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Sample records for kagobutsu ni yoru

  1. Bridging exchange bias effect in NiO and Ni(core)@NiO(shell) nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinaldi-Montes, Natalia; Gorria, Pedro; Martínez-Blanco, David; Fuertes, Antonio B.; Fernández Barquín, Luis; Puente-Orench, Inés; Blanco, Jesús A.

    2016-02-01

    Among all bi-magnetic core(transition metal)@shell(transition metal oxide) nanoparticles (NPs), Ni@NiO ones show an onset temperature for the exchange bias (EB) effect far below the Néel temperature of bulk antiferromagnetic NiO. In this framework, the role played by the magnetism of NiO at the nanoscale is investigated by comparing the microstructure and magnetic properties of NiO and Ni@NiO NPs. With the aim of bridging the two systems, the diameter of the NiO NPs (~4 nm) is chosen to be comparable to the shell thickness of Ni@NiO ones (~2 nm). The EB effect in Ni@NiO NPs is attributed to the exchange coupling between the core and the shell, with an interfacial exchange energy of ΔE~0.06 erg cm-2, thus comparable to previous reports on Ni/NiO interfaces both in thin film and NP morphologies. In contrast, the EB detected in NiO NPs is explained in a picture where uncompensated spins located on a magnetically disordered surface shell are exchange coupled to the antiferromagnetic core. In all the studied NPs, the variation of the EB field as a function of temperature is described according to a negative exponential law with a similar decay constant, yielding a vanishing EB effect around T~40-50 K. In addition, the onset temperature for the EB effect in both NiO and Ni@NiO NPs seems to follow a universal dependence with the NiO crystallite size.

  2. Bonding in zerovalent Ni compounds - NiN2 and Ni(N2)4 compared with NiCO and Ni(CO)4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Barnes, Leslie A.

    1989-01-01

    Calculations are carried out on NiN2, which may be considered a prototypical metal surface-ligand system. A large Gaussian basis set and an MCPF treatment of electron correlation are used. Consideration is also given to the 2Sigma(+) states of NiN2(-), NiCO(-), and NiN2(+), the low-lying 2Delta and 2Pi states of NiN2(+), and the 1A1 states of Ni(CO)4 and Ni(N2)4.

  3. Ni-Co laterite deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marsh, Erin E.; Anderson, Eric D.

    2011-01-01

    Nickel-cobalt (Ni-Co) laterite deposits are an important source of nickel (Ni). Currently, there is a decline in magmatic Ni-bearing sulfide lode deposit resources. New efforts to develop an alternative source of Ni, particularly with improved metallurgy processes, make the Ni-Co laterites an important exploration target in anticipation of the future demand for Ni. This deposit model provides a general description of the geology and mineralogy of Ni-Co laterite deposits, and contains discussion of the influences of climate, geomorphology (relief), drainage, tectonism, structure, and protolith on the development of favorable weathering profiles. This model of Ni-Co laterite deposits represents part of the U.S. Geological Survey Mineral Resources Program's effort to update the existing models to be used for an upcoming national mineral resource assessment.

  4. The oxidation of Ni-rich Ni-Al intermetallics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doychak, J.; Smialek, J. L.; Barrett, C. A.

    1989-01-01

    The oxidation of Ni-Al intermetallic alloys in the beta-NiAl phase field and in the two phase beta-NiAl/gamma'-Ni3Al phase field has been studied between 1000 and 1400 C. The stoichiometric beta-NiAl alloy doped with Zr was superior to other alloy compositions under cyclic and isothermal oxidation. The isothermal growth rates did not increase monotonically as the alloy Al content was decreased. The characteristically ridged alpha-Al203 scale morphology, consisting of cells of thin, textured oxide with thick growth ridges at cell boundaries, forms on oxidized beta-NiAl alloys. The correlation of scale features with isothermal growth rates indicates a predominant grain boundary diffusion growth mechanism. The 1200 C cyclic oxidation resistance decreases near the lower end of the beta-NiAl phase field.

  5. The oxidation of Ni-rich Ni-Al intermetallics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doychak, Joseph; Smialek, James L.; Barrett, Charles A.

    1988-01-01

    The oxidation of Ni-Al intermetallic alloys in the beta-NiAl phase field and in the two phase beta-NiAl/gamma'-Ni3Al phase field has been studied between 1000 and 1400 C. The stoichiometric beta-NiAl alloy doped with Zr was superior to other alloy compositions under cyclic and isothermal oxidation. The isothermal growth rates did not increase monotonically as the alloy Al content was decreased. The characteristically ridged alpha-Al2O3 scale morphology, consisting of cells of thin, textured oxide with thick growth ridges at cell boundaries, forms on oxidized beta-NiAl alloys. The correlation of scale features with isothermal growth rates indicates a predominant grain boundary diffusion growth mechanism. The 1200 C cyclic oxidation resistance decreases near the lower end of the beta-NiAl phase field.

  6. Magnetic properties of Ni/NiO nanocomposites synthesized by one step solution combustion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganeshchandra Prabhu, V.; Shajira, P. S.; Lakshmi, N.; Junaid Bushiri, M.

    2015-12-01

    Ni/NiO nanocomposites were synthesized using solution combustion method and characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX) and carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen (CHN) analyser. The Ni or NiO content in Ni/NiO nanocomposites vary with the quantity of HNO3 used for the synthesis. Magnetic coercivity (Hc) of Ni/NiO nanocomposites is found to be 413 Oe which can be used in magnetic applications. A feeble exchange bias of 7 Oe is seen from the NiO rich Ni/NiO.

  7. Reactive Ni/Ti nanolaminates

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D. P.; Bai, M. M.; Rodriguez, M. A.; McDonald, J. P.; Jones, E. Jr.; Brewer, L.; Moore, J. J.

    2009-11-01

    Nickel/titanium nanolaminates fabricated by sputter deposition exhibited rapid, high-temperature synthesis. When heated locally, self-sustained reactions were produced in freestanding Ni/Ti multilayer foils characterized by average propagation speeds between approx0.1 and 1.4 m/s. The speed of a propagating reaction front was affected by total foil thickness and bilayer thickness (layer periodicity). In contrast to previous work with compacted Ni-Ti powders, no preheating of Ni/Ti foils was required to maintain self-propagating reactions. High-temperature synthesis was also stimulated by rapid global heating demonstrating low ignition temperatures (T{sub ig})approx300-400 deg. C for nanolaminates. Ignition temperature was influenced by bilayer thickness with more coarse laminate designs exhibiting increased T{sub ig}. Foils reacted in a vacuum apparatus developed either as single-phase B2 cubic NiTi (austenite) or as a mixed-phase structure that was composed of monoclinic B19{sup '} NiTi (martensite), hexagonal NiTi{sub 2}, and B2 NiTi. Single-phase, cubic B2 NiTi generally formed when the initial bilayer thickness was made small.

  8. Interdiffusion in the Ni/TD-NiCr and Cr/TD-NiCr systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pawar, A. V.; Tenney, D. R.

    1974-01-01

    The diffusion of Ni and Cr into TD-NiCr has been studied over the 900 to 1100 C temperature range. The diffusion couples were prepared by electroplating Cr and Ni on polished TD-NiCr wafers. Concentration profiles produced as a result of isothermal diffusion at 905, 1000, and 1100 C were determined by electron microprobe analysis. The Boltzmann-Matano analysis was used to determine concentration-dependent diffusion coefficients which were found to compare favorably with previously reported values. These data suggest that 2 vol % ThO2 distribution has no appreciable effect on the rates of diffusion in TD-NiCr with a large grain size. This supports the view that an inert dispersoid in an alloy matrix will not in itself lead to enhanced diffusion unless a short-circuit diffusion structure is stabilized.

  9. Synthesis and electrochemical behavior of nanostructured cauliflower-shape Co-Ni/Co-Ni oxides composites

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Vinay Kawaguchi, Toshikazu; Miura, Norio

    2009-01-08

    Nanostructured Co-Ni/Co-Ni oxides were electrochemically deposited onto stainless steel electrode by electrochemical method and characterized for their structural and supercapacitive properties. The SEM images indicated that the obtained Co-Ni/Co-Ni oxides had cauliflower-type nanostructure. The X-ray diffraction pattern showed the formation of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}, NiO, Co and Ni. The EDX elemental mapping images indicated that Ni, Co and O are distributed uniformly. The deposited Co-Ni/Co-Ni oxides showed good supercapacitive characteristics with a specific capacitance of 331 F/g at 1 mA/cm{sup 2} current density in 1 M KOH electrolyte. A mechanism of the formation of cauliflower-shape Co-Ni/Co-Ni oxides was proposed. A variety of promising applications in the fields such as energy storage devices and sensors can be envisioned from Co-Ni/Co-Ni oxides.

  10. Domain Structures and Anisotropy in Exchange-coupled [Co/Pd]-NiFe and [Co/Ni]-NiFe Multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tryputen, Larysa; Chung, Sunjae; Mohseni, Majid; Nguyen, T. N. Anh; Åkerman, Johan; Guo, Feng; McMichael, Robert D.; Ross, Caroline A.

    2014-03-01

    Exchange-coupled multilayers [Co/Pd]5-/NiFe and [Co/Ni]4-NiFe with strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy have been proposed to use in spin-torque switching and oscillators devices with tilted fixed and free layer to improve their functional performance. We present an experimental study of the magnetization behavior of [Co/Pd]5-/NiFe and [Co/Ni]4-NiFe multilayers measured using magnetometry, magnetic force microscopy (MFM) and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) as a function of the thickness of the top NiFe layer. We varied the thickness of the NiFe layer in [Co/Pd]5-NiFe (t), t = 0 - 80 nm and [Co/Ni]4-NiFe (t), t = 0.5 - 2.5 nm in order to study the interplay between perpendicular magnetization of the Co/Pd or Co/Ni multilayers and in-plane magnetization of the NiFe. Our magnetometry and FMR data suggest that the [Co/Ni]4/NiFe multilayer behaves like a homogeneous ferromagnetic film with anisotropy that reorients towards in-plane as the NiFe thickness increases, whereas the [Co/Pd]5/NiFe multilayer reveals more complex behavior in which the [Co/Pd] layer retains out-of-plane anisotropy while the magnetization of NiFe layer tilts in-plane with increasing thickness. MFM showed that domains with ~0.1 +/-m size were visible in [Co/Pd]-/NiFe with NiFe thickness of 20-80 nm. Multilayers were patterned into sub-100 nm dots using ion beam etching and their magnetization behavior are compared with unpatterned films.

  11. Measurement of 59Ni and 63Ni by accelerator mass spectrometry at CIAE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoming; He, Ming; Ruan, Xiangdong; Xu, Yongning; Shen, Hongtao; Du, Liang; Xiao, Caijin; Dong, Kejun; Jiang, Shan; Yang, Xuran; Lan, Xiaoxi; Wu, Shaoyong; Zhao, Qingzhang; Cai, Li; Pang, Fangfang

    2015-10-01

    The long lived isotopes 59Ni and 63Ni can be used in many areas such as radioactive waste management, neutron dosimetry, cosmic radiation study, and so on. Based on the large accelerator and a big Q3D magnetic spectrometer, the measurement method for 59Ni and 63Ni is under development at the AMS facility at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). By using the ΔE-Q3D technique with the Q3D magnetic spectrometer, the isobaric interferences were greatly reduced in the measurements of 59Ni and 63Ni. A four anode gas ionization chamber was then used to further identify isobars. With these techniques, the abundance sensitivities of 59Ni and 63Ni measurements are determined as 59Ni/Ni = 1 × 10-13 and 63Ni/Ni = 2 × 10-12, respectively.

  12. Thermal modeling of NiH2 batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponthus, Agnes-Marie; Alexandre, Alain

    1994-01-01

    The following are discussed: NiH2 battery mission and environment; NiH2 cell heat dissipation; Nodal software; model development general philosophy; NiH2 battery model development; and NiH2 experimental developments.

  13. Ni5, Ni8, and Ni10 clusters with 2,6-diacetylpyridine-dioxime as a ligand.

    PubMed

    Escuer, Albert; Esteban, Jordi; Roubeau, Olivier

    2011-09-19

    In the present work, novel coordination possibilities for the system dapdoH(2)/Ni(II) (dapdoH(2) = 2,6-diacetylpyridine-dioxime) have been explored. Depending on the starting reagents and solution conditions, several clusters with nuclearities ranging from Ni(5) to Ni(10) were achieved and structurally characterized, namely, [Ni(5)(R-COO)(2)(dapdo)(2)(dapdoH)(2)(N(CN)(2))(2)(MeOH)(2)] in which R-COO(-) = benzoate (1) or 3-chlorobenzoate (2), [Ni(8)(dapdo)(4)(NO(3))(4)(OH)(4)(MeOH)(4)] (3), and [Ni(10)(dapdo)(8)(N(CN)(2))(2)(MeO)(MeOH)](NO(3)) (4). For the first time, pentadentate coordination for the dapdo(2-) ligand has been established. All compounds show a combination of square-planar and octahedrally coordinated nickel atoms. According to the Ni(2)(sp)Ni(3)(Oh) (1 and 2), Ni(4)(sp)Ni(4)(Oh) (3), and Ni(4)(sp)Ni(6)(Oh) (4) environments, these systems magnetically behave as trimer, tetramer, and hexanuclear clusters, respectively. dc magnetic measurements in the 2-300 K range of temperature reveal antiferromagnetic coupling for all compounds, and the correlation of the superexchange interaction with the torsion angles involving the oximato bridges is experimentally confirmed. PMID:21853990

  14. On the similarity of the bonding in NiS and NiO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, C. W., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The bonding in NiS is found to be quite similar to that in NiO, having an ionic contribution arising from the donation of the Ni 4s electron to the S atom and a covalent component arising from bonds between the Ni 3d and the S 3p. The one-electron d bonds are found to be of equal strength for NiO and NiS, but the two-electron d bonds are weaker for NiS.

  15. Recycling Ni from Contaminated and Mineralized Soils.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rare plant species accumulate potentially valuable concentrations of some metals. Alyssum murale readily accumulates over 2% Ni in aboveground dry matter when grown on Ni-mineralized serpentine soils in Oregon, allowing production of “hay” biomass with at least 400 kg Ni ha-1 with low levels of fer...

  16. Oxygen potentials in Ni + NiO and Ni + Cr[sub 2]O[sub 3] + NiCr[sub 2]O[sub 4] systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kale, G.M.; Fray, D.J. . Dept. of Mining and Mineral Engineering)

    1994-06-01

    The chemical potential of O for the coexistence of Ni + NiO and Ni + Cr[sub 2]O[sub 3] + NiCr[sub 2]O[sub 4] equilibria has been measured employing solid-state galvanic cells, (+) Pt, Cu + Cu[sub 2]O [vert bar][vert bar] (Y[sub 2]O[sub 3])ZrO[sub 2] [vert bar][vert bar] Ni + NiO, Pt (-) and (+) Pt, Ni + NiO [vert bar][vert bar] (Y[sub 2]O[sub 3])ZrO[sub 2] [vert bar][vert bar] Ni + Cr[sub 2]O[sub 3] + NiCr[sub 2]O[sub 4], Pt (-) in the temperature range of 800 to 1,300 K and 1,100 to 1,460 K, respectively. The electromotive force (emf) of both he cells was reversible, reproducible on thermal cycling, and varied linearly with temperature. for the coexistence of the two-phase mixture of Ni + NiO, [Delta][mu][sub O[sub 2

  17. Reaction of amorphous Ni-W and Ni-N-W films with substrate silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, M. F.; Suni, I.; Nicolet, M.-A.; Sands, T.

    1984-01-01

    Wiley et al. (1982) have studied sputtered amorphous films of Nb-Ni, Mo-Ni, Si-W, and Si-Mo. Kung et al. (1984) have found that amorphous Ni-Mo films as diffusion barriers between multilayer metallizations on silicon demonstrate good electrical and thermal stability. In the present investigation, the Ni-W system was selected because it is similar to the Ni-Mo system. However, W has a higher silicide formation temperature than Mo. Attention is given to aspects of sample preparation, sample characterization, the interaction between amorphous Ni-W films and Si, the crystallization of amorphous Ni(36)W(64) films on SiO2, amorphous Ni-N-W films, silicide formation and phase separation, and the crystallization of amorphous Ni(36)W(64) and Ni(30)N(21)W(49) layers.

  18. Kinetics of Ni2Si growth from pure Ni and Ni(V) films on (111) and (100) Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harith, M. A.; Zhang, J. P.; Campisano, S. U.; Klaar, H.-J.

    1987-01-01

    The kinetics of Ni2Si growth from pure Ni and from Ni0.93V0.07 films on (111) and (100) silicon has been studied by the combination of He+ backscattering, x-ray diffraction, Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The activation energies are 1.5 and 1.0 eV for pure Ni and Ni(V) films, respectively while the pre-exponential factors in Ni(V) are 4 5 orders of magnitude smaller than in the pure Ni case. The variations in the measured rates are related to the different grain size of the growing suicide layers. The vanadium is rejected from the silicide layer and piles up at the metalsilicide interface.

  19. Kinetics of Ni Sorption in Soils: Roles of Soil Organic Matter and Ni Precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Zhenqing; Peltier, Edward; Sparks, Donald L.

    2012-12-10

    The kinetics of Ni sorption to two Delaware agricultural soils were studied to quantitatively assess the relative importance of Ni adsorption on soil organic matter (SOM) and the formation of Ni layered double hydroxide (Ni-LDH) precipitates using both experimental studies and kinetic modeling. Batch sorption kinetic experiments were conducted with both soils at pH 6.0, 7.0, and 7.5 from 24 h up to 1 month. Time-resolved Ni speciation in soils was determined by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) during the kinetic experiments. A kinetics model was developed to describe Ni kinetic reactions under various reaction conditions and time scales, which integrated Ni adsorption on SOM with Ni-LDH precipitation in soils. The soil Ni speciation (adsorbed phases and Ni-LDH) calculated using the kinetics model was consistent with that obtained through XAS analysis during the sorption processes. Under our experimental conditions, both modeling and XAS results demonstrated that Ni adsorption on SOM was dominant in the short term and the formation of Ni-LDH precipitates accounted for the long-term Ni sequestration in soils, and, more interestingly, that the adsorbed Ni may slowly transfer to Ni-LDH phases with longer reaction times.

  20. Thermal Stability of Ni-Mn Electrodeposits

    SciTech Connect

    Talin, A. A.; Marquis, E. A.; Goods, S. H.; Kelly, J. J.; Miller, Michael K

    2006-01-01

    The effect of Mn additions on the structural stability of electrodeposited Ni is investigated by comparing the microstructure evolution of Ni and Ni-Mn specimens with similar crystallographic initial textures. As deposited, Ni-Mn electrodeposits have a smaller crystallite size and substantially higher yield strength than Ni deposits, in agreement with the Hall-Petch relationship. Moreover, dilute Ni-Mn electrodeposits exhibit a thermal stability that significantly exceeds that of pure Ni. Indeed, Ni-Mn retains its texture, fine-grain microstructure, and strength above 500 C (for 1 h anneal), and does not recrystallize up to 800 C. In contrast, pure Ni with larger average grain size and similar preferred orientation shows abnormal grain growth at 300 C and recrystallization at 600 C. This study suggests two distinct temperature regimes. Below 600 C, grain boundary segregation appears as a plausible mechanism for the thermal stability of Ni-Mn electrodeposits, whereas grain boundary pinning by precipitation contributes to the improved microstructural stability of Ni-Mn above 600 C.

  1. Phonon Dispersion in Amorphous Ni-Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vora, A. M.

    2007-06-01

    The well-known model potential is used to investigate the longitudinal and transverse phonon dispersion curves for six Ni-based binary amorphous alloys, viz. Ni31Dy69, Ni33Y67, Ni36Zr64, Ni50Zr50, Ni60 Nb40, and Ni81B19. The thermodynamic and elastic properties are also computed from the elastic limits of the phonon dispersion curves. The theoretical approach given by Hubbard-Beeby is used in the present study to compute the phonon dispersion curves. Five local field correction functions proposed by Hartree, Taylor, Ichimaru-Utsumi, Farid et al. and Sarkar et al. are employed to see the effect of exchange and correlation in the aforesaid properties.

  2. California Niño/Niña

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Chaoxia; Yamagata, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    The present study shows the existence of intrinsic coastal air-sea coupled phenomenon in the coastal ocean off Baja California and California in boreal summer for the first time. It contributes significantly to the interannual sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies there. An initial decrease/increase in the equatorward alongshore surface winds weakens/strengthens the coastal upwelling and raises/lowers the coastal SSTs through oceanic mixed-layer processes. The resultant coastal warming/cooling, in turn, heats/cools the overlying atmosphere anomalously, decreases/increases the atmospheric pressure in the lower troposphere, generates an anomalous cross-shore pressure gradient, and thus reinforces or maintains the alongshore surface wind anomalies. The regional air-sea coupled phenomenon seems to be analogous to the well-known El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in the tropical Pacific but with much smaller time and space scales, and may be referred to as California Niño/Niña in its intrinsic sense. PMID:24763062

  3. California Niño/Niña.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Chaoxia; Yamagata, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    The present study shows the existence of intrinsic coastal air-sea coupled phenomenon in the coastal ocean off Baja California and California in boreal summer for the first time. It contributes significantly to the interannual sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies there. An initial decrease/increase in the equatorward alongshore surface winds weakens/strengthens the coastal upwelling and raises/lowers the coastal SSTs through oceanic mixed-layer processes. The resultant coastal warming/cooling, in turn, heats/cools the overlying atmosphere anomalously, decreases/increases the atmospheric pressure in the lower troposphere, generates an anomalous cross-shore pressure gradient, and thus reinforces or maintains the alongshore surface wind anomalies. The regional air-sea coupled phenomenon seems to be analogous to the well-known El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in the tropical Pacific but with much smaller time and space scales, and may be referred to as California Niño/Niña in its intrinsic sense. PMID:24763062

  4. B-Ni-Ti (164)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carow-Watamura, U.; Louzguine, D. V.; Takeuchi, A.

    This document is part of Part 2 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/97.etType="URL"/> 'Systems from B-Be-Fe to Co-W-Zr' of Subvolume B 'Physical Properties of Ternary Amorphous Alloys' of Volume 37 'Phase Diagrams and Physical Properties of Nonequilibrium Alloys' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains the Chapter 'B-Ni-Ti (164)' with the content:

  5. Processing and Mechanical Properties of Directionally Solidified NiAl/NiAlTa Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D. R.; Oliver, B. F.; Noebe, R. D.; Whittenberger, J. D.

    1994-01-01

    Promising creep strengths were found for a directionally solidified NiAl-NiAlTa alloy when compared to other NiAl based intermetallics. The directionally solidified alloy had an off-eutectic composition that resulted in microstructures consisting of NiAl dendrites surrounded by aligned eutectic regions. The room temperature toughness of the two phase alloy was similar to that of polycrystalline NiAl even with the presence of the brittle Laves phase NiAlTa. Alloying additions that may improve the room temperature toughness by producing multiphase alloys are discussed.

  6. Measured Activities of Al and Ni in gamma-(Ni) and gamma'-(Ni)3Al in the Ni-Al-Pt System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copland, Evan

    2007-01-01

    Adding Pt to Ni-Al coatings is critical to achieving the required oxidation protection of Ni-based superalloys, but the nature of the Pt effect remains unresolved. This research provides a fundamental part of the answer by measuring the influence of Pt on the activities of Al and Ni in gamma-(Ni), gamma prime-(Ni)3Al and liquid in the Ni-Al-Pt system. Measurements have been made at 25 compositions in the Ni-rich corner over the temperature range, T = 1400-1750 K, by the vapor pressure technique with a multiple effusion-cell mass spectrometer (multi-cell KEMS). These measurements clearly show adding Pt (for X(sub Pt) less than 0.25) decreases a(Al) while increasing a(Ni). This solution behavior supports the idea that Pt increases Al transport to an alloy / Al2O3 interface and also limits the interaction between the coating and substrate alloys in the gamma-(Ni) + gamma prime-(Ni)3Al region. This presentation will review the progress of this study.

  7. Ultrafast Alkaline Ni/Zn Battery Based on Ni-Foam-Supported Ni3S2 Nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Hu, Pu; Wang, Tianshi; Zhao, Jingwen; Zhang, Chuanjian; Ma, Jun; Du, Huiping; Wang, Xiaogang; Cui, Guanglei

    2015-12-01

    Self-supported Ni3S2 ultrathin nanosheets were in situ formed by direct sulfurization of commercially available nickel foam using thioacetamide as sulfur source under hydrothermal process. The morphology and structure of the as-obtained sample were analyzed by using XRD, XPS, SEM, and TEM, revealing that an ultrathin nanosheets Ni3S2 were grown on the surface of Ni form. The as-obtained Ni3S2/Ni composite with uniform architecture was used as cathode material for alkaline Ni/Zn battery, which delivered high capacity of 125 mAh g(-1) after 100 cycles with no obvious capacity fading, extraordinary rate capability (68 mAh g(-1) at the current density of 5.0 A g(-1)), and high operating voltage (1.75 V). PMID:26599523

  8. The impact of Ni on the physiology of a Mediterranean Ni-hyperaccumulating plant.

    PubMed

    Roccotiello, Enrica; Serrano, Helena Cristina; Mariotti, Mauro Giorgio; Branquinho, Cristina

    2016-06-01

    High nickel (Ni) levels exert toxic effects on plant growth and plant water content, thus affecting photosynthesis. In a pot experiment, we investigated the effect of the Ni concentration on the physiological characteristics of the Ni hyperaccumulator Alyssoides utriculata when grown on a vermiculite substrate in the presence of different external Ni concentrations (0-500 mg Ni L(-1)). The results showed that the Ni concentration was higher in leaves than in roots, as evidenced by a translocation factor = 3 and a bioconcentration factor = 10. At the highest concentration tested (500 mg Ni L(-1)), A. utriculata accumulated 1100 mg Ni per kilogram in its leaves, without an effects on its biomass. Plant water content increased significantly with Ni accumulation. Ni treatment did not, or only slightly, affected chlorophyll fluorescence parameters. The photosynthetic efficiency (FV/FM) of A. utriculata was stable between Ni treatments (always ≥ 0.8) and the photosynthetic performance of the plant under Ni stress remained high (performance index = 1.5). These findings support that A. utriculata has several mechanisms to avoid severe damage to its photosynthetic apparatus, confirming the tolerance of this species to Ni under hyperaccumulation. PMID:26983814

  9. Investigation on the Interactions of NiCR and NiCR-2H with DNA

    PubMed Central

    Chitranshi, Priyanka; Chen, Chang-Nan; Jones, Patrick R.; Faridi, Jesika S.; Xue, Liang

    2010-01-01

    We report here a biophysical and biochemical approach to determine the differences in interactions of NiCR and NiCR-2H with DNA. Our goal is to determine whether such interactions are responsible for the recently observed differences in their cytotoxicity toward MCF-7 cancer cells. Viscosity measurement and fluorescence displacement titration indicated that both NiCR and NiCR-2H bind weakly to duplex DNA in the grooves. The coordination of NiCR-2H with the N-7 of 2′-deoxyguanosine 5′-monophosphate (5′-dGMP) is stronger than that of NiCR as determined by 1H NMR. NiCR-2H, like NiCR, can selectively oxidize guanines present in distinctive DNA structures (e.g., bulges), and notably, NiCR-2H oxidizes guanines more efficiently than NiCR. In addition, UV and 1H NMR studies revealed that NiCR is oxidized into NiCR-2H in the presence of KHSO5 at low molar ratios with respect to NiCR (≤4). PMID:20671951

  10. A threonine stabilizes the NiC and NiR catalytic intermediates of [NiFe]-hydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Abou-Hamdan, Abbas; Ceccaldi, Pierre; Lebrette, Hugo; Gutiérrez-Sanz, Oscar; Richaud, Pierre; Cournac, Laurent; Guigliarelli, Bruno; De Lacey, Antonio L; Léger, Christophe; Volbeda, Anne; Burlat, Bénédicte; Dementin, Sébastien

    2015-03-27

    The heterodimeric [NiFe] hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio fructosovorans catalyzes the reversible oxidation of H2 into protons and electrons. The catalytic intermediates have been attributed to forms of the active site (NiSI, NiR, and NiC) detected using spectroscopic methods under potentiometric but non-catalytic conditions. Here, we produced variants by replacing the conserved Thr-18 residue in the small subunit with Ser, Val, Gln, Gly, or Asp, and we analyzed the effects of these mutations on the kinetic (H2 oxidation, H2 production, and H/D exchange), spectroscopic (IR, EPR), and structural properties of the enzyme. The mutations disrupt the H-bond network in the crystals and have a strong effect on H2 oxidation and H2 production turnover rates. However, the absence of correlation between activity and rate of H/D exchange in the series of variants suggests that the alcoholic group of Thr-18 is not necessarily a proton relay. Instead, the correlation between H2 oxidation and production activity and the detection of the NiC species in reduced samples confirms that NiC is a catalytic intermediate and suggests that Thr-18 is important to stabilize the local protein structure of the active site ensuring fast NiSI-NiC-NiR interconversions during H2 oxidation/production. PMID:25666617

  11. A Threonine Stabilizes the NiC and NiR Catalytic Intermediates of [NiFe]-hydrogenase*

    PubMed Central

    Abou-Hamdan, Abbas; Ceccaldi, Pierre; Lebrette, Hugo; Gutiérrez-Sanz, Oscar; Richaud, Pierre; Cournac, Laurent; Guigliarelli, Bruno; De Lacey, Antonio L.; Léger, Christophe; Volbeda, Anne; Burlat, Bénédicte; Dementin, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    The heterodimeric [NiFe] hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio fructosovorans catalyzes the reversible oxidation of H2 into protons and electrons. The catalytic intermediates have been attributed to forms of the active site (NiSI, NiR, and NiC) detected using spectroscopic methods under potentiometric but non-catalytic conditions. Here, we produced variants by replacing the conserved Thr-18 residue in the small subunit with Ser, Val, Gln, Gly, or Asp, and we analyzed the effects of these mutations on the kinetic (H2 oxidation, H2 production, and H/D exchange), spectroscopic (IR, EPR), and structural properties of the enzyme. The mutations disrupt the H-bond network in the crystals and have a strong effect on H2 oxidation and H2 production turnover rates. However, the absence of correlation between activity and rate of H/D exchange in the series of variants suggests that the alcoholic group of Thr-18 is not necessarily a proton relay. Instead, the correlation between H2 oxidation and production activity and the detection of the NiC species in reduced samples confirms that NiC is a catalytic intermediate and suggests that Thr-18 is important to stabilize the local protein structure of the active site ensuring fast NiSI-NiC-NiR interconversions during H2 oxidation/production. PMID:25666617

  12. Electromigration effect of Ni electrodes on the resistive switching characteristics of NiO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C. B.; Kang, B. S.; Lee, M. J.; Ahn, S. E.; Stefanovich, G.; Xianyu, W. X.; Kim, K. H.; Hur, J. H.; Yin, H. X.; Park, Y.; Yoo, I. K.; Park, J.-B.; Park, B. H.

    2007-08-01

    The effects of Ni and Ni0.83Pt0.17 alloy electrodes on the resistance switching of the dc-sputtered polycrystalline NiO thin films were investigated. The initial off-state resistances of the films were similar to that of Pt /NiO/Pt film. However, after the first cycle of switching, the off-state resistance significantly decreased in the films with Ni in the electrode. It can be attributed to the migration of Ni from electrodes to the NiO films. The improvement in data dispersion of switching parameters is explained in terms of the decrease of the effective thickness of the films resulting from the migration of Ni.

  13. Radioanalytical studies of fallout 63Ni.

    PubMed

    Holm, E; Roos, P; Skwarzec, B

    1992-01-01

    Fallout of Nickel-63 (T1/2 = 100 a) produced in small amounts at nuclear weapon tests following the neutron activation of weapon construction material was investigated by studying carpets of lichen collected during 1961 to 1988 at the Lake Rogen district in central Sweden (62.3 degrees N, 12.4 degrees E). The maximal level of 63Ni in the lichen carpet, which occurred in 1964, was about 0.6 Bq kg-1, dry weight, and decreased to 0.1 Bq kg-1 in 1988. The deposition pattern for 63Ni was similar to other fallout radionuclides such as 137Cs, 90Sr and 239 + 240Pu. The concentrations of stable Ni were relatively constant at 0.5 to 1.0 microgram g-1 throughout the years resulting in, for example, a specific activity (63Ni/stable Ni) of 0.5 Bq mg-1 in 1964 and 0.1 Bq mg-1 in 1988. The total area content of 63Ni was estimated to be 1.0 Bq m-2 and the activity ratio 63Ni/60Co was estimated to be 0.03 in 1966. The Chernobyl accident in April 1986 did not significantly increase the levels of 63Ni. For the measurement of these extremely low-levels of 63Ni, 200 g of dry material (about 1 kg fresh) were ashed and leached with aqua regia after hydroxides had been precipitated with ammonia, leaving Ni in the aqueous phase. Nickel was extracted as a dimethylglyoxime complex by chloroform and back-extracted with HCl. Finally, Ni was electroplated onto copper discs from an ammonium sulfate medium at high pH. The radiochemical yield was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry of stable Ni before and after electrodeposition.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1310303

  14. Composite Ni/NiO-Cr2O3 Catalyst for Alkaline Hydrogen Evolution Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, MK; Jia, QY; Ramaswamy, N; Allen, RJ; Mukerjee, S

    2015-03-12

    We report a Ni-Cr/C electrocatalyst with unpreeedented massactivity for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). in alkaline electrolyte. The HER Oietics of numerous binary and ternary Ni-alloys and composite Ni/metal-euride/C samples were evaluated in aquebus 0.1 M KOH electrolyte. The highest HER mass-activity was observed for Ni-Cr materials which exhibit metallic Ni as well as NiOx and Cr2O3 phases as determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) analysis. The onset of the HER is significantly improved compared to munerous binary dor ternary Ni-alloys, inCluding Ni Mg materials. It is likely that at adjacent Ni/NiOx sites, the oxide acts as a sink for OHads, while the metallic Ni acts as a, sink for the H-ads, intermediate of the HER, thus minimizing the high activation energy of hydrogen evolution via water reduction. This is confirmed by in situ XAS studies that show that the synergistic HER enhancement is due to NiO content and that the Cr2O3 appears to stabilize the composite NiO component-under HER conditions (where NiOx would typically be reduced to metallic Ni-0). Furthermore, in contrast to Pt, the Ni(O-x)/Cr2O3 catalyst appears resistant to poisoning by the anion.exchange ionomer (AEI), a serloua consideration when applied to an anionic polymer electrolyte interface. Furthermore, we report a: detailed model of the double layer interface which helps explain the observed ensemble effect in the presence of AEI.

  15. Microstructure and superelasticity of NiS/TiNi composite electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Han-seong; Cho, Gyu-bong; Kim, Ki-won; Cho, Kwon-koo; Liu, Yinong; Nam, Tae-hyun

    2007-07-01

    Surface Ni sulfides layers were formed on the surface of a Ti-50.0Ni alloy by reacting sulfur and Ni film deposited on the alloy, and then microstructures, transformation behavior, shape memory characteristics, superelasticity and electrochemical properties of a Ti-50.0Ni(at%) alloy with the sulfides were investigated. When Ni film deposited on a Ti-50.0Ni alloy was annealed under the sulfur pressure of 100 kPa at 623 K, sulfides layers consisted of NiS and NiS 1.97 were formed. When annealing was made at 648 K annealing with annealing time less than 0.9 ks, sulfides layers consisted of NiS and NiS 1.97 were formed also, while only NiS 1.97 was formed when it was made for 1.8 ks. When annealing was made at 673 K annealing with annealing time longer than 0.9 ks, only NiS 1.97 was formed. A Ti- 50.0Ni(at%) alloy with surface NiS 1.97 layer showed the two-stage B2-R-B19' transformation behavior, the perfect shape memory effect and a partial superelasticity with a superelastic recovery ratio of 78 %. NiS 1.97 cathode showed a clear discharge behavior with multi voltage plateaus. Discharge capacity of NiS 1.97 cathode decreased abruptly with increasing number of cycles up to 3, above which it decreased gradually.

  16. DFT study of the water gas shift reaction on Ni(111), Ni(100) and Ni(110) surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohsenzadeh, Abas; Richards, Tobias; Bolton, Kim

    2016-02-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were used to study the water gas shift (WGS) reaction on Ni(111), Ni(100) and Ni(110) surfaces. The adsorption energy for ten species involved in the reaction together with activation barriers and reaction energies for the nine most important elementary steps were determined using the same model and DFT methods. The results reveal that these energies are sensitive to the surface structure. In spite of this, the WGS reaction occurs mainly via the direct (also referred to as redox) pathway with the CO + O → CO2 reaction as the rate determining step on all three surfaces. The activation barrier obtained for this rate limiting step decreases in the order Ni(110) > Ni(111) > Ni(100). Therefore, if O species are present on the surfaces then the WGS reaction is fastest on the Ni(100) surface. However, the barrier for desorption of H2O (which is the source of the O species) is lower than its dissociation reaction on the Ni(111) and Ni(100) surfaces, but not on the Ni(110) surface. Hence, at low H2O(g) pressures, the direct pathway on the Ni(110) surface will dominate and will be the rate limiting step. The calculations also show that the reason that the WGS reaction does not primarily occur via the formate pathway is that this species is a stable intermediate on all surfaces. The reactions studied here support the Brønsted-Evans-Polanyi (BEP) principles with an R2 value of 0.99.

  17. Joining of Ni-TiC FGM and Ni-Al Intermetallics by Centrifugal Combustion Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohmi, Tatsuya; Mizuma, Kiminori; Matsuura, Kiyotaka; Iguchi, Manabu

    2008-02-01

    A centrifugal combustion synthesis (CCS) process has been investigated to join a Ni-Al intermetallic compound and a Ni-TiC cermet. The cermet, a tubular graphite mold, and a green compact of reactants consisting of Al, Ni and NiO were set in a centrifugal caster. When the combustion synthesis reaction was induced in the centrifugal force field, a synthesized molten Ni-Al alloy flowed into the graphite mold and joined to the cermet. The soundness of the joint interface depended on the volume percentage of TiC phase in the cermet. A lot of defects were formed near the interface between the Ni-TiC cermet and the cast Ni-Al alloy when the volume percentage of TiC was 50% or higher. For this kind of cermet system, using a functionally graded cermet such as Ni-10 vol.%TiC/Ni-25 vol.%TiC/Ni-50 vol.%TiC overcame this difficulty. The four-point bending strength of the joined specimen consisting of the three-layered FGM cermet and cast Ni-29 mol%Al alloy was 1010 MPa which is close to the result for a Ni-29 mol%Al alloy specimen.

  18. Joining of Ni-TiC FGM and Ni-Al Intermetallics by Centrifugal Combustion Synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Ohmi, Tatsuya; Matsuura, Kiyotaka; Iguchi, Manabu; Mizuma, Kiminori

    2008-02-15

    A centrifugal combustion synthesis (CCS) process has been investigated to join a Ni-Al intermetallic compound and a Ni-TiC cermet. The cermet, a tubular graphite mold, and a green compact of reactants consisting of Al, Ni and NiO were set in a centrifugal caster. When the combustion synthesis reaction was induced in the centrifugal force field, a synthesized molten Ni-Al alloy flowed into the graphite mold and joined to the cermet. The soundness of the joint interface depended on the volume percentage of TiC phase in the cermet. A lot of defects were formed near the interface between the Ni-TiC cermet and the cast Ni-Al alloy when the volume percentage of TiC was 50% or higher. For this kind of cermet system, using a functionally graded cermet such as Ni-10 vol.%TiC/Ni-25 vol.%TiC/Ni-50 vol.%TiC overcame this difficulty. The four-point bending strength of the joined specimen consisting of the three-layered FGM cermet and cast Ni-29 mol%Al alloy was 1010 MPa which is close to the result for a Ni-29 mol%Al alloy specimen.

  19. Porous NiTi shape memory alloys produced by SHS: microstructure and biocompatibility in comparison with Ti2Ni and TiNi3.

    PubMed

    Bassani, Paola; Panseri, Silvia; Ruffini, Andrea; Montesi, Monica; Ghetti, Martina; Zanotti, Claudio; Tampieri, Anna; Tuissi, Ausonio

    2014-10-01

    Shape memory alloys based on NiTi have found their main applications in manufacturing of new biomedical devices mainly in surgery tools, stents and orthopedics. Porous NiTi can exhibit an engineering elastic modulus comparable to that of cortical bone (12-17 GPa). This condition, combined with proper pore size, allows good osteointegration. Open cells porous NiTi was produced by self propagating high temperature synthesis (SHS), starting from Ni and Ti mixed powders. The main NiTi phase is formed during SHS together with other Ni-Ti compounds. The biocompatibility of such material was investigated by single culture experiment and ionic release on small specimen. In particular, NiTi and porous NiTi were evaluated together with elemental Ti and Ni reference metals and the two intermetallic TiNi3, Ti2Ni phases. This approach permitted to clearly identify the influence of secondary phases in porous NiTi materials and relation with Ni-ion release. The results indicated, apart the well-known high toxicity of Ni, also toxicity of TiNi3, whilst phases with higher Ti content showed high biocompatibility. A slightly reduced biocompatibility of porous NiTi was ascribed to combined effect of TiNi3 presence and topography that requires higher effort for the cells to adapt to the surface. PMID:24928669

  20. Cyclic and isothermal oxidation behavior at 1100 and 1200 C of Ni-20Cr, Ni-20Cr-3Mn, Ni-20Cr-3Si, and Ni-40Cr alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowell, C. E.

    1973-01-01

    Alloys of Ni-20Cr, Ni-20Cr-3Mn, Ni-20Cr-3Si, and Ni-40Cr were cyclically oxidized at 1100 and 1200 C for up to 100 hours. Oxidation behavior was judged by sample thickness and weight change, metallography, diffraction, and microprobe analysis. The least attacked were Ni-40Cr and Ni-20Cr-3Si. The alloy Ni-20Cr-3Mn was much less attacked than Ni-20Cr, but more than the other alloys. The formation of Cr2O3 accounted for the increased resistance of Ni-Cr and Ni-20Cr-3Si, and the formation of MnCr2O4 accounts for the improvement in Ni-20Cr-3mn over Ni-20Cr.

  1. Swift observations of ASASSN-15ni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campana, S.

    2015-07-01

    Swift observed ASASSN-15ni (Dong et al. 2015, Atel #7850) starting on 2015-07-29 01:13:07.00 UT for 2.0 ks. The XRT detected one source coincident with the optical position of ASASSN-15ni at a rate of (1.4+/-0.3) x 10^-2 counts s^-1.

  2. Who is El Niño?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philander, S. George

    It is a curious story, about a phenomenon we first welcomed as a blessing but now view with dismay, if not horror [Philander, 1998]. We named it El Niño for the child Jesus, provided it with relatives—La Niña and ENSO—and are devoting innumerable studies to the description and idealization of this family. These scriptures provide such a broad spectrum of historical, cultural, and scientific perspectives that there is now confusion about the identity of El Niño. Trenberth [1997] summarizes the situation as follows.The atmospheric component tied to El Niño is termed the “Southern Oscillation.” Scientists often call the phenomenon where the atmosphere and ocean collaborate ENSO, short for El Niño-Southern Oscillation. El Niño then corresponds to the warm phase of ENSO. The opposite “La Niña” (“the girl” in Spanish) phase consists of a basinwide cooling of the tropical Pacific and thus the cold phase of ENSO. However, for the public, the term for the whole phenomenon is “El Niño.”

  3. AF Ni-Cd cell qualification program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Steve; Brown, Harry; Collins, G.; Hwang, Warren

    1994-01-01

    The present status of the USAF NiCd cell qualification program, which is underway at the Naval Surface Warfare Center-Crane Division, is summarized. The following topics are discussed: overview; background; purpose; stress tests; results for super Ni-Cd; results for SAFT cells; GPS stress test; GPS simulated orbit; and results for gates cells. The discussion is presented in viewgraph format.

  4. Ion scattering experiment on Ni(110) surface

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholas, B.; Rambabu, B.; Collins, W.E.

    1986-01-01

    Light emission from excited neutral scattered Ne and sputtered Ni were investigated using the LEIS method. A 5-keV Ne/sup +/ beam was used to bombard a Ni(110) surface. Results of the light emission data is presented and compared with neutral production of Ne. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Formation of dioxins on NiO and NiCl2 at different oxygen concentrations.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Yan, Mi; Li, Xiaodong; Lu, Shengyong; Chen, Tong; Yan, Jianhua; Olie, Kees; Buekens, Alfons

    2015-08-01

    Model fly ash (MFA) containing activated carbon (AC) as source of carbon, NaCl as source of chlorine and either NiO or NiCl2 as de novo catalyst, was heated for 1h at 350 °C in a carrier gas flow composed of N2 containing 0, 6, 10, and 21 vol.% O2, to study the formation of PCDD/Fs (dioxins) and its dependence on oxygen. The formation of PCDD/Fs with NiCl2 was stronger by about two orders of magnitude than with NiO and the difference augmented with rising oxygen concentration. The thermodynamics of the NiO-NiCl2 system were represented, X-ray absorption near edge structural (XANES) spectroscopy allowed to probe the state of oxidation of the nickel catalyst in the MFA and individual metal species were distinguished using the LCF (Linear combination fitting) technique: thus three supplemental nickel compounds (Ni2O3, Ni(OH)2, and Ni) were found in the fly ash. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) indicates that both Ni2O3 and NiCl2 probably played an important role in the formation of PCDD/Fs. PMID:25951618

  6. Preparation and characterization of Ni-P/Ni3.1B composite alloy coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yurong; He, Jiawei; Wang, Wenchang; Shi, Jianhua; Mitsuzaki, Naotoshi; Chen, Zhidong

    2014-02-01

    The preparation of Ni-P/Ni3.1B composite alloy coating on the surface of copper was achieved by co-deposition of Ni3.1B nanoparticles with Ni-P coating during electroless plating. Ni-P-B alloy coating was obtained by heat-treating the as-plated Ni-P/Ni3.1B composite coating. The effect of the concentration of sodium alginate, borax, thiourea, Ni3.1B, temperature, and pH value on the deposition rate and B content were investigated and determined to be: 30 g L-1, 10 g L-1, 2 mg L-1, 20 mg L-1, 70 °C and 9.0 , respectively. Sodium alginate and thiourea were played as surfactant for coating Ni3.1B nanoparticles and stabilizer for the plating bath, respectively. Ni-P/Ni3.1B composite coating had good performance such as corrosion resistance and solderability.

  7. Water dissociation on Ni(100) and Ni(111): Effect of surface temperature on reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Seenivasan, H.; Tiwari, Ashwani K.

    2013-11-07

    Water adsorption and dissociation on Ni(100) and Ni(111) surfaces are studied using density functional theory calculations. Water adsorbs on top site on both the surfaces, while H and OH adsorb on four fold hollow and three fold hollow (fcc) sites on Ni(100) and Ni(111), respectively. Transition states (TS) on both surfaces are identified using climbing image-nudged elastic band method. It is found that the barrier to dissociation on Ni(100) surface is slightly lower than that on Ni(111) surface. Dissociation on both the surfaces is exothermic, while the exothermicity on Ni(100) is large. To study the effect of lattice motion on the energy barrier, TS calculations are performed for various values of Q (lattice atom coordinate along the surface normal) and the change in the barrier height and position is determined. Calculations show that the energy barrier to reaction decreases with increasing Q and increases with decreasing Q on both the surfaces. Dissociation probability values at different surface temperatures are computed using semi-classical approximation. Results show that the influence of surface temperature on dissociation probability on the Ni(100) is significantly larger compared to that of Ni(111). Moreover, on Ni(100), a dramatic shift in energy barrier to lower incident energy values is observed with increasing surface temperature, while the shift is smaller in the case of Ni(111)

  8. Electrochemical properties of NiO-Ni nanocomposite as anode material for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, X. H.; Tu, J. P.; Zhang, B.; Zhang, C. Q.; Li, Y.; Yuan, Y. F.; Wu, H. M.

    NiO-Ni nanocomposite was prepared by calcining a mixture of Ni 2(OH) 2CO 3 and ethanol in a tube furnace at 700 °C for 45 min in air. The microstructure and morphology of the powders were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In the composite, nanoscale Ni particles (<10 nm) were dispersed in the NiO matrix (about 100 nm). Electrochemical tests showed that the nanocomposite had higher initial and reversible capacity than pure NiO. The presence of the nanoscale Ni phase had improved both of the initial coulombic efficiency and the cycling performance, due to its catalytic activity, which would facilitate the decomposition of Li 2O and the SEI during the charge process.

  9. A ternary Ni-Al-W EAM potential for Ni-based single crystal superalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Qin-Na; Wang, Chong-Yu; Yu, Tao; Du, Jun-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Based on experiments and first-principles calculations, a ternary Ni-Al-W embedded-atom-method (EAM) potential is constructed for the Ni-based single crystal superalloys. The potential predicts that W atoms do not tend to form clusters in γ(Ni), which is consistent with experiments. The impurity diffusion of W in γ(Ni) is investigated using the five-frequency model. The diffusion coefficients and the diffusion activation energy of W are in reasonable agreement with the data in literatures. By W doping, the lattice misfit between the two phases decreases and the elastic constants of γ‧(Ni3Al) increase. As for alloyed elements Co, Re and W, the pinning effect of solute atom on the γ(Ni)/γ‧(Ni3Al) misfit dislocation increases with the increasing of the atomic radius.

  10. Direct observation of infinite NiO2 planes in LaNiO2 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Ai; Krockenberger, Yoshiharu; Irie, Hiroshi; Naito, Michio; Yamamoto, Hideki

    2016-06-01

    Epitaxial thin films of LaNiO2, which is an oxygen-deficient perovskite with “infinite layers” of Ni1+O2, were prepared by a low-temperature reduction of LaNiO3 single-crystal films on NdGaO3 substrates. We report the high-angle annular dark-field and bright-field scanning transmission electron microscopy observations of infinite NiO2 planes of c-axis-oriented LaNiO2 epitaxial thin films with a layer stacking sequence of NiO2/La/NiO2. Resistivity measurements on the films show T 2 dependence between 400 and 150 K and a negative Hall coefficient.

  11. Predictability of the Ningaloo Niño/Niña.

    PubMed

    Doi, Takeshi; Behera, Swadhin K; Yamagata, Toshio

    2013-01-01

    The seasonal prediction of the coastal oceanic warm event off West Australia, recently named the Ningaloo Niño, is explored by use of a state-of-the-art ocean-atmosphere coupled general circulation model. The Ningaloo Niño/Niña, which generally matures in austral summer, is found to be predictable two seasons ahead. In particular, the unprecedented extreme warm event in February 2011 was successfully predicted 9 months in advance. The successful prediction of the Ningaloo Niño is mainly due to the high prediction skill of La Niña in the Pacific. However, the model deficiency to underestimate its early evolution and peak amplitude needs to be improved. Since the Ningaloo Niño/Niña has potential impacts on regional societies and industries through extreme events, the present success of its prediction may encourage development of its early warning system. PMID:24100593

  12. Nanoscale structural heterogeneity in Ni-rich half-Heusler TiNiSn

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, Jason E. Pollock, Tresa M.; Chater, Philip A.; Brown, Craig M.; Seshadri, Ram

    2014-10-28

    The structural implications of excess Ni in the TiNiSn half-Heusler compound are examined through a combination of synchrotron x-ray and neutron scattering studies, in conjunction with first principles density functional theory calculations on supercells. Despite the phase diagram suggesting that TiNiSn is a line compound with no solid solution, for small x in TiNi{sub 1+x}Sn there is indeed an appearance—from careful analysis of the scattering—of some solubility, with the excess Ni occupying the interstitial tetrahedral site in the half-Heusler structure. The analysis performed here would point to the excess Ni not being statistically distributed, but rather occurring as coherent nanoclusters. First principles calculations of energetics, carried out using supercells, support a scenario of Ni interstitials clustering, rather than a statistical distribution.

  13. Capture of Hydrogen Using ZrNi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patton, Lisa; Wales, Joshua; Lynch, David; Parrish, Clyde

    2005-01-01

    Water, as ice, is thought to reside in craters at the lunar poles along with CH4 and H2 . A proposed robotic mission for 2012 will utilize metal/metal hydrides for H2 recovery. Specifications are 99% capture of H2 initially at 5 bar and 100C (or greater), and degassing completely at 300C. Of 47-systems examined using the van't Hoff equation, 4 systems, Mg/MgH2, Mg2Ni/Mg2NiH4, ZrNi/ZrNiH2.8, and Pd/PdH0.77, were considered likely candidates for further examination. It is essential, when selecting a system, to also examine questions regarding activation, kinetics, cyclic stability, and gas impurity effects. After considering those issues, ZrN1 was selected as the most promising candidate, as it is easily activated and rapidly forms ZrNiH 2.8 . In addition, it resists oxide poisoning by CO2, and H2O, while some oxidation by O2 is recommended for improved activation . The presence of hydrogen in the as received Zr-Ni alloy from Alfa Aesar posed additional technical problems. X-ray diffraction of the Zr-Ni powder (-325 mesh), with a Zr:Ni wt% ratio of 70:30, was found to consist of ZrH2, ZrNiH2.8, and ZrNi. ZrH2 in the alloy presented the risk that after degassing that both Zr and ZrNi would be present, and thus lead to erroneous results regarding the reactivity of ZrNi with H2 . Fortunately, ZrH2 is a highly stable hydride that does not degas H2 to any significant extent at temperatures below 300C. Based on equilibrium calculations for the decomposition of ZrH2, only 1 millionth of the hydride decomposed at 300C under a N2 atmosphere flowing at 25 ccm for 64 hours, the longest time for pretreatment employed in the investigation. It was possible, from the X-ray results and knowledge of the Zr:Ni ratio, to compute the composition of a pretreated specimen as being 76 wt% ZrNi and the balance ZrH2.

  14. NiAl alloys for structural uses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koss, D. A.

    1991-01-01

    Alloys based on the intermetallic compound NiAl are of technological interest as high temperature structural alloys. These alloys possess a relatively low density, high melting temperature, good thermal conductivity, and (usually) good oxidation resistance. However, NiAl and NiAl-base alloys suffer from poor fracture resistance at low temperatures as well as inadequate creep strength at elevated temperatures. This research program explored macroalloying additions to NiAl-base alloys in order to identify possible alloying and processing routes which promote both low temperature fracture toughness and high temperature strength. Initial results from the study examined the additions of Fe, Co, and Hf on the microstructure, deformation, and fracture resistance of NiAl-based alloys. Of significance were the observations that the presence of the gamma-prime phase, based on Ni3Al, could enhance the fracture resistance if the gamma-prime were present as a continuous grain boundary film or 'necklace'; and the Ni-35Al-20Fe alloy was ductile in ribbon form despite a microstructure consisting solely of the B2 beta phase based on NiAl. The ductility inherent in the Ni-35Al-20Fe alloy was explored further in subsequent studies. Those results confirm the presence of ductility in the Ni-35Al-20Fe alloy after rapid cooling from 750 - 1000 C. However exposure at 550 C caused embrittlement; this was associated with an age-hardening reaction caused by the formation of Fe-rich precipitates. In contrast, to the Ni-35Al-20Fe alloy, exploratory research indicated that compositions in the range of Ni-35Al-12Fe retain the ordered B2 structure of NiAl, are ductile, and do not age-harden or embrittle after thermal exposure. Thus, our recent efforts have focused on the behavior of the Ni-35Al-12Fe alloy. A second parallel effort initiated in this program was to use an alternate processing technique, mechanical alloying, to improve the properties of NiAl-alloys. Mechanical alloying in the

  15. Neutron Spectroscopic factors of 56Ni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanetullaev, A.; Ghosh, T. K.; Lynch, W. G.; Bazin, D.; Chajecki, Z.; Coupland, Daniel; Hodges, R.; Lee, Jenny; Henzl, V.; Henzlova, D.; Rogers, A. M.; Sun, Z. Y.; Tsang, M. B.; Winkelbauer, J.; Youngs, M.; Famiano, M.; Clement, R. R. C.; Howard, M. E.; Cizewski, J. A.; O'Malley, P. D.; Manning, B.; Charity, R. J.; Charity, L. G.; Shapira, D.; Shmitt, K. T.

    2011-10-01

    The exact shell-structure of the unstable doubly-magic nucleus 56Ni has attracted a lot of interest recently. To test if 56Ni is a good core, 56Ni(p, d)55Ni transfer reactions were measured using 56Ni beam at two different energies, 37 MeV/u and 80 MeV/u, in inverse kinematics in two experiments. The second measurement was done in order to test the sensitivity of reaction cross sections and models to reaction energies. The measurements were performed at NSCL using HiRA array and S800 spectrometer. Spectroscopic factors have been extracted for the first experiment. The results show good agreement with shell-model calculations. Preliminary results of the measurements with 80 MeV/u beam will be presented as well. This work is funded by NSF under Grant No. PHY-0606007.

  16. Tensile deformation of NiTi wires.

    PubMed

    Gall, Ken; Tyber, Jeff; Brice, Valerie; Frick, Carl P; Maier, Hans J; Morgan, Neil

    2005-12-15

    We examine the structure and properties of cold drawn Ti-50.1 at % Ni and Ti-50.9 at % Ni shape memory alloy wires. Wires with both compositions possess a strong <111> fiber texture in the wire drawing direction, a grain size on the order of micrometers, and a high dislocation density. The more Ni rich wires contain fine second phase precipitates, while the wires with lower Ni content are relatively free of precipitates. The wire stress-strain response depends strongly on composition through operant deformation mechanisms, and cannot be explained based solely on measured differences in the transformation temperatures. We provide fundamental connections between the material structure, deformation mechanisms, and resulting stress-strain responses. The results help clarify some inconsistencies and common misconceptions in the literature. Ramifications on materials selection and design for emerging biomedical applications of NiTi shape memory alloys are discussed. PMID:16138359

  17. Charge ordering in Ni1 +/Ni2 + nickelates: La4Ni3O8 and La3Ni2O6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botana, Antia S.; Pardo, Victor; Pickett, Warren E.; Norman, Michael R.

    2016-08-01

    Ab initio calculations allow us to establish a close connection between the Ruddlesden-Popper layered nickelates and cuprates not only in terms of filling of d levels (close to d9) but also because they show Ni1 +(S =1 /2 ) /Ni2 +(S =0 ) stripe ordering. The insulating charge-ordered ground state is obtained from a combination of structural distortions and magnetic order. The Ni2 + ions are in a low-spin configuration (S =0 ) yielding an antiferromagnetic arrangement of Ni1 + S =1 /2 ions like the long-sought spin-1/2 antiferromagnetic insulator analog of the cuprate parent materials. The analogy extends further with the main contribution to the bands near the Fermi energy coming from hybridized Ni dx2-y2 and O p states.

  18. XAFS study of Ni (II) aminovinylketone complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yalovega, Galina E.; Vlasenko, Valerii G.; Uraev, Ali I.; Garnovskii, Alexander D.; Soldatov, Alexander V.

    2006-11-01

    The functional properties of the active sites in a metalloproteins depend on coordination geometry of metal, the number and the nature of coordination ligands. The Ni K-edge XAFS spectra of novel nickel complexes as models for the MeN 2O 2(S 2) active site in metalloproteins were measured and analyzed. Theoretical analysis of the Ni K-edge XANES was performed using FDMNES code based on the finite difference method (FDM) to solve the Schrödinger equation beyond muffin-tin approximations and self-consistent full multiple-scattering approach (code FEFF8.2). It was found that the spectrum is almost totally formed by the octahedron of the nearest neighbor atoms around Ni ion in the II (Ni) complex. The III (Ni) complex active center exists in square-planar configuration with shorter distances.

  19. The Ni-rich part of the Al–Ge–Ni phase diagram

    PubMed Central

    Jandl, Isabella; Reichmann, Thomas L.; Richter, Klaus W.

    2013-01-01

    The Ni-rich part of the ternary system Al–Ge–Ni (xNi > 50 at.%) was investigated by means of optical microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The two isothermal sections at 550 °C and 700 °C were determined. Within these two sections a new ternary phase, designated as τ4, AlyGe9−yNi13±x (hP66, Ga3Ge6Ni13-type) was detected and investigated by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Another ternary low temperature phase, τ5, was found only in the isothermal section at 550 °C around the composition AlGeNi4. This compound was found to crystallise in the Co2Si type structure (oP12, Pnma). The structure was identified by Rietveld refinement of powder data. The NiAs type (B8) phase based on binary Ge3Ni5 revealed an extended solid solubility of Al and the two isotypic compounds AlNi3 and GeNi3 form a complete solid solution. Based on DTA results, six vertical sections at 55, 60, 70, 75 and 80 at.% Ni and at a constant Al:Ni ratio of 1:3 were constructed. Furthermore, the liquidus surface projection and the reaction scheme (Scheil diagram) were completed by combining our results with previous results from the Ni-poor part of the phase diagram. Six invariant ternary reactions were identified in the Ni-rich part of the system. PMID:27087754

  20. Preferred orientation relationships with large misfit interfaces between Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4} and Ni in reactive wetting of eutectic SnPb on Ni

    SciTech Connect

    Suh, J. O.; Tu, K. N.; Wu, Albert T.; Tamura, N.

    2011-06-15

    Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4} grains were formed on Ni by reactive wetting between molten eutectic SnPb and thermally annealed Ni foil. Using synchrotron white beam micro x-ray diffraction analysis, two kinds of preferred orientation relationships between Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4} and Ni were found. The existence of preferred orientation with large interfacial misfit is suggested as a general mechanism of intermetallic compound formation in reactive solder wetting on metals.

  1. Microstructure of Ni-Al powder and Ni-Al composite coatings prepared by twin-wire arc spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ji-xiao; Wang, Gui-xian; Liu, Jing-shun; Zhang, Lun-yong; Wang, Wei; Li, Ze; Wang, Qi-xiang; Sun, Jian-fei

    2016-07-01

    Ni-Al powder and Ni-Al composite coatings were fabricated by twin-wire arc spraying (TWAS). The microstructures of Ni-5wt%Al powder and Ni-20wt%Al powder were characterized by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The results showed that the obtained particle size ranged from 5 to 50 μm. The morphology of the Ni-Al powder showed that molten particles were composed of Ni solid solution, NiAl, Ni3Al, Al2O3, and NiO. The Ni-Al phase and a small amount of Al2O3 particles changed the composition of the coating. The microstructures of the twin-wire-arc-sprayed Ni-Al composite coatings were characterized by SEM, EDS, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that the main phase of the Ni-5wt%Al coating consisted of Ni solid solution and NiAl in addition to a small amount of Al2O3. The main phase of the Ni-20wt%Al coating mainly consisted of Ni solid solution, NiAl, and Ni3Al in addition to a small amount of Al and Al2O3, and NiAl and Ni3Al intermetallic compounds effectively further improved the final wear property of the coatings. TEM analysis indicated that fine spherical NiAl3 precipitates and a Ni-Al-O amorphous phase formed in the matrix of the Ni solid solution in the original state.

  2. Enthalpy of mixing of liquid Ni-Zr and Cu-Ni-Zr alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Witusiewicz, V.T.; Sommer, F.

    2000-04-01

    Since the Al-Cu-Ni-Zr system is a basis for the production of bulk amorphous materials by rapid solidification techniques from the liquid state, it is of great scientific interest to determine the partial and the integral thermodynamic functions of liquid and undercooled liquid alloys. Such data, as was pointed out previously, are important in order to understand their extremely good glass-forming ability in multicomponent metallic systems as well as for processing improvements. In order to measure the thermodynamic properties of the Al-Cu-Ni-Zr quaternary, it is necessary to have reliable thermochemical data for its constituent canaries and ternaries first. In a series of articles, the authors have reported in detail the thermodynamic properties of liquid Al-Cu, Al-Ni, Cu-Ni, Cu-Zr, Al-Zr, Al-Cu-Ni, and Al-Cu-Zr alloys. This article deals with the direct calorimetric measurements of the partial and the integral enthalpies of mixing of liquid Ni-Zr and Cu-Ni-Zr alloys and the heat capacity of liquid Ni{sub 26}Zr{sub 74}. In a subsequent article, the authors will present similar data for the liquid ternary Al-Ni-Zr and for the liquid quaternary Al-Cu-Ni-Zr alloys.

  3. Composite Ni/NiO-Cr2O3 Catalyst for Alkaline Hydrogen Evolution Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Michael K.; Jia, Qingying; Ramaswamy, Nagappan; Allen, Robert J.; Mukerjee, Sanjeev

    2015-01-01

    We report a Ni–Cr/C electrocatalyst with unprecedented mass-activity for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in alkaline electrolyte. The HER kinetics of numerous binary and ternary Ni-alloys and composite Ni/metal-oxide/C samples were evaluated in aqueous 0.1 M KOH electrolyte. The highest HER mass-activity was observed for Ni–Cr materials which exhibit metallic Ni as well as NiOx and Cr2O3 phases as determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) analysis. The onset of the HER is significantly improved compared to numerous binary and ternary Ni-alloys, including Ni–Mo materials. It is likely that at adjacent Ni/NiOx sites, the oxide acts as a sink for OHads, while the metallic Ni acts as a sink for the Hads intermediate of the HER, thus minimizing the high activation energy of hydrogen evolution via water reduction. This is confirmed by in situ XAS studies that show that the synergistic HER enhancement is due to NiOx content and that the Cr2O3 appears to stabilize the composite NiOx component under HER conditions (where NiOx would typically be reduced to metallic Ni0). Furthermore, in contrast to Pt, the Ni(Ox)/Cr2O3 catalyst appears resistant to poisoning by the anion exchange ionomer (AEI), a serious consideration when applied to an anionic polymer electrolyte interface. Furthermore, we report a detailed model of the double layer interface which helps explain the observed ensemble effect in the presence of AEI. PMID:26191118

  4. Silicide formation process of Pt added Ni at low temperature: Control of NiSi2 formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikarashi, Nobuyuki; Masuzaki, Koji

    2011-03-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and ab initio calculations revealed that the Ni-Si reaction around 300 °C is significantly changed by adding Pt to Ni. TEM analysis clarified that NiSi2 was formed in a reaction between Ni thin film (˜1 nm) and Si substrate, while NiSi was formed when Pt was added to the Ni film. We also found that the Ni-adamantane structure, which acts as a precursor for NiSi2 formation around the reaction temperature, was formed in the former reaction but was significantly suppressed in the latter reaction. Theoretical calculations indicated that Pt addition increased stress at the Ni-adamantane structure/Si-substrate interface. The increase in interface stress caused by Pt addition should raise the interface energy to suppress the Ni-adamantane structure formation, leading to NiSi2 formation being suppressed.

  5. Shape coexistence in and near 68Ni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchyta, Scott

    2015-10-01

    The nuclei in the vicinity of 68Ni have been the subject of considerable experimental and theoretical work focused on studying the evolution of nuclear structure. Situated at the Z = 28 proton shell closure and the fragile N = 40 subshell closure, 68Ni is an important nucleus to understand as a progression is made from stable to increasingly exotic nuclei. The nature and decay of the first excited state in 68Ni has been thoroughly investigated in recent years. The first excited state has a spin and parity of 0+, can be described by the excitation of neutrons across the N = 40 gap, and has been interpreted as a moderately oblate-deformed state that coexists with the spherical ground state. A second low-energy excited 0+ state is also known to exist in 68Ni. Based on comparisons with theoretical calculations, the second excited 0+ state has been proposed to be strongly prolate deformed and based primarily on the excitation of protons across the Z = 28 gap, leading to the inference that three different 0+ states with three distinct shapes coexist below 3 MeV in 68Ni. Additional studies suggest that shape coexistence is not unique to 68Ni in this neutron-rich region near Z = 28. For instance, in the neighboring even-even isotope 70Ni, theory predicts that a prolate-deformed minimum in the potential energy surface occurs at even lower energy than in 68Ni, and experimental evidence is consistent with the theoretical prediction. The results of recent experiments studying shape coexistence in the region, particularly investigations of 68,70Ni, will be presented and theoretical interpretations will be discussed.

  6. NiPt silicide agglomeration accompanied by stress relaxation in NiSi(010) ∥ Si(001) grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuo, Mariko; Yamaguchi, Tadashi; Pagès, Xavier; Vanormelingen, Koen; Smits, Martin; Granneman, Ernst; Fujisawa, Masahiko; Hattori, Nobuyoshi

    2015-04-01

    Pt-doped Ni (NiPt) silicide agglomeration in terms of NiSi crystal orientation, Pt segregation at the NiSi/Si interface, and residual stress is studied for the first time. In the annealing of Ni monosilicide (NiSi), the growth of NiSi grains whose NiSi b-axes are aligned normal to Si(001) [NiSi(010) ∥ Si(001)] with increasing Pt segregation at the NiSi/Si interface owing to a high annealing temperature was observed. The residual stress in NiSi(010) ∥ Si(001) grains also increases with increasing annealing temperature. Furthermore, the recrystallization of NiSi(010) ∥ Si(001) grains with increasing residual stress continues through additional annealing after NiSi formation. After the annealing of NiSi(010) ∥ Si(001) grains with their strain at approximately 2%, the start of NiPt silicide agglomerates accompanied by stress relaxation was observed. This preferential recrystallization of NiSi(010) ∥ Si(001) grains with increasing residual stress is considered to enhance the NiPt silicide agglomeration.

