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Sample records for kak vitamin ot

  1. Vitamins

    MedlinePlus

    ... with an illness. Which foods are rich in vitamin C? citrus fruits, like oranges cantaloupe strawberries tomatoes broccoli cabbage kiwi fruit sweet red peppers previous continue Vitamin D No bones about it . . . vitamin D is ...

  2. Vitamins

    MedlinePlus

    ... vitamins D and K. People who eat a vegetarian diet may need to take a vitamin B12 supplement. Each vitamin has specific jobs. If you have low levels of certain vitamins, you may get health problems. For example, if you don't get ...

  3. Vitamins

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25057538 . Mason JB. Vitamins, trace minerals, and other micronutrients. In: Goldman L, Schafer ... Saunders; 2011:chap 225. Salwen MJ. Vitamins and trace elements. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's ...

  4. Vitamins

    MedlinePlus

    ... germ and wheat germ oil Vitamin K: Cabbage Cauliflower Cereals Dark green vegetables (broccoli, Brussels sprouts, and ... Vitamin C (ascorbic acid): Broccoli Brussels sprouts Cabbage Cauliflower Citrus fruits Potatoes Spinach Strawberries Tomato juice Tomatoes

  5. Master: 3 OT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balanutsa, P.; Lipunov, V.; Buckley, D.; Tlatov, A.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tyurina, N.; Kuznetsov, A.; Kornilov, V.; Kuvshinov, D.; Popova, E.; Vlasenko, D.; Shumkov, V.; Potter, S.; Kniazev, A.; Budnev, N.; Gress, O.; Ivanov, K.; Senik, V.; Dormidontov, D.; Parhomenko, A. V.

    2016-08-01

    MASTER-Kislovodsk auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 30L ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 21h 33m 50.58s +06d 51m 22.5s on 2016-07-27.94690 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is 17.8m (limit 18.0m).

  6. MASTER: bright OTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gress, O.; Vladimirov, V.; Lipunov, V.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Buckley, D.; Balanutsa, P.; Tiurina, N.; Kornilov, V.; Kuznetsov, A.; Gorbunov, I.; Vlasenko, D.; Kuvshinov, D.; Popova, E.; Potter, S.; Kotze, M.; Budnev, N.; Poleschuk, V.; Ivanov, K.

    2016-01-01

    MASTER-SAAO auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 349171 ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 14h 50m 56.15s -25d 55m 26.9s on 2016-01-27.02773 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is 16.3 (limit 18.4m).

  7. MASTER-Kislovodsk: bright high amplitude OT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balanutsa, P.; Lipunov, V.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tiurina, N.; Kornilov, V.; Gress, O.; Kuznetsov, A.; Gorbunov, I.; Vlasenko, D.; Vladimirov, V.; Tlatov, A.; Senik, V.; Dormidontov, D.; Parkhomenko, A.

    2016-02-01

    MASTER-Kislovodsk auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 349171 ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 08h 41m 40.94s +72d 27m 32.6s on 2016-02-22.89248 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is . The OT is seen in 3 images.

  8. MASTER: PSN in PGC135878 and OTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balanutsa, P.; Shumkov, V.; Lipunov, V.; Buckley, D.; Lopez, R. Rebolo; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tiurina, N.; Kuznetsov, A.; Kornilov, V.; Gorbunov, I.; Gress, O.; Ricart, M. Serra; Israelian, G.; Potter, S.; Kniazev, A.

    2016-06-01

    MASTER-IAC auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 349171 ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 18h 02m 41.87s +09d 03m 12.9s on 2016-06-05.16160 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is (limit 19.1m).The OT is seen in 10 images.

  9. MASTER: 5.2mag amplitude OT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumkov, V.; Lipunov, V.; Buckley, D.; Potter, S.; Kniazev, A.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tiurina, N.; Balanutsa, P.; Kornilov, V.; Kuznetsov, A.; Vladimirov, V.; Gress, O.; Vlasenko, D.; Gorbunov, I.; Kuvshinov, D.; Shumkov, V.

    2016-03-01

    MASTER OT J203533.66-260924.0 discovery - possible dwarf nova outburst, Ampl > 5.2mag MASTER-SAAO auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 349171 ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 20h 35m 33.66s -26d 09m 24.0s on 2016-03-12.11795 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is 16.8m (the limit is 19.0m).

  10. Two novel splice variants of SOX2OT, SOX2OT-S1, and SOX2OT-S2 are coupregulated with SOX2 and OCT4 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Shahryari, Alireza; Rafiee, Mahmoud Reza; Fouani, Youssef; Oliae, Nasrin Alipour; Samaei, Nader Mansour; Shafiee, Mohammad; Semnani, Shahryar; Vasei, Mohammad; Mowla, Seyed Javad

    2014-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as new regulators of stem cell pluripotency and tumorigenesis. The SOX2 gene, a master regulator of pluripotency, is embedded within the third intron of a lncRNA known as SOX2 overlapping transcript (SOX2OT). SOX2OT has been suspected to participate in regulation of SOX2 expression and/or other related processes; nevertheless, its potential involvement in tumor initiation and/or progression is unclear. Here, we have evaluated a possible correlation between expression patterns of SOX2OT and those of master regulators of pluripotency, SOX2 and OCT4, in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) tissue samples. We have also examined its potential function in the human embryonic carcinoma stem cell line, NTERA2 (NT2), which highly expresses SOX2OT, SOX2, and OCT4. Our data revealed a significant coupregulation of SOX2OT along with SOX2 and OCT4 in tumor samples, compared to the non-tumor tissues obtained from the margin of same tumors. We also identified two novel splice variants of SOX2OT (SOX2OT-S1 and SOX2OT-S2) which coupregulated with SOX2 and OCT4 in ESCCs. Suppressing SOX2OT variants caused a profound alteration in cell cycle distribution, including a 5.9 and 6.9 time increase in sub-G1 phase of cell cycle for SOX2OT-S1 and SOX2OT-S2, respectively. The expression of all variants was significantly diminished, upon the induction of neural differentiation in NT2 cells, suggesting their potential functional links to the undifferentiated state of the cells. Our data suggest a part for SOX2OT spliced variants in tumor initiation and/or progression as well as regulating pluripotent state of stem cells. PMID:24105929

  11. Master-Iac Master-Saao OTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogrosheva, T.; Vladimirov, V.; Lipunov, V.; Lopez, R. Rebolo; Buckley, D.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tiurina, N.; Kuznetsov, A.; Balanutsa, P.; Kornilov, V.; Gorbunov, I.; Gress, O.; Shumkov, V.; Ricart, M. Serra; Israelian, G.; Potter, S.; Kniazev, A.

    2016-06-01

    MASTER-IAC auto-detection system( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 30L ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 20h 58m 16.98s +23d 58m 12.6s on 2016-06-09.03890 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is 17.5m (limit 19.4m).

  12. MASTER-SAAO: bright outbursting OT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumkov, V.; Lipunov, V.; Buckley, D.; Kornilov, V.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tiurina, N.; Balanutsa, P.; Gress, O.; Kuznetsov, A.; Kuvshinov, D.; Vladimirov, V.; Gorbunov, I.; Vlasenko, D.; Popova, E.; Potter, S.; Kniazev, A.; Shurpakov, S.

    2016-04-01

    MASTER-SAAO auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 349171 ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 21h 29m 20.71s -62d 08m 52.2s on 2016-04-27.985 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is 17.3m (the limit is 19.3m).

  13. MASTER-Net: PSN and 3 OTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbovskoy, E.; Balanutsa, P.; Lipunov, V.; Lopez, R. Rebolo; Ricart, M. Serra; Buckley, D.; Israelian, G.; Tiurina, N.; Kornilov, V.; Kuznetsov, A.; Gress, O.; Shumkov, V.; Gorbunov, I.; Vlasenko, D.; Vladimirov, V.; Popova, E.; Potter, S.; Kotze, M.; Tlatov, A.; Senik, V.; Dormidontov, D.; Parkhomenko, A.

    2016-02-01

    MASTER-IAC auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 349171 ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 16h 33m 55.46s +86d 08m 30.4s on 2016-02-13.88456 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is (limit 18.6m).

  14. MASTER: PSN in PGC858421 and OTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiurina, N.; Balanutsa, P.; Lipunov, E. Popova V.; Buckley, D.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Kuznetsov, A.; Kornilov, V.; Vlasenko, D.; Gress, O.; Shurpakov, S.; Potter, S.; Kniazev, A.

    2016-07-01

    MASTER-SAAO auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 30L ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 14h 47m 32.66s -19d 12m 42.1s on 2016-07-09.87385 UT. PSN unfiltered magnitude is (limit 19.8m).

  15. 75 FR 51169 - OTS Minority Depository Institutions Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision OTS Minority Depository Institutions Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of the Treasury, Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Charter for the OTS..., Office of Thrift Supervision, 1700 G Street, NW., Washington, DC 20552. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:...

  16. MASTER OT 015347+303844 discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balanutsa, P.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Lipunov, V.; Kornilov, V.; Belinski, A.; Shatskiy, N.; Tyurina, N.; Kuvshinov, D.; Chazov, V.; Kuznetsov, A.; Zimnukhov, D.; Kornilov, M.; Tlatov, A.; Parhomenko, A. V.; Dormidontov, D.; Yurkov, V.; Sergienko, Yu.; Varda, D.; Krushinski, V.; Zalozhnih, I.; Kopytova, T.; Popov, A.; Ivanov, K.; Yazev, S.; Budnev, N.; Konstantinov, E.; Lenok, V.; Chuvalaev, O.; Poleschuk, V.; Gres, O.

    2010-10-01

    MASTER auto-detection system at Kislovodsk detected a new transient source at the position (R.A., Dec) = 01h 53m 47.24s , +30d 38m 44s.0 (J2000) with a typical uncertainty of 0.2" at 2010-10-01 23:25:48 (UT). The V magnitude is about 17.9 +-0.1 ( exposition 180s, m_lim = 19.0 ). The OT is seen at next 7 images up 2010-10-12 in R and V. OT is blue: R-V=1.43 at 2010-10-01.9 . There is no minor planet and any object brighter 21 mag in DSS at this place.

  17. Vitamin D

    MedlinePlus

    Vitamins are substances that your body needs to grow and develop normally. Vitamin D helps your body absorb calcium. Calcium is ... main building blocks of bone. A lack of vitamin D can lead to bone diseases such as ...

  18. Vitamin C

    MedlinePlus

    Vitamins are substances that your body needs to grow and develop normally. Vitamin C is an antioxidant. It is important for ... promotes healing and helps the body absorb iron. Vitamin C comes from fruits and vegetables. Good sources ...

  19. Vitamin A

    MedlinePlus

    Vitamins are substances that your body needs to grow and develop normally. Vitamin A plays a role in your Vision Bone growth Reproduction Cell functions Immune system Vitamin A is an antioxidant. It can come from ...

  20. Vitamin E

    MedlinePlus

    Vitamins are substances that your body needs to grow and develop normally. Vitamin E is an antioxidant. It plays a role ... immune system and metabolic processes. Good sources of vitamin E include Vegetable oils Margarine Nuts and seeds ...

  1. Vitamin K

    MedlinePlus

    Vitamins are substances that your body needs to grow and develop normally. Vitamin K helps your body by making proteins for ... blood clotting. If you don't have enough vitamin K, you may bleed too much. Newborns have ...

  2. Vitamin K

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dietary Reference Intakes: Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron Manganese, Molybdenium, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. National Academy Press. Washington, DC, 2001. PMID: 25057538 ...

  3. MASTER discoveries: dwarf novae, PSN, OT in Andromeda direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumkov, V.; Gress, O.; Balanutsa, P.; Lipunov, V.; Rebolo Lopez, R.; Serra Ricart, M.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tiurina, N.; Kuznetsov, A.; Kornilov, V.; Ivanov, K.

    2016-09-01

    MASTER-IAC auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 30L ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 00h 41m 26.22s +41d 43m 50.0s on 2016-09-02.12339 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is 19.7m, mlim=20.0 The OT is seen in 14 images.

  4. MASTER-Kislovodsk: bright OT with 7mag amplitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gress, O.; Lipunov, V.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Samus, N.; Tiurina, N.; Balanutsa, P.; Vladimirov, V.; Kuznetsov, A.; Kornilov, V.; Shumkov, V.; Gorbunov, I.; Vlasenko, D.; Kuvshinov, D.; Tlatov, A.; Senik, V.; Dormidontov, D.; Parkhomenko, A.

    2016-02-01

    MASTER-Kislovodsk auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010 )discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 07h 33m 25.52s +37d 37m 44.9s on 2016-02-24.90468 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is 15.1m (limit 18.0m).The OT is seen in 3 images.

  5. Vitamin Chart

    MedlinePlus

    ... brain function. You'll find high levels of vitamin C in citrus fruits, strawberries, kiwi, guava, peppers, tomatoes, broccoli, and spinach. Teen guys need 75 mg (milligrams; 1 milligram equals 1,000 micrograms) and girls need 65 mg of vitamin C a day. Vitamin D Vitamin D strengthens ...

  6. MASTER-IAC: PSN in PGC1671957 and bright OT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balanutsa, P.; Lipunov, V.; Rebolo Lopez, R.; Serra Ricart, M.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tiurina, N.; Kuznetsov, A.; Kornilov, V.; Gress, O.; Ivanov, K.; Shumkov, V.

    2016-09-01

    MASTER-IAC auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 30L ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 23h 36m 08.12s +22d 32m 33.1s on 2016-09-07.05299 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is 17.8m (limit 20.1m).

  7. MASTER-IAC: bright QSO flare and OT discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumkov, V.; Popova, E.; Gress, O.; Lipunov, V.; Lopez, R. Rebolo; Serra-Ricart, M.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tiurina, N.; Balanutsa, P.; Kornilov, V.; Kuznetsov, A.; Kuvshinov, D.; Vlasenko, D.; Chazov, V.; Israelyan, G.; Lodieu, N.; Budnev, N.; Ivanov, K.; Shurpakov, S.

    2016-07-01

    MASTER-IAC auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 30L )discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 19h 18m 40.69s +42d 21m 03.3s on 2016-07-25.00863 UT. The OT magnitude in unfiltered is 17.9m (limit 18.7m).

  8. MASTER-IAC: very bright high amplitude OT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gress, O.; Lipunov, V.; Lopez, R. Rebolo; Serra-Ricart, M.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tiurina, N.; Balanutsa, P.; Kornilov, V.; Kuznetsov, A.; Kuvshinov, D.; Vlasenko, D.; Vladimirov, V.; Popova, E.; Chazov, V.; Israelyan, G.; Lodieu, N.; Budnev, N.; Ivanov, K.

    2016-07-01

    MASTER-IAC auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 30L ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 20h 48m 06.68s +13d 54m 23.3s on 2016-07-24.16661 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is (limit 18.5m).

  9. MASTER: very bright OT in Large Magellanic cloud direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbovskoy, E.; Lipunov, V.; Buckley, D.; Tiurina, N.; Balanutsa, P.; Kornilov, V.; Gorbunov, I.; Kuznetsov, A.; Gress, O.; Vladimirov, V.; Popova, E.; Vlasenko, D.; Kuvshinov, D.; Potter, S.

    2016-05-01

    MASTER-SAAO auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 349171 ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 05h 10m 32.58s -69d 21m 30.4s on 2016-05-10.72797 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is (limit 17.6m).

  10. MASTER: PSN in PGC032587 and new OTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumkov, V.; Popova, E.; Lipunov, V.; Lopez, R. Rebolo; Buckley, D.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tiurina, N.; Balanutsa, P.; Kuznetsov, A.; Kornilov, V.; Gorbunov, I.; Chazov, V.; Gress, O.; Ivanov, K.; Vladimirov, V.; Vlasenko, D.; Kuvshinov, D.; Serra-Ricart, M.; Israelyan, G.; Potter, S.; Kniazev, A.

    2016-06-01

    MASTER-IAC auto-detection system Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 349171 discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 10h 51m 45.85s +55d 23m 12.4s on 2016-05-31.97997 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is 18.3 (limit 20.1m).

  11. Master-Iac Master-Saao 2 bright OTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gress, O.; Pogrosheva, T.; Lipunov, V.; Lopez, R. Rebolo; Buckley, D.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tiurina, N.; Balanutsa, P.; Gorbunov, I.; Kuznetsov, A.; Popova, E.; Kuvshinov, D.; Serra-Ricart, M.; Israelian, G.; Potter, S.; Kniazev, A.

    2016-05-01

    MASTER-IAC auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 349171 ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 00h 10m 21.33s +73d 15m 16.5s on 2016-05-24.18141 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is 15.7m (limit 18.1m).

  12. MASTER-Net discoveries: PSN, new Blazar and OT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumkov, V.; Balanutsa, P.; Popova, E.; Lipunov, V.; Buckley, D.; Lopez, R. Rebolo; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tiurina, N.; Kuznetsov, A.; Kornilov, V.; Vlasenko, D.; Gorbunov, I.; Gress, O.; Vladimirov, V.; Kuvshinov, D.; Ricart, M. Serra; Israelyan, G.; Potter, S.; Kniazev, A.

    2016-03-01

    MASTER-IAC auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 349171 ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 13h 57m 48.95s -27d 26m 23.4s on 2016-03-30.02359 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is 17.7m (limit 19.8m).

  13. Very Bright OT detected by MASTER-SAAO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gress, O.; Lipunov, V.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Buckley, D.; Budnev, N.; Tiurina, N.; Balanutsa, P.; Kornilov, V.; Kuznetsov, A.; Shumkov, V.; Gorbunov, I.; Vlasenko, D.; Vladimirov, V.; Popova, E.; Potter, S.; Kotze, M.

    2016-01-01

    MASTER-SAAO auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 349171 ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 00h 38m 31.10s -64d 03m 13.7s on 2016-01-26.85306 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is 12.7m (limit 18.5m).

  14. 12 CFR 500.10 - The OTS or The Office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true The OTS or The Office. 500.10 Section 500.10 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS General Organization § 500.10 The OTS or The Office. The Office of Thrift Supervision (referred...

  15. Hydrosoluble vitamins.

    PubMed

    Chawla, Jasvinder; Kvarnberg, David

    2014-01-01

    The hydrosoluble vitamins are a group of organic substances that are required by humans in small amounts to prevent disorders of metabolism. Significant progress has been made in our understanding of the biochemical, physiologic and nutritional aspects of the water-soluble vitamins. Deficiency of these particular vitamins, most commonly due to inadequate nutrition, can result in disorders of the nervous system. Many of these disorders have been successfully prevented in developed countries; however, they are still common in developing countries. Of the hydrosoluble vitamins, the nervous system depends the most on vitamins B and C (ascorbic acid) for proper functioning. The B group vitamins include thiamin (vitamin B1), riboflavin (vitamin B2), niacin or niacinamide (vitamin B3), pantothenic acid (vitamin B5), pyridoxine or pyridoxal (vitamin B6) and cobalamin (vitamin B12). Clinical findings depend upon the deficiency of the underlying vitamin; generally, deficiency symptoms are seen from a combination rather than an isolated vitamin deficiency. True hereditary metabolic disorders and serious deficiency-associated diseases are rare and in general limited to particular geographic regions and high-risk groups. Their recognition is truly important as that determines the appropriate therapeutic management. The general availability of vitamins to practically everyone and several national health programs have saved many lives and prevented complications. However, there has been some apprehension for several decades about how harmless generous dosages of these vitamins are. Overt overdosages can cause vitamin toxicity affecting various body systems including the nervous system. Systemically, vitamin toxicity is associated with nonspecific symptoms, such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and skin rash which are common with any acute or chronic vitamin overdose. At a national level, recommended daily allowances for vitamins become policy statements. Nutrition policy has far

  16. Vitamin K

    MedlinePlus

    ... body, vitamin K plays a major role in blood clotting. So it is used to reverse the effects ... role of vitamin K in the body beyond blood clotting led some researchers to suggest that the recommended ...

  17. B Vitamins

    MedlinePlus

    ... you eat. They also help form red blood cells. You can get B vitamins from proteins such as fish, poultry, meat, eggs, and dairy products. Leafy green vegetables, beans, and peas also have B vitamins. Many ...

  18. Vitamin A

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25057538 . Mason JB. Vitamins, trace minerals, and other micronutrients. In: Goldman L, Schafer ... Saunders; 2011:chap 225. Salwen MJ. Vitamins and trace elements. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's ...

  19. Vitamin E

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25077263 . Mason JB. Vitamins, trace minerals, and other micronutrients. In: Goldman L, Schafer ... Saunders; 2011:chap 225. Salwen MJ. Vitamins and trace elements. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's ...

  20. Vitamin A

    MedlinePlus

    ... Guidelines for Americans and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's MyPlate . Where can I find out more about ... food sources of vitamin A: U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) National Nutrient Database Nutrient List for vitamin ...

  1. Vitamin E

    MedlinePlus

    ... body needs to grow and develop normally. Vitamin E is an antioxidant. It plays a role in ... system and metabolic processes. Good sources of vitamin E include Vegetable oils Margarine Nuts and seeds Leafy ...

  2. Vitamin D

    MedlinePlus

    ... body needs to grow and develop normally. Vitamin D helps your body absorb calcium. Calcium is one ... building blocks of bone. A lack of vitamin D can lead to bone diseases such as osteoporosis ...

  3. Vitamin Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pegg, Ronald B.; Landen, W. O.; Eitenmiller, Ronald R.

    Vitamins are defined as relatively low-molecular-weight compounds which humans, and for that matter, any living organism that depends on organic matter as a source of nutrients, require small quantities for normal metabolism. With few exceptions, humans cannot synthesize most vitamins and therefore need to obtain them from food and supplements. Insufficient levels of vitamins result in deficiency diseases [e.g., scurvy and pellagra, which are due to the lack of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and niacin, respectively].

  4. Vitamin C

    MedlinePlus

    ... promotes healing and helps the body absorb iron. Vitamin C comes from fruits and vegetables. Good sources include citrus, red and green peppers, tomatoes, broccoli, and greens. Some juices and cereals have added vitamin C. Some people may need extra vitamin C: ...

  5. Vitamin E

    MedlinePlus

    ... eating a variety of foods including the following: Vegetable oils like wheat germ, sunflower, and safflower oils are ... best sources of vitamin E. Corn and soybean oils also provide some vitamin E. Nuts ... vegetables, such as spinach and broccoli, provide some vitamin ...

  6. Vitamin K

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin K, a fat-soluble vitamin, is an enzyme cofactor for post-translation modification of specific glutamate residues that are converted into '-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) residues by a vitamin K-dependent (VKD) carboxylase. Seven VKD coagulation proteins are synthesized in the liver. The extra-he...

  7. 5. SOUTHWEST PORTAL AND SOUTHWEST WEB OT THROUGH TRUSSES, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. SOUTHWEST PORTAL AND SOUTHWEST WEB OT THROUGH TRUSSES, SHOWING TOP CHORD DETAILS; VIEW TO NORTHEAST - Nebraska City Bridge, Spanning Missouri River near Highway 2 between Nebraska & Iowa, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  8. Blue MASTER OT J020844.29+481923.0 Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vladimirov, V.; Zubareva, A.; Lipunov, V.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tiurina, N.; Balanutsa, P.; Kuznetsov, A.; Pruzhinskaya, M.; Denisenko, D.; Rufanov, V.; Ivanov, K.; Yazev, S.; Budnev, N.; Gress, O.; Poleshchuk, V.; Parkhomenko, E. Konstantinov A.; Tlatov, A.; Dormidontov, D.; Yurkov, V. Senik V.; Sergienko, Y.; Varda, D.; Sinyakov, E.; Gabovich, V.; Krushinsky, V.; Zalozhnih, I.; Popov, A.; Bourdanov, A.; Buckley, D.; Potter, S.; Kniazev, A.; Kotze, M.; Shumkov, V.; Shurpakov, S.

    2015-01-01

    MASTER OT J020844.29+481923.0 - CV? MASTER-Tunka auto-detection system (Lipunov et al., 2010, Advances in Astronomy, vol. 2010, pp. 1, http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AdAst2010E..30L) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 02h 08m 44.29s +48d 19m 23.0s on 2015-01-08.52068 UT.

  9. MASTER: OT discovered during inspection of HESE 58537957 trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyurina, N.; Lipunov, V.; Buckley, D.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Balanutsa, P.; Kuznetsov, A.; Kornilov, V.; Kuvshinov, D.; Vlasenko, D.; Gress, O.; Ivanov, K.; Shumkov, V.; Potter, S.

    2016-08-01

    MASTER-SAAO auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 349171 ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 13h 08m 45.02s -32d 32m 54.9s on 2016-08-24.73811 UT during inspection of HESE alert ( 58537957 trigger number ) http://gcn.gsfc.nasa.gov/notices_amon/58537957_128340.amon . The OT unfiltered magnitude is 19.6m (limit 20.5m).

  10. MASTER: very bright high amplitude(>7.2m) OT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balanutsa, V.; Balanutsa, P.; Lipunov, V.; Lopez, R. Rebolo; Serra-Ricart, M.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tiurina, N.; Kornilov, V.; Kuznetsov, A.; Kuvshinov, D.; Vlasenko, D.; Vladiirov, V.; Popova, E.; Chazov, V.; Israelyan, G.; Lodieu, N.; Budnev, N.; Gress, O.; Ivanov, K.

    2016-07-01

    MASTER-IAC auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 30L ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 20h 53m 16.61s -10d 56m 33.1s on 2016-07-24.10765 UT. The OT unfiltered (W=0.2B+0.8R, calibrated by USNO-B1) magnitude is 14.8 (limit 18.7m).

  11. MASTER-SAAO and MATER-Net OTs detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balanutsa, P.; Shumkov, V.; Lipunov, V. M.; Buckley, D. A. H.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tiurina, N.; Shurpakov, S.; Gress, O.; Kuznetsov, A.; Vladimirov, V.; Kornilov, V.; Vlasenko, D.; Gorbunov, I.; Kniazev, A.; Potter, S. B.; Kotze, M.; Tlatov, A.; Senik, V.; Dormidontov, D.

    2016-03-01

    MASTER-SAAO auto-detection system (Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 30L ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 07h 28m 58.62s -65d 21m 31.9s on 2016-02-28.87676 UT with unfiltered m_OT=19.0m (the limit is 20.3m).

  12. 12 CFR 502.50 - What fees does OTS charge?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true What fees does OTS charge? 502.50 Section 502.50... § 502.50 What fees does OTS charge? (a) The Director assesses fees for examining or investigating... U.S.C. 1462(9), except that, for this part only, “affiliate” does not include any entity that...

  13. OT promotes closer interpersonal distance among highly empathic individuals

    PubMed Central

    Mankuta, David; Shamay-Tsoory, Simone G.

    2015-01-01

    The space between people, or ‘interpersonal distance’, creates and defines the dynamics of social interactions and is a salient cue signaling responsiveness and feeling comfortable. This distance is implicit yet clearly felt, especially if someone stands closer or farther away than expected. Increasing evidence suggests that Oxytocin (OT) serves as a social hormone in humans, and that one of its roles may be to alter the perceptual salience of social cues. Considering that empathic ability may shape the way individuals process social stimuli, we predicted that OT will differentially affect preferred interpersonal distance depending on individual differences in empathy. Participants took part in two interpersonal distance experiments: In the first, they had to stop a (computer visualized) protagonist when feeling most comfortable; in the second, they were asked to choose the room in which they would later discuss intimate topics with another. Both experiments revealed an interaction between the effect of OT and empathy level. Among highly empathic individuals, OT promoted the choice of closer interpersonal distances. Yet, OT had an opposite effect on individuals with low empathic traits. We conclude that the enhancement of social cues following OT administration may have opposite effects on individuals with different empathic abilities. PMID:24509491

  14. OT promotes closer interpersonal distance among highly empathic individuals.

    PubMed

    Perry, Anat; Mankuta, David; Shamay-Tsoory, Simone G

    2015-01-01

    The space between people, or 'interpersonal distance', creates and defines the dynamics of social interactions and is a salient cue signaling responsiveness and feeling comfortable. This distance is implicit yet clearly felt, especially if someone stands closer or farther away than expected. Increasing evidence suggests that Oxytocin (OT) serves as a social hormone in humans, and that one of its roles may be to alter the perceptual salience of social cues. Considering that empathic ability may shape the way individuals process social stimuli, we predicted that OT will differentially affect preferred interpersonal distance depending on individual differences in empathy. Participants took part in two interpersonal distance experiments: In the first, they had to stop a (computer visualized) protagonist when feeling most comfortable; in the second, they were asked to choose the room in which they would later discuss intimate topics with another. Both experiments revealed an interaction between the effect of OT and empathy level. Among highly empathic individuals, OT promoted the choice of closer interpersonal distances. Yet, OT had an opposite effect on individuals with low empathic traits. We conclude that the enhancement of social cues following OT administration may have opposite effects on individuals with different empathic abilities. PMID:24509491

  15. [Vitamin C].

    PubMed

    Fain, Olivier

    2013-10-01

    Vitamin C is a water soluble vitamin which is mainly fresh fruits and vegetables foodborne. Vitamin C deficiency is most often due to a lack of daily amount. Scurvy is characterized by the occurrence of fatigue, myalgia, arthralgia, purpura, bleeding disorders, and later by dental manifestations. Biological signs are nonspecific: anemia, hypocholesterolemia, hypoalbuminemia. Clinical suspicion is confirmed by the decrease in ascorbic acid level (< 2 mg/L). It must be interpreted in light of the acute phase reactants. The treatment is the administration of 1 g of vitamin C per day for 15 days. Vitamin C depletion (ascorbic acid: 2 to 5 mg/L) could induce long-term complications. The recommended dietary allowance of vitamin C protect from these risks. PMID:24298827

  16. Thiamine (Vitamin B1)

    MedlinePlus

    ... B1 (thiamine), vitamin B2 (riboflavin), vitamin B3 (niacin/niacinamide), vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid), vitamin B6 (pyridoxine), vitamin ... in appropriate amounts, although rare allergic reactions and skin irritation have occurred. It is also LIKELY SAFE ...

  17. Vitamin K

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin K was identified in the early 1930’s when it was shown to be essential for normal blood coagulation. Phylloquinone (2-methyl-3-phytyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) found in green plants is the major source of the vitamin. Large amounts of menaquinones with lengthy side chains are also synthesized in...

  18. Vitamin D

    PubMed Central

    Gröber, Uwe; Spitz, Jörg; Reichrath, Jörg; Kisters, Klaus; Holick, Michael F

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D has received a lot of attention recently as a result of a meteoric rise in the number of publications showing that vitamin D plays a crucial role in a plethora of physiological functions and associating vitamin D deficiency with many acute and chronic illnesses including disorders of calcium metabolism, autoimmune diseases, some cancers, type 2 diabetes mellitus, infectious diseases and cardiovascular disease. The recent data on vitamin D from experimental, ecological, case-control, retrospective and prospective observational studies, as well as smaller intervention studies, are significant and confirm the sunshine vitamin’s essential role in a variety of physiological and preventative functions. The results of these studies justify the recommendation to improve the general vitamin D status in children and adults by means of a healthy approach to sunlight exposure, consumption of foods containing vitamin D and supplementation with vitamin D preparations. In general, closer attention should therefore be paid to vitamin D deficiency in medical and pharmaceutical practice than has been the case hitherto. PMID:24516687

  19. A new assessment method of outdoor tobacco smoke (OTS) exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Hyeri; Lee, Kiyoung

    2014-04-01

    Outdoor tobacco smoke (OTS) is concerned due to potential health effects. An assessment method of OTS exposure is needed to determine effects of OTS and validate outdoor smoking policies. The objective of this study was to develop a new method to assess OTS exposure. This study was conducted at 100 bus stops including 50 centerline bus stops and 50 roadside bus stops in Seoul, Korea. Using real-time aerosol monitor, PM2.5 was measured for 30 min at each bus stop in two seasons. ‘Peak analysis' method was developed to assess short term PM2.5 exposure by OTS. The 30-min average PM2.5 exposure at each bus stop was associated with season and bus stop location but not smoking activity. The PM2.5 peak occurrence rate by the peak analysis method was significantly associated with season, bus stop location, observed smoking occurrence, and the number of buses servicing a route. The PM2.5 peak concentration was significantly associated with season, smoking occurrence, and the number of buses servicing a route. When a smoker was standing still at the bus stop, magnitude of peak concentrations were significantly higher than when the smoker walking-through the bus stop. People were exposed to high short-term PM2.5 peak levels at bus stops, and the magnitude of peak concentrations were highest when a smoker was located close to the monitor. The magnitude of peak concentration was a good indicator helped distinguish nearby OTS exposure. Further research using ‘peak analysis' is needed to measure smoking-related exposure to PM2.5 in other outdoor locations.

  20. 12 CFR 563b.115 - How will OTS review my business plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... FROM MUTUAL TO STOCK FORM Standard Conversions Prior to Conversion § 563b.115 How will OTS review my... with the Regional Office. OTS may request additional information, if necessary, to support...

  1. 12 CFR 563b.115 - How will OTS review my business plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... FROM MUTUAL TO STOCK FORM Standard Conversions Prior to Conversion § 563b.115 How will OTS review my... with the Regional Office. OTS may request additional information, if necessary, to support...

  2. 12 CFR 563b.115 - How will OTS review my business plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... FROM MUTUAL TO STOCK FORM Standard Conversions Prior to Conversion § 563b.115 How will OTS review my... with the Regional Office. OTS may request additional information, if necessary, to support...

  3. 12 CFR 563b.115 - How will OTS review my business plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... FROM MUTUAL TO STOCK FORM Standard Conversions Prior to Conversion § 563b.115 How will OTS review my... with the Regional Office. OTS may request additional information, if necessary, to support...

  4. Vitamin D

    MedlinePlus

    ... a few minutes, wear protective clothing and apply sunscreen with an SPF (sun protection factor) of 8 ... the sun or who cover their bodies with sunscreen or clothing should include good sources of vitamin ...

  5. Vitamin E

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vitamin E is found in the following foods: Vegetable oils (such as wheat germ, sunflower, safflower, corn, and soybean oils) Nuts (such as almonds, peanuts, and hazelnuts/filberts) ... (such as spinach and broccoli) Fortified breakfast cereals, ...

  6. Vitamin A

    MedlinePlus

    ... A plays a role in your Vision Bone growth Reproduction Cell functions Immune system Vitamin A is an antioxidant. It can come from plant or animal sources. Plant sources include colorful fruits ...

  7. Vitamin D

    MedlinePlus

    ... are among the best sources of vitamin D. Beef liver, cheese, and egg yolks provide small amounts. ... absorb too much calcium. This may cause high levels of calcium in the blood. High blood calcium ...

  8. Vitamin C

    MedlinePlus

    ... high doses of vitamin C could worsen iron overload and damage body tissues. The upper limits for ... consumed in less-than-recommended amounts. For more information about building a healthy diet, refer to the ...

  9. Vitamin A

    MedlinePlus

    ... also known as retinol because it produces the pigments in the retina of the eye. Vitamin A ... some fortified foods. Carotenoids are dark-colored dyes (pigments) found in plant foods that can turn into ...

  10. Counterpart of MASTER OT J084140.94+722732.6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesci, Roberto

    2016-02-01

    Following the ATel #8725 by Balanutsa et al. about MASTER OT J084140.94+722732.6, I made aperture photometry on all the Palomar survey plates (12) available from the MAST archive to get an indication of the star color.

  11. 12 CFR 563.143 - Must I file with OTS?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Must I file with OTS? 563.143 Section 563.143... (including the proposed capital distribution) for the applicable calendar year exceeds your net income for that year to date plus your retained net income for the preceding two years Must file an...

  12. 12 CFR 500.10 - The OTS or The Office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The OTS or The Office. 500.10 Section 500.10 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND... supervision of savings associations by regulatory staff to ensure the safety and soundness of the industry....

  13. Cosmeceuticals vitamins.

    PubMed

    Manela-Azulay, Mônica; Bagatin, Ediléia

    2009-01-01

    The term cosmeceutical was created over 25 years ago to define products with active substances that cannot be considered cosmetics or drugs. Cosmeceuticals are increasingly popular, with sales representing one of the largest growing segments of the skin care market. These products are found in many forms, including vitamins, peptides, growth factors, and botanical extracts. Cosmeceuticals that contain topically applied vitamins have an increasing role in skin care. PMID:19695478

  14. 12 CFR 516.270 - How long is the OTS review period?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How long is the OTS review period? 516.270 Section 516.270 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY APPLICATION PROCESSING PROCEDURES OTS Review Standard Treatment § 516.270 How long is the OTS review period? (a)...

  15. 12 CFR 516.270 - How long is the OTS review period?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false How long is the OTS review period? 516.270 Section 516.270 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY APPLICATION PROCESSING PROCEDURES OTS Review Standard Treatment § 516.270 How long is the OTS review period? (a)...

  16. 12 CFR 516.270 - How long is the OTS review period?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true How long is the OTS review period? 516.270 Section 516.270 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY APPLICATION PROCESSING PROCEDURES OTS Review Standard Treatment § 516.270 How long is the OTS review period? (a)...

  17. 12 CFR 563b.115 - How will OTS review my business plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How will OTS review my business plan? 563b.115... business plan? (a) OTS will review your business plan to determine that it demonstrates a safe and sound... will be determinative. OTS will review every case on its merits. (b) You must file your business...

  18. 12 CFR 585.120 - What factors will OTS consider in reviewing my application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What factors will OTS consider in reviewing my application? 585.120 Section 585.120 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE... OTS consider in reviewing my application? (a) OTS review. (1) In determining whether to approve...

  19. Teaching the Moving Child: OT Insights That Will Transform Your K-3 Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkey, Sybil M.

    2009-01-01

    Because sensorimotor and environmental factors have a profound effect on children's learning, every teacher should know how to weave strategies from occupational therapy (OT) into their everyday instruction. This is the guidebook K-3 teachers need to "think like an OT"--and form effective partnerships with OTs in their schools--so all students can…

  20. 12 CFR 550.560 - When may the OTS revoke my fiduciary powers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false When may the OTS revoke my fiduciary powers? 550.560 Section 550.560 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... § 550.560 When may the OTS revoke my fiduciary powers? The OTS may revoke your fiduciary powers if...

  1. 12 CFR 550.120 - What action will the OTS take on my application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What action will the OTS take on my application... FIDUCIARY POWERS OF SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS Obtaining Fiduciary Powers § 550.120 What action will the OTS take... OTS may impose conditions to ensure that the requirements of this part are met....

  2. 12 CFR 563b.200 - What actions may OTS take on my application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What actions may OTS take on my application....200 What actions may OTS take on my application? (a) OTS may approve your application for conversion only if: (1) Your conversion complies with this part; (2) You will meet your regulatory...

  3. Facts about Vitamin A

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can We Get Enough Vitamin A? We get vitamin A by eating a variety of fruits and vegetables that contain carotenoids and from dairy products fortified with vitamin A. Vitamin A also is found in liver ...

  4. Vitamin A Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... dietary sources of vitamin A. Meat sources provide vitamin A (as retinol), while vegetable and fruit sources provide carotene (a substance that can be converted into vitamin A by the liver). Deficiencies in vitamin A ...

  5. Vitamins and Minerals

    MedlinePlus

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Vitamins and Minerals KidsHealth > For Teens > Vitamins and Minerals Print A ... of a good thing? What Are Vitamins and Minerals? Vitamins and minerals make people's bodies work properly. ...

  6. Atomic force microscopy combined with optical tweezers (AFM/OT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierini, F.; Zembrzycki, K.; Nakielski, P.; Pawłowska, S.; Kowalewski, T. A.

    2016-02-01

    The role of mechanical properties is essential to understand molecular, biological materials, and nanostructures dynamics and interaction processes. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is the most commonly used method of direct force evaluation, but due to its technical limitations this single probe technique is unable to detect forces with femtonewton resolution. In this paper we present the development of a combined atomic force microscopy and optical tweezers (AFM/OT) instrument. The focused laser beam, on which optical tweezers are based, provides us with the ability to manipulate small dielectric objects and to use it as a high spatial and temporal resolution displacement and force sensor in the same AFM scanning zone. We demonstrate the possibility to develop a combined instrument with high potential in nanomechanics, molecules manipulation and biological studies. AFM/OT equipment is described and characterized by studying the ability to trap dielectric objects and quantifying the detectable and applicable forces. Finally, optical tweezers calibration methods and instrument applications are given.

  7. Comprehensive Method for Analysis of Vitamin D in Foods (Experimetntal Biology Annual Meeting, April, 2007, Washington, D.C.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A comprehensive method for Vitamin D analysis has been developed by using the best aspects of currently available published methods. The comprehensive method can be applied to a wide range of food samples including dry breakfast cereal, diet supplement drinks, powdered infant formula, cheese and ot...

  8. Optimization of OT-MACH Filter Generation for Target Recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Oliver C.; Edens, Weston; Lu, Thomas T.; Chao, Tien-Hsin

    2009-01-01

    An automatic Optimum Trade-off Maximum Average Correlation Height (OT-MACH) filter generator for use in a gray-scale optical correlator (GOC) has been developed for improved target detection at JPL. While the OT-MACH filter has been shown to be an optimal filter for target detection, actually solving for the optimum is too computationally intensive for multiple targets. Instead, an adaptive step gradient descent method was tested to iteratively optimize the three OT-MACH parameters, alpha, beta, and gamma. The feedback for the gradient descent method was a composite of the performance measures, correlation peak height and peak to side lobe ratio. The automated method generated and tested multiple filters in order to approach the optimal filter quicker and more reliably than the current manual method. Initial usage and testing has shown preliminary success at finding an approximation of the optimal filter, in terms of alpha, beta, gamma values. This corresponded to a substantial improvement in detection performance where the true positive rate increased for the same average false positives per image.

  9. Vitamin D

    MedlinePlus

    ... the skin makes. The best measure of your vitamin D status is to look at blood levels of a form known as 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Blood levels are described either as nanograms per milliliter (ng/mL) or nanomoles per liter (nmol/L), where ...

  10. B Vitamins

    MedlinePlus

    ... process your body uses to get or make energy from the food you eat. They also help form red blood cells. You can get B vitamins from proteins such as fish, poultry, meat, eggs, and dairy products. Leafy green vegetables, beans, and ...

  11. Vitamin D

    MedlinePlus

    ... and prevent the development of autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis. Research done in adults suggests that getting enough vitamin D may help lower the chances of developing heart disease, certain cancers, and other serious diseases like diabetes. Why Don't People Get Enough? There are ...

  12. Fixed ground antenna radome (FGAR) type 1/3 OT&E integrations and OT&E operational

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Leonard H.; Sedgwick, Harold G.

    1995-05-01

    This test report documents the Operational Test and Evaluation (OT&E) Integration and OT&E Operational testing performed on the Type I/Ill, Fixed Ground Antenna Radome (FGAR). The Type I/Ill FGAR is used with the Air Route Surveillance Radar (ARSR)) -1/2 and AN/FPS military radars. The testing was performed at the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Technical Center's Elwood En Route Beacon Test Facility (ERBTF) and the Northwest Mountain Region's Trinidad En Route Radar Facility (TAD), Colorado. The testing included: (1) characterization of the primary and secondary radar's electromagnetic performance; (2) human factors; (3) physical characteristics; and (4) physical performance. The electromagnetic performance testing showed no degradation of the primary or secondary radars; there were no human factor problems found; and only minor problems were identified during the physical characteristics and physical performance tests. The testing determined that the FGAR meets the Operational Suitability and Operational Effectiveness requirements of the FAA.

  13. Regulation of functional KCNQ1OT1 lncRNA by β-catenin

    PubMed Central

    Sunamura, Naohiro; Ohira, Takahito; Kataoka, Miki; Inaoka, Daigo; Tanabe, Hideyuki; Nakayama, Yuji; Oshimura, Mitsuo; Kugoh, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been implicated in many biological processes through epigenetic mechanisms. We previously reported that KCNQ1OT1, an imprinted antisense lncRNA in the human KCNQ1 locus on chromosome 11p15.5, is involved in cis-limited silencing within an imprinted KCNQ1 cluster. Furthermore, aberration of KCNQ1OT1 transcription was observed with a high frequency in colorectal cancers. However, the molecular mechanism of the transcriptional regulation and the functional role of KCNQ1OT1 in colorectal cancer remain unclear. Here, we show that the KCNQ1OT1 transcriptional level was significantly increased in human colorectal cancer cells in which β-catenin was excessively accumulated in the nucleus. Additionally, overexpression of β-catenin resulted in an increase in KCNQ1OT1 lncRNA-coated territory. On the other hand, knockdown of β-catenin resulted in significant decrease of KCNQ1OT1 lncRNA-coated territory and an increase in the mRNA expression of the SLC22A18 and PHLDA2 genes that are regulated by KCNQ1OT1. We showed that β-catenin can promote KCNQ1OT1 transcription through direct binding to the KCNQ1OT1 promoter. Our evidence indicates that β-catenin signaling may contribute to development of colorectal cancer by functioning as a novel lncRNA regulatory factor via direct targeting of KCNQ1OT1. PMID:26868975

  14. Vitamins, Minerals, and Mood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Bonnie J.; Crawford, Susan G.; Field, Catherine J.; Simpson, J. Steven A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore the breadth and depth of published research linking dietary vitamins and minerals (micronutrients) to mood. Since the 1920s, there have been many studies on individual vitamins (especially B vitamins and Vitamins C, D, and E), minerals (calcium, chromium, iron, magnesium, zinc, and selenium), and vitamin-like…

  15. Vitamin B-12

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Vitamin B-12 Vitamin B-12 What is vitamin B-12? Vitamin B-12 is an important nutrient that is found naturally ... shellfish, meat, eggs, dairy products, and fortified foods. Vitamin B-12 helps make red blood cells and ...

