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Sample records for kaluga city russia

  1. Star City, Russia Medical Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, Michael R.; Senter, Cedric H.; Roden, Sean K.; Gilmore, Stevan; Powers, William E.; Alexander, David J.

    2004-01-01

    Since the beginning of the NASA/Mir missions, NASA has had astronauts in training at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC), also known as Star City, with crewmembers currently there to train for the International Space Station missions. Agreements have been reached with all International Partners that allow the crewmember's parent agency to provide a flight surgeon to oversee crewmember health and safety during training away from home. NASA Medical Operations through the Bioastronautics Contract employs flight surgeons to provide medical support for U.S. crewmembers and their support staff. This poster presentation reviews the aspects of NASA medical operations at Star City.

  2. Urbanization data of Samara city, Russia.

    PubMed

    Boori, Mukesh Singh; Choudhary, Komal; Kupriyanov, Alexander; Kovelskiy, Viktor

    2016-03-01

    A method has been developed for urbanization by using satellite data and socio-economic data. These datasets consists three decade Landsat images and population data. A detailed description using flow chart is given to show how to use this data to produce land use/cove maps. The land use/cove maps were used to know the urban growth in Samara City, Russia. PMID:26937466

  3. Urbanization data of Samara city, Russia

    PubMed Central

    Boori, Mukesh Singh; Choudhary, Komal; Kupriyanov, Alexander; Kovelskiy, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    A method has been developed for urbanization by using satellite data and socio-economic data. These datasets consists three decade Landsat images and population data. A detailed description using flow chart is given to show how to use this data to produce land use/cove maps. The land use/cove maps were used to know the urban growth in Samara City, Russia. PMID:26937466

  4. Space Radar Image of Star City, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This radar image shows the Star City cosmonaut training center, east of Moscow, Russia. Four American astronauts are training here for future long-duration flights aboard the Russian Mir space station. These joint flights are giving NASA and the Russian Space Agency experience necessary for the construction of the international Alpha space station, beginning in late 1997. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR), on its 62nd orbit on October 3, 1994. This Star City image is centered at 55.55 degrees north latitude and 38.0 degrees east longitude. The area shown is approximately 32 kilometers by 49 kilometers (20 miles by 30 miles). North is to the top in this image. The radar illumination is from the top of the image. The image was produced using three channels of SIR-C radar data: red indicates L-band (23 cm wavelength, horizontally transmitted and received); green indicates L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received); blue indicates C-band (6 cm wavelength, horizontally transmitted and vertically received). In general, dark pink areas are agricultural; pink and light blue areas are urban communities; black areas represent lakes and rivers; dark blue areas are cleared forest; and light green areas are forested. The prominent black runways just right of center are Shchelkovo Airfield, about 4 km long. The textured pale blue-green area east and southeast of Shchelkovo Airfield is forest. Just east of the runways is a thin railroad line running southeast; the Star City compound lies just east of the small bend in the rail line. Star City contains the living quarters and training facilities for Russian cosmonauts and their families. Moscow's inner loop road is visible at the lower left edge of the image. The Kremlin is just off the left edge, on the banks of the meandering Moskva River. The Klyazma River snakes to the southeast from the reservoir in the upper left (shown in bright red

  5. International Space Station Aeromedical Support in Star City, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Richard; Chamberlin, Blake; Dowell, Gene; Castleberry, Tarah; Savage, Scott

    2010-01-01

    The Space Medicine Division at Johnson Space Center works with the International Space Station s international partners (IP) to accomplish assigned health care tasks. Each IP may assign a flight surgeon to support their assigned crewmembers during all phases of training, in-flight operations, and postflight activities. Because of the extensive amount of astronaut training conducted in Star City; NASA, in collaboration with its IPs, has elected to keep a flight surgeon assigned to NASA s Star City office to provide support to the U.S., Canadian, Japanese, and European astronauts during hazardous training activities and provide support for any contingency landings of Soyuz spacecraft in Kazakhstan. The physician also provides support as necessary to the Mission Control Center in Moscow for non-Russian crew-related activities. In addition, the physician in Star City provides ambulatory medical care to the non-Russian-assigned personnel in Star City and visiting dependents. Additional work involves all medical supplies, administration, and inventory. The Star City physician assists in medical evacuation and/or in obtaining support from western clinics in Moscow when required care exceeds local resources. Overall, the Russians are responsible for operations and the medical care of the entire crew when training in Star City and during launch/landing operations. However, they allow international partner flight surgeons to care for their crewmembers as agreed to in the ISS Medical Operations Requirements Document. Medical support focuses on pressurized, monitored, and other hazardous training activities. One of the most important jobs is to act as a medical advocate for the astronauts and to reduce the threat that these hazardous activities pose. Although the Russians have a robust medical system, evacuation may be needed to facilitate ongoing medical care. There are several international medical evacuation companies that provide this care.

  6. Galvanic Manufacturing in the Cities of Russia: Potential Source of Ambient Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Golokhvast, Kirill S.; Shvedova, Anna A.

    2014-01-01

    Galvanic manufacturing is widely employed and can be found in nearly every average city in Russia. The release and accumulation of different metals (Me), depending on the technology used can be found in the vicinities of galvanic plants. Under the environmental protection act in Russia, the regulations for galvanic manufacturing do not include the regulations and safety standards for ambient ultrafine and nanosized particulate matter (PM). To assess whether Me nanoparticles (NP) are among environmental pollutants caused by galvanic manufacturing, the level of Me NP were tested in urban snow samples collected around galvanic enterprises in two cities. Employing transmission electronic microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and a laser diffraction particle size analyzer, we found that the size distribution of tested Me NP was within 10–120 nm range. This is the first study to report that Me NP of Fe, Cr, Pb, Al, Ni, Cu, and Zn were detected around galvanic shop settings. PMID:25329582

  7. Landslide hazard assessment in city under construction Innopolis (Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latypov, A.; Zharkova, N.; Nuriyev, I.

    2016-03-01

    The paper reflects the main results of exploring the landslide hazard threating Innopolis city, precisely field and laboratory studies, assessment of the slope stability. A regional short-term landslide hazard forecast was performed using a digital model of geological medium and the method of engineering-geological analogy: an engineering-geological zoning was conducted; data from standard areas, the critical values of surface slopes were calculated for the identified types of soils and different types of humidity; the obtained data were extrapolated, verified and corrected. On the basis of the forecast, development of a landslide monitoring network is proved.

  8. Accessing the Inaccessible: The Case for Opening up Russia's Closed Cities

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, D Y

    2001-03-21

    The selling of weapons-related nuclear knowledge by Russian scientists for economic gain constitutes a threat to US national security. Some estimate that the number of Russian scientists seeking permanent employment abroad constitute five to ten percent of all researchers who have left the field of science. And, there is concern that those who have left are ''the better minds.'' Moreover, the issue of brain drain concerns not only those who move abroad permanently, but those who still reside in Russia and travel abroad to sell their knowledge. Of particular concern to the US is the potential sale of WMD knowledge by some. To ''mitigate the risk that economic difficulties...might create the temptation for individuals or institutes to sell expertise to countries of proliferation concern and terrorist organizations,'' the Department of Energy launched a Nuclear Cities Initiative (NCI) in 1998 with the goal of creating commercial jobs and economic diversification in the ten closed cities that form the core of Russia's nuclear weapons complex to accommodate the loss of employment in the nuclear weapons industry. However, unless Russia opens access to the areas of its closed cities that are, or could become, involved in commercial activities-while of course carefully controlling access to the sensitive areas of the institutes and laboratories-economic development will be stymied.

  9. [THE IMPROVEMENT OF CITIES AND SANITARY CONTROL IN RUSSIA IN LATE XIX--EARLY XX CENTURIES].

    PubMed

    Sherstneva, E V

    2015-01-01

    The article considers activity of municipal self-governments of Russia concerning support of sanitary epidemiological well-being of cities in the late XIX--early XX centuries. The acuteness of problem of sanitary conditions of urban settlements particularly became visible in post-reform period due to increasing of number of urban population, alteration of setup and rhythm of life in cities, appearance of new forms of worker's daily chores. Al this, against the background of underdevelopment of communal sphere aggravated epidemiological situation in cities. The impulse to improvement and development of sanitary control was made by the city regulations of 1870 presenting to town authorities the right to deal with sanitary issues. The significant input into improvement of cities was made first of all at the expense of construction of water supplies and sewerage and support of sanitary control of these spheres of municipal economy. Under town councils of many cities the sanitary commissions were organized to support permanent sanitary control in town. The development of town sanitation followed the way of specialization. The housing and communal, trade and food, school and sanitary and sanitary and veterinary control were organized. PMID:26399074

  10. Soils and cultural layers of ancient cities in the south of European Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrovskii, A. L.; Aleksandrovskaya, E. I.; Dolgikh, A. V.; Zamotaev, I. V.; Kurbatova, A. N.

    2015-11-01

    Antique cities in the south of European Russia are characterized by a considerable thickness of their cultural layers (urbosediments) accumulated as construction debris and household wastes. Under the impact of pedogenesis and weathering in dry climate of the steppe zone, these sediments have acquired the features of loesslike low-humus calcareous and alkaline deposits. They are also enriched in many elements (P, Zn, Ca, Cu, Pb, As) related to the diverse anthropogenic activities. The soils developed from such urbosediments can be classified as urbanozems (Urban Technosols), whereas chernozems close to their zonal analogues have developed in the surface layer of sediments covering long-abandoned ancient cities. Similar characteristics have been found for the soils of the medieval and more recent cities in the studied region. Maximum concentrations of the pollutants are locally found in the antique and medieval urbosediments enriched in dyes, handicrafts from nonferrous metals, and other artifacts. Surface soils of ancient cities inherit the properties and composition of the cultural layer. Even in chernozems that developed under steppe vegetation on the surface of the abandoned antique cities of Phanagoria and Tanais for about 1000—1500 years, the concentrations of copper, zinc, and calcium carbonates remain high. Extremely high phosphorus concentrations in these soils should be noted. This is related to the stability of calcium phosphates from animal bones that are abundant in the cultural layer acting as parent material for surface soils.

  11. Debt swapping as a tool for economic and social stabilization in Russia's closed nuclear cities (briefing paper)

    SciTech Connect

    JL Fuller; KM Leek

    2000-03-08

    The next great issue on the Russian landscape will be management of its foreign debt. In the near future the United States will be called upon to lead an international program of debt restructuring to assist Russia in overcoming the burden of its debt trap. With debt service obligations equal to 50{percent} of 1999 revenues, Russia has virtually no chance of sustaining a program of economic recovery without debt relief (Hardt, 1999). With some form of debt restructuring a foregone conclusion, Russia, the United States, and world community have a vital stake in searching for creative ways to transform the inevitability of debt restructuring into something of value and constructive to Russia and the problems it faces. This was the rationale behind debt-for-nature swaps which emerged in the early 1980s in Latin American and Eastern Europe as a means of relieving developing nations of their crippling foreign debt. Debt-for-nature swaps served both domestic and international needs by converting a portion of foreign debt, often at steep discounts, into local currency that was then used to fund programs to preserve the environment. The debt swap mechanism provides the prospect of getting something of real value where nothing is expected. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has proposed to use the same model to synergistically capitalize defense threat reduction activities and environmental remediation within Russia's closed nuclear cities. Preventing the emigration of nuclear technology, expertise, and hardware from these cities to subnational groups and countries of proliferation concern is one of the world's foremost pressing problems. It is in the best national security interest of the United states to assist Russia in overcoming the legacy of the Cold War by helping to address the catastrophic environmental and public health effects of nuclear production that negatively impact economic stabilization.

  12. Comparative ontogenetic behavior and migration of kaluga, Huso dauricus, and Amur sturgeon, Acipenser schrenckii, from the Amur River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhuang, P.; Kynard, B.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, T.; Cao, W.

    2003-01-01

    We conducted laboratory experiments with kaluga, Huso dauricus, and Amur sturgeon, Acipenser schrenckii, to develop a conceptual model of early behavior. We daily observed embryos (first life phase after hatching) and larvae (period initiating exogenous feeding) to day-30 (late larvae) for preference of bright habitat and cover, swimming distance above the bottom, up- and downstream movement, and diel activity. Day-0 embryos of both species strongly preferred bright, open habitat and initiated a strong, downstream migration that lasted 4 days (3 day peak) for kaluga and 3 days (2 day peak) for Amur sturgeon. Kaluga migrants swam far above the bottom (150 cm) on only 1 day and moved day and night; Amur sturgeon migrants swam far above the bottom (median 130 cm) during 3 days and were more nocturnal than kaluga. Post-migrant embryos of both species moved day and night, but Amur sturgeon used dark, cover habitat and swam closer to the bottom than kaluga. The larva period of both species began on day 7 (cumulative temperature degree-days, 192.0 for kaluga and 171.5 for Amur sturgeon). Larvae of both species preferred open habitat. Kaluga larvae strongly preferred bright habitat, initially swam far above the bottom (median 50-105 cm), and migrated downstream at night during days 10-16 (7-day migration). Amur sturgeon larvae strongly avoided illumination, had a mixed response to white substrate, swam 20-30 cm above the bottom during most days, and during days 12-34 (most of the larva period) moved downstream mostly at night (23-day migration). The embryo-larva migration style of the two species likely shows convergence of non-related species for a common style in response to environmental selection in the Amur River. The embryo-larva migration style of Amur sturgeon is unique among Acipenser yet studied.

  13. [MALARIA IMPORTATION BY RUSSIA'S CITIZENS AND FOREIGNERS, INTO THE CITIES AND TOWNS OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION].

    PubMed

    Baranova, A M; Guzeeva, T M; Ivanova, T N; Tanygina, E Yu; Morozova, L F

    2016-01-01

    A total of 436 malaria cases, including 12 from the CIS countries and 424 from far foreign countries (of Africa and Central and South-East Asia), were imported into the Russian Federation in 2010-2014. Most (96.6%) cases were notified in the urban areas of 52 administrative subjects of Russia. The largest number of the imported cases were seasonal workers (39.2%), tourists (31.3%), students and foreign postgraduate students (19.5%), and ship or aircraft crews (10%). During a short malaria transmission season (June to August), there were 150 cases of different types, out of them there were only 63 cases of tertian malaria (its pathogen is Plasmodium vivax, to which malaria mosquitoes of Russia's fauna are susceptible). The relatively small number of infection sources in the short transmission (June to August) season of malaria, its importation into low-susceptibility large towns, and a small proportion of imported vivax malaria cases substantially reduce the risk of malaria in the highrisk areas of the country. PMID:27405208

  14. [On the Population Genetic Portrait of Kaluga, Acipenser dauricus Georgi, 1775 Analysis of Sequence Variation in the Mitochondrial DNA Control Region].

    PubMed

    Shedko, S V; Miroshnichenko, I L; Nemkova, G A; Shedko, M B

    2015-09-01

    The variability of the mtDNA D-loop was examined in kaluga endemic to the Amur River, which is classified as critically endangered by the IUCN Red List of Threatened species. Sequencing of the D-loop fragment (819 bp) in 122 kaluga specimens collected in Lower Amur revealed 27 unique genotypes. The sample was characterized by a relatively low level of haplotypic (0.927) and nucleotide (0.0044) diversity. No considerable deviations from the neutral mutation model of DNA polymorphism were observed. Overall, the mismatch distribution patterns and the results of testing of simple demographic models (sudden demographic expansion and exponential population growth) pointed to a past increase in the number of kaluga sturgeons. According to the Bayesian skyline, the kaluga population doubled over the last two to three thousand years. The number of mature females in the modern kaluga population and the assessment of their long-term effective population size (Nef) are roughly at the same level (about three thousand individuals), which confirms the validity of assigning kaluga to the category of species on the brink of extinction. PMID:26606799

  15. Debt swapping as a tool for economic and social stabilization in Russia's closed nuclear cities

    SciTech Connect

    JL Fuller; KM Leek

    2000-03-08

    The magnitude of Russian foreign debt, both official bilateral and commercial, compounded by collapse of the Russian economic system, is an obstacle in preventing the Russian Federation from effectively increasing the domestic priority of drawing down its nuclear weapons complex and providing a healthy, competitive environment to its nuclear cities. Debt-for-nature swaps, introduced in the early 1980s, provide debtor nations with a means of converting a portion of foreign debt into local currency, often at steep discounts, to use for purposes such as environmental protection that serve both a domestic and international need. This paper presents the debt-for-nature concept as a model for providing an infusion of funds to further U.S. and international nonproliferation objectives to help stabilize Russian closed city economic conditions through direct work on proliferation problems and remediation of the environment. A specific proposal is presented to demonstrate the utility and efficacy of the dept swap concept through initial collaboration with the city administration of Ozersk. The purpose of the proposal is to facilitate making Ozersk a safe, healthy competitive city, providing useful employment for its scientists and population and converting its superior infrastructure into productive activities.

  16. Experimental urban heat island research of Norilsk city in northern Russia in the polar night

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varentsov, Mikhail; Konstantinov, Pavel; Repina, Irina; Samsonov, Timofey; Baklanov, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    Growing socioeconomic activity in Arctic zone and prospective of planning and building new settlements and cities in this region requires better understanding of the urban-caused microclimatic features and their behavior in the conditions of arctic and sub-arctic climate. The most important of these features is well-known urban heat island (UHI) effect, because in high latitudes it could mitigate severe climatic conditions within urban areas and provide the economy of fuel for house heating. The UHI effect is quietly good investigated and described for the cities in low and moderate latitudes (Oke, 1987), but there is significant lack of knowledge about UHI of the cities over the Polar Circle and especially about its behavior during the polar night, while anthropogenic heat is the only source of energy to form heat island. In this study, we consider the results of experimental research of the UHI of Norilsk - the second biggest city over the Polar Circle, which were obtained during the expedition of Russian Geographic Society in December 2013, practically around the middle of the polar night. Field measurements in Norilsk included installation of three automatic weather stations (AWS) and the net of small temperature sensors (iButton) in the city and surrounding landscape and also car-based temperature sounding of the city with AWS. The influence of the relief and stratification was filtered by using the data of MTP-5 microwave temperature profiler. Analysis of the collected data showed the existence of significant UHI with the difference between city center and surrounding landscape up to 6 °C. The dependence of UHI power and shape on the synoptic conditions were analyzed for several typical synoptic situations, which were observed during the expedition, and the negative correlation of the UHI power with air temperature was determined. The reported study was supported by Russian Geographic Society, research projects No. 69/2013-H7 and 27/2013-H3. References: 1

  17. Dust pollution of snow cover in the industrial areas of Tomsk city (Western Siberia, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talovskaya, A. V.; Filimonenko, E. A.; Osipova, N. A.; Yazikov, E. G.; Nadeina, L. V.

    2016-03-01

    This article describes the results of long-term monitoring (2007-2014) of snow cover pollution in the territory of Tomsk city. Snow samples were collected in the territory of Tomsk. Determination of dust load level was carried out by comparing with the background and reference values. It has been determined that the north-east and central parts of Tomsk are the most contaminated areas, where brickworks, coal and gas-fired thermal power plant are located. The analysis of long-term dynamics showed a dust load decrease in the vicinity of coal and gas-fired thermal power plant due to upgrading of the existing dust collecting systems. During the monitoring period the high dust load in the vicinity of brickworks did not change. The lowest value of the dust load on snow cover was detected in the vicinity of the petrochemical plant and concrete product plants. The near and far zones of dust load on snow cover were determined with the reference to the location of the studied plants.

  18. [Unidirectional Hybridization of Kaluga Acipenser dauricus Georgi, 1775 and Amur Sturgeon Acipenser schrenckii Brandt, 1869, Inferred from the Mitochondrial DNA Genotyping of Their Natural Hybrids].

    PubMed

    Shedko, S V; Shedko, M B

    2016-03-01

    In 2009 through 2011, among 730 individuals of kaluga and Amur sturgeon collected in the lower reaches of the Amur River and the Amursky Liman, 17 morphologically intermediate individuals (hybrids) with the body length of 56 to 202 cm (median, 81 cm) were identified, including 11 individuals (4.6%) found in 2009, three individuals (1.6%) found in 2010, and three individuals (1.1%), in 2011. In 16 hybrids 819 bp of the mtDNA control regions were sequences and 11 haplotypes were identified. Since all these haplotypes were from the mtDNA lineages of kaluga, it was concluded that hybridization occurred in one direction, kaluga (♀) x Amur sturgeon (♂). This asymmetry could be caused by the large difference in sizes of these species. Since the earlier examined morphologically typical Amur sturgeons showed the absence of alien haplotypes (Shedko, et al., 2015), the absence of the mtDNA introgression is claimed. This can be caused by low viability or sterility of the backcross females (kaluga (♀) x Amur sturgeon (♂)) x Amur sturgeon (♂). The samples of hybrids and typical kaluga individuals demonstrated no differences in the frequency spectra of the mtDNA haplotypes. However, haplotype and nucleotide diversity in the first sample was somewhat higher than in the second one (0.950 versus 0.927 and 0.0054 versus 0.0044, respectively). The data obtained will be useful for population monitoring of kaluga and Amur sturgeon, Amur River endemics, which are classified as critically endangered by the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. PMID:27281853

  19. Possibilities of including the taxonomy of soils and parent materials of Moscow city into the classification system of the soils of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedeva, I. I.; Gerasimova, M. I.

    2011-05-01

    The analysis of the taxonomy of the soils and soil-forming rocks of Moscow city was performed in view of the compatibility of the taxonomy proposed with the new classification system of the soils of Russia. The common platform, which determines the possibility to incorporate the taxonomy of urban soils into the new classification system, is the principle of the priority of the diagnostic horizons, which provides the properties-oriented conceptual background of the compared systems. It was shown that the considered classification developments do not have any fundamental differences either in ideology or in concrete manifestations. Some contradictions in place can be eliminated by respective discussions and agreements.

  20. Moscow, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Moscow, the political and economic heart of Russia, sits on the far eastern end of Europe, roughly 1300 kilometers (815 miles) west of the Ural Mountains and the Asian continent. The city boasts a population of nine million and encompasses an area of 1035 square kilometers (405 square miles). The Moscow River runs through the center of the city, and the Kremlin, the seat of the Russian government, lies in the direct center. Moscow is thought to have been founded in the 12th Century by Yury Dolgoruky, Prince of Suzdal, who hosted a big feast on the site. The city was shortly after established as a trading route along the Moscow River. Ivan III, who is largely credited with uniting all of Russia, built the Kremlin's cathedrals and declared Moscow the capital of his new kingdom in the 15th century. In the 17th century, Ivan the Great moved the capital to St. Petersburg, where it remained until the Bolsheviks brought the seat of government back to Moscow in 1918. Over the years the city has been sacked and burnt to the ground by the Tartars, the Poles, and the French. Thanks to the resilient spirit of the Russian people, the city remains as vital as ever. Now it is as capitalist in nature as London or New York, and everything from Big Macs to BMWs can be found on its streets. The blue-gray pixels in this false-color image are urban areas. The light green areas surrounding the city are farms and the brown regions are more sparsely vegetated areas. This image of Moscow was acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+), flying aboard the Landsat 7 satellite. July 23, 2002, marks the 30th anniversary of the Landsat program. (Click to read the press release-Celebrating 30 Years of Imaging the Earth.) The Landsat program has been particularly instrumental in tracking land use and land cover changes-such as increased urban growth-over the last three decades. Image courtesy Ron Beck, USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  1. A tale of two cities: stigma and health outcomes among people with HIV who inject drugs in St. Petersburg, Russia and Kohtla-Järve, Estonia.

    PubMed

    Burke, Sara E; Calabrese, Sarah K; Dovidio, John F; Levina, Olga S; Uusküla, Anneli; Niccolai, Linda M; Abel-Ollo, Katri; Heimer, Robert

    2015-04-01

    Experiences of stigma are often associated with negative mental and physical health outcomes. The present work tested the associations between stigma and health-related outcomes among people with HIV who inject drugs in Kohtla-Järve, Estonia and St. Petersburg, Russia. These two cities share some of the highest rates of HIV outside of sub-Saharan Africa, largely driven by injection drug use, but Estonia has implemented harm reduction services more comprehensively. People who inject drugs were recruited using respondent-driven sampling; those who indicated being HIV-positive were included in the present sample (n = 381 in St. Petersburg; n = 288 in Kohtla-Järve). Participants reported their health information and completed measures of internalized HIV stigma, anticipated HIV stigma, internalized drug stigma, and anticipated drug stigma. Participants in both locations indicated similarly high levels of all four forms of stigma. However, stigma variables were more strongly associated with health outcomes in Russia than in Estonia. The St. Petersburg results were consistent with prior work linking stigma and health. Lower barriers to care in Kohtla-Järve may help explain why social stigma was not closely tied to negative health outcomes there. Implications for interventions and health policy are discussed. PMID:25703668

  2. A Tale of Two Cities: Stigma and Health Outcomes Among People with HIV who Inject Drugs in St. Petersburg, Russia and Kohtla-Järve, Estonia

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Sara E.; Calabrese, Sarah K.; Dovidio, John F.; Levina, Olga S.; Uusküla, Anneli; Niccolai, Linda M.; Abel-Ollo, Katri; Heimer, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Experiences of stigma are often associated with negative mental and physical health outcomes. The present work tested the associations between stigma and health-related outcomes among people with HIV who inject drugs in Kohtla-Järve, Estonia and St. Petersburg, Russia. These two cities share some of the highest rates of HIV outside of sub-Saharan Africa, largely driven by injection drug use, but Estonia has implemented harm reduction services more comprehensively. People who inject drugs were recruited using respondent-driven sampling; those who indicated being HIV-positive were included in the present sample (n=381 in St. Petersburg; n=288 in Kohtla-Järve). Participants reported their health information and completed measures of internalized HIV stigma, anticipated HIV stigma, internalized drug stigma, and anticipated drug stigma. Participants in both locations indicated similarly high levels of all four forms of stigma. However, stigma variables were more strongly associated with health outcomes in Russia than in Estonia. The St. Petersburg results were consistent with prior work linking stigma and health. Lower barriers to care in Kohtla-Järve may help explain why social stigma was not closely tied to negative health outcomes there. Implications for interventions and health policy are discussed. PMID:25703668

  3. Element composition of insoluble fraction of aerosols in snow in the vicinity of oil chemistry refinery (Pavlodar City, Kazakhstan) and petrochemical plant (Tomsk City, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talovskaya, Anna V.; Filimonenko, Ekaterina A.; Yazikov, Egor G.; Shakhova, Tatyana S.; Parygina, Irina A.