  7. Nickel Release, ROS Generation and Toxicity of Ni and NiO Micro- and Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Hedberg, Jonas; Di Bucchianico, Sebastiano; Möller, Lennart; Odnevall Wallinder, Inger; Elihn, Karine; Karlsson, Hanna L.

    2016-01-01

    Occupational exposure to airborne nickel is associated with an elevated risk for respiratory tract diseases including lung cancer. Therefore, the increased production of Ni-containing nanoparticles necessitates a thorough assessment of their physical, chemical, as well as toxicological properties. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the characteristics of nickel metal (Ni) and nickel oxide (NiO) particles with a focus on Ni release, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, cellular uptake, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Four Ni-containing particles of both nano-size (Ni-n and NiO-n) and micron-size (Ni-m1 and Ni-m2) were tested. The released amount of Ni in solution was notably higher in artificial lysosomal fluid (e.g. 80–100 wt% for metallic Ni) than in cell medium after 24h (ca. 1–3 wt% for all particles). Each of the particles was taken up by the cells within 4 h and they remained in the cells to a high extent after 24 h post-incubation. Thus, the high dissolution in ALF appeared not to reflect the particle dissolution in the cells. Ni-m1 showed the most pronounced effect on cell viability after 48 h (alamar blue assay) whereas all particles showed increased cytotoxicity in the highest doses (20–40 μg cm2) when assessed by colony forming efficiency (CFE). Interestingly an increased CFE, suggesting higher proliferation, was observed for all particles in low doses (0.1 or 1 μg cm-2). Ni-m1 and NiO-n were the most potent in causing acellular ROS and DNA damage. However, no intracellular ROS was detected for any of the particles. Taken together, micron-sized Ni (Ni-m1) was more reactive and toxic compared to the nano-sized Ni. Furthermore, this study underlines that the low dose effect in terms of increased proliferation observed for all particles should be further investigated in future studies. PMID:27434640

  8. Ni{sub 3}Al aluminide alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.T.

    1993-10-01

    This paper provides a brief review of the recent progress in research and development of Ni{sub 3}Al and its alloys. Emphasis has been placed on understanding low ductility and brittle fracture of Ni{sub 3}Al alloys at ambient and elevated temperatures. Recent studies have resulted in identifying both intrinsic and extrinsic factors governing the fracture behavior of Ni{sub 3}Al alloys. Parallel efforts on alloy design using physical metallurgy principles have led to properties for structural use. Industrial interest in these alloys is high, and examples of industrial involvement in processing and utilization of these alloys are briefly mentioned.

  9. Binary Ni-Nb bulk metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, L.; Li, W.H.; Fang, S.S.; Wei, B.C.; Dong, Y.D.

    2006-01-15

    We studied the glass forming ability of Ni-Nb binary alloys and found that some of the alloys can be prepared into bulk metallic glasses by a conventional Cu-mold casting. The best glass former within the compositional range studied is off-eutectic Ni{sub 62}Nb{sub 38} alloy, which is markedly different from those predicted by the multicomponent and deep eutectic rules. The glass formation mechanism for binary Ni-Nb alloys was studied from the thermodynamic point of view and a parameter {gamma}* was proposed to approach the ability of glass formation against crystallization.

  10. Accessing Ni(III)-Thiolate Versus Ni(II)-Thiyl Bonding in a Family of Ni–N2S2 Synthetic Models of NiSOD

    PubMed Central

    Broering, Ellen P.; Dillon, Stephanie; Gale, Eric M.; Steiner, Ramsey A.; Telser, Joshua; Brunold, Thomas C.; Harrop, Todd C.

    2015-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) catalyzes the disproportionation of superoxide (O2• −) into H2O2 and O2(g) by toggling through different oxidation states of a first-row transition metal ion at its active site. Ni-containing SODs (NiSODs) are a distinct class of this family of metalloenzymes due to the unusual coordination sphere that is comprised of mixed N/S-ligands from peptide-N and cysteine-S donor atoms. A central goal of our research is to understand the factors that govern reactive oxygen species (ROS) stability of the Ni–S(Cys) bond in NiSOD utilizing a synthetic model approach. In light of the reactivity of metal-coordinated thiolates to ROS, several hypotheses have been proffered and include the coordination of His1-Nδ to the Ni(II) and Ni(III) forms of NiSOD, as well as hydrogen bonding or full protonation of a coordinated S(Cys). In this work, we present NiSOD analogues of the general formula [Ni(N2S)(SR′)]−, providing a variable location (SR′ = aryl thiolate) in the N2S2 basal plane coordination sphere where we have introduced o-amino and/or electron-withdrawing groups to intercept an oxidized Ni species. The synthesis, structure, and properties of the NiSOD model complexes (Et4N)[Ni(nmp)(SPh-o-NH2)] (2), (Et4N)[Ni(nmp)(SPh-o-NH2-p-CF3)] (3), (Et4N)[Ni(nmp)(SPh-p-NH2)] (4), and (Et4N)[Ni(nmp)(SPh-p-CF3)] (5) (nmp2− = dianion of N-(2-mercaptoethyl)picolinamide) are reported. NiSOD model complexes with amino groups positioned ortho to the aryl-S in SR′ (2 and 3) afford oxidized species (2ox and 3ox) that are best described as a resonance hybrid between Ni(III)-SR and Ni(II)-•SR based on ultraviolet–visible (UV-vis), magnetic circular dichroism (MCD), and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopies, as well as density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The results presented here, demonstrating the high percentage of S(3p) character in the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of the four-coordinate reduced form of NiSOD (Ni

  11. Utilization of Active Ni to Fabricate Pt-Ni Nanoframe/NiAl Layered Double Hydroxide Multifunctional Catalyst through In Situ Precipitation.

    PubMed

    Ren, Fumin; Wang, Zheng; Luo, Liangfeng; Lu, Haiyuan; Zhou, Gang; Huang, Weixin; Hong, Xun; Wu, Yuen; Li, Yadong

    2015-09-14

    Integration of different active sites into metallic catalysts, which may impart new properties and functionalities, is desirable yet challenging. Herein, a novel dealloying strategy is demonstrated to decorate nickel-aluminum layered double hydroxide (NiAl-LDH) onto a Pt-Ni alloy surface. The incorporation of chemical etching of Pt-Ni alloy and in situ precipitation of LDH are studied by joint experimental and theoretical efforts. The initial Ni-rich Pt-Ni octahedra transform by interior erosion into Pt3 Ni nanoframes with enlarged surface areas. Furthermore, owing to the basic active sites of the decorated LDH together with the metallic sites of Pt3 Ni, the resulting Pt-Ni nanoframe/NiAl-LDH composites exhibit excellent catalytic activity and selectivity in the dehydrogenation of benzylamine and hydrogenation of furfural. PMID:26241390

  12. NiCo-lead zirconium titanate-NiCo trilayered magnetoelectric composites prepared by electroless deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, M. H.; Wang, Y. G.; Bi, K.; Fan, H. P.; Zhao, Z. S.

    2015-04-15

    The NiCo layers with various Ni/Co atomic ratio have been successfully electroless deposited on PZT layers by varying the bath composition. As the cobalt atomic ratio in the deposited layer increases from 17.2 to 54.8 wt%, the magnetostrictive coefficient decreases. The magnetoelectric effect depends strongly on the magnetostrictive properties of magnetostrictive phase. The magnetoelectric coefficient of NiCo/PZT/NiCo trilayers increases with Ni/Co atomic ratio of the deposited NiCo layers increasing from 45:55 to 83:17. A maximum ME voltage coefficient of α{sub E,31} = 2.8 V ⋅ cm{sup −1} ⋅ Oe{sup −1} is obtained at a frequency of about 88 kHz, which makes these trilayers suitable for applications in actuators, transducers and sensors.

  13. The self-discharge of the NiOOH/Ni(OH)2 electrode constant potential study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mao, Z.; White, R. E.

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogen oxidation currents at a NiOOH/Ni(OH)2 electrode were measured directly at constant potentials for various hydrogen pressures and states of charge. It was found that the hydrogen oxidation current is linearly proportional to the hydrogen pressure at all electrode potentials and that the logarithm of the anodic current is a linear function of electrode potential. It was also found that hydrogen oxidation on the nickel substrate material was strongly inhibited by the presence of nickel hydroxide on the substrate surface. By comparing the currents for hydrogen oxidation and oxygen evolution on the NiOOH/Ni(OH)2 electrode and a nickel substrate, it is suggested that the self-discharge of the NiOOH/Ni(OH)2 electrode is mainly due to electrochemical oxidation of hydrogen on the active electrode material.

  14. Enhanced broadband near-infrared luminescence from Ni in Bi/Ni-doped transparent glass ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Botao; Ruan, Jian; Qiu, Jianrong; Zeng, Heping

    2009-07-01

    Spectral properties of Bi/Ni-doped transparent MgO-Al2O3-Ga2O3-SiO2-TiO2 glass ceramics (GCs) containing spinel solution nanocrystals were investigated. The emission intensity of Ni in Bi/Ni-doped GCs was about 4 times stronger than that of Ni-doped GCs due to energy transfer from Bi to Ni. The Bi/Ni-doped GCs with 0.75 mol% Bi2O3 concentration exhibited a near-infrared emission with full width at half maximum of about 270 nm and a fluorescent lifetime of about 350 µs, making them very promising for applications in broadband optical amplifiers and tunable lasers.

  15. Phase stability and magnetism in NiPt and NiPd alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paudyal, Durga; Mookerjee, Abhijit

    2004-08-01

    We show that the differences in stability of 3d-5d NiPt and 3d-4d NiPd alloys arise mainly due to relativistic corrections. The magnetic properties of disordered NiPd and NiPt alloys also differ due to these corrections, which lead to increase in the separation between the s-d bands of 5d elements in these alloys. For the magnetic case we also analyse the results in terms of splitting of majority and minority spin d band centres of the 3d elements. We further examine the effect of relativistic corrections to the pair energies and order-disorder transition temperatures in these alloys. The magnetic moments and Curie temperatures have also been studied along with the short range ordering/segregation effects in NiPt/NiPd alloys.

  16. Synthesis of Ni-poor NiO nanoparticles for p-DSSC applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polteau, Baptiste; Tessier, Franck; Cheviré, François; Cario, Laurent; Odobel, Fabrice; Jobic, Stéphane

    2016-04-01

    To improve the performances of p-Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (p-DSSC) for the future, the synthesis of modified p-type nickel oxide semiconductor, commonly used as photocathode in such devices, was initiated with Ni3O2(OH)4 as precursor. This specific nickel oxyhydroxide was first characterized by X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy and magnetic susceptibility measurements. Then its thermal decomposition was thoroughly studied in order to control the particles size of the as-prepared NiO nanopowders. Low temperature decomposition in air of this precursor allows the formation of Ni1-xO nanoparticles with a large amount of Ni vacancies and specific surface areas up to 250 m2 g-1. Its ammonolysis at 250 °C leads to nanostructured N-doped NiO (NiO:N) materials.

  17. Growth of nanotubular oxide layer on Ti-Ni alloys with different Ni contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Min-Su; Tsuchiya, Hiroaki; Fujimoto, Shinji

    2016-04-01

    Anodization of near-equiatomic Ti-Ni alloys was performed in an ethylene glycol based electrolyte under various conditions in order to investigate the effects of crystal structure and chemical composition of the Ti-Ni alloy on the morphology of the resulting oxide layers. X-ray diffraction patterns revealed that Ti-Ni substrates with Ni content lower than 50.0 at.% were in the martensitic phase, while substrates with Ni content higher than 50.0 at.% were in the austenitic phase. Oxide layers formed at 20 or 35 V for 5 min exhibited no distinct nanotubular structures; however, at 50 V, nanotubular oxide layers were formed. After anodization at 50 V for 20 min, the growth of an irregular-shaped porous layer underneath the nanotubular oxide layer was observed for Ti-Ni alloys with Ni content lower than 52.2 at.%, whereas the oxide layer consisted of only irregular-shaped porous structures for the Ti-52.5 at.% Ni alloy. Further anodization resulted in the formation of irregular-shaped porous oxide layers on all Ti-Ni alloys examined. Energy-dispersive X-ray analysis indicated that this morphological transition is related to Ni accumulation in the vicinity of the interface between the bottoms of the oxide layers and the surfaces of the substrate alloys. Therefore, nanotubular oxide layers cannot be grown, and instead irregular-shaped porous oxide layers are formed underneath the nanotubular layers. These results indicate that the morphology of anodic oxide layers formed on the near-equiatomic Ti-Ni alloys is not affected by their crystal structure, but by Ni content and anodization time.

  18. Optical absorption of Ni2+ and Ni3+ ions in gadolinium gallium garnet epitaxial films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasileva, N. V.; Gerus, P. A.; Sokolov, V. O.; Plotnichenko, V. G.

    2012-12-01

    Single-crystal Ni-doped gadolinium gallium garnet films were grown for the first time from supercooled Bi2O3-B2O3-based melt solutions by liquid-phase epitaxy. Optical absorption bands due to Ni2+, Ni3+ and Bi3+ ions were observed in those films. Interpretation and tabulation of all absorption bands of nickel ions occupying octahedral and tetrahedral sites in the garnet lattice are presented.

  19. Ion irradiation induced defect evolution in Ni and Ni-based FCC equiatomic binary alloys

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Jin, Ke; Zhang, Yanwen; Bei, Hongbin

    2016-01-01

    In order to explore the chemical effects on radiation response of alloys with multi-principal elements, defect evolution under Au ion irradiation was investigated in the elemental Ni, equiatomic NiCo and NiFe alloys. Single crystals were successfully grown in an optical floating zone furnace and their (100) surfaces were irradiated with 3 MeV Au ions at fluences ranging from 1 × 1013 to 5 × 1015 ions cm–2 at room temperature. The irradiation-induced defect evolution was analyzed by using ion channeling technique. Experiment shows that NiFe is more irradiation-resistant than NiCo and pure Ni at low fluences. With continuously increasing themore » ion fluences, damage level is eventually saturated for all materials but at different dose levels. The saturation level in pure Ni appears at relatively lower irradiation fluence than the alloys, suggesting that damage accumulation slows down in the alloys. Here, under high-fluence irradiations, pure Ni has wider damage ranges than the alloys, indicating that defects in pure Ni have high mobility.« less

  20. Modeling and simulation of NiO dissolution and Ni deposition in molten carbonate fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nam, Suk Woo; Choi, Hyung-Joon; Lim, Tae Hoon

    1996-12-31

    Dissolution of NiO cathode into the electrolyte matrix is an important phenomena limiting the lifetime of molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC). The dissolved nickel diffuses into the matrix and is reduced by dissolved hydrogen leading to the formation of metallic nickel films in the pores of the matrix. The growth of Ni films in the electrolyte matrix during the continuous cell operation results eventually in shorting between cathode and anode. Various mathematical and empirical models have been developed to describe the NiO dissolution and Ni deposition processes, and these models have some success in estimating the lifetime of MCFC by correlating the amount of Ni deposited in the matrix with shorting time. Since the exact mechanism of Ni deposition was not well understood, deposition reaction was assumed to be very fast in most of the models and the Ni deposition region was limited around a point in the matrix. In fact, formation of Ni films takes place in a rather broad region in the matrix, the location and thickness of the film depending on operating conditions as well as matrix properties. In this study, we assumed simple reaction kinetics for Ni deposition and developed a mathematical model to get the distribution of nickel in the matrix.

  1. Pressure dependence on the remanent magnetization of Fe-Ni alloys and Ni metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Qingguo; Gilder, Stuart Alan; Maier, Bernd

    2014-10-01

    We measured the acquisition of magnetic remanence of iron-nickel alloys (Fe64Ni36, Fe58Ni42, and Fe50Ni50) and pure Ni under pressures up to 23 GPa at room temperature. Magnetization decreases markedly for Fe64Ni36 between 5 and 7 GPa yet remains ferromagnetic until at least 16 GPa. Magnetization rises by a factor of 2-3 for the other compositions during compression to the highest applied pressures. Immediately upon decompression, magnetic remanence increases for all Fe-Ni alloys while magnetic coercivity remains fairly constant at relatively low values (5-20 mT). The amount of magnetization gained upon complete decompression correlates with the maximum pressure experienced by the sample. Martensitic effects best explain the increase in remanence rather than grain-size reduction, as the creation of single domain sized grains would raise the coercivity. The magnetic remanence of low Ni Invar alloys increases faster with pressure than for other body-centered-cubic compositions due to the higher magnetostriction of the low Ni Invar metals. Thermal demagnetization spectra of Fe64Ni36 measured after pressure release broaden as a function of peak pressure, with a systematic decrease in Curie temperature. Irreversible strain accumulation from the martensitic transition likely explains the broadening of the Curie temperature spectra, consistent with our x-ray diffraction analyses.

  2. Electroslag surfacing of steel shafting with Ni alloy 625 and 70Cu-30Ni strip

    SciTech Connect

    Devletian, J.H.; Gao, Y.P.; Wood, W.E.

    1996-12-31

    A comprehensive study of electroslag surfacing (ESS) of steel with Ni Alloy 625 and 70Cu-30Ni strip electrodes was conducted to establish the feasibility of replacing forged bearing sleeves on propulsion shafting with integral weld surfacing. The base material was MIL-S-23284, Class 1 steel in the form of 41--66 cm (16--26 in.) diameter shafting and 76 mm (3 in.) thick flat plate. All ESS was carried out at a heat input level of approximately 5.9kJ/mm (150 kJ/in.) using 30 x 0.5 mm (1.2 x 0.02 in.) strip electrodes. Assessments of mechanical properties and microstructure of Ni Alloy 625 surfacing and 70Cu-30Ni surfacing were conducted to establish the structure-property relationships in these complex alloy systems. In addition, a solidification cracking test was developed to determine the relative cracking susceptibilities of these strip surfacing alloys. Although the Ni Alloy 625 surfacing contained small islands of interdendritic MC type carbides and Laves phase, the mechanical properties of this surfacing were satisfactory. The 70Cu-30Ni surfacing required a buttering layer of 30Cu-70Ni or pure Ni to prevent solidification cracking. The inherent ductility-dip sensitivity of 70Cu-30Ni surfacing was overcome by the development of a suitable ESS procedure.

  3. Anodic vacuum arc developed nanocrystalline Cu-Ni and Fe-Ni thin film thermocouples

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjee, S. K.; Sinha, M. K.; Pathak, B.; Rout, S. K.; Barhai, P. K.

    2009-12-01

    This paper deals with the development of nanocrystalline Cu-Ni and Fe-Ni thin film thermocouples (TFTCs) by using ion-assisted anodic vacuum arc deposition technique. The crystallographic structure and surface morphology of individual layer films have been studied by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The resistivity, temperature coefficient of resistance, and thermoelectric power of as deposited and annealed films have been measured. The observed departure of these transport parameters from their respective bulk values can be understood in terms of intrinsic scattering due to enhanced crystallite boundaries. From the measured values of thermoelectric power and the corresponding temperature coefficient of resistance of annealed Cu, Ni, and Fe films, the calculated values of log derivative of the mean free path of conduction electrons at the Fermi surface with respect to energy (U) are found to be -0.51, 3.22, and -8.39, respectively. The thermoelectric response of annealed Cu-Ni and Fe-Ni TFTCs has been studied up to a maximum temperature difference of 300 deg. C. Reproducibility of TFTCs has been examined in terms of the standard deviation in thermoelectric response of 16 test samples for each pair. Cu-Ni and Fe-Ni TFTCs agree well with their wire thermocouple equivalents. The thermoelectric power values of Cu-Ni and Fe-Ni TFTCs at 300 deg. C are found to be 0.0178 and 0.0279 mV/ deg. C, respectively.

  4. Electronic transport properties of ultra-thin Ni and Ni-C nanowires.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Leining; Wu, Weikang; Zhou, Yi; Ren, Hongru; Dong, Jichen; Li, Hui

    2016-02-21

    The structures and electronic transport properties of ultra-thin Ni and Ni-C nanowires obtained from carbon nanotube (CNT) templates are theoretically investigated. C atoms tend to locate at the central positions of nanowires and are surrounded by Ni atoms. Spin polarization at the Fermi level is not responsible for the spin filtration of these nanowires. Increasing C concentration can improve the resistance of nanowires by abating the number of electronic transmission channels and the coupling of electron orbitals between Ni atoms. Moreover, with the increase of diameter, the conductance of these nanowires increases as well. This study is helpful for guiding the synthesis of nanowires with desired applications. PMID:26818090

  5. Directional Solidification and Mechanical Properties of NiAl-NiAlTa Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D. R.; Chen, X. F.; Oliver, B. F.; Noebe, R. D.; Whittenberger, J. D.

    1995-01-01

    Directional solidification of eutectic alloys is a promising technique for producing in-situ composite materials exhibiting a balance of properties. Consequently, the microstructure, creep strength and fracture toughness of directionally solidified NiAl-NiAlTa alloys were investigated. Directional solidification was performed by containerless processing techniques to minimize alloy contamination. The eutectic composition was found to be NiAl-15.5 at% Ta and well-aligned microstructures were produced at this composition. A near-eutectic alloy of NiAl-14.5Ta was also investigated. Directional solidification of the near-eutectic composition resulted in microstructures consisting of NiAl dendrites surrounded by aligned eutectic regions. The off-eutectic alloy exhibited promising compressive creep strengths compared to other NiAl-based intermetallics, while preliminary testing indicated that the eutectic alloy was competitive with Ni-base single crystal superalloys. The room temperature toughness of these two-phase alloys was similar to that of polycrystalline NiAl even with the presence of the brittle Laves phase NiAlTa.

  6. Ion irradiation induced defect evolution in Ni and Ni-based FCC equiatomic binary alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, K.; Bei, H.; Zhang, Y.

    2016-04-01

    In order to explore the chemical effects on radiation response of alloys with multi-principal elements, defect evolution under Au ion irradiation was investigated in the elemental Ni, equiatomic NiCo and NiFe alloys. Single crystals were successfully grown in an optical floating zone furnace and their (100) surfaces were irradiated with 3 MeV Au ions at fluences ranging from 1 × 1013 to 5 × 1015 ions cm-2 at room temperature. The irradiation-induced defect evolution was analyzed by using ion channeling technique. Experiment shows that NiFe is more irradiation-resistant than NiCo and pure Ni at low fluences. With continuously increasing the ion fluences, damage level is eventually saturated for all materials but at different dose levels. The saturation level in pure Ni appears at relatively lower irradiation fluence than the alloys, suggesting that damage accumulation slows down in the alloys. Under high-fluence irradiations, pure Ni has wider damage ranges than the alloys, indicating that defects in pure Ni have high mobility.

  7. Tiny Ni-NiO nanocrystals with exchange bias induced room temperature ferromagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaghouri, Hanan Al; Tuna, F.; Santhosh, P. N.; Thomas, P. John

    2016-03-01

    Ni nanocrystals coated with a thin layer of NiO with a diameter of 5.0 nm show exchange bias induced ferromagnetism at room temperature. These particulates are freely dispersible in water and were obtained by annealing Ni nanoparticles coated with a thin amorphous layer of NiO. Particulates with diameters between 5.0 and 16.8 nm are studied. Detailed magnetic measurements reveal signs consistent with strong exchange bias including elevated blocking temperatures and tangible loop shifts. The structure of the particulates are characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray analysis and x-ray diffraction.

  8. Complex band structure with ultrasoft pseudopotentials: fcc Ni and Ni nanowire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smogunov, Alexander; Dal Corso, Andrea; Tosatti, Erio

    2003-06-01

    We generalize to magnetic transition metals the approach proposed by Choi and Ihm for calculating the complex band structure of periodic systems, a key ingredient for future calculations of conductivity of an open quantum system within the Landauer-Buttiker theory. The method is implemented with ultrasoft pseudopotentials and plane wave basis set in a DFT-LSDA ab initio scheme. As a first example, we present the complex band structure of bulk fcc Ni (which constitutes the tips of a Ni nanocontact) and monatomic Ni wire (the junction between two tips). Based on our results, we anticipate some features of the spin-dependent conductance in a Ni nanocontact.

  9. Ion irradiation induced defect evolution in Ni and Ni-based FCC equiatomic binary alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Ke; Zhang, Yanwen; Bei, Hongbin

    2016-01-01

    In order to explore the chemical effects on radiation response of alloys with multi-principal elements, defect evolution under Au ion irradiation was investigated in the elemental Ni, equiatomic NiCo and NiFe alloys. Single crystals were successfully grown in an optical floating zone furnace and their (100) surfaces were irradiated with 3 MeV Au ions at fluences ranging from 1 × 1013 to 5 × 1015 ions cm–2 at room temperature. The irradiation-induced defect evolution was analyzed by using ion channeling technique. Experiment shows that NiFe is more irradiation-resistant than NiCo and pure Ni at low fluences. With continuously increasing the ion fluences, damage level is eventually saturated for all materials but at different dose levels. The saturation level in pure Ni appears at relatively lower irradiation fluence than the alloys, suggesting that damage accumulation slows down in the alloys. Here, under high-fluence irradiations, pure Ni has wider damage ranges than the alloys, indicating that defects in pure Ni have high mobility.

  10. Thickness and ordering temperature of surface NiO/Ni systems

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, Ying-Ta; Su, Chien-Yu; Tsai, Chung-Wei; Pan, Wei

    2014-02-15

    We estimate the thickness and ordering temperature of an antiferromagnetic and passivation surface oxide through exchange bias coupling. The surface NiO, which is generated through the exposure of a Ni/Cu(001) surface to oxygen, is taken as a model system on which to perform the estimation. Since no exchange bias is found in the surface NiO/Ni/Cu(001), we have built a sandwich structure of NiO/n ML Ni/10 ML Co/Cu(001) to measure the n dependence of exchange bias. With n ⩽ 2, a large exchange bias field is found above 300 K, which could be due to the direct contact between the oxides and the Co layer. With 3 ⩽ n ⩽ 6, a smaller exchange bias field is found with a blocking temperature of 190 K. This implies that the thickness of NiO is, at most, 3 ML. Discovering the thickness and ordering temperature of the surface NiO provides us to explore the potential applications by using surface NiO.

  11. Preparation of magnetic Ni/wollastonite and zeolite P/Ni/wollastonite composite fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jinlong; Lu, Xinyuan; Huang, Huan; Duanmu, Chuansong; Zhou, Sumin; Gu, Xu; Chen, Jing

    2012-08-01

    Magnetic composite fibers with wollastonite (WO) core and Ni shell were prepared by electroless plating using natural mineral WO fibers as supporters. Zeolite P layers were then loaded on the surface of Ni/WO fibers by in situ hydrothermal method. The sample structure and properties were characterized via SEM, XRD, SQUID, EDX, and N2 adsorption. The compact Ni-P coatings on the surface of WO fibers resulted in good magnetic properties of the Ni/WO fibers and zeolite P/Ni/WO fibers. After two crystallization cycles, a continuous zeolite P layer could be formed on the surface of Ni-P coating. The zeolite loading improved the stability of Ni-P coating in the acid solution, resulting in that the zeolite P/Ni/WO fibers can be used at a wide pH range of 3-7. Zeolite P/Ni/WO fiber exhibited a good sorption property for Cu2+ in the aqueous solution (12.48 mg/g) and could be reused after regeneration, indicating that it could be an effective and reusable adsorbent for metal ions from a liquid system.

  12. Giant magnetoresistance in evaporated NiFe/Cu and NiFeCo/Cu multilayers (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeltser, A. M.; Smith, Neil

    1996-04-01

    The magnetic and transport properties of electron beam evaporated (Ni83Fe17/Cu)10 and (Ni66Fe16Co18/Cu)10 multilayers (ML) were studied as a function of the Cu spacer and magnetic layer thicknesses (tCu and tNiFe), annealing conditions and Ta buffer layer thickness. The ML were evaporated in a magnetic field at deposition rates ˜ 2 Å/s and background pressure <5×10-8 mbar on Si/SiO2 substrates at Ts=200 °C. These ML exhibited two unique features: (1) ΔR/R and the interlayer coupling did not show oscillatory behavior as a function of tCu; and (2) after magnetic post annealing, ΔR/R increased from <0.3% in the as-deposited state, to up to ˜6% and 7% in Ta/(NiFe/Cu) and (NiFeCo/Cu), respectively. The coupling between the NiFe layers changed from ferromagnetic in the as-deposited state Mr/Ms˜0.9k;20 to essentially antiferromagnetic Mr/Ms<0.2) after appropriate annealing, and the ML became virtually isotropic in-plane. This is quite different from strong oscillatory behavior of giant magnetoresistance (GMR) previously reported in (NiFe/Cu) as-deposited ML made by ion-beam sputtering. After annealing at 300° and 325 °C for 2 h, the ΔR/R became ˜4.5% and ˜6.5% in (NiFe/Cu) and (NiFeCo/Cu) ML, respectively, and remained approximately constant for tCu=20 to 40 Å. The coupling field generally decreased with an increase in Cu and NiFe and after annealing at 300 °C dropped to as low as ˜25 and 45 Oe in (NiFe/Cu) and (NiFeCo/Cu) ML, respectively. The of ΔR/R Ta/(NiFe/Cu) ML increased with the thickness of Ta buffer layer from 30 to 70 Å. The high-angle θ-2θ x-ray scans of (NiFe/Cu) ML showed (111) texture, essentially independent of annealing temperature. The low-angle x-ray diffraction did not reveal roughening of the Cu-NiFe interfaces as a result of annealing. In many respects the GMR behavior of these ML is similar to that reported in sputtered ``discontinuous'' NiFe/Ag. However, in contrast to the latter, the resistivity of NiFe/Cu monotonically

  13. Single Particle States in ^56Ni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanetullaev, Alisher; Lynch, W. G.; Tsang, M. B.; Bazin, D.; Coupland, D.; Henzl, V.; Henzlova, D.; Kilburn, M.; Lee, Jenny; Rogers, A. M.; Signoracci, A.; Sun, Z. Y.; Youngs, M.; Famiano, M.; Hudan, S.; O'Malley, P.; Peters, W. A.; Schmitt, K.; Shapira, D.; Charity, R. J.; Sobotka, L. G.

    2010-11-01

    Neutron spectroscopic factor of ^56Ni using (p, d) neutron transfer reaction has been measured using 37 MeV/u ^56Ni beam in inverse kinematics. The measurement was performed at NSCL using the high resolution silicon array, HiRA, to detect the deuterons in coincidence with the recoil residues detected in the S800 spectrometer. To test if ^56Ni is a good core, the most direct way is to measure the single particle nature of the neutrons or protons in the f7/2 orbits. Direct measurements of the spectroscopic factors of the neutron hole state in ^56Ni using the pickup (p,d) reaction will determine if the neutron f7/2 orbit is indeed a closed shell. In present work, preliminary experimental results will be presented.

  14. Preparation of C/Ni-NiO composite nanofibers for anode materials in lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Chenghao; Lu, Weili; Li, Yu; Feng, Yiyu; Feng, Wei; Zhao, Yunhui; Yuan, Xiaoyan

    2013-11-01

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) embedded with various amounts of Ni and NiO nanoparticles (C/Ni-NiO) were prepared by electrospinning of polyacrylonitrile (PAN), followed by heat treatment. The structure and composition of the obtained C/Ni-NiO composite nanofibers were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The results suggested that the morphology, nanofiber diameter, and the content of the Ni-NiO nanoparticles in the CNFs were controlled by different amounts of nickel acetate added into the PAN. The electrochemical measurements of a charge/discharge experiment and a cyclic voltammetry test indicated that the content and the size of Ni-NiO nanoparticles embedded in the CNFs had a great influence on the electrochemical performance of lithium-ion batteries. CNFs embedded with a certain content of Ni-NiO nanoparticles as binder-free anodes for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries exhibited improved electrochemical performance, including high reversible capacities, good capacity retention, and stable cycling performance. This is mainly ascribed to the formation of a well-distributed Ni-NiO nanoparticle structure and the buffering role of the carbon nanofiber matrix, together with the high theoretical capacity of NiO and the increase in electrode connectivity caused by the formation of electrochemically inactive Ni nanoparticles.

  15. Increasing foliar Zn:Ni or Cu:Ni concentration ratios increase severity of nickel deficiency symptoms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of essential micronutrients on the endogenous bioavailability of Ni is unknown. This study examines the linkage between Ni deficiency and endogenous foliar concentration of Ni, Zn, and Cu. It was hypothesized that expression of morphological symptoms of Ni deficiency by pecan [Carya i...

  16. Magnetic properties of ordered NiPt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brommer, P. E.; Franse, J. J. M.

    1988-04-01

    Thermal expansion, forced volume magnetostriction and high magnetic field data are presented on the ordered equiatomic NiPt compound. Values are derived for the magnetovolume parameter κC (≃3 × 10 -6kg2A-2m-4), and for the electronic and lattice Grüneisen parameters (Γ e ≊ 5.6; Γ latt ≊ 2.5) . Ordering effects on the magnetoelastic properties are studied for alloys containing 40-60 at % Ni.

  17. Effects of Ni content on the shape memory properties and microstructure of Ni-rich NiTi-20Hf alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saghaian, S. M.; Karaca, H. E.; Tobe, H.; Pons, J.; Santamarta, R.; Chumlyakov, Y. I.; Noebe, R. D.

    2016-09-01

    Shape memory properties and microstructure of four Ni-rich NiTiHf alloys (Ni50.3Ti29.7Hf20, Ni50.7Ti29.3Hf20, Ni51.2Ti28.8Hf20, and Ni52Ti28Hf20 (at.%)) were systematically characterized in the furnace cooled condition. H-phase precipitates were formed during furnace cooling in compositions with greater than 50.3Ni and the driving force for nucleation increased with Ni content. Alloy strength increased while recoverable strain decreased with increasing Ni content due to changes in precipitate characteristics. When the precipitates were small (∼5–15 nm), they were readily absorbed by martensite plates, which resulted in maximum recoverable strain of 2% in Ni50.7Ti29.3Hf20. With increasing Ni content, the size (>100 nm) and volume fraction of precipitates increased and the growth of martensite plates was constrained between the precipitates when the Ni concentration was greater than 50.7 at.%. Near perfect dimensional stability with negligible irrecoverable strain was observed at stress levels as high as 2 GPa in the Ni52Ti28Hf20 alloy, though the recoverable strain was rather small. In general, strong local stress fields were created at precipitate/matrix interphases, which lead to high stored elastic energy during the martensitic transformation.

  18. The new structure type Gd3Ni7Al14.

    PubMed

    Pukas, Svitlana; Gladyshevskii, Roman

    2015-11-01

    The crystal structure of Gd3Ni7Al14 (trigadolinium heptanickel tetradecaaluminide) belongs to a family of two-layer structures and can be described as an assembly of interpenetrating centred straight prisms. For the Ni atoms, trigonal prisms (Al4Gd2 and Al6) are observed, the Al atoms are inside tetragonal (Ni2Al2Gd4, Ni2Al4Gd2, Al4Gd4, Ni4Al4 and Al8) and pentagonal (Ni4Al6 and Al10) prisms, while the Gd atoms are at the centres of pentagonal (Ni4Al6) and hexagonal (Ni4Al8) prisms. In each case, the true coordination polyhedron is a capped prism, also including atoms from the same layer. The structural features of Gd3Ni7Al14 are similar to those of the intermetallides PrNi2Al3 and ZrNiAl. In all these structures, Ni-centred trigonal prisms form infinite columns via common triangular faces. The columns share prism edges and form a three-dimensional framework with six-membered rings in the (001) plane in the case of the PrNi2Al3 and ZrNiAl types. In the case of Gd3Ni7Al14, six-membered rings are also observed, but only two-thirds of the rings are interconnected via prism edges. PMID:26524174

  19. Alpha Ni optical model potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billah, M. M.; Abdullah, M. N. A.; Das, S. K.; Uddin, M. A.; Basak, A. K.; Reichstein, I.; Sen Gupta, H. M.; Malik, F. B.

    2005-11-01

    The present work reports the analyses of the experimental differential cross-sections of α elastic scattering on 58,60,62,64Ni, over a wide range of incident energies, in terms of four types of optical potentials, namely shallow (molecular), deep non-monotonic, squared Woods-Saxon and semi-microscopic folding. All the four potentials produce a reasonable description of the experimental data. The potential parameters, calculated from the energy density functional theory using a realistic two-nucleon interaction, resemble closely the molecular potential parameters, which produce the best description of the experimental data for the four isotopes. The volume integrals and the energy variation of the parameters indicate the effect of the shell-model structure on the potentials. The folding potentials, without any need for renormalization, are found to describe reasonably well the elastic scattering cross-section data for the four isotopes within the energy range considered. In conformity with the previous observation on Ca isotopes, the number of nucleons, 4A=49, existing in α-like clusters in the target nucleus, is the same for the four isotopes, considered herein.

  20. Methanethiol decomposition on Ni(100)

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, M.E.; Ahkter, S.; Golchet, A.; White, J.M. ); Sahin, T. )

    1991-01-01

    Static secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SSIMS), temperature programmed desorption (TPD), and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) were used under ultrahigh vacuum conditions to study the decomposition of CH{sub 3}SH on Ni(100). Only methane, hydrogen, and the parent molecule are observed in TPD. Complete decomposition to C(a), S(a) and desorbing H{sub 2} is the preferred reaction pathway for low exposures, while desorption of methane is observed at higher coverages. Preadsorbed hydrogen promoted methane desorption. Upon adsorption, and for low coverages, SSIMS evidence indicates S-H bond cleavage into CH{sub 3}S and surface hydrogen. S-H bond cleavage is inhibited for high coverages. The TP-SSIMS data are consistent with an activated C-S bond cleavage in CH{sub 3}S, with an activation energy of 8.81 kcal/mol and preexponential factor of 10{sup 6.5}s{sup {minus}1}. The low preexponential factor is taken as indicating a complex decomposition pathway. A mechanism consistent with the observed data is discussed.

  1. Improvement of Ni phytostabilization by inoculation of Ni resistant Bacillus megaterium SR28C.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, Mani; Ma, Ying; Freitas, Helena

    2013-10-15

    The use of metal tolerant plants for the phytostabilization of metal contaminated soil is an area of extensive research and development. In this study the effects of inoculation of Ni-resistant bacterial strains on phytostabilization potential of various plants, including Brassica juncea, Luffa cylindrica and Sorghum halepense, were studied. A Ni-resistant bacterial strain SR28C was isolated from a nickel rich serpentine soil and identified as Bacillus megaterium based on the morphological features, biochemical characteristics and partial 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The strain SR28C tolerated concentrations up to 1200 mg Ni L(-1) on a Luria-Bertani (LB) agar medium. Besides, it showed high degree of resistance to various metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb and Cr) and antibiotics (ampicillin, tetracycline, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, penicillin and kanamycin) tested. In addition, the strain bound considerable amounts of Ni in their resting cells. Besides, the strain exhibited the plant growth promoting traits, such as solubilization of phosphate and production of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in modified Pikovskayas medium and LB medium, respectively in the absence and presence of Ni. Considering such potential, the effects of SR28C on the growth and Ni accumulation of B. juncea, L. cylindrica and S. halepense, were assessed with different concentrations of Ni in soil. Inoculation of SR28C stimulated the biomass of the test plants grown in both Ni contaminated and non-contaminated soils. Further, SR28C alleviated the detrimental effects of Ni by reducing its uptake and translocation to the plants. This study suggested that the PGPB inoculant due to its intrinsic abilities of growth promotion and attenuation of the toxic effects of Ni could be exploited for phytostabilization of Ni contaminated site. PMID:23895909

  2. Peculiarities of thermoelectric half-Heusler phase formation in Gd-Ni-Sb and Lu-Ni-Sb ternary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romaka, V. V.; Romaka, L.; Horyn, A.; Rogl, P.; Stadnyk, Yu; Melnychenko, N.; Orlovskyy, M.; Krayovskyy, V.

    2016-07-01

    The phase equilibria in the Gd-Ni-Sb and Lu-Ni-Sb ternary systems were studied at 873 K by X-ray and metallographic analyses in the whole concentration range. The interaction of the elements in the Gd-Ni-Sb system results the formation of five ternary compounds at investigated temperature: Gd5Ni2Sb (Mo5SiB2-type), Gd5NiSb2 (Yb5Sb3-type), GdNiSb (MgAgAs-type), Gd3Ni6Sb5 (Y3Ni6Sb5-type), and GdNi0.72Sb2 (HfCuSi2-type). At investigated temperature the Lu-Ni-Sb system is characterized by formation of the LuNiSb (MgAgAs-type), Lu5Ni2Sb (Mo5SiB2-type), and Lu5Ni0.56Sb2.44 (Yb5Sb3-type) compounds. The disordering in the crystal structure of half-Heusler GdNiSb and LuNiSb was revealed by EPMA and studied by means of Rietveld refinement and DFT modeling. The performed electronic structure calculations are in good agreement with electrical transport property studies.

  3. Processing condition for the development of cube texture in Ni and Ni alloy tapes fabricated by powder metallurgy process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Bong Ki; Lee, Dong-Wook; Kim, Min-Woo; Jun, Byung-Hyuk; Park, Pyeong Yeal; Jung, Kyu-Dong; Kim, Chan-Joong

    2004-10-01

    Bi-axially textured Ni, Ni-W (1, 3 and 5 at.%) and Ni-Cu alloy tapes for YBCO coated conductors were fabricated by powder metallurgy process including powder compaction, cold isostatic pressing, cold rolling and recrystallization heat treatment. The rod-like Ni and Ni alloy compacts were sintered at 1100 °C for 6 h in 96% Ar-4% H 2 atmosphere. The sintered Ni and Ni-W rods were successfully cold-rolled into thin tapes of 80-100 μm thickness with 5% reduction at each path, but the Ni-Cu alloy rods with Cu content less than 20 at.% were made into tapes. The Ni and Ni alloy tapes were heat-treated at 800-1200 °C for the development of cube texture. The good (2 0 0) texture was obtained for both Ni and Ni-W alloy tapes, while it was obtained only for the Ni-Cu tapes with low Cu contents. The W and Cu addition to Ni improved the mechanical properties by solid solution hardening. Critical current density ( Jc) of YBCO film deposited on the CeO 2/YSZ/CeO 2(CYC)/Ni template was 0.25 MA/cm 2 at 77 K and self-field.

  4. Spontaneous formation of superconducting NiBi3 phase in Ni-Bi bilayer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siva, Vantari; Senapati, Kartik; Satpati, Biswarup; Prusty, Sudakshina; Avasthi, D. K.; Kanjilal, D.; Sahoo, Pratap K.

    2015-02-01

    We report the spontaneous formation of superconducting NiBi3 phase in thermally evaporated Ni-Bi bilayer films. High reaction-diffusion coefficient of Bi is believed to drive the formation of NiBi3 during the deposition of Bi on the Ni film. Cross sectional transmission electron microscopy and glancing incidence X-ray depth profiling confirmed the presence of NiBi3 throughout the top Bi layer. Superconducting transition at ˜3.9 K, close to the bulk value, was confirmed by transport and magnetization measurements. The bilayers were irradiated with varying fluence of 100 MeV Au ions to study the robustness of superconducting order in presence of large concentration of defects. Superconducting parameters of NiBi3, such as transition temperature and upper critical field, remained unchanged upto an ion dose of 1 × 1014 ions/cm2. The diffusive formation of NiBi3 in Ni opens the possibility of studying superconducting proximity effect at a truly clean superconductor-ferromagnet interface.

  5. Evaporative segregation in 80% Ni-20% Cr and 60% Fe-40% Ni alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, K. P.; Mukherjee, J. L.; Li, C. H.

    1974-01-01

    An analytical approach is outlined to calculate the evaporative segregation behavior in metallic alloys. The theoretical predictions are based on a 'normal' evaporation model and have been examined for Fe-Ni and Ni-Cr alloys. A fairly good agreement has been found between the predicted values and the experimental results found in the literature.

  6. Electronic circuits having NiAl and Ni.sub.3 Al substrates

    DOEpatents

    Deevi, Seetharama C.; Sikka, Vinod K.

    1999-01-01

    An electronic circuit component having improved mechanical properties and thermal conductivity comprises NiAl and/or Ni.sub.3 Al, upon which an alumina layer is formed prior to applying the conductive elements. Additional layers of copper-aluminum alloy or copper further improve mechanical strength and thermal conductivity.

  7. Spontaneous formation of superconducting NiBi{sub 3} phase in Ni-Bi bilayer films

    SciTech Connect

    Siva, Vantari; Senapati, Kartik Prusty, Sudakshina; Sahoo, Pratap K.; Satpati, Biswarup

    2015-02-28

    We report the spontaneous formation of superconducting NiBi{sub 3} phase in thermally evaporated Ni-Bi bilayer films. High reaction-diffusion coefficient of Bi is believed to drive the formation of NiBi{sub 3} during the deposition of Bi on the Ni film. Cross sectional transmission electron microscopy and glancing incidence X-ray depth profiling confirmed the presence of NiBi{sub 3} throughout the top Bi layer. Superconducting transition at ∼3.9 K, close to the bulk value, was confirmed by transport and magnetization measurements. The bilayers were irradiated with varying fluence of 100 MeV Au ions to study the robustness of superconducting order in presence of large concentration of defects. Superconducting parameters of NiBi{sub 3}, such as transition temperature and upper critical field, remained unchanged upto an ion dose of 1 × 10{sup 14} ions/cm{sup 2}. The diffusive formation of NiBi{sub 3} in Ni opens the possibility of studying superconducting proximity effect at a truly clean superconductor-ferromagnet interface.

  8. Photosensitivity of the Ni-A state of [NiFe] hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio vulgaris Miyazaki F with visible light

    SciTech Connect

    Osuka, Hisao; Shomura, Yasuhito; Komori, Hirofumi; Shibata, Naoki; Nagao, Satoshi; Higuchi, Yoshiki; Hirota, Shun

    2013-01-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ni-A state of [NiFe] hydrogenase showed light sensitivity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New FT-IR bands were observed with light irradiation of the Ni-A state. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EPR g-values of the Ni-A state shifted upon light irradiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The light-induced state converted back to the Ni-A state under the dark condition. -- Abstract: [NiFe] hydrogenase catalyzes reversible oxidation of molecular hydrogen. Its active site is constructed of a hetero dinuclear Ni-Fe complex, and the oxidation state of the Ni ion changes according to the redox state of the enzyme. We found that the Ni-A state (an inactive unready, oxidized state) of [NiFe] hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio vulgaris Miyazaki F (DvMF) is light sensitive and forms a new state (Ni-AL) with irradiation of visible light. The Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) bands at 1956, 2084 and 2094 cm{sup -1} of the Ni-A state shifted to 1971, 2086 and 2098 cm{sup -1} in the Ni-AL state. The g-values of g{sub x} = 2.30, g{sub y} = 2.23 and g{sub z} = 2.01 for the signals in the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum of the Ni-A state at room temperature varied for -0.009, +0.012 and +0.010, respectively, upon light irradiation. The light-induced Ni-AL state converted back immediately to the Ni-A state under dark condition at room temperature. These results show that the coordination structure of the Fe site of the Ni-A state of [NiFe] hydrogenase is perturbed significantly by light irradiation with relatively small coordination change at the Ni site.

  9. First-principles studies of Al-Ni intermetallic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Shi Dongmin; Wen Bin; Melnik, Roderick; Yao Shan; Li Tingju

    2009-10-15

    The structural properties, heats of formation, elastic properties, and electronic structures of Al-Ni intermetallic compounds are analyzed here in detail by using density functional theory. Higher calculated absolute values of heats of formation indicate a very strong chemical interaction between Al and Ni for all Al-Ni intermetallic compounds. According to the computational single crystal elastic constants, all the Al-Ni intermetallic compounds considered here are mechanically stable. The polycrystalline elastic modulus and Poisson's ratio have been deduced by using Voigt, Reuss, and Hill (VRH) approximations, and the calculated ratio of shear modulus to bulk modulus indicated that AlNi, Al{sub 3}Ni, AlNi{sub 3} and Al{sub 3}Ni{sub 5} compounds are ductile materials, but Al{sub 4}Ni{sub 3} and Al{sub 3}Ni{sub 2} are brittle materials. With increasing Ni concentration, the bulk modulus of Al-Ni intermetallic compounds increases in a linear manner. The electronic energy band structures confirm that all Al-Ni intermetallic compounds are conductors. - Graphical abstract: Calculated bulk modulus compared to experimental and other theoretical values for the Al-Ni intermetallic compounds.

  10. Effects of two-temperature model on cascade evolution in Ni and NiFe

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Samolyuk, German D.; Xue, Haizhou; Bei, Hongbin; Weber, William J.

    2016-07-05

    We perform molecular dynamics simulations of Ni ion cascades in Ni and equiatomic NiFe under the following conditions: (a) classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations without consideration of electronic energy loss, (b) classical MD simulations with the electronic stopping included, and (c) using the coupled two-temperature MD (2T-MD) model that incorporates both the electronic stopping and the electron-phonon interactions. Our results indicate that the electronic e ects are more profound in the higher energy cascades and that the 2T-MD model results in a smaller amount of surviving damage and smaller defect clusters, while less damage is produced in NiFe than inmore » Ni.« less

  11. Improvement of thermoelectric properties for half-Heusler TiNiSn by interstitial Ni defects

    SciTech Connect

    Hazama, Hirofumi; Matsubara, Masato; Asahi, Ryoji; Takeuchi, Tsunehiro

    2011-09-15

    We have synthesized off-stoichiometric Ti-Ni-Sn half-Heusler thermoelectrics in order to investigate the relation between randomly distributed defects and thermoelectric properties. A small change in the composition of Ti-Ni-Sn causes a remarkable change in the thermal conductivity. An excess content of Ni realizes a low thermal conductivity of 2.93 W/mK at room temperature while keeping a high power factor. The low thermal conductivity originates in the defects generated by an excess content of Ni. To investigate the detailed defect structure, we have performed first-principles calculations and compared with x ray photoemission spectroscopy measurement. Based on these analyses, we conclude that the excess Ni atoms randomly occupy the vacant sites in the half-Heusler structure, which play as phonon scattering centers, resulting in significant improvement of the figure of merit without any substitutions of expensive heavy elements, such as Zr and Hf.

  12. Tuning the magnetic properties of multisegmented Ni/Cu electrodeposited nanowires with controllable Ni lengths.

    PubMed

    Susano, M; Proenca, M P; Moraes, S; Sousa, C T; Araújo, J P

    2016-08-19

    The fabrication of segmented Ni/Cu nanowires (NWs), with tunable structural and magnetic properties, is reported. A potentiostatic electrodeposition method with a single electrolytic bath has been used to fabricate multisegmented Ni/Cu NWs inside a highly hexagonally ordered anodic nanoporous alumina membrane, with diameters of 50 nm and Ni segment lengths (L Ni) tuned from 10 nm up to 140 nm. The x-ray diffraction results evidenced a strong dependence of the Ni NWs crystallographic face-centered-cubic (fcc) texture along the [220] direction on the aspect ratio of the NWs. The magnetic behavior of the multisegmented Ni/Cu NW arrays, as a function of the magnetic field and temperature, is also studied and correlated with their structural and morphological properties. Micromagnetic simulations, together with the experimental results, showed a dominant antiferromagnetic coupling between Ni segments along the wire length for small low aspect-ratio magnetic segments. When increasing the Ni segments' length, the magnetic interactions between these along the wire became stronger, favouring a ferromagnetic coupling. The Curie temperature of the NWs was also found to strongly depend on the Ni magnetic segment length. Particularly the Curie temperature was found to be reduced 75 K for the 20 nm Ni segments, following the finite-size scaling relation with ξ 0 = 8.1 Å and γ = 0.48. These results emphasize the advantages of using a template assisted method to electrodeposit multilayer NWs, as it allows an easy tailor of the respective morphological, chemical, structural and magnetic properties. PMID:27378738

  13. Oxide Scales Formed on NiTi and NiPtTi Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James L.; Garg, Anita; Rogers, Richard B.; Noebe, Ronald D.

    2011-01-01

    Ni-49Ti and Ni-30Pt-50Ti (at.%) shape memory alloys were oxidized isothermally in air over the temperature range of 500 to 900 C. The microstructure, composition, and phase content of the scales were studied by SEM, EDS, XRD, and metallography. Extensive plan view SEM/EDS identified various features of intact or spalled scale surfaces. The outer surface of the scale was a relatively pure TiO2 rutile structure, typified by a distinct highly striated and faceted crystal morphology. Crystal size increased significantly with temperature. Spalled regions exhibited some porosity and less distinct features. More detailed information was obtained by correlation of SEM/EDS studies of 700 C/100 hr cross-sections with XRD analyses of serial or taper-polishing of plan surfaces. Overall, multiple layers exhibited graded mixtures of NiO, TiO2, NiTiO3, Ni(Ti) or Pt(Ni,Ti) metal dispersoids, Ni3Ti or Pt3Ti depletion zones, and substrate, in that order. The NiTi alloy contained a 3 at.% Fe impurity that appeared in embedded localized Fe-Ti-rich oxides, while the NiPtTi alloy contained a 2 v/o dispersion of TiC that appeared in lower layers. The oxidation kinetics of both alloys (in a previous report) indicated parabolic growth and an activation energy (250 kJ/mole) near those reported in other Ti and NiTi studies. This is generally consistent with TiO2 existing as the primary scale constituent, as described here.

  14. Tuning the magnetic properties of multisegmented Ni/Cu electrodeposited nanowires with controllable Ni lengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susano, M.; Proenca, M. P.; Moraes, S.; Sousa, C. T.; Araújo, J. P.

    2016-08-01

    The fabrication of segmented Ni/Cu nanowires (NWs), with tunable structural and magnetic properties, is reported. A potentiostatic electrodeposition method with a single electrolytic bath has been used to fabricate multisegmented Ni/Cu NWs inside a highly hexagonally ordered anodic nanoporous alumina membrane, with diameters of 50 nm and Ni segment lengths (L Ni) tuned from 10 nm up to 140 nm. The x-ray diffraction results evidenced a strong dependence of the Ni NWs crystallographic face-centered-cubic (fcc) texture along the [220] direction on the aspect ratio of the NWs. The magnetic behavior of the multisegmented Ni/Cu NW arrays, as a function of the magnetic field and temperature, is also studied and correlated with their structural and morphological properties. Micromagnetic simulations, together with the experimental results, showed a dominant antiferromagnetic coupling between Ni segments along the wire length for small low aspect-ratio magnetic segments. When increasing the Ni segments’ length, the magnetic interactions between these along the wire became stronger, favouring a ferromagnetic coupling. The Curie temperature of the NWs was also found to strongly depend on the Ni magnetic segment length. Particularly the Curie temperature was found to be reduced 75 K for the 20 nm Ni segments, following the finite-size scaling relation with ξ 0 = 8.1 Å and γ = 0.48. These results emphasize the advantages of using a template assisted method to electrodeposit multilayer NWs, as it allows an easy tailor of the respective morphological, chemical, structural and magnetic properties.

  15. Generalized melting criterion for amorphization. [NiZr, NiZr[sub 2], NiTi, FeTi

    SciTech Connect

    Devanathan, R. Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering); Lam, N.Q.; Okamoto, P.R. ); Meshii, M. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1992-12-01

    We present a thermodynamic model of solid-state amorphization based on a generalization of the well-known Lindemann criterion. The original Lindemann criterion proposes that melting occurs when the root-mean-square amplitude of thermal displacement exceeds a critical value. This criterion can be generalized to include solid-state amorphization by taking into account the static displacements. In an effort to verify the generalized melting criterion, we have performed molecular dynamics simulations of radiation-induced amorphization in NiZr, NiZr[sub 2], NiTi and FeTi using embedded-atom potentials. The average shear elastic constant G was calculated as a function of the total mean-square atomic displacement following random atom-exchanges and introduction of Frenkel pairs. Results provide strong support for the generalized melting criterion.

  16. Corrosion performance of bi-layer Ni/Cr2C3-NiCr HVAF thermal spray coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghimeresht, E.; Markocsan, N.; Nylén, P.; Björklund, S.

    2016-04-01

    The corrosion behavior of three HVAF thermal spray coating systems (A: single-layer Ni, B: single-layer Cr2C3-NiCr coatings, and C: bi-layer Ni/Cr2C3-NiCr coating) was comparatively studied using immersion, salt spray, and electrochemical tests. Polarization and EIS results showed that the corrosion behavior of Cr2C3-NiCr coatings in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution was significantly improved by adding the intermediate layer of Ni. It was illustrated that the polarization resistance of the bi-layer Ni/Cr2C3-NiCr and single-layer Cr2C3-NiCr coatings were around 194 and 38 kΩ cm2, respectively. Microstructure analysis revealed that the bond coating successfully prevented the corrosion propagation toward the coating.

  17. Low-lying excitations in 72Ni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, A. I.; Benzoni, G.; Watanabe, H.; Nishimura, S.; Browne, F.; Daido, R.; Doornenbal, P.; Fang, Y.; Lorusso, G.; Patel, Z.; Rice, S.; Sinclair, L.; Söderström, P.-A.; Sumikama, T.; Wu, J.; Xu, Z. Y.; Yagi, A.; Yokoyama, R.; Baba, H.; Avigo, R.; Bello Garrote, F. L.; Blasi, N.; Bracco, A.; Camera, F.; Ceruti, S.; Crespi, F. C. L.; de Angelis, G.; Delattre, M.-C.; Dombradi, Zs.; Gottardo, A.; Isobe, T.; Kojouharov, I.; Kurz, N.; Kuti, I.; Matsui, K.; Melon, B.; Mengoni, D.; Miyazaki, T.; Modamio-Hoyborg, V.; Momiyama, S.; Napoli, D. R.; Niikura, M.; Orlandi, R.; Sakurai, H.; Sahin, E.; Sohler, D.; Shaffner, H.; Taniuchi, R.; Taprogge, J.; Vajta, Zs.; Valiente-Dobón, J. J.; Wieland, O.; Yalcinkaya, M.

    2016-03-01

    Low-lying excited states in 72Ni have been investigated in an in-flight fission experiment at the RIBF facility of the RIKEN Nishina Center. The combination of the state-of-the-art BigRIPS and EURICA setups has allowed for a very accurate study of the β decay from 72Co to 72Ni, and has provided first experimental information on the decay sequence 72Fe→72Co→72Ni and on the delayed neutron-emission branch 73Co→72Ni . Accordingly, we report nearly 60 previously unobserved γ transitions which deexcite 21 new levels in 72Ni. Evidence for the location of the so-sought-after (42+) ,(62+) , and (81+) seniority states is provided. As well, the existence of a low-spin β -decaying isomer in odd-odd neutron-rich Co isotopes is confirmed for mass A =72 . The new experimental information is compared to simple shell-model calculations including only neutron excitations across the f p g shells. It is shown that, in general, the calculations reproduce well the observed states.

  18. Single-crystalline Ni(OH)2 and NiO nanoplatelet arrays as supercapacitor electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiangtian; Zhao, Wei; Huang, Fuqiang; Manivannan, Ayyakkannu; Wu, Nianqiang

    2011-12-01

    Vertically aligned Ni(OH)2 and NiO single-crystalline nanoplatelet arrays were directly grown on the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate by a simple hydrothermal method. The effects of the hydrothermal parameters on the morphology and crystal structure of the nanoarray film were investigated. Controlling the ammonia and persulfate concentrations was the key to controlling the morphology of the nanoarray film. The experimental results showed that the single-crystalline NiO nanoplatelet array was a promising candidate for the supercapacitor electrode. It exhibited a high specific capacitance, prompt charge/discharge rate, and good stability of cycling performance. It is believed that the vertically oriented aligned single-crystalline NiO nanoplatelet array is beneficial to the charge transfer in the electrode and to the ion transport in the solution during redox reaction.Vertically aligned Ni(OH)2 and NiO single-crystalline nanoplatelet arrays were directly grown on the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate by a simple hydrothermal method. The effects of the hydrothermal parameters on the morphology and crystal structure of the nanoarray film were investigated. Controlling the ammonia and persulfate concentrations was the key to controlling the morphology of the nanoarray film. The experimental results showed that the single-crystalline NiO nanoplatelet array was a promising candidate for the supercapacitor electrode. It exhibited a high specific capacitance, prompt charge/discharge rate, and good stability of cycling performance. It is believed that the vertically oriented aligned single-crystalline NiO nanoplatelet array is beneficial to the charge transfer in the electrode and to the ion transport in the solution during redox reaction. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: XRD patterns of Ni(OH)2 and NiO powders; SEM and TEM images of Ni(OH)2 and NiO nanoplatelet arrays; and electrochemical performances for NiO nanoarrays and powders. See

  19. Cyclic creep and fatigue of TD-NiCr (thoria-dispersion-strengthened nickel-chromium), TD-Ni, and NiCr sheet at 1200 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirschberg, M. H.; Spera, D. A.; Klima, S. J.

    1972-01-01

    The resistance of thin TD-NiCr sheet to cyclic deformation was compared with that of TD-Ni and a conventional nickel-chromium alloy. Strains were determined by a calibration technique which combines room-temperature strain gage and deflection measurements with high-temperature deflection measurements. Analyses of the cyclic tests using measured tensile and creep-rupture data indicated that the TD-NiCr and NiCr alloy specimens failed by a cyclic creep mechanism. The TD-Ni specimens, on the other hand, failed by a fatigue mechanism.

  20. First-principles studies of Ni-Ta intermetallic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Yi; Wen Bin; Ma Yunqing; Melnik, Roderick; Liu Xingjun

    2012-03-15

    The structural properties, heats of formation, elastic properties, and electronic structures of Ni-Ta intermetallic compounds are investigated in detail based on density functional theory. Our results indicate that all Ni-Ta intermetallic compounds calculated here are mechanically stable except for P21/m-Ni{sub 3}Ta and hc-NiTa{sub 2}. Furthermore, we found that Pmmn-Ni{sub 3}Ta is the ground state stable phase of Ni{sub 3}Ta polymorphs. The polycrystalline elastic modulus has been deduced by using the Voigt-Reuss-Hill approximation. All Ni-Ta intermetallic compounds in our study, except for NiTa, are ductile materials by corresponding G/K values and poisson's ratio. The calculated heats of formation demonstrated that Ni{sub 2}Ta are thermodynamically unstable. Our results also indicated that all Ni-Ta intermetallic compounds analyzed here are conductors. The density of state demonstrated the structure stability increases with the Ta concentration. - Graphical abstract: Mechanical properties and formation heats of Ni-Ta intermetallic compounds are discussed in detail in this paper. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ni-Ta intermetallic compounds are investigated by first principle calculations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer P21/m-Ni{sub 3}Ta and hc-NiTa{sub 2} are mechanically unstable phases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pmmn-Ni{sub 3}Ta is ground stable phase of Ni{sub 3}Ta polymorphs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer All Ni-Ta intermetallic compounds are conducting materials.

  1. Transformation to Ni5Al3 in a 63.0 at. pct Ni-Al alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khadkikar, P. S.; Locci, I. E.; Vedula, K.; Michal, G. M.

    1993-01-01

    Microstructures of 63 at. pct P/M Ni-Al alloys with a composition close to the stoichiometry of the Ni5Al3 phase were investigated using homogenized and quenched specimens aged at low temperatures for various times. Results of analyses of XRD data and electron microscopy observations were used for quantitative phase analysis, performed to calculate the (NiAl + Ni5Al3)/Ni5Al3 phase boundary locations. The measured lattice parameters of Ni5Al3 phase formed at 823, 873, and 923 K indicated an increase in tetragonality of the phase with increasing nickel content.

  2. [NiFeSe]-hydrogenase chemistry.

    PubMed

    Wombwell, Claire; Caputo, Christine A; Reisner, Erwin

    2015-11-17

    The development of technology for the inexpensive generation of the renewable energy vector H2 through water splitting is of immediate economic, ecological, and humanitarian interest. Recent interest in hydrogenases has been fueled by their exceptionally high catalytic rates for H2 production at a marginal overpotential, which is presently only matched by the nonscalable noble metal platinum. The mechanistic understanding of hydrogenase function guides the design of synthetic catalysts, and selection of a suitable hydrogenase enables direct applications in electro- and photocatalysis. [FeFe]-hydrogenases display excellent H2 evolution activity, but they are irreversibly damaged upon exposure to O2, which currently prevents their use in full water splitting systems. O2-tolerant [NiFe]-hydrogenases are known, but they are typically strongly biased toward H2 oxidation, while H2 production by [NiFe]-hydrogenases is often product (H2) inhibited. [NiFeSe]-hydrogenases are a subclass of [NiFe]-hydrogenases with a selenocysteine residue coordinated to the active site nickel center in place of a cysteine. They exhibit a combination of unique properties that are highly advantageous for applications in water splitting compared with other hydrogenases. They display a high H2 evolution rate with marginal inhibition by H2 and tolerance to O2. [NiFeSe]-hydrogenases are therefore one of the most active molecular H2 evolution catalysts applicable in water splitting. Herein, we summarize our recent progress in exploring the unique chemistry of [NiFeSe]-hydrogenases through biomimetic model chemistry and the chemistry with [NiFeSe]-hydrogenases in semiartificial photosynthetic systems. We gain perspective from the structural, spectroscopic, and electrochemical properties of the [NiFeSe]-hydrogenases and compare them with the chemistry of synthetic models of this hydrogenase active site. Our synthetic models give insight into the effects on the electronic properties and reactivity of

  3. Magnetic quantum diesel engine in Ni2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, C. D.; Lefkidis, G.; Hübner, W.

    2013-12-01

    Quantum Diesel cycles are numerically realized using the electronic states of a Ni2 dimer. The quantum nature and the complexity of the electronic structure of the Ni2 dimer result in new features in the evolution of the pressure as well as in the heat-work transformation. The multitude of internal degrees of freedom in the isobaric process in molecules can result in crossing of the two adiabatic processes in the P-V diagram. The interplay of heat and work, originating from thermal nonequilibrium effects, can lead to a thermal efficiency of up to 100%. The spin moment of the Ni2 can be decreased by the isobaric process. To link the molecular heat capacity to easily accessible experimental quantities, we also calculate the Kerr effect and the magnetic susceptibility at different temperatures and magnetic fields.

  4. Comparative study of the performance of alumina-supported Ni-Mo, Ni-W and Ni-Mo-W catalysts in hydrotreating vacuum residue

    SciTech Connect

    Absi-Halabi, M.; Stanislaus, A.; Al-Dolama, K.

    1996-12-31

    The performance of a NiMoW/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst for promoting various reactions during residual oil hydroprocessing is reported. Catalyst performance and properties are compared to that of conventional NiMo and NiW catalysts. Performance evaluation tests were conducted in a high pressure fixed bed reactor system using Kuwait vacuum residue as feed. Hydrodesulfurization, hydrodenitrogenation, hydrodemetalization, hydroconversion to distillates, asphaltene removal and CCR reduction reactions were monitored. The NiMoW catalyst was more active for various conversions than the NiMo and NiW catalysts. The addition of W to NiMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} enhanced the hydrogenation function of the catalyst. 11 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Ni3Si2 nanowires grown in situ on Ni foam for high-performance supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yizhe; Li, Zhihui; Li, Beibei; Zhang, Jinying; Niu, Chunming

    2016-07-01

    Ni3Si2 nanowires and nanoawls have grown in situ on the surface of Ni foams by a controlled low pressure chemical vapor deposition process. Structural characterization shows that the individual Ni3Si2 nanowire is single crystal covered with a thin layer (1-2 nm) of SiO2 with a diameter of ∼20-30 nm and length of ten's micrometers. Individual nanoawl with a circular cone shape is polycrystalline. Both Ni3Si2 nanowire and nanoawl samples are evaluated as potential electrode materials for supercapacitors. The nanowire electrode delivers a very high specific capacitance and excellent rate capability. A specific capacitance of 760 F g-1 is measured at current density of 0.5 A g-1, which decreases to 518 F g-1 when the current density increases to 10 A g-1. The capacitance is dominated by pseudocapacitance with a mechanism similar to that of NiO or Ni(OH)2 widely studied in the literature. An asymmetric supercapacitor fabricated by pairing Ni3Si2 nanowire electrode with an activated carbon electrode exhibits energy densities of 17.5 Wh kg-1 and 8.8 Wh kg-1 at power densites of 301 W kg-1 and 3000 W kg-1.

