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Sample records for kahn milvi moks

  1. Herman Kahn Remembered.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Futurist, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Four of Herman Kahn's co-workers and friends remember him as a calm optimist who believed that there are solutions to every problem. Particular attention is given to clarifying his ideas about thermonuclear war. (IS)

  2. Corner Office: ProQuest's Marty Kahn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fialkoff, Francine; Oder, Norman

    2009-01-01

    In a scant three years at ProQuest, Marty Kahn, CEO, has moved a company coming out of a financial morass back onto solid ground. He came on board after the purchase of ProQuest Information and Learning by the (mostly) privately owned Cambridge Information Group in late 2006 and the merger of ProQuest and CSA to form ProQuest CSA. (It's now just…

  3. MOK overexpression is associated with promoter hypomethylation in patients with acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Jun; Chen, Qin; Yao, Dong-Ming; Yang, Lei; Yang, Jing; Wen, Xiang-Mei; Zhang, Ying-Ying; Chai, Hai-Yan; Ma, Ji-Chun; Deng, Zhao-Qun; Lin, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Overexpression of MAPK/MAK/MRK overlapping kinase (MOK) has been found in various tumors. However, the mechanism underlying MOK upregulation remains unclear. A CpG island was identified in MOK promoter. In this study, we evaluated the expression and methylation status of MOK gene in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Hypomethylation of MOK promoter was detected in 31.0% (45/145) of AML patients. The degree of MOK hypomethylation was significantly correlated with MOK expression in AML patients. MOK-hypomethylated patients had a trend towards lower WBCs. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis showed a good performance in distinguishing AML patients from controls with an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.820 (P < 0.001). In summary, our results suggest MOK promoter hypomethylation is a common event and contributes to MOK overexpression in AML. PMID:25755699

  4. The Kodaikanal Experience: Chapter II. Kahn-Montessori Interview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NAMTA Journal, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an interview transcript between David Kahn and Mario Montessori (1898-1982), son of Dr. Maria Montessori. Mario Montessori dedicated his life to the preservation, dissemination and application of Montessori's works. Herein Kahn asks Montessori about his time living in the hills of Kodaikanal, India. Montessori touches upon…

  5. Cereal Building (1926, Albert Kahn), with corner of Meat Products ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cereal Building (1926, Albert Kahn), with corner of Meat Products Building at left, looking northeast from Heinz Street. Heinz Lofts archway added ca. 2005. The bridge in the rear connects to the Bean Building. - H.J. Heinz Company Factories, 300 Heinz Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  6. Probing for suitable climatology to estimate the predictability of monsoon onset over Kerala (MOK), India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, J.; Chaudhuri, S.; Mukherjee, S.; Chowdhury, A. Roy

    2016-07-01

    Inter-annual variability in the onset of monsoon over Kerala (MOK), India, is investigated using daily temperature; mean sea level pressure; winds at 850, 500 and 200 hPa pressure levels; outgoing longwave radiation (OLR); sea surface temperature (SST) and vertically integrated moisture content anomaly with 32 years (1981-2013) observation. The MOK is classified as early, delayed, or normal by considering the mean monsoon onset date over Kerala to be the 1st of June with a standard deviation of 8 days. The objective of the study is to identify the synoptic setup during MOK and comparison with climatology to estimate the predictability of the onset type (early, normal, or delayed) with 5, 10, and 15 days lead time. The study reveals that an enhanced convection observed over the Bay of Bengal during early MOK is found to shift over the Arabian Sea during delayed MOK. An intense high-pressure zone observed over the western south Indian Ocean during early MOK shifts to the east during delayed MOK. Higher tropospheric temperature (TT) over the western Equatorial Ocean during early MOK and lower TT over the Indian subcontinent intensify the land-ocean thermal contrast that leads to early MOK. The sea surface temperature (SST) over the Arabian Sea is observed to be warmer during delayed than early MOK. During early MOK, the source of 850 hPa southwesterly wind shifts to the west equatorial zone while a COL region has been found during delayed MOK at that level. The study further reveals that the wind speed anomaly at the 200-hPa pressure level coincides inversely with the anomaly of tropospheric temperature.

  7. Different architectures of creativity: Louis and Nathaniel Kahn.

    PubMed

    Golinelli, Paola

    2014-04-01

    The author analyzes Nathaniel Kahn's documentary film My Architect: A Son's Journey, a tribute to the writer-director's father Louis, the famous architect, who died suddenly when Nathaniel was eleven years old. The film's poetic, evocative images form a testimony to the silent working through that Nathaniel did in searching for his lost father and to the complex intertwining of mourning and creativity. Creativity is seen as both the cause and the effect of working through, as it gives life to a new meaning and allows replacement of the lost object by an object found again. Bereavement, symbolization, and the birth of representation appear to be connected with one another, both when the most elementary representations are involved and when the more complex and artistic ones are. Where and when it is possible to recover a representation that can survive the absence of the lost object, there is a potentially creative psychic space that can be made fertile again. PMID:24777371

  8. Myxococcus xanthus mokA Encodes a Histidine Kinase-Response Regulator Hybrid Sensor Required for Development and Osmotic Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Yoshio; Nakano, Hiromi; Terasaka, Hideaki; Takegawa, Kaoru

    2001-01-01

    A gene, mokA, encoding a protein with similarities to histidine kinase-response regulator hybrid sensor, was cloned from a Myxococcus xanthus genomic library. The predicted mokA gene product was found to contain three domains: an amino-terminal input domain, a central transmitter domain, and a carboxy-terminal receiver domain. mokA mutants placed under starvation conditions exhibited reduced sporulation. Mutation of mokA also caused marked growth retardation at high osmolarity. These results indicated that M. xanthus MokA is likely a transmembrane sensor that is required for development and osmotic tolerance. The putative function of MokA is similar to that of the hybrid histidine kinase, DokA, of the eukaryotic slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. PMID:11157925

  9. [Fritz Kahn's The Life of Man: Production and Transcription of a Bestseller].

    PubMed

    Eilers, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the production and circulation of the illustrations in Fritz Kahn's five-volume series The Life of Man, one of the most popular medical publications in the German interwar period. In 1912 Kahn (1888-1968), together with a staff of illustrators, began producing what would later become his best-selling series. Illustrations of this series (in particular, the poster The human factory/Der Mensch als Industriepalast) were widespread throughout Germany during the Weimar Republic. With the rise of National Socialism, Kahn was forced to emigrate in 1933. While his books were forbidden by the Nazi regime, their illustrations continued to play an important role in popular scientific discourse: they reappeared in the Nazi health-education programme and were adapted for Kahn's publications in exile at the same time. This paper discusses how their production process and collective authorship made this complex and heterogeneous reception possible. PMID:26253361

  10. Regulation of Cilium Length and Intraflagellar Transport by the RCK-Kinases ICK and MOK in Renal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Broekhuis, Joost R.; Verhey, Kristen J.; Jansen, Gert

    2014-01-01

    Primary cilia are important sensory organelles. They exist in a wide variety of lengths, which could reflect different cell-specific functions. How cilium length is regulated is unclear, but it probably involves intraflagellar transport (IFT), which transports protein complexes along the ciliary axoneme. Studies in various organisms have identified the small, conserved family of ros-cross hybridizing kinases (RCK) as regulators of cilium length. Here we show that Intestinal Cell Kinase (ICK) and MAPK/MAK/MRK overlapping kinase (MOK), two members of this family, localize to cilia of mouse renal epithelial (IMCD-3) cells and negatively regulate cilium length. To analyze the effects of ICK and MOK on the IFT machinery, we set up live imaging of five fluorescently tagged IFT proteins: KIF3B, a subunit of kinesin-II, the main anterograde IFT motor, complex A protein IFT43, complex B protein IFT20, BBSome protein BBS8 and homodimeric kinesin KIF17, whose function in mammalian cilia is unclear. Interestingly, all five proteins moved at ∼0.45 µm/s in anterograde and retrograde direction, suggesting they are all transported by the same machinery. Moreover, GFP tagged ICK and MOK moved at similar velocities as the IFT proteins, suggesting they are part of, or transported by the IFT machinery. Indeed, loss- or gain-of-function of ICK affected IFT speeds: knockdown increased anterograde velocities, whereas overexpression reduced retrograde speed. In contrast, MOK knockdown or overexpression did not affect IFT speeds. Finally, we found that the effects of ICK or MOK knockdown on cilium length and IFT are suppressed by rapamycin treatment, suggesting that these effects require the mTORC1 pathway. Our results confirm the importance of RCK kinases as regulators of cilium length and IFT. However, whereas some of our results suggest a direct correlation between cilium length and IFT speed, other results indicate that cilium length can be modulated independent of IFT speed. PMID

  11. Equal Protection of the Laws: Sex is Not a Suspect Classification; Kahn v. Shevin, 94 S. Ct. 1734 (1974)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Gregg Darrow

    1974-01-01

    In Kahn v. Shevin the Supreme Court upheld a Florida Supreme Court ruling that a state tax exemption for widows was not in violation of the Fourteenth Amendment. The author discusses this and earlier sex discrimination cases, holding that a strict scrutiny test in such cases would promote equality of the sexes. (JT)

  12. Sex Discrimination and the Equal Protection Clause: An Analysis of Kahn v. Shevin and Orr v. Orr.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, E. A.

    1979-01-01

    Argues that "Kahn" continues stereotypic thinking toward women whereas "Orr" may call sex-based dispensations into question. Calls for declaring sex a suspect classification. Available from the Syracuse Law Review, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13210; sc $3.50. (IRT)

  13. Aging Well Socially through Engagement with Life: Adapting Rowe and Kahn's Model of Successful Aging to Chinese Cultural Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Sik Hung; Cheung, Chau-Kiu; Chong, Alice M. L.; Woo, Jean; Kwan, Alex Y. H.; Lai, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    Although aging well socially (Engagement with Life) is as important as aging well personally (Illness Avoidance and Functioning) (Rowe & Kahn, 1998), it has received less research attention. A Caring (CE) and a Productive (PE) form of Engagement were derived from an analysis of Chinese cultural meanings of engagement, and combined with Illness…

  14. Fordism in the hospital: Albert Kahn and the design of Old Main, 1917-25.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Nitin K

    2012-07-01

    The 1917-25 planning and construction at the University of Michigan of a new University Hospital, later dubbed Old Main, offers a noteworthy case study of the formal convergence of hospital and factory in early twentieth-century America. Designed by Albert Kahn, the architect responsible for Ford Motor Company's archetypal automobile plants, and located in Ann Arbor, Michigan, less than forty miles from Detroit's burgeoning factory landscape, Old Main was well positioned to reflect the values of industry in both appearance and operation. The building's outer surface represents a striking departure from the historicism that characterized several other hospitals of this period, while plans for the building's novel diagnostic unit demonstrate unique operational parallels to the assembly line model of production. Ultimately, Old Main's industrial design similarities cast it as a precociously modernist hospital, relating streamlined form to function more explicitly than many of its contemporary institutions. PMID:21724644

  15. Test Review: Swerdlik, M. E., Swerdlik, P., Kahn, J. H., & Thomas, T. (2003). "Psychological Processing Checklist." North Tonawanda, NY: Multi-Health Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Jeremy R.

    2007-01-01

    The Psychological Processing Checklist (PPC) is a teacher-completed rating scale published by Multi-Health Systems in North Tonawanda, New York. The checklist was published in 2003 along with a technical manual (Swerdlik, Swerdlik, & Kahn, 2003). The 35-item PPC purports to measure difficulties with psychological processing among children in…

  16. Octa-Arginine Mediated Delivery of Wild-Type Lnk Protein Inhibits TPO-Induced M-MOK Megakaryoblastic Leukemic Cell Growth by Promoting Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Looi, Chung Yeng; Imanishi, Miki; Takaki, Satoshi; Sato, Miki; Chiba, Natsuko; Sasahara, Yoji; Futaki, Shiroh; Tsuchiya, Shigeru; Kumaki, Satoru

    2011-01-01

    Background Lnk plays a non-redundant role by negatively regulating cytokine signaling of TPO, SCF or EPO. Retroviral expression of Lnk has been shown to suppress hematopoietic leukemic cell proliferation indicating its therapeutic value in cancer therapy. However, retroviral gene delivery carries risks of insertional mutagenesis. To circumvent this undesired consequence, we fused a cell permeable peptide octa-arginine to Lnk and evaluated the efficacy of inhibition of leukemic cell proliferation in vitro. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, proliferation assays, flow cytometry, Western Blot analyses were performed on wild-type (WT), mutant Lnk R8 or BSA treated M-MOK cells. We found that delivered WT, but not mutant Lnk R8 blocked TPO-induced M-MOK megakaryoblastic leukemic cell proliferation. In contrast, WT Lnk R8 showed no growth inhibitive effect on non-hematopoietic HELA or COS-7 cell. Moreover, we demonstrated that TPO-induced M-MOK cell growth inhibition by WT Lnk R8 was dose-dependent. Penetrated WT Lnk R8 induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Immunoprecipitation and Western blots data indicated WT Lnk R8 interacted with endogeneous Jak2 and downregulated Jak-Stat and MAPK phosphorylation level in M-MOK cells after TPO stimulation. Treatment with specific inhibitors (TG101348 and PD98059) indicated Jak-Stat and MAPK pathways were crucial for TPO-induced proliferation of M-MOK cells. Further analyses using TF-1 and HEL leukemic cell-lines showed that WT Lnk R8 inhibited Jak2-dependent cell proliferation. Using cord blood-derived CD34+ stem cells, we found that delivered WT Lnk R8 blocked TPO-induced megakaryopoiesis in vitro. Conclusions/Significance Intracellular delivery of WT Lnk R8 fusion protein efficiently inhibited TPO-induced M-MOK leukemic cell growth by promoting apoptosis. WT Lnk R8 protein delivery may provide a safer and more practical approach to inhibit leukemic cell growth worthy of further development. PMID:21853157

  17. "A different kind of beauty": scientific and architectural style in I.M. Pei's Mesa Laboratory and Louis Kahn's Salk Institute.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Stuart W

    2008-01-01

    I.M. Pei's Mesa Laboratory for the National Center for Atmospheric Research in Boulder, Colorado, and Louis Kahn's Salk Institute in La Jolla, California, are rare examples of laboratories as celebrated for their architecture as for their scientific contributions. Completed in the mid-1960s, these signature buildings still express the scientific style of their founding directors, Walter Roberts and Jonas Salk. yet in commissioning their laboratories, Roberts and Salk had to work with architects as strong-willed as themselves. A close reading of the two laboratories reveals the ongoing negotiations and tensions in collaborations between visionary scientist and visionary architect. Moreover, Roberts and Salk also had to become architects of atmospheric and biomedical sciences. For laboratory architecture, however flexible in theory, necessarily stabilizes scientific practice, since a philosophy of research is embedded in the very structure of the building and persists far longer than the initial vision and mission that gave it life. Roberts and Salk's experiences suggest that even the most carefully designed laboratories must successfully adapt to new disciplinary configurations, funding opportunities, and research priorities, or risk becoming mere architectural icons. PMID:20069758

  18. The Kodaikanal Experience: Chapter I. Kahn-Wikramaratne Interview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NAMTA Journal, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The Kodaikanal years were from late 1942 to March, 1944, a period of internment for Maria Montessori against her will in India. Yet in these remote hills, a fanfare and training course emerged, and so did the inspiration for an in-depth unification principle for the elementary program which we now loosely call Cosmic Education. These two…

  19. Kahn v. Superior Court of the County of Santa Clara: The Right to Privacy and the Academic Freedom Privilege with Respect to Confidential Peer Review Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Maureen P.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A case in which California's constitutional right to privacy is used to protect confidential peer review files is analyzed, and the case's significance and possible ramifications for discovery requests of peer review files are discussed. (MSE)

  20. Sir Sayyid Ahmed Kahn's History of the Bijnor Rebellion, Translated with Notes and Introduction. South Asia Series, Occasional Paper No. 17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Asian Studies Center.

    The Bijnor Rebellion of 1857 was a revolt of the Muslim minority in the Bijnor district of India against the British East India Company and Hindu loyalists. Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan was an Indian Muslim serving the British Company. His account of the events of 1857 is the only one produced by an Indian who both participated in and analyzed the…

  1. Response to the comment by Henry Kahn and Dennis Santella on a summary of the development of a signature for detection of residual dust from the collapse of the World Trade Center buildings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meeker, Gregory P.; Lowers, Heather; Lioy, Paul J.; Lippmann, Morton

    2010-01-01

    A response by Gregory P. Meeker and colleagues to a commentary on their article on the development of a signature for detection of residual dust from the collapse of the World Trade Center buildings is presented

  2. A Comparative Analysis: The Structure and Function of Task-Oriented Communication within Complex Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElreath, Mark P.

    The research presented in this paper demonstrates that Katz and Kahn's (1966) distinction between people-processing and object-processing organizations is a useful classification scheme that can help explain differences in organizational communication systems. To assess the usefulness of Katz and Kahn's scheme, data derived from a sample of more…

  3. Constitutional Law--Equal Protection--"Benign" Discrimination--Minority Admissions Programs--Supreme Court's Response to Preferential Treatment--DeFunis v. Odegaard, 416 U.S. 312 (1974); Kahn v. Shevin, 416 U.S. 351 (1974); Morton v. Mancari, 417 U.S. 535 (1974)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Judith Ilene

    1975-01-01

    Three U.S. Supreme Court rulings on minority preference cases are analyzed with reference to the question of the constitutionality of minority preferential admissions. It is concluded that the Court's unpredictability casts doubt on the validity of minority preference and that special consideration should be given in a racially neutral manner. (JT)

  4. Erikson and Early Childhood Educators: Looking at Ourselves and Our Profession Developmentally.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gratz, Rene R.; Boulton, Pamla J.

    1996-01-01

    Describes Erikson's theory of developmentally appropriate curriculum and the eight stages of the life cycle. Provides brief descriptions of these stages and some possible professional applications that early childhood educators can use in pursuing professional development. (MOK)

  5. Good Afternoon, Sunshine! Protecting Children from Ultraviolet Rays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Certo, Delaine

    1996-01-01

    Notes caregivers' responsibility to protect children from too much exposure to ultraviolet radiation and the potential for melanoma. Provides suggestions on how to prevent children from sunburn and skin cancer, including the proper way to apply sunscreen. (MOK)

  6. On Blocks and Broccoli: How to Organize Your Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Nancy

    1996-01-01

    Compares the organization of supermarkets to classroom environments. Emphasizes the efficient use of space with the use of containers, keeping materials in place, and grouping objects together. Provides suggestions on the use of color and adding storage space. (MOK)

  7. Welcome to Garbage Museum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Ian

    1996-01-01

    Introduces the Children's Garbage Museum in southwestern Connecticut and provides pictures as well as descriptions of exhibits. Suggests two activities to heighten students' awareness of recycling and composting and recommends reading materials. (MOK)

  8. Beyond the Weather Chart: Weathering New Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffman, Amy Bruno

    1996-01-01

    Describes an early childhood educator's approach to teaching children about rain, rainbows, clouds, precipitation, the sun, air, and wind. Recommends ways to organize study topics and describes experiments that can help children better understand the different elements of weather. (MOK)

  9. Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Lyssavirus-Induced Apoptosis▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Gholami, Alireza; Kassis, Raïd; Real, Eléonore; Delmas, Olivier; Guadagnini, Stéphanie; Larrous, Florence; Obach, Dorothée; Prevost, Marie-Christine; Jacob, Yves; Bourhy, Hervé

    2008-01-01

    Lyssaviruses are highly neurotropic viruses associated with neuronal apoptosis. Previous observations have indicated that the matrix proteins (M) of some lyssaviruses induce strong neuronal apoptosis. However, the molecular mechanism(s) involved in this phenomenon is still unknown. We show that for Mokola virus (MOK), a lyssavirus of low pathogenicity, the M (M-MOK) targets mitochondria, disrupts the mitochondrial morphology, and induces apoptosis. Our analysis of truncated M-MOK mutants suggests that the information required for efficient mitochondrial targeting and dysfunction, as well as caspase-9 activation and apoptosis, is held between residues 46 and 110 of M-MOK. We used a yeast two-hybrid approach, a coimmunoprecipitation assay, and confocal microscopy to demonstrate that M-MOK physically associates with the subunit I of the cytochrome c (cyt-c) oxidase (CcO) of the mitochondrial respiratory chain; this is in contrast to the M of the highly pathogenic Thailand lyssavirus (M-THA). M-MOK expression induces a significant decrease in CcO activity, which is not the case with M-THA. M-MOK mutations (K77R and N81E) resulting in a similar sequence to M-THA at positions 77 and 81 annul cyt-c release and apoptosis and restore CcO activity. As expected, the reverse mutations, R77K and E81N, introduced in M-THA induce a phenotype similar to that due to M-MOK. These features indicate a novel mechanism for energy depletion during lyssavirus-induced apoptosis. PMID:18321977

  10. 78 FR 72878 - Revisions to Procedural Regulations Governing Filing, Indexing and Service by Oil Pipelines...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ... modified to be more descriptive. For more information, contact Aaron Kahn, Office of Energy Market... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Revisions to Procedural Regulations Governing Filing, Indexing and...

  11. Future Studies and Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Jeanne

    1981-01-01

    Compares and discusses implications of future scenarios proposed by Herman Kahn and the Hudson River Institute and by the Club of Rome. Includes a decision-tree exercise appropriate for the classroom which involves five different future scenarios. (DC)

  12. Meckel's diverticulum

    MedlinePlus

    Kahn E, Daum F. Anatomy, histology, embryology, and developmental anomalies of the small and large intestine. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger & Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver ...

  13. WOMEN IN SCIENCE. Response to Comment on "Expectations of brilliance underlie gender distributions across academic disciplines".

    PubMed

    Cimpian, Andrei; Leslie, Sarah-Jane

    2015-07-24

    Ginther and Kahn claim that academics' beliefs about the importance of brilliance do not predict gender gaps in Ph.D. attainment beyond mathematics and verbal test scores. However, Ginther and Kahn's analyses are problematic, exhibiting more than 100 times the recommended collinearity thresholds. Multiple analyses that avoid this problem suggest that academics' beliefs are in fact uniquely predictive of gender gaps across academia. PMID:26206927

  14. Infants' Concept of Animacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulin-Dubois, Diane; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Investigates the concept of animacy of 9- and 12-month-old infants by exposing them to autonomous motion with animate and inanimate objects in a series of three experiments. Three experiments were carried out. Results indicated that infants discriminate animate from inanimate objects on the basis of motion cues by the age of nine months. (MOK)

  15. The Effects of Computer Games and Lesson Contexts on Children's Mnemonic Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oyen, Anne-Siri; Bebko, James M.

    1996-01-01

    Investigated how different contexts for learning affect the development of memory-enhancing strategies in children. Subjects were children four to seven years old. Results indicated that the number of items recalled in the lesson condition was significantly greater than in the game condition, and the grade effect was also significant. (MOK)

  16. A Garden in the Motherland: A Study of a Preschool in China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stimpfl, Joseph; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Looks at the daily activities of one preschool in southern China. Reviews the attitudes of educators and parents, and the application of social theory to curriculum and pedagogy in the Chinese preschool. Places special emphasis on the words and ideas of the teachers and administrators in reference to the policies created by the government. (MOK)

  17. Quality Assurance in Private Higher Education in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozturgut, Osman

    2011-01-01

    The economic modernization drive of the 21st century has not only fostered the growth of a market economy but has also created the need for a structural change in education (Zha, 2006). Mok (2009) explains that when the Chinese government realized that the state alone could not keep up with the increasing demand for higher education, it allowed…

  18. Hundreds of Ladybugs, Thousands of Ladybugs, Millions and Billions and Trillions of Ladybugs--and a Couple of Roaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomich, Kelly

    1996-01-01

    Claims that children have a natural curiosity for their environment. Describes children's interaction and involvement in an activity with different kinds of insects in a Head Start classroom. Encourages parents to allow children to investigate without being too preoccupied with concerns for order or cleanliness. (MOK)

  19. Breaking Bad News to Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Susan A.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the difficulty of breaking bad news to parents, whether the news pertains to center policy or a child's behavior. Provides strategies for presenting news and for helping parents to overcome difficult situations, including gathering facts in advance, arranging an appropriate time, and having resource materials available for parents. (MOK)

  20. Teaching Reading and Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Maryann; Manning, Gary

    1996-01-01

    Introduces Earth Day. Encourages the use of reading, writing, and theme immersion to increase student participation in such activities. Provides information on several organizations which students can obtain concerning environmental awareness. Recommends reading materials that can be obtained in hard copy as well as on the Internet. (MOK)

  1. A Note on "The Longitudinal Structure of Earnings Losses among Work-Limited Disabled Workers"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Wallace K. C.; Meyer, Bruce D.; Charles, Kerwin Kofi; Achen, Alexandra C.

    2008-01-01

    Charles (2003) examines the dynamic effects of disability, finding a small decline in earnings and hours following disability onset, even for those who have positive disability reports for each of the next ten years. These outcomes also rebound quickly after the onset of disability. In recent work, Meyer and Mok (2006), find a much larger loss in…

  2. "Of Mind, Body, and Spirit": Therapeutic Foster Care - An Innovative Approach to Healing from an NTU Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Shawan D. P.; Phillips, Frederick B.

    1997-01-01

    Examines Progressive Life Center's (PLC) Therapeutic Foster Care program and its incorporation of NTU psychotherapy into its program model. Describes how PLC strives to improve the delivery of mental health services through culturally competent therapeutic techniques for African Americans, including seriously emotionally disturbed children. (MOK)

  3. Is the Court-Appointed Special Advocate Program Effective? A Longitudinal Analysis of Time Involvement and Case Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Patrick

    1996-01-01

    Describes the Court Appointed Special Advocate (CASA) Program for child welfare proceedings. Examines the current literature regarding the impact of CASA across the nation and discusses the findings and implications of an empirical study that evaluated a CASA program in terms of placement outcomes in a major U.S. city. (MOK)

  4. Support for nurses: paying it forward.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Sarah

    2016-07-14

    Sarah Kahn, Deputy Editor, BJN, speaks to Joan Pons Laplana who was awarded third place at this year's BJN Awards for Nurse of the Year. Joan had not wanted to become a nurse, but by sheer luck (realised in retrospect) that is what he ended up doing. Today, he uses his motivation to raise funds and share nursing knowledge. PMID:27409788

  5. Disaster Response and Planning for Libraries, Third Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Miriam B.

    2012-01-01

    Fire, water, mold, construction problems, power-outages--mishaps like these can not only bring library services to a grinding halt, but can also destroy collections and even endanger employees. Preparing for the unexpected is the foundation of a library's best response. Expert Kahn comes to the rescue with this timely update of the best…

  6. Nonviolent Action as a Necessary Component in Educating for Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Barbara A.