    2015-11-01

    Tomsk petrochemical plant (Russia) and Pavlodar oil chemistry refinery (Kazakhstan) are the sources of air contamination in Tomsk and Pavlodar respectively. Therefore, it is very important to study the level of air contamination with particulate matter as well as ultimate composition of these particles. Disposable solid particles fall out to the snow cover, so snow is an accumulator of the particles. The article deals with the study results of dust load and concentrations of Br, Sb, La, Ce, Sm and Nd in insoluble fraction of aerosols in snow in the vicinity of Pavlodar oil chemistry refinery and Tomsk petrochemical plant. The instrumental neutron activation analysis was used for the ultimate composition detection. Results were shown that the dust load in the vicinity of Tomsk petrochemical plant is higher than in Pavlodar. We have detected high concentrations of La, Br and Sm in insoluble fraction of aerosols in snow in the vicinity of Pavlodar refinery and high concentrations of Sb and Ce in Tomsk. Moreover, we have detected high Br concentration in insoluble fraction of aerosols in snow of the vicinity of both plants. Gas burning on the flares of these enterprises is likely a potential source of Br. La to light lanthanoids ratio have shown La is of anthropogenic origin. In addition, enrichment factor estimation reflects an anthropogenic origin of La, Sm, Br, Ce and Sb as well. These elements might be emitted from different production facilities of the plants.

  4. Dust pollution of the atmosphere in the vicinity of coal-fired power plant (Omsk City, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talovskaya, Anna V.; Raputa, Vladimir F.; Litay, Victoriya V.; Yazikov, Egor G.; Yaroslavtseva, Tatyana V.; Mikhailova, Kseniya Y.; Parygina, Irina A.; Lonchakova, Anna D.; Tretykova, Mariya I.

    2015-11-01

    The article shows the results of dust pollution level of air in the vicinity of coal-fired power plant of Omsk city on the base of study snow cover pollution. The samples were collected west-, east- and northeastwards at a distance of 0,75-6 km from the chimney for range-finding of dust emission transfer. The research findings have shown the dust load changes from 53 till 343 mg•(m2·day)-1 in the vicinity of power plant. The ultimate dust load was detected at a distance of 3-3,5 km. On the basis of asymptotics of equation solution for impurity transfer, we have made numerical analysis of dust load rate. With the usage of ground-based facilities and satellites we have determined the wind shifts in the atmospheric boundary layer have a significant impact on the field forming of long-term dustfall.

  5. Particle-size distribution of postpyrogenic soils after forest fires in Russia in 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksimova, Ekaterina; Abakumov, Evgeny

    2014-05-01

    Extreme summer temperatures of 2010 in Russia were critically important for appearing of the catastrophic wildfires. Hot weather has been started in the middle of June and occupied the whole Russian European part and Eastern Europe. The area of soils affected by wildfires assessed as more than 744 000 ha. Forest fires in 2010 have occupied Moscow, Yekaterinburg, Kaluga, Pskov, Samara and many other regions. The study plots were so-called «steppe island of pine forests» near Togljatty city, Samara region, which were exposed to catastrophic forest fires in 2010. Three soil pits were studied in order to compare the influence of different types of fires on soils: a place of local forest fire (in the end of July, 2010), riding forest fire (in the end of July, 2010) and unaffected site by fire - control (mature). The studied postpyrogenic soils are characterized by fine earth dominance over a soil the coarse fraction; soils investigated were classified as sandy loams. Data obtained by traditional sedimentometry method shows that clay content in postfire soils was higher than in mature ones. With aim to testify these trend we have measure the clay content by the laser diffractometry method. Clay content by diffractometry were lower in these case for all studied soil that this index determined by sedimentometry. This was co-called effect of pseudofractions in sedimentometry, while organic matter particles, including the black carbon components, partially forms the clay fraction while there are not truth component of this fraction. There seeming increasing of clay in postfire soils can be interpreted by increasing black carbon components but not real increasing of very fine particles in fine earth. Investigation conducted in 2012 shows that particle size distribution as a whole hasn't changed for two years. However, a decrease of the fine earth fractions content in the solum is observed as a result of linear sufrace erosion. The results of particle-size composition

  6. Flooding in Southern Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Over the past two weeks, heavy rains have inundated southern Russia, giving rise to floods that killed up to 83 people and drove thousands from their homes. This false-color image acquired on June 23, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Terra satellite shows some of the worst flooding. The Black Sea is the dark patch in the lower left-hand corner. The city of Krasnodor, Russia, which was one of the cities hardest hit, sits on the western edge of the larger lake on the left side of the image, and Stavropol, which lost more lives than any other city, sits just east of the small cluster of lakes on the right-hand side of the image. Normally, the rivers and smaller lakes in this image cannot even be seen clearly on MODIS imagery. In this false-color image, the ground is green and blue and water is black or dark brown. Clouds come across as pink and white. Credit: Image courtesy Jesse Allen, NASA GSFC, based on data provided by the MODIS Rapid Response System.

  7. Self-reported symptoms of chronic cough and breathlessness in working-age men in the city of Izhevsk, Russia: associations with cardiovascular disease risk factors and comorbidities

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Sarah; Quint, Jennifer K; Vasiljev, Maxim; Leon, David A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Very little is known about the prevalence of respiratory symptoms or their associations with other health conditions in Russia. Methods Between 2008 and 2010, a sample of 983 men resident in Izhevsk, Russia, took part in a cross-sectional survey. Presence of respiratory symptoms was determined from self-report of chronic productive cough and breathlessness assessed using the British Medical Research Council (MRC) breathlessness scale. Self-reported physical and mental health were measured using the 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12). Hypertension was assessed from mean blood pressure measured at the health check and/or self-reported use of antihypertensive medication. Other comorbidities were assessed from self-report. Logistic regression models were fitted assessing the association between respiratory symptoms and comorbidities. Linear regression models were fitted to investigate the association between respiratory symptoms and self-reported health scores. All models were adjusted for age, education and smoking status. Results The age-standardised prevalence of cough and breathlessness was 20.9% (prevalence with breathlessness MRC grade 3 or above 3.7%). The majority of men with respiratory symptoms (87.3%) were current smokers. Cough and breathlessness were associated with substantially worse self-reported physical and mental health (test for trend with severity of breathlessness p<0.001). Those with chronic cough and grade 3 or above breathlessness had higher odds of having hypertension (OR 3.03; 95% CI 1.36 to 6.74), diabetes (OR 10.55; 95% CI 2.69 to 41.37), angina pectoris (OR 7.54; 95% CI 3.61 to 15.73), previous myocardial infarction (OR 7.61; 95% CI 2.10 to 27.4) and previous stroke (OR 6.61; 95% CI 1.75 to 23.34) compared with those without respiratory symptoms. Conclusions The prevalence of respiratory symptoms was high. Strong associations were found between respiratory symptoms and cardiovascular comorbidities. These are of

  8. From Russia with Montessori

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selman, Ruth Corey

    2005-01-01

    As leader of a People-to-People tour to Russia, and one whose family history is linked to the cataclysmic history of 20th-century Russia, Ruth Corey, felt a special responsibility to introduce her traveling companions to Russia, and Russian Montessorians to her cohorts. Her traveling companions were a group of 15 Montessori teachers, committed to…

  9. The "Ride for Russia" Tree Lichen Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Simon

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of nine indicator lichens found on trees in Northern Europe and Western Russia was used for monitoring air quality. The 4200 mile route of the survey went through eight countries. Surveys were carried out in cities, towns, countryside and forests, and along motorways. The author has conducted tree lichen surveys with pupils from…

  10. Aerospace Medical Support in Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castleberry, Tara; Chamberlin, Blake; Cole, Richard; Dowell, Gene; Savage, Scott

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the role of the flight surgeon in support of aerospace medical support operations at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC), also known as Star City, in Russia. The flight surgeon in this role is the medical advocate for non-russian astronauts, and also provides medical care for illness and injury for astronauts, family members, and guests as well as civil servants and contractors. The flight surgeon also provides support for hazardous training. There are various photos of the area, and the office, and some of the equipment that is used.

  11. Kondyor Massif, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This is neither an impact crater nor a volcano. It is a perfect circular intrusion, about 10 km in diameter with a topographic ridge up to 600 m high. The Kondyor Massif is located in Eastern Siberia, Russia, north of the city of Khabarovsk. It is a rare form of igneous intrusion called alkaline-ultrabasic massif and it is full of rare minerals. The river flowing out of it forms placer mineral deposits. Last year 4 tons of platinum were mined there. A remarkable and very unusual mineralogical feature of the deposit is the presence of coarse crystals of Pt-Fe alloy, coated with gold. This 3-D perspective view was created by draping a simulated natural color ASTER composite over an ASTER-derived digital elevation model.

    The image was acquired on June 10, 2006, and is located at 57.6 degrees north latitude, 134.6 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  12. Expedition 35/36 Crew Departs Star City

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 35 Flight Enginners Chris Cassidy, Pavel Vinogradov and Alexander Misurkin participated in traditional ceremonies at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City, Russia outside Mo...

  13. Russia's scientific legacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-01-01

    Many insights of Russian scientists are unknown or long-forgotten outside of Russia. Making the Russian literature accessible to the international scientific community could stimulate new lines of research.

  14. Toxic Aluminium and Heavy Metals in Groundwater of Middle Russia: Health Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Momot, Olga; Synzynys, Boris

    2005-01-01

    Two approaches are distinguished in modern ecological monitoring. The first one is physicochemical analysis of environmental objects with respect to maximum allowable concentrations (MACs) of chemical substances, which is performed by standards methods in accordance with state regulations. The second approach (biological monitoring) is based on the methodology of biotesting and bio indication. The task of this work is to create biotests for estimation of Al and other metals toxicity in ground water and to compare these results with physicochemical analysis dates. Risk assessment for heavy metals contaminated groundwater was also performed. Risk assessment was performed accordingly EPA US recommendation and gave results about 90 per 100000 citizens for Al and 402 per 100000 for mixture of different heavy metals. For comparison: risk for earth background radiation for Middle Russia is (Individual dose 1 millisivert per year) consist 5 per 100000 people. It was shown that groundwater consist HCO3− ions (360 mg/l), sometimes Al compounds 0.21–0.65 mg/l (MAC for Al is 0.5 mg/l for Russia). Other groundwater contain Hg – 0.004 mg/l (MAC – 0.0005 mg/l); Cr – 0.072 mg/l (MAC – 0.05 mg/l); As – less than 0.03 mg/l (MAC – 0.05 mg/l). We developed plant biotest for estimation of groundwater quality with barley roots, tradescatia and others. Some biotests parameters correlate with HCO3−, Cl−, SO42− and metal ions content positively, for another biotest this correlation is strongly negative. The quality of groundwater near Obninsk and in Kaluga Region is very different but hasn’t been changed since the year 1998. PMID:16705820

  15. Rocket and space technology - The ideas of K.E. Tsiolkovsky and modern development; Lectures Devoted to K.E. Tsiolkovsky's Ideas, 25th, Kaluga, Russia, Sept. 11-14, 1990, Transactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshkin, E. K.; Balashov, V. V.; Kaznevskii, V. P.; Merkulov, I. A.

    The papers presented in this volume focus on recent theoretical and experimental research related to rocket and space technology. Topics discussed include the problem of earthquake prediction by space methods, mathematical support of geophysical experiments conducted at the Mir orbital complex, local stationary orbits of artificial earth satellites, and terminal guidance of a gliding flight vehicle on the basis of the angle of roll at the final stage of descent. Attention is also given to a new method for determining the number of flight vehicle prototypes subject to full-scale testing, optimal damping of the vibrations of the elastically attached fragments of large-scale space structures, and generation of artificial gravity in two-mass systems without balancing. (For individual items see A93-18307 to A93-18324)

  16. Dating Violence in Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lysova, A. V.

    2007-01-01

    The phenomenon of violence in interpersonal relationships has been little studied in Russia, and the phenomenon of violence between dating partners has not been the object of scientific interest at all. The study on which the present article is based was designed to obtain information about the violence in dating among students enrolled in…

  17. Home Education in Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staroverova, T. I.

    2011-01-01

    From the eighteenth through the early twentieth centuries, home education (home schooling) by tutors and governesses in Russia was a customary form of schooling for an overwhelming majority of members of the nobility. Social and political transformations of the twentieth century led to substantial changes as the state got actively involved with…

  18. White Sea - Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    At bottom center of this true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from April 13, 2001, the White Sea in western Russia is becoming free of ice in its southern extent. Meanwhile, the blue-green waters along the coast of the peninsula jutting out into the Barents Sea to the northeast could be due to a phytoplankton bloom.

  19. Russia: Forest policy during transition

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    Russia is a recognized leader in forest conservation, research, and development. This book analyzes the country`s forest sector and the severe management problems that threaten its socioeconomic stability and environmental integrity. It outlines the significance of Russia`s forest resources, review the sector`s performance, identifies the key challenges, proposal and agenda for forest sector reform, and assesses the need for assistance from the international community. The book`s main focus is on Siberia and the Far East. Tables, boxes, and figures show various factors that contribute to and are affected by Russia`s environmental problems and the expected reforms in the forest sector.

  20. Russia`s atomic tsar: Viktor N. Mikhailov

    SciTech Connect

    Reams, C.A.

    1996-12-01

    Minatom (Ministry of Atomic Energy) was created to manage Russia`s nuclear weapons program in the age of disarmament. The ministry is responsible for the development, production, and maintenance of nuclear weapons, warhead dismantlement, the production of nuclear materials for weapons, the disposition of nuclear materials disassembled from warheads, the administration of Russia`s vast nuclear weapons complex, the development of policy for the future role of Russia`s nuclear complex and payment of employees entrusted with such tasks. Thus, Minatom is instrumental in the implementation of arms control, disarmament and nonproliferation agreements. The director of Minatom, Viktor N. Mikhailov, wields a great deal of power and influence over Russia`s nuclear infrastructure. He is an important player amidst efforts to reduce the threats posed by Russia`s decaying nuclear complex. There are certainly other personalities in the Russian government who influence Minatom; however, few affect the ministry as profoundly as Mikhailov. His ability to influence Russia`s nuclear complex has been clearly demonstrated by his policies in relation to the US purchase of Russian highly enriched uranium, the planned fissile material storage facility at Mayak, materials protection, control and accountability programs, and his unwavering determination to sell Iran commercial nuclear technology. Mikhailov has also been a key negotiator when dealing with the US on issues of transparency of weapons dismantlement and fissile material disposition, as well as the use of US threat reduction funds. His policies and concerns in these areas will affect the prospects for the successful negotiation and implementation of future nuclear threat reduction programs and agreements with Russia.

  1. Emergency medicine in Russia.

    PubMed

    Townes, D A; Lee, T E; Gulo, S; VanRooyen, M J

    1998-08-01

    Russia has undergone sweeping political and social reforms within the past 5 years. The economic and social reforms heralded by the "new openness" of perestroika have led to a restructuring of medicine as well. Changes include the emergence of "for profit" organizations and acute care facilities, the introduction of private health insurance, modifications in the medical education system, and realignment of health priorities with a new trend toward primary care. PMID:9701309

  2. Academic medicine in Russia.

    PubMed

    Burger, Edward J; Ziganshina, Lilia; Ziganshin, Airat U

    2004-12-01

    Academic medicine, along with professionalism of the medical community in Russia underwent a remarkable evolution from the Revolution through the decline of the Soviet Union. The Soviet period brought about an enormous expansion of numbers of admissions to medical schools and a corresponding increase in the number of new physicians. Academic medical institutions were separated from institutions of higher learning in general and medical science was separated from the mainstream of science. Many of these features have been reversed in the past 14 years and re-professionalization of medicine has resumed. PMID:15578798

  3. "Capital Cities Centrism" as the Cause of Social Inequality in the Russian System of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latova, N. V.; Latov, Iu. V.

    2013-01-01

    Social inequality in access to superior quality higher education in Russia is due to the unequal development of the regions of Russia. The country's two biggest cities and the areas adjacent to them account for a quarter of Russia's infrastructure that offers young people an access to a higher education. The regional colleges and…

  4. Earth's City Lights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image of Earth's city lights was created with data from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS). Originally designed to view clouds by moonlight, the OLS is also used to map the locations of permanent lights on the Earth's surface. The brightest areas of the Earth are the most urbanized, but not necessarily the most populated. (Compare western Europe with China and India.) Cities tend to grow along coastlines and transportation networks. Even without the underlying map, the outlines of many continents would still be visible. The United States interstate highway system appears as a lattice connecting the brighter dots of city centers. In Russia, the Trans-Siberian railroad is a thin line stretching from Moscow through the center of Asia to Vladivostok. The Nile River, from the Aswan Dam to the Mediterranean Sea, is another bright thread through an otherwise dark region. Even more than 100 years after the invention of the electric light, some regions remain thinly populated and unlit. Antarctica is entirely dark. The interior jungles of Africa and South America are mostly dark, but lights are beginning to appear there. Deserts in Africa, Arabia, Australia, Mongolia, and the United States are poorly lit as well (except along the coast), along with the boreal forests of Canada and Russia, and the great mountains of the Himalaya. The Earth Observatory article Bright Lights, Big City describes how NASA scientists use city light data to map urbanization. Image by Craig Mayhew and Robert Simmon, NASA GSFC, based on DMSP data

  5. Summer Harvest in Saratov, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Russia's Saratov Oblast (province) is located in the southeastern portion of the East-European plain, in the Lower Volga River Valley. Southern Russia produces roughly 40 percent of the country's total agricultural output, and Saratov Oblast is the largest producer of grain in the Volga region. Vegetation changes in the province's agricultural lands between spring and summer are apparent in these images acquired on May 31 and July 18, 2002 (upper and lower image panels, respectively) by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR).

    The left-hand panels are natural color views acquired by MISR's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera. Less vegetation and more earth tones (indicative of bare soils) are apparent in the summer image (lower left). Farmers in the region utilize staggered sowing to help stabilize yields, and a number of different stages of crop maturity can be observed. The main crop is spring wheat, cultivated under non-irrigated conditions. A short growing season and relatively low and variable rainfall are the major limitations to production. Saratov city is apparent as the light gray pixels on the left (west) bank of the Volga River. Riparian vegetation along the Volga exhibits dark green hues, with some new growth appearing in summer.

    The right-hand panels are multi-angle composites created with red band data from MISR's 60-degree backward, nadir and 60-degree forward-viewing cameras displayed as red, green and blue respectively. In these images, color variations serve as a proxy for changes in angular reflectance, and the spring and summer views were processed identically to preserve relative variations in brightness between the two dates. Urban areas and vegetation along the Volga banks look similar in the two seasonal multi-angle composites. The agricultural areas, on the other hand, look strikingly different. This can be attributed to differences in brightness and texture between bare soil and vegetated land. The chestnut-colored soils in

  6. Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Temperate and green in the summer, the Kamchatka Peninsula in northeastern Russia freezes over completely in the winter. This true-color image of the Kamchatka Peninsula was acquired on December 12, 2001, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The peninsula is surrounded by the Sea of Okhotsk to the west and by the Bering Sea to the east. The ice and snow highlight the stunning valleys and tall peaks of the Sredinnyy Khrebet, which is the volcanic mountain range running down the center of the peninsula. The mountains along the range reach heights of over 3500 meters (11,484 feet). Many of the volcanoes are still active, and ash and volcanic rock has turned the snow a dark gray on the eastern side of the range. The light blue latticework of ridges, valleys, and alluvial fans extending from the center of the range were likely carved out by past and present glaciers and by run-off from spring snowmelt. The small island that extends off of the tip of the peninsula is Ostrov Paramushir (Paramushir Island). Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  7. Russia`s Great Game in a nuclear South Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Pilat, J.F.; Taylor, T.T.

    1998-12-31

    Lost in the noise of Pakistan`s nuclear weapon tests in the western Baluchistan desert on 28 and 30 May was a surprising diplomatic move by Russia. On 23 May, Russia became the first state to express its willingness to recognize India as a nuclear-weapon state, provided that India commits itself to the international nonproliferation regime. Russia`s Ambassador to India, Albert Chernyshev, stated in the days after the Indian but before the Pakistani nuclear tests that ``India proclaimed itself a nuclear weapons power. One now hopes that India will behave as a nuclear weapons power by acting responsibly. Every nuclear weapons state has some rights. But for getting recognition it must have some obligations. Once it is ready to show these obligations by joining the nonproliferation regime, its recognition as a nuclear weapons power will follow.`` Russia`s Great Game in South Asia in pursuit of short-term economic and other interests appears to be a serious obstacle on the path to dealing effectively with the South Asian nuclear crisis. Grave damage to security, stability and nonproliferation has already resulted from India`s and Pakistan`s actions, but the situation does not have to spiral out of control. It is imperative that the international community respond appropriately to this challenge. The international community is at a crossroads and Russia`s actions will be critical. Will it be willing to go beyond the narrow economic and political calculations reflected in its diplomatic posturing, and take actions that will serve its long-term interests by bridging differences with other great powers in order to demonstrate to India that it has not chosen the right path. If Russia decides it can gain from India`s current, perilous path and blocks or otherwise frustrates appropriate responses, the nuclear danger on the subcontinent will escalate and the global regimes to promote nonproliferation and to ban testing will be seriously, perhaps fatally, weakened with

  8. Tomorrow's City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Emrys

    1979-01-01

    Examines several simple models of cities, discussing possible future changes in city design. The concepts of the megalopolis, linear city, tower block, imploded or miniaturized city, and dispersed city are described. (CS)

  9. The White Sea, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Editor's Note: The caption below, published on May 10, 2001, is incorrect. According to Masha Vorontsova, director of the International Fund for Animal Welfare in Moscow, the situation with the seal pups in the White Sea is normal. There is no disaster and there never was. For more details, refer to the article entitled 'No Danger' on the New Scientist home page. The Earth Observatory regrets the earlier errant report. Original Caption According to the Russian Polar Research Institute for Fisheries and Oceanography, between 250,000 and 300,000 Greenland seal pups face death by starvation over the next two months due to a cruel trick by mother nature. The seals, most of them less than two months old, are trapped on ice sheets that remain locked in the White Sea, located near Archangel in Northern Russia. Typically, during the spring thaw the ice sheets break up and flow with the currents northward into the Barents Sea, the seals' spring feeding grounds. The seal pups hitch a ride on the ice floes, living on their own individual stores of fat until they arrive in the Barents Sea. Their mothers departed for the Barents Sea weeks ago. In a normal year, the seal pups' trip from the White Sea out to the Barents takes about six weeks and the seals have adapted to rely upon this mechanism of mother nature. During their yearly migration, the mother seals usually stay with their pups and feed them until their pelts turn from white to grey--a sign that the pups are mature enough to swim and feed themselves. Unfortunately, this year unusually strong northerly winds created a bottleneck of ice near the mouth of the white sea, thus blocking the flow of ice and trapping the pups. These true-color images of the White Sea were acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. This image, taken May 2, 2000 that there is usually much less ice in the White Sea this time of year as most of it is typically en route to the

  10. Global Education Comes to Russia in 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Jan L.

    This paper discusses the first international conference on the future of education in Russia held in Sochi, Russia, in September of 1991. The focus was on recent efforts that have been made by educators to develop global education in Russian schools. These efforts include a detailed project for the development of global education in Russia and…

  11. The Migration Plans of Upper-Grade Students in Small Towns of Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florinskaia, Iu. F.; Roshchina, T.G.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a survey that was carried out in 2004 to assess the level of migration mobility on the part of young inhabitants in the small cities of Russia. The survey was participated in by eleventh-grade (senior) students. The total number of respondents was 500 (100 in each community); 61% were girls and 39% were boys. The statistical…

  12. Artemia cyst production in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvinenko, Liudmila I.; Litvinenko, Aleksandr I.; Boiko, Elena G.; Kutsanov, Kirill

    2015-11-01

    In Western Siberia (Russia) there are about 100 Artemia lakes with total area over 1 600 km2. Geographically these lakes are located between 51°-56°N and 61°-82°E. In general these lakes are shallow (depth less than 1.5 m), small or medium size (0.1 to 10 km2); they are chloride; their total salinity is from 40 to 250 g/L. The harvesting of cysts per year is only in 20-40 lakes. In Russia 550 tons of dry Artemia cysts (14%-18% of the world production) were harvested annually. This includes about 350 tons in the Altai region and 200 tons in other regions. During our regular 20-year study period the cyst harvest was: 95 tons in Kurgan; 65 tons in Omsk, 20 tons in Novosibirsk, 20 tons in Tyumen. Ways of increasing cyst harvest in Russia are considered in this article. During the last 30 years the harvest of cysts in Russia has increased from 7-20 to 500-600 tons. A significant influence of dryness of the year was found on productivity in selected lakes, but taken for all the lakes together, the relationship was not significant. The optimal salinity for productivity of cysts in the lakes was determined. Analysis of productivity of the lakes and the harvesting results showed that the stocks of cysts are underutilized by approximately 1.7 times.