  6. Blending Cr2O3 into a NiO-Ni electrocatalyst for sustained water splitting.

    PubMed

    Gong, Ming; Zhou, Wu; Kenney, Michael James; Kapusta, Rich; Cowley, Sam; Wu, Yingpeng; Lu, Bingan; Lin, Meng-Chang; Wang, Di-Yan; Yang, Jiang; Hwang, Bing-Joe; Dai, Hongjie

    2015-10-01

    The rising H2 economy demands active and durable electrocatalysts based on low-cost, earth-abundant materials for water electrolysis/photolysis. Here we report nanoscale Ni metal cores over-coated by a Cr2 O3 -blended NiO layer synthesized on metallic foam substrates. The Ni@NiO/Cr2 O3 triphase material exhibits superior activity and stability similar to Pt for the hydrogen-evolution reaction in basic solutions. The chemically stable Cr2 O3 is crucial for preventing oxidation of the Ni core, maintaining abundant NiO/Ni interfaces as catalytically active sites in the heterostructure and thus imparting high stability to the hydrogen-evolution catalyst. The highly active and stable electrocatalyst enables an alkaline electrolyzer operating at 20 mA cm(-2) at a voltage lower than 1.5 V, lasting longer than 3 weeks without decay. The non-precious metal catalysts afford a high efficiency of about 15 % for light-driven water splitting using GaAs solar cells. PMID:26307213

  7. Corrosion and wear resistance study of Ni-P and Ni-P-PTFE nanocomposite coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ankita, Sharma; Singh, Ajay

    2011-09-01

    This article reports on the corrosion and wear resistance of Ni-P and Ni-P-PTFE nanocomposite coatings deposited on mild steel substrates using the electroless plating technique. The coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive analysis of X-Ray (EDAX), and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). The coatings were smooth and had thicknesses between 7 and 23 µm. They contained Ni, P, and additionally, F, in the case of the Ni-P-PTFE films. A broadening of the Ni peak in XRD was attributed to the amorphous nature and/or fine grain size of the films. Corrosion resistance was measured using immersion and electrochemical polarization tests in 3.5% NaCl solution whereas wear resistance was determined by the pin-on-disc method. Both Ni-P and Ni-P-PTFE coatings exhibited significant improvement in corrosion (in salty media) and wear behavior. Furthermore, the addition of PTFE in the coatings showed improvement in their corrosion resistance as well as a reduction in friction coefficient. Our testing revealed that the coatings' wore out following the "adhesive type" mechanism.

  8. Blending Cr2O3 into a NiO-Ni electrocatalyst for sustained water splitting

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gong, Ming; Zhou, Wu; Kenney, Michael James; Kapusta, Rich; Cowley, Sam; Wu, Yingpeng; Lu, Bingan; Lin, Meng -Chang; Wang, Di -Yan; Yang, Jiang; et al

    2015-08-24

    The rising H2 economy demands active and durable electrocatalysts based on low-cost, earth-abundant materials for water electrolysis/photolysis. Here we report nanoscale Ni metal cores over-coated by a Cr2O3-blended NiO layer synthesized on metallic foam substrates. The Ni@NiO/Cr2O3 triphase material exhibits superior activity and stability similar to Pt for the hydrogen-evolution reaction in basic solutions. The chemically stable Cr2O3 is crucial for preventing oxidation of the Ni core, maintaining abundant NiO/Ni interfaces as catalytically active sites in the heterostructure and thus imparting high stability to the hydrogen-evolution catalyst. The highly active and stable electrocatalyst enables an alkaline electrolyzer operating at 20more » mA cm–2 at a voltage lower than 1.5 V, lasting longer than 3 weeks without decay. Thus, the non-precious metal catalysts afford a high efficiency of about 15 % for light-driven water splitting using GaAs solar cells.« less

  9. Giant magnetoresistance in evaporated Ni-Fe/Cu and Ni-Fe-Co/Cu multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeltser, Alexander M.; Smith, Neil

    1996-06-01

    The magnetic and transport properties of electron-beam evaporated (Ni83Fe17/Cu)10 and (Ni66Fe16Co18/Cu)10 multilayers were studied as a function of the Cu spacer, magnetic layer and Ta buffer layer thicknesses, as well as annealing conditions. All multilayers exhibited very small giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effect (<0.3%) in the as-deposited state, however, after magnetic post-annealing at 300-325 °C, GMR increased up to 4.5%-7%, depending on the multilayer type. In contrast to sputtered Ni-Fe-(Co)/Cu multilayers, GMR showed no oscillatory behavior as a function of Cu thickness. Similar to that reported in sputtered ``discontinuous'' Ni-Fe/Ag multilayers, it is believed that Cu diffusion along the Ni-Fe-(Co) grain boundaries creates intra-layer magnetic discontinuities in Ni-Fe-(Co) layers which promote inter-layer antiferromagnetic coupling. The evaporated Ni-Fe/Cu multilayers exhibited very low remanence, exceptionally low hysteresis, and quite uniform GMR properties through the thickness of the multilayer. All of these makes them potentially attractive for application to future magnetoresistive reproduce heads for very high areal density magnetic storage systems.

  10. Separation of radiation defects in Ni and Ni-C alloys under electron and neutron irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbuzov, S. E.; Danilov, V. L.; Goshchitskii, B. N.; Kar'kin, A. E.; Parkhomenko, V. D.

    2016-02-01

    Complex investigations of radiation damage of Ni and Ni- 880 at. ppm C alloy under electron and neutron irradiation in the region of room temperature hardened and deformed state. In pure nickel, with the deformation microstructure, both in electron and in the neutron irradiation is observed separation of radiation-induced defects. When electron irradiation in the alloy Ni-C separation effect is observed, and when neutron irradiation there is no. This is due to the interaction of carbon atoms with radiation defects. The main sinks for radiation-induced defects are the areas with a high concentration of defects in cascades of atomic displacements.

  11. Ni spin switching induced by magnetic frustration in FeMn/Ni/Cu(001)

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, J.; Choi, J.; Scholl, A.; Doran, A.; Arenholz, E.; Hwang, Chanyong; Qiu, Z. Q.

    2009-03-08

    Epitaxially grown FeMn/Ni/Cu(001) films are investigated by Photoemission Electron Microscopy and Magneto-Optic Kerr Effect. We find that as the FeMn overlayer changes from paramagnetic to antiferromagnetic state, it could switch the ferromagnetic Ni spin direction from out-of-plane to in-plane direction of the film. This phenomenon reveals a new mechanism of creating magnetic anisotropy and is attributed to the out-of-plane spin frustration at the FeMn-Ni interface.

  12. The effect of Ni:Si ratio on microstructural properties of Ni/Si ohmic contacts to SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wzorek, M.; Borysiewicz, M. A.; Czerwinski, A.; Myśliwiec, M.; Ekielski, M.; Ratajczak, J.; Piotrowska, A.; Kątcki, J.

    2016-04-01

    Detailed microstructural studies were performed on Ni/Si ohmic contacts to silicon carbide in order to investigate the effect of initial Ni:Si ratio in as-deposited structures on the occurrence of characteristic defects in Ni silicide layers, such as voids, layer discontinuities, rough surface or rough interface. The chosen range of investigated Ni:Si ratios corresponded to δ-Ni2Si as a dominant phase after complete annealing sequence. Strong effect of the initial stoichiometry on the ohmic contact's microstructure was observed. The highest Ni concentration significantly lowered the temperature at which roughening of the surface and the interface occurred. The middle value of investigated concentrations resulted in the rough interface after high temperature annealing, while the lowest investigated Ni content preserved smooth interface but introduced large voids and layer discontinuities. After the first annealing step, γ-Ni31Si12 and/or δ-Ni2Si phases were detected. In the ohmic contacts (after two-step annealing sequence), beside δ-Ni2Si, the metastable, high temperature phase θ-Ni2Si was detected (also referred to as Ni3Si2·h). This phase can exist within a relatively broad range of Ni:Si stoichiometry. The stoichiometry change toward higher Si content, which occurs during high temperature annealing, was realized through this phase. Superstructures were detected in θ-Ni2Si (Ni3Si2·h) and in γ-Ni31Si12 grains. The effect of the stoichiometry change on the morphology of the Ni silicide layers is discussed.

  13. Perpendicularly magnetized spin filtering Cu/Ni multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Shirahata, Yasuhiro; Wada, Eiji; Itoh, Mitsuru; Taniyama, Tomoyasu

    2014-01-20

    Spin filtering at perpendicular magnetized Cu/Ni multilayer/GaAs(001) interfaces is demonstrated at remanence using optical spin orientation method. [Cu(9 nm)/Ni(t{sub Ni} nm)]{sub n} multilayers are found to show a crossover from the in-plane to out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy at the Cu/Ni bilayer repetition n = 4 and the Ni layer thickness t{sub Ni} = 3. For a perpendicularly magnetized Cu/Ni multilayer/n-GaAs(001) interface, circular polarization dependent photocurrent shows a clear hysteretic behavior under optical spin orientation conditions as a function of magnetic field out-of-plane while the bias dependence exhibits a substantial peak at a forward bias, verifying that Cu/Ni multilayers work as an efficient spin filter in the remanent state.

  14. Sonochemical preparation of nanosized amorphous Fe-Ni alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafi, K. V. P. M.; Gedanken, A.; Goldfarb, R. B.; Felner, I.

    1997-05-01

    Nanosized amorphous alloy powders of Fe20Ni80, Fe40Ni60, and Fe60Ni40 were prepared by sonochemical decomposition of solutions of volatile organic precursors, Fe(CO)5 and Ni(CO)4 in decalin, under an argon pressure of 100 to 150 kPa at 273 K. Magnetic susceptibility of Fe40Ni60 and Fe60Ni40 indicates blocking temperatures of 35 K and a magnetic particle size of about 6 nm. Thermogravimetric measurements of Fe20Ni80 give Curie temperatures of 322 °C for amorphous and 550 °C for crystallized forms. Differential scanning calorimetry exhibits an endothermic transition at 335 °C from a combination of the magnetic phase transition and alloy crystallization. The Mössbauer spectrum of crystallized Fe20Ni80 shows a sextet pattern with a hyperfine field of 25.04 T.

  15. Properties of Ni/Nb magnetic/superconducting multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Mattson, J.E.; Osgood III, R.M.; Potter, C.D.; Sowers, C.H.; Bader, S.D.

    1997-05-01

    We examine structural, magnetic, and superconducting properties of magnetic/superconducting Ni/Nb multilayers. The Ni(Nb) films are textured {l_brace}111{r_brace}({l_brace}110{r_brace}) and have smooth interfaces. The average moment of the Ni atoms in the structure drops by 80{percent} from that of bulk Ni for 19 {Angstrom} thick Ni layers in proximity to 140 {Angstrom} thick Nb layers, and goes to zero for smaller Ni thicknesses. The Nb layer is not superconducting for thicknesses {lt}100 {Angstrom} in the presence of a 19 {Angstrom} thick ferromagnetic Ni layer. The behavior of the superconducting critical temperature as a function of the superconducting layer thickness was fitted and an interfacial scattering parameter and scattering time for the paramagnetic Ni regime determined.

  16. Benchtop Delivery of Ni(cod)2 using Paraffin Capsules.

    PubMed

    Dander, Jacob E; Weires, Nicholas A; Garg, Neil K

    2016-08-01

    A facile method that allows for Ni(cod)2 to be used on the benchtop is reported. The procedure involves the preparation of paraffin-Ni(cod)2 capsules, which are stable to air and moisture. It is demonstrated that these readily available capsules can be used to promote a range of Ni(cod)2-catalyzed transformations. These studies are expected to promote the further use of Ni(cod)2 in organic synthesis. PMID:27454146

  17. Photoactivation of the Ni-SIr state to the Ni-SIa state in [NiFe] hydrogenase: FT-IR study on the light reactivity of the ready Ni-SIr state and as-isolated enzyme revisited.

    PubMed

    Tai, Hulin; Xu, Liyang; Inoue, Seiya; Nishikawa, Koji; Higuchi, Yoshiki; Hirota, Shun

    2016-08-10

    The Ni-SIr state of [NiFe] hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio vulgaris Miyazaki F was photoactivated to its Ni-SIa state by Ar(+) laser irradiation at 514.5 nm, whereas the Ni-SL state was light induced from a newly identified state, which was less active than any other identified state and existed in the "as-isolated" enzyme. PMID:27456760

  18. Ternary system Er-Ni-In at T=870 K

    SciTech Connect

    Dzevenko, M.; Tyvanchuk, Yu.; Bratash, L.; Zaremba, V.; Havela, L.; Kalychak, Ya.

    2011-10-15

    Isothermal section of the Er-Ni-In system at T=870 K was constructed by means of X-ray powder diffraction and EDX-analyses. Nine ternary compounds, namely ErNi{sub 9}In{sub 2} (YNi{sub 9}In{sub 2}-type), Er{sub 1-1.22}Ni{sub 4}In{sub 1-0.78} (MgCu{sub 4}Sn-type), Er{sub 10}Ni{sub 9.07}In{sub 20} (Ho{sub 10}Ni{sub 9}In{sub 20}-type), ErNi{sub 1-0.60}In{sub 1-1.40} (ZrNiAl-type), Er{sub 2}Ni{sub 2}In (Mn{sub 2}AlB{sub 2}-type), Er{sub 2}Ni{sub 1.78}In (Mo{sub 2}FeB{sub 2}-type), Er{sub 5}Ni{sub 2}In{sub 4} (Lu{sub 5}Ni{sub 2}In{sub 4}-type), Er{sub 5}Ni{sub 2}In (Mo{sub 5}SiB{sub 2}-type), and Er{sub 13.53}Ni{sub 3.14}In{sub 3.33} (Lu{sub 14}Co{sub 2}In{sub 3}-type), exist in the Er-Ni-In system at this temperature. The substitution of Ni for In was observed for ErNi{sub 1-0.60}In{sub 1-1.40} and In for Er in the case of related compounds ErNi{sub 2} and ErNi{sub 4}In. Er can enter NiIn (CoSn-type) leading to including-substitution type of compound Er{sub 0-0.12}NiIn{sub 1-0.89}. Basic magnetic properties of the Er{sub 0.04}NiIn{sub 0.97}, ErNi{sub 2}, Er{sub 0.9}Ni{sub 2}In{sub 0.1}, and ErNi{sub 4}In phases were inspected. Electrical-resistivity studies were performed on the ErNiIn, ErNi{sub 0.9}In{sub 1.1}, and ErNi{sub 4}In phases. - Graphical Abstract: Phase relations in the ternary system Er-Ni-In have been established for the isothermal section at T=870 K based on X-ray phase and EDX-analyses. Nine ternary compounds were observed. Highlights: > Isothermal section of Er-Ni-In system at T=870 K was constructed. > Nine ternary compounds were detected. > Basic magnetic properties of Er{sub 0.04}NiIn{sub 0.97} and ErNi{sub 4}In phases were inspected.

  19. Kinetics of NiO and NiCl2 hydrogen reduction as precursors and properties of produced Ni/Al2O3 and Ni-Pd/Al2O3 catalysts.

    PubMed

    Sokić, Miroslav; Kamberović, Željko; Nikolić, Vesna; Marković, Branislav; Korać, Marija; Anđić, Zoran; Gavrilovski, Milorad

    2015-01-01

    The objects of this investigation were the comparative kinetic analysis of the NiO and NiCl2 reduction by hydrogen during an induction period and elimination of the calcination during the synthesis of Ni/Al2O3 catalysts. The effect of temperature and time on NiO and NiCl2 reduction degrees was studied. Avrami I equation was selected as the most favorable kinetic model and used to determine activation energy of the NiO and NiCl2 reduction for the investigated temperature range (623-923 K) and time intervals (1-5 minutes). The investigation enabled reaching conclusions about the reaction ability and rate of the reduction processes. Afterward, Ni/Al2O3 catalysts were obtained by using oxide and chloride precursor for Ni. The catalysts were supported on alumina-based foam and prepared via aerosol route. Properties of the samples before and after low-temperature hydrogen reduction (633 K) were compared. Obtained results indicated that the synthesis of Ni/Al2O3 catalysts can be more efficient if chloride precursor for Ni is directly reduced by hydrogen during the synthesis process, without the calcination step. In addition, Ni-Pd/Al2O3 catalysts with different metal content were prepared by using chloride precursors. Lower reduction temperature was utilized and the chlorides were almost completely reduced at 533 K. PMID:25789335

  20. Kinetics of NiO and NiCl2 Hydrogen Reduction as Precursors and Properties of Produced Ni/Al2O3 and Ni-Pd/Al2O3 Catalysts

    PubMed Central

    Sokić, Miroslav; Kamberović, Željko; Nikolić, Vesna; Marković, Branislav; Korać, Marija; Anđić, Zoran; Gavrilovski, Milorad

    2015-01-01

    The objects of this investigation were the comparative kinetic analysis of the NiO and NiCl2 reduction by hydrogen during an induction period and elimination of the calcination during the synthesis of Ni/Al2O3 catalysts. The effect of temperature and time on NiO and NiCl2 reduction degrees was studied. Avrami I equation was selected as the most favorable kinetic model and used to determine activation energy of the NiO and NiCl2 reduction for the investigated temperature range (623–923 K) and time intervals (1–5 minutes). The investigation enabled reaching conclusions about the reaction ability and rate of the reduction processes. Afterward, Ni/Al2O3 catalysts were obtained by using oxide and chloride precursor for Ni. The catalysts were supported on alumina-based foam and prepared via aerosol route. Properties of the samples before and after low-temperature hydrogen reduction (633 K) were compared. Obtained results indicated that the synthesis of Ni/Al2O3 catalysts can be more efficient if chloride precursor for Ni is directly reduced by hydrogen during the synthesis process, without the calcination step. In addition, Ni-Pd/Al2O3 catalysts with different metal content were prepared by using chloride precursors. Lower reduction temperature was utilized and the chlorides were almost completely reduced at 533 K. PMID:25789335

  1. Playing hide and seek with El Niño

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPhaden, M. J.

    2015-09-01

    A much-anticipated 'monster' El Niño failed to materialize in 2014, whereas an unforeseen strong El Niño is developing in 2015. El Niño continues to surprise us, despite decades of research into its causes. Natural variations most probably account for recent events, but climate change may also have played a role.

  2. The evolution of phase transformation in Ni/Ni3Al laminated composite under high temperature treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shmorgun, V.; Gurevich, L.; Bogdanov, A.; Trunov, M.

    2016-02-01

    In this study the impact of isothermal annealing on the phase transformation rate in laminated Ni/Ni2Al3 composite was investigated. The method of nickel-aluminide coatings of the required chemical composition fabrication was proposed.

  3. Near-barrier fusion of Sn+Ni and Te+Ni Systems: Examining the influence of neutron transfer couplings

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, J Felix; Kohley, Zachary W; Shapira, Dan; Varner Jr, Robert L; Gross, Carl J; Allmond, J M; Lagergren, Karin B; Mueller, Paul Edward

    2011-01-01

    The fusion excitation functions for radioactive 132Sn+58Ni and stable 130Te+58;64Ni were measured at energies near the Coulomb barrier. The role of transfer couplings in heavy-ion fusion was examined through a comparison of Sn+Ni and Te+Ni systems, which have large variations in the number of positive Q-value nucleon transfer channels. In contrast with previous comparisons, where increased sub-barrier fusion cross sections were observed in the systems with positive Q-value neutron transfer channels, the reduced excitation functions were equivalent for the different Sn+Ni and Te+Ni systems. The present results suggest a significant change in the influence of transfer couplings on the fusion process for the Sn+Ni and Te+Ni systems.

  4. From Water Oxidation to Reduction: Transformation from Ni(x)Co(3-x)O4 Nanowires to NiCo/NiCoO(x) Heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiaodong; Li, KeXue; Lyu, Lu; Song, Fang; He, Jun; Niu, Dongmei; Liu, Lei; Hu, Xile; Chen, Xiaobo

    2016-02-10

    A homologous Ni-Co based nanowire catalyst pair, composed of Ni(x)Co(3-x)O4 nanowires and NiCo/NiCoO(x) nanohybrid, is developed for efficient overall water splitting. Ni(x)Co(3-x)O4 nanowires are found as a highly active oxygen evolution reaction (OER) catalyst, and they are converted into a highly active hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) catalyst through hydrogenation treatment as NiCo/NiCoO(x) heteronanostructures. An OER current density of 10 mA cm(-2) is obtained with the Ni(x)Co(3-x)O4 nanowires under an overpotential of 337 mV in 1.0 M KOH, and an HER current density of 10 mA cm(-2) is obtained with the NiCo/NiCoO(x) heteronanostructures at an overpotential of 155 mV. When integrated in an electrolyzer, these catalysts demonstrate a stable performance in water splitting. PMID:26784862

  5. Angle-resolved spectroscopy study of Ni-based superconductor SrNi2As2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, L.-K.; Richard, P.; van Roekeghem, A.; Yin, J.-X.; Wu, S.-F.; Chen, Z. G.; Wang, N. L.; Biermann, S.; Qian, T.; Ding, H.

    2016-07-01

    We performed an angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy study of the Ni-based superconductor SrNi2As2 . Electron and hole Fermi surface pockets are observed, but their different shapes and sizes lead to very poor nesting conditions. The experimental electronic band structure of SrNi2As2 is in good agreement with first-principles calculations after a slight renormalization (by a factor 1.1), confirming the picture of Hund's exchange-dominated electronic correlations decreasing with increasing filling of the 3 d shell in the Fe-, Co-, and Ni-based compounds. These findings emphasize the importance of Hund's coupling and 3 d -orbital filling as key tuning parameters of electronic correlations in transition-metal pnictides.

  6. Spin-glass transition in Ni carbide single crystal nanoparticles with Ni3C - type structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujieda, S.; Kuboniwa, T.; Shinoda, K.; Suzuki, S.; Echigoya, J.

    2016-05-01

    Hexagonal shaped nanoparticles about 60 nm in size were successfully synthesized in tetraethylene glycol solution containing polyvinylpyrrolidone. By the analysis of the electron diffraction pattern, these were identified as a single crystal of Ni carbide with Ni3C - type structure. Their magnetization curve at 5 K was not completely saturated under a magnetic field of 5 T. The thermomagnetization curves after zero-field cooling and after field cooling exhibited the magnetic cooling effect at low temperatures. Furthermore, the 2nd order nonlinear term of AC magnetic susceptibility exhibited a negative divergence at about 17 K. It is concluded that Ni carbide single crystal nanoparticles with the Ni3C - type structure exhibit spin-glass transition at low temperatures.

  7. TEM studies of oxidized NiAl and Ni3Al cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doychak, J.; Ruhle, M.

    1989-01-01

    Cross sections of oxide scale/(Ni-Al) intermetallics were prepared by a new method and studied using primarily TEM. The cross sections were prepared by encasing an oxidized metal specimen sandwich in a low-melting-temperature zinc alloy. Observations of oxidized zirconium-doped beta-NiAl cross sections revealed crystallographic voids beneath an adherent Al2O3 scale. The oxide-metal interface was incoherent, but a high dislocation density in the metal near the interface suggested that a large tensile stress was induced by the attached oxide scale. A duplex Al2O3-NiAl2O4 scale formed on zirconium-doped and zirconium/boron-doped gamma-prime-Ni3Al alloys. Additional results are presented involving oxidation mechanisms and oxide-metal interface structures.

  8. Tracer diffusion of /sup 60/Co and /sup 63/Ni in amorphous NiZr alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Hoshino, K.; Averback, R.S.; Hahn, H.; Rothman, S.J.

    1987-01-01

    Tracer diffusion of /sup 60/Co and /sup 63/Ni in equiatomic amorphous NiZr alloy in the temperature range between 486 and 641/sup 0/K can be described by: D/sub Co/sup */ = 3.7 x 10/sup -7/ exp(-(135 +- 14) kJ mole/sup -1//RT) m/sup 2//sec and D/sub Ni//sup */ = 1.7 x 10/sup -7/ exp(-(140 +- 9) kJ mole/sup -1//RT) m/sup 2//sec. The values of D/sub Ni//sup */ are in reasonable agreement with those measured by the Rutherford backscattering technique. The measured diffusivities were independent of time, indicating that no relaxation took place during diffusion. 27 refs., 2 tabs.

  9. Three-Dimensional EBSD Analysis of YSZ, NiO-YSZ and Ni-Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Saraf, Laxmikant V.

    2012-01-03

    In this report, a method is discussed to perform successive milling on yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), NiO-YSZ and Ni-alloy at the intervals of 85 nm 50 nm and 100 nm, respectively using a focused ion beam (FIB) followed by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis on each slice. The EBSD data is then reconstructed to generate 3D volume. The 3D-EBSD band quality data is superimposed on inverse pole figure (IPF) grain orientation analysis to get a correlation with quality of band indexing. For the NiO-YSZ case, grain orientations and band quality factors were matched for grains {approx}250 nm diameters producing a high resolution 3D-EBSD data. For this case, a pore space in 3D volume was visible due to nanocrystalline NiO-YSZ grain network. The advantages of 3D EBSD are discussed in the context of its applications to SOFC research community.

  10. Access to Formally Ni(I) States in a Heterobimetallic NiZn System

    PubMed Central

    Uyeda, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Heterobimetallic NiZn complexes featuring metal centers in distinct coordination environments have been synthesized using diimine-dioxime ligands as binucleating scaffolds. A tetramethylfuran-containing ligand derivative enables a stable one-electron-reduced S = 1/2 species to be accessed using Cp2Co as a chemical reductant. The resulting pseudo-square planar complex exhibits spectroscopic and crystallographic characteristics of a ligand-centered radical bound to a Ni(II) center. Upon coordination of a π-acidic ligand such as PPh3, however, a five-coordinate Ni(I) metalloradical is formed. The electronic structures of these reduced species provide insight into the subtle effects of ligand structure on the potential and reversibility of the NiII/I couple for complexes of redox-active tetraazamacrocycles. PMID:25614786

  11. Synthetic Ni3S2/Ni hybrid architectures as potential contrast agents in MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, J.; Chen, K.

    2016-04-01

    Traditional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents mainly include superparamagnetic (SPM) iron oxide nanoparticle as T 2 contrast agent for liver and paramagnetic Gd (III)-chelate as T 1 contrast agent for all organs. In this work, weak ferromagnetic kale-like and SPM cabbage-like Ni3S2@Ni hybrid architectures were synthesized and evaluated as potential T 1 MRI contrast agents. Their relatively small r 2/r 1 ratios of 2.59 and 2.38, and high r 1 values of 11.27 and 4.89 mmol‑1 L s‑1 (for the kale-like and cabbage-like Ni3S2@Ni, respectively) will shed some light on the development of new-type MRI contrast agents.

  12. The isothermal section of Gd-Ni-Si system at 1070 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozkin, A. V.; Knotko, A. V.; Yapaskurt, V. O.; Manfrinetti, P.; Pani, M.; Provino, A.; Nirmala, R.; Quezado, S.; Malik, S. K.

    2016-03-01

    The Gd-Ni-Si system has been investigated at 1070 K by X-ray and microprobe analyses. The existence of the known compounds, i.e.: GdNi10Si2, GdNi8Si3, GdNi5Si3, GdNi7Si6, GdNi6Si6, GdNi4Si, GdNi2Si2, GdNiSi3, Gd3Ni6Si2, GdNiSi, GdNiSi2, GdNi0.4Si1.6, Gd2Ni2.35Si0.65, Gd3NiSi2, Gd3NiSi3 and Gd6Ni1.67Si3, has been confirmed. Moreover, five new phases have been identified in this system. The crystal structure for four of them has been determined: Gd2Ni16-12.8Si1-4.2 (Th2Zn17-type), GdNi6.6Si6 (GdNi7Si6-type), Gd3Ni8Si (Y3Co8Si-type) and Gd3Ni11.5Si4.2(Gd3Ru4Ga12-type). The compound with composition ~Gd2Ni4Si3 still remains with unknown structure. Quasi-binary phases, solid solutions, were detected at 1070 K to be formed by the binaries GdNi5, GdNi3, GdNi2, GdNi, GdSi2 and GdSi1.67; while no appreciable solubility was observed for the other binary compounds of the Gd-Ni-Si system. Magnetic properties of the GdNi6Si6, GdNi6.6Si6 and Gd3Ni11.5Si4.2 compounds have also been investigated and are here reported.

  13. Surface Segregation in Cu-Ni Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Good, Brian; Bozzolo, Guillermo; Ferrante, John

    1993-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulation is used to calculate the composition profiles of surface segregation of Cu-Ni alloys. The method of Bozzolo, Ferrante, and Smith is used to compute the energetics of these systems as a function of temperature, crystal face, and bulk concentration. The predictions are compared with other theoretical and experimental results.

  14. Magnetic Irreversibility in VO2/Ni Bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Venta, Jose; Lauzier, Josh; Sutton, Logan

    The temperature dependence of the coercivity and magnetization of VO2/Ni bilayers was studied. VO2 exhibits a well-known Structural Phase Transition (SPT) at 330-340 K, from a low temperature monoclinic (M) to a high temperature rutile (R) structure. The SPT of VO2 induces an inverse magnetoelastic effect that strongly modifies the coercivity and magnetization of the Ni films. In addition, the growth conditions allow tuning of the magnetic properties. Ni films deposited on top of VO2 (M) show an irreversible change in the coercivity after the first cycle through the high temperature phase, with a corresponding change in the surface morphology of VO2. On the other hand, the Ni films grown on top of VO2 (R) do not show this irreversibility. These results indicate that properties of magnetic films are strongly affected by the strain induced by materials that undergo SPT and that it is possible to control the magnetic properties by tuning the growth conditions.

  15. El Niño and health.

    PubMed

    Kovats, R Sari; Bouma, Menno J; Hajat, Shakoor; Worrall, Eve; Haines, Andy

    2003-11-01

    El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a climate event that originates in the Pacific Ocean but has wide-ranging consequences for weather around the world, and is especially associated with droughts and floods. The irregular occurrence of El Niño and La Niña events has implications for public health. On a global scale, the human effect of natural disasters increases during El Niño. The effect of ENSO on cholera risk in Bangladesh, and malaria epidemics in parts of South Asia and South America has been well established. The strongest evidence for an association between ENSO and disease is provided by time-series analysis with data series that include more than one event. Evidence for ENSO's effect on other mosquito-borne and rodent-borne diseases is weaker than that for malaria and cholera. Health planners are used to dealing with spatial risk concepts but have little experience with temporal risk management. ENSO and seasonal climate forecasts might offer the opportunity to target scarce resources for epidemic control and disaster preparedness. PMID:14602445

  16. Characteristics of Reactive Ni3Sn4 Formation and Growth in Ni-Sn Interlayer Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lis, Adrian; Kenel, Christoph; Leinenbach, Christian

    2016-03-01

    The near-isothermal growth and formation of Ni3Sn4 intermetallic compounds (IMC) in Ni-Sn interlayer systems was studied in the solid state at 473 K (200 °C) and under solid-liquid conditions at 523 and 573 K (250 °C and 300 °C) from an initial state of a few seconds. Scalloped solid-state IMC formation was mainly driven by grain boundary diffusion of Ni through the IMC layer combined with the grain coarsening of the IMC layer. Under solid-liquid conditions, the formation of faceted and needle-shaped Ni3Sn4 grains as well as an atypical IMC growth behavior with similar parabolic growth constants for 523 K and 573 K (250 °C and 300 °C) was observed within the first 180 seconds of the holding time, and IMC growth occurred as an isothermal solidification from the Ni-saturated Sn melt. Due to the progressive densification of the IMC layer and the diffusion-controlled growth, the kinetics slowed down by approximately one order of magnitude after 180 seconds of annealing. The final stage was characterized by the formation of IMC islands ahead of the interfacial Ni3Sn4 layer. Needle-like IMC growth was effectively suppressed under combined solid-state and solid-liquid conditions. Textured Ni3Sn4 IMC formation at the Ni-Sn interface was approved with pole figure measurements. The activation energy Q for solid-liquid IMC formation was calculated as 43.3 kJ/mol, and processing maps for IMC growth and Sn consumption were derived as functions of temperature and time, respectively.

  17. Density functional theory study on Ni-doped MgnNi (n = 1-7) clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xue-Feng; Zhang, Yan; Qi, Kai-Tian; Li, Bing; Zhu, Zheng-He; Sheng, Yong

    2010-03-01

    The possible geometrical and the electronic structures of small MgnNi (n = 1-7) clusters are optimised by the density functional theory with a LANL2DZ basis set. The binding energy, the energy gap, the electron affinity, the dissociation energy and the second difference in energy are calculated and discussed. The properties of MgnNi clusters are also discussed when the number of Mg atom increases.

  18. Ni-Al2O3 and Ni-Al composite high-aspect-ratio microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tao; Sorrell, Melford; Kelly, Kevin W.; Ma, Evan

    1998-09-01

    High-aspect-ratio microstructures (HARMs) have a variety of potential applications in heat transfer, fluid mechanics, catalysts and other microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). The aim of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility to fabricate high performance particulate metal-matrix composite and intermetallic micromechanical structures using the LIGA process. Well-defined functionally graded Ni-Al2O3 and Ni-Al high-aspect-ratio microposts were electroformed into lithographically patterned PMMA holes from a nickel sulfamate bath containing submicron alumina and a diluted Watts bath containing microsized aluminum particles, respectively. SEM image analysis showed that the volume fraction of the alumina reached up to around 30% in the Ni-Al2O3 deposit. The Vickers microhardness of these composites is in the range of 418 through 545, which is higher than those of nickel microstructures from a similar particle-free bath and other Ni-based electrodeposits. In the work on Ni-Al electroplating, a newly developed diluted Watts bath was used to codeposit micron-sized aluminum particles. The intermetallic compound Ni3Al was formed by the reaction of nickel matrices and aluminum particles through subsequent annealing at 630 degrees Celsius. WDS and XRD analyses confirmed that the annealed coating is a two-phase (Ni-Ni3Al) composite. The maximum aluminum volume fraction reached 19% at a cathode current density of 12 mA cm-2, and the Vickers microhardness of the as-deposited coatings is in the range 392 - 515 depending on the amount of aluminum incorporated.

  19. Bone Cell–materials Interactions and Ni Ion Release of Anodized Equiatomic NiTi Alloy

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Sheldon A.; Balla, Vamsi Krishna; Davies, Neal M.; Bose, Susmita; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2011-01-01

    Laser processed NiTi alloy was anodized for different durations in H2SO4 electrolyte with varying pH to create biocompatible surfaces with low Ni ion release as well as bioactive surfaces to enhance biocompatibility and bone cell-materials interactions. The anodized surfaces were assessed for their in vitro cell-materials interactions using human fetal osteoblast (hFOB) cells for 3, 7 and 11 days, and Ni ion release up to 8 weeks in simulated body fluids. The results were correlated with surface morphologies of anodized surfaces characterized using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The results show that the anodization creates a surface with nano/micro roughness depending on anodization conditions. The hydrophilicity of NiTi surface was found to improve after anodization due to lower contact angles in cell media, which dropped from 32° to < 5°. The improved wettability of anodized surfaces is further corroborated by their high surface energy comparable to that of cp Ti. Relatively high surface energy, especially polar component, and nano/micro surface features of anodized surfaces significantly increased the number of living cells and their adherence and growth on these surfaces. Finally, a significant drop in Ni ion release from 268 ± 11 to 136 ± 15 ppb was observed for NiTi surfaces after anodization. This work indicates that anodization of NiTi alloy has a positive influence on the surface energy and surface morphology, which in turn improve bone cell-materials interactions and reduce Ni ion release in vitro. PMID:21232641

  20. Morphological Evolution of Multilayer Ni/NiO Thin Film Electrodes during Lithiation.

    PubMed

    Evmenenko, Guennadi; Fister, Timothy T; Buchholz, D Bruce; Li, Qianqian; Chen, Kan-Sheng; Wu, Jinsong; Dravid, Vinayak P; Hersam, Mark C; Fenter, Paul; Bedzyk, Michael J

    2016-08-10

    Oxide conversion reactions in lithium ion batteries are challenged by substantial irreversibility associated with significant volume change during the phase separation of an oxide into lithia and metal species (e.g., NiO + 2Li(+) + 2e(-) → Ni + Li2O). We demonstrate that the confinement of nanometer-scale NiO layers within a Ni/NiO multilayer electrode can direct lithium transport and reactivity, leading to coherent expansion of the multilayer. The morphological changes accompanying lithiation were tracked in real-time by in-operando X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and ex-situ cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy on well-defined periodic Ni/NiO multilayers grown by pulsed-laser deposition. Comparison of pristine and lithiated structures reveals that the nm-thick nickel layers help initiate the conversion process at the interface and then provide an architecture that confines the lithiation to the individual oxide layers. XRR data reveal that the lithiation process starts at the top and progressed through the electrode stack, layer by layer resulting in a purely vertical expansion. Longer term cycling showed significant reversible capacity (∼800 mA h g(-1) after ∼100 cycles), which we attribute to a combination of the intrinsic bulk lithiation capacity of the NiO and additional interfacial lithiation capacity. These observations provide new insight into the role of metal/metal oxide interfaces in controlling lithium ion conversion reactions by defining the relationships between morphological changes and film architecture during reaction. PMID:27419860

  1. Characteristics of Reactive Ni3Sn4 Formation and Growth in Ni-Sn Interlayer Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lis, Adrian; Kenel, Christoph; Leinenbach, Christian

    2016-06-01

    The near-isothermal growth and formation of Ni3Sn4 intermetallic compounds (IMC) in Ni-Sn interlayer systems was studied in the solid state at 473 K (200 °C) and under solid-liquid conditions at 523 and 573 K (250 °C and 300 °C) from an initial state of a few seconds. Scalloped solid-state IMC formation was mainly driven by grain boundary diffusion of Ni through the IMC layer combined with the grain coarsening of the IMC layer. Under solid-liquid conditions, the formation of faceted and needle-shaped Ni3Sn4 grains as well as an atypical IMC growth behavior with similar parabolic growth constants for 523 K and 573 K (250 °C and 300 °C) was observed within the first 180 seconds of the holding time, and IMC growth occurred as an isothermal solidification from the Ni-saturated Sn melt. Due to the progressive densification of the IMC layer and the diffusion-controlled growth, the kinetics slowed down by approximately one order of magnitude after 180 seconds of annealing. The final stage was characterized by the formation of IMC islands ahead of the interfacial Ni3Sn4 layer. Needle-like IMC growth was effectively suppressed under combined solid-state and solid-liquid conditions. Textured Ni3Sn4 IMC formation at the Ni-Sn interface was approved with pole figure measurements. The activation energy Q for solid-liquid IMC formation was calculated as 43.3 kJ/mol, and processing maps for IMC growth and Sn consumption were derived as functions of temperature and time, respectively.

  2. Geometric structures of thin film: Pt on Pd(110) and NiO on Ni(100)

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, O.L.

    1993-07-01

    This thesis is divided into 3 papers: dynamical low-energy electron- diffraction investigation of lateral displacements in topmost layer of Pd(110); determination of (1{times}1) and (1{times}2) structures of Pt thin films on Pd(110) by dynamical low-energy electron-diffraction analysis; and structural determination of a NiO(111) film on Ni(100) by dynamical low-energy electron-diffraction analysis.

  3. Laser induced chemical vapor deposition of Ni by decomposition of Ni(CO)4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kräuter, W.; Bäuerle, D.; Fimberger, F.

    1983-05-01

    Polycrystalline Ni has been grown by decomposition of Ni(CO)4 using different wavelengths of the visible radiation of a Kr+ laser. The influence of laser irradiance, substrate material and scanning velocity on deposition rate and widths of patterns has been investigated. The deposition rates achieved are typically several μm/s, and the lateral dimensions of the deposits can be as small as 1 μm.

  4. Film Thickness Influences on the Thermoelectric Properties of NiCr/NiSi Thin Film Thermocouples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y. Z.; Jiang, H. C.; Zhang, W. L.; Liu, X. Z.; Jiang, S. W.

    2013-06-01

    NiCr/NiSi thin film thermocouples (TFTCs) with a multi-layer structure were fabricated on Ni-based superalloy substrates (95 mm × 35 mm × 2 mm) by magnetron sputtering and electron beam evaporation. The five-layer structure is composed of NiCrAlY buffer layer (2 μm), thermally grown Al2O3 bond layer (200 nm), Al2O3 insulating layer (10 μm), NiCr/NiSi TFTCs (1 μm), and Al2O3 protective layer (500 nm). Influences of thermocouple layer thickness on thermoelectric properties were investigated. Seebeck coefficient of the samples with the increase in thermocouple layer thickness from 0.5 μm to 1 μm increased from 27.8 μV/°C to 33.8 μV/°C, but exhibited almost no change with further increase in thermocouple layer thickness from 1 μm to 2 μm. Dependence on temperature of the thermal electromotive force of the samples almost followed standard thermocouple characteristic curves when the thickness of the thermocouple layer was 1 μm and 2 μm. Sensitive coefficient K of the samples increased greatly with the increase in thickness of the thermocouple layer from 0.5 μm to 1 μm, but decreased insignificantly with the increase in thermocouple layer thickness from 1 μm to 2 μm, and continuously decreased with the increase in temperature. The sensitive coefficient and the stability of NiCr/NiSi TFTCs were both improved after annealing at 600°C.

  5. Chiral Three-Dimensional Microporous Nickel Aspartate with Extended Ni-O-Ni Bonding

    SciTech Connect

    Anokhina,E.; Go, Y.; Lee, Y.; Vogt, T.; Jacobson, A.

    2006-01-01

    In the course of our investigation aimed at the preparation of homochiral coordination polymers using readily available in optically pure form ligands and building blocks of condensed metal polyhedra, we recently reported a one-dimensional nickel aspartate compound [Ni{sub 2}O(L-Asp)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{center_dot}4H{sub 2}O (1) based on helical chains with extended Ni-O-Ni bonding. Here we report a new nickel aspartate [Ni{sub 2.5}(OH)(L-Asp){sub 2}]{center_dot}6.55H{sub 2}O (2) with a three-dimensional Ni-O-Ni connectivity that forms at a higher pH and is based on the same helices as in 1 which are connected by additional nickel octahedra to generate a chiral open framework with one-dimensional channels with minimum van der Waals dimensions of 8 x 5 Angstroms. The crystal structure of 2 was determined by synchrotron single-crystal X-ray diffraction on a 10 x 10 x 240 {micro}m crystal.

  6. Phase transformation and deformation behavior of NiTi-Nb eutectic joined NiTi wires

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liqiang; Wang, Cong; Zhang, Lai-Chang; Chen, Liangyu; Lu, Weijie; Zhang, Di

    2016-01-01

    NiTi wires were brazed together via eutectic reaction between NiTi and Nb powder deposited at the wire contact region. Phase transformation and deformation behavior of the NiTi-Nb eutectic microstructure were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cyclic loading-unloading tests. Results show that R phase and B19′ martensite transformation are induced by plastic deformation. R phase transformation, which significantly contributes to superelasticity, preferentially occurs at the interfaces between NiTi and eutectic region. Round-shaped Nb-rich phase with rod-like and lamellar-type eutectics are observed in eutectic regions. These phases appear to affect the deformation behavior of the brazed NiTi-Nb region via five distinct stages in stress-strain curves: (I) R phase reorientation, (II) R phase transformation from parent phase, (III) elastic deformation of reoriented martensite accompanied by the plastic deformation of Nb-rich phase and lamellar NiTi-Nb eutectic, (IV) B19′ martensitic transformation, and (V) plastic deformation of the specimen. PMID:27049025

  7. Phase transformation and deformation behavior of NiTi-Nb eutectic joined NiTi wires.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liqiang; Wang, Cong; Zhang, Lai-Chang; Chen, Liangyu; Lu, Weijie; Zhang, Di

    2016-01-01

    NiTi wires were brazed together via eutectic reaction between NiTi and Nb powder deposited at the wire contact region. Phase transformation and deformation behavior of the NiTi-Nb eutectic microstructure were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cyclic loading-unloading tests. Results show that R phase and B19' martensite transformation are induced by plastic deformation. R phase transformation, which significantly contributes to superelasticity, preferentially occurs at the interfaces between NiTi and eutectic region. Round-shaped Nb-rich phase with rod-like and lamellar-type eutectics are observed in eutectic regions. These phases appear to affect the deformation behavior of the brazed NiTi-Nb region via five distinct stages in stress-strain curves: (I) R phase reorientation, (II) R phase transformation from parent phase, (III) elastic deformation of reoriented martensite accompanied by the plastic deformation of Nb-rich phase and lamellar NiTi-Nb eutectic, (IV) B19' martensitic transformation, and (V) plastic deformation of the specimen. PMID:27049025

  8. Antiferromagnetism in EuNiGe3

    SciTech Connect

    Goetsch, R. J.; Ananad, V. K.; Johnston, David C.

    2013-02-07

    The synthesis and crystallographic and physical properties of polycrystalline EuNiGe3 are reported. EuNiGe3 crystallizes in the noncentrosymmetric body-centered tetragonal BaNiSn3-type structure (space group I4mm), in agreement with previous reports, with the Eu atoms at the corners and body center of the unit cell. The physical property data consistently demonstrate that this is a metallic system in which Eu spins S = 7/2 order antiferromagnetically at a temperature TN = 13.6 K.Magnetic susceptibility χ data forT >TN indicate that the Eu atoms have spin 7/2 with g = 2, that the Ni atoms are nonmagnetic, and that the dominant interactions between the Eu spins are ferromagnetic. Thus we propose that EuNiGe3 has a collinear A-type antiferromagnetic structure, with the Eu ordered moments in the ab plane aligned ferromagnetically and with the moments in adjacent planes along the c axis aligned antiferromagnetically. A fit of χ(T TN) by our molecular field theory is consistent with a collinear magnetic structure. Electrical resistivity ρ data from TN to 350 K are fitted by the Bloch-Gr¨uneisen model for electron-phonon scattering, yielding a Debye temperature of 265(2) K.Astrong decrease in ρ occurs belowTN due to loss of spin-disorder scattering. Heat capacity data at 25 K T 300Kare fitted by the Debye model, yielding the same Debye temperature 268(2) K as found from ρ(T ). The extracted magnetic heat capacity is consistent with S = 7/2 and shows that significant short-range dynamical spin correlations occur above TN. The magnetic entropy at TN = 13.6 K is 83% of the expected asymptotic high-T value, with the remainder recovered by 30 K.

  9. A New Polycrystalline Co-Ni Superalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knop, M.; Mulvey, P.; Ismail, F.; Radecka, A.; Rahman, K. M.; Lindley, T. C.; Shollock, B. A.; Hardy, M. C.; Moody, M. P.; Martin, T. L.; Bagot, P. A. J.; Dye, D.

    2014-12-01

    In 2006, a new-ordered L12 phase, Co3(Al,W), was discovered that can form coherently in a face-centered cubic (fcc) A1 Co matrix. Since then, a community has developed that is attempting to take these alloys forward into practical applications in gas turbines. A new candidate polycrystalline Co-Ni γ/ γ' superalloy, V208C, is presented that has the nominal composition 36Co-35Ni-15Cr-10Al-3W-1Ta (at.%). The alloy was produced by conventional powder metallurgy superalloy methods. After forging, a γ' fraction of ~56% and a secondary γ' size of 88 nm were obtained, with a grain size of 2.5 μm. The solvus temperature was 1000°C. The density was found to be 8.52 g cm-3, which is similar to existing Ni alloys with this level of γ'. The alloy showed the flow stress anomaly and a yield strength of 920 MPa at room temperature and 820 MPa at 800°C, similar to that of Mar-M247. These values are significantly higher than those found for either conventional solution and carbide-strengthened Co alloys or the γ/ γ' Co superalloys presented in the literature thus far. The oxidation resistance, with a mass gain of 0.08 mg cm-2 in 100 h at 800°C, is also comparable with that of existing high-temperature Ni superalloys. These results suggest that Co-based and Co-Ni superalloys may hold some promise for the future in gas turbine applications.

  10. Studies on the Sliding Wear Performance of Plasma Spray Ni-20Cr and Ni3Al Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Maninder; Singh, Harpreet; Singh, Balraj; Singh, Bhupinder

    2010-01-01

    Two metallic powders namely Ni-20Cr and Ni3Al were coated on AISI 309 SS steel by shrouded plasma spray process. The wear behavior of the bare, Ni-20Cr and Ni3Al-coated AISI 309 SS steel was investigated according to ASTM Standard G99-03 on a Pin-on-Disc Wear Test Rig. The wear tests were carried out at normal loads of 30 and 50 N with a sliding velocity of 1 m/s. Cumulative wear rate and coefficient of friction (μ) were calculated for all the cases. The worn-out surfaces were then examined by scanning electron microscopy analysis. Both the as-sprayed coatings exhibited typical splat morphology. The XRD analysis indicated the formation of Ni phase for the Ni-20Cr coating and Ni3Al phase for the Ni3Al coating. It has been concluded that the plasma-sprayed Ni-20Cr and Ni3Al coatings can be useful to reduce the wear rate of AISI 309 SS steel. The coatings were found to be adherent to the substrate steel during the wear tests. The plasma-sprayed Ni3Al coating has been recommended as a better choice to reduce the wear of AISI 309 SS steel, in comparison with the Ni-20Cr coating.

  11. Controlled synthesis of Ni/CuOx/Ni nanowires by electrochemical deposition with self-compliance bipolar resistive switching

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyuhyun; Lee, Jang-Sik

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate synthesis of Ni/CuOx/Ni nanowires (NWs) by electrochemical deposition on anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes. AAO with pore diameter of ~70 nm and pore length of ~50 μm was used as the template for synthesis of NWs. After deposition of Au as the seed layer, NWs with a structure of Ni/CuOx/Ni were grown with a length of ~12 μm. The lengths of 1st Ni, CuOx, and 2nd Ni were ~4.5 μm, ~3 μm, and ~4.5 μm, respectively. The Ni/CuOx/Ni device exhibits bipolar resistive switching behavior with self-compliance characteristics. Due to the spatial restriction of the current path in NW the Ni/CuOx/Ni NW devices are thought to exhibit self-compliance behaviour. Ni/CuOx/Ni NWs showed bipolar resistive changes possibly due to conducting filaments that are induced by oxygen vacancies. The reliability of the devices was confirmed by data retention measurement. The NW-based resistive switching memory has applications in highly scalable memory devices and neuromorphic devices. PMID:26975330

  12. Controlled synthesis of Ni/CuOx/Ni nanowires by electrochemical deposition with self-compliance bipolar resistive switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kyuhyun; Lee, Jang-Sik

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate synthesis of Ni/CuOx/Ni nanowires (NWs) by electrochemical deposition on anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes. AAO with pore diameter of ~70 nm and pore length of ~50 μm was used as the template for synthesis of NWs. After deposition of Au as the seed layer, NWs with a structure of Ni/CuOx/Ni were grown with a length of ~12 μm. The lengths of 1st Ni, CuOx, and 2nd Ni were ~4.5 μm, ~3 μm, and ~4.5 μm, respectively. The Ni/CuOx/Ni device exhibits bipolar resistive switching behavior with self-compliance characteristics. Due to the spatial restriction of the current path in NW the Ni/CuOx/Ni NW devices are thought to exhibit self-compliance behaviour. Ni/CuOx/Ni NWs showed bipolar resistive changes possibly due to conducting filaments that are induced by oxygen vacancies. The reliability of the devices was confirmed by data retention measurement. The NW-based resistive switching memory has applications in highly scalable memory devices and neuromorphic devices.

  13. Controlled synthesis of Ni/CuOx/Ni nanowires by electrochemical deposition with self-compliance bipolar resistive switching.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyuhyun; Lee, Jang-Sik

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate synthesis of Ni/CuOx/Ni nanowires (NWs) by electrochemical deposition on anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes. AAO with pore diameter of ~70 nm and pore length of ~50 μm was used as the template for synthesis of NWs. After deposition of Au as the seed layer, NWs with a structure of Ni/CuOx/Ni were grown with a length of ~12 μm. The lengths of 1(st) Ni, CuOx, and 2(nd) Ni were ~4.5 μm, ~3 μm, and ~4.5 μm, respectively. The Ni/CuOx/Ni device exhibits bipolar resistive switching behavior with self-compliance characteristics. Due to the spatial restriction of the current path in NW the Ni/CuOx/Ni NW devices are thought to exhibit self-compliance behaviour. Ni/CuOx/Ni NWs showed bipolar resistive changes possibly due to conducting filaments that are induced by oxygen vacancies. The reliability of the devices was confirmed by data retention measurement. The NW-based resistive switching memory has applications in highly scalable memory devices and neuromorphic devices. PMID:26975330

  14. Using Chelator-Buffered Nutrient Solutions to Induce Ni-Deficiency in the Ni-Hyperaccumulator Alyssum murale

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ni is essential for all plants due to its role in urease. Many Alyssum species are known to hyperaccumulate Ni to over 20 g kg-1 dry weight (DW) while normal plants require only about 0.1 mg kg-1 DW. As part of our research on Ni hyperaccumulation by plants, we conducted experiments to measure the...

  15. In Situ XAS of Ni-W Hydrocracking Catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, N.; Mickelson, G. E.; Greenlay, N.; Kelly, S. D.; Bare, Simon R.

    2007-02-01

    Ni-W based catalysts are very attractive in hydrotreating of heavy oil due to their high hydrogenation activity. In the present research, two catalyst samples, prepared by different methods, that exhibit significant differences in activity were sulfided in situ, and the local structure of the Ni and W were studied using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The Ni XANES spectra were analyzed using a linear component fitting, and the EXAFS spectra of the WS2 platelets in the sulfided catalysts were modeled. The Ni and W are fully sulfided in the higher activity sample, and there are both unsulfided Ni (˜25%) and W (<10%) in the lower activity sample.

  16. Layer-Resolved Magnetic Moments in Ni/Pt Multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelm, F.; Poulopoulos, P.; Ceballos, G.; Wende, H.; Baberschke, K.; Srivastava, P.; Benea, D.; Ebert, H.; Angelakeris, M.; Flevaris, N. K.; Niarchos, D.; Rogalev, A.; Brookes, N. B.

    2000-07-01

    The magnetic moments in Ni/Pt multilayers are thoroughly studied by combining experimental and ab initio theoretical techniques. SQUID magnetometry probes the samples' magnetizations. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism separates the contribution of Ni and Pt and provides a layer-resolved magnetic moment profile for the whole system. The results are compared to band-structure calculations. Induced Pt magnetic moments localized mostly at the interface are revealed. No magnetically ``dead'' Ni layers are found. The magnetization per Ni volume is slightly enhanced compared to bulk NiPt alloys.

  17. Atomistic modeling of ternary additions to NiTi and quaternary additions to Ni-Ti-Pd, Ni-Ti-Pt and Ni-Ti-Hf shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosca, H. O.; Bozzolo, G.; del Grosso, M. F.

    2012-08-01

    The behavior of ternary and quaternary additions to NiTi shape memory alloys is investigated using a quantum approximate method for the energetics. Ternary additions X to NiTi and quaternary additions to Ni-Ti-Pd, Ni-Ti-Pt, and Ni-Ti-Hf alloys, for X=Au, Pt, Ir, Os, Re, W, Ta,Ag, Pd, Rh, Ru, Tc, Mo, Nb, Zr, Zn, Cu, Co, Fe, Mn, V, Sc, Si, Al and Mg are considered. Bulk properties such as lattice parameter, energy of formation, and bulk modulus of the B2 alloys are studied for variations due to the presence of one or two simultaneous additives.

  18. Detection of Ni 2 lambda 7378 in six Seyfert galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, J. P.; Oke, J. B.

    1985-01-01

    A line due to Ni 2 7378 in the Seyfert galaxies NGC 1068, 2110, 3227, 4151, 5506, and Arp 102 B was detected. The average Ni abundance is about 2 times solar, which is 5 times less than in the filaments of the Crab Nebula. This argues for nucleosynthetic processing in the latter. The Ni 2 line is spatially revolved in NGC 1068, and shows at least a factor of 4 enhancement in the Ni abundance away from the nucleus. The off-nuclear abundance of Ni in NGC 1068 approaches that of the Crab, which strongly suggests that type supernovae enriched the off-nuclear gas clouds.

  19. Creep in Directionally Solidified NiAl-Mo Eutectics

    SciTech Connect

    Dudova, Marie; Kucharova, Kveta; Bartak, Tomas; Bei, Hongbin; George, Easo P; Somsen, Ch.; Dlouhy, A.

    2011-01-01

    A directionally solidified NiAl-Mo eutectic and an NiAl intermetallic, having respective nominal compositions Ni-45.5Al-9Mo and Ni-45.2Al (at.%), were loaded in compression at 1073 and 1173 K. Formidable strengthening by regularly distributed Mo fibres (average diameter 600 nm, volume fraction 14%) was observed. The fibres can support compression stresses transferred from the plastically deforming matrix up to a critical stress of the order of 2.5 GPa, at which point they yield. Microstructural evidence is provided for the dislocation-mediated stress transfer from the NiAl to the Mo phase.

  20. Cyanide-bridged NiCr and alternate NiFe-NiCr magnetic ultrathin films on functionalized Si(100) surface.

    PubMed

    Tricard, Simon; Costa-Coquelard, Claire; Mazerat, Sandra; Rivière, Eric; Huc, Vincent; David, Christophe; Miserque, Frédéric; Jegou, Pascale; Palacin, Serge; Mallah, Talal

    2012-04-21

    Sequential growth in solution (SGS) was performed for the magnetic cyanide-bridged network obtained from the reaction of Ni(H(2)O)(2+) and Cr(CN)(6)(3-) (referred to as NiCr) on a Si(100) wafer already functionalized by a Ni(II) complex. The growth process led to isolated dots and a low coverage of the surface. We used the NiFe network as a template to improve the growth of the magnetic network. We elaborated alternate NiFe (paramagnetic)-NiCr (ferromagnetic) ultrathin films around 6 nm thick. The magnetic behaviour confirmed the alternate structure with the ferromagnetic zones isolated between the paramagnetic ones since the evolution of the blocking temperature is consistent with the evolution of the layers' thickness expected from the SGS process. PMID:22344390

  1. State of Supported Nanoparticle Ni during Catalysis in Aqueous Media

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, Zizwe; Vjunov, Aleksei; Fulton, John; Camaioni, Donald; Balasubramanian, Mahalingam; Lercher, Johannes

    2015-11-09

    The state of Ni supported on HZSM-5 zeolite, silica, and sulfonated carbon was studied during aqueous-phase catalysis of phenol hydrodeoxygenation using in situ extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. On sulfonated carbon and HZSM-5 supports, NiO and Ni(OH)(2) were readily reduced to Ni-0 under reaction conditions (approximate to 35bar H-2 in aqueous phenol solutions containing up to 0.5wt.% phosphoric acid at 473K). In contrast, Ni supported on SiO2 was not stable in a fully reduced Ni-0 state. Water enables the formation of Ni-II phyllosilicate, which is more stable, that is, difficult to reduce, than either -Ni(OH)(2) or NiO. Leaching of Ni from the supports was not observed over a broad range of reaction conditions. Ni-0 particles on HZSM-5 were stable even in presence of 15wt.% acetic acid at 473K and 35bar H-2.

  2. Nickeltetracarbonyl formation on non-equilibrium Ni surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedev, V. K.; Börner, R.; Kruse, N.

    1998-05-01

    The subject of this investigation was the kinetics of Ni volatilization in form of nickeltetracarbonyl (Ni(CO) 4) during the interaction of CO gas with a Ni foil at room temperature (or slightly above). A trap-decomposition technique on an auxiliary Rh surface and posterior Auger spectroscopy were used for the product analysis. The presence of a high step site density (kinks) on an intentionally roughened Ni surface was found to cause a strong rate enhancement. CO pressures as low as 5×10 -5 mbar turned out to be sufficient for the reaction to occur. However, a well-annealed equilibrium Ni surface remained inactive in Ni(CO) 4 formation under these conditions. A reaction model is presented by taking into account the present-day knowledge about Ni-subcarbonyl intermediate formation.

  3. In situ NiTi/Nb(Ti) composite

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Daqiang Cui, Lishan; Jiang, Jiang; Zheng, Yanjun

    2013-12-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • In situ NiTi/Nb(Ti) composites were fabricated. • The transformation temperature was affected by the mixing Ti:Ni atomic ratios. • The NiTi component became micron-scale lamella after forging and rolling. • The composite exhibited high strength and high damping capacity. - Abstract: This paper reports on the creation of a series of in situ NiTi/Nb(Ti) composites with controllable transformation temperatures based on the pseudo-binary hypereutectic transformation of NiTi–Nb system. The composite constituent morphology was controlled by forging and rolling. It is found that the thickness of the NiTi lamella in the composite reached micron level after the hot-forging and cold-rolling. The NiTi/Nb(Ti) composite exhibited high damping capacity as well as high yield strength.

  4. Long Term Performance Retention Test Using High Power COTS NiCd and NiMH Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dan; Darcy, Eric; Strangways, Brad; Nelson, Tim

    2003-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the tests and results for performance retention of high powered commercial off the shelf (COTS) NiCd, and NiMH cells. Electromechanical actuators for space flight requires short duration high power batteries. The concern is that NiCd battery designs demonstrate an unfavorable power degradation after long periods of inactivity. Cycling can recover some of the decay, but this reduces the readiness that these batteries must have. Two 5-cell SubC stick test batteries ere chosen using NiCd and NiMH were tested and then the differences for charge maintenance were compared.

  5. Ni cycling in mangrove sediments from New Caledonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noel, V. S.; Morin, G.; Juillot, F.; Marchand, C.; Brest, J.; Bargar, J.; Munoz, M.; Ardo, S.; Brown, G. E.

    2014-12-01

    In New Caledonia, mangroves receive large inputs of lateritic materials eroded from massive ultramafic deposits enriched in Fe, Ni, Mn, Cr, and Co. Because of the major physicochemical gradients, especially redox gradients, that characterize these ecosystems, mineralogical transformations may influence the crystal-chemistry and bioavailability of Ni and its mobility towards a lagoon of over 20,000 km2. Bulk and spatially resolved chemical analyses by SEM-EDXS were coupled with Ni K-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy analysis to characterize the vertical and lateral changes in Ni speciation across the intertidal zone of a mangrove forest in the Vavouto Bay (New Caledonia) where Ni concentrations range from 1000 to 5300 mg•kg-1. XAFS results indicate that phyllosilicates and goethite inherited from the eroded lateritic materials are the dominant Ni-bearing phases in the surface horizons of the mangrove sediments. They are fully preserved at depth in the dry and oxic salt flat area, located on the inland side of the coast. In contrast, beneath the vegetated Rhizophoras and Avicennias stands Ni-bearing goethites rapidly diminish with increasing depth in the anoxic horizons of the sediments, and pyrite and organic complexes become the dominant Ni-containing species. Moreover, Ni incorporation in pyrite is more developed in the sediments beneath the intermediate Avicennia stand than beneath the Rhizophora stand that is closest to the shore. Such lateral changes in Ni speciation may be related to reoxidation of Ni-bearing pyrites in the Rhizophora stand, which is subject to periodic alternation of reducing and oxidizing events due to tidal fluctuations. These major changes in Ni speciation could significantly influence Ni mobility across the interidal zone. Indeed, as estimated with respect to Ti concentration, which is taken as a geochemical invariant, Ni is found to be immobile in the salt flat, to accumulate beneath the Avicennia stand, and to

  6. The Effect of Metal Composition on Fe-Ni Partition Behavior between Olivine and FeNi-Metal, FeNi-Carbide, FeNi-Sulfide at Elevated Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holzheid, Astrid; Grove, Timothy L.

    2005-01-01

    Metal-olivine Fe-Ni exchange distribution coefficients were determined at 1500 C over the pressure range of 1 to 9 GPa for solid and liquid alloy compositions. The metal alloy composition was varied with respect to the Fe/Ni ratio and the amount of dissolved carbon and sulfur. The Fe/Ni ratio of the metal phase exercises an important control on the abundance of Ni in the olivine. The Ni abundance in the olivine decreases as the Fe/Ni ratio of the coexisting metal increases. The presence of carbon (up to approx. 3.5 wt.%) and sulfur (up to approx. 7.5 wt.%) in solution in the liquid Fe-Ni-metal phase has a minor effect on the partitioning of Fe and Ni between metal and olivine phases. No pressure dependence of the Fe-Ni-metal-olivine exchange behavior in carbon- and sulfur-free and carbon- and sulfur-containing systems was found within the investigated pressure range. To match the Ni abundance in terrestrial mantle olivine, assuming an equilibrium metal-olivine distribution, a sub-chondritic Fe/Ni-metal ratio that is a factor of 17 to 27 lower than the Fe/Ni ratios in estimated Earth core compositions would be required, implying higher Fe concentrations in the core forming metal phase. A simple metal-olivine equilibrium distribution does not seem to be feasible to explain the Ni abundances in the Earth's mantle. An equilibrium between metal and olivine does not exercise a control on the problem of Ni overabundance in the Earth's mantle. The experimental results do not contradict the presence of a magma ocean at the time of terrestrial core formation, if olivine was present in only minor amounts at the time of metal segregation.

  7. Microstructure of the Native Oxide Layer on Ni and Cr-doped Ni Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Chong M.; Baer, Donald R.; Bruemmer, Stephen M.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Bowden, Mark E.; Sundararajan, J. A.; Qiang, You

    2011-10-01

    Metallic or alloy nanoparticles exposed to air at room temperature will be instantaneously oxidized and covered by an oxide layer. However, for most cases, the true structural nature of the oxide layer formed at this stage is hard to determine. In this paper, we report the structure, morphology, and electronic structure (the density of state of both valence and conduction bands measured by a combination of XPS and EELS) of pure Ni and Cr-doped Ni nanoparticles synthesized using a cluster deposition process. Structural characterization carried out at the atomic level using aberration corrected high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) in combination with electron and x-ray diffractions reveals that both pure Ni and Cr-doped Ni particles exposed to air at room temperature similarly possesses a core-shell structure of metal core covered by an oxide layer of typically 1.6 nm in thickness. There exists a critical size of ~ 6 nm, below which the particle is fully oxidized. The oxide particle corresponds to the rock-salt structured NiO and is faceted on the (001) planes. XPS of O-1s shows a strong peak that is attributed to (OH)-, which in combination with the atomic level HRTEM imaging indicates that the very top layer of the oxide is hydrolyzed as Ni(OH)2. Chemical composition analysis using EDS, EELS, and XPS indicates that the Cr dopant at the level of ~ 5at% forms solid solution with the Ni lattice. The Cr shows no segregation on the surface or preferential oxidation during the initial oxidation.

  8. Thiolate-protected Ni39 and Ni41 nanoclusters: synthesis, self-assembly and magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Jianwei; Wang, Guan; Wang, Tianwei; You, Xiaozeng; Xu, Xiangxing

    2014-07-01

    Thiolate-protected soluble nickel clusters, Ni39(SC2H4Ph)24 and Ni41(SC2H4Ph)25, were synthesized via a wet chemical method. The cluster formulae were identified by MALDI-TOF. Possible structures of the clusters were discussed. These clusters exhibit ferromagnetism with hysteresis loops in the 1.8-300 K range. By solvent evaporation, the clusters can self-assemble into simple cubic structured crystals with a width in the range of 1-10 μm and length up to 300 μm. These properties shed light on their application potentials in nanomagnetics working at room temperature.Thiolate-protected soluble nickel clusters, Ni39(SC2H4Ph)24 and Ni41(SC2H4Ph)25, were synthesized via a wet chemical method. The cluster formulae were identified by MALDI-TOF. Possible structures of the clusters were discussed. These clusters exhibit ferromagnetism with hysteresis loops in the 1.8-300 K range. By solvent evaporation, the clusters can self-assemble into simple cubic structured crystals with a width in the range of 1-10 μm and length up to 300 μm. These properties shed light on their application potentials in nanomagnetics working at room temperature. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: XPS, EDS, MALDI-TOF mass spectrum and TGA analysis of the Ni39(SC2H4Ph)24 and Ni41(SC2H4Ph)25 clusters. TEM and XRD spectra of the Ni clusters annealed in Ar at 240 °C for 2 h. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr01063a

  9. Ab initio molecular dynamics investigations of low-energy recoil events in Ni and NiCo

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Bin; Yuan, Fenglin; Jin, Ke; Zhang, Yanwen; Weber, William J.

    2015-10-06

    Low-energy recoil events in pure Ni and the equiatomic NiCo alloy are studied using ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. We found that the threshold displacement energies are strongly dependent on orientation and weakly dependent on composition. The minimum threshold displacement energies are along the [1 1 0] direction in both pure Ni and the NiCo alloy. Compared to pure Ni, the threshold displacement energies increase slightly in the NiCo alloy due to stronger bonds in the alloy, irrespective of the element type of the PKA. A single Ni interstitial occupying the center of a tetrahedron formed by four Ni atoms and a <1 0 0> split interstitial is produced in pure Ni by the recoils, while only the <1 0 0> split interstitial is formed in the NiCo alloy. Compared to the replacement sequences in pure Ni, anti-site defect sequences are observed in the alloy, which have high efficiency for both producing defects and transporting energy outside of the cascade core. These results provide insights into energy transfer processes occurring in equiatomic alloys under irradiation.