    2014-01-01

    Educating for democracy, seen within a liberal democratic framework, requires that students develop the requisite knowledge and skills to recognize injustice and work effectively to oppose it. Stitzlein's notion of dissent is examined in conjunction with Kahne and Westheimer's argument for teaching democratic capacities by actively…

  7. An Analysis of Dyadic Relationships between Administrators and Employees Working Virtually in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Rhonda L.

    2012-01-01

    The use of virtual teams has become a common practice for organizations across all industries nationally and internationally (Carmel & Agarwal, 2001; Hertel, Geister, & Konradt, 2005; Martins, Gilson, & Maynard, 2004; McDonough, Kahn, & Barczak, 2001). Institutions of higher education are also embracing the use of virtual teams…

  8. A Charged Particle in a Magnetic Field: A Review of Two Formalisms of Coherent States and the Husimi Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrera, D.; Valencia, A. M.; Pennini, F.; Curilef, S.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, we review two formalisms of coherent states for the case of a particle in a magnetic field. We focus our revision on both pioneering (Feldman and Kahn 1970 "Phys. Rev." B 1 4584) and recent (Kowalski and Rembielinski 2005 "J. Phys. A: Math. Gen." 38 8247) formulations of coherent states for this problem. We introduce a general…

  9. As You Get Older

    MedlinePlus

    ... DMD, Orthodontics Lisa Young, MS, CCC-SLP, Speech-Language Pathology Edited by Members of the 2002 Publications ... MD, Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery David Jones, PhD, Speech-Language Pathology Alice Kahn, PhD, Speech-Language Pathology Karlind ...

  10. 7 CFR 331.12 - Biocontainment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Exotic Plant Pathogens and Pests” (Robert P. Kahn and S.B. Mathur eds., 1999); and (2) “A Practical Guide to Containment: Greenhouse Research with Transgenic Plants and Microbes” (Patricia L. Traynor ed... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...

  11. Corrigendum.

    PubMed

    2016-06-01

    Kahn M, Ward WHJ, LaRue N, Kalnoky M, Pal S, and Domingo GJ (2015). Maintaining specimen integrity for G6PD screening by cytofluorometric assays. J Histochem Cytochem 63:454-458. (Original DOI: 10.1369/0022155415580594). PMID:27222004

  12. The Impact of Employee Engagement Factors and Job Satisfaction on Turnover Intent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Mary Lynn; Morris, Michael L.

    2008-01-01

    The current literature review examined a proposed relationship between the antecedent-employee engagement factors--and the outcome variable turnover intent mediated by job satisfaction. Kahn's Personal Engagement Theory, Equity Theory, and Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory of Job Satisfaction were used as the theoretical underpinnings for the review.…

  13. Conference Attendance Patterns of Outdoor Orientation Program Staff at Four-Year Colleges in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Brent J.

    2009-01-01

    One purpose of professional conference attendance is to enhance social support. Intentionally fostering this support is an important political aim that should be developed. Although many multifactor definitions of social support exist (Cobb, 1979; Cohen & Syme, 1985; Kahn, 1979; Shaefer et al., 1981; Weiss, 1974), all distinguish between an…

  14. New Frontiers in Psychiatric Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuzessery, Zoltan, Ed.

    The second annual educational workshop concerned utilization of psychiatric technicians for technical service to allied professions. Manuscripts are included for the following presentations: (1) "Brief History of Colorado Psychiatric Technicians Association" by Francis L. Hedges, (2) "Hominology--The Approach to the Whole Man" by Theodore C. Kahn,…

  15. A Revolution in Treatment for Hepatitis C Infection: Mitigating the Budgetary Impact.

    PubMed

    Marseille, Elliot; Kahn, James G

    2016-05-01

    In a Perspective accompanying Hill and colleagues, Elliot Marseille and James Kahn compare the history of pricing and availability of ART for HIV with that of the new HCV drugs and discuss strategies for providing treatment in LMIC even in the face of high costs. PMID:27243461

  16. Corrigendum

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Kahn M, Ward WHJ, LaRue N, Kalnoky M, Pal S, and Domingo GJ (2015). Maintaining specimen integrity for G6PD screening by cytofluorometric assays. J Histochem Cytochem 63:454-458. (Original DOI: 10.1369/0022155415580594) PMID:27222004

  17. Worldview and Counseling: Perceptions of Singaporean Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soong, Cecilia

    This paper examines the worldviews of Singapore students, comprised of Chinese, Malays, and Indians, and explores students' perceptions of and preference for counseling approaches. A modified version of Ibrahim and Kahn's Scale to Assess World Views (1994) was used to assess 970 Secondary Four students' worldviews with the independent variables…

  18. Campus Visits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lustig, Susan

    2009-01-01

    In this annual Architectural Portfolio issue, the author presents the main winners that impressed the jury as facilities that will excite and challenge students in dramatic ways. The Children's School, Stamford, Connecticut, the Caudill winner, is "reminiscent of the Crow Island School," according to this year's jury. The Kahn winner, Peninsula…

  19. Yale Center for British Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scully, Vincent Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The final building by architect Louis I. Kahn was completed after his death. Panels of gray stainless steel and dark glass form a perfect box. Available from: Architectural Record, 1221 Avenue of the Americas, New York, New York 10020; $5.00 single copy. (Author/MLF)

  20. Prediction of Sexual Assault Experiences in College Women Based on Rape Scripts: A Prospective Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turchik, Jessica A.; Probst, Danielle R.; Irvin, Clinton R.; Chau, Minna; Gidycz, Christine A.

    2009-01-01

    Although script theory has been applied to sexual assault (e.g., H. Frith & C. Kitzinger, 2001; A. S. Kahn, V. A. Andreoli Mathie, & C. Torgler, 1994), women's scripts of rape have not been examined in relation to predicting sexual victimization experiences. The purpose of the current study was to examine how elements of women's sexual assault…

  1. Student Demographics, Satisfaction and Cognitive Demand in Two Lifelong Learning Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simone, Patricia M.; Cesena, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    Leisure activity participation has been found to have a positive impact on our health and well-being (e.g., Rowe & Kahn, 1998), and interest in lifelong learning as a leisure time activity is rising. This study compared self-reported measures of demographics, life satisfaction, cognitive status, and mood states in adult populations (over 50 years…

  2. Ford Service Building in foreground with new facade covering front ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Ford Service Building in foreground with new facade covering front elevation. Original facade can be seen on side. Original was eight-story reinforced concrete Albert Kahn design with exposed structural frame. One-story addition on north side. Stone veneer covers south and west facades of the building in strips - Ford Service Building, 7310 Woodward Avenue, Detroit, MI

  3. Audiovisual Mass Media and Education. TTW 27/28.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Stapele, Peter, Ed.; Sutton, Clifford C., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    The 15 articles in this special issue focus on learning about the audiovisual mass media and education, especially television and film, in relation to various pedagogical and didactical questions. Individual articles are: (1) "Audiovisual Mass Media for Education in Pakistan: Problems and Prospects" (Ahmed Noor Kahn); (2) "The Role of the…

  4. Among the Orange Groves of Academe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the Citrus Variety Collection with its curator, Tracy L. Kahn. The collection has two trees each of 1,010 citrus types. They stand in row after row on 22 acres at one edge of the University of California campus at Riverside and serve as a resource for research and a safeguard for diversity. Citrus is a key crop in…

  5. "If I Am Losing Them, I'm Going to Change. So That's What We Did!" Third Grade Teachers Contemplate the Literacy Needs of Diverse Students within a Teacher Study Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nason, Megan A.

    2012-01-01

    According to Birchak, Connor, Crawford, Kahn, Kaser, Turner, & Short (1998), Fang, Fu, & Lamme (2004), Kennedy & Sheil (2010), and Wiliam (2008), teacher study groups can provide a supportive and collaborative professional development environment. The purpose of this study was to examine the professional development experiences of…

  6. The Distress Disclosure Index: A Research Review and Multitrait-Multimethod Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Jeffrey H.; Hucke, Brandy E.; Bradley, Allyson M.; Glinski, Austin J.; Malak, Brittany L.

    2012-01-01

    The Distress Disclosure Index (DDI; J. H. Kahn & R. M. Hessling, 2001) is a brief self-report measure of one's tendency to disclose personally distressing information. The purpose of this article was to summarize what is known about the DDI, present new validity evidence, and make recommendations for use of the DDI. This article reviews research…

  7. Summary of the Spring 1978 Conference of the National Consortium on Testing; June 5, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haney, Walt

    Remarks made at several panel discussions are summarized in this narrative report. The discussion topics and speakers include: (1) public education and testing--Tom Tomlinson, Ann Kahn, Herb Mack, and Jean Nazzaro, with remarks by Patricia Albjerg Graham; (2) standards regarding testing--Walt Haney, Barbara Lerner, Ann Cook, Willo White, and Bob…

  8. Below the Salary Line: Employee Engagement of Non-Salaried Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuck, Brad; Albornoz, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    This exploratory empirical phenomological study looks at employee engagement using Kahn (1990) and Maslow's (1970) motivational theories to understand the experience of non-salaried employees. This study finds four themes that seem to affect employee engagement: work environment, employee's supervisor, individual characteristics of the employee,…

  9. The Holocaust and History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Alan, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This theme based journal issue consists of articles and teaching ideas focusing on the Holocaust and history. This publication contains the following materials: (1) "Multiple Perspectives on the Holocaust?" (Alan Singer); (2) "Responses to 'Multiple Perspectives on the Holocaust'"; (3) "Escape to Cuba: Story of Laura Kahn, a Holocaust Survivor"…

  10. Laboratory Powder Metallurgy Makes Tough Aluminum Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Royster, D. M.; Thomas, J. R.; Singleton, O. R.

    1993-01-01

    Aluminum alloy sheet exhibits high tensile and Kahn tear strengths. Rapid solidification of aluminum alloys in powder form and subsequent consolidation and fabrication processes used to tailor parts made of these alloys to satisfy such specific aerospace design requirements as high strength and toughness.

  11. Student Engagement: Developing a Conceptual Framework and Survey Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burch, Gerald F.; Heller, Nathan A.; Burch, Jana J.; Freed, Rusty; Steed, Steve A.

    2015-01-01

    Student engagement is considered to be among the better predictors of learning, yet there is growing concern that there is no consensus on the conceptual foundation. The authors propose a conceptualization of student engagement grounded in A. W. Astin's (1984) Student Involvement Theory and W. A. Kahn's (1990) employee engagement research where…

  12. The Parent School Communications Questionnaire: A Measure of School Boundary Permeability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiener, William K.; Blumberg, Arthur

    The Parent-School Communications Questionnaire (PSCQ) is based on Katz and Kahn's (1967) notion of a directly proportional relationship between the permeability of the boundaries and the openness of a social system. The instrument is constructed to measure parental perceptions of five factors that seem heuristically to compose the…

  13. Faculty Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillan, Bob, Ed.; McFerrin, Karen, Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on faculty development and technology: "Involving Faculty in Faculty Development" (Kristine Blair and Dan Madigan); "Technology Use in Higher Education: A Faculty Development Model" (Jessica Kahn); "A Faculty of Education as a Community of Learners: Growing to Meet the Demands of Instruction and…

  14. Cryogenic mechanical properties of low density superplastically formable Al-Li alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verzasconi, S. L.; Morris, J. W., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The aerospace industry is considering the use of low density, superplastically formable (SPF) materials, such as Al-Li alloys in cryogenic tankage. SPF modifications of alloys 8090, 2090, and 2090+In were tested for strength and Kahn tear toughness. The results were compared to those of similar tests of 2219-T87, an alloy currently used in cryogenic tankage, and 2090-T81, a recently studied Al-Li alloy with exceptional cryogenic properties (1-9). With decreasing temperature, all materials showed an increase in strength, while most materials showed an increase in elongation and decrease in Kahn toughness. The indium addition to 2090 increased alloy strength, but did not improve the strength-toughness combination. The fracture mode was predominantly intergranular along small, recrystallized grains, with some transgranular fracture, some ductile rupture, and some delamination on large, unrecrystallized grains.

  15. Nurses and care of women seeking abortions, 1971 to 2011.

    PubMed

    McLemore, Monica; Levi, Amy

    2011-01-01

    In its first issue in 1972, JOGNN published a review article reporting surveillance data about abortions in the United States (Bourne, Kahn, Conger, & Tyler, 1972). This historical article predated Roe v. Wade, the U.S. Supreme Court decision legalizing abortion. Since this landmark decision, numerous articles have addressed nurses' role in abortion care. We review current literature on nurses and abortion care and use thematic categories to highlight areas of investigation. PMID:22273447

  16. Remote Sensing of Aerosols from Satellites: Why Has It Been Do Difficult to Quantify Aerosol-Cloud Interactions for Climate Assessment, and How Can We Make Progress?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Ralph A.

    2015-01-01

    The organizers of the National Academy of Sciences Arthur M. Sackler Colloquia Series on Improving Our Fundamental Understanding of the Role of Aerosol-Cloud Interactions in the Climate System would like to post Ralph Kahn's presentation entitled Remote Sensing of Aerosols from Satellites: Why has it been so difficult to quantify aerosol-cloud interactions for climate assessment, and how can we make progress? to their public website.

  17. An Interview with Joe McMann: Lessons Learned from Fifty Years of Observing Hardware and Human Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMann, Joe

    2011-01-01

    Pica Kahn conducted "An Interview with Joe McMann: Lessons Learned in Human and Hardware Behavior" on August 16, 2011. With more than 40 years of experience in the aerospace industry, McMann has gained a wealth of knowledge. This presentation focused on lessons learned in human and hardware behavior. During his many years in the industry, McMann observed that the hardware development process was intertwined with human influences, which impacted the outcome of the product.

  18. Error Propagation in a System Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schloegel, Kirk (Inventor); Bhatt, Devesh (Inventor); Oglesby, David V. (Inventor); Madl, Gabor (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Embodiments of the present subject matter can enable the analysis of signal value errors for system models. In an example, signal value errors can be propagated through the functional blocks of a system model to analyze possible effects as the signal value errors impact incident functional blocks. This propagation of the errors can be applicable to many models of computation including avionics models, synchronous data flow, and Kahn process networks.

  19. Oral therapy with glucose electrolyte solution.

    PubMed

    Clements, M L; Levine, M M; Black, R E; Hughes, T P; Nalin, D R; Pizarro, D; Hirschhorn, N

    1980-07-01

    Doctors Kahn and Blum based their views on oral rehydration on only 7 cases, and they fail to provide their methodological details. In their letter on oral rehydration with UNICEF/WHO (United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund/World Health Organization) glucose electrolyte solution (GES), they maintain that hyperkalemia is a danger of GES therapy, that hypernatremia will be aggravated, that therapy should not last for longer than 24 hours, that after 24 hours monitoring of plasma potassium will be needed, and that except for developing countries where material milk is used, no plan of treatment has been proposed after the first 24 hours of rehydration. The experience of Kahn and Blum is at variance with extensive data from many carefully monitored balanced studies in infants treated with GES. GES is a potent medication and needs to be used properly. Guidelines for use are listed. Kahn and Blum fail to indicate whether their 7 patients comprised their entire treatment group or only those with biochemical or clinical problems. They also fail to indicate the degree of dehydration of the infants at onset of therapy or the extent of ongoing diarrheal losses, and they do not describe the precise treatment regimen. Their mean time of treatment -- 41 hours -- was particularly long. The hyperkalemia reported by Kahn and Blum may have resulted from excessive GES administration, without a source of free water, to infants having few diarrheal stools. Proper use of GES formula rapidly rehydrates 95-98% of mildly to severely dehydrated infants, irrespective of etiology. PMID:6104241

  20. Towards a formal semantics for Ada 9X

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guaspari, David; Mchugh, John; Wolfgang, Polak; Saaltink, Mark

    1995-01-01

    The Ada 9X language precision team was formed during the revisions of Ada 83, with the goal of analyzing the proposed design, identifying problems, and suggesting improvements, through the use of mathematical models. This report defines a framework for formally describing Ada 9X, based on Kahn's 'natural semantics', and applies the framework to portions of the language. The proposals for exceptions and optimization freedoms are also analyzed, using a different technique.

  1. Two Overlapping Domains of a Lyssavirus Matrix Protein That Acts on Different Cell Death Pathways ▿

    PubMed Central

    Larrous, Florence; Gholami, Alireza; Mouhamad, Shahul; Estaquier, Jérôme; Bourhy, Hervé

    2010-01-01

    The lyssavirus matrix (M) protein induces apoptosis. The regions of the M protein that are essential for triggering cell death pathways are not yet clearly defined. We therefore compared the M proteins from two viruses that have contrasting characteristics in terms of cellular apoptosis: a genotype 3 lyssavirus, Mokola virus (MOK), and a genotype 1 rabies virus isolated from a dog from Thailand (THA). We identified a 20-amino-acid fragment (corresponding to positions 67 to 86) that retained the cell death activities of the full-length M protein from MOK via both the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) activity. We found that the amino acids at positions 77 and 81 have an essential role in triggering these two cell death pathways. Directed mutagenesis demonstrated that the amino acid at position 77 affects CcO activity, whereas the amino acid at position 81 affects TRAIL-dependent apoptosis. Mutations in the full-length M protein that compromised induction of either of these two pathways resulted in delayed apoptosis compared with the time to apoptosis for the nonmutated control. PMID:20631119

  2. Star Messenger: Galileo at the Millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, R. E.

    1999-05-01

    Smith College has recently established the Louise B. and Edmund J. Kahn Liberal Arts Institute to foster interdisciplinary scholarship among the faculty. In the 1999-2000 academic year, the Kahn Institute is sponsoring a project entitled "Star Messenger: Galileo at the Millennium." The project will explore the impact of the astronomical discoveries of Galileo and his contemporaries on the Renaissance world-view and also use Galileo's experience as a lens for examining scientific and cultural developments at the symbolic juncture represented by the year 2000. Seven faculty fellows and 10-12 student fellows will participate in a year-long colloquium pursuing these themes, aided by the participation of some five Visiting Fellows. The inaugural public event will be a symposium on the historical Galileo, with presentation by three noted scholars, each of whom will return to campus for a second meeting with the Kahn colloquium. Additional events will include an exhibit of prints, artifacts, and rare books related to Galileo and his time, an early music concert featuring music composed by Galileo's father, and a series of other events sponsored by diverse departments and programs, all related to the broad themes of the Galileo project. The culminating events will be the premiere of a new music theater work, which will encapsulate the insights of the colloquium about human reactions to novel insights about the world, and a symposium presenting the research results of faculty and student fellows. The symposium will feature a capstone lecture by an visionary scholar projecting the implication of historical and contemporary trends into the future.

  3. BiDil: from another vantage point.

    PubMed

    Puckrein, Gary

    2006-01-01

    In a recent Health Affairs Web Exclusive, Pamela Sankar and Jonathan Kahn argue against the Food and Drug Administration's approval of BiDil as a new drug for the treatment of heart failure in African Americans. Their paper questions the existence of disparities between African American and other heart-failure patients and the motivations of BiDil's developers and manufacturer. The disparities are confirmed and persistent, however, and BiDil's effectiveness is proven. If the authors' logic were to prevail, patients would be denied life-saving therapy. Continued investigation will likely narrow identification of patients who will benefit. PMID:16912053

  4. Moisture Sensor for Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6)-filled Circuit Breakers

    SciTech Connect

    Sauers, I.

    2001-04-27

    Measurements at ORNL were made on the Kahn moisture sensor which Doble Engineering wants to evaluate for use in SF{sub 6} circuit breakers. Test conducted at ORNL indicate that vacuum conditions, as might be found in SF{sub 6} circuit breakers prior to filling with SF{sub 6}, could lead to significant changes in calibration, resulting in erroneous readings of moisture content. Similar effects might also be observed in cases where SF{sub 6} byproducts are present, due the reactivity of some of these byproducts with water.

  5. An Interview with Joe McMann: His Life Lessons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMann, Joe

    2011-01-01

    Pica Kahn conducted "An Interview with Joe McMann: His Life Lessons" on May 23, 2011. With over 40 years of experience in the aerospace industry, McMann has gained a wealth of knowledge. Many have been interested in his biography, progression of work at NASA, impact on the U.S. spacesuit, and career accomplishments. This interview highlighted the influences and decision-making methods that impacted his technical and management contributions to the space program. McMann shared information about the accomplishments and technical advances that committed individuals can make.

  6. Resourceful earth: a response to global 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, J.L.; Kahn, H.

    1984-01-01

    Dismayed by the negativism of the Carter Administration's report Global 2000 and suspicious of the political uses being made of it, Professor Simon of the University of Maryland and the late Herman Kahn, with support from the Heritage Foundation, put together these studies by experts to correct what they think are fundamental errors. They call their rather optimistic statements about the future of population, food, water, resources, climate and other things unconditional predictions in the absence of an unforeseeable catastrophe - their underlying assumption being that people will do the right things to adjust constructively to change.

  7. Saving all the bits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1990-01-01

    The scientific tradition of saving all the data from experiments for independent validation and for further investigation is under profound challenge by modern satellite data collectors and by supercomputers. The volume of data is beyond the capacity to store, transmit, and comprehend the data. A promising line of study is discovery machines that study the data at the collection site and transmit statistical summaries of patterns observed. Examples of discovery machines are the Autoclass system and the genetic memory system of NASA-Ames, and the proposal for knowbots by Kahn and Cerf.

  8. Trial by Fire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Covault, Craig

    2005-01-01

    The NASa/ATK Thiokol space shuttle solid rocket motor program has doubled ground test firings and enhanced manufacturing quality and process control to increase safety for Discovery's return to flight. There are a number of places where we've strengthened our engineering and our processes, says Mike Kahn, ATK Thiokol vice president of space launch systems. Protecting the booster against corrosion in the humid Florida environment is one area that has been addressed. Since the loss of Columbia, ATK Thiokol and the Marshall Space Flight Center have completely reevaluated the shuttle solid rocket motor's design certification and found no major problems, Kahn said. The Thiokol solid motors did not play a role in the 2003 Columbia accident, but the motor's older field joint design (since replaced) was the primary cause of the 1986 Challenger accident that killed seven astronauts. The 129 X 12-ft. ATK Thiokol reusable solid rocket motor forms the core of the shuttle's two solid rocket boosters (SRBs). United Space Alliance (USA) has overall responsibility for the booster's nose-mounted systems such as recovery parachutes and aft-mounted thrust vector control systems that increase the length to 149 ft. USA and its subcontractors have also reaffirmed quality control on systems such as the booster's Hamilton Sundstrand hydraulic power units for critical thrust vector control. And to ensure greater safeguards against booster debris jeopardizing the orbiter, a bolt-catcher system to restrain the large bolts, severed at booster separation, was also redesigned.

  9. An Einstein survey of the 1 keV soft X-ray background in the Galactic plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanford, John M.; Caillault, Jean-Pierre

    1994-01-01

    We have analyzed 56 Einstein Observatory Imaging Proportional Counter (IPC) observations within +/- 3 deg of the Galactic plane in order to determine the low-latitude soft X-ray background flux in the 0.56-1.73 keV band. Any detected X-ray point source which fell within our regions of study was removed from the image, enabling us to present maps of the background flux as a function of Galactic latitude along 18 meridians. These maps reveal considerable structure to the background in the Galactic plane on an angular scale of approximately 1 deg. Our results are compared with those of an earlier study of the 1 keV X-ray background along l = 25 deg by Kahn & Caillault. The double-peaked structure they found is not discernible in our results, possibly because of the presence of solar backscattered flux in their data. A model which takes into account contributions to the background by extragalactic and stellar sources, the distribution of both atomic and molecular absorbing material with the Galaxy, the energy dependence of the cross section for absorption of X-rays, and the energy dependence of the detector has been constructed and fitted to these new data to derive constraints on the scale height, temperature, and volume emissivity of the unaccounted-for X-ray-emitting material. The results of this model along l = 25 deg are roughly similar to those of the model of Kahn & Caillault along the same meridian.

  10. How do leader-member exchange quality and differentiation affect performance in teams? An integrated multilevel dual process model.

    PubMed

    Li, Alex Ning; Liao, Hui

    2014-09-01

    Integrating leader-member exchange (LMX) research with role engagement theory (Kahn, 1990) and role system theory (Katz & Kahn, 1978), we propose a multilevel, dual process model to understand the mechanisms through which LMX quality at the individual level and LMX differentiation at the team level simultaneously affect individual and team performance. With regard to LMX differentiation, we introduce a new configural approach focusing on the pattern of LMX differentiation to complement the traditional approach focusing on the degree of LMX differentiation. Results based on multiphase, multisource data from 375 employees of 82 teams revealed that, at the individual level, LMX quality positively contributed to customer-rated employee performance through enhancing employee role engagement. At the team level, LMX differentiation exerted negative influence on teams' financial performance through disrupting team coordination. In particular, teams with the bimodal form of LMX configuration (i.e., teams that split into 2 LMX-based subgroups with comparable size) suffered most in team performance because they experienced greatest difficulty in coordinating members' activities. Furthermore, LMX differentiation strengthened the relationship between LMX quality and role engagement, and team coordination strengthened the relationship between role engagement and employee performance. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:25000359

  11. The proliferation of surface-to-surface missiles and weapons of mass destruction and the emerging role of tactical missile defenses in Israel, Syria and Iran

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, T.H.