  13. Gender Asymmetries in Today's Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimashevskaia, N. M.

    2011-01-01

    There can be no doubt that gender attitudes and the gender stereotypes formed on their basis have a deep-rooted social character. This stems unequivocally from the parallels of development of social processes and gender models. The ideology of gender began to flourish in Russia along with perestroika, an ideology that in the past quarter-century…

  14. Shannon Lucid Trains in Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Astronaut Shannon Lucid is seen egressing from a training version of a soyez spacecraft, during a water survival training session in Russia. In March of 1996, Lucid accompanied the STS-76 crew to the Russian space station, Mir, where she stayed for a little over four months before returning to Earth with the STS-79 crew.

  15. Wildfires, smoke, and burn scars, near Yakutsk, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Lena River in central Siberia is hidden beneath a veil of smoke from multiple wildfires burning around the city of Yakutsk, Russia. Fires have been burning in the region off and on since late May 2002, and may be agricultural in cause. This image was acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Terra satellite on July 23, 2002. In the false=-color image, vegetation is bright green, smoke is blueish-white, and burned areas are reddish-brown. In both images, fire detections are marked with red outlines. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  16. Russia`s nuke complex: A case for downsizing

    SciTech Connect

    Bukharin, O.

    1995-07-01

    Nuclear weapons stored in former Soviet republics, uncontrolled export of bomb-grade nuclear materials, and recruitment of ex-Soviet nuclear physicists by Third-World nations remain today`s top proliferation risks, reports Oleg Bukharin, a visiting researcher at Princeton University`s Center for Energy and Environment Studies. To address these risks, Russia {open_quotes}must shift its weapons production and development to weapons dismantlement, management of weapons materials, and maintenance of a much smaller...arsenal,{close_quotes} Bukharin writes. The goal of such conversion, he says, {open_quotes}is a nuclear complex that is environmentally safe...and compatible with nonproliferation objectives.{close_quotes} Reconfiguration of Russia`s weapons complex also must provide for redeployment of the hundreds of thousands of scientists, engineers, and technicians who have supported the federation`s nuclear weapons program, Bukharin insists. {open_quotes}A truly durable strategy to prevent the dispersion of Russian weapons expertise must [involve] these weapons experts in non-weapons research,{close_quotes} says Bukharin. Furthermore, Bukharin writes, the Russian conversion program must prevent nuclear materials from falling into the wrong hands. {open_quotes}Widespread corruption, crime, and emerging black markets increase the risk of diversion of weapons-grade uranium or plutonium,{close_quotes} he says.

  17. The Alcoholism Situation in a Northern City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martynov, M. Iu.; Martynova, D. Iu.

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol abuse in Russia has been increasing in recent years, especially in northern regions, as has the incidence of alcohol-related disease rates. A survey was conducted in Surgut (the Khanty-Mansi autonomous okrug) that determined the factors lending to the prevalence of alcohol abuse among the population of the northern city and assessed the…

  18. Space Radar Image of Samara, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This three-frequency space radar image shows the city of Samara, Russia in pink and light green right of center. Samara is at the junction of the Volga and Samara Rivers approximately 800 kilometers (500 miles) southeast of Moscow. The wide river in the center of the image is the Volga. Samara, formerly Kuybyshev, is a busy industrial city known for its chemical, mechanical and petroleum industries. Northwest of the Volga (upper left corner of the image) are deciduous forests of the Samarskaya Luka National Park. Complex patterns in the floodplain of the Volga are caused by 'cut-off' lakes and channels from former courses of the meandering river. The three radar frequencies allow scientists to distinguish different types of agricultural fields in the lower right side of the image. For example, fields which appear light blue are short grass or cleared fields. Purple and green fields contain taller plants or rough plowed soil. Scientists hope to use radar data such as these to understand the environmental consequences of industrial, agricultural and natural preserve areas coexisting in close proximity. This image is 50 kilometers by 26 kilometers (31 by 16 miles) and is centered at 53.2 degrees north latitude, 50.1 degrees east longitude. North is toward the top of the image. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is C-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is X-band, vertically transmitted and received. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on October 1, 1994 onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.

  19. Space Radar Image of Moscow, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a vertically polarized L-band image of the southern half of Moscow, an area which has been inhabited for 2,000 years. The image covers a diameter of approximately 50 kilometers (31 miles) and was taken on September 30, 1994 by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. The city of Moscow was founded about 750 years ago and today is home to about 8 million residents. The southern half of the circular highway (a road that looks like a ring) can easily be identified as well as the roads and railways radiating out from the center of the city. The city was named after the Moskwa River and replaced Russia's former capital, St. Petersburg, after the Russian Revolution in 1917. The river winding through Moscow shows up in various gray shades. The circular structure of many city roads can easily be identified, although subway connections covering several hundred kilometers are not visible in this image. The white areas within the ring road and outside of it are buildings of the city itself and it suburban towns. Two of many airports are located in the west and southeast of Moscow, near the corners of the image. The Kremlin is located north just outside of the imaged city center. It was actually built in the 16th century, when Ivan III was czar, and is famous for its various churches. In the surrounding area, light gray indicates forests, while the dark patches are agricultural areas. The various shades from middle gray to dark gray indicate different stages of harvesting, ploughing and grassland. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific

  20. Problems of Recreational Industry in European Russia: Changes in Infrastructure, Environment, and Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakovleva, M.; Lyaskovskiy, S. I.

    2011-12-01

    Forest and forest-steppe zones of European Russia have a great potential for recreation, including its active form, tourism. Soft peaceful landscapes and moderate summer climate provide pleasant conditions for family vacations. Numerous lakes and rivers provide places for swimming, boating, and fishing. These pleasant environmental conditions are complemented with abundant recreational choices such as historical places, old cities, towns, and monasteries filled with museums that deliver detailed information about the millennium-long Russian history. There are the vibrant cities, Moscow and St. Petersburg; cities along the Volga River; and the oldest cities in northwestern Russia, Novgorod and Pskov provide numerous options for cultural and entertaining programs for the most demanding travelers. The country has a broad range of private tour operators that cater to national and international travelers. Still there are problems which should be taken into account by travelers who chose to spend their precious vacation time in Russia. Infrastructure problems include a deficit of three-star hotels that are the mainstream of contemporary tourist business. Their number is growing exponentially in the past decade and at present remains insufficient, but the capacity building is progressing favorably. Climatic and environmental changes became a new and unexpected factor affecting the tourist industry in European Russia. Stable and strongly sustainable climate has been interrupted by extreme events that may cause additional discomfort for some people. Tour operators and hotel hosts both need to invest more to confront incremental weather (first of all investments in air conditioning are needed) and/or have substitute travel variants that are of equivalent quality. One of the unresolved issues remains the air quality problem in Moscow due to intense traffic and the possibility of peat fires in the neighboring Shatura region southeast of the city. This increases risks that must

  1. Russia [Teachers Guide and Student Readings].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allegheny County Schools, Pittsburgh, PA. Intercultural Understanding Project.

    This teaching unit, one of a series of curriculum guides on different world areas for use at the secondary level, treats the culture and history of Russia, oftentimes comparing it with that of the United States. Major teaching objectives are to have students compare and contrast basic geographic, cultural, and historical information on Russia and…

  2. Flooding on Russia's Lena River

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Nearly every year in the late spring, ice blocks the flow of water at the mouth of the Lena River in northeastern Russia and gives rise to floods across the Siberian plains. This year's floods can be seen in this image taken on June 2, 2002, by the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) instrument aboard the Terra satellite. The river runs down the left side of the image, and its delta is shrouded in ice (red) at the top of the image. Normally, the river would resemble a thin black line in MODIS imagery. The river, which is Russia's longest, flows 2,641 miles (4,250 kilometers) south to north through Siberia and into the Laptev Sea. In the winter, the river becomes nearly frozen. In the spring, however, water upstream thaws earlier than water at the mouth of the river. As the southern end of the river begins to melt, blocks of ice travel downstream to the still frozen delta, pile up, and often obstruct the flow of water. Flooding doesn't always occur on the same parts of the river. The floods hit further south last year. If the flooding grows severe enough, explosive charges are typically used to break up the ice jams. In these false-color images land areas are a dull, light green or tan, and water is black. Clouds appear pink, and ice comes across as bright red. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  3. The carbon balance of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolman, Han; Shvidenko, Anatoly; Recapp Russia Synthesis Team

    2013-04-01

    We determine the net land to atmosphere flux of carbon in Russia, including Ukraine, Belarus and Kazakhstan using inventory based, eddy covariance, and inversion methods. Our high boundary estimate is -342 Tg C yr-1 from the eddy covariance method, and this is close to the upper bounds of the inventory based Land Ecosystem Assessment and inverse models estimate. A lower boundary estimate is provided at -1350 Tg C yr-1 from from the inversion models. The average of the three methods is -613.5 Tg C yr-1. The methane emission is estimated separately at 41.4 TgC yr-1. These three methods agree well within their respective error bounds. There is thus good consistency between bottom up and top down methods. The forests of Russia primarily cause the net atmosphere to land flux ( -692 Tg C yr-1 from the LEA) with remarkable little interannual variability. It remains however remarkable that the three methods provide such close estimates (-615, -662, -554 TgCyr-1) for NBP, given the inherent uncertainties in all of the approaches. The lack of recent forest inventories, the few eddy covariance sites and associated uncertainty with upscaling and under sampling of concentrations for the inversions are among the prime causes of the uncertainty. The DGVMs suggest a much lower uptake at -91Tg C yr-1 and we argue that this is caused by a high estimate of heterotrophic respiration compared to other methods.

  4. Russia

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... to sunglint (mirror-like reflection of the Sun's rays by the water). The Amur River valley is a primary breeding ground for storks and ... About 20% of the Amur wetlands are protected by official conservation measures, but human development has converted large portions to ...

  5. Wildfire effects on biological properties of soils in forest-steppe ecosystems of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksimova, Ekaterina; Abakumov, Evgeny

    2013-04-01

    Forest fires are regularly repeating natural phenomenon that disturb natural balance between separate components of ecosystems and influence on the type of vegetation and dynamics of plant communities. The soil, as a basic component of forest ecosystems, is affected by different impacts of wildfires. Independently of a type and intensity of a fire the plant cover and a upper soil horizon always burn. There is also a transformation of the top organo-mineral and mineral horizons of soils when it's strong influence of fire and full combustion of a laying. Complicated fire conditions in summer of 2010 were caused by extreme climatic effects and low precipitations. The area of soils affected by wildfires assessed as more than 744 000 ha. Forest fires have occupied Moscow, Yekaterinburg, Kaluga, Pskov, Samara and many other regions. The critical situation in the Samarskaya region around Togliatti city results in huge soil dergradation in forest-steppe pine forests. The analytical data obtained shows that wildfires lead to serious changes in a soil profile. The most intensive were the processes of humus losses that result from burning of a forest floor and sod (humic) horizon. Wildfires change a chemical composition of laying and raise their ash-content. Fires lead to increase of biogenic elements' content in the upper horizon - P and K. The content of phosphorus and potassium in 2011 decreased as a result of carrying out with an atmospheric precipitation. Thus, when it is burning the top horizons the ashes arriving on a surface of the soil enrich it with nutrients. Moreover, there is an increase of the calcium content. Calcium provides alkaline reaction of the top horizons. But the next year the content of calcium in upper soil horizons decreased. The soil unaffected by fire is characterized by the greatest content of soil microbial biomass in the top horizon and, respectively, the bigger index of bazal respiration whereas a reduction of both parameters is noted on

  6. Education Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaked, Haim

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, several cities in Israel have labeled themselves "Education Cities," concentrating on education as their central theme. Employing qualitative techniques, this article aims to describe, define, and conceptualize this phenomenon as it is being realized in three such cities. Findings show that Education Cities differ from…

  7. Urban Air Pollution in Russia: Observations and Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skorokhod, Andrey; Elansky, Nikolai; Lavrova, Olga; Pankratova, Natalia; Belikov, Igor; Falaleeva, Victoria; Mel'nikova, Irina; Remizov, Andrey; Sitnikova, Irina

    2013-04-01

    Urban air pollution is actual topic because of its influence on air quality and climate processes on both regional and global scale. There is a lack of up-to-date information about real state of air quality in Russian cities because of very few contemporary observations. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics possesses significant database of automated measurements of air composition including data of train-based TROICA experiments in 1995-2010 as well as permanent observations in Moscow since 2002. In general numerous crosses of about 100 urban settlements of different size and location have been performed that allowed us to compose detailed pattern of urban air pollution in Russia nowadays. All cities were separated at three groups: megacities (more then 500 000 citizens), middle cities (50 000-500 000 citizens) and little cities (less then 50 000 citizens). Each urban settlement has been divided into railway station area, urban zone and city (or town) surroundings. Concentrations of main polluting gases (NO, NO2, CO, SO2, NMHC, O3) and aerosols have been averaged for each settlement as well as for each group of urban settlements for day and night, and for winter and summer. Main features of air urban pollution in Russia are presented. Variations of main pollutants including anthropogenic VOCs because of daytime and seasons, as well as temperature vertical structure are studied. Concentrations of O3, CO, SO2 and NMHC are usually below MPC level. NO2 is often enhanced especially near auto-roads. In general, polluting gases have greater concentrations in winter time due to heating and stronger temperature inversions. Particulate matter is likely to be the most persistent pollutant that determines more than 90% of pollution cases. Strong pollution cases are often caused by extraordinary situations like fires, industrial pollution under unfavorable meteorological conditions. High ozone photochemical generation is quite rare. Spatial pollution structure is usually

  8. Fires in Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Numerous thermal anomalies were detected on the Kamchatka Peninsula in northeastern Russia in late June and early July by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Some of the anomalies (red dots) were fires, but at least one was the result of ongoing volcanic activity at one of the Peninsula's numerous active volcanoes. The erupting volcano, called Sheveluch, can be seen most clearly in the image from July 8, 2002. It is located in the upper right quadrant of the image, and appears as a grayish circular patch amid the surrounding green vegetation. In its center is a red dot indicating that MODIS detected a thermal signature coming from the restless volcano. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  9. Quo Vadis?: Russia's health challenges.

    PubMed

    Marquez, Patricio V

    2011-01-01

    The roots of the health crisis in the Russian Federation are not entirely, or even primarily, in the state of the health care system. High levels of mortality and morbidity, particularly among working-age males, reflect many other factors that transcend the health system as they are related to the aging of the population, growing urbanization, lifestyles and risky behaviours. Spending more money on healthcare, while necessary, will not be sufficient to improve Russia's health outcomes on a sustainable basis. A multisectoral strategy is required, coupled with increased health expenditures and structural reforms to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of healthcare organization, financing and service delivery. However, it should be clear that improving health outcomes is a complex, medium- to long-term undertaking that should be addressed forcefully by the government at the federal and regional levels as a priority social objective. PMID:22073879

  10. Nuclear weapons and NATO-Russia relations

    SciTech Connect

    Cornwell, G.C.

    1998-12-01

    Despite the development of positive institutional arrangements such as Russian participation in the NATO-led peacekeeping force in Bosnia and the NATO- Russia Permanent Joint Council, the strategic culture of Russia has not changed in any fundamental sense. Russian strategic culture has not evolved in ways that would make Russian policies compatible with those of NATO countries in the necessary economic, social, technological, and military spheres. On the domestic side, Russia has yet to establish a stable democracy and the necessary legal, judicial, and regulatory institutions for a free-market economy. Russia evidently lacks the necessary cultural traditions, including concepts of accountability and transparency, to make these adaptations in the short-term. Owing in part to its institutional shortcomings, severe socioeconomic setbacks have afflicted Russia. Russian conventional military strength has been weakened, and a concomitant reliance by the Russians on nuclear weapons as their ultimate line of defense has increased. The breakdown in the infrastructure that supports Russian early warning and surveillance systems and nuclear weapons stewardship defense, coupled with a tendency towards has exacerbated Russian anxiety and distrust toward NATO. Russia`s reliance on nuclear weapons as the ultimate line of defense, coupled with a tendency toward suspicion and distrust toward NATO, could lead to dangerous strategic miscalculation and nuclear catastrophe.

  11. Russia's energy policy: A framing comment

    SciTech Connect

    Aslund, A.

    2006-05-15

    A prominent specialist on the Russian economy provides a framing comment on two preceding papers entitled 'Russia's Energy Policy' (by Vladimir Milov, Leonard Coburn, and Igor Danchenko) and 'Russia's Energy Policy: A Divergent View' (by Matthew J. Sagers). The author argues that Russia's current energy policy should be viewed as an outcome of competition between three overlapping programs. In this context, he identifies three policy models - the old Soviet, the liberal or oligarchic, and the most recent state capitalist. The latter is currently supported by President Putin, who prioritizes diversification of the country's economy at the expense of diminished investments in the oil and gas sector.

  12. Whole-Genome Sequence of Mycobacterium bovis BCG-1 (Russia)

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez Figueroa, M.; Levi, D.; Markelov, M.; Dedkov, V.; Aleksandrova, N.; Shipulin, G.

    2015-01-01

    BCG vaccine (Mycobacterium bovis BCG-1 [Russia]) is the most important component of tuberculosis prophylaxis in Russia. This study represents the complete genome sequence and genetic characteristics of M. bovis BCG-1 (Russia), which has been used to manufacture BCG vaccine in Russia and in some other countries. PMID:26564042

  13. US sanctions on Russia hit ITER council

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clery, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    The ITER fusion experiment has had to bow to the impact of US sanctions against Russia and move the venue of its council meeting, scheduled for 18-19 June, from St Petersburg to the project headquarters in Cadarache, France.

  14. The Social Position of Schoolteachers in Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Il'in, V. A.; Shabunova, A. A.; Leonidova, G. V.

    2013-01-01

    Research on the teaching profession in Russia shows that teachers are characterized by low pay and low prestige. There is an urgent need to change this situation if the modernization and innovative development of Russian society are to be achieved.

  15. Outreach and educational activities in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gritsevich, M.; Kartashova, A.

    2012-09-01

    We present an overview of the major internal as well as international meetings and events held in Russia and dedicated to the integration, development and expanding of knowledge in Planetary Research. The report is complemented by the Europlanet activities in Russia over the last year, achieved goals and lessons learned. Additionally, we highlight current problems and possible future improvements to the present educational and outreach techniques.

  16. Enterprise systems in Russia: 1992-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataev, Michael Yu; Bulysheva, Larisa A.; Emelyanenko, Alexander A.; Emelyanenko, Vladimir A.

    2013-05-01

    This paper introduces the enterprise systems (ES) development and implementation in Russia in the past three decades. Historic analysis shows that, in terms of time frame, the development of ACS (Automated Control Systems) in the former Soviet Union and the ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) in the West was almost parallel. In this paper, the current status and the major trend of ES in Russia is discussed.

  17. US DOE International energy policy on Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Gale, B.G.

    1996-04-01

    This report describes the importance of the United States Department of Energy`s (US DOE) International Energy Policy to Russia. Key objectives identified include the support of the transition to democracy and a market based economy. The U.S.interests at stake, importance of energy to Russia, key institutional mechanism, energy-policy committee, joint energy activities, and the key to the success of other U.S. policy are discussed.

  18. Why Russia is not a state

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, J.E.

    1993-08-16

    This article makes two principal points. First the author argues that the Russian federation has never been a state and is not sustainable as a state. Four centrifugal indicators are presented to support this claim: ethnic divisiveness; uncertainty about the legitimacy of Russia`s current borders; competing claims for legitimacy on the part of federal and regional leaders; and army units` unpredictable allegiances. Second, she argues that Soviet policies intended to facilitate central control of the periphery had the perverse effect of creating ethnic identity and demands for national autonomy where, in many cases, they did not exist prior to the Communist regime. Following the introduction, part one briefly reviews the concepts of state, nation, and nationalism and the roles they play in Russia. Criteria for state-hood are discussed. Part two lists the main ethnic groups in Russia and considers the roots of ethnic nationalism in the Russian Federation. Part three discusses confusion over the legitimacy of the physical, economic, and political boundaries of the Russian Federation. Part four discusses political disarray in the center and the regions and the lack of unity among order-enforcing entities. The Volga-Ural region -- where there is a large concentration of nuclear weapons and facilities, and which is especially volatile politically -- is discussed in somewhat more detail. Part five argues that these factors taken together call into question Russia`s identity as a state. The author concludes that Russia remains a multi-ethnic empire in which the rule of law is still not supreme.

  19. [Palivizumab: four seasons in Russia].

    PubMed

    Baranov, A A; Ivanov, D O; Aliamovskaia, G A; Amirova, V R; Antoniuk, I V; Asmolova, G A; Beliaeva, I A; Bokeria, E L; Briukhanova, O A; Vinogradova, I V; Vlasova, E V; Galustian, A N; Gafarova, G V; Gorev, V V; Davydova, I V; Degtiarev, D N; Degtiareva, E A; Dolgikh, V V; Donits, I M; Zakharova, N I; Zernova, L Iu; Zimina, E P; Zuev, V V; Keshishian, E S; Kovalev, I A; Koltunov, I E; Korsunskiĭ, A A; Krivoshchekov, E V; Krsheminskaia, I V; Kuznetsova, S N; Liubimenko, V A; Namazova-Baranova, L S; Nesterenko, É V; Nikolaev, S V; Ovsiannikov, D Iu; Pavlova, T I; Potapova, M V; Rychkova, L V; Safarov, A A; Safina, A I; Skachkova, M A; Soldatova, I G; Turti, T V; Filatova, N A; Shakirova, R M; Ianulevich, O S

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, the Russian Federation (RF) registered palivizumab--innovative drug, based on monoclonal antibodies for passive immunization of seasonal respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in children of disease severe progress risk group, which include primarily premature infants, children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia and hemodynamically significant congenital heart disease. Currently, palivizumab is included in the list of recommended medicines and medical care standards of different countries, including Russia. In the review the results of Russian research on the progress of RSV infection, its epidemiology and immunization experience gained over the 2010-2014 period are summarized in relation to the foreign data. During the four epidemic seasons palivizumab immunization covered more than 3,200 children of severe RSV infection risk group with a progressive annual increase in the number of patients who received the drug. Geography of palivizumab immunization is also greatly expanded in our country during this time. If during the first two seasons measures of immunization were taken mainly in Moscow and St. Petersburg, at the present time, thirty one territorial entities of the Russian Federation have the experience in the drug application. Analysis of the results of RSV infection immunization (made in several regions) confirms the high clinical efficacy and palivizumab safety already demonstrated in international studies. In addition, the analysis presents the potential to improve the efficiency of the integrated RSV infection immunization programs, realizing in the establishment of high-risk child group register, adequate counseling for parents, as well as the development of the routing of patients and coordination of interaction between different health institutions during the immunization. PMID:25563005

  20. Shiveluch Volcano, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    On the night of June 4, 2001, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) captured this thermal image of the erupting Shiveluch volcano. Located on Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula, Shiveluch rises to an altitude of 2,447 meters (8,028 feet). The active lava dome complex is seen as a bright (hot) area on the summit of the volcano. To the southwest, a second hot area is either a debris avalanche or hot ash deposit. Trailing to the west is a 25-kilometer (15-mile) ash plume, seen as a cold 'cloud' streaming from the summit. At least 60 large eruptions have occurred here during the last 10,000 years; the largest historical eruptions were in 1854 and 1964.

    Because Kamchatka is located along the major aircraft routes between North America/Europe and Asia, this area is constantly monitored for potential ash hazards to aircraft. The area is part of the 'Ring of Fire,' a string of volcanoes that encircles the Pacific Ocean.

    The lower image is the same as the upper, except it has been color-coded: red is hot, light greens to dark green are progressively colder, and gray/black are the coldest areas.

