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) population to support a sustainable annual subsistence harvest equivalent to 5 kg/ha/yr (CBFWA 1997). Based on data collected, a white sturgeon adaptive management plan will be developed. This 2001 annual report covers the fifth year of sampling of this multi-year study. In 2001 white sturgeon were captured, marked, and population data were collected in the Snake and Salmon rivers. The Snake River was sampled between Lower Granite Dam (rkm 174) and the mouth of the Salmon River (rkm 303), and the Salmon River was sampled from its mouth upstream to Hammer Creek (rkm 84). A total of 45,907 hours of setline effort and 186 hours of hook-and-line effort was employed in 2001. A total of 390 white sturgeon were captured and tagged in the Snake River and 12 in the Salmon River. Since 1997, 36.1 percent of the tagged white sturgeon have been recaptured. In the Snake River, white sturgeon ranged in total length from 42 cm to 307 cm and averaged 107 cm. In the Salmon River, white sturgeon ranged in total length from 66 cm to 235 cm and averaged 160 cm. Using the Jolly-Seber model, the abundance of white sturgeon <60 cm, between Lower Granite Dam and the mouth of the Salmon River, was estimated at 2,483 fish, with a 95% confidence interval of 1,208-7,477. An additional 10 white sturgeon were fitted with radio-tags during 2001. The locations of 17 radio-tagged white sturgeon were monitored in 2001. The movement of these fish ranged from 38.6 km (24 miles) downstream to 54.7 km (34 miles) upstream; however, 62.6 percent of the detected movement was less than 0.8 km (0.5 mile). Both radio-tagged fish and recaptured white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir appear to move more than fish in the free-flowing segment of the Snake River. No seasonal movement pattern was detected, and no movement pattern was detected for different size fish

  15. Hydrologic conditions and distribution of selected radiochemical and chemical constituents in water, Snake River Plain aquifer, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho, 1992 through 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Bartholomay, R.C.; Tucker, B.J.; Ackerman, D.J.; Liszewski, M.J.

    1997-04-01

    Radiochemical and chemical wastewater discharged since 1952 to infiltration ponds and disposal wells at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has affected water quality in the Snake River Plain aquifer. The US Geological Survey, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, maintains a monitoring network at the INEL to determine hydrologic trends and to delineate the movement of radiochemical and chemical wastes in the aquifer. This report presents an analysis of water-level and water-quality data collected from the Snake River Plain aquifer during 1992--95.

  16. Flow Augmentation and Reservoir Drawdown : Strategies for Recovery of Threatened and Endangered Stocks of Salmon in the Snake River Basin : Recovery Issues for Threatened and Endangered Snake River Salmon : Technical Report 2 of 11.

    SciTech Connect

    Giorgi, Albert E.

    1993-06-01

    The premise for flow augmentation is based on the argument that increasing water velocity increases smolt migration speed, which in turn improves smolt survival through reservoirs and at ocean entry. The purpose of this document is to examine key technical issues regarding the benefits of flow augmentation as a strategy for improving survival of downstream migrants. Reservoir drawdown, an altemative strategy for increasing water velocity through the mainstream Snake and Columbia rivers will also be examined. Data sets and analyses that pertain to Snake River stocks will be emphasized, particularly those stocks currently listed as threatened or endangered. This document focuses on treating two smolt responses that can be useful in reflecting the effects of flow augmentation, or increased water velocity; travel time or migration speed, and survival. Although there has been recent interest in using migrational timing as a measure of flow effects that response reflects principally the temporal initiation of the migration event and does not provide a performance measure once fish are in transit between two locations.

  17. Evaluation of Delisting Criteria and Rebuilding Schedules for Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook, Fall Chinook and Sockeye Salmon : Recovery Issues for Threatened and Endangered Snake River Salmon : Technical Report 10 of 11.

    SciTech Connect

    Cramer, Steven P.; Neeley, Doug

    1993-06-01

    We develop a framework for distinguishing healthy and threatened populations, and we analyze specific criteria by which these terms can be measured for threatened populations of salmon in the Snake River. We review reports and analyze existing data on listed populations of salmon in the Snake River to establish a framework for two stages of the recovery process: (1) defining de-listing criteria, and (2) estimating the percentage increase in survival that will be necessary for recovery of the population within specified time frames, given the de-listing criteria that must be achieved. We develop and apply a simplified population model to estimate the percentage improvement in survival that will be necessary to achieve different rates of recovery. We considered five main concepts identifying de-listing criteria: (1) minimum population size, (2) rates of population change, (3) number of population subunits, (4) survival rates, and (5) driving variables. In considering minimum population size, we conclude that high variation in survival rates poses a substantially greater probability of causing extinction than does loss of genetic variation. Distinct population subunits exist and affect both the genetic variability of the population and the dynamics of population decline and growth. We distinguish between two types of population subunits, (1) genetic and (2) geographic, and we give examples of their effects on population recovery.

  18. Predation Susceptibility of Juvenile Fall Chinook Salmon Exposed to Sudden Temperature Changes and Slightly Supersaturated Dissolved Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Bellgraph, Brian J.; Carter, Kathleen M.; Chamness, Michele A.; Abel, Tylor K.; Linley, Timothy J.; Cullinan, Valerie I.

    2014-08-01

    High mortality of hatchery-reared juvenile fall Chinook salmon emigrating from the Clearwater River was previously measured at the confluence of the Snake and Clearwater rivers; however, the causative mechanism of mortality is unknown. To elucidate potential mechanisms, the predation susceptibility of juvenile fall Chinook salmon was assessed during simulated passage from the Clearwater River and through the confluence of the Clearwater and Snake rivers, with and without cool water flow augmentation. Emigrant-sized juvenile salmon were acclimated to temperatures typical of the Clearwater River when cool water augmentation is discharged from Dworshak Dam (10°C to 17°C) and during temperatures that would be present without augmentation (17°C to 24°C), and were then exposed to smallmouth bass within temperatures typical of the Snake River in summer (17°C to 24°C). Slightly supersaturated total dissolved gas concentrations of 105% were also simulated to more closely approximate gas conditions of both rivers in summer. Predation susceptibility of juvenile salmon acclimated at 10°C or 17°C and exposed to predators at 17°C did not differ. However, for salmon exposed to predators at 24°C, predation susceptibility was arguably higher for juvenile salmon acclimated at 10°C (a 14°C increase) than for salmon acclimated at 17°C or 24°C (7°C and 0°C increases, respectively). These results indicate that predation susceptibility may be higher when a relatively large temperature difference exists between the Clearwater and Snake rivers; that is, when cool water flow augmentation is occurs in summer. However, further research is needed to determine if high confluence mortality measured in previous studies is related to cool water augmentation and, ultimately, whether or not this mortality has a population-level effect on the dynamics of wild Snake River fall Chinook salmon.

  19. Determining Columbia and Snake River Project Tailrace and Forebay Zones of Hydraulic Influence using MASS2 Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Serkowski, John A.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Perkins, William A.

    2010-12-01

    Although fisheries biology studies are frequently performed at US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) projects along the Columbia and Snake Rivers, there is currently no consistent definition of the ``forebay'' and ``tailrace'' regions for these studies. At this time, each study may use somewhat arbitrary lines (e.g., the Boat Restriction Zone) to define the upstream and downstream limits of the study, which may be significantly different at each project. Fisheries researchers are interested in establishing a consistent definition of project forebay and tailrace regions for the hydroelectric projects on the lower Columbia and Snake rivers. The Hydraulic Extent of a project was defined by USACE (Brad Eppard, USACE-CENWP) as follows: The river reach directly upstream (forebay) and downstream (tailrace) of a project that is influenced by the normal range of dam operations. Outside this reach, for a particular river discharge, changes in dam operations cannot be detected by hydraulic measurement. The purpose of this study was to, in consultation with USACE and regional representatives, develop and apply a consistent set of criteria for determining the hydraulic extent of each of the projects in the lower Columbia and Snake rivers. A 2D depth-averaged river model, MASS2, was applied to the Snake and Columbia Rivers. New computational meshes were developed most reaches and the underlying bathymetric data updated to the most current survey data. The computational meshes resolved each spillway bay and turbine unit at each project and extended from project to project. MASS2 was run for a range of total river flows and each flow for a range of project operations at each project. The modeled flow was analyzed to determine the range of velocity magnitude differences and the range of flow direction differences at each location in the computational mesh for each total river flow. Maps of the differences in flow direction and velocity magnitude were created. USACE fishery biologists

  20. Factors affecting stranding of juvenile salmonids by wakes from ship passage in the Lower Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, Walter H.; Skalski, John R.

    2011-09-01

    The effects of deep-draft vessel traffic in confined riverine channels on shorelines and fish are of widespread concern. In the Pacific Northwest of the United States, wakes and subsequent beach run-up from ships transiting the Lower Columbia River have been observed to strand juvenile salmon and other fish. As part of a before-and-after study to assess stranding effects that may be associated with channel deepening, we measured 19 co-variables from observations of 126 vessel passages at three low-slope beaches and used multiple logistic regression to discern the significant factors influencing the frequency of stranding. Subyearling Chinook salmon were 82% of the fish stranded over all sites and seasons. Given a low-slope beach, stranding frequencies for juvenile salmon were significantly related to river location, salmon density in the shallows, a proxy for ship kinetic energy, tidal height, and two interactions. The beach types selected for our study do not include all the beach types along the Lower Columbia River so that the stranding probabilities described here cannot be extrapolated river-wide. A more sophisticated modeling effort, informed by additional field data, is needed to assess salmon losses by stranding for the entire lower river. Such modeling needs to include river-scale factors such as beach type, berms, proximity to navigation channel, and perhaps, proximity to tributaries that act as sources of out-migrating juvenile salmon. At both river and beach scales, no one factor produces stranding; rather interactions among several conditions produce a stranding event and give stranding its episodic nature.

  1. Seismic Reflection Project Near the Southern Terminations of the Lost River and Lemhi Faults, Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    S. M. Jackson; G. S. Carpenter; R. P. Smith; J. L. Casper

    2006-10-01

    Thirteen seismic reflection lines were processed and interpreted to determine the southern terminations of the Lost River and Lemhi faults along the northwest boundary of the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP). The southernmost terminations of the Arco and Howe segments were determined to support characterization of the Lost River and Lemhi fault sources, respectively, for the INL probabilistic seismic hazard analysis. Keywords:Keywords are required forExternal Release Review*Keywords  Keywords *Contacts (Type and Name are required for each row) Type ofContactContact Name  POC Editor RecordFour commercial seismic reflection lines (Arco lines 81-1 and 81-2; Howe lines 81-3 and 82-2) were obtained from the Montana Power Company. The seismic data were collected in the early 1980’s using a Vibroseis source with station and shot point locations that resulted in 12-fold data. Arco lines 81?1 and 81?2 and Howe lines 81?3 and 82?2 are located within the basins adjacent to the Arco and Howe segments, respectively. Seven seismic lines (Arco lines A1, A2, A3, and A4 and Howe lines H1, H2, and H3) were acquired by EG&G Idaho, Inc. Geosciences for this study using multiple impacts with an accelerated weight drop source. Station and shot point locations yielded 12-fold data. The seismic reflection lines are oriented perpendicular to and at locations along the projected extensions of the Arco and Howe fault segments within the ESRP. Two seismic lines (Arco line S2 and Howe line S4) were obtained from Sierra Geophysics. In 1984, they acquired seismic reflection data using an accelerated weight drop source with station and shot point locations that yielded 6-fold data. The two seismic reflection lines are oriented perpendicular to and at locations along the projected extensions of the Arco and Howe fault segments within the ESRP. In 1992 for this study, Geotrace Technologies Inc. processed all of the seismic reflection data using industry standard processing techniques. The

  2. Morphodynamic effects on the habitat of juvenile cyprinids (Chondrostoma nasus) in a restored Austrian lowland river.

    PubMed

    Hauer, Christoph; Unfer, Günther; Schmutz, Stefan; Habersack, Helmut

    2008-08-01

    At the Sulm River, an Austrian lowland river, an ecologically orientated flood protection project was carried out from 1998-2000. Habitat modeling over a subsequent 3-year monitoring program (2001-2003) helped assess the effects of river bed embankment and of initiating a new meander by constructing a side channel and allowing self-developing side erosion. Hydrodynamic and physical habitat models were combined with fish-ecological methods. The results show a strong influence of riverbed dynamics on the habitat quality and quantity for the juvenile age classes (0+, 1+, 2+) of nase (Chondrostoma nasus), a key fish species of the Sulm River. The morphological conditions modified by floods changed significantly and decreased the amount of weighted usable areas. The primary factor was river bed aggradation, especially along the inner bend of the meander. This was a consequence of the reduced sediment transport capacity due to channel widening in the modeling area. The higher flow velocities and shallower depths, combined with the steeper bank angle, reduced the Weighted Useable Areas (WUAs) of habitats for juvenile nase. The modeling results were evaluated by combining results of mesohabitat-fishing surveys and habitat quality assessments. Both, the modeling and the fishing results demonstrated a reduced suitability of the habitats after the morphological modifications, but the situation was still improved compared to the pre-restoration conditions at the Sulm River. PMID:18437454

  3. Review of Monitoring Plans for Gas Bubble Disease Signs and Gas Supersaturation Levels on the Columbia and Snake Rivers.

    SciTech Connect

    Fidler, Larry; Elston, Ralph; Colt, John

    1994-07-01

    Montgomery Watson was retained by the Bonneville Power Administration to evaluate the monitoring program for gas bubble disease signs and dissolved gas supersaturation levels on the Columbia and Snake rivers. The results of this evaluation will provide the basis for improving protocols and procedures for future monitoring efforts. Key study team members were Dr. John Colt, Dr. Larry Fidler, and Dr. Ralph Elston. On the week of June 6 through 10, 1994 the study team visited eight monitoring sites (smolt, adult, and resident fish) on the Columbia and Snake rivers. Additional protocol evaluations were conducted at the Willard Field Station (National Biological Survey) and Pacific Northwest Laboratories at Richland (Battelle). On June 13 and 14, 1994, the study team visited the North Pacific Division office of the U.S. Corps of Engineers and the Fish Passage Center to collect additional information and data on the monitoring programs. Considering the speed at which the Gas Bubble Trauma Monitoring Program was implemented this year, the Fish Passage Center and cooperating Federal, State, and Tribal Agencies have been doing an incredible job. Thirty-one specific recommendations are presented in this report and are summarized in Section 14.

  4. Preliminary delineation of natural geochemical reactions, Snake River Plain aquifer system, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and vicinity, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Knobel, L.L.; Bartholomay, R.C.; Orr, B.R.

    1997-05-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, is conducting a study to determine the natural geochemistry of the Snake River Plain aquifer system at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Idaho. As part of this study, a group of geochemical reactions that partially control the natural chemistry of ground water at the INEL were identified. Mineralogy of the aquifer matrix was determined using X-ray diffraction and thin-section analysis and theoretical stabilities of the minerals were used to identify potential solid-phase reactants and products of the reactions. The reactants and products that have an important contribution to the natural geochemistry include labradorite, olivine, pyroxene, smectite, calcite, ferric oxyhydroxide, and several silica phases. To further identify the reactions, analyses of 22 representative water samples from sites tapping the Snake River Plain aquifer system were used to determine the thermodynamic condition of the ground water relative to the minerals in the framework of the aquifer system. Principal reactions modifying the natural geochemical system include congruent dissolution of olivine, diopside, amorphous silica, and anhydrite; incongruent dissolution of labradorite with calcium montmorillonite as a residual product; precipitation of calcite and ferric oxyhydroxide; and oxidation of ferrous iron to ferric iron. Cation exchange reactions retard the downward movement of heavy, multivalent waste constituents where infiltration ponds are used for waste disposal.

  5. Detection of PIT-tagged subyearling Chinook salmon at a Snake River dam: Implications for summer flow augmentation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Connor, W.P.; Burge, H.L.; Bennett, D.H.

    1998-01-01

    Rearing subyearling chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (≥60 mm in fork length) were captured in the Snake River and tagged with passive integrated transponders to provide an index of their survival to Lower Granite Dam, the first of eight dams encountered by seaward migrants. Water was released from reservoirs upstream of Lower Granite Dam to augment summer flows and thereby increase subyearling chinook salmon survival. Mean summer flow and maximum summer water temperature in Lower Granite Reservoir were highly correlated (N = 4; r = −0.999). Acknowledging this correlation, we conducted two separate least-squares regressions using detection rate as the dependent variable. Detection rate at Lower Granite Dam was positively related to mean summer flow (N = 4; r 2 = 0.993; P = 0.003) and negatively related to maximum summer water temperature (N = 4; r 2 = 0.984; P = 0.008). Summer flow augmentation increased flow and decreased water temperature in Lower Granite Reservoir especially in low-flow years. Our results support summer flow augmentation as a beneficial interim recovery measure for enhancing survival of subyearling chinook salmon in the Snake River. Additional research should include replicate within-year releases of PIT-tagged subyearlings as well as studies of fish guidance efficiency.

  6. Avian Predation on Juvenile Salmonids in the Lower Columbia River: 1997 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Roby, Daniel D.; Craig, David P.; Collis, Ken; Adamany, Stephanie L.

    1998-09-01

    The authors initiated a field study in 1997 to assess the impacts of fish-eating colonial waterbirds (i.e., terns, cormorants, and gulls) on the survival of juvenile salmonids in the lower Columbia River. Here the authors present results from the 1998 breeding season, the second field season of work on this project. The research objectives in 1998 were to: (1) determine the location, size, nesting chronology, nesting success, and population trajectories of breeding colonies of fish-eating birds in the lower Columbia River; (2) determine diet composition of fish-eating birds, including taxonomic composition and energy content of various prey types; (3) estimate forage fish consumption rates, with special emphasis on juvenile salmonids, by breeding adults and their young; (4) determine the relative vulnerabilit2048 different groups of juvenile salmonids to bird predation; (5) identify foraging range, foraging strategies, and habitat utilization by piscivorous waterbirds; and (6) test the feasibility of various alternative methods for managing avian predation on juvenile salmonids and develop recommendations to reduce avian predation, if warranted by the results.

  7. Avian Predation on Juvenile Salmonids in the Lower Columbia River: 1998 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Collis, Ken; Adamany, Stephanie; Roby, Daniel D.; Craig, David P.; Lyons, Donald E.

    2000-04-01

    The authors initiated a field study in 1997 to assess the impacts of fish-eating colonial waterbirds (i.e., terns, cormorants, and gulls) on the survival of juvenile salmonids in the lower Columbia River. Here the authors present results from the 1998 breeding season, the second field season of work on this project. The research objectives in 1998 were to: (1) determine the location, size, nesting chronology, nesting success, and population trajectories of breeding colonies of fish-eating birds in the lower Columbia River; (2) determine diet composition of fish-eating birds, including taxonomic composition and energy content of various prey types; (3) estimate forage fish consumption rates, with special emphasis on juvenile salmonids, by breeding adults and their young; (4) determine the relative vulnerability of different groups of juvenile salmonids to bird predation; (5) identify foraging range, foraging strategies, and habitat utilization by piscivorous waterbirds; and (6) test the feasibility of various alternative methods for managing avian predation on juvenile salmonids and develop recommendations to reduce avian predation, if warranted by the results.

  8. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Dan J.; Heindel, Jeff A.; Redding, Jeremy

    2006-05-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases (annual report to the Bonneville Power Administration for the research element of the program) are also reported separately. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2004 for the hatchery element of the program are presented in this report. In 2004, twenty-seven anadromous sockeye salmon returned to the Sawtooth Valley. Traps on Redfish Lake Creek and the upper Salmon River at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery intercepted one and four adults, respectively. Additionally, one adult sockeye salmon was collected at the East Fork Salmon River weir, 18 were seined from below the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery weir, one adult sockeye salmon was observed below the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery weir but not captured, and two adult sockeye salmon were observed in Little Redfish Lake but not captured. Fish were captured/collected between July 24 and September 14, 2004. The captured/collected adult sockeye salmon (12 females and 12 males) originated from a variety of release strategies and were transferred to

  9. Foraging and growth potential of juvenile Chinook Salmon after tidal restoration of a large river delta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    David, Aaron T.; Ellings, Christopher; Woo, Isa; Simenstad, Charles A.; Takekawa, John Y.; Turner, Kelley L.; Smith, Ashley L.; Takekawa, Jean E.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated whether restoring tidal flow to previously diked estuarine wetlands also restores foraging and growth opportunities for juvenile Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Several studies have assessed the value of restored tidal wetlands for juvenile Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp., but few have used integrative measures of salmon performance, such as habitat-specific growth potential, to evaluate restoration. Our study took place in the Nisqually River delta, Washington, where recent dike removals restored tidal flow to 364 ha of marsh—the largest tidal marsh restoration project in the northwestern contiguous United States. We sampled fish assemblages, water temperatures, and juvenile Chinook Salmon diet composition and consumption rates in two restored and two reference tidal channels during a 3-year period after restoration; these data were used as inputs to a bioenergetics model to compare Chinook Salmon foraging performance and growth potential between the restored and reference channels. We found that foraging performance and growth potential of juvenile Chinook Salmon were similar between restored and reference tidal channels. However, Chinook Salmon densities were significantly lower in the restored channels than in the reference channels, and growth potential was more variable in the restored channels due to their more variable and warmer (2°C) water temperatures. These results indicate that some—but not all—ecosystem attributes that are important for juvenile Pacific salmon can recover rapidly after large-scale tidal marsh restoration.

  10. SAR Interferometry for Measuring Recent Deformation of the Eastern Snake River Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadwick, J.; Rodgers, D.; Payne, S.

    2003-12-01

    The Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) is a NE-trending volcanic basin that defines the track of the Yellowstone hotspot across southern Idaho. Previous studies of the ESRP interpreted up to 6 km of upper crustal subsidence and 15-25 % extension since 10-15 Ma. Leveling studies conducted between 1906 and 1983 and more recent GPS studies indicate that at least some ESRP regions continue to actively extend and/or subside. To document the regional pattern of active deformation, we have employed interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) techniques. Snow- and rain-free ERS-1 and ERS-2 SAR images from 1992-2003 with less than 400 m baselines were acquired for areas with large, young basaltic lava flows with flat surfaces, sparse vegetation and little soil cover, such as the Craters of the Moon, Wapi, and Hell's Half-Acre lava fields. These areas are ideal for preserving surface characteristics and maintaining SAR phase coherence between images for 4-10 years, time spans that are required to detect the slow rates of topographic change on the ESRP. Results from the Wapi region indicate that differential subsidence and/or extension from 1993-1997 was symmetrically disposed about the axis of the Great Rift, with greater Line of Sight (LOS) topographic change on the margins and less along the rift. Results from the Craters of the Moon region indicate variable amounts of upper crustal subsidence and extension from 1993-1997, although the absolute amount requires further calibration by GPS analysis. Up to 2 mm/yr of differential LOS change is evident in the region over this period, with a domain of less LOS change across the axis of the Great Rift and a domain of greater LOS change to the west. The line that separates domains is relatively sharp, oriented north-northwest, and if extrapolated northward is on strike with the surface trace of a west-dipping Basin-Range normal fault. One interpretation of this pattern is that Basin-Range half-graben fault blocks underlie the

  11. Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Life History Investigations, Annual Report 2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Connor, William P.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.