    1993-01-01

    The proliferation of surface-to-surface missiles (SSMs) and weapons of mass destruction has become one of the more serious security threats to post-Cold War peace. This dissertation examines the history of proliferation within the Middle East by focusing primarily on three trend-setting countries: Israel, Syria and Iran. Building on the theoretical framework established by Lewis A. Dunn and Herman Kahn, this dissertation examines why and how Israel, Syria and Iran have procured SSMs and weapons of mass destruction. The author also includes an analysis of tactical missile defenses and their impact on proliferation trends. The final section investigates the numerous arms control treaties and supplier cartels designed to halt or slow the pace of unconventional weapons proliferation. In many instances, Iraq serves as the primary example of how well-intentioned nonproliferation efforts have fallen short. This dissertation reveals some of the major flaws in these regimes while proposing necessary improvements if nonproliferation efforts are to succeed. In conclusion, this dissertation returns to the expanded Dunn-Kahn nuclear proliferation model. By categorizing the various reasons as to why countries choose to procure unconventional weapons, a more successful nonproliferation policy can be constructed. However, this dissertation warns that without political solutions to long-term disputes in the region, western-imposed nonproliferation regimes will fail. Thus, nonproliferation policies must be accompanied or preceded by a vigorous diplomatic and political effort to solve seemingly intractable differences.

  12. Regulation of neurogenesis by interkinetic nuclear migration through an apical-basal Notch gradient

    PubMed Central

    Del Bene, Filippo; Wehman, Ann M.; Link, Brian A.; Baier, Herwig

    2008-01-01

    The different cell types in the central nervous system develop from a common pool of progenitor cells. The nuclei of progenitors move between the apical and basal surfaces of the neuroepithelium in phase with their cell cycle, a process termed interkinetic nuclear migration (INM). In the retina of zebrafish mikre oko (mok) mutants, in which the motor protein Dynactin-1 is disrupted, interkinetic nuclei migrate more rapidly and more deeply to the basal side and more slowly to the apical side. We found that Notch signaling is predominantly activated on the apical side in both mutants and wildtype. Mutant progenitors are thus less exposed to Notch and exit the cell cycle prematurely. This leads to an overproduction of early-born retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) at the expense of later-born interneurons and glia. Our data indicate that the function of INM is to balance the exposure of progenitor nuclei to neurogenic vs. proliferative signals. PMID:18805097

  13. Growth of crystals for synchrotron radiation Mössbauer investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotrbova, M.; Hejduk, J.; Malnev, V. V.; Seleznev, V. N.; Yagupov, S. V.; Andronova, N. V.; Chechin, A. I.; Mikhailov, A. Yu.

    1991-10-01

    Iron borate crystals (FeBO 3) were flux grown at the Physical Institute (Prague) and at Simferopol State University. During the crystal growth procedure the temperature regime was held constant to 0.1°C accuracy. Crystals were investigated with the help of a double crystal X-ray diffractometer DRON-2 (SiO 2(30 overline33)FeBO 3(444), MoK α 1 radiation). The rocking curve measurements were carried out in a constant magnetic field of 1kG. Most of the crystal surface has a rocking curve 10″-15″ wide. Some parts of some crystals with the area 1 × 1 mm 2 have rocking curves of 3″-4″ width and can be considered ideal.

  14. Chimeric Lyssavirus Glycoproteins with Increased Immunological Potential

    PubMed Central

    Jallet, Corinne; Jacob, Yves; Bahloul, Chokri; Drings, Astrid; Desmezieres, Emmanuel; Tordo, Noël; Perrin, Pierre

    1999-01-01

    The rabies virus glycoprotein molecule (G) can be divided into two parts separated by a flexible hinge: the NH2 half (site II part) containing antigenic site II up to the linear region (amino acids [aa] 253 to 275 encompassing epitope VI [aa 264]) and the COOH half (site III part) containing antigenic site III and the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains. The structural and immunological roles of each part were investigated by cell transfection and mouse DNA-based immunization with homogeneous and chimeric G genes formed by fusion of the site II part of one genotype (GT) with the site III part of the same or another GT. Various site II-site III combinations between G genes of PV (Pasteur virus strain) rabies (GT1), Mokola (GT3), and EBL1 (European bat lyssavirus 1 [GT5]) viruses were tested. Plasmids pGPV-PV, pGMok-Mok, pGMok-PV, and pGEBL1-PV induced transient expression of correctly transported and folded antigens in neuroblastoma cells and virus-neutralizing antibodies against parental viruses in mice, whereas, pG-PVIII (site III part only) and pGPV-Mok did not. The site III part of PV (GT1) was a strong inducer of T helper cells and was very effective at presenting the site II part of various GTs. Both parts are required for correct folding and transport of chimeric G proteins which have a strong potential value for immunological studies and development of multivalent vaccines. Chimeric plasmid pGEBL1-PV broadens the spectrum of protection against European lyssavirus genotypes (GT1, GT5, and GT6). PMID:9847325

  15. MISR Global Aerosol Product Assessment by Comparison with AERONET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaitley, B. J.; Kahn, R. A.

    2010-12-01

    Barbara J. Gaitley1, Ralph Kahn2, 1Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena CA 91109; 818-354-0552; 2NASA Goddard Space Flight Center; e-mail: barbara.gaitley@jpl.nasa.gov As a further step in validating the NASA Earth Observing System Terra satellite’s Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) aerosol products, an extensive statistical comparison between MISR optical depth and Angstrom exponent and Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) retrievals has been completed. Angstrom exponent was interpreted in terms of components and mixtures used by the retrieval algorithm. Specific examples illustrating the analysis approach will be shown. Eight years of data from 81 geographically diverse sites having good long-term measurement records were first stratified based on locations where six broad aerosol air mass type categories are likely to occur: maritime, biomass burning, desert dust, urban pollution, continental and mixed dust+smoke aerosols. The number of actual coincident measurements was constrained by requiring that the AERONET direct sun aerosol optical depth (AOD) data was obtained within a two-hour window centered on the MISR overpass time. 5156 coincident observations are included in this AOD data set. AERONET direct sun data were averaged over the measurements obtained within this window, and were then interpolated to the MISR characteristic wavelengths to facilitate comparison. All AERONET measurements are Level 2.0, Version 2 data. A previous, systematic comparison of MISR and AERONET aerosol optical depth data [Kahn, Gaitley et al., JGR 110, 2005] identified specific, suggested improvements to the early post-launch MISR Standard Aerosol retrieval algorithms. Most of these suggestions were implemented in the uniformly reprocessed MISR Version 22 aerosol products used in the current study. We documented the performance of the current MISR products based on the comparison statistics. For example, agreement between AERONET and

  16. Quantifying Aerosol Types and Their Impact on Trace Gas Retrievals From Satellite Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natraj, V.; Boesch, H.; Yung, Y. L.

    2005-12-01

    One of the major sources of uncertainty in the retrieval of trace gas abundances from space-borne measurements is the type, amount and vertical distribution of aerosols in the atmosphere. Optical properties were derived for the broad classification of aerosol types investigated by Kahn et al. (2001), taking polarization into account. Examination of the scattering matrix elements resulted in a smaller set of independent aerosol types whose radiative effects were different. Weighting functions were then calculated for each of these types, assuming exponentially tailing aerosol concentration in the troposphere and a Junge distribution for the stratosphere. The different shapes of the weighting functions indicate different amount and distribution of the information content. Implications for trace gas retrievals from satellite-based measurements made by polarization-sensitive instruments (such as those on OMI, GOME, SCIAMACHY and OCO) will be discussed.

  17. Photocopy of photograph (from NBPPNSY) photographer unknown, c. 1950's view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (from NBP-PNSY) photographer unknown, c. 1950's view northwest from 350-ton crane of drydock no. 2 (Haer no. Pa-387-B), 1950's. Pump house for the drydock is the round building below center of the photograph. The large building at the left center is building 546, the Turret Shop where naval gun turrets were assembled at the center rear is the foundry/propeller shop (Haer No. Pa-387-O) built in 1919. The foundry/propeller shop (building no. 20), designed by Warren-Moore and Company, resembles the Contemporaneous Architecture of Albert Kahn, who designed similar buildings for Henry Ford and the Chrysler Corporation in the 1920's and 1930's. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  18. Prediction of R-curves from small coupon tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, J. R.; Bray, G. H.; Bucci, R. J.; Macheret, Y.

    1994-01-01

    R-curves were predicted for Alclad 2024-T3 and C188-T3 sheet using the results of small-coupon Kahn tear tests in combination with two-dimensional elastic-plastic finite element stress analyses. The predictions were compared to experimental R-curves from 6.3, 16 and 60-inch wide M(T) specimens and good agreement was obtained. The method is an inexpensive alternative to wide panel testing for characterizing the fracture toughness of damage-tolerant sheet alloys. The usefulness of this approach was demonstrated by performing residual strength calculations for a two-bay crack in a representative fuselage structure. C188-T3 was predicted to have a 24 percent higher load carrying capability than 2024-T3 in this application as a result of its superior fracture toughness.

  19. Radio wave emitted by an extensive air showers in 10KHz to 1MHz region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichimura, J.

    1985-01-01

    The importance of radio waves in a frequency range of less than 1MHz in an EAS shower is discussed. Estimates of radio intensities at 10KHz, 100KHz and 1MHz in EAS showers made on the basis of the Kahn-Lerche theory. Negative charge excess in a shower is the main source of low frequency radio emission, in spite of the importance of the contribution of transverse current in the geomagnetic field in a higher frequency range. An estimate is also made for radio intensity produced when the shower hits the ground. The contribution of this process seems to be important at a large distance, i.e., beyond 1km from the shower axis.

  20. Successful ageing: a historical overview and critical analysis of a successful concept.

    PubMed

    Bülow, Morten Hillgaard; Söderqvist, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    Since the late 1980s, the concept of 'successful ageing' has set the frame for discourse about contemporary ageing research. Through an analysis of the reception to John W. Rowe and Robert L. Kahn's launch of the concept of 'successful ageing' in 1987, this article maps out the important themes and discussions that have emerged from the interdisciplinary field of ageing research. These include an emphasis on interdisciplinarity; the interaction between biology, psycho-social contexts and lifestyle choices; the experiences of elderly people; life-course perspectives; optimisation and prevention strategies; and the importance of individual, societal and scientific conceptualisations and understandings of ageing. By presenting an account of the recent historical uses, interpretations and critiques of the concept, the article unfolds the practical and normative complexities of 'successful ageing'. PMID:25456631

  1. Successful Aging and Subjective Well-Being Among Oldest-Old Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jinmyoung; Martin, Peter; Poon, Leonard W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: This research integrates successful aging and developmental adaptation models to empirically define the direct and indirect effects of 2 distal (i.e., education and past life experiences) and 5 proximal influences (i.e., physical functioning, cognitive functioning, physical health impairment, social resources, and perceived economic status) on subjective well-being. The proximal influences involved predictors outlined in most extant models of successful aging (e.g., Rowe & Kahn, 1998 [Rowe, J. W., & Kahn, R. L. (1998). Successful aging. New York: Pantheon Books.]). Our model extends such models by including distal impact as well as interactions between distal and proximal impacts. Design and Methods: Data were obtained from 234 centenarians and 72 octogenarians in the Georgia Centenarian Study. Structural equation modeling was conducted with Mplus 6.1. Results: Results showed significant direct effects of physical health impairment and social resources on positive aspects of subjective well-being among oldest-old adults. We also found significant indirect effects of cognitive functioning and education on positive affect among oldest-old adults. Social resources mediated the relationship between cognitive functioning and positive affect; and cognitive functioning and social resources mediated the relationship between education and positive affect. In addition, physical health impairment mediated the relationship between cognitive functioning and positive affect; and cognitive functioning and physical health impairment mediated the relationship between education and positive affect. Implications: Integrating 2 different models (i.e., successful aging and developmental adaptation) provided a comprehensive view of adaptation from a developmental perspective. PMID:25112594

  2. Reflection Grating Array Associated with the Reflection Grating Spectrometer Developed by the Space Research Organization of the Netherlands for the X-ray Multi-Mirror Mission (XMM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Steven M.

    2001-01-01

    The University of California, Berkeley (UCB) served as the Principal Investigator institution for the United States participation in the development of the Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) which included the design, development, fabrication, and testing of the Reflection Grating Assembly (RGA). UCB was assisted in this role by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Columbia University who provided the primary facilities, materials, services and personnel necessary to complete the development. UC Berkeley's Dr. Steven Kahn provided the technical and scientific oversight for the design. development and testing of the RGA units by monitoring the performance of the units at various stages in their development. Dr. Kahn was also the primary contact with the Space Research Organization of the Netherlands (SRON) and represented the RGA development at all SRON and European Space Agency (ESA) reviews of the RGA status. In accordance with the contract, the team designed and developed novel optical technology to meet the unique requirements of the RGS. The ESA XMM-Newton Mission carries two identical Reflection Grating Spectrometers (RGS) behind two of its three nested sets of Wolter I type mirrors. The instrument allows high-resolution measurements in the soft X-ray range (6 to 38 angstroms or 2.1 to 0.3 keV) with a maximum effective area of about 140 sq cm at 15 angstroms. Its design is optimized for the detection of the K-shell transitions of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, neon, magnesium, and silicon. as well as the L shell transitions of iron. The RGA itself consists of two units. A structure for each unit was designed to hold up to 220 gratings. In its final configuration, one unit holds 182 gratings and the second hold 181 gratings.

  3. Enhancement of choleragen ADP-ribosyltransferase activities by guanyl nucleotides and a 19-kDa membrane protein.

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, S C; Noda, M; Adamik, R; Moss, J; Vaughan, M

    1987-01-01

    Choleragen activates adenylate cyclase by catalyzing, in the presence of NAD, the ADP-ribosylation of Gs alpha, the stimulatory guanyl nucleotide-binding protein of the cyclase system. Kahn and Gilman [Kahn, R. A. & Gilman, A. G. (1986) J. Biol. Chem. 261, 7906-7911] identified another guanyl nucleotide-binding protein termed ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) that stimulated this reaction. It was proposed that the toxin substrate is an ARF-Gs alpha complex and that ARF may have a physiological role in regulation of Gs alpha activity. We have found that purified ARF from bovine brain enhances not only the ADP-ribosylation of Gs alpha but also Gs alpha-independent choleragen-catalyzed reactions. These are (i) ADP-ribosylation of agmatine, a low molecular weight guanidino compound; (ii) ADP-ribosylation of several proteins unrelated to Gs alpha; and (iii) auto-ADP-ribosylation of the toxin A1 peptide. These reactions, as well as the ADP-ribosylation of ARF itself, were stimulated by GTP or stable GTP analogues such as guanyl-5'-yl imido-beta gamma-diphosphate and guanosine 5'-O-[gamma-thio]triphosphate; GDP and guanosine 5'-O-[beta-thio]diphosphate were inactive. These observations are consistent with the conclusion that ARF interacts directly with the A subunit of choleragen in a GTP-dependent fashion thereby enhancing catalytic activity manifest as transfer of ADP-ribose to Gs alpha and other proteins, to the toxin A1 peptide, or to agmatine. It is tempting to speculate that ARF may be involved in regulating one or another of the ADP-ribosyltransferases found in animal cells. Images PMID:3110784

  4. Genetic Heterogeneity of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato in the Southern United States Based on Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism and Sequence Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, T.; Oliver, J. H.; Gao, L.; Kollars, T. M.; Clark, K. L.

    2001-01-01

    Fifty-six strains of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, isolated from ticks and vertebrate animals in Missouri, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, and Texas, were identified and characterized by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of rrf (5S)-rrl (23S) intergenic spacer amplicons. A total of 241 to 258 bp of intergenic spacers between tandemly duplicated rrf (5S) and rrl (23S) was amplified by PCR. MseI and DraI restriction fragment polymorphisms were used to analyze these strains. PCR-RFLP analysis results indicated that the strains represented at least three genospecies and 10 different restriction patterns. Most of the strains isolated from the tick Ixodes dentatus in Missouri and Georgia belonged to the genospecies Borrelia andersonii. Excluding the I. dentatus strains, most southern strains, isolated from the ticks Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes affinis, the cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus), and cotton mouse (Peromyscus gossypinus) in Georgia and Florida, belonged to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. Seven strains, isolated from Ixodes minor, the wood rat (Neotoma floridana), the cotton rat, and the cotton mouse in South Carolina and Florida, belonged to Borrelia bissettii. Two strains, MI-8 from Florida and TXW-1 from Texas, exhibited MseI and DraI restriction patterns different from those of previously reported genospecies. Eight Missouri tick strains (MOK-3a group) had MseI patterns similar to that of B. andersonii reference strain 21038 but had a DraI restriction site in the spacer. Strain SCGT-8a had DraI restriction patterns identical to that of strain 25015 (B. bissettii) but differed from strain 25015 in its MseI restriction pattern. Strain AI-1 had the same DraI pattern as other southern strains in the B. bissettii genospecies but had a distinct MseI profile. The taxonomic status of these atypical strains needs to be further evaluated. To clarify the taxonomic positions of these atypical Borrelia strains, the complete sequences of

  5. Local perturbations in the western rift of Corinth (Greece) caused by the 2011 Mw 9 Tohoku earthquake: joint observation of strain, water-level and seismic signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canitano, A.; Bernard, P.; Linde, A. T.; Sacks, S. I.

    2013-12-01

    The Gulf of Corinth (Greece) is one of the most seismic regions in Europe, producing some strong earthquakes in the decades, 1 to 1.5 cm/yr of north-south extension, and frequent seismic swarms. This structure is a 110 km long, N110E oriented graben bounded by systems of very recent normal faults. The Corinth Rift Laboratory (CRL) project is concentrated in the western part of the rift, around the city of Aigion, where instrumental seismicity and strain rate is highest. In the aim to detect transient slow deformation and creep phenomenon, possibly associated with the numerous microseismic swarms, three Sacks-Evertson borehole strainmeters have been deployed since few years. They are devoted to support the GPS observations, especially at short periods. During the 2011 Mw 9 Tohoku earthquake, the passing of long-period surface waves have initiated free oscillations of the gulf (commonly called seiches) at different periods. The dominant oscillations exhibit a period of 5-7 min with related amplitude of about 5-8 cm of water. This is also observed on the records of the strainmeters installed on Trizonia island (TRZ) and in Monasteraki (MOK). We took advantage of this observation to investigate in details the principal mechanisms of resonance of the gulf of Corinth. Furthermore, the observation of the dynamic strain induced by the longest period surface waves (150-200 sec) shows an anti-correlation between the TRZ dilatometer response and the MOK strainmeter, located 15 km apart. This puzzling observation is consistent with a similar anti-correlation between the solid tidal signal at 24-hrs period recorded at TRZ and the theoretical solid tide. This could be related to the presence of a shallow fault close to the instrument, which would creep in response to seismic wave related stress. However, further observations are necessary to better understand the response of the TRZ sensor to internal forcing, as for instance the strain associated with the earth free

  6. Short-term retrospective versus prospective memory processing as emergent properties of the mind and brain: human fMRI evidence.

    PubMed

    Mok, L W

    2012-12-13

    The functional-neuroanatomical substrates for short-term retrospective versus prospective memory processing were examined in a delay task, in which associative choices were made conditionally based on the presenting discriminative/cue stimulus. Delay-period prospection could be of the intended choice and/or the expected response outcome, whereas delay-period retrospection would be of the just-presented cue stimulus. Previous results have shown that the spontaneous process of unique outcome prospection did not implicate the lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) but instead implicated the lateral posterior parietal cortex (LPPC) in a modality-independent fashion (Mok et al., 2009). Spontaneous retrospection was more dependent on the medial temporal lobe (MTL). Nevertheless, it was anticipated that the more explicit process of prospecting an intended choice would implicate the lateral PFC. To verify this, Mok et al.'s data were further analyzed, with new control data. Healthy, young adults performed delayed discriminative choices under procedures that biased them toward different degrees of delay-period prospection: higher-using cue-unique, differential outcomes (DO); versus lower-using a non-unique, common outcome (CO), or unpredictable, non-differential outcomes (NDO). Experimental participants performed the DO versus CO procedures concurrently, while undergoing event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Separately, control participants provided data for: the NDO condition; related comparison tasks, which biased them toward different degrees of delay-period retrospection; and null-event trials. Expectedly, the more explicit process of prospecting an intended associative choice implicated the lateral PFC, as part of and together with other components of the multiple-demand network. Comparisons against null-event trials indicated that the sustained delay activity observed in MTL and LPPC, respectively, was part of default brain activity. These results

  7. Characterization facility for magneto-optic media and systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mansuripur, M.; Fu, H.; Gadetsky, S.; Sugaya, S.; Wu, T. H.; Zambuto, J.; Gerber, R.; Goodman, T.; Erwin, J. K.

    1993-01-01

    Objectives of this research are: (1) to measure the hysteresis loop, Kerr rotation angle, anisotropy energy profile, Hall voltage, and magnetoresistance of thin-film magneto-optic media using our loop-tracer; (2) measure the wavelength-dependence of the Kerr rotation angle, Theta(sub k), and ellipticity, epsilon(sub k), for thin-film media using our magneto-optic Kerr spectrometer (MOKS); (3) measure the dielectric tensor of thin-film and multilayer samples using our variable-angle magneto-optic ellipsometer (VAMOE); (4) measure the hysteresis loop, coercivity, remanent magnetization, saturation magnetization, and anisotropy energy constant for thin film magnetic media using vibrating sample magnetometry; (5) observe small magnetic domains and investigate their interaction with defects using magnetic force microscopy; (6) perform static read/write/erase experiments on thin-film magneto-optic media using our static test station; (7) integrate the existing models of magnetization, magneto-optic effects, coercivity, and anisotropy in an interactive and user-friendly environment, and analyze the characterization data obtained in the various experiments, using this modeling package; (8) measure focusing- and tracking-error signals on a static testbed, determine the 'feedthrough' for various focusing schemes, investigate the effects of polarization and birefringence, and compare the results with diffraction-based calculations; and (9) measure the birefringence of optical disk substrates using two variable angle ellipsometers.

  8. Antitumor Cell-Complex Vaccines Employing Genetically Modified Tumor Cells and Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Miguel, Antonio; Herrero, María José; Sendra, Luis; Botella, Rafael; Diaz, Ana; Algás, Rosa; Aliño, Salvador F.

    2014-01-01

    The present study evaluates the immune response mediated by vaccination with cell complexes composed of irradiated B16 tumor cells and mouse fibroblasts genetically modified to produce GM-CSF. The animals were vaccinated with free B16 cells or cell complexes. We employed two gene plasmid constructions: one high producer (pMok) and a low producer (p2F). Tumor transplant was performed by injection of B16 tumor cells. Plasma levels of total IgG and its subtypes were measured by ELISA. Tumor volumes were measured and survival curves were obtained. The study resulted in a cell complex vaccine able to stimulate the immune system to produce specific anti-tumor membrane proteins (TMP) IgG. In the groups vaccinated with cells transfected with the low producer plasmid, IgG production was higher when we used free B16 cell rather than cell complexes. Nonspecific autoimmune response caused by cell complex was not greater than that induced by the tumor cells alone. Groups vaccinated with B16 transfected with low producer plasmid reached a tumor growth delay of 92% (p ≤ 0.01). When vaccinated with cell complex, the best group was that transfected with high producer plasmid, reaching a tumor growth inhibition of 56% (p ≤ 0.05). Significant survival (40%) was only observed in the groups vaccinated with free transfected B16 cells. PMID:24556729

  9. Crystal structure of the heptamolybdate(VI) (paramolybdate) ion, [Mo7O24]6-, in the ammonium and potassium tetrahydrate salts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, H.T., Jr.; Gatehouse, B.M.; Leverett, P.

    1975-01-01

    The crystal structures of the isomorphous salts MI6 [Mo7O24],4H2O (M = NH4 or K) have been refined by three-dimensional X-ray diffraction methods. Unit cell dimensions of these monoclinic compounds, space group P21/C with Z = 4, are, ammonium salt: a = 8.3934 ?? 0.0008, b = 36.1703 ?? 0.0045, c = 10.4715 ?? 0.0011 A??, ?? = 115.958?? ?? 0.008??; and potassium salt: a = 8.15 ?? 0.02, b = 35.68 ?? 0.1, c = 10.30 ?? 0.02 A??, ?? = 115.2?? ?? 02??. By use of multiple Weissenberg patterns, 8197 intensity data (Mo-K?? radiation) for the ammonium compound and 2178 (Cu-K?? radiation) for the potassium compound were estimated visually and used to test and refine Lindqvist's proposed structure in the space group P21/c. Lindqvist's structure was confirmed and the full matrix least-squares isotropic refinement led to R 0.076 (ammonium) 0.120 (potassium), with direct unambiguous location of the cations and water molecules in the potassium compound.

  10. Theoretical and Computational Investigation of High-Brightness Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Chiping

    2013-11-30

    Theoretical and computational investigations of adiabatic thermal beams have been carried out in parameter regimes relevant to the development of advanced high-brightness, high-power accelerators for high-energy physics research and for various applications such as light sources. Most accelerator applications require high-brightness beams. This is true for high-energy accelerators such as linear colliders. It is also true for energy recovery linacs (ERLs) and free electron lasers (FELs) such as x-ray free electron lasers (XFELs). The breakthroughs and highlights in our research in the period from February 1, 2013 to November 30, 2013 were: a) Completion of a preliminary theoretical and computational study of adiabatic thermal Child-Langmuir flow (Mok, 2013); and b) Presentation of an invited paper entitled ?Adiabatic Thermal Beams in a Periodic Focusing Field? at Space Charge 2013 Workshop, CERN, April 16-19, 2013 (Chen, 2013). In this report, an introductory background for the research project is provided. Basic theory of adiabatic thermal Child-Langmuir flow is reviewed. Results of simulation studies of adiabatic thermal Child-Langmuir flows are discussed.