    The image is located at 56.7 degrees north latitude, 161.3 degrees east longitude.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched Dec. 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

  1. Space Biology in Russia Today

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoriev, Anatoly; Sychev, Vladimir; Ilyin, Eugene

    At present space biology research in Russia is making significant progress in several areas of high priority. Gravitational biology. In April-May 2013, a successful 30-day flight of the biological satellite (biosatellite) Bion-M1 was conducted, which carried rodents (mice and gerbils), geckos, fish, mollusks, crustaceans, microorganisms, insects, lower and higher plants, seeds, etc. The investigations were performed by Russian scientists as well as by researchers from NASA, CNES, DLR and South Korea. Foton-M4 carrying various biological specimens is scheduled to launch in 2014. Work has begun to develop science research programs to be implemented onboard Bion-M2 and Bion-M3 as well as on high apogee recoverable spacecraft. Study of the effects of microgravity on the growth and development of higher plants cultivated over several generations on the International Space Station (ISS) has been recently completed. Space radiobiology. Regular experiments aimed at investigating the effects of high-energy galactic cosmic rays on the animal central nervous system and behavior are being carried out using the Particle Accelerator in the town of Dubna. Biological (environmental) life support systems. In recent years, experiments have been performed on the ISS to upgrade technologies of plant cultivation in microgravity. Advanced greenhouse mockups have been built and are currentlyundergoing bioengineering tests. Technologies of waste utilization in space are being developed. Astrobiology experiments in orbital missions. In 2010, the Biorisk experiment on bacterial and fungal spores, seeds and dormant forms of organisms was completed. The payload containing the specimens was installed on the exterior wall of the ISS and was exposed to outer space for 31 months. In addition, Bion-M1 also carried seeds, bacterial spores and microbes that were exposed to outer space effects. The survival rate of bacterial spores incorporated into man-made meteorites, that were attached to the

  2. Patterns of suicide mortality in Russia.

    PubMed

    Pridemore, William Alex; Spivak, Andrew L

    2003-01-01

    While Russia perennially has one of the highest suicide rates in the world, researchers had little access to valid data during the Soviet era to examine this issue. Transparency increased following the dissolution of the USSR, and this article employs newly available vital statistics data to describe the demographic, temporal, and spatial patterns of suicide in Russia. The discussion reveals that suicide mortality in Russia is among the highest in the world and is more than three times higher than in the United States; exhibited radical changes between 1984 and 1994; varies widely within the country, with a general increase in rates from west to east; and is highest among working-age males. PMID:12882415

  3. Shaded Relief, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This topographic image shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. The data are from the first C-band mapping swath of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). On the left side are four rivers, which flow northwest to the Sea of Okhotsk. These rivers are, from the south to north, Tigil, Amanina, Voyampolka, and Zhilovaya. The broad, flat floodplains of the rivers are shown in blue. These rivers are important spawning grounds for salmon. In the right side of the image is the Sredinnyy Khrebet, the volcanic mountain range that makes up the 3spine2 of the peninsula. The cluster of hills to the lower right is a field of small dormant volcanoes. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists to study how volcanoes form and understand the hazards posed by future eruptions.

    This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest elevations. This image contains about 2300 meters (7500 feet) of total relief. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and

  4. Sredinnyy Khrebet, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Russia is shown in this scene created from a preliminary elevation model derived from the first data collected during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) on February 12, 2000. Sredinnyy Khrebet, the mountain range that makes up the spine of the peninsula, is a chain of active volcanic peaks. Pleistocene and recent glaciers have carved the broad valleys and jagged ridges that are common here. The relative youth of the volcanism is revealed by the topography as infilling and smoothing of the otherwise rugged terrain by lava, ash, and pyroclastic flows, particularly surrounding the high peaks in the south central part of the image. Elevations here range from near sea level up to 2,618 meters (8,590 feet). Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow, red, and magenta, to white at the highest elevations. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space

  5. Perspective View, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. The data are from the first C-band mapping swath of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). In the foreground is the broad, flat floodplain of the Amanina River, shown in blue. In background of the image is the Sredinnyy Khrebet, the volcanic mountain range that makes up the 3spine2 of the peninsula. The cluster of hills in the upper right is a field of small dormant volcanoes. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists to study how volcanoes form and understand the hazards posed by future eruptions.

    This shaded relief perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest elevations. This image contains about 2300 meters (7500 feet) of total relief. To emphasize subtle differences in topography, the relief is exaggerated by a factor of 5.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the

  6. TB an epidemic in Russia's prisons.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    Over 100,000 prisoners are infected with tuberculosis (TB) in Russia, which has the highest incarceration rate in the world. Drug-resistant TB is found in thousands of inmates, and approximately 20,000 have died from it within the past 2 years. Although the country now has 50 centers for TB-infected prisoners, many are not being cured because of medicine shortages and failure to complete treatment. Up to 25 percent of TB infections found in Russian jails are multi-drug resistant, as opposed to 4 percent in Russia's general population and under 2 percent in the United States. PMID:11367347

  7. United States/Russia Space Cooperation Documentary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This video documents the initiative to develop a multinational, permanent space research laboratory. Historical background on the U.S. and Soviet manned space flight program as well as joint efforts such as the Apollo-Soyuz link up is shown. The current initiative will begin with collaborative missions involving NASA's space shuttle and Russia's Mir space station, and culminate in a permanently manned space station involving the U.S., Russia, Japan, Canada, and ESA. Shown are computer simulations of the proposed space station. Commentary is provided by the NASA administrator, former astronauts, cosmonauts, and Russian and American space experts.

  8. Mexico City

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-18

    ... Mexico City has one of the world's most serious air pollution problems. The city is located atop a high plain at an altitude of ... as the orange and red areas, and mountainous areas appear light blue and green. The position of the clouds within the 70-degree image are ...

  9. City Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dargan, Amanda; Zeitlin, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Today, fewer city blocks preserve the confidence of lifestyle and urban geography that sustain traditional games and outdoor play. Large groups of children choosing sides and organizing Red Rover games are no longer commonplace. Teachers must encourage free play; urban planners must build cities that are safe play havens. (MLH)

  10. Chinese Students in the Higher Educational Institutions of Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aref'ev, A. L.

    2012-01-01

    There has been an increase in the number of students from China studying in Russia, but still less than 2 percent of Chinese who study abroad do so in Russia. A third of these students would not encourage others to do so, on the grounds that educational conditions are not good and that they feel unwelcome in Russia. Most of these students…

  11. Smoke and Clouds over Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Several mountain ranges and a portion of the Amur River are visible in this set of MISR images of Russia's far east Khabarovsk region. The images were acquired on May 13, 2001 during Terra orbit 7452. The view from MISR's 70-degree forward-looking camera is at the top left; the 26-degree forward-looking view is at the top right. The larger image at the bottom is a stereo 'anaglyph' created using the cameras at two intermediate angles. To view the stereo image in 3-D you need red/blue glasses with the red filter placed over your left eye. All of the images are oriented with north to the left to facilitate stereo viewing. Each image covers an area about 345 kilometers x 278 kilometers.

    The Amur River, in the upper right, and Lake Bolon, at the top center, are most prominent in the 26-degree view due to sunglint (mirror-like reflection of the Sun's rays by the water). The Amur River valley is a primary breeding ground for storks and cranes and a stopover for large numbers of migratory birds. About 20% of the Amur wetlands are protected by official conservation measures, but human development has converted large portions to agricultural uses. Other notable features in these images are several mountain chains, including the Badzhal'skiy to the left of center and the Bureiskiy in the lower left.

    Smoke plumes from several forest fires can be seen. They are especially apparent in the 70-degree view where the smoke's visibility is accentuated, in part, by the long slant path through the atmosphere. The largest plumes are in the lower left and upper right, with some smaller plumes above and to the right of the image centers. In the upper images the hazy region in the vicinity of these smaller plumes has the appearance of low-altitude smoke, but depth perception provided by the stereo anaglyph shows that it is actually a distinct layer of high-altitude cirrus clouds. Whether the cirrus is related to the fires is uncertain. It is possible, however, for the fires have

  12. National Identity of High-School Adolescents in an Era of Socio-Economic Change: Russia and Ukraine in the Post-Perestroika Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tartakovsky, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the national identity of high-school adolescents in Russia and Ukraine in the post-perestroika period. Adolescents studying in public high schools in 12 medium-size and large cities completed questionnaires in 1999 (n = 468) and 2007 (n = 646). Russian adolescents consistently reported a more positive attitude towards their…

  13. The Experience of a Distance Learning Organization in a Private Higher Educational Institution in the Republic of Tatarastan (Russia): From Idea to Realization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akhmetova, Daniya; Vorontsova, Liliya; Morozova, Ilona Gennadyevna

    2013-01-01

    The article is devoted to the unique experience of distance learning development in the conditions of Russian reality. The model of distance learning in the Institute of Economics, Management and Law (Kazan city, Russia) is created on the basis of educational sphere diagnosis taking into account foreign and Russian experience. The specificity of…

  14. Mapping Russia: Geographic and Cultural Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khachikian, Arthur

    For people living in the 20th century, Russia has been associated with images of communism, the Bolshevik Revolution, totalitarian regimes and leaders, and the fears and stereotypes of the Cold War era. The dissolution of the Soviet Union, the end of the Cold War, and the liberal revolutions of the 1980s-1990s have provided an opportunity to…

  15. Life-Threatening Sochi Virus Infections, Russia.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Detlev H; Tkachenko, Evgeniy A; Morozov, Vyacheslav G; Yunicheva, Yulia V; Pilikova, Olga M; Malkin, Gennadiy; Ishmukhametov, Aydar A; Heinemann, Patrick; Witkowski, Peter T; Klempa, Boris; Dzagurova, Tamara K

    2015-12-01

    Sochi virus was recently identified as a new hantavirus genotype carried by the Black Sea field mouse, Apodemus ponticus. We evaluated 62 patients in Russia with Sochi virus infection. Most clinical cases were severe, and the case-fatality rate was as high as 14.5%. PMID:26584463

  16. Life-Threatening Sochi Virus Infections, Russia

    PubMed Central

    Tkachenko, Evgeniy A.; Morozov, Vyacheslav G.; Yunicheva, Yulia V.; Pilikova, Olga M.; Malkin, Gennadiy; Ishmukhametov, Aydar A.; Heinemann, Patrick; Witkowski, Peter T.; Klempa, Boris; Dzagurova, Tamara K.

    2015-01-01

    Sochi virus was recently identified as a new hantavirus genotype carried by the Black Sea field mouse, Apodemus ponticus. We evaluated 62 patients in Russia with Sochi virus infection. Most clinical cases were severe, and the case-fatality rate was as high as 14.5%. PMID:26584463

  17. Building Bridges: Miami "Ambassadors" Visit Russia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood, Toni Fuss

    2001-01-01

    Describes a three-week exchange program where William H. Turner Technical Arts High School (Miami, Florida) students participated in the U.S./Russian student exchange program. Focuses on the students' stereotypes before the trip and their interview comments following the trip about the hardships in Russia. (CMK)

  18. An Overview of Teacher Education in Russia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, William E.

    This paper describes the experience of an educational psychologist who completed a Fulbright Lectureship at Moscow State Pedagogical University in Russia during April and May of 1993. The chaotic situation brought about by the dramatic and rapid changes that have taken place since the collapse of the Soviet Union has resulted in hyperinflation,…

  19. Environmental Education for Sustainable Development in Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasimov, N. S.; Malkhazova, S. M.; Romanova, E. P.

    2005-01-01

    The conceptual underpinning and the organizational structure of the existing system of higher environmental education in Russia are analysed. The system, embracing 129 universities, has been created in the last 10 years. At present there is a shift from general environmental education to education for sustainable development. The new system is…

  20. Child Care in Russia: In Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ispa, Jean

    With the advent of "perestroika" and "glasnost," Russian childcare and education underwent a transitional period in practice and theory. Contrasting impressions from an earlier visit under the Communist regime, this book describes the experiences of Jean Ispa in her travels to Russia, observing children in six child care centers. Interviews are…

  1. 77 FR 12880 - Uranium From Russia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... on July 1, 2011 (76 FR 38694) and determined on October 4, 2011 that it would conduct an expedited review (76 FR 64107, October 17, 2011). The Commission transmitted its determination in this review to... COMMISSION Uranium From Russia Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject...

  2. 76 FR 47238 - Ammonium Nitrate From Russia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ...)). Background The Commission instituted this review on March 1, 2011 (76 FR 11273) and determined on June 6, 2011 that it would conduct an expedited review (76 FR 34749, June 14, 2011). The Commission transmitted... COMMISSION Ammonium Nitrate From Russia Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the...

  3. 76 FR 11273 - Ammonium Nitrate From Russia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ... nitrate from Russia (71 FR 17080). The Commission is now conducting a second review to determine whether... recently amended at 74 FR 2847 (January 16, 2009). \\1\\ No response to this request for information is... (65 FR 37759, June 16, 2000). Following five-year reviews by Commerce and the Commission,...

  4. The Health Sciences Library Network in Russia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Accart, Jean-Philippe

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of libraries in Russia focuses on science and medical libraries. Topics addressed include historical background; library science education; a consortium formed to build national databases and disseminate information; producers of scientific and medical information; international cooperation; interlibrary loans; the Russian Medical…

  5. Libraries at "the End of Russia."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronayne, Betty

    2000-01-01

    Describes the library at Far Eastern State Technical University in Vladivostok (Russia) based on a visit that was part of a collaborative project with California State University, Sacramento. Highlights include staffing; problems with funding, space, and technology; library collections in the Department of World Politics and Law; and the nearby…

  6. Promoting sustainable energy strategies in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, R.K.

    1995-12-31

    Enormous structural changes are taking place in the economy of Russia. It is important that vital sectors of the economy undergo a smooth transition from a centrally-planned paradigm to a more market-oriented structure. Introducing market-oriented-institutional structures and energy planning approaches to Russian utilities can facilitate the transition to the market and allow them to become vehicles for change rather than mere witnesses. As real electricity prices increase relative to other prices, a significant industrial restructuring can be expected, with an accompanying reduction of energy consumption. By developing programs to help industry become more energy-efficiency, the electricity sector can play a central role in Russia`s economic recovery. A robust energy sector will be in a much better position to lead other sectors of the economy toward market-oriented solutions to the present economic crisis. Because of the magnitude of the task of recreating an economy for one of the world`s superpowers, institutional restructuring should take place incrementally. The transition of US utilities from a {open_quotes}build-and-grow{close_quotes} paradigm to one of Integrated Resource Planning (IRP) and subsequently to a hybrid of competition and IRP began and is continuing on the state and regional level. Local success stories on the West Coast and New England persuaded other states to adopt these methods. This strategy could also prove to be very effective in regions of Russia that are served by integrated electricity grids, such as the South Russia Power pool (Yuzhenergo) that serves the North Caucasus region. As the Russian energy system currently undergoes change, simultaneously privatizing and restructuring, these issues will be largely decided within the next two years. One of the greatest challenges involves implementing an environmentally sustainable strategy which ensures that energy efficiency and renewable energy are incorporated into the new structure.

  7. [Labor migration to Russia from nearby countries].

    PubMed

    Krasinets, E; Barinova, N

    1996-01-01

    According to official data the unemployment rate in the Russian Federation at the end of the first half of 1995 reached 5.7 million people, or 7.6% of the economically active population. At the present time [1996] the proportion of potentially unemployed people ranges from 13% to 17% of the economically active population. During 1993-95, in the whole economy of Russia, the number of vacancies fluctuated between 320,000 and 400,000. Moreover, in the first quarter of 1995 an increase of manpower needs by 14% was observed compared to the first quarter of 1994. In the first half of 1995 the manpower needs increased to 311,000-400,000 people, or 43.1%. As far as the regional distribution of available jobs was concerned, one-fifth of them was located in the Urals and western Siberia and about one-third in the central region. In order to protect the labor market for Russian natives, in December 1993 a presidential decree was issued. At the end of 1994 the number of foreign workers in Russia numbered 128,999 people, of which 73,695 (58.9%) came from adjacent countries bordering Russia. Experts ascertained that these foreign workers provided higher qualifications: 47.2% were better qualified than the local work force, 75% were more productive, and 83.2% were more disciplined. The labor migration in Russia during the 1990s will depend on the demographic and socioeconomic changes in the newly independent states of the former Soviet Union and the composition of the labor market, as well as measures taken in Russia concerning immigration policy. It is estimated that in the coming years the annual number of foreign workers would equal 110,000-130,000 people, and if quotas are set up by mutual agreement the number could grow two- to three-fold compared to the figure of 1994. PMID:12294931

  8. An annotated checklist of the Chilopoda and Diplopoda (Myriapoda) of the Abrau Peninsula, northwestern Caucasus, Russia

    PubMed Central

    Semenyuk, Irina I.; Tuf, Ivan H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The Abrau Peninsula is located in northwestern Caucasus between the cities of Novorossiysk and Anapa, Krasnodar Province, Russia. This paper contains an annotated checklist of the Chilopoda and Diplopoda inhabiting the Abrau Peninsula. New information The fauna of the Abrau Peninsula comprises 17 centipede (4 orders) and 16 millipede (6 orders) species. Henia taurica, hitherto known only from the Crimea, has now been reported from several localities in the studied region. The study also reveals two possibly new millipede species. Statistical analyses showed that habitat preferences of myriapod species within the Abrau Peninsula are caused by species geographic distribution pattern and microbiotope preferences. PMID:27346949

  9. Geothermal resources and energy complex use in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svalova, V.

    2009-04-01

    Geothermal energy use is the perspective way to clean sustainable development of the world. Russia has rich high and low temperature geothermal resources and makes good steps in their use. In Russia the geothermal resources are used predominantly for heat supply both heating of several cities and settlements on Northern Caucasus and Kamchatka with a total number of the population 500000. Besides in some regions of country the deep heat is used for greenhouses of common area 465000 m2. Most active the hydrothermal resources are used in Krasnodar territory, Dagestan and on Kamchatka. The approximately half of extracted resources is applied for heat supply of habitation and industrial puttings, third - to a heating of greenhouses, and about 13 % - for industrial processes. Besides the thermal waters are used approximately on 150 health resorts and 40 factories on bottling mineral water. The most perspective direction of usage of low temperature geothermal resources is the use of heat pumps. This way is optimal for many regions of Russia - in its European part, on Ural and others. The electricity is generated by some geothermal power plants (GeoPP) only in the Kamchatka Peninsula and Kuril Islands. At present three stations work in Kamchatka: Pauzhetka GeoPP (11MW e installed capacity) and two Severo-Mutnovka GeoPP ( 12 and 50 MWe). Moreover, another GeoPP of 100 MVe is now under preparation in the same place. Two small GeoPP are in operation in Kuril's Kunashir Isl, and Iturup Isl, with installed capacity of 2,б MWe and 6 MWe respectively. There are two possible uses of geothermal resources depending on structure and properties of thermal waters: heat/power and mineral extraction. The heat/power direction is preferable for low mineralized waters when valuable components in industrial concentration are absent, and the general mineralization does not interfere with normal operation of system. When high potential geothermal waters are characterized by the high

  10. [Moscow Semenov cemetery--a monument of military glory of Russia].

    PubMed

    Maksimov, I B; Medvedev, G A; Smirnova, A G; Ovchinnikova, M B

    2012-03-01

    Until recently, beyond the attention of the public and the scientific community remains the question of memorializatsii once existed in Moscow, a large-scale military burial--Semenov military cemetery. This cemetery was not associated with any one war, and actually covered several periods of military history of Russia. Today, this place can be perceived as a symbol of Russia's military prowess, as a unique fraternal burial of soldiers of different generations. Today, thanks to the initiative of the public, the Chief Military Clinical Hospital. N.N. Burdenko Institute of History and Archives State Humanitarian University, the Union of Russian ethnographers, with the support of the Prefecture of HLW in Moscow and the district council "Falcon Hill" is working on giving the territory of the park, located in the cemeteries of Semenov, the status of places of interest here in order to create a military memorial. August 25, 2011 there was established the foundation stone of the future memorial. Continued hard work to gather and organize archival materials on the history of the necropolis Semenov, developed the scientific and artistic vision for the future memorial site. Memorial, designed by leading Russian experts--historians, sculptors, architects, artists who will be able to enrich the historical and cultural heritage of the city, will preserve the historical continuity of the traditions of the military glory of Russia, to perpetuate the memory of generations of defenders of the Fatherland. PMID:22686034

  11. Russia clamps downs on data release

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-30

    This paper reports that Russia is stepping up enforcement of laws banning unauthorized release of detailed geological and geophysical data to foreign companies. But companies authorized to sell or license information about Russian minerals say the stricter oversight isn't affecting their activities. That's because the effort is intended to curb illegal sales of data by Russian regional organizations and federal agencies. In addition, Russia's state tax department and ministries of finance and justice are considering sanctions to be imposed for violations of lawful procedures. The added vigilance by Russian officials likely will help clear up confusion among foreign companies, resulting from vague laws and regulations, about how and from whom data may be obtained obtained legally.

  12. Dual scale trend analysis to evaluate climatic and anthropogenic effects on the vegetated land surface in agricultural Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Beurs, Kirsten; Henebry, Geoffrey

    2010-05-01

    Russia's population is projected to shrink by a staggering 29% by 2050. Differential dynamics among rural populations are correlated with ethnicity and constitute a key driver in the spatial disintegration of rural Russia. Currently, Russia is slowly transitioning into a country with an internal "archipelago" of islands of productive agriculture around cities set within a matrix of much less productive and abandoned croplands. This heterogeneous spatial pattern is mainly driven by depopulation of the least favorable parts of the countryside, where "least favorable" is some function of lower fertility of land, higher remoteness from urban markets, or both. Our aim is to improve current understanding of the interactions of climate change and the spatio-temporal impacts of agricultural reform in European Russia. We present a dual scale trend analysis to characterize change in agricultural European Russia. We selected a global NASA MODIS product (MCD43C4 and MCD43A4) at a 0.05° (~5.6 km) and 500m spatial resolution and a 16-day temporal resolution from 2000 through 2008. We applied a refinement of the Seasonal Kendal trend method to Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) image series at both scales. We only incorporated composites during the vegetative growing season which was delineated by start of season and end of season estimates based on analysis of Normalized Difference Infrared Index (NDII) data. Trend patterns revealed areas of increasing NDVI trend in Russia which was linked through the dual scale analysis with agricultural land cover change. The coarser scale analysis was relevant to atmospheric boundary layer processes, while the finer scale data revealed trends that were more relevant to human decision-making and regional economics. We evaluated the weather patterns and land surface phenologies for the areas with increasing NDVI over the past 9 years and compared the results with agricultural areas without change. This analysis improved our

  13. Food legislation and its harmonization in Russia.

    PubMed

    Shamtsyan, Mark

    2014-08-01

    Bringing Russian legislation into compliance with international norms and standards is necessary after its accession to the World Trade Organization. Harmonization of food legislation and of sanitary and phytosanitary measures are among the problems that had to be solved first. Many Russian food and trade regulations had been changed or are still in the process of being reformed, largely owing to a policy of integration pursued by the Customs Union of Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan. However, as a member of the Eurasian Economic Community, Russia is also engaged not only in harmonization throughout the Customs Union but also Kirgizstan and Tajikistan, and Armenia, Moldova and Ukraine as observer countries. Russia also continues to coordinate policy reforms closely with the European Union, its primary trade partner, ultimately bringing Russian food and sanitary norms closer to international standards (e.g. Codex). Today, all participants in the Russian food production chain, processing and sale of foods have to deal with growing numbers of security standards. Many organizations are certified under several schemes, which leads to unnecessary costs. Harmonization of standards has helped promote solutions in the domestic market as well as import-export of foods and raw materials for production. Priorities have included food safety for human health, consumer protection, removal of hazardous and/or adulterated products and increased competition within the domestic food market as well as mutual recognition of certification in bilateral and multilateral (inter)national agreements. PMID:23633268

  14. When did "scientific psychology" begin in Russia?

    PubMed

    Sirotkina, Irina

    2006-01-01

    The pattern of the institutionalisation of psychology in Russia was as complex as in other countries. The institutionalisation was more than a single event or even a series of events: it was a manifold process that involved various actors, groups, and political parties, and took at least several decades. Psychology was taught within the subject of philosophy, but as a separate course, at high schools, from the early nineteenth century. When, in mid-century, philosophy was banned from universities for political reasons, logic and psychology still remained in the curriculum. Psychology became a contested area in the 1860s, with the rise of the radical movement that accompanied the abolition of serfdom and other reforms. The young radicals, or nihilists, favoured positive science and gave clear preference to physiology; at medical schools, psychology gradually became part of physiology and psychiatry teaching. Psychiatric clinics provided a venue for the first psychological experiments; the first courses in experimental psychology were also taught to psychiatry students. At the turn of the century, humanities departments joined in by opening laboratories and adding courses in experimental psychology to the philosophical psychology traditionally taught. Yet by 1917, the year when the monarchy ended in Russia, only two universities, in Moscow and Odessa, had succeeded in founding laboratories. The institutionalisation of psychology on a mass scale followed the Bolshevik revolution in Russia. The new communist regime facilitated the country's modernisation, and psychology became one of its instruments. PMID:19569437

  15. City 2020+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, C.; Buttstädt, M.; Merbitz, H.; Sachsen, T.; Ketzler, G.; Michael, S.; Klemme, M.; Dott, W.; Selle, K.; Hofmeister, H.