  16. 75 FR 24775 - Open Meeting of the OTS Mutual Savings Association Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ...The OTS Mutual Savings Associations Advisory Committee (MSAAC) will convene a telephonic meeting on Friday, May 21, 2010, beginning at 2 p.m. Eastern Time. The telephonic meeting will be open to the public. Members of the public interested in listening to the meeting and members of the public who require auxiliary aid should e-mail OTS at mutualcommittee@ots.treas.gov or call (202) 906-6429 to......

  17. Vitamin B12

    MedlinePlus

    ... body to absorb vitamin B12 from food. First, hydrochloric acid in the stomach separates vitamin B12 from the ... Many older adults, who do not have enough hydrochloric acid in their stomach to absorb the vitamin B12 ...

  18. Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6)

    MedlinePlus

    Pyridoxine is a vitamin. It can be found in certain foods such as cereals, beans, vegetables, liver, meat, and eggs. It can also ... is frequently used in combination with other B vitamins in vitamin B complex products. You may remember ...

  19. Vitamin B12 level

    MedlinePlus

    The vitamin B12 level is a blood test that measures how much vitamin B12 is in your blood. ... a form of megaloblastic anemia caused by poor vitamin B12 absorption. This can occur when the stomach ...

  20. Vitamin C and colds

    MedlinePlus

    Colds and vitamin C ... belief that vitamin C can cure the common cold , research about this claim is conflicting. Large doses ... vitamin C may help reduce how long a cold lasts, but they do not appear to protect ...

  1. Facts about Vitamin D

    MedlinePlus

    ... vitamin D from three sources—food, supplements, and sunlight. Sunlight When exposed to sunlight, the skin makes vitamin D, which is then ... body. Most people get some vitamin D from sunlight. However, several factors affect how well the body ...

  2. Vitamin D Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Vitamin D Tests Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Ergocalciferol (Vitamin D 2 ); Cholecalciferol (Vitamin D 3 ); Calcidiol (25-hydroxyvitamin ...

  3. Vitamin B12

    MedlinePlus

    ... naturally in a wide variety of animal proteins. Plant foods have no vitamin B12 unless they are ... animal sources of vitamin B12 much better than plant sources. Non-animal sources of vitamin B12 vary ...

  4. Vitamin A blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003570.htm Vitamin A blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The vitamin A test measures the level of vitamin A ...

  5. The ALMA OT in early science: supporting multiple customers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridger, Alan; Williams, Stewart; McLay, Stewart; Yatagai, Hiroshi; Schilling, Marcus; Biggs, Andrew; Tobar, Rodrigo; Warmels, Rein H.

    2012-09-01

    The ALMA Observatory is currently operating 'Early Science' observing. The Cycle0 and Cycle1 Calls for Proposals are part of this Early Science, and in both the ALMA Observing Tool plays a crucial role. This paper describes how the ALMA OT tackles the problem of making millimeter/sub-millimeter interferometry accessible to the wider community, while allowing "experts" the power and flexibility they need. We will also describe our approach to the challenges of supporting multiple customers, and explore the lessons learnt from the Early Science experiences. Finally we look ahead to the challenges presented by future observing cycles.

  6. Transport of charged Aerosol OT inverse micelles in nonpolar liquids.

    PubMed

    Karvar, Masoumeh; Strubbe, Filip; Beunis, Filip; Kemp, Roger; Smith, Ashley; Goulding, Mark; Neyts, Kristiaan

    2011-09-01

    Surfactants such as Aerosol OT (AOT) are commonly used to stabilize and electrically charge nonpolar colloids in devices such as electronic ink displays. The electrical behavior of such devices is strongly influenced by the presence of charged inverse micelles, formed by excess surfactant that does not cover the particles. The presence of charged inverse micelles results in increased conductivity of the solution, affecting both the energy consumption of the device and its switching characteristics. In this work, we use transient current measurements to investigate the electrical properties of suspensions of the surfactant Aerosol OT in dodecane. No particles are added, to isolate the effect of excess surfactant. The measured currents upon application of a voltage step are found to be exponentially decaying, and can be described by an analytical model based on an equivalent electric circuit. This behavior is physically interpreted, first by the high generation rate of charged inverse micelles giving the suspension resistor like properties, and second by the buildup of layers of charged inverse micelles at both electrodes, acting as capacitors. The model explains the measurements over a large range of surfactant concentrations, applied voltages, and device thicknesses. PMID:21728309

  7. 75 FR 61572 - Open Meeting of the OTS Mutual Savings Association Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Open Meeting of the OTS Mutual Savings Association Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of the Treasury, Office of Thrift Supervision. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The OTS...

  8. 12 CFR 502.25 - How does OTS determine my complexity component?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How does OTS determine my complexity component... determine my complexity component? If you are a savings association and your portfolio exceeds any of the thresholds in paragraph (a) of this section, OTS will calculate your complexity component according...

  9. 12 CFR 502.60 - When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a fee?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate... TREASURY ASSESSMENTS AND FEES Fees § 502.60 When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a fee? Under unusual circumstances, the Director may deem it necessary or appropriate to adjust, add, waive,...

  10. 12 CFR 502.60 - When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a fee?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a... ASSESSMENTS AND FEES Fees § 502.60 When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a fee? Under unusual circumstances, the Director may deem it necessary or appropriate to adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a fee....

  11. 12 CFR 502.60 - When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a fee?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a... ASSESSMENTS AND FEES Fees § 502.60 When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a fee? Under unusual circumstances, the Director may deem it necessary or appropriate to adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a fee....

  12. 12 CFR 502.60 - When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a fee?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate... TREASURY ASSESSMENTS AND FEES Fees § 502.60 When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a fee? Under unusual circumstances, the Director may deem it necessary or appropriate to adjust, add, waive,...

  13. 12 CFR 502.60 - When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a fee?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate... TREASURY ASSESSMENTS AND FEES Fees § 502.60 When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a fee? Under unusual circumstances, the Director may deem it necessary or appropriate to adjust, add, waive,...

  14. 12 CFR 563b.295 - Will OTS require me to re-solicit proxies?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Will OTS require me to re-solicit proxies? 563b.295 Section 563b.295 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... to re-solicit proxies? If you amend your application for conversion, OTS may require you to...

  15. 12 CFR 563b.295 - Will OTS require me to re-solicit proxies?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Will OTS require me to re-solicit proxies? 563b.295 Section 563b.295 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... to re-solicit proxies? If you amend your application for conversion, OTS may require you to...

  16. MASTER-IAC: QSO 2QZ J132407-0032 optical flare and OT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balanutsa, P.; Shurpakov, S.; Lipunov, V.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Rebolo, R.; Ricart, M. Serra; Israelian, G.; Lodieu, N.; Tiurina, N.; Kornilov, V.; Gress, O.; Kuznetsov, A.; Gorbunov, I.; Vlasenko, D.; Shumkov, V.; Vladimirov, V.

    2016-02-01

    MASTER-IAC auto-detection system( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 349171 ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 03h 32m 39.21s +19d 32m 15.0s on 2016-02-12.86192 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is 17.1 (limit 19.2m).

  17. 12 CFR 555.300 - Must I inform OTS before I use electronic means or facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Must I inform OTS before I use electronic means... THE TREASURY ELECTRONIC OPERATIONS Requirements Applicable to All Savings Associations § 555.300 Must I inform OTS before I use electronic means or facilities? (a) General. A savings association...

  18. 12 CFR 516.10 - How does OTS compute time periods under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false How does OTS compute time periods under this part? 516.10 Section 516.10 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY APPLICATION PROCESSING PROCEDURES § 516.10 How does OTS compute time periods under this part? In...

  19. 12 CFR 516.10 - How does OTS compute time periods under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How does OTS compute time periods under this part? 516.10 Section 516.10 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY APPLICATION PROCESSING PROCEDURES § 516.10 How does OTS compute time periods under this part? In...

  20. 12 CFR 516.10 - How does OTS compute time periods under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true How does OTS compute time periods under this part? 516.10 Section 516.10 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY APPLICATION PROCESSING PROCEDURES § 516.10 How does OTS compute time periods under this part? In...

  1. 12 CFR 516.10 - How does OTS compute time periods under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true How does OTS compute time periods under this part? 516.10 Section 516.10 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY APPLICATION PROCESSING PROCEDURES § 516.10 How does OTS compute time periods under this part? In...

  2. 12 CFR 516.10 - How does OTS compute time periods under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false How does OTS compute time periods under this part? 516.10 Section 516.10 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY APPLICATION PROCESSING PROCEDURES § 516.10 How does OTS compute time periods under this part? In...

  3. 12 CFR 516.250 - Will OTS require me to publish a new public notice?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Will OTS require me to publish a new public... publish a new public notice? (a) If your application was subject to a publication requirement, OTS may require you to publish a new public notice of your application if: (1) You submitted a revision to...

  4. Vitamin supplementation and megadoses.

    PubMed

    Blair, K A

    1986-07-01

    Almost one-third of American adults regularly take vitamins and supplements. If taken incorrectly or in excess, these vitamins may be a potential health hazard. Vitamins are essential nutrients which, in combination with other nutrients (e.g., fats, carbohydrates and proteins), foster normal metabolism. Vitamins also interact with each other. For example, vitamin C participates in the metabolism of folic acid, and vitamin E facilitates the absorption and storage of vitamin A. Because the biological functions of vitamins are interrelated, a diet poor in vitamins, carbohydrates, fats and proteins is not necessarily enhanced by vitamin supplementation. When vitamins are taken in excess of the Recommended Dietary Allowances or the individual's needs, the vitamins no longer function as vitamins but instead act as drugs, with such pharmacological effects as clinical toxicities and the abnormal utilization of vitamins. There are six categories that require vitamin supplements and, in some cases, megadoses. These will be discussed in detail. In addition, a brief table showing the Recommended Dietary Allowances will be given which the nurse practitioner can use in assessing nutritional needs of the client so that necessary adjustments can be made. Finally, a brief review of the potential risks and benefits of megadoses in normal, healthy adults will be given. PMID:3737019

  5. Radiation Susceptibility Assessment of Off the Shelf (OTS) Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culpepper, William X.; Nicholson, Leonard L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The reduction in budgets, shortening of schedules and necessity of flying near state of the art technology have forced projects and designers to utilize not only modern, non-space rated EEE parts but also OTS boards, subassemblies and systems. New instrumentation, communications, portable computers and navigation systems for the International Space Station, Space Shuttle, and Crew Return Vehicle are examples of the realization of this paradigm change at the Johnson Space Center. Because of this change, there has been a shift in the radiation assessment methodology from individual part testing using low energy heavy ions to board and box level testing using high-energy particle beams. Highlights of several years of board and system level testing are presented along with lessons learned, present areas of concern, insights into test costs, and future challenges.

  6. 12 CFR 550.70 - Must I obtain OTS approval or file a notice before I exercise fiduciary powers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... before I exercise fiduciary powers? 550.70 Section 550.70 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION... I obtain OTS approval or file a notice before I exercise fiduciary powers? You should refer to the following chart to determine if you must obtain OTS approval or file a notice with OTS before you...

  7. 12 CFR 550.70 - Must I obtain OTS approval or file a notice before I exercise fiduciary powers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... before I exercise fiduciary powers? 550.70 Section 550.70 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION... I obtain OTS approval or file a notice before I exercise fiduciary powers? You should refer to the following chart to determine if you must obtain OTS approval or file a notice with OTS before you...

  8. 12 CFR 550.70 - Must I obtain OTS approval or file a notice before I exercise fiduciary powers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... before I exercise fiduciary powers? 550.70 Section 550.70 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION... I obtain OTS approval or file a notice before I exercise fiduciary powers? You should refer to the following chart to determine if you must obtain OTS approval or file a notice with OTS before you...

  9. 12 CFR 550.70 - Must I obtain OTS approval or file a notice before I exercise fiduciary powers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... before I exercise fiduciary powers? 550.70 Section 550.70 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION... I obtain OTS approval or file a notice before I exercise fiduciary powers? You should refer to the following chart to determine if you must obtain OTS approval or file a notice with OTS before you...

  10. 12 CFR 550.70 - Must I obtain OTS approval or file a notice before I exercise fiduciary powers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... before I exercise fiduciary powers? 550.70 Section 550.70 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION... I obtain OTS approval or file a notice before I exercise fiduciary powers? You should refer to the following chart to determine if you must obtain OTS approval or file a notice with OTS before you...

  11. Seaweed vitamins as nutraceuticals.

    PubMed

    Škrovánková, Soňa

    2011-01-01

    Seaweeds are a good source of some water- (B(1), B(2), B(12), C) and fat-soluble (β-carotene with vitamin A activity, vitamin E) vitamins. To ensure that the adequate intake of all vitamins is received in the diet, people (especially people on special diet, strict vegetarians, and vegans) can consume foods enriched with vitamins, for example, in the form of functional foods with vitamins as nutraceuticals, extracted from natural sources such as seaweeds. Seaweed vitamins are important not only due to their biochemical functions and antioxidant activity but also due to other health benefits such as decreasing of blood pressure (vitamin C), prevention of cardiovascular diseases (β-carotene), or reducing the risk of cancer (vitamins E and C, carotenoids). PMID:22054961

  12. Vitamin D and Disease Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    Vitamin D and Disease Prevention Why is vitamin D important for health? Vitamin D is a hot topic in the news, thanks ... is controversy, though, over the effects of vitamin D on health other than the bones. Doctors have ...

  13. Vitamins and Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Irene; Caroppo, Francesca; Alaibac, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    A tremendous amount of information was published over the past decades in relation to the role of vitamins in various neoplastic diseases. In particular, several studies showed an inverse relationship between selected vitamins intake and cancer risk. In this review we will focus on the role played by vitamins in melanoma with particular regard to vitamin A, D, K, E and C. Given that vitamin supplementation is easy, convenient, and readily accepted by patients, in the future the use of vitamins in chemoprevention and therapy of melanoma could be encouraged if supported by pre-clinical and clinical evidence. PMID:26213971

  14. [Vitamin D and osteoimmunology].

    PubMed

    Takashi, Yuichi; Fukumoto, Seiji; Matsumoto, Toshio

    2016-05-01

    Vitamin D was considered to be one of nutrients which has an important role in the maintenance of calcium and phosphate metabolism. It was then revealed that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D metabolized from vitamin D works as a calciotropic hormone. Vitamin D metabolites were further shown to affect cell proliferation and differentiation. In immune system, vitamin D metabolites modulate both innate and adaptive immunity. Epidemiological studies indicated the associations between vitamin D deficiency and various diseases such as autoimmune diseases, allergy, infection and malignancy. In addition, vitamin D supplementation was shown to improve some these diseases. PMID:27117621

  15. Vitamin B12

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23193625 . Mason JB. Vitamins, trace minerals, and other micronutrients. In: Goldman L, Schafer ... Saunders; 2011:chap 225. Salwen MJ. Vitamins and trace elements. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's ...

  16. Vitamin B6

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23193625 . Mason JB. Vitamins, trace minerals, and other micronutrients. In: Goldman L, Schafer ... Saunders; 2011:chap 225. Salwen MJ. Vitamins and trace elements. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's ...

  17. Vitamin D Pooling Project

    Cancer.gov

    The Vitamin D Pooling Project of Rarer Cancers brought together investigators from 10 cohorts to conduct a large prospective epidemiologic study of the association between vitamin D status and seven rarer cancers.

  18. Vitamin D and Anaesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Biricik, Ebru; Güneş, Yasemin

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D is a vitamin not only associated with calcium-phosphorus metabolism but also affects many organ systems. Because of its effect on the immune system in recent years, it has attracted much attention. Vitamin D deficiency is a clinical condition that can be widely observed in the society. Thus, patients with vitamin D deficiency are often seen in anaesthesia practice. In the absence of vitamin D, prolongation of intensive care unit stay, increase in mortality and morbidity and also association of chronic diseases further increase the importance of vitamin D deficiency. The results obtained from studies have led to the question of whether poor surgical outcome is associated with vitamin D deficiency. We assessed the vitamin D deficiency and its negative consequences for the anaesthesiologist. PMID:27366509

  19. Vitamin D: beyond bone

    PubMed Central

    Christakos, Sylvia; Hewison, Martin; Gardner, David G; Wagner, Carol L; Sergeev, Igor N; Rutten, Erica; Pittas, Anastassios G; Boland, Ricardo; Ferrucci, Luigi; Bikle, Daniel D

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, vitamin D has been received increased attention due to the resurgence of vitamin D deficiency and rickets in developed countries and the identification of extraskeletal effects of vitamin D, suggesting unexpected benefits of vitamin D in health and disease, beyond bone health. The possibility of extraskeletal effects of vitamin D was first noted with the discovery of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in tissues and cells that are not involved in maintaining mineral homeostasis and bone health, including skin, placenta, pancreas, breast, prostate and colon cancer cells, and activated T cells. However, the biological significance of the expression of the VDR in different tissues is not fully understood, and the role of vitamin D in extraskeletal health has been a matter of debate. This report summarizes recent research on the roles for vitamin D in cancer, immunity and autoimmune diseases, cardiovascular and respiratory health, pregnancy, obesity, erythropoiesis, diabetes, muscle function, and aging. PMID:23682710

  20. Breastfeeding: Vitamin D Supplementation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Vitamin D Supplementation Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir While ... provide infants with an adequate intake of vitamin D. Most breastfed infants are able to synthesize additional ...

  1. 12 CFR 563b.240 - What must I submit to OTS after the members' meeting?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... TREASURY CONVERSIONS FROM MUTUAL TO STOCK FORM Standard Conversions Vote by Members § 563b.240 What must I... the following information with OTS: (1) A certified copy of each adopted resolution on the...

  2. 12 CFR 563b.240 - What must I submit to OTS after the members' meeting?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... TREASURY CONVERSIONS FROM MUTUAL TO STOCK FORM Standard Conversions Vote by Members § 563b.240 What must I... the following information with OTS: (1) A certified copy of each adopted resolution on the...

  3. 12 CFR 563b.240 - What must I submit to OTS after the members' meeting?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... TREASURY CONVERSIONS FROM MUTUAL TO STOCK FORM Standard Conversions Vote by Members § 563b.240 What must I... the following information with OTS: (1) A certified copy of each adopted resolution on the...

  4. 12 CFR 563b.240 - What must I submit to OTS after the members' meeting?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... TREASURY CONVERSIONS FROM MUTUAL TO STOCK FORM Standard Conversions Vote by Members § 563b.240 What must I... the following information with OTS: (1) A certified copy of each adopted resolution on the...

  5. 12 CFR 563b.240 - What must I submit to OTS after the members' meeting?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... TREASURY CONVERSIONS FROM MUTUAL TO STOCK FORM Standard Conversions Vote by Members § 563b.240 What must I... the following information with OTS: (1) A certified copy of each adopted resolution on the...

  6. Vitamin D and diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On the basis of evidence from animal and human studies, vitamin D has emerged as a potential risk modifier for type 1 and type 2 diabetes (t1DM and t2DM). Vitamin D is thought to have both direct (through activation of the vitamin D receptor) and indirect (via regulation of calcium homeostasis) eff...

  7. Vitamin B6

    MedlinePlus

    ... Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes: Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics B Vitamins Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  8. Vibrational energy relaxation of water in Aerosol OT reverse micelle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Yoonsoo; Deak, John; Dlott, Dana

    2005-03-01

    An IR-Raman technique with mid-IR pump and anti-Stokes Raman probe is used to investigate reverse micelle mixture of Aerosol OT, water, and carbon tetrachloride, where polar water phase and nonpolar oil phase is separated by a monolayer of surfactant molecules. Anti-Stokes Raman scattering is only dependent on the population of vibrationally excited states, thus time-dependent population changes of parent/daughter vibrations can be monitored with this technique. Vibrational energy from nanodroplet of water is transferred to the surfactant head group in 1.8 ps and then out to solvent in 10 ps. Vibrational energy directly pumped into the surfactant tail group results in a slower 20-40 ps energy transfer to solvent. This energy transfer cannot be explained by ordinary heat transfer, but the specific vibrational energy relaxation pathway such as sulfonate stretch of surfactant molecules should be used. We can change the water-to-solvent energy transfer rate by adopting different size of reverse micelles or changing pump frequency over the broad OH stretch mode of water due to hydrogen bond network. Water molecules confined in nanometer scale reverse micelles have very different properties from bulk water and we have found many differences between the vibrational dynamics of water in these reverse micelles and those of bulk water.

  9. OT2_ccodella_2: Where is chlorine in shocked regions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Codella, C.

    2011-09-01

    As part of the GT Herschel Program CHESS we detected for the first time hydrogen chlorine in a protostellar shock, L1157-B1 (Codella et al. 2011). One of the most surprising results of this work was the lack of enhancement in the abundance of HCl with respect to dense interstellar clouds, implying that HCl is not enhanced by the passage of a shock. This means that either chlorine is not sputtered during the passage of the shock (unlikely as Si is sputtered) or that HCl is not the main reservoir of clorine in shocked regions (unlike in dense interstellar clouds). In this proposal we propose to observe HCl in a sample of shocked regions in order to determine whether this result is unique to L1157-B1. We stress that given the weakness of the HCl emission in shocks and the strong atmospheric water absorption at the requested frequency (626 GHz), the present experiment cannot be reasonably performed from ground, making of Herschel OT2 the last chance to reach the present goals.

  10. Coexisting aggregates in mixed aerosol OT and cholesterol microemulsions.

    PubMed

    Sedgwick, Myles A; Trujillo, Alejandro M; Hendricks, Noah; Levinger, Nancy E; Crans, Debbie C

    2011-02-01

    Dynamic light scattering and NMR spectroscopic experimental evidence suggest the coexistence of two compositionally different self-assembled particles in solution. The self-assembled particles form in solutions containing water, Aerosol OT (AOT, sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate) surfactant, and cholesterol in cyclohexane. In a similar series of studies carried out in 1-octanol only one aggregate type, that is, reverse micelles, is observed. Dynamic light scattering measurements reveal the presence of two different types of aggregates in the microemulsions formed in cyclohexane, demonstrating the coexistence of two compositionally distinct structures with very similar Gibbs energies. One particle type consists of standard AOT reverse micelles while the second type of particle consists of submicellar aggregates including cholesterol as well as small amounts of AOT and water. In microemulsions employing 1-octanol as the continuous medium, AOT reverse micelles form in a dispersed solution of cholesterol in 1-octanol. Although the size distribution of self-assembled particles is well-known for many different systems, evidence for simultaneous formation of two distinctly sized particles in solution that are chemically different is unprecedented. The ability to form microemulsion solutions that contain coexisting particles may have important applications in drug formulation and administration, particularly as applied to drug delivery using cholesterol as a targeting agent. PMID:21188993

  11. Effects of Hypergravity Exposure on Plasma Oxytocin (OT) Concentrations in Pregnant and Lactating Rat Dams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baer, Lisa A.; Wade, Charles E.; Plaut, Karen; Ronca, April E.; Dalton, Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    From pregnancy to weaning there is a progressive elevation of plasma oxytocin (OT) levels associated with nursing activity, irrespective of litter size. In the present study, we analyzed the effects of continuous 1.5G, 1.75G and 2.0G hypergravity exposure on OT plasma concentration in prepartum (Gestation Day 20) (G20) and lactating (Postnatal day) (P10) rat dams. For this study, litter size was controlled with a yoking procedure established in our lab where individual control litters were yoked-matched to individual hypergravity litters. We reviewed all data at hypergravity irrespective of gravitational level and compared the values with the controls in both G20 (HG, n=15;SC, n=9) and P10 (HG, n=21;SC, n=16). Results showed that over time, we did observe the expected OT increase in both groups. In G20 dams, measurement of OT concentrations showed no significance. However, at P10, measurements of OT concentrations suggest a reduction of about 20% compared to established controls in our laboratory, 0.9+/-0.09 ng/ml for the controls and 0.7+/-0.06 ng/ml for centrifuged animals (p<0.02). These data suggest that exposure to centrifugation may reduce OT levels during lactation. When these plasma samples were obtained, the dams were removed from the litters, and values were not adjusted for the size of the litters. The reduction in OT with centrifugation may reflect a decrease in nursing activity or a decreased responsiveness of the mammary hypothalamic axis. In addition, we have analyzed data on plasma prolactin concentrations and mammary gland development, which may give additional insight to the results of our OT measurements.

  12. [Vitamin D and pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Benachi, Alexandra; Cordier, Anne-Gael; Courbebaisse, Marie; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude

    2013-10-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency is characterized, since 2005, by 25(OH)D concentration less than 75 nmol/L (or 30 ng/mL). Vitamin D could interfere with many mechanisms involved in preeclampsia's pathogenesis including trophoblastic invasion and immunomodulation as well as blood pressure control and proteinuria. Occurrence of preeclampsia and gestational diabetes seems to be linked to vitamin D deficiency but recent data in the literature are contradictory. Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy is controversial. Some societies consider it unnecessary and others recommend up to 2000 UI/d. There is no reported case of teratogenicity linked with vitamin D intake. PMID:24054765

  13. Nonclassical Vitamin D Action

    PubMed Central

    Zittermann, Armin; Gummert, Jan F.

    2010-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that vitamin D has a broad range of actions in the human body. Besides its well-known effects on calcium/phosphate homeostasis, vitamin D influences muscle function, cardiovascular homeostasis, nervous function, and the immune response. Vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency has been associated with muscle weakness and a high incidence of various chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, multiple sclerosis, and type 1 and 2 diabetes. Most importantly, low vitamin D status has been found to be an independent predictor of all-cause mortality. Several recent randomized controlled trials support the assumption that vitamin D can improve muscle strength, glucose homeostasis, and cardiovascular risk markers. In addition, vitamin D may reduce cancer incidence and elevated blood pressure. Since the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency is high throughout the world, there is a need to improve vitamin D status in the general adult population. However, the currently recommended daily vitamin D intake of 5-15 µg is too low to achieve an adequate vitamin D status in individuals with only modest skin synthesis. Thus, there is a need to recommend a vitamin D intake that is effective for achieving adequate circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations (>75 nmol/L). PMID:22254030

  14. [Vitamin D and pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Bui, T; Christin-Maitre, S

    2011-10-01

    Vitamin D plays a key role in calcium-phosphorus homeostasis and bone metabolism, but it is also involved in numerous others tissues. Vitamin D deficiency among pregnant women is frequent in many populations over the world. It is associated with an increased risk of preeclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, and caesarean section. Consequences in newborns are low birth weight, neonatal rickets, a risk of neonatal hypocalcemia, asthma and/or type 1 diabetes. Therefore, prevention of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant women is essential. The currently recommended supplementation amount of vitamin D is not sufficient to maintain a value of 25 hydroxy vitamin D above 30 ng/ml, during pregnancy. Randomized controlled trials during pregnancy are necessary to evaluate the amount of vitamin D sufficient to avoid the consequences of vitamin D deficiency. PMID:22008274

  15. Oxytocin (OT) and arginine-vasopressin (AVP) act on OT receptors and not AVP V1a receptors to enhance social recognition in adult Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus).

    PubMed

    Song, Zhimin; Larkin, Tony E; Malley, Maureen O'; Albers, H Elliott

    2016-05-01

    Social recognition is a fundamental requirement for all forms of social relationships. A majority of studies investigating the neural mechanisms underlying social recognition in rodents have investigated relatively neutral social stimuli such as juveniles or ovariectomized females over short time intervals (e.g., 2h). The present study developed a new testing model to study social recognition among adult males using a potent social stimulus. Flank gland odors are used extensively in social communication in Syrian hamsters and convey important information such as dominance status. We found that the recognition of flank gland odors after a 3min exposure lasted for at least 24h, substantially longer than the recognition of other social cues in rats and mice. Intracerebroventricular injections of OT and AVP prolonged the recognition of flank gland odor for up to 48h. Selective OTR but not V1aR agonists, mimicked these enhancing effects of OT and AVP. Similarly, selective OTR but not V1aR antagonists blocked recognition of the odors after 20min. In contrast, the recognition of non-social stimuli was not blocked by either the OTR or the V1aR antagonists. Our findings suggest both OT and AVP enhance social recognition via acting on OTRs and not V1aRs and that the recognition enhancing effects of OT and AVP are limited to social stimuli. PMID:26975586

  16. OT2_smalhotr_3: Herschel Extreme Lensing Line Observations (HELLO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malhotra, S.

    2011-09-01

    We request 59.8 hours of Herschel time to observe 20 normal star-forming galaxies in the [CII] 158 micron and [OI] 63 micron lines. These galaxies lie at high redshift (1OT1, 49 high redshift IR luminous galaxies were approved for spectroscopy, but only two so-called normal galaxies were included. This is an imbalance that should be corrected, to balance Herschel's legacy.

  17. Vitamin D: Beyond Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Lucock, Mark; Jones, Patrice; Martin, Charlotte; Beckett, Emma; Yates, Zoe; Furst, John; Veysey, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Interest in vitamin D and the VDR gene is increasing as putative roles in human health and evolutionary processes are explored. This review looks beyond the classic biochemistry that links vitamin D to calcium homeostasis; it explores how vitamin D interacts with light in a broader perspective than simple skin photosynthesis. It examines how the vitamin influences circadian rhythm, and how it may have helped drive the evolution of skin pigmentation. To this end, the nutrient-nutrient relationship with folate is also explored. The VDR gene is additionally examined as a factor in the evolutionary selection of skin depigmentation at higher latitudes to allow vitamin D synthesis. Evidence is given to show that VDR polymorphisms exhibit a latitudinal gradient in allele prevalence consistent with such a paradigm. Overall, the review examines new evo-devo ideas that link light-sensitive vitamins to human health/phenotype, both within and across the lifecycle. PMID:25878189

  18. Vitamin D and immunity

    PubMed Central

    Gorman, Shelley; Geldenhuys, Sian; Hart, Prue H.

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to an increased risk of a wide range of adverse health outcomes. The active form of vitamin D has an important role in calcium metabolism and in bone mineralisation, but the evidence for other health outcomes is mixed, with the strongest effects seen in the weakest epidemiological study designs. There are plausible pathways whereby vitamin D deficiency can impair immune function, resulting in both overactivity and increased risk of autoimmune disease, as well as immune suppression with poorer resistance to infection. Vitamin D status may influence the bacterial flora that constitute the microbiome and affect immune function through this route. Exposure of the skin to ultraviolet radiation causes the production of a range of chemicals, including vitamin D, and new research is exploring possible vitamin D-independent immunomodulatory pathways. PMID:25580272

  19. The sunshine vitamin.

    PubMed

    Singh-Jagatia, Pritpal; Lee, Deborah; Knuckey, Steven; Cook, Gary

    2012-10-01

    The musculoskeletal function of vitamin D has been well defined, prompting the population to supplement with vitamin D and calcium to maximise bone growth. However the role of vitamin D in pregnancy has not been systematically studied and is permeated with continuing controversy regarding the cause and effect relationship of vitamin D and pregnancy outcomes. Although further research is needed, the National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) (2008) recommend that all pregnant and breastfeeding women supplement with 10 microgrammes of vitamin D daily. Furthermore midwives and health visitors are asked to educate women about the importance of vitamin D supplementation, at booking and throughout antenatal care. Each appointment presents an opportunity to address concerns and explore options to increase levels through diet and supplementation and address any difficulties in obtaining supplements. PMID:23252066

  20. OmniTread OT-4 serpentine robot: new features and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borenstein, Johann; Hansen, Malik

    2007-04-01

    Serpentine robots are slender, multi-segmented vehicles designed to provide greater mobility than conventional wheeled or tracked robots. Serpentine robots are thus ideally suited for urban search and rescue, military intelligence gathering, and for surveillance and inspection tasks in hazardous and hard-to-reach environments. One such serpentine robot, developed at the University of Michigan, is the "OmniTread OT-4." The OT-4 comprises seven segments, which are linked to each other by 2-degree-of-freedom joints. The OT-4 can climb over obstacles that are much higher than the robot itself, propel itself inside pipes of different diameters, and traverse even the most difficult terrain, such as rocks or the rubble of a collapsed structure. The foremost and unique design characteristic of the OT-4 is the use of pneumatic bellows to actuate the joints. These bellows allow simultaneous control of position and stiffness for each joint. Controllable stiffness is of crucial importance in serpentine robots, which require stiff joints to cross gaps and compliant joints to conform to rough terrain for effective propulsion. Another unique feature of the OmniTread design is the maximal coverage of all four sides with driven tracks. This design makes the robot indifferent to roll-overs, which are happen frequently when the slender bodies of serpentine robots travel over rugged terrain. This paper describes the OmniTread concept as well as its latest technical features, and an extensive Experiment Results Section documents the abilities of the OT-4.

  1. Pantothenic acid (Vitamin B5)

    MedlinePlus

    Pantothenic acid is a vitamin, also known as vitamin B5. It is widely found in both plants and animals ... Vitamin B5 is commercially available as D-pantothenic acid, as well as dexpanthenol and calcium pantothenate, which ...

  2. Vitamin D and Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Vitamin D and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Vitamin D ... to get it. Who's at Risk for Vitamin D Deficiency? Things like a lack of direct sunlight ...

  3. Vitamin E in dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Keen, Mohammad Abid; Hassan, Iffat

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin E is an important fat-soluble antioxidant and has been in use for more than 50 years in dermatology. It is an important ingredient in many cosmetic products. It protects the skin from various deleterious effects due to solar radiation by acting as a free-radical scavenger. Experimental studies suggest that vitamin E has antitumorigenic and photoprotective properties. There is a paucity of controlled clinical studies providing a rationale for well-defined dosages and clinical indications of vitamin E usage in dermatological practice. The aim of this article is to review the cosmetic as well as clinical implications of vitamin E in dermatology. PMID:27559512

  4. Vitamin D and aging.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, J Christopher

    2013-06-01

    Age-related changes affect vitamin D metabolism and increase the requirement for vitamin D in the elderly. Also there is an age related decrease in calcium absorption and a higher calcium intake is needed. Increasing calcium from dietary sources may be better than supplements, and requires increasing the intake of dairy products or other and calcium-fortified foods. Evidence suggests that vitamin D and calcium nutrition can be improved in the elderly by increasing the vitamin D intake to 800 IU daily together with a total calcium intake of 1000 mg daily. This combination is a simple, inexpensive strategy that can reduce fractures in institutionalized individuals by 30%. PMID:23702404

  5. Sunshine and vitamin D.

    PubMed

    Saraff, Vrinda; Shaw, Nick

    2016-02-01

    Vitamin D is vital for bone health and its deficiency deemed as a disease of the past has re-emerged as an important health concern. Exposure of the skin to solar ultraviolet B radiation is the major source of vitamin D and only a small proportion is derived from dietary intake. We review the various factors that influence the cutaneous synthesis of vitamin D and the recommendations regarding safe sun exposure and dietary supplementation to achieve adequate vitamin D levels proposed for optimal bone health. PMID:26323284

  6. Expression and Developmental Regulation of Oxytocin (OT) and Oxytocin Receptors (OTR) in the Enteric Nervous System (ENS) and Intestinal Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Welch, Martha G.; Tamir, Hadassah; Gross, Kara J.; Chen, Jason; Anwar, Muhammad; Gershon, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Although oxytocin (OT) and oxytocin receptor (OTR) are known for roles in parturition and milk let-down, they are not hypothalamus-restricted. OT is important in nurturing and opposition to stress. Transcripts encoding OT and OTR have been reported in adult human gut, and OT affects intestinal motility. We tested the hypotheses that OT is endogenous to the enteric nervous system (ENS) and that OTR signaling may participate in enteric neurophysiology. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction confirmed OT and OTR transcripts in adult mouse and rat gut and in precursors of enteric neurons immunoselected from fetal rats. Enteric OT and OTR expression continued through adulthood but was developmentally regulated, peaking at postnatal day 7. Coincidence of the immunoreactivities of OTR and the neural marker Hu was 100% in the P3 and 71% in the adult myenteric plexus, when submucosal neurons were also OTR-immunoreactive. Co-localization with NeuN established that intrinsic primary afferent neurons are OTR-expressing. Because OTR transcripts and protein were detected in the nodose ganglia, OT signaling might also affect extrinsic primary afferent neurons. Although OT immunoreactivity was found only in ~1% of myenteric neurons, extensive OT-immunoreactive varicosities surrounded many others. Villus enterocytes were OTR-immunoreactive through postnatal day 17; however, by postnatal day 19, immunoreactivity waned to become restricted to crypts and concentrated at crypt-villus junctions. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed plasmalemmal OTR at enterocyte adherens junctions. We suggest that OT and OTR signaling might be important in ENS development and function and might play roles in visceral sensory perception and neural modulation of epithelial biology. PMID:19003903

  7. Sunlight and Vitamin D

    PubMed Central

    Wacker, Matthias; Holick, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D is the sunshine vitamin that has been produced on this earth for more than 500 million years. During exposure to sunlight 7-dehydrocholesterol in the skin absorbs UV B radiation and is converted to previtamin D3 which in turn isomerizes into vitamin D3. Previtamin D3 and vitamin D3 also absorb UV B radiation and are converted into a variety of photoproducts some of which have unique biologic properties. Sun induced vitamin D synthesis is greatly influenced by season, time of day, latitude, altitude, air pollution, skin pigmentation, sunscreen use, passing through glass and plastic, and aging. Vitamin D is metabolized sequentially in the liver and kidneys into 25-hydroxyvitamin D which is a major circulating form and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D which is the biologically active form respectively. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D plays an important role in regulating calcium and phosphate metabolism for maintenance of metabolic functions and for skeletal health. Most cells and organs in the body have a vitamin D receptor and many cells and organs are able to produce 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. As a result 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D influences a large number of biologic pathways which may help explain association studies relating vitamin D deficiency and living at higher latitudes with increased risk for many chronic diseases including autoimmune diseases, some cancers, cardiovascular disease, infectious disease, schizophrenia and type 2 diabetes. A three-part strategy of increasing food fortification programs with vitamin D, sensible sun exposure recommendations and encouraging ingestion of a vitamin D supplement when needed should be implemented to prevent global vitamin D deficiency and its negative health consequences. PMID:24494042

  8. A global outer-rise/outer-trench-slope (OR/OTS) earthquake study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wartman, J. M.; Kita, S.; Kirby, S. H.; Choy, G. L.

    2009-12-01

    Using improved seismic, bathymetric, satellite gravity and other geophysical data, we investigated the seismicity patterns and focal mechanisms of earthquakes in oceanic lithosphere off the trenches of the world that are large enough to be well recorded at teleseismic distances. A number of prominent trends are apparent, some of which have been previously recognized based on more limited data [1], and some of which are largely new [2-5]: (1) The largest events and the highest seismicity rates tend to occur where Mesozoic incoming plates are subducting at high rates (e.g., those in the western Pacific and the Banda segment of Indonesia). The largest events are predominantly shallow normal faulting (SNF) earthquakes. Less common are reverse-faulting (RF) events that tend to be deeper and to be present along with SNF events where nearby seamounts, seamount chains and other volcanic features are subducting [Seno and Yamanaka, 1996]. Blooms of SNF OR/OTS events usually occur just after and seaward of great interplate thrust (IPT) earthquakes but are far less common after smaller IPT events. (2) Plates subducting at slow rates (<20 mm/a) often show sparse OR/OTS seismicity. It is unclear if such low activity is a long-term feature of these systems or is a consequence of the long return times of great IPT earthquakes (e.g., the sparse OR/OTS seismicity before the 26 December 2004 M9.2 Sumatra earthquake and many subsequent OR/OTS events). (3) OR/OTS shocks are generally sparse or absent where incoming plates are very young (<20 Ma) (e.g., Cascadia, southern Mexico, Nankai, and South Shetlands). (4) Subducting plates of intermediate age (20 to about 65 Ma) display a diversity of focal mechanisms and seismicity patterns. In the Philippines, NE Indonesia, and Melanesia, bands of reverse faulting events occur at or near the trench and SNF earthquakes are restricted to OR/OTS sites further from the trench. (5) Clustering of OR/OTS events of all types commonly occurs where

  9. MASTER OT J122114.34+472950.7 is a Type Ia Supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverman, J. M.; Tucker, B. E.; Vinko, J.; Quimby, R.; Wheeler, J. C.; Chatzopoulos, E.

    2013-04-01

    We write that a spectrogram, obtained on Mar. 31.18 UT with the 9.2-m Hobby-Eberly Telescope (+ Marcario Low-Resolution Spectrograph) by J. Caldwell, shows that MASTER OT J122114.34+472950.7 is a type-Ia supernova. Correlation with a library of supernova spectra using the "SuperNova IDentification" code (SNID; Blondin and Tonry 2007, Ap.J. 666, 1024) indicates that MASTER OT J122114.34+472950.7 is SN 1999aa-like type-Ia supernova (Strolger, et al., 2002, A.J., 124, 2905; Garavini, et al., 2004, A.J., 128, 387) at maximum brightness.

  10. Calcium and Vitamin D

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adequate intakes of vitamin D and calcium are essential preventative measures and essential components of any therapeutic regimen for osteoporosis. Vitamin D is also important for the prevention of falls. Current evidence suggests that a 25-hydroxyvitamin D level of 75 nmol/L (30 ng/ml) or higher ...

  11. Facts about Vitamin C

    MedlinePlus

    ... are the best sources. Rich sources of this vitamin include citrus fruits and citrus fruit juices, sweet peppers, papayas, and ... destroyed during preparation, cooking, or storage. To retain vitamin C, follow these tips: • Eat fresh fruits and vegetables as soon as possible after buying ...

  12. Vitamin B6

    MedlinePlus

    ... Guidelines for Americans and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's MyPlate . Where can I find out more about ... food sources of vitamin B6: U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) National Nutrient Database Nutrient List for vitamin ...

  13. Vitamin B-12

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin B-12 is a cofactor for 2 enzymes. In the cytoplasm, methionine synthase requires vitamin B-12 in the form of methylcobalamin and catalyzes the conversion of homocysteine to methionine by transfer of a methyl group from methyltetrahydrofolate.This enzyme links the methylation pathway through ...

  14. Long non-coding RNA SOX2OT: expression signature, splicing patterns, and emerging roles in pluripotency and tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Shahryari, Alireza; Jazi, Marie Saghaeian; Samaei, Nader M.; Mowla, Seyed J.

    2015-01-01

    SOX2 overlapping transcript (SOX2OT) is a long non-coding RNA which harbors one of the major regulators of pluripotency, SOX2 gene, in its intronic region. SOX2OT gene is mapped to human chromosome 3q26.3 (Chr3q26.3) locus and is extended in a high conserved region of over 700 kb. Little is known about the exact role of SOX2OT; however, recent studies have demonstrated a positive role for it in transcription regulation of SOX2 gene. Similar to SOX2, SOX2OT is highly expressed in embryonic stem cells and down-regulated upon the induction of differentiation. SOX2OT is dynamically regulated during the embryogenesis of vertebrates, and delimited to the brain in adult mice and human. Recently, the disregulation of SOX2OT expression and its concomitant expression with SOX2 have become highlighted in some somatic cancers including esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, lung squamous cell carcinoma, and breast cancer. Interestingly, SOX2OT is differentially spliced into multiple mRNA-like transcripts in stem and cancer cells. In this review, we are describing the structural and functional features of SOX2OT, with an emphasis on its expression signature, its splicing patterns and its critical function in the regulation of SOX2 expression during development and tumorigenesis. PMID:26136768

  15. 12 CFR 563b.515 - What information must I provide to OTS before I repurchase my shares?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true What information must I provide to OTS before I... THE TREASURY CONVERSIONS FROM MUTUAL TO STOCK FORM Standard Conversions Post-Conversion § 563b.515 What information must I provide to OTS before I repurchase my shares? (a) To repurchase stock in...

  16. 12 CFR 563b.515 - What information must I provide to OTS before I repurchase my shares?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What information must I provide to OTS before I... THE TREASURY CONVERSIONS FROM MUTUAL TO STOCK FORM Standard Conversions Post-Conversion § 563b.515 What information must I provide to OTS before I repurchase my shares? (a) To repurchase stock in...

  17. 12 CFR 563b.515 - What information must I provide to OTS before I repurchase my shares?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What information must I provide to OTS before I... THE TREASURY CONVERSIONS FROM MUTUAL TO STOCK FORM Standard Conversions Post-Conversion § 563b.515 What information must I provide to OTS before I repurchase my shares? (a) To repurchase stock in...

  18. 12 CFR 563b.515 - What information must I provide to OTS before I repurchase my shares?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true What information must I provide to OTS before I... THE TREASURY CONVERSIONS FROM MUTUAL TO STOCK FORM Standard Conversions Post-Conversion § 563b.515 What information must I provide to OTS before I repurchase my shares? (a) To repurchase stock in...

  19. 12 CFR 563b.515 - What information must I provide to OTS before I repurchase my shares?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What information must I provide to OTS before I... THE TREASURY CONVERSIONS FROM MUTUAL TO STOCK FORM Standard Conversions Post-Conversion § 563b.515 What information must I provide to OTS before I repurchase my shares? (a) To repurchase stock in...

  20. 12 CFR 516.220 - If OTS requests additional information to complete my application, how will it process my...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... complete my application, how will it process my application? 516.220 Section 516.220 Banks and Banking... Standard Treatment § 516.220 If OTS requests additional information to complete my application, how will it... your response. OTS will notify you that it has extended the period before the end of the initial...

  1. 12 CFR 516.220 - If OTS requests additional information to complete my application, how will it process my...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... complete my application, how will it process my application? 516.220 Section 516.220 Banks and Banking... Standard Treatment § 516.220 If OTS requests additional information to complete my application, how will it... your response. OTS will notify you that it has extended the period before the end of the initial...

  2. Vitamin D and asthma

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Sheena D.; Calvert, H. Hardie; Fitzpatrick, Anne M.