  11. Antitumor cell-complex vaccines employing genetically modified tumor cells and fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Miguel, Antonio; Herrero, María José; Sendra, Luis; Botella, Rafael; Diaz, Ana; Algás, Rosa; Aliño, Salvador F

    2014-02-01

    The present study evaluates the immune response mediated by vaccination with cell complexes composed of irradiated B16 tumor cells and mouse fibroblasts genetically modified to produce GM-CSF. The animals were vaccinated with free B16 cells or cell complexes. We employed two gene plasmid constructions: one high producer (pMok) and a low producer (p2F). Tumor transplant was performed by injection of B16 tumor cells. Plasma levels of total IgG and its subtypes were measured by ELISA. Tumor volumes were measured and survival curves were obtained. The study resulted in a cell complex vaccine able to stimulate the immune system to produce specific anti-tumor membrane proteins (TMP) IgG. In the groups vaccinated with cells transfected with the low producer plasmid, IgG production was higher when we used free B16 cell rather than cell complexes. Nonspecific autoimmune response caused by cell complex was not greater than that induced by the tumor cells alone. Groups vaccinated with B16 transfected with low producer plasmid reached a tumor growth delay of 92% (p ≤ 0.01). When vaccinated with cell complex, the best group was that transfected with high producer plasmid, reaching a tumor growth inhibition of 56% (p ≤ 0.05). Significant survival (40%) was only observed in the groups vaccinated with free transfected B16 cells. PMID:24556729

  12. An Adenylyl Cyclase, CyaA, of Myxococcus xanthus Functions in Signal Transduction during Osmotic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Yoshio; Mishima, Yukako; Nakano, Hiromi; Takegawa, Kaoru

    2002-01-01

    An adenylyl cyclase gene (cyaA) present upstream of an osmosensor protein gene (mokA) was isolated from Myxococcus xanthus. cyaA encoded a polypeptide of 843 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 91,187 Da. The predicted cyaA gene product had structural similarity to the receptor-type adenylyl cyclases that are composed of an amino-terminal sensor domain and a carboxy-terminal catalytic domain of adenylyl cyclase. In reverse transcriptase PCR experiments, the transcript of the cyaA gene was detected mainly during development and spore germination. A cyaA mutant, generated by gene disruption, showed normal growth, development, and germination. However, a cyaA mutant placed under conditions of ionic (NaCl) or nonionic (sucrose) osmostress exhibited a marked reduction in spore formation and spore germination. When wild-type and cyaA mutant cells at developmental stages were stimulated with 0.2 M NaCl or sucrose, the mutant cells increased cyclic AMP accumulation at levels similar to those of the wild-type cells. In contrast, the mutant cells during spore germination had mainly lost the ability to respond to high-ionic osmolarity. In vegetative cells, the cyaA mutant responded normally to osmotic stress. These results suggested that M. xanthus CyaA functions mainly as an ionic osmosensor during spore germination and that CyaA is also required for osmotic tolerance in fruiting formation and sporulation. PMID:12057952

  13. Synthesis of 3,4-di-O-acetyl-2,5-anhydro-1,6-dideoxy-1,6-diiodo-D-mannitol. Comparison of NMR spectral results for the solid state and solution with those of the X-ray structural determination.

    PubMed

    Shalaby, M A; Fronczek, F R; Lee, Y; Younathan, E S

    1995-04-19

    3,4-Di-O-acetyl-2,5-anhydro-1,6-dideoxy-1,6-diiodo-D-mannitol (3) is prepared from 2,5-anhydro-D-mannitol (1) in three steps. The solution and solid-state NMR spectra of 3 indicate considerable variation in conformation. In solution, it adopts, on average, a symmetric 4T3 conformation, whereas in the solid state it adopts an asymmetric conformation as revealed by 13C NMR cross polarization and magic angle spinning techniques. A single-crystal X-ray structure analysis confirmed the asymmetric conformation of 3 in a monoclinic crystal, space group P2(1) with a = 8.9608(4), b = 8.6348(5), c = 9.6468(4) A, beta = 96.139(4) degrees, V = 742.1(1) A3, Dc = 2.085 g cm-3, mu (MoK alpha) = 4.2 mm-1, and Z = 2. The structure was refined to R = 0.039 and Rw = 0.047 for 5181 observed reflections. The furanoid ring of 3 adopts an envelope E5 conformation slightly distorted towards 4T5, with puckering parameters psi = 313.49 degrees and q = 0.37 A. The asymmetric conformation is rationalized in terms of the weak packing forces in the crystal. PMID:7780989

  14. Fast dose kernel interpolation using Fourier transform with application to permanent prostate brachytherapy dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Derek Sloboda, Ron S.

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: Boyer and Mok proposed a fast calculation method employing the Fourier transform (FT), for which calculation time is independent of the number of seeds but seed placement is restricted to calculation grid points. Here an interpolation method is described enabling unrestricted seed placement while preserving the computational efficiency of the original method. Methods: The Iodine-125 seed dose kernel was sampled and selected values were modified to optimize interpolation accuracy for clinically relevant doses. For each seed, the kernel was shifted to the nearest grid point via convolution with a unit impulse, implemented in the Fourier domain. The remaining fractional shift was performed using a piecewise third-order Lagrange filter. Results: Implementation of the interpolation method greatly improved FT-based dose calculation accuracy. The dose distribution was accurate to within 2% beyond 3 mm from each seed. Isodose contours were indistinguishable from explicit TG-43 calculation. Dose-volume metric errors were negligible. Computation time for the FT interpolation method was essentially the same as Boyer's method. Conclusions: A FT interpolation method for permanent prostate brachytherapy TG-43 dose calculation was developed which expands upon Boyer's original method and enables unrestricted seed placement. The proposed method substantially improves the clinically relevant dose accuracy with negligible additional computation cost, preserving the efficiency of the original method.

  15. Academic stress and positive affect: Asian value and self-worth contingency as moderators among Chinese international students.

    PubMed

    Liao, Kelly Yu-Hsin; Wei, Meifen

    2014-01-01

    The theoretical model proposed by Berry and colleagues (Berry, 1997; Berry, Kim, Minde, & Mok, 1987) highlights the importance of identifying moderators in the acculturation process. Accordingly, the current study examined the Asian cultural value of family recognition through achievement (FRTA) and contingency of self-worth on academic competence (CSW-AC) as moderators in the association between academic stress and positive affect among Chinese international students. A total of 370 Chinese international students completed online surveys. Results from a hierarchical regression indicated that while academic stress was negatively associated with positive affect, FRTA was positively associated with positive affect. In other words, those with high academic stress reported a lower level of positive affect. However, individuals who endorsed high levels of FRTA reported a higher level of positive affect. In addition, results also revealed a significant interaction between academic stress and CSW-AC on positive affect. Thus, the study's finding supported the moderator role of CSW-AC. Simple effect analyses were conducted to examine the significant interaction. The results showed that higher levels of CSW-AC strengthened the negative association between academic stress and positive affect but lower levels of CSW-AC did not. Future research directions and implications are discussed. PMID:24491130

  16. 'One health' in action series: nos 1-8.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Laura H; Kaplan, Bruce; Monath, Thomas P

    2009-01-01

    This series of short articles was published in 2007 and distributed to the Kahn-Kaplan-Monath 'One Health' email distribution list. The articles are further examples of historical achievements obtained across numerous scientific disciplines, including human and veterinary medicine. Each article was written and developed with assistance from the Kahn-Kaplan-Monath 'One Health' team. The expanding 'One Health' email distribution list now totals approximately 590 individuals in 38 countries including Argentina, Australia, Bangladesh, Bahrain, Belgium, Belize, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Croatia, France, Germany, Grenada, India, Indonesia, Israel, Japan, Malta, The Netherlands, Nepal, New Zealand, Nigeria, Norway, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Senegal, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States and Uruguay. The list of supporters currently totals 417. If these lists are still being actively maintained by the publication date of this 'One Medicine - One Health' monograph, any allied health scientist, physician, osteopath or veterinarian may be added to one and/or both lists by contacting us at bkapdvm@verizon.net. Please include your curriculum vitae or brief biography, title, degree(s), affiliation and address consistent with those currently acknowledged as 'One Health - One Medicine' supporters. There are no obligations attached to joining this group and you may have your name removed at any time upon request. Those who have prepared this message and the two lists act independently of any other entity or organisation. However, where feasible, we attempt to augment and support those organisations' efforts to recognise, promote and implement this initiative, such as the American Veterinary Medical Association, American Medical Association, Society for Tropical Veterinary Medicine, Croatian Society for Infectious Diseases, American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, World

  17. Calibration and intercomparison of water vapor instrumentation used on the NSF/NCAR HIAPER aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraemer, D.; Campos, T.; Flocke, F.; Jensen, J.; Wang, J.; Cole, H.; Korn, E.; Lauritsen, D.; Kraemer, M.

    2007-12-01

    Subject of the study is the characterization of a Kahn DCS-80 water vapor calibration system and the calibration of two water vapor sensors used on research aircraft, namely a Buck Instruments B-1001 chilled mirror sensor and a MayComm Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Hygrometer. A series of Vaisala drop sondes were also characterized and compared to the aircraft instruments. In an effort to assess the precision of the water vapor sensors that are being used on board the NSF/NACR GV aircraft (HIAPER), the instruments were tested at ambient pressure (800 mbar) inside an environmental chamber to simulate temperature conditions during flight. Tested dewpoints ranged from -70 to +20 degrees Celsius. The TDL - hygrometer was calibrated in preparation for an international water vapor measurement intercomparison campaign at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Germany. We will present the detailed calibration and characterization procedure, the laboratory setup for the different sensors, results from the calibrations of all instruments, assess their precision and useful operating range, and present some preliminary results from the international intercomparison campaign.

  18. Identifying 21st Century STEM Competencies Using Workplace Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Hyewon

    2016-04-01

    Gaps between science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education and required workplace skills have been identified in industry, academia, and government. Educators acknowledge the need to reform STEM education to better prepare students for their future careers. We pursue this growing interest in the skills needed for STEM disciplines and ask whether frameworks for 21st century skills and engineering education cover all of important STEM competencies. In this study, we identify important STEM competencies and evaluate the relevance of current frameworks applied in education using the standardized job-specific database operated and maintained by the US Department of Labor. Our analysis of the importance of 109 skills, types of knowledge and work activities, revealed 18 skills, seven categories of knowledge, and 27 work activities important for STEM workers. We investigate the perspectives of STEM and non-STEM job incumbents, comparing the importance of each skill, knowledge, and work activity for the two groups. We aimed to condense dimensions of the 52 key areas by categorizing them according to the Katz and Kahn (1978) framework and testing for inter-rater reliability. Our findings show frameworks for 21st century skills and engineering education do not encompass all important STEM competencies. Implications for STEM education programs are discussed, including how they can bridge gaps between education and important workplace competencies.

  19. The Contribution of Water Ice Clouds to the Water Cycle in the North Polar Region of Mars: Preliminary Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bass, D. S.; Tamppari, L. K.

    2000-01-01

    While it has long been known that Mars' north residual polar cap and the Martian regolith are significant sources of atmospheric water vapor, the amount of water vapor observed in the northern spring season by the Viking Mars Atmospheric Water Detector instrument (MAWD) cannot be attributed to cap and regolith sources alone. Kahn suggested that ice hazes may be the mechanism by which additional water is supplied to the Martian atmosphere. Additionally, a significant decrease in atmospheric water vapor was observed in the late northern summer that could not be correlated with the return of the cold seasonal C02 ice. While the detection of water ice clouds on Mars indicate that water exists in Mars' atmosphere in several different phases, the extent to which water ice clouds play a role in moving water through the Martian atmosphere remains uncertain. Work by Bass et. al. suggested that the time dependence of water ice cap seasonal variability and the increase in atmospheric water vapor depended on the polar cap center reaching 200K, the night time saturation temperature. Additionally, they demonstrated that a decrease in atmospheric water vapor may be attributed to deposition of water ice onto the surface of the polar cap; temperatures were still too warm at this time in the summer for the deposition of carbon dioxide. However, whether water ice clouds contribute significantly to this variability is unknown. Additional information is contained in original extended abstract.

  20. Atomic origin of hysteresis during cyclic loading of Si due to bond rearrangements at the crack surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Robin L.; Carter, Emily A.

    2005-12-01

    The atomistic origin of fatigue failure in micron-sized silicon devices is not fully understood. Two series of density-functional theory calculations on cubic diamond Si explore the effect of surface bond formation on crack healing in systems which exhibit strong surface reconstruction. Both series introduce a separation between Si(100) layers (i.e., the crack) and allow the ions to relax to their minimum-energy configuration. The initial surface ionic positions are either bulk terminated or 2×1 reconstructed. A plot of the energy versus the introduced separation reveals that once the surfaces reconstruct, the crack is no longer able to return to the equilibrium configuration. Rather, the healed crack interface contains defects which places the flawed energy minimum at a finite strain of 3% and an increased energy of 1.13J/m2 relative to the equilibrium configuration. The irreversible plastic deformation supports the mechanism proposed by Kahn et al. [Science 298 1215 (2002)] that invokes mechanically induced subcritical cracking to explain the delayed onset of failure.

  1. A Flipped Pedagogy for Expert Problem Solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritchard, David

    The internet provides free learning opportunities for declarative (Wikipedia, YouTube) and procedural (Kahn Academy, MOOCs) knowledge, challenging colleges to provide learning at a higher cognitive level. Our ``Modeling Applied to Problem Solving'' pedagogy for Newtonian Mechanics imparts strategic knowledge - how to systematically determine which concepts to apply and why. Declarative and procedural knowledge is learned online before class via an e-text, checkpoint questions, and homework on edX.org (see http://relate.mit.edu/physicscourse); it is organized into five Core Models. Instructors then coach students on simple ``touchstone problems'', novel exercises, and multi-concept problems - meanwhile exercising three of the four C's: communication, collaboration, critical thinking and problem solving. Students showed 1.2 standard deviations improvement on the MIT final exam after three weeks instruction, a significant positive shift in 7 of the 9 categories in the CLASS, and their grades improved by 0.5 standard deviation in their following physics course (Electricity and Magnetism).

  2. Moisture sensors 1980 on-line roles increase

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, S.J.

    1980-09-01

    A review of on- and off-line moisture and humidity sensors covers instruments based on the capacitive principle such as Panametrics' Aquamax II and those developed by Ondyne, Moisture Control Systems, Phys-Chemical Research Corp., Shaw Instruments, and Diversified Engineering; instruments based on the microwave plus gamma and nuclear plus gamma radiation principles such as those by Kay-Ray and Ohmart Corp., respectively; sensors based on the saturated salt principle such as Foxboro's self-heated lithium chloride sensor; Kahn and Co.'s electrolytic hygrometer for monitoring the moisture content of pure gases or gas mixtures in natural gas transmissions; the Ohaus gravimetric instrument; microprocessor-based titrators by Foxboro Analytical and Photovolt Corp.; instruments which sense moving web moisture such as Beckman Instrument's Hygroline System HMP20 and Hy-Cal Engineering's sensor; IR stack gas analyzers by Anarad Inc. and Moisture Systems Corp.; optical hygrometers by EG and G and General Eastern; Panametrics' Model 4000 moisture computer; and Du Pont's standard 560 analyzer and new controller.

  3. Dual Mode Inverter Control Test Verification

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, J.M.

    2001-04-25

    Permanent Magnet Motors with either sinusoidal back emf (permanent magnet synchronous motor [PMSM]) or trapezoidal back emf (brushless dc motor [BDCM]) do not have the ability to alter the air gap flux density (field weakening). Since the back emf increases with speed, the system must be designed to operate with the voltage obtained at its highest speed. Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL) Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Center (PEEMRC) has developed a dual mode inverter controller (DMIC) that overcomes this disadvantage. This report summarizes the results of tests to verify its operation. The standard PEEMRC 75 kW hard-switched inverter was modified to implement the field weakening procedure (silicon controlled rectifier enabled phase advance). A 49.5 hp motor rated at 2800 rpm was derated to a base of 400 rpm and 7.5 hp. The load developed by a Kahn Industries hydraulic dynamometer, was measured with a MCRT9-02TS Himmelstein and Company torque meter. At the base conditions a current of 212 amperes produced the 7.5 hp. Tests were run at 400, 1215, and 2424 rpm. In each run, the current was no greater than 214 amperes. The horsepower obtained in the three runs were 7.5, 9.3, and 8.12. These results verified the basic operation of the DMIC in producing a Constant Power Speed Ratios (CPSR) of six.

  4. Polarized radio emission from extensive air showers measured with LOFAR

    SciTech Connect

    Schellart, P.; Buitink, S.; Corstanje, A.; Enriquez, J.E.; Falcke, H.; Hörandel, J.R.; Krause, M.; Nelles, A.; Rachen, J.P.; Veen, S. ter; Thoudam, S.

    2014-10-01

    We present LOFAR measurements of radio emission from extensive air showers. We find that this emission is strongly polarized, with a median degree of polarization of nearly 99%, and that the angle between the polarization direction of the electric field and the Lorentz force acting on the particles, depends on the observer location in the shower plane. This can be understood as a superposition of the radially polarized charge-excess emission mechanism, first proposed by Askaryan and the geomagnetic emission mechanism proposed by Kahn and Lerche. We calculate the relative strengths of both contributions, as quantified by the charge-excess fraction, for 163 individual air showers. We find that the measured charge-excess fraction is higher for air showers arriving from closer to the zenith. Furthermore, the measured charge-excess fraction also increases with increasing observer distance from the air shower symmetry axis. The measured values range from (3.3± 1.0)% for very inclined air showers at 25 m to (20.3± 1.3)% for almost vertical showers at 225 m. Both dependencies are in qualitative agreement with theoretical predictions.

  5. Convoys of care: Theorizing intersections of formal and informal care

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, Candace L.; Ball, Mary M.; Perkins, Molly M.

    2013-01-01

    Although most care to frail elders is provided informally, much of this care is paired with formal care services. Yet, common approaches to conceptualizing the formal–informal intersection often are static, do not consider self-care, and typically do not account for multi-level influences. In response, we introduce the “convoy of care” model as an alternative way to conceptualize the intersection and to theorize connections between care convoy properties and caregiver and recipient outcomes. The model draws on Kahn and Antonucci's (1980) convoy model of social relations, expanding it to include both formal and informal care providers and also incorporates theoretical and conceptual threads from life course, feminist gerontology, social ecology, and symbolic interactionist perspectives. This article synthesizes theoretical and empirical knowledge and demonstrates the convoy of care model in an increasingly popular long-term care setting, assisted living. We conceptualize care convoys as dynamic, evolving, person- and family-specific, and influenced by a host of multi-level factors. Care convoys have implications for older adults’ quality of care and ability to age in place, for job satisfaction and retention among formal caregivers, and for informal caregiver burden. The model moves beyond existing conceptual work to provide a comprehensive, multi-level, multi-factor framework that can be used to inform future research, including research in other care settings, and to spark further theoretical development. PMID:23273553

  6. A Survey of Complex Object Technologies for Digital Libraries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Michael L.; Argue, Brad; Efron, Miles; Denn, Sheila; Pattuelli, Maria Cristina

    2001-01-01

    Many early web-based digital libraries (DLs) had implicit assumptions reflected in their architecture that the unit of focus in the DL (frequently "reports" or "e-prints") would only be manifested in a single, or at most a few, common file formats such as PDF or PostScript. DLs have now matured to the point where their contents are commonly no longer simple files. Complex objects in DLs have emerged from in response to various requirements, including: simple aggregation of formats and supporting files, bundling additional information to aid digital preservation, creating opaque digital objects for e-commerce applications, and the incorporation of dynamic services with the traditional data files. We examine a representative (but not necessarily exhaustive) number of current and recent historical web-based complex object technologies and projects that are applicable to DLs: Aurora, Buckets, ComMentor, Cryptolopes, Digibox, Document Management Alliance, FEDORA, Kahn-Wilensky Framework Digital Objects, Metadata Encoding & Transmission Standard, Multivalent Documents, Open eBooks, VERS Encapsulated Objects, and the Warwick Framework.

  7. MISR Global Aerosol Product Assessment by Comparison with AERONET

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Ralph A.; Gaitley, Barbara J.; Garay, Michael J.; Diner, David J.; Eck, Thomas F.; Smirnov, Alexander; Holben, Brent N.

    2010-01-01

    A statistical approach is used to assess the quality of the MISR Version 22 (V22) aerosol products. Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) retrieval results are improved relative to the early post- launch values reported by Kahn et al. [2005a], varying with particle type category. Overall, about 70% to 75% of MISR AOD retrievals fall within 0.05 or 20% AOD of the paired validation data, and about 50% to 55% are within 0.03 or 10% AOD, except at sites where dust, or mixed dust and smoke, are commonly found. Retrieved particle microphysical properties amount to categorical values, such as three groupings in size: "small," "medium," and "large." For particle size, ground-based AERONET sun photometer Angstrom Exponents are used to assess statistically the corresponding MISR values, which are interpreted in terms of retrieved size categories. Coincident Single-Scattering Albedo (SSA) and fraction AOD spherical data are too limited for statistical validation. V22 distinguishes two or three size bins, depending on aerosol type, and about two bins in SSA (absorbing vs. non-absorbing), as well as spherical vs. non-spherical particles, under good retrieval conditions. Particle type sensitivity varies considerably with conditions, and is diminished for mid-visible AOD below about 0.15 or 0.2. Based on these results, specific algorithm upgrades are proposed, and are being investigated by the MISR team for possible implementation in future versions of the product.

  8. Professional burnout as the state and process--what to do?

    PubMed

    Rakovec-Felser, Zlatka

    2011-06-01

    The professional staff in human service institutions is often required to spend time in intense involvement with other people. Frequently, the staff-client interaction is centred around the client's current problems (psychological, social, and/ or physical) and is therefore charged with feelings of anger, embarrassment, fear or despair In this article we follow the burnout which could not be only the consequence of such job characteristics but could appear also as the result of type of work organization, social relationships, and some bodies personal characteristics as life style, too. Moreover, it can be a consequence of a disturbed balance between give and take at all three levels of social exchange--at interpersonal, at the team, and at the organizational level. So burnout is not only the problem of individuals but also the problem of social environment in which they work. The workplaces shape how people interact with another and how they carry out their jobs. In addition, we try to find the ways how to prevent or to reduce burnout, too. So we present the theories of social comparison (Festinger, 1954; Schachter, 1959), equity theory (Walster and Berscheid, 1978), as also the Kahn's model of employee engagement (1990) and the Schaufeli- Buunk's integrative comprehensive social exchange model (1993) as the possible key to help individuals and organization. In this context V. also Frankl's logo therapy (sense of purpose, 1960) became much more important as the theories of positive (Seligman, 2000) and humanistic psychology (Maslow, 1971, 1987; Rogers, 1959), too. PMID:21755734

  9. Adiabatic Expansion of Supernova Remnants - an Explicit, Analytical Approximation in Two Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciejewski, W.; Shelton, R. L.; Cox, D. P.

    1996-05-01

    We propose a simple, analytical approximation for an adiabatic shock wave propagating in an exponentially stratified ambient medium. We aim to provide an effective tool for exploring the parameter space of 2-dimensional numerical models of supernova remnants (SNRs). We start from Kompaneets's (1960, Soviet Phys. Doklady, 5, 46) axisymmetric generalization of Sedov's spherically symmetric problem, to which he derived an implicit solution. We notice that the SNR shape in his solution can be closely approximated as an ellipsoid. In this case, an explicit solution for the size, eccentricity and expansion velocity of the remnant can be found. Our results are in excellent agreement with Kompaneets's solution, even when the ambient density varies across the remnant by factors as large as 1000. Beyond that, the blowout occurs, and Kompaneets's assumptions no longer hold. The remnant shapes are remarkably close to spherical for moderate density gradients. Using Kahn's cooling law (alpha T(-1/2) ) we derived a formula to estimate how long it takes for a cold shell to form. Even a small gradient in ambient density causes this time to vary substantially within a single remnant, so that for a period the H I shell will be only partially formed. To demonstrate how our approximation can be used, the parameter space for models of the supernova remnant W44 is explored.

  10. Public Release of a One Dimensional Version of the Photon Clean Method (PCM1D)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, Matthew H.; Jernigan, J. G.

    2006-09-01

    We announce the public release of a one dimensional version of the Photon Clean Method (PCM1D). This code is in the general class of "inverse Monte Carlo" methods and is specifically designed to interoperate with the public analysis tools available from the Chandra Science Center and the HEASARC. The tool produces models of event based data on a photon by photon basis. The instrument models are based on the standard ARF and RMF fits files. The resulting models have a high number of degrees of freedom of order the number of photons detected providing an alternative analysis compared to the usual method of fitting models with only a few parameters. The original work on this method is described in ADASS 1996 (Jernigan and Vezie). We thank H. Tananbaum and J. McDowell of the Chandra Science Center, S. Kahn, the RGS/XMM-Newton US team leader, and W. Craig and S. Labov of the I Division of LLNL for their support for the development of the PCM concept. We thank P. Beiersdorfer and the EBIT team for the support to develop the first public version of PCM1D.

  11. A laboratory means to produce tough aluminum sheet from powder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singleton, O. R.; Royster, D. M.; Thomas, J. R.

    1990-01-01

    The rapid solidification of aluminum alloys as powder and the subsequent fabrication processes can be used to develop and tailor alloys to satisfy specific aerospace design requirements, including high strength and toughness. Laboratory procedures to produce aluminum powder-metallurgy (PM) materials are efficient but require evidence that the laboratory methods used can produce a product with superior properties. This paper describes laboratory equipment and procedures which can be used to produce tough aluminum PM sheet. The processing of a 2124 + 0.9 percent Zr aluminum alloy powder is used as an example. The fully hardened sheet product is evaluated in terms of properties and microstructure. The key features of the vacuum hot press pressing operation used to consolidate the powder are described. The 2124 + 0.9 percent Zr - T8 temper aluminum sheet produced was both strong (460-490 MPa yield strength) and tough (Kahn Tear unit-propagation- energy values over three times those typical for ingot metallurgy 2024-T81). Both the longitudinal and longitudinal-transverse directions of the sheet were tested. The microstructure was well refined with subgrains of one or two micrometers. Fine dispersoids of Al3Zr in the precipitate free regions adjacent to boundaries are believed to contribute to the improved toughness.

  12. Commemorating John Dyson

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pittard, Julian M.

    2015-03-01

    John Dyson was born on the 7th January 1941 in Meltham Mills, West Yorkshire, England, and later grew up in Harrogate and Leeds. The proudest moment of John's early life was meeting Freddie Trueman, who became one of the greatest fast bowlers of English cricket. John used a state scholarship to study at Kings College London, after hearing a radio lecture by D. M. McKay. He received a first class BSc Special Honours Degree in Physics in 1962, and began a Ph.D. at the University of Manchester Department of Astronomy after being attracted to astronomy by an article of Zdenek Kopal in the semi-popular journal New Scientist. John soon started work with Franz Kahn, and studied the possibility that the broad emission lines seen from the Orion Nebula were due to flows driven by the photoevaporation of neutral globules embedded in a HII region. John's thesis was entitled ``The Age and Dynamics of the Orion Nebula`` and he passed his oral examination on 28th February 1966.