    2009-08-21

    higher probability of successfully passing through the confluence (P=0.0050 for radio-tagged fish; P=0.0038 for acoustic-tagged fish). Radio-tagged fish with greater weight at tagging also had a higher probability of migrating and surviving through both the lower free-flowing reach (P=0.0497) and the transition zone (P=0.0007). Downstream movement rates of radio-tagged subyearlings were highest in free-flowing reaches in every month and decreased considerably with impoundment. Movement rates were slowest in the transition zone for the June and August release groups, and in the confluence reach for the July release group. For acoustic-tagged subyearlings, the slowest movement rates through the confluence and upper reservoir reaches were observed for the September release group. Radio-tagged fish released in August showed the greatest delay in the transition zone, while acoustic-tagged fish released in September showed the greatest delay in the transition zone and confluence reaches. Across the monthly release groups from July through September, the probability of delaying in the transition zone and surviving there declined throughout the study. All monthly release groups of radio-tagged subyearlings showed evidence of mortality within the transition zone, with final estimates (across the full 45-d detection period) ranging from 0.12 (SE not available) for the May release group to 0.58 (SE = 0.06) for the June release group. The May and September release groups tended to have lower mortality in the transition zone than the June, July, and August release groups. Live fish were primarily detected away from shore in the channel, whereas all dead fish were located along shorelines with most being located in the vicinity of the Memorial Bridge and immediately upstream. During the May detection period, before the implementation of summer flow augmentation, temperatures in the Clearwater River and Snake River arms of Lower Granite Reservoir and the downstream boundary of the

  12. Quantifying recreation use values from removing dams and restoring free-flowing rivers: A contingent behavior travel cost demand model for the Lower Snake River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loomis, John

    2002-06-01

    A travel cost demand model that uses intended trips if dams are removed and the river restored is presented as a tool for evaluating the potential recreation benefits in this counterfactual but increasingly policy relevant analysis of dam removal. The model is applied to the Lower Snake River in Washington using data from mail surveys of households in the Pacific Northwest region. Five years after dam removal, about 1.5 million visitor days are estimated, with this number growing to 2.5 million annually during years 20-100. Using the travel cost method model estimate of the value of river recreation, if the four dams are removed and the 225 km river is restored, the annualized benefits at a 6.875% discount rate would be $310 million. This gain in river recreation exceeds the loss of reservoir recreation but is about $60 million less than the total costs of the dam removal alternative. The analysis suggests this extension of the standard travel cost method may be suitable for evaluating the gain in river recreation associated with restoration of river systems from dam removal or associated with dam relicensing conditions.

  13. Evaluate Potenial Means of Rebuilding Sturgeon Populations in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams, 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, Scott R.; Tuell, Michael A.; Hesse, Jay A.

    2004-02-01

    The specific research goal of this project is to identify means to restore and rebuild the Snake River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) population to support a sustainable annual subsistence harvest equivalent to 5 kg/ha/yr (CBFWA 1997). Based on data collected, a white sturgeon adaptive management plan will be developed. This report presents a summary of results from the 1997-2002 Phase II data collection and represents the end of phase II. From 1997 to 2001 white sturgeon were captured, marked, and population data were collected in the Snake and Salmon. A total of 1,785 white sturgeon were captured and tagged in the Snake River and 77 in the Salmon River. Since 1997, 25.8 percent of the tagged white sturgeon have been recaptured. Relative density of white sturgeon was highest in the free-flowing segment of the Snake River, with reduced densities of fish in Lower Granite Reservoir, and low densities the Salmon River. Differences were detected in the length frequency distributions of white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir, the free-flowing Snake River and the Salmon River (Chi-Square test, P<0.05). The proportion of white sturgeon greater than 92 cm (total length) in the free-flowing Snake River has shown an increase of 30 percent since the 1970's. Using the Jolly-Seber model, the abundance of white sturgeon <60 cm, between Lower Granite Dam and the mouth of the Salmon River, was estimated at 2,483 fish, with a 95% confidence interval of 1,208-7,477. Total annual mortality rate was estimated to be 0.14 (95% confidence interval of 0.12 to 0.17). A total of 35 white sturgeon were fitted with radio-tags during 1999-2002. The movement of these fish ranged from 53 km (33 miles) downstream to 77 km (48 miles) upstream; however, 38.8 percent of the detected movement was less than 0.8 km (0.5 mile). Both radio-tagged fish and recaptured white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir appear to move more than fish in the free-flowing segment of the Snake River. No

  14. Traveltime, unit-concentration, longitudinal-dispersion, and reaeration characteristics of upstream reaches of the Yampa and Little Snake Rivers, Colorado and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bauer, Daniel P.; Rathbun, R.E.; Lowham, H.W.

    1979-01-01

    Measurements were made along a 58-mile reach of the Yampa River in Colorado and a 77-mile reach of the Little Snake River in Colorado and Wyoming to determine traveltime, unit-concentration , and longitudinal-dispersion characteristics. Two traveltime, unit-concentration, and dispersion analyses were made along the Yampa River when its average streamflow was approximately 100 and 3,400 cu ft/s; three traveltime, unit-concentration, and dispersion analyses were made along the Little Snake River when its average streamfow was approximately 200, 600, and 1,600 cu ft/s. Reaeration coefficients were determined only for the Yampa River, when its average streamflow was approximately 100 cu ft/s. Traveltime and unit-concentration simulations were made using a mathematical model. Data collected for the Little Snake River when the average streamflow was approximately 600 cu ft/s were used as a check of model-simulation accuracy. Traveltime simulations compared to within 5%, and unit-concentration simulations were within 30 to 40% of the measured flow data. Longitudinal-dispersion coefficients ranged from 400 to 6,050 sq ft/s for the two streams. Reaeration coefficients for the Yampa River, adjusted to 20 degrees celsius, ranged from 6.04 to 33.4 per day. Two semi-empirical equations gave reaeration coefficients in best agreement with measured reaeration coefficients. Absolute errors of estimate for these equations were 11.8 and 17.3%. (USGS)

  15. Upstream Passage, Spawning, and Stock Identification of Fall Chinook in the Snake River, 1992 and 1993 : Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Blankenship, H. Lee; Mendel, Glen W.

    1997-05-01

    This final report of the 3-year study summarizes activities and results for 1993. Study objectives were to: (1) determine the source of losses (or accounting errors) for adult chinook salmon between Ice Harbor Dam (IHR) and Lower Granite Dam (LGR), and upstream of LGR in the Snake River; (2) identify spawning locations upstream of LGR for calibration of aerial redd surveys, redd habitat mapping, carcass recovery for genetic stock profile analysis, and correction of estimated adult/redd ratios; and (3) estimate passage and migration times at Snake River. 200 fall chinook salmon were radio tagged and tracked with aerial, fixed-site, and ground mobile tracking. Fish were released upstream of IHR at Charbonneau Park (CHAR). 190 of the fish were tracked or relocated away from CHAR. 59 fish descended to below IHR without crossing Lower Monumental Dam (LMO). Another 128 salmon passed upstream of LMO without falling back at IHR. Only 80 salmon passed Little Goose Dam (LGO) without falling back at a downstream dam; 66 of these fish passed LGR. Many fish that fell back reascended the dams. A total of 72 salmon released at CHAR passed upstream of LGR, including fish that had fallen back and reascended a dam. Over 80 percent of the salmon that entered Lyons Ferry Hatchery each year had reached LGO before descending to the hatchery. Extensive wandering was documented between LMO and upstream of LGR before salmon entered Lyons Ferry Hatchery or the Tucannon River. In 1993, 41 salmon were found to be of hatchery origin when recovered. These fish entered Lyons Ferry Hatchery with similar movements to unmarked salmon. Each year a few salmon have remained near the hatchery without entering, which suggests the hatchery may have inadequate attraction flows. Fall chinook passed lower Snake River dams in 2-5 days each on average. Median travel times through LMO and LGO were 1.0-1.3 days each, which was slower than for spring chinook or steelhead in 1993. 5 refs., 21 figs., 20 tabs.

  16. Do cheatgrass, snake river wheatgrass, and crested wheatgrass sense different availabilities of N and P in soils conditioned by a cheatgrass invasion?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term invasion by cheatgrass often increases availability of soil N and P thereby fostering increased competitive ability. We designed an experiment to test if cheatgrass (exotic annual), Snake River wheatgrass (native perennial), and crested wheatgrass (exotic perennial) all benefit from this e...

  17. Hydrologic Conditions and Distribution of Selected Constituents in Water, Snake River Plain Aquifer, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho, 1996 through 1998

    SciTech Connect

    R. C. Bartholomay; B. J. Tucker; L. C. Davis; M. R. Greene

    2000-09-01

    Radiochemical and chemical wastewater discharged since 1952 to infiltration ponds and disposal wells at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has affected water quality in the Snake River Plain aquifer. The US Geological Survey, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, maintains a monitoring network at the INEEL to determine hydrologic trends and to delineate the movement to radiochemical and chemical wastes in the aquifer. This report presents an analysis of water-level and water-quality data collected from the Snake River Plain aquifer during 1996-98. Detectable concentrations of radiochemical constituents in water samples from wells in the Snake River Plain aquifer at the INEEL decreased or remained constant during 1996-98. Decreased concentrations are attributed to reduced rates of radioactive-waste disposal, sorption process, radioactive decay, and changes in waste-disposal practices. Detectable concentrations of chemical constituents in water from the Snake River Plain aquifer at the INEEL were variable during 1996-98.

  18. ASSESSMENT OF SELECTED CONSTITUENTS IN THE SURFACE WATER OF THE UPPER SNAKE RIVER BASIN, IDAHO AND WESTERN WYOMING, WATER YEARS 1975-1989.

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1991, a water-quality investigation of the upper Snake River Basin (1704) was initiated as part of the USGS National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Nearly 9,000 analyses of nutrients and suspended sediment from more than 450 stations were retrieved from the U.S. Environmen...

  19. WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF THE UPPER SNAKE RIVER BASIN, IDAHO AND WESTERN WYOMING - SUMMARY OF AQUATIC BIOLOGICAL DATA FOR SURFACE WATER THROUGH 1992

    EPA Science Inventory

    The initial phase of this study involved compiling data to describe the current (1992) and historical aquatic biological conditions of surface water in the Snake River Basin (1704). To assess water quality of the basin, at least 26 different macroinvertebrate and fish community ...

  20. Migratory Behavior and Survival of Juvenile Salmonids in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary in 2009

    SciTech Connect

    McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Bellgraph, Brian J.; Carter, Jessica A.; Ham, Kenneth D.; Titzler, P. Scott; Hughes, Michael S.

    2010-08-01

    The study reported herein was funded as part of the Anadromous Fish Evaluation Program, which is managed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). The Anadromous Fish Evaluation Program study code is EST P 02 01: A Study of Salmonid Survival and Behavior through the Columbia River Estuary Using Acoustic Tags. The study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Fisheries for the USACE Portland District. Estimated survival of acoustic-tagged juvenile Chinook salmon and steelhead through the lower Columbia River and estuary in 2009 was lowest in the final 50 km of the estuary. Probability of survival was relatively high (>0.90) for yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon from the Bonneville Dam forebay (rkm 236) to Three-tree Point (rkm 49.6). Survival of juvenile Chinook salmon declined sharply through the lower 50 km of the estuary. Acoustic-tagged steelhead smolts did not survive as well as juvenile Chinook salmon between Bonneville Dam and the mouth of the Columbia River. Steelhead survival began to decline farther upstream (at rkm 86) relative to that of the Chinook salmon stocks. Subyearling Chinook salmon survival decreased markedly as the season progressed. It remains to be determined whether later migrating subyearling Chinook salmon are suffering increasing mortality as the season progresses or whether some portion of the apparent loss is due to fish extending their freshwater residence. This study provided the first glimpse into what promises to be a very informative way to learn more about how juvenile salmonid passage experiences through the FCRPS may influence their subsequent survival after passing Bonneville Dam. New information regarding the influence of migration pathway through the lower 50 km of the Columbia River estuary on probability of survival of juvenile salmonids, combined with increased understanding regarding the foraging distances and time periods of

  1. Evaluate Potential Means of Rebuilding Sturgeon Populations in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams, 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Tuell, Michael A.; Everett, Scott R.

    2003-03-01

    The specific research goal of this project is to identify means to restore and rebuild the Snake River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) population to support a sustainable annual subsistence harvest equivalent to 5 kg/ha/yr (CBFWA 1997). Based on data collected, a white sturgeon adaptive management plan will be developed. This 1999 annual report covers the third year of sampling of this multi-year study. In 1999 white sturgeon were captured, marked and population data were collected in the Snake and Salmon rivers. A total of 33,943 hours of setline effort and 2,112 hours of hook-and-line effort was employed in 1999. A total of 289 white sturgeon were captured and tagged in the Snake River and 29 in the Salmon River. Since 1997, 11.1 percent of the tagged white sturgeon have been recaptured. In the Snake River, white sturgeon ranged in total length from 27 cm to 261 cm and averaged 110 cm. In the Salmon River, white sturgeon ranged in total length from 98 cm to 244 cm and averaged 183.5 cm. Using the Jolly-Seber model, the abundance of white sturgeon < 60 cm, between Lower Granite Dam and the mouth of the Salmon River, was estimated at 1,823 fish, with a 95% confidence interval of 1,052-4,221. A total of 15 white sturgeon were fitted with radio-tags. The movement of these fish ranged from 6.4 km (4 miles) downstream to 13.7 km (8.5 miles) upstream; however, 83.6 percent of the detected movement was less than 0.8 kilometers (0.5 miles). Both radio-tagged fish and recaptured white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir appear to move more than fish in the free-flowing segment of the Snake River. No seasonal movement pattern was detected, and no movement pattern was detected for different size fish. Differences were detected in the length frequency distributions of white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir and the free-flowing Snake River (Chi-Square test, P < 0.05). The proportion of white sturgeon greater than 92 cm (total length) in the free-flowing Snake River

  2. Food habits of Juvenile American Shad and dynamics of zooplankton in the lower Columbia River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haskell, C.A.; Tiffan, K.F.; Rondorf, D.W.

    2006-01-01

    As many as 2.4 million adult American shad annually pass John Day Dam, Columbia River to spawn upriver, yet food web interactions of juvenile shad rearing in John Day Reservoir are unexplored. We collected zooplankton and conducted mid-water trawls in McNary (June-July) and John Day reservoirs (August-November) from 1994 through 1996 during the outmigration of subyearling American shad and Chinook salmon. Juvenile American shad were abundant and represented over 98% of the trawl catch in late summer. The five major taxa collected in zooplankton tows were Bosmina longirostris, Daphnia, cyclopoid cope-pods, rotifers, and calanoid copepods. We evaluated total crustacean zooplankton abundance and Daphnia biomass in relation to water temperature, flow, depth, diel period, and cross-sectional location using multiple regression. Differences in zooplankton abundance were largely due to differences in water temperature and flow. Spatial variation in total zooplankton abundance was observed in McNary Reservoir, but not in John Day Reservoir. Juvenile American shad generally fed on numerically abundant prey, despite being less preferred than larger bodied zooplankton. A decrease in cladoceran abundance and size in August coupled with large percentages of Daphnia in juvenile American shad stomachs indicated heavy planktivory. Smaller juvenile American shad primarily fed on Daphnia in August, but switched to more evasive copepods as the mean size of fish increased and Daphnia abundance declined. Because Daphnia are particularly important prey items for subyearling Chinook salmon in mainstem reservoirs in mid to late summer, alterations in the cladoceran food base is of concern for the management of outmigrating salmonids and other Columbia River fishes. ?? 2006 by the Northwest Scientific Association. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of Juvenile Fish Bypass and Adult Fish Passage Facilities at Water Diversions on the Umatilla River; 1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, Suzanne M.

    1995-01-01

    We report on our progress from October 1993 through September 1994 in evaluating juvenile salmonid bypass facilities and juvenile salmonid passage through ladder facilities, and investigating passage conditions for juvenile fish at diversion dam facilities on the lower Umatilla River in northeastern Oregon. We also report on our progress in evaluating adult salmonid passage at and between dams on the lower Umatilla River and upriver migration using radio telemetry. Two principal studies are also included. Report A (ODFW): To evaluate the juvenile salmonid bypass facilities a Feed and Furnish canals, juvenile salmonid passage through fish ladders at Stanfield, Feed Canal, Westland, and Three Mile Falls dams, and the juvenile salmonid trap and haul procedures at Westland Canal. To investigate passage conditions at all passage facilities. Report B (CTUIR): To examine the passage of adult salmonids past diversions in the lower Umatilla River and their movement in the upper river after transport, using radio telemetry, and to assess factors for successful homing. These studies are part of a program to rehabilitate anadromous fish stocks in the Umatilla River Basin, including restoration of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), as well as enhancement of summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

  4. Snake bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... bites by any of the following: Cobra Copperhead Coral snake Cottonmouth (water moccasin) Rattlesnake Various snakes found ... Swelling Thirst Tiredness Tissue damage Weakness Weak pulse Coral snake bites may be painless at first. Major ...

  5. Monitoring and Evaluation of Smolt Migration in the Columbia Basin : Volume XVI : Survival and Transportation Effects for Migrating Snake River Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead: Historical Estimates from 1996-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Buchanan, Rebecca A.; Skalski, John R.

    2007-12-07

    In 2005, the University of Washington developed a new statistical model to analyze the combined juvenile and adult detection histories of PIT-tagged salmon migrating through the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS). This model, implemented by software Program ROSTER (River-Ocean Survival and Transportation Effects Routine), has been used to estimate survival and transportation effects on large temporal and spatial scales for PIT-tagged hatchery spring and summer Chinook salmon and steelhead released in the Snake River Basin from 1996 to 2003. Those results are reported here. Annual estimates of the smolt-to-adult return ratio (SAR), juvenile inriver survival from Lower Granite to Bonneville, the ocean return probability from Bonneville to Bonneville, and adult upriver survival from Bonneville to Lower Granite are reported. Annual estimates of transport-inriver (T/I) ratios and differential post-Bonneville mortality (D) are reported on both a systemwide basis, incorporating all transport dams analyzed, and a dam-specific basis. Transportation effects are estimated only for dams where at least 5,000 tagged smolts were transported from a given upstream release group. Because few tagged hatchery steelhead were transported in these years, no transportation effects are estimated for steelhead. Performance measures include age-1-ocean adult returns for steelhead, but not for Chinook salmon. Annual estimates of SAR from Lower Granite back to Lower Granite averaged 0.71% with a standard error (SE) of 0.18% for spring Chinook salmon from the Snake River Basin for tagged groups released from 1996 through 2003, omitting age-1-ocean (jack) returns. For summer Chinook salmon from the Snake River Basin, the estimates of annual SAR averaged 1.15% (SE=0.31%). Only for the release years 1999 and 2000 did the Chinook SAR approach the target value of 2%, identified by the NPCC as the minimum SAR necessary for recovery. Annual estimates of SAR for hatchery steelhead from the

  6. Hypoxia, blackwater and fish kills: experimental lethal oxygen thresholds in juvenile predatory lowland river fishes.

    PubMed

    Small, Kade; Kopf, R Keller; Watts, Robyn J; Howitt, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia represents a growing threat to biodiversity in freshwater ecosystems. Here, aquatic surface respiration (ASR) and oxygen thresholds required for survival in freshwater and simulated blackwater are evaluated for four lowland river fishes native to the Murray-Darling Basin (MDB), Australia. Juvenile stages of predatory species including golden perch Macquaria ambigua, silver perch Bidyanus bidyanus, Murray cod Maccullochella peelii, and eel-tailed catfish Tandanus tandanus were exposed to experimental conditions of nitrogen-induced hypoxia in freshwater and hypoxic blackwater simulations using dried river red gum Eucalyptus camaldulensis leaf litter. Australia's largest freshwater fish, M. peelii, was the most sensitive to hypoxia but given that we evaluated tolerances of juveniles (0.99 ± 0.04 g; mean mass ±SE), the low tolerance of this species could not be attributed to its large maximum attainable body mass (>100,000 g). Concentrations of dissolved oxygen causing 50% mortality (LC50) in freshwater ranged from 0.25 ± 0.06 mg l(-1) in T. tandanus to 1.58 ± 0.01 mg l(-1) in M. peelii over 48 h at 25-26 °C. Logistic models predicted that first mortalities may start at oxygen concentrations ranging from 2.4 mg l(-1) to 3.1 mg l(-1) in T. tandanus and M. peelii respectively within blackwater simulations. Aquatic surface respiration preceded mortality and this behaviour is documented here for the first time in juveniles of all four species. Despite the natural occurrence of hypoxia and blackwater events in lowland rivers of the MDB, juvenile stages of these large-bodied predators are vulnerable to mortality induced by low oxygen concentration and water chemistry changes associated with the decomposition of organic material. Given the extent of natural flow regime alteration and climate change predictions of rising temperatures and more severe drought and flooding, acute episodes of hypoxia may represent an underappreciated risk to riverine fish communities

  7. Hypoxia, Blackwater and Fish Kills: Experimental Lethal Oxygen Thresholds in Juvenile Predatory Lowland River Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Small, Kade; Kopf, R. Keller; Watts, Robyn J.; Howitt, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia represents a growing threat to biodiversity in freshwater ecosystems. Here, aquatic surface respiration (ASR) and oxygen thresholds required for survival in freshwater and simulated blackwater are evaluated for four lowland river fishes native to the Murray-Darling Basin (MDB), Australia. Juvenile stages of predatory species including golden perch Macquaria ambigua, silver perch Bidyanus bidyanus, Murray cod Maccullochella peelii, and eel-tailed catfish Tandanus tandanus were exposed to experimental conditions of nitrogen-induced hypoxia in freshwater and hypoxic blackwater simulations using dried river red gum Eucalyptus camaldulensis leaf litter. Australia's largest freshwater fish, M. peelii, was the most sensitive to hypoxia but given that we evaluated tolerances of juveniles (0.99±0.04 g; mean mass ±SE), the low tolerance of this species could not be attributed to its large maximum attainable body mass (>100,000 g). Concentrations of dissolved oxygen causing 50% mortality (LC50) in freshwater ranged from 0.25±0.06 mg l−1 in T. tandanus to 1.58±0.01 mg l−1 in M. peelii over 48 h at 25–26°C. Logistic models predicted that first mortalities may start at oxygen concentrations ranging from 2.4 mg l−1 to 3.1 mg l−1 in T. tandanus and M. peelii respectively within blackwater simulations. Aquatic surface respiration preceded mortality and this behaviour is documented here for the first time in juveniles of all four species. Despite the natural occurrence of hypoxia and blackwater events in lowland rivers of the MDB, juvenile stages of these large-bodied predators are vulnerable to mortality induced by low oxygen concentration and water chemistry changes associated with the decomposition of organic material. Given the extent of natural flow regime alteration and climate change predictions of rising temperatures and more severe drought and flooding, acute episodes of hypoxia may represent an underappreciated risk to riverine fish communities. PMID

  8. Hydrogeology and water quality in the Snake River alluvial aquifer at Jackson Hole Airport, Jackson, Wyoming, September 2008-June 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, Peter R.