    2012-01-01

    Asthma, one of the most prevalent diseases affecting people worldwide, is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by heightened airway inflammation, airway hyperresponsiveness and airflow obstruction in response to specific triggers. While the specific mechanisms responsible for asthma are not well understood, changing environmental factors associated with urban lifestyles may underlie the increased prevalence of the disorder. Vitamin D is of particular interest in asthma since vitamin D concentrations decrease with increased time spent indoors, decreased exposure to sunlight, less exercise, obesity, and inadequate calcium intake. Additionally, a growing body of literature suggests that there is a relationship between vitamin D status and respiratory symptoms, presumably through immunomodulatory effects of vitamin D. This review discusses vitamin D as it relates to asthma across the age spectrum, with a focus on human studies. PMID:22928069

  3. Decreased vitamin B12 availability induces ER stress through impaired SIRT1-deacetylation of HSF1

    PubMed Central

    Ghemrawi, R; Pooya, S; Lorentz, S; Gauchotte, G; Arnold, C; Gueant, J-L; Battaglia-Hsu, S-F

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is a key determinant of S-adenosyl methionine (SAM)-dependent epigenomic cellular regulations related to methylation/acetylation and its deficiency produces neurodegenerative disorders by elusive mechanisms. Sirtuin 1 deacetylase (SIRT1) triggers cell response to nutritional stress through endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Recently, we have established a N1E115 dopaminergic cell model by stable expression of a transcobalamin–oleosin chimera (TO), which impairs cellular availability of vitamin B12, decreases methionine synthase activity and SAM level, and reduces cell proliferation. In contrast, oleosin-transcobalamin chimera (OT) does not modify the phenotype of transfected cells. Presently, the impaired cellular availability of vitamin B12 in TO cells activated irreversible ER stress pathways, with increased P-eIF-2α, P-PERK, P-IRE1α, ATF6, ATF4, decreased chaperon proteins and increased pro-apoptotic markers, CHOP and cleaved caspase 3, through reduced SIRT1 expression and consequently greater acetylation of heat-shock factor protein 1 (HSF1). Adding either B12, SIRT1, or HSF1 activators as well as overexpressing SIRT1 or HSF1 dramatically reduced the activation of ER stress pathways in TO cells. Conversely, impairing SIRT1 and HSF1 by siRNA, expressing a dominant negative form of HSF1, or adding a SIRT1 inhibitor led to B12-dependent ER stress in OT cells. Addition of B12 abolished the activation of stress transducers and apoptosis, and increased the expression of protein chaperons in OT cells subjected to thapsigargin, a strong ER stress stimulator. AdoX, an inhibitor of methyltransferase activities, produced similar effects than decreased B12 availability on SIRT1 and ER stress by a mechanism related to increased expression of hypermethylated in cancer 1 (HIC1). Taken together, these data show that cellular vitamin B12 has a strong modulating influence on ER stress in N1E115 dopaminergic cells. The impaired cellular availability in

  4. Definitions of Health Terms: Vitamins

    MedlinePlus

    ... promotes healing and helps the body absorb iron. Vitamin C comes from fruits and vegetables. Good sources include citrus, red and green peppers, tomatoes, broccoli, and greens. Some juices and cereals have added vitamin C. Source : NIH MedlinePlus Vitamin D Vitamin D ...

  5. 75 FR 76524 - Closed Meeting of the OTS Mutual Savings Association Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Closed Meeting of the OTS Mutual Savings Association Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice of Closed Meeting... held at the Office of Thrift Supervision, 1700 G Street, NW., Washington, DC 20552. The public...

  6. 75 FR 38188 - Closed Meeting of the OTS Mutual Savings Association Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Closed Meeting of the OTS Mutual Savings Association Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of the Treasury, Office of Thrift Supervision. ACTION: Notice of Closed Meeting... meeting will be held at the Office of Thrift Supervision, 1700 G Street, NW., Washington, DC 20552....

  7. 76 FR 7630 - Open Meeting of the OTS Minority Depository Institutions Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Open Meeting of the OTS Minority Depository Institutions Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of the Treasury, Office of Thrift Supervision. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY:...

  8. 75 FR 13344 - Open Meeting of the OTS Minority Depository Institutions Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Open Meeting of the OTS Minority Depository Institutions Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of the Treasury, Office of Thrift Supervision. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY:...

  9. 75 FR 63895 - Open Meeting of the OTS Minority Depository Institutions Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Open Meeting of the OTS Minority Depository Institutions Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of the Treasury, Office of Thrift Supervision. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY:...

  10. MASTER OT J095503.19-355149.4 detection during FERMI Trigg 478121069 inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipunov, V.; Tiurina, N.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Buckley, D.; Balanutsa, P.; Kuznetsov, A.; Kornilov, V.; Gress, O.; Vlasenko, D.; Vladimirov, V.; Shumkov, V.; Shurpakov, S.; Kuvshinov, D.; Potter, S.; Kotze, M.

    2016-02-01

    MASTER-SAAO auto-detection system( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 30L ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 09h 55m 03.19s -35d 51m 49.4s on 2016-02-25.89505 UT during Fermi trigger 478121069 inspection (Buckley et al., GCN #19092).

  11. OGLE-IV Pre-discovery Observations of MASTER OT J051032.58-692130.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mroz, P.; Udalski, A.; Wyrzykowski, L.; Pawlak, M.

    2016-05-01

    Gorbovskoy et al. (ATel #9039) reported the discovery of a bright optical transient MASTER OT J051032.58-692130.4 toward the Large Magellanic Cloud. The object is located in the field LMC509 that is regularly monitored by the OGLE-IV Survey.

  12. Swift observation of the LMC nova candidate MASTER OT J051032.58-692130.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolovsky, Kirill

    2016-05-01

    The optical transient MASTER & nbsp;OT & nbsp;J051032.58-692130.4 was discovered by MASTER-SAAO on 2016-05-10.72797 (ATel #9039). Pre-discovery images by OGLE-IV indicate that the outburst occurred some time between 2016-04-21.00403 and 28.97626 (ATel #9040).

  13. MASTER: young PSN(Ia) in bright PGC054958 and OTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumkov, V.; Shurpakov, S.; Lipunov, V.; Lopez, R. Rebolo; Buckley, D.; Ricart, Serra; Israelyan, G.; Potter, S.; Kniazev, A.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tiurina, N.; Balanutsa, P.; Kuznetsov, A.; Kornilov, V.; Vlasenko, D.; Gorbunov, I.; Kuvshinov, D.; Vladimirov, V.; Popova, E.

    2016-04-01

    MASTER-IAC auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 349171 ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 15h 23m 33.04s +09d 21m 25.6s on 2016-04-04.09646 UT. PSN unfiltered magnitude is 17.7m (limit 19.5m).

  14. Pre-discovery observations of MASTER OT J004514.13+420007.2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maehara, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    I report pre-discovery observations of the possible nova in M31 MASTER OT J004514.13+420007.2 (ATel # 8603). The observations were performed with the 1.05-m Schmidt telescope and KWFC (Sako et al. 2012, SPIE, 8446, 84466L) at Kiso Observatory.

  15. Spectroscopic Classification of MASTER OT J110707.62-052244.0 as a Type Ia Supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, W.; Kim, M.; Shivvers, I.; Yuk, H.; Filippenko, A. V.

    2015-11-01

    We report that inspection of a CCD spectrum (range 350-1050 nm) of MASTER OT J110707.62-052244.0 (ATel #8236), obtained on Nov. 11.57 UT with the Shane 3-m reflector (+ Kast spectrograph) at Lick Observatory, shows that the object is a normal Type Ia supernova roughly 1 week past maximum brightness.

  16. MELATONIN ENHANCES JUNCTIONAL TRANSFER IN NORMAL C3H/1OT1/2 CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is strong evidence that pineal melatonin is involved in controlling neoplastic processes. e have reported that physiological, but not pharmacological or subphysiological, concentrations of melatonin enhance intercellular communication in normal C3H/1OT1/2 fibroblasts. ap ju...

  17. 12 CFR 563b.300 - What must happen before OTS declares my offering circular effective?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... offering circular effective? 563b.300 Section 563b.300 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CONVERSIONS FROM MUTUAL TO STOCK FORM Standard Conversions Offering Circular § 563b.300 What must happen before OTS declares my offering circular effective? (a) You must prepare...

  18. 12 CFR 563b.300 - What must happen before OTS declares my offering circular effective?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... offering circular effective? 563b.300 Section 563b.300 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CONVERSIONS FROM MUTUAL TO STOCK FORM Standard Conversions Offering Circular § 563b.300 What must happen before OTS declares my offering circular effective? (a) You must prepare...

  19. Optimal Diphthongs: An OT Analysis of the Acquisition of Spanish Diphthongs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, Alice

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the acquisition of Spanish diphthongs by adult native speakers of English. The following research questions will be addressed: 1) How do adult native speakers of English pronounce sequences of two vowels in their L2 Spanish at different levels of acquisition? 2) Can OT learnability models, specifically the GLA,…

  20. 12 CFR 555.300 - Must I inform OTS before I use electronic means or facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... transactional web site. A transactional web site is an Internet site that enables users to conduct financial... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Must I inform OTS before I use electronic means or facilities? 555.300 Section 555.300 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT...

  1. Vitamin D intoxication.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Behzat; Hatun, Sükrü; Bereket, Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin D intoxication (VDI) may result from supplementation rarely, but it has been reported more frequently in recent years. This may be attributable to an increase in vitamin D supplement intake due to an understanding of the role of vitamin D (25OHD) in the pathogenesis of several diseases. The symptoms and findings associated with VDI are closely related to serum calcium concentration and duration of hypercalcemia. In patients with VDI, hypercalcemia, normal or high serum phosphorus levels, normal or low levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), high levels of serum 25OHD, low serum parathyroid hormone (PTH), and high urine calcium/creatinine are usually present. Serum 25OHD levels above 150 ng/ml are considered as VDI. The main goal of treatment for VDI is correction of the hypercalcemia. When the calcium concentration exceeds 14 mg/dl, emergency intervention is necessary because of the adverse effects of hypercalcemia on cardiac, central nervous system, renal, and gastrointestinal functions. However, since vitamin D is stored in fat tissues, effects of toxicity may last for months despite the removal of the exogenous source of vitamin D. Treatment for VDI includes: discontinuation of intake, a diet with low calcium and phosphorus content, intravenous hydration with saline, loop diuretics, glucocorticoids, calcitonin, and bisphosphonates. In conclusion, the diagnosis of vitamin D deficiency rickets (VDDR) without checking serum 25OHD level may cause redundant treatment that leads to VDI. All patients who are clinically suspected of VDDR should be checked for serum vitamin D status and questioned for previous vitamin D administration before starting vitamin D therapy. On the other hand, parents of all infants should be asked whether they are using dietary or oral supplements, and serial questioning may be required during supplementation to avoid excessive intake. PMID:22734293

  2. Vitamin C revisited.

    PubMed

    Oudemans-van Straaten, Heleen M; Spoelstra-de Man, Angelique Me; de Waard, Monique C

    2014-01-01

    This narrative review summarizes the role of vitamin C in mitigating oxidative injury-induced microcirculatory impairment and associated organ failure in ischemia/reperfusion or sepsis. Preclinical studies show that high-dose vitamin C can prevent or restore microcirculatory flow impairment by inhibiting activation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase and inducible nitric oxide synthase, augmenting tetrahydrobiopterin, preventing uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation, and decreasing the formation of superoxide and peroxynitrite, and by directly scavenging superoxide. Vitamin C can additionally restore vascular responsiveness to vasoconstrictors, preserve endothelial barrier by maintaining cyclic guanylate phosphatase and occludin phosphorylation and preventing apoptosis. Finally, high-dose vitamin C can augment antibacterial defense. These protective effects against overwhelming oxidative stress due to ischemia/reperfusion, sepsis or burn seems to mitigate organ injury and dysfunction, and promote recovery after cardiac revascularization and in critically ill patients, in the latter partially in combination with other antioxidants. Of note, several questions remain to be solved, including optimal dose, timing and combination of vitamin C with other antioxidants. The combination obviously offers a synergistic effect and seems reasonable during sustained critical illness. High-dose vitamin C, however, provides a cheap, strong and multifaceted antioxidant, especially robust for resuscitation of the circulation. Vitamin C given as early as possible after the injurious event, or before if feasible, seems most effective. The latter could be considered at the start of cardiac surgery, organ transplant or major gastrointestinal surgery. Preoperative supplementation should consider the inhibiting effect of vitamin C on ischemic preconditioning. In critically ill patients, future research should focus on the use of short-term high-dose intravenous vitamin

  3. 12 CFR 502.27 - How does OTS determine the risk/complexity component for a savings and loan holding company?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... loan holding company? (a) OTS computes the risk/complexity component for responsible savings and loan... entities. (c) OTS uses the following chart to compute the risk/complexity component under this section. OTS... Billion (d) To compute your risk/complexity component, find the row in the appropriate schedule...

  4. 33 CFR 150.445 - When is oil in a single point mooring-oil transfer system (SPM-OTS) displaced with water?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... mooring-oil transfer system (SPM-OTS) displaced with water? 150.445 Section 150.445 Navigation and...-OTS) displaced with water? (a) The oil in an SPM-OTS must be displaced with water, and the valve at... section is waived if port officials can demonstrate to the Officer in Charge of Marine Inspection that...

  5. Vitamin therapy in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Hoffer, Leonard John

    2008-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a devastating and poorly understood disease for which the only accepted therapy is nonspecific antipsychotic and anti-seizure medication. This article summarizes the evidence that certain vitamin deficiencies likely worsen the symptoms of schizophrenia, and the evidence that large doses of certain vitamins could improve the core metabolic abnormalities that predispose some people to develop it; it recounts the history of a controversial vitamin-based therapy for schizophrenia called orthomolecular psychiatry; and it concludes by advocating a process for discovering promising new schizophrenia therapies that involves small, carefully conducted clinical trials of nutrient combinations in appropriately selected patients. PMID:18587164

  6. Vitamin B1

    MedlinePlus

    ... Flash 6 » Sound: No High score: Yes Credits » Chicken Farm Game - Why do we need vitamin B1? - ... save lives. You have one minute to feed chickens suffering from beriberi with the correct food to ...

  7. Vitamins and Minerals

    MedlinePlus

    ... Also, many nutrients interact with each other. Most nutritionists believe in designing an overall program of supplements. ... SUPPLEMENTS? In addition to vitamins and minerals, some nutritionists suggest that people with HIV take supplements of ...

  8. Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cordarone)Amiodarone (Cordarone) might increase your sensitivity to sunlight. Taking vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) along with amiodarone (Cordarone) ... or rashes on areas of skin exposed to sunlight. Be sure to wear sunblock and protective clothing ...

  9. Vitamin D Deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... deficiency can lead to a loss of bone density (size and strength), broken bones (fractures), muscle weakness, ... get too much calcium in their blood or urine. Careful monitoring of blood vitamin D levels will ...

  10. Distribution of polyphenols and a surfactant component in skin during Aerosol OT microemulsion-enhanced intradermal delivery.

    PubMed

    Yutani, Reiko; Morita, Shin-ya; Teraoka, Reiko; Kitagawa, Shuji

    2012-01-01

    As for most other polyphenols, intradermal delivery of curcumin and resveratrol is limited; however, it was significantly improved by a microemulsion using Aerosol OT (Aerosol OT microemulsion) and Tween 80 (Tween 80 microemulsion) as surfactants. Aerosol OT microemulsion was more effective and the incorporation ratio of these polyphenols into skin by Aerosol OT microemulsion was five-fold or ten-fold that by Tween 80 microemulsion. To clarify the mechanism of the enhancement we examined the distribution of these polyphenols and the surfactant component, Aerosol OT, using excised guinea pig skin and Yucatan micropig (YMP) skin. During permeation, polyphenols distributed deep in the skin. In particular, a small molecule, resveratrol, was mainly present in the dermis in YMP skin. Aerosol OT also distributed deep in the skin. These findings suggest the possible involvement of the interaction of surfactant molecules with skin components in the enhanced delivery process of polyphenols. The distribution ratio between the dermis and epidermis of the polyphenols, including quercetin, in the presence of Aerosol OT microemulsion decreased with the increase of molecular weight in YMP skin, suggesting the possibility that distribution to the dermis is regulated by the molecular size. PMID:22863702

  11. Vitamin D Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Alshishtawy, Moeness Moustafa

    2012-01-01

    Recently, scientists have generated a strong body of evidence providing new information about the preventive effect of vitamin D on a broad range of disorders. This evidence suggests that vitamin D is much more than a nutrient needed for bone health; it is an essential hormone required for regulation of a large number of physiological functions. Sufficient concentration of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D is essential for optimising human health. This article reviews the present state-of-the-art knowledge about vitamin D’s status worldwide and refers to recent articles discussing some of the general background of vitamin D, including sources, benefits, deficiencies, and dietary requirements, especially in pregnancy. They offer evidence that vitamin D deficiency could be a major public health burden in many parts of the world, mostly because of sun deprivation. The article also discusses the debate about optimal concentration of circulating serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and explores different views on the amount of vitamin D supplementation required to achieve and maintain this concentration. PMID:22548132

  12. [Active vitamin D3 analog].

    PubMed

    Takata, Shinjiro

    2015-10-01

    Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin and exerts effects on skeletal and extraskeletal health in children and adults of all ages. Vitamin D insufficiency is related to low muscle strength, increasing body sway, falls in the elderly. Supplementation with vitamin D reduces risk of osteoporotic fracture, and improves muscle strength and postural balance to prevent the elderly from fall. The preferred vitamin D analog for daily supplementation is cholecalciferol (vitamin D3). The active form of vitamin D3 is 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D3. Alfacalcidol, calcitriol and eldecalcitol are used to treat osteoporosis in Japan. Randomized placebo-controlled, double-blinded clinical trial for osteoporotic subjects showed that eldecalcitol is more efficacious to increase bone mineral density and prevent vertebral and wrist fractures in osteoporotic patients with vitamin D sufficiency than alfacalcidol. PMID:26529933

  13. Vitamin D toxicity redefined: vitamin K and the molecular mechanism.

    PubMed

    Masterjohn, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    The dose of vitamin D that some researchers recommend as optimally therapeutic exceeds that officially recognized as safe by a factor of two; it is therefore important to determine the precise mechanism by which excessive doses of vitamin D exert toxicity so that physicians and other health care practitioners may understand how to use optimally therapeutic doses of this vitamin without the risk of adverse effects. Although the toxicity of vitamin D has conventionally been attributed to its induction of hypercalcemia, animal studies show that the toxic endpoints observed in response to hypervitaminosis D such as anorexia, lethargy, growth retardation, bone resorption, soft tissue calcification, and death can be dissociated from the hypercalcemia that usually accompanies them, demanding that an alternative explanation for the mechanism of vitamin D toxicity be developed. The hypothesis presented in this paper proposes the novel understanding that vitamin D exerts toxicity by inducing a deficiency of vitamin K. According to this model, vitamin D increases the expression of proteins whose activation depends on vitamin K-mediated carboxylation; as the demand for carboxylation increases, the pool of vitamin K is depleted. Since vitamin K is essential to the nervous system and plays important roles in protecting against bone loss and calcification of the peripheral soft tissues, its deficiency results in the symptoms associated with hypervitaminosis D. This hypothesis is circumstantially supported by the observation that animals deficient in vitamin K or vitamin K-dependent proteins exhibit remarkable similarities to animals fed toxic doses of vitamin D, and the observation that vitamin D and the vitamin K-inhibitor Warfarin have similar toxicity profiles and exert toxicity synergistically when combined. The hypothesis further proposes that vitamin A protects against the toxicity of vitamin D by decreasing the expression of vitamin K-dependent proteins and thereby

  14. Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Balance › Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health March 2012 Download PDFs ... helps keep your bones strong. Why are vitamin D and calcium important to bone health? Vitamin D ...

  15. Computer software design description for the Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF), Project L-045H, Operator Training Station (OTS)

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, R.L. Jr.

    1994-11-07

    The Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) Operator Training Station (OTS) is a computer-based training tool designed to aid plant operations and engineering staff in familiarizing themselves with the TEDF Central Control System (CCS).

  16. 12 CFR 502.29 - How does OTS determine the condition component for a savings and loan holding company?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... holding company structure) is a composite rating of 4 or 5, OTS will assess a charge under the condition... amount, the risk/complexity component, and any organizational form component. (b) For the purposes...

  17. 12 CFR 502.29 - How does OTS determine the condition component for a savings and loan holding company?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... holding company structure) is a composite rating of 4 or 5, OTS will assess a charge under the condition... amount, the risk/complexity component, and any organizational form component. (b) For the purposes...

  18. Asiago observation of the OT of GRB150413A detected by MASTER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomasella, L.; Benetti, S.; Cappellaro, E.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Ochner, P.; Pastorello, A.; Tartaglia, L.; Terreran, G.; Turatto, M.

    2015-04-01

    In the framework of the Asiago Transient Classification Program (Tomasella et al. 2014, AN, 335, 841), we have spectroscopically observed the OT of GRB150413A detected by MASTER (Atel #7381) with the Asiago 1.82 m Copernico Telescope (+AFOSC; range 340-820 nm; resolution 1.4 nm), on 20150413.87 UT, that is about 7.0h after detection.

  19. 78 FR 76768 - Removal of Transferred OTS Regulations Regarding Disclosure and Reporting of CRA-Related...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ... on July 6, 2011.\\2\\ \\2\\ 76 FR 39247 (July 6, 2011). Although section 312(b)(2)(B)(i)(II) of the Dodd... rescinding them, as appropriate. \\3\\ 76 FR 47652 (Aug. 5, 2011). One of the OTS rules transferred to the FDIC...)(1). \\8\\ 66 FR 2052 (Jan. 10, 2001). \\9\\ Id. Section 48 of the FDI Act, created by section 711 of...

  20. Asiago spectroscopic classification of MASTER OT J211223.35+144645.1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ascenzi, S.; Yang, S.; Tomasella, L.; Benetti, S.; Cappellaro, E.; Pastorello, A.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Ochner, P.; Tartaglia, L.; Terreran, G.; Turatto, M.

    2016-06-01

    The Asiago Transient Classification Program (Tomasella et al. 2014, AN, 335, 841) reports the spectroscopic classification of MASTER OT J211223.35+144645.1 (Atel #9174), discovered by MASTER-IAC auto-detection system (Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 349171) The observation was performed with the Asiago 1.82 m Copernico Telescope (+AFOSC; range 340-820 nm; resolution 1.4 nm).

  1. [Vitamin C and immune function].

    PubMed

    Ströhle, Alexander; Hahn, Andreas

    2009-02-01

    The immune system is strongly influenced by the intake of nutrients. For a long time there has been a controversy whether vitamin C can contribute to the prevention and therapy of the common cold. Several cells of the immune system can indeed accumulate vitamin C and need the vitamin to perform their task, especially phagocytes and t-cells. Thus a vitamin C deficiency results in a reduced resistance against certain pathogens whilst a higher supply enhances several immune system parameters. With regard to the common cold different studies including meta-analyses underline that the prophylactic intake of vitamin C may slightly reduce the duration of the illness in healthy persons but does not affect its incidence and severity. Supplementation of vitamin C is most effective in cases of physical strain or insufficient intake of the vitamin. With regard to the therapy of the common cold the application of vitamin C alone is without clinical effects. PMID:19263912

  2. [Vitamin D in Multiple Sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Niino, Masaaki; Miyazaki, Yusei

    2015-11-01

    The geographic epidemiology of multiple sclerosis (MS) suggests that low vitamin D levels are a modifiable risk factor. Previous studies have shown that patients with MS have significantly lower vitamin D levels compared with healthy controls. Vitamin D is a potent immunomodulator important for immune function and development, and it offers potential benefits by reducing inflammation. Vitamin D has beneficial effects in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, an animal model of MS. In summation, these studies suggest that vitamin D may have therapeutic potential for MS. This has not been established although preliminary clinical trials for vitamin D in MS look promising. Genetic studies suggest that genes associated with vitamin D are critical susceptible genes for MS. In this review, we discuss current research investigating the association between vitamin D and MS and the issues that need to be resolved. PMID:26560958

  3. Vitamin D and osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Ohato, M; Fujita, T

    1979-06-01

    In elderly people with marginal exposure to the sunlight, males showed higher serum 25-hydroxycalciferol than females, whereas in those with ample or poor sunlight exposure, serum 25-hydroxycalciferol was higher or very low, respectively, exhibiting no sex difference in the vitamin D metabolite levels. The male predominance in serum 25-hydroxycalciferol levels seen among some aged population would be explained, at least in part, by the result of animal experiment suggesting the stimulatory effect of testosterone on vitamin D biosynthesis induced by ultaviolet irradiation. Testosterone was, furthermore, shown to have hypocalcemic action, probably through suppression of bone resortopton in vitamin D depleted but not in replete rats. Clinical implication of these two-fold effects of testosterone observed in rats was discussed in relevance to male predominance in serum 25-hydroxycalciferol level and bone mineral content in the aged population. PMID:467351

  4. Vitamin supplementation in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    Ensuring that a woman is well-nourished, both before and during pregnancy, is crucial for the health of the woman and that of the unborn child.(1) Maternal deficiency in key nutrients has been linked to pre-eclampsia, restricted fetal growth, neural tube defects, skeletal deformity and low birth weight.(1,2) Many nutritional supplements containing vitamins, minerals and other micronutrients are heavily marketed to women for all stages of pregnancy. However, much of the evidence for vitamin supplementation in pregnancy comes from studies carried out in low-income countries,(3) where women are more likely to be undernourished or malnourished than within the UK population. The challenges lie in knowing which supplements are beneficial and in improving uptake among those at most need. Here we summarise current UK guidance for vitamin supplementation in pregnancy and review the evidence behind it. PMID:27405305

  5. Vitamins and sport.

    PubMed Central

    Dam, B. V.

    1978-01-01

    In a double blind test on 40 men and women high performance fencers the influence of a multivitamin-electrolyte-preparation on reaction time, hit-frequency and neuromuscular irritability was determined. Evidence of B1, B2 and B6-deficiencies up to 70% were found. After application of the preparation an increase of performance of 3% could be observed. The tests were carried out by means of coenzymatic activation of the respective vitamins in the haemolysate of erythrocytes. The results are explained by the role of the vitamins in the human organism and by the special conditions under which endurance athletes have to perform: high turn-over rate of the energy metabolism, an increase of the body core temperature and thus increased sweat loss, factors leading to deficiencies of the water soluble B-vitamins. PMID:356925

  6. Vitamin B12 source (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The human body stores several years' worth of vitamin B12, so nutritional deficiency of this vitamin is extremely rare. Although, people who follow a strict vegetarian diet and do not consume eggs or dairy products may require vitamin B12 supplements.

  7. 25-hydroxy vitamin D test

    MedlinePlus

    25-OH vitamin D test; Calcidiol; 25-hydroxycholecalciferol test ... if you have too much or too little vitamin D in your blood. ... The normal range of vitamin D is measured as nanograms per milliliter (ng/mL). Many experts recommend a level between 20 and 40 ng/mL. ...

  8. Water Soluable Vitamins and Ageing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since their discovery in the early part of the 20th century, the importance of the water soluble B complex vitamins and vitamin C to the maintenance of healthy tissue and prevention of disease has been recognized. Deficiency of these vitamins led to severe consequences. Fortunately, the discovery of...

  9. Vitamin D and Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Paula; Grossbard, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    In addition to its role in calcium homeostasis and bone health, vitamin D has also been reported to have anticancer activities against many cancer types, including breast cancer. The discovery that breast epithelial cells possess the same enzymatic system as the kidney, allowing local manufacture of active vitamin D from circulating precursors, makes the effect of vitamin D in breast cancer biologically plausible. Preclinical and ecologic studies have suggested a role for vitamin D in breast cancer prevention. Inverse associations have also been shown between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level (25(OH)D) and breast cancer development, risk for breast cancer recurrence, and mortality in women with early-stage breast cancer. Clinical trials of vitamin D supplementation, however, have yielded inconsistent results. Regardless of whether or not vitamin D helps prevent breast cancer or its recurrence, vitamin D deficiency in the U.S. population is very common, and the adverse impact on bone health, a particular concern for breast cancer survivors, makes it important to understand vitamin D physiology and to recognize and treat vitamin D deficiency. In this review, we discuss vitamin D metabolism and its mechanism of action. We summarize the current evidence of the relationship between vitamin D and breast cancer, highlight ongoing research in this area, and discuss optimal dosing of vitamin D for breast cancer prevention. PMID:22234628

  10. Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin D requirements have become one of the most highly debated and controversial topics in nutrition. Recommendations for vitamin D intake during pregnancy are a central part of this discussion. The publication of a controlled trial of vitamin D supplementation in pregnant women by Hollis and cow...

  11. Vitamin K Intake and Atherosclerosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been hypothesized that insufficient intake of vitamin K may increase soft tissue calcification due to impaired gamma-carboxylation of the vitamin K-dependent protein, matrix gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (MGP). The evidence to support this putative role of vitamin K intake in atherosclerosis is ...

  12. 25-hydroxy vitamin D test

    MedlinePlus

    25-OH vitamin D test; Calcidiol; 25-hydroxycholecalciferol test ... you have too much or too little vitamin D in your blood. ... The normal range of vitamin D is measured as nanograms per milliliter ... recommend a level between 20 and 40 ng/mL. Others recommend ...

  13. Vitamin E: Textbooks Require Updating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzi, Angelo; Zingg, Jean-Marc

    2005-01-01

    Vitamin E was discovered in 1922, but in more than 60 years many new findings have added to the early one. However, its description in many textbooks has not been proportionally updated. The result is an inaccurate, incomplete, and often incorrect description of the function of this vitamin. In some other textbooks, vitamin E is absolutely…

  14. Vitamin D and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Cannell, John J; Grant, William B; Holick, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    Several studies found an inverse relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and markers of inflammation. A controversy exists as to whether vitamin D lowers inflammation or whether inflammation lowers 25(OH)D concentrations. Certainly 25(OH)D concentrations fall after major surgery. However, is this due to inflammation lowering 25(OH)D or is 25(OH)D being metabolically cleared by the body to quell inflammation. We searched the literature and found 39 randomized controlled trials (RCT) of vitamin D and markers of inflammation. Seventeen found significantly reduced inflammatory markers, 19 did not, one was mixed and one showed adverse results. With few exceptions, studies in normal subjects, obesity, type 2 diabetics, and stable cardiovascular disease did not find significant beneficial effects. However, we found that 6 out of 7 RCTS of vitamin D3 in highly inflammatory conditions (acute infantile congestive heart failure, multiple sclerosis, inflammatory bowel disease, cystic fibrosis, SLE, active TB and evolving myocardial infarction) found significant reductions. We found baseline and final 25(OH)D predicted RCTs with significant reduction in inflammatory markers. Vitamin D tends to modestly lower markers of inflammation in highly inflammatory conditions, when baseline 25(OH)D levels were low and when achieved 25(OH)D levels were higher. Future inquiries should: recruit subjects with low baseline 25(OH)D levels, subjects with elevated markers of inflammation, subjects with inflammatory conditions, achieve adequate final 25(OH)D levels, and use physiological doses of vitamin D. We attempted to identify all extant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of vitamin D that used inflammatory markers as primary or secondary endpoints. PMID:26413186

  15. [Vitamin B1 (thiamine)].

    PubMed

    Guilland, Jean-Claude

    2013-10-01

    Vitamin B1 (or thiamine) plays a key role in energy production from glucose. Since the main fuel of the nervous system is glucose, thiamine deficiency causes severe neurological symptoms. The biological exploration of vitamin B1 status is based on the measurement of thiamine pyrophosphate concentration or of the activity of a thiamine-dependent enzyme, transketolase, in erythrocytes. Severe deficiency states can be observed in chronic alcoholics, after protracted vomiting during pregnancy and after bariatric surgery. Mild deficiencies are common in the general population, but their clinical consequences are still unclear. PMID:24298824

  16. Vitamin D and Mammographic Findings

    PubMed Central

    Riedel, J.; Straub, L.; Wissing, J.; Artmann, A.; Schmidmayr, M.; Kiechle, M.; Seifert-Klauss, V. R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Pleiotropic immune-modulatory and anti-proliferative effects of vitamin D and hopes to stop cancerogenesis have led to an increased interest in possible reduction of breast cancer with higher vitamin D levels. Mammographic density is an established risk factor for breast cancer risk, and its association with serum vitamin D is complex, as recent studies have shown. Patients and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 1103 participants were recruited in the breast diagnostic unit of the Klinikum rechts der Isar, TU Munich. A standardised questionnaire and blood samples for 25-OH-vitamin D were taken on the day of mammography. Histologic results of biopsies in suspicious mammographies were documented. Results: In the 1090 data-sets analysed, vitamin D-deficiency was common among women under 40. Highest vitamin D values were observed in participants aged 60–69 years, but average values for all age cohorts were below 20 ng/ml of vitamin D. 15.6 % of all participants had very low vitamin D values (< 10 ng/ml), 51.3 % were vitamin D-deficient (10–19 ng/ml) and only 5.7 % were above 30 ng/ml, i.e. showed sufficient vitamin D. Patients with malignant results had vitamin D < 10 ng/ml more often (16.9 %; p = 0.61), and only 3.4 % in this group had sufficient vitamin D supply (> 30 ng/ml). There were no significant differences in vitamin D-levels between density groups according to the American College of Radiology (ACR) criteria. Conclusion: Vitamin D values were lower than in comparable US women. Up to now, there is no direct clinical evidence for a relationship between the risk for breast cancer and a specific vitamin D value. PMID:27239067

  17. Complexity of vitamin E metabolism.

    PubMed

    Schmölz, Lisa; Birringer, Marc; Lorkowski, Stefan; Wallert, Maria

    2016-02-26

    Bioavailability of vitamin E is influenced by several factors, most are highlighted in this review. While gender, age and genetic constitution influence vitamin E bioavailability but cannot be modified, life-style and intake of vitamin E can be. Numerous factors must be taken into account however, i.e., when vitamin E is orally administrated, the food matrix may contain competing nutrients. The complex metabolic processes comprise intestinal absorption, vascular transport, hepatic sorting by intracellular binding proteins, such as the significant α-tocopherol-transfer protein, and hepatic metabolism. The coordinated changes involved in the hepatic metabolism of vitamin E provide an effective physiological pathway to protect tissues against the excessive accumulation of, in particular, non-α-tocopherol forms. Metabolism of vitamin E begins with one cycle of CYP4F2/CYP3A4-dependent ω-hydroxylation followed by five cycles of subsequent β-oxidation, and forms the water-soluble end-product carboxyethylhydroxychroman. All known hepatic metabolites can be conjugated and are excreted, depending on the length of their side-chain, either via urine or feces. The physiological handling of vitamin E underlies kinetics which vary between the different vitamin E forms. Here, saturation of the side-chain and also substitution of the chromanol ring system are important. Most of the metabolic reactions and processes that are involved with vitamin E are also shared by other fat soluble vitamins. Influencing interactions with other nutrients such as vitamin K or pharmaceuticals are also covered by this review. All these processes modulate the formation of vitamin E metabolites and their concentrations in tissues and body fluids. Differences in metabolism might be responsible for the discrepancies that have been observed in studies performed in vivo and in vitro using vitamin E as a supplement or nutrient. To evaluate individual vitamin E status, the analytical procedures used for

  18. Complexity of vitamin E metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Schmölz, Lisa; Birringer, Marc; Lorkowski, Stefan; Wallert, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Bioavailability of vitamin E is influenced by several factors, most are highlighted in this review. While gender, age and genetic constitution influence vitamin E bioavailability but cannot be modified, life-style and intake of vitamin E can be. Numerous factors must be taken into account however, i.e., when vitamin E is orally administrated, the food matrix may contain competing nutrients. The complex metabolic processes comprise intestinal absorption, vascular transport, hepatic sorting by intracellular binding proteins, such as the significant α-tocopherol-transfer protein, and hepatic metabolism. The coordinated changes involved in the hepatic metabolism of vitamin E provide an effective physiological pathway to protect tissues against the excessive accumulation of, in particular, non-α-tocopherol forms. Metabolism of vitamin E begins with one cycle of CYP4F2/CYP3A4-dependent ω-hydroxylation followed by five cycles of subsequent β-oxidation, and forms the water-soluble end-product carboxyethylhydroxychroman. All known hepatic metabolites can be conjugated and are excreted, depending on the length of their side-chain, either via urine or feces. The physiological handling of vitamin E underlies kinetics which vary between the different vitamin E forms. Here, saturation of the side-chain and also substitution of the chromanol ring system are important. Most of the metabolic reactions and processes that are involved with vitamin E are also shared by other fat soluble vitamins. Influencing interactions with other nutrients such as vitamin K or pharmaceuticals are also covered by this review. All these processes modulate the formation of vitamin E metabolites and their concentrations in tissues and body fluids. Differences in metabolism might be responsible for the discrepancies that have been observed in studies performed in vivo and in vitro using vitamin E as a supplement or nutrient. To evaluate individual vitamin E status, the analytical procedures used for

  19. Water-soluble vitamins.

    PubMed

    Konings, Erik J M

    2006-01-01

    Simultaneous Determination of Vitamins.--Klejdus et al. described a simultaneous determination of 10 water- and 10 fat-soluble vitamins in pharmaceutical preparations by liquid chromatography-diode-array detection (LC-DAD). A combined isocratic and linear gradient allowed separation of vitamins in 3 distinct groups: polar, low-polar, and nonpolar. The method was applied to pharmaceutical preparations, fortified powdered drinks, and food samples, for which results were in good agreement with values claimed. Heudi et al. described a separation of 9 water-soluble vitamins by LC-UV. The method was applied for the quantification of vitamins in polyvitaminated premixes used for the fortification of infant nutrition products. The repeatability of the method was evaluated at different concentration levels and coefficients of variation were <6.5%. The concentrations of vitamins found in premixes with the method were comparable to the values declared. A disadvantage of the methods mentioned above is that sample composition has to be known in advance. According to European legislation, for example, foods might be fortified with riboflavin phosphate or thiamin phosphate, vitamers which are not included in the simultaneous separations described. Vitamin B2.--Viñas et al. elaborated an LC analysis of riboflavin vitamers in foods. Vitamin B2 can be found in nature as the free riboflavin, but in most biological materials it occurs predominantly in the form of 2 coenzymes, flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin-adenine dinucleotide (FAD). Several methods usually involve the conversion of these coenzymes into free riboflavin before quantification of total riboflavin. According to the authors, there is growing interest to know flavin composition of foods. The described method separates the individual vitamers isocratically. Accuracy of the method is tested with 2 certified reference materials (CRMs). Vitamin B5.-Methods for the determination of vitamin B5 in foods are limited

  20. Vitamin deficiencies and excesses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamins are essential nutrients that must be supplied exogenously either as part of a well balanced diet or as supplements. Deficiency states are uncommon in developed countries except, perhaps, among some food insecure families. In contrast, deficiency states are quite common in many developing ...

  1. Vitamin E and Cancer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protection by vitamin E against free radical-induced DNA mutations appears not to be an effective occurrence. On the other hand, in vitro evidence that different tocopherols slow down cell proliferation is an accepted observation. However, such an event may not be sufficient to result in beneficial...

  2. Calcium and Vitamin D

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter describes the roles of calcium and vitamin D in bone health. Calcium is required for the bone formation phase of bone remodeling and it also affects bone mass through its impact on the remodeling rate. Typically, about 5 nmol (200 mg) of calcium is removed from the adult skeleton and ...

  3. Vitamin D in preventive medicine.

    PubMed

    Pilz, Stefan; Gaksch, Martin; Hartaigh, Bríain Ó; Tomaschitz, Andreas; März, Winfried

    2015-02-01

    The global burden of vitamin D deficiency is of great concern for public health. Meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have shown that vitamin D supplementation reduces fractures, falls, and mortality. These findings are, however, not universally accepted and there exists certain controversy regarding the potential benefits of vitamin D. Whereas vitamin D might also be relevant for extra-skeletal diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, or infections, the recommended Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) are solely based on skeletal effects. The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) range from 600 to 800 international units (IU) of vitamin D per day, corresponding to a 25-hydroxyvitamin D level of 20 ng/mL (50 nmol/L). Consequently, there exists a substantial gap between the RDA and the actual high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in general populations, particularly among the elderly. Therefore, achieving the RDA will require additional efforts including food fortification, vitamin D supplementation and health campaigns. PMID:25667507

  4. Vitamin D Safety and Requirements

    PubMed Central

    de Paula, Francisco J.A.; Rosen, Clifford J.

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin D an ancient secosteroid is essential for mineral homeostasis, bone remodeling, immune modulation, and energy metabolism. Recently, debates have emerged about the daily vitamin D requirements for healthy and elderly adults, the safety and efficacy of long term supplementation and the role of vitamin D deficiency in several chronic disease states. Since this molecule acts as both a vitamin and a hormone, it should not be surprising that the effects of supplementation are multi-faceted and complex. Yet despite significant progress in the last decade, our understanding of vitamin D physiology and the clinical relevance of low circulating levels of this vitamin remains incomplete. The present review provides the reader with a comprehensive and up-to-date understanding of vitamin D requirements and safety. It also raises some provocative research questions. PMID:22179017

  5. Vitamin D and neurocognitive function.

    PubMed

    Schlögl, Mathias; Holick, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, emerging evidence has linked vitamin D not only to its known effects on calcium and bone metabolism, but also to many chronic illnesses involving neurocognitive decline. The importance of vitamin D3 in reducing the risk of these diseases continues to increase due to the fact that an increasing portion of the population in developed countries has a significant vitamin D deficiency. The older population is at an especially high risk for vitamin D deficiency due to the decreased cutaneous synthesis and dietary intake of vitamin D. Recent studies have confirmed an association between cognitive impairment, dementia, and vitamin D deficiency. There is a need for well-designed randomized trials to assess the benefits of vitamin D and lifestyle interventions in persons with mild cognitive impairment and dementia. PMID:24729696

  6. Vitamin D and aging.

    PubMed

    Tuohimaa, Pentti

    2009-03-01

    Recent studies using genetically modified mice, such as FGF23-/- and Klotho-/- mice that exhibit altered mineral homeostasis due to a high vitamin D activity showed features of premature aging that include retarded growth, osteoporosis, atherosclerosis, ectopic calcification, immunological deficiency, skin and general organ atrophy, hypogonadism and short lifespan. The phenotype reversed by normalizing vitamin D and/or mineral homeostasis. Thus, hypervitaminosis D due to an increased 1alpha-hydroxylase activity seems to be a cause of the premature aging. In several studies, we have described that a complete or partial lack of vitamin D action (VDR-/- mice and CYP27B1-/-) show almost similar phenotype as FGF23-/- or Klotho-/- mice. VDR mutant mice have growth retardation, osteoporosis, kyphosis, skin thickening and wrinkling, alopecia, ectopic calcification, progressive loss of hearing and balance as well as short lifespan. CYP27B1-/- mice do not show alopecia nor balance deficit, which might be apoVDR-dependent or calcidiol-dependent. The features are typical to premature aging. The phenotype is resistant to a normalization of the mineral homeostasis by a rescue diet containing high calcium and phosphate. Taken together, aging shows a U-shaped dependency on hormonal forms of vitamin D suggesting that there is an optimal concentration of vitamin D in delaying aging phenomena. Our recent study shows that calcidiol is an active hormone. Since serum calcidiol but not calcitriol is fluctuating in physiological situations, calcidiol might determine the biological output of vitamin D action. Due to its high serum concentration and better uptake of calcidiol-DBP by the target cells through the cubilin-megalin system, calcidiol seems to be an important circulating hormone. Therefore, serum calcidiol might be associated with an increased risk of aging-related chronic diseases more directly than calcitriol. Aging and cancer seem to be tightly associated phenomena

  7. [The phenomenon of vitamin D].

    PubMed

    Gruber, Beata M

    2015-01-01

    The receptor of vitamin D (VDR) is present in most non-skeletal human cells, suggesting its role beyond the bone and calcium metabolism. The relationship between vitamin D and the respiratory tract is a consequence of its activity in the immune system. Some gastrointestinal diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease, coeliac disease, liver, pancreas or cardiac diseases, lead to vitamin D deficiency. Many studies indicate a correlation between vitamin D and diabetes. VDR and 1α-hydroxylase have been detected in the cutaneous capillary vessels, endothelium, vascular smooth muscles, myocytes and cardiac fibroblasts. The influence of vitamin D on the expression of genes related to the vascular walls implies its role in the pathomechanisms of vascular diseases and the cardiovascular system. Due to the VDR detected in most immunocompetent cells, calcitriol can modulate the congenital and acquired immune system. The correlation between vitamin D and cancer development is also not surprising because of many functions which vitamin D has in the organism. The vitamin D-regulated genes encode the proteins which participate in differentiation, proliferation or apoptosis. This paper aims to focus on the less well known roles of vitamin D in the organism, especially considering that most "sun consumers" know only its antirachitic and bone reinforcing action. So, this article may be surprising, and first of all it should convince everyone to vitamin D supplemention. PMID:25614680

  8. MASTER OT J095503.19-355149.4 - a probable Dwarf Nova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, D. A. H.; Kniazev, A.; Potter, S. B.; Lipunov, V.; Tiurina, N.; Gorbovskoy, E.

    2016-02-01

    Followup optical imaging and spectroscopic observations with SALT of the optical transient MASTER OT J095503.19-355149.4, tentatively identified (ATel #8741) as the optical counterpart of the Fermi GBM trigger 478121068 (GCN #19092), were conducted on 2016-02-26.78 UT. From un-calibrated g', r' and i' exposures (30 sec each) with the SALTICAM CCD camera, the transient appeared to be approximately 1 mag brighter (V ~ 17) than the MASTER-SAAO observations of the previous night (reported in ATel #8741) and was also seen to be a relatively red object compared to other stars in the field.