  10. Fe-Ni composition dependence of magnetic anisotropy in artificially fabricated L1 0-ordered FeNi films.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Takayuki; Ogiwara, Misako; Mizuguchi, Masaki; Kotsugi, Masato; Koganezawa, Tomoyuki; Ohtsuki, Takumi; Tashiro, Taka-Yuki; Takanashi, Koki

    2014-02-12

    We prepared L10-ordered FeNi alloy films by alternate deposition of Fe and Ni monatomic layers, and investigated their magnetic anisotropy. We employed a non-ferromagnetic Au-Cu-Ni buffer layer with a flat surface and good lattice matching to L10-FeNi. An L10-FeNi film grown on Au6Cu51Ni43 showed a large uniaxial magnetic anisotropy energy (Ku = 7.0 × 10(6) erg cm(-)3). Ku monotonically increased with the long-range order parameter (S) of the L10 phase. We investigated the Fe-Ni composition dependence by alternating the deposition of Fe 1 − x and Ni 1 + x monatomic layers (− 0.4 < x < 0.4). Saturation magnetization (Ms) and Ku showed maxima (Ms = 1470 emu cm(-3), Ku = 9.3 × 10(6) erg cm(-3)) for Fe60Ni40 (x = -0.2) while S showed a maximum at the stoichiometric composition (x = 0). The change in the ratio of lattice parameters (c/a) was small for all compositions. We found that enrichment of Fe is very effective to enhance Ku. The large Ms and Ku of Fe60Ni40 indicate that Fe-rich L10-FeNi is promising as a rare-earth-free permanent magnet. PMID:24469082

  11. High-frequency permeability of electroplated CoNiFe and CoNiFe-C alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhen, Fernando M. F.; McCloskey, Paul; O'Donnell, Terence; Roy, Saibal

    We have investigated CoNiFe and CoNiFe-C electrodeposited by pulse reverse plating (PRP) and direct current (DC) techniques. CoNiFe(PRP) films with composition Co 59.4Fe 27.7Ni 12.8 show coercivity of 95 A m -1 (1.2 Oe) and magnetization saturation flux ( μ0Ms) of 1.8 T. Resistivity of CoNiFe (PRP) is about 24 μΩ cm and permeability remains almost constant μr' ˜475 up to 30 MHz with a quality factor ( Q) larger than 10. Additionally, the permeability spectra analysis shows that CoNiFe exhibits a classical eddy current loss at zero bias field and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) when biased with 0.05 T. Furthermore, a crossover between eddy current and FMR loss is observed for CoNiFe-PRP when baised with 0.05 T. DC and PRP plated CoNiFe-C, which have resistivity and permeability of 85, 38 μΩ cm, μr'=165 and 35 with Q>10 up to 320 MHz, respectively, showed only ferromagnetic resonance losses. The ferromagnetic resonance peaks in CoNiFe and CoNiFe-C are broad and resembles a Gaussian distribution of FMR frequencies. The incorporation of C to CoNiFe reduces eddy current loss, but also reduces the FMR frequency.

  12. Ab initio molecular dynamics investigations of low-energy recoil events in Ni and NiCo

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Liu, Bin; Yuan, Fenglin; Jin, Ke; Zhang, Yanwen; Weber, William J.

    2015-10-06

    Low-energy recoil events in pure Ni and the equiatomic NiCo alloy are studied using ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. We found that the threshold displacement energies are strongly dependent on orientation and weakly dependent on composition. The minimum threshold displacement energies are along the [1 1 0] direction in both pure Ni and the NiCo alloy. Compared to pure Ni, the threshold displacement energies increase slightly in the NiCo alloy due to stronger bonds in the alloy, irrespective of the element type of the PKA. A single Ni interstitial occupying the center of a tetrahedron formed by four Ni atomsmore » and a <1 0 0> split interstitial is produced in pure Ni by the recoils, while only the <1 0 0> split interstitial is formed in the NiCo alloy. Compared to the replacement sequences in pure Ni, anti-site defect sequences are observed in the alloy, which have high efficiency for both producing defects and transporting energy outside of the cascade core. These results provide insights into energy transfer processes occurring in equiatomic alloys under irradiation.« less

  13. Stripe-to-bubble transition of magnetic domains at the spin reorientation of (Fe/Ni)/Cu/Ni/Cu(001)

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, J.; Choi, J.; Won, C.; Wu, Y. Z.; Scholl, A.; Doran, A.; Hwang, Chanyong; Qiu, Z.

    2010-06-09

    Magnetic domain evolution at the spin reorientation transition (SRT) of (Fe/Ni)/Cu/Ni/Cu(001) is investigated using photoemission electron microscopy. While the (Fe/Ni) layer exhibits the SRT, the interlayer coupling of the perpendicularly magnetized Ni layer to the (Fe/Ni) layer serves as a virtual perpendicular magnetic field exerted on the (Fe/Ni) layer. We find that the perpendicular virtual magnetic field breaks the up-down symmetry of the (Fe/Ni) stripe domains to induce a net magnetization in the normal direction of the film. Moreover, as the virtual magnetic field increases to exceed a critical field, the stripe domain phase evolves into a bubble domain phase. Although the critical field depends on the Fe film thickness, we show that the area fraction of the minority domain exhibits a universal value that determines the stripe-to-bubble phase transition.

  14. Microstructure and mechanical properties of sputter deposited Ni/Ni3Al multilayer films at elevated temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chao; Feng, Kai; Li, Zhuguo; Lu, Fenggui; Huang, Jian; Wu, Yixiong

    2016-08-01

    Nano-structured Ni/Ni3Al multilayer was prepared by magnetron sputtering, with individual layer thicknesses h varying from 10 to 160 nm. The microstructure and hardness of Ni/Ni3Al multilayer were investigated by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and nanoindentation. The results show that the hardness increases with decreasing h for as-deposited and 500 °C annealed multilayers. When annealed at 700 °C, the hardness approach a peak value at h = 40 nm with followed by softening at smaller h. The influence of individual layer thickness, grain size as well as formation of ordered Ni3Al on strengthening mechanisms of Ni/Ni3Al multilayers at elevated temperature are discussed.

  15. Ni-Catalyzed Amination Reactions: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Marín, Mario; Rama, Raquel J; Nicasio, M Carmen

    2016-08-01

    Nitrogen-containing organic compounds are valuable in many fields of science and industry. The most reliable method for the construction of C(sp(2) )-N bonds is undoubtedly palladium-catalyzed amination. In spite of the great achievements made in this area, the use of expensive Pd-based catalysts constitutes an important limitation for large-scale applications. Since nickel is the least expensive and most abundant among the group 10 metals, the interest in Ni-based catalysts for processes typically catalyzed by palladium has grown considerably over the last few years. Herein, we revise the development of Ni-catalyzed amination reactions, emphasizing the most relevant and recent advances in the field. PMID:27265724

  16. Diffusion induced recrystallization of NiO

    SciTech Connect

    Parthasarathy, T.A.; Shewmon, P.G.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown that changing the composition of a sample from that in equilibrium with air at 1200/sup 0/C to that in equilibrium with oxygen saturated Ni at 800-900/sup 0/C recrystallize the surface to a finer grain size. Annealing back at 1200/sup 0/C in air will again recrystallize the surface layer. This type of diffusion-induced recrystallization has been observed in metals, but never reported in ceramics. Its occurrence in NiO is interpreted as a demonstration that diffusion-induced grain boundary motion is driven directly by the free energy of mixing defects into the matrix instead of indirectly as suggested by others.

  17. Ni doping of semiconducting boron carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Nina; Liu Jing; Adenwalla, S.; Langell, M. A.; Kizilkaya, Orhan

    2010-01-15

    The wide band gap, temperature stability, high resistivity, and robustness of semiconducting boron carbide make it an attractive material for device applications. Undoped boron carbide is p type; Ni acts as a n-type dopant. Here we present the results of controlled doping of boron carbide with Ni on thin film samples grown using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The change in the dopant concentration within the thin film as a function of the dopant flow rate in the precursor gas mixture was confirmed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements; with increasing dopant concentration, current-voltage (I-V) curves clearly establish the trend from p-type to n-type boron carbide.

  18. Ni{sub 3}Al technology transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Sikka, V.K.; Viswanathan, S.; Santella, M.L.

    1997-04-01

    Ductile Ni{sub 3}Al and Ni{sub 3}Al-based alloys have been identified for a range of applications. These applications require the use of material in a variety of product forms such as sheet, plate, bar, wire, tubing, piping, and castings. Although significant progress has been made in the melting, casting, and near-net-shape forming of nickel aluminides, some issues still remain. These include the need for: (1) high-strength castable composition for many applications that have been identified; (2) castability (mold type, fluidity, hot-shortness, porosity, etc.); (3) weld reparability of castings; and (4) workability of cast or powder metallurgy product to sheet, bar, and wire. The four issues listed above can be {open_quotes}show stoppers{close_quotes} for the commercial application of nickel aluminides. This report describes the work completed to address some of these issues during FY 1996.

  19. Ni{sub 3}Al technology transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Sikka, V.K.; Santella, M.L.; Alexander, D.J.

    1995-05-01

    Ductile Ni{sub 3}Al and Ni{sub 3}Al-based alloys have been identified for a range of applications. These applications require the use of material in a variety of product forms such as sheet, plate, bar, tubing, piping, and castings. Although significant progress has been made in the melting, casting, and near-net-shape forming of nickel aluminides, some issues still remain. These include the need for (1)high-strength castable composition for turbochargers, furnace furniture, and hot-die applications; (2) castability (fluidity, hot-shortness, porosity, etc.); (3) weld reparability of castings; and (4) hot fabricability of cast ingots. All of the issues listed above can be {open_quotes}show stoppers{close_quotes} for the commercial application of nickel aluminides. This report describes work completed to address some of these issues during the fourth quarter of FY 1994.

  20. CO adsorption on the Ni2Pb/Ni(1 1 1) surface alloy: A DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kośmider, K.; Kucharczyk, R.; Jurczyszyn, L.

    2013-02-01

    Structural and electronic properties of the Pb/Ni(1 1 1) overlayer and the Ni2Pb/Ni(1 1 1) surface alloy have been investigated within a DFT-PBE approach in order to determine its reactivity towards adsorption of CO molecules. This work has been motivated by a photoemission study of CO adsorption on Pb/Ni(1 1 1) surface phases [V. Matolín et al., Phys. Rev. B 74 (2006) 075416] indicating that Pb adatoms inhibit CO adsorption in a purely geometrical way by site blocking at Ni(1 1 1), whereas surface alloying has a poisoning effect of the Ni-CO bond weakening. In general, our DFT computations confirm experimental findings for the Pb/Ni(1 1 1) overlayer, as the very high activation barrier of about 2 eV due to the presence of Pb adatoms makes the CO chemisorption virtually impossible. For the Ni2Pb/Ni(1 1 1) surface alloy, we show that CO can bind to Ni atoms in the on-top position, and this process occurs to be exothermic with the energy gain of 0.35 eV per CO molecule. Dramatic reduction of the computed adsorption energy with respect to the pure Ni(1 1 1) substrate is in apparent agreement with experiment. However, it follows from our simulations that the CO adsorption process is accompanied by a substantial rearrangement of Ni atoms within the Ni2Pb surface alloy layer. Taking into account the associated deformation energy in the overall energetic balance yields nearly the same interaction energy between the CO molecules and the Ni atoms for the alloyed and the pure Ni(1 1 1) substrate, so the Ni-CO bond appears not to be weakened. The experimentally observed suppression of CO adsorption upon the alloy formation can be explained by a notable increase of the activation barrier for CO chemisorption from about 0.1 eV for the pure Ni(1 1 1) to roughly 0.5 eV for the Ni2Pb/Ni(1 1 1) surface alloy, affecting the corresponding reaction rate.

  1. Structural basis of a Ni acquisition cycle for [NiFe] hydrogenase by Ni-metallochaperone HypA and its enhancer

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Satoshi; Kawashima, Takumi; Nishitani, Yuichi; Kanai, Tamotsu; Wada, Takehiko; Inaba, Kenji; Atomi, Haruyuki; Imanaka, Tadayuki; Miki, Kunio

    2015-01-01

    The Ni atom at the catalytic center of [NiFe] hydrogenases is incorporated by a Ni-metallochaperone, HypA, and a GTPase/ATPase, HypB. We report the crystal structures of the transient complex formed between HypA and ATPase-type HypB (HypBAT) with Ni ions. Transient association between HypA and HypBAT is controlled by the ATP hydrolysis cycle of HypBAT, which is accelerated by HypA. Only the ATP-bound form of HypBAT can interact with HypA and induces drastic conformational changes of HypA. Consequently, upon complex formation, a conserved His residue of HypA comes close to the N-terminal conserved motif of HypA and forms a Ni-binding site, to which a Ni ion is bound with a nearly square-planar geometry. The Ni binding site in the HypABAT complex has a nanomolar affinity (Kd = 7 nM), which is in contrast to the micromolar affinity (Kd = 4 µM) observed with the isolated HypA. The ATP hydrolysis and Ni binding cause conformational changes of HypBAT, affecting its association with HypA. These findings indicate that HypA and HypBAT constitute an ATP-dependent Ni acquisition cycle for [NiFe]-hydrogenase maturation, wherein HypBAT functions as a metallochaperone enhancer and considerably increases the Ni-binding affinity of HypA. PMID:26056269

  2. Tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding of Ni-rich NiTi plates: functional behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, J. P.; Barbosa, D.; Braz Fernandes, F. M.; Miranda, R. M.

    2016-03-01

    It is often reported that, to successfully join NiTi shape memory alloys, fusion-based processes with reduced thermal affected regions (as in laser welding) are required. This paper describes an experimental study performed on the tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding of 1.5 mm thick plates of Ni-rich NiTi. The functional behavior of the joints was assessed. The superelasticity was analyzed by cycling tests at maximum imposed strains of 4, 8 and 12% and for a total of 600 cycles, without rupture. The superelastic plateau was observed, in the stress-strain curves, 30 MPa below that of the base material. Shape-memory effect was evidenced by bending tests with full recovery of the initial shape of the welded joints. In parallel, uniaxial tensile tests of the joints showed a tensile strength of 700 MPa and an elongation to rupture of 20%. The elongation is the highest reported for fusion-welding of NiTi, including laser welding. These results can be of great interest for the wide-spread inclusion of NiTi in complex shaped components requiring welding, since TIG is not an expensive process and is simple to operate and implement in industrial environments.

  3. Growth and characterization of epitaxial NiMnSb/ZnTe/NiMnSb magnetic multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerhard, F.; Naydenova, T.; Baussenwein, M.; Schumacher, C.; Gould, C.; Molenkamp, L. W.

    2016-02-01

    The half-metal ferromagnet NiMnSb, with its high spin polarization, low magnetic damping and tunable magnetic anisotropy, is a promising material for applications in spin torque devices. We develop the epitaxial growth of NiMnSb/ZnTe/NiMnSb heterostructures, aiming towards the realization of an all-NiMnSb based magnetic tunneling junction (MTJ). Layers are grown in situ by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) and Atomic Layer Epitaxy (ALE) methods. By tuning Mn content, the magnetic anisotropy of each of the two NiMnSb layers is adjusted in order to achieve mutually orthogonal uniaxial anisotropies. SQUID measurements of the magnetization along orthogonal crystal directions [110] and [ 1 1 bar 0] confirm that the two layers have mutually orthogonal anisotropy. High Resolution X-Ray Diffraction measurements and simulations confirm the nominal layer stack and demonstrate the high crystalline quality of the individual layers. Such layer stacks provide a potential basis for TMR-based spin-torque devices such as spin-torque oscillators.

  4. Superparamagnetic behavior in ultrathin CoNi layers of electrodeposited CoNi/Cu multilayer nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, X.-T.; Wang, G.-C.; Shima, M.

    2006-06-01

    We present evidence that in a very thin regime the magnetic layers become discrete islands and superparamagnetic in multilayered CoNi(1-17 nm)/Cu(4.2 nm) nanowires grown by pulsed electrodeposition using a hole pattern of anodized alumina templates. Magnetic hysteresis loops measured at room temperature using a vibrating sample magnetometer show that superparamagnetism appears at t(CoNi)<1.7 nm, due to a volumetric reduction of the CoNi layers that may result in discontinuity of the layer or formation of islands. The magnetic hysteresis loops for the superparamagnetic nanowires can be represented by the Langevin function. The temperature dependence of coercivity data obtained for the superparamagnetic nanowires using a superconducting quantum interference device indicates that the magnetization reversal can be consistently explained by the Stoner-Walfarth model for coherent rotation. The volumetric reduction accounted for the observed superparamagnetism is probably due to an electrochemical exchange reaction between CoNi and Cu species at the interface during each Cu deposition cycle. The exchange reaction may cause partial dissolution of the CoNi layers at the interface which is eventually stabilized by cementation with Cu. The effects of the nucleation and growth process on the formation of superparamagnetic islands are also discussed.

  5. Reentrant superconductivity in HoNi5-NbN-HoNi5 nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Gyanendra; Joshi, P. C.; Hossain, Z.; Budhani, R. C.

    2013-08-01

    Superconductivity (S) and ferromagnetism (F) are probed through transport and magnetization measurements in nanometer scale HoNi5-NbN (F-S) bilayers and HoNi5-NbN-HoNi5 (F-S-F) trilayers. The choice of materials has been made on the basis of their comparable ordering temperatures and strong magnetic anisotropy in HoNi5. We observe the normal state reentrant behavior in resistance vs. temperature plots of the F-S-F structures just below the superconducting transition in the limited range of HoNi5 layer thickness dHN (20\\ \\text{nm}) when d_{\\textit{NbN}} is fixed at{}\\simeq 10\\ \\text{nm} . The reentrance is quenched by increasing the out-of-plane (H_{\\perp} ) magnetic field and transport current where as in-plane (H_{\\parallel} ) field of \\leq 1500\\ \\text{Oe} has no effect on the reentrance. The origin of the reentrant behavior seen here in the range T_{\\textit{Curie}}/T_C \\leq 0.92 is attributed to a delicate balance between the magnetic exchange energy and the condensation energy in the interfacial regions of the trilayer.

  6. Comparative study on graphene growth mechanism using Ni films, Ni/Mo sheets, and Pt substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Byeong-Joo; Jeong, Goo-Hwan

    2014-07-01

    We demonstrate a comparative study on graphene growth mechanism using various catalytic metal substrates such as Ni thin films, Ni-deposited Mo (Ni/Mo) sheets, and Pt sheets during chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Depending on the substrates, two kinds of graphene growth mechanisms that involve either precipitation or surface adsorption of carbon have been reported. We synthesized graphene, focusing especially on the initial growth stage during CVD, by varying synthesis parameters such as synthesis time, amount of feedstock, and cooling rate after synthesis. We concluded that precipitation-driven synthesis is dominant in the case of Ni substrates whereas adsorption-driven growth is dominant in the Ni/Mo system. In the case of the Pt substrate, which is generally believed to grow by carbon precipitation, graphene growth by adsorption was found to be dominant. We believe that our results will contribute to a clearer understanding of the graphene synthesis mechanism, and development of manufacturing routes for controllable synthesis of high-quality graphenes.

  7. Porous Alumina Template by Selective Dissolution of Ni from Sintered Al2O3-Ni Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, M.; Moon, A. P.; Mondal, K.

    2015-07-01

    In the present study, porous alumina template was fabricated by selective dissolution of Ni from the pressureless sintered Al2O3-Ni. Alumina and Ni powders of 99.9% purity were subjected to ball milling (200 rpm, 1 h, 10:1 ball-to-powder weight ratio) in order to get homogeneous mechanical mixture. The milled powder was compacted using hydraulic press under the uniaxial pressure of 400 MPa for 1 min, and the pressureless sintering was carried out in reducing atmosphere (H2) at 1400 °C. Ni was then selectively and completely dissolved from the 1-mm-thick sintered disk of diameter 16 mm in 1 M HCl + 3 wt.% FeCl3 solution to get the porous template of alumina. The porous alumina template was found to have sufficient compressive strength. BET, x-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy studies along with energy dispersive spectroscopy were performed to study microstructural evolutions, bonding characteristics, and distributions of Ni before and after the dissolution of the sintered composite.

  8. Evolution of Ni nanofilaments and electromagnetic coupling in the resistive switching of NiO.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yuxiang; Zhao, Diyang; Zhao, Yonggang; Chiang, Fu-kuo; Chen, Pengcheng; Guo, Minghua; Luo, Nannan; Jiang, Xingli; Miao, Peixian; Sun, Ying; Chen, Aitian; Lin, Zhu; Li, Jianqi; Duan, Wenhui; Cai, Jianwang; Wang, Yayu

    2015-01-14

    Resistive switching effect in conductor/insulator/conductor thin-film stacks is promising for resistance random access memory with high-density, fast speed, low power dissipation and high endurance, as well as novel computer logic architectures. NiO is a model system for the resistive switching effect and the formation/rupture of Ni nanofilaments is considered to be essential. However, it is not clear how the nanofilaments evolve in the switching process. Moreover, since Ni nanofilaments should be ferromagnetic, it provides an opportunity to explore the electromagnetic coupling in this system. Here, we report a direct observation of Ni nanofilaments and their specific evolution process for the first time by a combination of various measurements and theoretical calculations. We found that multi-nanofilaments are involved in the low resistance state and the nanofilaments become thin and rupture separately in the RESET process with subsequent increase of the rupture gaps. Theoretical calculations reveal the role of oxygen vacancy amount in the evolution of Ni nanofilaments. We also demonstrate electromagnetic coupling in this system, which opens a new avenue for multifunctional devices. PMID:25423124

  9. Ni-MH spent batteries: a raw material to produce Ni-Co alloys.

    PubMed

    Lupi, Carla; Pilone, Daniela

    2002-01-01

    Ni-MH spent batteries are heterogeneous and complex materials, so any kind of metallurgical recovery process needs a mechanical pre-treatment at least to separate irony materials and recyclable plastic materials (like ABS) respectively, in order to get additional profit from this saleable scrap, as well as minimize waste arising from the braking separation process. Pyrometallurgical processing is not suitable to treat Ni-MH batteries mainly because of Rare Earths losses in the slag. On the other hand, the hydrometallurgical method, that offers better opportunities in terms of recovery yield and higher purity of Ni, Co, and RE, requires several process steps as shown in technical literature. The main problems during leach liquor purification are the removal of elements such as Mn, Zn, Cd, dissolved during the leaching step, and the separation of Ni from Co. In the present work, the latter problem is overcome by co-deposition of a Ni-35/40%w Co alloy of good quality. The experiments carried out in a laboratory scale pilot-plant show that a current efficiency higher than 91% can be reached in long duration electrowinning tests performed at 50 degrees C and 4.3 catholyte pH. PMID:12423047

  10. Multiatom Resonant Photoemission on NiO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadley, Charles; Mannella, Norman; Yang, See-Hun; Mun, Simon; van Hove, Michel

    2002-03-01

    In several recent papers, it has been pointed out that the core photoemission intensities of a given atom can be modified significantly when the photon energy is tuned through the absorption edge of a neighboring atom. Although some first experimental results of this type were distorted by detector non-linearity, a clear picture of the phenomenon has now emerged, with both macroscopic x-ray optical (dielectric) and microscopic quantum mechanical models quantitatively describing the effects [1]. In this talk, we will clarify a remaining experimental discrepancy with these models [2] by presenting new experimental results for O 1s photoemission from NiO(001) as photon energy is scanned through the Ni 2p absorption edges, and comparing the data to x-ray optical calculations. Other data for an adsorbate and free molecules will also be discussed. This work was supported by DOE contract No. DE-AC03-76SF00098. [1] A.W. Kay, F.J. Garcia de Abajo, S.-H. Yang, E. Arenholz, B.S. Mun, N. Mannella, Z. Hussain, M.A. Van Hove, and C.S. Fadley, Phys. Rev. B 63, 115119 (2001). [2] M. Finazzi, G. Ghiringhelli, O. Tjernberg, L. Duo, A. Tagliaferri, P. Ohresser, and N. B. Brookes, photoemission measurements for CuO and NiO, Phys. Rev. B 62, R16215 (2000).

  11. Laser ablation of Al-Ni alloys and multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Johannes; Trebin, Hans-Rainer; Kiselev, Alexander; Rapp, Dennis-Michael

    2016-05-01

    Laser ablation of Al-Ni alloys and multilayers has been studied by molecular dynamics simulations. The method was combined with a two-temperature model to describe the interaction between the laser beam, the electrons, and the atoms. As a first step, electronic parameters for the alloys had to be found and the model developed originally for pure metals had to be generalized to multilayers. The modifications were verified by computing melting depths and ablation thresholds for pure Al and Ni. Here known data could be reproduced. The improved model was applied to the alloys Al_3Ni, AlNi and AlNi_3. While melting depths and ablation thresholds for AlNi behave unspectacular, sharp drops at high fluences are observed for Al_3Ni and AlNi_3. In both cases, the reason is a change in ablation mechanism from phase explosion to vaporization. Furthermore, a phase transition occurs in Al_3Ni. Finally, Al layers of various thicknesses on a Ni substrate have been simulated. Above threshold, 8 nm Al films are ablated as a whole while 24 nm Al films are only partially removed. Below threshold, alloying with a mixture gradient has been observed in the thin layer system.

  12. Electrodeposition Behavior of Mn with Ni in Acidic Sulfate Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Dan; Le, Xiawen; Zhong, Qingdong; Zhou, Qiongyu

    2014-09-01

    The influence of Mn2+/Ni2+ mole ratio in electrolytes on the Ni-Mn alloy deposits was studied. The electrodeposition mechanism of Mn with Ni is analyzed by the cyclic voltammogram (CV) and an "induced co-deposition" mechanism is proposed for Ni-Mn alloy electrodeposition. The results show that the Mn content in Ni-Mn alloy deposit and the hardness increased with the increase of Mn2+/Ni2+ mole ratio in electrolytes. When the Mn2+/Ni2+ mole ratio in bath was 2/1, the corrosion current density of the deposit coating was the lowest and the corresponding corrosion potential was higher, and under these conditions the coating with a Mn content of 1.20 wt.% showed good corrosion resistance. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the alloy coatings exhibited that the morphology of Ni-Mn alloy coatings were different from Pure Ni coating, and when Mn2+/Ni2+ was 2/1, the surface was compact and homogeneous.

  13. Measurement of {sup 63}Ni and {sup 59}Ni by accelerator mass spectrometry using characteristic projectile x-rays

    SciTech Connect

    McAninch, J.E.; Hainsworth, L.J.; Marchetti, A.A.

    1996-05-01

    The long-lived isotopes of nickel ({sup 59}Ni, {sup 63}Ni) have current and potential use in a number of applications including cosmic radiation studies, biomedical tracing, characterization of low-level radioactive wastes, and neutron dosimetry. Methods are being developed at LLNL for the routine detection of these isotopes by AMS. One intended application is in Hiroshima dosimetry. The reaction {sup 63}Cu(n,p){sup 63}Ni has been identified as one of a small number of reactions which might be used for the direct determination of the fast neutron fluence emitted by the Hiroshima bomb. AMS measurement of {sup 63}Ni(t{sub 1/2} = 100 y) requires the chemical removal of {sup 63}Cu, which is a stable isobar of {sup 63}Ni. Following the electrochemical separation of Ni from gram-sized copper samples, the Cu concentration is further lowered to < 2 x 10{sup -8} (Cu/Ni) using the reaction of Ni with carbon monoxide to form the gas Ni(CO){sub 4}. The Ni(CO){sub 4} is thermally decomposed directly in sample holders for measurement by AMS. After analysis in the AMS spectrometer, the ions are identified using characteristic projectile x-rays, allowing further rejection of remaining {sup 63}Cu. In a demonstration experiment, {sup 63}Ni was measured in Cu wires (2-20 g) which had been exposed to neutrons from a {sup 252}Cf source. We successfully measured {sup 63}Ni at levels necessary for the measurement of Cu samples exposed near the Hiroshima hypocenter. For the demonstration samples, the Cu content was chemically reduced by a factor of 10{sup 12} with quantitative retention of {sup 63}Ni. Detection sensitivity (3{sigma}) was {approximately}20 fg {sup 63}Ni in 1 mg Ni carrier ({sup 63}Ni/Ni {approx} 2 x 10{sup -11}). Significant improvements in sensitivity are expected with planned incremental changes in the methods. Preliminary results indicate that a similar sensitivity is achievable for {sup 59}Ni (t{sub 1/2} = 10{sup 5} y).

  14. Measurement of 63Ni and 59Ni by accelerator mass spectrometry using characteristic projectile X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAninch, J. E.; Hainsworth, L. J.; Marchetti, A. A.; Leivers, M. R.; Jones, P. R.; Dunlop, A. E.; Mauthe, R.; Vogel, J. S.; Proctor, I. D.; Straume, T.

    1997-03-01

    The long-lived isotopes of nickel (59Ni, 63Ni) have current and potential use in a number of applications including cosmic radiation studies, biomedical tracing, characterization of low-level radioactive wastes, and neutron dosimetry. Methods are being developed at LLNL for the routine detection of these isotopes by AMS. One intended application is in Hiroshima dosimetry. The reaction 63Cu(n,p)63Ni has been identified as one of a small number of reactions which might be used for the direct determination of the fast neutron fluence emitted by the Hiroshima bomb. AMS measurement of 63Ni (t{1}/{2} = 100 y) requires the chemical removal of 63Cu, which is a stable isobar of 63Ni. Following the electrochemical separation of Ni from gram-sized copper samples, the Cu concentration is further lowered to < 2 × 10-8 ({Cu}/{Ni}) using the reaction of Ni with carbon monoxide to form the gas Ni(CO)4. The Ni(CO)4 is thermally decomposed directly in sample holders for measurement by AMS. After analysis in the AMS spectrometer, the ions are identified using characteristic projectile X-rays, allowing further rejection of remaining 63Cu. In a demonstration experiment, 63Ni was measured in Cu wires (2-20 g) which had been exposed to neutrons from a 252Cf source. We successfully measured 63Ni at levels necessary for the measurement of Cu samples exposed near the Hiroshima hypocenter. For the demonstration samples, the Cu content was chemically reduced by a factor of 1012 with quantitative retention of 63Ni. Detection sensitivity (3σ) was ˜ 20 fg 63Ni in 1 mg Ni carrier ({63Ni}/{Ni} ≈ 2 × 10-11). Significant improvements in sensitivity are expected with planned incremental changes in the methods. Preliminary results indicate that a similar sensitivity is achievable for 59Ni (t{1}/{2} = 105 y). Initial work has been undertaken on the application of this isotope as a biomedical tracer in living systems.

  15. Spray forming of NiTi and NiTiPd shape-memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Ronald; Mabe, James; Ruggeri, Robert; Noebe, Ronald

    2008-03-01

    In the work to be presented, vacuum plasma spray forming has been used as a process to deposit and consolidate prealloyed NiTi and NiTiPd powders into near net shape actuators. Testing showed that excellent shape memory behavior could be developed in the deposited materials and the investigation proved that VPS forming could be a means to directly form a wide range of shape memory alloy components. The results of DSC characterization and actual actuation test results will be presented demonstrating the behavior of a Nitinol 55 alloy and a higher transition temperature NiTiPd alloy in the form of torque tube actuators that could be used in aircraft and aerospace controls.

  16. Spray Forming of NiTi and NiTiPd Shape-Memory Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mabe, James; Ruggeri, Robert; Noebe, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    In the work to be presented, vacuum plasma spray forming has been used as a process to deposit and consolidate prealloyed NiTi and NiTiPd powders into near net shape actuators. Testing showed that excellent shape memory behavior could be developed in the deposited materials and the investigation proved that VPS forming could be a means to directly form a wide range of shape memory alloy components. The results of DSC characterization and actual actuation test results will be presented demonstrating the behavior of a Nitinol 55 alloy and a higher transition temperature NiTiPd alloy in the form of torque tube actuators that could be used in aircraft and aerospace controls.

  17. Sorption properties of new composite materials suitable for radioanalytical determination of 59Ni and 63Ni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fišera, O.; Šebesta, F.

    2006-01-01

    Results of the study of new and cheaper composite materials for selective separation and radioanalytical determination of radionickel (59,63Ni) in radioactive waste are presented in this work. Chelating agents dimethylglyoxime (DMG) and diphenylglyoxime (DPG) as active components were immobilized in porous matrix of binding polymer polyacrylonitrile (PAN). Sorption properties of these materials were compared with commercial Ni Resin (Eichrom Technologies, USA). Weight distribution ratios, sorption kinetics and operating capacities were investigated during the experiments performed. The highest weight distribution ratios were found for the material DPG-PAN. The sorbent DMG-PAN has the highest operating capacity. The fastest kinetics of nickel sorption was determined for the Ni Resin. Elution of nickel with nitric acid solution allows subsequent and direct determination of radionickel by liquid scintillation counting.

  18. Local structure study of Fe dopants in Ni-deficit Ni3Al alloys

    DOE PAGESBeta

    V. N. Ivanovski; Umicevic, A.; Belosevic-Cavor, J.; Lei, Hechang; Li, Lijun; Cekic, B.; Koteski, V.; Petrovic, C.

    2015-08-24

    We found that the local electronic and magnetic structure, hyperfine interactions, and phase composition of polycrystalline Ni–deficient Ni 3-x FexAl (x = 0.18 and 0.36) were investigated by means of 57 Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. The samples were characterized by X–ray diffraction and magnetization measurements. The ab initio calculations performed with the projector augmented wave method and the calculations of the energies of iron point defects were done to elucidate the electronic structure and site preference of Fe doped Ni 3 Al. Moreover, the value of calculated electric field gradient tensor Vzz=1.6 1021Vm-2 matches well with the results of Mössbauer spectroscopymore » and indicates that the Fe atoms occupy Ni sites.« less

  19. Effect of metal ion concentration in Ni-W plating solution on surface roughness of Ni-W film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasui, Manabu; Kaneko, Satoru; Kurouchi, Masahito; Ito, Hiroaki; Ozawa, Takeshi; Arai, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Since nanopatterns are used for various purposes including solar cells, super-hydrophilicity, and biosensors, it is necessary to miniaturize the patterns on glass devices from micro- to nano-order. We have studied glass imprinting as an excellent microfabrication technology for glass devices. Uniformity of the nanopattern height is required for a mold, since a nodular structure on the Ni-W surface is recognized as a problem in Ni-W nanopattern formation. We confirmed that the Ni-W plating bath increasing metal ion concentration is effective for inhibition of the nodular structure on the Ni-W film, and succeeded in Ni-W nano pattern formation with uniform height. However, the W content rate of plated Ni-W film was reduced in exchange for enhancing the flatness of the Ni-W film. It is necessary to examine the Ni-W plating condition for obtaining planarization of the Ni-W surface and a high content rate of W in the Ni-W film.

  20. Ni adsorption and Ni-Al LDH precipitation in a sandy aquifer: an experimental and mechanistic modeling study.

    PubMed

    Regelink, Inge C; Temminghoff, Erwin J M

    2011-03-01

    Mining activities and industries have created nickel (Ni) contaminations in many parts of the world. The objective of this study is to increase our understanding of Ni adsorption and Nickel-Aluminium Layered Double Hydroxide (Ni-Al LDH) precipitation to reduce Ni mobility in a sandy soil aquifer. At pH ≥ 7.2 both adsorption and Ni-Al LDH precipitation occurred. In batch experiments with the sandy soil up to 70% of oxalate-extractable Al was taken up in LDH formation during 56 days. In a long term column experiment 99% of influent Ni was retained at pH 7.5 due to Ni adsorption (≈ 34%) and Ni-Al LDH precipitation (≈ 66%) based on mechanistic reactive transport modeling. The subsequent leaching at pH 6.5 could be largely attributed to desorption. Our results show that even in sandy aquifers with relatively low Al content, Ni-Al LDH precipitation is a promising mechanism to immobilize Ni. PMID:21186070

  1. Martensitic transformation of FeNi nanofilm induced by interfacial stress generated in FeNi/V nanomultilayered structure

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    FeNi/V nanomultilayered films with different V layer thicknesses were synthesized by magnetron sputtering. By adjusting the thickness of the V layer, different interfacial compressive stress were imposed on FeNi layers and the effect of interfacial stress on martensitic transformation of the FeNi film was investigated. Without insertion of V layers, the FeNi film exhibits a face-centered cubic (fcc) structure. With the thickness of V inserted layers up to 1.5 nm, under the coherent growth structure in FeNi/V nanomultilayered films, FeNi layers bear interfacial compressive stress due to the larger lattice parameter relative to V, which induces the martensitic transformation of the FeNi film. As the V layer thickness increases to 2.0 nm, V layers cannot keep the coherent growth structure with FeNi layers, leading to the disappearance of interfacial compressive stress and termination of the martensitic transformation in the FeNi film. The interfacial compressive stress-induced martensitic transformation of the FeNi nanofilm is verified through experiment. The method of imposing and modulating the interfacial stress through the epitaxial growth structure in the nanomultilayered films should be noticed and utilized. PMID:25232296

  2. NiO-Microflower Formed by Nanowire-weaving Nanosheets with Interconnected Ni-network Decoration as Supercapacitor Electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ci, Suqing; Wen, Zhenhai; Qian, Yuanyuan; Mao, Shun; Cui, Shumao; Chen, Junhong

    2015-07-01

    We propose a ‘weaving’ evolution mechanism, by systematically investigating the products obtained in controlled experiments, to demonstrate the formation of Ni-based ‘microflowers’ which consists of multiple characteristic dimensions, in which the three dimensional (3D) NiO ‘microflower’ is constructed by a two-dimensional (2D) nanosheet framework that is derived from weaving one-dimensional (1D) nanowires. We found such unique nanostructures are conducive for the generation of an electrically conductive Ni-network on the nanosheet surface after being exposed to a reducing atmosphere. Our study offers a promising strategy to address the intrinsic issue of poor electrical conductivity for NiO-based materials with significant enhancement of utilization of NiO active materials, leading to a remarkable improvement in the performance of the Ni-NiO microflower based supercapacitor. The optimized Ni-NiO microflower material showed a mass specific capacitance of 1,828 F g-1, and an energy density of 15.9 Wh kg-1 at a current density of 0.5 A g-1. This research not only contributes to understanding the formation mechanism of such ‘microflower’ structures but also offers a promising route to advance NiO based supercapacitor given their ease of synthesis, low cost, and long-term stability.

  3. Fabrication and catalytic activity of FeNi@Ni nanocables for the reduction of p-nitrophenol.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Linyi; Wen, Ming; Wu, Qingsheng; Wu, Dandan

    2014-06-01

    Magnetic FeNi@Ni nanocables were prepared as a superior recyclable catalyst towards the hydrogenation reduction of p-nitrophenol to p-aminophenol through a two-step tunable assembly process in a solvothermal system. The proposed fabrication mechanism was verified through characterization by SEM, TEM, XRD, XPS, and UV-Vis. The as-prepared FeNi@Ni nanocomposites are core-shell-structured nanocables with Ni nanoparticles (NPs) attached on FeNi nanorods (NRs) surface loosely. The catalytic reactivity monitored by means of a UV-vis dynamic process shows FeNi@Ni nanocables can catalyse the transformation of p-nitrophenol to p-aminophenol completely under an ambient atmosphere at room temperature, and enable the catalysis to be more efficient than its counterparts FeNi NRs and Ni NPs due to the interfacial synergistic effect. Additionally, the resultant hierarchical metal-alloy nanocomposites possess ferromagnetic behaviour, and can be easily separated and recycled by an external magnet field for application. PMID:24714959

  4. Dealloying NiCo and NiCoCu Alloy Thin Films Using Linear Sweep Voltammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peecher, Benjamin; Hampton, Jennifer

    When electrodeposited into thin films, metals have well-known electrochemical potentials at which they will be removed from the film. These potential differences can be utilized to re-oxidize only certain metals in an alloy, altering the film's structure and composition. Here we discuss NiCo and NiCoCu thin films' response to linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) as a means of electrochemical dealloying. For each of four different metal ratios, films were dealloyed to various potentials in order to gain insight into the evolution of the film over the course of the LSV. Capacitance, topography, and composition were examined for each sample before and after linear sweep voltammetry was performed. For NiCo films with high percentages of Ni, dealloying resulted in almost no change in composition, but did result in an increased capacitance, with greater increases occurring at higher LSV potentials. Dealloying also resulted in the appearance of large (100-1000 nm) pores on the surface of the film. For NiCoCu films with high percentages of Ni, Cu was almost completely removed from the film at LSV potentials greater than 500 mV. The LSV first removed larger copper-rich dendrites from the film's surface before creating numerous nano-pores, resulting in a net increase in area. This work is supported by an Award to Hope College from the HHMI Undergraduate Science Education Program, the Hope College Department of Physics Frissel Research Fund, and the National Science Foundation under Grants RUI-DMR-1104725 and MRI-CHE-0959282.

  5. Novel gold nanocluster electrochemiluminescence immunosensors based on nanoporous NiGd-Ni2O3-Gd2O3 alloys.

    PubMed

    Lv, Xiaohui; Ma, Hongmin; Wu, Dan; Yan, Tao; Ji, Lei; Liu, Yixin; Pang, Xuehui; Du, Bin; Wei, Qin

    2016-01-15

    Herein, three-dimensional nanoporous NiGd alloy (NP-NiGd) was prepared by selectively dealloy Al from NiGdAl alloy in mild alkaline solution, then Ni2O3 and Gd2O3 grew further on the surface of NP-NiGd to obtain the NP-NiGd-Ni2O3-Gd2O3. On this basis, NP-NiGd-Ni2O3-Gd2O3 was further functionalized with gold nanoparticles (NP-NiGd-Ni2O3-Gd2O3@Au) and acted as sensor platform to fabricate a novel electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunosensor. Bovine serum albumin protected gold nanoclusters (AuNCs@BSA) were prepared and acted as illuminant. AuNCs@BSA modified graphene oxide (GO/AuNCs@BSA) were used as labels of second antibody. In order to characterize the performance of the ECL immunosensor, carcino embryonie antigen (CEA) was used as the model to complete the experiments. Due to the good performances of NP-NiGd-Ni2O3-Gd2O3@Au (high surface area, excellent electron conductivity) and AuNCs@BSA (low toxicity, biocompatibility, easy preparation and good water solubility), the ECL immunosensor exhibited a wide range from 10(-4) to 5ng/mL with a detection limit of 0.03pg/mL (S/N=3). The immunosensor with excellent stability, acceptable repeatability and selectivity provided a promising method to detect CEA in human serum sample sensitively. PMID:26318782

  6. NiW and NiRu Bimetallic Catalysts for Ethylene Steam Reforming: Alternative Mechanisms for Sulfur Resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Rangan, M.; Yung, M. M.; Medlin, J. W.

    2012-06-01

    Previous investigations of Ni-based catalysts for the steam reforming of hydrocarbons have indicated that the addition of a second metal can reduce the effects of sulfur poisoning. Two systems that have previously shown promise for such applications, NiW and NiRu, are considered here for the steam reforming of ethylene, a key component of biomass derived tars. Monometallic and bimetallic Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-supported Ni and W catalysts were employed for ethylene steam reforming in the presence and absence of sulfur. The NiW catalysts were less active than Ni in the absence of sulfur, but were more active in the presence of 50 ppm H{sub 2}S. The mechanism for the W-induced improvements in sulfur resistance appears to be different from that for Ru in NiRu. To probe reasons for the sulfur resistance of NiRu, the adsorption of S and C{sub 2}H{sub 4} on several bimetallic NiRu alloy surfaces ranging from 11 to 33 % Ru was studied using density functional theory (DFT). The DFT studies reveal that sulfur adsorption is generally favored on hollow sites containing Ru. Ethylene preferentially adsorbs atop the Ru atom in all the NiRu (111) alloys investigated. By comparing trends across the various bimetallic models considered, sulfur adsorption was observed to be correlated with the density of occupied states near the Fermi level while C{sub 2}H{sub 4} adsorption was correlated with the number of unoccupied states in the d-band. The diverging mechanisms for S and C{sub 2}H{sub 4} adsorption allow for bimetallic surfaces such as NiRu that enhance ethylene binding without accompanying increases in sulfur binding energy. In contrast, bimetallics such as NiSn and NiW appear to decrease the affinity of the surface for both the reagent and the poison.

  7. High areal capacitance three-dimensional Ni@Ni(OH)2 foams via in situ oxidizing Ni foams in mild aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Qingfeng; Cui, Mangwei; Tao, Keyu; Yang, Yongzhen; Liu, Xuguang; Kang, Litao

    2016-03-01

    In this work, commercial Ni foams are directly oxidized into Ni@Ni(OH)2 foams in a mild NH4NO3 solution at 80 °C. When used as binder-free electrodes, these Ni@Ni(OH)2 electrodes demonstrate a high areal capacitance of 6.4 F/cm2 at a current density of 2.5 mA/cm2, or 1.62 F/cm2 at a high current density of 30 mA/cm2. Nevertheless, they show a poor cycling ability with 70.4% (or 42%) capacitance retention after 2000 (or 5000) cycles at 30 mA/cm2. This kind of electrodes has a promising application in low-cost, high-performance supercapacitor, if an effective strategy is found to improve their cycling ability.

  8. Temperature-induced sign change of the magnetic interlayer coupling in Ni/Ni25Mn75/Ni trilayers on Cu3Au(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shokr, Y. A.; Erkovan, M.; Wu, C.-B.; Zhang, B.; Sandig, O.; Kuch, W.

    2015-05-01

    We investigated the magnetic interlayer coupling between two ferromagnetic (FM) Ni layers through an antiferromagnetic (AFM) Ni25Mn75 layer and the influence of this coupling on the exchange bias phenomenon. The interlayer coupling energy of an epitaxial trilayer of 14 atomic monolayers (ML) Ni/45 ML Ni25Mn75/16 ML Ni on Cu3Au(001) was extracted from minor-loop magnetization measurements using in-situ magneto-optical Kerr effect. The interlayer coupling changes from ferromagnetic to antiferromagnetic when the temperature is increased above 300 K. This sign change is interpreted as the result of the competition between an antiparallel Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY)-type interlayer coupling, which dominates at high temperature, and a stronger direct exchange coupling across the AFM layer, which is present only below the Néel temperature of the AFM layer.

  9. Gate-tunable large negative tunnel magnetoresistance in Ni-C60-Ni single molecule transistors.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kenji; Hamada, Ikutaro; Sakata, Shuichi; Umeno, Akinori; Tsukada, Masaru; Hirakawa, Kazuhiko

    2013-02-13

    We have fabricated single C(60) molecule transistors with ferromagnetic Ni leads (FM-SMTs) by using an electrical break junction method and investigated their magnetotransport. The FM-SMTs exhibited clear gate-dependent hysteretic tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) and the TMR values reached as high as -80%. The polarity of the TMR was found to be always negative over the entire bias range studied here. Density functional theory calculations show that hybridization between the Ni substrate states and the C(60) molecular orbitals generates an antiferromagnetic configuration in the local density of states near the Fermi level, which gives a reasonable explanation for the observed negative TMR. PMID:23327475

  10. Transmutation-induced embrittlement of V-Ti-Ni and V-Ni alloys in HFIR

    SciTech Connect

    Ohnuki, S.; Takahashi, H.; Garner, F.A.; Pawel, J.E.

    1996-04-01

    Vanadium, V-1Ni, V-10Ti and V-10Ti-1Ni (at %) were irradiated in HFIR to doses ranging from 18 to 30 dpa and temperatures between 300 and 600C. Since the irradiation was conducted in a highly thermalized neutron spectrum without shielding against thermal neutrons, significant levels of chromium (15-22%) were formed by transmutation. The addition of such large chromium levels strongly elevated the ductile to brittle transition temperature. At higher irradiation temperatures radiation-induced segregation of transmutant Cr and solute Ti at specimen surfaces leads to strong increases in the density of the alloy.

  11. Study of surfactant mediated growth of Ni/V superlattices

    SciTech Connect

    Amir, S. M.; Gupta, Mukul; Potdar, Satish; Gupta, Ajay; Stahn, Jochen

    2013-07-14

    The Ni/V multilayers are useful as soft x-ray mirrors, polarizers, and phase retarders. For these applications, it is necessary that the interfaces roughness and interdiffusion must be as small as possible. The V-on-Ni and Ni-on-V interfaces are asymmetric due to the difference in the surface free energy of Ni and V. In this work, we report Ag surfactant mediated growth of Ni/V superlattices prepared using ion beam sputter deposition technique. These superlattices were studied using x-ray and neutron scattering techniques. It was found that when added in an optimum amount, Ag surfactant results in reduced interface roughness and interdiffusion across the interfaces. Obtained results can be understood with the surfactant floating-off mechanism leading to a balance in the surface free energy of Ni and V.

  12. Resistance Switching Behavior in Epitaxially Grown NiO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. R.; Bak, J. H.; Park, Y. D.; Char, K.; Kim, D. C.; Jung, R.; Seo, S.; Li, X. S.; Park, G.-S.; Yoo, I. K.

    2008-03-01

    Reproducible resistance switching behavior has been found in NiO films prepared by a pulsed laser deposition system. The I-V measurements of epitaixally grown NiO on SrRuO3 electrode show a bipolar resistive memory switching behavior, in contrast with a unipolar switching behavior of polycrystalline NiO on Pt electrode. In order to understand the resistive memory switching mechanism in NiO, the I-V characteristics and memory switching property of epitaxial NiO prepared under various synthesis conditions and electrodes has been investigated. The IV measurements at room temperature suggest that the interface between NiO and the electrode plays an important role on the resistive switching phenomena. To analyze the role of the interface, our efforts to control the interfaces and to measure the I-V characteristics at low temperature will be presented.

  13. Model study of CO inhibition of [NiFe]hydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Takahiro; Kabe, Ryota; Nonaka, Kyoshiro; Ando, Tatsuya; Yoon, Ki-Seok; Nakai, Hidetaka; Ogo, Seiji

    2011-09-19

    We propose a modified mechanism for the inhibition of [NiFe]hydrogenase ([NiFe]H(2)ase) by CO. We present a model study, using a NiRu H(2)ase mimic, that demonstrates that (i) CO completely inhibits the catalytic cycle of the model compound, (ii) CO prefers to coordinate to the Ru(II) center rather than taking an axial position on the Ni(II) center, and (iii) CO is unable to displace a hydrido ligand from the NiRu center. We combine these studies with a reevaluation of previous studies to propose that, under normal circumstances, CO inhibits [NiFe]H(2)ase by complexing to the Fe(II) center. PMID:21853978

  14. Enhanced diffusion welding of TD-NiCr sheet.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holko, K. H.; Moore, T. J.

    1972-01-01

    A method termed 'enhanced diffusion welding' has been developed to produce solid-state welds in TD-NiCr (Ni-20Cr-2ThO2) alloy sheet with weld strengths of 100% of the parent metal strength. Diffusion welded joints were made in specially processed TD-NiCr that equaled the tensile-shear and creep-rupture shear strengths of the parent material at 1090 deg C. The following observations have been made: specially processed TD-NiCr is preferred over commercial TD-NiCr for diffusion welding; the weld line can be eliminated when joining specially processed TD-NiCr by 600-grit sanding and electropolishing the faying surfaces prior to welding; and, a two-step weld cycle is preferred for diffusion welding of this alloy.

  15. Facile in situ synthesis of hierarchical porous Ni/Ni(OH)₂ hybrid sponges with excellent electrochemical energy-storage performances for supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wanren; Wang, Wenhua; Wang, Mengjiao; Guo, Xiaohui

    2014-09-01

    Herein, we report the in situ growth of single-crystalline Ni(OH)2 nanoflakes on a Ni support by using facile hydrothermal processes. The as-prepared Ni/Ni(OH)2 sponges were well-characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), SEM, TEM, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques. The results revealed that the nickel-skeleton-supported Ni(OH)2 rope-like aggregates were composed of numerous intercrossed single-crystal Ni(OH)2 flake-like units. The Ni/Ni(OH)2 hybrid sponges served as electrodes and displayed ultrahigh specific capacitance (SC=3247 F g(-1)) and excellent rate-capability performance, likely owing to fast electron and ion transport, sufficient Faradic redox reaction, and robust structural integrity of the Ni/Ni(OH)2 hybrid electrode. These results support the promising application of Ni(OH)2 nanoflakes as advanced pseudocapacitor materials. PMID:25048538

  16. NiAl-based Polyphase in situ Composites in the NiAl-Ta-X (X = Cr, Mo, or V) Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D. R.; Oliver, B. F.; Noebe, R. D.; Whittenberger, J. D.

    1995-01-01

    Polyphase in situ composites were generated by directional solidification of ternary eutectics. This work was performed to discover if a balance of properties could be produced by combining the NiAl-Laves phase and the NiAl-refractory metal phase eutectics. The systems investigated were the Ni-Al-Ta-X (X = Cr, Mo, or V) alloys. Ternary eutectics were found in each of these systems and the eutectic composition, temperature, and morphology were determined. The ternary eutectic systems examined were the NiAl-NiAlTa-(Mo, Ta), NiAl-(Cr, Al) NiTa-Cr, and the NiAl-NiAlTa-V systems. Each eutectic consists of NiAl, a C14 Laves phase, and a refractory metal phase. Directional solidification was performed by containerless processing techniques in a levitation zone refiner to minimize alloy contamination. Room temperature fracture toughness of these materials was determined by a four-point bend test. Preliminary creep behavior was determined by compression tests at elevated temperatures, 1100-l400 K. Of the ternary eutectics, the one in the NiAl-Ta-Cr system was found to be the most promising. The fracture toughness of the NiAl-(Cr, Al)NiTa-Cr eutectic was intermediate between the values of the NiAl-NiAlTa eutectic and the NiAl-Cr eutectic. The creep strength of this ternary eutectic was similar to or greater than that of the NiAl-Cr eutectic.

  17. Enhanced Noble Gas Adsorption in Ag@MOF-74Ni

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jian; Strachan, Denis M.; Thallapally, Praveen K.

    2014-01-14

    Various amounts of Ag nanoparticles were successfully deposited in porous MOF-74Ni (or Ni/DOBDC) with an auto-reduction method. An optimized silver-loaded MOF-74Ni was shown to have an improved Xe adsorption capacity (15% more) at STP compared to the MOF without silver nanoparticles. The silver-loaded sample also has a higher Xe/Kr selectivity. These results are explained by the stronger interactions between polarizable Xe molecules and the well-dispersed Ag nanoparticles.

  18. Multicoloured electrochromic thin films of NiO/PANI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonavane, A. C.; Inamdar, A. I.; Deshmukh, H. P.; Patil, P. S.

    2010-08-01

    NiO/polyaniline (PANI) thin films have been prepared by a two-step process. NiO thin films were electrodeposited from an aqueous solution of NiCl2 · 6H2O at pH 7.5 on fluorine-doped tin oxide coated glass substrates and a layer of PANI was formed on NiO thin films by chemical bath deposition. The films were characterized for their structural, optical, morphological and electrochromic properties. X-ray diffraction and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy indicated the formation of NiO and PANI, in which NiO is of cubic structure. Scanning electron micrographs represent porous granular NiO, which get uniformly carpeted with PANI, leading to a matty morphology of NiO/PANI samples. The electrochromic performance of NiO/PANI films has been studied using cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry over the -1.2 to +2.2 V (versus saturated calomel electrode (SCE)) potential window in 1M LiClO4 + propylene carbonate. The NiO/PANI films exhibit electrochromism with colour that changes from pale yellow (leucoemeraldine base at -0.7 V versus SCE) to dark green (emeraldine salt at 0.4 V versus SCE) to purple (pernigraniline at 0.8 V versus SCE) in the reduced states and dark blue (nigraniline at 0.5 V versus SCE) to dark green (emeraldine salt at 0.1 V versus SCE) to light green (photoemeraldine at -0.3 V versus SCE) in its oxidized states. These colours, though akin to pure PANI, have higher contrast, high speed of operation and high stability, owing to the properties of NiO. The colouration efficiency of the NiO/PANI film was estimated to be 85 cm2 C-1.

  19. Conducting Ni nanoparticles in an ion-modified polymer

    SciTech Connect

    Sze, J.Y.; Tay, B.K.; Pakes, C.I.; Jamieson, D.N.; Prawer, S.

    2005-09-15

    Conductive-atomic force microscopy has been used to perform nanoscale current imaging of Ni-ion-implanted polythylene terephthlate films. A reduction in bulk sheet resistivity, as the Ni dose is increased, is found to be accompanied by an evolution in local conductivity from a spatially homogeneous insulator to an interconnected network of conducting Ni crystallites. The crystallites have a mean dimension of 12.3 nm, confirmed by x-ray-diffraction analysis.

  20. Euhedral metallic-Fe-Ni grains in extraterrestrial samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, Alan E.

    1993-01-01

    Metallic Fe-Ni is rare in terrestrial rocks, being largely restricted to serpentinized peridotites and volcanic rocks that assimilated carbonaceous material. In contrast, metallic Fe-Ni is nearly ubiquitous among extraterrestrial samples (i.e., meteorites, lunar rocks, and interplanetary dust particles). Anhedral grains are common. For example, in eucrites and lunar basalts, most of the metallic Fe-Ni occurs interstitially between silicate grains and thus tends to have irregular morphologies. In many porphyritic chondrules, metallic Fe-Ni and troilite form rounded blebs in the mesostasis because their precursors were immiscible droplets. In metamorphosed ordinary chondrites, metallic Fe-Ni and troilite form coarse anhedral grains. Some of the metallic Fe-Ni and troilite grains has also been mobilized and injected into fractures in adjacent silicate grains where local shock-reheating temperatures reached the Fe-FeS eutectic (988 C). In interplanetary dust particles metallic Fe-Ni most commonly occurs along with sulfide as spheroids and fragments. Euhedral metallic Fe-Ni grains are extremely rare. Several conditions must be met before such grains can form: (1) grain growth must occur at free surfaces, restricting euhedral metallic Fe-Ni grains to systems that are igneous or undergoing vapor-deposition; (2) the metal (+/-) sulfide assemblage must have an appropriate bulk composition so that taenite is the liquidus phase in igneous systems or the stable condensate phase in vapor-deposition systems; and (3) metallic Fe-Ni grains must remain underformed during subsequent compaction, thermal metamorphism, and shock. Because of these restrictions, the occurrence of euhedral metallic Fe-Ni grains in an object can potentially provide important petrogenetic information. Despite its rarity, euhedral metallic Fe-Ni occurs in a wide variety of extraterrestrial materials. Some of these materials formed in the solar nebula; others formed on parent body surfaces by meteoroid

  1. An Exploration of Catalytic Chemistry on Au/Ni(111)

    SciTech Connect

    Sylvia T. Ceyer

    2011-12-09

    This project explored the catalytic oxidation chemistry that can be effected on a Au/Ni(111) surface alloy. A Au/Ni(111) surface alloy is a Ni(111) surface on which less than 60% of the Ni atoms are replaced at random positions by Au atoms. The alloy is produced by vapor deposition of a small amount of Au onto Ni single crystals. The Au atoms do not result in an epitaxial Au overlayer or in the condensation of the Au into droplets. Instead, Au atoms displace and then replace Ni atoms on a Ni(111) surface, even though Au is immiscible in bulk Ni. The two dimensional structure of the clean Ni surface is preserved. This alloy is found to stabilize an adsorbed peroxo-like O2 species that is shown to be the critical reactant in the low temperature catalytic oxidation of CO and that is suspected to be the critical reactant in other oxidation reactions. This investigation revealed a new, practically important catalyst for CO oxidation that has since been patented.

  2. The combustion synthesis of Ni-Ti shape memory alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J.J.; Yi, H.C. )

    1990-08-01

    Combustion synthesis of Ni-Ti-series shape-memory alloys yields both time and energy savings over conventional production methods. The solidified combustion synthesis process products have been cold-rolled into plates which exhibit the shape-memory effect, and it was noted that shape-memory transition temperatures may be tailored over a -78 to 460 C temperature range through the substitution of a third element for Ni; this element may be Pd or Fe. Accounts are given of the experimental combustion syntheses of Ni-Ti-Fe and Ti-Ni-Pd. 24 refs.

  3. Mechanisms of Formation and Transformation of Ni-Fe Hydroxycarbonates

    SciTech Connect

    Refait, Ph.; Jeannin, M.; Reffass, M.; Drissi, S.H.; Abdelmoula, M.; Genin, J.-M.R.

    2005-04-26

    The mechanisms of the transformation of (Ni,Fe)(OH)2 precipitates in carbonated aqueous solutions were studied. The reactions were monitored by measuring the redox potential of the aqueous suspension, and end products were studied by Moessbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The oxidation processes were compared to those occurring without Ni, that is when the initial hydroxide is Fe(OH)2. Schematically, the oxidation of Fe(OH)2 involves two intermediate compounds, the carbonated GR of formula Fe{sup II}{sub 4}Fe{sup III}{sub 2}(OH){sub 12}CO{sub 3} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O, and ferrihydrite, before to lead finally to goethite {alpha}-FeOOH. It proved possible to prepare Ni(II)-Fe(III) hydroxycarbonates with ratios Fe/Ni from 1/6 to 1/3. When the Fe/Ni ratio is larger than 1/3, a two stage oxidation process takes place. The first stage leads to a Ni(II)-Fe(II)-Fe(III) hydroxycarbonate. The second stage corresponds to the oxidation of the Fe(II) remaining inside the hydroxycarbonate and leads to a mixture of Ni(II)-Fe(III) hydroxycarbonate with ferrihydrite. The main effect of Ni is then to stop the reaction at an intermediate stage, as Ni(II) is not oxidised by O2, leaving unchanged the main features of the mechanisms of transformation.

  4. High-performance Ni3Al synthesized from composite powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiou, Wen-Chih; Hu, Chen-Ti

    1994-05-01

    Specimens of Ni3Al + B of high density (>99.3 Pct RD) and relatively large dimension have been synthesized from composite powders through processes of replacing plating and electroless Ni-B plating on Al powder, sintering, and thermal-mechanical treatment. The uniformly coated Ni layer over fine Al or Ni core particles constituting these coating/core composite powders has advantages such as better resistance to oxidation relative to pure Al powder, a greater green density as a compacted powder than prealloyed powder, the possibility of atomically added B to the material by careful choice of a suitable plating solution, and avoidance of the expensive powder metallurgy (PM) equipment such as a hot isostatic press (HIP), hot press (HP), etc. The final Ni3Al + B product is made from Ni-B-Al and Ni-B-Ni mixed composite powders by means of traditional PM processes such as compacting, sintering, rolling, and annealing, and therefore, the dimensions of the product are not constrained by the capacity of an HIP or HP. The properties of Ni3Al composite powder metallurgy (CPM) specimens tested at room temperature have been obtained, and comparison with previous reports is conducted. A tensile elongation of about 16 Pct at room temperature was attained.

  5. Cation distribution and mixing thermodynamics in Fe/Ni thiospinels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haider, Saima; Grau-Crespo, Ricardo; Devey, Antony J.; de Leeuw, Nora H.

    2012-07-01

    The structural analogy between Ni-doped greigite minerals (Fe3S4) and the (Fe, Ni)S clusters present in biological enzymes has led to suggestions that these minerals could have acted as catalysts for the origin of life. However, little is known about the distribution and stability of Ni dopants in the greigite structure. We present here a theoretical investigation of mixed thiospinels (Fe1-xNix)3S4, using a combination of density functional theory (DFT) calculations and Monte Carlo simulations. We find that the equilibrium distribution of the cations deviates significantly from a random distribution: at low Ni concentrations, Ni dopants are preferably located in octahedral sites, while at higher Ni concentrations the tetrahedral sites become much more favourable. The thermodynamic mixing behaviour between greigite and polydymite (Ni3S4) is dominated by the stability field of violarite (FeNi2S4), for which the mixing enthalpy exhibits a deep negative minimum. The analysis of the free energy of mixing shows that Ni doping of greigite is very unstable with respect to the formation of a separate violarite phase. The calculated variation of the cubic cell parameter with composition is found to be non-linear, exhibiting significant deviation from Vegard’s law, but in agreement with experiment.

  6. Binuclear complexes of Ni(I) from 4-terphenyldithiophenol.

    PubMed

    Koch, Felix; Schubert, Hartmut; Sirsch, Peter; Berkefeld, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    Binuclear complexes of Ni(i) have been prepared from a 4-terphenyldithiophenol ligand. Steric effects were found to determine the formation of coordination isomeric structures that differ in the nature of metal-to-ligand bonding. Coordination of spatially demanding phosphine ligands PR3, R = C6H6, C6H11, at nickel sites results in a butterfly shaped thiolate-bridged Ni2(μ-S)2 motif. For smaller PMe3, the central π-system of the 4-terphenyl backbone adopts a bis-allyl like μ-syn-η(3):η(3)-C6H4 structure due to significant d-π* Ni(i)-to-ligand charge transfer. Delocalisation indices δ(Ni-Ni) derived from DFT calculations provide a metric to assess the strength of electronic coupling of the Ni sites based on solid state structural data, and indicated less strong electronic coupling for the bis-allyl like structure with δ(Ni-Ni) = 0.225 as compared to 0.548 for the Ni2(μ-S)2 structural motif. A qualitative reactivity study toward CNCH3 as an auxiliary ligand has provided the first insight into the chemical properties of the bimetallic complexes presented. PMID:26130424

  7. Shock induced reaction of Ni/Al nanopowder mixture.

    PubMed

    Meng, C M; Wei, J J; Chen, Q Y

    2012-11-01

    Nanopowder Ni/Al mixture (mixed in Al:Ni = 2:1 stoichiometry) was shock compressed by employing single and two-stage light gas gun. The particle size of Al and Ni are 100-200 nm and 50-70 nm respectively, morphologies of Al and Ni are sphere like either. Recovered product was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. According to the XRD spectrum, the mixed powder undergo complete reaction under shock compression, reaction product consist of Ni2Al3, NiAl and corundum structure Al2O3 compound. Grain size of Ni-Al compound is less than 100 nm. With the shock pressure increasing, the ratio of Ni2Al3 decreased obviously. The corundum crystal size is 400-500 nm according to the SEM observation. The results of shock recovery experiments and analysis show that the threshold pressure for reaction of nano size powder Ni/Al mixture is much less than that of micro size powder. PMID:23421276

  8. Ni-WC/C nanocluster catalysts for urea electrooxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lu; Li, Mingtao; Huang, Zhiyu; Li, Yingming; Qi, Suitao; Yi, Chunhai; Yang, Bolun

    2014-10-01

    A nanocluster Ni-WC/C electrocatalyst is prepared through a sequential impregnation method and is used for the urea electrooxidation in alkaline conditions. The micro-morphology, lattice parameter, composition and surface states of Ni-WC/C particles are determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS) analysis. The electrooxidation activity and stability of the Ni-WC/C catalyst are also investigated by cyclic voltammograms and chronoamperograms. Characterization results indicate that the Ni nanoclusters are uniformly distributed on the WC/C framework, and the Ni-WC/C catalyst shows high electrocatalytic activity and stability for urea electrooxidation. The maximum current density at the Ni-WC/C electrode is almost 700 mA cm-2 mg-1 which is one order of magnitude higher than that at the Ni/C electrode, and the steady current density at the Ni-WC/C electrode is also markedly improved. Furthermore, the ESA values and XPS spectra indicate that the enhanced performance of the Ni-WC/C catalyst could be attributed to the structure effect and electron effect between nickel and tungsten carbide.

  9. Phase transformation controlled tetragonality of MnNi-based nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Jian; Dai, Qilin; Ren, Shenqiang

    2016-03-01

    The phase transformation controlled tetragonality of MnNi nanostructures has attracted wide interest for their shape memory effect. In this study, MnNi nanocrystals were selected to epitaxially grow an FeCo shell, where the antiferromagnetic L10 phase transformation of the MnNi core triggers the tetragonal distortion in the magnetically soft FeCo shell. The tetragonality change of L10 MnNi under thermal annealing enables the control of the tetragonality of the FeCo phase, ultimately increasing magnetocrystalline anisotropy and coercivity. This study opens up a new route to fabricate functional nanostructures with unique magnetic properties.

  10. Substrate dependent ultrafast dynamics in thin NiFe films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosco, C. A. C.; Azevedo, A.; Acioli, L. H.

    2003-09-01

    We have studied the ultrafast electronic response of thin NiFe films by femtosecond transient reflectivity measurements. The experiments were performed on films with varying thicknesses, substrates, and pump fluences. It has been observed that for high excitation densities the electron cooling time depends strongly on the nature of the underlying substrate and we attribute our results to transport of hot carriers out of the excited region. In particular, we have observed that for NiFe over NiO, carrier transport should be less important than for NiFe over Si.