    2010-01-01

    The hydrogeology and water quality of the Snake River alluvial aquifer, at the Jackson Hole Airport in northwest Wyoming, was studied by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Jackson Hole Airport Board and the Teton Conservation District during September 2008-June 2009. Hydrogeologic conditions were characterized using data collected from 14 Jackson Hole Airport wells. Groundwater levels are summarized in this report and the direction of groundwater flow, hydraulic gradients, and estimated groundwater velocity rates in the Snake River alluvial aquifer underlying the study area are presented. Analytical results of chemical, dissolved gas, and stable isotopes are presented and summarized. Seasonally, the water table at Jackson Hole Airport was lowest in early spring and reached its peak in July, with an increase of 12 to 14 feet between April and July 2009. Groundwater flow was predominantly horizontal but had the hydraulic potential for downward flow. The direction of groundwater flow was from the northeast to the west-southwest. Horizontal groundwater velocities within the Snake River alluvial aquifer at the airport were estimated to be about 26 to 66 feet per day. This indicates that the traveltime from the farthest upgradient well to the farthest downgradient well was approximately 53 to 138 days. This estimate only describes the movement of groundwater because some solutes may move at a rate much slower than groundwater flow through the aquifer. The quality of the water in the alluvial aquifer generally was considered good. The alluvial aquifer was a fresh, hard to very hard, calcium carbonate type water. No constituents were detected at concentrations exceeding U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Maximum Contaminant Levels, and no anthropogenic compounds were detected at concentrations greater than laboratory reporting levels. The quality of groundwater in the alluvial aquifer generally was suitable for domestic and other uses; however, dissolved

  9. Stress feature interpretation from ICDP drill holes to constrain the orientations of the three principal stresses: Snake River Plain (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierdominici, Simona; Kück, Jochem; Harms, Ulrich; Schmitt, Douglas R.

    2016-04-01

    Downhole data from drilled holes provide a unique opportunity to identify wellbore failure and understand physical properties of the deep sediments and rocks. In the framework of the ICDP (International Continental Scientific Drilling Program) we have obtained and analysed a set of geophysical logging data of two deep boreholes (Kimama and Kimberly) in the Snake River Plain in southern Idaho for the ICDP Hot Spot project. The Snake River Plain represents the track of a deep-seated mantle hotspot that has thinned the lithosphere and fuelled the intrusion of up to 10 km of hot basaltic-rhyolitic magma into the lower and middle crust. This area represents the ideal place for geothermal exploration and exploitation. For that a study of the complete state of stress in this region becomes a key point to know and understand the distribution of fractures and failures and how they can influence the permeability of the Hot Spot geothermal reservoir. Processed acoustic borehole images acquired along two boreholes detect a variety of natural and drilling induced features on the borehole wall, including bedding, fractures and breakouts. Three primary types of stress-induced drillhole indicators, breakouts, petal centre-line fractures and tensile fractures, were analysed in detail in order to define the orientation of the present-day stress state. Borehole breakouts are stress-induced elongations of a borehole cross section and on borehole images they appear as dark features and in some cases, incipient breakouts have been identified by conjugate shear fractures, where no spalling of the borehole wall has occurred. The drilling induced tensile fractures appear as dark electrically conductive features, with a strike parallel to the direction of the far-field greatest horizontal stress. They can be differentiated from natural fractures because they do not cross the borehole, do not form complete sinusoids shape on BHTV images and show a discontinuous nature. On the contrary the

  10. Food and growth parameters of juvenile chinook in the central Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, C.D.

    1994-10-01

    Juvenile chinook, salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Hanford area of the free-flowing central Columbia River, Washington consume almost entirely adult and larval stages of aquatic insects. The diet is dominated by midges (Diptera: Chironomidae). By numbers, adult midges provided 64 and 58% of the diet and larval midges 17 and 18% of the diet, in 1968 and 1969, respectively. The families Hydropsychidae (Trichoptera), Notonectidae (Hemiptera) and Hypogastruridae (Collembola) are of minor numerical importance with a combined utilization of 7% in 1968 and 15% in 1969. Distinctive features of food and feeding activity of juvenile chinook at Hanford are fourfold: (1) the fish utilize relatively few insect groups, predominantly Chironomidae; (2) they depend largely upon autochthonous river organisms; (3) they visually select living prey drifting, floating or swimming in the water; and (4) they are apparently habitat opportunists to a large extent. Analyses were made of variations in diet and numbers of insects consumed between six sampling stations distributed along a 38 km section of the river. Data are provided on feeding intensity, fish lengths, length-weight relationships, and coefficients of condition. Seasonal changes in river temperature and discharge, as well as variations in regulated flow levels are environmental features influencing feeding, growth, and emigration of fish in the Hanford environs.

  11. Behavior and movement of formerly landlocked juvenile coho salmon after release into the free-flowing Cowlitz River, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kock, Tobias J.; Henning, Julie A.; Liedtke, Theresa L.; Royer, Ida M.; Ekstrom, Brian K.; Rondorf, Dennis W.

    2011-01-01

    Formerly landlocked Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) juveniles (age 2) were monitored following release into the free-flowing Cowlitz River to determine if they remained in the river or resumed seaward migration. Juvenile Coho Salmon were tagged with a radio transmitter (30 fish) or Floy tag (1050 fish) and their behavior was monitored in the lower Cowlitz River. We found that 97% of the radio-tagged fish remained in the Cowlitz River beyond the juvenile outmigration period, and the number of fish dispersing downstream decreased with increasing distance from the release site. None of the tagged fish returned as spawning adults in the 2 y following release. We suspect that fish in our study failed to migrate because they exceeded a threshold in size, age, or physiological status. Tagged fish in our study primarily remained in the Cowlitz River, thus it is possible that these fish presented challenges to juvenile salmon migrating through the system either directly by predation or indirectly by competition for food or habitat. Given these findings, returning formerly landlocked Coho Salmon juveniles to the free-flowing river apparently provided no benefit to the anadromous population. These findings have management implications in locations where landlocked salmon have the potential to interact with anadromous species of concern.

  12. Power resources of Snake River between Huntington, Oregon and Lewiston, Idaho: Chapter C in Contributions to the hydrology of the United States, 1923-1924

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoyt, William Glenn

    1925-01-01

    Thousands of people are familiar with that part of Snake River where it flows for more than 300 miles in a general westward course across the plains of southern Idaho, but few have traversed the river where it flows northward and for 200 miles forms the boundary between Idaho and Oregon and for 30 miles the boundary between Idaho and Washington. Below the mining town of Homestead, Oreg., which is the end of a branch line of the Oregon Short Line Railroad, Snake River finds its way through the mountain ranges that seem to block its way to Columbia River in a canyon which, though not so well known, so majestic, nor so kaleidoscopic in color, is in some respects worthy of comparison with the Grand Canyon of the Colorado, for at some places it is deeper and narrower than the Grand Canyon at El Tovar. The Snake, unlike the Colorado, can be reached at many points through the valleys of tributary streams, and the early prospectors no doubt thoroughly explored all parts of the canyon. To traverse the river between Homestead, Oreg., and Lewiston, Idaho, is, however, a difficult undertaking and there are only a few records of boat journeys through the entire stretch. It has long been known that this portion of Snake River contains large potential water powers, but until recently no detailed surveys or examinations covering the entire stretch of the river had been made to determine their location or extent. A railroad has been proposed between Homestead and Lewiston which would provide a direct connection between the railroad systems of northern and southern Idaho. One function of the Geological Survey is to determine the possible interface between transportation routes on land and potential water-power development, and the information set forth in this paper has a bearing on that problem.

  13. Pyroxene thermometry of rhyolite lavas of the Bruneau-Jarbidge eruptive center, Central Snake River Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cathey, Henrietta E.; Nash, Barbara P.

    2009-11-01

    The Bruneau-Jarbidge eruptive center of the central Snake River Plain in southern Idaho, USA produced multiple rhyolite lava flows with volumes of <10 km 3 to 200 km 3 each from ~11.2 to 8.1 Ma, most of which follow its climactic phase of large-volume explosive volcanism, represented by the Cougar Point Tuff, from 12.7 to 10.5 Ma. These lavas represent the waning stages of silicic volcanism at a major eruptive center of the Yellowstone hotspot track. Here we provide pyroxene compositions and thermometry results from several lavas that demonstrate that the demise of the silicic volcanic system was characterized by sustained, high pre-eruptive magma temperatures (mostly ≥950 °C) prior to the onset of exclusively basaltic volcanism at the eruptive center. Pyroxenes display a variety of textures in single samples, including solitary euhedral crystals as well as glomerocrysts, crystal clots and annealed microgranular inclusions of pyroxene ± magnetite ± plagioclase. Pigeonite and augite crystals are unzoned, and there are no detectable differences in major and minor element compositions according to textural variety — mineral compositions in the microgranular inclusions and crystal clots are identical to those of phenocrysts in the host lavas. In contrast to members of the preceding Cougar Point Tuff that host polymodal glass and mineral populations, pyroxene compositions in each of the lavas are characterized by single rather than multiple discrete compositional modes. Collectively, the lavas reproduce and extend the range of Fe-Mg pyroxene compositional modes observed in the Cougar Point Tuff to more Mg-rich varieties. The compositionally homogeneous populations of pyroxene in each of the lavas, as well as the lack of core-to-rim zonation in individual crystals suggest that individual eruptions each were fed by compositionally homogeneous magma reservoirs, and similarities with the Cougar Point Tuff suggest consanguinity of such reservoirs to those that

  14. Evaluation of Juvenile Fish Bypass and Adult Fish Passage Facilities at Water Diversions in the Umatilla River; 1993 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, Suzanne M.

    1994-03-01

    This report presents progress from October 1992 through September 1993 in evaluating juvenile fish bypass facilities at Three Mile Falls, Maxwell, Westland, and Feed Canal dams on the Umatilla River, and in evaluating adult fish passage in the lower Umatilla River. Also reported is an effort to evaluate delayed mortality and stress responses of juvenile salmonids resulting from trapping and transport at high temperatures. These studies are part of a program to rehabilitate anadromous fish stocks in the matilla River Basin, including restoration of coho salmon and chinook salmon, as well as enhancement of summer steelhead.

  15. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Achord, Stephen; Axel, Gordon A.; Hockersmith, Eric E.

    2002-07-01

    This report details the 2001 results from an ongoing project to monitor the migration behavior of wild spring/summer chinook salmon smolts in the Snake River Basin. The report also discusses trends in the cumulative data collected for this project from Oregon and Idaho streams since 1989. The project was initiated after detection data from passive-integrated-transponder tags (PIT tags) had shown distinct differences in migration patterns between wild and hatchery fish for three consecutive years. National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) investigators first observed these data in 1989. The data originated from tagging and interrogation operations begun in 1988 to evaluate smolt transportation for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.

  16. Integrated geophysical studies of the Fort Worth Basin (Texas), Harney Basin (Oregon), and Snake River Plain (Idaho)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatiwada, Murari

    Geophysical methods such as seismic, gravity, magnetics, electric, and electromagnetics are capable of identifying subsurface features but each has a different spatial resolution. Although, each of these methods are stand-alone tools and have produced wonderful and reliable results for decades to solve geological problems, integrating geophysical results from these different methods with geological and geospatial data, adds an extra dimension towards solving geological problems. Integration techniques also involve comparing and contrasting the structural and tectonic evolution of geological features from different tectonic and geographic provinces. I employed 3D and 2D seismic data, passive seismic data, and gravity and magnetic data in three studies and integrated these results with geological, and geospatial data. Seismic processing, and interpretation, as well as filtering techniques applied to the potential filed data produced many insightful results. Integrated forward models played an important role in the interpretation process. The three chapters in this dissertation are stand-alone separate scientific papers. Each of these chapters used integrated geophysical methods to identify the subsurface features and tectonic evolution of the study areas. The study areas lie in the southeast Fort Worth Basin, Texas, Harney Basin, Oregon, and Snake River Plain, Idaho. The Fort Worth Basin is one of the most fully developed shale gas fields in North America. With the shallow Barnett Shale play in place, the Precambrian basement remains largely unknown in many places with limited published work on the basement structures underlying the Lower Paleozoic strata. In this research, I show how the basement structures relate to overlying Paleozoic reservoirs in the Barnett Shale and Ellenburger Group. I used high quality, wide-azimuth, 3D seismic data near the southeast fringe of the Fort Worth Basin. The seismic results were integrated with gravity, magnetic, well log, and

  17. Preliminary examination of oxidative stress in juvenile spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) of wild origin sampled from transport barges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Migrating juvenile wild Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), collected and loaded onto transport barges at Lower Granite Dam on the Snake River, were sampled from barges at John Day Dam, 348 km downstream, at five-day intervals beginning late April and ending late May. An increase in lipid per...

  18. Straddle-packer aquifer test analyses of the Snake River Plain aquifer at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G.S.; Frederick, D.B.

    1997-01-01

    The State of Idaho INEL Oversight Program, with the University of Idaho, Idaho State University, Boise State University, and the Idaho Geologic Survey, used a straddle-packer system to investigate vertical variations in characteristics of the Snake River Plain aquifer at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in southeast Idaho. Sixteen single-well aquifer tests were conducted on.isolated intervals in three observation wells. Each of these wells has approximately 200 feet of open borehole below the water table, penetrating the E through G and I basalt flow groups and interbedded sediments of the Snake River Plain aquifer. The success of the aquifer tests was limited by the inability to induce measurable drawdown in several zones. Time-drawdown data from aquifer tests were matched to type curves for 8 of the 16 zones tested. A single aquifer test at the water table exhibited greater curvature than those at depth. The increased degree of curvature suggests an unconfined response and resulted in an estimate of specific yield of 0.03. Aquifer tests below the water table generally yielded time-drawdown graphs with a rapid initial response followed by constant drawdown throughout the duration of the tests; up to several hours in length. The rapid initial response implies that the aquifer responds as a confined system during brief pumping periods. The nearly constant drawdown suggests a secondary source of water, probably vertical flow from overlying and underlying aquifer layers. Three analytical models were applied for comparison to the conceptual model and to provide estimates of aquifer properties. This, Hantush-Jacob leaky aquifer, and the Moench double-porosity fractured rock models were fit to time-drawdown data. The leaky aquifer type curves of Hantush and Jacob generally provided the best match to observed drawdown. A specific capacity regression equation was also used to estimate hydraulic conductivity.

  19. Evaluate Potential Means of Rebuilding Sturgeon Populations in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams, 1997 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hoefs, Nancy

    2004-02-01

    During 1997 the first phase of the Nez Perce Tribe White Sturgeon Project was completed and the second phase was initiated. During Phase I the ''Upper Snake River White Sturgeon Biological Assessment'' was completed, successfully: (1) compiling regional white sturgeon management objectives, and (2) identifying potential mitigation actions needed to rebuild the white sturgeon population in the Snake River between Hells Canyon and Lower Granite dams. Risks and uncertainties associated with implementation of these potential mitigative actions could not be fully assessed because critical information concerning the status of the population and their habitat requirements were unknown. The biological risk assessment identified the fundamental information concerning the white sturgeon population that is needed to fully evaluate the effectiveness of alternative mitigative strategies. Accordingly, a multi-year research plan was developed to collect specific biological and environmental data needed to assess the health and status of the population and characterize habitat used for spawning and rearing. In addition, in 1997 Phase II of the project was initiated. White sturgeon were captured, marked, and population data were collected between Lower Granite Dam and the mouth of the Salmon River. During 1997, 316 white sturgeon were captured in the Snake River. Of these, 298 were marked. Differences in the fork length frequency distributions of the white sturgeon were not affected by collection method. No significant differences in length frequency distributions of sturgeon captured in Lower Granite Reservoir and the mid- and upper free-flowing reaches of the Snake River were detected. The length frequency distribution indicated that white sturgeon between 92 and 183 cm are prevalent in the reaches of the Snake River that were sampled. However, white sturgeon >183 have not changed markedly since 1970. I would speculate that some factor other than past over-fishing practices is

  20. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kern, J. Chris; Ward, David L.; Farr, Ruth A.

    2002-02-01

    We report on our progress from April 2000 through March 2001 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW; Report A), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW; Report B), U.S. Geological Survey Biological Resources Division (USGS; Report C), Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC; Report D), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS; Report E), and Oregon State University (OSU; Report F). This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete; therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported. Highlights of results of our work from April 2000 through March 2001 are listed.

  1. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 1998-1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, David L.

    2000-12-01

    The authors report on their progress from April 1998 through March 1999 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW; Report A), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW; Report B), U.S. Geological Survey Biological Resources Division (USGS; Report C), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS; Report D), Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC; Report E), and the University of Idaho (UI; Report F). This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete. Therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported. Highlights of results of our work from April 1998 through March 1999 are given.

  2. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam, 1999-2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, David L.

    2001-04-01

    We report on our progress from April 1999 through March 2000 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW; Report A), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW; Report B), U.S. Geological Survey Biological Resources Division (USGS; Report C), Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC; Report D), and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS; Report E). This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete. Therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported. Highlights of results of our work from April 1999 through March 2000 are given.

  3. Multibeam Bathymetry to Measure Volumetric Change and Particle Size Distributions in the Snake River through Hells Canyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, K.; Morehead, M. D.; Anderson, K.; Wilson, T.; Butler, M.; Conner, J. T.; Hocker, B.

    2011-12-01

    Multi-beam bathymetry (MBB) surveys can be used to measure the change in storage and particle size distributions on riverbeds even in the inaccessible and rugged Hells Canyon reach of the Snake River. Our work to date has shown that differencing repeated MBB surveys can be an effective method of measuring volumetric changes in riverbed storage of sediment and that the data can also be used to categorize particle size distributions across the entire riverbed. The volumetric and particle size information allows us to investigate the patterns of sand and salmon spawning gravels and the underlying transport and supply processes. These methods will continue to be refined as part of Idaho Power's long-term compliance monitoring program and will provide a unique, long-term record of sediment transport in a steep, canyon-bound river. The Hells Canyon Reach of the Snake River flows north 95 kilometers from Hells Canyon Dam to the confluence with the Salmon River and forms the border between Idaho and Oregon. The reach contains 15 named rapids (Class II to IV) and has an average slope of approximately 0.002%, an average bankfull width of 75-100 m, and an extreme confinement ratio (bankfull width: floodplain width) of 1. The bankfull flow (recurrence interval of about 2 years) of 1,400 cms has not been changed by the construction of the Hells Canyon Complex (HCC) immediately upstream, because the HCC reservoirs can only store 11% of the mean annual flow and 87% of the upstream drainage area had already been impounded by dams. Most methods of bathymetric surveying and particle size characterization were developed in small, wadeable streams and cannot be used in large, unwadeable channels like Hells Canyon. Many of the previous methods also require too much time or effort to feasibly cover the 950 hectares of riverbed in Hells Canyon. Instead, we have adapted multibeam sonar technology typically used in coastal areas or large, low-gradient rivers to the steep, canyon

  4. Effects of Hydroelectric Dam Operations on the Restoration Potential of Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Spawning Habitat Final Report, October 2005 - September 2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Arntzen, Evan V.

    2007-11-13

    This report describes research conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as part of the Fish and Wildlife Program directed by the Northwest Power and Conservation Council. The study evaluated the restoration potential of Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat within the impounded lower Snake River. The objective of the research was to determine if hydroelectric dam operations could be modified, within existing system constraints (e.g., minimum to normal pool levels; without partial removal of a dam structure), to increase the amount of available fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the lower Snake River. Empirical and modeled physical habitat data were used to compare potential fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the Snake River, under current and modified dam operations, with the analogous physical characteristics of an existing fall Chinook salmon spawning area in the Columbia River. The two Snake River study areas included the Ice Harbor Dam tailrace downstream to the Highway 12 bridge and the Lower Granite Dam tailrace downstream approximately 12 river kilometers. These areas represent tailwater habitat (i.e., riverine segments extending from a dam downstream to the backwater influence from the next dam downstream). We used a reference site, indicative of current fall Chinook salmon spawning areas in tailwater habitat, against which to compare the physical characteristics of each study site. The reference site for tailwater habitats was the section extending downstream from the Wanapum Dam tailrace on the Columbia River. Fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat use data, including water depth, velocity, substrate size and channelbed slope, from the Wanapum reference area were used to define spawning habitat suitability based on these variables. Fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat suitability of the Snake River study areas was estimated by applying the Wanapum reference reach habitat

  5. Transporting juvenile salmonids around dams impairs adult migration.

    PubMed

    Keefer, Matthew L; Caudill, Christopher C; Peery, Christopher A; Lee, Steven R

    2008-12-01

    Mitigation and ecosystem-restoration efforts may have unintended consequences on both target and nontarget populations. Important effects can be displaced in space and time, making them difficult to detect without monitoring at appropriate scales. Here, we examined the effects of a mitigation program for juvenile salmonids on subsequent adult migration behaviors and survival. Juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (O. mykiss) were collected and uniquely tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags at Lower Granite Dam (Washington State, USA) on the Snake River and were then either transported downstream in barges in an effort to reduce out-migration mortality or returned to the river as a control group. Returning adults were collected and radio-tagged at Bonneville Dam (Washington-Oregon, USA) on the Columbia River 1-3 years later and then monitored during approximately 460 km of their homing migrations. The proportion of adults successfully homing was significantly lower, and unaccounted loss and permanent straying into non-natal rivers was higher, for barged fish of both species. On average, barged fish homed to Lower Granite Dam at rates about 10% lower than for in-river migrants. Barged fish were also 1.7-3.4 times more likely than in-river fish to fall back downstream past dams as adults, a behavior strongly associated with lower survival. These results suggest that juvenile transport impaired adult orientation or homing abilities, perhaps by disrupting sequential imprinting processes during juvenile out-migration. While juvenile transportation has clear short-term juvenile-survival benefits, the delayed effects that manifest in adult stages illustrate the need to assess mitigation success throughout the life cycle of target organisms, i.e., the use of fitness-based measures. In the case of Snake River salmonids listed under the Endangered Species Act, the increased straying and potential associated genetic and demographic

  6. Seismic hazards astride the boundary between the eastern Snake River Plain and northern Basin and Range Province Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, I.G.; Hemphill-Haley, M.A.; Sawyer, T.L. ); Coppersmith, K.J.; Youngs, R.R. ); Smith, R.P.; Jackson, S.M.; Hackett, W.R. ); Silva, W.J.; Stark, C.M. ); Knuepfer, P.L.K. . Dept. of Geological Sciences); Bruhn, R.L.; Wu, D. . Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

    1993-04-01

    The occurrence of the damaging 1983 M[sub w] 6.8 Borah Peak, Idaho earthquake, which ruptured a central segment of the Lost River fault, has increased the awareness of seismic hazards in this portion of the Northern Basin and Range Province (NBR). As a result, comprehensive deterministic and probabilistic seismic hazard analyses were performed for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) which is located within the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) but adjacent to the NBR. In this region, the most significant seismic sources are three late-Quaternary NBR normal faults, the Lost River, Lemhi and Beaverhead faults, and ESRP volcanic zones. For each source, the maximum earthquake, source geometry, recurrence and their uncertainties were estimated and incorporated into the probabilistic analysis through the use of logic trees. Recent paleoseismic trenching of the Lost River and Lemhi faults and volcanic mapping in the ESRP provided much of the data necessary to characterize the most significant seismic sources. Issues such as fault segmentation, temporal clustering, the nature of fault termination, and the maximum magnitude and recurrence of volcanic zone earthquakes were evaluated in the hazard analyses. Deterministic and probabilistic ground motions were computed using both empirical and stochastic approaches. In the deterministic analysis, the southern segments of the Lemhi fault controlled the hazard at the INEL due to their proximity and potential to generate M[sub w] [approximately]7 earthquakes. In the estimation of deterministic ground motions, potential rupture scenarios were evaluated for a Lemhi earthquake. In the probabilistic analysis, the hazard is dominated by the ESRP random earthquake, and the Lemhi and Lost River faults. The difference in the results of the two analyses points out the uncertainties in assessing seismic hazards due to random earthquakes and in regions of large but infrequent earthquakes.