  9. Complete Genome Sequence of the Larvicidal Bacterium Lysinibacillus sphaericus Strain OT4b.25

    PubMed Central

    Rey, Andrés; Silva-Quintero, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Lysinibacillus sphaericus OT4b.25 is a native Colombian strain isolated from coleopteran larvae in an oak forest near Bogotá D.C.; this strain has shown high levels of pathogenic activity against Culex quinquefasciatus larvae in laboratory assays compared to that of other members of the same species. Using Pacific Biosciences sequencing technology, we propose a chromosomal contig of 4,665,775 bp that, according to comparative analysis, is highly similar to that of reference strain L. sphaericus C3-41. PMID:27151786

  10. Spectroscopic classification of PSN J13144705+5405055 (= MASTER OT J131447.05+540505.5)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanni, S.; Pastorello, A.; Benetti, S.; Cappellaro, E.; Ochner, P.; Tomasella, L.; Turatto, M.

    2012-11-01

    We report that optical spectroscopy (range 340-820 nm; resolution 1.3 nm) obtained on Nov. 8.18 UT with the Asiago 1.82-m Copernico Telescope (+ AFOSC), shows that PSN J13144705+5405055 (= MASTER OT J131447.05+540505.5) is a type-Ia SN at a redshift z~0.033 (Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 3). The best match was found with type-Ia SN 2002bo (Benetti et al. 2004, MNRAS, 348, 261) about 3-4 weeks after the B band maximum light.

  11. [Abuse of megadoses of vitamins].

    PubMed

    Arroyave, G

    1988-09-01

    There is no evidence of any nutritional benefit derived from the consumption of vitamin supplements in excess of the daily intakes recommended by the various international and national expert committees. Furthermore, in the case of certain of the vitamins such as vitamin A and vitamin D, excessive intakes result in toxic effects. To a lesser extent this is also the case for vitamin C and nicotinic acid. In addition, the use of high supplements or megadoses of any vitamin results in a wasteful misuse of economic resources. This reduces the capacity to acquire foods which would have clear nutritional benefits for the whole family. Consequently, the indiscriminate use of these megadoses must be discouraged. Their application is exclusively justified in clinical situations under direct medical supervision. PMID:3153129

  12. Vitamin D and the brain.

    PubMed

    Harms, Lauren R; Burne, Thomas H J; Eyles, Darryl W; McGrath, John J

    2011-08-01

    Vitamin D is a member of the superfamily of nuclear steroid transcription regulators and as such, exerts transcriptional control over a large number of genes. Several other steroids, such as thyroid hormones, vitamin A, androgens and the glucocorticoids, are known as 'neurosteroids' and their role in brain development and function is well defined. It has only been in the last decade or so that vitamin D has been thought to function as a neurosteroid. In this review we have collated a diverse array of data describing the presence of vitamin D metabolites and the receptor in the brain, the evidence that vitamin D may be an important modulator of brain development, and the potential role of vitamin D in neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:21872806

  13. Vitamin D and inflammatory diseases

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Kai; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2014-01-01

    Beyond its critical function in calcium homeostasis, vitamin D has recently been found to play an important role in the modulation of the immune/inflammation system via regulating the production of inflammatory cytokines and inhibiting the proliferation of proinflammatory cells, both of which are crucial for the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. Several studies have associated lower vitamin D status with increased risk and unfavorable outcome of acute infections. Vitamin D supplementation bolsters clinical responses to acute infection. Moreover, chronic inflammatory diseases, such as atherosclerosis-related cardiovascular disease, asthma, inflammatory bowel disease, chronic kidney disease, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and others, tend to have lower vitamin D status, which may play a pleiotropic role in the pathogenesis of the diseases. In this article, we review recent epidemiological and interventional studies of vitamin D in various inflammatory diseases. The potential mechanisms of vitamin D in regulating immune/inflammatory responses in inflammatory diseases are also discussed. PMID:24971027

  14. The Vitamin C Clock Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Stephen W.

    2002-01-01

    An iodine clock reaction that gives a colorless to black result similar to that of the familiar Landolt iodate-bisulfite clock reaction is described. The vitamin C clock reaction uses chemicals that are readily available on the retail market: vitamin C, tincture of iodine, 3% hydrogen peroxide, and laundry starch. Orange juice may be used as the vitamin C source to give an orange to black reaction.

  15. Vitamin K deficiency bleeding of the newborn

    MedlinePlus

    ... babies. Vitamin K plays an important role in blood clotting. Babies often have a low level of vitamin ... Blood clotting tests will be done. The diagnosis is confirmed if a vitamin K shot stops the bleeding ...

  16. Niacin and niacinamide (Vitamin B3)

    MedlinePlus

    Niacin and niacinamide are forms of Vitamin B3. Vitamin B3 is found in many foods including yeast, meat, fish, milk, eggs, green vegetables, beans, and cereal grains. Niacin and niacinamide are also found in many vitamin B complex ...

  17. Genome sequence and description of the heavy metal tolerant bacterium Lysinibacillus sphaericus strain OT4b.31

    PubMed Central

    Peña-Montenegro, Tito David; Dussán, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    Lysinibacillus sphaericus strain OT4b.31 is a native Colombian strain having no larvicidal activity against Culex quinquefasciatus and is widely applied in the bioremediation of heavy-metal polluted environments. Strain OT4b.31 was placed between DNA homology groups III and IV. By gap-filling and alignment steps, we propose a 4,096,672 bp chromosomal scaffold. The whole genome (consisting of 4,856,302 bp long, 94 contigs and 4,846 predicted protein-coding sequences) revealed differences in comparison to the L. sphaericus C3-41 genome, such as syntenial relationships, prophages and putative mosquitocidal toxins. Sphaericolysin B354, the coleopteran toxin Sip1A and heavy metal resistance clusters from nik, ars, czc, cop, chr, czr and cad operons were identified. Lysinibacillus sphaericus OT4b.31 has applications not only in bioremediation efforts, but also in the biological control of agricultural pests. PMID:24501644

  18. Vitamin D and urological cancers

    PubMed Central

    Dzięgała, Mateusz; Kołodziej, Anna; Dembowski, Janusz; Zdrojowy, Romuald

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Vitamin D controls calcium and phosphate homeostasis. Additionally, it has been proven that vitamin D is an important modulator of cellular differentiation and proliferation in a number of normal and malignant cells. Vitamin D can regulate proliferation, apoptosis, and cell adhesion at the tumor cell level. It also modifies tumor angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis and also decreases oxidative DNA damage. Material and methods The Medline and Web of Science databases were searched without time limit on October 2015 using the terms ‘vitamin D’ in conjunction with ‘kidney cancer’, ‘bladder cancer’, ‘prostate cancer’, and ‘testis cancer’. Autoalerts in Medline were also run and reference lists of original articles, review articles, and book chapters were searched for further eligible articles. Results In recent years, vitamin D has received vast attention due to suggestions that it may have a crucial role in the prevention and therapy of various cancers. Many epidemiologic studies have reported the impact of VD3 on preventing several cancers and other pathologies. Assuming that vitamin D status changes cancer risk, enough vitamin D supply would be an easy, economical, and safe cancer incidence and mortality reduction method. However, despite numerous researches, the role of vitamin D in cancer incidence and therapy remains unclear. Conclusions The impact of vitamin D is well described in breast, colon, and prostate cancer; yet, there is only little published about other malignancies. PMID:27551550

  19. Vitamin D and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Kienreich, Katharina; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Verheyen, Nicolas; Pieber, Thomas; Gaksch, Martin; Grübler, Martin R; Pilz, Stefan

    2013-08-01

    Vitamin D deficiency, as well as cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and related risk factors are highly prevalent worldwide and frequently co-occur. Vitamin D has long been known to be an essential part of bone metabolism, although recent evidence suggests that vitamin D plays a key role in the pathophysiology of other diseases, including CVD, as well. In this review, we aim to summarize the most recent data on the involvement of vitamin D deficiency in the development of major cardiovascular risk factors: hypertension, obesity and dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, chronic kidney disease and endothelial dysfunction. In addition, we outline the most recent observational, as well as interventional data on the influence of vitamin D on CVD. Since it is still an unresolved issue whether vitamin D deficiency is causally involved in the pathogenesis of CVD, data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) designed to assess the impact of vitamin D supplementation on cardiovascular outcomes are awaited with anticipation. At present, we can only conclude that vitamin D deficiency is an independent cardiovascular risk factor, but whether vitamin D supplementation can significantly improve cardiovascular outcomes is still largely unknown. PMID:23912328

  20. Antimicrobial implications of vitamin D

    PubMed Central

    Youssef, Dima A; Miller, Christopher WT; El-Abbassi, Adel M; Cutchins, Della C; Cutchins, Coleman; Grant, William B

    2011-01-01

    Evidence exists that vitamin D has a potential antimicrobial activity and its deficiency has deleterious effects on general well-being and longevity. Vitamin D may reduce the risk of infection through multiple mechanisms. Vitamin D boosts innate immunity by modulating production of anti-microbial peptides (AMPs) and cytokine response. Vitamin D and its analogues via these mechanisms are playing an increasing role in the management of atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, vitiligo, acne and rosacea. Vitamin D may reduce susceptibility to infection in patients with atopic dermatitis and the ability to regulate local immune and inflammatory responses offers exciting potential for understanding and treating chronic inflammatory dermatitides. Moreover, B and T cell activation as well as boosting the activity of monocytes and macrophages also contribute to a potent systemic anti-microbial effect. The direct invasion by pathogenic organisms may be minimized at sites such as the respiratory tract by enhancing clearance of invading organisms. A vitamin D replete state appears to benefit most infections, with the possible noteworthy exception of Leishmaniasis. Antibiotics remain an expensive option and misuse of these agents results in significant antibiotic resistance and contributes to escalating health care costs. Vitamin D constitutes an inexpensive prophylactic option and possibly therapeutic product either by itself or as a synergistic agent to traditional antimicrobial agents. This review outlines the specific antimicrobial properties of vitamin D in combating a wide range of organisms. We discuss the possible mechanisms by which vitamin D may have a therapeutic role in managing a variety of infections. PMID:22259647

  1. Vitamin D and the skin.

    PubMed

    Shahriari, Mona; Kerr, Philip E; Slade, Karren; Grant-Kels, Jane E

    2010-01-01

    Vitamin D is a fat-soluble nutrient that humans obtain through the diet and by synthesis in the skin upon exposure to ultraviolet B. Vitamin D is then converted by the liver to 25-hydroxyvitamin D, its major circulating form. This form is the best indicator of vitamin D nutritional status and is easily measured. Under the influence of parathyroid hormone, the kidney then converts 25-hydroxyvitamin D to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, the biologically active, hormonal form of the nutrient that is important in the metabolism of calcium and phosphorus and is critical in building and maintaining healthy bones. Many cell types outside of the skeletal system, including various cells in the skin, also express the vitamin D receptor. In addition, many cell types convert circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D for local use. This metabolite has been shown to exert potent effects on cellular differentiation, cellular proliferation, and immune regulation. It is theorized that by these mechanisms vitamin D and its analogues are effective treatment options for psoriasis and other skin diseases. Insufficient vitamin D nutritional status has been associated with a host of other diseases, most notably cancer. There is evidence that supplementation with vitamin D reduces the overall incidence of cancer, although current evidence is insufficient to prove a causative effect. Sunscreen use blocks the ability of the skin to photosynthesize vitamin D, although the effect this has on the vitamin D status of the general population is unclear. PMID:21034990

  2. The discovery of the vitamins.

    PubMed

    Semba, Richard D

    2012-10-01

    The discovery of the vitamins was a major scientific achievement in our understanding of health and disease. In 1912, Casimir Funk originally coined the term "vitamine". The major period of discovery began in the early nineteenth century and ended at the mid-twentieth century. The puzzle of each vitamin was solved through the work and contributions of epidemiologists, physicians, physiologists, and chemists. Rather than a mythical story of crowning scientific breakthroughs, the reality was a slow, stepwise progress that included setbacks, contradictions, refutations, and some chicanery. Research on the vitamins that are related to major deficiency syndromes began when the germ theory of disease was dominant and dogma held that only four nutritional factors were essential: proteins, carbohydrates, fats, and minerals. Clinicians soon recognized scurvy, beriberi, rickets, pellagra, and xerophthalmia as specific vitamin deficiencies, rather than diseases due to infections or toxins. Experimental physiology with animal models played a fundamental role in nutrition research and greatly shortened the period of human suffering from vitamin deficiencies. Ultimately it was the chemists who isolated the various vitamins, deduced their chemical structure, and developed methods for synthesis of vitamins. Our understanding of the vitamins continues to evolve from the initial period of discovery. PMID:23798048

  3. Vitamin D and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Norman, P E; Powell, J T

    2014-01-17

    Vitamin D plays a classical hormonal role in skeletal health by regulating calcium and phosphorus metabolism. Vitamin D metabolites also have physiological functions in nonskeletal tissues, where local synthesis influences regulatory pathways via paracrine and autocrine mechanisms. The active metabolite of vitamin D, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, binds to the vitamin D receptor that regulates numerous genes involved in fundamental processes of potential relevance to cardiovascular disease, including cell proliferation and differentiation, apoptosis, oxidative stress, membrane transport, matrix homeostasis, and cell adhesion. Vitamin D receptors have been found in all the major cardiovascular cell types including cardiomyocytes, arterial wall cells, and immune cells. Experimental studies have established a role for vitamin D metabolites in pathways that are integral to cardiovascular function and disease, including inflammation, thrombosis, and the renin-angiotensin system. Clinical studies have generally demonstrated an independent association between vitamin D deficiency and various manifestations of degenerative cardiovascular disease including vascular calcification. However, the role of vitamin D supplementation in the management of cardiovascular disease remains to be established. This review summarizes the clinical studies showing associations between vitamin D status and cardiovascular disease and the experimental studies that explore the mechanistic basis for these associations. PMID:24436433

  4. DeSSpOt: an instrument for stellar spin orientation determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesage, Anna-Lea; Schneide, Magnus; Wiedemann, Günter

    2012-09-01

    We designed and constructed a special instrument to enable the determination of the stellar's spin orientation. The Differential image rotator for Stellar Spin Orientation, DeSSpOt, allows the simultaneous observations of two anti-parallel orientations of the star on the spectrum. On a high resolution échelle spectrum, the stellar rotation causes a slight line tilt visible in the spatial direction which is comparable to a rotation curve. We developed a new method, which exploits the variations in these tilts, to estimate the absolute position angle of the rotation axis. The line tilt is retrieved by a spectroastrometric extraction of the spectrum. In order to validate the method, we observed spectroscopic binaries with known orbital parameters. The determination of the orbital position angle is equivalent to the determination of the stellar position angle, but is easier to to detect. DeSSpOt was successfully implemented on the high resolution Coudé spectrograph of the Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg. The observations of Capella led to the determination of the orbital position angle. Our value of 37.2° is in agreement with the values previously found in the literature. As such we verified that both method and instrument are valid.

  5. Solar-energy-system performance evaluation: Honeywell OTS 44, Ocmulgee, Georgia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathur, A. K.; Pederson, S.

    1982-01-01

    The operation and technical performance of the solar operational test site (OTS 44) are described, based on data collected between April, 1981 and August, 1981. The following topics are discussed: system description, performance assessment, operating energy, energy savings, system maintenance, and conclusions. The solar energy system at OTS 44 is a hydronic heating and cooling system consisting of 5040 square feet of liquid cooled flat plate collectors; a 4000 gallon thermal storage tank; one 25 ton capacity organic Rankine cycle engine assisted water chillers; a forced draft cooling tower; and associated piping, pumps, valves, controls and heat rejection equipment. The solar system has eight basic modes of operation and several combination modes for providing space conditioning and hot water to the building. Data monitored during the 4 months of the operational test period found that the solar system collected 285 MMBtu of thermal energy of the total incident solar energy of 1040 MMBtu and provided 210 MMBtu for cooling and 10 MMBtu for heating and hot water. The net electrical energy saving due to the solar system was approximately 2600 kWh(e), and fossil energy saving was about 20 million Btu (MMBtu).

  6. SpOT the Correct Tissue Every Time in Multi-Tissue Blocks

    PubMed Central

    Coffey, Anna H.; Berry, Deborah L.; Johnson, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Multi-tissue paraffin blocks provide high throughput analysis with increased efficiency, experimental uniformity, and reduced time and cost. Tissue microarrays make up the majority of multi-tissue paraffin blocks, but increasingly, researchers are using non-arrayed blocks containing larger tissues from multiple individuals which can provide many of the advantages of tissue microarrays without substantial investment in planning and equipment. A critical component of any multi-tissue analysis is the orientation method used to identify each individual tissue. Although methods exist to maintain proper orientation and identification of tissues in multi-tissue blocks, most are not well-suited to non-arrayed blocks, may consume valuable space within an array and/or are difficult to produce in the standard histology laboratory. The Specimen Orientation Tag (SpOT) is a simple, low cost orientation tool that is clearly visible in paraffin blocks and all tissue sections for reliable specimen identification in arrayed and non-arrayed layouts. The SpOT provides advantages over existing orientation methods for non-arrayed blocks as it does not require any direct modification to the tissue and allows for flexibility in the arrangement of tissue pieces. PMID:26067587

  7. Preparation and physicochemical characterization of dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate (aerosol OT) microemulsion for oral drug delivery.

    PubMed

    El-Laithy, Hanan M

    2003-01-01

    The performance of dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate (aerosol OT) in the development of a pharmaceutically acceptable, stable, self-emulsifying water continuous microemulsion with high dilution efficiency was assessed. A pseudoternary microemulsion system was constructed using aerosol OT/medium-chain triglycerides with oleic acid/glycerol monooleate and water. The model microemulsion was characterized with regard to its electroconductive behavior, eosin sodium absorption, interfacial tension, and droplet size measurements after dilution with water. The percolation transition law, which makes it possible to determine the percolation threshold and to identify bicontinuous structures, was applied to the system. The interfacial tension changes associated with the microemulsion formation revealed ultralow values up to 30% oil at a surfactant/cosurfactant ratio of 3:1. Moreover, the investigated particle size and polydispersity using photon correlation spectroscopy after dilution with excess of the continuous phase proved the efficiency of the microemulsion system as a drug carrier that ensures an infinitely dilutable, homogeneous, and thermodynamically stable system. PMID:12916920

  8. DAO spectroscopic classification of MASTER OT J140958.91+174549.4 as a core-collapse supernova.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balam, D. D.; Graham, M. L.

    2016-04-01

    A spectrum was obtained on UT April 30.39 of MASTER OT J140958.91+174549.4 (CSS160427:140959+174549) using the 1.82-m Plaskett telescope (National Research Council of Canada) covering the range 365-710 nm (resolution 0.35 nm). Cross-correlation with a template library using SNID (Blondin & Tonry 2007, ApJ, 666, 1024) shows MASTER OT J140958.91+174549.4 to be a core-collapse supernova near maximum light.

  9. Pyrrole-imidazole polyamide-mediated silencing of KCNQ1OT1 expression induces cell death in Wilms' tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Shinsuke; Fujiwara, Kyoko; Sugito, Kiminobu; Uekusa, Shota; Kawashima, Hiroyuki; Hoshi, Reina; Watanabe, Yosuke; Hirano, Takayuki; Furuya, Takeshi; Masuko, Takayuki; Ueno, Takahiro; Fukuda, Noboru; Soma, Masayoshi; Ozaki, Toshinori; Koshinaga, Tsugumichi; Nagase, Hiroki

    2015-07-01

    KvDMR (an intronic CpG island within the KCNQ1 gene) is one of the imprinting control regions on human chromosome 11p15.5. Since KvDMR exists within the promoter region of KCNQ1OT1 (antisense transcript of KCNQ1), it is likely that genomic alterations of this region including deletion, paternal uniparental disomy and de-methylation in maternal allele lead to aberrant overexpression of KCNQ1OT1. Indeed, de-methylation of KvDMR accompanied by uncontrolled overexpression of KCNQ1OT1 occurs frequently in Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS), and around 10% of BWS patients developed embryonal tumors (Wilms' tumor or hepatoblastoma). These observations strongly suggest that silencing of KCNQ1OT1 expression might suppress its oncogenic potential. In the present study, we designed two pyrrole-imidazole (PI) polyamides, termed PI-a and PI-b, which might have the ability to bind to CCAAT boxes of the KCNQ1OT1 promoter region, and investigated their possible antitumor effect on Wilms' tumor-derived G401 cells. Gel retardation assay demonstrated that PI-a and PI-b specifically bind to their target sequences. Microscopic observations showed the efficient nuclear access of these PI polyamides. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that the expression level of KCNQ1OT1 was significantly decreased when treated with PI-a and PI-b simultaneously but not with either PI-a or PI-b single treatment. Consistent with these results, the combination of PI-a and PI-b resulted in a significant reduction in viability of G401 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, FACS analysis demonstrated that combinatory treatment with PI-a and PI-b induces cell death as compared with control cells. Taken together, our present observations strongly suggest that the combinatory treatment with PI polyamides targeting KCNQ1OT1 might be a novel therapeutic strategy to cure patients with tumors over-expressing KCNQ1OT1. PMID:25998555

  10. Vitamin K: an old vitamin in a new perspective

    PubMed Central

    Gröber, U; Reichrath, J; Holick, MF; Kisters, K

    2014-01-01

    The topic of “Vitamin K” is currently booming on the health products market. Vitamin K is known to be important for blood coagulation. Current research increasingly indicates that the antihaemorrhagic vitamin has a considerable benefit in the prevention and treatment of bone and vascular disease. Vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) is more abundant in foods but less bioactive than the vitamin K2 menaquinones (especially MK-7, menaquinone-7). Vitamin K compounds undergo oxidation-reduction cycling within the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, donating electrons to activate specific proteins via enzymatic gamma-carboxylation of glutamate groups before being enzymatically reduced. Along with coagulation factors (II, VII, IX, X, and prothrombin), protein C and protein S, osteocalcin (OC), matrix Gla protein (MGP), periostin, Gas6, and other vitamin K-dependent (VKD) proteins support calcium homeostasis, inhibit vessel wall calcification, support endothelial integrity, facilitate bone mineralization, are involved in tissue renewal and cell growth control, and have numerous other effects. The following review describes the history of vitamin K, the physiological significance of the K vitamers, updates skeletal and cardiovascular benefits and important interactions with drugs. PMID:26413183

  11. Vitamin D supplementation in neonates.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency may lead to the development of rickets. In our paediatrics department in a major London hospital, we audited the number of babies with low vitamin D levels attending our prolonged jaundice clinic. Prior to our newly designed intervention, those babies with low vitamin D levels would be given a letter to encourage collection of supplementation from their GP. The GP would receive a letter which included a 14-page guideline on vitamin D supplementation. For this project, we included all breastfed babies that attended our prolonged jaundice clinic between August 2012 and December 2012. Those babies that were either vitamin D deficient or insufficient were identified. We then followed up these patients and asked them whether they were being prescribed the correct supplementation after being identified as vitamin deficient. For our intervention, we designed a leaflet to simplify guidelines that was then distributed to mothers and their GPs. Following this intervention, we re-audited the new cohort of patients who received the leaflet between August and November 2013. The study found 71% of babies to be vitamin D deficient. Moreover, almost two in five mothers had less than the recommended six months of vitamin supplementation during pregnancy. After identifying a deficiency, one would expect that uptake of vitamin supplementation would increase dramatically. However, only four in 10 babies went on to receive the correct dose and preparation of supplements. A marked increase in uptake was seen during the re-audit post intervention, with 71% of babies receiving correct supplementation. While an increase in government advertising would have contributed to the rise in uptake of vitamin D supplementation, a leaflet proved to be a simple yet effective intervention in improving vitamin uptake in babies. As a result, this was then implemented as part of trust guidelines. PMID:26733062

  12. Vitamin D supplementation in neonates

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency may lead to the development of rickets. In our paediatrics department in a major London hospital, we audited the number of babies with low vitamin D levels attending our prolonged jaundice clinic. Prior to our newly designed intervention, those babies with low vitamin D levels would be given a letter to encourage collection of supplementation from their GP. The GP would receive a letter which included a 14-page guideline on vitamin D supplementation. For this project, we included all breastfed babies that attended our prolonged jaundice clinic between August 2012 and December 2012. Those babies that were either vitamin D deficient or insufficient were identified. We then followed up these patients and asked them whether they were being prescribed the correct supplementation after being identified as vitamin deficient. For our intervention, we designed a leaflet to simplify guidelines that was then distributed to mothers and their GPs. Following this intervention, we re-audited the new cohort of patients who received the leaflet between August and November 2013. The study found 71% of babies to be vitamin D deficient. Moreover, almost two in five mothers had less than the recommended six months of vitamin supplementation during pregnancy. After identifying a deficiency, one would expect that uptake of vitamin supplementation would increase dramatically. However, only four in 10 babies went on to receive the correct dose and preparation of supplements. A marked increase in uptake was seen during the re-audit post intervention, with 71% of babies receiving correct supplementation. While an increase in government advertising would have contributed to the rise in uptake of vitamin D supplementation, a leaflet proved to be a simple yet effective intervention in improving vitamin uptake in babies. As a result, this was then implemented as part of trust guidelines. PMID:26733062

  13. Vitamin D supplementation in athletes.

    PubMed

    Larson-Meyer, Enette

    2013-01-01

    It is well recognized that vitamin D is necessary for optimal bone health. Emerging evidence is finding that vitamin D deficiency can have a profound effect on immunity, inflammation and muscle function. Studies in athletes have found that vitamin D status varies among different populations and is dependent on skin color, early- or late-day training, indoor training and geographic location. Although dietary assessment studies have found that athletes worldwide do not meet the dietary intake recommendations for vitamin D, the most probable reason for poor status is inadequate synthesis due to lack of sun exposure. Studies in athletic populations suggest that maintaining adequate vitamin D status may reduce stress fractures, total body inflammation, common infectious illnesses, and impaired muscle function, and may also aid in recovery from injury. Given that compromised vitamin D status can potentially impact an athlete's overall health and training efficiency, vitamin D status should be routinely assessed so that athletes can be coached to maintain serum 25(OH)D concentration of ≥30 and preferably ≥40 ng/ml. Recommendations will be dependent on the athlete's current 25(OH)D concentration, but can include regular safe sun exposure and/or dietary supplementation combined with increased vitamin D intake. PMID:23765355

  14. Vitamin D recommendations: beyond deficiency.

    PubMed

    Biesalski, Hans K

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin D plays an important role in regular bone growth and in adequate function of the innate immune system, including barrier functions of mucous membranes. A sufficient supply during pregnancy and lactation protects the child from infectious diseases. Clinical symptoms of severe vitamin D deficiency (rickets) are well known and can be easily detected. Signs and symptoms beyond deficiency, however, remain to be elucidated. Based on clinical and observational data, the plasma level of 25(OH)D may serve as a 'marker' to detect or define a subclinical deficiency. Levels below 50 nmol/l might be insufficient to maintain the non-bone-related activities of vitamin D. Finally, it has to be considered that all of the nonbone activities of vitamin D are in concert with vitamin A (9-cis retinoic acid). Studies combining both vitamins in sufficient amounts (cod liver oil) demonstrated a beneficial effect on the prevention of respiratory tract infections. Consequently, it should be strongly recommended to increase the intake of vitamin D and to ensure a daily intake of vitamin A as counseled. PMID:22123631

  15. Vitamin D in dementia prevention.

    PubMed

    Annweiler, Cédric

    2016-03-01

    Beyond effects on bone health, vitamin D exerts effects on a variety of target organs, including the brain. The discussion herein presents the state of the art in research on the neurological role of vitamin D and clinical implications among older adults, including implications for dementia onset and progression. Some of the neurosteroid actions of vitamin D include regulation of calcium homeostasis, clearance of amyloid-β peptide, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, and possible protection against the neurodegenerative mechanisms associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The correction of age-related hypovitaminosis D and cognitive decline has been reported by various cross-sectional and longitudinal studies reporting associations of lower vitamin D concentrations with brain changes and poorer cognition, specifically with respect to executive dysfunction. Epidemiological studies have consistently shown an association between inadequate dietary intake of vitamin D and cognitive disorders, including greater AD risk. Although there have not been any randomized placebo-controlled trials conducted to examine the effectiveness of vitamin D supplementation to prevent AD, several nonrandomized controlled studies have found that older adults experienced cognitive improvements after 1-15 months of vitamin D supplementation. Therefore, it appears crucial to maintain vitamin D concentrations at sufficiently high levels in order to slow, prevent, or improve neurocognitive decline. PMID:27116242

  16. Vitamin A and immune function

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin A deficiency increases the risk of death from infectious diseases in infants and young children in areas of the world where vitamin A deficiency is common. This increased risk apparently results from impaired innate and adaptive immune function. Retinoic acid is the major metabolite of vit...

  17. Vitamin D and African Americans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin D insufficiency is more prevalent among African Americans than other Americans and, in North America, most young, healthy blacks do not achieve optimal 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations at any time of the year. This is primarily due to the fact that pigmentation reduces vitamin D...

  18. The Vitamin D Endocrine System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Anthony W.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the physiology and biochemistry of the vitamin D endocrine system, including role of biological calcium and phosphorus, vitamin D metabolism, and related diseases. A 10-item, multiple-choice test which can be used to obtain continuing medical education credit is included. (JN)

  19. Vitamin D: present and future.

    PubMed

    Varsavsky, M; Alonso, G; García-Martín, A

    2014-10-01

    In recent years has been a growing interest by vitamin D, not only for its important role in the bone mineral metabolism, but also by the extra-osseous effects. Most of the scientific societies consider that deposits are sufficient if the serum concentration of 25-OH vitamin D is above 30ng/ml and are considered deficient if levels are below 20ng/ml. The majority of studies found that supplements of calcium plus vitamin D have a positive effect in reducing the risk of fracture and the risk of falls in the elderly, although several specifies that doses should be 700-1.000 IU daily. The treatment of the deficit can be performed with vitamin D2, D3 as well as calcidiol or the active metabolite calcitriol. In certain pathologies also selective vitamin D receptor activators can be used. PMID:24910024

  20. Vitamin D and Influenza12

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Laura A.

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin D has become increasingly recognized in the literature for its extra-skeletal roles, including an effect on inflammation and the immune response to infection. Our goal was to describe the role of vitamin D in the immune response and implications for the risk of influenza infection in humans. In this review, we first consider literature that provides molecular and genetic support to the idea that vitamin D is related to the adaptive and innate immune responses to influenza infection in vitro and in animal models. We then discuss observational studies and randomized controlled trials of vitamin D supplementation in humans. Finally, we consider some of the knowledge gaps surrounding vitamin D and immune response that must be filled. PMID:22797987

  1. Vitamin D and respiratory health.

    PubMed

    Hughes, D A; Norton, R

    2009-10-01

    Vitamin D is now known to be of physiological importance outside of bone health and calcium homeostasis, and there is mounting evidence that it plays a beneficial role in the prevention and/or treatment of a wide range of diseases. In this brief review the known effects of vitamin D on immune function are described in relation to respiratory health. Vitamin D appears capable of inhibiting pulmonary inflammatory responses while enhancing innate defence mechanisms against respiratory pathogens. Population-based studies showing an association between circulating vitamin D levels and lung function provide strong justification for randomized controlled clinical trials of vitamin D supplementation in patients with respiratory diseases to assess both efficacy and optimal dosage. PMID:19737226

  2. [Vitamin E and Alzheimer's Disease].

    PubMed

    Shinohara, Moeko; Yamada, Masahito

    2015-12-01

    It has been suggested that oxidative stress may contribute to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Vitamin E is a potent antioxidant, and the results of some epidemiological studies have suggested that high intake of vitamin E through food is inversely associated with the incidence of Alzheimer's disease. Randomized controlled studies have shown that treatment with vitamin E could delay functional decline in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease. However, vitamin E had no cognitive benefits in patients with mild cognitive impairment or in generally healthy older women. Well-designed clinical trials or preventive interventions with vitamin E are necessary to establish its efficacy as therapeutic or preventive agents for Alzheimer's disease. PMID:26618765

  3. Asiago spectroscopic classification of MASTER OT J162655.28+333824.4 as a type-Ia supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terreran, G.; Tomasella, L.; Benetti, S.; Cappellaro, E.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Ochner, P.; Pastorello, A.; Turatto, M.

    2014-04-01

    We report that an optical spectrogram of PSN J16265528+3338244 (= MASTER OT J162655.28+333824.4, #6024), 340-820 nm; resolution 1.3 nm, obtained on March 31.98 UT with the Asiago 1.82-m Copernico Telescope (+ AFOSC), shows it to be a type-Ia supernova at redshift around 0.04. ...

  4. Spectroscopic Classification of MASTER OT J152333.04+092125.6 as a post-maximum Type Ia Supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilpatrick, Charles; Andrews, Jennifer; Milne, Peter; Smith, Nathan

    2016-04-01

    The AZTEC (Arizona Transient Exploration and Characterization) collaboration reports an optical spectrum of MASTER OT J152333.04+092125.6 (ATEL #8903) obtained on UT 2016 Apr. 27.440 with the 2.3m Bok telescope (+ Boller & Chivens spectrograph) on Kitt Peak, Arizona.

  5. Spectroscopic Classification of AT2016axw (=MASTER OT J142718.40-014031.0 =PS16axi)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchard, Peter; Berger, Edo; Bieryla, Allyson; Brzycki, Bryan; Cohn, Amy; Dillett, Sean; Feder-Staehle, Richard; Frostig, Danielle; Grell, Gabe; James, Nicholas; Johnson, April; Mahmood, Zahra; Merryman, Hunter; Peak, Barra; Sanders, Cecilia; Taylor, Anthony

    2016-03-01

    We obtained a low-resolution optical spectrum of AT2016axw (=MASTER OT J142718.40-014031.0 =PS16ayd; ATel #8791). Observations were carried out on 2016 March 16.4 UT using the FAST spectrograph mounted on the F.L. Whipple Observatory 1.5-m telescope.

  6. 12 CFR 502.26 - How does OTS calculate the semi-annual assessment for savings and loan holding companies?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...-site supervision of a noncomplex, low risk savings and loan holding company structure. OTS will... holding company's business, a component based on its organizational form, and a component based on its... company is the registered holding company at the highest level of ownership in a holding company...

  7. 12 CFR 502.26 - How does OTS calculate the semi-annual assessment for savings and loan holding companies?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... reflect OTS costs of supervising the holding company structure and: (i) There are multiple top-tier holding companies in the holding company structure; (ii) The top-tier holding company is organized outside...) Other circumstances indicate that the assessment of the top-tier holding company is inappropriate....

  8. SALT spectral classification of MASTER OT J074858.45-655344.6.5 as a likely Dwarf Nova in outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, D. A. H.; Kniazev, A.; Kotze, M. M.; Potter, S.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Lipunov, V.

    2015-03-01

    MASTER OT J074858.45-655344.6.5, which was discovered by MASTER SAAO on Jan. 15.045 UT (ATel #6927) as an unfiltered 16.9 magnitude transient, was observed with SALT RSS from Jan. 15.95 - 15.99 UT using the PG900 lines/mm grating.

  9. 75 FR 10560 - Application for Conversion From: (a) OTS-Regulated, State-Chartered Savings Association to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... Union to Federal Savings Association; (c) State Mutual Holding Company to a Federal Mutual Holding.... SUMMARY: The proposed information collection request (ICR) described below has been submitted to the... Information and Regulatory Affairs, Attention: Desk Officer for OTS, U.S. Office of Management and Budget,...

  10. 12 CFR 563.580 - What standards and procedures will govern OTS review of the substance of my notice?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What standards and procedures will govern OTS review of the substance of my notice? 563.580 Section 563.580 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS-OPERATIONS Notice of Change of Director or Senior Executive Officer § 563.580 What...

  11. The R package otu2ot for implementing the entropy decomposition of nucleotide variation in sequence data

    PubMed Central

    Ramette, Alban; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Oligotyping is a novel, supervised computational method that classifies closely related sequences into “oligotypes” (OTs) based on subtle nucleotide variation (Eren et al., 2013). Its application to microbial datasets has helped reveal ecological patterns which are often hidden by the way sequence data are currently clustered to define operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Here, we implemented the OT entropy decomposition procedure and its unsupervised version, Minimal Entropy Decomposition (MED; Eren et al., 2014c), in the statistical programming language and environment, R. The aim of this implementation is to facilitate the integration of computational routines, interactive statistical analyses, and visualization into a single framework. In addition, two complementary approaches are implemented: (1) An analytical method (the broken stick model) is proposed to help identify OTs of low abundance that could be generated by chance alone and (2) a one-pass profiling (OP) method, to efficiently identify those OTUs whose subsequent oligotyping would be most promising to be undertaken. These enhancements are especially useful for large datasets, where a manual screening of entropy analysis results and the creation of a full set of OTs may not be feasible. The package and procedures are illustrated by several tutorials and examples. PMID:25452747

  12. 75 FR 63107 - Alternatives to the Use of External Credit Ratings in the Regulations of the OTS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-14

    ... capital frameworks. (75 FR 52283) II. OTS Regulations Referencing Credit Ratings The non-capital... different regulations? \\8\\ 75 FR 52283, August 25, 2010. Alternatives for Replacing References to Credit... banking agencies), including alternative measures of credit-worthiness that may be used in lieu of...

  13. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the biotin–protein ligase from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3

    SciTech Connect

    Bagautdinov, Bagautdin; Kuroishi, Chizu; Sugahara, Mitsuaki; Kunishima, Naoki

    2005-02-01

    The biotin–protein ligase from P. horikoshii OT3 was overexpressed, purified, crystallized and cocrystallized with biotin, ADP and biotinyl-5′-AMP. The crystals belong to space group P2{sub 1} and diffract to beyond 1.6 Å resolution.

  14. Aspects of Vitamin A

    PubMed Central

    Hedley-Whyte, John; Milamed, Debra R

    2009-01-01

    Musgrave Park Hospital in 1942 was the site of an Anglo-American Vitamin A caper. A threatened court-martial was pre-empted. Subsequently the Queen's lecturer in Anatomy, JW Millen, who was the other lecturer to the first editor of this journal, RH Hunter, did much distinguished work. The neurological effects of Vitamin A were elucidated. Further work on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), placenta, thalidomide and poliomyelitis led to the pre-eminence in applied anatomy and teratology of now Reader James Wilson Millen and Professors JD Boyd and WJ Hamilton, all Queen's Medical School graduates. Training of RH Hunter, JH Biggart and JD Boyd at Johns Hopkins University profoundly influenced these seminal discoveries. The Garretts, a family of Lisburn, County Down origin, saved Johns Hopkins Hospital and Medical School from financial disaster. The Garretts founded a commercial and mercantile empire that took control of the Baltimore and Ohio (B and O) Railroad and enabled the Garretts to dictate that women should be admitted to the Hopkins Medical School and Hospital on exactly the same terms as men. All women and men should already be university honours graduates. Winston S Churchill on his progress up and down the B and O main line in March 1946, recounted to President Harry S Truman and Harry Hopkins his mother's tales of the Garrett boys' adventures. PMID:19907684

  15. The Persistent Eruption of UGC 2773-OT: finally, a decade-long extragalactic Eta Carinae analogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Nathan; Andrews, Jennifer E.; Mauerhan, Jon C.; Zheng, WeiKang; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Graham, Melissa L.; Milne, Peter

    2016-02-01

    While supernova (SN) impostors resemble the Great Eruption of η Carinae in the sense that their spectra show narrow H lines and they have typical peak absolute magnitudes of -13 to -14 mag, most extragalactic events observed so far are quite different from η Car in duration. Their bright phases typically last for ˜100 d or less, rather than persisting for several years. The transient object UGC 2773-OT (discovered in 2009) had a similar peak absolute magnitude to other SN impostors, but with a gradual 5-yr pre-discovery rise. In the ˜6 yr since discovery, it has faded very slowly (0.26 mag yr-1). Overall, we suggest that its decade-long eruption is so far the best-known analogue of η Car's 19th century eruption. We discuss extensive spectroscopy of the ongoing eruption. The spectra show interesting changes in velocity and line shape that we discuss in detail, including an asymmetric Hα emission line that we show is consistent with the ejection of a bipolar nebula that could be very much like the Homunculus of η Car. Moreover, changes in the line width, line profile, blue excess emission resembling that of Type IIn SNe, and the intensity of Hα suggest the presence of strong circumstellar interaction in the eruption at late times. This supports the hypothesis that the extended plateau of η Car's eruption may have been powered by shock interaction as well. One interesting difference compared to η Car, however, is that UGC 2773-OT so far does not exhibit the repeated brief spikes in luminosity that have been associated with binary periastron events.

  16. Solar energy system performance evaluation: final report for Honeywell OTS 41, Shenandoah (Newnan), Georgia

    SciTech Connect

    Mathur, A K; Pederson, S

    1982-08-01

    The operation and technical performance of the Solar Operational Test Site (OTS 41) located at Shenandoah, Georgia, are described, based on the analysis of data collected between January and August 1981. The following topics are discussed: system description, performance assessment, operating energy, energy savings, system maintenance, and conclusions. The solar energy system at OTS 41 is a hydronic heating and cooling system consisting of 702 square feet of liquid-cooled flat-plate collectors; a 1000-gallon thermal storage tank; a 3-ton capacity organic Rankine-cycle-engine-assisted air conditioner; a water-to-air heat exchanger for solar space heating; a finned-tube coil immersed in the storage tank to preheat water for a gas-fired hot water heater; and associated piping, pumps, valves, and controls. The solar system has six basic modes of operation and several combination modes. The system operation is controlled automatically by a Honeywell-designed microprocessor-based control system, which also provides diagnostics. Based on the instrumented test data monitored and collected during the 7 months of the Operational Test Period, the solar system collected 53 MMBtu of thermal energy of the total incident solar energy of 219 MMBtu and provided 11.4 MMBtu for cooling, 8.6 MMBtu for heating, and 8.1 MMBtu for domestic hot water. The projected net annual energy savings due to the solar system were approximately 50 MMBtu of fossil energy (49,300 cubic feet of natural gas) and a loss of 280 kWh(e) of electrical energy.

  17. Determinants of Vitamin K Status in Humans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To understand the role of vitamin K in human health, it is important to identify determinants of vitamin K status throughout the life cycle. Our current understanding of vitamin K physiology and metabolism only partially explains why there is wide inter-individual variation in vitamin K status, as ...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1950 - Vitamin D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vitamin D. 184.1950 Section 184.1950 Food and....1950 Vitamin D. (a) Vitamin D is added to food as the following food ingredients: (1) Crystalline vitamin D2 (C28H44O, CAS Reg. No. 50-14-6), also known as ergocalciferol, is the chemical...

  19. Live longer with vitamin D?

    PubMed

    Gröber, Uwe; Reichrath, Jörg; Holick, Michael F

    2015-03-01

    The global burden of vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency is of great concern for public health. According to recent studies, vitamin D deficiency is an important etiological factor in the pathogenesis of many chronic diseases. Whether or not there is a connection between 25-hydoxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) status and overall mortality is a matter of considerable debate. A new meta-analysis confirmed that low 25(OH)D levels were associated with a significant increased risk for all-cause mortality. Individuals with severe vitamin D deficiency have almost twice the mortality rate as those with 25(OH)D level ≥ 30 ng/mL, (≥75 nmol/L). Unlike previous meta-analyses which suggested that serum 25(OH)D > 50 ng/mL was associated with increased mortality, this new analysis found that there was no increased risk even when 25(OH)D levels were ≥70 ng/mL. In general, closer attention should be paid to vitamin D deficiency in medical and pharmaceutical practice than has been the case hitherto. The results of these studies are consistent with the recommendation to improve the general vitamin D status in children and adults by means of a healthy approach to sunlight exposure, consumption of foods containing vitamin D and supplementation with vitamin D preparations. PMID:25774604

  20. Vitamin K in parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Shearer, Martin J

    2009-11-01

    Vitamin K (as phylloquinone and menaquinones) is an essential cofactor for the conversion of peptide-bound glutamate to gamma-carboxy glutamic acid (Gla) residues in a number of specialized Gla-containing proteins. The only unequivocal deficiency outcome is a bleeding syndrome caused by an inability to synthesize active coagulation factors II, VII, IX, and X, although there is growing evidence for roles for vitamin K in bone and vascular health. An adult daily intake of about 100 microg of phylloquinone is recommended for the maintenance of hemostasis. Traditional coagulation tests for assessing vitamin K status are nonspecific and insensitive. Better tests include measurements of circulating vitamin K and inactive proteins such as undercarboxylated forms of factor II and osteocalcin to assess tissue and functional status, respectively. Common risk factors for vitamin K deficiency in the hospitalized patient include inadequate dietary intakes, malabsorption syndromes (especially owing to cholestatic liver disease), antibiotic therapy, and renal insufficiency. Pregnant women and their newborns present a special risk category because of poor placental transport and low concentrations of vitamin K in breast milk. Since 2000, the Food and Drug Administration has mandated that adult parenteral preparations should provide a supplemental amount of 150 microg phylloquinone per day in addition to that present naturally, in variable amounts, in the lipid emulsion. Although this supplemental daily amount is probably beneficial in preventing vitamin K deficiency, it may be excessive for patients taking vitamin K antagonists, such as warfarin, and jeopardize their anticoagulant control. Natural forms of vitamin K have no proven toxicity. PMID:19874942

  1. The health benefits of vitamin K

    PubMed Central

    DiNicolantonio, James J; Bhutani, Jaikrit; O'Keefe, James H

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin K has important functions within the body, some of which are still being discovered. Research has shown that vitamin K is an anticalcification, anticancer, bone-forming and insulin-sensitising molecule. Recent data indicate that subclinical vitamin K deficiency is not uncommon. Additionally, vitamin K antagonists such as warfarin may cause detrimental side effects, which may partly be blunted through vitamin K supplementation. PMID:26468402

  2. Vitamin D Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The solar dosimeter, a spinoff from NASA solar cell technology, measures the amount of solar radiation to which its wearer is exposed. It was used in a University of Cincinnati Medical Center investigation into the effect of sunlight exposure on maintaining vitamin D status in infants. The infants were exposed to sunlight and records were kept by mothers. Each baby wore a solar dosimeter. The two circular "eyes" in the instrument are silicon photovoltaic detectors which collect solar energy, convert it to electric signals and transmit the charge to E-cells that record the charge by plating silver ions onto an electrode. The time required to plate the silver measures the radiation received. The University found the solar dosimeter to be very effective.