    2010-09-01

    This research initiative CITY 2020+ assesses the risks and opportunities for residents in urban built environments under projected demographic and climate change for the year 2020 and beyond, using the City of Aachen as a case study. CITY 2020+ develops scenarios, options and tools for planning and developing sustainable future city structures. We investigate how urban environment, political structure and residential behavior can best be adapted, with attention to the interactions among structural, political, and sociological configurations and with their consequences on human health. Demographers project that in the EU-25-States by 2050, approximately 30% of the population will be over age 65. Also by 2050, average tem¬peratures are projected to rise by 1 to 2 K. Combined, Europe can expect enhanced thermal stress and higher levels of particulate matter. CITY 2020+ amongst other sub-projects includes research project dealing with (1) a micro-scale assessment of blockages to low-level cold-air drainage flow into the city centre by vegetation and building structures, (2) a detailed analysis of the change of probability density functions related to the occurrence of heat waves during summer and the spatial and temporal structure of the urban heat island (UHI) (3) a meso-scale analysis of particulate matter (PM) concentrations depending on topography, local meteorological conditions and synoptic-scale weather patterns. First results will be presented specifically from sub-projects related to vegetation barriers within cold air drainage, the assessment of the UHI and the temporal and spatial pattern of PM loadings in the city centre. The analysis of the cold air drainage flow is investigated in two consecutive years with a clearing of vegetation stands in the beginning of the second year early in 2010. The spatial pattern of the UHI and its possible enhancement by climate change is addressed employing a unique setup using GPS devices and temperature probes fixed to

  16. City Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markle, Sandra

    1989-01-01

    This article provides information on the evolution of the building material, concrete, and suggests hands-on activities that allow students to experience concrete's qualities, test the heat absorbency of various ground surface materials, discover how an area's geology changes, and search for city fossils. A reproducible activity sheet is included.…

  17. Russia in the World Water Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bibikova, Tatiana; Koronkevich, Nikolay; Barabanova, Elena; Zaytseva, Irina

    2014-05-01

    The comparison of Russia and the countries of the former USSR with other countries of the world on various natural and anthropogenic characteristics, including those for water sector, has become more popular in recent years. At the same time, after the break-up of the Soviet Union there were significant changes in political, social and economic spheres on the territory of new formed countries, that influenced their water resources state. Such changes as well as other environmental changes may become even more significant in the future that predetermines the necessity of the profound study of the question, as all the conditions and changes still have not been fully explored. First of all, it concerns the economic crisis including water sector in the early 90's which has not been fully overcome until present time despite economic recovery in the last years of the twentieth century. Together with the changes in climatic conditions it caused perceptible changes in the river runoff on the territory of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus, countries which have much in common. As the result, peculiar conditions for the formation and usage of water resources on the territory of the former Soviet Union have been formed. The laboratory of hydrology of the Institute of Geography of Russian Academy of Sciences analysed the situation with water resources in the countries of the former Soviet Union, and the position of Russia in the global water industry. The comparison of changes in various water consumption characteristics of the states was made; the evaluation of influence of changing economic activity on the river flow and quality of waters was analysed; comparison by the availability of water resources, anthropogenic influence, efficiency of water use, with world characteristics was made. There were 19 countries selected, including the Post-Soviet states, which occupy 54% of land and form 56% of the world population. Among the compared parameters there were: availability of water

  18. "Russia and Europe"--The Fundamental Problem of Courses in the History of Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vul'fson, B. L.

    2009-01-01

    Russia is witnessing an unprecedented explosion of interest in its history. This is entirely understandable. In the Russians' desire to understand the profound changes going on in different areas of their lives they are attempting to look at the past with new eyes, because the past has merged with the present and to a large extent determines its…

  19. News of Education in Russia: [2010--The Year of the Schoolteacher in Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russian Education and Society, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This article presents statements by President Dmitry A. Medvedev at the meeting of the Council on the Implementation of Priority National Projects and Demographic Policy on the development of education, health care, and demography, and at the ceremony on the occasion of the launching of the Year of the Schoolteacher in Russia, held at the Russian…

  20. Natural factors of technological disasters in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, Elena

    2010-05-01

    More than 90 percent of disasters occurring in the Russian Federation are technological accidents and catastrophes, which account for nearly 80 percent of all the fatalities and affected people. A total of 1966 technological disasters and 152 natural ones occurred in Russia in 2008. In addition to technical, social, and economic causes of technological disasters, natural factors also play an essential role in triggering or magnifying them. A data base of technological disasters happened in Russia since 1992 has been created. More than 11,000 events are listed in the data base. New information is constantly being added to it. Occurrence time and location, a type of disaster, a number of people killed and affected, economic and ecological losses as well as a probable cause of every disaster are registered; its short description is also included. Using collected data a contribution of various natural hazards and phenomena to occurrence of technological disasters in Russia was assessed. Almost 5 percent of all technological disasters listed in the data base were triggered by natural processes. Natural factors caused the most part of accidents at power supply systems (72 percent), 11 percent of accidents at heat- and 9 percent at water supply systems; more than 10 percent of sudden collapses of buildings and mines as well as water accidents; 4.5 percent of pipeline ruptures, and 2 to 3 percent of air crashes, automobile and railway accidents. The majority of these technological disasters and accidents caused by natural factors were produced by windstorms and hurricanes (37 percent), snowfalls and snowstorms (27 percent), rainfalls (16 percent), hard frost and icy conditions of roads (12 percent), and thunderstorms (nearly 4 percent). Climate changes expected until the end of the century will have important consequences for frequency increasing and change in spatial distribution of technological disasters triggered by hydrometeorological phenomena. Increasing of

  1. Russia's energy policy, 1992-2005

    SciTech Connect

    Milov, V.; Coburn, L.L.; Danchenko, I.

    2006-05-15

    A team comprising a former Russian policymaker and American analysts of the current Russian energy policy examines the course of that policy and its limitations during the post-Soviet period. In the process, they critically analyze key problems in Russia's oil, gas, coal, and electricity sectors that represent a potential drag on growth of the entire Russian economy and at the very least call into question the sustainability of further increases in exports to the West. The authors explore in considerable depth and detail both the factors underlying the recent increase in government intervention in the energy sector and the likely consequences for domestic production, consumption, resource security, and critical exports.

  2. Space Radar Image of Baikal Lake, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an X-band black-and-white image of the forests east of the Baikal Forest in the Jablonowy Mountains of Russia. The image is centered at 52.5 degrees north latitude and 116 degrees east longitude near the mining town of Bukatschatscha. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 4, 1994, during the second flight of the spaceborne radar. This area is part of an international research project known as the Taiga Aerospace Investigation using Geographic Information System Applications.

  3. Russia, Ukraine and European security. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Blank, S.J.

    1993-05-20

    The author examines the problems connected with the presence of nuclear weapons in Ukraine and their impact on Russo-Ukrainian relations and European security. He analyzes the fears of both Russia and Ukraine, vis-a-vis each other, that have led to this situation and suggests ways out of the impasse for both states, and particularly for the United States. He examines how the present situation evolved and recommends a solution that contributes in peaceful fashion to all parties' interests.... Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START); Soviet Union/ Russian republic; Ukraine; Conventional and strategic deterrence; NATO; North Atlantic Cooperation Council.

  4. Soil cover patterns and SOC dynamics impacts on the soil processes, land management and ecosystem services in Central Region of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasenev, Ivan; Chernikov, Vladimir; Yashin, Ivan; Geraskin, Mikhail; Morev, Dmitriy

    2014-05-01

    In the Central Region of Russia (CRR) the soil cover patterns usually play the very important role in the soil forming and degradation processes (SFP & SDP) potential and current rates, soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics and pools, greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions and soluble SOC fluxes that we need take into attention for better assessment of the natural and especially man-changed ecosystems' services and for best land-use practices development. Central Region of Russia is the biggest one in RF according to its population and role in the economy. CRR is characterized by high spatial variability of soil cover due to as original landscape heterogeneity as complicated history of land-use practices during last 700 years. Our long-term researches include the wide zonal-provincial set of representative ecosystems and soil cover patterns with different types and history of land-use (forest, meadow-steppe and agricultural ones) from middle-taiga to steppe zones with different level of continentality. The carried out more than 30-years region- and local-scale researches of representative natural and rural landscapes in Tver', Yaroslavl', Kaluga, Moscow, Vladimir, Saransk (Mordovia), Kursk, Orel, Tambov, Voronezh and Saratov oblasts give us the interregional multi-factorial matrix of elementary soil cover patterns (ESCP) with different soil forming and degradation processes rates and soil organic carbon dynamics due to regionally specific soil-geomorphologic features, environmental and dominated microclimate conditions, land-use current practices and history. The validation and ranging of the limiting factors of SFP and SDP develop¬ment, soil carbon dynamics and sequestration potential, ecosystem (agroecosystem) principal services, land functional qualities and agroecological state have been done for dominating and most dynamical components of ESCP regional-typological forms - with application of SOC structure analysis, regional and local GIS, soil spatial patterns detail

  5. Soil cover patterns influence on the land environmental functions, agroecological quality, land-use and monitoring efficiency in the Central Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasenev, Ivan; Yashin, Ivan; Lukin, Sergey; Valentini, Riccardo

    2015-04-01

    First decades of XXI century actualized for soil researches the principal methodical problem of most modern geosciences: what spatial and temporal scale would be optimal for land quality evaluation and land-use practice optimizing? It is becoming obvious that this question cannot have one solution and have to be solved with especial attention on the features of concrete region and landscape, land-use history and practical issues, land current state and environmental functions, soil cover patterns and variability, governmental requirements and local society needs, best available technologies and their potential profitability. Central Russia is one of the most dynamical economic regions with naturally high and man-made complicated landscape and soil cover variability, long-term land-use history and self-contradictory issues, high potential of profitable farming and increased risks of land degradation. Global climate and technological changes essentially complicate the originally high and sharply increased in XX century farming land heterogeneity in the Central Russia that actualizes system analysis of its zonal, intra-zonal and azonal soil cover patterns according to their influence on land environmental functions, agroecological quality, and land-use and monitoring efficiency variability. Developed by the Laboratory of agroecological monitoring, ecosystem modeling & prediction (LAMP / RTSAU with support of RF Governmental projects #11.G34.31.0079 and #14.120.14.4266) regional systems of greenhouse gases environmental monitoring RusFluxNet (6 fixed & 1 mobile eddy covariance stations with zonal functional sets of key plots with chamber investigations in 5 Russian regions) and of agroecological monitoring (in representative key plots with different farming practice in 9 RF regions) allow to do this analysis in frame of enough representative regional multi-factorial matrix of soil cover patterns, bioclimatic conditions, landscape features, and land-use history and

  6. Problems of the Reproduction of Russia's Science Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voronin, Iu. M.

    2005-01-01

    Over the past ten years there have been signs in Russia of a dangerous widespread tendency to underrate the creation of a whole set of conditions necessary for expanded reproduction of the country's science potential. Russia has fallen farther and farther behind technologically, its ability to compete in the world markets of science-intensive…

  7. Adolescent Drunkenness: Perception of the Problem in Russia and Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rybakova, L. N.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol abuse in Russia among children is increasing, but programs to address this problem have not been adequately developed. The experience of other countries in equipping children to handle alcohol in a mature and safe way can be used as a basis for creating new programs in Russia.

  8. The Universities of Russia: Areas and Prospects of Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berdashkevich, A. P.

    2011-01-01

    The last two decades have seen a significant increase in university students in Russia, the growth of private and state-financed higher education, and the beginnings of a move to a national network of research institutions. The recent economic recession, however, poses a challenge to the continuance of current fee-based higher education in Russia.…

  9. Educational Changes in Russia. Bulletin, 1919, No. 37

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bach, Theresa

    1919-01-01

    In the press reports bearing upon conditions in Russia since the outbreak or the revolution in March, 1917, little mention has been made of the tremendous changes that have shaken the entire educational system in that country. One needs only read "Vyestnik Vremennavo Pravitelstva" ("Messenger of the Provisional Government"), Russia's official…

  10. Engineering and Technical Education in Russia, in Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aref'ev, A. L.; Aref'ev, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    An analysis of the main tendencies in the development of engineering and technical education in Russia during the last 100 years shows that earlier strengths have been lost, and that currently technical education in Russia is far behind modern world standards.

  11. 75 FR 35086 - Magnesium From China and Russia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... group responses to its notice of institution (75 FR 9252, March 1, 2010) were adequate.\\1\\ A record of... COMMISSION Magnesium From China and Russia AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... orders on magnesium from China and Russia. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it...

  12. Russia's Policy and Standing in Nanotechnology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terekhov, Alexander I.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I consider the historical stages of development of nanotechnology in Russia as well as the political framework for this. It is shown that early federal nanotechnology programs in Russia date back to the 1990s and that since the mid-2000s, nanotechnology has attracted the increasing attention of government. I characterize the…

  13. 77 FR 5770 - Energy Efficiency Trade Mission to Russia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ... International Trade Administration Energy Efficiency Trade Mission to Russia AGENCY: International Trade... Energy (DOE) are organizing an Energy Efficiency Trade Mission to Moscow and St. Petersburg on June 4-7... market for the sale of U.S. energy efficiency products and services. Russia presents...

  14. In Russia: Warm Schools in a Cold Climate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Kay

    1996-01-01

    Since 1993, groups of Connecticut high school students have had the opportunity to explore Russia firsthand, thanks to a program called "Linking Schools Through Language and Technology." Although Russia is an unstable society, schools visited by New Haven youngsters were cozy, child-centered beacons of continuity and tradition. Schools had a…

  15. 76 FR 15339 - Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-21

    ... its notice of institution (75 FR 74746, December 1, 2010) were adequate and that the respondent... COMMISSION Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... orders on solid urea from Russia and Ukraine. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it...

  16. Higher Education Reform in Russia: Democratization or Bureaucratization?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panfilova, T. V.

    2011-01-01

    Recent reforms have increased the level of administrative oversight, and also of interference of the structure and content of university education in Russia. This is leading to a weakening of Russian higher education. In this article, the author talks about the reform of the system of higher education in Russia and the bureaucratization of higher…

  17. 78 FR 55096 - Ferrosilicon from Russia and Venezuela

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ... publishing the notice in the Federal Register of July 25, 2013 (78 FR 44969). The conference was held in... COMMISSION Ferrosilicon from Russia and Venezuela Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... Russia and Venezuela of ferrosilicon, provided for in subheadings 7202.21.10, 7202.21.50,...

  18. Space Surveillance: United States, Russia, and China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidelmann, P. K.

    2012-06-01

    With the launch of Sputnik, the United States and Russia began the process of tracking artificial satellites. This led to developments for observations, orbit determination, and catalog maintenance. The two countries followed somewhat different approaches to the same problem based on the available hardware and theoretical developments. As more sophisticated hardware and theories have been developed, progress has been made. However, new problems have developed because of debris, collision possibilities, and reentering objects. In addition, the range of spacecraft has increased to include geosynchronous orbits. In more recent times the European Space Agency (ESA) and China have become involved in various aspects of Space Surveillance. In 1994, the first meeting between United States and Russian experts in the field of space surveillance was held. Since then, seven more US Russia Space Surveillance Workshops have been held, with the addition of participants from ESA. Terry Alfriend has been the US Technical Chairman for many of these workshops. In 2009 a US China Space Surveillance Technical Interchange was held in Shanghai, China, and Terry was the US Technical Chairman.

  19. Changes in Russia's Military and Nuclear Doctrine

    SciTech Connect

    Wolkov, Benjamin M.; Balatsky, Galya I.

    2012-07-26

    In 1993, the Russian Federation set out a new military doctrine that would determine the direction of its armed forces until President Putin set out the next doctrine in 2000. The Russian Federation creating the doctrine was new; the USSR had recently collapsed, Gorbachev - the creator of the predecessor to this doctrine in 1987 - was out of office, and the new Russian military had only been formed in May, 1992.1 The analysis of the 1993 doctrine is as follows: a definition of how doctrine is defined; a short history of Russian military doctrine leading up to the 1993 doctrine (officially the Basic Provisions of the Military Doctrine of the Russian Federation); and finally, what the doctrine established. An overview of the 1993 doctrine is: (1) Russia's 1993 doctrine was a return to older, more aggressive doctrine as a result of stability concerns surrounding the recent collapse of the USSR; (2) Russia turned from Gorbachev's 'defensive defense' in the 1987 doctrine to aggressive defense with the option of preempting or striking back against an aggressor; (3) Russia was deeply concerned about how nationalism would affect the former Soviet Republics, particularly in respect to the ethnic Russians still living abroad; and (4) Nuclear doctrine pledged to not be the first to use nuclear weapons but provided for the potential for escalation from a conventional to a nuclear war. The 2000 doctrine (officially the Russian Federation Military Doctrine) was created in a more stable world than the 1993 doctrine was. The Russian Federation had survived independence and the 'threat of direct military aggression against the Russian Federation and its allies' had diminished. It had secured all of the nuclear weapons from its neighbors Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan, and had elected a new president, Vladimir Putin, to replace Boris Yeltsin. Yet, even as the doctrine took more defensive tones than the 1993 doctrine, it expanded its nuclear options. Below are a new definition of

  20. Heavy Drinking and Suicide in Russia

    PubMed Central

    Pridemore, William Alex

    2006-01-01

    Russian levels of alcohol consumption and suicide are among the highest in the world. While observers have long suspected an association between the two, they were unable to investigate this hypothesis until recently due to past Soviet secrecy and thus a lack of data. This study took advantage of the newly available data during the post-Soviet era to examine the cross-sectional association between heavy drinking and suicide mortality in Russia. Aggregate mortality data for the Russian regions (n = 78) for the year 2000 were used to measure heavy drinking and suicide rates. Government data were used to control for the regional economic situation and strength of social institutions. Ordinary Least Squares regression was employed to estimate the effect of a proxy for heavy drinking on overall and sex-specific age-adjusted suicide rates. The results showed a positive and significant association between the two, and the association held for overall, male and female rates. These results not only confirmed an association between heavy drinking and suicide in Russia, but when compared to findings from previous studies of other countries they led to the hypothesis that a nation’s beverage preference may be as important as its wet/dry drinking culture in its sensitivity of suicide rates to alcohol consumption. PMID:17160138

  1. Extensive Burn Scars in Russia's Amur Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Vast areas of southeastern Russia have been scorched by fires over the last few weeks. All across Siberia fires have been raging, and this Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from May 15, 2002, shows extensive, dark burn scars along with actively burning fires (red dots) on the north side of the Amur River, which separates Russia (north) and China (south). The southern Amur region is largely devoted to farming and other agriculture, and these fires may have been set intentionally to prepare the land for the growing season. Fire is often used to clear land of unwanted vegetation, and to return the nutrients stored in vegetation back to the soil. However, fires that are too frequent or severe can devastate the soil, eventually making it unsuitable for farming or grazing. Fires can also escape control and spread into protected areas. In this image, fires are mostly concentrated in a lowland area within the drainage basin of the Zeya River, which drains from the frozen lake at the top of the image. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  2. Molecular Characterization of Enterotoxin-Producing Escherichia coli Collected in 2011-2012, Russia.

    PubMed

    Kartsev, Nikolay N; Fursova, Nadezhda K; Pachkunov, Dmitry M; Bannov, Vasiliy A; Eruslanov, Boris V; Svetoch, Edward A; Dyatlov, Ivan A

    2015-01-01

    Enterotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (ETEC) are one of the main causative agents of diarrhea in children especially in developing countries and travel diarrhoea in adults. Pathogenic properties of ETEC associated with their ability to produce a heat-stable (ST) and/or heat-labile (LT) enterotoxins, as well as adhesins providing bacterial adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells. This study presents the molecular characterization of the ETEC isolates collected from the Central and Far-Eastern regions of Russia in 2011-2012. It was shown that all ETEC under study (n=18) had the heat-labile enterotoxin-coding operon elt, and had no the genes of the heat-stable enterotoxin operon est. DNA sequencing revealed two types of nucleotide exchanges in the eltB gene coding subunit B of LT in isolates collected from Cherepovets city (Central region, Russia) and Vladivostok city (Far-East region, Russia). Only one ETEC strain carried genes cfaA, cfaB, cfaC and cfaD coding adhesion factor CFA/I. Expression of LT in four ETEC isolates in the agglutination reaction was detected using a latex test-system. The isolates were assigned to serogroups O142 (n = 6), О6 (n = 4), О25 (n = 5), О26 (n = 2), and O115 (n = 1). Genotyping showed that they belonged to an earlier described sequence-type ST4 (n = 3) as well as to 11 novel sequence-types ST1043, ST1312, ST3697, ST3707, ST3708, ST3709, ST3710, ST3755, ST3756, ST3757 and ST4509. The ETEC isolates displayed different levels of antimicrobial resistance. Eight isolates were resistant to only one drug, three isolates-to two drugs, one isolate-to three drugs, two isolates-to four antibacterials, and only one isolate to each of the five, six and ten antibacterials simultaneously. Genetic determinants of the resistance to beta-lactams and other classes of antibacterials on the ETEC genomes were identified. There are blaTEM (n = 10), blaCTX-M-15 (n = 1), class 1 integron (n = 3) carrying resistance cassettes to aminoglycosides and

  3. Molecular Characterization of Enterotoxin-Producing Escherichia coli Collected in 2011–2012, Russia

    PubMed Central

    Kartsev, Nikolay N.; Fursova, Nadezhda K.; Pachkunov, Dmitry M.; Bannov, Vasiliy A.; Eruslanov, Boris V.; Svetoch, Edward A.; Dyatlov, Ivan A.

    2015-01-01

    Enterotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (ETEC) are one of the main causative agents of diarrhea in children especially in developing countries and travel diarrhoea in adults. Pathogenic properties of ETEC associated with their ability to produce a heat-stable (ST) and/or heat-labile (LT) enterotoxins, as well as adhesins providing bacterial adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells. This study presents the molecular characterization of the ETEC isolates collected from the Central and Far-Eastern regions of Russia in 2011–2012. It was shown that all ETEC under study (n=18) had the heat-labile enterotoxin-coding operon elt, and had no the genes of the heat-stable enterotoxin operon est. DNA sequencing revealed two types of nucleotide exchanges in the eltB gene coding subunit B of LT in isolates collected from Cherepovets city (Central region, Russia) and Vladivostok city (Far-East region, Russia). Only one ETEC strain carried genes cfaA, cfaB, cfaC and cfaD coding adhesion factor CFA/I. Expression of LT in four ETEC isolates in the agglutination reaction was detected using a latex test-system. The isolates were assigned to serogroups O142 (n = 6), О6 (n = 4), О25 (n = 5), О26 (n = 2), and O115 (n = 1). Genotyping showed that they belonged to an earlier described sequence-type ST4 (n = 3) as well as to 11 novel sequence-types ST1043, ST1312, ST3697, ST3707, ST3708, ST3709, ST3710, ST3755, ST3756, ST3757 and ST4509. The ETEC isolates displayed different levels of antimicrobial resistance. Eight isolates were resistant to only one drug, three isolates—to two drugs, one isolate—to three drugs, two isolates—to four antibacterials, and only one isolate to each of the five, six and ten antibacterials simultaneously. Genetic determinants of the resistance to beta-lactams and other classes of antibacterials on the ETEC genomes were identified. There are blaTEM (n = 10), blaCTX-M-15 (n = 1), class 1 integron (n = 3) carrying resistance cassettes to aminoglycosides and

  4. Excess Weapons Plutonium Immobilization in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, L.; Borisov, G.B.

    2000-04-15

    The joint goal of the Russian work is to establish a full-scale plutonium immobilization facility at a Russian industrial site by 2005. To achieve this requires that the necessary engineering and technical basis be developed in these Russian projects and the needed Russian approvals be obtained to conduct industrial-scale immobilization of plutonium-containing materials at a Russian industrial site by the 2005 date. This meeting and future work will provide the basis for joint decisions. Supporting R&D projects are being carried out at Russian Institutes that directly support the technical needs of Russian industrial sites to immobilize plutonium-containing materials. Special R&D on plutonium materials is also being carried out to support excess weapons disposition in Russia and the US, including nonproliferation studies of plutonium recovery from immobilization forms and accelerated radiation damage studies of the US-specified plutonium ceramic for immobilizing plutonium. This intriguing and extraordinary cooperation on certain aspects of the weapons plutonium problem is now progressing well and much work with plutonium has been completed in the past two years. Because much excellent and unique scientific and engineering technical work has now been completed in Russia in many aspects of plutonium immobilization, this meeting in St. Petersburg was both timely and necessary to summarize, review, and discuss these efforts among those who performed the actual work. The results of this meeting will help the US and Russia jointly define the future direction of the Russian plutonium immobilization program, and make it an even stronger and more integrated Russian program. The two objectives for the meeting were to: (1) Bring together the Russian organizations, experts, and managers performing the work into one place for four days to review and discuss their work with each other; and (2) Publish a meeting summary and a proceedings to compile reports of all the excellent

  5. Russia`s {open_quotes}new look{close_quotes} arms sales strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Sorokin, K.

    1993-10-01

    Despite new policies and strategies, Russia is largely unsuccessful in selling its arms on the competitive international open market. No matter how hard they try, sales by Russian arms dealers have continued to plummet to less than 10 percent of what they were a few short years ago when the Soviet Union competed with the United States for the position as the world`s No. 1 arms dealer.