  7. Survival, movement, and health of hatchery-raised juvenile Lost River suckers within a mesocosm in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hereford, Danielle M.; Burdick, Summer M.; Elliott, Diane G.; Dolan-Caret, Amari; Conway, Carla M.; Harris, Alta C.

    2016-01-01

    The recovery of endangered Lost River suckers (Deltistes luxatus) in Upper Klamath Lake is limited by poor juvenile survival and failure to recruit into the adult population. Poor water quality, degradation of rearing habitat, and toxic levels of microcystin are hypothesized to contribute to low juvenile survival. Studies of wild juvenile suckers are limited in that capture rates are low and compromised individuals are rarely captured in passive nets. The goal of this study was to assess the use of a mesocosm for learning about juvenile survival, movement, and health. Hatchery-raised juvenile Lost River suckers were PIT (passive integrated transponder) tagged and monitored by three vertically stratified antennas. Fish locations within the mesocosm were recorded at least every 30 minutes and were assessed in relation to vertically stratified water-quality conditions. Vertical movement patterns were analyzed to identify the timing of mortality for each fish. Most mortality occurred from July 28 to August 16, 2014. Juvenile suckers spent daylight hours near the benthos and moved throughout the entire water column during dark hours. Diel movements were not in response to dissolved-oxygen concentrations, temperature, or pH. Furthermore, low dissolved-oxygen concentrations, high temperatures, high pH, high un-ionized ammonia, or high microcystin levels did not directly cause mortality, although indirect effects may have occurred. However, water-quality conditions known to be lethal to juvenile Lost River suckers did not occur during the study period. Histological assessment revealed severe gill hyperplasia and Ichthyobodo sp. infestations in most moribund fish. For these fish, Ichthyobodo sp. was likely the cause of mortality, although it is unclear if this parasite originated in the rearing facility because fish were not screened for this parasite prior to introduction. This study has demonstrated that we can effectively use a mesocosm equipped with antennas to learn

  8. Reliability and longitudinal change of detrital-zircon age spectra in the Snake River system, Idaho and Wyoming: An example of reproducing the bumpy barcode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Link, Paul Karl; Fanning, C. Mark; Beranek, Luke P.

    2005-12-01

    Detrital-zircon age-spectra effectively define provenance in Holocene and Neogene fluvial sands from the Snake River system of the northern Rockies, U.S.A. SHRIMP U-Pb dates have been measured for forty-six samples (about 2700 zircon grains) of fluvial and aeolian sediment. The detrital-zircon age distributions are repeatable and demonstrate predictable longitudinal variation. By lumping multiple samples to attain populations of several hundred grains, we recognize distinctive, provenance-defining zircon-age distributions or "barcodes," for fluvial sedimentary systems of several scales, within the upper and middle Snake River system. Our detrital-zircon studies effectively define the geochronology of the northern Rocky Mountains. The composite detrital-zircon grain distribution of the middle Snake River consists of major populations of Neogene, Eocene, and Cretaceous magmatic grains plus intermediate and small grain populations of multiply recycled Grenville (˜950 to 1300 Ma) grains and Yavapai-Mazatzal province grains (˜1600 to 1800 Ma) recycled through the upper Belt Supergroup and Cretaceous sandstones. A wide range of older Paleoproterozoic and Archean grains are also present. The best-case scenario for using detrital-zircon populations to isolate provenance is when there is a point-source pluton with known age, that is only found in one location or drainage. We find three such zircon age-populations in fluvial sediments downstream from the point-source plutons: Ordovician in the southern Beaverhead Mountains, Jurassic in northern Nevada, and Oligocene in the Albion Mountains core complex of southern Idaho. Large detrital-zircon age-populations derived from regionally well-defined, magmatic or recycled sedimentary, sources also serve to delimit the provenance of Neogene fluvial systems. In the Snake River system, defining populations include those derived from Cretaceous Atlanta lobe of the Idaho batholith (80 to 100 Ma), Eocene Challis Volcanic Group and

  9. Evaluate Status of Pacific Lamprey in the Clearwater River Drainage, Idaho : Annual Report 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Cochnauer, Tim; Claire, Christopher

    2000-01-01

    Recent decline of Pacific lamprey Lampetra tridentata adult migrants to the Snake River drainage has focused attention on the species. Adult returns in 1995-1999 were more than ten magnitudes less than returns in the early 1960's. Human activities in the Snake River and Clearwater River drainages have altered ecosystem habitat in the last 100 years and likely the productive potential of Pacific lamprey habitat. Logging, stream impoundment, road construction, grazing, mining, and community development have dominated habitat alteration in the Clearwater River system and Snake River corridor. Hydroelectric projects in the Snake River corridor impact juvenile Pacific lamprey outmigrants and returning adults. Juvenile lamprey outmigrants potentially pass through turbines, turbine bypass and collection systems, and spillway structures at lower Snake River hydroelectric dams. Clearwater River drainage hydroelectric facilities including the Pacific Power and Light Dam on the Clearwater River in Lewiston, Idaho, impacted Pacific lamprey populations, however, the degree of impact is unknown (1920's-early 1970's). Hydroelectric dam construction (Harpster Dam) on the South Fork of the Clearwater River resulted in obstructed salmonid passage in the mid-1900's. Habitat alterations in the Snake River basin and Clearwater River drainage have had numerous negative effects on salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead trout O. mykiss populations (wild fish), but the magnitude of impacts on lamprey productivity and survival is unknown. Thorough understanding of Pacific lamprey habitat use and life history processes is needed to facilitate management and restoration of the species. Through Bonneville Power Administration support, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game began investigation into the status of Pacific lamprey populations in Idaho's Clearwater River drainage in 2000. Trapping, electrofishing, and spawning ground redd surveys were used to determine where Pacific lamprey persist

  10. 9. VIEW OF VILLAGE FROM LEFT BANK (SOUTH) OF SNAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF VILLAGE FROM LEFT BANK (SOUTH) OF SNAKE RIVER, FACING NORTHEAST. FOREGROUND SHOWS TYPICAL ROCK FORMATIONS. COTTAGE 281, NOT VISIBLE IN PHOTO #8, IS VISIBLE. - Swan Falls Village, Snake River, Kuna, Ada County, ID

  11. Habitat used by juvenile lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) in the North Channel of the St. Clair River (Michigan, USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boase, James C.; Manny, Bruce A.; Donald, Katherine A.L.; Kennedy, Gregory W.; Diana, James S.; Thomas, Michael V.; Chiotti, Justin A.

    2014-01-01

    Lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) occupy the St. Clair River, part of a channel connecting lakes Huron and Erie in the Laurentian Great Lakes. In the North Channel of the St. Clair River, juvenile lake sturgeon (3–7 years old and 582–793 mm in length) were studied to determine movement patterns and habitat usage. Fourteen juveniles were implanted with ultrasonic transmitters and tracked June–August of 2004, 2005 and 2006. Telemetry data, Geographic Information System software, side-scan sonar, video images of the river bottom, scuba diving, and benthic substrate samples were used to determine the extent and composition of habitats they occupied. Juvenile lake sturgeon habitat selection was strongly related to water depth. No fish were found in 700 mm in length selected sand and gravel areas mixed with zebra mussels and areas dominated by zebra mussels, while fish < 700 mm used these habitat types in proportion to their availability.

  12. Summary of Migration and Survival Data from Radio-Tagged Juvenile Coho Salmon in the Trinity River, Northern California, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeman, John W.; Hansel, Hal; Juhnke, Steve; Stutzer, Greg

    2009-01-01

    The survival of hatchery-origin juvenile coho salmon from the Trinity River Hatchery was estimated as they migrated seaward through the Trinity and Klamath Rivers. The purpose of the study was to collect data for comparison to a similar study in the Klamath River and provide data to the Trinity River Restoration Program. A total of 200 fish fitted with radio transmitters were released into the Trinity River near the hatchery (river kilometer 252 from the mouth of the Klamath River) biweekly from March 19 to May 28, 2008. Fish from the earliest release groups took longer to pass the first detection site 10 kilometers downstream of the hatchery than fish from the later release groups, but travel times between subsequent sites were often similar among the release groups. The travel times of individuals through the 239 kilometer study area ranged from 15.5 to 84.6 days with a median of 43.3 days. The data and models did not support differences in survival among release groups, but did support differences among river reaches. The probability of survival in the first 53 kilometers was lower than in the reaches farther downstream, which is similar to trends in juvenile coho salmon in the Klamath River. The lowest estimated survival in this study was in the first 10 kilometers from release in the Trinity River (0.676 SE 0.036) and the highest estimated survival was in the final 20 kilometer reach in the Klamath River (0.987 SE 0.013). Estimated survivals of radio-tagged juvenile coho salmon from release to Klamath River kilometer 33 were 0.639 per 100 kilometers for Trinity River fish and 0.721 per 100 kilometers for Klamath River fish.

  13. Sluiceway Operations to Pass Juvenile Salmonids at The Dalles Dam, Columbia River, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Khan, Fenton; Skalski, J. R.; Klatte, Bernard A.

    2013-11-20

    Existing ice and trash sluiceways are commonly used to pass juvenile salmonids downstream at hydropower dams through a benign, non-turbine route. At The Dalles Dam on the Columbia River, managers undertook optimizing operations of sluiceway weirs to maximize survival of juvenile salmonids at the powerhouse. We applied fixed-location hydroacoustic methods to compare fish passage rates and sluiceway efficiencies for two weir configurations during 2004 and 2005: three weirs versus six weirs, located at the mid- versus east powerhouse, respectively. We also analyzed horizontal distributions of passage at the sluiceway and turbines and the effects of operating turbines beneath open sluiceway gates to provide supporting data relevant to operations optimization. Based on the findings, we recommend the following for long-term operations for the sluiceway at The Dalles Dam: open six rather than three sluiceway weirs to take advantage of the maximum hydraulic capacity of the sluiceway; open the three weirs above the western-most operating main turbine unit (MU) and the three weirs at MU 8 where turbine passage rates are relatively high; operate the turbine units below open sluiceway weirs as a standard procedure; operate the sluiceway 24 h/d year-round to maximize its benefits to juvenile salmonids; and use the same operations for spring and summer emigrants. These operational concepts are transferable to dams where sluiceway surface flow outlets are used protect downstream migrating fishes.

  14. MFO activity and contaminant analysis of overwintering juvenile chinook salmon in the Fraser River

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.; Glickman, B.; Addison, R.; Gordon, R.; Martens, D.

    1995-12-31

    Various organic contaminants, including some PAHs, PCBs and chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans, induce liver cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP 1A1) and its associated enzyme activity (ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase; EROD). In this study, analysis of carcasses for dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and PCBs were compared to liver MFO activity. Juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) were sampled in March, 1994 at a reference site on the Nechako River free from the influence of industrial activity and at sites near Prince George, Stoner, Longbar and Soda Creek on the Fraser River, and on the Thompson River. Fish from the Nechako site had the lowest MFO activities, accompanied by the lowest whole body dioxin and furan concentrations. Fish from Longbar, Soda Creek and the Thompson River had the highest MFO activities. Fish from Prince George contained the highest dioxin concentrations, but furans and mono-ortho substituted PCBs were highest at the Soda Creek and Thompson sites. MFO activity correlated most strongly with PCB concentrations. The results of this study suggest that liver MFO activity in O. tshawytscha could be employed as one biological index of environmental quality in the Fraser River.

  15. Mixing zone hydrodynamics in a large confluence: a case study of the Snake and Clearwater Rivers confluence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shehata, M. M.; Petrie, J.

    2015-12-01

    Confluences are a basic component in all fluvial systems, which are often characterized by complex flow and sediment transport patterns. Addressing confluences, however, started only recently in parallel with new advances of flow measurement tools and computational techniques. A limited number of field studies exist investigating flow hydrodynamics through confluences, particularly for large confluences with central zone widths of 100 m or greater. Previous studies have indicated that the size of the confluent rivers and the post-confluence zone may impact flow and sediment transport processes in the confluence zone, which consequently could impact the biodiversity within the river network. This study presents the results of a field study conducted at the confluence of the Snake and the Clearwater rivers near the towns of Clarkston, WA and Lewiston, ID (average width of 700 m at the confluence center). This confluence supports many different and, sometimes, conflicting purposes including commercial navigation, recreation, and fish and wildlife conservation. The confluence properties are affected by dredging operations carried out periodically to maintain the minimum water depth required for safe flow conveyance and navigation purposes. Also, a levee system was constructed on the confluence banks as an extra flood control measure. In the recent field work, an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler was used to measure water velocity profiles at cross sections in the confluence region. Fixed and moving vessel measurements were taken at selected locations to evaluate both the spatial and temporal variation in velocity throughout the confluence. The confluence bathymetry was surveyed with a multi-beam sonar to investigate existent bed morphological elements. The results identify the velocity pattern in the mixing zone between the two rivers. The present findings are compared to previous studies on small confluences to demonstrate the influence of scale on flow processes.

  16. Identifying and Quantifying Sources of Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Gravel to the Snake River in Hells Canyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welcker, C. W.; Burke, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Snake River in Hells Canyon supports a growing population of spawning Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) immediately downstream of the Hells Canyon Complex (HCC) of hydroelectric dams for the last 60 years. The long-term survival of this salmon run depends on the input of spawning gravel (25-150 mm) from local tributaries balancing the losses of spawning gravel through attrition and export out of the reach between the HCC and the Salmon River confluence. We are working to quantify the gravel input of these local tributaries at different time-scales and put this into the context of historical supply and transport. Long-term total sediment production rates of these tributaries estimated through various methods have varied by over 2 orders of magnitude, but we have recently completed 10Be work to constrain these estimates. We are measuring the change in storage of Fall Chinook spawning-size gravel through repeat multibeam echosounder surveys of the riverbed. The limited amount of repeat data collected to date has shown complex patterns of change in the riverbed. One possible driver of this complexity is the episodic and spatially variable nature of sediment inputs from these tributaries. We are attempting to quantify the frequency of the debris flows or floods capable of transporting spawning gravel through digitizing historic imagery of the last 60 years to determine the recurrence interval. We are measuring the magnitude of these events by surveying tributary fans pre and post-event to measure the sediment volume and particle size produced by specific events. These floods and debris flows are driven by extreme rainfall or snowmelt events, so we have also reconstructed historical meteorological conditions to identify the triggering conditions for transport, and identify the areas where snowmelt or rainfall is the more likely trigger. We are currently testing whether the unique bedrock geology of Hells Canyon can be used as a tracer to identify the

  17. Physical Volcanology and Geochemistry of the Brown's Creek Rhyolite Lava in the Western Snake River Plain, Idaho.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steenberg, L.; Gruber, B.; Boroughs, S.; Wolff, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Brown's Creek rhyolite (BCR), ~70 km south of Boise, Idaho, erupted during a period of widespread rhyolitic volcanism in southwestern Idaho during the middle Miocene. However, the Brown's Creek unit has several characteristics that are unusual relative to near contemporaneous units in the Central Snake Rive Plain (CSRP) and units in the Western Snake River Plain (WSRP). The BCR can contain up to 40% phenocrysts, with some feldspar and quartz crystals in excess of 2 cm in diameter. A proximal vent location is particularly well exposed in the BCR, and appears as an elongated topographic "dome" with pervasive, chaotic and steep flow banding, ramp structures, and breccias. Evidence of dome building activity is also represented by a matrix supported deposit of ash and poorly sorted, angular, rhyolite clasts up to boulder size; which crops out in a small area near the vent. The BCR is among numerous units in the CSRP and WSRP that show evidence of interaction with ancient Lake Idaho (e.g. silicification, opalized zones, pepperites, etc), but the unconformity with the sedimentary rocks of the lake and its feeder streams, is extremely well preserved in the Brown's Creek rhyolite. Geochemically, the Brown's Creek rhyolite shows greater compositional variation in comparison to other individual units in the region. This variation (e.g. Ba/Sr and Zr/Nb) may be a result of variable crystal cargo in hand samples, but could potentially represent a zoned magma body, which is also extremely rare in the CSRP or WSRP. A limited number of samples have trace element concentrations/ratios (e.g. Rb, U, and Th) that may indicate the presence of a second unit underlying the dominant outcrops of BCR, but Nb/Ta ratios are relatively invariant across the entire BCR suite; if there are two units in the BCR, their sources are the same or very similar.

  18. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Achond, Stephen; Hockersmith, Eric E.; Sandford, Benjamin P.

    2003-07-01

    This report details the 2002 results from an ongoing project to monitor the migration behavior of wild spring/summer chinook salmon smolts in the Snake River Basin. The report also discusses trends in the cumulative data collected for this project from Oregon and Idaho streams since 1989. The project was initiated after detection data from passive-integrated-transponder tags (PIT tags) had shown distinct differences in migration patterns between wild and hatchery fish for three consecutive years. National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) investigators first observed these differences in 1989. The data originated from tagging and interrogation operations begun in 1988 to evaluate smolt transportation for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. In 1991, the Bonneville Power Administration began a cooperative effort with NMFS to expand tagging and interrogation of wild fish. Project goals were to characterize the outmigration timing of these fish, to determine whether consistent migration patterns would emerge, and to investigate the influence of environmental factors on the timing and distribution of these migrations. In 1992, the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) began an independent program of PIT tagging wild chinook salmon parr in the Grande Ronde and Imnaha River Basins in northeast Oregon. Since then, ODFW has reported all tagging, detection, and timing information on fish from these streams. However, with ODFW concurrence, NMFS will continue to report arrival timing of these fish at Lower Granite Dam.

  19. Post-Release Attributes and Survival of Hatchery and Natural Fall Chinook Salmon in the Snake River : Annual Report 1999.

    SciTech Connect

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Rondorf, Dennis W.

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes results of research activities conducted in 1999 and years previous. In an effort to provide this information to a wider audience, the individual chapters in this report have been submitted as manuscripts to peer-reviewed journals. These chapters communicate significant findings that will aid in the management and recovery of fall chinook salmon in the Columbia River Basin. Abundance and timing of seaward migration of Snake River fall chinook salmon was indexed using passage data collected at Lower Granite Dam for five years. We used genetic analyses to determine the lineage of fish recaptured at Lower Granite Dam that had been previously PIT tagged. We then used discriminant analysis to determine run membership of PIT-tagged smolts that were not recaptured to enable us to calculate annual run composition and to compared early life history attributes of wild subyearling fall and spring chinook salmon. Because spring chinook salmon made up from 15.1 to 44.4% of the tagged subyearling smolts that were detected passing Lower Granite Dam, subyearling passage data at Lower Granite Dam can only be used to index fall chinook salmon smolt abundance and passage timing if genetic samples are taken to identify run membership of smolts. Otherwise, fall chinook salmon smolt abundance would be overestimated and timing of fall chinook salmon smolt passage would appear to be earlier and more protracted than is the case.

  20. Thrust segment from the Antler orogeny identified north of the Snake River Plain, south-central Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Skipp, B. )

    1993-04-01

    A small segment of folded thrust fault places silicified, cleaved, folded, graptolite-bearing black mudstone, sandstone, and minor granule conglomerate of the Ordovician Phi Kappa Formation over unnamed cleaved, yellow, calcareous siltstone and silty limestone of Devonian to Silurian age in the Long Canyon area near Fish Creek Reservoir, within a kilometer of the north-central margin of the Snake River Plain. The thrust fault and rocks of both hanging wall and footwall are overlain by sandy limestone and pebble conglomerate of the Middle Pennsylvanian Hailey Member of the Wood River Formation along a locally faulted unconformable contact. Thus, the age of the thrust is bracketed as post-Devonian and pre-Middle Pennsylvanian, a period that encompasses the Antler orogeny. The Long Canyon thrust fault is the first direct evidence of contraction within rocks of the postulated Mississippian Antler highland in western Idaho. Indirect evidence such as penetrative axial plane cleavage in Devonian argillites of the Milligen Formation, not present in younger argillites, has been recognized for several years. The entire sequence of Ordovician through Pennsylvanian rocks constitutes the southernmost exposure of the hanging wall of the Mesozoic Pioneer thrust fault system. In this area, the footwall of the Pioneer thrust comprises Silurian through Devonian platform carbonate rocks overlain unconformably by Mississippian orogenic detritus derived from the western Antler highland.

  1. Renibacterium salmoninarum in spring-summer chinook salmon smolts at dams on the Columbia and Snake Rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, D.G.; Pascho, R.J.; Jackson, L.M.; Matthews, G.M.; Harmon, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    We evaluated Renibacterium salmoninarum infection in smolts of hatchery and wild spring-summer chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha sampled during most of the out-migration at Little Goose (1988) and Lower Granite dams (1988-1991) on the Snake River and at Priest Rapids and McNary dams on the Columbia River (1988-1990). We sampled 860-2,178 fish per dam each year. Homogenates of kidney-spleen tissue from all fish were tested for the presence of R. salmoninarum antigens by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and homogenates from 10% of the fish were examined by the fluorescent antibody technique (FAT). Although only 1-11% of fish sampled at a given dam during any 1 year exhibited lesions characteristic of bacterial kidney disease, 86-100% of the fish tested positive for R. salmoninarum antigen by ELISA, whereas 4-17% of the fish tested positive by the FAT. During most years, a majority (68-87%) of fish testing positive by the ELISA had low R. salmoninarum antigen levels, but in 1989, 53% of positive fish from Lower Granite Dam and 52% from McNary Dam showed medium-to-high antigen levels. For most years, the highest mean antigen levels were measured in fish sampled after 75% of the total out-migrants had passed a given dam. When the largest numbers of fish were being collected for bypass or downriver transportation, mean antigen levels were relatively low.