  3. Vitamin D and cardiovascular disease prevention.

    PubMed

    Pilz, Stefan; Verheyen, Nicolas; Grübler, Martin R; Tomaschitz, Andreas; März, Winfried

    2016-07-01

    Vitamin D is a precursor of the steroid hormone calcitriol that is crucial for bone and mineral metabolism. Both the high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the general population and the identification of the vitamin D receptor in the heart and blood vessels raised interest in the potential cardiovascular effects of vitamin D. Experimental studies have demonstrated various cardiovascular protective actions of vitamin D, but vitamin D intoxication in animals is known to induce vascular calcification. In meta-analyses of epidemiological studies, vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increased cardiovascular risk. Findings from Mendelian randomization studies and randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) do not indicate significant effects of a general vitamin D supplementation on cardiovascular outcomes. Previous RCTs, however, were not adequately designed to address extraskeletal events, and did not focus on vitamin D-deficient individuals. Therefore, currently available evidence does not support cardiovascular benefits or harms of vitamin D supplementation with the commonly used doses, and whether vitamin D has cardiovascular effects in individuals with overt vitamin D deficiency remains to be evaluated. Here, we provide an update on clinical studies on vitamin D and cardiovascular risk, discuss ongoing vitamin D research, and consider the management of vitamin D deficiency from a cardiovascular health perspective. PMID:27150190

  4. Isolation and Pharmacological Characterization of α-Elapitoxin-Ot1a, a Short-Chain Postsynaptic Neurotoxin from the Venom of the Western Desert Taipan, Oxyuranus temporalis

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Carmel M.; Ahmad Rusmili, Muhamad Rusdi; Hodgson, Wayne C.

    2016-01-01

    Taipans (Oxyuranus spp.) are elapids with highly potent venoms containing presynaptic (β) and postsynaptic (α) neurotoxins. O. temporalis (Western Desert taipan), a newly discovered member of this genus, has been shown to possess venom which displays marked in vitro neurotoxicity. No components have been isolated from this venom. We describe the characterization of α-elapitoxin-Ot1a (α-EPTX-Ot1a; 6712 Da), a short-chain postsynaptic neurotoxin, which accounts for approximately 30% of O. temporalis venom. α-Elapitoxin-Ot1a (0.1–1 µM) produced concentration-dependent inhibition of indirect-twitches, and abolished contractile responses to exogenous acetylcholine and carbachol, in the chick biventer cervicis nerve-muscle preparation. The inhibition of indirect twitches by α-elapitoxin-Ot1a (1 µM) was not reversed by washing the tissue. Prior addition of taipan antivenom (10 U/mL) delayed the neurotoxic effects of α-elapitoxin-Ot1a (1 µM) and markedly attenuated the neurotoxic effects of α-elapitoxin-Ot1a (0.1 µM). α-Elapitoxin-Ot1a displayed pseudo-irreversible antagonism of concentration-response curves to carbachol with a pA2 value of 8.02 ± 0.05. De novo sequencing revealed the main sequence of the short-chain postsynaptic neurotoxin (i.e., α-elapitoxin-Ot1a) as well as three other isoforms found in O. temporalis venom. α-Elapitoxin-Ot1a shows high sequence similarity (i.e., >87%) with other taipan short-chain postsynaptic neurotoxins. PMID:26938558

  5. Maternal Vitamin D Status: Effect on Milk Vitamin D Content and Vitamin D Status of Breastfeeding Infants123

    PubMed Central

    Dawodu, Adekunle; Tsang, Reginald C.

    2012-01-01

    There are increasing reports of rickets and vitamin D deficiency worldwide. Breastfeeding without adequate sunlight exposure and vitamin D supplementation are the major risk factors. In view of the drive to promote and increase the rate of exclusive breastfeeding, the relationship among maternal vitamin D status, vitamin D concentration of human milk, and hence vitamin D status of breastfeeding infants deserves reassessment. This review provides current information on the interrelationship between maternal vitamin D status and the vitamin D status of the breastfeeding infant. It also reviews the results of ongoing research on the effect of high-dose maternal vitamin D supplementation alone as a possible option to prevent vitamin D deficiency in the breastfeeding mother-infant dyad. PMID:22585912

  6. Multiple Sclerosis and Vitamin D

    MedlinePlus

    ... STUDY IMPORTANT? This study is the first published randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of vitamin D supplementa- tion in patients with MS. Randomized controlled tri- als (RCT) are considered to produce ...

  7. Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... vitamin B12. They include: Chronic alcoholism Crohn disease, celiac disease, infection with the fish tapeworm, or other problems ... may no longer be needed after Crohn disease, celiac disease, or alcohol use is properly treated. Your provider ...

  8. Overexpression of the non-coding SOX2OT variants 4 and 7 in lung tumors suggests an oncogenic role in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Saghaeian Jazi, Marie; Samaei, Nader Mansour; Ghanei, Mostafa; Shadmehr, Mohammad Behgam; Mowla, Seyed Javad

    2016-08-01

    Despite the advances in cancer therapy, lung cancer still remains the most leading cause of cancer death worldwide. The long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are recently introduced as novel regulators of human cancers. SOX2 overlapping transcript (SOX2OT) is a cancer-associated lncRNA gene that encodes different alternatively spliced transcripts. Here, we investigated the alterations in the preferential expression of different SOX2OTs in twenty non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients by real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) method. We observed preferential expression of SOX2OT4 and SOX2OT7 in lung tumor tissues. The quantitative gene expression analysis revealed that >30 % of NSCLC tumors express SOX2OT4 (mean = 7.6 times) and SOX2OT7 (mean = 5.9 times) more than normal tissues, with higher expression in squamous cell carcinoma. Further, we observed overexpression of pluripotency-associated transcription factor, SOX2 in 47 % of our samples concordant with SOX2OT (R = 0.62, P value <0.05). Overexpression of OCT4A gene was also observed in 36.8 % of tumor tissues. Then, we investigated the effects of SOX2OT suppression in lung adenocarcinoma cell line, by means of RNAi. Cell characteristics of colony formation, apoptosis, 2-D mobility, and cell cycle progression were measured in control and treated A549 cells. The SOX2OT knockdown significantly reduced the colony formation ability of cancer cells; however, no alterations in the rate of apoptosis were detected. On the other hand, SOX2OT-suppressed cells had elevated accumulation in G2/M phase of cell cycle and exhibited limited mobility. Altogether, our findings support a potential oncogenic role for SOX2OT in non-small cell lung cancer tumor genesis and SOX2OT seems a promising therapeutic candidate for NSCLC. PMID:26846097

  9. Vitamin D in Tear Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xiaowen; Elizondo, Rodolfo A.; Nielsen, Rikke; Christensen, Erik I.; Yang, Jun; Hammock, Bruce D.; Watsky, Mitchell A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the source(s) of vitamin D in tear fluid and examine the expression of the endocytic proteins and putative vitamin D transporters megalin and cubilin in lacrimal and Harderian glands. Methods Wild-type, heterozygous, and vitamin D receptor (VDR) knockout C57BL/6 mice were used, with a subset of knockout mice fed a replenishment diet for some studies. Mouse lacrimal and Harderian glands from each group were used to measure megalin and cubilin by RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry. New Zealand white rabbits were used to collect lacrimal and accessory gland fluid for vitamin D mass spectroscopy measurements. Results Ten-week-old knockout mice were significantly (P < 0.05) smaller than wild-type mice. Real-time PCR and Western blot showed decreased expression of megalin and cubilin in select VDR knockout mouse groups. Immunohistochemistry showed apical duct cell megalin staining and weaker megalin staining in VDR knockout mice compared with controls. Vitamin D2 was more prevalent in rabbit lacrimal and accessory gland fluid than vitamin D3, and greater amounts of Vitamin D2 were found in in tear fluid obtained directly from lacrimal and accessory glands as compared with plasma concentrations. Conclusions This is the first study to demonstrate the presence of megalin and cubilin in lacrimal and accessory glands responsible for producing tear fluid. The results strengthen the hypothesis that megalin and cubilin are likely involved in the secretory pathway of vitamin D into tear fluid by the duct cells. PMID:26348637

  10. Vitamin D in Children's Health.

    PubMed

    Weydert, Joy A

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of vitamin D in the health of children has grown greatly over the years, extending past the importance for calcium homeostasis and bone growth. There is growing recognition of the role vitamin D plays in health impacting the innate immune system to prevent infections and the adaptive immune system to modulate autoimmunity. Other studies are starting to reveal the neurohormonal effects of vitamin D on brain development and behavior, with a link to mental health disorders. Many of these effects start well before the birth of the child, so it is important that each pregnant woman be assessed for vitamin D deficiency and supplemented for the best possible health outcome of the child. It is recommended that targeting a 25(OH)D level of 40-70 ng/mL for each individual would provide optimal health benefits and reduce health care costs. Current recommended doses of vitamin D supplementation fall short of what is needed to obtain ideal serum levels. A vitamin D supplementation program to prevent disease, much like the current vaccination program, could potentially have a dramatic impact on overall health worldwide. PMID:27417476

  11. Vitamin D in inflammatory diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wöbke, Thea K.; Sorg, Bernd L.; Steinhilber, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Changes in vitamin D serum levels have been associated with inflammatory diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis (MS), atherosclerosis, or asthma. Genome- and transcriptome-wide studies indicate that vitamin D signaling modulates many inflammatory responses on several levels. This includes (i) the regulation of the expression of genes which generate pro-inflammatory mediators, such as cyclooxygenases or 5-lipoxygenase, (ii) the interference with transcription factors, such as NF-κB, which regulate the expression of inflammatory genes and (iii) the activation of signaling cascades, such as MAP kinases which mediate inflammatory responses. Vitamin D targets various tissues and cell types, a number of which belong to the immune system, such as monocytes/macrophages, dendritic cells (DCs) as well as B- and T cells, leading to individual responses of each cell type. One hallmark of these specific vitamin D effects is the cell-type specific regulation of genes involved in the regulation of inflammatory processes and the interplay between vitamin D signaling and other signaling cascades involved in inflammation. An important task in the near future will be the elucidation of the regulatory mechanisms that are involved in the regulation of inflammatory responses by vitamin D on the molecular level by the use of techniques such as chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), ChIP-seq, and FAIRE-seq. PMID:25071589

  12. Vitamin D in pregnancy: A metabolic outlook

    PubMed Central

    Kaushal, Manila; Magon, Navneet

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is a preventable health problem. Vitamin D deficiency among pregnant women is frequent in many populations over the world. Research indicates that adequate vitamin D intake in pregnancy is optimal for maternal, fetal and child health. Adverse health outcomes during pregnancy are preeclampsia; gestational diabetes mellitus and caesarean section. Consequences in newborns are low birth weight, neonatal rickets, a risk of neonatal hypocalcaemia, asthma and/or type 1 diabetes. Vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy is the origin for a host of future perils for the child, especially effect on neurodevelopment and immune system. Some of this damage done by maternal Vitamin D deficiency gets evident after many years. Therefore, prevention of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant women is essential. The currently recommended supplementation amount of vitamin D is not sufficient to maintain a value of 25 hydroxy vitamin D above 30 ng/ml, during pregnancy. Studies are underway to establish the recommended daily doses of vitamin D in pregnant women. Clearly, further investigation is required into the effects of vitamin D, of vitamin D supplementation, and of vitamin D analogs for improvement in human health generally and mothers and children specifically. This review discusses vitamin D metabolism, dietary requirements and recommendations and implications of vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy and lactation. PMID:23776856

  13. Effect of Ozone Therapy (OT) on Healing of Colonic Anastomosis in a Rat Model of Peritonitis

    PubMed Central

    Erginel, Başak; Erginel, Turgay; Aksoy, Bilgin; Dokucu, Ali İhsan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ozone is a three-oxygen molecule (O3). Ozone therapy (OT) is systematically effective when pathological inflammatory and immunologic processes are activated. Among of these conditions are wound healing, macular degeneration related to aging, and conditions that are ischemic or infectious. Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of OT on wound healing of intestinal anastomosis in the presence of peritonitis in a rat model. Study Design: Animal experimentation. Methods: A total of 40 Wistar albino rats were randomized into four groups (n=10) including: sham (S), peritonitis (P), ozone 0 (O0), and ozone 24 (O24). In group S, only cecal dissection was carried out. The S group had only a cecal dissection and intestinal anastomosis performed, but no peritonitis. In all other groups, cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) followed the cecal dissection to induce bacterial peritonitis. 24 h after puncture, a cecal resection and ileocolic anastomosis were performed. In group P, 24 h after CLP, a cecal resection and ileocolic anastomosis were performed and no ozone was administered. In group O0, immediately after the anastomosis, and in group O24, starting 24 hours after the anastomosis, an intraperitoneal 1 mg/kg/day ozone administration was applied for seven days. On the seventh day the animals were sacrificed, the anastomotic bursting pressures (BP) and the hydroxyproline values of the anastomotic tissues were measured, and histopathologic examination of the anastomotic segment was carried out. Results: The highest BP was in group S, with 211±23.13 mmHg. The mean BP of group P was 141±56.25 mmHg, which was significantly lower than in the other two peritonitis groups that received ozone therapy, group O0 and O24, where it was 192±22 and 166±45 mmHg, respectively (p<0.05). The difference in the BP between groups O0 and O24 was not statistically significant (p>0.05). Histopathologic analyses of the anastomotic segments determined there was

  14. Partial KCNQ1OT1 hypomethylation: A disguised familial Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome as a sporadic adrenocortical tumor.

    PubMed

    H'mida Ben-Brahim, Dorra; Hammami, Sabeur; Haddaji Mastouri, Marwa; Trabelsi, Saoussen; Chourabi, Maroua; Sassi, Sihem; Mougou, Soumaya; Gribaa, Moez; Zakhama, Abdelfattah; Guédiche, Mohamed Neji; Saad, Ali

    2015-03-01

    Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome has a wide spectrum of complications such as embryonal tumors, namely adrenocortical tumor. Tumor predisposition is one of the most challenging manifestations of this syndrome. A 45-day old female with a family history of adrenocortical tumor presented with adrenocortical tumor. The case raised suspicion of a hereditary Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, therefore molecular analysis was undertaken. The results revealed partial KCNQ1OT1 hypomethylation in the infant's blood DNA which was associated with a complete loss of methylation in the infant's adrenocortical tumor tissue. It is unique for familial Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome caused by KCNQ1OT1 partial hypomethylation to manifest solely through adrenocortical tumor. Incomplete penetrance and specific tissue mosaicism could provide explanations to this novel hereditary Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome presentation. PMID:26937341

  15. MASTER OT J130845.02-323254.9: Variable Stars as Source of the High Energy Neutrino.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipunov, V.; Tyurina, N.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Buckley, D.

    2016-09-01

    As reported in ATel #9425 Global MASTER Net auto-detection system ( ( Lipunov et al., MASTER Global Robotic Net, Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 30L) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 13h 08m 45.02s -32d 32m 54.9s on 2016-08-24.73811 UT during inspection of HESE IceCube alert (14 August 2016, 58537957 trigger number http://gcn.gsfc.nasa.gov/notices_amon/58537957_128340.amon , Dornic et al. ATEL #9440 ). MASTER-SAAO auto-detection system detected again OT at RA (2000) = 13 08 45.02 -32 32 54.9 on 2016-09-04.7627UT (ATEL #9425).

  16. Erosive potential of vitamin and vitamin+mineral effervescent tablets.

    PubMed

    Wegehaupt, Florian J; Lunghi, Nancy; Hogger, Vanessa M G; Attin, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The extrinsic sources for erosion-causing acids are primarily acidic beverages and foodstuffs. Effervescent tablets also contain organic acids (e.g. citric, tartaric, malic) in order to form carbon dioxide by contact with water – with the help of the carbonate salts of the tablets. To adequately inform patients about the possible erosive potential of effervescent tablets, this study was undertaken in order to investigate the erosive potential of effervescent tablets (ET), containing either a combination of vitamins and minerals or vitamins only, commercially available in Switzerland. One hundred and ninety-two bovine enamel samples were prepared and allocated to 16 groups (A–H and 1–8; n = 12/group). Samples were eroded (120 s/erosive cycle) in freshly prepared solutions (200 ml/12 samples) comprised of tap water and a supplement as follows: none (control groups, A and 1); vitamin+mineral ET: Qualite and Prix (B), Optisana (C), Well and Active (D), Actilife All in One (E), Berocca (F), Isostar (G) and Qualite and Prix Mg + Vit C (H); vitamin ET: Actilife-Multivitamin (2), Sunlife Vitamin C (3), Optisana Vitamin C (4), Optisana Multivitamin (5), Well and Active Multivitamin (6), Kneipp Vitamin C+Zink (7) and Sunlife Multivitamin (8). Enamel loss was measured using profilometry after 10 and 20 erosive cycles. For the vitamin+mineral ET, no loss was observed in groups B–E. Significantly highest enamel loss (mean ± SD) after 20 cycles was observed for Isostar (5.26 ± 0.76 µm) and Qualite and Prix Mg + Vit C (5.12 ± 0.67 µm). All vitamine ET showed erosive enamel loss. Significantly highest loss was observed for Sunlife Multivitamin (8.45 ± 1.08 µm), while the lowest loss was observed for Actilife-Multivitamin (5.61 ± 1.08 µm) after 20 cycles. Some of the tested effervescent tablets showed a considerable erosive potential and patients should be informed accordingly. PMID:27278776

  17. Impaired Memory in OT-II Transgenic Mice Is Associated with Decreased Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis Possibly Induced by Alteration in Th2 Cytokine Levels.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Seong Gak; Kim, Kyoung Ah; Chung, Hyunju; Choi, Junghyun; Song, Eun Ji; Han, Seung-Yun; Oh, Myung Sook; Park, Jong Hwan; Kim, Jin-Il; Moon, Minho

    2016-08-31

    Recently, an increasing number of studies have focused on the effects of CD4+ T cell on cognitive function. However, the changes of Th2 cytokines in restricted CD4+ T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire model and their effects on the adult hippocampal neurogenesis and memory are not fully understood. Here, we investigated whether and how the mice with restricted CD4+ repertoire TCR exhibit learning and memory impairment by using OT-II mice. OT-II mice showed decreased adult neurogenesis in hippocampus and short- and long- term memory impairment. Moreover, Th2 cytokines in OT-II mice are significantly increased in peripheral organs and IL-4 is significantly increased in brain. Finally, IL-4 treatment significantly inhibited the proliferation of cultured adult rat hippocampal neural stem cells. Taken together, abnormal level of Th2 cytokines can lead memory dysfunction via impaired adult neurogenesis in OT-II transgenic. PMID:27432189

  18. Impaired Memory in OT-II Transgenic Mice Is Associated with Decreased Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis Possibly Induced by Alteration in Th2 Cytokine Levels

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Seong Gak; Kim, Kyoung Ah; Chung, Hyunju; Choi, Junghyun; Song, Eun Ji; Han, Seung-Yun; Oh, Myung Sook; Park, Jong Hwan; Kim, Jin-il; Moon, Minho

    2016-01-01

    Recently, an increasing number of studies have focused on the effects of CD4+ T cell on cognitive function. However, the changes of Th2 cytokines in restricted CD4+ T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire model and their effects on the adult hippocampal neurogenesis and memory are not fully understood. Here, we investigated whether and how the mice with restricted CD4+ repertoire TCR exhibit learning and memory impairment by using OT-II mice. OT-II mice showed decreased adult neurogenesis in hippocampus and short- and long- term memory impairment. Moreover, Th2 cytokines in OT-II mice are significantly increased in peripheral organs and IL-4 is significantly increased in brain. Finally, IL-4 treatment significantly inhibited the proliferation of cultured adult rat hippocampal neural stem cells. Taken together, abnormal level of Th2 cytokines can lead memory dysfunction via impaired adult neurogenesis in OT-II transgenic. PMID:27432189

  19. FLOYDS Classification of MASTER OT J164244.87+272054.3 as a Type Ia Supernova Near Peak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseinzadeh, G.; Arcavi, I.; Howell, D. A.; McCully, C.; Valenti, S.

    2016-05-01

    We obtained a spectrum of MASTER OT J164244.87+272054.3 (ATel #9022) on 2016 May 6.6 UT with the robotic FLOYDS instrument mounted on the LCOGT 2-meter telescope in Siding Spring, Australia. Using SNID (Blondin & Tonry 2007, ApJ, 666, 1024), we find a good fit to the normal Type Ia SN 1990N 2 days after maximum light at redshift z=0.108.

  20. Vitamin D in Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jungmi; Park, Sulgi; Zuniga, Baltazar; Bera, Alakesh; Song, Chung Seog; Chatterjee, Bandana

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) is a progressive, noncurable disease induced by androgen receptor (AR) upon its activation by tumor tissue androgen, which is generated from adrenal steroid dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) through intracrine androgen biosynthesis. Inhibition of mCRPC and early-stage, androgen-dependent prostate cancer by calcitriol, the bioactive vitamin D3 metabolite, is amply documented in cell culture and animal studies. However, clinical trials of calcitriol or synthetic analogs are inconclusive, although encouraging results have recently emerged from pilot studies showing efficacy of a safe-dose vitamin D3 supplementation in reducing tumor tissue inflammation and progression of low-grade prostate cancer. Vitamin D-mediated inhibition of normal and malignant prostate cells is caused by diverse mechanisms including G1/S cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, prodifferentiation gene expression changes, and suppressed angiogenesis and cell migration. Biological effects of vitamin D are mediated by altered expression of a gene network regulated by the vitamin D receptor (VDR), which is a multidomain, ligand-inducible transcription factor similar to AR and other nuclear receptors. AR-VDR cross talk modulates androgen metabolism in prostate cancer cells. Androgen inhibits vitamin D-mediated induction of CYP24A1, the calcitriol-degrading enzyme, while vitamin D promotes androgen inactivation by inducing phase I monooxygenases (e.g., CYP3A4) and phase II transferases (e.g., SULT2B1b, a DHEA-sulfotransferase). CYP3A4 and SULT2B1b levels are markedly reduced and CYP24A1 is overexpressed in advanced prostate cancer. In future trials, combining low-calcemic, potent next-generation calcitriol analogs with CYP24A1 inhibition or androgen supplementation, or cancer stem cell suppression by a phytonutrient such as sulfarophane, may prove fruitful in prostate cancer prevention and treatment. PMID:26827958

  1. Vitamin A deficiency in quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nestler, R.B.; Bailey, W.W.

    1943-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the symptoms of avitaminosis A in growing and adolescent bobwhites. Chicks from parents that have received a diet rich in vitamin A may have enough stored to carry them a week or ten days on a growing diet deficient in vitamin A before symptoms of deficiency occur. The first sign is ruffled feathering, with the wing primaries standing out from the body and drooping. Ophthalmia in one or both eyes occurs and may close the eyes completely, but this condition is not severe in all cases and may not even be noticeable. Birds show poor growth, loss of appetite, and weakness before death. Under the conditions of the experiments discussed herein, death may occur in the fourth or fifth week, and mortality is high......Postmortem examination may reveal visceral gout with thick deposits of urates on the kidneys, in the ureters, on the heart, in the proventriculus, and occasionally covering all the viscera. There may also be hemorrhage of the heart and other organs....Adolescent quail reared on a diet rich in vitamin A may be able to live through the winter on a maintenance diet low in this vitamin without showing symptoms of avitaminosis, but some individuals whose storage of vitamin A in the liver is not as great as that of others may succumb to visceral gout.....A growing mash for quail which contains sufficient vitamin A when fresh may, after a period of storage, lose enough of the vitamin to cause the characteristic symptoms of avitaminosis A to appear.

  2. NIH Researchers Find Vitamin D Binding Protein May Help to Assess Vitamin D Deficiency in African and White Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... here Home NIH researchers find vitamin D binding protein may help to assess vitamin D deficiency in ... Americans November 21, 2013 Measuring vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) may be important for accurately determining vitamin ...

  3. Rotational reorientation dynamics of Aerosol-OT reverse micelles formed in near-critical propane

    SciTech Connect

    Heitz, M.P.; Bright, F.V.

    1996-06-01

    The rotational reorientation kinetics of two fluorescent solutes (rhodamine 6G, R6G, and rhodamine 101, R101) have been determined in sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (Aerosol-OT, AOT) reverse micelles formed in liquid and near-critical propane. We show that the amount of water loading ([water]/[AOT], R), continuous phase density, and temperature all influence the solute rotational dynamics. In all cases, the decay of anisotropy data (i.e., frequency-dependent differential polarized phase angle and polarized modulation ratio) are well described by a bi-exponential decay law. We find that the faster rotational correlation times are similar to but slightly less than the values predicted for an individual AOT reverse micelle rotating in propane. The recovered rotational correlation times range from 200 to 500 ps depending on experimental conditions. This faster rotational process is explained in terms of lateral diffusion of the fluorophore along the water/headgroup interfacial region within the reverse micelle. The recovered values for the slower rotational correlation times range from 7 to 18 ns. These larger rotational reorientation times are assigned to varying micelle-micelle (i.e., tail-tail) interactions in the low-density, highly compressible fluid region. We also quantify the contribution of the reverse micellar {open_quotes}aggregate{close_quotes} to the total decay of anisotropy. {copyright} {ital 1996} {ital Society for Applied Spectroscopy}

  4. Synthesis and characterization of nanodispersed molecular aggregates of Prussian blue in aerosol OT reverse micelle.

    PubMed

    Pramanik, Smritimoy; Das, Debasmita; Das, Kaushik; Bhattacharya, Subhash Ch

    2007-02-01

    Prussian Blue (PB) nanomolecular aggregates were prepared in a well-characterized, monodispersed biomimicking nanocavities formed by Aerosol OT (AOT) reverse micelle in H2O/AOT/heptane at different omega ([H2O]/[Surfactant]) employing coprecipitation technique. The formed nanomolecular aggregates of PB have been characterized by the UV-visible, Fourier Transformed Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy as well as by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Cyclic Voltammetric methods. Visible and FTIR spectroscopic measurements confirm the formation of PB nano aggregates. Experimental results reveal that the molar extinction coefficient of PB nanomolecular aggregates is different for two different regimes of omega of reverse micelles. TEM measurements show that the size of these reverse micellar entrapped nano aggregrates varied with hydration (omega). Studies on these nano sized particles indicate that Fe is present in a single mixed valence state along the Fe-C-N-Fe skeleton in PB and the half wave potential (E1/2) becomes more positive with increase in the size of the nano aggregates. PMID:17450811

  5. Almost gone: SN 2008S and NGC 300 2008OT-1 are fainter than their progenitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, S. M.; Kochanek, C. S.; Prieto, J. L.; Dai, X.; Shappee, B. J.; Stanek, K. Z.

    2016-08-01

    We present late-time Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescope (SST) imaging of SN 2008S and NGC 300 2008OT-1, the prototypes of a common class of stellar transients whose true nature is debated. Both objects are still fading and are now >15 times fainter than their progenitors in the mid-IR and are undetected in the optical and near-IR. Data from the Large Binocular Telescope and Magellan show that neither source has been variable in the optical since fading in 2010. We present models of surviving sources obscured by dusty shells or winds and find that extreme dust models are needed for surviving stars to be successfully hidden by dust, which suggests that these transients may be genuine, but low-energy, supernova explosions. Though SN 2008S is not detected in Chandra X-Ray Observatory data taken in 2012, the flux limits allow the fading IR source to be powered solely by the shock interaction of ejecta with the circumstellar medium if the shock velocity at the time of the observation was ≳20 per cent slower than estimated from emission line widths while the transient was still optically bright. Continued SST monitoring and 10-20 μm observations with James Webb Space Telescope can resolve any remaining ambiguities.

  6. Molecular characterization of the group II chaperonin from the hyperthermophilic archaeum Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3.

    PubMed

    Okochi, Mina; Matsuzaki, Hiroki; Nomura, Tomoko; Ishii, Noriyuki; Yohda, Masafumi

    2005-04-01

    The group II chaperonin from the hyperthermophilic archaeum Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3 (PhCPN) and its functional cooperation with the cognate prefoldin were investigated. PhCPN existed as a homo-oligomer in a double-ring structure, which protected the citrate synthase of a porcine heart from thermal aggregation at 45 degrees C, and did the same on the isopropylmalate dehydrogenase (IPMDH) of a thermophilic bacterium, Thermus thermophilus HB8, at 90 degrees C. PhCPN also enhanced the refolding of green fluorescent protein (GFP), which had been unfolded by low pH, in an ATP-dependent manner. Unexpectedly, functional cooperation between PhCPN and Pyrococcus prefoldin (PhPFD) in the refolding of GFP was not observed. Instead, cooperation between PhCPN and PhPFD was observed in the refolding of IPMDH unfolded with guanidine hydrochloride. Although PhCPN alone was not effective in the refolding of IPMDH, the refolding efficiency was enhanced by the cooperation of PhCPN with PhPFD. PMID:15538645

  7. Almost Gone: SN 2008S and NGC 300 2008OT-1 are Fainter than their Progenitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, S. M.; Kochanek, C. S.; Prieto, J. L.; Dai, X.; Shappee, B. J.; Stanek, K. Z.

    2016-05-01

    We present late-time Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescope imaging of SN 2008S and NGC 300 2008OT-1, the prototypes of a common class of stellar transients whose true nature is debated. Both objects are still fading and are now >15 times fainter than their progenitors in the mid-IR and are undetected in the optical and near-IR. Data from the Large Binocular Telescope and Magellan show that neither source has been variable in the optical since fading in 2010. We present models of surviving sources obscured by dusty shells or winds and find that extreme dust models are needed for surviving stars to be successfully hidden by dust, which suggests that these transients may be genuine, but low energy, supernova explosions. Though SN 2008S is not detected in Chandra X-Ray Observatory data taken in 2012, the flux limits allow the fading IR source to be powered solely by the shock interaction of ejecta with the circumstellar medium if the shock velocity at the time of the observation was ≳20% slower than estimated from emission line widths while the transient was still optically bright. Continued SST monitoring and 10 - 20 μm observations with JWST can resolve any remaining ambiguities.

  8. The crystal structure of Z-Gly-Aib-Gly-Aib-OtBu.

    PubMed

    Gessmann, Renate; Brückner, Hans; Aivaliotis, Michalis; Petratos, Kyriacos

    2015-06-01

    The synthetic peptide Z-Gly-Aib-Gly-Aib-OtBu was dissolved in methanol and crystallized in a mixture of ethyl acetate and petroleum ether. The crystals belong to the centrosymmetric space group P4/n that is observed less than 0.3% in the Cambridge Structural Database. The first Gly residue assumes a semi-extended conformation (φ ±62°, ψ ∓131°). The right-handed peptide folds in two consecutive β-turns of type II' and type I or an incipient 310 -helix, and the left-handed counterpart folds accordingly in the opposite configuration. In the crystal lattice, one molecule is linked to four neighbors in the ab-plane via hydrogen bonds. These bonds form a continuous network of left- and right-handed molecules. The successive ab-planes stack via apolar contacts in the c-direction. An ethyl acetate molecule is situated on and close to the fourfold axis. PMID:25781150

  9. OT2_peisenha_2: The Most Luminous Obscured Galaxies and Quasars Revealed by WISE and Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenhardt, P.

    2011-09-01

    NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has surveyed the entire sky at 3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22 microns (W1, W2, W3, and W4), reaching sensitivities hundreds of times deeper than IRAS. We have used WISE photometry to select an all-sky sample of objects which are extremely luminous. The objects are prominent in W4, but faint or undetected in W1 and W2 (W12drops). Followup spectroscopy of ~ 100 sources shows over 70% of W12drops have redshifts > 1.6, which with OT1 PACS and SPIRE photometry of 27 sources leads to over 1E13 solar luminosities, with ~ 10% exceeding 1E14 solar luminosities. High resolution adaptive optics imaging shows these objects are unlensed. We request 47.3 hours of Herschel time to complete the all-sky sample of the brightest 185 W12 drops, fulfilling the primary WISE objective of finding the most extreme luminous IR galaxies in the Universe. These superlative objects will be the most fruitful for detailed studies of the physics of star formation, AGN fueling, and feedback in the most active galaxies.

  10. Aerosol-OT-gamma-alumina admicelles for the concentration of hydrophobic organic compounds in water.

    PubMed

    Saitoh, Tohru; Matsushima, Seiichi; Hiraide, Masataka

    2004-06-25

    A novel admicelle composing of a dialkylated anionic surfactant, di-2-ethylhexyl sodium sulfosuccinate (Aerosol-OT, AOT) and gamma-alumina was prepared by mixing them in acidic aqueous solution. The amount of the maximum sorption of AOT on 1 g of alumina at pH 2 was ca. 130 mg. By comparing the fluorescence spectra of N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine in different solvents, the solvent property of AOT-gamma-alumina admicelles was corresponding to that of toluene or diethyl ether. Thus, the AOT-gamma-alumina admicelles had greater hydrophobicity than SDS-gamma-alumina admicelles having similar hydrophobicity to 1-octanol or ethyl acetate. Hydrophobic organic compounds, chlorophenols having more than three chloro substituents, octylphenol, nonylphenol, dibutyl phthalate was almost quantitatively (98% or more) collected onto AOT admicelles composing of 1.5 g gamma-alumina and 150 mg AOT. The greater collection yields rather than those in SDS-admicellar system were ascribable to greater hydrophobicity and stability of AOT admicelles. After the 500-fold concentration, traces (nM) of organic contaminants in water samples were successfully detected with an HPLC having a photometric detector. PMID:15230525

  11. Limited Production (LP) Precision Runway Monitor (PRM) Operational Test and Evaluation integration and OT and E Operational Test Plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livings, Jeffrey

    1995-05-01

    This document defines the Test Plan and corresponding Test Verification Requirements Traceability Matrix (TVRTM) that will be used to conduct the Limited Production (LP) Precision Runway Monitor (PRM) Operational Test and Evaluation (OT and E) Integration and OT and E Operational tests. These tests will be conducted at the Minneapolis-St. Paul International Airport following the Contractor Site Acceptance Test. The LP PRM OT and E test effort will concentrate on Operational Effectiveness and Suitability. The Operational Effectiveness Test consists of a review of the contractor performed Development Test and Evaluation (DT and E) and Site Acceptance Tests. This review will evaluate whether each of the Measures of Effectiveness had been satisfactorily tested and whether the results meet the Minimum Acceptable Operational REquirements MAORs). This review will be conducted solely by test engineers and does not require the PRM system. The Operational Suitability Tests will expose the test participants (Air Traffic (AT) Controllers and Airway Facilities (AF) Technicians) to the PRM system in an operational environment while they perform specified operational procedures. These tests will be conducted in two separate phases: AT Suitability and AF Suitability. Each of these phases is focused on the specific test participants.

  12. Rice OVERLY TOLERANT TO SALT 1 (OTS1) SUMO protease is a positive regulator of seed germination and root development.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Anjil Kumar; Zhang, Cunjin; Sadanandom, Ari

    2016-05-01

    Salinity is one of the major environmental stresses affecting rice production worldwide. Improving rice salt tolerance is a critical step for sustainable food production. Posttranslational modifications of proteins greatly expand proteome diversity, increase functionality and allow quick responses to environmental stresses, all at low cost to the cell. SUMO mediated modification of substrate proteins is a highly dynamic process governed by the balance of activities of SUMO E3 ligases and deconjugating SUMO proteases. In recent years, SUMO (Small Ubiquitin like Modifier) conjugation of proteins has emerged as an influential regulator of stress signaling in the model plant Arabidopsis. However SUMOylation remain largely under studied in crop plants. We recently identified the SUMO protease gene family in rice and demonstrated a role for OsOTS1 SUMO proteases in salt stress. Interestingly, rice plants silencing OsOTS1 also show significantly reduced germination rate. Knockdown of OsOTS1 gene expression affects root growth by primarily reducing cell size rather than cell division. PMID:27119209

  13. Plasma folate, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12, and risk of breast cancer in women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: B vitamins such as folate, vitamin B-6, and vitamin B-12 are coenzymes that are important for DNA integrity and stability. Deficiency in these B vitamins may promote tumor carcinogenesis. Objective: We prospectively evaluated plasma concentrations of folate, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP; ...

  14. Vitamin D and Cardiac Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Irene M; Norris, Keith C; Artaza, Jorge N

    2016-01-01

    Calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol or 1,25-D3) is the hormonally active metabolite of vitamin D. Experimental studies of vitamin D receptors and 1,25-D3 establish calcitriol to be a critical regulator of the structure and function of the heart. Clinical studies link vitamin D deficiency with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Emerging evidence demonstrates that calcitriol is highly involved in CVD-related signaling pathways, particularly the Wnt signaling pathway. Addition of 1,25-D3 to cardiomyocyte cells and examination of its effects on cardiomyocytes and mainly Wnt11 signaling allowed the specific characterization of the role of calcitriol in cardiac differentiation. 1,25-D3 is demonstrated to: (i) inhibit cell proliferation without promoting apoptosis; (ii) decrease expression of genes related to the regulation of the cell cycle; (iii) promote formation of cardiomyotubes; (iv) induce expression of casein kinase-1-α1, a negative regulator of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway; and (v) increase expression of noncanonical Wnt11, which has been recognized to induce cardiac differentiation during embryonic development and in adult cells. Thus, it appears that vitamin D promotes cardiac differentiation through negative modulation of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway and upregulation of noncanonical Wnt11 expression. Future work to elucidate the role(s) of vitamin D in cardiovascular disorders will hopefully lead to improvement and potentially prevention of CVD, including abnormal cardiac differentiation in settings such as postinfarction cardiac remodeling. PMID:26827957

  15. The discovery of vitamin C.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Kenneth J

    2012-01-01

    The term 'scurvy' for the disease resulting from prolonged vitamin C deficiency had origins in 'scorbutus' (Latin), 'scorbut' (French), and 'Skorbut' (German). Scurvy was a common problem in the world's navies and is estimated to have affected 2 million sailors. In 1747, James Lind conducted a trial of six different treatments for 12 sailors with scurvy: only oranges and lemons were effective in treating scurvy. Scurvy also occurred on land, as many cases occurred with the 'great potato famine' in Ireland in 1845. Many animals, unlike humans, can synthesize their own vitamin C. Axel Holst and Theodor Frölich fortuitously produced scurvy in the guinea pig, which like humans requires vitamin C in the diet. In 1928, Albert Szent-Györgyi isolated a substance from adrenal glands that he called 'hexuronic acid'. Four years later, Charles Glen King isolated vitamin C in his laboratory and concluded that it was the same as 'hexuronic acid'. Norman Haworth deduced the chemical structure of vitamin C in 1933. PMID:23183299

  16. A Dermatologist's Perspective on Vitamin D

    PubMed Central

    Vanchinathan, Veena; Lim, Henry W.

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin D is a fat-soluble steroid hormone that is crucial for human health and has recently generated controversy regarding its role in human health and disease. In this Special Article, we discuss our dermatologic perspective on vitamin D in a question-and-answer format. We discuss methods of obtaining vitamin D, including cutaneous photobiosynthesis, diet, and supplements and include the recent US Institute of Medicine recommendations. Other reviewed topics include the associations among skin pigmentation, climate, photoprotection, and vitamin D levels. We also elaborate on the popular interest in sun exposure as a method of normalizing vitamin D levels in the context of the risks of solar and artificial radiation. We also discuss groups at risk for vitamin D inadequacy, the need for testing serum vitamin D levels, and the role of phototherapy in patients with malabsorption conditions and hypervitaminosis D, with a focus on patients with sarcoidosis. Finally, we summarize our recommendations on vitamin D. PMID:22425213

  17. Vitamin A in the urine of carnivores.

    PubMed

    Schweigert, F J; Thomann, E; Zucker, H

    1991-01-01

    Vitamin A levels (retinol equivalents) in the urine of canines were between 423 ng/ml (dog) and 6304 ng/ml (silver fox). Neither vitamin A nor vitamin E was found in the urine of herbivores, omnivorous and rodents. No vitamin A but low levels of vitamin E were detected in cats. Vitamin A in the urine was present as retinol and retinyl esters (basically retinyl palmitate/oleate). The total excretion of vitamin A represented 15 to 63% of the daily uptake in dogs, while less than 4% of vitamin E was excreted. Results after precipitation and ultracentrifugation indicate that similar carrier proteins may exist for retinol, retinyl esters and alpha-tocopherol in the urine. The biological significance of this phenomenon is discussed with regard to the high concentrations of retinyl esters in the blood plasma of carnivores bound to lipoproteins. PMID:1917346

  18. Calcium, vitamin D, and your bones

    MedlinePlus

    ... can break easily, even without an obvious injury. Vitamin D helps your body absorb calcium. Eat foods that provide the right amounts of calcium, vitamin D, and protein. This kind of diet will give ...

  19. Vitamin D, Migraine and Health: Optimize Therapy!

    MedlinePlus

    ... a toxic dose. We make vitamin D from sunlight at certain times of the year dependent on ... identical to what our body makes from proper sunlight exposure. Vitamin D3 is available as 400, 1000, ...

  20. Can vitamin a mediate immunity and inflammation?

    PubMed

    Spinas, E; Saggini, A; Kritas, S K; Cerulli, G; Caraffa, A; Antinolfi, P; Pantalone, A; Frydas, A; Tei, M; Speziali, A; Saggini, R; Pandolfi, F; Conti, P

    2015-01-01

    Vitamins are natural components of foods and are organic compounds distinct from fat, carbohydrates and proteins. Vitamin A is the generic descriptor for compounds with the qualitative biological activity of retinol. Unlike beta-carotene, vitamin A is not an antioxidant and its benefit is related to possible boosting of immune reactions. The effect of vitamin A on immune function is wide-reaching and its deficiency appears to affect immunity in several ways. Innate and adaptive immune responses are affected in some way by lack of vitamin A. Retinoids seem to act on differentiation of lymphocytes, antibody production, phagocytosis of macrophages, NK, Treg, and T helper cell activity. In addition, in humans, signs of a vitamin A deficiency also include the dysregulation of cytokine/chemokine generation and release. However, excess of vitamin A has been demonstrated to have toxic effects in most species studied. Here we summarize some important effects of vitamin A in immunity and inflammation. PMID:25864736

  1. Role of vitamin D in female reproduction.

    PubMed

    Shahrokhi, Seyedeh Zahra; Ghaffari, Firouzeh; Kazerouni, Faranak

    2016-04-01

    Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that belongs to the family of steroid hormones. The biological actions of vitamin D are exerted through a soluble protein, the vitamin D receptor (VDR). VDR is a transcription factor located in the nuclei of target cells that mediates the genomic action of the active form of vitamin D (1,25(OH)2D3). This transcription factor is distributed in various tissues, including the reproductive system. The presence of VDR in female reproductive tissue suggests that vitamin D is involved in female reproduction. The present article reviews the impact of vitamin D on anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), as an ovarian reserve marker, and ovarian steroidogenesis. This article also discusses the impact of vitamin D as a factor that influences infertility and the outcome of in vitro fertilization (IVF), insulin resistance (IR), hyperandrogenism, endometriosis and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). PMID:26747961

  2. Calcium, vitamin D, and your bones

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000490.htm Calcium, vitamin D, and your bones To use the sharing features ... maintain strong bones. How Much Calcium and Vitamin D Do I Need? Amounts of calcium are given ...

  3. Vitamin D Deficiency (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Use ©2016 UpToDate, Inc. Patient education: Vitamin D deficiency (Beyond the Basics) Author Marc K Drezner, ... topic last updated: Jun 09, 2015. INTRODUCTION — Vitamin D plays an important role in many places throughout ...

  4. Bone muscle interactions and vitamin D.

    PubMed

    Gunton, Jenny E; Girgis, Christian M; Baldock, Paul A; Lips, Paul

    2015-11-01

    Beyond the established roles of vitamin D in bone and mineral homeostasis, we are becoming increasingly aware of its diverse effects in skeletal muscle. Subjects with severe vitamin D deficiency or mutations of the vitamin D receptor develop generalized atrophy of muscle and bone, suggesting coordinated effects of vitamin D in musculoskeletal physiology. At a mechanistic level, vitamin D exerts wide-ranging effects in muscle and bone calcium handling, differentiation and development. Vitamin D also modulates muscle and bone-derived hormones, facilitating cross-talk between these tissues. In this review, we discuss emerging evidence that vitamin D regulates bone and muscle in a direct, integrated fashion, positioning the vitamin D pathway as a potential therapeutic target for musculoskeletal diseases. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Muscle Bone Interactions". PMID:25745883

  5. Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tables Online DRI Tool Daily Value (DV) Tables Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets Search the list ... Supplements: Background Information Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information Vitamin and Mineral Fact Sheets Botanical Supplement Fact Sheets ...

  6. Electrochemistry and electrocatalysis with vitamin B sub 12 in an AOT water-in-oil microemulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Owlia, Azita; Wang, Zhenghao; Rusling, J.F. )

    1989-07-05

    Vitamin B{sub 12a} solubilized in water pools of highly resistive water-in-oil (w/o) microemulsions of 0.2 M Aerosol OT (AOT, bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate)/4 M water/isooctane gave separate reductions of base-on cob(III)alamine to base-on cob(II)alamine (E{sub 1/2} = {minus}0.03 V vs SCE) and base-on cob(II)alamine to base-off cob(I)alamine (E{sub 1/2} = {minus} 0.87 V). Diffusion coefficients suggested that vitamin B{sub 12} induces the formation of surfactant aggregates in w/o microemulsions that are larger than in solute-free systems. Relative reactivities toward reductions of three oil-soluble alkyl vicinal dihalides by electrochemically generated cob(I) alamine were modified in the microemulsion compared to isotropic water-acetonitrile. Changes in relative reactivity are not explained by simple partition of vicinal dibromides between isooctane and water and suggest specific interactions with surfactant aggregates or significant reaction in the bulk isooctane phase.