  13. Sustainable development in British land use regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Basiago, A.D.

    1995-12-01

    Sustainable development is a new international theory of development founded on principles of futurity, environment, equity and participation. It is the legacy of twenty years of international environmental law that has established a doctrine of global trusteeship. Sustainable development has entered British land use regulation through the Maastricth Treaty; the EU`s Fifth Environmental Action Program; as well as the British government`s Planning Policy Guidance notes on land use principles, local plans, transport and historic preservation, and its white papers. The Earth Summit accord Agenda 21 is a blueprint on how to make development socially, economically and environmentally sustainable. Under its terms, Britain has prepared a national sustainable development strategy for the UN`s Commission on Sustainable Development. It features Local Agenda 21 strategies in which local authorities develop policies for sustainable development and establish partnerships with other sectors. In this paper, the Local Agenda 21 strategies of seven local authorities are evaluated according to the paradigm introduced in Agenda 21 and elaborated by Kahn that describes sustainable development as a dynamic system of integrated and interlinked economic, social and environmental sustainability. The author concludes that sustainable development in British land use regulation is guided by notions of economic development, social justice and environmental planning and not by the dynamic, integrated model of Agenda 21. 46 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Using Research-Based Interactive Video Vignettes to Enhance Out-of-Class Learning in Introductory Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laws, Priscilla W.; Willis, Maxine C.; Jackson, David P.; Koenig, Kathleen; Teese, Robert

    2015-02-01

    Ever since the first generalized computer-assisted instruction system (PLATO1) was introduced over 50 years ago, educators have been adding computer-based materials to their classes. Today many textbooks have complete online versions that include video lectures and other supplements. In the past 25 years the web has fueled an explosion of online homework and course management systems, both as blended learning and online courses. Meanwhile, introductory physics instructors have been implementing new approaches to teaching based on the outcomes of Physics Education Research (PER). A common theme of PER-based instruction has been the use of active-learning strategies designed to help students overcome alternative conceptions that they often bring to the study of physics.2 Unfortunately, while classrooms have become more active, online learning typically relies on passive lecture videos or Kahn-style3 tablet drawings. To bring active learning online, the LivePhoto Physics Group has been developing Interactive Video Vignettes (IVVs) that add interactivity and PER-based elements to short presentations. These vignettes incorporate web-based video activities that contain interactive elements and typically require students to make predictions and analyze real-world phenomena.

  15. Convoys of care: theorizing intersections of formal and informal care.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Candace L; Ball, Mary M; Perkins, Molly M

    2013-01-01

    Although most care to frail elders is provided informally, much of this care is paired with formal care services. Yet, common approaches to conceptualizing the formal-informal intersection often are static, do not consider self-care, and typically do not account for multi-level influences. In response, we introduce the "convoy of care" model as an alternative way to conceptualize the intersection and to theorize connections between care convoy properties and caregiver and recipient outcomes. The model draws on Kahn and Antonucci's (1980) convoy model of social relations, expanding it to include both formal and informal care providers and also incorporates theoretical and conceptual threads from life course, feminist gerontology, social ecology, and symbolic interactionist perspectives. This article synthesizes theoretical and empirical knowledge and demonstrates the convoy of care model in an increasingly popular long-term care setting, assisted living. We conceptualize care convoys as dynamic, evolving, person- and family-specific, and influenced by a host of multi-level factors. Care convoys have implications for older adults' quality of care and ability to age in place, for job satisfaction and retention among formal caregivers, and for informal caregiver burden. The model moves beyond existing conceptual work to provide a comprehensive, multi-level, multi-factor framework that can be used to inform future research, including research in other care settings, and to spark further theoretical development. PMID:23273553

  16. A comparison of DNA vaccines for the rabies-related virus, Mokola.

    PubMed

    Nel, L H; Niezgoda, M; Hanlon, C A; Morril, P A; Yager, P A; Rupprecht, C E

    2003-06-01

    Mokola virus, a rabies-related virus, has been reported to date from the African continent only. Like rabies virus, it is highly pathogenic, causes acute encephalitis, and zoonotic events have been documented. Although believed to be rare, there has been an unexplained increase in the number of isolations of the virus in South Africa in recent years. We have cloned and sequenced the glycoprotein (G) and nucleoprotein (N) genes from a South African Mokola virus, and used these in the construction of different DNA vaccines for immunization against Mokola virus. Four vaccines, utilizing different promoters and DNA backbone compositions, were generated and compared for efficacy in protection against Mokola virus. In one of these, both the Mokola virus G and N genes were co-expressed. Two of the single G-expressing DNA vaccines (based on pSG5 and pCI-neo, respectively) protected laboratory mice against lethal challenge, despite major differences in their promoters. However, neither vaccine was fully protective in a single immunization only. Serological assays confirmed titers of virus-neutralizing antibodies after immunization, which increased upon booster vaccine administration. A third construct (based on pBudCE4) was less effective in inducing a protective immune response, despite employing a strong CMV enhancer/promoter also used in the pCI-neo plasmid. Dual expression of Mokola virus G and N genes in pBudCE4 did not enhance its efficacy, under the conditions described. In addition, no significant utility could be demonstrated for a combined prime-boost approach, as no cross-protective immunity was observed against rabies or Mokola viruses from the use of pSG5-mokG or vaccinia-rabies glycoprotein recombinant virus vaccines, respectively, even though both vaccines provided 60-100% protection against homologous virus challenge. PMID:12744896

  17. X-ray crystallographic and tungsten-183 nuclear magnetic resonance structural studies of the [M4(H2O)2(XW9O34) 2]10- heteropolyanions (M = COII or Zn, X = P or As)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, H.T.; Tourne, C.M.; Tourne, G.F.; Weakley, T.J.R.

    1986-01-01

    The crystal structures of K10[Co4(H2O)2(PW9O 34)2]??22H2O (1) and isomorphous K10[Zn4(H2O)2(AsW9O 34)2]??23H2O (2) have been determined {Mo-K?? radiation, space group P21/n, Z = 2; (1) a = 15.794(2), b = 21.360(2), c = 12.312(1) A??, ?? = 91.96??, R = 0.084 for 3 242 observed reflections [I ??? 3??(I)]; (2) a = 15.842(4), b = 21.327(5), c = 12.308(4) A??, ?? = 92.42(4)??, R = 0.066 for 4 675 observed reflections [F ??? 3??(F)]}. The anions have crystallographic symmetry 1 and non-crystallographic symmetry very close to 2/m (C2h). Each consists of two [XW9O34]9- moieties [??-B isomers; X = P (1) or As (2)] linked via four CoIIO6 or ZnO6 groups. Two Co or Zn atoms each carry a water ligand. The 183W n.m.r. spectra of the anions [Zn4(H2O)2(XW9O34) 2]10- (X = P or As) confirm that the anions retain 2/m symmetry in aqueous solution. Homonuclear coupling constants between 183W atoms are 5.8-9.0 Hz for adjacent WO6 octahedra sharing edges, and 19.6-25.0 Hz for octahedra sharing corners.

  18. Combined effect of folate and adiposity on homocysteine in children at three years of age

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye Ah; Park, Bo Hyun; Ha, Eun Hee; Kim, Young Ju; Park, Eun Ae; Park, Hyesook

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Cardiovascular diseases is a major cause of death and is responsible for 23.8% of deaths in Korea. Clinical symptoms manifest in adulthood, but susceptibility begins in utero. Elevated homocysteine levels and adiposity might be linked to a greater risk in children as well as adults. We hypothesized that those who have simultaneous risk for folate and adiposity would be affected with elevated homocysteine levels at 3 years of age. SUBJECTS/METHODS From the ongoing birth cohort at Ewha Womans University Mok-Dong Hospital, we compared adiposity parameters, serum homocysteine, and folate levels in 238 children (118 boys and 120 girls) at three years of age. The relationship between birth outcome, current weight and body mass index (BMI), postnatal growth, and homocysteine level were assessed using correlation and general linear model. Additionally, we assessed the combined effect between blood folate status and adiposity on current homocysteine levels. RESULTS Birth characteristics were not correlated with homocysteine. Current weight, BMI, upper-arm circumference, skinfold thickness, waist circumference, and hip circumference were positively correlated with homocysteine at three years of age (P < 0.05). Folate level was negatively correlated with homocysteine at three years of age (P < 0.0001). A relative high anthropometric measure which is compatible with adiposity and low folate level was associated with high homocysteine levels. CONCLUSION We found a combined effect of adiposity and folate levels with homocysteine levels at three years of age. This implicates the beneficial role of folate supplementation in the high-risk population at an early age. PMID:26865919

  19. An experimental study of the solubility of molybdenum in H2O and KCl-H2O solutions from 500 ºC to 800 ºC, and 150 to 300 MPa

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrich, Thomas; Mavrogenes, John

    2008-04-22

    The solubility of molybdenum (Mo) was determined at temperatures from 500 °C to 800 °C and 150 to 300 MPa in KCl-H2O and pure H2O solutions in cold-seal experiments. The solutions were trapped as synthetic fluid inclusions in quartz at experimental conditions, and analyzed by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA ICPMS). Mo solubilities of 1.6 wt% in the case of KCl-bearing aqueous solutions and up to 0.8 wt% in pure H2O were found. Mo solubility is temperature dependent, but not pressure dependent over the investigated range, and correlates positively with salinity (KCl concentration). Molar ratios of ~1 for Mo/Cl and Mo/K are derived based on our data. In combination with results of synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy of individual fluid inclusions, it is suggested that Mo-oxo-chloride complexes are present at high salinity (>20 wt% KCl) and ion pairs at moderate to low salinity (<11 wt% KCl) in KCl-H2O aqueous solutions. Similarly, in the pure H2O experiments molybdic acid is the dominant species in aqueous solution. The results of these hydrothermal Mo experiments fit with earlier studies conducted at lower temperatures and indicate that high Mo concentrations can be transported in aqueous solutions. Therefore, the Mo concentration in aqueous fluids seems not to be the limiting factor for ore formation, whereas precipitation processes and the availability of sulfur appear to be the main controlling factors in the formation of molybdenite (MoS2).

  20. Rictor/mTORC2 regulates blood-testis barrier dynamics via its effects on gap junction communications and actin filament network

    PubMed Central

    Mok, Ka-Wai; Mruk, Dolores D.; Lee, Will M.; Cheng, C. Yan

    2013-01-01

    In the mammalian testis, coexisting tight junctions (TJs), basal ectoplasmic specializations, and gap junctions (GJs), together with desmosomes near the basement membrane, constitute the blood-testis barrier (BTB). The most notable feature of the BTB, however, is the extensive network of actin filament bundles, which makes it one of the tightest blood-tissue barriers. The BTB undergoes restructuring to facilitate the transit of preleptotene spermatocytes at stage VIII-IX of the epithelial cycle. Thus, the F-actin network at the BTB undergoes cyclic reorganization via a yet-to-be explored mechanism. Rictor, the key component of mTORC2 that is known to regulate actin cytoskeleton, was shown to express stage-specifically at the BTB in the seminiferous epithelium. Its expression was down-regulated at the BTB in stage VIII-IX tubules, coinciding with BTB restructuring at these stages. Using an in vivo model, a down-regulation of rictor at the BTB was also detected during adjudin-induced BTB disruption, illustrating rictor expression is positively correlated with the status of the BTB integrity. Indeed, the knockdown of rictor by RNAi was found to perturb the Sertoli cell TJ-barrier function in vitro and the BTB integrity in vivo. This loss of barrier function was accompanied by changes in F-actin organization at the Sertoli cell BTB in vitro and in vivo, associated with a loss of interaction between actin and α-catenin or ZO-1. Rictor knockdown by RNAi was also found to impede Sertoli cell-cell GJ communication, disrupting protein distribution (e.g., occludin, ZO-1) at the BTB, illustrating that rictor is a crucial BTB regulator.—Mok, K., Mruk, D. D., Lee, W. M., Cheng, C. Y. Rictor/mTORC2 regulates blood-testis barrier dynamics via its effects on gap junction communications and actin filament network. PMID:23288930

  1. Crystal structure and IR spectrum of 1- O- α- D-glucopyranosyl- D-mannitol-ethanol (2/1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkkalainen, P.; Pitkänen, I.; Huuskonen, J.

    1999-11-01

    1- O- α- D-Glucopyranosyl- D-mannitol-ethanol (2/1), (C 12H 24O 11) 2-C 2H 5OH, crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2 1 with unit cell dimensions a=11.4230(8) Å, b=9.525(4) Å, c=15.854(2) Å, β=102.751(7)° and V=1682.4(7) Å 3, Z=2, Dx=1.45 Mg m -3, λ (Mo-K α)=0.71069 Å, μ=0.128 mm -1, F(000)=788 and T=293(2) K. The structure was solved by direct methods and refined by least-squares calculations on F2 to R1=0.0371[ I>2 σ( I)], and 0.0930 (all data, 3542 independent reflections, Rint=0.021). There are two molecules of glucopyranosylmannitol (GPM) and one ethanol molecule in the asymmetric unit, and the glucopyranosyl ring adopts a chair conformation in both GPM molecules. Bond lengths and angles accord well with the mean values of related structures. The conformation along the mannitol side chain for one of the GPM molecules was the same as for the known polymorphs of D-mannitol, while the conformation of the other molecule was different, indicating different conformational arrangements in the terminal carbon atoms of the mannitol side chains of the two GPM molecules. The structure in 1- O- α- D-glucopyranosyl- D-mannitol-ethanol (2/1) is held together by a very complex hydrogen bonding system, which consists of an infinte chain propagating along the b-axis and a discontinuous chain, which binds the ethanol molecule to the structure. The FTIR spectra for anhydrous GPM, GPM dihydrate and GPM-ethanol (2/1) were recorded. Both IR and X-ray results indicate the extensive hydrogen bonding in crystalline state.

  2. The crystal structure and thermal history of orthopyroxene from lunar anorthosite 15415

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, H.T., Jr.; Stephen, Huebner J.; Konnert, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    A single crystal of untwinned orthopyroxene from lunar anorthosite sample 15415, with composition (Mg1.14Fe0.80Mn0.02Ca0.04)(Si1.97Al0.03)O6, has a unit cell in space group Pbca with a = 18.310(15) A ??, b = 8.904(10) A ??, c = 5.214(7) A ??, containing 2 formula units. A set of 742 counter-measured intensity data made with MoK?? radiation has been used to refine the crystal structure in isotropic thermal mode to R = 0.116. Anisotropic refinement led to R = 0.092, but thermal parameters are distorted by non-random errors resulting from poor crystal texture. The resulting structure is in close agreement with that obtained by Ghose [9] for a hypersthene from Greenland. A parameter q, which gives (MgqFe1-q) for cation site M(1) and (Mg1.14-qFeq-0.18Ca0.04) for site M(2), was included in the least-squares analysis, yielding q = 0.90(1). This orthopyroxene has the high degree of cation order expected of pyroxenes subjected to Apollonian metamorphism at lower than 500-600??C. No evidence exists for a subsequent thermal event of sufficient intensity to disorder the pyroxene. On the basis of previous laboratory studies of argon-release patterns of lunar plagioclase and order-disorder kinetics of terrestrial pyroxenes, we attribute the reported isotopic age (3.9-4.1 AE) to cessation of metamorphism, perhaps caused by impact excavation. ?? 1978.

  3. Fatigue failure in thin-film polysilicon is due to subcriticalcracking within the oxide layer

    SciTech Connect

    Alsem, D.H.; Muhlstein, C.L.; Stach, E.A.; Ritchie, R.O.

    2005-01-11

    structure (i.e. a resonator) or those which arise from the service environment. While the reliability of MEMS has received extensive attention, the physical mechanisms responsible for these failure modes have yet to be conclusively determined. This is particularly true for fatigue, where the mechanisms have been subject to intense debate. Recently we have proposed that the fatigue of micron-scale polysilicon is associated with stress-induced surface oxide thickening and moisture-assisted subcritical cracking in the amorphous SiO{sub 2} oxide layer (''reaction-layer'' fatigue). The mechanism of oxide thickening is as yet unknown, but is likely related to some form of stress-assisted diffusion. Allameh et al. suggest a complementary mechanism involving stress-assisted oxide thickening, caused by dissolution of the surface oxide which forms deep grooves that are sites for crack initiation. Kahn et al. have criticized these mechanisms and proposed that, instead, fatigue is caused by subcritical cracking due to contacting surface asperities in the compressive part of the cycle. To the authors' knowledge, there is no direct experimental observation of such asperity contact. Also, their model cannot explain why micron-scale silicon, and not bulk silicon, is susceptible to fatigue. Moreover, Kahn et al. do not acknowledge the role of stress-induced oxide thickening, which has been observed directly using TEM and indirectly using atomic-force microscope measurements by several investigators, and have questioned whether the materials utilized by Muhlstein et al. and Allameh et al. were representative due to the relatively thick oxide scales. Accordingly, the goal of the present research is to seek a definitive understanding of the physical mechanisms responsible for fatigue in polysilicon structural thin-films. Our approach is to combine on-chip testing methods with electron microscopy by fatiguing thin-film samples and observing them, in an unthinned condition, using high

  4. Outcome among community dwelling older adults with schizophrenia: results using five conceptual models.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Carl I; Pathak, Richa; Ramirez, Paul M; Vahia, Ipsit

    2009-04-01

    There have been few studies examining the outcome of schizophrenia in later life. Using five conceptual models, we test two hypotheses with respect to range of outcomes among older schizophrenia outpatients and how they compare to their age peers in the community. We operationalized five outcome measures from the following conceptual models: Remission, adapting criteria of Andreasen et al. (The American Journal of Psychiatry, 162:441-449, 2005); Recovery, adapting the criteria by Liberman et al. (International Review of Psychiatry, 14:256-272, 2002); Community Integration using the model of Wong and Solomon (Mental Health Services Research, 4:13-28, 2002); Subjective and Objective Successful Aging using the model of Rowe and Kahn (Science, 237:143-149, 1987). The schizophrenia (S) group consisted of 198 community-dwelling persons aged 55 and over who developed schizophrenia before age 45 and a community comparison (CC) group (N = 113). Remission and recovery criteria were met by 49 and 17% of the S group, respectively. There were significant differences between the S and CC groups in the distribution of community integration and successful aging scales: 41% of the CC group met at least 10 of 12 criteria versus 23% of the S group on the Community Integration Scale; 19% of the CC group met all six criteria vs. 2% of the S group on the Objective Successful Aging Scale; 27% of the CC group vs. 13% of the S group met all six criteria on the Subjective Successful Aging Scale. Correlations among the five outcome measures ranged from r = .19 to .48 (median value: r = .26 or 7% shared variance). There is wide variability in outcome in later life depending on which measure is used. Rather than one universal indicator, each measure offers a different perspective that can provide useful guidelines for researchers, clinicians, and policy makers. PMID:18787951

  5. Defining Successful Aging: A Tangible or Elusive Concept?

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Peter; Kelly, Norene; Kahana, Boaz; Kahana, Eva; Willcox, Bradley J.; Willcox, D. Craig; Poon, Leonard W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: Everyone wants to age successfully; however, the definition and criteria of successful aging remain vague for laypersons, researchers, and policymakers in spite of decades of research on the topic. This paper highlights work of scholars who made significant theoretical contributions to the topic. Design and Methods: A thorough review and evaluation of the literature on successful aging was undertaken. Results: Our review includes early gerontological definitions of successful aging and related concepts. Historical perspectives reach back to philosophical and religious texts, and more recent approaches have focused on both process- and outcome-oriented models of successful aging. We elaborate on Baltes and Baltes’ theory of selective optimization with compensation [Baltes, P. B., & Baltes, M. M. (1990a). Psychological perspectives on successful aging: The model of selective optimization with compensation. In P. B. Baltes & M. M. Baltes (Eds.), Successful aging: Perspectives from the behavioral sciences (pp. 1–34). United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press], Kahana and Kahana’s preventive and corrective proactivity model [Kahana, E., & Kahana, B. (1996). Conceptual and empirical advances in understanding aging well through proactive adaptation. In V. Bengtson (Ed.), Adulthood and aging: Research on continuities and discontinuities (pp. 18–40). New York: Springer], and Rowe and Kahn’s model of successful aging [Rowe, J. W., & Kahn, R. L. (1998). Successful aging. New York: Pantheon Books], outlining their commonalities and differences. Additional views on successful aging emphasize subjective versus objective perceptions of successful aging and relate successful aging to studies on healthy and exceptional longevity. Implications: Additional theoretical work is needed to better understand successful aging, including the way it can encompass disability and death and dying. The extent of rapid social and technological change influencing

  6. Local dark matter and dark energy as estimated on a scale of ~1 Mpc in a self-consistent way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernin, A. D.; Teerikorpi, P.; Valtonen, M. J.; Dolgachev, V. P.; Domozhilova, L. M.; Byrd, G. G.

    2009-12-01

    Context: Dark energy was first detected from large distances on gigaparsec scales. If it is vacuum energy (or Einstein's Λ), it should also exist in very local space. Here we discuss its measurement on megaparsec scales of the Local Group. Aims: We combine the modified Kahn-Woltjer method for the Milky Way-M 31 binary and the HST observations of the expansion flow around the Local Group in order to study in a self-consistent way and simultaneously the local density of dark energy and the dark matter mass contained within the Local Group. Methods: A theoretical model is used that accounts for the dynamical effects of dark energy on a scale of ~1 Mpc. Results: The local dark energy density is put into the range 0.8-3.7ρv (ρv is the globally measured density), and the Local Group mass lies within 3.1-5.8×1012 M⊙. The lower limit of the local dark energy density, about 4/5× the global value, is determined by the natural binding condition for the group binary and the maximal zero-gravity radius. The near coincidence of two values measured with independent methods on scales differing by ~1000 times is remarkable. The mass ~4×1012 M⊙ and the local dark energy density ~ρv are also consistent with the expansion flow close to the Local Group, within the standard cosmological model. Conclusions: One should take into account the dark energy in dynamical mass estimation methods for galaxy groups, including the virial theorem. Our analysis gives new strong evidence in favor of Einstein's idea of the universal antigravity described by the cosmological constant.

  7. Fracture toughness of low-pressure chemical-vapor-deposited polycrystalline silicon carbide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatty, V.; Kahn, H.; Trevino, J.; Zorman, C. A.; Mehregany, M.; Ballarini, R.; Heuer, A. H.

    2006-01-01

    The fracture toughness of thin-film polycrystalline silicon carbide (poly-SiC) deposited on silicon (Si) wafers via low-pressure chemical-vapor deposition (LPCVD) has been measured on a scale useful for micromachined devices; the results are compared to previous studies on poly-SiC thin films deposited by atmospheric pressure chemical-vapor deposition (APCVD) [Bellante et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071920 (2005)]. Samples in this study included those with and without silicon dioxide (SiO2) sacrificial release layers. The LPCVD processing technique induces residual tensile stresses in the films. Doubly clamped microtensile specimens were fabricated using standard micromachining processes, and microindentation was used to initiate atomically sharp precracks. The residual stresses in the films create stress intensity factors K at the crack tips; upon release, the precracks whose K exceeded a critical value, KIC, propagated to failure. The fracture toughness KIC was the same for both types of devices, 2.9+/-0.2 MPa m1/2 for the SiC on Si samples and 3.0+/-0.2 MPa m1/2 for the SiC on SiO2/Si samples, and similar to that found for APCVD poly-SiC, 2.8<=KIC<=3.4 MPa m1/2 [Bellante et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071920 (2005)], indicating that KIC is truly a structure-insensitive material property. The fracture toughness of poly-SiC compares favorably with that for polysilicon, 0.85+/-0.05 MPa m1/2 [Kahn et al., Science 298, 1215 (2002)].

  8. Assessment of Flood Disaster Impacts in Cambodia: Implications for Rapid Disaster Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahamed, Aakash; Bolten, John; Doyle, Colin

    2016-04-01

    Disaster monitoring systems can provide near real time estimates of population and infrastructure affected by sudden onset natural hazards. This information is useful to decision makers allocating lifesaving resources following disaster events. Floods are the world's most common and devastating disasters (UN, 2004; Doocy et al., 2013), and are particularly frequent and severe in the developing countries of Southeast Asia (Long and Trong, 2001; Jonkman, 2005; Kahn, 2005; Stromberg, 2007; Kirsch et al., 2012). Climate change, a strong regional monsoon, and widespread hydropower construction contribute to a complex and unpredictable regional hydrodynamic regime. As such, there is a critical need for novel techniques to assess flood impacts to population and infrastructure with haste during and following flood events in order to enable governments and agencies to optimize response efforts following disasters. Here, we build on methods to determine regional flood extent in near real time and develop systems that automatically quantify the socioeconomic impacts of flooding in Cambodia. Software developed on cloud based, distributed processing Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is used to demonstrate spatial and numerical estimates of population, households, roadways, schools, hospitals, airports, agriculture and fish catch affected by severe monsoon flooding occurring in the Cambodian portion of Lower Mekong River Basin in 2011. Results show modest agreement with government and agency estimates. Maps and statistics generated from the system are intended to complement on the ground efforts and bridge information gaps to decision makers. The system is open source, flexible, and can be applied to other disasters (e.g. earthquakes, droughts, landslides) in various geographic regions.

  9. The Cratering Record of the South Polar Layered Deposits of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutnik, M.; Byrne, S.; Murray, B.

    2001-11-01

    The Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) and the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) instruments aboard the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) were used in a detailed search of a selected part of the south polar layered deposits (SPLD) for impact craters. Impact craters were identified from the MOLA shaded relief map and validated using individual MOLA tracks and MOC narrow angle (NA) images. The resultant crater population is at least four times greater than the crater population previously recognized from Viking data [Plaut, et al., 1988]. The mean exposure age of the SPLD is estimated to be 30 to 100 Ma depending on the established production model isochrons used [Herkenhoff and Plaut, 2000; Hartmann, 1999]. All of the 0.8 to 5 km diameter craters are considerably shallower than other Martian craters in the same diameter range. The timescales postulated for layer formation modulated solely by deterministic astronomically driven climatic fluctuations of approximately 105 to 106 years [Ward, 1979] are much shorter than the high mean surface exposure age for the SPLD determined in this study. Thus the surface of the SPLD included in our study likely records some previously unrecognized event in polar history that marked the end of layer formation and erosion in that area. Hartmann, W.K., Martian Cratering VI: Crater count isochrons and evidence for recent volcanism from Mars Global Surveyor. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 34, 167-177, 1999. Herkenhoff, K.E., and J.J. Plaut, Surface Ages and Resurfacing Rates of the Polar Layered Deposits on Mars, Icarus, 144, 243-253, 2000. Plaut, J.J., R. Kahn, E.A. Guiness, and R.E. Arvidson, Accumulation of Sedimentary Debris in the South Polar Region of Mars and Implications for Climate History, Icarus 75, 357-377, 1988. Ward, W.R., Present obliquity oscillations of Mars: Fourth-order accuracy in orbital e and I, J. Geophys. Res., 84, 237-241, 1979.