  2. Population Viability of the Snake River Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus Tshawytscha) : Recovery Issues for Threatened and Endangered Snake River Salmon : Technical Report 11 of 11.

    SciTech Connect

    Emlen, John Merritt

    1993-06-01

    A stochastic simulation model of spring chinook population dynamics was parameterized using 36 years of redd count data from five index streams on the middle fork of the Salmon River in Idaho. Two versions of the model, one in which spawning age structure was presumed to follow an evolutionarily stable strategy and another in which spawning age structure was constrained to observed values were examined. The models were then used to generate 1000 statistically representative population projections over the next 100 years to assess risk of extinction and prospects for stock rebuilding. Current levels of production and mortality appear to suffice for maintaining the status quo, virtually assuring persistence over the next 100 years, barring catastophes, but providing no hope for rebuilding. A doubling of the current population level over the next 100 years can be expected to follow an increase in {alpha} (density independent mortality or fry production) of 5 to 25%, but rebuilding to the population levels prevailing in the 1950`s will require an increase in {alpha} of at least 37%.

  3. Movement and habitat use of stocked juvenile paddlefish in the Ohio River system, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barry, P.M.; Carline, R.F.; Argent, D.G.; Kimmel, W.G.

    2007-01-01

    In 2002 and 2003 we released a total of 66 hatchery-reared, juvenile paddlefish Polyodon spathula (249-318 mm eye-to-fork length) in Pennsylvania's upper Ohio River system and tracked them with radiotelemetry in two different pools of the Ohio and Allegheny rivers to determine (1) poststocking survival, (2) whether release site influences survival, (3) dispersal distance and direction of movement, and (4) habitat selection. Survival was fair (mean = 78% in 2002 and 67% in 2003) for 0.23-0.43-kg paddlefish after 9 weeks. In 2003, fish stocked in the upstream half of the pool had a greater survival (100%) after 63 d than those stocked in the downstream half (44%). Within 4 d of stocking, 77% of juvenile paddlefish were located in tailwaters, and fish found these habitats regardless of stocking location. Habitat measurements at all postdispersal locations had median depths of 5.2 and 6.1 m in 2002 and 2003, respectively, and median near-surface velocities of 0.17 and 0.12 m/s. Fish selected tailwater habitats and avoided habitats with disturbance from commercial barge traffic in both years. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  4. Age-Specific Lipid and Fatty Acid Profiles of Atlantic Salmon Juveniles in the Varzuga River.

    PubMed

    Murzina, Svetlana A; Nefedova, Zinaida A; Pekkoeva, Svetlana N; Veselov, Alexey E; Efremov, Denis A; Nemova, Nina N

    2016-01-01

    The age-specific lipid and fatty acid profiles of juvenile Atlantic salmon at different ages (0+, 1+, and 2+ years) after hatching from nests located in the mainstream of a large Arctic River, the Varzuga River, and resettling to the favorable Sobachji shoal in autumn before overwinter are herein presented. The contemporary methods of the lipid analysis were used: thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography. The results show that the stability of the regulation of important functions in developing organisms is maintained through structural alterations in lipids. These alterations can be considered as a sequence of the modifications and changes in the ratios of certain lipid classes and fatty acids constituents. In general, changes in the lipids and fatty acids (FAs) maintained the physiological limits and controls through the adaptive systems of the organism. The mechanisms of juvenile fish biochemical adaptation to the environmental conditions in the studied biotope include the modification of the energy metabolism and anabolism, and here belongs to the energy characteristics of metabolic processes. PMID:27376274

  5. Juvenile river herring habitat use and marine emigration trends: comparing populations.

    PubMed

    Turner, Sara M; Limburg, Karin E

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile habitat use and early life migratory behaviors of successfully recruited adult fish provide unique insight into critical habitats for a population, and this information allows restoration plans to be tailored to maximize benefits. Retrospective analysis of adult otolith chemistry combined with fish-otolith growth models were used to assess juvenile nursery habitat selection and size at egress to adult habitats (marine waters) for anadromous alewife and blueback herring from 20 rivers throughout the eastern US. Between-species differences in the size of emigrants were small, with blueback herring found in freshwater nurseries ~ 8% more frequently than alewives, and alewives using a combination of freshwater and estuarine nurseries ~ 9% more than bluebacks. Estuarine nursery use was more common in populations at lower latitudes. No clear trends in sizes of emigrants or habitat use were observed between the species in watersheds where both co-occur. Principal component analysis of latitude, watershed area, estuary area, accessible river kilometers, and percentage of the watershed in urban use indicated that the combined effects of these watershed characteristics were correlated with size at egress. These results highlight the considerable plasticity in early life habitat use among populations of anadromous fishes as well as the effect of watershed characteristics on early life migration timing and strategies. PMID:26369780

  6. Age-Specific Lipid and Fatty Acid Profiles of Atlantic Salmon Juveniles in the Varzuga River

    PubMed Central

    Murzina, Svetlana A.; Nefedova, Zinaida A.; Pekkoeva, Svetlana N.; Veselov, Alexey E.; Efremov, Denis A.; Nemova, Nina N.

    2016-01-01

    The age-specific lipid and fatty acid profiles of juvenile Atlantic salmon at different ages (0+, 1+, and 2+ years) after hatching from nests located in the mainstream of a large Arctic River, the Varzuga River, and resettling to the favorable Sobachji shoal in autumn before overwinter are herein presented. The contemporary methods of the lipid analysis were used: thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography. The results show that the stability of the regulation of important functions in developing organisms is maintained through structural alterations in lipids. These alterations can be considered as a sequence of the modifications and changes in the ratios of certain lipid classes and fatty acids constituents. In general, changes in the lipids and fatty acids (FAs) maintained the physiological limits and controls through the adaptive systems of the organism. The mechanisms of juvenile fish biochemical adaptation to the environmental conditions in the studied biotope include the modification of the energy metabolism and anabolism, and here belongs to the energy characteristics of metabolic processes. PMID:27376274

  7. Migratory Behavior and Survival of Juvenile Salmonids in the Lower Columbia River, Estuary, and Plume in 2010

    SciTech Connect

    McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Skalski, John R.; Deters, Katherine A.; Ham, Kenneth D.; Townsend, Richard L.; Titzler, P. Scott; Hughes, Michael S.; Kim, Jin A.; Trott, Donna M.

    2011-09-01

    Uncertainty regarding the migratory behavior and survival of juvenile salmonids passing through the lower Columbia River and estuary after negotiating dams on the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) prompted the development and application of the Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS). The JSATS has been used to investigate the survival of juvenile salmonid smolts between Bonneville Dam (river kilometer (rkm) 236) and the mouth of the Columbia River annually since 2004. In 2010, a total of 12,214 juvenile salmonids were implanted with both a passive integrated transponder (PIT) and a JSATS acoustic transmitter. Using detection information from JSATS receiver arrays deployed on dams and in the river, estuary, and plume, the survival probability of yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead smolts tagged at John Day Dam was estimated form multiple reaches between rkm 153 and 8.3 during the spring. During summer, the survival probability of subyearling Chinook salmon was estimated for the same reaches. In addition, the influence of routes of passage (e.g., surface spill, deep spill, turbine, juvenile bypass system) through the lower three dams on the Columbia River (John Day, The Dalles, and Bonneville) on juvenile salmonid smolt survival probability from the dams to rkm 153 and then between rkm 153 and 8.3 was examined to increase understanding of the immediate and latent effects of dam passage on juvenile salmon survival. Similar to previous findings, survival probability was relatively high (>0.95) for most groups of juvenile salmonids from the Bonneville Dam tailrace to about rkm 50. Downstream of rkm 50 the survival probability of all species and run types we examined decreased markedly. Steelhead smolts suffered the highest mortality in this lower portion of the Columbia River estuary, with only an estimated 60% of the tagged fish surviving to the mouth of the river. In contrast, yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon smolts survived to the mouth

  8. Assessment of selected constituents in surface water of the upper Snake River basin, Idaho and western Wyoming, water years 1975-89

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Gregory M.

    1994-01-01

    A more extensive data-collection program in the upper Snake River Basin is needed to address a number of water-quality issues. These include an analysis of effects of land use on the quality of surface water; quantification of mass movement of nutrients and suspended sediment at key locations in the basin; distribution of aquatic organisms; and temporal and spatial distribution of pesticides in surface water, bottom sediment, and biota.

  9. The precipitation of aluminum, iron and manganese at the junction of Deer Creek with the Snake River in Summit County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Theobald, P.K., Jr.; Lakin, H.W.; Hawkins, D.B.

    1963-01-01

    The oxidation of disseminated pyrite in relatively acid schists and gneisses of the Snake River drainage basin provides abundant iron sulfate and sulfuric acid to ground and surface water. This acid water dissolves large quantities of many elements, particularly aluminum and surprisingly large quantities of elements, such as magnesium and zinc, not expected to be abundant in the drainage basin. The adjoining drainage to the west, Deer Creek, is underlain by basic rocks, from which the water inherits a high pH. Despite the presence of base- and precious- metal veins in the drainage basin of Deer Creek, it carries less metal than the Snake River. The principal precipitate on the bed of the Snake River is hydrated iron oxide with small quantities of the other metals. In Deer Creek manganese oxide is precipitated with iron oxide and large quantities of other metals are carried down with this precipitate. Below the junction of these streams the pH stabilizes at a near-neutral value. Iron is removed from the Snake River water at the junction, and aluminum is precipitated for some distance downstream. The aluminum precipitate carries down other metals in concentrations slightly less than that in the manganese precipitate on Deer Creek. The natural processes observed in this junction if carried to a larger scale could provide the mechanism described by Ansheles (1927) for the formation of bauxite. In the environment described, geochemical exploration by either water or stream sediment techniques is difficult because of (1) the extreme pH differential between the streams above their junction and (2) the difference in the precipitates formed on the streambeds. ?? 1963.

  10. Crustal deformation of the Yellowstone-Snake River Plain volcano-tectonic system-Campaign and continuous GPS observations, 1987-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Puskas, C.M.; Smith, R.B.; Meertens, Charles M.; Chang, W. L.

    2007-01-01

    The Yellowstone-Snake River Plain tectonomagmatic province resulted from Late Tertiary volcanism in western North America, producing three large, caldera-forming eruptions at the Yellowstone Plateau in the last 2 Myr. To understand the kinematics and geodynamics of this volcanic system, the University of Utah conducted seven GPS campaigns at 140 sites between 1987 and 2003 and installed a network of 15 permanent stations. GPS deployments focused on the Yellowstone caldera, the Hebgen Lake and Teton faults, and the eastern Snake River Plain. The GPS data revealed periods of uplift and subsidence of the Yellowstone caldera at rates up to 15 mm/yr. From 1987 to 1995, the caldera subsided and contracted, implying volume loss. From 1995 to 2000, deformation shifted to inflation and extension northwest of the caldera. From 2000 to 2003, uplift continued to the northwest while caldera subsidence was renewed. The GPS observations also revealed extension across the Hebgen Lake fault and fault-normal contraction across the Teton fault. Deformation rates of the Yellowstone caldera and Hebgen Lake fault were converted to equivalent total moment rates, which exceeded historic seismic moment release and late Quaternary fault slip-derived moment release by an order of magnitude. The Yellowstone caldera deformation trends were superimposed on regional southwest extension of the Yellowstone Plateau at up to 4.3 ± 0.2 mm/yr, while the eastern Snake River Plain moved southwest as a slower rate at 2.1 ± 0.2 mm/yr. This southwest extension of the Yellowstone-Snake River Plain system merged into east-west extension of the Basin-Range province. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  11. Smolt Migration Characteristics and Mainstem Snake and Columbia River Detection Rates of PIT-Tagged Grande Ronde and Imnaha River Naturally-Produced Spring Chinook Salmon, 1996 Annual Report : Fish Research Project, Oregon.

    SciTech Connect

    Sankovich, Paul; Keefe, MaryLouise; Carmichael, Richard W.

    1997-01-01

    This is the fifth year of a multi-year study to assess smolt migration characteristics and cumulative detection rates of naturally-produced chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), from northeast Oregon streams. The goal of this project is to develop an understanding of interpopulation and interannual variation in several early life history characteristics of naturally-produced chinook salmon from the Grande Ronde and Imnaha River subbasins. This project provides information useful in the recovery of listed Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. Specific populations included in the study are (1) Catherine Creek, (2) upper Grande Ronde River, (3) Lostine River, (4) Imnaha River, (5) Wenaha River, and (6) Minam River. In this document, we present findings from research completed in 1996. Naturally-produced chinook salmon populations in the Grande Ronde and Imnaha River subbasins have declined drastically in recent years due in part to habitat alterations and hydropower development. Declines have continued despite extensive mitigation efforts, including fish passage improvements, artificial production, supplementation, and habitat modification (BPA Division of Fish and Wildlife 1990). Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon (hereafter referred to as chinook salmon), which include naturally-produced chinook salmon in the Grande Ronde and Imnaha River subbasins, have been listed under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 as threatened or endangered since 1992.

  12. Iodine-129 in the Snake River Plain Aquifer at and Near the Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, 2003 and 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartholomay, Roy C.

    2009-01-01

    From 1953 to 1988, wastewater containing approximately 0.94 curies of iodine-129 (129I) was generated at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in southeastern Idaho. Almost all of this wastewater was discharged at or near the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) on the INL site. Most of the wastewater was discharged directly into the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer through a deep disposal well until 1984; however, some wastewater also was discharged into unlined infiltration ponds or leaked from distribution systems below the INTEC. In 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, collected samples for 129I from 36 wells used to monitor the Snake River Plain aquifer, and from one well used to monitor a perched zone at the INTEC. Concentrations of 129I in the aquifer ranged from 0.0000066 +- 0.0000002 to 0.72 +- 0.051 picocuries per liter (pCi/L). Many wells within a 3-mile radius of the INTEC showed decreases of as much as one order of magnitude in concentration from samples collected during 1990-91, and all of the samples had concentrations less than the Environmental Protection Agency's Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 1 pCi/L. The average concentration of 129I in 19 wells sampled during both collection periods decreased from 0.975 pCi/L in 1990-91 to 0.249 pCi/L in 2003. These decreases are attributed to the discontinuation of disposal of 129I in wastewater after 1988 and to dilution and dispersion in the aquifer. Although water from wells sampled in 2003 near the INTEC showed decreases in concentrations of 129I compared with data collected in 1990-91, some wells south and east of the Central Facilities Area, near the site boundary, and south of the INL showed slight increases. These slight increases may be related to variable discharge rates of wastewater that eventually moved to these well locations as a mass of water from a particular disposal period. In 2007, the USGS collected samples for

  13. Density and lithospheric strength models of the Yellowstone-Snake River Plain volcanic system from gravity and heat flow data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeNosaquo, Katrina R.; Smith, Robert B.; Lowry, Anthony R.

    2009-11-01

    The structure and composition of the Yellowstone-Snake River Plain (YSRP) volcanic system were analyzed using gravity data taken at over 30,000 stations in the YSRP and surrounding region. Additional constraints were provided by tomographic seismic velocity models, new heat flow and temperature information, GPS-derived strain rates, earthquake locations, and chemical analyses of volcanic rocks. P-wave velocity models and velocity-density data based on petrologic information were used to constrain three-dimensional density models. Rheology and strength properties were calculated at selected locations and compared to earthquake focal depths. Results of this study suggest that the lower crust of the Snake River Plain (SRP) has been thickened by the addition of an underplated layer composed primarily of clinopyroxene, having a density of 3200 kg/m 3. A mid-crustal high-density sill is composed of a series of gabbroic lenses inter-fingering with the granitic upper crust. This geometry yields a bulk composition comparable to diorite and a density of 2900 kg/m 3. The mid-crustal sill varies from 4 to 11 km in thickness, resulting in a series of SE-NW-trending gravity highs observed along the axis of the SRP. The mid-crustal sill extends up to 20 km southeast of the SRP volcanic field and causes asymmetry of the gravity field. The Yellowstone Plateau volcanic field density model reveals low-density partial melt 10 km beneath the caldera that shallows under the northeastern caldera, and continues laterally 20 km north of the caldera boundary and notably increases the previously estimated size of the magma reservoir by ~ 20%. The caldera melt body has a density of 2520 kg/m 3 and a significantly lower value of 2470 kg/m 3 for the northeastern caldera melt body. Southwest of Yellowstone, the crustal section occupied by the mid-crustal sill in the SRP and the partial melt in Yellowstone constitute a transition area between the active Yellowstone magma system and the now

  14. An Overview of the Origin of A-type Silicic Magmatism Along the Snake River Plain-Yellowstone Hotspot Track

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, E. H.; Bindeman, I. N.; Leishman, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Disparate models have been proposed for the origin of A-type rhyolites--a volumetrically minor part of modern terrestrial magmatism. But understanding the origin of A-type granites and rhyolites has significance for understanding the formation of the Earth's first silicic crust and for planetary magmatism--small volumes of such granitic materials have been found in lunar rocks, martian and asteroidal meteorites, and have been speculated to have formed on Venus. On other planets, vertical tectonics and plume-like mantle convection dominate, not the recycling of wet, oxidized plates of lithosphere as on Earth. Thus, understanding the origins of A-type silicic magma is important on multiple levels. Voluminous A-type rhyolite were produced on the Snake River Plain-Yellowstone hotspot track and provide the opportunity to better understand these important silicic magmas. Detailed petrologic studies suggest that most Snake River Plain rhyolites ultimately formed by partially melting of previously emplaced basaltic intrusions rather than by fractional crystallization of basalt or melting of Archean crust. This hypothesis is favored because of the bimodal association of rhyolite and basalt without linking intermediate compositions. In addition, incompatible element ratios (e.g., La/Nb, Pb/Ce), a lack of old zircon antecrysts, low-U inherited zircon, high ɛNd and ɛHf values, high eruption temperatures (1050°C to 850°C), low fO2 (near QFM), and H2O (as low as 1.5%), link the rhyolites to a plume-derived basaltic parent through partial melting with lesser incorporation of the Archean to Mesozoic crust that underlies the plain. Moreover, the contrast with wetter, lower temperature rhyolites that must have formed by direct crustal melting (e.g., Arbon Valley Tuff) strengthens this interpretation. Many of the rhyolites also have low δ18O values that must be produced in two stages: first by partial melting of already hydrothermally altered basalt, and subsequently in single

  15. Mechanics of brittle deformation and slope failure at the North Menan Butte tuff cone, Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okubo, C. H.

    2013-12-01

    The Menan Volcanic Complex consists of phreatomagmatic tuff cones that were emplaced as part of the regional volcanic activity in the Snake River Plain during the late Pleistocene. These tuff cones, the ';Menan Buttes', resulted from the eruption of basaltic magma through water-saturated alluvium and older basalts along the Snake River. The tuffs are composed primarily of basaltic glass with occasional plagioclase and olivine phenocrysts. The tuff is hydrothermally altered to a massive palagonitic tuff at depth but is otherwise poorly welded. Mass movements along the flanks of the cones were contemporaneous with tuff deposition. These slope failures are manifest as cm- to meter-scale pure folds, faults and fault-related folds, as well as larger slumps that are tens to a few hundred meters wide. Previous investigations classified the structural discontinuities at North Menan Butte based on orientation and sense of displacement, and all were recognized as opening-mode or shear fractures (Russell and Brisbin, 1990). This earlier work also used a generalized model of static (i.e., aseismic) gravity-driven shear failure within cohesionless soils to infer a possible origin for these fractures through slope failure. Recent work at North Menan Butte has provided novel insight into the styles of brittle deformation present, the effect of this deformation on the circulation of subsurface fluids within the tuff cone, as well as the mechanisms of the observed slope failures. Field observations reveal that the brittle deformation, previously classified as fractures, is manifest as deformation bands within the non-altered, poorly welded portions of the tuff. Both dilational and compactional bands, with shear, are observed. Slumps are bounded by normal faults, which are found to have developed within clusters of deformation bands. Deformation bands along the down-slope ends of these failure surfaces are predominantly compactional in nature. These bands have a ~3800 millidarcy

  16. Slab-controlled Tectonomagmatism of the Pacific Northwest: A Holistic view of Columbia River, High Lava Plains, and Snake River Plain/Yellowstone Volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, D. E.; Fouch, M. J.; Long, M. D.; Druken, K. A.; Wagner, L. S.; Chen, C.; Carlson, R. W.

    2012-12-01

    We interpret post-20 Ma tectonomagmatism across the U.S. Pacific Northwest in the context of subduction related processes. While mantle plume models have long enjoyed favor as an explanation for the post 20-Ma magmatism in the region, conceptually their support has hinged almost entirely on two major features: (1) Steens/Columbia River flood basalt volcanism (plume head); and (2) The Snake River Plain/Yellowstone hotspot track (plume tail). Recent work, synthesized in this presentation, suggests that these features are more plausibly the result of mantle dynamical processes driven by southerly truncation of the Farallon/Juan de Fuca subduction zone and slab detachment along the evolving margin of western North America (Long et al., 2012; James et al., 2011). Plate reconstructions indicate that shortening of the subduction zone by the northward migration of the Mendocino triple junction resulted in a significant increase in the rate of trench retreat and slab rollback ca 20 Ma. Both numerical modeling and physical tank experiments in turn predict large-scale mantle upwelling and flow around the southern edge of the rapidly retreating slab, consistent both with the observed Steens/Columbia River flood volcanism and with the strong E-W mantle fabric observed beneath the region of the High Lava Plains of central and eastern Oregon. The High Lava Plains and Snake River Plain time-progressive volcanism began concurrently about 12 Ma, but along highly divergent tracks and characterized by strikingly different upper mantle structure. Crustal and upper mantle structure beneath the High Lava Plains exhibits evidence typical of regional extension; i.e. thin crust, flat and sharp Moho, and an uppermost mantle with low velocities but otherwise largely devoid of significant vertical structure. In contrast, the Snake River Plain exhibits ultra-low mantle velocities to depths of about 180 km along the length of the hotspot track. Seismic images of the upper mantle in the depth

  17. Radio-Tracking Studies of Adult Chinook Salmon and Steelhead to Determine the Effect of ''Zero'' River Flow During Water Storage at Little Goose Dam on the Lower Snake River, Final Report of Research.

    SciTech Connect

    Liscom, Kenneth

    1985-09-01

    Allowable instantaneous minimum river flows are established in the Columbia and Snake Rivers to ensure safe passage of anadromous fish during their migration to the spawning grounds. However, water storage during periods of low power demands (at night and on weekends) would be beneficial to the power producers. This storage procedure is called ''zero'' river flow and is now permitted on a limited basis when there are few if any actively migrating anadromous fish present in the river system. Requests were made to extend ''zero'' river flow into periods when anadromous fish were actively migrating and a study was initiated. Radio-tracking studies were conducted on the Snake River between Lower Monumental and Little Goose Dams to determine the effect of ''zero'' river flow on the migration of adult chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, and steelhead, Salmo gairdneri. From July through September, 1981, a total of 258 steelhead and 32 chinook salmon were radio-tagged. The rate of migration was used to determine differences between test and control fish and a gamma distribution model was used to describe the migration rate for radio-tagged fish. Estimates of the parameters of the model were used to statistically compare ''zero'' flow and normal river flow conditions for the radio-tagged fish. The results show that the ''zero'' flow condition delays the migration of adult chinook salmon and steelhead; therefore, extended periods of ''zero'' flow to store water are not recommended when fish are actively migrating in the river system. 16 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs.