  6. Nuclear plant emergency preparedness in Russia.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Randolph L

    2009-11-01

    An international team of experts conducted a detailed operational review at the Volgodonsk nuclear power plant. The review was the first mission by an International Atomic Energy Agency Operational Safety Review Team to Russia in over a decade. The author reviewed the emergency preparedness program in detail. Emergency preparedness professionals in the West are largely unfamiliar with Russian nuclear plant emergency preparedness programs, and the legacy of Chernobyl may leave some doubt as to their efficacy. This article describes the program in some detail and compares some elements to programs in the United States. The author was favorably impressed with the state of nuclear plant emergency preparedness in the Russian Federation and identified program elements that should be considered for implementation elsewhere. PMID:19820472

  7. Superconductivity in Russia: Update and prospects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ozhogin, V.

    1995-01-01

    The research projects and new technological developments that have occured in Russia are highlighted in this document. Some of the research discussed includes: x-ray structure analysis of YBCO superconducting single crystals and accompanying phase transformations; the role of electron-electron interaction in High Temperature Superconductors (HTSC); the formation of Cooper pairs in crystals; the synthesis and research on a new family of superconductors based on complex copper and mercury oxides (HgBa2CuO4 + alpha and HgBa2CaCu2O6 + alpha); methods for the extraction of higher (up to C200) fullerenes and metalfullerenides has been developed; and process of production of Josephson junctions and development of SQUID's.

  8. New System of Food Control in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermakova, Irina V.

    Food safety is quite important for human health in all countries. Humanity has the uniform space and must take care about all parts of it. Pollution of one region leads to the same state of others regions through water, land, air, living organisms. The poor-quality or poisoned food products can pollute the territory and influence negatively on the environment. The food security is important, especially, in connection with the possibility of terrorist attacks. The Federal Service of control in sphere of protection of the rights of consumers was formed in Russia in 2004. This Service carries out the activity directly and through the territorial organizations in interaction with administrative structures in food control and inspection, namely in sanitary-epidemiological service, veterinary service, grain service, inspection of trade connections and standardization and certification. The control is carried out on the basis of laws. The law № 29-FZ concerns the quality and safety of foodstuff and how to control it. The law 134-FZ attracted the protection of the rights of legal persons and individual businessmen. The modification of the law №234-FZ about protection of the rights of consumers is connected with new food - GMOs. Great attention is paid to the safety of new food. Private companies also perform analysis of heavy metals, mycotoxins, radiation and the presence of bacteria, virus or genetically modified organisms. We would like to thank the group Pilot Study "Food chain security" for very important work concerning food safety in different countries. They help us to understand internal problems in Russia and to create the cooperation with other countries. All these steps are very important for the protection population from toxic food.

  9. Stationary plasma thruster evaluation in Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, John R.

    1992-01-01

    A team of electric propulsion specialists from U.S. government laboratories experimentally evaluated the performance of a 1.35-kW Stationary Plasma Thruster (SPT) at the Scientific Research Institute of Thermal Processes in Moscow and at 'Fakel' Enterprise in Kaliningrad, Russia. The evaluation was performed using a combination of U.S. and Russian instrumentation and indicated that the actual performance of the thruster appears to be close to the claimed performance. The claimed performance was a specific impulse of 16,000 m/s, an overall efficiency of 50 percent, and an input power of 1.35 kW, and is superior to the performance of western electric thrusters at this specific impulse. The unique performance capabilities of the stationary plasma thruster, along with claims that more than fifty of the 660-W thrusters have been flown in space on Russian spacecraft, attracted the interest of western spacecraft propulsion specialists. A two-phase program was initiated to evaluate the stationary plasma thruster performance and technology. The first phase of this program, to experimentally evaluate the performance of the thruster with U.S. instrumentation in Russia, is described in this report. The second phase objective is to determine the suitability of the stationary plasma thruster technology for use on western spacecraft. This will be accomplished by bringing stationary plasma thrusters to the U.S. for quantification of thruster erosion rates, measurements of the performance variation as a function of long-duration operation, quantification of the exhaust beam divergence angle, and determination of the non-propellant efflux from the thruster. These issues require quantification in order to maximize the probability for user application of the SPT technology and significantly increase the propulsion capabilities of U.S. spacecraft.

  10. Russia's national space weather service in 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burov, Viatcheslav; Avdyushin, Sergei; Denisova, Valentina

    RWC Russia (Institute of Applied Geophysics, Moscow) -forecasting center unites activity of the National Heliogeophysics Service of Russia and the Regional Warning Center of ISES. Nowadays the centre operates and fulfils numerous functions such as space weather monitoring, collecting, working and handing out the data to both Russian and foreign customers, compiling and spreading various kinds of the space weather condition forecasts. The first regular space weather forecast is known to have been issued on June 10, 1974. Since then this kind of activity has been processed and issued permanently 7 days a week. During year 2009 there were more than 17000 various short terms (semi -day, 1,2,3 and five days) forecasts of the geomagnetic fields and ionosphere conditions, magnetic fields, flare activity, radiation hazard in polar zones and the satellites traces. In the end of 2008 the Institute of Applied Geophysics was provided with necessary subsidizing to support the Space Weather Center. The fundamental repairs of the Institute's building have begun and are being done at present. They are to be completed this year. The allocated funds are sufficient to start the technical renovation of the Service, including: provision of the staff with up-to-date computing machinery; up-grading the observation stations equipment; preparing the apparatus and instruments for monitoring the near-earth space by two of our satellites "Meteor" and "Electro" ("Electro" -geostationary satellite). The "Meteor" satellite (subpolar orbit on altitude of 900 km) equipped with complex including: measurements of electron fluxes with energy more than 0.15 MeV, and proton fluxes with energy more than 5 MeV (40 channels) was launched on September 2009. These data (as well as ionosphere and geomagnetic data) are available on Web page www.geospace.ru since 2 quarter of the2010.

  11. Learning Cities as Healthy Green Cities: Building Sustainable Opportunity Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearns, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses a new generation of learning cities we have called EcCoWell cities (Economy, Community, Well-being). The paper was prepared for the PASCAL International Exchanges (PIE) and is based on international experiences with PIE and developments in some cities. The paper argues for more holistic and integrated development so that…

  12. Fatal attraction: Explaining Russia's sensitive nuclear transfers to Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuchinsky, Leah R.

    This paper explores Russia's sensitive nuclear assistance to Iran in an effort to determine why a supplier state might proliferate against its own apparent security interests. The goal is to help readers understand the supply-side dynamics of nuclear proliferation. Through careful reconstruction of the historical narrative, using open source data, this study tests the plausibility of a "fatalistic calculus" explanation, identified by Stephen Sestanovich as a possible driver for Russia's behavior. According to the hypothesis, Russia has cooperated with Iran as a way both to stay in the good graces of a neighbor that is suspected of developing nuclear weapons and to win short-term influence and profits. The paper also examines the role of other factors advanced in the existing supply-side literature, such as economic motives identified by physicist and nonproliferation scholar David Albright. The findings show that bureaucratic, economic and fatalistic factors have each played a role in motivating Russia's cooperation with Iran, with their relative importance shifting over time. Fatalism begets a strategy of Russian "minimaxing," in the lexicon of Russia scholar Robert Freedman, wherein Russia attempts to minimize damage to its relationship with the U.S. while maximizing influence in Iran via nuclear cooperation. Fatalism, as actualized by minimaxing, best explains Russia's behavior after former Russian president Vladmir Putin came to power, when the bureaucratic and economic arguments become less cogent.

  13. Box City Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Understanding the Built Environment, Prairie Village, KS.

    This curriculum packet contains two lesson plans about cities and architecture intended for use with students in upper elementary grades and middle schools. The first lesson plan, "City People, City Stories" (Jan Ham), states that understanding architecture and cities must begin with an understanding of the people of the city. The children create…

  14. Clean Cities Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-01-01

    This fact sheet explains the Clean Cities Program and provides contact information for all coalitions and regional offices. It answers key questions such as: What is the Clean Cities Program? What are alternative fuels? How does the Clean Cities Program work? What sort of assistance does Clean Cities offer? What has Clean Cities accomplished? What is Clean Cities International? and Where can I find more information?

  15. Long-term observation of amphibian populations inhabiting urban and forested areas in Yekaterinburg, Russia

    PubMed Central

    Vershinin, Vladimir L.; Vershinina, Svetlana D.; Berzin, Dmitry L.; Zmeeva, Darya V.; Kinev, Alexander V.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents data derived from a 36 year-long uninterrupted observational study of amphibian populations living in the city and vicinity of Yekaterinburg, Russia. This area is inhabited by six amphibian species. Based on a degree of anthropogenic transformation, the urban territory is divided into five highly mosaic zones characterized by vegetation, temperature, and a distinctive water pollution profile. Population data is presented year-by-year for the number of animals, sex ratio, and species-specific fecundity including the number and quality of spawns for the following amphibian species: Salamandrella keyserligii, Rana arvalis, R. temporaria, Lissotriton vulgaris, and Pelophylax ridibundus. These data provide an excellent opportunity to assess an urban environment from an animal population-wide perspective, as well as revealing the forces driving animal adaptation to the anthropogenic transformation of habitats. PMID:25984350

  16. Long-term observation of amphibian populations inhabiting urban and forested areas in Yekaterinburg, Russia.

    PubMed

    Vershinin, Vladimir L; Vershinina, Svetlana D; Berzin, Dmitry L; Zmeeva, Darya V; Kinev, Alexander V

    2015-01-01

    This article presents data derived from a 36 year-long uninterrupted observational study of amphibian populations living in the city and vicinity of Yekaterinburg, Russia. This area is inhabited by six amphibian species. Based on a degree of anthropogenic transformation, the urban territory is divided into five highly mosaic zones characterized by vegetation, temperature, and a distinctive water pollution profile. Population data is presented year-by-year for the number of animals, sex ratio, and species-specific fecundity including the number and quality of spawns for the following amphibian species: Salamandrella keyserligii, Rana arvalis, R. temporaria, Lissotriton vulgaris, and Pelophylax ridibundus. These data provide an excellent opportunity to assess an urban environment from an animal population-wide perspective, as well as revealing the forces driving animal adaptation to the anthropogenic transformation of habitats. PMID:25984350

  17. Research Note: Patterns of Alcohol-Related Mortality in Russia

    PubMed Central

    Pridemore, William Alex; Kim, Sang-Weon

    2006-01-01

    The level of alcohol consumption in Russia is among the highest in the world and is often associated with a variety of problems in the country. Until recently, however, it was impossible to examine the health and social burdens associated with consumption in Russia due to Soviet secrecy surrounding vital statistics and health data related to alcohol and other topics. This study employed newly available mortality data to describe the demographic, temporal, and spatial patterns of mortality resulting directly from chronic and acute alcohol consumption in the country. The data reveal that in spite of high overall rates of alcohol-related mortality in Russia, levels of mortality vary considerably along these dimensions. Although descriptive in nature, the patterns of alcohol-related mortality in Russia presented here should provide initial observations with which to generate and test hypotheses concerning the causes and consequences of these patterns. PMID:16900263

  18. Short-Period Seismic Noise in Vorkuta (Russia)

    SciTech Connect

    Kishkina, S B; Spivak, A A; Sweeney, J J

    2008-05-15

    Cultural development of new subpolar areas of Russia is associated with a need for detailed seismic research, including both mapping of regional seismicity and seismic monitoring of specific mining enterprises. Of special interest are the northern territories of European Russia, including shelves of the Kara and Barents Seas, Yamal Peninsula, and the Timan-Pechora region. Continuous seismic studies of these territories are important now because there is insufficient seismological knowledge of the area and an absence of systematic data on the seismicity of the region. Another task of current interest is the necessity to consider the seismic environment in the design, construction, and operation of natural gas extracting enterprises such as the construction of the North European Gas Pipeline. Issues of scientific importance for seismic studies in the region are the complex geodynamical setting, the presence of permafrost, and the complex tectonic structure. In particular, the Uralian Orogene (Fig. 1) strongly affects the propagation of seismic waves. The existing subpolar seismic stations [APA (67,57{sup o}N; 33,40{sup o}E), LVZ (67,90{sup o}N; 34,65{sup o}E), and NRIL (69,50{sup o}N; 88,40{sup o}E)] do not cover the extensive area between the Pechora and Ob Rivers (Fig. 1). Thus seismic observations in the Vorkuta area, which lies within the area of concern, represent a special interest. Continuous recording at a seismic station near the city of Vorkuta (67,50{sup o}N; 64,11{sup o}E) [1] has been conducted since 2005 for the purpose of regional seismic monitoring and, more specifically, detection of seismic signals caused by local mining enterprises. Current surveys of local seismic noise [7,8,9,11], are particularly aimed at a technical survey for the suitability of the site for installation of a small-aperture seismic array, which would include 10-12 recording instruments, with the Vorkuta seismic station as the central element. When constructed, this seismic

  19. Flood risk on the Black sea coast of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseevsky, Nikolay; Magritsky, Dmitry; Koltermann, Peter; Krylenko, Inna; Umina, Natalya; Aybulatov, Denis; Efremova, Natalya; Lebedeva, Seraphima

    2013-04-01

    The data of unique database "Floods in the coastal zones of Europeans part of Russia", developed by authors, are shown, that frequency of floods and damage in the coastal zones are growing. There is most dangerous situation on the Black sea coast of Russia. Here the main part of settlements, resorts and industry is situated in the river valleys and mouths. All main roads and pipelines cross the river channels. The Black sea rivers have flood regime with high intensity of flood formations and huge destructive flood power. Despite prevalence of floods during the cold period of year the most part of high floods in 100 years of supervision was noted here in the summer-fall (65% in July-October). Usually they were induced by the showers connected with passing of powerful cyclones, atmospheric fronts, and water tornadoes. The insignificant part of floods was connected with snow melting, backwater phenomena, showers in the cities and dam breaks. Thus shower induced floods here are the most widespread and destructive. Usually they arise within two-three watersheds simultaneously. Formation catastrophic heavy rain flood is possible on any site of a river valley of the Black Sea coast. The wave of a high water moves with very high speed, carrying a large number of deposits and garbage. To the mouth the flood can be transformed into debris flow. The water levels during a high water period rise on 3-6 m in the channels, and up to 11-12 m in the river canyons; the maximum depths of flow on the floodplains are 3 m and more. Flooding depths, induced by slope streams, can be to 0,5 m and higher. Flooding proceeds only some hours. After that water rather quickly flows down from a floodplains to the bed of the rivers and into the sea, leaving traces of destructions, a powerful layer of deposits (to 10-20 cm and more) and garbage. In the mouth river deposits quite often form the river mouth bar which is washed away during next storms. The damage from river floods on the Black Sea

  20. Lithospheric delamination underneath Far East Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ntaflos, Theodoros; Koutsovitis, Petros; Aschchepkov, Igor; Hauzenberger, Christoph; Prikhodko, Vladimir; Asseva, Anna

    2013-04-01

    In the back-arc environment of Far East Russia, mantle xenoliths from Sikhoti-Alin( Komku area, KO) and Primorie (Sviyaginsky area, SV), Far East Russia are fertile spinel lherzolites with traces of amphibole, phlogopite and hyalophane in some of the studied samples. Though samples from both localities are fertile there is a systematic difference in their fertility. The KO samples have mg# varying from 0.891 to 0.899 and are slightly more fertile than the SV samples that have mg# ranging from 0.898 to 0.904. LA-ICP-MS analyses on clinopyroxenes confirm this trend as the (La/Yb)N in KO samples range from 0.1to 1.0 and in SV samples from 0.15 to 1.73. The estimated equilibration temperatures for the KO suite range from 940 °C to 1035 °C and for the SV suite from 770 to 945. The differences in the estimated equilibrium temperatures between the KO and SV suites suggest that the less fertile SV suite originated in shallower depths than the more fertile KO suite. Pargasitic amphibole, kaersutite, and extremely Ti-rich phlogopite, up to 14 wt% TiO2, are associated with intergranular glass indicating clearly metasomatism of undersaturated hydrous alkaline melts. Incompatible element abundances, besides Ba, Sr and Ti that are slightly enriched in the amphibole, are similar in both phases suggesting minor metasomatism due to percolation of small amounts of water-rich fluids. The Sr and Nd cpx isotopic ratios range from 0.702599 to 0.703567 and 0.512915 to 513153, repectively and the model Nd isotope age range from 1.5 to 2.2 Ga indicating an old (Proterozoic?) partial melt event. The lithospheric mantle beneath the studied area represents the residue after partial melting of up to 2 % of a primitive mantle and is comparable to that of Mongolia. Despite the fact that the studied area experienced several subducting episodes, the lithospheric mantle appears to be unaffected from the upwelling fluids/melts of the subducted slab(s). Since there is no indication for plume

  1. Special education in Russia: historical aspects.

    PubMed

    Malofeev, N N

    1998-01-01

    Tracing the history of special education services in Russia from its beginnings in the early nineteenth century through the rapid expansion of both private and government-supported programs and institutions until the restrictive Soviet period provides both understanding and appreciation of current Russian special education services and institutions. Theoretical principles guiding special education formulated by L. Vygotsky, and sources outside the USSR, were officially suppressed, as were testing and statistical data on handicapped individuals. Official mandates to bring students with handicaps up to state-approved standards resulted in the development of creative, effective approaches. The framework of special education changed little until the breakdown of the USSR. The new Russian Federation ratified UN resolutions protecting the rights of children. Categorical language is a recent development, and terms such as defective, retarded and pedologist are gradually being replaced. The final decade of this century is witnessing rapid change at the initiation of the Ministry of Education that is beginning to produce needed reform. One of the major initiatives is to provide LD specialists in all schools so that students will not need to be a great distance from home to receive needed services. PMID:9529788

  2. The City as Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Stephen K.

    The author gives a rationale for utilizing the city as a place to learn. The city has many problems and although logistics require that we conduct most education in the school building, the author argues for putting out best brains to the task of bringing the city to the classroom and to exploiting the city as a classroom when appropriate.…

  3. Calculation of Quad-Cities Central Bundle Documented by the U.S. in FY98 Using Russian Computer Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlovichev, A.M.

    2001-06-19

    The report presents calculation results of isotopic composition of irradiated fuel performed for the Quad Cities-1 reactor bundle with UO{sub 2} and MOX fuel. The MCU-REA code was used for calculations. The code is developed in Kurchatov Institute, Russia. The MCU-REA results are compared with the experimental data and HELIOS code results.

  4. Nation launches first safe sex campaign with foreign help. Russia, education (health).

    PubMed

    1997-06-30

    This news brief discusses the first campaign to stop the spread of AIDS in Russia. The government is investing in newspaper advertising in order to prevent the spread of AIDS, because the alternative health care model is too expensive. The country is unable to afford the expensive drugs for treating AIDS and HIV infections, and the health care system, in general, is in decline. The health ministry is relying on the support from Medecins sans Frontieres (Doctors without Borders) to mount a newspaper campaign to urge condom use and other safe sex practices. The campaign will also involve television and radio advertisements, followed by billboards on subway stops and city buses. Since the communist break-up, IV drug use and prostitution have become widespread problems. Borders were opened, and drugs entered the country. Under the former Soviet regime, contact with foreigners was discouraged and travel was restricted. The public was exposed to AIDS information in the campaigns conducted in 1990. The public is generally informed about AIDS. The new campaign focuses on safe sex, which is a new concept for Russians. There is a wide gap between knowledge and adoption of safe sex practices. Official records indicate about 4400 HIV cases, of which 259 are in advanced stages of AIDS. Official figures are considered underestimates. Over 75% of current HIV cases involve IV drug users, but the potential for heterosexual transmission is great. About 50% of the HIV cases were recorded in Kaliningrad, a port city with a growing population of IV drug users. The city provides easy access to the rest of Europe and exposure to HIV/AIDS that is not yet found in most other Russian cities. PMID:12292709

  5. National Large Solar Telescope of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demidov, Mikhail

    One of the most important task of the modern solar physics is multi-wavelength observations of the small-scale structure of solar atmosphere on different heights, including chromosphere and corona. To do this the large-aperture telescopes are necessary. At present time there several challenging projects of the large (and even giant) solar telescopes in the world are in the process of construction or designing , the most known ones among them are 4-meter class telescopes ATST in USA and EST in Europe. Since 2013 the development of the new Large Solar Telescope (LST) with 3 meter diameter of the main mirror is started in Russia as a part (sub-project) of National Heliogeophysical Complex (NHGC) of the Russian Academy of Sciences. It should be located at the Sayan solar observatory on the altitude more then 2000 m. To avoid numerous problems of the off-axis optical telescopes (despite of the obvious some advantages of the off-axis configuration) and to meet to available financial budget, the classical on-axis Gregorian scheme on the alt-azimuth mount has been chosen. The scientific equipment of the LST-3 will include several narrow-band tunable filter devices and spectrographs for different wavelength bands, including infrared. The units are installed either at the Nasmyth focus or/and on the rotating coude platform. To minimize the instrumental polarization the polarization analyzer is located near diagonal mirror after M2 mirror. High order adaptive optics is used to achieve the diffraction limited performances. It is expected that after some modification of the optical configuration the LST-3 will operate as an approximately 1-m mirror coronograph in the near infrared spectral lines. Possibilities for stellar observations during night time are provided as well.

  6. The criteria for the evaluation of natural disasters in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrilova, Sofia

    2010-05-01

    Russia is a very vast country, it covers areas with different kinds of landscape and climate - from subartic tundra in northern parts to semideserts in southern, from artic to subtropic climate. Of course, in different types of regions there are different types of natural hazards. But still some of them can be found in every region (eg. low temperatures or heavy showers). In Russia the words "natural disasters" are very closely connected to "material damage". It means that every natural phenomenon that can cause a catastrophic situation should suit 2 types of criteria: geographical and social-economical. Geographical criteria can be meteorological or meteo-hydrological, etc. In 1990 the Ministry of Emergency situations and natural disasters was organized in Russia and these criteria were fixed. Since that time there were no changes. The problem is that actually there is no spatial differentiation in geographical criteria of manifestation of natural hazards in Russia. In fact you have the same criteria in Yakutsk in Siberia and Sochi on the Black Sea coast. This fact can cause many problems. Statistics show natural disasters which were caused by natural hazards, which do not suit proper geographical criteria - but there is still material damage and even people's death. That's why we propose to distinguish (according to statistics) different parameters of natural hazards, which can cause natural disasters and material damage in different parts and climatic zones of Russia. Also we have to reconsider these criteria according to today's climate situation.

  7. Price elasticities of alcohol demand: evidence from Russia.

    PubMed

    Goryakin, Yevgeniy; Roberts, Bayard; McKee, Martin

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we estimate price elasticities of demand of several types of alcoholic drinks, using 14 rounds of data from the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey-HSE, collected from 1994 until 2009. We deal with potential confounding problems by taking advantage of a large number of control variables, as well as by estimating community fixed effect models. All in all, although alcohol prices do appear to influence consumption behaviour in Russia, in most cases the size of effect is modest. The finding that two particularly problematic drinks-cheap vodka and fortified wine-are substitute goods also suggests that increasing their prices may not lead to smaller alcohol consumption. Therefore, any alcohol pricing policies in Russia must be supplemented with other measures, such as restrictions on numbers of sales outlets or their opening times. PMID:24535047

  8. Oil and gas resources in the West Siberian Basin, Russia

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    The primary objective of this study is to assess the oil and gas potential of the West Siberian Basin of Russia. The study does not analyze the costs or technology necessary to achieve the estimates of the ultimate recoverable oil and gas. This study uses reservoir data to estimate recoverable oil and gas quantities which were aggregated to the field level. Field totals were summed to a basin total for discovered fields. An estimate of undiscovered oil and gas, from work of the US Geological Survey (USGS), was added to give a total basin resource volume. Recent production decline points out Russia`s need to continue development of its discovered recoverable oil and gas. Continued exploration is required to discover additional oil and gas that remains undiscovered in the basin.