  10. Ask Me Anything - The Reddit Revolution and other Unconventional Ways to Communicate Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiondella, F.; Kahn, B. L.; Noori, A.

    2012-12-01

    Instagram. Pinterest. SoundCloud. Storify. Almost every month there's a new platform through which institutions could potentially promote their work. If used effectively, these less-conventional means of communication can indeed be powerful devices to connect scientists and the general public, especially for small institutions with limited resources. We discuss our experiences on Reddit, a social news site, and Projeqt, a visual storytelling platform. We'll talk about the pros and cons of using them, and provide tips on what to do and what to avoid for those interested in having a go. Nearly 1.5 million people post on Reddit daily. One of the most active sections is "Ask Me Anything", where individuals can share expertise and insights. AMAs are essentially online town-hall style meetings. Movie stars host AMAs, as do politicians, athletes, and increasingly, scientists. In fact, the science subtopic is the 6th most subscribed on the site. Forecaster Tony Barnston, from the International Research Institute for Climate and Society hosted an AMA in June 2012. The session generated >200 comments and questions in 24 hours. Barnston was surprisingly pleased with the experience. "I liked having time to think about my answers," he said, noting this type of engagement could be attractive to scientists who might feel anxious about interacting with the public. Projeqt is a creative visual storytelling platform that allows one to integrate activity from a host of social media such as Twitter, Facebook, Flickr, Instagram, YouTube and more. In very short time, an institution can produce a beautiful visual narrative of its research and activities, combining its own in-house content with creative-commons content easily available on the web. The resulting product is itself shareable and embeddable.; Barnston in office where he took questions via Reddit. (Photo: B. Kahn) ; Photo essay about critical role that climate forecasting plays in helping to reduce vulnerability in Sahel

  11. Cadmium distribution in sediment and the lugworm Arenicola marina in a low concentration exposure experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Everaarts, J.M.; SaralaDevi, K.

    1996-12-31

    In the central and southern North Sea, and in the Dutch coastal zone, total cadmium (Cd) concentrations in water are 0.02 {+-} 0.01 {mu}g/L and 0.06 {+-} 0.02 {mu}g/L, respectively Cadmium in the estuarine waters of the Dutch Wadden Sea varied from 0.3 {+-} 0.01 {mu}g/L in the western part to 0.08 {+-} 0.03 {mu}g/L in the eastern part. In whole sediment, the Cd background concentration for the Wadden Sea is 0.5 {+-} 0.01 {mu}g/g dry weight (dw), whereas the reference concentration is 0.08 {+-} 0.02 {mu}g/g dw. The concentrations of total-Cd in surface bulk sediments (0-2 cm) of the central North Sea (Oyster Grounds), and of intertidal mud-flats in the western Wadden Sea varied from 0.05 to 0.15 {mu}g/g dw and from 0.13 to 0.46 {mu}g dw, respectively (calculated from Kahn et al. 1992). These concentration ranges match the reference Cd concentration for Wadden Sea whole sediment (0.5 {+-} 0.01) {mu}g/g dw. Cadmium concentrations in surface sediments of the Dutch coastal zone and estuaries are only slightly elevated compared to the 0.2 {mu}g/g dw, considered as the background concentrations in pristine areas, but well below the level of 10 {mu}g/g dw at heavily contaminated sites. This laboratory study reports on the distribution of cadmium in the sediment column, and the uptake in the blood/coelomic fluid, intestine and body-wall of lugworms at low cadmium concentration exposure. The aim was to determine possible interaction between the vertical distribution of sediment-bound cadmium and the bioturbating activity of lugworms. 14 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Deformation and fracture of thin sheet aluminum-lithium alloys: The effect of cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, John A.; Gangloff, Richard P.

    1990-01-01

    The objective is to characterize the fracture behavior and to define the fracture mechanisms for new Al-Li-Cu alloys, with emphasis on the role of indium additions and cryogenic temperatures. Three alloys were investigated in rolled product form: 2090 baseline and 2090 + indium produced by Reynolds Metals, and commercial AA 2090-T81 produced by Alcoa. The experimental 2090 + In alloy exhibited increases in hardness and ultimate strength, but no change in tensile yield strength, compared to the baseline 2090 composition in the unstretched T6 condition. The reason for this behavior is not understood. Based on hardness and preliminary Kahn Tear fracture experiments, a nominally peak-aged condition was employed for detailed fracture studies. Crack initiation and growth fracture toughness were examined as a function of stress state and microstructure using J(delta a) methods applied to precracked compact tension specimens in the LT orientation. To date, J(delta a) experiments have been limited to 23 C. Alcoa 2090-T81 exhibited the highest toughness regardless of stress state. Fracture was accompanied by extensive delamination associated with high angle grain boundaries normal to the fatigue precrack surface and progressed microscopically by a transgranular shear mechanism. In contrast the two peak-aged Reynolds alloys had lower toughness and fracture was intersubgranular without substantial delamination. The influences of cryogenic temperature, microstructure, boundary precipitate structure, and deformation mode in governing the competing fracture mechanisms will be determined in future experiments. Results contribute to the development of predictive micromechanical models for fracture modes in Al-Li alloys, and to fracture resistant materials.

  13. Using a Data Quality Framework to Clean Data Extracted from the Electronic Health Record: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Dziadkowiec, Oliwier; Callahan, Tiffany; Ozkaynak, Mustafa; Reeder, Blaine; Welton, John

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: We examine the following: (1) the appropriateness of using a data quality (DQ) framework developed for relational databases as a data-cleaning tool for a data set extracted from two EPIC databases, and (2) the differences in statistical parameter estimates on a data set cleaned with the DQ framework and data set not cleaned with the DQ framework. Background: The use of data contained within electronic health records (EHRs) has the potential to open doors for a new wave of innovative research. Without adequate preparation of such large data sets for analysis, the results might be erroneous, which might affect clinical decision-making or the results of Comparative Effectives Research studies. Methods: Two emergency department (ED) data sets extracted from EPIC databases (adult ED and children ED) were used as examples for examining the five concepts of DQ based on a DQ assessment framework designed for EHR databases. The first data set contained 70,061 visits; and the second data set contained 2,815,550 visits. SPSS Syntax examples as well as step-by-step instructions of how to apply the five key DQ concepts these EHR database extracts are provided. Conclusions: SPSS Syntax to address each of the DQ concepts proposed by Kahn et al. (2012)1 was developed. The data set cleaned using Kahn’s framework yielded more accurate results than the data set cleaned without this framework. Future plans involve creating functions in R language for cleaning data extracted from the EHR as well as an R package that combines DQ checks with missing data analysis functions. PMID:27429992

  14. [Population growth and the environment].

    PubMed

    Hogan, D J

    1991-01-01

    The impact of population growth on the enviornment has been extensively researched; it consists of the depletion of resources (agricultural land absorbed by urban expansion, loss of soils, desertification, loss of biodiversity, less availability of minerals, dwindling of petroleum reserves) and the degradation of natural resources (air and water pollution). For politicians, journalists, and environmentalists, population growth is identified as the principal villain, which is a unidirectional and negative opinion. Demography is supposed to examine the negative and positive effects of the environment-population relationship; however, it is postulated that there has not been much produced in the last 2 centuries in this area. Examination of the research literature does not indicate any view that transcends the Malthusian vision, although a few empirical studies exist (Hogan, 1989). Durham (1979) identified the replacement of subsistence agriculture by export-oriented agriculture as the key factor in overpopulation in El Salvador and Honduras that led to migrations and international conflicts. Tudela (1987) related a similar process in the Mexican state of Tabasco, where a period of malnutrition was accompanied by the expansion of export agriculture and nutritional improvements emanated only from recapturing subsistence agriculture. Fearnside (1986) researched the dynamics of the occupation and destruction of Amazonia. However, Kahn and Simon went further and denied the existence of real environmental problems: population is the ultimate resource, and the more minds, the more good ideas and solutions for any problem. However, in all these cases of pure or modified Malthusianism the relation of population/resources is reduced to a unidimensional relationship; and fertility, mortality, migration, marriage, and age structure receive little attention. A prime candidate for the attention of population specialists should be migration and patterns of settlement and their

  15. Martian North Polar Water-Ice Clouds During the Viking Era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tamppari, L. K.; Bass, D. S.

    2000-01-01

    The Viking Orbiters determined that the surface of Mars' northern residual cap consists of water ice. Observed atmospheric water vapor abundances in the equatorial regions have been related to seasonal exchange between reservoirs such as the polar caps, the regolith and between different phases in the atmosphere. Kahn modeled the physical characteristics of ice hazes seen in Viking Orbiter imaging limb data, hypothesizing that ice hazes provide a method for scavenging water vapor from the atmosphere and accumulating it into ice particles. Given that Jakosky found that these particles had sizes such that fallout times were of order one Martian sol, these water-ice hazes provided a method for returning more water to the regolith than that provided by adsorption alone. These hazes could also explain the rapid hemispheric decrease in atmospheric water in late northern summer as well as the increase during the following early spring. A similar comparison of water vapor abundance versus polar cap brightness has been done for the north polar region. They have shown that water vapor decreases steadily between L(sub s) = 100-150 deg while polar cap albedo increases during the same time frame. As a result, they suggested that late summer water-ice deposition onto the ice cap may be the cause of the cap brightening. This deposition could be due to adsorption directly onto the cap surface or to snowfall. Thus, an examination of north polar waterice clouds could lend insight into the fate of the water vapor during this time period. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  16. How faceted liquid droplets grow tails: from surface topology to active motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sloutskin, Eli

    Among all possible shapes of a volume V, a sphere has the smallest surface area A. Therefore, liquid droplets are spherical, minimizing their interfacial energy γA for a given interfacial tension γ > 0 . This talk will demonstrate that liquid oil (alkane) droplets in water, stabilized by a common surfactant can be temperature-tuned to adopt icosahedral and other faceted shapes, above the bulk melting temperature of the oil. Although emulsions have been studied for centuries no faceted liquid droplets have ever been reported. The formation of an icosahedral shape is attributed to the interplay between γ and the elastic properties of the interfacial monomolecular layer, which crystallizes here 10-15K above bulk melting, leaving the droplet's bulk liquid. The icosahedral symmetry is dictated by twelve five-fold topological defects, forming within the hexagonally-packed interfacial crystalline monolayer. Moreover, we demonstrate that upon further cooling this `interfacial freezing' effect makes γ transiently switch its sign, leading to a spontaneous splitting of droplets and an active growth of their surface area, reminiscent of the classical spontaneous emulsification, yet driven by completely different physics. The observed phenomena allow deeper insights to be gained into the fundamentals of molecular elasticity and open new vitas for a wide range of novel nanotechnological applications, from self-assembly of complex shapes to new delivery strategies in bio-medicine. Acknowledgment is made to the Donors of the American Chemical Society Petroleum Research Fund for support of this research and to the Kahn Foundation for the purchase of equipment.

  17. Correction to Ward et al. (2015).

    PubMed

    Ward, Ryan D; Winiger, Vanessa; Higa, Kerin K; Kahn, Julia B; Kandel, Eric R; Balsam, Peter D; Simpson, Eleanor H

    2015-08-01

    Reports an error in "The impact of motivation on cognitive performance in an animal model of the negative and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia" by Ryan D. Ward, Vanessa Winiger, Kerin K. Higa, Julia B. Kahn, Eric R. Kandel, Peter D. Balsam and Eleanor H. Simpson (Behavioral Neuroscience, 2015[Jun], Vol 129[3], 292-299). There is a text error in the 4th paragraph of the Discussion section. The explanation for the abbreviation OFC was incorrectly listed as occipitofrontal circumference. It should have been orbitofrontal cortex. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2015-18639-001.) Interactions between motivation and cognition are implicated in producing functional impairments and poor quality of life in psychiatric patients. This interaction, however, is not well understood at either the behavioral or neural level. We developed a procedure for mice in which a cognitive measure, sustained attention, is modulated by a motivationally relevant signal that predicts reward probability on a trial-by-trial basis. Using this paradigm, we tested the interaction between motivation and cognition in mice that model the increased striatal D2 receptor activity observed in schizophrenia patients (D2R-OE mice). In control mice, attention was modulated by signaled-reward probability. In D2R-OE mice, however, attention was not modulated by reward-related cues. This impairment was not due to any global deficits in attention or maintenance of the trial-specific information in working memory. Turning off the transgene in D2R-OE mice rescued the motivational modulation of attention. These results indicate that deficits in motivation impair the ability to use reward-related cues to recruit attention and that improving motivation improves functional cognitive performance. These results further suggest that addressing motivational impairments in patients is critical to achieving substantive cognitive and functional gains. PMID:26214211

  18. The impact of social support on mental and physical health.

    PubMed

    Ganster, D C; Victor, B

    1988-03-01

    Early research on life-stress grappled with the question of whether significant life-events bring about changes in health status. The emphasis has now shifted to the identification of factors that explain why some people seem to be so severely affected by life's adversities and others are not. From a class of what might be called 'vulnerability variables' (Kessler, 1979), support from one's social network has emerged as a significant factor that can account for at least some of the vulnerability differences between groups of stressed individuals. Since Cassel's (1974) review of the evidence linking social upheavals to adverse health consequences for both humans and animals, hundreds of empirical studies have been completed that assess the direct and indirect effects of social support on mental and physical health. This literature is so voluminous as to require several books devoted to reviews of various aspects of it (e.g. Cohen & Syme, 1985; Gottlieb, 1981; and Gottlieb, 1983). In this paper we will distil these as well as highlight some of the recent empirical developments, particularly in those areas that have received less attention in prior reviews. Social support has been defined as the presence of others, or the resources provided by them, prior to, during, and following a stressful event. While there is no general agreement on a single definition, the variety has spawned a number of typologies attempting to organize the literature (e.g. Cohen & Syme, 1985; Cohen & Wills, 1985; Gottlieb, 1983; House & Kahn, 1985). Most of these typologies initially distinguish between functional and structural operationalizations of social support. PMID:3282536

  19. “Successful Aging,” Gerontological Theory and Neoliberalism: A Qualitative Critique

    PubMed Central

    Rubinstein, Robert L.; de Medeiros, Kate

    2015-01-01

    This article is a critique of the successful aging (SA) paradigm as described in the Rowe and Kahn book, Successful Aging (1998). The major point of this article is that two key ideas in the book may be understood as consonant with neoliberalism, a social perspective that came into international prominence at the same time the SA paradigm was initially promoted. These two key ideas are (a) the emphasis on individual social action applied to the nature of the aging experience and (b) the failure to provide a detailed policy agenda for the social and cultural change being promoted and, particularly, for older adults who may be left behind by the approach to change the book suggests. The article provides no evidence for a direct connection between SA and neoliberalism, but rather shows how similarities in their approaches to social change characterize both of them. In sum, the article shows (a) how the implicit social theory developed in the book, in a manner similar to neoliberalism, elevates the individual as the main source of any changes that must accompany the SA paradigm and (b) the focus on SA as individual action does not provide for those older adults who do not or will not age “successfully.” This, we conclude, implicitly sets up a two-class system of older adults, which may not be an optimal means of addressing the needs of all older adults. The article also reviews a number of studies about SA and shows how these, too, may emphasize its similarities to neoliberalism and other issues that the SA paradigm does not adequately address. PMID:25161262

  20. Quarternary oxide phases Ln4- xA4+ xCo 2+ yAl 2- yO 15: The structures of Nd 3.43Ba 4.42Co 2.23Al 1.77O 15 and Y 2Sr 6Co 2.08Al 1.92O 15

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. Y.; Swinnea, J. S.; Steinfink, H.

    1991-12-01

    The crystal structure of two compounds having the generic formula Ln4- xA4+ xCo 2+ yAl 2- yO 15 has been determined. Nd 3.43Ba 4.42(1)Co(Co 1.23(6)Al 1.77)O 15 (compound I), Mr = 1520.96, hexagonal, P6 3mc, a = 11.544(1) Å, c = 6.912(1) Å, V = 797.7(2) Å3, Z = 2, D x = 6.33 g cm-3, MoKα λ = 0.71069 Å, μ 1 = 242.0 cm-1; R = 0.045 for 758 reflections >5 σ( F). Y 2Sr 6Co(Co 1.08(6)Al 1.92)O 15 (compound II), Mr = 1118.00, hexagonal, P6 3mc, a = 11.199(2) Å, c = 6.664(1) Å, V = 723.8(4) Å3, Z = 2, D x = 5.13 g cm-3, MoK α λ = 0.71069 Å, μ 1 = 317.5 cm-1; R = 0.076 for 373 reflections >6 σ( F). The structure consists of clusters formed by a Co-oxygen octahedron that shares three corners of a triangular face with three separate {Co}/{Al}- oxygen tetrahedra leading to a cluster formula [ Co VI( {Co}/{Al}) IV3]O 15. The tetrahedral interstice is randomly occupied by Co 3+ and Al 3+ ions. The octahedral interstice is occupied by Co whose valence is 2+ in compound I and 3 + in II. Two such clusters exist in the unit cell and they are joined by rare earth-alkaline earth cations in 6-fold (octahedral), 8-fold (bisdisphenoid), 10-fold (capped trigonal prism), and 12-fold (cubic close packed) coordination to the oxygen ions. The octahedral cation positions are randomly occupied by about equal amounts of NdBa and YSr, respectively. Phase I forms with Pr and Gd but not with La, Y, or Er, restricting its formation to lanthanide ionic radii between 1.14 and 1.06 Å.

  1. Connexin 43 reboots meiosis and reseals blood-testis barrier following toxicant-mediated aspermatogenesis and barrier disruption.

    PubMed

    Li, Nan; Mruk, Dolores D; Mok, Ka-Wai; Li, Michelle W M; Wong, Chris K C; Lee, Will M; Han, Daishu; Silvestrini, Bruno; Cheng, C Yan

    2016-04-01

    support round spermatids to enter spermiogenesis.-Li, N., Mruk, D. D., Mok, K.-W., Li, M. W. M., Wong, C. K. C., Lee, W. M., Han, D., Silvestrini, B., Cheng, C. Y. Connexin 43 reboots meiosis and reseals blood-testis barrier following toxicant-mediated aspermatogenesis and barrier disruption. PMID:26678449

  2. Transition metal coordination polymers based on tetrabromoterephthalic and bis(imidazole) ligands: Syntheses, structures, topological analysis and photoluminescence properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Xing, Peiqi; Geng, Xiujuan; Sun, Daofeng; Xiao, Zhenyu; Wang, Lei

    2015-09-01

    Eight new coordination polymers (CPs), namely, [Zn(1,2-mbix)(tbtpa)]n (1), [Co(1,2-mbix)(tbtpa)]n (2), [CdCl(1,2-mbix)(tbtpa)0.5]n (3), {[Cd(1,2-bix)(tbtpa)]·H2O}n (4), {[Cd0.5(1,2-bix)(tbtpa)0.5]·H2O}n (5), {[Co0.5(1,2-bix)(tbtpa)0.5]·2H2O}n (6), {[Co(1,2-bix)(tbtpa)]·H2O}n (7) and {[Co(1,2-bix)(tbtpa)]·Diox·2H2O}n (8), were synthesized under solvothermal conditions based on mix-ligand strategy (H2tbtpa=tetrabromoterephthalic acid and 1,2-mbix=1,2-bis((2-methyl-1H-imidazol-1-yl)methyl)benzene, 1,2-bix=1,2-bis(imidazol-1-ylmethyl)benzene). All of the CPs have been structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses and further characterized by elemental analyses, IR spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), and thermogravimetric analyses (TGA). X-ray diffraction analyses show that 1 and 2 are isotypics which have 2D highly undulated networks with (4,4)-sql topology with the existence of C-H ⋯Br interactions; for 3, it has a 2D planar network with (4,4)-sql topology with the occurrence of C-H ⋯Cl interactions other than C-H ⋯Br interactions; 4 shows a 3D 2-fold interpenetrated nets with rare 65·8-mok topology which has a self-catention property. As the same case as 1 and 2, 5 and 6 are also isostructural with planar layers with 44-sql topology which further assembled into 3D supramolecular structure through the interdigitated stacking fashion and the C-Br ⋯Cph interactions. As for 7, it has a 2D slightly undulated networks with (4,4)-sql topology which has one dimension channel. While 8 has a 2-fold interpenetrated networks with (3,4)-connect jeb topology with point symbol {63}{65·8}. And their structures can be tuned by conformations of bis(imidazol) ligands and solvent mixture. Besides, the TGA properties for all compounds and the luminescent properties for 1, 3, 4, 5 are discussed in detail.

  3. Variability of cyclones over the North Atlantic and Europe since 1871

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welker, C.; Martius, O.

    2012-04-01

    . Kruk, A. C. Kruger, G. J. Marshall, M. Maugeri, H. Y. Mok, Ø. Nordli, T. F. Ross, R. M. Trigo, X. L. Wang, S. D. Woodruff, and S. J. Worley, 2011: The Twentieth Century Reanalysis project. Quarterly J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc., 137, 1-28. Wernli, H. and C. Schwierz, 2006: Surface cyclones in the ERA-40 dataset (1958-2001). Part I: Novel identification method and global climatology. J. Atmos. Sci., 63, 2486-2507.

  4. Metal incorporation in sputter-deposited MoS{sub 2} films studied by extended x-ray adsorption fine structure

    SciTech Connect

    Lince, J.R.; Hilton, M.R.; Bommannavar, A.S.

    1995-08-01

    Solid lubricant films produced by cosputtering metals with MoS{sub 2} and by forming metal/MoS{sub 2} multilayers are being planned for use in the next generation of solid lubricated devices on spacecraft, including gimbal and sensor bearings, actuators, and sliding electrical contacts. The films exhibit increased densities and wear lives compared to films without additives, but the mechanism of density enhancement is not well understood. The extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) technique is ideal for elucidating the structure of these poorly crystalline films. We analyzed MoS{sub 2} films cosputtered with 0, 2, and 10% Ni, as well as Ni/MoS{sub 2} and Au(Pd)/MoS{sub 2} multilayer films. The results obtained at the Mo-K absorption edge showed that the metal-containing films comprised predominantly the same nanocrystalline phases present in similar films without added metals: pure MoS{sub 2} and a MoS{sub 2{minus}{ital x}}O{sub {ital x}} phase. MoS{sub 2{minus}{ital x}}O{sub {ital x}} is isostructural with MoS{sub 2}, with O atoms substituting for S atoms in the MoS{sub 2} crystal lattice. For all Ni-containing films, EXAFS data obtained at the Ni--K absorption edge showed that the Ni had not chemically reacted with the MoS{sub 2{minus}{ital x}}O{sub {ital x}} and MoS{sub 2}, but formed a disordered NiO{sub {ital x}} phase. However, Ni-cosputtered films showed decreasing Mo--Mo bond lengths in the MoS{sub 2{minus}{ital x}}O{sub {ital x}} phase with increasing Ni content, probably due to preferential oxidation of Ni compared to MoS{sub 2}. EXAFS of these Ni-cosputtered films showed only a small decrease in short-range order with Ni content, while x-ray diffraction showed a concurrent large decrease in long-range order. The results indicate that film densification in Ni-cosputtered films is caused by NiO{sub {ital x}} formation at the edges of nucleating MoS{sub 2{minus}{ital x}}O{sub {ital x}} /MoS{sub 2} crystallites.