  11. Ni cycling in mangrove sediments from New Caledonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noël, Vincent; Morin, Guillaume; Juillot, Farid; Marchand, Cyril; Brest, Jessica; Bargar, John R.; Muñoz, Manuel; Marakovic, Grégory; Ardo, Sandy; Brown, Gordon E.

    2015-11-01

    Covering more than 70% of tropical and subtropical coastlines, mangrove intertidal forests are well known to accumulate potentially toxic trace metals in their sediments, and thus are generally considered to play a protective role in marine and lagoon ecosystems. However, the chemical forms of these trace metals in mangrove sediments are still not well known, even though their molecular-level speciation controls their long-term behavior. Here we report the vertical and lateral changes in the chemical forms of nickel, which accumulates massively in mangrove sediments downstream from lateritized ultramafic deposits from New Caledonia, where one of nature's largest accumulations of nickel occurs. To accomplish this we used Ni K-edge Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy data in combination with microscale chemical analyses using Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDXS). After Principal Component and Target Transform analyses (PCA-TT), the EXAFS data of the mangrove sediments were reliably least-squares fitted by linear combination of 3-components chosen from a large model compound spectral database including synthetic and natural Ni-bearing sulfides, clay minerals, oxyhydroxides, and organic complexes. Our results show that in the inland salt flat Ni is hosted in minerals inherited from the eroded lateritic materials, i.e. Ni-poor serpentine (44-58%), Ni-rich talc (20-31%), and Ni-goethite (18-24%). In contrast, in the hydromorphic sediments beneath the vegetated Avicennia and Rhizophora stands, a large fraction of Ni is partly redistributed into a neoformed smectite pool (20-69% of Ni-montmorillonite), and Ni speciation significantly changes with depth in the sediment. Indeed, Ni-rich talc (25-56%) and Ni-goethite (15-23%) disappear below ∼15 cm depth in the sediment and are replaced by Ni-sorbed pyrite (23-52%) in redox-active intermediate depth layers and by pyrite (34-55%) in the deepest

  12. Point defects in the NiAl(100) surface.

    PubMed

    Lerch, D; Dössel, K; Hammer, L; Müller, S

    2009-04-01

    The stability of various point defects in NiAl(100) has been investigated by first-principles calculations. For Al-rich surfaces, Ni vacancies within the first Al layer are energetically most favourable. For Ni-rich surfaces, so-called double defects, consisting of both Ni-antisite atom in the first Al layer and a Ni vacancy within the second Ni layer, form the configuration of lowest energy, superior to singular Ni antisites. An additional and significant energy gain is found in both cases by mutual lateral interaction of the defects, when they are arranged in the diagonal direction. Respective [Formula: see text] ordered configurations were found as the most stable structures. A 50:50 mixture of both defect types turns out to be even lower in energy than the ideal Al-terminated NiAl(100) surface, proving the latter to be metastable only. This is in line with the often reported inability in experiments to prepare ideal NiAl(100) surfaces. PMID:21817482

  13. Annealing effect of ultrathin Ag films on Ni /Pt(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, C. W.; Yo, H. Y.; Chen, Y. J.; Shern, C. S.

    2005-06-01

    The epitaxial growth and alloy formation of Ag-capped layer on Ni /Pt(111) surface were investigated using Auger electron spectroscopy, ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, and low-energy electron diffraction. The growth of Ag on one ML Ni /Pt(111) transforms from layer-by-layer mode into three-dimensional island mode after the growth of one atomic monolayer of Ag. The starting temperature for the alloy formation of Ni-Pt is dependent of the thickness of Ni films. The interface compositions after the high-temperature annealing were studied with the depth-profile analysis of Ar ion sputtering.

  14. Boron-modified Ni3Al intermetallic compound formed by spark plasma sintering of mechanically activated Ni and Al powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevtsova, L. I.; Ogneva, T. S.; Mul, D. O.; Esikov, M. A.; Larichkin, A. Yu; Malikov, V. N.

    2016-04-01

    A Ni3Al intermetallic compound was obtained by spark plasma sintering of mechanically activated Ni and Al powders in atomic ratio 3:1 respectively. Samples with boron addition of 0.1 and 0.2% (wt.) and samples without boron were obtained. The maximum value of the relative density (~99 %) has been obtained for the material by sintering of mechanically activated mixture powders modified with 0.1% of boron. No differences have been found between the structure of boron-modified Ni3Al and Ni3Al without boron addition. The maximum level of bending strength (2200 MPa) has been achieved for Ni3Al with 0.1% (wt.) of boron. This value is almost 3 times the bending strength of the sample of Ni3Al sintered without boron addition.

  15. Synthesis of NiO nanowalls by thermal treatment of Ni film deposited onto a stainless steel substrate.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kaili; Rossi, Carole; Alphonse, Pierre; Tenailleau, Christophe

    2008-04-16

    Two-dimensional nanostructures have a variety of applications due to their large surface areas. In this study, the authors present a simple and convenient method to realize two-dimensional NiO nanowalls by thermal treatment of a Ni thin film deposited by sputtering onto a stainless steel substrate. The substrate surface area is supposed to be significantly increased by creating nanowalls. The effects on the nanowall morphology of the thermal treatment temperature and duration are investigated. A mechanism based on the surface diffusion of Ni(2+) ions from the Ni base film is then proposed for the growth of the NiO nanowalls. The as-synthesized NiO nanowalls are characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray analysis, x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. PMID:21825619

  16. Influence of Ni/Co molar ratio on electromagnetic properties and microwave absorption performances for Ni/Co paraffin composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, S. J.; Dai, S. L.; Ding, H. Y.; Wang, Z. Y.; Liu, D. B.

    2014-05-01

    Ni and Co metallic microparticles with submicron size were synthesized with a simple wet chemical reduction method at a relatively low temperature. Then their morphologies and structures were characterized by SEM and XRD. Ni metallic microparticles have spherical-shape morphology with fcc crystalline structure, however, Co has a distinct leaf-like morphology with the fcc and hcp mixed phases crystalline structures. For the characterization of their electromagnetic properties, paraffin matrix composites containing different molar ratio Ni and Co mixture powder as fillers were prepared. It was found that both the electromagnetic properties and electromagnetic microwave absorption performances of absorber layer were remarkably influenced by Ni/Co molar ratio. The electromagnetic microwave absorption performances were significantly improved by blending Ni and Co metallic microparticles into paraffin matrix with changing Ni/Co molar ratio, and enhanced mechanism were discussed.

  17. Process development for Ni-Cr-ThO2 and Ni-Cr-Al-ThO2 sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, R. C.; Norris, L. F.

    1973-01-01

    A process was developed for the production of thin gauge Ni-Cr-ThO2 sheet. The process was based on the elevated temperature deposition of chromium onto a wrought Ni-2%ThO2 sheet and subsequent high temperature diffusion heat treatments to minimize chromium concentration gradients within the sheet. The mechanical properties of the alloy were found to be critically dependent on those of the Ni-2%ThO2 sheet. A similar process for the production of a Ni-Cr-Al-ThO2 alloy having improved oxidation resistance was investigated but the non-reproducible deposition of aluminum from duplex Cr/Al packs precluded successful scale-up. The mechanical properties of the Ni-Cr-Al-ThO2 alloys were generally equivalent to the best Ni-Cr-ThO2 alloy produced in the programme.

  18. Effects of Ni Deposition on the Electrochemical Properties of CNT/Ni Electrode and Its Application for Glucose Sensing.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhigang; Chen, Cheng; Zhu, Xiangrong; Xie, Rongsi; Flewitt, Andrew J; Milne, William I

    2015-04-01

    A low density CNT forest was fabricated by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition, and Ni nanoclusters were well distributed on the sidewall and on top of CNT forest by magnetron sputtering. The Ni deposition time plays an important role in electrochemical properties of the CNT/Ni electrodes, and the optimized deposition time is 150 to 240 s. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry were used to evaluate the catalytic activities of the CNT/Ni electrodes. The sensitivity of the glucose sensor based on a Ni24OS electrode is able to reach 1433 µA mM(-1) cm(-2), which is much higher than that found using a NiOS electrode. PMID:26353562

  19. Hyperfine fields in Fe-Ni-X alloys and their application to a study of tempering of 9Ni steel

    SciTech Connect

    Fultz, B.; Morris, J.W. Jr.

    1984-12-01

    Hyperfine interactions due to solutes in Fe-Ni-X alloys were systematized, and interpreted with a model of linear response of hyperfine magnetic fields to magnetic moments. The effects of solutes on the /sup 57/Fe hmf were used for chemical analysis of the austenite formed in 9Ni steel during tempering. Diffusion kinetics of the Ni and X solutes were found to play an important role in the formation of the austenite particles.

  20. Eutectic superalloys strengthened by sigma, Ni3CB lamellae and gamma prime, Ni3Al precipitates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemkey, F. D.

    1973-01-01

    By means of a screening and solidification optimization study of certain alloys located on the gamma-sigma liquidus surface within the Ni-Cb-Cr-Al system, alloys with high temperature properties superior to those of all known superalloys were defined. One alloy, Ni - 19.7w/o Cb - 6.0w/o Cr - 2.5w/o Al, directionally solidified at 3 cm/hr met or exceeded each program goal. A second alloy, Ni-21.75 w/o Cb-2.55 w/o Al, although deficient in its inherent oxidation resistance, met the other program goals and combined a remarkable insensitivity of composite microstructure to solidification parameters with excellent low temperature toughness. This investigation demonstrated that useful properties for gas turbine airfoil application have been achieved by reinforcing a strong and tough gamma solid solution matrix containing precipitated gamma prime by a lamellar intermetallic compound Ni3 Cb having greater strength at elevated temperature.

  1. Effective interactions and atomic ordering in Ni-rich Ni-Re alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Shuang; Peng, Ping; Gorbatov, Oleg I.; Ruban, Andrei V.

    2016-07-01

    Interatomic interactions and ordering in fcc Ni-rich Ni-Re alloys are studied by means of first-principles methods combined with statistical mechanics simulations based on the Ising Hamiltonian. First-principles calculations are employed to obtain effective chemical and strain-induced interactions, as well as ordering energies and enthalpies of formation of random and ordered Ni-Re alloys. Based on the nonmagnetic enthalpies of formation, we speculate that the type of ordering can be different in alloys with Re content less than 10 at.%. We demonstrate that effective chemical interactions in this system are quite sensitive to the alloy composition, atomic volume, and magnetic state. In statistical thermodynamic simulations, we have used renormalized interactions, which correctly reproduce ordering energies obtained in the direct total energy calculations. Monte Carlo simulations for Ni0.91Re0.09 alloy show that there exists a strong ordering tendency of the (1 1/2 0 ) type leading to precipitation of the D1 a ordered structure at about 940 K. Our results for the atomic short-range order indicate, however, that the presently applied theory overestimates the strength of the ordering tendency compared to that observed in the experiment.

  2. Thermomagnetic hysteresis effects in NiMn and NiMnPd thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öner, Y.; Lue, C. S.; Ross, Joseph H.; Rathnayaka, K. D. D.; Naugle, D. G.

    2001-06-01

    dc magnetization measurements, for zero-field cooled (MZFC) and field-cooled (MFC) cases, have been carried out for flash-evaporated Pd-doped NiMn thin films. These included reentrant phases (Ni76-xPdx)Mn24, for 0⩽x⩽5, and Ni75Mn23Pd2, a pure spinglass phase. The studies were performed over the temperature range 3-300 K. Low-field magnetization measurements show the irreversibility effect (MZFC and MFC diverge) at temperatures below the Curie temperature Tc. In Ni75Mn23Pd2, MZFC falls below MFC, as usually observed. However, in reentrant compositions, MZFC crosses MFC upon warming into the ferromagnetic regime, where it stays above MFC at temperatures below Tc. This unusual behavior is attributed to a model of Imry and Ma in which, in a ferromagnet with antiferromagnetic impurities, the impurities can couple to the host ferromagnetic alignment and force the system to break into domains antiferromagnetically coupled to each other. Field-cooled hysteresis measurements indicate the uniaxial anisotropy in these samples to be small, in contrast with the rigid uniaxial anisotropy reported for the corresponding polycrystalline bulk samples. Since the lattice-orbit coupling is weak in the amorphous phase, this clearly demonstrates that the physical origin of the unidirectional anisotropy is associated with the spin-orbit coupling.

  3. A sulfur segregation study of PWA 1480, NiCrAl, and NiAl alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jayne, D. T.; Smialek, J. L.

    1993-01-01

    Some nickel based superalloys show reduced oxidation resistance from the lack of an adherent oxide layer during high temperature cyclic oxidation. The segregation of sulfur to the oxide-metal interface is believed to effect oxide adhesion, since low sulfur alloys exhibit enhanced adhesion. X ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) was combined with an in situ sample heater to measure sulfur segregation in NiCrAl, PWA 1480, and NiAl alloys. The polished samples with a 1.5 to 2.5 nm (native) oxide were heated from 650 to 1100 C with hold times up to 6 hr. The sulfur concentration was plotted as a function of temperature versus time at temperature. One NiCrAl sulfur study was performed on the same casting used by Browning to establish a base line between previous Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) results and the XPS results of this study. Sulfur surface segregation was similar for PWA 1480 and NiCrAl and reached a maximum of 30 at% at 800 to 850 C. Above 900 C the sulfur surface concentration decreased to about 3 at% at 1100 C. These results are contrasted to the minimal segregation observed for low sulfur hydrogen annealed materials which exhibit improved scale adhesion.

  4. Influence of Ni on the lattice stability of Fe-Ni alloys at multimegabar pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vekilova, O. Yu.; Simak, S. I.; Ponomareva, A. V.; Abrikosov, I. A.

    2012-12-01

    The lattice stability trends of the primary candidate for Earth's core material, the Fe-Ni alloy, were examined from first principles. We employed the exact muffin-tin orbital method (EMTO) combined with the coherent potential approximation (CPA) for the treatment of alloying effects. It was revealed that high pressure reverses the trend in the relative stabilities of the body-centered cubic (bcc), face-centered cubic (fcc), and hexagonal close-packed (hcp) phases observed at ambient conditions. In the low pressure region the increase of Ni concentration in the Fe-Ni alloy enhances the bcc phase destabilization relative to the more close-packed fcc and hcp phases. However, at 300 GPa (Earth's core pressure), the effect of Ni addition is opposite. The reverse of the trend is associated with the suppression of the ferromagnetism of Fe when going from ambient pressures to pressure conditions corresponding to those of Earth's core. The first-principles results are explained in the framework of the canonical band model.

  5. Oxygen-induced relaxation of Ni(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caputi, L. S.; Jiang, S. L.; Tucci, R.; Amoddeo, A.; Papagno, L.

    1989-04-01

    The electron energy loss fine structures technique has been used to study the local coordination around surface nickel atoms on the Ni(111) face. clean and in the presence of a p(2×2) oxygen overlayer. The surface sensitivity of the technique has been enhanced by using a glancing primary electron beam. Comparison of the radial distribution functions obtained on the clean and oxygen-covered surface shows evidence of an oxygen-induced relaxation, in agreement with the results obtained by Narusawa et al. using high energy He + ion scattering.

  6. Enhanced photocatalytic efficiency in zirconia buffered n-NiO/p-NiO single crystalline heterostructures by nanosecond laser treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Molaei, R.; Bayati, M. R.; Alipour, H. M.; Nori, S.; Narayan, J.

    2013-06-21

    We report the formation of NiO based single crystalline p-n junctions with enhanced photocatalytic activity induced by pulsed laser irradiation. The NiO epilayers were grown on Si(001) substrates buffered with cubic yttria-stabilized zirconia (c-YSZ) by using pulsed laser deposition. The NiO/c-YSZ/Si heterostructures were subsequently laser treated by 5 pulses of KrF excimer laser (pulse duration = 25 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9} s) at lower energies. Microstructural studies, conducted by X-ray diffraction ({theta}-2{theta} and {phi} techniques) and high resolution transmission electron microscope, showed a cube-on-cube epitaxial relationship at the c-YSZ/Si interface; the epitaxial relationship across the NiO/c-YSZ interface was established as NiO<111 > Double-Vertical-Line Double-Vertical-Line c-YSZ<001> and in-plane NiO<110> Double-Vertical-Line Double-Vertical-Line c-YSZ<100>. Electron microscopy studies showed that the interface between the laser annealed and the pristine region as well as the NiO/c-YSZ interface was atomically sharp and crystallographically continuous. The formation of point defects, namely oxygen vacancies and NiO, due to the coupling of the laser photons with the NiO epilayers was confirmed by XPS. The p-type electrical characteristics of the pristine NiO epilayers turned to an n-type behavior and the electrical conductivity was increased by one order of magnitude after laser treatment. Photocatalytic activity of the pristine (p-NiO/c-YSZ/Si) and the laser-annealed (n-NiO/p-NiO/c-YSZ/Si) heterostructures were assessed by measuring the decomposition rate of 4-chlorophenol under UV light. The photocatalytic reaction rate constants were determined to be 0.0059 and 0.0092 min{sup -1} for the as-deposited and the laser-treated samples, respectively. The enhanced photocatalytic efficiency was attributed to the suppressed charge carrier recombination in the NiO based p-n junctions and higher electrical conductivity. Besides, the oxygen vacancies

  7. Solidification Behavior of gamma'-Ni3Al Containing Alloys in the Ni-Al-O System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copland, Evan

    2007-01-01

    The chemical activities of Al and Ni in gamma(prime)-Ni3Al-containing systems were measured using the multi-cell Knudsen effusion-cell mass spectrometry technique (multi-cell KEMS), over the composition range 8 - 32 at.%Al and temperature range T = 1400 - 1750 K. From these measurements a better understanding of the equilibrium solidification behaviour of gamma(prime)-Ni3Al-containing alloys in the Ni-Al-O system was established. Specifically, these measurements revealed that (1) gamma(prime)-Ni3Al forms via the peritectiod reaction, gamma + Beta (+ A12O3) = gamma (prime) (+ Al2O3), at 1633 +/- 1 K, (2) the {gamma + Beta + Al2O3} phase field is stable over the temperature range 1633 through 1640 K, and (3) equilibrium solidification occurs by the eutectic reaction, L (+ Al2O3) = gamma + Beta (+ Al2O3), at 1640 +/- 1 K and a liquid composition of 24.8 +/- 0.2 at.%Al (at an unknown oxygen content). When projected onto the Ni-Al binary, this behaviour is inconsistent with the current Ni-Al phase diagram and a new diagram is proposed. This new Ni-Al phase diagram explains a number of unusual steady-state solidification structures reported previously and provides a much simpler reaction scheme in the vicinity of the gamma(prime)-Ni3Al phase field.

  8. Tunability of exchange bias in Ni@NiO core-shell nanoparticles obtained by sequential layer deposition

    DOE PAGESBeta

    D'Addato, Sergio; Spadaro, Maria Chiara; Luches, Paola; Valeri, Sergio; Grillo, Vincenzo; Rotunno, Enzo; Roldan Gutierrez, Manuel A.; Pennycook, Stephen J.; Ferretti, Anna Maria; Capetti, Elena; et al

    2015-01-01

    Films of magnetic Ni@NiO core–shell nanoparticles (NPs, core diameter d ≅ 12 nm, nominal shell thickness variable between 0 and 6.5 nm) obtained with sequential layer deposition were investigated, to gain insight into the relationships between shell thickness/morphology, core-shell interface, and magnetic properties. Different values of NiO shell thickness ts could be obtained while keeping the Ni core size fixed, at variance with conventional oxidation procedures where the oxide shell is grown at the expense of the core. Chemical composition, morphology of the as-produced samples and structural features of the Ni/NiO interface were investigated with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and microscopymore » (scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy) techniques, and related with results from magnetic measurements obtained with a superconducting quantum interference device. The effect of the shell thickness on the magnetic properties could be studied. The exchange bias (EB) field Hbias is small and almost constant for ts up to 1.6 nm; then it rapidly grows, with no sign of saturation. This behavior is clearly related to the morphology of the top NiO layer, and is mostly due to the thickness dependence of the NiO anisotropy constant. The ability to tune the EB effect by varying the thickness of the last NiO layer represents a step towards the rational design and synthesis of core–shell NPs with desired magnetic properties.« less

  9. The application of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy for characterizing the degradation of Ni(OH)2/NiOOH electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, Digby D.

    1989-01-01

    The use of wide-band electrochemical impedance spectroscopy is described for characterizing the degradation of porous Ni(OH)2/NiOOH electrodes in concentrated KOH electrolyte solutions. The impedance spectra are interpreted in terms of a finite electrical transmission line and the changes in the components of the electrical analog are followed as a function of cycle number. The degradation of the capacity of rolled and bonded Ni(OH)2/NiOOH electrodes is caused by rupture of ohmic contacts within the active mass and by restructuring which results in a decrease in the number of active pores.

  10. Low temperature diffusion coefficients in the Fe-Ni and FeNiP systems: Application to meteorite cooling rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, D. C.; Goldstein, J. I.

    1984-01-01

    The interdiffusion coefficient of FeNi in fcc taenite (gamma) of Fe-Ni and Fe-Ni-0.2 P alloys was measured as a function of temperature between 600 and 900 C. This temperature range is directly applicable to the nucleation and growth of the Widmanstatten pattern in iron meteorites and metal regions of stony and stony-iron meteorites. Diffusion couples were made from FeNi or FeNiP alloys which ensured that the couples were in the taenite phase at the diffusion temperature. The presence or absence of grain boundary diffusion was determined by measuring the Ni profile normal to the existing grain boundaries with the AEM. Ignoring any variation of interdiffusion coefficient with composition, the measured data was plotted versus the reciprocal of the diffusion temperature. The FeNi data generally follow the extrapolated Goldstein, et al. (1965) data from high temperatures. The FeNiP data indicates that small additions of P (0.2 wt%) cause a 3 to 10 fold increase in the FeNi interdifussion coefficient increasing with decreasing temperature. This increase is about the same as that predicted by Narayan and Goldstein (1983) at the Widmanstatten growth temperature.

  11. Laser-wavelength dependence of the picosecond ultrasonic response of a NiFe/NiO/Si structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosco, C. A.; Azevedo, A.; Acioli, L. H.

    2002-09-01

    Ultrafast optical excitation and detection of acoustic phonons has been used to analyze ultrathin films composed of NiFe/NiO/Si which are important for applications in magnetic storage and processing. Results are presented on the wavelength dependence of the ultrasonic response of the thin NiO film and bulk Si. Significant changes are observed between detection using the fundamental and the second harmonic of the femtosecond laser as the probe beam. Beatings between low order longitudinal phonons in the NiO layer are observed and measurements of its refractive index and absorption coefficients are performed.

  12. Metal Organic Frameworks Derived Hierarchical Hollow NiO/Ni/Graphene Composites for Lithium and Sodium Storage.

    PubMed

    Zou, Feng; Chen, Yu-Ming; Liu, Kewei; Yu, Zitian; Liang, Wenfeng; Bhaway, Sarang M; Gao, Min; Zhu, Yu

    2016-01-26

    Ni-based metal organic frameworks (Ni-MOFs) with unique hierarchical hollow ball-in-ball nanostructure were synthesized by solvothermal reactions. After successive carbonization and oxidation treatments, hierarchical NiO/Ni nanocrystals covered with a graphene shell were obtained with the hollow ball-in-ball nanostructure intact. The resulting materials exhibited superior performance as the anode in lithium ion batteries (LIBs): they provide high reversible specific capacity (1144 mAh/g), excellent cyclability (nearly no capacity loss after 1000 cycles) and rate performance (805 mAh/g at 15 A/g). In addition, the hierarchical NiO/Ni/Graphene composites demonstrated promising performance as anode materials for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). Such a superior lithium and sodium storage performance is derived from the well-designed hierarchical hollow ball-in-ball structure of NiO/Ni/Graphene composites, which not only mitigates the volume expansion of NiO during the cycles but also provides a continuous highly conductive graphene matrix to facilitate the fast charge transfer and form a stable SEI layer. PMID:26592379

  13. Characterization and electrochemical properties of Ni(Si)/Ni5Si2 multiphase coatings prepared by HVOF spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdian, M. M.; Raeissi, K.; Salehi, M.

    2012-11-01

    Ni(Si)/Ni5Si2 powders were produced by mechanical alloying (MA) of Ni-25 at.% Si powder mixture. Then, the as-milled powders were sprayed onto copper substrate using high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) process. The phase composition and microstructure of the coatings were examined by X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy. Polarization tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements were also employed to study corrosion performance of the coatings in 3.5% NaCl solution. The results showed that although single phase Ni3Si was formed during annealing of Ni(Si)/Ni5Si2 powders, but, only Ni(Si) and Ni5Si2 are present in HVOF coatings and no new phase has been formed during spraying. The coatings had microhardness up to 746 HV0.05. Further investigations showed the corrosion performance of multiphase coatings in 3.5% NaCl solution was better than that of copper substrate. The phase transitions during MA, HVOF and annealing processes were discussed in association with Ni-Si phase diagram and nature of each process.

  14. A scanning tunnelling microscopy study of C and N adsorption phases on the vicinal Ni(100) surfaces Ni(810) and Ni(911)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driver, S. M.; Toomes, R. L.; Woodruff, D. P.

    2016-04-01

    The influence of N and C chemisorption on the morphology and local structure of nominal Ni(810) and Ni(911) surfaces, both vicinal to (100) but with [001] and [ 01 1 bar ] step directions, respectively, has been investigated using scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) and low energy electron diffraction. Ni(911) undergoes substantial step bunching in the presence of both adsorbates, with the (911)/N surface showing (411) facets, whereas for Ni(810), multiple steps 2-4 layers high are more typical. STM atomic-scale images show the (2 × 2)pg 'clock' reconstruction on the (100) terraces of the (810) surfaces with both C and N, although a second c(2 × 2) structure, most readily reconciled with a 'rumpling' reconstruction, is also seen on Ni(810)/N. On Ni(911), the clock reconstruction is not seen on the (100) terraces with either adsorbate, and these images are typified by protrusions on a (1 × 1) mesh. This absence of clock reconstruction is attributed to the different constraints imposed on the lateral movements of the surface Ni atoms adjacent to the up-step edge of the terraces with a [ 01 1 bar ] step direction.

  15. Exchange bias magnetism in films of NiFe/(Ni,Fe)O nanocrystallite dispersions

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiao, C.-H.; Chi, C.-C.; Wang, S.; Ouyang, H.; Desautels, R. D.; Lierop, J. van; Lin, K.-W.; Lin, T.-L.

    2014-05-07

    Ni{sub 3}Fe/(Ni,Fe)O thin films having a nanocrystallite dispersion morphology were prepared by a reactive ion beam-assisted deposition technique. The crystallite sizes of these dispersion-based films were observed to decrease from 8.4 ± 0.3 nm to 3.4 ± 0.3 nm as the deposition flow-rate increased from 2.78% to 7.89% O{sub 2}/Ar. Thin film composition was determined using selective area electron diffraction images and Multislice simulations. Through a detailed analysis of high resolution transmission electron microscopy images, the nanocrystallites were determined to be Ni{sub 3}Fe (a ferromagnet), NiO, and FeO (both antiferromagnets). It was determined that the interfacial molar Ni{sub 3}Fe ratio in the nanocrystallite dispersions increased slightly at first, then decreased as the oxygen content was increased; at 7.89% O{sub 2}/Ar, the interfacial molar ratio was essentially zero (only NiO and FeO remained). For nanocrystallite dispersion films grown with O{sub 2}/Ar flow-rate greater than 7.89%, no interfacial (intermixed) Ni{sub 3}Fe phase was detected, which resulted in no measurable exchange bias. Comparing the exchange bias field between the nanocrystallite dispersion films at 5 K, we observed a decrease in the magnitude of the exchange bias field as the nanocrystallite size decreased. The exchange bias coupling for all samples measured set in at essentially the same temperature (i.e., the exchange bias blocking temperature). Since the ferromagnetic/anti-ferromagnetic (FM/AFM) contact area in the nanocrystallite dispersion films increased as the nanocrystallite size decreased, the increase in the magnitude of the exchange bias could be attributed to larger regions of defects (vacancies and bond distortions) which occupied a significant portion of the FM/AFM interfaces in the nanocrystallite dispersion films.

  16. The design of underwater superoleophobic Ni/NiO microstructures with tunable oil adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Enshuang; Cheng, Zhongjun; Lv, Tong; Li, Li; Liu, Yuyan

    2015-11-01

    Controlling oil adhesion in water is a fundamental issue in many practical applications for surfaces. Currently, almost all studies on underwater oil adhesion control are concentrated on regulating surface chemistry on polymer surfaces, and structure-dependent underwater oil adhesion is still rare, especially on inorganic materials. Herein, we report a series of underwater superoleophobic Ni/NiO surfaces with controlled oil adhesions by combining electro-deposition and heating techniques. The adhesive forces between an oil droplet and the surfaces can be adjusted from an extremely low (less than 1 μN) to a very high value (about 60 μN), and the tunable effect can be attributed to different wetting states that result from different microstructures on the surfaces. Moreover, the oil-adhesion controllability for different types of oils was also analyzed and the applications of the surface including oil droplet transportation and self-cleaning were discussed. The results reported herein provide a new feasible method for fabrication of underwater superoleophobic surfaces with controlled adhesion, and improve the understanding of the relationship between surface microstructures, adhesion, and the fabrication principle of tunable oil adhesive surfaces.Controlling oil adhesion in water is a fundamental issue in many practical applications for surfaces. Currently, almost all studies on underwater oil adhesion control are concentrated on regulating surface chemistry on polymer surfaces, and structure-dependent underwater oil adhesion is still rare, especially on inorganic materials. Herein, we report a series of underwater superoleophobic Ni/NiO surfaces with controlled oil adhesions by combining electro-deposition and heating techniques. The adhesive forces between an oil droplet and the surfaces can be adjusted from an extremely low (less than 1 μN) to a very high value (about 60 μN), and the tunable effect can be attributed to different wetting states that result from

  17. Ag-nanoparticles-decorated NiO-nanoflakes grafted Ni-nanorod arrays stuck out of porous AAO as effective SERS substrates.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qitao; Meng, Guowen; Huang, Qing; Zhu, Chuhong; Tang, Haibin; Qian, Yiwu; Chen, Bin; Chen, Bensong

    2014-02-28

    NiO-nanoflakes (NiO-NFs) grafted Ni-nanorod (Ni-NR) arrays stuck out of the porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template are achieved by a combinatorial process of AAO-confined electrodeposition of Ni-NRs, selectively etching part of the AAO template to expose the Ni-NRs, wet-etching the exposed Ni-NRs in ammonia to obtain Ni(OH)2-NFs grafted onto the cone-shaped Ni-NRs, and annealing to transform Ni(OH)2-NFs in situ into NiO-NFs. By top-view sputtering, Ag-nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) are decorated on each NiO-NFs grafted Ni-NR (denoted as NiO-NFs@Ni-NR). The resultant Ag-NPs-decorated NiO-NFs@Ni-NR (denoted as Ag-NPs@NiO-NFs@Ni-NR) arrays exhibit not only strong surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity but also reproducible SERS-signals over the whole array. It is demonstrated that the strong SERS-activity is mainly ascribed to the high density of sub-10 nm gaps (hot spots) between the neighboring Ag-NPs, the semiconducting NiO-NFs induced chemical enhancement effect, and the lightning rod effect of the cone-shaped Ni-NRs. The three-level hierarchical nanostructure arrays stuck out of the AAO template can be utilized to probe polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, a kind of global environmental hazard) with a concentration as low as 5 × 10(-6) M, showing promising potential in SERS-based rapid detection of organic environmental pollutants. PMID:24419246

  18. Morphology and composition of Ni-Co electrodeposited powders

    SciTech Connect

    Maksimovic, V.M.; Lacnjevac, U.C.; Stoiljkovic, M.M.; Pavlovic, M.G.; Jovic, V.D.

    2011-12-15

    The morphology, phase and chemical composition of Ni-Co alloy powders electrodeposited from an ammonium sulfate-boric acid containing electrolyte with different ratio of Ni/Co ions were investigated. The ratios of Ni/Co ions were 1/1, 1/2 and 1/3. The morphology, chemical composition and phase composition of the electrodeposited alloy powders were investigated using AES, SEM, EDS and XRD analysis. Composition of the electrolyte, i.e. the ratio of Ni/Co concentrations was found to influence both, the alloy phase composition and the morphology of Ni-Co alloy powders. At the highest ratio of Ni/Co = 1/1 concentrations typical 2D fern-like dendritic particles were obtained. With a decrease of Ni/Co ions ratio among 2D fern-like dendrites, 3D dendrites and different agglomerates were obtained. X-ray diffraction studies showed that the alloy powders mainly consisted of the face-centered cubic {alpha}-nickel phase and hexagonal close-packed {epsilon}-cobalt phase and minor proportions of face-centered cubic {alpha}-cobalt phase. The occurrence of the latter phase was observed only in the alloy powder with the higher cobalt concentration in electrolyte. The electrodeposition of Ni-Co powders occurred in an anomalous manner. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ni-Co alloys powders were successfully electrodeposited. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Composition of the electrolyte (Ni/Co ions ratio) was found to influence on morphology of powders. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The electrodeposition of Ni-Co powders occurred in an anomalous manner.

  19. Methanethiol Chemistry on TiO2-Supported Ni Clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Ozturk,O.; Park, J.; Black, T.; Rodriguez, J.; Hrbek, J.; Chen, D.

    2008-01-01

    The thermal decomposition of methanethiol on Ni clusters grown on TiO2(1 1 0) was studied by temperature programmed desorption (TPD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and low energy ion scattering (LEIS). On all of the Ni surfaces investigated, methane and hydrogen were observed as gaseous products in the TPD experiments, and the only sulfur-containing species that desorbed from the surface was methanethiol itself at low temperatures. The two pathways for methanethiol reaction were hydrodesulfurization to produce methane and nonselective decomposition, which leaves atomic carbon and sulfur on the surface. From high resolution XPS studies, methyl thiolate was identified as the surface intermediate for reaction on TiO2 and on all of the Ni surfaces investigated, similar to what is observed on single-crystal Ni surfaces. However, the binding sites for methyl thiolate on the 1 ML (monolayer) Ni clusters were different from those on the Ni clusters at coverages of 2.5 ML and higher, based on the S(2p) binding energies for methyl thiolate. No distinct changes in activity or selectivity were observed for the smaller Ni clusters grown at low coverage compared to the more film-like Ni surfaces other than what could be accounted for by changes in total surface area. Interactions between the Ni clusters and the TiO2 support had two main effects on chemical activity. First, carbon was oxidized by oxygen from the TiO2 lattice to produce CO at temperatures above 800 K. Second, annealing induced encapsulation of the Ni clusters by reduced TiOx and chemisorbed oxygen. At 800 K, the Ni clusters were totally encapsulated, resulting in a complete loss of methanethiol activity; partial encapsulation at 700 K caused a smaller decrease in activity accompanied by increased oxidation of carbon by lattice oxygen.

  20. Methanethiol chemistry on TiO 2-supported Ni clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozturk, O.; Park, J. B.; Black, T. J.; Rodriguez, J. A.; Hrbek, J.; Chen, D. A.

    2008-10-01

    The thermal decomposition of methanethiol on Ni clusters grown on TiO 2(1 1 0) was studied by temperature programmed desorption (TPD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and low energy ion scattering (LEIS). On all of the Ni surfaces investigated, methane and hydrogen were observed as gaseous products in the TPD experiments, and the only sulfur-containing species that desorbed from the surface was methanethiol itself at low temperatures. The two pathways for methanethiol reaction were hydrodesulfurization to produce methane and nonselective decomposition, which leaves atomic carbon and sulfur on the surface. From high resolution XPS studies, methyl thiolate was identified as the surface intermediate for reaction on TiO 2 and on all of the Ni surfaces investigated, similar to what is observed on single-crystal Ni surfaces. However, the binding sites for methyl thiolate on the 1 ML (monolayer) Ni clusters were different from those on the Ni clusters at coverages of 2.5 ML and higher, based on the S(2p) binding energies for methyl thiolate. No distinct changes in activity or selectivity were observed for the smaller Ni clusters grown at low coverage compared to the more film-like Ni surfaces other than what could be accounted for by changes in total surface area. Interactions between the Ni clusters and the TiO 2 support had two main effects on chemical activity. First, carbon was oxidized by oxygen from the TiO 2 lattice to produce CO at temperatures above 800 K. Second, annealing induced encapsulation of the Ni clusters by reduced TiO x and chemisorbed oxygen. At 800 K, the Ni clusters were totally encapsulated, resulting in a complete loss of methanethiol activity; partial encapsulation at 700 K caused a smaller decrease in activity accompanied by increased oxidation of carbon by lattice oxygen.

  1. Predicting El Niño

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friebele, Elaine

    In 1982, scientists neither predicted nor recognized the beginning of the most intense El Niño of the century, which caused thousands of deaths and more than $13 billion in damage. But warned that 1986 and 1987 would be wet years, Peruvian farmers avoided costly crop losses by planting rice instead of cotton.With the establishment of the new International Research Institute last month, more potential climate-related disasters will likely be averted. The new institute combines the scientists and resources of Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory and the University of California's Scripps Institution of Oceanography in San Diego. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration will provide $18 million over 3 years in a cooperative agreement to establish the institute. Advances in ocean observation systems and new capabilities in computer models for predicting the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) prompted the idea for the new institute. ENSO, a natural global climate cycle occurring irregularly over several years, causes a shift in ocean currents in the tropical Pacific and alters global wind and rainfall patterns.

  2. Laser-LIGA for Ni microcantilevers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Hengyi; Harvey, Erol C.; Hayes, Jason P.; Ghantasala, Muralidhar K.; Fu, Yao; Jolic, Karlo; Solomon, Matthew; Graves, Kynan

    2002-11-01

    This paper presents our design and experimental results of nickel microcantilevers, which were fabricated using a laser-LIGA process, based on KrF (248 nm) excimer laser micromachining. A chrome-on-quartz mask, containing the desired mask patterns was prepared for this work. The substrate of copper (30 μm thick) clad printed circuit board (PCB) was laminated with Laminar 5038 photopolymer to be laser patterned. Following laser patterning and laser cleaning, all the samples were electroformed with nickel on top of the copper layer. To release the Ni microcantilevers, the excimer laser was employed again to remove the polymer in the localised area to facilitate Cu selective etching. Here, copper acted as the sacrificial layer as well. The Cu selective etching was carried out with ~ 20 % (wt) aqueous solution of ammonium persulfate. Because the Cu selective etching is isotropic, some undercuts happened next to the anchor area. The samples were characterised using optical microscope, confocal laser scanning microscope and SEM, and some of Ni cantilevers were tested electro-thermally. Their performance was analyzed with respect to the simulation results.

  3. Onset of Deformation in ^60Ni.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weintraub, W. D.; Jin, H. Q.; Reviol, W.; Riedinger, L. L.; Baktash, C.; Brinkman, M. J.; Dean, D. J.; Yu, C.-H.; Devlin, M.; Lafosse, D. R.; Sarantites, D. G.; Leddy, M.; Lee, I. Y.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; Rudolph, D.

    1998-04-01

    High-spin states in ^60Ni were populated using the ^28Si(^36Ar,4p) reaction with beam energy of 136 MeV. Gammasphere at LBNL was used in conjunction with Microball to measure gamma rays selected for the charged-particle exit channels of interest. A total of 2 billion events was recorded, with the 4p channel to ^60Ni representing approximately 11% of the data. In our analysis, the previously known level scheme(G. Moyat et al. al.), Nuclear Physics A318, 236 (1979). has been extended up to energy and spin of 20 MeV and 20 hbar. The multiplicity of levels up to I=10 are well explained by shell-model calculations including the g_9/2 single-particle orbital into the fp-shell configuration space. At higher spins, evidence for rotational-like behavior increases. Two apparently rotational structures have large M1 values and are perhaps shears bands, likely involving one g_9/2 particle. Furthermore, an E2 sequence with a larger moment of inertia is observed that could correspond to other deformed structures in the region, involving two g_9/2 particles. Comparisons to calculations will be given.

  4. Monolayer dispersion of NiO in NiO/Al2O3 catalysts probed by positronium atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H. J.; Chen, Z. Q.; Wang, S. J.

    2012-01-01

    NiO/Al2O3 catalysts with different NiO loadings were prepared by impregnation method. The monolayer dispersion capacity of NiO is determined to be about 9 wt.% through XRD quantitative phase analysis. Positron lifetime spectra measured for NiO/Al2O3 catalysts comprise two long and two short lifetime components, where the long lifetimes τ3 and τ4 correspond to ortho-positronium (o-Ps) annihilation in microvoids and large pores, respectively. With increasing loading of NiO from 0 to 9 wt.%, τ4 drops drastically from 88 to 38 ns. However, when the NiO loading is higher than 9 wt.%, τ4 shows a slower decrease. Variation of λ4 (1/τ4) as a function of the NiO content can be well fitted by two straight lines with different slopes. The relative intensity of τ4 also shows a fast decrease followed by a slow decrease for the NiO content lower and higher than 9 wt.%, respectively. The coincidence Doppler broadening measurements reveal a continuous increase of S parameter with increasing NiO loading up to 9 wt.% and then a decrease afterwards. This is due to the variation in intensity of the narrow component contributed by the annihilation of para-positronium (p-Ps). Our results show that the annihilation behavior of positronium is very sensitive to the dispersion state of NiO on the surface of γ-Al2O3. When the NiO loading is lower than monolayer dispersion capacity, spin conversion of positronium induced by NiO is the dominant effect, which causes decrease of the longest lifetime and its intensity but increase of the narrow component intensity. After the NiO loading is higher than monolayer dispersion capacity, the spin conversion effect becomes weaker and inhibition of positronium formation by NiO is strengthened, which results in decrease of both the long lifetime intensity and the narrow component intensity. The reaction rate constant is determined to be (1.50 ± 0.04) × 1010 g mol-1s-1 and (3.43 ± 0.20) × 109 g mol-1 s-1 for NiO content below and above

  5. Local atomic structure around Ni, Nb, and Zr atoms in Ni-Nb-Zr-H glassy alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oji, H.; Handa, K.; Ide, J.; Honma, T.; Umesaki, N.; Yamaura, S.; Fukuhara, M.; Inoue, A.; Emura, S.

    2009-11-01

    In order to elucidate the hydrogen effect on the atomic configuration in the Ni-Nb-Zr glassy alloys, we measured Ni, Nb, and Zr K-edge XAFS spectra of the Ni-Nb-Zr glassy alloy films with two different chemical compositions, i.e., Ni42Nb28Zr30 and Ni36Nb24Zr40, and their hydrogen-charged ones, i.e., (Ni42Nb28Zr30)0.91H0.09 and (Ni36Nb24Zr40)0.89H0.11. The Fourier transforms of the XAFS oscillations of these samples clearly shows that there is a significant difference in the structural response between the Zr30at.% and the Zr40at.% alloys when hydrogen atoms are charged. The curve-fitting analysis indicates that the hydrogenation does not alter the local alignment around the three metal atoms for the Zr30at.% alloy, but for the Zr40at.% alloy; it elongates the inter-atomic distances of Zr-Zr, Zr-Nb and Nb-Ni. On the basis of the curve fitting analysis, we propose the distorted icosahedral Zr5Ni5Nb3 cluster models. The XANES spectra at each (Ni, Zr and Nb) edge of (Ni36Nb24Zr40)0.89H0.11 also present the distinct shape from the other samples. The pre-edge peak (shoulder) vanishes or weakens, suggesting the conversion of the electronic state of the metal ions owing to the hydrogenation. The post-edge energy region shows clear multi-scattering effects from hydrogen atoms by charging these.

  6. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of NiO nanospindles

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Hai; Lv, Baoliang; Xu, Yao; Wu, Dong

    2014-02-01

    Graphical abstract: NiO nanospindles with a different electrochemical activity as compared to those previous reports were synthesized via an agglomeration–dissolution–recrystallization growth process without the addition of any surfactant. - Highlights: • NiO nanospindles were synthesized without the addition of any surfactant. • The agglomeration–dissolution–recrystallization growth process was used to explain the precursors’ formation process of the spindle-like NiO. • As-obtained spindle-like NiO showed a different electrochemical activity as compared to those previous reports. - Abstract: NiO nanospindles were successfully synthesized via a hydrothermal and post-treatment method. The as-synthesized nanospindles were about several hundred nanometers in width and about one micrometer in length. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that the spindle-like structure was cubic NiO phase crystalline. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analysis indicated that these NiO nanospindles were of single crystal nature. On the basis of time-dependent experiments, a possible agglomeration–dissolution–recrystallization growth process was proposed to explain the formation process of the spindle-like precursors. The cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurement showed that the as-prepared spindle-like NiO exhibited a pseudo-capacitance behavior.

  7. Irradiation-enhanced reactivity of multilayer Al/Ni nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Manukyan, Khachatur V; Tan, Wanpeng; deBoer, Richard J; Stech, Edward J; Aprahamian, Ani; Wiescher, Michael; Rouvimov, Sergei; Overdeep, Kyle R; Shuck, Christopher E; Weihs, Timothy P; Mukasyan, Alexander S

    2015-06-01

    We have investigated the effect of accelerated ion beam irradiation on the structure and reactivity of multilayer sputter deposited Al/Ni nanomaterials. Carbon and aluminum ion beams with different charge states and intensities were used to irradiate the multilayer materials. The conditions for the irradiation-assisted self-ignition of the reactive materials and corresponding ignition thresholds for the beam intensities were determined. We discovered that relatively short (40 min or less) ion irradiations enhance the reactivity of the Al/Ni nanomaterials, that is, significantly decrease the thermal ignition temperatures (Tig) and ignition delay times (τig). We also show that irradiation leads to atomic mixing at the Al/Ni interfaces with the formation of an amorphous interlayer, in addition to the nucleation of small (2-3 nm) Al3Ni crystals within the amorphous regions. The amorphous interlayer is thought to enhance the reactivity of the multilayer energetic nanomaterial by increasing the heat of the reaction and by speeding the intermixing of the Ni and the Al. The small Al3Ni crystals may also enhance reactivity by facilitating the growth of this Al-Ni intermetallic phase. In contrast, longer irradiations decrease reactivity with higher ignition temperatures and longer ignition delay times. Such changes are also associated with growth of the Al3Ni intermetallic and decreases in the heat of reaction. Drawing on this data set, we suggest that ion irradiation can be used to fine-tune the structure and reactivity of energetic nanomaterials. PMID:25915560

  8. Anodic electrodeposition of NiTSPP from aqueous basic media.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Morales, Marta; Muñoz, Eulogia; Martín-Romero, María T; Camacho, Luis

    2005-06-01

    The oxidative electrodeposition of NiTSPP (tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl) Ni porphyrin) on ITO electrode from 0.1 M NaOH aqueous solution has been studied, and UV-visible and reflection FTIR spectroscopies have been used to analyze the composition of such film. By use of UV-vis spectroscopy, small absorbance of the film and an almost nulling effect on the Soret band of the porphyrin along the Ni(III)/Ni(II) redox process were observed. The reflection FTIR spectroscopy detected the presence of Ni-OH groups in the reduced film and as well the state of the porphyrin molecules as radical cation. Moreover, the porphyrin has been quantified by means of the area of the vibration bands assigned to the sulfonate groups by using as reference a Langmuir-Blodgett film containing a known surface concentration of NiTSPP. These results lead us propose the formation of a conductor salt by electrocrystallization, with stoichiometries TSPP/Ni(II)(OH)2 and TSPP/Ni(III)OOH, for its reduced and oxidized forms, respectively. In these two forms, the porphyrin rings will be present as radical cation, which may be stabilized through its dimerization or polymerization. PMID:15924477

  9. Lanthanide Al-Ni base Ericsson cycle magnetic refrigerants

    DOEpatents

    Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Takeya, Hiroyuki

    1995-10-31

    A magnetic refrigerant for a magnetic refrigerator using the Ericsson thermodynamic cycle comprises DyAlNi and (Gd{sub 0.54}Er{sub 0.46})AlNi alloys having a relatively constant {Delta}Tmc over a wide temperature range. 16 figs.

  10. Irradiation-Induced Nanoprecipitation in Ni-W Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jaeyel; Lear, Calvin R.; Zhang, Xuan; Bellon, Pascal; Averback, Robert S.

    2015-03-01

    The evolution of Ni-W alloy thin films subjected to Kr irradiation at room temperature and subsequent annealing at 1123 K (850 °C) was studied by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Irradiation resulted in significant increase in grain size, from ~20 nm in the as-grown state to over 300 nm after irradiation and annealing. The compositions selected for the study, 18 and 23 at. pct W, resulted in the formation of an ordered Ni4W matrix after annealing. Remarkably, in the Ni-23 at. pct W films, irradiation followed by annealing induced the precipitation of two families of Ni2W4C carbides, large blocky ones at grain boundaries, and intragranular nanocarbides, ~5 to 20 nm in size and with a high number density, 9.0 × 1022 m-3. In contrast, only blocky Ni6W6C carbides formed in control specimens directly subjected to annealing. The intragranular Ni2W4C nanocarbides displayed an orientation relationship with the Ni4W matrix, and they appear to be effective traps for implanted Kr ions, since nanobubbles formed on their periphery. The results suggest that non-equilibrium processing can be used to nucleate nanocarbides in the grain interiors of Ni-W alloys, and that this may improve alloy properties, including radiation resistance.

  11. NOVEL RU-NI-S ELECTRODE CATALYST FOR PEMFC

    EPA Science Inventory

    The expected results from this project include:

    • a new formula and preparation procedures for Ru-Ni-S catalyst;
    • demonstration of CO and S tolerance of the new catalyst;
    • a small size PEMFC with Ru-Ni-S catalyst and good performance; an...

    • Phase competition in ternary Ti-Ni-Al system

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Wierzba, Bartek

      2016-07-01

      In this paper the reactive diffusion in Ti-Ni-Al system is discussed at 1173 K. The calculation method based on the binary approach is presented. The key kinetic parameter is Wagner integral diffusion coefficient. The experimental and simulation results of reactive diffusion between pure Ti and β-NiAl are compared at 1173 K after 100 h.

    • Nanomechanical properties of a Ni nanodot-patterned surface.

      PubMed

      Wang, H; Zou, M; Larson, P R; Sanchez, E S; Hobbs, K L; Curtis, M E; Johnson, M B; Awitor, O K

      2008-07-23

      Nanomechanical properties of a Ni nanodot-patterned surface (NDPS) on a Si substrate were investigated using nanoindentation. The Ni NDPS was fabricated by thermal evaporation of Ni through a porous anodized aluminum oxide template onto a Si substrate. Plan-view transmission electron microscopy and nanobeam diffraction were used to characterize the Ni nanodot crystal structure. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to characterize the morphology and deformation of the Ni nanodots before and after nanoindentation. The elastic modulus and hardness of the Ni nanodots were found to be 159 ± 22 and 7.7 ± 1.0 GPa, respectively. The critical shear stress for initiating plastic deformation in the Ni nanodot was estimated to be 8.3 ± 1.0 GPa, which is close to the theoretical shear strength of 7.6 GPa in dislocation-free single crystal Ni. PMID:21730613

    • Low temperature epitaxial growth of Ge on cube- textured Ni

      SciTech Connect

      GIARE, C; Palazzo, J; Goyal, Amit; WANG, G; LU, T

      2012-01-01

      Quasi- single crystal Ge films were grown on [001]<010> textured Ni substrate at a temperature of 350 oC using an insulating buffer layer of CaF2. A direct deposition of Ge on Ni at 350 oC was shown to alloy with Ni. From x- ray pole figure analysis, it was shown that Ge grew epitaxially with the same orientation as CaF2 and the dispersions in the out- of- plane and in- plane directions were found to be 1.7 0.1o and 6 1o, respectively. In the out- of- plane direction, Ge[111]||CaF2[111]||Ni[001]. In addition, the Ge consisted of four equivalent in- plane oriented domains such that two mutually orthogonal directions: Ge 211 and Ge 011 are parallel to mutually orthogonal directions: Ni 110 and Ni 110 , respectively of the Ni(001) surface. This was shown to be originated from the four equivalent in- plane oriented domains of CaF2 created to minimize the mismatch strain between CaF2 and Ni in those directions.

    • Electrochemical Properties of Electrospun Ni Doped Carbon Nanofibers.

      PubMed

      Huang, Yarong; Li, Chunping; Bai, Jie; Huang, Guofang; Sun, Weiyan; Wang, Junzhong

      2016-06-01

      The materials of Ni nanoparticles/carbon nanofibers (Ni NPs/CNFs) and carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were prepared by electrospinning the Ni doped precursor solutions. The Ni doped nanofibers with the diameter of 200-300 nm possess the uniform morphology and smooth surface. These nanofibers were carbonized at 600 degrees C for 2 h. The Ni NPs/CNFs composite was characterized with SEM (scanning electro microscope), XRD (X-ray diffraction) and FT-IR (Infrared spectroscopy). The Ni NPs/CNFs electrode was investigated through the cyclic voltammetry measurement. The average specific capacity was calculated to be 113 F x g(-1) at the scan rate of 2 mV x s(-1). The high specific capacity was larger than the CNFs owing to the Ni NPs. The specific capacity retention also maintains 72% after 5 cycles, suggesting that the electrode possess good reversibility. The Ni NPs/CNFs composite material with excellent electrochemical properties will be a promising material which can be used for energy storage. PMID:27427729

    • Deformation attending internal nitridation of Ni-Ti alloys

      SciTech Connect

      Savva, G.C.; Weatherly, G.C.; Kirkaldy, J.S.

      1996-04-01

      Net volume increase attending precipitation is the source of a number of interesting deformation processes including creep and grain boundary sliding. Grain boundary sliding, a common high temperature deformation process, was observed in Ni-Al but was absent in Ni-Ti and Ag-In. It appears that in Ni-Ti, Ni is preferentially transported outwards along dislocation pipes and some twin boundaries countercurrent to a bulk stress driven vacancy flow (similar to the Nabarro-Herring creep attributed to Ni-Al). Some Ti may be preferentially transported outward by grain boundaries since at compositions near the transition to a superficial scale of TiN outward solute diffusion is significant. A strong element of Ni surface diffusion is involved in redistributing extruded Ni and producing facetted surface features. In respect to Ti diffusion towards the surface the authors have to record a distinction between the process and the classical Wagner models of frontal internal oxidation which applies to Ag-In and Ni-Al.

    • Size confined magnetic phase in NiO nanoparticles

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Chhaganlal Gandhi, Ashish; Cheng, Hui-Yu; Chang, Yu-Ming; Lin, Jauyn Grace

      2016-03-01

      The question of whether NiO nanoparticles contain metallic ferromagnetic Ni clusters is still a matter of debate, and it is very important from an application point of view. Resolving this problem relies on proper detection probes with high sensitivity and a systematic analysis that would be demonstrated in this study. NiO nanoparticles with mean size ranging from ∼4 to 80 nm are synthesized by sol-gel method. Synchrotron x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Raman and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectroscopy are used to study the size effects on the structures and magnetic properties of nanoparticles. It is found that a minor Ni phase below 1% in NiO nanoparticles is traceable with synchrotron XRD, selective area electron diffraction and static/dynamic magnetic measurements. The Ni phase only exists in NiO nanoparticles with the size ranging from 8 to 20 nm, attributed to the oxygen vacancies in core structure. Our findings provide important information for controlling the magnetic properties of NiO nanoparticles.

    • The 50 Ah NiH2 CPV qualification tests

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Garner, J. C.; Barnes, Wilbert L.; Hickman, Gary L.

      1995-01-01

      In 1992, the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) started a program to qualify a large diameter common pressure vessel (CPV) nickel-hydrogen (NiH2) batteries for use on future Navy/NRL spacecraft electrical power subsystems. NRL's involvement with the qualification of CPV NiH2 batteries dates back to 1988 when COMSAT and Johnson Controls, Inc. initiated a joint effort to fly the first ever NiH2 CPV in space. A later NRL-JCI cooperative research and development agreement led to the launch of a space experiment in 1993 and to the use of a single NiH2 CPV battery on the BMDO Clementine spacecraft in 1994. NRL initiated procurement of two, 50 Ah CPV NiH2 batteries in the Fall of 1992. The two batteries were delivered to NRL in June 1994. NiH2 CPV batteries have almost 2x the specific energy (Wh/kg) of nickel cadium batteries and 2x the energy density (Wh/l) of individual pressure vessel NiH2 CPV's. This presentation discusses the results of electrical and mechanical qualification tests conducted at NRL. The tests included electrical characterization, standard capacity, random vibration, peak load, and thermal vacuum. The last slides of the presentation show initial results from the life cycle tests of the second NiH2 CPV battery at 40% depth of discharge and a temperature of 10 C.

    • NiO (bunsenite) is not available to Alyssum species

      Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

      Some species of the genus Alyssum are capable of accumulating up to 30 g kg-1 DW Ni in their leaves when grown on serpentine soils where these species are endemic. The unique ability of Alyssum species to hyperaccumulate high concentration of Ni stimulated basic research toward a better understandi...

    • Autothermal reforming of propane over Ni-based hydrotalcite catalysts.

      PubMed

      Park, Sun-Young; Kim, Jong-Ho; Moon, Dong-Ju; Park, Nam-Cook; Kim, Young-Chul

      2010-05-01

      Ni-based hydrotalcite catalysts were investigated for ATR of propane in a fixed-bed flow reactor. The reactions were carried out with a H2O/C/O2 stream ratio of 3/1/0.73 at temperatures ranging from 300 to 700 degrees C. The solvents used in the manufacture of Ni-based catalysts noble metal/Ni/MgAl catalysts or substituted active material were changed in order to decrease the level of catalyst deactivation. The use of a mixture of ethanol and water during the formation of the Pd-Ni/MgAl catalyst produced a higher hydrogen yield than that using water only. In addition, the use of acetone in the synthesis of Ru-Ni/MgAl catalyst produced a higher hydrogen yield than using water only. This shows that the solvents used for the noble metals affect the degree of dispersion and particle size of the nickel and prevented carbon deposition resulting in the enhanced hydrogen selectivity and catalyst activity. Active metals were substituted during the preparation of hydrotalcite catalysts. Among the catalysts prepared with various ratio (Ni:Fe) tested at high temperature, the ratio, Ni:Fe = 75:25, showed best performance. There was less sintering of Ni particles due to substitution of the active metal at the optimal ratio. PMID:20358916

  1. Lanthanide Al-Ni base Ericsson cycle magnetic refrigerants

    DOEpatents

    Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A.; Takeya, Hiroyuki

    1995-10-31

    A magnetic refrigerant for a magnetic refrigerator using the Ericsson thermodynamic cycle comprises DyAlNi and (Gd.sub.0.54 Er.sub.0.46)AlNi alloys having a relatively constant .DELTA.Tmc over a wide temperature range.

  2. Spin Seebeck effect through antiferromagnetic NiO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Arati; Brangham, Jack; Yang, Fengyuan; Heremans, Joseph P.

    2016-07-01

    We report temperature-dependent spin Seebeck measurements on Pt/YIG bilayers and Pt/NiO/YIG trilayers, where YIG (yttrium iron garnet, Y3F e5O12 ) is an insulating ferrimagnet and NiO is an antiferromagnet at low temperatures. The thickness of the NiO layer is varied from 0 to 10 nm. In the Pt/YIG bilayers, the temperature gradient applied to the YIG stimulates dynamic spin injection into the Pt, which generates an inverse spin Hall voltage in the Pt. The presence of a NiO layer dampens the spin injection exponentially with a decay length of 2 ± 0.6 nm at 180 K. The decay length increases with temperature and shows a maximum of 5.5 ± 0.8 nm at 360 K. The temperature dependence of the amplitude of the spin Seebeck signal without NiO shows a broad maximum of 6.5 ± 0.5 μV/K at 20 K. In the presence of NiO, the maximum shifts sharply to higher temperatures, likely correlated to the increase in decay length. This implies that NiO is most transparent to magnon propagation near the paramagnet-antiferromagnet transition. We do not see the enhancement in spin current driven into Pt reported in other papers when 1-2 nm NiO layers are sandwiched between Pt and YIG.

  3. Creep and Toughness of Cryomilled NiAl Containing Cr

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. Daniel; Aikin, Beverly; Salem, Jon

    2000-01-01

    NiAl-AlN + Cr composites were produced by blending cryomilled NiAl powder with approx. 10 vol % Cr flakes. In comparison to the as-consolidated matrices, hot isostatically pressed Cr-modified materials did not demonstrate any significant improvement in toughness. Hot extruded NiAl-AlN+10.5Cr, however, possessed a toughness twice that determine for the base NiAl-AlN alloy. Measurement of the 1200 to 1400 K plastic flow properties revealed that the strength of the composites was completely controlled by the properties of the NiAl-AlN matrices. This behavior could be successfully modeled by the Rule-of-Mixtures, where load is shed from the weak Cr to the strong matrix.

  4. NiTi superelastic orthodontic archwires with polyamide coating.

    PubMed

    Bravo, L A; de Cabañes, A González; Manero, J M; Rúperez, E; Gil, F Javier

    2014-02-01

    Twenty orthodontic archwires with 55.2% Ni and 44.8% Ti (% weight) were subjected to a dipping treatment to coat the NiTi surface by a polyamide polymer. It has been selected a Polyamide 11 due to its remarkable long lasting performance. The transformation temperatures as well as the transformation stresses of the NiTi alloy were determined in order to know whether the coating process can alter its properties. The adhesive wear tests have been demonstrated that the wear rates as well as the dynamic friction coefficients μ of polymer coated wires are much lower than metallic wires. The corrosion studies have shown that the use of this polymer, as coating, seals the NiTi surface to prevent corrosion and the release of nickel ions. The average decrease of Ni ions release due to this coating is around 85%. PMID:24154920

  5. Physical and mechanical metallurgy of NiAl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noebe, Ronald D.; Bowman, Randy R.; Nathal, Michael V.

    1994-01-01

    Considerable research has been performed on NiAl over the last decade, with an exponential increase in effort occurring over the last few years. This is due to interest in this material for electronic, catalytic, coating and especially high-temperature structural applications. This report uses this wealth of new information to develop a complete description of the properties and processing of NiAl and NiAl-based materials. Emphasis is placed on the controlling fracture and deformation mechanisms of single and polycrystalline NiAl and its alloys over the entire range of temperatures for which data are available. Creep, fatigue, and environmental resistance of this material are discussed. In addition, issues surrounding alloy design, development of NiAl-based composites, and materials processing are addressed.

  6. Benzimidazole based ratiometric and colourimetric chemosensor for Ni(II).

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Deblina; Pramanik, Ajoy Kumar; Mondal, Tapan Kumar

    2016-01-15

    A highly sensitive and selective benzimidazole based colourimetric chemosensor (HL) for the efficient detection of Ni(2+) has been reported. The synthesized chemosensor HL is highly efficient in detecting Ni(2+) over other metal ions that commonly coexist with Ni(2+) in physiological and environmental samples. HL also shows distinct color change from orange yellow to blue visible under the naked eye due to specific binding with Ni(2+). This color change corresponds to a large red shift of the UV-Vis spectrum from 403 nm to 600 nm with a distinct isosbestic point at around 500 nm. The cation sensing property of the receptor HL has been examined by UV-Vis spectroscopy. Electronic structure of the HL-Ni(2+) complex and sensing mechanism has been interpreted by DFT and TDDFT calculations. PMID:26348129

  7. Advanced Chinese NiTi alloy wire and clinical observations.

    PubMed

    Chen, R; Zhi, Y F; Arvystas, M G

    1992-01-01

    Chinese NiTi wire was studied on the bench with six other nickel-titanium-alloy wires. Bending and torsional tests were conducted and temperatures of phase transformation compared. The Chinese NiTi wire was found to have a low stiffness, high springback and constant bending and torsional moments on unloading, in a very large deformation region. It can produce a gentle, nearly constant force. These factors make it desirable for clinical application. Included in this paper are clinical observations of case selected from over 100 patients in current treatment with Chinese NiTi wires. Chinese NiTi wire reduced the leveling and alignment phase of treatment without discomfort to the patient. Chinese NiTi wire can be used in both children and adults. PMID:1445516

  8. Magnetic interactions in NiO at ultrahigh pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potapkin, V.; Dubrovinsky, L.; Sergueev, I.; Ekholm, M.; Kantor, I.; Bessas, D.; Bykova, E.; Prakapenka, V.; Hermann, R. P.; Rüffer, R.; Cerantola, V.; Jönsson, H. J. M.; Olovsson, W.; Mankovsky, S.; Ebert, H.; Abrikosov, I. A.

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic properties of NiO have been studied in the multimegabar pressure range by nuclear forward scattering of synchrotron radiation using the 67.4 keV Mössbauer transition of 61Ni. The observed magnetic hyperfine splitting confirms the antiferromagnetic state of NiO up to 280 GPa, the highest pressure where magnetism has been observed so far, in any material. Remarkably, the hyperfine field increases from 8.47 T at ambient pressure to ˜24 T at the highest pressure, ruling out the possibility of a magnetic collapse. A joint x-ray diffraction and extended x-ray-absorption fine structure investigation reveals that NiO remains in a distorted sodium chloride structure in the entire studied pressure range. Ab initio calculations support the experimental observations, and further indicate a complete absence of Mott transition in NiO up to at least 280 GPa.

  9. Structural and oxidation properties of CoNi nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilera-Granja, Faustino; Montejano-Carrizales, Juan Martin; Vogel, Eugenio E.

    2016-06-01

    Nanocylinders made out of CoNi alloys offer interesting properties which are dependent on the proportion of the constituent elements, the preparation methods and the thermal history of the sample. In the present paper we calculate the structural and electronic properties of Co1- x Ni x alloys at subnanoscopic level. SIESTA program is used to relax the structures following standard protocols. Relative positions of the minority atoms (Ni) are varied aiming to find the lowest energy configurations. It is found that Ni atoms minimize energy at surface positions mainly at the ends of the cylinders. The implications of this result in the magnetic properties of the systems are discussed. The work is continued to study the oxidation properties of the different possible surface compositions. It is found that surfaces of Ni are more resistant to oxidation than Co ones. The combination of the two previous results can lead to cylinders with high magnetic coercivity and relatively high resistance to oxidation.

  10. Magnetic interactions in NiO at ultrahigh pressure

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Potapkin, Vasily; Dubrovinsky, Leonid; Sergueev, I.; Ekholm, M.; Kantor, Innokenty; Bessas, D.; Bykova, E.; Prakapenka, V.; Hermann, Raphael P.; Rueffer, Rudolf; et al

    2016-05-24

    Here, magnetic properties of NiO have been studied in the multimegabar pressure range by nuclear forward scattering of synchrotron radiation using the 67.4 keV M ssbauer transition of 61Ni. The observed magnetic hyperfine splitting confirms the antiferromagnetic state of NiO up to 280 GPa, the highest pressure where magnetism has been observed so far, in any material. Remarkably, the hyperfine field increases from 8.47 T at ambient pressure to ~24 T at the highest pressure, ruling out the possibility of a magnetic collapse. A joint x-ray diffraction and extended x-ray-absorption fine structure investigation reveals that NiO remains in a distortedmore » sodium chloride structure in the entire studied pressure range. Ab initio calculations support the experimental observations, and further indicate a complete absence of Mott transition in NiO up to at least 280 GPa.« less

  11. Very early warning of next El Niño.

    PubMed

    Ludescher, Josef; Gozolchiani, Avi; Bogachev, Mikhail I; Bunde, Armin; Havlin, Shlomo; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim

    2014-02-11

    The most important driver of climate variability is the El Niño Southern Oscillation, which can trigger disasters in various parts of the globe. Despite its importance, conventional forecasting is still limited to 6 mo ahead. Recently, we developed an approach based on network analysis, which allows projection of an El Niño event about 1 y ahead. Here we show that our method correctly predicted the absence of El Niño events in 2012 and 2013 and now announce that our approach indicated (in September 2013 already) the return of El Niño in late 2014 with a 3-in-4 likelihood. We also discuss the relevance of the next El Niño to the question of global warming and the present hiatus in the global mean surface temperature. PMID:24516172

  12. Novel investigation on nanostructure Ni-P-Ag composite coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alirezaei, S.; Vaghefi, S. M. Monir; Ürgen, M.; Saatchi, A.; Kazmanli, K.

    2012-11-01

    In this research, silver particles with different contents were co-deposited within Ni-P coating on AISI 1045 steel samples by electroless plating process and then Ni-P-Ag composite coatings were heat treated at 400 °C for 1 h. The concentration of silver particles in Ni-P metallic matrix was determined by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and image analysis software. The phase transformation of deposits was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). Also, the mechanical properties of coatings were evaluated by microhardness and indentation tests. The results showed that the content of silver particles and heat treatment have the great effects on hardness and mechanical properties of Ni-P-Ag electroless composite coatings. Also, heat treatment can lead only to phase transformation in metallic matrix of nanostucture Ni-P-Ag composite coatings.