  9. The burden of serious fungal diseases in Russia.

    PubMed

    Klimko, N; Kozlova, Y; Khostelidi, S; Shadrivova, O; Borzova, Y; Burygina, E; Vasilieva, N; Denning, D W

    2015-10-01

    The incidence and prevalence of fungal infections in Russia is unknown. We estimated the burden of fungal infections in Russia according to the methodology of the LIFE program (www.LIFE-worldwide.org). The total number of patients with serious and chronic mycoses in Russia in 2011 was three million. Most of these patients (2,607,494) had superficial fungal infections (recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis, oral and oesophageal candidiasis with HIV infection and tinea capitis). Invasive and chronic fungal infections (invasive candidiasis, invasive and chronic aspergillosis, cryptococcal meningitis, mucormycosis and Pneumocystis pneumonia) affected 69,331 patients. The total number of adults with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and severe asthma with fungal sensitisation was 406,082. PMID:26449508

  10. Strategy of Irrigation Branch in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeyliger, A.; Ermolaeva, O.

    2012-04-01

    At this moment, at the starting time of the program on restoration of a large irrigation in Russia till 2020, the scientific and technical community of irrigation branch does not have clear vision on how to promote a development of irrigated agriculture and without repeating of mistakes having a place in the past. In many respects absence of a vision is connected to serious backlog of a scientific and technical and informational and technological level of development of domestic irrigation branch from advanced one. Namely such level of development is necessary for the resolving of new problems in new conditions of managing, and also for adequate answers to new challenges from climate and degradation of ground & water resources, as well as a rigorous requirement from an environment. In such important situation for irrigation branch when it is necessary quickly generate a scientific and technical politics for the current decade for maintenance of translation of irrigated agriculture in the Russian Federation on a new highly effective level of development, in our opinion, it is required to carry out open discussion of needs and requirements as well as a research for a adequate solutions. From political point of view a framework organized in FP6 DESIRE 037046 project is an example of good practice that can serve as methodical approach how to organize and develop such processes. From technical point of view a technology of operational management of irrigation at large scale presents a prospective alternative to the current type of management based on planning. From point of view ICT operational management demands creation of a new platform for the professional environment of activity. This platform should allow to perceive processes in real time, at their partial predictability on signals of a straight line and a feedback, within the framework of variability of decision making scenarious, at high resolution and the big ex-awning of sensor controls and the gauges

  11. 3-D Perspective Kamchatka Peninsula Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Russia. The image was generated using the first data collected during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). In the foreground is the Sea of Okhotsk. Inland from the coast, vegetated floodplains and low relief hills rise toward snow capped peaks. The topographic effects on snow and vegetation distribution are very clear in this near-horizontal view. Forming the skyline is the Sredinnyy Khrebet, the volcanic mountain range that makes up the spine of the peninsula. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists to study how volcanoes form and to understand the hazards posed by future eruptions. This image was generated using topographic data from SRTM and an enhanced true-color image from the Landsat 7 satellite. This image contains about 2,400 meters (7,880 feet) of total relief. The topographic expression was enhanced by adding artificial shading as calculated from the SRTM elevation model. The Landsat data was provided by the United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota. SRTM, launched on February 11, 2000, used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. To collect the 3-D SRTM data, engineers added a 60- meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. SRTM collected three dimensional measurements of nearly 80 percent of the Earth's surface. SRTM is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. Size: 33.3 km (20.6 miles) wide x 136 km (84 miles) coast to skyline. Location: 58.3 deg. North lat., 160 deg. East long. Orientation: Easterly view, 2 degrees

  12. 3-D Perspective View, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Russia. The image was generated using the first data collected during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). In the foreground is the Sea of Okhotsk. Inland from the coast, vegetated floodplains and low relief hills rise toward snow capped peaks. The topographic effects on snow and vegetation distribution are very clear in this near-horizontal view. Forming the skyline is the Sredinnyy Khrebet, the volcanic mountain range that makes up the spine of the peninsula. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists to study how volcanoes form and to understand the hazards posed by future eruptions.

    This image was generated using topographic data from SRTM and an enhanced true-color image from the Landsat 7 satellite. This image contains about 2,400 meters (7,880 feet) of total relief. The topographic expression was enhanced by adding artificial shading as calculated from the SRTM elevation model. The Landsat data was provided by the United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    SRTM, launched on February 11, 2000, used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar(SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. To collect the 3-D SRTM data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. SRTM collected three-dimensional measurements of nearly 80 percent of the Earth's surface. SRTM is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.

    Size: 33.3 km (20.6 miles) wide x

  13. Shaded Relief Color Wrapped, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This shaded relief topographic image shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. The data are from the first C-band mapping swath of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). On the left side are five rivers, which flow northwest to the Sea of Okhotsk. These rivers are, from the south to north, Tigil, Amanina, Voyampolka, Zhilovaya, and Kakhtana. The broad, flat floodplains of the rivers are shown in yellow. These rivers are important spawning grounds for salmon. In the right side of the image is the Sredinnyy Khrebet, the volcanic mountain range that makes up the 3spine2 of the peninsula. The cluster of hills to the lower right is a field of small dormant volcanoes. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists to study how volcanoes form and understand the hazards posed by future eruptions.

    This image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Each cycle of colors (from red through green back to red) represents an equal amount of elevation difference (400 meters, or 1300 feet)similar to contour lines on a standard topographic map. This image contains about 2300 meters (7500 feet) of total relief. For the shading, a computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast

  14. Eruption of Shiveluch Volcano, Kamchatka, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    On the night of June 4, 2001 ASTER captured this thermal image of the erupting Shiveluch volcano. Located on Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula, Shiveluch rises to an altitude of 8028'. The active lava dome complex is seen as a bright (hot) area on the summit of the volcano. To the southwest, a second hot area is either a debris avalanche or hot ash deposit. Trailing to the west is a 25 km ash plume, seen as a cold 'cloud' streaming from the summit. At least 60 large eruptions have occurred during the last 10,000 years; the largest historical eruptions were in 1854 and 1964. Because Kamchatka is located along the major aircraft routes between North America/Europe and the Far East, this area is constantly monitored for potential ash hazards to aircraft. The lower image is the same as the upper, except it has been color coded: red is hot, light greens to dark green are progressively colder, and gray/black are the coldest areas.

    The image is located at 56.7 degrees north latitude, 161.3 degrees east longitude.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in

  15. Anaglyph with Landsat Overlay, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This 3-D anaglyph shows an area on the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. Red-blue glasses are required to see the 3-D effect. The topographic data are from the first C-band mapping swath of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Images from the optical Landsat satellite are overlain on the SRTM topography data. The meandering channel of the Tigil River is seen along the bottom of the image, at the base of steep cliffs. In the middle left of the image, a terrace indicates recent uplift of the terrain and downcutting by the river. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists and hydrologists to study the interplay of tectonic uplift and erosion.

    This anaglyph was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission to create two differing perspectives of a single image, one perspective for each eye. Each point in the image is shifted slightly, depending on its elevation. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter. The United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, provided the Landsat data, which are overlain on the topography.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA

  16. SRTM Anaglyph: Sredinnyy Khrebet, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Russia is shown in this scene created from a preliminary elevation model derived from the first data collected during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) on February 12, 2000. Sredinnyy Khrebet, the mountain range that makes up the spine of the peninsula, is a chain of active volcanic peaks. Pleistocene and recent glaciers have carved the broad valleys and jagged ridges that are common here. The relative youth of the volcanism is revealed by the topography as infilling and smoothing of the otherwise rugged terrain by lava, ash, and pyroclastic flows, particularly surrounding the high peaks in the south central part of the image. Elevations here range from near sea level up to 2,618 meters (8,590 feet).

    This anaglyph was produced by first shading a preliminary SRTM elevation model. The stereoscopic effect was then created by generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by

  17. Mass media campaigns within reach: effective efforts with limited resources in Russia's capital city.

    PubMed

    Perl, Rebecca; Stebenkova, Ludmila; Morozova, Irina; Murukutla, Nandita; Kochetova, Veronika; Kotov, Alexey; Voylokova, Tatiana; Baskakova, Julia

    2011-11-01

    Mass media campaigns, while often expensive, are proven, cost-effective interventions and should not be considered out-of-reach, especially where governments have some sway over media markets, where large media discounts are possible or where other novel strategies can be employed. PMID:21685490

  18. Occupational accidents in Russia and the Russian Arctic

    PubMed Central

    Dudarev, Alexey A.; Karnachev, Igor P.; Odland, Jon Øyvind

    2013-01-01

    Background According to official statistics, the rate of occupational accidents (OAs) and fatal injuries in Russia decreased about 5-fold and 2-fold, respectively, from 1975 to 2010, but working conditions during this period had the opposite trend; for example, the number of people who work in unfavourable and hazardous conditions (particularly since 1991) has increased significantly. Methods This review summarises the results of a search of the relevant peer-reviewed literature published in Russia and official statistics on OAs and occupational safety in Russia and the Russian Arctic in 1980–2010. Results The occupational safety system in Russia has severely deteriorated in the last 2 decades, with legislators tending to promote the interests of industry and business, resulting in the neglect of occupational safety and violation of workers’ rights. The majority of workers are employed in conditions that do not meet rules of safety and hygiene. More than 60% of OAs can be attributed to management practices – violation of safety regulations, poor organisation of work, deficiency of certified occupational safety specialists and inadequate personnel training. Research aimed at improving occupational safety and health is underfunded. There is evidence of widespread under-reporting of OAs, including fatal accidents. Three federal agencies are responsible for OAs recording; their data differ from each other as they use different methodologies. The rate of fatal OAs in Russia was 3–6 times higher than in Scandinavian countries and about 2 times higher compared to United States and Canada in 2001. In some Russian Arctic regions OAs levels are much higher. Conclusions Urgent improvement of occupational health and safety across Russia, especially in the Arctic regions, is needed. PMID:23519652

  19. Quantifying yield gaps in wheat production in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schierhorn, Florian; Faramarzi, Monireh; Prishchepov, Alexander V.; Koch, Friedrich J.; Müller, Daniel

    2014-08-01

    Crop yields must increase substantially to meet the increasing demands for agricultural products. Crop yield increases are particularly important for Russia because low crop yields prevail across Russia’s widespread and fertile land resources. However, reliable data are lacking regarding the spatial distribution of potential yields in Russia, which can be used to determine yield gaps. We used a crop growth model to determine the yield potentials and yield gaps of winter and spring wheat at the provincial level across European Russia. We modeled the annual yield potentials from 1995 to 2006 with optimal nitrogen supplies for both rainfed and irrigated conditions. Overall, the results suggest yield gaps of 1.51-2.10 t ha-1, or 44-52% of the yield potential under rainfed conditions. Under irrigated conditions, yield gaps of 3.14-3.30 t ha-1, or 62-63% of the yield potential, were observed. However, recurring droughts cause large fluctuations in yield potentials under rainfed conditions, even when the nitrogen supply is optimal, particularly in the highly fertile black soil areas of southern European Russia. The highest yield gaps (up to 4 t ha-1) under irrigated conditions were detected in the steppe areas in southeastern European Russia along the border of Kazakhstan. Improving the nutrient and water supply and using crop breeds that are adapted to the frequent drought conditions are important for reducing yield gaps in European Russia. Our regional assessment helps inform policy and agricultural investors and prioritize research that aims to increase crop production in this important region for global agricultural markets.

  20. Jerusalem: City of Dreams, City of Sorrows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricks, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Jerusalem is more than an intriguing global historical city; it is a classroom for liberal learning and international understanding. It had never been a city of one language, one religion and one culture. Looking at the origins of Jerusalem's name indicates its international and multicultural nature. While Israelis designate Jerusalem as their…

  1. The Gorbachev Anti-Alcohol Campaign and Russia's Mortality Crisis.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Jay; Gathmann, Christina; Miller, Grant

    2013-01-01

    Political and economic transition is often blamed for Russia's 40% surge in deaths between 1990 and 1994. Highlighting that increases in mortality occurred primarily among alcohol-related causes and among working-age men (the heaviest drinkers), this paper investigates an alternative explanation: the demise of the 1985-1988 Gorbachev Anti-Alcohol Campaign. Using archival sources to build a new oblast-year data set spanning 1978-2000, we find a variety of evidence suggesting that the campaign's end explains a large share of the mortality crisis - implying that Russia's transition to capitalism and democracy was not as lethal as commonly suggested. PMID:24224067

  2. Health care in the new Russia: a western perspective.

    PubMed

    Wallen, A J; Cammuso, B S

    1997-01-01

    With the end of the Cold War and establishment of relations with Russia, the opportunity for nurses to meet their Russian colleagues is now available. The authors, with an international group of nurses, visited Russia to learn about their healthcare system and nursing practice. The authors found Russian healthcare system severely lacking in the technology and resources available in other industraialized nations. Within this system, the nurse's role is significantly different from nursing in the American healthcare system. Nurses practice within a system of severe shortages and provide nursing care dependent upon physicians. PMID:9362879

  3. Legal regulation of assisted reproduction treatment in Russia.

    PubMed

    Svitnev, Konstantin

    2010-06-01

    Russia remains one of the countries with a most favourable approach towards human reproduction in Europe, allowing almost everybody wanting to have a child of their own through assisted reproduction treatment to fulfill their dream. The legal situation around assisted reproduction treatment in Russia is very favourable; surrogacy, gamete and embryo donation are permitted, even on a commercial level. Gestational surrogacy is an option for heterosexual couples and single women, although a court decision might be needed to register a 'surrogate' child born to a couple who are not officially married or a single woman. However, it is not explicitly allowed nor prohibited for single men. PMID:20435519

  4. A Survey of Biofuel Production potentials in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lykova, Natalya; Gustafsson, Jan-Erik

    2010-01-01

    Due to the abundance of fossil fuel resources in Russia, the development of the renewable energy market there was delayed. Recent technological advancement has led to an increasing interest in biofuel production. The aim of research was to evaluate how biofuels are introduced into the current energy scheme of the country. The potential production of biofuels was estimated based on sustainable approaches which provide solution for carbon emission reduction and environmental benefits. Russia still requires biofuel policy to make biofuels compatible with traditional fossil fuels.

  5. Appearance and Appliance of the Twin-Cities Concept on the Russian-Chinese Border

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailova, E. V.

    2013-11-01

    The article is devoted to the city pair of Blagoveshchensk (Russia) and Heihe (People's Republic of China), the only city pair in Russian-Chinese borderland that describes itself with the term "twin-cities". The current contribution reconstructs the history of appearance of the twin-cities concept in Russian-Chinese agenda. On the basis of interviews and questionnaires collected in the cities in question the paper examines specificity of understanding of "twin-cities" concept and its practical execution in the Asian context. Exploring the extent to which the twin-cities relations model is applicable to Russian-Chinese border cities, the author concludes that cooperation predominantly exists in a form of bilateral annual events in various spheres (culture, education, sport, etc.) and dialog between delegations of region's/city's representatives, not in a form of direct people-to-people or institution-to-institution cooperation. The lack of local initiatives to cooperate (almost zero-amount of initiatives not from region's/city's administrations) is named as a main drawback of Blagoveshchensk and Heihe relations. While planned character of cooperation makes the calendar of joint events stable and predictable, it also keeps Russian-Chinese cooperation staying on the ritual level and prevents it to become a necessary part of everyday life.

  6. What Is Clean Cities?

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-08-01

    This Clean Cities Program fact sheet describes the purpose and scope of this DOE program. Clean Cities facilitates the use of alternative and advanced fuels and vehicles to displace petroleum in the transportation sector.

  7. Dual Scale Trend Analysis To Evaluate Climatic and Anthropogenic Effects on the Vegetated Land Surface in Agricultural Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Beurs, K.; Henebry, G. M.

    2009-12-01

    Russia’s population is projected to shrink by a staggering 29% by 2050. Differential dynamics among rural populations are correlated with ethnicity and constitute a key driver in the spatial disintegration of rural Russia. Currently, Russia is slowly transitioning into a country with an internal “archipelago” of islands of productive agriculture around cities set within a matrix of much less productive and abandoned croplands. This heterogeneous spatial pattern is mainly driven by depopulation of the least favorable parts of the countryside, where “least favorable” is some function of lower fertility of land, higher remoteness from urban markets, or both. Our aim is to improve current understanding of the interactions of climate change and the spatio-temporal impacts of agricultural reform in European Russia. We present a dual scale trend analysis to characterize change in agricultural European Russia. We selected a global NASA MODIS product (MCD43C4 and MCD43A4) at a 0.05° (~5.6 km) and 500m spatial resolution and a 16-day temporal resolution from 2000 through 2008. We applied a refinement of the Seasonal Kendal trend method to Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) image series at both scales. We only incorporated composites during the vegetative growing season which was delineated by start of season and end of season estimates based on analysis of Normalized Difference Infrared Index (NDII) data. Trend patterns revealed areas of increasing NDVI trend in Russia which was linked through the dual scale analysis with agricultural land cover change. The coarser scale analysis was relevant to atmospheric boundary layer processes, while the finer scale data revealed trends that were more relevant to human decision-making and regional economics. We evaluated the weather patterns and land surface phenologies for the areas with increasing NDVI over the past 9 years and compared the results with agricultural areas without change. This analysis improved

  8. CITY III Director's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Envirometrics, Inc., Washington, DC.

    CITY III is a computer-assisted simulation game which allows the participants to make decisions affecting various aspects of the economic, governmental, and social sectors of a simulated urban area. The game director selects one of five possible starting city configurations, may set a number of conditions in the city before the start of play, and…

  9. The Recent Emergence of Private Christian Colleges and Universities in Russia: Historical Reasons and Contemporary Developments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrenko, Konstantin I.; Glanzer, Perry L.

    2005-01-01

    Although the history of Christianity in Russia dates back to the tenth century, the history of private Christian higher education in Russia is no more than a decade. This paper first explains the historical reasons for this fact and then describes the contemporary development of faith-based private education in Russia over the past decade. When…

  10. 15 CFR 744.10 - Restrictions on certain entities in Russia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Russia. 744.10 Section 744.10 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign... REGULATIONS CONTROL POLICY: END-USER AND END-USE BASED § 744.10 Restrictions on certain entities in Russia. (a) General prohibition. Certain entities in Russia are included in supplement No. 4 to this part 744...

  11. 15 CFR 744.10 - Restrictions on certain entities in Russia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Russia. 744.10 Section 744.10 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign... REGULATIONS CONTROL POLICY: END-USER AND END-USE BASED § 744.10 Restrictions on certain entities in Russia. (a) General prohibition. Certain entities in Russia are included in Supplement No. 4 to this part 744...

  12. 15 CFR 744.10 - Restrictions on certain entities in Russia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Russia. 744.10 Section 744.10 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign... REGULATIONS CONTROL POLICY: END-USER AND END-USE BASED § 744.10 Restrictions on certain entities in Russia. (a) General prohibition. Certain entities in Russia are included in Supplement No. 4 to this part 744...

  13. 15 CFR 744.10 - Restrictions on certain entities in Russia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Russia. 744.10 Section 744.10 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign... REGULATIONS CONTROL POLICY: END-USER AND END-USE BASED § 744.10 Restrictions on certain entities in Russia. (a) General prohibition. Certain entities in Russia are included in Supplement No. 4 to this part 744...

  14. Coping with the new {open_quotes}clear and present danger{close_quotes} from Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Blaker, J.

    1995-04-01

    The time has come to consider a different way to ensure that none of Russia`s nuclear weapons and fissile material ever falls into the hands of terrorists, criminals or rogue states. The current situation in Russia makes such a prospect all too plausible. The author examines mechanisms to control weapons and fissile materials.

  15. Geology of Wrangel Island, Arctic Russia, Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, E. L.; Gehrels, G.; Soloviev, A.

    2007-12-01

    It has long been suggested that Wrangel Island represents the western continuation of the Brooks Range fold and thrust belt of northern Alaska. It is thus a unique exposure to test for the continuity of structures, lithologies and facies from Alaska to Russia across the Chukchi Sea, however no new structural and geochrononologic data has emerged since the thorough overview of Kos'ko et al. (1993, Geol. Surv.Canada Bull. 461). In 2006, an international team of geologists (S.Sokolov, M.Tuchkova, V.Verzhbitsky, E.Miller and V.Pease) visited the island with the help and logistic support of the director and scientific staff of the Wrangel Island Wildlife Preserve. Strata on Wrangel Island are highly deformed and metamorphosed, but may match part of the section described for the Hannah Trough, Alaska (Sherwood et al., 2002 GSA Spec.Paper 360): Coarse clastic strata overlie late Precambrian basement (630-700 Ma Kos'ko et al. (1993)), followed by a succession of mid to Late Paleozoic limestone, shale and lesser clastic rocks. Wrangel Island differs from the N.Slope and Brooks Range in that a thick sequence of basinal Triassic clastics constitutes the upper part of the section. Comparison of single grain U-Pb ages of detrital zircons from the Triassic of Wrangel to the Russian Arctic mainland and to the Lisburne Hills, Alaska, suggests basin continuity and similar source regions between these three regions (but not the N. Slope) in the Triassic. Single grain ages as young as 215 Ma validate the inferred Triassic age of these sediments on Wrangel Island. Penetrative deformation, increasing in strain and metamorphic grade with depth in the section, is defined by a foliation that dips south and a pronounced N-S mineral elongation or stretching lineation. The structural style of deformation is unlike the style of folding and thrusting in the external (northern) part of the Brooks Range, but similar to that of the internal (southern) zone of the Brooks Range. Limited thin

  16. Space Radar Image of Kliuchevskoi, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an X-band seasonal image of the Maly Semlyachik volcano, which is part of the Karymsky volcano group on Kamchatka peninsula, Russia. The image is centered at 54.2 degrees north latitude and 159.6 degrees east longitude. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 9, 1994, during the first flight of the radar system, and on September 30, 1994, during the second flight. The image channels have been assigned the following colors: red corresponds to data acquired on April 9; green corresponds to data acquired on September 30; and blue corresponds to the ratio between data from April 9 and September 30, 1994. Kamchatka is twice as large as England, Scotland and Wales combined and is home to approximately 470,000 residents. The region is characterized by a chain of volcanoes stretching 800 kilometers (500 miles) across the countryside. Many of the volcanoes, including the active Maly Semlyachik volcano in this image, have erupted during this century. But the most active period in creating the three characteristic craters of this volcano goes back 20,000, 12,000 and 2,000 years ago. The highest summit of the oldest crater reaches about 1,560 meters (1,650 feet). The radar images reveal the geological structures of craters and lava flows in order to improve scientists' knowledge of these sometimes vigorously active volcanoes. This seasonal composite also highlights the ecological differences that have occurred between April and October 1994. In April the whole area was snow-covered and, at the coast, an ice sheet extended approximately 5 kilometers (3 miles) into the sea. The area shown surrounding the volcano is covered by low vegetation much like scrub. Kamchatka also has extensive forests, which belong to the northern frontier of Taiga, the boreal forest ecosystem. This region plays an important role in the world's carbon cycle. Trees require 60 years to

  17. Space Radar Image of Kliuchevskoi Volcano, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an image of the Kliuchevskoi volcano, Kamchatka, Russia, which began to erupt on September 30, 1994. Kliuchevskoi is the bright white peak surrounded by red slopes in the lower left portion of the image. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 25th orbit on October 1, 1994. The image shows an area approximately 30 kilometers by 60 kilometers (18.5 miles by 37 miles) that is centered at 56.18 degrees north latitude and 160.78 degrees east longitude. North is toward the top of the image. The Kamchatka volcanoes are among the most active volcanoes in the world. The volcanic zone sits above a tectonic plate boundary, where the Pacific plate is sinking beneath the northeast edge of the Eurasian plate. The Endeavour crew obtained dramatic video and photographic images of this region during the eruption, which will assist scientists in analyzing the dynamics of the current activity. The colors in this image were obtained using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received). The Kamchatka River runs from left to right across the image. An older, dormant volcanic region appears in green on the north side of the river. The current eruption included massive ejections of gas, vapor and ash, which reached altitudes of 20,000 meters (65,000 feet). New lava flows are visible on the flanks of Kliuchevskoi, appearing yellow/green in the image, superimposed on the red surfaces in the lower center. Melting snow triggered mudflows on the north flank of the volcano, which may threaten agricultural zones and other settlements in the valley to the north. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars

  18. Space Radar Image of Kiluchevskoi, Volcano, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an image of the area of Kliuchevskoi volcano, Kamchatka, Russia, which began to erupt on September 30, 1994. Kliuchevskoi is the blue triangular peak in the center of the image, towards the left edge of the bright red area that delineates bare snow cover. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 88th orbit on October 5, 1994. The image shows an area approximately 75 kilometers by 100 kilometers (46 miles by 62 miles) that is centered at 56.07 degrees north latitude and 160.84 degrees east longitude. North is toward the bottom of the image. The radar illumination is from the top of the image. The Kamchatka volcanoes are among the most active volcanoes in the world. The volcanic zone sits above a tectonic plate boundary, where the Pacific plate is sinking beneath the northeast edge of the Eurasian plate. The Endeavour crew obtained dramatic video and photographic images of this region during the eruption, which will assist scientists in analyzing the dynamics of the recent activity. The colors in this image were obtained using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received). In addition to Kliuchevskoi, two other active volcanoes are visible in the image. Bezymianny, the circular crater above and to the right of Kliuchevskoi, contains a slowly growing lava dome. Tolbachik is the large volcano with a dark summit crater near the upper right edge of the red snow covered area. The Kamchatka River runs from right to left across the bottom of the image. The current eruption of Kliuchevskoi included massive ejections of gas, vapor and ash, which reached altitudes of 15,000 meters (50,000 feet). Melting snow mixed with volcanic ash triggered mud flows on the

  19. The Changing Nature of Rurality and Rural Studies in Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shubin, Sergei

    2006-01-01

    This paper seeks to outline different strands of the reconfiguration of the social and spatial perspectives on the countryside in Russia in the last 20 years. The country's transition implied changes in the production of knowledge, including the re-examination of research topics and bringing new theories into rural studies. The article strives to…

  20. In Russia, Corruption Plagues the Higher-Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemtsova, Anna

    2008-01-01

    From the top down, says the writer, Russia's universities are impoverished by bribery and insider deals large and small. A new president's dorm at Nizhniy Novgorod is one example of what anti-corruption watchdogs say is widespread mismanagement, and in some cases outright corruption, throughout the country's higher-education system. Presidents use…

  1. Electric propulsion in Russia and its practical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, G. A.; Ryzhov, Y. A.

    1993-06-01

    The R&D of electric propulsion in Russia is discussed. Results of studies and tests on ion thrusters, arc thrusters, magnetoplasmadynamic thrusters, pulsed plasma thrusters, and stationary plasma thrusters are described. The significance of the results for spacecraft discharging are addressed.