  18. Snake River fall Chinook salmon life history investigations: Annual report 2011 (April 2011 - March 2012)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Connor, William P.; Bellgraph, Brian J.; Kock, Tobias J.; Mullins, Frank; Steinhorst, R. Kirk; Christiansen, Helena E.; McCormick, Stephen D.; Ortega, Lori A.; Carter, Kathleen M.; Arntzen, Evan V.; Klett, Katherine J.C.; Deng, Z. Daniel; Abel, Tylor K.; Linley, Timothy J.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; St John, Scott J.; Erhardt, John M.; Bickford, Brad; Schmidt, Amanda; Rhodes, Tobyn

    2013-01-01

    Chapter Four – We conducted monthly beam trawling in Lower Granite and Little Goose reservoirs to describe the seasonal abundance of benthic epifauna that are potentially important as prey to juvenile fall Chinook salmon. The predominant taxa collected were Siberian prawns, the opossum shrimp Neomysis mercedis, and the amphipod Corophium sp. Prawns were relatively abundant at shallow sites in both reservoirs in June, but were more abundant at deep sites in lower and middle reservoir reaches in autumn. Prawn densities were commonly <0.2/m2. Prawn length-frequency data indicated that there were at least two size classes. Juvenile prawns present in shallow water more often than adult prawns, which were generally only found in deep water by autumn. Ovigerous prawns had an average of 171 eggs, which represented about 11.5% of their body weight. Limited diet analyses suggested that prawns consumed Corophium, Neomysis, and aquatic insects. Neomysis dominated all catches both in terms of abundance and biomass, and they were more abundant in Lower Granite compared to Little Goose reservoir. Neomysis were more abundant at shallow sites than at deep sites. Corophium were present in our collections but were never abundant, probably because our trawl was not effective at capturing them. The caloric content of prawns (4,782 Kcal), Neomysis (4,962 Kcal), and Corophium (4,926 Kcal) indicates that these prey would be energetically profitable for juvenile salmon. Subyearling fall Chinook salmon prey heavily on Neomysis and Corophium at times, but the importance of prawns as prey is uncertain.

  19. Tritium, stable isotopes and nitrogen in flow from selected springs that discharge to the Snake River, Twin Falls-Hagerman area, Idaho, 1990-93

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, L.J.; Low, W.H.

    1994-12-01

    In 1990-93, tritium concentrations in water from 19 springs along the north side of the Snake River near Twin Falls and Hagerman ranged from 9.2{+-}0.6 to 78.4{+-}5.1 picocuries per liter (pCi/L). The springs were placed into three categories on the basis of their locations and tritium concentrations: Category I springs are the farthest upstream and contained from 52.8{+-}3.2 to 78.4{+-}5.1 pCi/L of tritium; Category It springs are downstream from those in Category I and contained from 9.2{+-}0.6 to 18.5{+-}1.2 pCi/L; and Category III springs are the farthest downstream and contained from 28.3{+-}1.9 to 47.7{+-}3.2 pCi/L. Tritium concentrations in precipitation and in the Snake River were relatively large in the 1950`s and 1960`s owing to atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons. Conversely, tritium concentrations in ground water with a residence time of several tens to a few hundred years, as occurs in the Snake River Plain aquifer hydraulically upgradient from the Category II springs, are comparatively small because of the 12.4-year half-life of tritium. The conclusion that recharge from excess applied-irrigation water from the Snake River has affected tritium in the Snake River Plain aquifer is supported by differences in the deuterium (2H) and oxygen-18 (180) ratios of water. These ratios indicate that water discharged by the springs is recharged by waters of different origins. Irrigation recharge is more enriched in 2H and 180 than the regional ground water. Water from Category I springs is more enriched in 2H and 180 than is water from Category II or III springs because a large proportion of irrigation recharge mixes with the regional ground water in Category I springs. Nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen concentrations also are greater in water from Category I springs than in water from Category II springs.

  20. Monitoring and Evaluation of Smolt Migration in the Columbia Basin : Volume XVIII: Survival and Transportation Effects of Migrating Snake River Wild Chinook Salmon and Steelhead: Historical Estimates From 1996-2004 and Comparison to Hatchery Results. Draft.

    SciTech Connect

    Buchanan, Rebecca A.; Skalski, John R.; Broms, Kristin

    2008-12-03

    The combined juvenile and adult detection histories of PIT-tagged wild salmonids migrating through the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) were analyzed using the ROSTER (River-Ocean Survival and Transportation Effects Routine) statistical release-recapture model. This model, implemented by software Program ROSTER, was used to estimate survival on large temporal and spatial scales for PIT-tagged wild spring and summer Chinook salmon and steelhead released in the Snake River Basin upstream of Lower Granite Dam from 1996 to 2004. In addition, annual results from wild salmonids were compared with results from hatchery salmonids, which were presented in a previous report in this series (Buchanan, R. A., Skalski, J. R., Lady, J. L., Westhagen, P., Griswold, J., and Smith, S. 2007, 'Survival and Transportation Effects for Migrating Snake River Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead: Historical Estimates from 1996-2003', Technical report, Bonneville Power Administration, Project 1991-051-00). These results are reported here. Annual estimates of the smolt-to-adult return ratio (SAR), juvenile inriver survival from Lower Granite to Bonneville, the ocean return probability from Bonneville to Bonneville, and adult upriver survival from Bonneville to Lower Granite are reported. Annual estimates of transport-inriver (T/I) ratios and differential post-Bonneville mortality (D) are reported on a dam-specific basis for release years with sufficient numbers of wild PIT-tagged smolts transported. Transportation effects are estimated only for dams where at least 1,000 tagged wild smolts were transported from a given upstream release group. Because few wild Chinook salmon and steelhead tagged upstream of Lower Granite Dam were transported before the 2003 release year, T/I and D were estimated only for the 2003 and 2004 release years. Performance measures include age-1-ocean adult returns for steelhead, but not for Chinook salmon. Spring and summer Chinook salmon release groups

  1. Hydrodynamic modeling of juvenile mussel dispersal in a large river: The potential effects of bed shear stress and other parameters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Daraio, J.A.; Weber, L.J.; Newton, T.J.

    2010-01-01

    Because unionid mussels have a parasitic larval stage, they are able to disperse upstream and downstream as larvae while attached to their host fish and with flow as juveniles after excystment from the host. Understanding unionid population ecology requires knowledge of the processes that affect juvenile dispersal prior to establishment. We examined presettlement (transport and dispersion with flow) and early postsettlement (bed shear stress) hydraulic processes as negative censoring mechanisms. Our approach was to model dispersal using particle tracking through a 3-dimensional flow field output from hydrodynamic models of a reach of the Upper Mississippi River. We tested the potential effects of bed shear stress (??b) at 5 flow rates on juvenile mussel dispersal and quantified the magnitude of these effects as a function of flow rate. We explored the reach-scale relationships of Froude number (Fr), water depth (H), local bed slope (S), and unit stream power (QS) with the likelihood of juvenile settling (??). We ran multiple dispersal simulations at each flow rate to estimate ??, the parameter of a Poisson distribution, from the number of juveniles settling in each grid cell, and calculated dispersal distances. Virtual juveniles that settled in areas of the river where b > critical shear stress (c) were resuspended in the flow and transported further downstream, so we ran simulations at 3 different conditions for ??c (??c = ??? no resuspension, 0.1, and 0.05 N/m2). Differences in virtual juvenile dispersal distance were significantly dependent upon c and flow rate, and effects of b on settling distribution were dependent upon c. Most simulations resulted in positive correlations between ?? and ??b, results suggesting that during early postsettlement, ??b might be the primary determinant of juvenile settling distribution. Negative correlations between ?? and ??b occurred in some simulations, a result suggesting that physical or biological presettlement processes

  2. Assessment of nutrients, suspended sediment, and pesticides in surface water of the upper Snake River basin, Idaho and western Wyoming, water years 1991-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Gregory M.

    1997-01-01

    Quality Assessment Program. As part of the investigation, intensive monitoring was conducted during water years 1993 through 1995 to assess surface-water quality in the basin. Sampling and analysis focused on nutrients, suspended sediments, and pesticides because of nationwide interest in these constituents. Concentrations of nutrients and suspended sediment in water samples from 19 sites in the upper Snake River Basin, including nine on the main stem, were assessed. In general, concentrations of nutrients and suspended sediment were smaller in water from the 11 sites upstream from American Falls Reservoir than in water from the 8 sites downstream from the reservoir where effects from land-use activities are most pronounced. Median concentrations of dissolved nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen at the 19 sites ranged from less than 0.05 to 1.60 milligrams per liter; total phosphorus as phosphorus, less than 0.01 to 0.11 milligrams per liter; and suspended sediment, 4 to 72 milligrams per liter. Concentrations of nutrients and suspended sediment in the main stem of the Snake River, in general, increased downstream. The largest concentrations in the main stem were in the middle reach of the Snake River between Milner Dam and the outlet of the upper Snake River Basin at King Hill. Significant differences (p Nutrient and suspended sediment inputs to the middle Snake reach were from a variety of sources. During water year 1995, springs were the primary source of water and total nitrogen to the river and accounted for 66 and 60 percent of the total input, respectively. Isotope and water-table information indicated that the springs derived most of their nitrogen from agricultural activities along the margins of the Snake River. Aquacultural effluent was a major source of ammonia (82 percent), organic nitrogen (30 percent), and total phosphorus (35 percent). Tributary streams were a major source of organic nitrogen (28 percent) and suspended sediment (58 percent). In

  3. A new interpretation of deformation rates in the Snake River Plain and adjacent basin and range regions based on GPS measurements

    SciTech Connect

    S.J. Payne; R. McCaffrey; R.W. King; S.A. Kattenhorn

    2012-04-01

    We evaluate horizontal Global Positioning System (GPS) velocities together with geologic, volcanic, and seismic data to interpret extension, shear, and contraction within the Snake River Plain and the Northern Basin and Range Province, U.S.A. We estimate horizontal surface velocities using GPS data collected at 385 sites from 1994 to 2009 and present an updated velocity field within the Stable North American Reference Frame (SNARF). Our results show an ENE-oriented extensional strain rate of 5.9 {+-} 0.7 x 10{sup -9} yr{sup -1} in the Centennial Tectonic belt and an E-oriented extensional strain rate of 6.2 {+-} 0.3 x 10{sup -9} yr{sup -1} in the Intermountain Seismic belt combined with the northern Great Basin. These extensional strain rates contrast with the regional north-south contraction of -2.6 {+-} 1.1 x 10{sup -9} yr{sup -1} calculated in the Snake River Plain and Owyhee-Oregon Plateau over a 125 x 650 km region. Tests that include dike-opening reveal that rapid extension by dike intrusion in volcanic rift zones does not occur in the Snake River Plain at present. This slow internal deformation in the Snake River Plain is in contrast to the rapidly-extending adjacent Basin and Range provinces and implies shear along boundaries of the Snake River Plain. We estimate right-lateral shear with slip rates of 0.5-1.5 mm/yr along the northwestern boundary adjacent to the Centennial Tectonic belt and left-lateral oblique extension with slip rates of <0.5 to 1.7 mm/yr along the southeastern boundary adjacent to the Intermountain Seismic belt. The fastest lateral shearing occurs near the Yellowstone Plateau where strike-slip focal mechanisms and faults with observed strike-slip components of motion are documented. The regional GPS velocity gradients are best fit by nearby poles of rotation for the Centennial Tectonic belt, Idaho batholith, Snake River Plain, Owyhee-Oregon Plateau, and central Oregon, indicating that clockwise rotation is driven by extension to the

  4. Factors Affecting the Survival of Upstream Migrant Adult Salmonids in the Columbia River Basin : Recovery Issues for Threatened and Endangered Snake River Salmon : Technical Report 9 of 11.

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, Dennis D.; Mueller, Robert P.

    1993-06-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is developing conservation planning documentation to support the National Marine Fisheries Service`s (NMFS) recovery plan for Columbia Basin salmonid stocks that are currently listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Information from the conservation planning documentation will be used as a partial scientific basis for identifying alternative conservation strategies and to make recommendations toward conserving, rebuilding, and ultimately removing these salmon stocks from the list of endangered species. This report describes the adult upstream survival study, a synthesis of biological analyses related to conditions affecting the survival of adult upstream migrant salmonids in the Columbia River system. The objective of the adult upstream survival study was to analyze existing data related to increasing the survival of adult migrant salmonids returning to the Snake River system. The fate and accountability of each stock during its upstream migration period and the uncertainties associated with measurements of escapement and survival were evaluated. Operational measures that affected the survival of adult salmon were evaluated including existing conditions, augmented flows from upstream storage release, and drawdown of mainstem reservoirs. The potential impacts and benefits of these measures to each ESA stock were, also described based on considerations of species behavior and run timing.

  5. Brittle deformation and slope failure at the North Menan Butte tuff cone, Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Okubo, Chris H.

    2014-01-01

    The manifestation of brittle deformation within inactive slumps along the North Menan Butte, a basaltic tuff cone in the Eastern Snake River Plain, is investigated through field and laboratory studies. Microstructural observations indicate that brittle strain is localized along deformation bands, a class of structural discontinuity that is predominant within moderate to high-porosity, clastic sedimentary rocks. Various subtypes of deformation bands are recognized in the study area based on the sense of strain they accommodate. These include dilation bands (no shear displacement), dilational shear bands, compactional shear bands and simple shear bands (no volume change). Measurements of the host rock permeability between the deformation bands indicate that the amount of brittle strain distributed throughout this part of the rock is negligible, and thus deformation bands are the primary means by which brittle strain is manifest within this tuff. Structural discontinuities that are similar in appearance to deformation bands are observed in other basaltic tuffs. Therefore deformation bands may represent a common structural feature of basaltic tuffs that have been widely misclassified as fractures. Slumping and collapse along the flanks of active volcanoes strongly influence their eruptive behavior and structural evolution. Therefore characterizing the process of deformation band and fault growth within basaltic tuff is key to achieving a more complete understanding of the evolution of basaltic volcanoes and their associated hazards.

  6. Large-volume, low-δ18O rhyolites of the central Snake River Plain, Idaho, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boroughs, Scott; Wolff, John; Bonnichsen, Bill; Godchaux, Martha; Larson, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The Miocene Bruneau-Jarbidge and adjacent volcanic fields of the central Snake River Plain, southwest Idaho, are dominated by high-temperature rhyolitic tuffs and lavas having an aggregate volume estimated as 7000 km3. Samples from units representing at least 50% of this volume are strongly depleted in 18O, with magmatic feldspar δ18OVSMOW (Vienna standard mean ocean water) values between −1.4‰ and 3.8‰. The magnitude of the 18O depletion and the complete lack of any rhyolites with normal values (7‰–10‰) combine to suggest that assimilation or melting of a caldera block altered by near- contemporaneous hydrothermal activity is unlikely. Instead, we envisage generation of the high-temperature rhyolites by shallow melting of Idaho Batholith rocks, under the influence of the Yellowstone hotspot, affected by Eocene meteoric-hydrothermal events. The seeming worldwide scarcity of strongly 18O-depleted rhyolites may simply reflect a similar scarcity of suitable crustal protoliths.

  7. Radiocarbon studies of latest Pleistocene and Holocene lava flows of the Snake River Plain, Idaho: Data, lessons, interpretations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuntz, M.A.; Spiker, E. C.; Rubin, M.; Champion, D.E.; Lefebvre, R.H.

    1986-01-01

    Latest Pleistocene-Holocene basaltic lava fields of the Snake River Plain, Idaho, have been dated by the radiocarbon method. Backhoe excavations beneath lava flows typically yielded carbon-bearing, charred eolian sediment. This material provided most of the samples for this study; the sediment typically contains less than 0.2% carbon. Charcoal fragments were obtained from tree molds but only from a few backhoe excavations. Contamination of the charred sediments and charcoal by younger carbon components is extensive; the effects of contamination were mitigated but appropriate pretreatment of samples using acid and alkali leaches. Twenty of the more than 60 lava flows of the Craters of the Moon lava field have been dated; their ages range from about 15,000 to about 2000 yr B.P. The ages permit assignment of the flows to eight distinct eruptive periods with an average recurrence interval of about 2000 yr. The seven other latest Pleistocene-Holocene lava fields were all emplaced in short eruptive bursts. Their 14C ages (yr B.P.) are: Kings Bowl (2222?? 100), Wapi (2270 ?? 50), Hells Half Acre (5200 ?? 150), Shoshone (10,130 ?? 350), North Robbers and South Robbers (11.980 ?? 300), and Cerro Grande (13,380 ?? 350). ?? 1986.

  8. A comparative evaluation of conceptual models for the Snake River Plain aquifer at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, INEL

    SciTech Connect

    Prahl, C.J.

    1992-01-01

    Geologic and hydrologic data collected by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) are used to evaluate the existing ground water monitoring well network completed in the upper portion of the Snake River Plain aquifer (SRPA) beneath the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). The USGS data analyzed and compared in this study include: (a) lithologic, geophysical, and stratigraphic information, including the conceptual geologic models intrawell, ground water flow measurement (Tracejector tests) and (c) dedicated, submersible, sampling group elevations. Qualitative evaluation of these data indicate that the upper portion of the SRPA is both heterogeneous and anisotropic at the scale of the ICPP monitoring well network. Tracejector test results indicate that the hydraulic interconnection and spatial configuration of water-producing zones is extremely complex within the upper portion of the SRPA. The majority of ICPP monitoring wells currently are equipped to sample ground water only the upper lithostratigraphic intervals of the SRPA, primarily basalt flow groups E, EF, and F. Depth-specific hydrogeochemical sampling and analysis are necessary to determine if ground water quality varies significantly between the various lithostratigraphic units adjacent to individual sampling pumps.

  9. Geophysical logging studies in the Snake River Plain Aquifer at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: Wells 44, 45, and 46

    SciTech Connect

    Morin, R.H.; Paillet, F.L.; Taylor, T.A.; Barrash, W.

    1993-05-01

    A geophysical logging program was undertaken to vertically profile changes in the hydrology and hydrochemistry of the Snake River Plain aquifer underlies the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Field investigations were concentrated within an area west of the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) in three wells that penetrated the upper 190 feet of the aquifer. The logs obtained in these wells consisted of temperature, caliper, nuclear (neutron porosity and gamma-gama density), natural gamma, borehole televiewer, gamma spectral, and thermal flowmeter (with and without pumping). The nuclear, caliper, and televiewer logs are used to delineate individual basalt flows or flow units and to recognize breaks between flows or flow units at interflow contact zones and sedimentary interbeds. The temperature logs and flowmeter measurements obtained under ambient hydraulic head conditions identified upward fluid-circulation patterns in the three wells. Gamma-spectral analyses performed at several depths in each well showed that the predominant source of gamma radiation in the formation at this site originates mainly from potassium ({sup 40}K). However, {sup 137}Cesium was detected at 32 feet below land surface in well 45. An empirical investigation of the effect of source-receiver spacing on the response of the neutron-porosity logging tool was attempted in an effort to understand the conditions under which this tool might be applied to large-diameter boreholes in-unsaturated formations.

  10. Radiocarbon studies of latest Pleistocene and Holocene lava flows of the Snake River Plain, Idaho: Data, lessons, interpretations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuntz, Mel A.; Spiker, Elliott C.; Rubin, Meyer; Champion, Duane E.; Lefebvre, Richard H.

    1986-03-01

    Latest Pleistocene-Holocene basaltic lava fields of the Snake River Plain, Idaho, have been dated by the radiocarbon method. Backhoe excavations beneath lava flows typically yielded carbon-bearing, charred eolian sediment. This material provided most of the samples for this study; the sediment typically contains less than 0.2% carbon. Charcoal fragments were obtained from tree molds but only from a few backhoe excavations. Contamination of the charred sediments and charcoal by younger carbon components is extensive; the effects of contamination were mitigated but appropriate pretreatment of samples using acid and alkali leaches. Twenty of the more than 60 lava flows of the Craters of the Moon lava field have been dated; their ages range from about 15,000 to about 2000 yr B.P. The ages permit assignment of the flows to eight distinct eruptive periods with an average recurrence interval of about 2000 yr. The seven other latest Pleistocene-Holocene lava fields were all emplaced in short eruptive bursts. Their 14C ages (yr B.P.) are: Kings Bowl (2222± 100), Wapi (2270 ± 50), Hells Half Acre (5200 ± 150), Shoshone (10,130 ± 350), North Robbers and South Robbers (11.980 ± 300), and Cerro Grande (13,380 ± 350).

  11. Occurrence and flux of selected pesticides in surface water of the upper snake River Basin, Idaho and western Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, G.M.

    1997-01-01

    During May and June 1994, 37 water samples were collected at 31 sites in the upper Snake River Basin and analyzed for 83 pesticides and pesticide metabolites. EPTC, atrazine, and the atrazine metabolite deethylated atrazine were the most frequently detected and were found in 30, 20, and 13 of the samples, respectively. Fifteen additional pesticides were detected at least once. All the compounds detected were at concentrations of less than 1 microgram per liter. Total annual applications of EPTC and atrazine within subbasins and their instantaneous instream fluxes have a logarithmic relation with coefficients of determination (R2 values) of 0.55 and 0.62, respectively. At the time of sampling, the median daily flux of EPTC was about O. 0001% of the annual amount applied in a subbasin, whereas the median daily flux of atrazine was between 0.001 and 0.01%. The difference in fluxes between EPTC and atrazine probably results from differences in their physical properties and in the method and timing of application.

  12. Stochastic Model of Fracture Frequency Heterogeneity in a Welded Tuff EGS reservoir, Snake River Plain, Idaho, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moody, A.; Fairley, J. P., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    In light of recent advancements in reservoir enhancement and injection tests at active geothermal fields, there is interest in investigating the geothermal potential of widespread subsurface welded tuffs related to caldera collapse on the Snake River Plain (SRP). Before considering stimulation strategies, simulating heat extraction from the reservoir under in-situ fracture geometries will give a first-order estimation of extractable heat. With only limited deep boreholes drilled on the SRP, few analyses of the bulk hydrologic properties of the tuffs exist. Acknowledging the importance of the spatial heterogeneity of fractures to the permeability and injectivity of reservoirs hosted in impermeable volcanic units, we present fracture distributions from ICDP hole 5036-2A drilled as a part of Project HOTSPOT. The core documents more than 1200 m of largely homogeneous densely welded tuff hosting an isothermal warm-water reservoir at ~60˚ C. Multiple realizations of a hypothetical reservoir are created using sequential indicator algorithms that honor the observed vertical fracture frequency statistics. Results help form criteria for producing geothermal energy from the SRP.