  13. Microwave absorption properties of Ni/(C, silicides) nanocapsules

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The microwave absorption properties of Ni/(C, silicides) nanocapsules prepared by an arc discharge method have been studied. The composition and the microstructure of the Ni/(C, silicides) nanocapsules were determined by means of X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectric spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscope observations. Silicides, in the forms of SiOx and SiC, mainly exist in the shells of the nanocapsules and result in a large amount of defects at the ‘core/shell’ interfaces as well as in the shells. The complex permittivity and microwave absorption properties of the Ni/(C, silicides) nanocapsules are improved by the doped silicides. Compared with those of Ni/C nanocapsules, the positions of maximum absorption peaks of the Ni/(C, silicides) nanocapsules exhibit large red shifts. An electric dipole model is proposed to explain this red shift phenomenon. PMID:22548846

  14. Benzimidazole based ratiometric and colourimetric chemosensor for Ni(II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Deblina; Pramanik, Ajoy Kumar; Mondal, Tapan Kumar

    2016-01-01

    A highly sensitive and selective benzimidazole based colourimetric chemosensor (HL) for the efficient detection of Ni2 + has been reported. The synthesized chemosensor HL is highly efficient in detecting Ni2 + over other metal ions that commonly coexist with Ni2 + in physiological and environmental samples. HL also shows distinct color change from orange yellow to blue visible under the naked eye due to specific binding with Ni2 +. This color change corresponds to a large red shift of the UV-Vis spectrum from 403 nm to 600 nm with a distinct isosbestic point at around 500 nm. The cation sensing property of the receptor HL has been examined by UV-Vis spectroscopy. Electronic structure of the HL-Ni2 + complex and sensing mechanism has been interpreted by DFT and TDDFT calculations.

  15. Photosensitivity of the Ni-n-GaAs Schottky barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Melebaev, D.; Melebaeva, G. D.; Rud', V. Yu. Rud', Yu. V.

    2009-01-15

    The method of chemical deposition is used to form the structures with the Ni-n-GaAs Schottky barrier. The thickness of the Ni layers with a specular outer surface was varied within the range of 150-220 A. It was experimentally observed for the first time that photosensitivity of the obtained barriers with the semitransparent Ni layers illuminated is practically absent in the Fowler region of the spectrum at hv = 0.9-1.5 eV. This circumstance is related mainly to the fact that, in this case, the Ni layer side of the structure was illuminated, and radiation with the photon energy hv < 1.3 eV was effectively reflected from the nickel surface. It is established that the developed Ni-n-GaAs structures can be used as high-efficiency wide-band photoconverters of both visible and ultraviolet radiation.

  16. Highly efficient Ni@Ni-Pt/La2O3 catalyst for hydrogen generation from hydrous hydrazine decomposition: Effect of Ni-Pt surface alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Yu-Jie; Dai, Hong-Bin; Jiang, Yuan-Yuan; Chen, De-Min; Zhu, Min; Sun, Li-Xian; Wang, Ping

    2015-12-01

    Hydrous hydrazine has received increasing attention as a promising hydrogen carrier owing to its many favorable attributes, such as high hydrogen content, low material cost, stable liquid state at ambient conditions, and free of solid decomposition byproduct. Herein, we report the synthesis of a supported core-shell structured Ni@Ni-Pt/La2O3 catalyst by a combination of co-precipitation and galvanic replacement methods. The catalyst exhibits high catalytic activity and 100% selectivity towards hydrogen generation from hydrous hydrazine at mild conditions, which outperforms most reported hydrous hydrazine decomposition catalysts. The favorable catalytic performance of the Ni@Ni-Pt/La2O3 catalyst is correlated with the Pt-induced electronic and geometric modifications on the catalyst surface.

  17. Hydrides of CeNi/sub 5/, MmNi/sub 5/, Ca/sub 0/ /sub 2/(Ce/sub 0/ /sub 65/Mm/sub 0/ /sub 35/)/sub 0/ /sub 8/Ni/sub 5/, Ca/sub 0/ /sub 2/Ce/sub 0/ /sub 8/Ni/sub 5/, Ca/sub 0/ /sub 2/Mm/sub 0/ /sub 8/Ni/sub 5/, and mixed CeNi/sub 5//MmNi/sub 5/

    SciTech Connect

    Lakner, J.F.; Chow, T.S.

    1982-09-01

    Six intermetallic alloys (CeNi/sub 5/, MmNi/sub 5/, Ca/sub 0/ /sub 2/(Ce/sub 0/ /sub 65/Mm/sub 0/ /sub 35/)/sub 0/ /sub 8/Ni/sub 5/, Ca/sub 0/ /sub 2/Ce/sub 0/ /sub 8/Ni/sub 5/, Ca/sub 0/ /sub 2/Mm/sub 0/ /sub 8/Ni/sub 5/, and a mixed alloy, CeNi/sub 5//MmNi/sub 5/) were investigated with respect to their suitability to provide high hydrogen capacity and their potential for use in providing substantial hydrogen pressure at both low and high temperatures. A second phase of our investigation dealt with ball-milling and hydriding and dehydriding cycles to produce fine particles for use in hydride powder transfer studies. A summary of several Van't Hoff plots is also included for hydride-forming alloys.

  18. Effects of Ni content on nanocrystalline Fe-Co-Ni ternary alloys synthesized by a chemical reduction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chokprasombat, Komkrich; Pinitsoontorn, Supree; Maensiri, Santi

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic properties of Fe-Co-Ni ternary alloys could be altered by changing of the particle size, elemental compositions, and crystalline structures. In this work, Fe50Co50-xNix nanoparticles (x=10, 20, 40, and 50) were prepared by the novel chemical reduction process. Hydrazine monohydrate was used as a reducing agent under the concentrated basic condition with the presence of poly(vinylpyrrolidone). We found that the nanoparticles were composed of Fe, Co and Ni with compositions according to the molar ratio of the metal sources. Interestingly, the particles were well-crystalline at the as-prepared state without post-annealing at high temperature. Increasing Ni content resulted in phase transformation from body centered cubic (bcc) to face centered cubic (fcc). For the fcc phase, the average particle size decreased when increased the Ni content; the Fe50Ni50 nanoparticles had the smallest average size with the narrowest size distribution. In additions, the particles exhibited ferromagnetic properties at room temperature with the coercivities higher than 300 Oe, and the saturation magnetiation decreased with increasing Ni content. These results suggest that the structural and magnetic properties of Fe-Co-Ni alloys could be adjusted by varying the Ni content.

  19. Effect of NiO inserted layer on spin-Hall magnetoresistance in Pt/NiO/YIG heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, T.; Zhan, Q. F.; Yang, H. L.; Zuo, Z. H.; Xie, Y. L.; Liu, L. P.; Zhang, S. L.; Zhang, Y.; Li, H. H.; Wang, B. M.; Wu, Y. H.; Zhang, S.; Li, Run-Wei

    2016-07-01

    We investigate spin-current transport with an antiferromagnetic insulator NiO thin layer by means of the spin-Hall magnetoresistance (SMR) over a wide range of temperature in Pt/NiO/Y3Fe5O12 (Pt/NiO/YIG) heterostructures. The SMR signal is comparable to that without the NiO layer as long as the temperature is near or above the blocking temperature of the NiO, indicating that the magnetic fluctuation of the insulating NiO is essential for transmitting the spin current from the Pt to YIG layer. On the other hand, the SMR signal becomes negligibly small at low temperature, and both conventional anisotropic magnetoresistance and the anomalous Hall resistance are extremely small at any temperature, implying that the insertion of the NiO has completely suppressed the Pt magnetization induced by the YIG magnetic proximity effect (MPE). The dual roles of the thin NiO layer are, to suppress the magnetic interaction or MPE between Pt and YIG, and to maintain efficient spin current transmission at high temperature.

  20. Increasing foliar Zn:Ni or Cu:Ni concentration ratios increase severity of nickel deficiency symptoms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The occurrence of nickel (Ni) deficiency of pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] in orchards is an increasingly common problem. There is uncertainty regarding the primary cause of the problem, as orchard soils have plenty of Ni. The influence of essential micronutrients on the endogenous...

  1. Impact of different El Niño types on the El Niño/IOD relationship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenjun; Wang, Yalan; Jin, Fei-Fei; Stuecker, Malte F.; Turner, Andrew G.

    2015-10-01

    Previous studies reported that positive phases of the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) tend to accompany El Niño during boreal autumn. Here we show that the El Niño/IOD relationship can be better understood when considering two different El Niño flavors. Eastern Pacific El Niño events exhibit a strong correlation with the IOD dependent on their magnitude. In contrast, the relationship between Central Pacific (CP) El Niño events and the IOD depends mainly on the zonal location of the sea surface temperature anomalies rather than their magnitude. CP El Niño events lying farther west than normal are not accompanied by significant anomalous easterlies over the eastern Indian Ocean along the Java/Sumatra coast, which is unfavorable for the local Bjerknes feedback and correspondingly for an IOD development. The El Niño/IOD relationship has experienced substantial changes due to the recent decadal El Niño regime shift, which has important implications for seasonal prediction.

  2. Magnetic Properties of Porous Metal-Organic Frameworks: Ni2(BODC)2(TED) and Ni2(BDC)2(TED)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamida, Youcef; Danilovic, Dusan; Lin, Chyan; Yuen, Tan; Li, Kunhao; Padmanabhan, Moothetty; Li, Jing

    2010-03-01

    Results of χ(T), M(H), and heat capacity C(T) measurements on two Ni dimer based porous materials Ni2(BODC)2(TED) and Ni2(BDC)2(TED) are reported. These materials form a tetragonal crystal structure of space group P4/ncc with a=b = 14.9 å and c = 19.4 å and Ni-Ni separation of 2.61å within the dimer. Magnetic data of Ni2(BODC)2(TED) revealed a ferromagnetic-like transition at about 17 K with θ = 8 K, and a coercivity field of 1700 G was observed in the hysteresis curve. Though isostructural to Ni2(BODC)2(TED), χ(T) and M(H) results of Ni2(BDC)2(TED) showed an antiferromagnetic transition at 10 K with θ = - 132 K, and no hysteresis was observed. Although specific heat data C(T) showed no clear transition in both compounds, nonlinear behavior is clearly seen in C/T vs. T plots, and a fit to the electron and phonon contributions to C(T) gives a large heavy-fermion-like γ in both cases. A model for the magnetic interactions is proposed and a comparison to the Cu and Co analogues is also made.

  3. Amorphous Ni-B alloy nanoparticle film on Ni foam: rapid alternately dipping deposition for efficient overall water splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yanhui; Sun, Xuping; Asiri, Abdullah M.; He, Yuquan

    2016-03-01

    It is highly attractive, but still remains challenging, to develop noble metal-free bifunctional electrocatalysts efficient for both the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in alkaline media. In this letter, we describe the rapid electroless deposition of amorphous Ni-B nanoparticle film on Ni foam (Ni-B/Ni foam) by alternative dipping of Ni foam into Ni precursor and reducing solutions. This Ni-B/Ni foam acts as an efficient and durable 3D catalytic electrode for water splitting, affording 100 mA cm-2 at 360 mV overpotential for the OER and 20 mA cm-2 at 125 mV overpotential for the HER in 1.0 M KOH, and its two-electrode electrolyzer demands a cell voltage of 1.69 V to afford 15 mA cm-2 water-splitting current. Moreover, the catalyst loading can be easily tuned and this alternately dipping deposition technique works universally for other conductive substrates.

  4. Effects of Cr and Ni on Interdiffusion and Reaction between U and Fe-Cr-Ni Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    K. Huang; Y. Park; L. Zhou; K.R. Coffey; Y.H. Sohn; B.H. Sencer; J. R. Kennedy

    2014-08-01

    Metallic U-alloy fuel cladded in steel has been examined for high temperature fast reactor technology wherein the fuel cladding chemical interaction is a challenge that requires a fundamental and quantitative understanding. In order to study the fundamental diffusional interactions between U with Fe and the alloying effect of Cr and Ni, solid-to-solid diffusion couples were assembled between pure U and Fe, Fe–15 wt.%Cr or Fe–15 wt.%Cr–15 wt.%Ni alloy, and annealed at high temperature ranging from 580 to 700 °C. The microstructures and concentration profiles that developed from the diffusion anneal were examined by scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (XEDS), respectively. Thick U6Fe and thin UFe2 phases were observed to develop with solubilities: up to 2.5 at.% Ni in U6(Fe,Ni), up to 20 at.%Cr in U(Fe, Cr)2, and up to 7 at.%Cr and 14 at.% Ni in U(Fe, Cr, Ni)2. The interdiffusion and reactions in the U vs. Fe and U vs. Fe–Cr–Ni exhibited a similar temperature dependence, while the U vs. Fe–Cr diffusion couples, without the presence of Ni, yielded greater activation energy for the growth of intermetallic phases – lower growth rate at lower temperature but higher growth rate at higher temperature.

  5. Amorphous Ni-B alloy nanoparticle film on Ni foam: rapid alternately dipping deposition for efficient overall water splitting.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yanhui; Sun, Xuping; Asiri, Abdullah M; He, Yuquan

    2016-03-29

    It is highly attractive, but still remains challenging, to develop noble metal-free bifunctional electrocatalysts efficient for both the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in alkaline media. In this letter, we describe the rapid electroless deposition of amorphous Ni-B nanoparticle film on Ni foam (Ni-B/Ni foam) by alternative dipping of Ni foam into Ni precursor and reducing solutions. This Ni-B/Ni foam acts as an efficient and durable 3D catalytic electrode for water splitting, affording 100 mA cm(-2) at 360 mV overpotential for the OER and 20 mA cm(-2) at 125 mV overpotential for the HER in 1.0 M KOH, and its two-electrode electrolyzer demands a cell voltage of 1.69 V to afford 15 mA cm(-2) water-splitting current. Moreover, the catalyst loading can be easily tuned and this alternately dipping deposition technique works universally for other conductive substrates. PMID:26891459

  6. Point defect processes in neutron irradiated Ni, Fe-15Cr-16Ni and Ti-added modified SUS316SS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horiki, M.; Yoshiie, T.; Sato, K.; Xu, Q.

    2013-05-01

    The defect structures in Ni, Fe-15Cr-16Ni and Ti-added modified SUS316SS (modified SUS316) were examined after neutron irradiation below 0.3 dpa by the Japan Materials Testing Reactor and Belgian Reactor 2 to compare their defect structural evolution. The growth behaviour of interstitial-type dislocation loops (I-loops), stacking fault tetrahedra (SFTs) and voids was found to be quite different among these specimens. I-loops developed at lower temperatures in Ni than in Fe-15Cr-16Ni and modified SUS316, and more swelling occurred in Ni than in Fe-15Cr-16Ni. Finally, there were no voids in modified SUS316. These results were analysed in terms of the I-loop energy. A large discrepancy was found between the analytical results and experimental observations for Ni and modified SUS316, which suggests the formation of unfaulted I-loops directly from collision cascades. The growth of SFTs was detected in Fe-15Cr-16Ni and modified SUS316, and can be explained by a change in the dislocation bias of SFTs resulting from the absorption of alloying elements.

  7. Grain boundary character distribution of CuNiSi and FeNi alloys processed by severe plastic deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzeddine, H.; Baudin, T.; Helbert, A. L.; Brisset, F.; Larbi, F. Hadj; Tirsatine, K.; Kawasaki, M.; Bradai, D.; Langdon, T. G.

    2015-04-01

    In this work the Grain Boundary Character Distribution (GBCD) in general and the relative proportion of low-Σ CSL (Coincidence Site Lattice) grain boundaries are determined through EBSD in Cu-2.5Ni-0.6Si (wt.%) and Fe-36Ni (wt.%) alloys after processing by high-pressure torsion, equal- channel angular pressing and accumulative roll bonding.

  8. Selectivity of Ni-based surface alloys toward hydrazine adsorption: A DFT study with van der Waals interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yan-Bin; Jia, Jian-Feng; Wu, Hai-Shun

    2015-06-01

    We use dispersion corrected DFT calculations (DFT + D3) to investigate the selectivity of Ni-based surface alloys toward hydrazine adsorption. A series of Ni-M (M = Fe, Pt, Ir, Pd and Rh) alloy films were investigated, namely Ni15/M1/Ni(1 1 1), Ni14/M2/Ni(1 1 1), Ni12/M4/Ni(1 1 1) and Ni8/M8/Ni(1 1 1). Our results show that the doped atoms of Ir, Rh and Fe provide stronger adsorption sites than the Ni atom on the Ni(1 1 1) surface, while the doped atoms of Pt and Pd provide weaker adsorption sites. By analyzing the most favorable adsorption of hydrazine on Ni-M alloy surfaces we found that Ni8Fe8/Ni(1 1 1), Ni8Rh8/Ni(1 1 1), Ni15Ir1/Ni(1 1 1) and Ni14Ir2/Ni(1 1 1) present enhanced adsorption properties if compared to the pure Ni(1 1 1) surface, and seem to be better candidates for hydrazine catalysis, which are in agreement with that found by experiments. The correlation between d-band center position and adsorption energies of top modes in the Ni or doped atom has been calculated at DFT + D3 level to provide further insight into the Ni-based surface alloy properties for hydrazine adsorption.

  9. Highly crystalline Ni/NiO hybrid electrodes processed by inkjet printing and laser-induced reductive sintering under ambient conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rho, Yoonsoo; Kang, Kyung-Tae; Lee, Daeho

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we perform drop-on-demand (DOD) inkjet printing and laser reductive sintering of precrystallized NiO nanoparticle (NP) ink under ambient conditions to obtain NiO/Ni hybrid electrode patterns on a highly localized area. By formulating an inkjet-printable and laser-reducible NiO NP ink, and by exploring the optimum conditions of inkjet printing parameters, we generate stable droplets, enabling arbitrary shapes of NiO NP dot arrays or line patterns to be deposited. Subsequent short-time low-temperature sintering produces highly crystalline NiO electrodes. Furthermore, laser reductive sintering applied on deposited NiO NP patterns can successfully realize a selective transformation of NiO into Ni electrodes under ambient conditions. Therefore, we can define either NiO or Ni electrodes, or a combination of the two on specific areas with precise amounts of ink. In addition, we identify the characteristics of the synthesized NPs, NP ink, NiO and Ni electrodes using various analytical methods.In this study, we perform drop-on-demand (DOD) inkjet printing and laser reductive sintering of precrystallized NiO nanoparticle (NP) ink under ambient conditions to obtain NiO/Ni hybrid electrode patterns on a highly localized area. By formulating an inkjet-printable and laser-reducible NiO NP ink, and by exploring the optimum conditions of inkjet printing parameters, we generate stable droplets, enabling arbitrary shapes of NiO NP dot arrays or line patterns to be deposited. Subsequent short-time low-temperature sintering produces highly crystalline NiO electrodes. Furthermore, laser reductive sintering applied on deposited NiO NP patterns can successfully realize a selective transformation of NiO into Ni electrodes under ambient conditions. Therefore, we can define either NiO or Ni electrodes, or a combination of the two on specific areas with precise amounts of ink. In addition, we identify the characteristics of the synthesized NPs, NP ink, NiO and Ni electrodes

  10. Sound velocity and elastic properties of Fe-Ni and Fe-Ni-C liquids at high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwabara, Soma; Terasaki, Hidenori; Nishida, Keisuke; Shimoyama, Yuta; Takubo, Yusaku; Higo, Yuji; Shibazaki, Yuki; Urakawa, Satoru; Uesugi, Kentaro; Takeuchi, Akihisa; Kondo, Tadashi

    2016-03-01

    The sound velocity ( V P) of liquid Fe-10 wt% Ni and Fe-10 wt% Ni-4 wt% C up to 6.6 GPa was studied using the ultrasonic pulse-echo method combined with synchrotron X-ray techniques. The obtained V P of liquid Fe-Ni is insensitive to temperature, whereas that of liquid Fe-Ni-C tends to decrease with increasing temperature. The V P values of both liquid Fe-Ni and Fe-Ni-C increase with pressure. Alloying with 10 wt% of Ni slightly reduces the V P of liquid Fe, whereas alloying with C is likely to increase the V P. However, a difference in V P between liquid Fe-Ni and Fe-Ni-C becomes to be smaller at higher temperature. By fitting the measured V P data with the Murnaghan equation of state, the adiabatic bulk modulus ( K S0) and its pressure derivative ( K S ' ) were obtained to be K S0 = 103 GPa and K S ' = 5.7 for liquid Fe-Ni and K S0 = 110 GPa and K S ' = 7.6 for liquid Fe-Ni-C. The calculated density of liquid Fe-Ni-C using the obtained elastic parameters was consistent with the density values measured directly using the X-ray computed tomography technique. In the relation between the density ( ρ) and sound velocity ( V P) at 5 GPa (the lunar core condition), it was found that the effect of alloying Fe with Ni was that ρ increased mildly and V P decreased, whereas the effect of C dissolution was to decrease ρ but increase V P. In contrast, alloying with S significantly reduces both ρ and V P. Therefore, the effects of light elements (C and S) and Ni on the ρ and V P of liquid Fe are quite different under the lunar core conditions, providing a clue to constrain the light element in the lunar core by comparing with lunar seismic data.

  11. Superconducting proximity effect in NiBi3-Ni-NiBi3 trilayer system with sharp superconductor-ferromagnet boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siva, Vantari; Pradhan, Paresh C.; Santosh Babu, G.; Nayak, Maheswar; Sahoo, Pratap K.; Senapati, Kartik

    2016-02-01

    We have studied the superconducting proximity effect in a series of e-beam evaporated Bi-Ni-Bi trilayers, where diffusion of Bi into Ni spontaneously formed superconducting NiBi3 layers at both Ni-Bi interfaces, effectively resulting in superconductor-ferromagnet-superconductor (S-F-S) trilayers. The thickness of top and bottom superconducting layers was found to be different with slightly different transition temperatures. Both resistive transition temperatures in the series of S-F-S trilayers showed 0-π crossover as a function of ferromagnetic Ni thickness. The zero bias conductance calculated from the in-plane current-voltage measurements also confirmed the 0-π crossovers. The possibility of proximity effect in the superconducting fluctuation regime, above transition temperature, was investigated via in-plane magneto-transport measurements at 4 K. We observed clear modulations in magneto-resistance (MR) and in low-field MR-hysteresis at 4 K, in contrast to their monotonic behavior at 10 K. Although the period of these modulations was commensurate with the observed periodicity of 0-π crossovers, the nature of these modulations was found to be the same in both 0 and π regimes. This observation suggested that in the superconducting fluctuation regime the apparent modulations of MR and MR-hysteresis were due to the variations in densities of superconducting fluctuations in individual NiBi3 layers, and not due to the proximity coupling between the superconducting layers.

  12. Reinspecting two types of El Niño: a new pair of Niño indices for improving real-time ENSO monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chundi; Yang, Song; Wu, Qigang; Zhang, Tuantan; Zhang, Chengyang; Li, Yana; Deng, Kaiqiang; Wang, Teng; Chen, Junwen

    2016-03-01

    This study reinspects the dominant modes of different types of El Niño from the perspectives of monthly mean and seasonality using a combined technique referred as RC-REOF. Several features have been revealed. (1) The explained variances of eastern Pacific (EP) El Niño and central Pacific (CP) El Niño are comparable, in the ranges of 33-43 and 23-28 %, respectively. (2) This feature is more in line with the frequent occurrence of CP El Niño compared to the result from orthogonal EOF analysis in which El Niño Modoki explains a smaller variance of 11-12 %. (3) Both special patterns of EP El Niño and CP El Niño are of equatorial asymmetry that is often overlooked previously by the traditional Niño indices. Based on the features captured by the two leading RC-REOF modes, the authors propose a new pair of Niño indices referred to as Niño3b and Niño4b that have the following advantages: (1) simple calculation, (2) robust and stable relationship with the EP/CP El Niño modes, (3) more representative for Pacific decadal signals, (4) easier to distinguish ENSO types, and (5) without restriction by orthogonality, and others. The Niño3b and Niño4b indices are potentially useful for both scientific research and real-time monitoring of the two types of El Niño. Besides, an index namely Niño3.4b is also introduced to describe the hybrid ENSO events, with relatively equal covariance to EP El Niño and CP El Niño and with larger covariance at decadal time scale than index Niño3.4.

  13. Interdiffusion and intrinsic diffusion in the NiAl /delta/ phase of the Al-Ni system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shankar, S.; Seigle, L. L.

    1978-01-01

    Interdiffusion coefficients at 950 to 1150 C and the ratio of intrinsic diffusion coefficients at 1100 C were measured as functions of composition in the NiAl (delta) phase of the Al-Ni system, using a vapor-solid technique. Diffusivity values were also obtained for the Ni3Al (epsilon) and Ni (Al) solid solution (zeta) phases from 950 to 1150 C. The interdiffusion coefficient in NiAl (delta) varies several orders of magnitude over the delta phase field with a deep minimum in the diffusivity-composition curve at 48 to 49 at% Al. The ratio of intrinsic diffusion coefficients DNi/DAl, in the delta phase also varies with composition from a value of 3 to 3.5 below 50 at% Al to 0.1 or less above 50 at% Al.

  14. Electrochemical kinetic performances of electroplating Co-Ni on La-Mg-Ni-based hydrogen storage alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuan; Tao, Yang; Ke, Dandan; Ma, Yufei; Han, Shumin

    2015-12-01

    Electroplating Co-Ni treatment was applied to the surface of the La0.75Mg0.25Ni3.48 alloy electrodes in order to improve the electrochemical and kinetic performances. The Scanning electron microscope-Energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction results showed that the electrodes were plated with a homogeneous Co-Ni alloy film. The alloy coating significantly improved the high rate dischargeability of the alloy electrode, and the HRD value increased to 57.5% at discharge current density 1875 mA/g after the Co-Ni-coating. The exchange current density I0, the limiting current density IL and the oxidation peak current also increased for the coated alloy. The improvement of overall electrode performances was attributed to an enhancement in electro-catalytic activity and conductivity at the alloy surface, owing to the precipitation of the Co-Ni layer.

  15. NiSi formation at the silicide/Si interface on the NiPt/Si system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ottaviani, G.; Tu, K. N.; Chu, W. K.; Hung, L. S.; Mayer, J. W.

    1982-07-01

    Alloy films of NiPt were e-beam codeposited on n-type Si and annealed up to 700 °C in a purified- He ambient furnace. Silicide formation was monitored using MeV4 He Rutherford backscattering and glancing-angle x-ray diffraction. At low temperatures (300-350 °C), Ni segregates at the Si/ silicide interface and the first phases detected are NiSi and PtSi. At intermediate temperatures (400- 500 °C), there is further accumulation of Ni at the Si/silicide interface, and at later stages an incursion of Pt to the interface. The barrier height increase reflects the presence of Pt. At 700 °C, the Ni and Pt redistribute to form a uniform ternary.

  16. Enhanced Dry Reforming of Methane on Ni and Ni-Pt Catalysts Synthesized by Atomic Layer Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Gould, Troy D.; Montemore, Matthew M.; Lubers, Alia M.; Ellis, Lucas D.; Weimer, Alan; Falconer, John L.; Medlin, James W.

    2015-02-25

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) was used to deposit Ni and Pt on alumina supports to form monometallic and bimetallic catalysts with initial particle sizes of 1–2.4 nm. The ALD catalysts were more active (per mass of metal) than catalysts prepared by incipient wetness (IW) for dry reforming of methane (DRM), and they did not form carbon whiskers during reaction due to their sufficiently small size. Catalysts modified by Pt ALD had higher rates of reaction per mass of metal and inhibited coking, whereas NiPt catalysts synthesized by IW still formed carbon whiskers. Temperature-programmed reduction of Ni catalysts modified by Pt ALD indicated the presence of bimetallic interaction. Density functional theory calculations suggested that under reaction conditions, the NiPt surfaces form Ni-terminated surfaces that are associated with higher DRM rates (due to their C and O adsorption energies, as well as the CO formation and CH4 dissociation energies).

  17. Structural Electronic and Magnetic Properties of Quasi-1D Quantum Magnets [Ni(HF2)(pyz)2]X (pyz = pyrazine; X = PF6- SbF6-) Exhibiting Ni-FHF-Ni and Ni-pyz-Ni Spin Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    J Manson; S Lapidus; P Stephens; P Peterson; K Carreiro; H Southerland; T Lancaster; S Blundell; A Steele; et al.

    2011-12-31

    [Ni(HF{sub 2})(pyz){sub 2}]X {l_brace}pyz = pyrazine; X = PF{sub 6}{sup -} (1), SbF{sub 6}{sup -} (2){r_brace} were structurally characterized by synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction and found to possess axially compressed NiN{sub 4}F{sub 2} octahedra. At 298 K, 1 is monoclinic (C2/c) with unit cell parameters, a = 9.9481(3), b = 9.9421(3), c = 12.5953(4) {angstrom}, and {beta} = 81.610(3){sup o} while 2 is tetragonal (P4/nmm) with a = b = 9.9359(3) and c = 6.4471(2) {angstrom} and is isomorphic with the Cu-analogue. Infinite one-dimensional (1D) Ni-FHF-Ni chains propagate along the c-axis which are linked via {mu}-pyz bridges in the ab-plane to afford three-dimensional polymeric frameworks with PF{sub 6}{sup -} and SbF{sub 6}{sup -} counterions occupying the interior sites. A major difference between 1 and 2 is that the Ni-F-H bonds are bent (157{sup o}) in 1 but are linear in 2. Ligand field calculations (LFT) based on an angular overlap model (AOM), with comparison to the electronic absorption spectra, indicate greater {pi}-donation of the HF{sub 2}{sup -} ligand in 1 owing to the bent Ni-F-H bonds. Magnetic susceptibility data for 1 and 2 exhibit broad maxima at 7.4 and 15 K, respectively, and {lambda}-like peaks in dxT/dT at 6.2 and 12.2 K that are ascribed to transitions to long-range antiferromagnetic order (TN). Muon-spin relaxation and specific heat studies confirm these TN's. A comparative analysis of x vs T to various 1D Heisenberg/Ising models suggests moderate antiferromagnetic interactions, with the primary interaction strength determined to be 3.05/3.42 K (1) and 5.65/6.37 K (2). However, high critical fields of 19 and 37.4 T obtained from low temperature pulsed-field magnetization data indicate that a single exchange constant (J1D) alone is insufficient to explain the data and that residual terms in the spin Hamiltonian, which could include interchain magnetic couplings (J), as mediated by Ni-pyz-Ni, and single-ion anisotropy (D), must be considered

  18. K{sup 0} and {lambda} production in Ni+Ni collisions near threshold

    SciTech Connect

    Merschmeyer, M.; Herrmann, N.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; Cordier, E.; Mangiarotti, A.; Pelte, D.; Xiao, Z. G.; Lopez, X.; Andronic, A.; Hartmann, O. N.; Hildenbrand, K. D.; Koczon, P.; Leifels, Y.; Reisdorf, W.; Schuettauf, A.; Bastid, N.; Crochet, P.; Barret, V.; Dupieux, P.

    2007-08-15

    New results concerning the production of neutral strange particles, K{sup 0} and {lambda} in Ni+Ni collisions at 1.93A GeV, measured with the FOPI detector at GSI Darmstadt, are presented. Rapidity density distributions and Boltzmann slope parameter distributions are measured in nearly the full phase space of the reaction. The observables are compared to existing K{sup +} and proton data. While the K{sup 0} data agree with previously reported K{sup +} measurements, the {lambda} distributions show a different behavior relative to that of protons. The strangeness balance and the production yield per participating nucleon as a function of the centrality of the reaction are discussed, for the first time at GSI Schwerionen Synchrotron (SIS) energies.

  19. Ultrahigh Tensile Strength Nanowires with a Ni/Ni-Au Multilayer Nanocrystalline Structure.

    PubMed

    An, Boo Hyun; Jeon, In Tak; Seo, Jong-Hyun; Ahn, Jae-Pyoung; Kraft, Oliver; Choi, In-Suk; Kim, Young Keun

    2016-06-01

    Superior mechanical properties of nanolayered structures have attracted great interest recently. However, previously fabricated multilayer metallic nanostructures have high strength under compressive load but never reached such high strength under tensile loads. Here, we report that our microalloying-based electrodeposition method creates a strong and stable Ni/Ni-Au multilayer nanocrystalline structure by incorporating Au atoms that makes nickel nanowires (NWs) strongest ever under tensile loads even with diameters exceeding 200 nm. When the layer thickness is reduced to 10 nm, the tensile strength reaches the unprecedentedly high 7.4 GPa, approximately 10 times that of metal NWs with similar diameters, and exceeding that of most metal nanostructures previously reported at any scale. PMID:27159629

  20. Physical and electrochemical area determination of electrodeposited Ni, Co, and NiCo thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gira, Matthew J.; Tkacz, Kevin P.; Hampton, Jennifer R.

    2016-01-01

    The surface area of electrodeposited thin films of Ni, Co, and NiCo was evaluated using electrochemical double-layer capacitance, electrochemical area measurements using the [Ru(NH_3)_6]^{3+}/[Ru(NH_3)_6]^{2+} redox couple, and topographic atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging. These three methods were compared to each other for each composition separately and for the entire set of samples regardless of composition. Double-layer capacitance measurements were found to be positively correlated to the roughness factors determined by AFM topography. Electrochemical area measurements were found to be less correlated with measured roughness factors as well as applicable only to two of the three compositions studied. The results indicate that in situ double-layer capacitance measurements are a practical, versatile technique for estimating the accessible surface area of a metal sample.

  1. Investigation of superplastic behavior of NiAl and Ni{sub 3}Al duplex alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Zhenyun; Lin Dongliang; Gu Yuefeng; Shan Aidang

    1997-12-31

    The superplastic behavior of a NiAl and Ni{sub 3}Al duplex alloy was investigated. It was found that the alloy exhibits superplastic behavior over a narrow temperature range, from 975 C to 1,025 C at the strain rate of 1.52 {times} 10{sup {minus}4}s{sup {minus}1}. A maximum tensile elongation of 149% was obtained at 1,000 C with the strain rate sensitivity up to 0.375. The superplastic deformation of the duplex alloy can be approximately described by an empirical equation of the form: {dot {var_epsilon}} = Ao{sup 2.67} exp({minus}303,000/RT). Optical microstructure and TEM observation show that the superplastic behavior mechanism of the investigated alloy is a process of continuous recovery and recrystallization during deformation.

  2. Formation of textured Ni(200) and Ni(111) films by magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzhumaliev, A. S.; Nikulin, Yu. V.; Filimonov, Yu. A.

    2016-06-01

    The effect of the working gas pressure ( P ≈ 1.33-0.09 Pa) and the substrate temperature ( T s ≈ 77-550 K) on the texture and the microstructure of nickel films deposited by magnetron sputtering onto SiO2/Si substrates is studied. Ni(200) films with a transition type of microstructure are shown to form at growth parameters P ≈ 0.13-0.09 Pa and T s ≈ 300-550 K, which ensure a high migration ability of nickel adatoms on a substrate. This transition type is characterized by a change of the film structure from quasi-homogeneous to quasi-columnar when a film reaches a critical thickness. Ni(111) films with a columnar microstructure and high porosity form at a low migration ability, which takes place at P ≈ 1.33-0.3 Pa or upon cooling a substrate to T s ≈ 77 K.

  3. Microstructure and property of directionally solidified Ni-Si hypereutectic alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Chunjuan; Tian, Lulu; Zhang, Jun; Yu, Shengnan; Liu, Lin; Fu, Hengzhi

    2016-03-01

    This paper investigates the influence of the solidification rate on the microstructure, solid/liquid interface, and micro-hardness of the directionally solidified Ni-Si hypereutectic alloy. Microstructure of the Ni-Si hypereutectic alloy is refined with the increase of the solidification rate. The Ni-Si hypereutectic composite is mainly composed of α-Ni matrix, Ni-Ni3Si eutectic phase, and metastable Ni31Si12 phase. The solid/liquid interface always keeps planar interface no matter how high the solidification rate is increased. This is proved by the calculation in terms of M-S interface stability criterion. Moreover, the Ni-Si hypereutectic composites present higher micro-hardness as compared with that of the pure Ni3Si compound. This is caused by the formation of the metastable Ni31Si12 phase and NiSi phase during the directional solidification process.

  4. Segmented Pt/Ru, Pt/Ni, and Pt/RuNi nanorods as model bifunctional catalysts for methanol oxidation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Lee, Jim Yang; Zhou, Wei Jiang

    2006-01-01

    Five-segment (Pt-Ru-Pt-Ru-Pt, Pt-Ni-Pt-Ni-Pt, and Pt-RuNi-Pt-RuNi-Pt) nanorods with the same overall rod length and the same total Pt segment length were prepared by sequential electrodeposition of the metals into the pores of commercially available anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) showed that the nanorods were about 210 nm in diameter and about 1.5 microm in length. The alternating Pt and oxophilic metal(s) segments could be easily differentiated in backscattered-electron images. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the nanorods indicated that Pt and Ni were polycrystalline with fcc structures, Ru was hcp, and the co-deposited RuNi adopted the nickel fcc structure with some negative shifts in the Bragg angles. The chemical states of Pt, Ru, and Ni on the nanorod surface were assayed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and the presence of Pt(0), Pt(II), Pt(IV), Ru(0), Ru(VI), Ni(0), and Ni(II) was observed. The nanorods were catalytically active for the room-temperature electrooxidation of methanol in acidic solutions. The relative rates of reaction showed the Pt-RuNi pair sites as having the lowest overpotential to dissociate water, the highest catalytic activity in methanol oxidation, and the strongest CO-tolerance in the potential window employed. The use of segmented nanorods with identifiable Pt-oxophilic metal(s) interfaces removes many of the ambiguities in the interpretation of experimental data from conventional alloy catalysts, thereby enabling a direct comparison of the activities of various types of pair sites in methanol oxidation. PMID:17193567

  5. The first principle study of Ni{sub 2}ScGa and Ni{sub 2}TiGa

    SciTech Connect

    Özduran, Mustafa; Turgut, Kemal; Arikan, Nihat; İyigör, Ahmet; Candan, Abdullah

    2014-10-06

    We computed the electronic structure, elastic moduli, vibrational properties, and Ni{sub 2}TiGa and Ni{sub 2}ScGa alloys in the cubic L2{sub 1} structure. The obtained equilibrium lattice constants of these alloys are in good agreement with available data. In cubic systems, there are three independent elastic constants, namely C{sub 11}, C{sub 12} and C{sub 44}. We calculated elastic constants in L2{sub 1} structure for Ni{sub 2}TiGa and Ni{sub 2}ScGa using the energy-strain method. The electronic band structure, total and partial density of states for these alloys were investigated within density functional theory using the plane-wave pseudopotential method implemented in Quantum-Espresso program package. From band structure, total and projected density of states, we observed metallic characters of these compounds. The electronic calculation indicate that the predominant contributions of the density of states at Fermi level come from the Ni 3d states and Sc 3d states for Ni{sub 2}TiGa, Ni 3d states and Sc 3d states for Ni{sub 2}ScGa. The computed density of states at Fermi energy are 2.22 states/eV Cell for Ni{sub 2}TiGa, 0.76 states/eV Cell for Ni{sub 2}ScGa. The vibrational properties were obtained using a linear response in the framework at the density functional perturbation theory. For the alloys, the results show that the L2{sub 1} phase is unstable since the phonon calculations have imagine modes.

  6. Thin gold layer in NiCo and Ni electroforming process: optical surface characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sironi, G.; Spiga, D.; Raimondi, L.; Pareschi, G.; Orlandi, A.; Borghi, G.; Missaglia, N.; Negri, B.

    2010-07-01

    Mandrel replication by NiCo electroforming is an upgrade of the well-suited X-ray mirrors manufacturing process with pure Nickel. In this process, a Gold layer deposited on the mandrel acts as release agent and, at the same time, as reflective coating. To increase the optical performances of X-ray mirrors, the replicated optical surface is meant to reproduce the smooth topography of the mandrel: a surface degradation is commonly observed, indeed. A factor leading to surface smoothness worsening can be the spontaneous roughness growth of the Gold layer itself; therefore, the optical quality of the reflecting surface might be improved by optimizing the Gold layer thickness. A preliminary study, aimed at investigating the effects of Gold thickness reduction (< 100 nm Vs. the usual 200 nm), had already been dealt in the spectral range 0.02-1000 μm: measurements performed on flat electroformed samples showed that the Gold thickness reduction chiefly affects the roughness around 1 μm. Here we presents a study of the effectiveness of a Gold layer with reduced (< 100 nm) thickness in the NiCo X-ray mirrors electroforming, aimed at surface micro-roughness mitigation. The characterization, in the spectral range 0.02-1000 μm, of 3 X-ray mirrors manufactured utilizing Gold layers with different thickness values from a flight mandrel is reported. The performed investigation is organized as follows: (a) characterization of the flight mandrel; (b) dependence of the micro-roughness from different Gold layers thicknesses supported by XRD study; (c) comparison of the micro-roughness of mirrors manufactured in NiCo in Ni, with the same Gold layer thickness. As a conclusive remark the effects of the Gold layer thinning on the angular degradation at high energy are reported.

  7. Experimental study of the 66Ni(d ,p ) 67Ni one-neutron transfer reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diriken, J.; Patronis, N.; Andreyev, A.; Antalic, S.; Bildstein, V.; Blazhev, A.; Darby, I. G.; De Witte, H.; Eberth, J.; Elseviers, J.; Fedosseev, V. N.; Flavigny, F.; Fransen, Ch.; Georgiev, G.; Gernhauser, R.; Hess, H.; Huyse, M.; Jolie, J.; Kröll, Th.; Krücken, R.; Lutter, R.; Marsh, B. A.; Mertzimekis, T.; Muecher, D.; Orlandi, R.; Pakou, A.; Raabe, R.; Randisi, G.; Reiter, P.; Roger, T.; Seidlitz, M.; Seliverstov, M.; Sotty, C.; Tornqvist, H.; Van De Walle, J.; Van Duppen, P.; Voulot, D.; Warr, N.; Wenander, F.; Wimmer, K.

    2015-05-01

    The quasi-SU(3) sequence of the positive parity ν g9 /2,d5 /2,s1 /2 orbitals above the N =40 shell gap are assumed to induce strong quadrupole collectivity in the neutron-rich Fe (Z =26 ) and Cr (Z =24 ) isotopes below the nickel region. In this paper the position and strength of these single-particle orbitals are characterized in the neighborhood of 68Ni (Z =28 ,N =40 ) through the 66Ni(d ,p )67Ni one-neutron transfer reaction at 2.95 MeV/nucleon in inverse kinematics, performed at the REX-ISOLDE facility in CERN. A combination of the Miniball γ -array and T-REX particle-detection setup was used and a delayed coincidence technique was employed to investigate the 13.3-μ s isomer at 1007 keV in 67Ni. Excited states up to an excitation energy of 5.8 MeV have been populated. Feeding of the ν g9 /2 (1007 keV) and ν d5 /2 (2207 keV and 3277 keV) positive-parity neutron states and negative parity (ν p f ) states have been observed at low excitation energy. The extracted relative spectroscopic factors, based on a distorted-wave Born approximation analysis, show that the ν d5 /2 single-particle strength is mostly split over these two excited states. The results are also compared to the distribution of the proton single-particle strength in the 90Zr region (Z =40 ,N =50 ) .

  8. Structure, stability and magnetic properties of (NiAl)n(n≤6) clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Jun-Qing; Zhang, Jian-Min; Chen, Guo-Xiang; Zhang, Xiao-Zhen; Wen, Zhen-Yi

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, density functional theory with generalized gradient approximation (GGA) for the exchange-correlation potential has been used to calculate the energetically global-minimum geometries and electronic states of (NiAl)n(n≤6) clusters. Full structural optimizations, analysis of energy and frequency calculation are performed. The most stable structures of (NiAl)n clusters are all three-dimensional structures except NiAl. The average bond lengths of (NiAl)n clusters are larger than that of Ni2n, and are smaller than that of Al2n. The binding energy per atom of Ni2n and (NiAl)n has the same change trend, and that are larger than that of Al2n. Stability analysis shows that Ni8, (NiAl)2 and Al10 clusters have higher relative stability than other clusters. Mulliken analysis indicates that charges always transfer from Al atoms to Ni atoms, and the average charges of transfer from Al atoms to Ni atoms have a maximum at (NiAl)6, implying the strong interaction between Al and Ni atoms in (NiAl)6. The average atomic magnetic moments of (NiAl)n are smaller than that of true Ni2n. The analysis of the static polarizability shows that the electronic structures of (NiAl)n clusters tend to be compact with the increase of atoms.

  9. Atomic-scale redistribution of Pt during reactive diffusion in Ni (5% Pt)-Si contacts.

    PubMed

    Cojocaru-Mirédin, O; Cadel, E; Blavette, D; Mangelinck, D; Hoummada, K; Genevois, C; Deconihout, B

    2009-06-01

    The NiSi silicide that forms by reactive diffusion between Ni and Si active regions of nanotransistors is used nowadays as contacts in nanoelectronics because of its low resistivity. Pt is added to the Ni film in order to stabilise the NiSi phase against the formation of the high-resistivity NiSi(2) phase and agglomeration. In situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments performed on material aged at 350 degrees C (under vacuum) showed the complete consumption of the Ni (5 at% Pt) phase, the regression of Ni(2)Si phase as well as the growth of the NiSi phase after 48 min. Pt distribution for this heat treatment has been analysed by laser-assisted tomographic atom probe (LATAP). An enrichment of platinum in the middle of the NiSi phase suggests that Pt is almost immobile during the growth of NiSi at the two interfaces: Ni(2)Si/NiSi and NiSi/Si. In the peak, platinum was found to substitute for Ni in the NiSi phase. Very small amounts of Pt were also found in the Ni(2)Si phase close to the surface and at the NiSi/Si interface. PMID:19339118

  10. Controlled growth of Cu-Ni nanowires and nanospheres for enhanced microwave absorption properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoxia; Dong, Lifeng; Zhang, Baoqin; Yu, Mingxun; Liu, Jingquan

    2016-03-01

    Copper is a good dielectric loss material but has low stability, whereas nickel is a good magnetic loss material and is corrosion resistant but with low conductivity, therefore Cu-Ni hybrid nanostructures have synergistic advantages as microwave absorption (MA) materials. Different Cu/Ni molar ratios of bimetallic nanowires (Cu13@Ni7, Cu5@Ni5 and Cu7@Ni13) and nanospheres (Cu13@Ni7, Cu5@Ni5 and Cu1@Ni3) have been successfully synthesized via facile reduction of hydrazine under similar reaction conditions, and the morphology can be easily tuned by varying the feed ratio or the complexing agent. Apart from the concentrations of Cu2+ and Ni2+, the reduction parameters are similar for all samples to confirm the effects of the Cu/Ni molar ratio and morphology on MA properties. Ni is incorporated into the Cu-Ni nanomaterials as a shell over the Cu core at low temperature, as proved by XRD, SEM, TEM and XPS. Through the complex relative permittivity and permeability, reflection loss was evaluated, which revealed that the MA capacity greatly depended on the Cu/Ni molar ratio and morphology. For Cu@Ni nanowires, as the molar ratio of Ni shell increased the MA properties decreased accordingly. However, for Cu@Ni nanospheres, the opposite trend was found, that is, as the molar ratio of the Ni shell increased the MA properties increased.

  11. Formation of alternating interfacial layers in Au-12Ge/Ni joints

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shih-kang; Tsai, Ming-yueh; Tsai, Ping-chun; Hsu, Bo-hsun

    2014-01-01

    Au-Ge alloys are promising materials for high-power and high-frequency packaging, and Ni is frequently used as diffusion barriers. This study investigates interfacial reactions in Au-12Ge/Ni joints at 300°C and 400°C. For the reactions at 300°C, typical interfacial morphology was observed and the diffusion path was (Au) + (Ge)/NiGe/Ni5Ge3/Ni. However, an interesting phenomenon – the formation of (Au,Ni,Ge)/NiGe alternating layers – was observed for the reactions at 400°C. The diffusion path across the interface was liquid/(Au,Ni,Ge)/NiGe/···/(Au,Ni,Ge)/NiGe/Ni2Ge/Ni. The periodic thermodynamic instability at the NiGe/Ni2Ge interface caused the subsequent nucleation of new (Au,Ni,Ge)/NiGe pairs. The thermodynamic foundation and mechanism of formation of the alternating layers are elaborated in this paper. PMID:24690992

  12. Controlled growth of Cu-Ni nanowires and nanospheres for enhanced microwave absorption properties.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoxia; Dong, Lifeng; Zhang, Baoqin; Yu, Mingxun; Liu, Jingquan

    2016-03-29

    Copper is a good dielectric loss material but has low stability, whereas nickel is a good magnetic loss material and is corrosion resistant but with low conductivity, therefore Cu-Ni hybrid nanostructures have synergistic advantages as microwave absorption (MA) materials. Different Cu/Ni molar ratios of bimetallic nanowires (Cu13@Ni7, Cu5@Ni5 and Cu7@Ni13) and nanospheres (Cu13@Ni7, Cu5@Ni5 and Cu1@Ni3) have been successfully synthesized via facile reduction of hydrazine under similar reaction conditions, and the morphology can be easily tuned by varying the feed ratio or the complexing agent. Apart from the concentrations of Cu(2+) and Ni(2+), the reduction parameters are similar for all samples to confirm the effects of the Cu/Ni molar ratio and morphology on MA properties. Ni is incorporated into the Cu-Ni nanomaterials as a shell over the Cu core at low temperature, as proved by XRD, SEM, TEM and XPS. Through the complex relative permittivity and permeability, reflection loss was evaluated, which revealed that the MA capacity greatly depended on the Cu/Ni molar ratio and morphology. For Cu@Ni nanowires, as the molar ratio of Ni shell increased the MA properties decreased accordingly. However, for Cu@Ni nanospheres, the opposite trend was found, that is, as the molar ratio of the Ni shell increased the MA properties increased. PMID:26890585

  13. Ni/TiO2 Ultraviolet Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamadzade Lajvardi, Mehdi; Jahangiri, Mojtaba

    2016-03-01

    The fabrication technology of solid-state photon detectors based on semiconductors other than silicon is yet to mature, but their recent progress opens new possibilities. Such devices are especially attractive for ultraviolet radiation level measurements because semiconductor materials with band gaps larger than 3.0 eV can be used as “visible-blind” detectors, the operation of which do not require using visible light filters. Here, fabrication and characterization of a UV detector based on nickel/titanium dioxide Schottky junction is reported. The operation of the device is described based on the photoelectric mechanism taking place in the carrier- depleted oxide adjacent to the Ni layer. Simplicity of fabrication, cost-effectiveness and fast response are the positive features of the device. These features of the device are compared with those of the previously reported Ag/TiO2 UV detectors.

  14. Ni/metal hydride secondary element

    DOEpatents

    Bauerlein, Peter

    2005-04-19

    A Ni/metal hydride secondary element having a positive nickel hydroxide electrode, a negative electrode having a hydrogen storage alloy, and an alkaline electrolyte, the positive electrode, provided with a three-dimensional metallic conductive structure, also contains an aluminum compound which is soluble in the electrolyte, in addition to nickel hydroxide and cobalt oxide. The aluminum compound is aluminum hydroxide and/or aluminum oxide, and the mass of the aluminum compound which is present in the positive bulk material mixture is 0.1 to 2% by weight relative to the mass of the nickel hydroxide which is present. In combination with aluminum hydroxide or aluminum oxide, the positive electrode further contains lanthanoid oxidic compounds Y.sub.2 O.sub.3, La.sub.2 O.sub.3 and Ca(OH).sub.2, as well as mixtures of these compounds.

  15. Surface Vibrational Modes on Ni(977)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kara, Abdelkader; Durukanoglu, Sondan; Rahman, Talat S.

    1996-03-01

    Using the Embedded Atom Method for the interatomic interaction potential, and the Real Space Green's function for calculating the Local Vibrational Densities of States, we present a detailed analysis of the surface phonons of Ni(977). We find that, in general, the step row phonons are softened ( shifted toward low frequencies) as compared to the ones corresponding to the terrace atoms in excellent agreement with the recent He scattering measurments. ( L. Niu, D. J. Gaspar and S. J. Sibner, Science, Vol. 268 , 1995, p 847.) We explore the polarization and the frequencies of these step vibrational modes and relate the softening of the frequencies to the changes in the force constants associated with the surface atoms.

  16. Pulsed electrodeposition of Ni-Mo alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Nee, C.C.; Kim, W.; Weil, R.

    1988-05-01

    The effect of pulsing the current on the composition, internal stress, and mechanical properties of Ni-Mo electrodeposits was investigated. The molybdenum content increased with increasing peak current density and to a lesser degree with decreasing duty cycle. A reduction in the internal stresses was explained in terms of the relaxation of those due to crystallite or fine grain coalescence during the off-time and an expansion of the surface layer when hydrogen diffused into it at the start of each on-time. The mechanical properties were improved by high-frequency pulse plating. Deposits consisting of alternate layers of different composition annealed at 300 C exhibited further improvement of their mechanical properties.

  17. Pulsed electrodeposition of Ni-Mo alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Nee, C.C.; Kim, W.; Weil, R.

    1988-05-01

    The effect of pulsing the current on the composition, the internal stress, and mechanical properties of Ni-Mo electrodeposits was investigated. The molybdenum, content increased with increasing peak current density and to a lesser degree with decreasing duty cycle. A reduction in the internal stresses was explained in terms of the relaxation of those due to crystallite or fine grain coalescence during the off-time and an expansion of the surface layer when hydrogen diffused into it at the start of each on-time. The mechanical properties were improved by high frequency pulse plating. Deposits consisting of alternate layers of different composition annealed at 300/sup 0/C exhibited further improvement of their mechanical properties.

  18. NiCd battery electrodes, C-150

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holleck, G.

    1971-01-01

    A research program to develop and evaluate electrodes for a nongassing negative limited nickel-cadmium cell is described. The concept of the negative limited cell and its implications on electrode structure are discussed. The key element is the development of a cadmium electrode with high hydrogen overvoltage. For this, Teflon-bonded Cd electrodes and silver-sinter based Gc electrodes were manufactured and in preliminary experiments their physical and electrochemical characteristics were evaluated. Hydrogen evolution on cadmium was found to occur approximately 100 mV more cathodic than on silver. Both electrode structures exhibit a fairly sharp potential rise at the end of the charging cycle and the advent of gas evolution occurs at potentials between -1.2 and -1.3 V versus a Hg/HgO reference electrode. These results are compared with conventional Ni-sinter based Cd electrodes.

  19. Can Ni phosphides become viable hydroprocessing catalysts?

    SciTech Connect

    Soled, S.; Miseo, S.; Baumgartner, J.; Guzman, J.; Bolin, T.; Meyer, R.

    2015-05-15

    We prepared higher surface area nickel phosphides than are normally found by reducing nickel phosphate. To do this, we hydrothermally synthesized Ni hydroxy phosphite precursors with low levels of molybdenum substitution. The molybdenum substitution increases the surface area of these precursors. During pretreatment in a sulfiding atmosphere (such as H2S/H2) dispersed islands of MoS2 segregate from the precursor and provide a pathway for H2 dissociation that allows reduction of the phosphite precursor to nickel phosphide at substantially lower temperatures than in the absence of MoS2. The results reported here show that to create nickel phosphides with comparable activity to conventional supported sulfide catalysts, one would have to synthesize the phosphide with surface areas exceeding 400 m2/g (i.e. with nanoparticles less than 30 Å in lateral dimension).

  20. Final Viking NiCd battery conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Britting, A.

    1983-08-01

    The Viking Lander Monitor Mission (VLMM) is well beyond its planned 90-day landed Mars mission. It has been an established NASA goal to maintain an American presence on Mars for as long as possible. With healthy subsystems, the mission could conceivably last until December 5, 1994. At that time the radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) power source output power would be marginal for support of the system electrical loads and for battery maintenance. The antenna pointing coefficients will also expire at that time, resulting in telecommunication system shutdown. Recently three of the four, 8 ampere-hour (AH) nickel-cadmium (NiCd) batteries onboard Viking Lander 1 (VL-1) have indicated signs of significant loss of energy storage capacity. An intensive program of deep-discharge battery reconditioning was begun in January 1982 in an attempt to return the batteries to levels of capacity approaching early mission values.

  1. Mass and charge transfer in the heavy ion reactions 208Ni and 208Ni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapotta, K.; Bass, R.; Hartmann, V.; Noll, H.; Renfordt, R. E.; Stelzer, K.

    1985-04-01

    Target-like reaction products corresponding to the transfer of one or several nucleons have been measured as a function of the total kinetic energy loss in the reactions 208Ni (1215 MeV) and 208Ni (1107 MeV) with a focusing time-of-flight spectrometer which provided a unique mass and charge separation and good energy resolution. The analysis of the experimental data covered the range from elastic scattering to deep-inelastic collisions. In the quasielastic region, neutron transfer dominates. The transfer probabilities as a function of the distance of closest approach can be described by a semiclassical theory of tunneling. Quasielastic transfer from the Ni targets to the 208Pb projectile is strongly inhibited by the reaction Q values. For the intermediate and deep-inelastic collisions, the mean values and variances of the mass and charge distributions as a function of the dissipated energy, as well as the correlations between neutron and proton transport, are discussed in a statistical diffusion theory. The important influence of the static potential energy surface on nucleon transport in the deep-inelastic region is demonstrated. Deviations from the simple diffusion model, observed at small to medium energy losses, are discussed.

  2. Microstructure of laser clad Ni- Cr- Al- Hf alloy on a γ' strengthened ni- base superalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Jogender; Mazumder, J.

    1988-08-01

    Alloys and coatings for alloys for improved high temperature service life under aggressive atmo-spheres are of great contemporary interest. There is a general consensus that the addition of rare earths such as Hf will provide many beneficial effects for such alloys. The laser cladding technique was used to produce Ni-Cr-AI-Hf alloys with extended solid solution of Hf. A 10 kW CO2 laser with mixed powder feed was used for laser cladding. Optical, scanning electron (SEM) and scanning transmission electron (STEM) microscopy were employed to characterize the microstructure of alloys produced during laser cladding processes. Microstructural studies revealed grain refinement, considerable in-crease in solubility of Hf in the matrix, Hf-rich precipitates, and new metastable phases. The size and morphology of γ' (Ni3Al) phase were discussed in relation to its microchemistry and the laser processing conditions. This paper will report the microstructural development in this laser clad Ni-Cr-AI-Hf alloy.

  3. Characterization of NiPt, FePt, and NiFePt nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, Greg; Wood, Darren; Jackson, Amy; Warren, Andrew; Coffey, Kevin; Vanfleet, Richard

    2012-10-01

    Many metal alloys can form in chemically ordered structures, often resulting in significant changes in properties. The ordered structures are preferred at low temperatures and will go through an order-disorder phase transition at a critical temperature. The formation and stability of these ordered structures in alloy nanoparticles is not well understood but may give insight into the role size plays in phase transitions. To this end we are studying FePt, NiPt, and FeNiPt alloy nanoparticles. We will focus this presentation on the characterization of these nanoparticles in a Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) for composition, size, and structure. These nanoparticles are made by co-sputtering the constituents and annealing at different temperatures in various gas mixtures. The nanoparticle samples are prepared for TEM viewing by wedge polishing. We find FePt to be ``well behaved'' meaning this alloy forms particles, retains the as deposited composition, and chemically orders as expected. However, the order-disorder temperature is too high for the desired further studies. NiPt, which has a lower order-disorder temperature, is not ``well behaved'' in that the nanoparticle compositions are not good matches to the as deposited conditions and no chemical ordering has been achieved even under conditions that should be sufficient based on bulk processing. We will discuss these results and possible implications.

  4. High-performance NiO/Ag/NiO transparent electrodes for flexible organic photovoltaic cells.

    PubMed

    Xue, Zhichao; Liu, Xingyuan; Zhang, Nan; Chen, Hong; Zheng, Xuanming; Wang, Haiyu; Guo, Xiaoyang

    2014-09-24

    Transparent electrodes with a dielectric-metal-dielectric (DMD) structure can be implemented in a simple manufacturing process and have good optical and electrical properties. In this study, nickel oxide (NiO) is introduced into the DMD structure as a more appropriate dielectric material that has a high conduction band for electron blocking and a low valence band for efficient hole transport. The indium-free NiO/Ag/NiO (NAN) transparent electrode exhibits an adjustable high transmittance of ∼82% combined with a low sheet resistance of ∼7.6 Ω·s·q(-1) and a work function of 5.3 eV after UVO treatment. The NAN electrode shows excellent surface morphology and good thermal, humidity, and environmental stabilities. Only a small change in sheet resistance can be found after NAN electrode is preserved in air for 1 year. The power conversion efficiencies of organic photovoltaic cells with NAN electrodes deposited on glass and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates are 6.07 and 5.55%, respectively, which are competitive with those of indium tin oxide (ITO)-based devices. Good photoelectric properties, the low-cost material, and the room-temperature deposition process imply that NAN electrode is a striking candidate for low-cost and flexible transparent electrode for efficient flexible optoelectronic devices. PMID:25148532

  5. Stereo-epitaxial growth of single-crystal Ni nanowires and nanoplates from aligned seed crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyoban; Yoo, Youngdong; Kang, Taejoon; Lee, Jiyoung; Kim, Eungwang; Fang, Xiaosheng; Lee, Sungyul; Kim, Bongsoo

    2016-05-01

    Epitaxially grown anisotropic Ni nanostructures are promising building blocks for the development of miniaturized and stereo-integrated data storage kits because they can store multiple magnetic domain walls (DWs). Here, we report stereo-epitaxially grown single-crystalline Ni nanowires (NWs) and nanoplates, and their magnetic properties. Vertical and inclined Ni NWs were grown at the center and edge regions of c-cut sapphire substrates, respectively. Vertical Ni nanoplates were grown on r-cut sapphire substrates. The morphology and growth direction of Ni nanostructures can be steered by seed crystals. Cubic Ni seeds grow into vertical Ni NWs, tetrahedral Ni seeds grow into inclined Ni NWs, and triangular Ni seeds grow into vertical Ni nanoplates. The shapes of the Ni seeds are determined by the interfacial energy between the bottom plane of the seeds and the substrates. The as-synthesized Ni NWs and nanoplates have blocking temperature values greater than 300 K at 500 Oe, verifying that these Ni nanostructures can form large magnetic DWs with high magnetic anisotropy properties. We anticipate that epitaxially grown Ni NWs and nanoplates will be used in various types of 3-dimensional magnetic devices.Epitaxially grown anisotropic Ni nanostructures are promising building blocks for the development of miniaturized and stereo-integrated data storage kits because they can store multiple magnetic domain walls (DWs). Here, we report stereo-epitaxially grown single-crystalline Ni nanowires (NWs) and nanoplates, and their magnetic properties. Vertical and inclined Ni NWs were grown at the center and edge regions of c-cut sapphire substrates, respectively. Vertical Ni nanoplates were grown on r-cut sapphire substrates. The morphology and growth direction of Ni nanostructures can be steered by seed crystals. Cubic Ni seeds grow into vertical Ni NWs, tetrahedral Ni seeds grow into inclined Ni NWs, and triangular Ni seeds grow into vertical Ni nanoplates. The shapes of the Ni

  6. Preparation of electrodeposited Mo-Ni coating and its spectral properties.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Zhen; Xiong, Li-Ping; Liu, Xiao-Zhou; Chen, Jie; Luo, Yi-Fan; Sun, Ying

    2014-04-01

    Mo-Ni coatings were prepared on Ni alloy by electrodeposition method. The properties of microhardness, wear weight loss and friction coefficients, and thermal expansion of the coatings were investigated, respectively. Mo-Ni coatings were characterized with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), energy-dispersive analyses of X-ray (EDAX), scanning electron microcopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques, respectively. Mo-Ni coating shows higher microhardness, lower wear weight loss and friction coefficient compared with those of Ni alloy. The microhardness of Mo-Ni coating is as high as 518 HV, which is 72.67% higher than that of the Ni alloy (300 HV). The wear weight losses of Mo-Ni coating is 1.94 times lower than that of Ni alloy. The friction coefficient of Ni alloy and Mo-Ni coating are 0.640 and 0.559 respectively. The physical thermal expansion curve of Ni alloy has two the peaks in the ranges of 100-120 and 570-640 degrees C respectively; and that of Ni alloy+Mo-Ni coating has one the peaks in the ranges of 570-640 degrees C. The peak of the physical thermal expansion curve of Ni alloy+Mo-Ni coating in the ranges of 570-640 degrees C is much smaller than that of the Ni alloy. Because the part of nickel was replaced by molybdenum in the Ni lattice, molybdenum decreases the lattices transformation of nickel (bcc --> fcc). The reason for the formation of the small peak of the physical thermal expansion curve of Ni alloy+Mo-Ni coating in the ranges of 595-625 degrees C is the changes of MoNi4 and MoNi from the semi-crystalline structure to the crystalline structure respectively. PMID:25007639

  7. Voids in fast-neutron-irradiated Cu, Ni and Cu-Ni concentrated alloys studied by TEM and positron annihilation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukushima, H.; Ochiai, K.; Shimomura, Y.

    The effect of concentrated Ni and Cu solute atoms in the Cu-Ni system on the formation of voids has been examined using Cu, Cu-8 at.% Ni, Ni-8 at.% Cu and Ni irradiated with fast-neutrons in the FFTF-MOTA. Both solute atoms introduced smaller voids in the grains of the concentrated alloys than voids in the normal grains of pure-Cu and pure-Ni. Slight increase of irradiation temperature and the higher dose of fast-neutrons induced coalescence of voids in the grains of Ni-8 at.% Cu, but it resulted in the abrupt decrease of the concentration of small voids in the grains and the formation of heterogeneously distributed larger voids near grain boundaries in Cu-8 at.% Ni. Heterogeneous distribution of larger voids was also observed in other materials. Annealing at higher temperatures induced segregation of impurity atoms at a void surface in Ni-8 at.% Cu.

  8. IMC Growth at the Interface of Sn-2.0Ag-2.5Zn Solder Joints with Cu, Ni, and Ni-W Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Jiaxing; Wang, Haozhe; Hu, Anmin; Li, Ming

    2014-11-01

    Growth of intermetallic compounds (IMC) at the interface of Sn-2.0Ag-2.5Zn solder joints with Cu, Ni, and Ni-W substrates have been investigated. For the Cu substrate, a Cu5Zn8 IMC layer with Ag3Sn particles on top was observed at the interface; this acted as a barrier layer preventing further growth of Cu-Sn IMC. For the Ni substrate, a thin Ni3Sn4 film was observed between the solder and the Ni layer; the thickness of the film increased slowly and steadily with aging. For the Ni-W substrate, a thin Ni3Sn4 film was observed between the solder and Ni-W layer. During the aging process a thin layer of the Ni-W substrate was transformed into a bright layer, and the thickness of bright layer increased with aging.

  9. Silicide formation process in ultra-thin Ni-silicide film for advanced semiconductor devices: mechanism of NiSi2 formation at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikarashi, N.; Masuzaki, K.

    2011-11-01

    Atomic-resolution high-angle annular dark-field scanning-transmission electron microscopy and ab-initio calculations were used to reveal the reaction involved in the formation of ultra-thin Ni silicide film at 300°C. We found that a Ni-adamantane structure, in which Ni atoms occupy the tetrahedral interstitial voids of Si, forms at the initial stage of the reaction. We also found that the adamantane structure is under considerable compressive stress due to lattice-mismatch at the adamantane structure-Si interface (5.6%). Then, NiSi2 forms just beneath the Ni-adamantane structure at a much lower temperature than the NiSi2 formation temperature reported for the reaction between a Ni layer and Si substrate (800°C). Our analyses strongly suggest that the Ni-adamantane structure acts as a precursor in the formation of NiSi2.

  10. Phase equilibria, formation, crystal and electronic structure of ternary compounds in Ti-Ni-Sn and Ti-Ni-Sb ternary systems

    SciTech Connect

    Romaka, V.V.; Rogl, P.; Romaka, L.; Stadnyk, Yu.; Melnychenko, N.; Grytsiv, A.; Falmbigl, M.; Skryabina, N.