  2. On Models of the University in Today's Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rozov, N. S.

    2008-01-01

    In current discussions of the problems that affect the development of higher education in Russia, two dimensions dominate, in which opinions diverge and positions clash. In the "first" ("the political and economic" dimension) the extreme poles are the "liberal approach" (according to which higher educational institutions ought to develop as…

  3. The New Universities of Russia: Problems and Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiroi, V. N.

    2011-01-01

    Russian universities do poorly in international rankings, and this will hurt Russia's ability to compete successfully in the global market. One way in which to try to improve this situation is to create new universities by merging institutions and organize them in innovative ways to become more efficient and effective. [This article was translated…

  4. Household Childcare Choices and Women's Work Behavior in Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lokshin, Michael

    2004-01-01

    A model of a household demand for childcare, mothers' labor force participation and mothers' working hours in Russia is presented. The simulations presented show that family allowance transfers intended as a means of reducing poverty do not have a significant effect on a household's choice of childcare arrangements.

  5. Foreign Students in the Higher Educational Institutions of Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aref'ev, A. L.

    2005-01-01

    In the next few years, higher educational institutions in Russia are going to have difficulties recruiting applicants for enrollment owing to the decline of the country's population and the reduced number of young people. One of the most important indicators of the effectiveness of the educational process and the level of competitiveness of the…

  6. The Household and the Family in Rural Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patsiorkovskii, V. V.; Patsiorkovskaia, V. V.

    2011-01-01

    There is a great need to improve rural life in Russia, and this must involve the development of the agricultural economy. This will require improving life for rural families, making it easier for them to obtain land to farm, and providing adequate housing and cultural facilities in the Russian village. (Contains 1 table.) [This article was…

  7. 75 FR 28547 - Aerospace Supplier Mission to Russia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Aerospace Supplier Mission to Russia AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice. Mission Description The U.S. Department of Commerce, International Trade Administration, U.S....

  8. The Narcotics Situation in Russia as a Social Pedagogical Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popov, V. A.

    2012-01-01

    The increase in the use of narcotics in Russia has been complicated by the spread of new kinds of drugs that are less visible than more traditional kinds. A worsening of the situation must be prevented. This requires studying the accumulation of world experience, searching for up-to-date approaches to prevention, combining the efforts of science…

  9. Financing Education in Transitional Societies: Lessons from Russia and China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bray, Mark; Borevskaya, Nina

    2001-01-01

    Compares changing patterns in educational finance in Russia and China, drawing on the literature concerning educational change in societies moving from socialism to market economies. Discusses economic and political contexts in the two countries, public and private educational expenditures, decentralization of financial responsibilities, increased…

  10. FSU/Eastern Europe: Russia spearheads small upturn

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The paper discusses the political and legal scene in Russia, domestic restructuring, exploration, drilling, development by Western companies and by Russian companies, and production. Exploration and development in Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Serbia are also discussed.

  11. FOREST FIRES IN RUSSIA: CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS IN THE ATMOSPHERE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Boreal forests of Russia play a significant role in the global carbon cycle and the f lux of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. ecause f ire and other disturbances are ecologically inherent in boreal forests, large areas are burned annually and contributions to the flux of carbo...

  12. Russian Language Course for Peace Corps Trainees in Russia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobov, Valery A.; And Others

    This guide is designed for Russian language training of Peace Corps workers in Russia, and reflects daily communication needs in that context. It consists of seven instructional units. An introductory section gives an overview of the Russian language, Cyrillic alphabet, phonology, and morphology. The first instructional unit is intended as a…

  13. Civic Education and the Future of Democracy in Russia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polozhevets, Pyotr; Schechter, Stephen L.; Perelmuter, Rimma

    1997-01-01

    Outlines the status of democratic civic education in Russia, particularly the need to educate teachers about democracy. Discusses the need for civic education reform, international cooperation in meeting those needs, dissemination of information on civic education, curriculum development and teacher-education projects, and the importance of…

  14. Indicators of the Education Potential of the Population of Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tikhomirov, N. P.; Ushchev, V. I.

    2007-01-01

    The steady tendencies toward the decline in the size of Russia's population in the twenty-first century, owing to the effect of global political, social, and economic factors, are giving rise to a number of fundamental problems that have to do with the erosion of the conditions that are essential not only for the stable development of society, but…

  15. 76 FR 11813 - Magnesium From China and Russia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... (75 FR 9252) and determined on June 4, 2010 that it would conduct full reviews (75 FR 35086, June 21... 10, 2010 (75 FR 48360). The hearing was held in Washington, DC, on December 7, 2010, and all persons... COMMISSION Magnesium From China and Russia Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in...

  16. 75 FR 9252 - Magnesium From China and Russia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-01

    ... magnesium (also known as magnesium metal) from China and Russia (70 FR 19928-19931). The Commission is... 207), as most recently amended at 74 FR 2847 (January 16, 2009). \\1\\ No response to this request for... employment statute for Federal employees, and Commission rule 201.15(b) (19 CFR 201.15(b)), 73 FR 24609...

  17. Epidemiology of Primary Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis, Vladimir Region, Russia.

    PubMed

    Ershova, Julia V; Volchenkov, Grigory V; Kaminski, Dorothy A; Somova, Tatiana R; Kuznetsova, Tatiana A; Kaunetis, Natalia V; Cegielski, J Peter; Kurbatova, Ekaterina V

    2015-11-01

    We studied the epidemiology of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) in Vladimir Region, Russia, in 2012. Most cases of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR TB) were caused by transmission of drug-resistant strains, and >33% were in patients referred for testing after mass radiographic screening. Early diagnosis of drug resistance is essential for preventing transmission of MDR TB. PMID:26488585

  18. International Reports on Literacy Research: Canada, France, Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Jacquelynn A., Comp.; Botzakis, Stergios, Comp.

    2006-01-01

    This article is a compilation of reports on international literacy research. The report includes 3 separate reports on Canada, France and Russia. In the first report, research correspondent Linda M. Phillips, in collaboration with Christian Beaulieu, reports on the Canadian Language and Literacy Research Network (CLLRNet). The vision of CLLRNet is…

  19. Traditions and Innovations: English Language Teaching in Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ter-Minasova, Svetlana G.

    2005-01-01

    The English language in Russia: a brief survey. It includes a historical perspective, the traditions of the past and the new challenges of the present-day situation. The history is simple: it is based on a deep love of foreign languages in general and English in particular. Love against all odds, for better, for worse, for richer and for poorer.…

  20. The Problem of Engineering Creativity in Russia: A Critical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kukushkin, Sergey; Churlyaeva, Natalya

    2012-01-01

    The problem of technological creativity in Russia is briefly discussed. Special attention is paid to the development of indigenous engineering corpus in unfavourable conditions and some reasons for engineers' low creativity are revealed. The Soviet system of engineering higher education (HE) is criticised as not focused on fostering creative…

  1. Responses to Agrarian Reforms in Russia: Evidence from Novosibirsk Oblast

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davydova, Irina; Franks, J. R.

    2006-01-01

    Interviews with Directors of restructured collective farms, private farmers, Rural Development Officers, and Agricultural specialists in the Administration from Suzun raion, Novosibirsk oblast, central Russia revealed a regional response to recent agrarian reforms. Distinct differences emerged between the objectives of the restructured collective…

  2. Human Resource Development Practices in Russia: A Structured Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plakhotnik, Maria S.

    2005-01-01

    This literature review aimed to investigate the literature on HRD in Russian enterprises, U.S. firms in Russia, or U.S.-Russian joint ventures to determine the role and function of HRD practitioners in creating a successful economic transition. Thirty-three articles were selected through a database search and examined using content analysis. Three…

  3. In Russia, a Model Program Reunites Research and Academe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacWilliams, Bryon

    2007-01-01

    Scientific research has traditionally been left to professionals in Russia. Here, though, graduates and undergraduates work alongside established scientists from different fields, on modern equipment. Some even earn enough money to support themselves. The students have been given this chance under a joint program of the United States and Russia…

  4. Resume Writing in Russia and the Newly Independent States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Betsy; Sapp, David Alan; Sargsyan, Nelly

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the teaching of resume writing at one university in Russia and several institutions in the Newly Independent States (NIS). The authors explore challenges including variable cultural norms for written versus oral communication, severe financial and material hardship in the educational sector, cultural discomfort with the norms…

  5. Oil and Gas Resources of the West Siberian Basin, Russia

    EIA Publications

    1997-01-01

    Provides an assessment of the oil and gas potential of the West Siberian Basin of Russia. The report was prepared in cooperation with the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is part of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Foreign Energy Supply Assessment Program (FESAP).

  6. Needs Assessment for Health Care Management Education in Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rekhter, Natalia; Togunov, Igor A.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: For more than 70 years, health care management in the Soviet Union reflected a centralized directive style familiar to the Soviet political system. Market-oriented reform in post-Soviet Russia is pushing practicing physicians and physician-executives to acquire new information and skills regarding health care management. To assist…

  7. Engineering Education in Russia in an Era of Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukianenko, M. V.; Polezhaev, O. A.; Churliaeva, N. P.

    2013-01-01

    Engineering education in Russia is undergoing reforms, but the history of this form of higher education does not indicate that it will succeed in bringing it into line with current world standards, or even making it more able to contribute at a high level to Russian economic growth. (Contains 5 notes.)

  8. Changing tendencies in national identity of the peoples of Russia.

    PubMed

    Aleksakhina, N A

    1999-01-01

    The author examines changes in the ethnic composition of the population of Russia over time, with particular reference to the factors that influence people to change their ethnic affiliation in response to political or other pressures. Attention is also given to the effects of ethnically mixed marriages on the nationality chosen by the children of such marriages. PMID:12294983

  9. Distance Education in Russia: Between the Past and the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moiseeva, Marina

    2005-01-01

    The history of distance education in Russia and in the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) is a history of dramatic change in ideology, conceptual framework, and approach. It can be divided into two main stages: initial formation and development into the world's largest system of correspondence learning, from the mid 1920s to the…

  10. Complete Genome Sequence of Mycobacterium bovis Strain BCG-1 (Russia)

    PubMed Central

    Shitikov, Egor A.; Malakhova, Maja V.; Kostryukova, Elena S.; Ilina, Elena N.; Atrasheuskaya, Alena V.; Ignatyev, Georgy M.; Vinokurova, Nataliya V.; Gorbachyov, Vyacheslav Y.

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovis BCG (Bacille Calmette-Guérin) is a vaccine strain used for protection against tuberculosis. Here, we announce the complete genome sequence of M. bovis strain BCG-1 (Russia). Extensive use of this strain necessitates the study of its genome stability by comparative analysis. PMID:27034492

  11. The Modernization of Russia and Base Centers for Teacher Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riabov, V. V.; Rakitov, A. I.

    2011-01-01

    The modernization of Russia requires people to be trained for a modern economy, for technological development, and for the sphere of state, regional, and corporate management. Accomplishing this complex task has been assigned to the "New School" policy, approved in 2010. The present article examines ways of dealing with problems that arise in this…

  12. Understanding Care for the Poor in Rural Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shubin, Sergei

    2012-01-01

    The issues surrounding care and care-provision have been key themes in social scientific research, yet the intersections between care and poverty, particularly in rural contexts, have not been sufficiently explored. This paper addresses this gap by studying care for the poor in rural Russia. It argues that isolated, disengaged and decontextualised…

  13. Reforming Undergraduate Instruction in Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovzik, Alexander; Watts, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Deals with the restructuring of undergraduate economics instruction at Russia's Moscow State University (MSU) since 1989. Examines how changes at MSU are reflected at Belarus State University and at Kiev State University. Considers issues such as training of faculty members, and the use of translated Western textbooks. (RLH)

  14. Complete Genome Sequence of Mycobacterium bovis Strain BCG-1 (Russia).

    PubMed

    Sotnikova, Evgeniya A; Shitikov, Egor A; Malakhova, Maja V; Kostryukova, Elena S; Ilina, Elena N; Atrasheuskaya, Alena V; Ignatyev, Georgy M; Vinokurova, Nataliya V; Gorbachyov, Vyacheslav Y

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovisBCG (Bacille Calmette-Guérin) is a vaccine strain used for protection against tuberculosis. Here, we announce the complete genome sequence ofM. bovisstrain BCG-1 (Russia). Extensive use of this strain necessitates the study of its genome stability by comparative analysis. PMID:27034492

  15. The Social and Pedagogical Protection of Orphans in Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantiukhina, E. N.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the history of the provision of children's care ("prizrenie") in Russia which provides evidence that the desire to help those close to one, especially orphans and the poor, was a traditional trait of the Russian national character. The system of children's welfare as it took shape over many centuries is unique in its own…

  16. A Look at TEFL in Russia and Ukraine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Mary Lee

    A survey of 53 teachers of English as a foreign language (EFL) in Russia and Ukraine, conducted in May 1992, investigated current teaching conditions and methods and perceived needs and concerns. The teachers taught at elementary, secondary, and postsecondary levels; a majority taught in teacher training institutions. Over half the respondents…

  17. Children and Young People Are the Future of Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimashevskaia, N. M.

    2007-01-01

    The importance of a country's population as the carrier of its intellectual potential increases greatly in a postindustrial country, where the nation's intelligence, comprised of an aggregate of the intelligence of individuals, becomes the true engine and decisive factor of progress. Any loss of human resources in Russia, without regard to age and…

  18. Public health in Russia: the view from the inside.

    PubMed

    Tkatchenko, E; McKee, M; Tsouros, A D

    2000-06-01

    The health of the Russian population continues to lag far behind that in the west. A robust public health response to the high levels of communicable and non-communicable diseases is required. This challenge has attracted considerable attention from international donor agencies and others, but there are still many questions about how the health situation in Russia is understood by policy-makers within the country and what responses are being considered. This paper examines these questions by means of a review of literature published in Russia and interviews with key informants. It concludes that although many of the determinants of health in Russia have been identified, they are typically discussed in a general way. Research on the major determinants of disease in Russia, and published in the international literature, appears to have had little impact. The need for reform to enhance the public health response is recognized. Goals of reform have been described but are poorly defined and there is typically little relationship between a stated goal and the strategy proposed to achieve it. There is a lack of clarity about what is meant by public health, and key concepts, such as inter-sectoral and multi-disciplinary working, are either ignored or misunderstood. Evidence of capacity for managed change is weak. There is an urgent need to create a shared awareness of evidence on the nature of the health challenges facing Russia and the evidence base for both the content of potential responses and the strategies that might be adopted to implement them. PMID:10837039

  19. Mexico City Aerosol Transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowski, P. A.; Eichinger, W. E.; Prueger, J.; Holder, H. L.

    2007-12-01

    A radiative impact study was conducted in Mexico City during MILAGRO/MIRAGE campaign in March of 2006. On a day when the predominant wind was from the north to the south, authors measured radiative properties of the atmosphere in six locations across the city ranging from the city center, through the city south limits and the pass leading out of the city (causing pollutants to funnel through the area). A large change in aerosol optical properties has been noticed. The aerosol optical depth has generally increased outside of the city and angstrom coefficient has changed significantly towards smaller values. Aerosol size distribution was calculated using SkyRadPack. The total optical depths allowed coincidental lidar data to calculate total extinction profiles for all the locations for 1064nm.

  20. Red Data Book of Eurasian Soils: Russia and contiguous countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitin, E. D.; Skvortsova, E. B.; Sabodina, E. P.

    2014-03-01

    The development of the Red Data Book of Eurasian Soils is a challenge necessitated by the intensive and exhaustive use of soil resources. The long-term strategy of interaction between humans and the environment should be directed towards the creation of favorable conditions for the development of society and saving of nature via application of new legislative norms aimed at preservation of pedodiversity and especially valuable soils. It is important to develop pedology as a fundamental science and to harmonize the relation-ships between humans and nature. The 30-year-long experience of Russia in the development of the Red Data Books of Soils is analyzed, and several conclusions aimed at improving the efficiency of special protection of soils in Russia and contiguous countries are made.

  1. Elder abuse and neglect vs. parricide: a letter from Russia.

    PubMed

    Jargin, Sergei V

    2014-01-01

    In Russia, elder abuse is rarely discussed in the professional literature and the media. However, it is posited that parricide can be considered a form of elder abuse in Russia, as the line between elder abuse and parricide can be vague. Instances of parricide can appear trivial, hardly realized as such by victims and the social environment. Borderline cases can include involving older people in binge drinking, denying them help, and manipulating them to commit suicide. The perpetrators are often nonpsychotic, although sometimes exhibiting abnormal personality traits. Anger toward the victim can be absent on the part of the perpetrator, with their actions often driven by economic desires. A concluding point is that for better prevention of parricide and, therefore, elder abuse, it should not be considered only an unusual horrific crime committed by the mentally ill. PMID:24779543

  2. Demonstration of a PC 25 Fuel Cell in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    John C. Trocciola; Thomas N. Pompa; Linda S. Boyd

    2004-09-01

    This project involved the installation of a 200kW PC25C{trademark} phosphoric-acid fuel cell power plant at Orgenergogaz, a Gazprom industrial site in Russia. In April 1997, a PC25C{trademark} was sold by ONSI Corporation to Orgenergogaz, a subsidiary of the Russian company ''Gazprom''. Due to instabilities in the Russian financial markets, at that time, the unit was never installed and started by Orgenergogaz. In October of 2001 International Fuel Cells (IFC), now known as UTC Fuel Cells (UTCFC), received a financial assistance award from the United States Department of Energy (DOE) entitled ''Demonstration of PC 25 Fuel Cell in Russia''. Three major tasks were part of this award: the inspection of the proposed site and system, start-up assistance, and installation and operation of the powerplant.

  3. Health lifestyles and political ideology in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Cockerham, William C; Hinote, Brian P; Cockerham, Geoffrey B; Abbott, Pamela

    2006-04-01

    This paper examines the association of political ideology with health lifestyle practices and self-rated health in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine. The political trajectory of post-Soviet societies has taken two divergent paths, either toward democracy or autocracy. The health trajectory has followed the same pattern with the more autocratic states continuing to experience a mortality crisis, while those former socialist countries that have embraced democracy and moved closer to the West have escaped this crisis. This paper investigates whether political ideology in three post-Soviet countries that are firmly (Belarus), increasingly (Russia), or recently (Ukraine) autocratic is related to health lifestyles and health self-ratings. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews (N = 8406) with a representative national sample of the adult population. The results show that respondents who are against restoring communism have healthier lifestyles and rate their health better than respondents who wish to see communism return. PMID:16162381

  4. Trends for nanotechnology development in China, Russia, and India

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Pengzhu; Li, Xin; Chen, Hsinchun; Dang, Yan; Larson, Catherine; Roco, Mihail C.; Wang, Xianwen

    2009-01-01

    China, Russia, and India are playing an increasingly important role in global nanotechnology research and development (R&D). This paper comparatively inspects the paper and patent publications by these three countries in the Thomson Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI) database and United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) database (1976–2007). Bibliographic, content map, and citation network analyses are used to evaluate country productivity, dominant research topics, and knowledge diffusion patterns. Significant and consistent growth in nanotechnology papers are noted in the three countries. Between 2000 and 2007, the average annual growth rate was 31.43% in China, 11.88% in Russia, and 33.51% in India. During the same time, the growth patterns were less consistent in patent publications: the corresponding average rates are 31.13, 10.41, and 5.96%. The three countries’ paper impact measured by the average number of citations has been lower than the world average. However, from 2000 to 2007, it experienced rapid increases of about 12.8 times in China, 8 times in India, and 1.6 times in Russia. The Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), and the Indian Institutes of Technology (IIT) were the most productive institutions in paper publication, with 12,334, 6,773, and 1,831 papers, respectively. The three countries emphasized some common research topics such as “Quantum dots,” “Carbon nanotubes,” “Atomic force microscopy,” and “Scanning electron microscopy,” while Russia and India reported more research on nano-devices as compared with China. CAS, RAS, and IIT played key roles in the respective domestic knowledge diffusion. PMID:21170128

  5. Did Catherine the Great of Russia have syphilis?

    PubMed Central

    Morton, R S

    1991-01-01

    Catherine the Great (1729-96) ruled Russia for the last 34 years of her life. She pursued many reforms with energy, intelligence and political shrewdness. Not least amongst her activities was a serious interest in matters of public health which extended to personal involvement in the care of the venereally infected. This paper suggests that perhaps her zeal in this last was based on more than social awareness. Images PMID:1774056

  6. United States-Russia: Environmental management activities, Summer 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    A Joint Coordinating Committee for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (JCCEM) was formed between the US and Russia. This report describes the areas of research being studied under JCCEM, namely: Efficient separations; Contaminant transport and site characterization; Mixed wastes; High level waste tank remediation; Transuranic stabilization; Decontamination and decommissioning; and Emergency response. Other sections describe: Administrative framework for cooperation; Scientist exchange; Future actions; Non-JCCEM DOE-Russian activities; and JCCEM publications.

  7. The Higher Education Boom in Russia. Scale, Causes, and Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arapov, M. V.

    2006-01-01

    The past ten years in Russia have been a period of rapid growth of the system of higher education. The number of college students, which fell to the lowest point in the mid-1990s, began to rise both in the country as a whole and in just about all of the country's regions. From the 1993-94 academic year (or the 1994-95 academic year, because in the…

  8. Trends for nanotechnology development in China, Russia, and India.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuan; Zhang, Pengzhu; Li, Xin; Chen, Hsinchun; Dang, Yan; Larson, Catherine; Roco, Mihail C; Wang, Xianwen

    2009-11-01

    China, Russia, and India are playing an increasingly important role in global nanotechnology research and development (R&D). This paper comparatively inspects the paper and patent publications by these three countries in the Thomson Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI) database and United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) database (1976-2007). Bibliographic, content map, and citation network analyses are used to evaluate country productivity, dominant research topics, and knowledge diffusion patterns. Significant and consistent growth in nanotechnology papers are noted in the three countries. Between 2000 and 2007, the average annual growth rate was 31.43% in China, 11.88% in Russia, and 33.51% in India. During the same time, the growth patterns were less consistent in patent publications: the corresponding average rates are 31.13, 10.41, and 5.96%. The three countries' paper impact measured by the average number of citations has been lower than the world average. However, from 2000 to 2007, it experienced rapid increases of about 12.8 times in China, 8 times in India, and 1.6 times in Russia. The Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), and the Indian Institutes of Technology (IIT) were the most productive institutions in paper publication, with 12,334, 6,773, and 1,831 papers, respectively. The three countries emphasized some common research topics such as "Quantum dots," "Carbon nanotubes," "Atomic force microscopy," and "Scanning electron microscopy," while Russia and India reported more research on nano-devices as compared with China. CAS, RAS, and IIT played key roles in the respective domestic knowledge diffusion. PMID:21170128

  9. Soil cover patterns influence on the land environmental functions, agroecological quality, land-use and monitoring efficiency in the Central Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasenev, Ivan; Yashin, Ivan; Lukin, Sergey; Valentini, Riccardo

    2015-04-01

    First decades of XXI century actualized for soil researches the principal methodical problem of most modern geosciences: what spatial and temporal scale would be optimal for land quality evaluation and land-use practice optimizing? It is becoming obvious that this question cannot have one solution and have to be solved with especial attention on the features of concrete region and landscape, land-use history and practical issues, land current state and environmental functions, soil cover patterns and variability, governmental requirements and local society needs, best available technologies and their potential profitability. Central Russia is one of the most dynamical economic regions with naturally high and man-made complicated landscape and soil cover variability, long-term land-use history and self-contradictory issues, high potential of profitable farming and increased risks of land degradation. Global climate and technological changes essentially complicate the originally high and sharply increased in XX century farming land heterogeneity in the Central Russia that actualizes system analysis of its zonal, intra-zonal and azonal soil cover patterns according to their influence on land environmental functions, agroecological quality, and land-use and monitoring efficiency variability. Developed by the Laboratory of agroecological monitoring, ecosystem modeling & prediction (LAMP / RTSAU with support of RF Governmental projects #11.G34.31.0079 and #14.120.14.4266) regional systems of greenhouse gases environmental monitoring RusFluxNet (6 fixed & 1 mobile eddy covariance stations with zonal functional sets of key plots with chamber investigations in 5 Russian regions) and of agroecological monitoring (in representative key plots with different farming practice in 9 RF regions) allow to do this analysis in frame of enough representative regional multi-factorial matrix of soil cover patterns, bioclimatic conditions, landscape features, and land-use history and

  10. An update on emergency care and emergency medicine in Russia.

    PubMed

    Rodigin, Anthony

    2015-12-01

    Russia's national healthcare system is undergoing significant changes. Those changes which affect healthcare financing are particularly vital. As has often been the case in other nations, the emergency care field is at the forefront of such reforms. The ongoing challenges constitute the environment in which the hospital-based specialty of emergency medicine needs to develop as part of a larger system. Emergency care has to evolve in order to match true needs of the population existing today. New federal regulations recently adopted have recognized emergency departments as the new in-hospital component of emergency care, providing the long-needed legal foundation upon which the new specialty can advance. General knowledge of Western-style emergency departments in terms of their basic setup and function has been widespread among Russia's medical professionals for some time. Several emergency departments are functioning in select regions as pilots. Preliminary data stemming from their operation have supported a positive effect on efficiency of hospital bed utilization and on appropriate use of specialists and specialized hospital departments. In the pre-hospital domain, there has been a reduction of specialized ambulance types and of the number of physicians staffing all ambulances in favor of midlevel providers. Still, a debate continues at all levels of the medical hierarchy regarding the correct future path for emergency care in Russia with regard to adaptation and sustainability of any foreign models in the context of the country's unique national features. PMID:26608599