  5. Mini-dystrophin Expression Down-regulates IP3-mediated Calcium Release Events in Resting Dystrophin-deficient Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Balghi, Haouaria; Sebille, Stéphane; Mondin, Ludivine; Cantereau, Anne; Constantin, Bruno; Raymond, Guy; Cognard, Christian

    2006-01-01

    We present here evidence for the enhancement, at rest, of an inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)–mediated calcium signaling pathway in myotubes from dystrophin-deficient cell lines (SolC1(−)) as compared to a cell line from the same origin but transfected with mini-dystrophin (SolD(+)). With confocal microscopy, the number of sites discharging calcium (release site density [RSD]) was quantified and found more elevated in SolC1(−) than in SolD(+) myotubes. Variations of membrane potential had no significant effect on this difference, and higher resting [Ca2+]i in SolC1(−) (Marchand, E., B. Constantin, H. Balghi, M.C. Claudepierre, A. Cantereau, C. Magaud, A. Mouzou, G. Raymond, S. Braun, and C. Cognard. 2004. Exp. Cell Res. 297:363–379) cannot explain alone higher RSD. The exposure with SR Ca2+ channel inhibitors (ryanodine and 2-APB) and phospholipase C inhibitor (U73122) significantly reduced RSD in both cell types but with a stronger effect in dystrophin-deficient SolC1(−) myotubes. Immunocytochemistry allowed us to localize ryanodine receptors (RyRs) as well as IP3 receptors (IP3Rs), IP3R-1 and IP3R-2 isoforms, indicating the presence of both RyRs-dependent and IP3-dependent release systems in both cells. We previously reported evidence for the enhancement, through a Gi protein, of the IP3-mediated calcium signaling pathway in SolC1(−) as compared to SolD(+) myotubes during a high K+ stimulation (Balghi, H., S. Sebille, B. Constantin, S. Patri, V. Thoreau, L. Mondin, E. Mok, A. Kitzis, G. Raymond, and C. Cognard. 2006. J. Gen. Physiol. 127:171–182). Here we show that, at rest, these regulation mechanisms are also involved in the modulation of calcium release activities. The enhancement of resting release activity may participate in the calcium overload observed in dystrophin-deficient myotubes, and our findings support the hypothesis of the regulatory role of mini-dystrophin on intracellular signaling. PMID:16847098

  6. Reconstructing Links between AMOC and Surface Temperature Variability in the North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borchert, Leonard; Fischer, Matthias; Müller, Wolfgang; Baehr, Johanna

    2016-04-01

    Kruger, GJ Marshall, M Mauger, HY Mok, Ø Nordli, TF Ross, RM Trigo, XL Wang, SD Woodruff, SJ Worley (2011): The Twentieth Century Reanalysis Project. Q J R Meteorol Soc, 137: 1-28 Müller, W, D Matei, M Bersch, JH Jungclaus, H Haak, K Lohmann, GP Compo, PD Sardeshmukh, J Marotzke (2014): A twentieth-century reanalysis forced ocean model to reconstruct the North Atlantic climate variation during the 1920s. Clim Dyn, 44: 1935-1955

  7. Kinetic and product studies of Criegee intermediate reactions with halogenated and non-halogenated carboxylic acids and their implications in the troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chhantyal-Pun, Rabi; Rotavera, Brandon; Eskola, Arkke; Taatjes, Craig; Percival, Carl; Shallcross, Dudley; Orr-Ewing, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    Criegee intermediates are important species formed during the ozonolysis of alkenes. Direct measurement and modelling studies have shown that reactions of stabilized Criegee intermediates with species like SO2 and NO2 may have a significant effect in tropospheric chemistry.[1, 2] Reaction rates of Criegee intermediates with simple carboxylic acids like HCOOH and CH3COOH have been shown to be near the collision limit and may be a significant sink for these otherwise stable species in the atmosphere.[3, 4] Results obtained from our time-resolved Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) apparatus[5] for reactions of the Criegee intermediates, CH2OO and (CH3)2COO with various halogenated (CF3COOH, CF3CF2COOH, CClF2COOH and CHCl2COOH) and non-halogenated (HCOOH and CH3COOH) carboxylic acids will be presented, together with Structure Activity Relationship (SAR) based on these observations. Structure characterization of the products from these reactions using the Multiplexed PhotoIonization Mass Spectrometry (MPIMS) apparatus[1,3] as well as implications for Secondary Organic Aerosol (SOA) formation, assessed using the global atmospheric model STOCHEM, will also be discussed. Bibliography 1. O. Welz, J. D. Savee, D. L. Osborn, S. S. Vasu, C. J. Percival, D. E. Shallcross and C. A. Taatjes, Science, 2012, 335, 204-207. 2. C. J. Percival, O. Welz, A. J. Eskola, J. D. Savee, D. L. Osborn, D. O. Topping, D. Lowe, S. R. Utembe, A. Bacak, G. McFiggans, M. C. Cooke, P. Xiao, A. T. Archibald, M. E. Jenkin, R. G. Derwent, I. Riipinen, D. W. K. Mok, E. P. F. Lee, J. M. Dyke, C. A. Taatjes and D. E. Shallcross, Faraday Discuss., 2013, 165, 45-73. 3. O. Welz, A. J. Eskola, L. Sheps, B. Rotavera, J. D. Savee, A. M. Scheer, D. L. Osborn, D. Lowe, A. M. Booth, P. Xiao, M. A. H. Khan, C. J. Percival, D. E. Shallcross and C. A. Taatjes, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 2014, 53, 4547-4550. 4. M. D. Hurley, M. P. S. Andersen, T. J. Wallington, D. A. Ellis, J. W. Martin and S. A. Mabury, J. Phys. Chem. A

  8. Lithium-bearing fluor-arfvedsonite from Hurricane Mountain, New Hampshire: A crystal-chemical study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hawthorne, F.C.; Oberti, R.; Ottolini, L.; Foord, E.E.

    1996-01-01

    The structures of two crystals of Li-bearing fluor-arfvedsonite (1) (K0.32Na0.68)Na2(Li0.48Fe 2+2.83Mn2+0.10Zn 0.06Fe3+1.46Ti0.07) (Si7.88Al0.12)O22[Fu1.15(OH) 0.85] and (2) (K0.25Na0.75)Na2(Li0.48Fe 2+2.84Mn2+0.11Zn 0.05Fe3+1.45Ti0.07)(Si 7.89Al0.11)O22[F1.35(OH) 0.65] from a granitic pegmatite, Hurricane Mountain, New Hampshire, have been refined to R indices of 1.5(1.6)% based on 1380(1387) reflections measured with MoK?? X-radiation. The unit cell parameters are (1) a 9.838(4), b 17.991(6), c 5.315(2) A??, 103.78(3)??, V 913.7 A??3 and (2) a 9.832(3), b 17.990(7), c 5.316(3) A??, ?? 103.79(3)??, V 913.2 A??3. Site-scattering refinement shows Li to be completely ordered at the M(3) site in these crystals. The amphibole composition is intermediate between fluor-arfvedsonite and fluor-ferro-leakeite with a small component (???10%) of fluor-ferro-ferri-nybo??ite. These amphibole crystals project into miarolitic cavities in a pegmatitic phase of a riebeckite granite. The early-crystallizing amphibole is close to fluor-ferro-leakeite in composition, but becomes progressively depleted in Li and F as crystals project out into miarolitic cavities; the final amphibole to crystallize is a fibrous Li-poor riebeckite. Li plays a significant role in late-stage fractionation involving the crystallization of alkali amphibole in peralkaline granitic environments.

  9. Bobjonesite, V4+ O (SO4) (H2O 3, a new mineral species from Temple Mountain, Emery County, Utah, U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schindler, M.; Hawthorne, F.C.; Huminicki, D.M.C.; Haynes, P.; Grice, Joel D.; Evans, H.T., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Bobjonesite, V4+ O (SO4) (H2O 3, is a new mineral species from Temple Mountain, Emery County, Utah, U.S.A. It occurs as blue-green crusts and efflorescences in fractures in a fossil (Triassic) tree: individual crystals are ??1 mm and are intimately intergrown. Bobjonesite hydrates very easily, and is unstable in all but the driest atmosphere. Its structure was determined on a crystal of bobjonesite: however, the physical properties, optical properties and X-ray powder-diffraction pattern were recorded on the synthetic equivalent, and an electron-microprobe analysis was not possible. Bobjonesite has a pale blue streak, a vitreous luster and no observable fluorescence under ultraviolet light. It has no cleavage or parting. The Mohs hardness is ???1, and the calculated density is 2.28 g/cm3. Bobjonesite is biaxial positive, with ?? 1.555(2 , ?? 1.561(1), ?? 1.574(2), 2V(obs.) = 72(1)??, 2V(calc.) = 69??; it is non-pleochroic, X = b, Y ??? 19?? (in ?? obtuse). Bobjonesite is monoclinic, space group P21/n, cell dimensions from single-crystal data: a 7.3940(5), b 7.4111(3), c 12.0597(9) A??, ?? 106.55(1)??, V 633.5(1) A??3, Z=4. The strongest seven lines in the X-ray powder-diffraction pattern [d in A??(I)(hkl)] are as follows: 5.795(100)(002), 3.498(90)(112), 3.881(48)(1??03), 5.408(37) (101), 4.571(20)(012), 6.962(11 (1??01) and 6.254(11)(011). The chemical formula was derived from crystal-structure analysis; the end-member formula is V O (SO4) (H2O)3. The crystal structure of bobjonesite was refined to an R index of 3.6% for 1105 observed (Fo> 5??F) reflections measured with an automated four-circle X-ray diffractometer using MoK?? X-radiation. There is one V site occupied by V4+ and surrounded by three O atoms and three (H2O) groups in an octahedral arrangement, with one short vanadyl bond (1.577 A??), four similar equatorial bonds (<2.022 A??), and one longer V-O bond (2.278 A??) trans to the vanadyl bond. The structure consists of isolated [V4+2 O2 (H2O)6 (SO4

  10. Anomalous Orthopyroxene Cell Volumes from Unshocked Equilibrated H Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folco, L.; Mellini, M.; Pillinger, C. T.

    1995-09-01

    Thirteen orthopyroxenes were extracted from eight unshocked equilibrated H-chondrites representatives of the petrographic types 4 to 6 [1] for crystal-chemical analyses. Chemical compositions were determined through a WDS JEOL JX 8600 electron microprobe. Three to six spot analyses were run on each crystal and no significant chemical variation was detected. High quality single crystal X-ray diffraction data were obtained by a SIEMENS P4 diffractometer using MoK alpha radiation, and site occupancies by least squares structure refinements. Figure 1a shows a significant cell volume (Vc) increase with petrographic type, and a _1.5 Angstrom^3 spread within each petrographic type. In solid solutions, Vc is expected to mainly vary with the chemical composition: the higher the proportion of the large ions present, the larger the Vc. In particular, as shown by [2], Vc variations in orthopyroxenes are essentially linear with Fe/(Fe+Mg), and our data fall within this general trend. However, no such a correlation exists at the scale of our values (Fig.1b), rather, each petrographic type plots along a different roughly negative trend. Furthermore, as experimentally obtained by [3], the decrease of the Fe-Mg ordering between the M1 and M2 sites in orthopyroxenes (a temperature-time-dependent process), causes significant Vc increase due to the displacement of the large Fe2+ ions from the larger M2 to the smaller M1 sites. Again, in the Vc versus kD (i.e., the intracrystalline Fe-Mg distribution coefficient) diagram (Fig.1c), we observe no such a correlation. Contrary to the most immediate expectations, our data suggest that the net increase in Vc from H4 to H6 does not significantly depend upon chemical composition and degree of ordering, and demands that another as yet unidentified parameter accounts for the observed trends. Acknowledgments: We thank EUROMET for the Frontier Mt. samples, and PNRA for supporting this study. References: [1] Folco L. et al., this volume. [2] Sykes

  11. Searching for the Lost Jurassic and Cretaceous Ocean Basins of the Circum-Arctic Linking Plate Models and Seismic Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shephard, G. E.; Müller, R.

    2012-12-01

    pink. Labeled oceanic features in white include ANG Angayucham Ocean AM Amerasia Basin CCR Cache Creek Ocean FAR Farallon Plate IZA Izanagi Plate MOK Mongol-Okhotsk Ocean OMY Oimyakon Ocean SAO South Anuyi Ocean. Selected blue-labeled terranes include AL Alazeya LAU Laurasia NAM North America OM Omolon QS Quesnellia ST Stikinia, WR Wrangellia YTT Yukon-Tanana terrane.

  12. Growing plants on atoll soils

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, E L; Migvar, L; Robison, W L

    2000-02-16

    Many years ago people living on atolls depended entirely on foods gathered from the sea and reefs and grown on land. Only a few plants, such as coconut (ni), Pandanus (bob), and arrowroot (mok-mok), could be grown on the lower rainfall atolls, although adequate groundwater conditions also allowed taro (iaraj, kotak, wot) to be cultivated. On higher rainfall atolls, breadfruit (ma) was a major food source, and banana (binana, kepran), lime (laim), and taros (iaraj, kotak, wot) could be grown. The early atoll populations were experts in growing plants that were vital to sustaining their nutrition requirements and to providing materials for thatch, basketry, cordage, canoe construction, flowers, and medicine. They knew which varieties of food plants grew well or poorly on their atolls, how to propagate them, and where on their atoll they grew best. They knew the uses of most native plants and what the various woods were well suited for. Many varieties of Pandanus (bob) and breadfruit (ma) grew well with high rainfall, but only a few produced well on drier atolls. Such information had been passed down through the generations although some of it has been lost in the last century. Today there are new plants and new varieties of existing plants that can be grown on atolls. There are also new materials and information on how to grow both the old and new plants more effectively. However, there are also introduced weeds and pests to control. Today, there is also an acute need to grow more of the useful plants adapted to atolls. Increasing numbers of people living on an atoll without an equal increase in income or food production stretches the available food supplies. Much has been written about the poor conditions for plant growth on atolls. As compared with many places in the world where crops are grown, however, atolls can provide some highly favorable conditions. For instance, the driving force for plant growth is sunlight, and on atolls light is abundant throughout the

  13. Scalable Methods for Electronic Excitations and Optical Responses of Nanostructures: Mathematics to Algorithms to Observables

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, Emily A

    2013-02-02

    Kohn-Sham density functional theory (DFT) is a powerful, well-established tool for the study of condensed phase electronic structure. However, there are still a number of situations where its applicability is limited. The basic theme of our research is the development of first principles electronic structure approaches for condensed matter that goes beyond what can currently be done with standard implementations ofKohn-Sham DFT. Our efforts to this end have focused on two classes or' methods. The first addresses the well-lmown inability of DFT to handle strong, many-body electron correlation effects. Our approach is a DFT -based embedding theory, to treat localized features (e.g. impurity, adsorbate, vacancy, etc.) embedded in a periodic, metallic crystal. A description for the embedded region is provided by explicitly correlated, ab initio wave function methods. DFT, as a fo1n1ally ground state theory, does not give a good description of excited states; an additional feature of our approach is the ability to obtain excitations localized in this region. We apply our method to a first-principles study of the adsorption of a single magnetic Co ada tom on non-magnetic Cu( 111 ), a known Kondo system whose behavior is governed by strong electron correlation. The second class of methods that we are developing is an orbital-free density functional theory (OFDFT), which addresses the speed limitations ofKohn-Sham DFT. OFDFT is a powerful, O(N) scaling method for electronic structure calculations. Unlike Kohn-Sham DFT, OFDFT goes back to the original Hohenberg-Kohn idea of directly optimizing an energy functional which is an explicit functional of the density, without invoking an orbital description. This eliminates the need to manipulate orbitals, which leads to O(N{sup 3}) scaling in the Kahn-Sham approach. The speed of OFDFT allows direct electronic structure calculations on large systems on the order of thousands to tens of thousands of atoms, an expensive feat within

  14. Gravity Fields Generation In The Universe By The Large Range of Scales Convection Systems In Planets, Stars, Black Holes and Galaxies Based On The "Convection Bang Hypothesis"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gholibeigian, H.; Amirshahkarami, A.; Gholibeigian, K.

    2015-12-01

    In our vision it is believed that the Big Bang was Convection Bang (CB). When CB occurred, a gigantic large-scale forced convection system (LFCS) began to create space-time including gravitons and gluons in more than light speed. Then, simultaneously by a swirling wild wind, created inflation process including many quantum convection loops (QCL) in locations which had more density of temperature and energetic particles like gravitons. QCL including fundamental particles, grew and formed black holes (BHs) as the core of galaxies. LFCSs of heat and mass in planets, stars, BHs and galaxies generate gravity and electromagnetic fields and change the properties of matter and space-time around the systems. Mechanism: Samples: 1- Due to gravity fields of Sun and Moon, Earth's inner core is dislocated toward them and rotates around the Earth's center per day and generates LFCSs, Gholibeigian [AGU, 2012]. 2- Dislocated Sun's core due to gravity fields of planets/ Jupiter, rotates around the Sun's center per 25-35 days and generates LFCSs, Gholibeigian [EGU, 2014]. 3- If a planet/star falls into a BH, what happens? It means, its dislocated core rotates around its center in less than light speed and generates very fast LFCS and friction, while it is rotating/melting around/inward the center of BH. Observable Factors: 1- There is not logical relation between surface gravity fields of planets/Sun and their masses (general relativity); see Planetary Fact Sheet/Ratio to Earth Values-NASA: Earth: mass/gravity =1/1, Jupiter=317.8/2.36, Neptune=17.1/1.12, Saturn=95.2/0.916, Moon=0.0128/0.166, Sun=333000/28. 2- Convective systems in thunderstorms help bring ozone down to Earth [Brian-Kahn]. 3- In 12 surveyed BHs, produced gravity force & magnetic field strength were matched (unique LFCS source) [PhysOrg - June 4, 2014]. Justification: After BB/CB, gravitons were created without any other masses and curvature of space-time (general relativity), but by primary gigantic convection

  15. Evolution History of Asteroid Itokawa Based on Block Distribution Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazrouei, Sara; Daly, Michael; Barnouin, Olivier; Ernst, Carolyn

    2013-04-01

    of whether or not Itokawa is a contact binary. References: [1] E. G. Kahn, et al. A tool for the visualization of small body data. In LPSC XLII, 2011. [2] A. Fujiwara, et al. The rubble-pile asteroid Itokawa as observed by Hayabusa. Science, 312(5778):1330-1334, June 2006. [3] A. F. Cheng, et al. Small-scale topography of 433 Eros from laser altimetry and imaging. Icarus, 155(1):51-74, 2002

  16. Revisiting the 'Buy versus Build' decision for publicly owned utilities in California considering wind and geothermal resources

    SciTech Connect

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Golove, William

    2001-10-01

    The last two decades have seen a dramatic increase in the market share of independent, non-utility generators (NUGs) relative to traditional, utility-owned generation assets. Accordingly, the ''buy versus build'' decision facing utilities--i.e., whether a utility should sign a power purchase agreement (PPA) with a NUG, or develop and own the generation capacity itself--has gained prominence in the industry. Specific debates have revolved around the relative advantages of, the types of risk created by, and the regulatory incentives favoring each approach. Very little of this discussion has focused specifically on publicly owned electric utilities, however, perhaps due to the belief that public power's tax-free financing status leaves little space in which NUGs can compete. With few exceptions (Wiser and Kahn 1996), renewable sources of supply have received similarly scant attention in the buy versus build debate. In this report, we revive the ''buy versus build'' debate and apply it to the two sectors of the industry traditionally underrepresented in the discussion: publicly owned utilities and renewable energy. Contrary to historical treatment, this debate is quite relevant to public utilities and renewables because publicly owned utilities are able to take advantage of some renewable energy incentives only in a ''buy'' situation, while others accrue only in a ''build'' situation. In particular, possible economic advantages of public utility ownership include: (1) the tax-free status of publicly owned utilities and the availability of low-cost debt, and (2) the renewable energy production incentive (REPI) available only to publicly owned utilities. Possible economic advantages to entering into a PPA with a NUG include: (1) the availability of federal tax credits and accelerated depreciation schedules for certain forms of NUG-owned renewable energy, and (2) the California state production incentives available to NUGs but not utilities. This report looks at a

  17. Di-, tri-, and tetranuclear nickel(II) complexes with oximato bridges: magnetism and catecholase-like activity of two tetranuclear complexes possessing rhombic topology.

    PubMed

    Das, Lakshmi Kanta; Biswas, Apurba; Kinyon, Jared S; Dalal, Naresh S; Zhou, Haidong; Ghosh, Ashutosh

    2013-10-21

    Oxime-based tridentate Schiff base ligands 3-[2-(diethylamino)ethylimino]butan-2-one oxime (HL(1)) and 3-[3-(dimethylamino)propylimino]butan-2-one oxime (HL(2)) produced the dinuclear complex [Ni2L(1)2](ClO4)2 (1) and trinuclear complex [Ni3(HL(2))3(μ3-O)](ClO4)4·CH3CN (2), respectively, upon reaction with Ni(ClO4)2·6H2O. However, in a slightly alkaline medium, both of the ligands underwent hydrolysis and resulted in tetranuclear complexes [{Ni(deen)(H2O)}2(μ3-OH)2{Ni2(moda)4}](ClO4)2·2CH3CN (3) and [{Ni(dmpn)(CH3CN)2}2(μ3-OH)2{Ni2(moda)4}](ClO4)2·CH3CN (4), where deen = 2-(diethylamino)ethylamine, dmpn = 3-(dimethylamino)-1-propylamine, and modaH = diacetyl monoxime. All four complexes have been structurally characterized. Complex 1 is a centrosymmetric dimer where the square planar nickel(II) atoms are joined solely by the oximato bridges. In complex 2, three square planar nickel atoms form a triangular core through a central oxido (μ3-O) and peripheral oximato bridges. Tetranuclear complexes 3 and 4 consist of four distorted octahedral nickel(II) ions held together in a rhombic chair arrangement by two central μ3-OH and four peripheral oximato bridges. Magnetic susceptibility measurements indicated that dinuclear 1 and trinuclear 2 exhibited diamagnetic behavior, while tetranuclear complexes 3 and 4 were found to have dominant antiferromagnetic intramolecular coupling with concomitant ferromagnetic interactions. Despite its singlet ground state, both 3 and 4 serve as useful examples of Kahn's model for competing spin interactions. High-frequency EPR studies were also attempted, but no signal was detected, likely due to the large energy gap between the ground and first excited state. Complexes 3 and 4 exhibited excellent catecholase-like activity in the aerial oxidation of 3,5-di-tert-butylcatechol to the corresponding o-quinone, whereas 1 and 2 did not show such catalytic activity. Kinetic data analyses of this oxidation reaction in acetonitrile

  18. Serological study of yaws in Java

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huan-Ying; Soebekti, R.

    1955-01-01

    This report presents the results of serological analyses made by the laboratory of the Treponematoses Control Project, Indonesia, from its establishment in April 1951 until April 1953. All sera were tested quantitatively with the VDRL and Kline slide-tests or the Kahn test, or with all three. A study of the mean reagin titre in untreated yaws cases showed that the percentage of seronegative reactors among clinically positive cases was low. Less seronegativity was observed among females than males. Examination of decrease in mean reagin titre after treatment by clinical group showed maximum to minimum decrease in the following sequence: early contagious, early contagious plus hyperkeratosis, ulcerative plus osteo-articular, ulcerative, hyperkeratosis, and osteo-articular lesions. The decrease tended to be greater in females than males and in patients with high than with low titre; it also varied with the age of the patient. No significant variation in decrease was noted when four different PAM treatment schedules were tested comparatively. The percentage of serological cure and improvement with all schedules was highest in the cases with early lesions, and in the younger age-groups. A study of patients requiring re-treatment at the time of resurvey showed no important difference in mean reagin titre between clinically cured and uncured patients suffering from palmar or plantar hyperkeratosis and ulcerative or osteo-articular lesions. Serological testing of sera from clinically negative household contacts and non-contacts, with or without previous history of yaws, gave the following results: Among the household contacts, the number of seronegative reactors, while not affected by age-distribution, was significantly higher in the history-positive than in the history-negative groups. The percentage of seropositive reactors was in direct proportion to the prevalence of yaws, the seropositivity-rate being high in villages with a yaws incidence of 11%-30%. The report also

  19. Blood Lead Concentration and Thyroid Function during Pregnancy: Results from the Yugoslavia Prospective Study of Environmental Lead Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, Linda G.; Liu, Xinhua; Rajovic, Biljana; Popovac, Dusan; Oberfield, Sharon; Graziano, Joseph H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although maternal hypothyroidism increases the risk of adverse neonatal and obstetric outcomes as well as lower IQ in children, the environmental determinants of maternal thyroid dysfunction have yet to be fully explored. Objectives: We aimed to examine associations between mid-pregnancy blood lead (BPb) and concomitant measures of thyroid function among participants in the Yugoslavia Prospective Study of Environmental Lead Exposure. Methods: As part of a population-based prospective study of two towns in Kosovo—one with high levels of environmental lead and one with low—women were recruited during the second trimester of pregnancy, at which time blood samples and questionnaire data were collected. We measured concentrations of BPb, free thyroxine (FT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb) in archived serum samples. Results: Compared with women from the unexposed town, women from the exposed town had lower mean FT4 (0.91 ± 0.17 vs. 1.03 ± 0.16 ng/dL), higher mean TPOAb (15.45 ± 33.08 vs. 5.12 ± 6.38 IU/mL), and higher mean BPb (20.00 ± 6.99 vs. 5.57 ± 2.01 μg/dL). No differences in TSH levels were found. After adjustment for potential confounders, for each natural log unit increase in BPb, FT4 decreased by 0.074 ng/dL (95% CI: –0.10, –0.046 ng/dL), and the odds ratio for testing positive to TPOAb was 2.41 (95% CI: 1.53, 3.82). We found no association between BPb and TSH. Conclusions: Prolonged lead exposure may contribute to maternal thyroid dysfunction by stimulating autoimmunity to the thyroid gland. Citation: Kahn LG, Liu X, Rajovic B, Popovac D, Oberfield S, Graziano JH, Factor-Litvak P. 2014. Blood lead concentration and thyroid function during pregnancy: results from the Yugoslavia Prospective Study of Environmental Lead Exposure. Environ Health Perspect 122:1134–1140; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307669 PMID:24866691

  20. The vertical distribution of cloud regimes and their radiative impact under active phases of the Arctic Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, Erik; Devasthale, Abhay; Ekman, Annica; L'Ecuyer, Tristan; Tjernström, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The Arctic Oscillation (AO) is the leading natural mode of variability in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) and strongly influences weather and climate over mid- and high-latitudes. Although our understanding of the AO is improving, the insufficient description of clouds remains a major stumbling block in achieving the desired accuracy and confidence in forecasting and climate models over NH regions due to tight coupling of clouds with radiation and thermodynamics during the AO. Previous studies argue that anomalies of the vertical distribution of clouds show a dipole structure that is centred around Greenland during the positive and negative phases of the AO, with different signs of dipole anomalies in the low and medium/high level clouds (Devasthale et al. 2012, and references therein). The net radiative impact of such dipole structure and its implications for local dynamics remains to be evaluated. In that context, we investigate the following aspects. 1) How does the vertical distribution of various cloud regimes changes during the enhanced AO positive and negative phases and under which meteorological conditions? 2) What is the TOA, in-atmosphere and surface radiative impact of these cloud regimes during AO? 3) How sensitive the cloud radiative impact is to cloud microphysical properties during enhanced positive and negative phases of the AO? We use the combined lidar and radar (CloudSat+CALIPSO) data from the A-Train constellation of satellites from 2006 through 2011 for analysis. Specifically, we use the 2B-CLDCLASS-LIDAR data for obtaining information on cloud regimes, 2B-GEOPROF-LIDAR for cloud boundaries, and 2B-FLXHR-LIDAR for the estimates of cloud radiative heating/cooling. References: Devasthale, A., Tjernström, M., Caian, M., Thomas, M. A., Kahn, B. H., and Fetzer, E. J.: Influence of the Arctic Oscillation on the vertical distribution of clouds as observed by the A-Train constellation of satellites, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 10535-10544, doi:10.5194/acp

  1. Mixing and turbulent mixing in fluids, plasma and materials: summary of works presented at the 3rd International Conference on Turbulent Mixing and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauthier, Serge; Keane, Christopher J.; Niemela, Joseph J.; Abarzhi, Snezhana I.