  13. The 1988 INEL (Idaho National Engineering Laboratory) microearthquake survey near the western edge of the eastern Snake River Plain

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, S.M.; Anderson, D.M.; Carpenter, G.S.; Gilbert, H.K.; Martin, S.M.; Permann, P.J.

    1989-08-01

    A network of seventeen analog recording seismograph, spaced approximately 2 km apart, were operated from May to November, 1988 near the western edge of the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) to record small magnitude microearthquakes. Two three-component digital seismographs were also installed to record the microearthquake activity for analysis of earthquake source parameters and any regional earthquakes for possible analysis of the localized site and crustal effects of the ESRP on earthquake ground motions. We determined near-surface crustal velocities for this area that were slightly lower than the near-surface crustal velocities presently used in routine locations of events recorded by the INEL Seismic Network from five 100 lb surface blasts. During the survey period, only two earthquakes were located near the network area. One of the events occurred in May and was recorded by four of the portable seismic stations and two of the permanent INEL Seismic Network stations. It had a coda magnitude (M{sub c}) of approximately 0.3. The other event was recorded by seventeen portable analog stations and three of the permanent INEL Seismic Network stations. We located this microearthquake, M{sub c}=0.5, about 2 km west of Howe, Idaho, off of the ESRP. We determined an unconstrained focal mechanism for this event, which could be interpreted as normal faulting striking N 44{degree} W or strike-slip faulting on a plane striking either N 44{degree} W or N 47{degree} E. 26 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Bridging basalts and rhyolites in the Yellowstone-Snake River Plain volcanic province: The elusive intermediate step

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymanowski, Dawid; Ellis, Ben S.; Bachmann, Olivier; Guillong, Marcel; Phillips, William M.

    2015-04-01

    Many magmatic provinces produce strongly bimodal volcanism with abundant mafic and silicic magmas yet a scarcity of intermediate (55-65 wt.% SiO2) compositions. In such bimodal settings, much debate revolves around whether the basaltic magmas act as heat sources to melt pre-existing crust, or whether they are the parents to the silicic magmas (a fractionation-dominated evolution). Until now, this lack of coeval intermediate compositions has commonly been used to support models involving large degrees of crustal melting. Detailed analysis of mineral cargoes of ignimbrites from the 6.6-4 Ma Heise volcanic field in the famously bimodal Yellowstone-Snake River Plain (YSRP) volcanic province has revealed the existence of intermediate liquids associated with main stage rhyolitic volcanism. Two closely spaced rhyolitic ignimbrites, the Wolverine Creek Tuff and the Conant Creek Tuff, contain pyroxene crystals with major and trace elemental compositions in equilibrium with intermediate melts prior to significant plagioclase fractionation. Hosted within these crystals are glassy melt inclusions that have compositions (57-67 wt.% SiO2) directly recording the intermediate liquids. The combined mineral and melt inclusion data provide the first evidence for the occurrence of intermediate melts, typically erased in the high temperature YSRP ignimbrites by crystal resorption or diffusive re-equilibration. The results suggest the existence of mostly unerupted mid-crustal reservoirs that drive magma compositions towards the erupted rhyolites via assimilation-fractional crystallisation (AFC).

  15. Lethal levels of selected water quality variables to larval and juvenile Lost River and shortnose suckers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saiki, M.K.; Monda, D.P.; Bellerud, B.L.

    1999-01-01

    Resource managers hypothesize that occasional fish kills during summer-early fall in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, may be linked to unfavorable water quality conditions created by massive algal blooms. In a preliminary effort to address this concern, short-term (96-h-long) laboratory tests were conducted with larval and juvenile Lost River (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose (Chasmistes brevirostris) suckers to determine the upper median lethal concentrations (LC50s; also referred to as median tolerance limits) for pH, un-ionized ammonia, and water temperature, and the lower LC50s for dissolved oxygen. The mean LC50s varied among species and life stages as follows: for pH, 10.30-10.39; for un-ionized ammonia, 0.48-1.06 mg litre-1; for temperature, 30.35-31.82??C; and for dissolved oxygen, 1.34-2.10 mg litre-1. Comparisons of 95% confidence limits indicated that, on average, the 96-h LC50s were not significantly different from those computed for shorter exposure times (i.e., 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h). According to two-way analysis of variance, LC50s for the four water quality variables did not vary significantly (p > 0.05) between fish species. However, LC50s for pH (exposure times of 24 h and 48 h) and dissolved oxygen (exposure times of 48 h, 72 h, and 96 h) differed significantly (p ??? 0.05) between life stages, whereas LC50s for un-ionized ammonia and water temperature did not exhibit significant differences. In general, larvae were more sensitive than juveniles to high pH and low dissolved oxygen concentrations. When compared to ambient water quality conditions in Upper Klamath Lake, our results strongly suggest that near-anoxic conditions associated with the senescence phase of algal blooms are most likely to cause high mortalities of larval and juvenile suckers.

  16. Preliminary juvenile Lost River and shortnose sucker investigations in Clear Lake, California--2011 pilot study summary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burdick, Summer M.; Rasmussen, Josh

    2012-01-01

    Poor recruitment appears to limit the recovery of Lost River and shortnose sucker populations in Clear Lake Reservoir, California, but the cause is unknown. Adult suckers migrate up Willow Creek and its tributaries to spawn in some years, but low flow in Willow Creek may inhibit spawning migrations in other years. It is unclear whether spawning is successful, larvae survive, or juveniles persist to adulthood. Environmental variables associated with successful spawning or young-of-year survival have not been identified and early life history for these populations is poorly understood. The U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Ruby Pipeline L.L.C. Corporation (El Paso, Tex.) initiated a study in 2011 to better understand juvenile sucker life history in Clear Lake Reservoir, and to identify constraints in the early life history that may limit recruitment to the adult spawning populations. This is a report on the 2011 pilot study for this project.

  17. Use of glacier river-fed estuary channels by juvenile coho salmon: transitional or rearing habitats?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoem Neher, Tammy D.; Rosenberger, Amanda E.; Zimmerman, Christian E.; Walker, Coowe M.; Baird, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Estuaries are among the most productive ecosystems in the world and provide important rearing environments for a variety of fish species. Though generally considered important transitional habitats for smolting salmon, little is known about the role that estuaries serve for rearing and the environmental conditions important for salmon. We illustrate how juvenile coho salmonOncorhynchus kisutch use a glacial river-fed estuary based on examination of spatial and seasonal variability in patterns of abundance, fish size, age structure, condition, and local habitat use. Fish abundance was greater in deeper channels with cooler and less variable temperatures, and these habitats were consistently occupied throughout the season. Variability in channel depth and water temperature was negatively associated with fish abundance. Fish size was negatively related to site distance from the upper extent of the tidal influence, while fish condition did not relate to channel location within the estuary ecotone. Our work demonstrates the potential this glacially-fed estuary serves as both transitional and rearing habitat for juvenile coho salmon during smolt emigration to the ocean, and patterns of fish distribution within the estuary correspond to environmental conditions.

  18. Distinctive upper mantle anisotropy beneath the High Lava Plains and Eastern Snake River Plain, Pacific Northwest, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Lara S.; Long, Maureen D.

    2013-10-01

    The Pacific Northwest (PNW) has experienced voluminous intraplate volcanism over the past ˜17 Ma, beginning with the Steens/Columbia River flood basalts and continuing with the still-ongoing volcanism in the High Lava Plains (HLP) and eastern Snake River Plain (SRP). Here we present two complementary datasets (SKS splitting and Rayleigh wave phase velocity anisotropy) that place constraints on the anisotropic structure of the upper mantle beneath the HLP and SRP regions. Beneath the HLP, SKS phases reveal dominantly E-W fast splitting directions and large (up to ˜2.7 s) delay times, with pronounced lateral variations in δt. Lateral and depth variability in the strength of anisotropy beneath the HLP is also evident from Rayleigh wave dispersion. Beneath the SRP, SKS splitting delay times are much smaller (˜0.5 s), and surface wave observations suggest a region of upper mantle anisotropy (˜50-150 km depth) with a geometry that deviates significantly from the generally plate motion parallel fast directions observed just outside of the SRP. Beneath the HLP, the geometry of the anomalously strong anisotropy is similar to the anisotropy in the deeper parts of the upper mantle, resulting in constructive interference and large SKS splitting delay times. Beneath the SRP, the geometry of the anomalous anisotropic region in the shallow mantle is different, resulting in destructive interference and reduced SKS splitting delay times. We discuss several possible explanations for these observations, including variations in olivine lattice-preferred orientation (LPO) strength, transitions in olivine fabric type, and a contribution from aligned partial melt.

  19. Strain Rates and Contemporary Deformation in the Snake River Plain and Surrounding Basin and Range From GPS and Seismicity

    SciTech Connect

    S. J. Payne; R. McCaffrey; R. W. King

    2008-08-01

    New horizontal GPS velocities along with earthquakes, faults, and volcanic features are used to assess how strain is accommodated in the Northern Basin and Range Province. We used GPS phase data collected from 1994 to 2007 to estimate horizontal velocities for 132 stations within the Snake River Plain (SRP) and surrounding basin and range. These velocities show regional scale clockwise rotation indicating basal driving forces beyond those associated with the Yellowstone Hotspot. Within the western Centennial Tectonic Belt (CTB), the GPS measurements indicate the basin and range is extending at a rate between 5x10-9/yr and 10x10-9/yr, which is an order of magnitude greater than the strain rate we observe with GPS in the SRP, explaining its low seismicity. Between these two regions is the “Centennial Shear Zone”, a NE-trending zone of right-lateral shear with estimated slip rates that increase northeastward from 0.9±0.3 mm/yr in the SW to 1.7±0.2 mm/yr in NE. We interpret the new GPS velocities to indicate: 1) right-lateral shear may be accommodated by strike-slip earthquakes on NE-trending faults in the Centennial Shear Zone; 2) three basin and range faults (Lost River, Lemhi, and Beaverhead) do not extend into the SRP, but instead terminate at the SRP margin; and 3) extension in the SRP occurs at a much lower rate than the rate of normal faulting in the western CTB.

  20. Density, aggregation, and body size of northern pikeminnow preying on juvenile salmonids in a large river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, J.H.

    2001-01-01

    Predation by northern pikeminnow Ptychocheilus oregonensis on juvenile salmonids Oncorhynchus spp. occurred probably during brief feeding bouts since diets were either dominated by salmonids (>80% by weight), or contained other prey types and few salmonids (<5%). In samples where salmonids had been consumed, large rather than small predators were more likely to have captured salmonids. Transects with higher catch-per-unit of effort of predators also had higher incidences of salmonids in predator guts. Predators in two of three reservoir areas were distributed more contagiously if they had preyed recently on salmonids. Spatial and temporal patchiness of salmonid prey may be generating differences in local density, aggregation, and body size of their predators in this large river.

  1. Grain-size distribution and selected major and trace element concentrations in bed-sediment cores from the Lower Granite Reservoir and Snake and Clearwater Rivers, eastern Washington and northern Idaho, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braun, Christopher L.; Wilson, Jennifer T.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Weakland, Rhonda J.; Fosness, Ryan L.; Williams, Marshall L.

    2012-01-01

    Fifty subsamples from 15 cores were analyzed for major and trace elements. Concentrations of trace elements were low, with respect to sediment quality guidelines, in most cores. Typically, major and trace element concentrations were lower in the subsamples collected from the Snake River compared to those collected from the Clearwater River, the confluence of the Snake and Clearwater Rivers, and Lower Granite Reservoir. Generally, lower concentrations of major and trace elements were associated with coarser sediments (larger than 0.0625 millimeter) and higher concentrations of major and trace elements were associated with finer sediments (smaller than 0.0625 millimeter).

  2. Modelling the Influence of Long-Term Hydraulic Conditions on Juvenile Salmon Habitats in AN Upland Scotish River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabris, L.; Malcolm, I.; Millidine, K. J.; Buddendorf, B.; Tetzlaff, D.; Soulsby, C.

    2015-12-01

    Wild Atlantic salmon populations in Scottish rivers constitute an important economic and recreational resource, as well as being a key component of biodiversity. Salmon have very specific habitat requirements at different life stages and their distribution is therefore strongly influenced by a complex suite of biological and physical controls. Previous research has shown that stream hydrodynamics and channel morphology have a strong influence on the distribution and density of juvenile salmon. Here, we utilise a unique 20 year data set of spatially distributed juvenile salmon densities derived from annual electro-fishing surveys in an upland Scottish river. We examine to what extent the spatial and temporal variability of in-stream hydraulics regulates the spatial and temporal variability in the performance and density of juvenile salmon. A 2-D hydraulic model (River2D) is used to simulate water velocity and water depth under different flow conditions for seven different electro-fishing sites. The selected sites represent different hydromorphological environments including plane-bed, step-pool and pool riffle reaches. The bathymetry of each site was characterised using a total station providing an accurate DTM of the bed, and hydraulic simulations were driven by 20 year stream flow records. Habitat suitability curves, based on direct observations during electro-fishing surveys, were produced for a range of hydraulic indices for juvenile salmon. The hydraulic simulations showed marked spatial differences in juvenile habitat quality both within and between reaches. They also showed marked differences both within and between years. This is most evident in extreme years with wet summers when salmon feeding opportunities may be constrained. Integration of hydraulic habitat models, with fish preference curves and the long term hydrological data allows us to assess whether long-term changes in hydroclimate may be affecting juvenile salmonid populations in the study stream

  3. Multiscale Genetic Structure of Yellowstone Cutthroat Trout in the Upper Snake River Basin.

    SciTech Connect

    Cegelski, Christine C.; Campbell, Matthew R.

    2006-05-30

    Populations of Yellowstone cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii bouvierii have declined throughout their native range as a result of habitat fragmentation, overharvest, and introductions of nonnative trout that have hybridized with or displaced native populations. The degree to which these factors have impacted the current genetic population structure of Yellowstone cutthroat trout populations is of primary interest for their conservation. In this study, we examined the genetic diversity and genetic population structure of Yellowstone cutthroat trout in Idaho and Nevada with data from six polymorphic microsatellite loci. A total of 1,392 samples were analyzed from 45 sample locations throughout 11 major river drainages. We found that levels of genetic diversity and genetic differentiation varied extensively. The Salt River drainage, which is representative of the least impacted migration corridors in Idaho, had the highest levels of genetic diversity and low levels of genetic differentiation. High levels of genetic differentiation were observed at similar or smaller geographic scales in the Portneuf River, Raft River, and Teton River drainages, which are more altered by anthropogenic disturbances. Results suggested that Yellowstone cutthroat trout are naturally structured at the major river drainage level but that habitat fragmentation has altered this structuring. Connectivity should be restored via habitat restoration whenever possible to minimize losses in genetic diversity and to preserve historical processes of gene flow, life history variation, and metapopulation dynamics. However, alternative strategies for management and conservation should also be considered in areas where there is a strong likelihood of nonnative invasions or extensive habitat fragmentation that cannot be easily ameliorated.

  4. A review of crust and upper mantle structure studies of the Snake River Plain-Yellowstone volcanic system: A major lithospheric anomaly in the western U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iyer, H.M.

    1984-01-01

    The Snake River Plain-Yellowstone volcanic system is one of the largest, basaltic, volcanic field in the world. Here, there is clear evidence for northeasterly progression of rhyolitic volcanism with its present position in Yellowstone. Many theories have been advanced for the origin of the Snake River Plain-Yellowstone system. Yellowstone and Eastern Snake River Plain have been studied intensively using various geophysical techniques. Some sparse geophysical data are available for the Western Snake River Plain as well. Teleseismic data show the presence of a large anomalous body with low P- and S-wave velocities in the crust and upper mantle under the Yellowstone caldera. A similar body in which compressional wave velocity is lower than in the surrounding rock is present under the Eastern Snake River Plain. No data on upper mantle anomalies are available for the Western Snake River Plain. Detailed seismic refraction data for the Eastern Snake River Plain show strong lateral heterogeneities and suggest thinning of the granitic crust from below by mafic intrusion. Available data for the Western Snake River Plain also show similar thinning of the upper crust and its replacement by mafic material. The seismic refraction results in Yellowstone show no evidence of the low-velocity anomalies in the lower crust suggested by teleseismic P-delay data and interpreted as due to extensive partial melting. However, the seismic refraction models indicate lower-than-normal velocities and strong lateral inhomogeneities in the upper crust. Particularly obvious in the refraction data are two regions of very low seismic velocities near the Mallard Eake and Sour Creek resurgent domes in the Yellowstone caldera. The low-velocity body near the Sour Creek resurgent dome is intepreted as partially molten rock. Together with other geophysical and thermal data, the seismic results indicate that a sub-lithospheric thermal anomaly is responsible for the time-progressive volcanism along the

  5. Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Outmigration and Survival in the Lower Umatilla River Basin, Annual Report 1999-2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, Suzanne M.; Carmichael, Richard W.; Ehlers, Danette L.

    2002-04-01

    This is the sixth annual report of a multi-year project that monitors the outmigration and survival of hatchery and natural juvenile salmonids in the lower Umatilla River. This project supplements and complements ongoing or completed fisheries projects in the Umatilla River basin. Knowledge gained on outmigration and survival assists researchers and managers in adapting hatchery practices, flow enhancement strategies, canal and fish ladder operations, and supplementation and enhancement efforts for natural and restored fish populations. Findings from this study also measure the success of upriver habitat improvement projects and provide an overall evaluation of the Umatilla River fisheries restoration program.

  6. Evaluation of Juvenile Fish Bypass and Adult Fish Facilities at Water Diversions in the Umatilla River; 1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, Suzanne M.

    1993-03-01

    We report on our progress from October 1991 through September 1992 in evaluating juvenile fish bypass facilities at Three Mile Falls and Westland dams on the Umatilla River. We also report on our progress from October 1991 through June 1992 in evaluating adult fish passage in the lower Umatilla River and adult fish passage facilities at Three Mile Falls Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) and the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR). These are the study objectives addressed by ODFW and CTUIR: (1) Report A (ODFW): To evaluate the juvenile fish bypass facility in the West Extension Irrigation District Canal at Three Mile Falls Dam and document juvenile salmonid passage through the juvenile fish bypass facility and east-bank adult fish ladder. To measure velocity and develop trap designs at Westland Dam. (2) Report B (CTUIR): To examine the passage of adult salmonids at Three Mile Falls Dam. The study is part of a program to rehabilitate anadromous fish stocks in the Umatilla River Basin, including restoration of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), as well as enhancement of summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

  7. NON POINT SOURCE BASIN STATUS EVALUATION, LOWER SNAKE RIVER BASIN, IDAHO, JULY 1976

    EPA Science Inventory

    Region 10 has developed a nonpoint source assessment approach to assist EPA planners, land agencies, and state and local agencies in identifying probable nonpoint sources and determining their effect upon the fishable-swimmable aspect of Regional streams and rivers. Generally th...

  8. Genetic diversity of riperian populations of glycyrrhiza lepidota along the salmon and snake rivers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glycyrrhiza lepidota Pursh (Fabaceae; American wild licorice), is a nitrogen-fixing, perennial, facultative riparian species present along many dryland rivers in western North America, including the U.S., southern Canada and northern Mexico. Like Glycyrrhiza glabra, common licorice native to Europe,...

  9. Estimates of gains and losses for reservoirs on the Snake River from Blackfoot to Milner, Idaho, for selected periods, 1912 to 1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kjelstrom, L.C.

    1988-01-01

    Croplands in the semiarid central part of the Snake River Plain are dependent on the availability of irrigation water, most of which comes from the Snake River. Allocation of irrigation water from the river requires that gains and losses be determined for American Falls Reservoir, Lake Walcott, and Milner Lake. From 1912 to 1983, average ungaged inflow to American Falls Reservoir , determined from monthly water budgets, was 2,690 cu ft/sec. About 94% of this inflow was spring discharge and groundwater seepage; the remainder was from small tributaries and irrigation-return flow. Ungaged inflow estimated from water budgets for various periods correlated favorably with measured discharge of two springs and water levels in two wells. Discharge of Spring Creek was a better indicator of ungaged inflow than groundwater levels. Therefore, correlation with Spring Creek discharge was used in estimating ungaged inflow to American Falls Reservoir in 1983. Daily water budget calculations of ungaged inflow to American Falls Reservoir are less variable when storage changes are determined by using three stage-recording stations rather than one. Water budgets do not indicate large amounts of leakage from American Falls Reservoir, but small amounts of leakage are indicated because flow in downstream springs increased about 25% after reservoir storage began in 1926. Water budgets for Lake Walcott and Milner Lake show average annual net gains (1951-83) to Lake Walcott and Milner Lake of 245 and 290 cu ft/sec. These amounts are verified by monthly water budgets when discharge in the Snake River is low, and measured and estimated sources of inflow. Gains and losses estimated from daily water budgets are variable, owing to inadequate determination of (1) changes in reservoir storage, (2) streamflow, (3) lake surface precipitation, and (4) lake surface evaporation. Backwater effects are accounted for in the process used to determine storage in Milner Lake. (Author 's abstract)

  10. Evaluation of Juvenile Fall Chinook Salmon Stranding on the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Nugent, John; Nugent, Michael; Brock, Wendy

    2002-05-29

    The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) has been contracted through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Grant County Public Utility District (GCPUD) to perform an evaluation of juvenile fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) stranding on the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. The evaluation, in the fifth year of a multi-year study, has been developed to assess the impacts of water fluctuations from Priest Rapids Dam on rearing juvenile fall chinook salmon, other fishes, and benthic macroinvertebrates of the Hanford Reach. This document provides the results of the 2001 field season.

  11. Feeding bionomics of juvenile chinook salmon relative to thermal discharges in the central Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, C.D.

    1994-10-01

    Juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Hanford environs of the central Columbia River, Washington consumed almost entirely adult and larval stages of aquatic insects. The food organisms were dominated by midges (Diptera: Tendipedidae); by numbers, adult midges provided 64 and 58% of the diet and larval midges 17 and 18% of the diet, in 1968 and 1969, respectively. The families Hydropsychidae (Trichoptera), Notonectidae (Hemiptera) and Hypogastruridae (Collembola) were of secondary importance. Small fry fed almost exclusively on the small tendipedids. Over 95% of all food organisms originated within the river ecosystem. The distinctive features of food and feeding activity were fourfold: first, relatively few insect groups were utilized; second, the fish depended on drifting, floating, or swimming organisms; third, they visually selected living prey moving in or on the water; and fourth, they were habitat opportunists to a high degree. The 1969 data, were studied to reveal possible thermal effects of heated discharges from plutonium production reactors at Hanford on food and growth parameters. All data were characterized by considerable variation between and within stations. No discernable effects between coldwater and warmwater stations were revealed by analyses of: (1) groups of food organisms utilized, (2) food and feeding activity, (3) numbers of insects consumed, (4) seasonal increases in fish length, (5) fish length-weight relationships, (6) fish coefficients of condition, and (7) stomach biomass. The lack of detectable thermal effects was apparently due to the fact that the main effluent plumes discharge in midstream and the effluents are well mixed before reaching inshore feeding areas. The transient nature of fish groups at each station, influenced by changes in regulated river flows, and the availability of food organisms in the river drift were ecological factors affecting critical thermal evaluation in situ.