  7. Update in vitamin D and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Alharbi, Fatimah M

    2015-10-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a common neurological disease, and its etiology remains unknown. In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to the possible association between MS and vitamin D deficiency. Here, we review the current literature between MS and vitamin D, showing clear evidence that vitamin D deficiency is a risk factor for MS despite the lack of direct evidence for the effects of vitamin D in MS progression. PMID:26492110

  8. Update in vitamin D and multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Alharbi, Fatimah M.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a common neurological disease, and its etiology remains unknown. In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to the possible association between MS and vitamin D deficiency. Here, we review the current literature between MS and vitamin D, showing clear evidence that vitamin D deficiency is a risk factor for MS despite the lack of direct evidence for the effects of vitamin D in MS progression. PMID:26492110

  9. Vitamin C Determination by Indophenol Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, S. Suzanne

    Vitamin C is an essential nutrient in the diet, but is easily reduced or destroyed by exposure to heat and oxygen during processing, packaging, and storage of food. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration requires the Vitamin C content to be listed on the nutrition label of foods. The instability of Vitamin C makes it more difficult to ensure an accurate listing of Vitamin C content on the nutrition label.

  10. 21 CFR 184.1950 - Vitamin D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Vitamin D. 184.1950 Section 184.1950 Food and Drugs... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1950 Vitamin D. (a) Vitamin D is added to food as the following food ingredients: (1) Crystalline vitamin D2 (C28H44O, CAS Reg. No. 50-14-6), also known as ergocalciferol, is...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1930 - Vitamin A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vitamin A. 184.1930 Section 184.1930 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1930 Vitamin A. (a)(1) Vitamin A (retinol; CAS Reg. No. 68-26-8) is the... odorless or have a mild fishy odor. Vitamin A is extracted from fish liver oils or produced by...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1930 - Vitamin A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vitamin A. 184.1930 Section 184.1930 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1930 Vitamin A. (a)(1) Vitamin A (retinol; CAS Reg. No. 68-26-8) is the... odorless or have a mild fishy odor. Vitamin A is extracted from fish liver oils or produced by...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1950 - Vitamin D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vitamin D. 184.1950 Section 184.1950 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1950 Vitamin D. (a) Vitamin D is added to food as the following food ingredients: (1) Crystalline vitamin D2 (C28H44O, CAS Reg. No. 50-14-6), also known as ergocalciferol, is...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1930 - Vitamin A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vitamin A. 184.1930 Section 184.1930 Food and....1930 Vitamin A. (a)(1) Vitamin A (retinol; CAS Reg. No. 68-26-8) is the alcohol 9,13-dimethyl-7-(1,1,5... odor. Vitamin A is extracted from fish liver oils or produced by total synthesis from β-ionone and...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1930 - Vitamin A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Vitamin A. 184.1930 Section 184.1930 Food and Drugs... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1930 Vitamin A. (a)(1) Vitamin A (retinol; CAS Reg. No. 68-26-8) is the... odorless or have a mild fishy odor. Vitamin A is extracted from fish liver oils or produced by...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1950 - Vitamin D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vitamin D. 184.1950 Section 184.1950 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1950 Vitamin D. (a) Vitamin D is added to food as the following food ingredients: (1) Crystalline vitamin D2 (C28H44O, CAS Reg. No. 50-14-6), also known as ergocalciferol, is...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1930 - Vitamin A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vitamin A. 184.1930 Section 184.1930 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1930 Vitamin A. (a)(1) Vitamin A (retinol; CAS Reg. No. 68-26-8) is the... odorless or have a mild fishy odor. Vitamin A is extracted from fish liver oils or produced by...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1950 - Vitamin D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vitamin D. 184.1950 Section 184.1950 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1950 Vitamin D. (a) Vitamin D is added to food as the following food ingredients: (1) Crystalline vitamin D2 (C28H44O, CAS Reg. No. 50-14-6), also known as ergocalciferol, is...

  19. How common is vitamin B12 deficiency?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In considering the vitamin B-12 fortification of flour, it is important to know who is at risk of vitamin B-12 deficiency and whether those individuals would benefit from flour fortification.This article reviews current knowledge of the prevalence and causes of vitamin B-12 deficiency and considers ...

  20. Vitamin D supplementation and fracture risk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This letter is written in response to an editorial by Gray and Bolland stating incorrectly that vitamin D does not reduce fracture risk and that safety of vitamin D has not been demonstrated. We and others have demonstrated that vitamin D is effective in lowering risk of fractures when given in adeq...

  1. Beta-carotene as vitamin A

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter provides information that provitamin A carotenoids (mainly 13-C) can provide vitamin A nutrition in humans. 13-C is enzymatically converted to vitamin A by various tissues, primarily in the small intestine. The post-absorption conversion of absorbed 13-c to vitamin A by other tissu...

  2. Roles for vitamin K beyond coagulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent interest in vitamin K has been motivated by evidence of physiological roles beyond that of coagulation. Vitamin K and vitamin K-dependent proteins may be involved in regulation of calcification, energy metabolism, and inflammation. However, the evidence for many of these proposed roles in the...

  3. Vitamin D and the athlete: emerging insights.

    PubMed

    Owens, Daniel J; Fraser, William D; Close, Graeme L

    2015-01-01

    Interest in Vitamin D has risen considerably recently with many athletes now advised to take daily vitamin D supplements. The reason for this interest is partly not only attributed to the resurgence of the Vitamin D-deficient disease rickets but also due to the discovery of a Vitamin D receptor in many tissues suggesting a more global role for Vitamin D than previously considered. Unlike the other vitamins that are obtained through the diet, Vitamin D is unique since endogenous synthesis following ultraviolet B (UVB) exposure is the predominant route of entry into systemic circulation. Moreover, Vitamin D could be better classed as a seco-steroid, given that its structure is similar to that of a steroid, and its production is derived from a cholesterol precursor (7-dehydrocholesteol) in the skin. The classification of Vitamin D status is currently subject to considerable debate with many authors opposing governing body recommendations. Regardless of the suggested optimal concentration, there is now growing evidence to suggest that many athletes are in fact Vitamin D deficient, especially in the winter months largely as a consequence of inadequate sun exposure, combined with poor dietary practices, although the consequences of such deficiencies are still unclear in athletic populations. Impaired muscle function and reduced regenerative capacity, impaired immune function, poor bone health and even impaired cardiovascular function have all been associated with low Vitamin D in athletes, however, to date, the majority of studies on Vitamin D have described associations and much more research is now needed examining causation. PMID:25131312

  4. Spinach and carrots: vitamin A and health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin A is an essential nutrient for the promotion of general growth, maintenance of visual function, regulation of the differentiation of epithelial tissues and immune function, and embryonic development. Vitamin A can only be supplied naturally, either as preformed vitamin A from foods of animal...

  5. 21 CFR 582.5930 - Vitamin A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vitamin A. 582.5930 Section 582.5930 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5930 Vitamin A. (a) Product. Vitamin A. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  6. 21 CFR 582.5930 - Vitamin A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vitamin A. 582.5930 Section 582.5930 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5930 Vitamin A. (a) Product. Vitamin A. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  7. 21 CFR 582.5930 - Vitamin A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vitamin A. 582.5930 Section 582.5930 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5930 Vitamin A. (a) Product. Vitamin A. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  8. 21 CFR 582.5930 - Vitamin A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vitamin A. 582.5930 Section 582.5930 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5930 Vitamin A. (a) Product. Vitamin A. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  9. 21 CFR 582.5930 - Vitamin A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vitamin A. 582.5930 Section 582.5930 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5930 Vitamin A. (a) Product. Vitamin A. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  10. VITAMIN D AND THE METABOLIC SYNDROME

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The identification of vitamin D receptor (VDR) expression in different tissues suggests a widespread role for vitamin D action beyond its classical function in bone and mineral metabolism. Recently, the importance of vitamin D status as a risk factor in the development of metabolic syndrome has been...

  11. Whither thou goest? Report of the AOTA Task Force on OT/PT issues.

    PubMed

    Huss, A J

    1984-02-01

    The Task Force on OT/PT Issues through its recommendations attempted to raise to the conscious level some problems that for too long lay hidden or ignored. Most of the Task Force's recommendations have been appropriately channeled for completion by a specified date. Many of the issues identified are not easy ones with which to deal. The professional involvement of all of us is needed to resolve these issues. We, as individuals, need to evaluate objectively our own daily practice about whether or not it falls within the parameters of the official statements given in the Philosophical Base, Principles of Ethics, Standards of Practice, Educational Essentials, and so forth. We cannot blithely continue to wait for the AOTA to do something about it. We are the AOTA! And each of us must do his or her part. An organization and a profession are only as strong as each individual who claims to be a part of it. I believe very strongly in both occupational therapy and physical therapy. I believe that each profession has a unique contribution to make to the client. I believe these contributions are separate but enhancing-if we dilute them the patient/client is the loser. One person cannot be all things to a patient/client. It takes the combined expertise of many specialists to meet the patients'/clients' needs. Each of us is an ambassador of the profession we represent. Each of us, therefore, has an obligation to be a positive representative in all that we do and to responsibly and ethically influence the direction of the profession. Only you and I in our daily professional responsibilities can determine whither thou goest. PMID:6711664

  12. Effect of concentration and addition of ions on the adsorption of aerosol-OT to sapphire.

    PubMed

    Hellsing, Maja S; Rennie, Adrian R; Hughes, Arwel V

    2010-09-21

    Aerosol-OT (sodium bis 2-ethylhexyl sulfosuccinate or NaAOT) adsorbs to hydrophilic sapphire solid surfaces. The structure of the formed bilayer has been determined over the concentration range 0.2-7.4 mM NaAOT. It was found that the hydrocarbon tails pack at maximum packing limit at very low concentrations, and that the thickness of the bilayer was concentration-independent. The adsorption was found to increase with concentration, with the surfactant molecules packing closer laterally. The area per molecule was found to change from 138 ± 25 to 51 ± 4 A(2) over the concentration range studied, with the thickness of the layer being constant at 33 ± 2 A. Addition of small amounts of salt was found to increase the surface excess, with the bilayer being thinner with a slightly larger area per molecule. Addition of different salts of the same valency was found to have a very similar effect, as had the addition of NaOH and HCl. Hence, the effects of adding acid or base should be considered an effect of ionic strength rather than an effect of pH. Adsorption of NaAOT to the sapphire surface that carries an opposite charge to the anionic surfactant is similar in many respects to the adsorption reported previously for hydrophilic and hydrophobic silica surfaces. This suggests that the adsorption of NaAOT to a surface is driven primarily by NaAOT self-assembly rather than effects of electrostatic attraction to the interface. PMID:20735040

  13. Molecular simulation study of water mobility in aerosol-OT reverse micelles.

    PubMed

    Chowdhary, Janamejaya; Ladanyi, Branka M

    2011-06-16

    In this work, we present results from molecular dynamics simulations on the single-molecule relaxation of water within reverse micelles (RMs) of different sizes formed by the surfactant aerosol-OT (AOT, sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate) in isooctane. Results are presented for RM water content w(0) = [H(2)O]/[AOT] in the range from 2.0 to 7.5. We show that translational diffusion of water within the RM can, to a good approximation, be decoupled from the translation of the RM through the isooctane solvent. Water translational mobility within the RM is restricted by the water pool dimensions, and thus, the water mean-squared displacements (MSDs) level off in time. Comparison with models of diffusion in confined geometries shows that a version of the Gaussian confinement model with a biexponential decay of correlations provides a good fit to the MSDs, while a model of free diffusion within a sphere agrees less well with simulation results. We find that the local diffusivity is considerably reduced in the interfacial region, especially as w(0) decreases. Molecular orientational relaxation is monitored by examining the behavior of OH and dipole vectors. For both vectors, orientational relaxation slows down close to the interface and as w(0) decreases. For the OH vector, reorientation is strongly affected by the presence of charged species at the RM interface and these effects are especially pronounced for water molecules hydrogen-bonded to surfactant sites that serve as hydrogen-bond acceptors. For the dipole vector, orientational relaxation near the interface slows down more than that for the OH vector due mainly to the influence of ion-dipole interactions with the sodium counterions. We investigate water OH and dipole reorientation mechanisms by studying the w(0) and interfacial shell dependence of orientational time correlations for different Legendre polynomial orders. PMID:21548627

  14. Unique effects of aerosol OT lamellar structures on the dynamics of guest molecules.

    PubMed

    De, Dipanwita; Datta, Anindya

    2013-06-25

    The behavior of lamellar structures of Aerosol OT (AOT) as hosts, vis-à-vis the flexible normal micelles and rigid nanochannels of Nafion membranes, has been investigated with two different fluorophores, [2,2'-bipyridyl]-3,3'-diol (BP(OH)2) and coumarin 102 (C102). Surprisingly, for BP(OH)2, a rise time is observed at intermediate emission wavelengths and not in the red edge of the fluorescence spectrum. A shoulder at 525 nm is observed in time resolved emission spectra (TRES) at initial times of BP(OH)2 in AOT lamellar structures. This feature is the signature of the monoketo (MK) tautomer, observed for the first time in a microheterogeneous medium. Also, the usually ultrafast single proton transfer in BP(OH)2 is retarded to an considerable extent in lamellar structures. The potential of this medium in promoting unusual intermediates is thus highlighted. This property may be ascribed to the rigidity of lamellar structures, compared to hosts such as regular micelles. However, studies using another fluorophore, coumarin 102 (C102), brings out the fact that these structures are significantly different from the rigid host, Nafion, as well. The absence of excited state proton transfer (ESPT) in this molecule in AOT lamellar structures indicates that it is not protonated, unlike in Nafion. Thus, the interfacial pH of lamellar structures is found to be significantly greater than that of Nafion nanochannels. From the time dependent Stokes shift (TDSS) of the emission spectra of C102, the relaxation time (0.85 ns) of interfacial water in lamellar structures is found to be an order of magnitude faster than that observed in Nafion nanochannels, in which H3O(+) ions have been substituted by different cations. Hence, this study demonstrates that AOT lamellar structures are rather unique hosts and that they behave very differently from conventional rigid and flexible hosts such as normal micelles and Nafion, respectively. PMID:23713719

  15. [Vitamin K antagonists overdose].

    PubMed

    Groszek, Barbara; Piszczek, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, anticoagulant therapy belongs to the most commonly used forms of pharmacotherapy in modern medicine. The most important representatives of anticoagulants are heparins (unfractionated heparin and low-molecular-weight heparin) and coumarin derivatives (vitamin K antagonists--VKA). Next to the many advantages of traditional oral anticoagulants may also have disadvantages. In Poland most often used two VKA: acenocoumarol and warfarin. The aim of the work is the analysis of the causes of the occurrence of bleeding disorders and symptoms of overdose VKA in patients to be hospitalized. In the years 2012 to 2014 were hospitalized 62 patients with overdose VKA (40 women and 22 men). The average age of patients was 75.3 years) and clotting disturbances and/or bleeding. At the time of the admission in all patients a significant increase in the value of the INR was stated, in 22 patients INR result was " no clot detected", on the remaining value of the INR were in the range of 7 to 13.1. On 51 patients observed different severe symptoms of bleeding (hematuria, bleeding from mucous membranes of the nose or gums ecchymoses on the extremities, bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract--as in 5 patients has led to significant anemia and transfusion of concentrated red blood cells. Up on 33 patients kidney function disorder were found--exacerbated chronic renal failure and urinary tract infection. 8 diagnosed inflammatory changes in the airways. On 13 patients, it was found a significant degree of neuropsychiatric disorders (dementia, cognitive impairment), which made impossible the understanding the sense of treatment and cooperation with the patient. In 6 patients the symptoms of overdose were probably dependent on the interaction with the congestants at the same time (change the preparation of anticoagulant, NSAIDs, antibiotics). In 2 cases, the overdose was a suicide attempt in nature. In addition to the above mentioned disorders, on two of those patients diagnosed

  16. Bone health, vitamin D and lupus.

    PubMed

    Sangüesa Gómez, Clara; Flores Robles, Bryan Josué; Andréu, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency among patients with systemic lupus erythematosus is high. This is likely due to photoprotection measures in addition to intrinsic factors of the disease. Low levels of vitamin D increase the risk of low bone mineral density and fracture. Vitamin D deficiency could also have undesirable effects on patients' immune response, enhancing mechanisms of loss of tolerance and autoimmunity. Vitamin D levels should be periodically monitored and patients should be treated with the objective of reaching vitamin D levels higher than 30-40 ng/ml. PMID:25488287

  17. Rickets–vitamin D deficiency and dependency

    PubMed Central

    Sahay, Manisha; Sahay, Rakesh

    2012-01-01

    Rickets is an important problem even in countries with adequate sun exposure. The causes of rickets/osteomalacia are varied and include nutritional deficiency, especially poor dietary intake of vitamin D and calcium. Non-nutritional causes include hypophosphatemic rickets primarily due to renal phosphate losses and rickets due to renal tubular acidosis. In addition, some varieties are due to inherited defects in vitamin D metabolism and are called vitamin D dependent rickets. This chapter highlights rickets/osteomalacia related to vitamin D deficiency or to inherited defects in vitamin D metabolism. Hypophosphatemic rickets and rickets due to renal tubular acidosis are discussed in other sections of the journal. PMID:22470851

  18. Vitamins: Nutrients, Hormones, Drugs or Poisons?

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    Conventional concepts of daily vitamin requirements may need revision. For example, recent studies on Vitamin C suggest that the recommended daily allowance, while it certainly prevents scurvy, may not saturate the body. Certain disease states and medications raise the daily requirement for specific vitamins. Most claims made by proponents of megavitamin therapy are unproven and without convincing theoretical bases. However, in at least two instances there is enough suggestive evidence to warrant more extensive trials. Although it seems that many vitamins can be given in large doses safely, Vitamins A and D and nicotinic acid, because of their toxicity, must be used with caution. PMID:20468999

  19. Discovery of Precursor Luminous Blue Variable Outbursts in Two Recent Optical Transients: The Fitfully Variable Missing Links UGC 2773-OT and SN 2009ip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Nathan; Miller, Adam; Li, Weidong; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Howard, Andrew W.; Nugent, Peter; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Bloom, Joshua S.; Ghez, Andrea M.; Lu, Jessica; Yelda, Sylvana; Bernstein, Rebecca A.; Colucci, Janet E.

    2010-04-01

    We present progenitor-star detections, light curves, and optical spectra of supernova (SN) 2009ip and the 2009 optical transient in UGC 2773 (U2773-OT), which were not genuine SNe. Precursor variability in the decade before outburst indicates that both of the progenitor stars were luminous blue variables (LBVs). Their pre-outburst light curves resemble the S Doradus phases that preceded giant eruptions of the prototypical LBVs η Carinae and SN 1954J (V12 in NGC 2403), with intermediate progenitor luminosities. Hubble Space Telescope detections a decade before discovery indicate that the SN 2009ip and U2773-OT progenitors were supergiants with likely initial masses of 50-80 M sun and gsim20 M sun, respectively. Both outbursts had spectra befitting known LBVs, although in different physical states. SN 2009ip exhibited a hot LBV spectrum with characteristic speeds of 550 km s-1, plus evidence for faster material up to 5000 km s-1, resembling the slow Homunculus and fast blast wave of η Carinae. In contrast, U2773-OT shows a forest of narrow absorption and emission lines comparable to that of S Dor in its cool state, plus [Ca II] emission and an infrared excess indicative of dust, similar to SN 2008S and the 2008 optical transient in NGC 300 (N300-OT). The [Ca II] emission is probably tied to a dusty pre-outburst environment, and is not a distinguishing property of the outburst mechanism. The LBV nature of SN 2009ip and U2773-OT may provide a critical link between historical LBV eruptions, while U2773-OT may provide a link between LBVs and the unusual dust-obscured transients SN 2008S and N300-OT. Future searches will uncover more examples of precursor LBV variability of this kind, providing key clues that may help unravel the instability driving LBV eruptions in massive stars.

  20. DISCOVERY OF PRECURSOR LUMINOUS BLUE VARIABLE OUTBURSTS IN TWO RECENT OPTICAL TRANSIENTS: THE FITFULLY VARIABLE MISSING LINKS UGC 2773-OT AND SN 2009ip

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Nathan; Miller, Adam; Li Weidong; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Howard, Andrew W.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Bloom, Joshua S.; Nugent, Peter; Ghez, Andrea M.; Lu, Jessica; Yelda, Sylvana; Bernstein, Rebecca A.; Colucci, Janet E.

    2010-04-15

    We present progenitor-star detections, light curves, and optical spectra of supernova (SN) 2009ip and the 2009 optical transient in UGC 2773 (U2773-OT), which were not genuine SNe. Precursor variability in the decade before outburst indicates that both of the progenitor stars were luminous blue variables (LBVs). Their pre-outburst light curves resemble the S Doradus phases that preceded giant eruptions of the prototypical LBVs {eta} Carinae and SN 1954J (V12 in NGC 2403), with intermediate progenitor luminosities. Hubble Space Telescope detections a decade before discovery indicate that the SN 2009ip and U2773-OT progenitors were supergiants with likely initial masses of 50-80 M {sub sun} and {approx}>20 M {sub sun}, respectively. Both outbursts had spectra befitting known LBVs, although in different physical states. SN 2009ip exhibited a hot LBV spectrum with characteristic speeds of 550 km s{sup -1}, plus evidence for faster material up to 5000 km s{sup -1}, resembling the slow Homunculus and fast blast wave of {eta} Carinae. In contrast, U2773-OT shows a forest of narrow absorption and emission lines comparable to that of S Dor in its cool state, plus [Ca II] emission and an infrared excess indicative of dust, similar to SN 2008S and the 2008 optical transient in NGC 300 (N300-OT). The [Ca II] emission is probably tied to a dusty pre-outburst environment, and is not a distinguishing property of the outburst mechanism. The LBV nature of SN 2009ip and U2773-OT may provide a critical link between historical LBV eruptions, while U2773-OT may provide a link between LBVs and the unusual dust-obscured transients SN 2008S and N300-OT. Future searches will uncover more examples of precursor LBV variability of this kind, providing key clues that may help unravel the instability driving LBV eruptions in massive stars.

  1. Molecular Approaches for Optimizing Vitamin D Supplementation.

    PubMed

    Carlberg, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D can be synthesized endogenously within UV-B exposed human skin. However, avoidance of sufficient sun exposure via predominant indoor activities, textile coverage, dark skin at higher latitude, and seasonal variations makes the intake of vitamin D fortified food or direct vitamin D supplementation necessary. Vitamin D has via its biologically most active metabolite 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and the transcription factor vitamin D receptor a direct effect on the epigenome and transcriptome of many human tissues and cell types. Different interpretation of results from observational studies with vitamin D led to some dispute in the field on the desired optimal vitamin D level and the recommended daily supplementation. This chapter will provide background on the epigenome- and transcriptome-wide functions of vitamin D and will outline how this insight may be used for determining of the optimal vitamin D status of human individuals. These reflections will lead to the concept of a personal vitamin D index that may be a better guideline for an optimized vitamin D supplementation than population-based recommendations. PMID:26827955

  2. Vitamin D and breast cancer: emerging concepts.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Rajendra G; Peng, Xinjian; Alimirah, Fatouma; Murillo, Genoveva; Mehta, Rajeshwari

    2013-06-28

    The benefit of vitamin D in cancer prevention and to certain extent therapy has been well recognized. The active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25(OH)2 D3) is a natural ligand for vitamin D receptor (VDR). Since 1,25(OH)2D3 exerts toxic effects at a concentration that is beneficial, nearly 1500 analogs of vitamin D have been synthesized and evaluated for their efficacy in a variety of carcinogenesis and human cancer models both in vitro and in vivo. Among these only a handful of them have been approved for evaluation in clinical trials for leukemia, breast, prostate and colon cancers. The mechanism of vitamin D action is mediated by the nuclear VDR and the signaling cascade for its action is extensively reported. In this review we focus on the newer concepts for vitamin D action. These include (1) differential effects of vitamin D in maintaining cell proliferation when the cells are under stress but suppressing cell growth when the cells are transformed; (2) functional significance of VDR polymorphism in potential vitamin D responsiveness; (3) regulation of constitutive splicing of vitamin D target gene, CYP24a, by the hormone and its significance; and (4) regulation of microRNA by vitamin D in breast cancer. It is anticipated that the new work in these selective areas would expand the understanding of vitamin D in breast cancer prevention and therapy. PMID:23142286

  3. Associations between B Vitamins and Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Shen, Liang

    2015-09-01

    B vitamins may correlate with Parkinson's disease (PD) through regulating homocysteine level. However, there is no comprehensive assessment on the associations between PD and B vitamins. The present study was designed to perform a meta-analytic assessment of the associations between folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 and PD, including the status of B vitamins in PD patients compared with controls, and associations of dietary intakes of B vitamins and risk of PD. A literature search using Medline database obtained 10 eligible studies included in the meta-analyses. Stata 12.0 statistical software was used to perform the meta-analysis. Pooled data revealed that there was no obvious difference in folate level between PD patients and healthy controls, and PD patients had lower level of vitamin B12 than controls. Available data suggested that higher dietary intake of vitamin B6 was associated with a decreased risk of PD (odds ratio (OR) = 0.65, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = (0.30, 1.01)), while no significant association was observed for dietary intake of folate and vitamin B12 and risk of PD. PD patients had lower level of vitamin B12 and similar level of folate compared with controls. Dietary intake of vitamin B6 exhibited preventive effect of developing PD based on the available data. As the number of included studies is limited, more studies are needed to confirm the findings and elucidate the underpinning underlying these associations. PMID:26343714

  4. Vitamin B12 sources and bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Fumio

    2007-11-01

    The usual dietary sources of vitamin B(12) are animal foods, meat, milk, egg, fish, and shellfish. As the intrinsic factor-mediated intestinal absorption system is estimated to be saturated at about 1.5-2.0 microg per meal under physiologic conditions, vitamin B(12) bioavailability significantly decreases with increasing intake of vitamin B(12) per meal. The bioavailability of vitamin B(12) in healthy humans from fish meat, sheep meat, and chicken meat averaged 42%, 56%-89%, and 61%-66%, respectively. Vitamin B(12) in eggs seems to be poorly absorbed (< 9%) relative to other animal food products. In the Dietary Reference Intakes in the United States and Japan, it is assumed that 50% of dietary vitamin B(12) is absorbed by healthy adults with normal gastro-intestinal function. Some plant foods, dried green and purple lavers (nori) contain substantial amounts of vitamin B(12), although other edible algae contained none or only traces of vitamin B(12). Most of the edible blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) used for human supplements predominantly contain pseudovitamin B(12), which is inactive in humans. The edible cyanobacteria are not suitable for use as vitamin B(12) sources, especially in vegans. Fortified breakfast cereals are a particularly valuable source of vitamin B(12) for vegans and elderly people. Production of some vitamin B(12)-enriched vegetables is also being devised. PMID:17959839

  5. Vitamin A homeostasis endangered by environmental pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Zile, M.H. )

    1992-11-01

    Normal vitamin A function depends on adequate stores of the vitamin, a finely regulated supply of the vitamin to target tissues, and an ability of cells to generate functionally active forms of the vitamin. Both endogenous and exogenous factors can adversely affect vitamin A homeostasis. Polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons are ubiquitous environmental pollutants and cause severe disturbances in vitamin A metabolism, manifested by an accelerated metabolism and breakdown of vitamin A and its metabolites and a depletion of vitamin A from the body; this sequence of events accounts for the vitamin A deficiency-like symptoms associated with PHAH intoxication. The mechanism(s) responsible for these events most likely includes altered activities of enzymes that are either directly or indirectly involved in critical vitamin A metabolic pathways. Human populations that continue to be exposed to environmental pollutants, may accumulate critical levels of polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons and will be at risk for inadequate vitamin A function as well as for other health impairments that have been difficult to link to any specific causes. Therefore, it is important to seriously evaluate the similarities in physiological disturbances across species that have become apparent in studies with wildlife inhabiting polluted environments similar to ours; the relevance to human health is evident.197 references.

  6. VITAMIN D DEFICIENCY AND THE CLINICAL CONSEQUENCES.

    PubMed

    Galesanu, Corina; Mocanu, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D is important for good health, growth and strong bones. Vitamin D is mostly made in the skin by exposure to sunlight. Most foods contain very little vitamin D naturally, though some are fortified with added vitamin D. Hypovitaminosis D is associated with cardiovascular disease, the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cancer as well as with increased mortality. Further, Vitamin D deficiency is related to depression and impaired cognitive function. Increasing age and elevated body fat mass contribute to an increased risk of Vitamin D deficiency. A mild lack of vitamin D may not cause symptoms but can cause tiredness and general aches and pains. A more severe lack can cause s rious problems such as rickets (in children) and osteomalacia in adults). During menopause, the decline of estrogens results in increased bone turnover, a decrease in bone mineral density and elevated fracture risk. Treatment is with vitamin D supplements. Some people are more at risk of vitamin D deficiency, and so are recommended to take vitamin D supplements routinely. These include all pregnant and breastfeeding women, all infants (babies) and young children aged 6 months to 5 years, people aged 65 and over, and people who are not exposed to much sun. There are precise recommendations regarding a sufficient Vitamin D intake in order to prevent bone loss in peri- and postmenopausal women. It is also recommend routine supplements for certain people with darker skin, and for people with certain gut, liver or kidney diseases. PMID:26204630

  7. Vitamin C: Promises Not Kept.

    PubMed

    Duerbeck, Norman B; Dowling, David D; Duerbeck, Jillinda M

    2016-03-01

    Vitamin C has been suggested as beneficial in preventing and curing the common cold, decreasing the incidence of preterm delivery and preeclampsia, decreasing risk of cancer and cardiovascular disease, and improving the quality of life by inhibiting blindness and dementia. In this article, we review the hypothesized mechanisms of these purported health benefits and the evidence behind such claims. PMID:26987583

  8. [Vitamin E in the aged].

    PubMed

    Pentimone, F; del Corso, L; Laghi, G

    1994-06-01

    Aging is a multifactorial process still incompletely known. The role of oxidative damage to cell membranes, as an important phase of the process, is underlined by the recent literature. We emphasize the value of vitamin E as an antioxidant agent supplied by suitable diets in middle age and by cheap tablets in the aged. PMID:8001337

  9. Vitamin Supplements: Healthy or Hoax?

    MedlinePlus

    ... physician about your personal dietary plan. Food first! “Nutritionists recommend food first because foods provide a variety ... vitamins and minerals,” Kris-Etherton said. “Therefore, many nutritionists will agree that a supplement is OK if ...

  10. Quantifying the vitamin D economy.

    PubMed

    Heaney, Robert P; Armas, Laura A G

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D enters the body through multiple routes and in a variety of chemical forms. Utilization varies with input, demand, and genetics. Vitamin D and its metabolites are carried in the blood on a Gc protein that has three principal alleles with differing binding affinities and ethnic prevalences. Three major metabolites are produced, which act via two routes, endocrine and autocrine/paracrine, and in two compartments, extracellular and intracellular. Metabolic consumption is influenced by physiological controls, noxious stimuli, and tissue demand. When administered as a supplement, varying dosing schedules produce major differences in serum metabolite profiles. To understand vitamin D's role in human physiology, it is necessary both to identify the foregoing entities, mechanisms, and pathways and, specifically, to quantify them. This review was performed to delineate the principal entities and transitions involved in the vitamin D economy, summarize the status of present knowledge of the applicable rates and masses, draw inferences about functions that are implicit in these quantifications, and point out implications for the determination of adequacy. PMID:26024057

  11. The Vitamin C Clock Reaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Stephen W.

    2002-01-01

    Describes an iodine clock reaction that produces an effect similar to the Landolt clock reaction. This reaction uses supermarket chemicals and avoids iodate, bisulfite, and mercury compounds. Ascorbic acid and tincture of iodine are the main reactants with alternate procedures provided for vitamin C tablets and orange juice. (DDR)

  12. Vitamin D and pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Barreto, Savio G; Neale, Rachel E

    2015-11-01

    Pancreatic cancer is currently the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death, and it is projected that within the next two decades it will become the second most common cause of death due to cancer. Few patients are diagnosed when surgical resection is feasible and the efficacy of existing chemotherapeutic agents for advanced/metastatic cancer is limited. Thus, there is a need to identify agents that can prevent pancreatic cancer or improve survival in those affected. Vitamin D and its analogues, with their ability to regulate cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis and angiogenesis, may be promising agents. This review explores the published literature about the potential role of vitamin D and its analogues in preventing or treating pancreatic cancer. The vitamin D system is altered in pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic cancer tissue expresses vitamin D receptors, but the calcitriol analogues may affect pancreatic cancer tissue by mechanisms that do not involve interaction with its receptors. Experimental evidence postulates multiple potential mechanisms by which calcitriol analogues may exert their anti-cancer effect, the most common being by action on cyclin-dependent kinases p21 and p27. Use of calcitriol analogues in pancreatic cancer remains largely underexplored and warrants further clinical trials. PMID:26276715

  13. Vitamin E and Prostate Cancer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin E, its metabolites or its analogs, might help prevent prostate cancer initiation or progression. Prostate cancer is the most common non-skin malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer deaths among men in the United States, exceeded only by lung cancer. About 218,890 new cases of prost...

  14. Bioavailability of vitamin B12

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is common in people of all ages who consume a low intake of animal-source foods, including populations in developing countries. It is also prevalent among the elderly, even in wealthier countries, due to their malabsorption of B12 from food. Several methods have been applied t...

  15. Immunomodulation by vitamin D: implications for TB

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Rene F; Adams, John S; Hewison, Martin

    2011-01-01

    TB remains a major cause of mortality throughout the world. Low vitamin D status has been linked to increased risk of TB and other immune disorders. These observations suggest a role for vitamin D as a modulator of normal human immune function. This article will detail the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which vitamin D regulates the immune system and how vitamin D insufficiency may lead to immune dysregulation. The importance of vitamin D bioavailability as a mechanism for defining the immunomodulatory actions of vitamin D and its impact on TB will also be discussed. The overall aim will be to provide a fresh perspective on the potential benefits of vitamin D supplementation in the prevention and treatment of TB. PMID:22046197

  16. The role of vitamin D in asthma.

    PubMed

    Luong, Khanh vinh quoc; Nguyen, Lan Thi Hoàng

    2012-04-01

    Vitamin D metabolites are important immune-modulatory hormones and are able to suppress Th2-mediated allergic airway disease. Some genetic factors that may contribute to asthma are regulated by vitamin D, such as vitamin D receptor (VDR), human leukocyte antigen genes (HLA), human Toll-like receptors (TLR), matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), a disintegrin and metalloprotein-33 (ADAM-33), and poly(ADP-ribosyl) polymerase- 1 (PARP-1). Vitamin D has also been implicated in asthma through its effects on the obesity, bacillus Calmettee Guérin (BCG) vaccination and high vitamin D level, vitamin D supplement, checkpoint protein kinase 1 (Chk1), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and gamma delta T cells (gdT). Vitamin D plays a role in asthma and exerts its action through either genomic and/or non-genomic ways. PMID:22532985

  17. [Vitamin B12 deficiency in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Leischker, A H; Kolb, G F

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency increases with age. Patients with dementia and spouses of patients with dementia are at special risk for the development of vitamin B12 deficiency. In a normal diet this vitamin is present only in animal source foods; therefore, vegans frequently develop vitamin B12 deficiency if not using supplements or foods fortified with cobalamin. Apart from dementia, most of these manifestations are completely reversible under correct therapy; therefore it is crucial to identify and to treat even atypical presentations of vitamin B12 deficiency as early as possible. This article deals with the physiology and pathophysiology of vitamin B12 metabolism. A practice-oriented algorithm which also considers health economic aspects for a rational laboratory diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency is presented. In cases with severe neurological symptoms, therapy should be parenteral, especially initially. For parenteral treatment, hydroxocobalamin is the drug of choice. PMID:25586321

  18. Vitamin D and atopic dermatitis in childhood.

    PubMed

    Vestita, Michelangelo; Filoni, Angela; Congedo, Maurizio; Foti, Caterina; Bonamonte, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D features immunomodulatory effects on both the innate and adaptive immune systems, which may explain the growing evidence connecting vitamin D to allergic diseases. A wealth of studies describing a beneficial effect of vitamin D on atopic dermatitis (AD) prevalence and severity are known. However, observations linking high vitamin D levels to an increased risk of developing AD have also been published, effectively creating a controversy. In this paper, we review the existing literature on the association between AD and vitamin D levels, focusing on childhood. As of today, the role of vitamin D in AD is far from clear; additional studies are particularly needed in order to confirm the promising therapeutic role of vitamin D supplementation in childhood AD. PMID:25973433

  19. Vitamin D and Atopic Dermatitis in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Vestita, Michelangelo; Filoni, Angela; Congedo, Maurizio; Foti, Caterina

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D features immunomodulatory effects on both the innate and adaptive immune systems, which may explain the growing evidence connecting vitamin D to allergic diseases. A wealth of studies describing a beneficial effect of vitamin D on atopic dermatitis (AD) prevalence and severity are known. However, observations linking high vitamin D levels to an increased risk of developing AD have also been published, effectively creating a controversy. In this paper, we review the existing literature on the association between AD and vitamin D levels, focusing on childhood. As of today, the role of vitamin D in AD is far from clear; additional studies are particularly needed in order to confirm the promising therapeutic role of vitamin D supplementation in childhood AD. PMID:25973433

  20. Impaired vitamin K recycling in uremia is rescued by vitamin K supplementation.

    PubMed

    Kaesler, Nadine; Magdeleyns, Elke; Herfs, Marjolein; Schettgen, Thomas; Brandenburg, Vincent; Fliser, Danilo; Vermeer, Cees; Floege, Jürgen; Schlieper, Georg; Krüger, Thilo

    2014-08-01

    In chronic kidney disease, vitamin K-dependent proteins, including the calcification inhibitor matrix Gla protein, are largely uncarboxylated indicating that functional vitamin K deficiency may contribute to uremic vascular calcification. Since the effects of uremia on the vitamin K cycle are unknown, we investigated the influence of uremia and vitamin K supplementation on the activity of the vitamin K cycle and extraosseous calcification. Uremia was induced in rats by an adenine-supplemented diet and vitamin K1 or K2 was administered over 4 and 7 weeks. After 4 weeks of adenine diet, the activity of the vitamin K cycle enzyme γ-carboxylase but not the activities of DT-diaphorase or vitamin K epoxide reductase were reduced. Serum levels of undercarboxylated matrix Gla protein increased, indicating functional vitamin K deficiency. There was no light microscopy-detectable calcification at this stage but chemically determined aortic and renal calcium content was increased. Vitamin K treatment reduced aortic and renal calcium content after 4 weeks. Seven weeks of uremia induced overt calcification in the aorta, heart, and kidneys; however, addition of vitamin K restored intrarenal γ-carboxylase activity and overstimulated it in the liver along with reducing heart and kidney calcification. Thus, uremic vitamin K deficiency may partially result from a reduction of the γ-carboxylase activity which possibly contributes to calcification. Pharmacological vitamin K supplementation restored the vitamin K cycle and slowed development of soft tissue calcification in experimental uremia. PMID:24429407

  1. Simultaneous liquid-chromatographic determination of vitamin K1 and vitamin E in serum.

    PubMed

    Cham, B E; Roeser, H P; Kamst, T W

    1989-12-01

    We describe a high-performance liquid chromatographic procedure for the simultaneous measurement of vitamins K1 and E in human serum. Delipidated human serum (free of vitamins K1 and E) was used to make standard solutions of these vitamins, and cetyl naphthoate and alpha-tocopheryl acetate were the internal standards for vitamin K1 and vitamin E, respectively. A simple, novel separation method utilizing liquid-liquid partition chromatography was used as a preparative "clean-up" procedure. Cetyl naphthoate and vitamin K1 (after post-column reduction) were detected by fluorescence, alpha-tocopheryl acetate and vitamin E by ultraviolet absorption. Sensitivity (detection limit) of the assay was 30 pg for vitamin K1 and 5 ng for vitamin E per injection. The method is specific, precise, and more rapid than previously described procedures. Within- and between-assay CVs were 8.1% and 12.9%, respectively, for vitamin K1; 3.5% and 6.0%, respectively, for vitamin E. Analytical recoveries of vitamins K1 and E were 80% and 93%, respectively, from serum and from delipidated serum (standards). The average neonatal serum concentration of vitamin K1 was 83 ng/L, 2.5 mg/L for vitamin E; for normolipidemic adults, the values were 343 ng/L and 7.9 mg/L, respectively, and for hyperlipidemic adults, 541 ng/L and 11.1 mg/L, respectively. PMID:2591045

  2. [Vitamin K 1 concentration and vitamin K-dependent clotting factors in newborn infants after intramuscular and oral administration of vitamin K 1].

    PubMed

    Goldschmidt, B; Kisrákói, C; Téglás, E; Verbényi, M; Kovács, I

    1990-06-17

    Serum concentration of vitamin K1 and activity of vitamin-K-dependent factors II, VII, IX and X were determined before and after vitamin K1 administration in infants. The babies received vitamin K1 intramuscularly or orally. 12 hours after vitamin K1 treatment the mean concentration was increased in the groups receiving vitamin K1 intramusculary or orally, respectively. Serum level of vitamin K1 fell exponentially, the mean half life was about 30 hours in both groups. Activity of vitamin K-dependent clotting factors did not change significantly after intramuscular or oral vitamin K1 administration during the first four-five days of life. It was no direct correlation between the concentration of vitamin K1 and the activity of vitamin-K-dependent clotting factors. This study suggest that oral administration of vitamin K1 is as effective as the intramuscular route. PMID:2195426

  3. Vitamin D deficiency in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Ashraf T.; De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Elalaily, Rania; Bedair, Said; Kassem, Islam

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of severe vitamin D deficiency (VDD) in adolescents is variable but considerably high in many countries, especially in Middle-east and Southeast Asia. Different factors attribute to this deficiency including lack of sunlight exposure due to cultural dress codes and veiling or due to pigmented skin, and less time spent outdoors, because of hot weather, and lower vitamin D intake. A potent adaptation process significantly modifies the clinical presentation and therefore clinical presentations may be subtle and go unnoticed, thus making true prevalence studies difficult. Adolescents with severe VDD may present with vague manifestations including pain in weight-bearing joints, back, thighs and/or calves, difficulty in walking and/or climbing stairs, or running and muscle cramps. Adaptation includes increased parathormone (PTH) and deceased insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) secretion. PTH enhances the tubular reabsorption of Ca and stimulates the kidneys to produce 1, 25-(OH) 2D3 that increases intestinal calcium absorption and dissolves the mineralized collagen matrix in bone, causing osteopenia and osteoporosis to provide enough Ca to prevent hypocalcaemia. Decreased insulin like growth factor-I (IGF-I) delays bone growth to economize calcium consumption. Radiological changes are not uncommon and include osteoporosis/osteopenia affecting long bones as well as vertebrae and ribs, bone cysts, decalcification of the metaphysis of the long bones and pseudo fractures. In severe cases pathological fractures and deformities may occur. Vitamin D treatment of adolescents with VDD differs considerably in different studies and proved to be effective in treating all clinical, biochemical, and radiological manifestations. Different treatment regiments for VDD have been discussed and presented in this mini-review for practical use. Adequate vitamin D replacement after treating VDD, improving calcium intake (milk and dairy products), encouraging adequate exposure

  4. Vitamin D deficiency in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Ashraf T; De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Elalaily, Rania; Bedair, Said; Kassem, Islam

    2014-11-01

    The prevalence of severe vitamin D deficiency (VDD) in adolescents is variable but considerably high in many countries, especially in Middle-east and Southeast Asia. Different factors attribute to this deficiency including lack of sunlight exposure due to cultural dress codes and veiling or due to pigmented skin, and less time spent outdoors, because of hot weather, and lower vitamin D intake. A potent adaptation process significantly modifies the clinical presentation and therefore clinical presentations may be subtle and go unnoticed, thus making true prevalence studies difficult. Adolescents with severe VDD may present with vague manifestations including pain in weight-bearing joints, back, thighs and/or calves, difficulty in walking and/or climbing stairs, or running and muscle cramps. Adaptation includes increased parathormone (PTH) and deceased insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) secretion. PTH enhances the tubular reabsorption of Ca and stimulates the kidneys to produce 1, 25-(OH) 2D3 that increases intestinal calcium absorption and dissolves the mineralized collagen matrix in bone, causing osteopenia and osteoporosis to provide enough Ca to prevent hypocalcaemia. Decreased insulin like growth factor-I (IGF-I) delays bone growth to economize calcium consumption. Radiological changes are not uncommon and include osteoporosis/osteopenia affecting long bones as well as vertebrae and ribs, bone cysts, decalcification of the metaphysis of the long bones and pseudo fractures. In severe cases pathological fractures and deformities may occur. Vitamin D treatment of adolescents with VDD differs considerably in different studies and proved to be effective in treating all clinical, biochemical, and radiological manifestations. Different treatment regiments for VDD have been discussed and presented in this mini-review for practical use. Adequate vitamin D replacement after treating VDD, improving calcium intake (milk and dairy products), encouraging adequate exposure

  5. Vitamin D and the epigenome

    PubMed Central

    Fetahu, Irfete S.; Höbaus, Julia; Kállay, Enikő

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms play a crucial role in regulating gene expression. The main mechanisms involve methylation of DNA and covalent modifications of histones by methylation, acetylation, phosphorylation, or ubiquitination. The complex interplay of different epigenetic mechanisms is mediated by enzymes acting in the nucleus. Modifications in DNA methylation are performed mainly by DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and ten-eleven translocation (TET) proteins, while a plethora of enzymes, such as histone acetyltransferases (HATs), histone deacetylases (HDACs), histone methyltransferases (HMTs), and histone demethylases (HDMs) regulate covalent histone modifications. In many diseases, such as cancer, the epigenetic regulatory system is often disturbed. Vitamin D interacts with the epigenome on multiple levels. Firstly, critical genes in the vitamin D signaling system, such as those coding for vitamin D receptor (VDR) and the enzymes 25-hydroxylase (CYP2R1), 1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1), and 24-hydroxylase (CYP24A1) have large CpG islands in their promoter regions and therefore can be silenced by DNA methylation. Secondly, VDR protein physically interacts with coactivator and corepressor proteins, which in turn are in contact with chromatin modifiers, such as HATs, HDACs, HMTs, and with chromatin remodelers. Thirdly, a number of genes encoding for chromatin modifiers and remodelers, such as HDMs of the Jumonji C (JmjC)-domain containing proteins and lysine-specific demethylase (LSD) families are primary targets of VDR and its ligands. Finally, there is evidence that certain VDR ligands have DNA demethylating effects. In this review we will discuss regulation of the vitamin D system by epigenetic modifications and how vitamin D contributes to the maintenance of the epigenome, and evaluate its impact in health and disease. PMID:24808866

  6. OT2_eegami_6: SPIRE Snapshot Survey II: Using SPT/CODEX Massive Clusters as Powerful Gravitational Lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egami, E.