    2013-07-01

    was held in the summer of 2011 at the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Trieste, Italy. The papers are arranged by TMB themes, and within each theme they are ordered alphabetically by the last name of the first author. The collection includes regular research papers, a few research briefs and review papers. The review papers are published as 'Comments' articles in Physica Scripta . Canonical turbulence and turbulent mixing. Six papers are devoted to canonical turbulence and turbulent mixing. Baumert presents a theory of shear-generated turbulence, which is based on a two-fluid concept. Gampert et al investigate the problem of adequate representation of turbulent structures by applying a decomposition of the field of the turbulent kinetic energy into regions of compressive and extensive strain. Paul and Narashima consider the dynamics of a temporal mixing layer using a vortex sheet model. Schaefer et al analyse the joint statistics and conditional mean strain rates of streamline segments in turbulent flows. Sirota and Zybin deepen their discussion of the connection between Lagrangian and Eulerian velocity structure functions in hydrodynamic turbulence. Talbot et al investigate the heterogeneous mixing by considering gases of very nearly equal densities and very different viscosities. Wall-bounded flows. Three papers are dedicated to wall-bounded flows. Mok et al use the Bayesian spectral density approach to identify the dominant free surface fluctuation frequency downstream of an oscillating hydraulic jump. Tejada-Martinez et al employ large eddy numerical simulations to study wind-driven shallow water flows with and without full-depth Langmuir circulation (parallel counter rotating vortices). Wu et al re-evaluate the Karman constant based on a multi-layer analytical theory of Prandtl's mixing length function. Non-equilibrium processes. This theme is represented by two papers. Chasheckhin and Zagumennyi consider non-equilibrium processes

  2. Correcting High-Resolution Borehole Strainmeter Data from Complex External Influences and Partial-Solid Coupling: the Case of Trizonia, Rift of Corinth (Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canitano, A.; Bernard, P.; Linde, A. T.; Sacks, S.; Boudin, F.

    2014-08-01

    ). The empirical correction of the sea level effect could be explained using a simple Boussinesq's approximation and 1D pore-pressure diffusion model, which contributed to better constraint of some of the poro-elastic parameters in the vicinity of the instrument. After correction, the solid tidal signal at the 24-h period is almost anti-correlated with those of the theoretical solid tide. This surprising result is consistent with a similar anti-correlation observed for the longest period surface waves (200 s) comparing the TRZ dilatometer signals to the strain measured by a nearby borehole strainmeter (MOK, 15 km). This could be related to the presence of a shallow fault close to the instrument, which would creep in response to seismic wave-related stress.

  3. Downscaling 20th century flooding events in complex terrain (Switzerland) using the WRF regional climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heikkilä, Ulla; Gómez Navarro, Juan Jose; Franke, Jörg; Brönnimann, Stefan; Cattin, Réne

    2016-04-01

    validate the model performance during a larger number of events. Compo, G. P., J. S. Whitaker, P. D. Sardeshmukh, N. Matsui, R. J. Allan, X. Yin,B. E. Gleason, R. S. Vose, G. Rutledge, P. Bessemoulin, S. Bronnimann, M. Brunet, R. I. Crouthamel, A. N. Grant, P. Y. Groisman, P. D. Jones, M. C. Kruk, A. C. Kruger, G. J. Marshall, M. Maugeri, H. Y. Mok, O. Nordli, T. F. Ross, R. M. Trigo, X. L. Wang, S. D. Woodruff, S. J. Worley, 2011: The Twentieth Century Reanalysis Project. Quarterly J. Roy. Met. Soc., 137, 1-28, DOI: 10.1002/qj.776. Hohenegger, C., Walser, A., Langhans, H. and Schär, C., 2008, Cloud-resolving ensemble simulations of the August 2005 Alpine flood, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 2008, DOI: 10.1002/qj.252 Stucki, P., Rickli, R., Brönnimann, S., Martius, O., Wanner, H., Grebner, D. and Luterbacher, J., 2012, Weather patterns and hydro-climatological precursors of extreme floods in Switzerland since 1868, Meteorologische Zeitschrift, Vol. 21, No. 6, 531-550.

  4. Reassessing the impacts and the atmospheric circulation of the large storms over Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varino, F.; Trigo, R. M.; Zêzere, J. L.

    2012-04-01

    level pressure fields. Additionally a number of other fields were computed and shown in common graphics, namely precipitation rate and CAPE, wind speed and wind divergence at 250 hPa and at 850 hPa geopotential height levels, air temperature at 850 hPa and geopotential height at 500h Pa and finally wind speed barbs and specific moisture content. Compo G. P., Whitaker J.S., Sardeshmukh P.D., Matsui N., Allan R.J., Yin X., Gleason E., J.r., Vose R. S., Rutledge G., Bessemoulin P., Brönnimann S., Brunet M., Crouthamel R.I., Grant A.N., Groisman P. Y., Jones P. D., Kruk M. C., Kruger A.C., Marshall G. J., Maugeri M., Mok H. Y., Nordlki, Ross T.F., Trigo R. M., Wang X. L., Woodruff S. D., Worley S. J. (2011). The Twentieth Century Reanalysis Project. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 137(654), 1-28. doi:10.1002/qj.776

  5. Atmospheric circulation leading to record breaking precipitation and floods in southern Iberia in December 1876

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigo, R. M.; Varino, F.; Vaquero, J.; Valente, M. A.

    2012-04-01

    exception of events in February 2008 in the Lisbon precipitation (Fragoso et al., 2010) and October 1944 in Évora (in both cases for daily precipitation only). Compo G. P., Whitaker J.S., Sardeshmukh P.D., Matsui N., Allan R.J., Yin X., Gleason E., J.r., Vose R. S., Rutledge G., Bessemoulin P., Brönnimann S., Brunet M., Crouthamel R.I., Grant A.N., Groisman P. Y., Jones P. D., Kruk M. C., Kruger A.C., Marshall G. J., Maugeri M., Mok H. Y., Nordlki, Ross T.F., Trigo R. M., Wang X. L., Woodruff S. D., Worley S. J. (2011). The Twentieth Century Reanalysis Project. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 137(654), 1-28. doi:10.1002/qj.776 Fragoso, M., Trigo, R. M., Zêzere, J. L., & Valente, M. A. (2010). The exceptional rainfall event in Lisbon on 18 February 2008. Weather, 65(2), 31-35. doi:10.1002/wea.513

  6. The effects of student-level and classroom-level factors on elementary students' science achievement in five countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaya, Sibel

    needed. For all the countries investigated, with the exception of Singapore, the between-class variance was much smaller than the within-class variance. Japan had the smallest variation in science achievement among classrooms which indicates the homogeneity across classrooms in Japan. Increasing awareness and knowledge of gender neutral instructional techniques, providing a non-threatening, rich and supportive environment for both genders in classrooms by elementary teachers are to be encouraged. To improve students' self beliefs about science, it is recommended that teachers model science activities and accommodate students' needs and abilities (Bandura, 1997; Britner & Pajares, 2006). Schools and teachers are recommended to develop a successful home-school partnership for improved student learning and positive attitudes toward science (Eccles & Harold, 1996; Epstein & Salinas, 2004). Furthermore, developing a knowledge base for teachers regarding the influences of classroom and school composition is highlighted (Honig, Kahne, & McLaughlin, 2001; Murrel, 2001). At the classroom- and school-level, policy efforts could focus on the distribution of educational resources (Condron & Roscigno, 2003; Goesling, 2003) to compensate for poor family background.

  7. Effects of Temporal Wind Patterns on the Value of Wind-GeneratedElectricity at Different Sites in California and the Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    Fripp, Matthias; Wiser, Ryan

    2006-08-04

    Wind power production varies on a diurnal and seasonal basis. In this paper, we use wind speed data from three different sources to assess the effects of wind timing on the value of electric power from potential wind farm locations in California and the Northwestern United States. By ''value'', we refer to either the contribution of wind power to meeting the electric system's peak loads, or the financial value of wind power in electricity markets. Sites for wind power projects are often screened or compared based on the annual average power production that would be expected from wind turbines at each site (Baban and Parry 2001; Brower et al. 2004; Jangamshetti and Rau 2001; Nielsen et al. 2002; Roy 2002; Schwartz 1999). However, at many locations, variations in wind speeds during the day and year are correlated with variations in the electric power system's load and wholesale market prices (Burton et al. 2001; Carlin 1983; Kennedy and Rogers 2003; Man Bae and Devine 1978; Sezgen et al. 1998); this correlation may raise or lower the value of wind power generated at each location. A number of previous reports address this issue somewhat indirectly by studying the contribution of individual wind power sites to the reliability or economic operation of the electric grid, using hourly wind speed data (Fleten et al.; Kahn 1991; Kirby et al. 2003; Milligan 2002; van Wijk et al. 1992). However, we have not identified any previous study that examines the effect of variations in wind timing across a broad geographical area on wholesale market value or capacity contribution of those different wind power sites. We have done so, to determine whether it is important to consider wind-timing when planning wind power development, and to try to identify locations where timing would have a more positive or negative effect. The research reported in this paper seeks to answer three specific questions: (1) How large of an effect can the temporal variation of wind power have on the value

  8. Accretion-powered Compact Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauche, Christopher W.

    2003-12-01

    Preface; The workshop logo; A short history of the CV workshop F. A. Córdova; Part I. Observations: 1. Low mass x-ray binaries A. P. Cowley, P. C. Schmidtke, D. Crampton, J. B. Hutchings, C. A. Haswell, E. L. Robinson, K. D. Horne, H. M. Johnston, S. R. Kulkarni, S. Kitamoto, X. Han, R. M. Hjellming, R. M. Wagner, S. L. Morris, P. Hertz, A. N. Parmar, L. Stella, P. Giommi, P. J. Callanan, T. Naylor, P. A. Charles, C. D. Bailyn, J. N. Imamura, T. Steiman-Cameron, J. Kristian, J. Middleditch, L. Angelini and J. P. Noris; 2. Nonmagnetic cataclysmic variables R. S. Polidan, C. W. Mauche, R. A. Wade, R. H. Kaitchuck, E. M. Schlegel, P. A. Hantzios, R. C. Smith, J. H. Wood, F. Hessman, A. Fiedler, D. H. P. Jones, J. Casares, P. A. Charles, J. van Paradijs, E. Harlaftis, T. Naylor, G. Sonneborn, B. J. M. Hassall, K. Horne, C. A. la Dous, A. W. Shafter, N. A. Hawkins, D. A. H. Buckley, D. J. Sullivan, F. V. Hessman, V. S. Dhillon, T. R. Marsh, J. Singh, S. Seetha, F. Giovannelli, A. Bianchini, E. M. Sion, D. J. Mullan, H. L. Shipman, G. Machin, P. J. Callanan, S. B. Howell, P. Szkody, E. M. Schlegel and R. F. Webbink; 3. Magnetic cataclysmic variables C. Hellier, K. O. Mason, C. W. Mauche, G. S. Miller, J. C. Raymond, F. K. Lamb, J. Patterson, A. J. Norton, M. G. Watson, A. R. King, I. M. McHardy, H. Lehto, J. P. Osborne, E. L. Robinson, A. W. Shafter, S. Balachandran, S. R. Rosen, J. Krautter, W. Buchholz, D. A. H. Buckley, I. R. Tuoly, D. Crampton, B. Warner, R. M. Prestage, B. N. Ashoka, M. Mouchet, J. M. Bonnet-Bidaud, J. M. Hameury, P. Szkody, P. Garnavich, S. Howell, T. Kii, M. Cropper, K. Mason, J. Bailey, D. T. Wickramasinghe, L. Ferrario, K. Beuermann, A. D. Schwope, H.-C. Thomas, S. Jordan, J. Schachter, A. V. Filippenko, S. M. Kahn, F. B. S. Paerels, K. Mukai, M. L. Edgar, S. Larsson, R. F. Jameson, A. R. King, A. Silber, R. Remillard, H. Bradt, M. Ishida, T. Ohashi and G. D. Schmidt; Part II. Accretion Theory: 4. Nonmagnetic W. Kley, F. Geyer, H. Herold, H

  9. Chaos, brain and divided consciousness.

    PubMed

    Bob, Petr

    2007-01-01

    with schizophrenia and depression. Increased level of psychopathological symptoms indicates close relationship to the right-left EDA asymmetry and asymmetry of information entropy calculated by non-linear recurrence quantification analysis of EDA records. Because epileptiform activity has specific chaotic behaviour and calculated information entropy from EDA records reflects the complexity of the deterministic structure in the system there is a relevant assumption that unilaterally increased complexity may produce interhemispheric disbalance and increased chaoticity which hypothetically may serve as a dynamic source of epileptiform discharges related to trauma induced kindling mechanism. Specific form of chaotic inner organization which cannot be explained only as a consequence of external causality support also psychophysiological data that lead to the so-called self-organizing theory of dreaming by Kahn and Hobson. This study suggests that self-organizing theory of dreaming is particularly important with respect to problem of memory formation and processing during dissociative states characteristic for dreams. Recent data and also findings of this study support the research utility of chaos theory in psychology and neuroscience, and also its conceptual view of dynamic ordering factors and self-organization underlying psychological processes and brain physiology. PMID:17867519

  10. Nevadaite, (Cu2+, Al, V3+)6 [Al8 (PO4)8 F8] (OH 2 (H2O)22, a new phosphate mineral species from the Gold Quarry mine, Carlin, Eureka County, Nevada: description and crystal structure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooper, M.A.; Hawthorne, F.C.; Roberts, Andrew C.; Foord, E.E.; Erd, Richard C.; Evans, H.T., Jr.; Jensen, M.C.

    2004-01-01

    21.65. The crystal structure of nevadaite was solved by direct methods and refined to an R index of 4.0% based on 1307 observed reflections collected on a four-circle diffractometer with MoK?? X-radiation. The structure consists of ordered layers of vertex-sharing octahedra and tetrahedra alternating with layers of disordered vertex-sharing and face-sharing octahedra in the b direction. [Al??5] chains of octahedra are decorated by (PO4) tetrahedra that share vertices with octahedra adjacent in the chain. These chains link in the c direction by sharing vertices between octahedra and tetrahedra to form an ordered layer of the form [Al8(PO4)8F8(H2O 8]. In the disordered layer, octahedra containing positionally disordered Cu2+, V3+, Al and ??? (vacancy) share trans faces to form columns that link by sharing octahedron vertices to form ribbons extending in the c direction; the resulting layer has the form (Cu2+2???2V3+, Al ??6 (H2O)12 (OH)2 (H2O)x,, X ??? 2. The layers link in the b direction by sharing vertices between octahedra and tetrahedra. Although decorated chains topologically equivalent to that in nevadaite are common in many oxysalt minerals, its chain is geometrically distinct from those topologically equivalent chains. The M-M linkage along the [M??5] chains in most minerals take place through trans vertices of the octahedra, with one example of linkage through cis vertices; in nevadaite, the M-M linkage involves both trans and cis vertices, as does the chain in slavi??kite. In most of these decorated chains, alternate tetrahedra along the chain occur either in a trans or a cis arrangement. In nevadaite and slavi??kite, the tetrahedra are arranged in both trans and cis arrangements; the arrangements in these two minerals are geometrically distinct, however.

  11. Uncertainties of aerosol retrieval from neglecting non-sphericity of dust aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chi; Xue, Yong; Yang, Leiku; Guang, Jie

    2013-04-01

    Travis, L. D. (1995). Nonsphericity of dust-like aerosols: Implications for aerosol remote sensing and climate modeling, Geophyscal Research Letters, 22, 1077- 1080. Mishchenko, M. I., Travis, L. D., Kahn, R. A., and West, R. A. (1997). Modeling phase functions for dustlike tropospheric aerosols using a shape mixture of randomly oriented polydisperse spheroids, Journal of Geophysical Research, 102, 16831- 16847.

  12. Preface: Proceedings of the Colloidal Dispersions in External Fields II Conference (Bonn-Bad Godesberg, 31 March 2 April 2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löwen, H.

    2008-10-01

    (Edinburgh), D Y H Chui (Mainz), D Deb (Graz), C Dellago (Vienna), J Dhont (Jülich), P Dillmann (Konstanz), G Dominguez (Leipzig), M Duits (Enschede), B Dünweg (Mainz), F Ebert (Konstanz), S Egelhaaf (Düsseldorf), E Eggen (Utrecht), R Eichhorn (Bielefeld), E Eiser (Cambridge), H B Eral (Enschede), A Erbe (Konstanz), L Filion (Utrecht), G Foffi (Lausanne), J Fornleitner (Vienna), K Franzrahe (Konstanz), D Frenkel (Cambridge), M Fuchs (Konstanz), G Fytas (Heraklion), P Garstecki (Warsaw), I Gazuz (Konstanz), N Geerts (Amsterdam), G Gompper (Jülich), E Gonzalez-Tovar (San Luis Potosi), I Götze (Jülich), S Grandner (Berlin), L Gránásy (London), C Gutsche (Leipzig), D Hajnal (Mainz), R Hanes (Düsseldorf), A Härtel (Düsseldorf), P Henseler (Konstanz), C Hertlein (Stuttgart), C Holm (Mainz), J Hoogenboom (Barcelona), P Hopkins (Bristol), J Horbach (Cologne), C-C Huang (Jülich), K Huang (Göttingen), S Huißmann (Düsseldorf), M Humar (Ljubljana), S Iacopini (Mainz), A Imhof (Utrecht), A Ivlev (Garching), K Jacobs (Saarbrücken), J Jakobi (Hannover), O Jansen (Düsseldorf), M Jenkins (Düsseldorf), J Jordanovic (Berlin), S Jungblut (Mainz), M Kahn (Vienna), T Kalwarczyk (Warsaw), K Kegler (Leipzig), P Keim (Konstanz), Z Keqin (Singapore), U F Keyser (Leipzig), T Köller (Mainz), K Kremer (Mainz), M Krüger (Konstanz), A Kuijk (Utrecht), P Lang (Jülich), M Laurati (Düsseldorf), W Lechner (Vienna), H Lehle (Stuttgart), P Leiderer (Konstanz), H Lekkerkerker (Utrecht), P Lettinga (Jülich), A Libal (San Mart), B Lonetti (Jülich), N J Lorenz (Mainz), H Löwen (Düsseldorf), H Maleki (Mainz), J-G Malherbe (Paris), M Marechal (Utrecht), G Maret (Konstanz), C Mayer (Rome), S Mazoyer (Konstanz), M McPhie (Jülich), M Medina-Noyola (San Luis Potosi), A Melzer (Greifswald), A Menéndez-Manjón (Hannover), R Messina (Düsseldorf), H Michiel (Utrecht), P Mishra (Düsseldorf), J Mixteco (Guanajuato), B Moser (Düsseldorf), G Nägele (Jülich), R R Netz (Munich), P Nielaba (Konstanz

  13. Observing a Severe Dust Storm Event over China using Multiple Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hui; Xue, Yong; Guang, Jie; Mei, Linlu

    2013-04-01

    make use of all useful satellite data to observe one severe dust procedure, multi-sensor and multi-algorithm AOD data were combined. In this paper, the satellite instruments considered are MISR, MODIS, POLDER and CALIPSO. In addition, air pollution index (API) data were used to validate the satellite AOD data. We chose the study region with a longitude range from 76°N to 136°N and a latitude range from 15°E to 60°E. Index Terms—aerosol optical depth, dust, satellite REFERENCES Adhikary, B., Kulkarni, S., Dallura A., Tang, Y., Chai, T., Leung, L. R., Qian, Y., Chung, C. E., Ramanathan,V. and Carmichael, G. R., 2008, A regional scale chemical transport modeling of Asian aerosols with data assimilation of AOD observations using optimal interpolation technique, Atmospheric Environment, 42(37), 8600-8615. Carboni, E., Thomas, G. E., Sayer, A. M., Siddans, R., Poulsen, C. A., Grainger, R. G., Ahn, C., Antoine, D., Bevan, S., Braak, R., Brindley, H., DeSouza-Machado, S., Deuz'e, J. L., Diner, D., Ducos, F., Grey, W., Hsu, C., Kalashnikova, O. V., Kahn, R., North, P. R. J., Salustro, C., Smith, A., Tanr'e, D., Torres, O., and Veihelmann, B., 2012, Intercomparison of desert dust optical depth from satellite measurements, Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 5, 1973-2002. Deuze', J. L., Bre'on, F. M., Devaux, C., Goloub, Herman, M., Lafrance, B., Maignan, F., Marchand, A.,Nadal, F., Perry, G., and Tanre', D., 2001, Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS-1 polarized measurements, Journal of Geophysical Research, 106(D5), 4913-4926. Ehlers, M., 1991, Multisensor image fusion techniques in remote sensing, ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 46, 19-30. Han, X., Ge. C., Tao, J. H., Zhang, M. G., Zhang, R. J., 2012, Air Quality Modeling for a Strong Dust Event in East Asia in March 2010, Aerosol and Air Quality Research, 12: 615-628. Hsu, N. C., Tsay, S. C., King, M. D. and Herman, J. R., 2004, Aerosol Properties over Bright

  14. The Value of Renewable Energy as a Hedge Against Fuel Price Risk: Analytic Contributions from Economic and Finance Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Bolinger, Mark A; Wiser, Ryan

    2008-09-15

    gas in the United States over a relatively brief period. Perhaps of most concern is that this dramatic price increase was largely unforeseen. Figure 2 compares the EIA's natural gas wellhead price forecast from each year's Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) going back to 1985 against the average US wellhead price that actually transpired. As shown, our forecasting abilities have proven rather dismal over time, as over-forecasts made in the late 1980's eventually yielded to under-forecasts that have persisted to this day. This historical experience demonstrates that little weight should be placed on any one forecast of future natural gas prices, and that a broad range of future price conditions ought to be considered in planning and investment decisions. Against this backdrop of high, volatile, and unpredictable natural gas prices, increasing the market penetration of renewable generation such as wind, solar, and geothermal power may provide economic benefits to ratepayers by displacing gas-fired generation. These benefits may manifest themselves in several ways. First, the displacement of natural gas-fired generation by increased renewable generation reduces ratepayer exposure to natural gas price risk--i.e., the risk that future gas prices (and by extension future electricity prices) may end up markedly different than expected. Second, this displacement reduces demand for natural gas among gas-fired generators, which, all else equal, will put downward pressure on natural gas prices. Lower natural gas prices in turn benefit both electric ratepayers and other end-users of natural gas. Using analytic approaches that build upon, yet differ from, the past work of others, including Awerbuch (1993, 1994, 2003), Kahn and Stoft (1993), and Humphreys and McClain (1998), this chapter explores each of these two potential 'hedging' benefits of renewable electricity. Though we do not seek to judge whether these two specific benefits outweigh any incremental cost of renewable energy

  15. PERSPECTIVE: Waorani at the head of the table: towards inclusive conservation in Yasuní

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McSweeney, Kendra; Pearson, Zoe

    2009-09-01

    the difference between them, let alone find the time and breathing room to help develop their own collective initiatives and political positions free from outsider influence. Building on the points above, a third imperative is to be patient. Effective conservation alliances evolve slowly and painstakingly. Flashy, short-term conservation successes are too often eroded in the long term by inattention to the priorities of (indigenous) residents who will collectively endure long beyond the lifespan of any single organization, budget cycle, or state entity. In Yasuní, this means that effective conservation initiatives must be built, from their inception forward, on meaningful dialogue from a range of Waorani to capture the breadth of their priorities. Some conservation groups are making great gains in this direction, but it is important to remember that there is a difference between programmatic inclusion of Waorani (i.e., ensuring their input into a project) and the programmatic prioritization of Waorani's autonomously-defined goals (see also Chapin 2004). The latter is not easy. Collaborators will find their alliances strained, frustrating, contentious, 'political', and probably more trouble than they appear to be worth. But the task will be made more manageable if outsiders accept their actions as the power plays that they are, expect such challenges, budget money and time for them, and enlist personnel trained to facilitate inter-cultural dialogue so that Waorani desires are properly understood. Any other approaches risk long-term alienation of the only stakeholder with a demonstrated multi-generational commitment to Yasuní. References Chapin M 2004 A challenge to conservationists World Watch (Nov/Dec) 17-31 Finer M, Vijay V, Ponce F, Jenkins C N and Kahn T R 2009 Ecuador's Yasuní Biosphere Reserve: a brief modern history and conservation challenges Environ. Res. Lett. 4 034005 Hale C R 2001 What is activist research? Items & Issues 2(1-2) 13-15 High C 2006

  16. Mixing and turbulent mixing in fluids, plasma and materials: summary of works presented at the 3rd International Conference on Turbulent Mixing and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauthier, Serge; Keane, Christopher J.; Niemela, Joseph J.; Abarzhi, Snezhana I.

    2013-07-01

    was held in the summer of 2011 at the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Trieste, Italy. The papers are arranged by TMB themes, and within each theme they are ordered alphabetically by the last name of the first author. The collection includes regular research papers, a few research briefs and review papers. The review papers are published as 'Comments' articles in Physica Scripta . Canonical turbulence and turbulent mixing. Six papers are devoted to canonical turbulence and turbulent mixing. Baumert presents a theory of shear-generated turbulence, which is based on a two-fluid concept. Gampert et al investigate the problem of adequate representation of turbulent structures by applying a decomposition of the field of the turbulent kinetic energy into regions of compressive and extensive strain. Paul and Narashima consider the dynamics of a temporal mixing layer using a vortex sheet model. Schaefer et al analyse the joint statistics and conditional mean strain rates of streamline segments in turbulent flows. Sirota and Zybin deepen their discussion of the connection between Lagrangian and Eulerian velocity structure functions in hydrodynamic turbulence. Talbot et al investigate the heterogeneous mixing by considering gases of very nearly equal densities and very different viscosities. Wall-bounded flows. Three papers are dedicated to wall-bounded flows. Mok et al use the Bayesian spectral density approach to identify the dominant free surface fluctuation frequency downstream of an oscillating hydraulic jump. Tejada-Martinez et al employ large eddy numerical simulations to study wind-driven shallow water flows with and without full-depth Langmuir circulation (parallel counter rotating vortices). Wu et al re-evaluate the Karman constant based on a multi-layer analytical theory of Prandtl's mixing length function. Non-equilibrium processes. This theme is represented by two papers. Chasheckhin and Zagumennyi consider non-equilibrium processes