    2013-01-15

    The phase equilibria of the Ti-Ni-Sn and Ti-Ni-Sb ternary systems have been studied in the whole concentration range by means of X-ray and EPM analyses at 1073 K and 873 K, respectively. Four ternary intermetallic compounds TiNiSn (MgAgAs-type), TiNi{sub 2-x}Sn (MnCu{sub 2}Al-type), Ti{sub 2}Ni{sub 2}Sn (U{sub 2}Pt{sub 2}Sn-type), and Ti{sub 5}NiSn{sub 3} (Hf{sub 5}CuSn{sub 3}-type) are formed in Ti-Ni-Sn system at 1073 K. The TiNi{sub 2}Sn stannide is characterized by homogeneity in the range of 50-47 at% of Ni. The Ti-Ni-Sb ternary system at 873 K is characterized by formation of three ternary intermetallic compounds, Ti{sub 0.8}NiSb (MgAgAs-type), Ti{sub 5}Ni{sub 0.45}Sb{sub 2.55} (W{sub 5}Si{sub 3}-type), and Ti{sub 5}NiSb{sub 3} (Hf{sub 5}CuSn{sub 3}-type). The solubility of Ni in Ti{sub 0.8}NiSb decreases number of vacancies in Ti site up to Ti{sub 0.91}Ni{sub 1.1}Sb composition. - Graphical abstract: Isothermal section of the Ti-Ni-Sn phase diagram and DOS distribution in hypothetical TiNi{sub 1+x}Sn solid solution. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ti-Ni-Sn phase diagram was constructed at 1073 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Four ternary compounds are formed: TiNiSn, TiNi{sub 2-x}Sn, Ti{sub 2}Ni{sub 2}Sn, and Ti{sub 5}NiSn{sub 3}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three ternary compounds exist in Ti-Ni-Sb system at 873 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The TiNi{sub 2}Sb compound is absent.

  11. NiCo2O4 nanosheets in-situ grown on three dimensional porous Ni film current collectors as integrated electrodes for high-performance supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tao; Guo, Ying; Zhao, Bo; Yu, Shuhui; Yang, Hai-Peng; Lu, Daniel; Fu, Xian-Zhu; Sun, Rong; Wong, Ching-Ping

    2015-07-01

    Three dimensional interconnected hierarchical porous Ni films are easily fabricated as effective current collectors through hydrogen bubble template electrochemical deposition. The binder-free integrated electrodes of spinel NiCo2O4 nanosheets directly coated the three dimensional porous Ni films are facilely obtained through successively electrochemical co-deposition of Ni/Co alloy layer then followed by subsequent annealing at 350 °C in air. Compared with NiCo2O4 nanosheets on smooth Ni foil or porous NiO/Ni film electrodes, the porous NiCo2O4/Ni integrated film electrodes for supercapacitors demonstrate remarkably higher area specific capacitance. The porous NiCo2O4/Ni film electrodes also exhibit excellent rate capability and cycling stability. The super electrochemical capacitive performances are attributed to the unique integrated architecture of NiCo2O4 nanosheets in-situ grown on three dimensional continuous hierarchical porous Ni collector collectors, which could provide large electrode-electrolyte interface area, high active sites, low contact resistance between current collector and active materials, fast electron conduction and ion/electrolyte diffusion.

  12. Remarkable sensitivity for detection of bisphenol A on a gold electrode modified with nickel tetraamino phthalocyanine containing Ni-O-Ni bridges.

    PubMed

    Chauke, Vongani; Matemadombo, Fungisai; Nyokong, Tebello

    2010-06-15

    This work reports the electrocatalysis of bisphenol A on Ni(II) tetraamino metallophthalocyanine (NiTAPc) polymer modified gold electrode containing Ni-O-Ni bridges (represented as Ni(OH)TAPc). The Ni(II)TAPc films were electro-transformed in 0.1 mol L(-1) NaOH aqueous solution to form 'O-Ni-O oxo bridges', forming poly-n-Ni(OH)TAPc (where n is the number of polymerising scans). poly-30-Ni(OH)TAPc, poly-50-Ni(OH)TAPc, poly-70-Ni(OH)TAPc and poly-90-Ni(OH)TAPc films were investigated. The polymeric films were characterised by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and the charge transfer resistance (R(CT)) values increased with film thickness. The best catalytic activity for the detection of bisphenol A was on poly-70-Ni(OH)TAPc. Electrode resistance to passivation improved with polymer thickness. The electrocatalytic behaviour of bisphenol A was compared to that of p-nitrophenol in terms of electrode passivation and regeneration. The latter was found to passivate the electrode less than the former. The poly-70-Ni(OH)TAPc modified electrode could reliably detect bisphenol A in a concentration range of 7x10(-4) to 3x10(-2)mol L(-1) with a limit of detection of 3.68x10(-9)mol L(-1). The sensitivity was 3.26x10(-4)A mol(-1) L cm(-2). PMID:20122800

  13. Quantitative analysis of Ni 2p photoemission in NiO and Ni diluted in a SiO2 matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauly, N.; Yubero, F.; García-García, F. J.; Tougaard, S.

    2016-02-01

    In X-ray excited photoelectron emission (XPS), besides the initial excitation process, the shape and intensity of photoelectron peaks are strongly affected by extrinsic excitations due to electron transport out of the surface (including bulk and surface effects) and to intrinsic excitations due to the sudden creation of the static core hole. To make an accurate quantitative interpretation of features observed in XPS, these effects must be included in the theoretical description of the emitted photoelectron spectra. It was previously shown [N. Pauly, S. Tougaard, F. Yubero, Surf. Sci. 620 (2014) 17] that these three effects can be calculated by means of the QUEELS-XPS software (QUantitative analysis of Electron Energy Losses at Surfaces for XPS) in terms of effective energy-differential inelastic electron scattering cross-sections. The only input needed to calculate these cross-sections is the energy loss function of the media which is determined from analysis of Reflection Electron Energy Loss Spectra (REELS). The full XPS spectrum is then modeled by convoluting this energy loss cross-section with the primary excitation spectrum that accounts for all effects which are part of the initial photo-excitation process, i.e. lifetime broadening, spin-orbit coupling, and multiplet splitting. In this paper we apply the previously presented procedure to the study of Ni 2p photoemission in NiO and Ni diluted in a SiO2 matrix (Ni:SiO2), samples being prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering at room temperature. We observe a significant difference between the corresponding Ni 2p primary excitation spectra. The procedure allows quantifying the relative intensity of the c3d9L, c3d10L2, and c3d8 final states contributing to the Ni 2p photoemission spectra of the Ni2 + species in the oxide matrices. Especially, the intensity ratio in NiO between the non-local and local contributions to the 3d9L configuration is determined to be 2.5. Moreover the relative intensity ratio of the c3d

  14. Ferromagnetic (Ni) nanoparticles-CuTl-1223 superconductor composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qasim, Irfan; Waqee-ur-Rehman, M.; Mumtaz, M.; Hussain, Ghulam; Nadeem, K.; Shehzad, Khurram

    2016-04-01

    (Ni)x/CuTl-1223 (x=0, 0.25, 0.75, and 1.0 wt%) nanoparticles-superconductor composites were synthesized by the addition of ferromagnetic nickel (Ni) nanoparticles in appropriate ratio to Cu0.5Tl0.5Ba2Ca2Cu3O10-δ (CuTl-1223) superconducting matrix. Structural, morphological, compositional and superconducting transport properties of these composites were studied by different experimental techniques. It was observed that the addition of Ni nanoparticles had not altered the crystal structure of host CuTl-1223 phase, which is somehow an evidence of the occupancy of these nanoparticles at the grain-boundaries. Suppression of superconducting properties was attributed to pair-breaking due to spin scattering across these ferromagnetic Ni nanoparticles. The enhanced magnetization of ferromagnetic Ni nanoparticles at reduced temperatures plays a significant role to reduce the diamagnetism of (Ni)x/CuTl-1223 composites. Fluctuation induced conductivity (FIC) analysis of resistivity versus temperature data has explained very well the effects of Ni nanoparticles on superconductivity of CuTl-1223 phase.

  15. Epitaxial Ni/VO2 heterostructures on Si (001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singamaneni, Srinivasa Rao; Foley, Gabrielle; Prater, John; Narayan, Jay

    VO2 is a strongly correlated oxide, undergoes a first order metal-insulator (MIT) well above the room temperature 340K. Previous works have shown that the stress associated with structural changes across MIT, VO2 can produce significant changes in magnetic properties of over layer ferromagnetic films such as Ni. This control of the magnetic properties could be very important to many technological applications. However, the current use of r-sapphire as substrate can be restrictive in the microelectronics industry. The previous works focused their studies on polycrystalline Ni and VO2 films, which do not allow the precise controlling of the associated properties due to poor reproducibility of polycrystalline films. We have investigated the magnetic and electronic properties of Ni/VO2 films when epitaxially integrated on Si (001) by pulsed laser deposition using domain matching epitaxy paradigm. Ni was grown both in nanoscale islands and layered form. The XRD results showed that the Ni, VO2and YSZ layers were grown epitaxially in single out of plane orientations. We found that the hysteresis in resistance vs. temperature curves in VO2 thin films was retained even when it is in close proximity with the Ni layer which helped confirm that VO2 layer preserves its characteristic features, revealed the fingerprint magnetic features of Ni layer. We will present and discuss our comprehensive experimental findings.

  16. Dilute NiPt alloy interactions with Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corni, F.; Grignaffini Gregorio, B.; Ottaviani, G.; Queirolo, G.; Follegot, J. P.

    1993-11-01

    The reaction between a dilute Ni 95Pt 5 alloy and <111>Si has been investigated as a function of the annealing temperature and time, and the film thickness. Contrary to the concentrate alloys the first phase formed is Ni 2Si and the growth kinetics in the initial steps are similar to the case of pure Ni. Pt segregates in the alloy and its presence slows down the silicide growth rate suggesting that a new mechanism, namely the release of Ni from the alloy, is competing with the diffusion process in the silicide. In all the cases here considered NiSi starts to form only when all the Ni is reacted, indicating that the Pt never reaches high enough concentrations to inhibit the Ni 2Si growth. The further evolution of the system is similar to the ones reported for bilayers and non-dilute alloys. The I-V characteristics measured after annealing give a barrier height of 0.70 ± 0.01 eV.

  17. Electrochemical deposition of subnanometer Ni films on TiN.

    PubMed

    Vanpaemel, Johannes; Sugiura, Masahito; Cuypers, Daniel; van der Veen, Marleen H; De Gendt, Stefan; Vereecken, Philippe M

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we show the electrochemical deposition of a subnanometer film of nickel (Ni) on top of titanium nitride (TiN). We exploit the concept of cluster growth inhibition to enhance the nucleation of new nuclei on the TiN substrate. By deliberately using an unbuffered electrolyte solution, the degree of nucleation is enhanced as growth is inhibited more strongly. This results in a very high particle density and therefore an ultralow coalescence thickness. To prevent the termination of Ni deposition that typically occurs in unbuffered solutions, the concentration of Ni(2+) in solution was increased. We have verified with RBS and ICP-MS that the deposition of Ni on the surface in this case did not terminate. Furthermore, annealing experiments were used to visualize the closed nature of the Ni film. The closure of the deposited film was also confirmed by TOF-SIMS measurements and occurs when the film thickness is still in the subnanometer regime. The ultrathin Ni film was found to be an excellent catalyst for carbon nanotube growth on conductive substrates and can also be applied as a seed layer for bulk deposition of a smooth Ni film on TiN. PMID:24520857

  18. Porous NiTi for bone implants: A review

    PubMed Central

    Bansiddhi, A.; Sargeant, T.D.; Stupp, S.I.; Dunand, D.C.

    2011-01-01

    NiTi foams are unique among biocompatible porous metals because of their high recovery strain (due to the shape-memory or superelastic effects) and their low stiffness facilitating integration with bone structures. To optimize NiTi foams for bone implant applications, two key areas are under active study: synthesis of foams with optimal architectures, microstructure and mechanical properties; and tailoring of biological interactions through modifications of pore surfaces. This article reviews recent research on NiTi foams for bone replacement, focusing on three specific topics: (i) surface modifications designed to create bio-inert porous NiTi surfaces with low Ni release and corrosion, as well as bioactive surfaces to enhance and accelerate biological activity; (ii) In vitro and in vivo biocompatibility studies to confirm the long-term safety of porous NiTi implants; and (iii) biological evaluations for specific applications, such as in intervertebral fusion devices and bone tissue scaffolds. Possible future directions for bio-performance and processing studies are discussed that could lead to optimized porous NiTi implants. PMID:18348912

  19. Reaction synthesis of Ni-Al based particle composite coatings

    SciTech Connect

    SUSAN,DONALD F.; MISIOLEK,WOICECK Z.; MARDER,ARNOLD R.

    2000-02-11

    Electrodeposited metal matrix/metal particle composite (EMMC) coatings were produced with a nickel matrix and aluminum particles. By optimizing the process parameters, coatings were deposited with 20 volume percent aluminum particles. Coating morphology and composition were characterized using light optical microscopy (LOM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). Differential thermal analysis (DTA) was employed to study reactive phase formation. The effect of heat treatment on coating phase formation was studied in the temperature range 415 to 1,000 C. Long-time exposure at low temperature results in the formation of several intermetallic phases at the Ni matrix/Al particle interfaces and concentrically around the original Al particles. Upon heating to the 500--600 C range, the aluminum particles react with the nickel matrix to form NiAl islands within the Ni matrix. When exposed to higher temperatures (600--1,000 C), diffusional reaction between NiAl and nickel produces ({gamma})Ni{sub 3}Al. The final equilibrium microstructure consists of blocks of ({gamma}{prime})Ni{sub 3}Al in a {gamma}(Ni) solid solution matrix, with small pores also present. Pore formation is explained based on local density changes during intermetallic phase formation and microstructural development is discussed with reference to reaction synthesis of bulk nickel aluminides.

  20. Preparation of electrodeposited Zn-Ni-B alloy coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Taro; Kamimoto, Yuki; Ichino, Ryoichi

    2016-01-01

    We prepared Zn-Ni-B alloys with high Zn content and high corrosion resistance. The composition of the alloys was controlled by potentiostatic electrolysis. In the electroplating bath, dimethylamineborane was used as the B source. The characterization of the alloys and corrosion resistance evaluation were carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), Tafel plots, and cyclic corrosion tests. All films were categorized into three groups on the basis of the results of XRD analysis, and it was found by TEM analysis that the Ni-B-type showed an amorphous structure. The Ni-B-type could contain up to 50.6 mol % Zn and showed similar or better anticorrosion properties than the amorphous Ni-B films. In the Ni-B-type, the higher the Zn content, the higher the corrosion resistance. The Zn-Ni-B alloys had almost the same electrochemical corrosion resistance and Zn content as the Zn-Ni-P alloys.

  1. Mesoscale assembly of NiO nanosheets into spheres

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Meng; Yan Guojin; Hou Yonggai; Wang Chunhua

    2009-05-15

    NiO solid/hollow spheres with diameters about 100 nm have been successfully synthesized through thermal decomposition of nickel acetate in ethylene glycol at 200 deg. C. These spheres are composed of nanosheets about 3-5 nm thick. Introducing poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) surfactant to reaction system can effectively control the products' morphology. By adjusting the quantity of PVP, we accomplish surface areas-tunable NiO assembled spheres from {approx}70 to {approx}200 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}. Electrochemical tests show that NiO hollow spheres deliver a large discharge capacity of 823 mA h g{sup -1}. Furthermore, these hollow spheres also display a slow capacity-fading rate. A series of contrastive experiments demonstrate that the surface area of NiO assembled spheres has a noticeable influence on their discharge capacity. - Graphical abstract: The mesoscale assembly of NiO nanosheets into spheres have been achieved by a solvothermal method. N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption isotherms show the S{sub BET} of NiO is tunable. NiO spheres show large discharge capacity and slow capacity-fading rate.

  2. Ni doped Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Larumbe, S; Gómez-Polo, C; Pérez-Landazábal, J I; García-Prieto, A; Alonso, J; Fdez-Gubieda, M L; Cordero, D; Gómez, J

    2012-03-01

    In this work, the effect of nickel doping on the structural and magnetic properties of Fe3O4 nanoparticles is analysed. Ni(x)Fe(3-x)O4 nanoparticles (x = 0, 0.04, 0.06 and 0.11) were obtained by chemical co-precipitation method, starting from a mixture of FeCl2 x 4H2O and Ni(AcO)2 x 4H2O salts. The analysis of the structure and composition of the synthesized nanoparticles confirms their nanometer size (main sizes around 10 nm) and the inclusion of the Ni atoms in the characteristic spinel structure of the magnetite Fe3O4 phase. In order to characterize in detail the structure of the samples, X-ray absorption (XANES) measurements were performed on the Ni and Fe K-edges. The results indicate the oxidation of the Ni atoms to the 2+ state and the location of the Ni2+ cations in the Fe2+ octahedral sites. With respect to the magnetic properties, the samples display the characteristic superparamagnetic behaviour, with anhysteretic magnetic response at room temperature. The estimated magnetic moment confirms the partial substitution of the Fe2+ cations by Ni2+ atoms in the octahedral sites of the spinel structure. PMID:22755104

  3. Effects of Dimethylamine Borane in Electroless Ni-B Plating.

    PubMed

    Rha, Sa-Kyun; Baek, Seung-Deok; Lee, Youn-Seoung

    2015-10-01

    By electroless plating in a pH 7 bath at 50 °C, Ni-B alloy films with nano-crystallite size (3-6 nm) were formed on screen printed Ag paste. According to the addition of DMAB (dimethylamine borane), the boron concentration in the Ni-B alloy films increased systematically from <1 at.% to ~10 at.%, and the crystallite size of the Ni-B alloy films decreased gradually. The crystal/electronic structures of the Ni-B alloys were studied using XAS (X-ray absorption spectroscopy), XRD, etc., with changes of boron contents. In the crystalline structure, the ordering of fcc type was broken upon alloying and then the samples with additions of 0.5 M and 1 M DMAB had amorphous-like structures with decreases of crystallite size. In the electronic structure, the unoccupied d states of the Ni sites were filled as the B concentration increased upon alloying. From the electronegativity rule and the broken orderging upon alloying, we can suggest that an overall charge transfer occurs from the Ni sites toward the alloying B sites with intra-atomic charge redistribution, leading to an increased occupancy of the Ni 3d states in the alloys. PMID:26726348

  4. Dimensional effects in Ni-Cr multilayered thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stearns, M. B.; Lee, C. H.

    1987-04-01

    The dimensionality of Ni-Cr multilayered structures (MLS) was studied from the variation of the temperature dependence of the saturation magnetization Ms with the Ni layer thickness. Since NiCr alloys containing more than 12% Cr are nonmagnetic the thickness of the interfaces and pure Ni regions can be obtained from the measured value of Ms by modeling the MLS and determining the thickness of the pure Ni regions. Assuming that the pure Ni regions are isolated sufficiently to behave independently, comparison was made with several theories. It was found that the observed behavior is similar to that described by the theory of Davis and Keffer with a surface anisotropy energy of about 0.1 that of the exchange energy. This theory uses nonperiodic boundary conditions and assumes a surface anisotropy field which causes the partial pinning of the surface spins. The magnetization decrease calculated with this theory falls off less rapidly with film thickness than other theories. At high fields the magnetization and Curie temperatures of the MLS having 20 Å or less of Ni is found to be field dependent. This is indicative that a considerable amount of the magnetic moments arise from itinerant d electrons.

  5. Template-based synthesis of Ni nanorods on silicon substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Xiaoyun; Hu, Yan; Wang, Yao; Shen, Ruiqi; Ye, Yinghua; Wu, Lizhi; Wang, Shouxu

    2012-01-01

    Free-standing nickel (Ni) nanorods were successfully prepared by pulsed electrodeposition using porous alumina membrane (PAM) on titanium (Ti) pre-coated silicon (Si) substrate. Initially, Si substrate was coated with subsequent layers of Ti (∼200 nm) and Al (∼600 nm) by sputtering process. The PAM/Ti/Si structure was fabricated by a two-step anodization in 0.3 M oxalic acid under a constant voltage of 40 V, and then used to grow Ni nanorods by pulsed electrodeposition. Finally, an Al layer was deposited on the Ni nanorods. The relationship between the pore-widening time and the pore diameter of the PAM on Si was also investigated. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) was employed to observe the morphology of PAM, Ni nanorods and Al/Ni heterostructure. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to study the morphological and structural properties of Ni nanorods, respectively. Also, the compositional properties of the samples were characterized by energy dispersive X-ray spectra (EDS). The pore diameter and the pore length of the PAM were approximately 54.2 ± 12.2 nm and 800 nm, respectively. The Ni nanorods stand perpendicularly on the substrate, whose diameter and length were similar to the PAM. The Ni nanorods give an XRD pattern of face-centered cubic crystal structure. Ni nanorods with deposited a layer of Al have the potential application of a heat source or energetic material in the silicon-based micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) compatible device.

  6. Microstructural Investigations On Ni-Ta-Al Ternary Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Negache, M.; Souami, N.

    2010-01-05

    The Ni-Al-Ta ternary alloys in the Ni-rich part present complex microstructures. They are composed of multiple phases that are formed according to the nominal composition of the alloy, primary Ni(gamma), Ni{sub 3}Al(gamma'), Ni{sub 6}AlTa(tau{sub 3}), Ni{sub 3}Ta(delta) or in equilibrium: two solid phases (gamma'-tau{sub 3}), (tau{sub 3}-delta), (tau{sub 3}-gamma), (gamma-delta) or three solid phases (gamma'-tau{sub 3}-delta). The nature and the volume fraction of these phases give these alloys very interesting properties at high temperature, and this makes them attractive for specific applications. We have developed a series of ternary alloys in electric arc furnace, determining their solidification sequences using Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA), characterized by SEM-EDS, X-ray diffraction and by a microhardness tests. The follow-up results made it possible to make a correlation between the nature of the formed phases and their solidifying way into the Ni{sub 75}Al{sub x}Ta{sub y} (x+y = 25at.%) system, which are varied and complex. In addition to the solid solution Ni (gamma), the formed intermetallics compounds (gamma', tau{sub 3} and delta) has been identified and correlated with a complex balance between phases.We noticed that the hardness increases with the tantalum which has a hardening effect and though the compound Ni{sub 3}Ta(delta) is the hardest. The below results provide a better understanding of the complex microstructure of these alloys.

  7. Synthesis, characterization and mechanical properties of nanocrystalline NiAl

    SciTech Connect

    Choudry, M. |; Eastman, J.A.; DiMelfi, R.J.; Dollar, M.

    1996-11-01

    Nanocrystalline NiAl was produced from pre-cast alloys using an electron beam inert gas condensation system. In-situ compaction was carried out at 100-300 C under vacuum conditions. Energy dispersive spectroscopy was used to determine chemical composition and homogeneity. Average grain sizes in the range 4-10 nm were found from TEM dark field analyses. A compression-cage fixture was designed to perform disk bend tests. These tests revealed substantial room temperature ductility in nanocrystalline NiAl, while coarse grained NiAl showed no measurable room temperature ductility.

  8. Magnetic field effects on the NiO magnon spectra.

    SciTech Connect

    Milano, J.; Grimsditch, M.; Materials Science Division; Centro Atomico Bariloche; CIC Nanogune

    2010-03-15

    The effect of an external magnetic field on the eight antiferromagnetic resonance (AFMR) modes of NiO has been studied experimentally using Brillouin light scattering. The results are reproduced by a model that includes the effects of exchange, dipolar coupling, a small cubic anisotropy, and Zeeman terms. Magnetic fields up to 7 T were applied along several NiO crystalline directions. The agreement between theory and experiment provides additional proof that the model, recently introduced to explain the existence of the AFMR multiplet, is indeed valid. Deviations between simulations and experiments, together with a review of previously published results, indicate that large magnetostrictive effects are present in NiO.

  9. TEM studies of the nitrided Ni-Ti surface layer.

    PubMed

    Lelatko, J; Paczkowski, P; Wierzchoń, T; Morawiec, H

    2006-09-01

    The structure of surface layer, obtained on the nearly equiatomic Ni-Ti alloy after nitriding under glow discharge conditions at temperatures 700 or 800 degrees C, was investigated. The structural characterization of the intruded layer was performed on cross-sectional thin foils by the use of the transmission and scanning electron microscopes. The obtained results show that the nitrided layers consist mainly of the nanocrystalline TiN phase and small amount of Ti(2)N. Between the nitrided layers and beta-NiTi matrix an intermediate Ti(2)Ni phase layer was observed. PMID:17059538

  10. Pressure dependence of BaNi2As2

    SciTech Connect

    Ronning, Filip; Park, Tuscon; Bauer, Eric D; Thompson, Joe D

    2009-01-01

    We report results from resistivity measurements of BaNi{sub 2}As{sub 2} up to 27.4 kbar of pressure. We find the structural transition at 130 K is broadened slightly with increasing pressure. There is also minimal influence on the superconducting transition, where the resistive onset increases from 2 to 3 K, but the temperature at which zero resistance is obtained is unchanged up to 27.4 kbar. This behavior is in contrast to that observed in the Fe-based systems as well as in LaNiPO and LaNiAsO.

  11. Physicochemical investigation of NiAl with small molybdenum additions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Troshkina, V. A.; Kucherenko, L. A.; Fadeeva, V. I.; Aristova, N. M.

    1982-01-01

    Specimens of four cast NiAl alloys, three of them containing 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 at. % Mo., were homogenized for 10, 10, and 140 hr at 1373, 1523 and 1273 K, respectively, then kept at 1073, 1173 and 1323 K for 60, 120 and 3 hr, respectively, and quenched in icy water. The precipitation of a metastable Ni3Mo phase was observed at temperatures between 1073 and 1523 K. Molybdenum substituted for nickel was found to inhibit the lattice disordering in NiAl at 1073 and 1523 K.

  12. Microstructure of the Al-La-Ni-Fe system

    SciTech Connect

    Vasil’ev, A. L.; Ivanova, A. G.; Bakhteeva, N. D.; Kolobylina, N. N.; Orekhov, A. S.; Presnyakov, M. Yu.; Todorova, E. V.

    2015-01-15

    The microstructure of alloys based on the Al-La-Ni-Fe system, which are characterized by a unique ability to form metal glasses and nanoscale composites in a wide range of compositions, has been investigated. Al{sub 85}Ni{sub 7}Fe{sub 4}La{sub 4} and Al{sub 85}Ni{sub 9}Fe{sub 2}La{sub 4} alloys have been analyzed by electron microscopy (including high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy), energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis, electron diffraction (ED), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). It is found that, along with fcc Al and Al{sub 4}La (Al{sub 11}La{sub 3}) particles, these alloys contain a ternary phase Al{sub 3}Ni{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x} (sp. gr. Pnma) isostructural to the Al{sub 3}Ni phase and a quaternary phase Al{sub 8}Fe{sub 2−x}Ni{sub x}La isostructural to the Al{sub 8}Fe{sub 2}Eu phase (sp. gr. Pbam). The unit-cell parameters of the Al{sub 3}Ni{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x} and Al{sub 8}Fe{sub 2−x}Ni{sub x}La compounds, determined by ED and refined by XRD, are a = 0.664(1) nm, b = 0.734(1) nm, and c = 0.490(1) nm for Al{sub 3}Ni{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x} and a = 1.258(3) nm, b = 1.448(3) nm, and c = 0.405(8) nm for Al{sub 8}Fe{sub 2−x}Ni{sub x}La. In both cases Ni and Fe atoms are statistically arranged, and no ordering is found. Al{sub 8}Fe{sub 2−x}Ni{sub x}La particles contain inclusions in the form of Al{sub 3}Fe δ layers.

  13. Nondestructive evaluation of Ni-Ti shape memory alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Meir, S.; Gordon, S.; Karsh, M.; Ayers, R.; Olson, D. L.; Wiezman, A.

    2011-06-23

    The nondestructive evaluation of nickel titanium (Ni-Ti) alloys for applications such as heat treatment for biomaterials applications (dental) and welding was investigated. Ni-Ti alloys and its ternary alloys are valued for mechanical properties in addition to the shape memory effect. Two analytical approaches were perused in this work. Assessment of the microstructure of the alloy that determines the martensitic start temperature (Ms) of Ni-Ti alloy as a function of heat treatment, and secondly, an attempt to evaluate a Friction Stir Welding, which involves thermo-mechanical processing of the alloy.

  14. Minority anion substitution by Ni in ZnO

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, L. M. C.; Amorim, L. M.; Decoster, S.; Temst, K.; Vantomme, A.; Wahl, U.; Correia, J. G.; Silva, D. J.; Bosne, E.; Silva, M. R. da

    2013-08-26

    We report on the lattice location of implanted Ni in ZnO using the β{sup −} emission channeling technique. In addition to the majority substituting for the cation (Zn), a significant fraction of the Ni atoms occupy anion (O) sites. Since Ni is chemically more similar to Zn than it is to O, the observed O substitution is rather puzzling. We discuss these findings with respect to the general understanding of lattice location of dopants in compound semiconductors. In particular, we discuss potential implications on the magnetic behavior of transition metal doped dilute magnetic semiconductors.

  15. On the road to doubly-magic {sup 48}Ni

    SciTech Connect

    Blank, B.; Czajkowski, S.; Davi, F.; Del Moral, R.; Dufour, J. P.; Fleury, A.; Marchand, C.; Pravikoff, M. S.; Benlliure, J.; Boue, F.; Collatz, R.; Heinz, A.; Hellstroem, M.; Hu, Z.; Roeckl, E.; Shibata, M.; Suemmerer, K.; Lewitowicz, M.; Janas, Z.; Karny, M.

    1998-12-21

    A relativistic primary beam of {sup 58}Ni from the SIS synchrotron at GSI was used to produce proton-rich isotopes in the titanium-to-nickel region by projectile fragmention at the FRS. We report here on the first observation of the T{sub z}=-7/2 nuclei {sup 45}Fe and {sup 49}Ni. In addition, the new isotope {sup 42}Cr (T{sub z}=-3) was identified. This opens the route to the yet unobserved doubly-magic nucleus {sup 48}Ni.

  16. Graphene Monolayer Rotation on Ni(111) Facilities Bilayer Graphene Growth

    SciTech Connect

    Batzill M.; Sutter P.; Dahal, A.; Addou, R.

    2012-06-11

    Synthesis of bilayer graphene by chemical vapor deposition is of importance for graphene-based field effect devices. Here, we demonstrate that bilayer graphene preferentially grows by carbon-segregation under graphene sheets that are rotated relative to a Ni(111) substrate. Rotated graphene monolayer films can be synthesized at growth temperatures above 650 C on a Ni(111) thin-film. The segregated second graphene layer is in registry with the Ni(111) substrate and this suppresses further C-segregation, effectively self-limiting graphene formation to two layers.

  17. Magnetic properties of ultrathin Ni/Co/Pt(111) films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, C. W.; Shern, C. S.; Yao, Y. D.

    2004-06-01

    Magnetic properties of one monolayer (ML) Ni/1 ML Co/Pt(111) film upon thermal annealing were investigated. Increases in polar Kerr rotation correspond to the topmost Ni layer incorporated with the second Co layer on Pt, and the further alloying of Co-Pt during the annealing. Interestingly, Curie temperature shifted dramatically to 325 K when the film was annealed at 830 K. The alloy formation of Ni-Pt and top-layer enrichment of Pt may be the main reason causing the great shift of Curie temperature.

  18. Fusion reactions of Ni,6458+124Sn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, C. L.; Stefanini, A. M.; Esbensen, H.; Rehm, K. E.; Almaraz-Calderon, S.; Avila, M. L.; Back, B. B.; Bourgin, D.; Corradi, L.; Courtin, S.; Fioretto, E.; Galtarossa, F.; Goasduff, A.; Haas, F.; Mazzocco, M. M.; Montanari, D.; Montagnoli, G.; Mijatovic, T.; Sagaidak, R.; Santiago-Gonzalez, D.; Scarlassara, F.; Strano, E. E.; Szilner, S.

    2015-04-01

    Measurements of fusion excitation functions of 58Ni+124Sn and 64Ni+124Sn are extended towards lower energy to cross sections of 1 μ b and are compared to detailed coupled-channels calculations. The calculations clearly show the importance of including transfer reactions in a coupled-channels treatment for such heavy systems. This result is different from the conclusion made in a previous article which claimed that the influence of transfer on fusion is not important for fusion reactions of Ni +Sn . In the energy region studied in this experiment no indication of fusion hindrance has been observed, which is consistent with a systematic study of this behavior.

  19. First observation of two-proton radioactivity in 48Ni

    SciTech Connect

    Pomorski, M.; Pfutzner, M.; Dominik, W.; Grzywacz, Robert Kazimierz; Baumann, T.; Berryman, J. S.; Czyrkowski, H.; Dabrowski, Ryszard; Ginter, T. N.; Johnson, James W; Kaminski, A.; Kuzniak, A.; Larson, N.; Liddick, S. N.; Madurga, M; Mazzocchi, C.; Miernik, K.; Miller, D; Paulauskas, S.; Pereira, J.; Rykaczewski, Krzysztof Piotr; Stolz, A.; Suchyta, S.

    2011-01-01

    The decay of the extremely neutron deficient 48Ni was studied by means of an imaging time projection chamber which allowed the recording of tracks of charged particles. Decays of 6 atoms were observed. Four of them clearly correspond to two-proton radioactivity providing the first direct evidence for this decay mode in 48Ni. Two decays represent -delayed proton emission. The half-life of 48Ni is determined to be T1=2 = 2:1+1:4 0:4 ms.

  20. Interdiffusion behavior of Pt-modified γ-Ni + γ'-Ni3Al alloys coupled to Ni-Al-based alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Shigenari; Wang, Wen; Sordelet, Daniel J.; Gleeson, Brian

    2005-07-01

    The effect of platinum addition on the interdiffusion behavior of γ-Ni + γ'-Ni3Al alloys was studied by using diffusion couples comprised of a Ni-Al-Pt alloy mated to a Ni-Al, Ni-Al-Cr, or Ni-based commercial alloy. The commercial alloys studied were CMSX-4 and CMSX-10. Diffusion annealing was at 1150 °C for up to 100 hours. An Al-enriched γ'-layer often formed in the interdiffusion zone of a given couple during diffusion annealing due to the uphill diffusion of Al. This uphill diffusion was ascribed to Pt addition decreasing the chemical activity of aluminum in the γ + γ' alloys. For a given diffusion couple end member, the thickening kinetics of the γ' layer that formed increased with increasing Pt content in the Ni-Al-Pt γ + γ' alloy. The γ'-layer thickening kinetics in diffusion couples with Cr showed less of a dependence on Pt concentration. Inference of a negative effect of Pt and positive effect of Cr on the Al diffusion in this system enabled explanation of the observed interdiffusion behaviors. There was no or minimal formation of detrimental topologically close-packed (TCP) phases in the interdiffusion zone of the couples with CMSX-4 or CMSX-10. An overlay Pt-modified γ + γ' coating on CMSX-4 showed excellent oxidation resistance when exposed to air for 1000 hours at 1150 °C. Moreover, the Al content in the coating was maintained at a relatively high level due to Al replenishment from the CMSX-4 substrate.

  1. Determination of 63Ni and 59Ni in spent ion-exchange resin and activated charcoal from the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor.

    PubMed

    Taddei, M H T; Macacini, J F; Vicente, R; Marumo, J T; Sakata, S K; Terremoto, L A A

    2013-07-01

    A radiochemical method has been adapted to determine (59)Ni and (63)Ni in samples of radioactive wastes from the water cleanup system of the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. The process includes extraction chromatographic resin with dimethylglyoxime (DMG) as a functional group. Activity concentrations of (59)Ni and (63)Ni were measured, respectively, by X-ray spectrometry and liquid scintillation counting, whereas the chemical yield was determined by ICP-OES. The average ratio of measured activity concentrations of (63)Ni and (59)Ni agree well with theory. PMID:23524230

  2. Fabrication of Ni-Ti-O nanotube arrays by anodization of NiTi alloy and their potential applications.

    PubMed

    Hang, Ruiqiang; Liu, Yanlian; Zhao, Lingzhou; Gao, Ang; Bai, Long; Huang, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiangyu; Tang, Bin; Chu, Paul K

    2014-01-01

    Nickel-titanium-oxide (Ni-Ti-O) nanotube arrays (NTAs) prepared on nearly equiatomic NiTi alloy shall have broad application potential such as for energy storage and biomedicine, but their precise structure control is a great challenge because of the high content of alloying element of Ni, a non-valve metal that cannot form a compact electronic insulating passive layer when anodized. In the present work, we systemically investigated the influence of various anodization parameters on the formation and structure of Ni-Ti-O NTAs and their potential applications. Our results show that well controlled NTAs can be fabricated during relatively wide ranges of the anodization voltage (5-90 V), electrolyte temperature (10-50°C) and electrolyte NH4F content (0.025-0.8 wt%) but within a narrow window of the electrolyte H2O content (0.0-1.0 vol%). Through modulating these parameters, the Ni-Ti-O NTAs with different diameter (15-70 nm) and length (45-1320 nm) can be produced in a controlled manner. Regarding potential applications, the Ni-Ti-O NTAs may be used as electrodes for electrochemical energy storage and non-enzymic glucose detection, and may constitute nanoscaled biofunctional coating to improve the biological performance of NiTi based biomedical implants. PMID:25520180

  3. Excess Ni-doping induced enhanced room temperature magneto-functionality in Ni-Mn-Sn based shape memory alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Pramanick, S.; Giri, S.; Majumdar, S.; Chatterjee, S.

    2014-09-15

    Present work reports on the observation of large magnetoresistance (∼−30% at 80 kOe) and magnetocaloric effect (∼12 J·kg{sup −1}·K{sup −1} for 0–50 kOe) near room temperature (∼290 K) on the Ni-excess ferromagnetic shape memory alloy Ni{sub 2.04}Mn{sub 1.4}Sn{sub 0.56}. The sample can be thought of being derived from the parent Ni{sub 2}Mn{sub 1.4}Sn{sub 0.6} alloy, where excess Ni was doped at the expense of Sn. Such Ni doping enhances the martensitic transition temperature and for the Ni{sub 2.04}Mn{sub 1.4}Sn{sub 0.56} it is found to be optimum (288 K). The doped alloy shows enhanced magneto-functional properties as well as reduced saturation magnetization as compared to the undoped counterpart at low temperature. A probable increment of antiferromagnetic correlation between Mn-atoms on Ni substitution can be accounted for the enhanced magneto-functional properties as well as reduction in saturation moment.

  4. Crystalline NiCo2S4 nanotube array coated with amorphous NiCoxSy for supercapacitor electrodes.

    PubMed

    Ding, Rui; Zhang, Mingyi; Yao, Yunhe; Gao, Hong

    2016-04-01

    Hierarchical NiCo2S4@NiCoxSy core/shell nanoarrays grown on carbon cloth were successfully synthesized via a two-step hydrothermal route and following an electrodeposition process. Compared with bare NiCo2S4, the electrochemical performance of NiCo2S4@NiCoxSy nanoarrays have been apparently improved, which shows areal capacitance as high as 3.9F/cm(2) at a constant current density of 1mA/cm(2). And the composite material exhibits excellent rate capability that a high areal capacitance of 2.9F/cm(2) is still retaining as the current density increase to 50mA/cm(2). The superior electrochemical performance can be attributed to the reasonably designed core/shell hierarchical structure of NiCo2S4@NiCoxSy nanoarrays, which would be promising for high-performance supercapacitor materials. PMID:26799624

  5. Formation of Si nanowires by the electrochemical reduction of SiO2 with Ni or NiO additives.

    PubMed

    Fang, Sheng; Wang, Han; Yang, Juanyu; Yu, Bing; Lu, Shigang

    2016-08-15

    Various morphologies of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) were successfully prepared by the electrochemical reduction of silica mixed with different additives (Au, Ag, Fe, Co, Ni, and NiO, respectively). Straight SiNWs were extensively obtained by the electro-reduction of porous Ni/SiO2 blocks in molten CaCl2 at 900 °C. The SiNWs had a wide diameter distribution of 80 to 350 nm, and the Ni-Si droplets were found on the tips of the nanowires. The growth mechanism of SiNWs was investigated, which could reveal that the nano-sized Ni-Si droplets formed at the Ni/SiO2/CaCl2 three-phase interlines. Based on the mechanism proposed, NiO particles with sub-micrometer size were selected as the additive, and straight SiNWs with diameters of 60 to 150 nm were also prepared via the electrochemical process. PMID:27203479

  6. Magnetic dead layers in NiFe/Ta and NiFe/Si/diamond-like carbon films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, Qunwen; Han, Hua; Mao, Ming; Hiner, Craig; Ryan, Francis

    2000-05-01

    NiFe, Ta films were fabricated by ion beam deposition (IBD) and diamond-like carbon (DLC) films by ion beam chemical vapor deposition (IB-CVD) and filtered cathodic arc (FCA) process. Magnetic dead layers at interfaces of Ta/NiFe/Tn and NiFe/Si/DLC trilayer films were determined by characterizing magnetic flux loss using a B-H loop tracer. Dependence of magnetic dead layer on ion beam voltage and thicknesses of Ta, DLC, and Si layers was investigated. It is found that the thickness of magnetic dead layer increases monotonously with increasing ion beam voltage for Ta and DLC film depositions. The magnetic dead layer of 4-6 Å thick forms at Ta/NiFe and NiFe/Ta interfaces at an ion beam voltage of 1000 V, which can be attributed to the atomic intermixing of incoming energetic adatoms with atoms of grown films at interfaces. Direct ion beam deposition of the DLC film in NiFe/Si/DLC layered structure gives rise to a magnetic thickness loss of 12-18 Å. Transmission electron microscopy cross-sectional observations have confirmed the formation of an amorphous-like interfacial layer, as a result of carbonization or silicidation of NiFe at interfaces of the trilayer film.

  7. A Regional Climate Mode Discovered in the North Atlantic: Dakar Niño/Niña

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oettli, Pascal; Morioka, Yushi; Yamagata, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    The interrannual variability of coastal sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies confined off Senegal is explored from a new viewpoint of the ocean-land-atmosphere interaction. The phenomenon may be classified into “coastal Niño/Niña” in the North Atlantic as discussed recently in the Northeastern Pacific and Southeastern Indian Oceans. The interannual variability of the regional mixed-layer temperature anomaly that evolves in boreal late fall and peaks in spring is associated with the alongshore wind anomaly, mixed-layer depth anomaly and cross-shore atmospheric pressure gradient anomaly, suggesting the existence of ocean-land-atmosphere coupled processes. The coupled warm (cold) event is named Dakar Niño (Niña). The oceanic aspect of the Dakar Niño (Niña) may be basically explained by anomalous warming (cooling) of the anomalously thin (thick) mixed-layer, which absorbs shortwave surface heat flux. In the case of Dakar Niña, however, enhancement of the entrainment at the bottom of the mixed-layer is not negligible.

  8. Electroless Ni-P and Ni-P-Al2O3 Nanocomposite Coatings and Their Corrosion and Wear Resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ankita; Singh, A. K.

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to utilize beneficial aspects of nanoparticles in providing corrosion and wear resistance, electroless Ni-P and Ni-P-Al2O3 nanocomposite coatings were produced. Alumina particles with various contents from 5 to 20 g/L in bath were co-deposited within Ni-P deposits on mild steel (ms) substrate. Coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for morphology, energy dispersive analysis of x-ray EDAX for analyzing elemental composition and x-ray diffractometry for investigating the structural changes of their components. Electrochemical and immersion measurements were used to analyze corrosion behavior of the coatings in 3.5% NaCl solution. Wear resistance of the coating was measured by pin-on-disc method. The results indicated that the Ni-P-Al2O3 coatings provide the high hardness as compare to the Ni-P coating. Corrosion and wear resistance of coatings is observed to be superior to that of ms. Corrosion protection properties of the coatings are found to be affected with continuous exposure to the electrolyte. Coating with high concentration of alumina is exhibiting high wear resistance than Ni-P coating. Wear mechanism in case of Ni-P coating appears to be adhesive type and seems to change to abrasive type on introduction of alumina.

  9. Superior electrochemical performance of Li3VO4/NiO/Ni electrode via a coordinated electrochemical reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Shibing; Zhang, Jicheng; Lv, Xiaohu; Yang, Xuelin; Zhang, Lulu

    2015-09-01

    Coordinated electrochemical effect between Li3VO4 and NiO occurs in Li3VO4/NiO/Ni electrodes owing to the close potential regions of lithiation and delithiation for Li3VO4 and NiO. Remarkably, Li3VO4/NiO/Ni with bottom nanowalls and upper micro-flowers architecture undergoes a novel coordinated electrochemical reconstruction owing to well coordinated morphology variation of Li3VO4 and NiO in lithiation and delithiation process, which leads to the formation of a new symmetrical porous architecture in cycling, resulting in superior electrochemical performance. At a specific current of 70 mA g-1, it exhibits discharge and charge capacity of 860 and 631 mAh g-1 in the initial cycle, maintaining of 612 and 604 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles. After 60 cycles at various specific currents from 54 to 2700 mA g-1, the discharge and charge capacity can restore to 612 mAh g-1 when reverting the specific current to 54 mA g-1.

  10. Role of surface Ni and Ce species of Ni/CeO2 catalyst in CO2 methanation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Guilin; Liu, Huiran; Cui, Kaikai; Jia, Aiping; Hu, Gengshen; Jiao, Zhaojie; Liu, Yunqi; Zhang, Xianming

    2016-10-01

    CeO2, which was used as support to prepare mesoporous Ni/CeO2 catalyst, was prepared by the hard-template method. The prepared NiO/CeO2 precursor and Ni/CeO2 catalyst were studied by H2-TPR, in-situ XPS, and in-situ FT-IR. The catalytic properties of the prepared Ni/CeO2 catalyst were also investigated by CO2 catalytic hydrogenation methanation. H2-TPR and in-situ XPS results showed that metal Ni species and surface oxygen vacancies could be formed by H2 reduction. In-situ FT-IR and in-situ XPS results indicated that CO2 molecules could be reduced by active metal Ni species and surface oxygen vacancies to generate active CO species and promote CO2 methanation. The Ni/CeO2 catalyst presented the high CO2 methanation activity, and CO2 conversion and CH4 selectivity reached 91.1% and 100% at 340 °C and atmospheric pressure.

  11. Fabrication of Ni-Ti-O nanotube arrays by anodization of NiTi alloy and their potential applications

    PubMed Central

    Hang, Ruiqiang; Liu, Yanlian; Zhao, Lingzhou; Gao, Ang; Bai, Long; Huang, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiangyu; Tang, Bin; Chu, Paul K.

    2014-01-01

    Nickel-titanium-oxide (Ni-Ti-O) nanotube arrays (NTAs) prepared on nearly equiatomic NiTi alloy shall have broad application potential such as for energy storage and biomedicine, but their precise structure control is a great challenge because of the high content of alloying element of Ni, a non-valve metal that cannot form a compact electronic insulating passive layer when anodized. In the present work, we systemically investigated the influence of various anodization parameters on the formation and structure of Ni-Ti-O NTAs and their potential applications. Our results show that well controlled NTAs can be fabricated during relatively wide ranges of the anodization voltage (5–90 V), electrolyte temperature (10–50°C) and electrolyte NH4F content (0.025–0.8 wt%) but within a narrow window of the electrolyte H2O content (0.0–1.0 vol%). Through modulating these parameters, the Ni-Ti-O NTAs with different diameter (15–70 nm) and length (45–1320 nm) can be produced in a controlled manner. Regarding potential applications, the Ni-Ti-O NTAs may be used as electrodes for electrochemical energy storage and non-enzymic glucose detection, and may constitute nanoscaled biofunctional coating to improve the biological performance of NiTi based biomedical implants. PMID:25520180

  12. Structural and magnetic properties of yttrium and lanthanum-doped Ni-Co and Ni-Co-Zn spinel ferrites

    SciTech Connect

    Stergiou, Charalampos; Litsardakis, George

    2014-11-05

    Rare earth doping of Co-rich spinel ferrites is investigated through the preparation of two groups of polycrystalline Ni-Co and Ni-Co-Zn ferrites, where Fe is partly substituted by Y and La. The characterization of the sintered ferrites by means of X-ray powder diffraction and Rietveld profile analysis, indicates the subtle expansion of the spinel unit cell and the cation redistribution in the doped ferrites in order to accommodate the incorporation of Y and La in the lattice. The impurity traces, detected only in the Ni-Co-Zn group, is ascribed to the Zn population in the tetrahedral A-sites impeding the cation transfer. Moreover, the examined microstructure of the doped Ni-Co samples comprises enlarged and more homogeneous grains, whereas grain growth is moderated in the doped Ni-Co-Zn ferrites. The discussed characteristics of the crystal and magnetic structure along with the morphological aspects define the impact of Y and La doping on the static magnetic properties of Ni-Co and Ni-Co-Zn ferrites, saturation magnetization MS and coercivity HC, which were extracted from the respective hysteresis loops.

  13. Raman spectroscopy of NiSe2 and NiS2-xSex (0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de las Heras, C.; Agulló-Rueda, F.

    2000-06-01

    The Raman spectra of NiS2-xSex (0NiSe2. The NiSe2 spectrum is qualitatively similar to the spectrum of NiS2, but all frequencies are shifted to lower energies. The shift has been analysed in terms of the increment of the anion mass and the lattice expansion. Peaks in the Raman spectrum of the NiS2-xSex alloy can be assigned to stretching and rotational modes of the S-S, Se-Se and S-Se pairs. The stretching vibration of the S-Se pairs shifts almost linearly from 400 cm-1 for NiS2 to 330 cm-1 for NiSe2. There is an accidental degeneracy between the S-S stretching and Se-Se libration frequencies. The relative Raman intensities fit well with a random occupation of the anion sites by S and Se atoms, and different scattering cross sections.

  14. A Regional Climate Mode Discovered in the North Atlantic: Dakar Niño/Niña

    PubMed Central

    Oettli, Pascal; Morioka, Yushi; Yamagata, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    The interrannual variability of coastal sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies confined off Senegal is explored from a new viewpoint of the ocean-land-atmosphere interaction. The phenomenon may be classified into “coastal Niño/Niña” in the North Atlantic as discussed recently in the Northeastern Pacific and Southeastern Indian Oceans. The interannual variability of the regional mixed-layer temperature anomaly that evolves in boreal late fall and peaks in spring is associated with the alongshore wind anomaly, mixed-layer depth anomaly and cross-shore atmospheric pressure gradient anomaly, suggesting the existence of ocean-land-atmosphere coupled processes. The coupled warm (cold) event is named Dakar Niño (Niña). The oceanic aspect of the Dakar Niño (Niña) may be basically explained by anomalous warming (cooling) of the anomalously thin (thick) mixed-layer, which absorbs shortwave surface heat flux. In the case of Dakar Niña, however, enhancement of the entrainment at the bottom of the mixed-layer is not negligible. PMID:26739121

  15. A Regional Climate Mode Discovered in the North Atlantic: Dakar Niño/Niña.

    PubMed

    Oettli, Pascal; Morioka, Yushi; Yamagata, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    The interrannual variability of coastal sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies confined off Senegal is explored from a new viewpoint of the ocean-land-atmosphere interaction. The phenomenon may be classified into "coastal Niño/Niña" in the North Atlantic as discussed recently in the Northeastern Pacific and Southeastern Indian Oceans. The interannual variability of the regional mixed-layer temperature anomaly that evolves in boreal late fall and peaks in spring is associated with the alongshore wind anomaly, mixed-layer depth anomaly and cross-shore atmospheric pressure gradient anomaly, suggesting the existence of ocean-land-atmosphere coupled processes. The coupled warm (cold) event is named Dakar Niño (Niña). The oceanic aspect of the Dakar Niño (Niña) may be basically explained by anomalous warming (cooling) of the anomalously thin (thick) mixed-layer, which absorbs shortwave surface heat flux. In the case of Dakar Niña, however, enhancement of the entrainment at the bottom of the mixed-layer is not negligible. PMID:26739121

  16. Excess Ni-doping induced enhanced room temperature magneto-functionality in Ni-Mn-Sn based shape memory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramanick, S.; Chatterjee, S.; Giri, S.; Majumdar, S.

    2014-09-01

    Present work reports on the observation of large magnetoresistance (˜-30% at 80 kOe) and magnetocaloric effect (˜12 J.kg-1.K-1 for 0-50 kOe) near room temperature (˜290 K) on the Ni-excess ferromagnetic shape memory alloy Ni2.04Mn1.4Sn0.56. The sample can be thought of being derived from the parent Ni2Mn1.4Sn0.6 alloy, where excess Ni was doped at the expense of Sn. Such Ni doping enhances the martensitic transition temperature and for the Ni2.04Mn1.4Sn0.56 it is found to be optimum (288 K). The doped alloy shows enhanced magneto-functional properties as well as reduced saturation magnetization as compared to the undoped counterpart at low temperature. A probable increment of antiferromagnetic correlation between Mn-atoms on Ni substitution can be accounted for the enhanced magneto-functional properties as well as reduction in saturation moment.

  17. Pressure-induced development of bonding in NiAs type compounds and polymorphism of NiP

    SciTech Connect

    Dera, Przemyslaw; Lazarz, John D.; Lavina, Barbara

    2011-11-07

    A reversible, displacive, pressure-induced structural phase transition has been found to occur in nickel monophosphide NiP at approximately 3.5 GPa by means of in situ synchrotron single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The new phase, with Pearson symbol oC56, assumes an orthorhombic structure with Cmc2{sub 1} space group and unit cell parameters a=23.801(2) {angstrom}, b=5.9238(6) {angstrom}, and c=4.8479(4) {angstrom} at 5.79 GPa. The high-pressure phase is a superstructure of the ambient, oP16 phase with multiplicity of 3.5. The phosphorous sublattice gradually converts from the net of isolated P{sub 2} dimers found in the ambient NiP, towards zig-zag polymeric P{infinity} chains found in MnP-type structures. The transformation involves development of triatomic phosphorous clusters and interconnected Ni slabs with diamondoid topology. The high-pressure phase, which represents intermediate polymerization step, is a commensurately modulated superstructure of the NiAs aristotype. The phase transformation in NiP bears resemblance to the effect of successive substitution of Si or Ge in place of P found in the series of stoichiometric inhomogeneous linear structures in ternary NiP{sub 1-x}Si{sub x} and NiP{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} systems.

  18. El Niño's impact on California precipitation: seasonality, regionality, and El Niño intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jong, Bor-Ting; Ting, Mingfang; Seager, Richard

    2016-05-01

    California has experienced severe drought in recent years posing great challenges to agricultural production, water resources, and land management. El Niño, as the prime source of seasonal to interannual climate predictability, offers the potential of amelioration of drought in California. Here El Niño’s impacts on California winter precipitation are examined, focusing on variations by season, region, and the strength of El Niño using observational data for the period 1901–2010. The El Niño influence on California precipitation strengthens from early to late winter and is stronger in the south than the north. Eight of ten moderate-to-strong El Niños in the late winter put southern California in the wettest tercile and none of these ten events put northern California in the driest tercile. The early to late winter strengthening of the El Niño impact on precipitation occurs even as El Niño weakens and is associated with a strengthening and eastward extending tropical deep convection anomaly allowed by the late winter warming of the climatological mean sea surface temperature over the tropical eastern Pacific.

  19. NiO(s) (Bunsenite) is not Available to Alyssum species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    AIMS: To determine if the Ni-hyperaccumulator Alyssum corsicum can absorb Ni from the kinetically inert crystalline mineral NiO(s) (bunsenite). METHODS: A. corsicum and A. montanum plants were grown for 30 days in a serpentine Hoagland solution. NiO was provided at 0 or 0.1 g L-1 (1.34 mmol L-1) ...

  20. Bacterial Inoculants Affecting Nickel Uptake by Alyssum murale From Low, Moderate and High Ni Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metal hyperaccumulator plants like Alyssum murale have a remarkable ability to hyperaccumulate Ni from soils containing mostly insoluble Ni. We have shown some rhizobacteria increase the phytoavailability of Ni in soils, thus enhancing Ni accumulation by A. murale. Nine bacterial strains, originally...

  1. Organic acids rather than histidine predominate in Ni chelation in Alyssum hyperaccumulator xylem exudate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A better understanding of Ni uptake mechanisms by hyperaccumulator plants is necessary to improve Ni uptake efficiency for phytoremediation technologies i.e. phytomining. It is known that an important aspect of Ni translocation involves Ni chelation with organic ligands. However, it is still not cle...

  2. [NiIII(OMe)]-mediated reductive activation of CO2 affording a Ni(κ1-OCO) complex

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chiou, Tzung -Wen; Tseng, Yen -Ming; Lu, Tsai -Te; Weng, Tsu -Chien; Sokaras, Dimosthenes; Ho, Wei -Chieh; Kuo, Ting -Shen; Jang, Ling -Yun; Lee, Jyh -Fu; Liaw, Wen -Feng

    2016-02-24

    Here, carbon dioxide is expected to be employed as an inexpensive and potential feedstock of C1 sources for the mass production of valuable chemicals and fuel. Versatile chemical transformations of CO2, i.e. insertion of CO2 producing bicarbonate/acetate/formate, cleavage of CO2 yielding μ-CO/μ-oxo transition-metal complexes, and electrocatalytic reduction of CO2 affording CO/HCOOH/CH3OH/CH4/C2H4/oxalate were well documented. Herein, we report a novel pathway for the reductive activation of CO2 by the [NiIII(OMe)(P(C6H3-3-SiMe3-2-S)3)]– complex, yielding the [NiIII(κ1-OCO˙–)(P(C6H3-3-SiMe3-2-S)3)]– complex. The formation of this unusual NiIII(κ1-OCO˙–) complex was characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, EPR, IR, SQUID, Ni/S K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and Ni valence-to-core X-ray emissionmore » spectroscopy. The inertness of the analogous complexes [NiIII(SPh)], [NiII(CO)], and [NiII(N2H4)] toward CO2, in contrast, demonstrates that the ionic [NiIII(OMe)] core attracts the binding of weak σ-donor CO2 and triggers the subsequent reduction of CO2 by the nucleophilic [OMe]– in the immediate vicinity. This metal–ligand cooperative activation of CO2 may open a novel pathway promoting the subsequent incorporation of CO2 in the buildup of functionalized products.« less

  3. Tunability of exchange bias in Ni@NiO core-shell nanoparticles obtained by sequential layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    D'Addato, Sergio; Spadaro, Maria Chiara; Luches, Paola; Valeri, Sergio; Grillo, Vincenzo; Rotunno, Enzo; Roldan Gutierrez, Manuel A.; Pennycook, Stephen J.; Ferretti, Anna Maria; Capetti, Elena; Ponti, A.

    2015-01-01

    Films of magnetic Ni@NiO core–shell nanoparticles (NPs, core diameter d ≅ 12 nm, nominal shell thickness variable between 0 and 6.5 nm) obtained with sequential layer deposition were investigated, to gain insight into the relationships between shell thickness/morphology, core-shell interface, and magnetic properties. Different values of NiO shell thickness ts could be obtained while keeping the Ni core size fixed, at variance with conventional oxidation procedures where the oxide shell is grown at the expense of the core. Chemical composition, morphology of the as-produced samples and structural features of the Ni/NiO interface were investigated with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and microscopy (scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy) techniques, and related with results from magnetic measurements obtained with a superconducting quantum interference device. The effect of the shell thickness on the magnetic properties could be studied. The exchange bias (EB) field Hbias is small and almost constant for ts up to 1.6 nm; then it rapidly grows, with no sign of saturation. This behavior is clearly related to the morphology of the top NiO layer, and is mostly due to the thickness dependence of the NiO anisotropy constant. The ability to tune the EB effect by varying the thickness of the last NiO layer represents a step towards the rational design and synthesis of core–shell NPs with desired magnetic properties.

  4. Improvement of the wear resistance of electroplated Au-Ni coatings by Zr ion bombardment of Ni-B sublayer

    SciTech Connect

    Lyazgin, Alexander Shugurov, Artur Sergeev, Viktor Neufeld, Vasily; Panin, Alexey; Shesterikov, Evgeny

    2015-10-27

    The effect of bombardment of the Ni-B sublayer by Zr ion beams on the surface morphology and tribomechanical properties of Au-Ni coatings was investigated. It was found that the treatment has no significant effect on the surface roughness and grain size of the Au-Ni coatings, while it provides essential reducing of their friction coefficient and improvement of wear resistance. It is shown that increased wear resistance of these coatings was caused by their strain hardening resulted from localization of plastic strain. The optimal Zr fluence were determined that provide the maximum reduction of linear wear of the coatings.

  5. Behavior of Ni2+ cations in aqueous and alcohol solutions of NiCl2 · 6H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petkova, P.; Nedkov, V.; Vasilev, P.; Ismailov, I.

    2014-09-01

    We have investigated the optical properties of Ni2+ cations in aqueous and alcohol solutions of NiCl2 · 6H2O at room temperature. We measured the absorption spectra of these two types of solutions in the spectral region 395-795 nm. The Racah’s parameters and the exchange integrals of the aqueous complex [Ni(H2O)6]2+ have been calculated. The parameters Dq, Dt and Ds are also calculated on the basis of our experimental data. The parameters δσ and δπ, connected with the symmetry of the complex, are determined.

  6. A Coastal Niño/Niña Phenomenon Off the Coast of Senegal (West Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oettli, P.; Morioka, Y.; Doi, T.; Yamagata, T.

    2014-12-01

    A recent discovery, the Dakar Niño/Niña, is introduced, involving a local air-sea interaction in the southern region of the Canary Current, an eastern boundary current in the North Atlantic Ocean. In the region (20°-15°W, 9°-15°N) located south of the Cap-Vert peninsula (Senegal, Western Africa), Sea Surface Temperature (SST) undergoes a strong seasonal cycle with a minimum variability during boreal late summer/early fall and with a peak in boreal winter when the surface trade-winds are at their peak strength. The present study identifies that this area is subject to anomalous warming/cooling of the SST in boreal winter, during the period 1982-2011. A close examination of the relationships between the SST and the dynamics of the lower atmosphere reveals the important role played by the surface wind, particularly the meridional component and its angle to the coast. At the interannual time-scale, less (more) intense trade winds in February lead to warmer (cooler) SST in March. The interannual variability in trade winds (speed and direction) also has an influence on the intensity of the coastal upwelling. These results have implications for a potential impact on the fish abundance and also on the local fishery and economy. Similar regional warming phenomena have been described in other oceanic basins, such as in the South Atlantic Ocean (Benguela Niño), the southern Indian Ocean (Ningaloo Niño) and the North Pacific Ocean (California Niño). A comparison between the Dakar Niño and the well documented Ningaloo Niño suggests that an important difference arises to be the distinct feedback mechanisms from the ocean into the atmosphere. The Ningaloo Niño (Niña) has significant impacts on regional precipitation in Australia, through changes in SLP anomalies. While the Dakar Niño (Niña) appears to favor the wind-evaporation-SST (WES) feedback, at a local- to regional-scale. The connection between coastal Niño and ENSO is also analyzed.

  7. Effect of Ni layer thickness and soldering time on intermetallic compound formation at the interface between molten Sn-3.5Ag and Ni/Cu substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, W.K.; Lee, H.M.

    1999-11-01

    The binary eutectic Sn-3.5wt.%Ag alloy was soldered on the Ni/Cu plate at 250 C, the thickness of the Ni layer changing from 0 through 2 and 4 {micro}m to infinity, and soldering time changing from 30 to 120 s at intervals of 30 s. The infinite thickness was equivalent to the bare Ni plate. The morphology, composition and phase identification of the intermetallic compound (IMC, hereafter) formed at the interface were examined. Depending on the initial Ni thickness, different IMC phases were observed at 30 s: Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} on bare Cu, detestable NiSn{sub 3} + Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4} on Ni(2 {micro}m)/Cu, Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4} on Ni(4 {micro}m)/Cu, and Ni{sub 3}Sn + Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4} on bare Ni. With increased soldering time, a Cu-Sn-based {eta}-(Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5}){sub 1{minus}x}Ni{sub x} phase formed under the pre-formed Ni-Sn IMC layer both at 60s in the Ni(2 {micro}m)/Cu plate and at 90s in the Ni(4 {micro}m)/Cu plate. The two-layer IMC pattern remained thereafter. The wetting behavior of each joint was different and it may have resulted from the type of IMC formed on each plate. The thickness of the protective Ni layer over the Cu plate was found to be an important factor in determining the interfacial reaction and the wetting behavior.

  8. Highly crystalline Ni/NiO hybrid electrodes processed by inkjet printing and laser-induced reductive sintering under ambient conditions.

    PubMed

    Rho, Yoonsoo; Kang, Kyung-Tae; Lee, Daeho

    2016-04-28

    In this study, we perform drop-on-demand (DOD) inkjet printing and laser reductive sintering of precrystallized NiO nanoparticle (NP) ink under ambient conditions to obtain NiO/Ni hybrid electrode patterns on a highly localized area. By formulating an inkjet-printable and laser-reducible NiO NP ink, and by exploring the optimum conditions of inkjet printing parameters, we generate stable droplets, enabling arbitrary shapes of NiO NP dot arrays or line patterns to be deposited. Subsequent short-time low-temperature sintering produces highly crystalline NiO electrodes. Furthermore, laser reductive sintering applied on deposited NiO NP patterns can successfully realize a selective transformation of NiO into Ni electrodes under ambient conditions. Therefore, we can define either NiO or Ni electrodes, or a combination of the two on specific areas with precise amounts of ink. In addition, we identify the characteristics of the synthesized NPs, NP ink, NiO and Ni electrodes using various analytical methods. PMID:27073978

  9. Surface Modification of NiTi Alloy via Cathodic Plasma Electrolytic Deposition and its Effect on Ni Ion Release and Osteoblast Behaviors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Ying; Cai, Kaiyong; Yang, Weihu; Liu, Peng

    2013-07-01

    To reduce Ni ion release and improve biocompatibility of NiTi alloy, the cathodic plasma electrolytic deposition (CPED) technique was used to fabricate ceramic coating onto a NiTi alloy surface. The formation of a coating with a rough and micro-textured surface was confirmed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, respectively. An inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry test showed that the formed coating significantly reduced the release of Ni ions from the NiTi alloy in simulated body fluid. The influence of CPED treated NiTi substrates on the biological behaviors of osteoblasts, including cell adhesion, cell viability, and osteogenic differentiation function (alkaline phosphatase), was investigated in vitro. Immunofluorescence staining of nuclei revealed that the CPED treated NiTi alloy was favorable for cell growth. Osteoblasts on CPED modified NiTi alloy showed greater cell viability than those for the native NiTi substrate after 4 and 7 days cultures. More importantly, osteoblasts cultured onto a modified NiTi sample displayed significantly higher differentiation levels of alkaline phosphatase. The results suggested that surface functionalization of NiTi alloy with ceramic coating via the CPED technique was beneficial for cell proliferation and differentiation. The approach presented here is useful for NiTi implants to enhance bone osseointegration and reduce Ni ion release in vitro.

  10. Effect of Thermal Treatments on Ni-Mn-Ga and Ni-Rich Ni-Ti-Hf/Zr High-Temperature Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santamarta, Ruben; Evirgen, Alper; Perez-Sierra, Aquilina M.; Pons, Jaume; Cesari, Eduard; Karaman, Ibrahim; Noebe, Ron D.

    2015-11-01

    Among all the promising high-temperature shape memory alloys (HTSMAs), the Ni-Mn-Ga and the Ni-Ti-Hf/Zr systems exhibit interesting shape memory and superelastic properties that may place them in a good position for potential applications. The present work shows that thermal treatments play a crucial role in controlling the martensitic phase transformation characteristics of both systems, but in different ways. On one hand, the equilibrium phase diagram of the Ni-Mn-Ga family allows selecting compositions with high transformation temperatures and outstanding thermal stability at relatively high temperatures in air, showing no significant changes in the transformation behavior for continuous aging up to ˜5 years at 500 °C. Moreover, the excellent thermal stability correlates with a good thermal cyclic stability and an exceptional oxidation resistance of the parent phase. On the other hand, precipitation processes controlled by thermal treatments are needed to manipulate the transformation temperatures, mechanical properties, and thermal stability of Ni-rich Ni-Ti-Hf/Zr alloys to become HTSMAs. These changes in the functional properties are a consequence of the competition between the mechanical and compositional effects of the precipitates on the martensitic transformation.

  11. Reaction behavior of Ni-Re alloys during direct current polarization in sulfuric acid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryukvin, V. A.; Elemesov, T. B.; Levchuk, O. M.; Bol'shikh, A. O.

    2016-01-01

    The macrokinetic regularities of the reactivity of synthesized Ni-Re (20 and 60 wt %) alloys in a sulfuric acid solution (100 g/L, 25-40°C) during direct current polarization are studied using physicochemical methods. The phase composition of the synthesized alloys is determined by the formation of solid solutions as a function of the initial Ni/Re weight ratio. These are two types of nickel solid solutions (Ni16Re0.2 and Ni14Re0.9) and one rhenium solution (Ni1.1Re). These solid solutions are anodically oxidized in the sequence of their structural rearrangement Ni16Re0.2 → Ni14Re0.9 → Ni1.1Re with a combined transition of the metals into an electrolyte solution. These solid solutions provide the reduction of Ni3+ to Ni2+ due to the depolarization ability of rhenium, being their component.