    2011-09-01

    On the extragalactic side, one of the most remarkable results coming out of Herschel is the discovery of extremely bright (>100 mJy in the SPIRE bands) gravitationally lensed galaxies. The great sensitivity and mapping speed of SPIRE have enabled us to find these rare extraordinary objects. What is truly exciting about these bright lensed galaxies is that they enable a variety of detailed multi-wavelength follow-up observations, shedding new light on the physical properties of these high-redshift sources. In this regard, our OT1 program, "SPIRE Snapshot Survey of Massive Galaxy Clusters" turned out to be a great success. After imaging ~50 galaxies out of 279 in the program, we have already found two spectacularly bright lensed galaxies, one of which is at a redshift of 4.69. This type of cluster-lensed sources are not only bright but also spatially stretched over a large scale, so ALMA (or NOEMA in the north) is likely to be able to study them at the level of individual GMCs. Such studies will open up a new frontier in the study of high-redshift galaxies. Here, we propose to extend this highly efficient and effective survey of gravitationally lensed galaxies to another 353 clusters carefully chosen from the SPT and CODEX cluster samples. These samples contain newly discovered high-redshift (z>0.3) massive (>3-4e14 Msun) clusters, which can be used as powerful gravitational lenses to magnify sources at high redshift. With the OT1 and OT2 surveys together, we expect to find ~20 highly magnified SPIRE sources with exceptional brightnesses (assuming a discovery rate of ~1/30). Such a unique sample of extraordinary objects will enable a variety of follow-up sciences, and will therefore remain as a great legacy of the Herschel mission for years to come.

  7. OT2_dbrisbin_1: A z=1-2 oxygen survey. II. PAH-selected star forming and AGN sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brisbin, D.

    2011-09-01

    We are conducting a survey of the [CII] 158um line from galaxies at redshifts 1-2 using our grating spectrometer, ZEUS on the CSO. Our first 13 galaxy survey showed that luminous star forming galaxies in this epoch have moderate intensity kpc-scale star formation likely an extension of the Schmidt-Kennicutt law to very high gas mass fractions. Our AGN dominated systems have similarly large scale, but significantly more intense star formation suggesting punctuated, collision-induced star formation. We were awarded OT1 PACS spectroscopy and PACS/SPIRE photometry of these sources to observe the oxygen [OI], [OIII], and [OIV] fine-structure lines and far-IR continuum to characterize the star formation and AGN activity in these sources. Only two of our sources have been observed to date, but with good astrophysical success. Since the OT1 submission, we have detected 11 more z ~1-2 sources in [CII] with ZEUS. Here we propose an OT2 oxygen line/far-IR continuum study for 10 of these new sources. The new source list significantly enhances our OT1 survey in that (1) we nearly double our sample greatly increasing statistical significance of the results (2) the new group includes 7 Spitzer/PAH sources. PAH emission arises from PDRs tracing the photo-electric heating, while the [CII] and [OI] lines trace the cooling. PAHS therefore trace star formation and, since the features are extremely bright, are excellent redshift indicators. Future missions (e.g. JWST and SPICA/SAFARI) will rely on PAH spectroscopy at high z. It is therefore vital to study PAH emission and its relationship to star formation. The proposed work explores this connection at redshifts 1-2, near the peak of star formation per unit co-moving volume over cosmic time. In this interval ZEUS and PACs share a great synergy with well-matched sensitivities enabling detections of [CII] and oxygen in a wide variety of systems.

  8. Fermi and Swift observations of correlated outburst activity from the BL Lac object OT 081 (PKS 1749+096)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciprini, Stefano; Gonzalez, Josefa Becerra; Pivato, Giovanna; Thompson, David J.

    2016-07-01

    We report a strong multi-wavelength outburst in the BL Lac object OT 081 (also known as PKS 1749+096, 4C +09.57) with the radio counterpart position R.A.: 267.88674 deg, Dec.: 9.65020 deg (J2000.0, Lanyi et al. 2010, AJ, 139, 1695) and with redshift z=0.322 (Stickel, Fried, Kuehr 1988, A & A, 191, 16). Gamma ray and X-ray flares reached peaks during the interval 2016 July 16 and 20 simultaneous with an optical outburst (Balonek et al, 2016, ATel #9259).

  9. Fermi-LAT detection of a GeV gamma-ray flare from the BL Lac object OT 081

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerra Gonzalez, J.; Thompson, D.; Fermi-LAT Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT), one of the two instruments on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, has observed increasing gamma-ray flux from a source positionally consistent with the BL Lac object OT 081 (also known as PKS 1749+096, 4C 09.57, 0FGL J1751.5+0935, 1FGL J1751.5+0937, 2FGL J1751.5+0938, 1FHL J1751.5+0938, 3FGL J1751.5+0939), with the radio counterpart position R.A.: 267.88674 deg, Dec.: 9.65020 deg (J2000.0, Lanyi et al. 2010, AJ, 139, 1695).

  10. Vitamins and cancer prevention: issues and dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Young, V R; Newberne, P M

    1981-03-01

    Vitamins are a class of organic compounds that are components of an adequate diet. They or their derivatives function as coenzymes, cellular antioxidants, and/or regulators of gene expression. Fourteen vitamins are recognized in human nutrition (Vitamins A, D, E, K, B1, B2, B6, B12, C, niacin, folacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, choline), with deficiencies or excesses in intake leading to changes in protein, nucleic acid, carbohydrates, fat and/or mineral metabolism. Thus, the integrity of physiological systems, including those associated with detoxification, cellular repair, immune processes, and neural and endocrine function, depends upon the nutritional and vitamin status of the host. For these reasons, it may be anticipated that the adequacy of the vitamin supply to cells and tissues would affect the development, progress, and outcome of cancers. In this review, the definition and functions of and requirements and recommended allowance for vitamins are discussed briefly before exploring the evidence, largely from studies in experimental animals, that indicates the nature of the link between vitamins and cancer. Although evidence based on studies in animal systems reveals that vitamin intake and status can modulate the outcome of experimental carcinogenesis, the findings are often conflicting and difficult to interpret. Furthermore, it is not yet possible to develop a suitable prediction of the role of the individual vitamins in tumor development. The significance of these observations for human nutrition and cancer prevention, particularly in reference to ascorbic acid (vitamin C), vitamin E, and B-complex vitamins is considered. Vitamin A and retinoid compounds are discussed elsewhere in the symposium. The many popular misconceptions and unsound advice concerning vitamins and health, including "fake" vitamins-pangamic acid ("vitamin B15") and laetrile ("vitamin B17")-are also discussed. On the basis of current evidence, it would be inappropriate to recommend

  11. Vitamin d and rehabilitation: improving functional outcomes.

    PubMed

    Shinchuk, Leonid M; Shinchuk, Leonid; Holick, Michael F

    2007-06-01

    Vitamin D inadequacy is pandemic among rehabilitation patients in both inpatient and outpatient settings. Male and female patients of all ages and ethnic backgrounds are affected. Vitamin D deficiency causes osteopenia, precipitates and exacerbates osteoporosis, causes the painful bone disease osteomalacia, and worsens proximal muscle strength and postural sway. Vitamin D inadequacy can be prevented by sensible sun exposure and adequate dietary intake with supplementation. Vitamin D status is determined by measurement of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D. The recommended healthful serum level is between 30 and 60 ng/mL. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D levels of >30 ng/mL are sufficient to suppress parathyroid hormone production and to maximize the efficiency of dietary calcium absorption from the small intestine. This can be accomplished by ingesting 1000 IU of vitamin D(3) per day, or by taking 50,000 IU of vitamin D(2) every 2 weeks. Vitamin D toxicity is observed when 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels exceed 150 ng/mL. Identification and treatment of vitamin D deficiency reduces the risk of vertebral and nonvertebral fractures by improving bone health and musculoskeletal function. Vitamin D deficiency and osteomalacia should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with musculoskeletal pain, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, or myositis. There is a need for better education of health professionals and the general public regarding the optimization of vitamin D status in the care of rehabilitation patients. PMID:17507730

  12. Vitamin D status and childhood health.

    PubMed

    Shin, Youn Ho; Shin, Hye Jung; Lee, Yong-Jae

    2013-10-01

    Vitamin D is an essential component of bone and mineral metabolism; its deficiency causes growth retardation and skeletal deformities in children and osteomalacia and osteoporosis in adults. Hypovitaminosis D (vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency) is observed not only in adults but also in infants, children, and adolescents. Previous studies suggest that sufficient serum vitamin D levels should be maintained in order to enhance normal calcification of the growth plate and bone mineralization. Moreover, emerging evidence supports an association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels and immune function, respiratory diseases, obesity, metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, infection, allergy, cancers, and cardiovascular diseases in pediatric and adolescent populations. The risk factors for vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency in the pediatric population are season (winter), insufficient time spent outdoors, ethnicity (non-white), older age, more advanced stage of puberty, obesity, low milk consumption, low socioeconomic status, and female gender. It is recommended that all infants, children, and adolescents have a minimum daily intake of 400 IU (10 µg) of vitamin D. Since the vitamin D status of the newborn is highly related to maternal vitamin D levels, optimal vitamin D levels in the mother during pregnancy should be maintained. In conclusion, given the important role of vitamin D in childhood health, more time spent in outdoor activity (for sunlight exposure) and vitamin D supplementation may be necessary for optimal health in infants, children, and adolescents. PMID:24244209

  13. A nontoxic case of vitamin D toxicity.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Sutirtha; Sarkar, Ajoy Krishna; Bhattacharya, Chandramouli; Krishnan, Prasad; Chakraborty, Subhosmito

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D toxicity also known as hypervitaminosis D was previously believed to be rare. But with an increase in vitamin D supplementation several cases have been reported in literature. Fat soluble vitamins like Vitamin D, due to their ability to accumulate in the body, have a higher potential for toxicity than water soluble vitamins. The main clinical consequence of vitamin D toxicity is hypercalcemia. In this report we describe an adult female patient who developed very high serum Vitamin D levels (746 ng/mL, RI: 20 to 50) as a result of medication error. Inspite of such high serum concentrations the patient was without any clinical symptoms and had normal serum calcium. We critically discuss the mechanism of toxicity and hypothesize the possible molecular/metabolic factors which might have been responsible for this nontoxic presentation. This case study highlights the fact that physicians need to consider the risk of medication errors while prescribing Vitamin D therapy. Clinical trials to study Vitamin D toxicity in humans is not possible ethically. Thus the evidence base regarding the safety profile of Vitamin D supplementation in humans has been build through case reports. This review of the paradoxical clinico-laboratory manifestation of hypervitaminosis D could possibly contribute to existing literature. PMID:25918194

  14. Vitamin D deficiency and chronic lung disease.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Christopher R; Arum, Seth M; Smith, Cecilia M

    2009-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is increasingly being recognized as a prevalent problem in the general population. Patients with chronic lung diseases such as asthma, cystic fibrosis, chronic obstructive lung disease and interstitial pneumonia appear to be at increased risk for vitamin D deficiency for reasons that are not clear. Several studies indicate that vitamin D possesses a range of anti-inflammatory properties and may be involved in processes other than the previously believed functions of calcium and phosphate homeostasis. Various cytokines, cellular elements, oxidative stress and protease/antiprotease levels appear to affect lung fibroproliferation, remodelling and function, which may be influenced by vitamin D levels. Chronic lung diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive lung disease have also been linked to vitamin D on a genetic basis. This immune and genetic influence of vitamin D may influence the pathogenesis of chronic lung diseases. A recent observational study notes a significant association between vitamin D deficiency and decreased pulmonary function tests in a large ambulatory population. The present review will examine the current literature regarding vitamin D deficiency, its prevalence in patients with chronic lung disease, vitamin D anti-inflammatory properties and the role of vitamin D in pulmonary function. PMID:19557213

  15. Vitamin D - roles in women's reproductive health?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In the past few years a growing interest in vitamin D can be observed in the lay and biomedical literature due to findings demonstrating a low vitamin D status in the population. In addition to its importance for the regulation of calcium and phosphorus homeostasis recent epidemiologic studies have observed relationships between low vitamin D levels and multiple disease states. This secosteroid hormone also regulates the expression of a large number of genes in reproductive tissues implicating a role for vitamin D in female reproduction. In this report we summarize the recent evidence that vitamin D status influences female reproductive and pregnancy outcomes. Human and animal data suggest that low vitamin D status is associated with impaired fertility, endometriosis and polycystic ovary syndrome. Evidence from observational studies shows higher rates of preeclampsia, preterm birth, bacterial vaginosis and gestational diabetes in women with low vitamin D levels. However, confirmation of experimental observations establishing an association of vitamin D deficiency with adverse reproductive outcomes by high quality observational and large-scale randomized clinical trials is still lacking. The determination of optimal 25(OH)D3 levels in the reproductive period and the amount of vitamin D supplementation required to achieve those levels for the numerous actions of vitamin D throughout a woman's life would have important public health implications. PMID:22047005

  16. Sports Health Benefits of Vitamin D

    PubMed Central

    Shuler, Franklin D.; Wingate, Matthew K.; Moore, G. Hunter; Giangarra, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Context: Vitamin D is a potent secosteroid hormone that provides many skeletal and extraskeletal health benefits. Musculoskeletal injury prevention and recovery are potentially affected by sufficient circulating levels of the storage form of vitamin D: 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, or 25(OH)D. Vitamin D deficiency can exist among young, active, and healthy people, which may put them at increased risk for injury and prolonged recovery. Evidence Aquisition: PubMed was searched using vitamin D and skeletal muscle, vitamin D and athletic performance, and vitamin D review articles. Studies from the 1930s to 2012 were used for the review. Results: There is strong correlation between vitamin D sufficiency and optimal muscle function. Increasing levels of vitamin D reduce inflammation, pain, and myopathy while increasing muscle protein synthesis, ATP concentration, strength, jump height, jump velocity, jump power, exercise capacity, and physical performance. 25(OH)D levels above 40 ng/mL are required for fracture prevention, including stress fractures. Optimal musculoskeletal benefits occur at 25(OH)D levels above the current definition of sufficiency (> 30 ng/mL) with no reported sports health benefits above 50 ng/mL. Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency is common in athletes. For athletes presenting with stress fractures, musculoskeletal pain, and frequent illness, one should have a heightened awareness of the additional likely diagnosis of vitamin D deficiency. Correction of this deficiency is completed by standardized and supervised oral supplementation protocols producing significant musculoskeletal sports health benefits. PMID:24179588

  17. Vitamin D and patients with palliative cancer.

    PubMed

    Björkhem-Bergman, Linda; Bergman, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Vitamin D is a hormone that is synthesised in the skin in the presence of sunlight. Sufficient vitamin D levels are important-not only for a healthy skeleton-but also for a healthy immune system. Many patients with cancer have insufficient vitamin D levels, and low vitamin D levels are associated with increased 'all-cause mortality' and especially mortality due to cancer. Low vitamin D levels have also been associated with increased risk of infections, increased pain, depressive disorders and impaired quality of life. We review the role of vitamin D in the immune system, in relation to cancer disease, pain and depression. We have recently performed an observational study in 100 patients with palliative cancer in Sweden. The main result was that low vitamin D levels were associated with higher opioid dose, that is, more pain. We also describe a case report where vitamin D supplementation resulted in radically decreased opioid dose, less pain and better well-being. Vitamin D supplementation is not connected with any adverse side effects and is easy to administrate. Thus, we hypothesise that vitamin D-supplementation to patients with palliative cancer might be beneficial and could improve their well-being, decrease pain and reduce susceptibility to infections. However, more clinical studies in this field are needed before firm conclusions can be drawn. PMID:27084421

  18. Vitamin D3 toxicity in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Littledike, E T; Horst, R L

    1982-05-01

    Large parenteral doses of vitamin D3 (15 to 17.5 x 10(6) IU vitamin D3) were associated with prolonged hypercalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, and large increases of vitamin D3 and its metabolites in the blood plasma of nonlactating nonpregnant and pregnant Jersey cows. Calcium concentrations 1 day postpartum were higher in cows treated with vitamin D3 about 32 days prepartum (8.8 mg/100 ml) than in control cows (5.5 mg/100 ml). None of the cows treated with vitamin D3 showed signs of milk fever during the peripartal period; however, 22% of the control cows developed clinical signs of milk fever during this period. Signs of vitamin D3 toxicity were not observed in nonlactating nonpregnant cows; however, pregnant cows commonly developed severe signs of vitamin D3 toxicity and 10 of 17 cows died. There was widespread metastatic calcification in the cows that died. Because of the extreme toxicity of vitamin D3 in pregnant Jersey cows and the low margin of safety between doses of vitamin D3 that prevent milk fever and doses that induce milk fever, we concluded that vitamin D3 cannot be used practically to prevent milk fever when injected several weeks prepartum. PMID:6286738

  19. Vitamin D deficiency, atherosclerosis and cancer.

    PubMed

    Ginter, E; Simko, V

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: Recently there has been intense interest to find if vitamin D deficiency may be related to cardiovascular disease, cancer and infection. Inadequate saturation with vitamin D may adversely affect immune and metabolic functions, causing non-skeletal medical disorders. Sunlight exposure induces vitamin D synthesis in the skin from a precursor, 7-dehydrocholesterol. Since the body produces vitamin D, this "vitamin" does not fulfill classical definition for a vitamin, being rather a prohormone. Vitamin D provided in the food has smaller role than the source synthesized in the skin. Vitamin D is hydroxylated in the liver into 25-OH-D. Because this product has a longer biological half life, it is the best indicator of body stores of vitamin D. Biologically active form is the next metabolite, 1-25 (OH)2 D. This product has a high binding affinity to a protein nuclear vitamin D receptor (VDR). Receptors for vitamin D have broad tissue distribution, including vascular smooth muscle, endothelium and even malignant cells. Deficiency of vitamin D in populations is high (30-60% in the USA and Europe). This is particularly true about the northern latitudes where there are insufficient UV-B rays to promote the skin synthesis. In addition, there are campaigns to control sun exposure (fear of skin cancer), together with reduction in outdoor activities. No wonder that in aging people, in chronically ill and in subjects requiring long-term hospitalization, deficiency of vitamin D is very frequent and may adversely affect already compromised immunologic functions and resistance to infection (Fig. 6, Ref. 43). PMID:20196468

  20. Update on vitamin B12 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Langan, Robert C; Zawistoski, Kimberly J

    2011-06-15

    Vitamin B(12) (cobalamin) deficiency is a common cause of megaloblastic anemia, a variety of neuropsychiatric symptoms, and elevated serum homocysteine levels, especially in older persons. There are a number of risk factors for vitamin B(12) deficiency, including prolonged use of metformin and proton pump inhibitors. No major medical organizations, including the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, have published guidelines on screening asymptomatic or low-risk adults for vitamin B(12) deficiency, but high-risk patients, such as those with malabsorptive disorders, may warrant screening. The initial laboratory assessment of a patient with suspected vitamin B(12) deficiency should include a complete blood count and a serum vitamin B(12) level. Measurements of serum vitamin B(12) may not reliably detect deficiency, and measurement of serum homocysteine and/or methylmalonic acid should be used to confirm deficiency in asymptomatic high-risk patients with low normal levels of vitamin B(12). Oral administration of high-dose vitamin B(12) (1 to 2 mg daily) is as effective as intramuscular administration in correcting the deficiency, regardless of etiology. Because crystalline formulations are better absorbed than naturally occurring vitamin B(12), patients older than 50 years and strict vegetarians should consume foods fortified with vitamin B(12) and vitamin B(12) supplements, rather than attempting to get vitamin B(12) strictly from dietary sources. Administration of vitamin B(12) to patients with elevated serum homocysteine levels has not been shown to reduce cardiovascular outcomes in high-risk patients or alter the cognitive decline of patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease. PMID:21671542

  1. National Osteoporosis Society vitamin D guideline summary.

    PubMed

    Aspray, Terry J; Bowring, Claire; Fraser, William; Gittoes, Neil; Javaid, M Kassim; Macdonald, Helen; Patel, Sanjeev; Selby, Peter; Tanna, Nuttan; Francis, Roger M

    2014-09-01

    The National Osteoporosis Society (NOS) published its document, Vitamin D and Bone Health: A Practical Clinical Guideline for Patient Management, in 2013 as a practical clinical guideline on the management of vitamin D deficiency in adult patients with, or at risk of developing, bone disease. There has been no clear consensus in the UK on vitamin D deficiency its assessment and treatment, and clinical practice is inconsistent. This guideline is aimed at clinicians, including doctors, nurses and dieticians. It recommends the measurement of serum 25 (OH) vitamin D (25OHD) to estimate vitamin D status in the following clinical scenarios: bone diseases that may be improved with vitamin D treatment; bone diseases, prior to specific treatment where correcting vitamin D deficiency is appropriate; musculoskeletal symptoms that could be attributed to vitamin D deficiency. The guideline also states that routine vitamin D testing is unnecessary where vitamin D supplementation with an oral antiresorptive treatment is already planned and sets the following serum 25OHD thresholds: <30 nmol/l is deficient; 30-50 nmol/l may be inadequate in some people; >50 nmol/l is sufficient for almost the whole population. For treatment, oral vitamin D3 is recommended with fixed loading doses of oral vitamin D3 followed by regular maintenance therapy when rapid correction of vitamin D deficiency is required, although loading doses are not necessary where correction of deficiency is less urgent or when co-prescribing with an oral antiresorptive agent. For monitoring, serum calcium (adjusted for albumin) should be checked 1 month after completing a loading regimen, or after starting vitamin D supplementation, in case primary hyperparathyroidism has been unmasked. However, routine monitoring of serum 25OHD is generally unnecessary but may be appropriate in patients with symptomatic vitamin D deficiency or malabsorption and where poor compliance with medication is suspected. The guideline focuses

  2. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the vacuole-type ATPase subunit E from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3

    SciTech Connect

    Lokanath, Neratur K.; Ukita, Yoko; Sugahara, Mitsuaki; Kunishima, Naoki

    2005-01-01

    The E subunit of vacuole-type ATPase from P. horikoshii OT3 was overexpressed, purified and crystallized. The native crystals diffracted X-rays to 1.85 Å resolution. The vacuole-type ATPases in eukaryotic cells translocate protons across various biological membranes including the vacuolar membrane by consuming ATP molecules. The E subunit of the multisubunit complex V-ATPase from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3, which has a molecular weight of 22.88 kDa, has been cloned, overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized by the microbatch method using PEG 4000 as a precipitant at 296 K. A data set to 1.85 Å resolution with 98.8% completeness and an R{sub merge} of 6.5% was collected from a single flash-cooled crystal using synchrotron radiation. The crystal belonged to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 52.196, b = 55.317, c = 77.481 Å, and is most likely to contain one molecule per asymmetric unit.

  3. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of RecA superfamily ATPase PH0284 from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3

    SciTech Connect

    Bagautdinov, Bagautdin; Kunishima, Naoki

    2006-04-01

    RecA superfamily ATPase PH0284 from P. horikoshii OT3 was overexpressed, purified, crystallized and cocrystallized with ATP. Both crystal forms belong to the trigonal space group P3{sub 2}21 and diffract X-rays to 2.0 and 2.3 Å resolution, respectively. Circadian (daily) protein clocks are found in cyanobacteria, where a complex of the KaiA, KaiB and KaiC proteins generates circadian rhythms. The 28.09 kDa KaiC homologue PH0284 protein from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3 was cloned and expressed and the purified protein was crystallized by the oil-microbatch method at 295 K. X-ray diffraction data from the crystal were collected to 2.0 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation at 100 K. The crystal belongs to the trigonal space group P3{sub 2}21, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 96.06, c = 298.90 Å. Assuming the presence of one hexamer in the asymmetric unit gives a V{sub M} value of 2.36 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1} and a solvent content of 47.9%. A cocrystal with ATP was prepared and a diffraction data set was collected at 2.3 Å resolution.

  4. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of archaeal 6-pyruvoyl tetrahydrobiopterin synthase homologue PH0634 from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3

    SciTech Connect

    Bagautdinov, Bagautdin; Sugahara, Mitsuaki; Kunishima, Naoki

    2007-01-01

    An archaeal 6-pyruvoyl tetrahydrobiopterin synthase homologue from P. horikoshii OT3 was overexpressed as native and selenomethionine-substituted protein, purified and crystallized. The native and selenomethionine-derivative crystals are isomorphous and diffract X-rays to 2.1 and 2.9 Å resolution, respectively. 6-Pyruvoyl tetrahydrobiopterin synthase (PTPS) catalyses the conversion of dihydroneopterin triphosphate to 6-pyruvoyl tetrahydropterin, the second of the three enzymatic steps in the synthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin from GTP. PH0634, a 13.51 kDa archaeal PTPS homologue from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3, was overexpressed as native and selenomethionine-substituted protein and the purified protein was crystallized by the oil-microbatch method at 295 K. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.1 Å resolution from the native crystal using synchrotron radiation at 100 K. The crystal belongs to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 35.83, b = 95.71, c = 105.65 Å. Threefold noncrystallographic symmetry was identified from self-rotation calculations. Assuming the presence of a trimer in the asymmetric unit, the solvent content is 45% (V{sub M} = 2.24 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1}). The selenomethionine-substituted crystal is isomorphous to the native crystal and diffracts X-rays to 2.9 Å.

  5. Liquid-crystalline and microemulsion phase behavior in alcohol-free aerosol-OT/oil/brine systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, O.; Miller, C.A.

    1987-08-13

    The phase behavior of systems containing the pure anionic surfactant Aerosol OT or sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate was studied as a function of salt concentration, surfactant concentration, alkane carbon number, and water-to-oil ratio. Since the hydrophilic and lipophilic properties of Aerosol OT are nearly balanced, the surfactant forms microemulsions with water and oil in the absence of cosurfactant, allowing for simplified representation of phase behavior. In particular, this property aided in the understanding of transitions between the aqueous surfactant phase behavior and the well-studied oil-rich microemulsion regime. With the addition of salt to dilute alcohol-free surfactant-water mixtures, transitions in the liquid-crystalline phases similar to those seen previously for systems containing petroleum sulfonates and other anionic surfactants with alcohol cosurfactants were found. When hydrocarbons of various chain lengths were equilibrated with the aqueous surfactant solutions, again behavior similar to that of anionic surfactants with alcohol cosurfactants was observed. Pseudoternary diagrams of surfactant-brine-oil were constructed at various brine salinities with n-dodecane as the oil. The assumption that brine acts as a pseudocomponent was found to work best at salinities well below and well above the optimum and at low surfactant concentrations. In any case, the results provide extensive information on phase behavior of a four-component system containing a pure anionic surfactant, a pure hydrocarbon, and sodium chloride brine over a region of considerable interest for enhanced oil recovery and other applications.

  6. Vitamin E and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed Central

    Dormandy, T L

    1977-01-01

    Forty years after its discovery, vitamin E remains a biochemical Don Basilio, not to be trusted or believed but impossible to dismiss. It is a powerful antioxidant in vitro, in many animals and probably in the newborn. To assess its physiological role and possible therapeutic usefulness in the human adult we need to know more about the mechanisms which normally protect from autoxidative damage. PMID:859819

  7. Vitamin D regulation of immune function.

    PubMed

    Bikle, Daniel D

    2011-01-01

    Although the best known actions of vitamin D involve its regulation of bone mineral homeostasis, vitamin D exerts its influence on many physiologic processes. One of these processes is the immune system. Both the adaptive and innate immune systems are impacted by the active metabolite of vitamin D, 1,25(OH)(2)D. These observations have important implications for understanding the predisposition of individuals with vitamin D deficiency to infectious diseases such as tuberculosis as well as to autoimmune diseases such as type 1 diabetes mellitus and multiple sclerosis. However, depending on the disease process not all actions of vitamin D may be beneficial. In this review, I examine the regulation by 1,25(OH)(2)D of immune function, then assess the evidence implicating vitamin D deficiency in human disease resulting from immune dysfunction. PMID:21419265

  8. Vitamin D deficiency in chronic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Iruzubieta, Paula; Terán, Álvaro; Crespo, Javier; Fábrega, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D is an important secosteroid hormone with known effect on calcium homeostasis, but recently there is increasing recognition that vitamin D also is involved in cell proliferation and differentiation, has immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. Vitamin D deficiency has been frequently reported in many causes of chronic liver disease and has been associated with the development and evolution of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and chronic hepatitis C (CHC) virus infection. The role of vitamin D in the pathogenesis of NAFLD and CHC is not completely known, but it seems that the involvement of vitamin D in the activation and regulation of both innate and adaptive immune systems and its antiproliferative effect may explain its importance in these liver diseases. Published studies provide evidence for routine screening for hypovitaminosis D in patients with liver disease. Further prospectives studies demonstrating the impact of vitamin D replacement in NAFLD and CHC are required. PMID:25544877

  9. Vitamin Supplementation in the Treatment of Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Hannah E.; Roffman, Joshua L.

    2014-01-01

    In this article we review the current literature addressing the treatment of schizophrenia with vitamin supplementation. We first describe the important roles that vitamins play in normal metabolism, then review the evidence pertaining to vitamin deficiency and supplementation in patients with schizophrenia. We then describe mounting evidence suggesting that vitamin supplementation, in particular with folic acid, vitamin B12 and vitamin D, may be important in treatment within certain subgroups of patients. We highlight the need for larger, randomized controlled trials, and recommend further studies examining the incidence of schizophrenia in countries with poor prenatal care and malnutrition, as well as in countries that have adopted mandatory folic acid fortification of grain products. PMID:24846474

  10. The difficulties with vitamin B12.

    PubMed

    Dobson, Ruth; Alvares, Debie

    2016-08-01

    A 22-year-old woman presented with progressive sensory ataxia and optic neuropathy. Previous investigation by her general practitioner had found a low serum vitamin B12, which had been corrected with oral supplementation. Neurological investigations showed raised plasma homocysteine and methylmalonic acid towards the upper limit of normal with a low serum vitamin B12 MRI showed an extensive cord lesion in keeping with subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord. We treated her with high dose parenteral vitamin B12 and she has made a partial recovery. We discuss the management of patients who present with neurological manifestations of vitamin B12 deficiency; highlighting the fact that parenteral replacement is needed in such cases, even if the serum vitamin B12 level appears to be normal. We also discuss ancillary investigations that should be performed in patients with suspected vitamin B12 deficiency. PMID:27009308

  11. CROSSTALK BETWEEN VITAMIN B AND IMMUNITY.

    PubMed

    Spinas, E; Saggini, A; Kritas, S K; Cerulli, G; Caraffa, A; Antinolfi, P; Pantalone, A; Frydas, A; Tei, M; Speziali, A; Saggini, R; Pandolfi, F; Conti, P

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin B1 (thiamin) is considered to be the oldest vitamin and in 1936 R.R. Williams and colleagues determined its chemical structure and were able to synthesize this vitamin. Vitamin B1 influences pro-apoptotic proteins, mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome C release, protein kinases, p38-MAPK, suppresses oxidative stress-induced NF-kappaB and has anti-inflammatory properties. Deficiency of vitamin B1 may cause beriberi, dysfunction of the nervous system, neuroinflammation, T cell infiltration, chemokine CCL2 activation, over expression of proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1, TNF, IL-6, and arachidonic acid products, and induces expression of CD40 by the microglia and CD40L by astrocytes which provoke the death of neurons. Here we report the relationship between vitamin B complex and immunity. PMID:26122215

  12. [Therapy of hyperhomocysteinemia with vitamin B12].

    PubMed

    Krajcovicová-Kudlácková, M; Blazícek, P; Sebeková, K; Valachovicová, M

    2002-11-01

    Prevalence of mild hyperhomocysteinemia in vegetarians and vegans is a consequence of vitamin B12 deficiency. Clinical study of homocysteine reduction by vitamin B12 consisted of subjective healthy adults on alternative nutrition (n = 9) with vitamin B12 deficiency and with mild hyperhomocysteinemia. Vitamin B12 treatment was implemented by 5 intramuscular cyanocobalamin injections of a total content of 2200 micrograms during two weeks. Homocysteine level was significantly reduced (from 22 mumol/l to 11.7 mumol/l; individual reduction 29-55%). Vitamin B12 concentration in blood was significantly increased (from 152 pmol/l to 277 pmol/l; individual % of increase 63-150). The results show a high effect of vitamin B12 treatment in homocysteine value reduction of subjects on alternative nutrition. PMID:12501494

  13. Problems with estimating vitamin C intakes.

    PubMed

    Sinha, R; Block, G; Taylor, P R

    1993-04-01

    The vitamin C content of foods was examined from two national databases and new values were obtained by HPLC. HPLC values were lower in four of the five highest vitamin C contributors to the US diet (orange juice, grapefruit, tomatoes and tomato juice, and potatoes), as well as in broccoli, red peppers, and cooked collard and mustard greens, compared with values from the other databases. When HPLC values were substituted in the Health Habits and History Questionnaire, the resulting estimates of dietary intake of vitamin C in two studies were lower. Despite these lower estimates of absolute intake, in one study the correlation between dietary vitamin C and plasma ascorbic acid was similar. In conclusion, the accuracy of the vitamin C content of foods is important for estimating the absolute amount of vitamin C intake in the population but may not change the ranking of people in epidemiological studies. PMID:8460610

  14. Anti-Tumor Effects after Adoptive Transfer of IL-12 Transposon-Modified Murine Splenocytes in the OT-I-Melanoma Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Galvan, Daniel L; O'Neil, Richard T; Foster, Aaron E; Huye, Leslie; Bear, Adham; Rooney, Cliona M; Wilson, Matthew H

    2015-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of gene modified T cells provides possible immunotherapy for patients with cancers refractory to other treatments. We have previously used the non-viral piggyBac transposon system to gene modify human T cells for potential immunotherapy. However, these previous studies utilized adoptive transfer of modified human T cells to target cancer xenografts in highly immunodeficient (NOD-SCID) mice that do not recapitulate an intact immune system. Currently, only viral vectors have shown efficacy in permanently gene-modifying mouse T cells for immunotherapy applications. Therefore, we sought to determine if piggyBac could effectively gene modify mouse T cells to target cancer cells in a mouse cancer model. We first demonstrated that we could gene modify cells to express murine interleukin-12 (p35/p40 mIL-12), a transgene with proven efficacy in melanoma immunotherapy. The OT-I melanoma mouse model provides a well-established T cell mediated immune response to ovalbumin (OVA) positive B16 melanoma cells. B16/OVA melanoma cells were implanted in wild type C57Bl6 mice. Mouse splenocytes were isolated from C57Bl6 OT-I mice and were gene modified using piggyBac to express luciferase. Adoptive transfer of luciferase-modified OT-I splenocytes demonstrated homing to B16/OVA melanoma tumors in vivo. We next gene-modified OT-I cells to express mIL-12. Adoptive transfer of mIL-12-modified mouse OT-I splenocytes delayed B16/OVA melanoma tumor growth in vivo compared to control OT-I splenocytes and improved mouse survival. Our results demonstrate that the piggyBac transposon system can be used to gene modify splenocytes and mouse T cells for evaluating adoptive immunotherapy strategies in immunocompetent mouse tumor models that may more directly mimic immunotherapy applications in humans. PMID:26473608

  15. Anti-Tumor Effects after Adoptive Transfer of IL-12 Transposon-Modified Murine Splenocytes in the OT-I-Melanoma Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Aaron E.; Huye, Leslie; Bear, Adham; Rooney, Cliona M.; Wilson, Matthew H.

    2015-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of gene modified T cells provides possible immunotherapy for patients with cancers refractory to other treatments. We have previously used the non-viral piggyBac transposon system to gene modify human T cells for potential immunotherapy. However, these previous studies utilized adoptive transfer of modified human T cells to target cancer xenografts in highly immunodeficient (NOD-SCID) mice that do not recapitulate an intact immune system. Currently, only viral vectors have shown efficacy in permanently gene-modifying mouse T cells for immunotherapy applications. Therefore, we sought to determine if piggyBac could effectively gene modify mouse T cells to target cancer cells in a mouse cancer model. We first demonstrated that we could gene modify cells to express murine interleukin-12 (p35/p40 mIL-12), a transgene with proven efficacy in melanoma immunotherapy. The OT-I melanoma mouse model provides a well-established T cell mediated immune response to ovalbumin (OVA) positive B16 melanoma cells. B16/OVA melanoma cells were implanted in wild type C57Bl6 mice. Mouse splenocytes were isolated from C57Bl6 OT-I mice and were gene modified using piggyBac to express luciferase. Adoptive transfer of luciferase-modified OT-I splenocytes demonstrated homing to B16/OVA melanoma tumors in vivo. We next gene-modified OT-I cells to express mIL-12. Adoptive transfer of mIL-12-modified mouse OT-I splenocytes delayed B16/OVA melanoma tumor growth in vivo compared to control OT-I splenocytes and improved mouse survival. Our results demonstrate that the piggyBac transposon system can be used to gene modify splenocytes and mouse T cells for evaluating adoptive immunotherapy strategies in immunocompetent mouse tumor models that may more directly mimic immunotherapy applications in humans. PMID:26473608

  16. Calcium and Vitamin D: Important at Every Age

    MedlinePlus

    ... browser. Home Bone Basics Nutrition Calcium and Vitamin D: Important at Every Age Publication available in: PDF ( ... product meets United States Pharmacopeia (USP) standards. Vitamin D The body needs vitamin D to absorb calcium. ...

  17. Genetics Home Reference: vitamin D-dependent rickets

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Health Conditions vitamin D-dependent rickets vitamin D-dependent rickets Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... Download PDF Open All Close All Description Vitamin D-dependent rickets is a disorder of bone development ...

  18. Tanning May Limit Skin's Ability to Produce Vitamin D

    MedlinePlus

    ... Produce Vitamin D: Study Even those with significant sun exposure can have low levels of this essential vitamin, ... and 82 years old. All had significant daily sun exposure and none routinely used sunscreen or took vitamin ...

  19. Anti-fall Efficacy of Oral Supplemental Vitamin D and Active Vitamin D

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Results from fall prevention trials with supplemental vitamin D have been mixed and trials varied by dose, type of vitamin D (D3 = cholecalciferol or D2 = ergocalciferol), and quality of fall assessment. A possible differential benefit of supplemental versus alpha-hydroxylated vitamin D (active D) h...

  20. Genetic polymorphisms related to vitamin D and the therapeutic potential of vitamin D in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Niino, Masaaki; Miyazaki, Yusei

    2015-05-01

    Vitamin D receptors (VDRs), which are responsible for most vitamin D functions, are expressed on various immune cells. Vitamin D is considered to be a potent immunomodulator. A variety of cells in the central nervous system (CNS) also express VDRs; thus, vitamin D may play a role in the regulation of neurodegeneration and repair processes within the CNS. Considered together with epidemiological studies, low vitamin D status is reckoned to be one of the risk factors for multiple sclerosis (MS). Further, vitamin D is considered to be a possible treatment for MS. However, previous clinical trials with small cohorts have not demonstrated significant effects of vitamin D in MS. Current ongoing clinical trials with large cohorts could provide answers with respect to the clinical effects of vitamin D in MS. However, genetic studies have suggested that genes associated with vitamin D, including VDRs, are susceptible genes for MS. Vitamin D needs to be considered from the perspective of the interaction between vitamin-D-related genetic factors and environmental factors affecting vitamin D levels. PMID:25798693

  1. Vitamin D signaling in the bovine immune system: A model for understanding human vitamin D requirements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The endocrine physiology of vitamin D in cattle has been rigorously investigated and has yielded information on vitamin D requirements, endocrine function in health and disease, general metabolism, and maintenance of calcium homeostasis in cattle. These results are relevant to human vitamin D endocr...

  2. Effect of combined folic acid, Vitamin B6, and Vitamin B12 on colorectal adenoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Folic acid, vitamin B(6), and vitamin B(12) act in concert in the one-carbon metabolism and may protect against colorectal neoplasia. We examined the effect of combined B-vitamin treatment on the occurrence of colorectal adenoma. The Women's Antioxidant and Folic Acid Cardiovascular Study was a rand...

  3. [Mega-dosages vitamin D: progressive medicine?].