  12. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research; 1995 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Teuscher, David; Taki, Doug (Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, Fort Hall, ID

    1996-05-01

    This report contains studies which are part of the Bonneville Power Administration`s program to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife affected by the development and operation of hydroelectric facilities on the Columbia River and its tributaries. Attention is focused on population monitoring studies in the Sawtooth Valley Lakes. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  13. Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Outmigration and Survival in the Lower Umatilla River Basin, Annual Report 2003-2006.

    SciTech Connect

    White, Tara

    2007-02-01

    This report summarizes activities conducted by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife's Juvenile Outmigration and Survival M&E project in the Umatilla River subbasin between 2004-2006. Information is used to make informed decisions on hatchery effectiveness, natural production success, passage improvement and flow enhancement strategies. Data collected includes annual estimates of smolt abundance, migration timing, and survival, life history characteristics and productivity status and trends for spring and fall Chinook salmon, coho salmon and summer steelhead. Productivity data provided is the key subbasin scale measure of the effectiveness of salmon and steelhead restoration actions in the Umatilla River. Information is also used for regional planning and recovery efforts of Mid-Columbia River (MCR) ESA-listed summer steelhead. Monitoring is conducted via smolt trapping and PIT-tag interrogation at Three Mile Falls Dam. The Umatilla Juvenile Outmigration and Survival Project was established in 1994 to evaluate the success of management actions and fisheries restoration efforts in the Umatilla River Basin. Project objectives for the 2004-2006 period were to: (1) operate the PIT tag detection system at Three Mile Falls Dam (TMFD), (2) enhance provisional PIT-tag interrogation equipment at the east bank adult fish ladder, (3) monitor the migration timing, abundance and survival of naturally-produced juvenile salmonids and trends in natural production, (4) determine migration parameters and survival of hatchery-produced fish representing various rearing, acclimation and release strategies, (5) evaluate the relative survival between transported and non-transported fish, (6) monitor juvenile life history characteristics and evaluate trends over time, (7) investigate the effects of river, canal, fishway operations and environmental conditions on smolt migration and survival, (8) document the temporal distribution and diversity of resident fish species, and (9

  14. Monitoring recharge in areas of seasonally frozen ground in the Columbia Plateau and Snake River Plain, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mastin, Mark; Josberger, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Seasonally frozen ground occurs over approximately one‑third of the contiguous United States, causing increased winter runoff. Frozen ground generally rejects potential groundwater recharge. Nearly all recharge from precipitation in semi-arid regions such as the Columbia Plateau and the Snake River Plain in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington, occurs between October and March, when precipitation is most abundant and seasonally frozen ground is commonplace. The temporal and spatial distribution of frozen ground is expected to change as the climate warms. It is difficult to predict the distribution of frozen ground, however, because of the complex ways ground freezes and the way that snow cover thermally insulates soil, by keeping it frozen longer than it would be if it was not snow covered or, more commonly, keeping the soil thawed during freezing weather. A combination of satellite remote sensing and ground truth measurements was used with some success to investigate seasonally frozen ground at local to regional scales. The frozen-ground/snow-cover algorithm from the National Snow and Ice Data Center, combined with the 21-year record of passive microwave observations from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager onboard a Defense Meteorological Satellite Program satellite, provided a unique time series of frozen ground. Periodically repeating this methodology and analyzing for trends can be a means to monitor possible regional changes to frozen ground that could occur with a warming climate. The Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System watershed model constructed for the upper Crab Creek Basin in the Columbia Plateau and Reynolds Creek basin on the eastern side of the Snake River Plain simulated recharge and frozen ground for several future climate scenarios. Frozen ground was simulated with the Continuous Frozen Ground Index, which is influenced by air temperature and snow cover. Model simulation results showed a decreased occurrence of frozen ground that coincided with

  15. Rhyolites in the Kimberly Drill Core, Project Hotspot: First Intracaldera Ignimbrite from the Central Snake River Plain, Idaho?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, E. H.; McCurry, M. O.; Champion, D. E.; Bolte, T.; Holtz, F.; Knott, T.; Branney, M. J.; Shervais, J. W.

    2013-12-01

    most rhyolites from the Snake River Plain, all 3 units have the characteristics of A-type rhyolites with high concentrations of alkalies, high Fe/Mg and TiO2/MgO ratios, as well as high concentrations Nb, Y, Zr and Ga. Initial analyses of plag, cpx, and qtz show that all three units are low δ18O rhyolites, like most from the Central Snake River Plain-- δ18O in feldspar ranges from 1‰ in Rhyolite 1 to 3‰ in Rhyolites 2 and 3. In the thick lower ignimbrite, whole-rock δ18O increases systematically from the base upward (0.5‰ to as much as 9‰ in the altered top and δD ranges from -140 to -180‰). Whole rock variations correlate with water content, apparently controlled by secondary clay. We suggest that these characteristics were largely imposed by their derivation from partial melting of basaltic sills and surrounding older crust. The low δ18O values reflect recycling of hydrothermally altered crustal rocks and indicate progressive incorporation of more hydrothermally altered material into the younger magmas. More work is needed to establish correlation with regional units, understand the emplacement of the rhyolites and their volcanic setting, and ascertain the origin of these distinctive low δ18O, A-type rhyolites.

  16. Cosmogenic 3He and 21Ne age of the Big Lost River flood, Snake River Plain, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerling, Thure E.; Poreda, Robert J.; Rathburn, Sara L.

    1994-03-01

    The Big Lost River flood in southeastern Idaho occurred 20,500 calibrated yr B.P., on the basis of dates derived from cosmogenic 3He and 21Ne measurements of samples from flood-deposited boulders and from scour features. This date corresponds to a date of 16,90014C yr B.P. and is close in age to several other cataclysmic flood events in western North America; it may mark evidence for widespread warming at the end of the Pleistocene in western North America. The Big Lost River flood was smaller than some other late Pleistocene floods, such as the Bonnevi1le flood and the Missoula floods; thus, some samples exposed after the flood had significant amounts of cosmogenic 3He and 21Ne that was acquired before the flood occurred.

  17. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; Annual Progress Report, April 2007 - March 2008.

    SciTech Connect

    Mallette, Christine

    2009-07-28

    We report on our progress from April 2007 through March 2008 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW; Report A), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW; Report B), Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC; Report C), and Montana State University (MSU; Report D). This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete; therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported.

  18. Application of a parameter-estimation technique to modeling the regional aquifer underlying the eastern Snake River plain, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garabedian, Stephen P.

    1986-01-01

    A nonlinear, least-squares regression technique for the estimation of ground-water flow model parameters was applied to the regional aquifer underlying the eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho. The technique uses a computer program to simulate two-dimensional, steady-state ground-water flow. Hydrologic data for the 1980 water year were used to calculate recharge rates, boundary fluxes, and spring discharges. Ground-water use was estimated from irrigated land maps and crop consumptive-use figures. These estimates of ground-water withdrawal, recharge rates, and boundary flux, along with leakance, were used as known values in the model calibration of transmissivity. Leakance values were adjusted between regression solutions by comparing model-calculated to measured spring discharges. In other simulations, recharge and leakance also were calibrated as prior-information regression parameters, which limits the variation of these parameters using a normalized standard error of estimate. Results from a best-fit model indicate a wide areal range in transmissivity from about 0.05 to 44 feet squared per second and in leakance from about 2.2x10 -9 to 6.0 x 10 -8 feet per second per foot. Along with parameter values, model statistics also were calculated, including the coefficient of correlation between calculated and observed head (0.996), the standard error of the estimates for head (40 feet), and the parameter coefficients of variation (about 10-40 percent). Additional boundary flux was added in some areas during calibration to achieve proper fit to ground-water flow directions. Model fit improved significantly when areas that violated model assumptions were removed. It also improved slightly when y-direction (northwest-southeast) transmissivity values were larger than x-direction (northeast-southwest) transmissivity values. The model was most sensitive to changes in recharge, and in some areas, to changes in transmissivity, particularly near the spring discharge area from

  19. 1978 Yellowstone-eastern Snake River Plain seismic profiling experiment: Data and upper crustal structure of the Yellowstone region

    SciTech Connect

    Schilly, M.M.; Smith, R.B.; Braile, L.W.; Ansorge, J.

    1982-04-10

    Eleven in-line refraction profiles, recorded to distances of 300 km, and one azimuthal fan plot were constructed from data recorded with a 150-station array in the Yellowstone National Park area during the 1978 Yellowstone-Snake River Plain seismic experiment. Interpretations of the data suggest that the crustal P wave velocity model for the Yellowstone region is characterized by (1) an averaged 10-km-thick upper crustal layer, V/sub p/ = 6.0 km/s, (2) an average crustal velocity of 6.3 km/s, and (3) a total crustal thickness of 44 km. Velocity models are presented for profiles that emphasize the upper crust and show (1) a decrease in the depth to the top of the upper crustal crystalline basement from 5 km in southwestern Yellowstone near Island Park to 1 km at the northeast side of the Yellowstone Plateau that is interpreted as a progressive thinning of the silicic surface volcanic layer to the northeast and (2) evidence for a large lateral inhomogeneity interpreted to be a low-velocity body, with a decrease of at least 10% in P wave velocity, located beneath the northeast corner of the Yellowstone Plateau. The low-velocity zone coincides with a local -30-mgal residual gravity anomaly and is located beneath part of the Sour Creek resurgent dome and part of the Hot Springs Basin, the largest hydrothermal system in Yellowstone. The low-velocity body has a maximum depth to the top of 3 km and a minimum depth to the bottom of 9 km and may represent a zone of partial melt. In comparison to the thermally undisturbed upper crust of the surrounding Rocky Mountains the upper crust of the northeastern Yellowstone plateau appears laterally inhomogeneous in velocity and layer thickness, suggesting effects of thermal and magma intrusion, whereas the lower crust appears relatively homogeneous.

  20. Wellbore and groundwater temperature distribution eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho: Implications for groundwater flow and geothermal potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLing, Travis L.; Smith, Richard P.; Smith, Robert W.; Blackwell, David D.; Roback, Robert C.; Sondrup, Andrus J.

    2016-06-01

    A map of groundwater temperatures from the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) regional aquifer can be used to identify and interpret important features of the aquifer, including aquifer flow direction, aquifer thickness, and potential geothermal anomalies. The ESRP is an area of high heat flow, yet most of this thermal energy fails to reach the surface, due to the heat being swept downgradient by the aquifer to the major spring complexes near Thousand Springs, ID, a distance of 300 km. Nine deep boreholes that fully penetrate the regional aquifer display three common features: (1) high thermal gradients beneath the aquifer, corresponding to high conductive heat flow in low-permeability hydrothermally-altered rocks; (2) isothermal temperature profiles within the aquifer, characteristic of an actively flowing groundwater; and (3) moderate thermal gradients in the vadose zone with values that indicate that over half of the geothermal heat flow is removed by advective transport in the regional aquifer system. This study utilized temperature data from 250 ESRP aquifer wells to evaluate regional aquifer flow direction, aquifer thickness, and potential geothermal anomalies. Because the thermal gradients are typically low in the aquifer, any measurement of groundwater temperature is a reasonable estimate of temperature throughout the aquifer thickness, allowing the construction of a regional aquifer temperature map for the ESRP. Mapped temperatures are used to identify cold thermal plumes associated with recharge from tributary valleys and adjacent uplands, and warm zones associated with geothermal input to the aquifer. Warm zones in the aquifer can have various causes, including local circulation of groundwater through the deep conductively dominated region, slow groundwater movement in low-permeability regions, or localized heat flow from deeper thermal features.

  1. Abundance, Timing of Migration, and Egg-to-Smolt Survival of Juvenile Chum Salmon, Kwethluk River, Alaska, 2007 and 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burril, Sean E.; Zimmerman, Christian E.; Finn, James E.; U.S. Geological Survey; Gillikin, Daniel; U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

    2010-01-01

    To better understand and partition mortality among life stages of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta), we used inclined-plane traps to monitor the migration of juveniles in the Kwethluk River, Alaska in 2007 and 2008. The migration of juvenile chum salmon peaked in mid-May and catch rates were greatest when water levels were rising. Movement of chum salmon was diurnal with highest catch rates occurring during the hours of low light (that is, 22:00 to 10:00). Trap efficiency ranged from 0.37 to 4.04 percent (overall efficiency = 1.94 percent). Total abundance of juvenile chum salmon was estimated to be 2.0 million fish in 2007 and 2.9 million fish in 2008. On the basis of the estimate of chum salmon females passing the Kwethluk River weir and age-specific fecundity, we estimated the potential egg deposition (PED) upstream of the weir and trapping site. Egg-to-smolt survival, calculated by dividing the estimate of juvenile chum salmon emigrating past the weir site by the estimate of PED, was 4.6 percent in 2007 and 5.2 percent in 2008. In addition to chum salmon, Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha), coho salmon (O. kisutch), sockeye salmon (O. nerka), and pink salmon (O. gorbuscha), as well as ten other fish species, were captured in the traps. As with chum salmon, catch of these species increased during periods of increasing discharge and peaked during hours of low light. This study successfully determined the characteristics of juvenile salmon migrations and estimated egg-to-smolt survival for chum salmon. This is the first estimate of survival for any juvenile salmon in the Arctic-Yukon-Kuskokwim region of Alaska and demonstrates an approach that can help to partition mortality between freshwater and marine life stages, information critical to understanding the dynamics of salmon in this region.

  2. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 1997 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Achord, Stephen; Eppard, M. Brad; Hockersmith, Eric E.

    1998-05-01

    In August 1996, we PIT tagged and released 1,360 wild chinook salmon parr in the South Fork of the Salmon River and two of its tributaries in Idaho. During spring and summer 1997, the overall adjusted percentage of PIT-tagged fish from Idaho detected at six downstream dams averaged 18.3% (range 16.0 to 27.3% depending on stream of origin). Peak detections of all wild spring/summer chinook salmon smolts (from Idaho and Oregon) at Lower Granite Dam occurred during variable but increasing river flows in April. High river flows from mid-April to mid-May moved most of these fish through Lower Granite Dam, with 50 and 90% passage occurring on 24 April and 21 May, respectively. From 1989 to 1996, peak detections of wild spring/summer chinook salmon smolts were highly variable and generally independent of river flows before about 9 May at this dam; however, during these years (including 1997), peak detections of wild fish coincided with periods of peak flow at the dam from 9 May to the end of May. In both 1995 and 1996, in excess of 90% of the wild fish had migrated past Lower Granite Dam by the time peak flows occurred in June. In 1989, we observed a period of peak detections of wild fish that coincided with peak flows at the dam in June. After examining chinook salmon smolt passage timing at the dams over the last 9 years, it has become clear that flow is only one of several factors that influence passage timing. Other factors, such as annual climatic conditions, water temperature, turbidity, physiological development, variability in stock behavior, fish size, and other yet unknown conditions may equally affect wild smolt passage timing at dams. As additional environmental monitors and traps are installed in study streams, we will be able to more accurately monitor parr and smolt movements out of rearing areas and examine the relationships of these movements to environmental parameters within the streams. Mapped over time, this information will provide the basis for

  3. Research and Recovery of Snake River Sockeye Salmon, 1993 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kline, Paul A.

    1994-11-01

    Significant changes were made in the fitah rearing facilities at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game's (IDFG) Eagle Hatchery during the contract period. An outside rearing area was enclosed with fence and chicken wire and covered with 70% shade cloth. Seven circular tanks were installed to hold the outmigrante in separate groups while the inside of the hatchery building was modified. The concrete vats were removed and a concrete floor with drains was poured. Twenty 2-m and eight l-m semisquare fiberglass tanks were installed. The original water supply and degassing tower were left intact since they have functioned well. The pump and back-up generator were serviced. Water level sensors were installed for the alarm system, which was linked to the local ADT Security Systems operator to call both staff telephone numbers and pagers. This system has worked well. No photoperiod control has been used to date. At this phase of the project, no attempt to control water temperature was installed. The other option was to move any maturing fish to Sawtooth Fish Hatchery to complete maturation. This was not necessary for the first year of the project. Project security has been increased at Eagle by having the fish culturist and one temporary employee live on-site. This also decreases response time in emergencies. The second requirement for rearing juveniles was to design a rearing protocol and develop sampling protocols for genetics and pathology. The rearing protocol was derived with assistance of the Technical Oversight Committee (TOC), the scientific advisory group, and several fish culturists and nutritionists who were consulted informally. The standards were incorporated into the Research and Propagation Permit from National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), which was applied for during this project period (Appendix A). Pathology and genetics samples have been taken and processed from each fish which died during the rearing phase. These have been distributed in a timely

  4. Effect of activities at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory on the water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer in the Magic Valley study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartholomay, Roy C.

    1998-01-01

    Radiochemical and chemical constituents in wastewater generated at facilities of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) (figure 1) have been discharged to waste-disposal ponds and wells since the early 1950 s. Public concern has been expressed that some of these constituents could migrate through the Snake River Plain aquifer to the Snake River in the Twin Falls-Hagerman area Because of these concerns the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conduct three studies to gain a greater understanding of the chemical quality of water in the aquifer. One study described a one-time sampling effort for radionuclides, trace elements, and organic compounds in the eastern part of the A&B Irrigation District in Minidoka County (Mann and Knobel, 1990). Another ongoing study involves sampling for tritium from 19 springs on the north side of the Snake River in the Twin Falls-Hagerman area (Mann, 1989; Mann and Low, 1994). A third study an ongoing annual sampling effort in the area between the southern boundary of the INEEL and Hagerman (figure 1) (hereafter referred to as the Magic Valley study area), is being conducted with the Idaho Department of Water Resources in cooperation with the DOE. Data for a variety of radiochemical and chemical constituents from this study have been published by Wegner and Campbell (1991); Bartholomay, Edwards, and Campbell (1992, 1993, 1994a, 1994b); and Bartholomay, Williams, and Campbell (1995, 1996, 1997b). Data discussed in this fact sheet were taken from these reports. An evaluation of data collected during the first four years of this study (Bartholomay Williams, and Campbell, 1997a) showed no pattern of water-quality change for radionuclide data as concentrations randomly increased or decreased. The inorganic constituent data showed no statistical change between sample rounds.

  5. Long Lead-Time Forecasting of Snowpack and Precipitation in the Upper Snake River Basin using Pacific Oceanic-Atmospheric Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, S.; Tootle, G.; Parkinson, S.; Holbrook, P.; Blestrud, D.

    2012-12-01

    Water managers and planners in the western United States are challenged with managing resources for various uses, including hydropower. Hydropower is especially important throughout the Upper Snake River Basin, where a series of hydropower projects provide a low cost renewable energy source to the region. These hydropower projects include several dams that are managed by Idaho Power Company (IPC). Planners and managers rely heavily on forecasts of snowpack and precipitation to plan for hydropower availability and the need for other generation sources. There is a pressing need for improved snowpack and precipitation forecast models in the Upper Snake River Basin. This research investigates the ability of Pacific oceanic-atmospheric data and climatic variables to provide skillful long lead-time (three to nine months) forecasts of snowpack and precipitation, and examines the benefits of segregating the warm and cold phases of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) to reduce the temperature variability within the target dataset. Singular value decomposition (SVD) was used to identify regions of Pacific Ocean sea surface temperatures (SST) and 500mbar geopotential heights (Z500) for various lead times (three, six, and nine months) that were teleconnected with snowpack and precipitation stations in Upper Snake River Basin headwaters. The identified Pacific Ocean SST and Z500 regions were used to create indices that became predictors in a non-parametric forecasting model. The majority of forecasts resulted in positive statistical skill, which indicated an improvement of the forecast over the climatology forecast (no-skill forecast). The results from the forecasts models indicated that derived indices from the SVD analysis resulted in improved forecast skill when compared to forecasts using established climate indices. Segregation of the cold phase PDO years resulted in the identification of different regions in the Pacific Ocean and vastly improved skill for the nine month

  6. Tritium, stable isotopes, and nitrogen in flow from selected springs that discharge to the Snake River, Twin Falls-Hagerman area, Idaho, 1990-93

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mann, L.J.; Low, W.H.

    1994-01-01

    In 1990-93, water from 19 springs along the north side of the Snake River near Twin Falls and Hagerman contained from 9.2+0.6 to 78.4+5.1 picocuries per liter (pCi/L) of tritium. The springs were placed into three categories based on their locations and tritium concentrations: Category I was the upstream most and contained from 52.8+3.2 to 78.4+5.1 pCi/L of tritium; Category 11 was downstream from those in Category I and contained from 9.2+0.6 to 18.6+1.2 pCi/L; and Category III was the farthest downstream and contained from 28.3+1.9 to 47.7+3.2 pCi/L. Differences in tritium concentrations in the Category I, II, and III springs are a function of the ground-water flow regime, land use, and irrigation practices in and hydraulically upgradient from each category of springs. A comparatively large part of the water from the Category I springs is derived from recharge in heavily irrigated areas in which the irrigation water largely is diverted from the Snake River. A large part of the recharge for Category II springs occurs as much as 140 miles upgradient. Tritium concentrations in Category III springs indicate an intermediate proportion of the recharge is from excess applied-irrigation water. The concept that recharge from excess applied- irrigation water from the Snake River has affected tritium in the aquifer is supported by isotopic and nitrogen data. Deuterium and oxygen-18 isotopic values, and nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen concentrations in the flow of some springs has been impacted by irrigation.

  7. Analysis of steady-state flow and advective transport in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer system, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    Quantitative estimates of ground-water flow directions and traveltimes for advective flow were developed for the regional aquifer system of the eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho. The work included: (1) descriptions of compartments in the aquifer that function as intermediate and regional flow systems, (2) descriptions of pathlines for flow originating at or near the water table, and (3) quantitative estimates of traveltimes for advective transport originating at or near the water table. A particle-tracking postprocessing program was used to compute pathlines on the basis of output from an existing three-dimensional steady-state flow model. The flow model uses 1980 conditions to approximate average annual conditions for 1950-80. The advective transport model required additional information about the nature of flow across model boundaries, aquifer thickness, and porosity. Porosity of two types of basalt strata has been reported for more than 1,500 individual cores from test holes, wells, and outcrops near the south side of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The central 80 percent of samples had porosities of 0.08 to 0.25, the central 50 percent of samples, O. 11 to 0.21. Calibration of the model involved choosing a value for porosity that yielded the best solution. Two radiologic contaminants, iodine-129 and tritium, both introduced to the flow system about 40 years ago, are relatively conservative tracers. Iodine- 129 was considered to be more useful because of a lower analytical detection limit, longer half-life, and longer flow path. The calibration value for porosity was 0.21. Most flow in t