  12. Alloying of cold-sprayed Al Ni composite coatings by post-annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ha Yong; Jung, Se Hun; Lee, Soo Yong; Ko, Kyung Hyun

    2007-01-01

    A new cold spray coating technique for thick Al coating with finely dispersed Al-Ni intermetallic compounds was tested. For easy powder preparation and high yield, rather than using of Al/compound mixture feed stock, the spraying of pure Al and Ni powders mixture followed by post-annealing was suggested. The powder composition of Al and Ni was 75:25, and 90:10 (wt.%) to expect full consumption of pure Ni into intermetallic compounds. After Al-Ni composite coatings, the Ni particles were finely dispersed and embedded in the Al matrix with a good coating yield. Above 450 °C of post-annealing temperature, the Al 3Ni and Al 3Ni 2 phases were observed in the cold-sprayed Al-Ni coatings. The Ni particles in the Al matrix were fully consumed via compounding reaction with Al at 550 °C of the annealing temperature.

  13. Synthesis and structural characterization of a flexible metal organic framework {[Ni(dpbz)][Ni(CN)4]}n, dpbz = 1,4-bis(4-pyridyl)benzene) with an unusual Ni-N bond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong-Ng, Winnie; Culp, Jeffrey T.; Chen, Yu-S.; Deschamps, Jeffrey R.; Marti, Anna

    2016-02-01

    The chartreuse monoclinic Ni-dpbz (Ni(L)[Ni(CN)4], (L = 1,4-Bis(4-pyridyl)benzene, or dpbz) crystal assumes a pillared structure with layers defined by 2-D Ni[Ni(CN)4]n nets and dpbz ligands as pillars, linking between coordinated Ni sites. In addition to the hysteretic adsorption/desorption feature of Ni-dpbz, in half of the parallelepiped-shape space enclosed by the pillars and nets, an additional dpbz ligand was found to link between the open ends of two four-fold Ni sites. This arrangement results in an unusual 5-fold pseudo square-pyramid environment for Ni and a significantly long Ni-N distance of 2.369(4) Å. The presence of disordered dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solvent molecules give rise to the formula of Ni(dpbz)[Ni(CN)4]·½dpbz·0.44DMSO. Sorption isotherms showed flexible behavior during the adsorption and desorption of CO2.

  14. Effect of NiO spin orientation on the magnetic anisotropy of the Fe film in epitaxially grown Fe/NiO/Ag(001) and Fe/NiO/MgO(001)

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, W.; Jin, E.; Wu, J.; Park, J.; Arenholz, E.; Scholl, A.; Hwang, C.; Qiu, Z.

    2010-02-10

    Single crystalline Fe/NiO bilayers were epitaxially grown on Ag(001) and on MgO(001), and investigated by Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED), Magneto-Optic Kerr Effect (MOKE), and X-ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism (XMLD). We find that while the Fe film has an in-plane magnetization in both Fe/NiO/Ag(001) and Fe/NiO/MgO(001) systems, the NiO spin orientation changes from in-plane direction in Fe/NiO/Ag(001) to out-of-plane direction in Fe/NiO/MgO(001). These two different NiO spin orientations generate remarkable different effects that the NiO induced magnetic anisotropy in the Fe film is much greater in Fe/NiO/Ag(001) than in Fe/NiO/MgO(001). XMLD measurement shows that the much greater magnetic anisotropy in Fe/NiO/Ag(001) is due to a 90{sup o}-coupling between the in-plane NiO spins and the in-plane Fe spins.

  15. Corrosion resistance tests on NiTi shape memory alloy.

    PubMed

    Rondelli, G

    1996-10-01

    The corrosion performances of NiTi shape memory alloys (SMA) in human body simulating fluids were evaluated in comparison with other implant materials. As for the passivity current in potentiostatic conditions, taken as an index of ion release, the values are about three times higher for NiTi than for Ti6Al4V and austenitic stainless steels. Regarding the localized corrosion, while plain potentiodynamic scans indicated for NiTi alloy good resistance to pitting attack similar to Ti6Al4V, tests in which the passive film is abruptly damaged (i.e. potentiostatic scratch test and modified ASTM F746) pointed out that the characteristics of the passive film formed on NiTi alloy (whose strength can be related to the alloy's biocompatibility) are not as good as those on Ti6Al4V but are comparable or inferior to those on austenitic stainless steels. PMID:8894095

  16. Resputtering Effect on Nanocrystalline Ni-Ti Alloy Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priydarshini, B. Geetha; Esakkiraja, N.; Aich, Shampa; Chakraborty, M.

    2016-04-01

    We report on the effect of resputtering on the properties of nanocrystalline Ni-Ti alloy thin films deposited using co-sputtering of Ni and Ti targets. In order to facilitate the formation of nanocrystalline phases, films were deposited at room temperature and 573 K (300 °C) with substrate bias voltage of -100 V. The influence of substrate material on the composition, surface topography microstructure, and phase formations of nanocrystalline Ni-Ti thin films was also systematically investigated. The preferential resputtering of Ti adatoms was lesser for Ni-Ti films deposited on quartz substrate owing to high surface roughness of 4.87 nm compared to roughness value of 1.27 nm for Si(100) substrate.

  17. Support effects on hydrotreating activity of NiMo catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Dominguez-Crespo, M.A. Arce-Estrada, E.M.; Torres-Huerta, A.M.

    2007-10-15

    The effect of the gamma alumina particle size on the catalytic activity of NiMoS{sub x} catalysts prepared by precipitation method of aluminum acetate at pH = 10 was studied. The structural characterization of the supports was measured by using XRD, pyridine FTIR-TPD and nitrogen physisorption. NiMo catalysts were characterized during the preparation steps (annealing and sulfidation) using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Hydrogen TPR studies of the NiMo catalysts were also carried out in order to correlate their hydrogenating properties and their catalytic functionality. Catalytic tests were carried out in a pilot plant at 613, 633 and 653 K temperatures. The results showed that the rate constants of hydrodesulfurization (HDS), hydrodenitrogenation (HDN) and hydrodearomatizing (HDA) at 613-653 K decreased in the following order: A > B > C corresponding to the increase of NiMoS particle size associated to these catalysts.

  18. Rapidly solidified NiAl and FeAl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaydosh, D. J.; Crimp, M. A.

    1984-01-01

    Melt spinning was used to produce rapidly solidified ribbons of the B2 intermetallics NiAl and FeAl. Both Fe-40Al and Fe-45Al possessed some bend ductility in the as spun condition. The bend ductility of Fe-40Al, Fe-45Al, and equiatomic NiAl increased with subsequent heat treatment. Heat treatment at approximately 0.85 T (sub m) resulted in significant grain growth in equiatomic FeAl and in all the NiAl compositions. Low bend ductility in both FeAl and NiAl generally coincided with intergranular failure, while increased bend ductility was characterized by increasing amounts of transgranular cleavage fracture.

  19. NiAl-Based Approach For Rocket Combustion Chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nathal, Michael V. (Inventor); Gayda, John (Inventor); Noebe, Ronald D. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A multi-layered component, such as a rocket engine combustion chamber, includes NiAl or NiAl-based alloy as a structural layer on the hot side of the component. A second structural layer is formed of material selected form Ni-based superalloys, Co-based alloys, Fe-based alloys, Cu, and Cu-based alloys. The second material is more ductile than the NiAl and imparts increased toughness to the component. The second material is selected to enhance one or more predetermined physical properties of the component. Additional structural layers may be included with the additional material(s) being selected for their impact on physical properties of the component.

  20. NiAl-based approach for rocket combustion chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nathal, Michael V. (Inventor); Gayda, John (Inventor); Noebe, Ronald D. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A multi-layered component, such as a rocket engine combustion chamber, includes NiAl or NiAl-based alloy as a structural layer on the hot side of the component. A second structural layer is formed of material selected from Ni-based superalloys, Co-based alloys, Fe-based alloys, Cu, and Cu-based alloys. The second material is more ductile than the NiAl and imparts increased toughness to the component. The second material is selected to enhance one or more predetermined physical properties of the component. Additional structural layers may be included with the additional material(s) being selected for their impact on physical properties of the component.

  1. Core Formation in the Earth: Constraints from Ni and Co

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chabot, N. L.; Draper, D. S.; Agee, C. B.

    2004-01-01

    Due to their metal-loving nature, Ni and Co were strongly partitioned into the metallic core and were left depleted in the silicate mantle during core formation in the Earth. Based on experimental liquid metal- liquid silicate partition coefficients (D), studies have suggested that core formation in an early magma Ocean can explain the observed mantle depletions of Ni and Co [l-51. However, the conditions proposed by the magma ocean models have ranged from pressures of 24 to 59 GPa and temperatures of 2200 to < 4000 K. Furthermore, the proposed magma Ocean oxygen fugacities have differed by nearly two orders of magnitude.Chabot and Agee noted that the different models predicted contradictory behaviors for D(Ni) and D(Co) as a function of temperature. With the hope of resolving the discrepancies between the magma ocean models, we conducted a systematic experimental study to constrain the effects of temperature on D(Ni) and D(Co).

  2. Metal hydrides as negative electrode materials for Ni- MH batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yartys, V.; Noreus, D.; Latroche, M.

    2016-01-01

    Structural, thermodynamical and electrochemical properties of metallic hydrides belonging to the pseudo-binary family A-Mg-Ni ( A: rare earths) are reviewed and compared. Technology aspects of bipolar cells are also discussed.

  3. Atomistic Simulations of Ti Additions to NiAl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo; Noebe, Ronald D.; Garg, Anita; Ferrante, John; Amador, Carlos

    1997-01-01

    The development of more efficient engines and power plants for future supersonic transports depends on the advancement of new high-temperature materials with temperature capabilities exceeding those of Ni-based superalloys. Having theoretical modelling techniques to aid in the design of these alloys would greatly facilitate this development. The present paper discusses a successful attempt to correlate theoretical predictions of alloy properties with experimental confirmation for ternary NiAl-Ti alloys. The B.F.S. (Bozzolo-Ferrante-Smith) method for alloys is used to predict the solubility limit and site preference energies for Ti additions of 1 to 25 at.% to NiAl. The results show the solubility limit to be around 5% Ti, above which the formation of Heusler precipitates is favored. These results were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy performed on a series of NiAl-Ti alloys.

  4. Crystallinity of Fe-Ni Sulfides in Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolensky, M. E.; Ohsumi, K.; Mikouchi, T.; Hagiya, K.; Le, L.

    2008-03-01

    We examine the crystallinity and crystal structures of Fe-Ni sulfides in five carbonaceous chondrites - Acfer 094 (CM2), Tagish Lake (C2 ungrouped), Kaidun C1, Bali (CV2/3 oxidized), and Efremovka (CV3 reduced).

  5. Atomistic simulations of Ti additions to NiAl

    SciTech Connect

    Bozzolo, G.; Noebe, R.D.; Garg, A.; Ferrante, J.; Amador, C.

    1997-12-31

    The development of more efficient engines and power plants for future supersonic transports depend on the advancement of new high-temperature materials with temperature capabilities exceeding those of Ni-based superalloys. Having theoretical modelling techniques to aid in the design of these alloys would greatly facilitate this development. The present paper discusses a successful attempt to correlate theoretical predictions of alloy properties with experimental confirmation for ternary NiAl-Ti alloys. The B.F.S. (Bozzolo- Ferrante-Smith) method for alloys is used to predict the solubility limit and site preference energies for Ti additions of 1 to 25 at. % to NiAl. The results show the solubility limit to be around 5% Ti, above which the formation of Heusler precipitates is favored. These results were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy performed on a series of NiAl-Ti alloys.

  6. Electronic Structure of NiPdP Amorphous Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swihart, J. C.; Nicholson, D. M. C.; Shelton, W. A.; Wang, Y.

    1996-03-01

    The understanding of the structure, properties and required cooling rates for bulk amorphous alloys is hindered by the the large number of constituents in the typical alloy. One of the compositionally simplest systems that can be cast into bulk specimens is Ni_0.4Pd_0.4P_0.2. Furthermore, the thoroughly studied structure of amorphous Ni_0.8P_0.2 provides a useful starting point for its investigation. We use the locally selfconsistent multiple scattering (LSMS) method to determine the electronic structure, mass density, and energy as Pd is substituted at random for Ni in the Ni_0.8P_0.2 amorphous structure. Work supported by Laboratory Directors Research Development program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Division of Materials Science, and the Mathematical Information and Computational Science Division of the Office of Computational Technology Research, US DOE under subcontract DEAC05-84OR21400 with Lockheed-Martin Energy Systems, Inc.

  7. Interdiffusion in nanometric Fe/Ni multilayer films

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, JX; Barmak, K

    2015-03-01

    Fe (3.1 nm)/Ni (3.3 nm)](20) multilayer films were prepared by DC magnetron sputtering onto oxidized Si(100) substrates. The Fe and Ni layers were shown to both be face-centered cubic by x-ray diffraction. Interdiffusion of the Fe and Ni layers in the temperature range of 300-430 degrees C was studied by x-ray reflectivity. From the decay of the integral intensity of the superlattice peak, the activation energy and the pre-exponential term for the effective interdiffusion coefficient were determined as to 1.06 +/- 0.07 eV and 5 x 10(-10) cm(2)/s, respectively. The relevance of the measured interdiffusion coefficient to the laboratory timescale synthesis of L1(0) ordered FeNi as a rare-earth free permanent magnet is discussed. (C) 2015 American Vacuum Society.

  8. Research on pulse electrodeposition of Fe-Ni alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Yongsen; Zhu, Zengwei Ren, Jianhua; Chen, Jiangbo; Han, Taojie

    2014-03-15

    Fe-Ni alloys were fabricated on steel substrates by means of pulse electrodeposition in sulfate solutions. The layers were electrodeposited using different peak current densities, duty cycles and frequencies. Fe contents, microhardnesses and crystalline phases were examined systematically. The Fe content in the deposit decreased and the microhardness increased with increasing duty cycle and peak current density. The pulse frequency had little effect on Fe content but led to a slight decrease in microhardness. X-ray diffraction patterns show that the crystalline phases vary with changes in peak current density and duty cycle but are barely influenced by frequency. When the peak current density or duty cycle is relatively low, crystalline Fe-Ni alloy and pure Fe phases coexist; the pure Fe phases disappear as the peak current density or duty cycle increases. At still larger peak current densities or duty cycles, crystalline Fe-Ni alloy and pure Ni phases coexist.

  9. Persistence photo conductivity in Ni doped CdS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patidar, M. M.; Ajay, A.; Dewas Wala, A.; Kiran, N.; Panda, R.; Gangrade, M.; Nath, R.; Ganesan, V.

    2014-09-01

    Persistence Photo Conductivity (PPC) in Ni-doped Cadmium Sulphide [Cd1-xNixS, (x=0, 0.03, 0.05 and 0.20)] thin films were investigated. While the morphology of the films prepared by Spray Pyrolysis Technique (SPT) were studied using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), the PPC has been studied using a low temperature two probe resistivity set up with a photo-diode excitation. Note worthy changes in the morphology were observed upon Ni substitution and is attributed to the strain induced upon substitution. The simple resistivity analysis shows an evolution to a highly resistive state upon increasing the Ni content and may be attributed to the local oxide formation. Ni doping enhances the photo sensitivity of the films that may be tuned for technological applications.

  10. Determination of thermal properties of commercial Ni-MH cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darcy, Eric C.

    1994-01-01

    The test objectives were to evaluate the electrical and thermal performance of commercial Ni-MH cells, evaluate the effectiveness of commercial charge control circuits, assess the abuse tolerance of these cells, and correlate performance and abuse tolerances to cell design via disassembly. Design objectives were to determine which cell designs are most suitable for scale-up and to guide the design of future shuttle and space station based battery chargers. Results, displayed in viewgraph format, include: reflex charging with ICS circuit resulted in premature charge termination; Ni-MH cells appear very tolerant to overcharge at low rates; Enstore's charger is more electrically and thermally efficient at high rates; and Ni-MH cycles much more efficiently than Ni-Cd with the delta-V/delta-t termination.

  11. Double dumbbell shaped AgNi alloy by pulsed electrodeposition

    SciTech Connect

    Dhanapal, K.; Vasumathi, M.; Santhi, Kalavathy; Narayanan, V. Stephen, A.

    2014-01-28

    Silver-Nickel is the well-known thermally immiscible system that makes them quite complex for the formation of alloy. This kind of alloy can be attained from electrodeposition method. In the present work, AgNi alloy was synthesized by pulsed electrodeposition in a single bath two electrode system with the use of anodic alumina membrane. The prepared AgNi alloy and pure Ag were characterized with X-ray Diffraction (XRD) for structural confirmation, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) for morphological, and magnetic properties by Vibrating Sample Magnetometer, respectively. The X-ray Diffraction study shows the formation of cubic structure for pure Ag. SEM analysis reveals the double dumbbell morphology for AgNi alloy and spherically agglomeration for pure silver. Hysteresis behaviour from VSM measurement indicates that the AgNi alloy have good ferro-magnetic properties.

  12. Fabrication of Au/Ni Multilayered Nanowires by Electrochemical Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saidin, N. U.; Kok, K. Y.; Ng, I. K.; Ilias, S. H.

    2013-04-01

    Electrochemical deposition of Au/Ni multilayered nanowires using template-assisted growth technique from electrolyte containing nickel chloride and gold solution was studied in details. 60 μm-thick anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) with pore diameter of 200 nm was used as the template. Chronopotentiometry experiments were first carried out to determine the deposition conditions and the growth rate of individual Au and Ni layers. Scanning electron microscopy results revealed that the pore channels of AAO were completely filled with Au/Ni multisegmented nanowires. By selectively removing the Ni segments in the multilayered nanowires, high-yield of pure gold nanorods were obtained. Detailed studies on the nanostructures obtained were carried out using various microscopy and probe-based techniques for structural, morphological and chemical characterizations.

  13. Seasonal Influenza Epidemics and El Niños.

    PubMed

    Oluwole, Olusegun Steven Ayodele

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal influenza epidemics occur annually during the winter in the northern and southern hemispheres, but timing of peaks and severity vary seasonally. Low humidity, which enhances survival and transmission of influenza virus, is the major risk factor. Both El Niño and La Niña phases of El Niño-southern oscillation (ENSO), which determine inter-annual variation of precipitation, are putative risk factors. This study was done to determine if seasonality, timing of peak, and severity of influenza epidemics are coupled to phases of ENSO. Monthly time series of positive specimens for influenza viruses and of multivariate El Niño-Southern Oscillation Index from January 2000 to August 2015 were analyzed. Seasonality, wavelet spectra, and cross-wavelet spectra analyses were performed. Of 31 countries in the dataset, 21 were in the northern hemisphere and 10 in the southern hemisphere. The highest number of influenza cases occurred in January in the northern hemisphere, but in July in the southern hemisphere, p < 0.0001. Seasonal influenza epidemic was coupled to El Niño, while low occurrence was coupled to La Niña. The moderate La Niña of 2010-2011 was followed by weak seasonal influenza epidemic. The influenza pandemic of 2009-2010 followed the moderate El Niño of 2009-2010, which had three peaks. Spectrograms showed time-varying periodicities of 6-48 months for ENSO, 6-24 months for influenza in the northern hemisphere, and 6-12 months for influenza in the southern hemisphere. Cross spectrograms showed time-varying periodicities at 6-36 months for ENSO and influenza in both hemispheres, p < 0.0001. Phase plots showed that influenza time series lagged ENSO in both hemispheres. Severity of seasonal influenza increases during El Niño, but decreases during La Niña. Coupling of seasonality, timing, and severity of influenza epidemics to the strength and waveform of ENSO indicate that forecast models of El Niño should be integrated into

  14. Seasonal Influenza Epidemics and El Niños

    PubMed Central

    Oluwole, Olusegun Steven Ayodele

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal influenza epidemics occur annually during the winter in the northern and southern hemispheres, but timing of peaks and severity vary seasonally. Low humidity, which enhances survival and transmission of influenza virus, is the major risk factor. Both El Niño and La Niña phases of El Niño-southern oscillation (ENSO), which determine inter-annual variation of precipitation, are putative risk factors. This study was done to determine if seasonality, timing of peak, and severity of influenza epidemics are coupled to phases of ENSO. Monthly time series of positive specimens for influenza viruses and of multivariate El Niño-Southern Oscillation Index from January 2000 to August 2015 were analyzed. Seasonality, wavelet spectra, and cross-wavelet spectra analyses were performed. Of 31 countries in the dataset, 21 were in the northern hemisphere and 10 in the southern hemisphere. The highest number of influenza cases occurred in January in the northern hemisphere, but in July in the southern hemisphere, p < 0.0001. Seasonal influenza epidemic was coupled to El Niño, while low occurrence was coupled to La Niña. The moderate La Niña of 2010–2011 was followed by weak seasonal influenza epidemic. The influenza pandemic of 2009–2010 followed the moderate El Niño of 2009–2010, which had three peaks. Spectrograms showed time-varying periodicities of 6–48 months for ENSO, 6–24 months for influenza in the northern hemisphere, and 6–12 months for influenza in the southern hemisphere. Cross spectrograms showed time-varying periodicities at 6–36 months for ENSO and influenza in both hemispheres, p < 0.0001. Phase plots showed that influenza time series lagged ENSO in both hemispheres. Severity of seasonal influenza increases during El Niño, but decreases during La Niña. Coupling of seasonality, timing, and severity of influenza epidemics to the strength and waveform of ENSO indicate that forecast models of El Niño should be integrated

  15. Atomic structure relaxation in nanocrystalline NiO studied by EXAFS spectroscopy: Role of nickel vacancies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anspoks, A.; Kalinko, A.; Kalendarev, R.; Kuzmin, A.

    2012-11-01

    Nanocrystalline NiO samples have been studied using the Ni K-edge extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy and recently developed modeling technique, combining classical molecular dynamics with ab initio multiple-scattering EXAFS calculations (MD-EXAFS). Conventional analysis of the EXAFS signals from the first two coordination shells of nickel revealed that (i) the second shell average distance R(Ni-Ni2) expands in nanocrystalline NiO compared to microcrystalline NiO, in agreement with overall unit cell volume expansion observed by x-ray diffraction; (ii) on the contrary, the first shell average distance R(Ni-O1) in nanocrystalline NiO shrinks compared to microcrystalline NiO; (iii) the thermal contribution into the mean-square relative displacement σ2 is close in both microcrystalline and nanocrystalline NiO and can be described by the Debye model; (iv) the static disorder is additionally present in nanocrystalline NiO in both the first Ni-O1 and second Ni-Ni2 shells due to nanocrystal structure relaxation. Within the MD-EXAFS method, the force-field potential models have been developed for nanosized NiO using as a criterion the agreement between the experimental and theoretical EXAFS spectra. The best solutions have been obtained for the 3D cubic-shaped nanoparticle models with nonzero Ni vacancy concentration Cvac: Cvac≈0.4-1.2% for NiO nanoparticles having the cube size of L≈3.6-4.2 nm and Cvac≈1.6-2.0% for NiO thin film composed of cubic nanograins with a size of L≈1.3-2.1 nm. Thus our results show that the Ni vacancies in nanosized NiO play important role in its atomic structure relaxation along with the size reduction effect.

  16. Gas phase selective hydrogenation over oxide supported Ni-Au.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas-Lizana, Fernando; Keane, Mark A

    2015-11-14

    The chemoselective continuous gas phase (T = 573 K; P = 1 atm) hydrogenation of nitroarenes (p-chloronitrobenzene (p-CNB) and m-dinitrobenzene (m-DNB)) has been investigated over a series of oxide (Al2O3 and TiO2) supported Au and Ni-Au (1 : 10 mol ratio; 0.1-1 mol% Au) catalysts. Monometallic supported Au with mean particle size 3-9 nm promoted exclusive formation of p-chloroaniline (p-CAN) and m-nitroaniline (m-NAN). Selective hydrogenation rate was higher over smaller Au particles and can be attributed to increased surface hydrogen (from TPD measurements) at higher metal dispersion. (S)TEM analysis has confirmed an equivalent metal particle size for the supported bimetallics at the same Au loading where TPR indicates Ni-Au interaction and EDX surface mapping established Ni in close proximity to Au on isolated nanoparticles with a composition (Au/Ni) close to the bulk value (= 10). Increased spillover hydrogen due to the incorporation of Ni in the bimetallics resulted in elevated -NO2 group reduction rate. Full selectivity to p-CAN was maintained over all the bimetallic catalysts. Conversion of m-DNB over the lower loaded Ni-Au/Al2O3 generated m-NAN as sole product. An increase in Ni content (0.01 → 0.1 mol%) or a switch from Al2O3 to TiO2 as support resulted in full -NO2 reduction (to m-phenylenediamine). Our results demonstrate the viability of Ni-promotion of Au in the continuous production of functionalised anilines. PMID:25752655

  17. Ni-cd Battery Life Expectancy in Geosynchronous Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broderick, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    The feasibility of using nickel cadmium batteries as an alternate if flight qualified NiH2 batteries are not available is explored. Battery life expectancy data being a key element of power system design, an attempt is made to review the literature, life test data and in orbit performance data to develop an up to date estimate of life expectancy for NiCd batteries in a geosynchronous orbit.

  18. Shape Memory Behavior of Porous NiTi Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaya, Mehmet; Çakmak, Ömer

    2016-04-01

    Shape memory behavior of porous NiTi alloy is dependent on the phases, and mechanical or thermal background. The phases change with solution heat treatment and aging. Fully reversible shape memory behavior was observed during thermal cycling, and recoverable strains increased with the increasing stress from 2 to 50 MPa. The porous NiTi sample shows recoverable transformation strain response under lower constant load.

  19. Ultrahigh strength of dislocation-free Ni3Al nanocubes.

    PubMed

    Maaß, Robert; Meza, Lucas; Gan, Bin; Tin, Sammy; Greer, Julia R

    2012-06-25

    Individual Ni(3) Al nanocubes under pressure are investigated by comparing the compressive strength of both dislocation-free and irradiated Ni(3) Al nanocubes. The results are dicussed in light of the size-dependent and size-independent strength of face-centered cubic (fcc) nanocrystals in the framework of dislocation nucleation at free surfaces. This study sheds more light on the understanding of fundamental deformation mechanisms and size-affected strength in dislocation-free metallic nanocrystals. PMID:22454244

  20. Microhardness of Ni-Cr alloys under different casting conditions.

    PubMed

    Bauer, José Roberto de Oliveira; Loguercio, Alessandro Dourado; Reis, Alessandra; Rodrigues Filho, Leonardo Eloy

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated the microhardness of Ni-Cr alloys used in fixed prosthodontics after casting under different conditions. The casting conditions were: (1-flame/air torch) flame made of a gas/oxygen mixture and centrifugal casting machine in a non-controlled casting environment; (2-induction/argon) electromagnetic induction in an environment controlled with argon; (3-induction/vacuum) electromagnetic induction in a vacuum environment; (4-induction/air) electromagnetic induction in a non-controlled casting environment. The 3 alloys used were Ni-Cr-Mo-Ti, Ni-Cr-Mo-Be, and Ni-Cr-Mo-Nb. Four castings with 5 cylindrical, 15 mm-long specimens (diameter: 1.6 mm) in each casting ring were prepared. After casting, the specimens were embedded in resin and polished for Vickers microhardness (VH) measurements in a Shimadzu HMV-2 (1,000 g for 10 s). A total of 5 indentations were done for each ring, one in each specimen. The data was subjected to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's multiple comparison tests (alpha = 0.05). The VH values of Ni-Cr-Mo-Ti (422 +/- 7.8) were statistically higher (p < 0.05) than those of Ni-Cr-Mo-Nb (415 +/- 7.6). The lowest VH values were found for Ni-Cr-Mo-Be (359 +/- 10.7). The VH values obtained in the conditions induction/argon and induction/vacuum were similar (p > 0.05) and lower than the values obtained in the conditions induction/air and flame/air torch (p < 0.05). The VH values in the conditions induction/air and flame/air were similar (p > 0.05). The microhardness of the alloys is influenced by their composition and casting method. The hardness of the Ni-Cr alloys was higher when they were cast with the induction/air and flame/air torch methods. PMID:16729173

  1. Ni++ as a competitive inhibitor of calcium transport in mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Bragadin, M; Viola, E R

    1997-06-01

    The kinetics of Ca++ uptake in rat liver mitochondria have been studied using the potassium diffusion potential. The advantage of this approach is that in this condition, the mitochondrial respiratory rate is not the limiting step, and therefore the effects of Ni++ on the Ca++ carrier can be studied. Our results suggest that Ni++ is a competitive inhibitor of the Ca++ carrier, but it is not transported into the mitochondria. PMID:9161009

  2. Shape memory effect of laser welded NiTi plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, J. P.; Fernandes, F. M. Braz; Schell, N.; Miranda, R. M.

    2015-07-01

    Laser welding is a suitable joining technique for shape memory alloys (SMAs). This paper reports the existence of shape memory effect (SME) on laser welded NiTi joints, subjected to bending tests, and correlates this effect with the microstructural analysis performed with X-ray diffraction (XRD). All welded samples were able to recover their initial shape after bending to 180°, which is a remarkable result for industrial applications of NiTi involving laser welding.

  3. Ni-Ankh-Sekhmet: first rhinologist in history.

    PubMed

    Pahor, Ahmes L; Farid, Adel

    2003-11-01

    Ni-Ankh-Sekhmet has always been referred to as the first rhinologist in history. Translations of the hieroglyphics depicted on all the illustrations accompanying previous publications do not substantiate this claim. The research presented is a result of an investigation of the original monument related to the doctor at its present location in the Egyptian Museum, Cairo. The research proves that Ni-Ankh-Sekhmet was the first rhinologist in history. PMID:14670142

  4. NiTi-Polyimide Composites Prepared Using Thermal Imidization Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vokoun, D.; Sysel, P.; Heller, L.; Kadeřávek, L.; Svatuška, M.; Goryczka, T.; Kafka, V.; Šittner, P.

    2016-05-01

    We manufactured NiTi plate-polyimide composite samples and analyzed their thermomechanical behavior. The residual stresses formed in the composite result from the shift of transformation temperatures and shape changes during thermal cycling. We demonstrate the use of finite element analysis for modeling the shape changes. The shape changes result from the difference in coefficients of thermal expansion and from the changes of Young's modulus and of the coefficient of thermal expansion in the NiTi shape memory alloy.

  5. Polishability of thin electrolytic and electroless NiP layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinast, Jan; Beier, Matthias; Gebhardt, Andreas; Risse, Stefan; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    Ultra-precise metal optics are key components of sophisticated scientific instrumentation in astronomy and space applications, covering a wide spectral range. Especially for applications in the visible or ultra-violet spectral ranges, a low roughness of the optics is required. Therefore, a polishable surface is necessary. State of the art is an amorphous nickel-phosphorus (NiP) layer, which enables several polishing techniques achieving a roughness of <1 nm RMS. Typically, these layers are approximately 30 μm to 60 μm thick. Deposited on Al6061, the bimetallic effect leads to a restricted operational temperature, caused by different coefficients of thermal expansion of Al6061 and NiP. Thinner NiP layers reduce the bimetallic effect. Hence, the possible operating temperature range. A deterministic shape correction via Magnetorheological Finishing of the substrate Al6061 leads to low shape deviations prior to the NiP deposition. This allows for depositing thin NiP-layers, which are polishable via a chemical mechanical polishing technique aiming at ultra-precise metal optics. The present article shows deposition processes and polishability of electroless and electrolytic NiP layers with thicknesses between 1 μm and 10 μm.

  6. Microstructure characteristics of Ni/WC composite cladding coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Gui-rong; Huang, Chao-peng; Song, Wen-ming; Li, Jian; Lu, Jin-jun; Ma, Ying; Hao, Yuan

    2016-02-01

    A multilayer tungsten carbide particle (WCp)-reinforced Ni-based alloy coating was fabricated on a steel substrate using vacuum cladding technology. The morphology, microstructure, and formation mechanism of the coating were studied and discussed in different zones. The microstructure morphology and phase composition were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. In the results, the coating presents a dense and homogeneous microstructure with few pores and is free from cracks. The whole coating shows a multilayer structure, including composite, transition, fusion, and diffusion-affected layers. Metallurgical bonding was achieved between the coating and substrate because of the formation of the fusion and diffusion-affected layers. The Ni-based alloy is mainly composed of γ-Ni solid solution with finely dispersed Cr7C3/Cr23C6, CrB, and Ni+Ni3Si. WC particles in the composite layer distribute evenly in areas among initial Ni-based alloying particles, forming a special three-dimensional reticular microstructure. The macrohardness of the coating is HRC 55, which is remarkably improved compared to that of the substrate. The microhardness increases gradually from the substrate to the composite zone, whereas the microhardness remains almost unchanged in the transition and composite zones.

  7. Preparation of high-permeability NiCuZn ferrite*

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jun; Yan, Mi

    2005-01-01

    Appropriate addition of CuO/V2O5 and the reduction of the granularity of the raw materials particle decrease the sintering temperature of NiZn ferrite from 1200 °C to 930 °C. Furthermore, the magnetic properties of the NiZn ferrite prepared at low temperature of 930 °C is superior to that of the NiZn ferrite prepared by sintering at high temperature of 1200 °C because the microstructure of the NiZn ferrite sintered at 930 °C is more uniform and compact than that of the NiZn ferrite sintered at 1200 °C. The high permeability of 1700 and relative loss coefficient tanδ/μi of 9.0×10−6 at 100 kHz was achieved in the (Ni0.17Zn0.63Cu0.20)Fe1.915O4 ferrite. PMID:15909348

  8. Microstructural and mechanical challenges in biomedical NiTi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franz-Xaver Wagner, Martin

    2010-07-01

    The mechanical behaviour of NiTi shape memory alloys superficially resembles that of certain biomaterials, such as bones or tissues: By virtue of a reversible martensitic phase transformation, NiTi alloys can recover relatively large strains; uniaxial stress-strain curves exhibit constant stress-plateaus (at several hundreds of MPa, depending on alloy composition and testing temperature) associated with the phase transition. These novel functional properties, in combination with high mechanical strength in ultra-fine grained NiTi and good biocompatibility, are utilized in various implants and medical devices. Yet - and quite similar to hierarchically structured biomaterials - the deformation behaviour of NiTi is intricately linked to distinct deformation processes on several length scales, and there remain significant gaps in our understanding of the microstructure-property relations. In the present paper, recent experimental and theoretical results from first-principles calculations, micromechanical modelling and nanoindentation are discussed with a focus on the role of inelastic deformation processes, twin boundaries and the interaction of plastic deformation and stress-induced phase transformations. These novel findings challenge our understanding of the fundamental mechanical properties of NiTi. They highlight the importance of inelastic deformation mechanisms for the overall mechanical properties and strength of NiTi.

  9. NiCr etching in a reactive gas

    SciTech Connect

    Ritter, J.; Boucher, R.; Morgenroth, W.; Meyer, H. G.

    2007-05-15

    The authors have etched NiCr through a resist mask using Cl/Ar based chemistry in an electron cyclotron resonance etch system. The optimum gas mixture and etch parameters were found for various ratios of Ni to Cr, based on the etch rate, redeposits, and the etch ratio to the mask. The introduction of O{sub 2} into the chamber, which is often used in the etching of Cr, served to both increase and decrease the etch rate depending explicitly on the etching parameters. Etch rates of >50 nm min{sup -1} and ratios of >1 (NiCr:Mask) were achieved for NiCr (80:20). Pattern transfer from the mask into the NiCr was achieved with a high fidelity and without redeposits for a Cl/Ar mix of 10% Ar (90% Cl{sub 2}) at an etch rate of {approx_equal}50 nm min{sup -1} and a ratio of 0.42 (NiCr:ZEP 7000 e-beam mask)

  10. Chinese NiTi wire--a new orthodontic alloy.

    PubMed

    Burstone, C J; Qin, B; Morton, J Y

    1985-06-01

    Chinese NiTi wire was studied by means of a bending test to determine wire stiffness, springback, and maximum bending moments. Chinese NiTi wire has an unusual deactivation curve (unlike steel and nitinol wires) in which relatively constant forces are produced over a long range of action. The characteristic flexural stiffness of NiTi wire is determined by the amount of activation. At large activations NiTi wires has a stiffness of only 7% that of a comparable stainless steel wire, and at small activations 28% of steel wire. For the same activation at large deflections, the forces produced are 36% that of a comparable nitinol wire. Chinese NiTi wire demonstrates phenomenal springback. It can be deflected 1.6 times as far as nitinol wire or 4.4 times as far as stainless steel wire without appreciable permanent deformation. NiTi wire is highly useful in clinical situations that require a low-stiffness wire with an extremely large springback. PMID:3890554

  11. Nature of magnetic ordering in Ni(OH)2 nanoplates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rall, James; Seehra, Mohindar

    2009-03-01

    Nickel hydroxides are important for their potential applications in rechargeable batteries and as precursors for NiO and Ni catalysts. β--Ni(OH)2 has the CdI2 layered structure with Ni atoms forming a hexagonal unit cell. Here, we report on the magnetic ordering in 17 nm x 4 nm nanosheets of β--Ni(OH)2 . Measurements of the magnetization M as a function of temperature (2K to 300K) and magnetic field H up to ±65kOe are reported. M vs. T data in H =100 Oe for the ZFC case shows a peak in M at TN = 24 K characteristic of antiferromagnetic (AF) ordering; however for T > TN, the Curie-Weiss (χ = C/(T - θ)) fit yields θ = 26K characteristic of ferromagnetism. Following Takada (J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 21, 2745, 1966), we measured M vs. H loops from T = 2K to 25K and observed a metamagnetic transition at Hc = 56 kOe at 2K, with Hc decreasing with increasing T. These results suggests strong ferromagnetic coupling among Ni within (001) sheets and a weaker antiferromagnetic coupling in the neighboring (001) sheets, and [001] as the easy axis. This model is used to determine the exchange constants consistent with the observed Curie-Weiss variation.

  12. Prediction of Indentation Behavior of Superelastic TiNi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neupane, Rabin; Farhat, Zoheir

    2014-09-01

    Superelastic TiNi shape memory alloys have been extensively used in various applications. The great interest in TiNi alloys is due to its unique shape memory and superelastic effects, along with its superior wear and dent resistance. Assessment of mechanical properties and dent resistance of superelastic TiNi is commonly performed using indentation techniques. However, the coupling of deformation and reversible martensitic transformation of TiNi under indentation conditions makes the interpretation of results challenging. An attempt is made to enhance current interpretation of indentation data. A load-depth curve is predicted that takes into consideration the reversible martensitic transformation. The predicted curve is in good agreement with experimental results. It is found in this study that the elastic modulus is a function of indentation depth. At shallow depths, the elastic modulus is high due to austenite dominance, while at high depths, the elastic modulus drops as the depth increases due to austenite to martensite transition, i.e., martensite dominance. It is also found that TiNi exhibits superior dent resistance compared to AISI 304 steel. There is two orders of magnitude improvement in dent resistance of TiNi in comparison to AISI 304 steel.

  13. Ni-based nanoalloys: Towards thermally stable highly magnetic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palagin, Dennis; Doye, Jonathan P. K.

    2014-12-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations and density functional theory calculations have been used to demonstrate the possibility of preserving high spin states of the magnetic cores within Ni-based core-shell bimetallic nanoalloys over a wide range of temperatures. We show that, unlike the case of Ni-Al clusters, Ni-Ag clusters preserve high spin states (up to 8 μB in case of Ni13Ag32 cluster) due to small hybridization between the electronic levels of two species. Intriguingly, such clusters are also able to maintain geometrical and electronic integrity of their cores at temperatures up to 1000 K (e.g., for Ni7Ag27 cluster). Furthermore, we also show the possibility of creating ordered arrays of such magnetic clusters on a suitable support by soft-landing pre-formed clusters on the surface, without introducing much disturbance in geometrical and electronic structure of the cluster. We illustrate this approach with the example of Ni13Ag38 clusters adsorbed on the Si(111)-(7×7) surface, which, having two distinctive halves to the unit cell, acts as a selective template for cluster deposition.

  14. Solid solution cermet: (Ti,Nb)(CN)-Ni cermet.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hanjung; Jung, Sun-A

    2014-11-01

    Solid solution powders without W, (Ti,Nb)(CN) powders with a B1 structure (NaCl like), were synthesized by high energy milling and carbothermal reduction in nitrogen. The range of molar ratios of Ti/Nb for forming complete (Ti,Nb)(CN) phase was broader than that of Ti/W for the (Ti,W)(CN) phase because carbide or carbonitride of Nb had a B1 crystal structure identical to Ti(CN) while WC had a hexagonal crystal structure. The results revealed that the hardness of (Ti,Nb)(CN)-Ni cermets was higher than that of (Ti,W)(CN)-Ni cermets. The lower density of the (Ti,Nb)(CN) powder contributed to the higher hardness compared to (Ti,W)(CN) because the volumetric ratio of (Ti,Nb)(CN) in the (Ti,Nb)(CN)-Ni cermets was higher than that of (Ti,Nb)(CN) in the (Ti,W)(CN)-Ni cermets at the same weight ratio of Ni. Additionally, it was assumed that intrinsic the properties of (Ti,Nb)(CN) could also be the cause for the high hardness of the (Ti,Nb)(CN)-Ni cermets. PMID:25958611

  15. Reliability analysis of single crystal NiAl turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salem, Jonathan; Noebe, Ronald; Wheeler, Donald R.; Holland, Fred; Palko, Joseph; Duffy, Stephen; Wright, P. Kennard

    1995-01-01

    As part of a co-operative agreement with General Electric Aircraft Engines (GEAE), NASA LeRC is modifying and validating the Ceramic Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures algorithm for use in design of components made of high strength NiAl based intermetallic materials. NiAl single crystal alloys are being actively investigated by GEAE as a replacement for Ni-based single crystal superalloys for use in high pressure turbine blades and vanes. The driving force for this research lies in the numerous property advantages offered by NiAl alloys over their superalloy counterparts. These include a reduction of density by as much as a third without significantly sacrificing strength, higher melting point, greater thermal conductivity, better oxidation resistance, and a better response to thermal barrier coatings. The current drawback to high strength NiAl single crystals is their limited ductility. Consequently, significant efforts including the work agreement with GEAE are underway to develop testing and design methodologies for these materials. The approach to validation and component analysis involves the following steps: determination of the statistical nature and source of fracture in a high strength, NiAl single crystal turbine blade material; measurement of the failure strength envelope of the material; coding of statistically based reliability models; verification of the code and model; and modeling of turbine blades and vanes for rig testing.

  16. Structural and magnetic properties of Cu Ni Cr spinel oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tovar, M.; Torabi, R.; Welker, C.; Fleischer, F.

    2006-11-01

    The compounds CuCr 2O 4 and NiCr 2O 4 crystallize at room temperature in a tetragonal distorted spinel structure, s.g. I4 1/amd, with axes ratio c/ a<1 and >1, respectively. The distortion is caused by the Jahn-Teller ions Cu 2+ and Ni 2+ which flatten or elongate their surrounding oxygen tetrahedron. CuCr 2O 4 and NiCr 2O 4 form a complete solid solution series Cu 1-xNi xCr 2O 4 where for 0.825< x<0.875 members with orthorhombic symmetry were found. Using neutron powder diffraction and thermal analysis methods several members of the solid solution series were investigated. On cooling, all samples showed a temperature-dependent crystallographic phase transition from cubic to tetragonal symmetry between 865 K (CuCr 2O 4) and 310 K (NiCr 2O 4). The phase Cu 0.15Ni 0.85Cr 2O 4 undergoes a second crystallographic transition to orthorhombic symmetry, space group Fddd, at T=300 K. The neutron diffraction experiments as well as SQUID measurements reveal magnetic ordering of the ions between 150 and 50 K which partially occurs as a two-step mechanism.

  17. Microstructure and electrochemical characterization of laser melt-deposited Ti{sub 2}Ni{sub 3}Si/NiTi intermetallic alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Dong Lixin Wang Huaming

    2008-11-15

    Corrosion and wear resistant Ti{sub 2}Ni{sub 3}Si/NiTi intermetallic alloys with Ti{sub 2}Ni{sub 3}Si as the reinforcing phase and the ductile NiTi as the toughening phase were designed and fabricated by the laser melt-deposition manufacturing process. Electrochemical behavior of the alloys was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization testing and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in an NaOH solution. The results showed that the alloys have outstanding corrosion resistance due to the formation of a protective passive surface film of Ni(OH){sub 2} as well as the high chemical stability and strong inter-atomic bonds inherent to Ti{sub 2}Ni{sub 3}Si and NiTi intermetallics. The Ti{sub 2}Ni{sub 3}Si content has a significant influence on the microstructure of the alloys but only a slight effect on electrochemical corrosion properties.

  18. Modification of Ni state to promote the stability of Ni-Al2O3 catalyst in methane decomposition to produce hydrogen and carbon nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jiuling; Qiao, Yuanhua; Li, Yongdan

    2012-07-01

    The methodology was illustrated for modifying the state of Ni to promote the stability of the coprecipitated Ni-Al2O3 catalyst via incorporating ZnO and Cu in methane decomposition to produce hydrogen and carbon nanofibers. The influences of the incorporation on the state of Ni were examined with XRD, TPR, XPS and TEM. For the incorporation of ZnO, ZnAl2O4 spinel-like structure could be formed in the interface between ZnO and Al2O3. The interaction between Ni and the ZnAl2O4 structure can promote both the activity and the stability of Ni in methane decomposition. The formation of a Ni-Cu alloy from Ni and the incorporated Cu decreases the activity of Ni, however, promotes the stability pronouncedly.

  19. Dye-sensitized MIL-101 metal organic frameworks loaded with Ni/NiO{sub x} nanoparticles for efficient visible-light-driven hydrogen generation

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xin-Ling; Wang, Rong; Yuan, Yu-Peng E-mail: cxue@ntu.edu.sg; Zhang, Ming-Yi; Xue, Can E-mail: cxue@ntu.edu.sg

    2015-10-01

    The Ni/NiO{sub x} particles were in situ photodeposited on MIL-101 metal organic frameworks as catalysts for boosting H{sub 2} generation from Erythrosin B dye sensitization under visible-light irradiation. The highest H{sub 2} production rate of 125 μmol h{sup −1} was achieved from the system containing 5 wt. % Ni-loaded MIL-101 (20 mg) and 30 mg Erythrosin B dye. Moreover, the Ni/NiO{sub x} catalysts show excellent stability for long-term photocatalytic reaction. The enhancement on H{sub 2} generation is attributed to the efficient charge transfer from photoexcited dye to the Ni catalyst via MIL-101. Our results demonstrate that the economical Ni/NiO{sub x} particles are durable and active catalysts for photocatalytic H{sub 2} generation.

  20. Influence of deformation and annealing conditions on the recrystallization cube texture in the three-layer NiW/NiCr/NiW substrate tapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodionov, D. P.; Khlebnikova, Yu. V.; Gervas'eva, I. V.; Egorova, L. Yu.; Kazantsev, V. A.

    2015-10-01

    The formation of a sharp cube texture in a three-layer composite tape with the outer (working) layers made of an Ni-4.8 at % W alloy and the inner layer made of an Ni-11 at % Cr alloy is studied after cold deformation by rolling at a reduction of 98.4-99.5% and subsequent recrystallization annealing at a temperature of 1000-1150°C. An analysis of the sharpness of the cube texture and the magnetic properties of the three-layer composite material shows that such tapes can be used as substrates to create second-generation HTSC. At a temperature of 80 K, the specific magnetization of the composite three-layer tape is lower than that of a widely used tape made of an Ni-5 at % W alloy.

  1. H2O/Ni(100) and NH3/Ni(100) - A computational approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, C. W., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The adsorption of NH3 and H2O on the Ni(100) is treated using a cluster model. The adsorption is found to have only a small effect on the HXH angle. Rotation about the principal ligand axis requires virtually no energy. Ligand tilts of 15 deg are found to require small amounts of energy, leading to the suggestion that the ESDIAD signal is a result of excited tilting modes, not a change in the HXH angle. For H2O additional bending modes are considered and all are found to be quite flat in energy.

  2. Stereo-epitaxial growth of single-crystal Ni nanowires and nanoplates from aligned seed crystals.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyoban; Yoo, Youngdong; Kang, Taejoon; Lee, Jiyoung; Kim, Eungwang; Fang, Xiaosheng; Lee, Sungyul; Kim, Bongsoo

    2016-05-21

    Epitaxially grown anisotropic Ni nanostructures are promising building blocks for the development of miniaturized and stereo-integrated data storage kits because they can store multiple magnetic domain walls (DWs). Here, we report stereo-epitaxially grown single-crystalline Ni nanowires (NWs) and nanoplates, and their magnetic properties. Vertical and inclined Ni NWs were grown at the center and edge regions of c-cut sapphire substrates, respectively. Vertical Ni nanoplates were grown on r-cut sapphire substrates. The morphology and growth direction of Ni nanostructures can be steered by seed crystals. Cubic Ni seeds grow into vertical Ni NWs, tetrahedral Ni seeds grow into inclined Ni NWs, and triangular Ni seeds grow into vertical Ni nanoplates. The shapes of the Ni seeds are determined by the interfacial energy between the bottom plane of the seeds and the substrates. The as-synthesized Ni NWs and nanoplates have blocking temperature values greater than 300 K at 500 Oe, verifying that these Ni nanostructures can form large magnetic DWs with high magnetic anisotropy properties. We anticipate that epitaxially grown Ni NWs and nanoplates will be used in various types of 3-dimensional magnetic devices. PMID:27129106

  3. One-step grown multi-walled carbon nanotubes with Ni filling and decoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baro, Mahananda; Pal, Arup R.

    2015-06-01

    A single step approach for the synthesis of multi-walled carbon nanotubes filled with Ni nanowires (Ni-MWCNTs) and decorated with Ni nanoparticles has been illustrated. The MWCNTs are grown by a PECVD-sputtering hybrid process at the low temperature of 450 °C having an average diameter of 55   ±   6 nm and length of 1.35   ±   0.08 µm. Thin Ni films of the thickness 10 nm have been used, which act as a catalyst as well as a source material for the filling of MWCNTs with Ni nanowires, whereas sputtering of Ni is the source of decorated Ni particles. This process facilitates the growth of aligned MWCNTs filled with Ni nanowires and also decorated with Ni nanoparticles on the walls. Magnetic properties of the Ni filled and decorated MWCNTs are measured using a vibrating sample magnetometer. Magnetic hysteresis loops of Ni containing MWCNTs show ferromagnetic behavior. These Ni-MWCNTs shows coercivity of 135 Oe, which is significantly greater than that of the bulk Ni at room temperature. The magnetic property measurement reveals that the coercivity of the as grown MWCNTs is dependent on the size and content of Ni. Thus, a novel method has been demonstrated for the synthesis of ferromagnetic Ni-MWCNT which has potential applications in various fields.

  4. Atomic data for astrophysics: Ni XII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Zanna, G.; Badnell, N. R.

    2016-01-01

    We present new large-scale R-matrix (up to n = 4) scattering calculations for the electron collisional excitation of Cl-like Ni xii. We used the intermediate-coupling frame transformation method. We compare predicted and observed line intensities using laboratory and solar spectra, finding good agreement for all the main soft X-ray lines. With the exception of the three strongest transitions, large discrepancies with previous estimates are found, especially for the decays from the lowest 3s2 3p4 3d levels. This includes the forbidden UV lines. The atomic data for the n = 4 levels are the first to be calculated. We revise previous experimental energies, and suggest several new identifications. We point out the uncertainty in the wavelength of the 3s2 3p52P1/2-3s2 3p4 3d 2D3/2 transition, which is important for density diagnostics. The full dataset is available at our APAP website (http://www.apapnetwork.org) and at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/585/A118

  5. Hydrogen activation by [NiFe]-hydrogenases.

    PubMed

    Carr, Stephen B; Evans, Rhiannon M; Brooke, Emily J; Wehlin, Sara A M; Nomerotskaia, Elena; Sargent, Frank; Armstrong, Fraser A; Phillips, Simon E V

    2016-06-15

    Hydrogenase-1 (Hyd-1) from Escherichia coli is a membrane-bound enzyme that catalyses the reversible oxidation of molecular H2 The active site contains one Fe and one Ni atom and several conserved amino acids including an arginine (Arg(509)), which interacts with two conserved aspartate residues (Asp(118) and Asp(574)) forming an outer shell canopy over the metals. There is also a highly conserved glutamate (Glu(28)) positioned on the opposite side of the active site to the canopy. The mechanism of hydrogen activation has been dissected by site-directed mutagenesis to identify the catalytic base responsible for splitting molecular hydrogen and possible proton transfer pathways to/from the active site. Previous reported attempts to mutate residues in the canopy were unsuccessful, leading to an assumption of a purely structural role. Recent discoveries, however, suggest a catalytic requirement, for example replacing the arginine with lysine (R509K) leaves the structure virtually unchanged, but catalytic activity falls by more than 100-fold. Variants containing amino acid substitutions at either or both, aspartates retain significant activity. We now propose a new mechanism: heterolytic H2 cleavage is via a mechanism akin to that of a frustrated Lewis pair (FLP), where H2 is polarized by simultaneous binding to the metal(s) (the acid) and a nitrogen from Arg(509) (the base). PMID:27284053

  6. Reactions of organonitrogen molecules with Ni(100)

    SciTech Connect

    Schoofs, G.R.; Benziger, J.B.

    1988-02-11

    The adsorption and reaction of a variety of organonitrogen compounds on a Ni(100) surface have been examined with temperature-programmed reaction. Auger electron spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy. Monomethylamine adsorbs via the nitrogen lone pair of electrons and then undergoes C-N bond scission yielding adsorbed carbon, dihydrogen, and ammonia. Aniline ..pi..-bonds to the surface and polymerizes to form a thermally stable poly(aniline) surface film. Pyridine undergoes a temperature-induced orientational transformation. At low temperatures pyridine adsorbs with its ring parallel to the surface. At higher temperatures it appears to form an ..cap alpha..-pyridyl species with an activation barrier of 85 kJ/mol. Methyl groups on 2,6-lutidine sterically hinder this reaction. Methyl groups on 3,5-lutidine stabilize bonding via the nitrogen lone pair of electrons. The methyl groups on 3,5-lutidine increase electrophilic addition activity relative to pyridine and lead to polymerization of 3,5-lutidine, forming a thermally stable polymer film. Pyrimidine reacted in almost identical fashion to pyridine, suggesting that increased nucleophilic activity had little effect on the reaction behavior of heterocyclic compounds and that electrophilic reactions predominate.

  7. NiSn Half-Heusler Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appel, O.; Gelbstein, Y.

    2014-06-01

    We deal here with Sb and Bi doping effects of the n-type half-Heusler (HH) Ti0.3Zr0.35Hf0.35NiSn alloy on the measured thermoelectric properties. To date, the thermoelectric effects upon Bi doping on the Sn site of HH alloys have rarely been reported, while Sb has been widely used as a donor dopant. A comparison between the measured transport properties following arc melting and spark plasma sintering of both Bi- and Sb-doped samples indicates a much stronger doping effect upon Sb doping, an effect which was explained thermodynamically. Due to similar lattice thermal conductivity values obtained for the various doped samples, synthesized in a similar experimental route, no practical variations in the thermoelectric figure of merit values were observed between the various investigated samples, an effect which was attributed to compensation between the power factor and electrical thermal conductivity values regardless of the various investigated dopants and doping levels.

  8. Ab initio Ti-Zr-Ni phase diagram predicts stability of icosahedral TiZrNi quasicrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennig, R. G.; Carlsson, A. E.; Kelton, K. F.; Henley, C. L.

    2005-04-01

    The ab initio phase diagram determines the energetic stability of the icosahedral TiZrNi quasicrystal. The complete ab initio zero-temperature ternary phase diagram is constructed from the calculated energies of the elemental, binary and ternary Ti-Zr-Ni phases. For this, the icosahedral i -TiZrNi quasicrystal is approximated by periodic structures of up to 123 atoms/unit cell, based on a decorated-tiling model [R. G. Hennig, K. F. Kelton, A. E. Carlsson, and C. L. Henley, Phys. Rev. B 67, 134202 (2003)]. The approximant structures containing the 45-atom Bergman cluster are nearly degenerate in energy, and are all energetically stable against the competing phases. It is concluded that i -TiZrNi is a ground-state quasicrystal, as it is experimentally the low-temperature phase for its composition.

  9. Corrosion behavior of Ni and Ni-based alloys in concentrated NaOH solutions at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Yasuda, M.; Fukumoto, K.; Ogata, Y.; Hine, F.

    1988-12-01

    Corrosion behavior of SUS 310S austenitic stainless steel, Alloy 600, Monel 400, and Ni 200 and NaOH solutions in the concentration range 30-60% at high temperatures up to 166/sup 0/C was studied. In solutions containing dissolved oxygen or under oxidizing conditions, all the specimens examined were corroded seriously due to oxygen diffusion through the porous oxide layer consisting of ..beta..-Ni(OH)/sub 2/. In hydrogen-saturated solutions, on the other hand, these Ni alloys were corrosion resistant because nickel in the alloys was active to oxidation of hydrogen. The specimens were corroded by deaerated solution at high temperatures in which hydrogen evolution took place as the counterreaction. The corrosion rate controlled by the hydrogen formation reaction increased exponentially with the decrease of the Ni content in the alloy.

  10. Reduction of Ni release and improvement of the friction behaviour of NiTi orthodontic archwires by oxidation treatments.

    PubMed

    Espinar, E; Llamas, J M; Michiardi, A; Ginebra, M P; Gil, F J

    2011-05-01

    This work studies NiTi orthodontic archwires that have been treated using a new oxidation treatment for obtaining Ni-free surfaces. The titanium oxide on the surface significantly improves corrosion resistance and decreases nickel ion release, while barely affecting transformation temperatures. This oxidation treatment avoids the allergic reactions or toxicity in the surrounding tissues produced by the chemical degradation of the NiTi. In the other hand, the lack of low friction coefficient for the NiTi superelastic archwires makes difficult the optimal use of these materials in Orthodontic applications. In this study, the decrease of this friction coefficient has been achieved by means of oxidation treatment. Transformation temperatures, friction coefficient and ion release have been determined. PMID:21437639

  11. Anomalous magnetic behavior in nanocomposite materials of reduced graphene oxide-Ni/NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect

    Kollu, Pratap E-mail: anirmalagrace@vit.ac.in; Prathapani, Sateesh; Varaprasadarao, Eswara K.; Mallick, Sudhanshu; Bahadur, D. E-mail: anirmalagrace@vit.ac.in; Santosh, Chella; Grace, Andrews Nirmala E-mail: anirmalagrace@vit.ac.in

    2014-08-04

    Magnetic Reduced Graphene Oxide-Nickel/NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (RGO-Ni/NF) nanocomposite has been synthesized by one pot solvothermal method. Respective phase formations and their purities in the composite are confirmed by High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope and X Ray Diffraction, respectively. For the RGO-Ni/NF composite material finite-size effects lead to the anomalous magnetic behavior, which is corroborated in temperature and field dependent magnetization curves. Here, we are reporting the behavior of higher magnetization values for Zero Field Cooled condition to that of Field Cooled for the RGO-Ni/NF nanocomposite. Also, the observed negative and positive moments in Hysteresis loops at relatively smaller applied fields (100 Oe and 200 Oe) are explained on the basis of surface spin disorder.

  12. Analysis of NiAlTa precipitates in beta-NiAl + 2 at. pct Ta alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pathare, V.; Michal, G. M.; Vedula, K.; Nathal, M. V.

    1987-01-01

    Results are reported from experiments performed to identify the precipitates, and their orientation in the matrix, in a beta-NiAl alloy containing 2 at. pct. Ta after undergoing creep test at 1300 K. Test specimens formed by extruding hot powders were compressed at 1300 K for about 50 hr at a strain rate averaging 6/1 million per sec. The specimens were then thinned and examined under an electron microscope and by X-ray diffractometry. An intermetallic NiAlTa compound with a hexagonal Cl4 structure appeared as second phase precipitates in the samples, exhibiting plate-like shapes and a habit plane close to (012). The prism planes of the hexagonal NiAlTa precipitates paralleled the closest packed planes in the cubic beta-NiAl matrix.

  13. Flexible resistive switching memory with a Ni/CuO x /Ni structure using an electrochemical deposition process.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyuhyun; Lee, Jang-Sik

    2016-03-29

    Flexible resistive switching memory (ReRAM) devices were fabricated with a Ni/CuO x /Ni structure. Fabrication involved simple and low-cost electrochemical deposition of electrodes and resistive switching layers on a polyethylene terephthalate substrate. The devices exhibited reproducible and reliable ReRAM characteristics. Bipolar resistive switching was observed in flexible Ni/CuO x /Ni-based ReRAM devices with low operation voltages. The reliability of the devices was confirmed by data retention, endurance, and cyclic bending measurements. The processes for fabrication of flexible ReRAM devices were based on simple-solution, bottom-up growth and they can be performed at low temperatures. Therefore, the methods presented in this work could be a viable solution for fabricating flexible non-volatile memory devices in the future. PMID:26889689

  14. Micro-structural characterization of low resistive metallic Ni germanide growth on annealing of Ni-Ge multilayer

    SciTech Connect

    Swain, Mitali Singh, Surendra Bhattacharya, Debarati; Basu, Saibal; Singh, Ajay; Prajapat, C. L.; Tokas, R.B.

    2015-07-15

    Nickel-Germanides are an important class of metal semiconductor alloys because of their suitability in microelectronics applications. Here we report successful formation and detailed characterization of NiGe metallic alloy phase at the interfaces of a Ni-Ge multilayer on controlled annealing at relatively low temperature ∼ 250 °C. Using x-ray and polarized neutron reflectometry, we could estimate the width of the interfacial alloys formed with nanometer resolution and found the alloy stoichiometry to be equiatomic NiGe, a desirable low-resistance interconnect. We found significant drop in resistance (∼ 50%) on annealing the Ni-Ge multilayer suggesting metallic nature of alloy phase at the interfaces. Further we estimated the resistivity of the alloy phase to be ∼ 59μΩ cm.

  15. Comparative Study of Thermal Stability of NiFe and NiFeTa Thin Films Grown by Cosputtering Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phuoc, Nguyen N.; Ong, C. K.

    2016-08-01

    A comparative study of the thermal behavior of dynamic permeability spectra for compositionally graded NiFeTa and uniform-composition NiFe thin films has been carried out. We found that the resonance frequency of the compositionally graded NiFeTa film increased with increasing temperature, while it decreased for the case of the uniform-composition NiFe thin film. This finding unambiguously suggests that the compositional gradient of the film is the only reason for the increase of the magnetic anisotropy with temperature due to its stress-induced origin, while the cosputtering technique does not play any role in this peculiar behavior. The temperature dependence of the frequency linewidth is also presented and discussed.

  16. Effects of NiO nanoparticles on the magnetic properties and diffuse phase transition of BZT/NiO composites

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A new composite system, Ba(Zr0.07Ti0.93)O3 (BZT93) ceramic/NiO nanoparticles, was fabricated to investigate the effect of NiO nanoparticles on the properties of these composites. M-H hysteresis loops showed an improvement in the magnetic behavior for higher NiO content samples plus modified ferroelectric properties. However, the 1 vol.% samples showed the optimum ferroelectric and ferromagnetic properties. Examination of the dielectric spectra showed that the NiO additive promoted a diffuse phase transition, and the two phase transition temperatures, as observed for BZT93, merged into a single phase transition temperature for the composite samples. PMID:22221698

  17. Flexible resistive switching memory with a Ni/CuO x /Ni structure using an electrochemical deposition process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kyuhyun; Lee, Jang-Sik

    2016-03-01

    Flexible resistive switching memory (ReRAM) devices were fabricated with a Ni/CuO x /Ni structure. Fabrication involved simple and low-cost electrochemical deposition of electrodes and resistive switching layers on a polyethylene terephthalate substrate. The devices exhibited reproducible and reliable ReRAM characteristics. Bipolar resistive switching was observed in flexible Ni/CuO x /Ni-based ReRAM devices with low operation voltages. The reliability of the devices was confirmed by data retention, endurance, and cyclic bending measurements. The processes for fabrication of flexible ReRAM devices were based on simple-solution, bottom-up growth and they can be performed at low temperatures. Therefore, the methods presented in this work could be a viable solution for fabricating flexible non-volatile memory devices in the future.

  18. Release of Ni from birnessite during transformation of birnessite to todorokite: Implications for Ni cycling in marine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkins, Amy L.; Shaw, Samuel; Peacock, Caroline L.

    2016-09-01

    The phyllomanganate birnessite is the main Mn-bearing phase in oxic marine sediments where it exerts a primary control on the concentration of micronutrient trace metals in seawater. However, during sediment diagenesis and under mild hydrothermal conditions birnessite transforms into the tectomanganate todorokite. We have recently shown that the transformation of birnessite to todorokite proceeds via a four-stage nucleation and growth mechanism, beginning with todorokite nucleation, then crystal growth from solution to form todorokite primary particles, followed by their self-assembly and oriented growth via oriented attachment to form crystalline todorokite laths, culminating in traditional crystal ripening (Atkins et al., 2014). Here we determine the fate and mobility of Ni sorbed by birnessite during this transformation process. Specifically, in our recent work we predict that the presence of Ni within the phyllomanganate matrix will disrupt the formation of todorokite primary particles. As such, contrary to current understanding, we suggest that Ni sorbed by birnessite will slow the transformation of birnessite to todorokite and/or be released to marine porewaters during sediment diagenesis. Here we transform a synthetic, poorly crystalline, Ni-sorbed (∼1 wt% Ni) hexagonal birnessite, analogous to marine birnessite, into todorokite under a mild reflux procedure, developed to mimic marine diagenesis and mild hydrothermal conditions. We characterise our birnessite and reflux products as a time series, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. In addition we determine Ni speciation and mineral phase associations in a suite of natural marine ferromanganese precipitates, containing intermixed phyllomanganate and todorokite. Our work shows for the first time that Ni significantly slows the transformation of birnessite to todorokite and reduces the

  19. Examination of Multiphase (Zr,Ti)(V,Cr,Mn,Ni)2 Ni-MH Electrode Alloys: Part II. Solid-State Transformation of the Interdendritic B2 Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendersky, L. A.; Wang, K.; Boettinger, W. J.; Newbury, D. E.; Young, K.; Chao, B.

    2010-08-01

    Solidification microstructure of multicomponent (Zr,Ti)-Ni-(V,Cr,Mn,Co) alloys intended for use as negative electrodes in Ni-metal hydride (Ni-MH) batteries was studied in Part I of this series of articles. Part II of the series examines the complex internal structure of the interdendritic grains formed by solid-state transformation and believed to play an important role in the electrochemical charge/discharge characteristics of the overall alloy composition. By studying one alloy, Zr21Ti12.5V10Cr5.5Mn5.1Co5.0Ni40.2Al0.5Sn0.3, it is shown that the interdendritic grains solidify as a B2 (Ti,Zr)44(Ni,TM)56 phase, and then undergo transformation to Zr7Ni10-type, Zr9Ni11-type, and martensitic phases. The transformations obey orientation relationships between the high-temperature B2 phase and the low-temperature Zr-Ni-type intermetallics, and consequently lead to a multivariant structure. The major orientation relationship for the orthorhombic Zr7Ni10 type is [011]Zr7Ni10//[001]B2; (100)Zr7Ni10//(100)B2. The orientation relationship for the tetragonal Zr9Ni11 type is [001]Zr9Ni11//[001]B2; (130)Zr9Ni11//(100)B2. Binary Ni-Zr and ternary Ti-Ni-Zr phase diagrams were used to rationalize the formation of the observed domain structure.

  20. One-pot fabrication of NiFe2O4 nanoparticles on α-Ni(OH)2 nanosheet for enhanced water oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hong; Yan, Junqing; Wu, Huan; Zhang, Yunxia; Liu, Shengzhong (Frank)

    2016-08-01

    Water splitting has been intensively investigated as a promising solution to resolve the future environmental and energy crises. The oxygen evolution reaction (OER) of the photo- and electric field-induced water splitting limits the development of other reactions, including hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Fe, Ni and NiFe (hydro) oxide-based catalysts are generally acknowledged among the best candidates of OER catalysts for water splitting. Herein, we developed a one-pot simple hydrothermal process to assemble NiFe2O4 nanoparticles onto the α-Ni(OH)2 nanosheets. The first formed NiFe2O4 under high temperature and pressure environment induces and assists the α-Ni(OH)2 formation without any further additives, because the distance between the neighboring Ni atoms in the cubic NiFe2O4 is similar to that in the α-Ni(OH)2 {003} facets. We have synthesized a series of NiFe2O4/α-Ni(OH)2 compounds and find that the overpotential decreases with the increase of Ni(OH)2 content while the OER kinetics stays unchanged, suggesting that Ni(OH)2 plays a major role in overpotential while NiFe2O4 mainly affects the OER kinetics. The obtained NiFe2O4/α-Ni(OH)2 compounds is also found to be a promising co-catalyst for the photocatalytic water oxidation. In fact, it is even more active than the noble PtOx with acceptable stability for the oxygen generation.