    PubMed

    Kerstens, P J; van Ditzhuijsen, T J; van Tongeren, J H

    1990-10-01

    Although the risk of vitamin intoxication is well recognised, massive doses of these preparations continue to be prescribed, especially in the so-called 'alternative' medical sector. We describe a patient with hypervitaminosis D due to administration of megadoses of vitamin D in the absence of an obvious indication. Mode of action and symptoms of vitamin D intoxication are discussed. It is emphasized that vitamin preparations should only be used when strictly indicated and that close clinical and biochemical supervision is necessary. PMID:2234152

  4. Ultraviolet radiation, vitamin D and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Robyn M; Byrne, Scott N; Correale, Jorge; Ilschner, Susanne; Hart, Prue H

    2015-10-01

    There is compelling epidemiological evidence that the risk of developing multiple sclerosis is increased in association with low levels of sun exposure, possibly because this is associated with low vitamin D status. Recent work highlights both vitamin D and non-vitamin D effects on cellular immunity that suggests that higher levels of sun exposure and/or vitamin D status are beneficial for both MS risk and in ameliorating disease progression. Here we review this recent evidence, focusing on regulatory cells, dendritic cells, and chemokines and cytokines released from the skin following exposure to ultraviolet radiation. PMID:26477548

  5. The antibiotic effects of vitamin D.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chunxiao; Gombart, Adrian F

    2014-01-01

    The recent discovery that vitamin D regulates expression of the cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide gene has generated renewed interest in using vitamin D to fight infectious diseases. This review describes the historical use of vitamin D or its sources to treat infections, the mechanism of action through which vitamin D mediates its "antibiotic" effects, findings from epidemiological studies associating vitamin D deficiency with increased susceptibility to infection and clinical trials with vitamin D supplementation to treat or prevent infections. Further studies examining an association between vitamin D levels and cathelicidin expression are discussed. The role of cathelcidin throughout the course of infection from the initial encounter of the pathogen to the resolution of tissue damage and inflammation indicates that individuals need to maintain adequate levels of vitamin D for an optimal immune response. In addition, for treating infections, carefully designed randomized, clinical trials that are appropriately powered to detect modest effects, target populations that are severely deficient in vitamin D,and optimized dose, dosing frequency and safety are needed. PMID:25008764

  6. Vitamin D and depression: A case series

    PubMed Central

    Odejayi, Gbolahan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Over two-thirds of Canadians are deficient in vitamin D. Clinical overlap can compound diagnosis of depression in vitamin D deficient individuals. Citing high costs, the Ministry of Health has restricted routine vitamin D screening and hence is not feasible. Objectives: The current case series is an attempt to recognise the clinical overlap between depression and vitamin D deficiency in order to avoid unnecessary antidepressant prescriptions and to demonstrate the role of collaborative care in such patients. Method: After appropriate ethics approval 62 patients from an outpatient clinic were screened for the diagnosis of treatment resistant depression. Those who had predominant somatic complaints were further screened for organic factors and those with inadequate vitamin D levels were referred to family physicians for supplementation with vitamin D. Results: More than 50% were detected deficient in vitamin D after our evaluation. They showed subjective improvement with vitamin D supplements. No modification of antidepressants was needed. Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency should be suspected in depressed patients with prominent somatic symptoms and their treatment resistance should be reconsidered to avoid unnecessary exposure to mood stabilisers. Collaborating with primary care is advocated. Limitation: Co-prescription of an antidepressant is a confounder in our case series, and we propose more organised studies with objective rating scales. PMID:27489667

  7. Vitamin C modulates lead excretion in rats

    PubMed Central

    Lihm, Hoseob; Kim, Hyun; Chang, Heekyung; Yoon, Myunghee; Lee, Kayoung

    2013-01-01

    Lead, one of the most toxic heavy metals, takes longer time to be excreted from the body than other heavy metals. The purpose of this study is, by measuring lead excretion via urine and feces, to find out the effect of vitamin C in lead chelation. Thirty-six rats were randomly assorted into four groups. All 33 rats except for the control group were administered with lead, before orally administered with different doses of vitamin C per kilogram of body weight. The lead excretion levels in urine and feces as well as the survival rate were then measured for each group. The rats with lead administrations (10/13, 76.9%) with lead administrations only, 10/11 rats (90.9%) with lead administrations and low dose of vitamin C, 9/9 rats (100%) with lead administrations and high dose of vitamin C survived. Among the 29 surviving rats, low vitamin C intake group exhibited higher urinary excretion than the lead only group. The urinary excretion level in high dose vitamin C intakegroup was significantly higher than the lead only group. In addition, fecal lead excretion seemed to be increased in the high dose vitamin C intake group, compared to the group with lead administrations only with statistical significance. Through animal experiment, it was found out that administrating high dose of vitamin C accelerated the excretion of lead in body compared to low dose of vitamin C. PMID:24386596

  8. Vitamin D Deficiency Among Professional Basketball Players

    PubMed Central

    Fishman, Matthew P.; Lombardo, Stephen J.; Kharrazi, F. Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vitamin D plays an important role in several systems of the human body. Various studies have linked vitamin D deficiency to stress and insufficiency fractures, muscle recovery and function, and athletic performance. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the elite athletic population has not been extensively studied, and very few reports exist among professional athletes. Hypothesis: There is a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency among players attending the National Basketball Association (NBA) Combine. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: This is a retrospective review of data previously collected as part of the routine medical evaluation of players in the NBA Combines from 2009 through 2013. Player parameters evaluated were height, weight, body mass index (BMI), and vitamin D level. Statistical analysis using t tests and analysis of variance was used to detect any correlation between the player parameters and vitamin D level. Vitamin D levels were categorized as deficient (<20 ng/mL), insufficient (20-32 ng/mL), and sufficient (>32 ng/mL). Results: After institutional review board approval was submitted to the NBA, the NBA released deidentified data on 279 players who participated in the combines from 2009 through 2013. There were 90 players (32.3%) who were deficient, 131 players (47.0%) who were insufficient, and 58 players (20.8%) who were sufficient. A total of 221 players (79.3%) were either vitamin D deficient or insufficient. Among all players included, the average vitamin D level was 25.6 ± 10.2 ng/mL. Among the players who were deficient, insufficient, and sufficient, the average vitamin D levels were 16.1 ± 2.1 ng/mL, 25.0 ± 3.4 ng/mL, and 41.6 ± 8.6 ng/mL, respectively. Player height and weight were significantly increased in vitamin D–sufficient players compared with players who were not sufficient (P = .0008 and .009, respectively). Player age and BMI did not significantly

  9. Vitamin B6 and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Friso, Simonetta; Lotto, V; Corrocher, R; Choi, Sang Woon

    2012-01-01

    While overt vitamin B6 deficiency is not a frequent finding nowadays in medical practice, evidence suggests that insufficiency of this vitamin is rather widespread in a quite large portion of the population such as the elderly or in not unusual conditions such as that of alcohol addiction. Moreover, a mild deficiency in B6 vitamin is a state that may be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Epidemiologic evidence from case control and prospective studies have suggested that low dietary intake or reduced blood concentrations of vitamin B6 is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, although most recent trials demonstrated the ineffectiveness of vitamin B6 supplementation on the prevention of cardiovascular events recurrence. Due to limited and somewhat inconsistent data together with the ample variety of critical functions in which vitamin B6 is involved in the human body, it is very challenging to attempt at establishing a cause and effect relationship between vitamin B6 and risk of cardiovascular disease as it is to delineate the exact mechanism(s) by which vitamin B6 may modulate such risk. In the present chapter we review the currently available knowledge deriving from both epidemiological and mechanistic studies designed to define potential candidate mechanisms for the association of vitamin B6 impairment and risk of cardiovascular disease development. PMID:22116704

  10. Role of vitamins in gastrointestinal diseases

    PubMed Central

    Masri, Omar A; Chalhoub, Jean M; Sharara, Ala I

    2015-01-01

    A tremendous amount of data from research was published over the past decades concerning the roles of different vitamins in various gastrointestinal diseases. For instance, most vitamins showed an inverse relationship with the risk of colorectal carcinoma as well as other malignancies like gastric and esophageal cancer in observational trials, however interventional trials failed to prove a clear beneficial preventive role. On the other hand, more solid evidence was obtained from high quality studies for a role of certain vitamins in specific entities. Examples for this include the therapeutic role of vitamin E in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, the additive role of vitamins B12 and D to the standard therapy of chronic hepatitis C virus, the role of vitamin C in reducing the risk of gallstones, the positive outcome with vitamin B12 in patients with aphthous stomatitis, and the beneficial effect of vitamin D and B1 in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Other potential uses are yet to be elaborated, like those on celiac disease, pancreatic cancer, pancreatitis, cholestasis and other potential fields. Data from several ongoing interventional trials are expected to add to the current knowledge over the coming few years. Given that vitamin supplementation is psychologically accepted by patients as a natural compound with relative safety and low cost, their use should be encouraged in the fields where positive data are available. PMID:25954093

  11. Type IV hypersensitivity to vitamin K.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Sabine; Wilkinson, S Mark; Peckham, Daniel; Wilson, Caroline

    2002-02-01

    The day after intramuscular injection of vitamin K1 (phytomenadione) into her thigh, a 27-year-old-woman with normal liver function developed a relapsing and remitting eczematous reaction localized to the injection site, and later a further eczematous reaction under an adhesive dressing (Duoderm). On patch testing, she was positive to vitamin K1 and cross-reacted to vitamin K4; she was also positive to colophonium and to ester gum rosin, the dressing adhesive. Recurrent angioedema persisted for several months and, 2 years later, symptoms were still occurring over the injection sites. Structure-activity relationships among vitamin K allergens are discussed. PMID:11918602

  12. Vitamin B₁₂ and vegetarian diets.

    PubMed

    Zeuschner, Carol L; Hokin, Bevan D; Marsh, Kate A; Saunders, Angela V; Reid, Michelle A; Ramsay, Melinda R

    2013-08-19

    Vitamin B₁₂ is found almost exclusively in animal-based foods and is therefore a nutrient of potential concern for those following a vegetarian or vegan diet. Vegans, and anyone who significantly limits intake of animal-based foods, require vitamin B₁₂-fortified foods or supplements. Vitamin B₁₂ deficiency has several stages and may be present even if a person does not have anaemia. Anyone following a vegan or vegetarian diet should have their vitamin B₁₂ status regularly assessed to identify a potential problem. A useful process for assessing vitamin B₁₂ status in clinical practice is the combination of taking a diet history, testing serum vitamin B₁₂ level and testing homocysteine, holotranscobalamin II or methylmalonic acid serum levels. Pregnant and lactating vegan or vegetarian women should ensure an adequate intake of vitamin B₁₂ to provide for their developing baby. In people who can absorb vitamin B₁₂, small amounts (in line with the recommended dietary intake) and frequent (daily) doses appear to be more effective than infrequent large doses, including intramuscular injections. Fortification of a wider range of foods products with vitamin B₁₂, particularly foods commonly consumed by vegetarians, is likely to be beneficial, and the feasibility of this should be explored by relevant food authorities. PMID:25369926

  13. [Diagnostic criteria for vitamin D-deficient rickets and hypocalcemia-].

    PubMed

    Ozono, Keiichi

    2016-02-01

    Vitamin D deficiency causes rickets or osteomalacia, which is associated with hypomineralization of bone and chondrocytes, and/or hypocalcemia. Accumulating evidence indicates increase in frequency of vitamin D deficiency due to insufficient intake of vitamin D and calcium and decrease in sunshine. It is necessary for clinician to diagnose vitamin D deficiency accurately and treat patients with vitamin D deficiency adequately. For the purpose, clinical guideline or expert opinion on vitamin D deficiency has been reported. PMID:26813501

  14. Glucuronidation of OTS167 in Humans Is Catalyzed by UDP-Glucuronosyltransferases UGT1A1, UGT1A3, UGT1A8, and UGT1A10

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez, Jacqueline; Mirkov, Snezana; House, Larry K.

    2015-01-01

    OTS167 is a potent maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase inhibitor undergoing clinical testing as antineoplastic agent. We aimed to identify the UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) involved in OTS167 metabolism, study the relationship between UGT genetic polymorphisms and hepatic OTS167 glucuronidation, and investigate the inhibitory potential of OTS167 on UGTs. Formation of a single OTS167-glucuronide (OTS167-G) was observed in pooled human liver (HLM) (Km = 3.4 ± 0.2 µM), intestinal microsomes (HIM) (Km = 1.7 ± 0.1 µM), and UGTs. UGT1A1 (64 µl/min/mg) and UGT1A8 (72 µl/min/mg) exhibited the highest intrinsic clearances (CLint) for OTS167, followed by UGT1A3 (51 µl/min/mg) and UGT1A10 (47 µl/min/mg); UGT1A9 was a minor contributor. OTS167 glucuronidation in HLM was highly correlated with thyroxine glucuronidation (r = 0.91, P < 0.0001), SN-38 glucuronidation (r = 0.79, P < 0.0001), and UGT1A1 mRNA (r = 0.72, P < 0.0001). Nilotinib (UGT1A1 inhibitor) and emodin (UGT1A8 and UGT1A10 inhibitor) exhibited the highest inhibitory effects on OTS167-G formation in HLM (68%) and HIM (47%). We hypothesize that OTS167-G is an N-glucuronide according to mass spectrometry. A significant association was found between rs6706232 and reduced OTS167-G formation (P = 0.03). No or weak UGT inhibition (range: 0–21%) was observed using clinically relevant OTS167 concentrations (0.4–2 µM). We conclude that UGT1A1 and UGT1A3 are the main UGTs responsible for hepatic formation of OTS167-G. Intestinal UGT1A1, UGT1A8, and UGT1A10 may contribute to first-pass OTS167 metabolism after oral administration. PMID:25870101

  15. Use of vitamin D in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Cannell, John J; Hollis, Bruce W

    2008-03-01

    The recent discovery--from a meta-analysis of 18 randomized controlled trials--that supplemental cholecalciferol (vitamin D) significantly reduces all-cause mortality emphasizes the medical, ethical, and legal implications of promptly diagnosing and adequately treating vitamin D deficiency. Not only are such deficiencies common, and probably the rule, vitamin D deficiency is implicated in most of the diseases of civilization. Vitamin D's final metabolic product is a potent, pleiotropic, repair and maintenance, seco-steroid hormone that targets more than 200 human genes in a wide variety of tissues, meaning it has as many mechanisms of action as genes it targets. One of the most important genes vitamin D up-regulates is for cathelicidin, a naturally occurring broad-spectrum antibiotic. Natural vitamin D levels, those found in humans living in a sun-rich environment, are between 40-70 ng per ml, levels obtained by few modern humans. Assessing serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OH)D) is the only way to make the diagnosis and to assure treatment is adequate and safe. Three treatment modalities exist for vitamin D deficiency: sunlight, artificial ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation, and vitamin D3 supplementation. Treatment of vitamin D deficiency in otherwise healthy patients with 2,000-7,000 IU vitamin D per day should be sufficient to maintain year-round 25(OH)D levels between 40-70 ng per mL. In those with serious illnesses associated with vitamin D deficiency, such as cancer, heart disease, multiple sclerosis, diabetes, autism, and a host of other illnesses, doses should be sufficient to maintain year-round 25(OH)D levels between 55 -70 ng per mL. Vitamin D-deficient patients with serious illness should not only be supplemented more aggressively than the well, they should have more frequent monitoring of serum 25(OH)D and serum calcium. Vitamin D should always be adjuvant treatment in patients with serious illnesses and never replace standard treatment. Theoretically

  16. Vitamin D: health panacea or false prophet?

    PubMed

    Glade, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency, diagnosed when the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD(3)) concentration is less than 20 ng/mL, has joined vitamin A deficiency as two of the most common nutrition-responsive medical conditions worldwide. There have been more scientific articles published about vitamin D in the 21st century than about any other vitamin, reflecting the massive expansion of the field of vitamin D research. Adequate vitamin D status has been linked to decreased risks of developing specific cancers, including cancers of the esophagus, stomach, colon, rectum, gallbladder, pancreas, lung, breast, uterus, ovary, prostate, urinary bladder, kidney, skin, thyroid, and hematopoietic system (e.g., Hodgkin's lymphoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, multiple myeloma); bacterial infections; rheumatoid arthritis; Crohn's disease; periodontal disease; multiple sclerosis; asthma; type 2 diabetes; cardiovascular disease; stroke; peripheral artery disease; hypertension; chronic kidney disease; muscle weakness; cognitive impairment; Alzheimer's disease; clinical depression; and premature death. On the other hand, inadequate vitamin D status during human pregnancy may be associated with increased risk for the development of type 1 diabetes in the offspring. However, this point of view may be excessively optimistic. There also is evidence that despite the current heavy reliance on serum 25-OHD(3) concentration for the diagnosis of an individual's vitamin D status, local tissue vitamin D intoxication may be present in individuals with much lower serum 25-OHD(3) concentrations than are currently appreciated. Only rarely are the symptoms of local tissue vitamin D intoxication associated with vitamin D status or intake. An individual's serum 25-OHD(3) concentration may appear to be "low" for reasons totally independent of sunlight exposure or vitamin D intake. Serum 25-OHD(3) concentration is only poorly responsive to increases in vitamin D intake, and the prolonged routine consumption of

  17. Vitamin D, vitamin A, maternal-perinatal considerations: old concepts, new insights, new questions.

    PubMed

    Murguía-Peniche, Teresa

    2013-03-01

    Vitamins A and D are essential nutrients that play important roles in growth and development. Preterm and low birth weight infants have low levels of these nutrients and are at risk for developing detrimental health consequences associated with vitamin A and vitamin D deficiencies. Preliminary data suggest that vitamin A and D supplementation is needed to prevent deficiency. More work is needed to define optimal doses, timing, and modes of administration to ensure that an adequate supply of these vitamins is available to meet the critical needs during pregnancy and in high-risk neonates. PMID:23445845

  18. [Current Topics on Vitamin D. Influences of vitamin D on muscle cells and function].

    PubMed

    Tamura, Yukinori; Kaji, Hiroshi

    2015-03-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is associated with sarcopenia, which is characterized by the decrease in muscle mass and the muscle weakness. Active form of vitamin D binds to nuclear or non-nuclear vitamin D receptor (VDR) and regulates the proliferation and differentiation of myoblasts through its genomic or non-genomic actions. Clinical evidence showed the beneficial effects of vitamin D treatment on muscle mass and function in older people. Recent studies suggest that vitamin D is associated with the preservation of muscle function related to the interactions between bone and muscle. PMID:25716811

  19. Antioxidant vitamins and prevention of lung disease

    SciTech Connect

    Menzel, D.B. )

    1992-09-30

    Although the evidence for oxidative stress for air pollution in the human lung is fragmentary, the hypothesis that oxidative stress is an important, if not the sole, mechanism of toxicity of oxidizing air pollutants and tobacco smoke is compelling and growing. First, biochemical mechanisms have been worked out for oxidation of lung lipids by the gas phase of cigarette smoke, NO[sub 2] and O[sub 3]. The oxidation of lung lipids can be prevented by both vitamins C and E. Vitamin C is more effective in preventing oxidation by NO[sub 2], and vitamin E is more effective against O[sub 3]. Second, multiple species of experimental animals develop lung disease similar to human bronchitis and emphysema from exposure to NO[sub 2] and O[sub 3], respectively. The development of these diseases occurs over a near lifetime exposure when the levels of NO[sub 2] or O[sub 3] are at near ambient air pollution values. Third, isolated human cells are protected against oxidative damage from NO[sub 2] and O[sub 3] by both vitamins C and E. Fourth, the vitamin C level in the lung either declines on exposure to NO[sub 2] for short-term exposures or increases on chronic cigarette smoke exposure. The effects of cigarette smoking on serum vitamin C is apparently complex and may be related to the daily intake of vitamin C as well as smoking. Serum vitamin C levels may be poor indicators of lung demands when daily vitamin C intakes are above 100 mg/day. Fifth, vitamin C supplementation protects against the effects of ambient levels of air pollution in adults as measured by histamine challenge. An augmented response to histamine challenge may represent increased lung permeability brought about by air pollution. In experimental animal and human experiments, the amount of vitamin C or E that afforded protection was in excess of the current recommended dietary allowance.

  20. Neonatal plasma vitamin K1 levels following oral and intramuscular administration of vitamin K1.

    PubMed

    Gupta, J M; Salonikas, C; Naidoo, D

    1994-02-01

    Vitamin K1 levels were measured by high performance liquid chromatography in cord blood (n = 33) and at the age of 97-120 h after administration of 2 mg of vitamin K1 orally (n = 88) or 1 mg of vitamin K1 by im injection (n = 88). Vitamin K1 levels were less than 0.05 micrograms/l in cord blood. The mean (range), SEM, mode and median values (micrograms/l) for the infants given oral vitamin K1 were 17.99 (1-56), 1.25, 8 and 15.5 and those for the infants given im vitamin K1 15.83 (2-57), 1.01, 11 and 14, respectively. The t-test showed no significant difference in the mean values (p = 0.09) in the infants given oral or im vitamin K. PMID:8193487

  1. Relevance of vitamin D in reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Luk, Janelle; Torrealday, Saioa; Neal Perry, Genevieve; Pal, Lubna

    2012-01-01

    The steroid hormone vitamin D is historically recognized for its relevance to bone health and calcium homeostasis. Recent years have witnessed a shift in focus to non-skeletal benefits of vitamin D; in this latter context, an accruing body of literature attests to a relevance of vitamin D to reproductive physiology. This article reviews the existing data about the diverse and previously underappreciated roles for vitamin D in reproductive health. A large body of available literature suggests that vitamin D deficiency may be detrimental to reproductive biology. However, given that our appreciation of vitamin D's role in reproductive physiology is almost entirely shaped by ‘associative’ studies and that data based on prospective interventional trials are limited, these concepts remain predominantly conjectural. Exact mechanisms whereby vitamin D may participate in the regulation of reproductive physiology remain far from clear. This review underscores a need for appropriately designed intervention trials to address the existing knowledge gaps and to delineate the specific roles of vitamin D signaling in reproductive biology. PMID:22824625

  2. Vitamin D in babies and children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We're going to discuss vitamin D in infants and children. We'd like to give people some familiarity with the number of different sets of guidelines for what vitamin D intakes and status should be in infants and children, what some of the uncertainties and controversies are, and what the new research...

  3. Update on vitamin D during childhood

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We propose to review several recent key clinically oriented topics related to vitamin D and health in children. We found a very large number of recent clinical studies related to vitamin D. However, most are association studies with few physiological or clinical trials that are adequately powered fo...

  4. Vitamins--conventional uses and new insights.

    PubMed

    Leaf, Alison; Lansdowne, Zoe

    2014-01-01

    There are 13 nutrients classified as vitamins: 4 'fat-soluble' and 9 'water-soluble'. All are essential to maintain healthy homeostasis and metabolic function. Preterm infants are born with low levels and reduced stores of fat-soluble vitamins. Active placental transfer of water-soluble vitamins ensures high levels at birth, but as they are not stored, levels fall rapidly. All VLBW and ELBW infants require vitamins to be provided soon after birth. Quantifying exact requirements of each vitamin which will meet the needs for all infants is difficult due to a limited evidence base. However, timely prescription of vitamin supplements and awareness of situations where delivery or uptake might be compromised will help to ensure that these vulnerable patients do not suffer from vitamin deficiencies. Multivitamin preparations are available for parenteral and enteral use. Vitamins A, C and E have important functions as antioxidants. Further research is required to understand optimal doses and routes of administration for initial and ongoing nutritional support. PMID:24751627

  5. Vitamin K and Health in the Aged

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poor vitamin K nutrition has been linked to several chronic diseases associated with abnormal calcification, which affect many elderly. On the whole, elderly persons consume more vitamin K than young adults, although there are subgroups of the elderly population who do not meet the current recommend...

  6. Vitamin C reverses hypogonadal bone loss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Epidemiologic studies correlate low vitamin C intake with bone loss. The genetic deletion of enzymes involved in de novo vitamin C synthesis in mice, likewise, causes severe osteoporosis. However, very few studies have evaluated a protective role of this dietary supplement on the skeleton. Here, ...

  7. Vitamin B-12 and Perinatal Health.

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, Julia L; Layden, Alexander J; Stover, Patrick J

    2015-09-01

    Vitamin B-12 deficiency (<148 pmol/L) is associated with adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes, including developmental anomalies, spontaneous abortions, preeclampsia, and low birth weight (<2500 g). The importance of adequate vitamin B-12 status periconceptionally and during pregnancy cannot be overemphasized, given its fundamental role in neural myelination, brain development, and growth. Infants born to vitamin B-12-deficient women may be at increased risk of neural tube closure defects, and maternal vitamin B-12 insufficiency (<200 pmol/L) can impair infant growth, psychomotor function, and brain development, which may be irreversible. However, the underlying causal mechanisms are unknown. This review was conducted to examine the evidence that links maternal vitamin B-12 status and perinatal outcomes. Despite the high prevalence of vitamin B-12 deficiency and associated risk of pregnancy complications, few prospective studies and, to our knowledge, only 1 randomized trial have examined the effects of vitamin B-12 supplementation during pregnancy. The role of vitamin B-12 in the etiology of adverse perinatal outcomes needs to be elucidated to inform public health interventions. PMID:26374177

  8. Where do we stand on vitamin D?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review summarizes evidence that vitamin D insufficiency is very common, that vitamin D insufficiency has adverse consequences (poor muscle performance, increased risk of falling and more fractures), that current recommended intakes are inadequate for most adults, and that an intake of 800 to 10...

  9. Extraction of fat-soluble vitamins.

    PubMed

    Luque-García, J L; Luque de Castro, M D

    2001-11-23

    An overview of the different extraction procedures of fat-soluble vitamins from human fluids, foods and pharmaceutical preparations is presented. Methods using organic solvent extraction (both liquid-liquid and solid-liquid extraction), supercritical fluid extraction and solid-phase extraction for the different types of both vitamins and matrices are discussed. PMID:11762782

  10. Vitamin K Status in the Elderly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose of Review: Poor vitamin K nutrition has recently been linked to several chronic diseases associated with abnormal calcification, which affect many elderly. To understand the impact of vitamin K nutrition on healthy aging, it is necessary to assess both the determinants and the adequacy of ...

  11. Vitamin D3 in Fat Tissue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The literature describing vitamin D content of fat tissue is extremely limited. We conducted a pilot study that measured the concentrations of vitamin D3 in the fat tissue and serum of obese adults. These measurements were performed using a new liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS) metho...

  12. ANALYSIS OF VITAMIN E BY HPLC

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    HPLC (High-performance liquid chromatography) is the most comon technique for identifying and measuring vitamin E concentrations. A variety of good HPLC methods are available for vitamin E analysis. Reliable and sensitive methods have been developed using reversed-phased and normal-phase HPLC column...

  13. Vitamin D recommendations for older adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many randomized, controlled trials indicate that vitamin D will lower falls and fractures, so it was reasonable for Sanders et al. to hypothesize that a single annual 500,000 IU oral dose of vitamin D3 would be effective in reducing falls and fractures in older women with one or more risk factors fo...

  14. Vitamin D and Calcium for Fracture Prevention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inadequate intakes of vitamin D and calcium lead to reduced calcium absorption, higher bone-remodeling rates and increased bone loss. Vitamin D has also been linked to muscle function and risk of falling. In older men and women, higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels are associated with bette...

  15. Clinical implications of vitamin D deficiency.

    PubMed

    Matyjaszek-Matuszek, Beata; Lenart-Lipińska, Monika; Woźniakowska, Ewa

    2015-06-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is a common medical problem worldwide and its prevalence rises along with latitude, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, limited sunlight exposure and aging. A great body of evidence has shown that patients with vitamin D deficiency have increased cardiovascular risks and total mortality. Conversely, the presence of comorbidities progressive with age such as abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and hypertension places the patients at an increased risk of vitamin D deficiency. The multidirectional effect of vitamin D deficiency is present in different phases of the aging process. Based on the literature review, the risk factors for vitamin D insufficiency most often found in post-menopausal women include limited sun exposure and time spent outdoors, inadequate dietary vitamin D intake, winter season and increased age. Vitamin D supplementation in this group might offer prevention of falls and fractures and may be beneficial for cardiovascular health, what may be especially important in osteoporotic and elderly populations. Prevention and treatment processes involve education regarding sunlight exposure and pharmacological cholecalciferol supplementation according to the recommendations for Central Europe. This manuscript reviews the role of vitamin D and its deficiency and considers their clinical implications, with particular regard to peri- and postmenopausal women. PMID:26327893

  16. Vitamins and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Valdés-Ramos, Roxana; Ana Laura, Guadarrama-López; Elina, Martínez-Carrillo Beatriz; Donají, Benítez-Arciniega Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    The present review evaluates the relationship between type 2 diabetes mellitus and individual or combined vitamins. Antioxidant vitamins A, C and E are found decreased in diabetic subjects, possibly due to an increased need to control the excessive oxidative stress produced by abnormalities in glucose metabolism. On the other hand, retinol binding protein exerts a modulating effect, as it has adipokine functions. With respect to the B group vitamins, thiamin, pyridoxine and biotin have been found decreased but the mechanisms are not clear, however supplementation has shown some improvement of the metabolic control in diabetic patients. The absorption of folic acid and vitamin B12 is importantly decreased by the prolongued use of metformin, which is the first choice drug in uncomplicated diabetes, thus these two nutrients have been found deficient in the disease and most probably need to be supplemented regularly. On the other hand, vitamin D is considered a risk factor for the development of diabetes as well as its complications, particularly cardiovascular ones. Although some studies have found an association of vitamin K intake with glucose metabolism further research is needed. Studies on the use of multivitamin supplements have shown unconclusive results. After reviewing the evidence, no real recommendation on the use of vitamin supplements in type 2 diabetes mellitus can be issued, however patients using metformin during prolongued periods may need folic acid and vitamin B12. PMID:25388747

  17. Quantitation of vitamin K in human milk

    SciTech Connect

    Canfield, L.M.; Hopkinson, J.M.; Lima, A.F.; Martin, G.S.; Sugimoto, K.; Burr, J.; Clark, L.; McGee, D.L. )

    1990-07-01

    A quantitative method was developed for the assay of vitamin K in human colostrum and milk. The procedure combines preparative and analytical chromatography on silica gel in a nitrogen atmosphere followed by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Two HPLC steps were used: gradient separation with ultraviolet (UV) detection followed by isocratic separation detected electrochemically. Due to co-migrating impurities, UV detection alone is insufficient for identification of vitamin K. Exogenous vitamin K was shown to equilibrate with endogenous vitamin K in the samples. A statistical method was incorporated to control for experimental variability. Vitamin K1 was analyzed in 16 pooled milk samples from 7 donors and in individual samples from 15 donors at 1 month post-partum. Vitamin K1 was present at 2.94 +/- 1.94 and 3.15 +/- 2.87 ng/mL in pools and in individuals, respectively. Menaquinones, the bacterial form of the vitamin, were not detected. The significance of experimental variation to studies of vitamin K in individuals is discussed.

  18. Vitamin A policies need rethinking.

    PubMed

    Mason, John; Greiner, Ted; Shrimpton, Roger; Sanders, David; Yukich, Joshua

    2015-02-01

    The prevalence of vitamin A (VA) deficiency, which affects about one-third of children in developing countries, is falling only slowly. This is despite extensive distribution and administration of periodic (4- to 6-monthly) high-dose VA capsules over the past 20 years, now covering a reported 80% of children in developing countries. This massive programme was motivated largely by an expectation of reducing child mortality, stemming from findings in the 1980s and early 90s. Efficacy trials since 1994 have in most cases not confirmed a mortality impact of VA capsules. Only one large scale programme evaluation has ever been published, which showed no impact on 1-6-year-old mortality (the DEVTA trial, ending in 2003, in Uttar Pradesh, India). Periodic high-dose VA capsules may have less relevance now with changing disease patterns (notably, reductions in measles and diarrhoea). High-dose VA 6-monthly does not reduce prevalence of the deficiency itself, estimated by low serum retinol. It is proposed that: (i) there is no longer any evidence that intermittent high-dose VA programmes are having any substantial mortality effect, perhaps due to changing disease patterns; (ii) frequent intakes of vitamin A in physiological doses -e.g. through food-based approaches, including fortification, and through regular low-dose supplementation-are highly effective in increasing serum retinol (SR) and reducing vitamin A deficiency; (iii) therefore a policy shift is needed, based on consideration of current evidence. A prudent phase-over is needed towards increasing frequent regular intakes of VA at physiological levels, daily or weekly, replacing the high-dose periodic capsule distribution programmes. Moving resources in this direction must happen sooner or later: it should be sooner. PMID:25306559

  19. Cyclic interconversion of vitamin K1 and vitamin K1 2,3-epoxide in man.

    PubMed Central

    Bechtold, H; Trenk, D; Meinertz, T; Rowland, M; Jähnchen, E

    1983-01-01

    The disposition of a single intravenous bolus dose of 10 mg vitamin K1 and vitamin K1-2,3-epoxide were studied in two healthy subjects without and with 12 h pretreatment dose of phenprocoumon (0.4 mg/kg). For each compound administered alone the plasma concentration-time profile was adequately fitted by a biexponential equation, with an average terminal half-life of 2.0 and 1.15 h for the administered vitamin K and its 2,3-epoxide respectively. While vitamin K1 was measurable in plasma following administration of vitamin K1-2,3-epoxide, the epoxide was not detectable following administration of vitamin K1. Following pretreatment with phenprocoumon and after intravenous administration of vitamin K1, both the average half-life and area under the plasma concentration-time profile of vitamin K1 were marginally reduced to 1.5 h and 1.76 mg l-1 h respectively, while the plasma concentration of vitamin K1-2,3-epoxide was readily measurable and its half-life markedly prolonged to 14.7 h. Following pretreatment with phenprocoumon and after oral administration of vitamin K1-2,3-epoxide, no vitamin K1 was detectable in plasma and the half-life of the epoxide was 13.8 h. Based on area considerations the data suggest that either phenprocoumon does more than just inhibit the reduction of vitamin K1-2,3-epoxide to vitamin K1, or that the simple model describing the interconversion between vitamin K1 and its epoxide is inadequate. The same conclusion is drawn from the analysis of comparable data in dogs, obtained by Carlisle & Blaschke (1981). PMID:6661354

  20. /sup 45/Ca efflux for myometrial cells: comparison of the effects of prostaglandin F/sub 2/. cap alpha. (PGF/sub 2/), oxytocin (OT) and arachidonate (A)

    SciTech Connect

    Katona, G.; Molnar, M.; Toth, M.; Hertelendy, F.

    1986-03-01

    The aim of this study was to measure PGF/sub 2..cap alpha../-induced Ca/sup 2 +/ release from uterine cells and to compare this to the actions of OT and A. Smooth muscle cells isolated from the uterus (shell gland) of laying hens were cultured for 7 days in M199 plus 10% fetal calf serum. The cells were treated with digitonin (20..mu..M) and preloaded with /sup 45/Ca for 40 min. Addition of PGF/sub 2..cap alpha../ caused a biphasic /sup 45/Ca-efflux. There was a small but significant /sup 45/Ca-release within 30 sec (rapid phase) followed by a larger one within 7 min (slow phase). In comparison, both OT and A stimulated /sup 45/Ca efflux during a single, slow phase. The maximal effect of A was observed at < 7 min, whereas that of OT was slower, peaking after 7 min. Mepacrin, an inhibitor of A release, attenuated the action of OT without having any effect on A promoted /sup 45/Ca-efflux. Indomethacin, an inhibitor of PG synthase, failed to suppress the Ca-releasing effect of A suggesting the A itself or a lipoxygenase product may have been responsible for the observed effects. Moreover, these results provide suggestive evidence that A release is an important step in the action of various uterotonic agents converging on the mobilization of intracellular Ca.

  1. 33 CFR 150.445 - When is oil in a single point mooring-oil transfer system (SPM-OTS) displaced with water?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false When is oil in a single point mooring-oil transfer system (SPM-OTS) displaced with water? 150.445 Section 150.445 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: OPERATIONS Cargo Transfer Operations §...

  2. Photometry of the MASTER OT J004207.99+405501.1 = M31N 2015-01a Bright Nova in Andromeda Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumkov, V.; Pruzhinskaya, M.; Tiurina, N.; Lipunov, V.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Balanutsa, P.; Denisenko, D.; Vladimirov, V.; Rufanov, A.; Kuznetsov, A.; Buckley, D.; Potter, S.; Kniazev, A.; Kotze, M.; Ivanov, K.; Gres, O.; Yazev, S.; Budnev, N.; Poleshchuk, V.; Konstantinov, E.; Tlatov, A.; Dormidontov, D.; Senik, V.; Parkhomenko, A.; Yurkov, V.; Sergienko, Y.; Varda, D.; Sinyakov, E.; Gabovich, A.; Krushinsky, V.; Zalozhnih, I.; Popov, A.; Bourdanov, A.; Shurpakov, S.

    2015-01-01

    MASTER OT J004207.99+405501.1 = M31N 2015-01a - Bright Nova in Andromeda Galaxy MASTER-Kislovodsk auto-detection system discovered PSN source at (RA, Dec) = 00h 42m 07.99s +40d 55m 01.1s on 2015-01-13.63235 UT (Shumkov et al., #6911.) .

  3. 12 CFR 516.290 - What will happen if OTS does not approve or disapprove my application within two calendar years...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What will happen if OTS does not approve or disapprove my application within two calendar years after the filing date? 516.290 Section 516.290 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY APPLICATION PROCESSING PROCEDURES...

  4. 12 CFR 516.290 - What will happen if OTS does not approve or disapprove my application within two calendar years...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true What will happen if OTS does not approve or disapprove my application within two calendar years after the filing date? 516.290 Section 516.290 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY APPLICATION PROCESSING PROCEDURES...

  5. Design, synthesis and biological activity of new neurohypophyseal hormones analogues conformationally restricted in the N-terminal part of the molecule. Highly potent OT receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Kwiatkowska, Anna; Ptach, Monika; Borovičková, Lenka; Slaninová, Jiřina; Lammek, Bernard; Prahl, Adam

    2012-08-01

    In this study we present the synthesis and some pharmacological properties of fourteen new analogues of neurohypophyseal hormones conformationally restricted in the N-terminal part of the molecule. All new peptides were substituted at position 2 with cis-1-amino-4-phenylcyclohexane-1-carboxylic acid (cis-Apc). Moreover, one of the new analogues: [cis-Apc(2), Val(4)]AVP was also prepared in N-acylated forms with various bulky acyl groups. All the peptides were tested for pressor, antidiuretic, and in vitro uterotonic activities. We also determined the binding affinity of the selected compounds to human OT receptor. Our results showed that introduction of cis -Apc(2) in position 2 of either AVP or OT resulted in analogues with high antioxytocin potency. Two of the new compounds, [Mpa(1),cis-Apc(2)]AVP and [Mpa(1),cis-Apc(2),Val(4)]AVP, were exceptionally potent antiuterotonic agents (pA(2) = 8.46 and 8.40, respectively) and exhibited higher affinities for the human OT receptor than Atosiban (K (i) values 5.4 and 9.1 nM). Moreover, we have demonstrated for the first time that N -terminal acylation of AVP analogue can improve its selectivity. Using this approach, we obtained compound Aba[cis-Apc(2),Val(4)]AVP (XI) which turned out to be a moderately potent and exceptionally selective OT antagonist (pA(2) = 7.26). PMID:22038179

  6. Spectrum of M31 nova candidate M31N 2016-04a (MASTER OT J004528.12+414117.6)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, S. C.; Darnley, M. J.

    2016-06-01

    We obtained a spectrum of nova candidate M31N 2016-04a (MASTER OT J004528.12+414117.6; ATel #8950) with the SPRAT spectrograph (Piascik et al. 2014) on the 2m Liverpool Telescope (Steele et al. 2004) on 2016 June 3.19 UT, 54 days after discovery.

  7. MAGIC detects very high energy gamma-ray emission from the blazar OT 081 (PKS 1749+096, 4C +09.57)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzoyan, Razmik

    2016-07-01

    The MAGIC collaboration reports on the detection of very high energy (VHE; E > 150 GeV) gamma-ray emission from OT 081 (RA=17 51 32.82, dec=+09 39 00.73, J2000.0; also known as PKS 1749+096 and 4C +09.57).

  8. 33 CFR 150.445 - When is oil in a single point mooring-oil transfer system (SPM-OTS) displaced with water?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When is oil in a single point mooring-oil transfer system (SPM-OTS) displaced with water? 150.445 Section 150.445 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: OPERATIONS Cargo Transfer Operations §...

  9. 33 CFR 150.445 - When is oil in a single point mooring-oil transfer system (SPM-OTS) displaced with water?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false When is oil in a single point mooring-oil transfer system (SPM-OTS) displaced with water? 150.445 Section 150.445 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: OPERATIONS Cargo Transfer Operations §...

  10. Vitamin C in Burn Resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Julie A; Rowan, Matthew P; Driscoll, Ian R; Chung, Kevin K; Friedman, Bruce C

    2016-10-01

    The inflammatory state after burn injury is characterized by an increase in capillary permeability that results in protein and fluid leakage into the interstitial space, increasing resuscitative requirements. Although the mechanisms underlying increased capillary permeability are complex, damage from reactive oxygen species plays a major role and has been successfully attenuated with antioxidant therapy in several disease processes. However, the utility of antioxidants in burn treatment remains unclear. Vitamin C is a promising antioxidant candidate that has been examined in burn resuscitation studies and shows efficacy in reducing the fluid requirements in the acute phase after burn injury. PMID:27600125

  11. Vitamin D: Spaceflight, Antarctic, and JSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Locke, J.; Zwart, S. R.

    2009-01-01

    Obtaining vitamin D is critical for space travelers because they lack ultraviolet light exposure and have an insufficient dietary supply of vitamin D. Despite the provision of vitamin D supplements to International Space Station (ISS) crewmembers, vitamin D status is consistently lower after flight than before flight, and in several crewmembers has decreased to levels considered clinically significant. Vitamin D has long been known to play a role in calcium metabolism, and more recently its non-calcitropic functions have been recognized. According to the results of several recent studies, functionally relevant measures indicate that the lower limit of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (a marker of vitamin D status) should be raised from the current 25 nmol/L to 80 nmol/L. The sub-optimal pre- and postflight vitamin D status is an issue that needs to be addressed, to allow NASA to better define the appropriate amount of supplemental vitamin D to serve as a countermeasure against vitamin D deficiency in astronaut crews. This is very important for long-duration crewmembers, and is critical for exploration-class missions. Ground-based models with limited sunlight exposure could be valuable for evaluating vitamin D supplementation efficacy. One such model is subjects spending the winter in Antarctica, where UV-B radiation levels are zero during the winter. Data from a study of such subjects will enable us to provide long-duration space flight crewmembers with evidence-based recommendations for vitamin D supplementation to achieve optimal vitamin D status before, during, and after flight. We report here results from a vitamin D supplementation study conducted in 2007 in Antarctica at McMurdo Station, and plans for a study to be implemented over the course of 2009. Additionally, in 2008, a study was initiated (and is ongoing) to assess efficacy and safety of supplementing with 2000 IU daily, 10,000 IU weekly, or 50,000 IU weekly for a month and then monthly after that. The data

  12. AVESTAR Center for operational excellence of clean energy plants and DYNSIM OTS / EyeSim ITS integration

    SciTech Connect

    Provost, G

    2012-01-01

    This Power-Point presentation with notes starts with a brief overview of US energy challenging, particularly as regards power generation capacity and clean energy plant operations. It then goes on to present Advanced Virtual Energy Simulation Training And Research (AVESTAR{trademark}) beginning with a statement of its missions and goals, then moves to the subject of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) with CO{sub 2} Capture, first providing a brief overview of the process, then moving on to Dynamic Simulator/Operator Training System (OTS) and 3D Virtual Immersive Training System (ITS). The presentation continues to describe AVESTAR center facilities, locations, and training systems and to look at future directions for virtual energy simulation.

  13. Probing the internal dynamics of reverse micelles formed in highly compressible solvents: Aerosol-OT in near-critical propane

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J.; Bright, F.V.

    1992-10-29

    In normal liquids, the rate of water reorganization within the interior of AOT (sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate or Aerosol-OT) reverse micelles in a strong function of water loading and temperature. In this report, we discuss our most recent efforts to understand the internal dynamics of reverse micelles maintained in highly compressible solvents (near-critical propane). By using steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, we report the first evidence for pressure-assisted control of the rate of solvent relaxation within the core region of a reverse micelle maintained in a highly compressible fluid. Three factors are taken into account in this study: amount of water loading, temperature, and bulk fluid density. The key conclusion is that the continuous phase density can influence the rate of solvent reorientation within the interior of AOT micelles formed in near-critical propane. 58 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. The relationship between vitamin D and obesity.

    PubMed

    Soskić, Sanja; Stokić, Edita; Isenović, Esma R

    2014-06-01

    Currently, vitamin D deficiency and obesity are pandemic diseases and they are associated with cardiovascular (CV) disease, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and other diseases. Concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) (25D) are considered as the best indicator of total body vitamin D stores. An association between reduced circulating 25D concentrations and obesity is well known, but the mechanisms are not totally clear. The role of vitamin D supplementation is still uncertain and prospective interventions will establish its influence, if any, in the treatment of obesity. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with the presence of a cardiometabolic risk profile in the obese. Future trials may establish a role for Vitamin D supplementation in individuals at increased CV risk. PMID:24640937

  15. [Vitamin K: biochemistry, function, and deficiency. Review].

    PubMed

    Mijares, M E; Nagy, E; Guerrero, B; Arocha-Piñango, C L

    1998-09-01

    Vitamin K is a cofactor for the synthesis of blood coagulation Factors II, VII, IX and X, and inhibitors such as Protein C and S and bone matrix protein. Its active form is a coenzyme in the glutamic acid carboxylation. Vitamin K-dependent factors form enzymatic complexes with calcium and membrane phospholipids. The insufficiency of gamma glutamic carboxylation impairs the hemostatic function. Hereditary deficiencies, antibiotics and oral anticoagulants, decrease the capacity of complex formation giving way to hemorrhage or thrombosis, or bone mass disturbances which are easily treated with administration of Vitamin K. The main causes of Vitamin K deficiency are lack of hepatic storage in newborns, liver insufficiency, malabsorption, dietetic deficiency, therapy with the antibiotics and coumarin administration. For the study of Vitamin K there are methods to measure the Vit K dependent proteins and as well methods to measure specifically the quinonas. PMID:9780555

  16. Inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase by vitamin E.

    PubMed

    Reddanna, P; Rao, M K; Reddy, C C

    1985-11-25

    Purified 5-lipoxygenase from potato tubers was inhibited strongly by vitamin E and its analogs. The inhibition by d-alpha-tocopherol was found to be irreversible and non-competitive with respect to arachidonic acid. An IC50 of 5 microM was calculated for d-alpha-tocopherol. The inhibition appears to be unrelated to its antioxidant function. Binding studies with 14C-labelled d-alpha-tocopherol revealed that there is a strong interaction between vitamin E and 5-lipoxygenase. Tryptic digestion and peptide mapping of 5-lipoxygenase-vitamin E complex indicate that vitamin E binds strongly to a single peptide. These studies suggest that cellular vitamin E levels may have profound influence on the formation of leukotrienes. PMID:3934003

  17. Vitamin D3 and brain development.

    PubMed

    Eyles, D; Brown, J; Mackay-Sim, A; McGrath, J; Feron, F

    2003-01-01

    Evidence for the presence of the vitamin D receptor in brain implies this vitamin may have some function in this organ. This study investigates whether vitamin D(3) acts during brain development. We demonstrate that rats born to vitamin D(3)-deficient mothers had profound alterations in the brain at birth. The cortex was longer but not wider, the lateral ventricles were enlarged, the cortex was proportionally thinner and there was more cell proliferation throughout the brain. There were reductions in brain content of nerve growth factor and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor and reduced expression of p75(NTR), the low-affinity neurotrophin receptor. Our findings would suggest that low maternal vitamin D(3) has important ramifications for the developing brain. PMID:12710973

  18. B Vitamins, Homocysteine and Bone Health

    PubMed Central

    Fratoni, Valentina; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition is one of the most important modifiable factors involved in the development and maintenance of good bone health. Calcium and Vitamin D have confirmed and established roles in the maintenance of proper bone health. However, other nutritional factors could also be implicated. This review will explore the emerging evidence of the supporting role of certain B Vitamins as modifiable factors associated with bone health. Individuals with high levels of homocysteine (hcy) exhibit reduced bone mineral density (BMD), alteration in microarchitecture and increased bone fragility. The pathophysiology caused by high serum homocysteine is not completely clear regarding fractures, but it may involve factors, such as bone mineral density, bone turnover, bone blood flow and collagen cross-linking. It is uncertain whether supplementation with B Vitamins, such as folate, Vitamin B1, and Vitamin B6, could decrease hip fracture incidence, but the results of further clinical trials should be awaited before a conclusion is drawn. PMID:25830943

  19. The role of vitamin D in malaria.

    PubMed

    Lương, Khanh Vinh Quốc; Nguyễn, Lan Thi Hoàng

    2015-01-01

    An abnormal calcium-parathyroid hormone (PTH)-vitamin D axis has been reported in patients with malaria infection. A role for vitamin D in malaria has been suggested by many studies. Genetic studies have identified numerous factors that link vitamin D to malaria, including human leukocyte antigen genes, toll-like receptors, heme oxygenase-1, angiopoietin-2, cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors, and Bcl-2. Vitamin D has also been implicated in malaria via its effects on the Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine, matrix metalloproteinases, mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways, prostaglandins, reactive oxidative species, and nitric oxide synthase. Vitamin D may be important in malaria; therefore, additional research on its role in malaria is needed. PMID:25596566

  20. Vitamin B supplementation for diabetic peripheral neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Jayabalan, Bhavani; Low, Lian Leng

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency has been associated with significant neurological pathology, especially peripheral neuropathy. This review aims to examine the existing evidence on the effectiveness of vitamin B12 supplementation for the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. A search of PubMed and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for all relevant randomised controlled trials was conducted in December 2014. Any type of therapy using vitamin B12 or its coenzyme forms was assessed for efficacy and safety in diabetics with peripheral neuropathy. Changes in vibration perception thresholds, neuropathic symptoms and nerve conduction velocities, as well as the adverse effects of vitamin B12 therapy, were assessed. Four studies comprising 363 patients met the inclusion criteria. This review found no evidence that the use of oral vitamin B12 supplements is associated with improvement in the clinical symptoms of diabetic neuropathy. Furthermore, the majority of studies reported no improvement in the electrophysiological markers of nerve conduction. PMID:26892473