Science.gov

Sample records for kalvns tomas saks

  1. An evaluation of sex-age-kill (SAK) model performance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Millspaugh, Joshua J.; Skalski, John R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Boyce, Mark S.; Hansen, Lonnie P.; Kammermeyer, Kent

    2009-01-01

    The sex-age-kill (SAK) model is widely used to estimate abundance of harvested large mammals, including white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Despite a long history of use, few formal evaluations of SAK performance exist. We investigated how violations of the stable age distribution and stationary population assumption, changes to male or female harvest, stochastic effects (i.e., random fluctuations in recruitment and survival), and sampling efforts influenced SAK estimation. When the simulated population had a stable age distribution and λ > 1, the SAK model underestimated abundance. Conversely, when λ < 1, the SAK overestimated abundance. When changes to male harvest were introduced, SAK estimates were opposite the true population trend. In contrast, SAK estimates were robust to changes in female harvest rates. Stochastic effects caused SAK estimates to fluctuate about their equilibrium abundance, but the effect dampened as the size of the surveyed population increased. When we considered both stochastic effects and sampling error at a deer management unit scale the resultant abundance estimates were within ±121.9% of the true population level 95% of the time. These combined results demonstrate extreme sensitivity to model violations and scale of analysis. Without changes to model formulation, the SAK model will be biased when λ ≠ 1. Furthermore, any factor that alters the male harvest rate, such as changes to regulations or changes in hunter attitudes, will bias population estimates. Sex-age-kill estimates may be precise at large spatial scales, such as the state level, but less so at the individual management unit level. Alternative models, such as statistical age-at-harvest models, which require similar data types, might allow for more robust, broad-scale demographic assessments.

  2. A Reflective Conversation with Ugur Sak: Gifted Education in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaughnessy, Michael F.; Sak, Ugur

    2015-01-01

    In this reflective conversation, Ugur Sak discusses the current "state of the art" of gifted education in Turkey. He reviews the use of enrichment, discusses acceleration and reviews curricular procedures in Turkey. He responds to questions about the identification of gifted students and discusses the age old debate of talent versus…

  3. Construction of novel chimeric proteins through the truncation of SEC2 and Sak from Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Hui, Jing; Yu, Xiao-jie; Cui, Xiao-jin; Mu, Teng; Lin, Jia-shuai; Ni, Pei; Li, Hui; You, Song; Hu, Feng-qing

    2014-01-01

    It is an usual clinical phenomenon that cancer patients are prone to thrombosis. Until now, there have been no efficient methods or appropriate drugs to prevent and cure tumor thrombus. Therefore, the construction of a bifunctional chimeric protein for the treatment of cancer, complicated with thrombosis, is of great significance. Utilizing the superantigenic activity of staphylococcal enterotoxin C2 (SEC2) and the thrombolytic activity of staphylokinase (Sak), Sak-linker-SEC2 and SEC2-linker-Sak were constructed which had good anti-tumor and thrombolytic activities at the same time. Due to the intrinsic emetic activity of SEC2 and high molecular weight (MW) of chimeric proteins (44 kDa), their clinical applications will be restricted. In this study, novel chimeric proteins including ΔSEC2-ΔSak and ΔSak-ΔSEC2 were constructed through the truncation of SEC2 and Sak without 9-Ala linker and His-tag. Compared with the former, both the truncated proteins preserved nearly the same anti-tumor and thrombolytic activities. In addition, their MWs were only 29 kDa and their immunoreactivities were slightly lower than that of Sak-linker-SEC2 and SEC2-linker-Sak, respectively. Therefore, the novel chimeric proteins possessed merits and characteristics, such as low MS, low immunogenicity, and difunctionality which the former had not. It will be of great interest if the above-mentioned proteins can be used to cure Trousseau syndrome in clinic. PMID:25209498

  4. Study of asphalt/asphaltene precipitation during addition of solvents to West Sak crude

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, J.C.; Patil, S.L.; Kamath, V.A. )

    1990-07-01

    In this study, experimental data on the amount of asphalt and asphaltene precipitation due to addition of solvents to West Sak crude were gathered. The first set of tests were conducted for two types of West Sak stock tank oils. Solvents used include: ethane, carbon dioxide, propane, n-butane, n-pentane, n-heptane, Prudhoe Bay natural gas (PBG) and natural gas liquids (NGL). Effect of solvent to oil dilution ratio on the amount of precipitation was studied. Alteration of crude oil composition due to asphalt precipitation was measured using gas-liquid chromatography. A second set of experiments were conducted to measure asphaltene precipitation due to addition of CO{sub 2} to live (recombined) West Sak crude.

  5. Mitogen activated protein kinases SakA(HOG1) and MpkC collaborate for Aspergillus fumigatus virulence.

    PubMed

    Bruder Nascimento, Ariane Cristina Mendes de Oliveira; Dos Reis, Thaila Fernanda; de Castro, Patrícia Alves; Hori, Juliana I; Bom, Vinícius Leite Pedro; de Assis, Leandro José; Ramalho, Leandra Naira Zambelli; Rocha, Marina Campos; Malavazi, Iran; Brown, Neil Andrew; Valiante, Vito; Brakhage, Axel A; Hagiwara, Daisuke; Goldman, Gustavo H

    2016-06-01

    Here, we investigated which stress responses were influenced by the MpkC and SakA mitogen-activated protein kinases of the high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway in the fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. The ΔsakA and the double ΔmpkC ΔsakA mutants were more sensitive to osmotic and oxidative stresses, and to cell wall damaging agents. Both MpkC::GFP and SakA::GFP translocated to the nucleus upon osmotic stress and cell wall damage, with SakA::GFP showing a quicker response. The phosphorylation state of MpkA was determined post exposure to high concentrations of congo red and Sorbitol. In the wild-type strain, MpkA phosphorylation levels progressively increased in both treatments. In contrast, the ΔsakA mutant had reduced MpkA phosphorylation, and surprisingly, the double ΔmpkC ΔsakA had no detectable MpkA phosphorylation. A. fumigatus ΔsakA and ΔmpkC were virulent in mouse survival experiments, but they had a 40% reduction in fungal burden. In contrast, the ΔmpkC ΔsakA double mutant showed highly attenuated virulence, with approximately 50% mice surviving and a 75% reduction in fungal burden. We propose that both cell wall integrity (CWI) and HOG pathways collaborate, and that MpkC could act by modulating SakA activity upon exposure to several types of stresses and during CW biosynthesis. PMID:26878695

  6. Toma de decisiones médicas

    Cancer.gov

    El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI) lleva a cabo y facilita la realización de investigaciones básicas y aplicadas que pueden servir de base para la adopción de prácticas clínicas estándar y la toma de decisiones médicas.

  7. Effects of CO sub 2 addition to steam on recovery of West Sak crude oil

    SciTech Connect

    Hornbrook, M.W. ); Dehghani, K. )

    1991-02-01

    This paper reports on a high-pressure 1D laboratory displacement study which evaluated the effects of adding CO{sub 2} to steam on the recovery of West Sak crude oil. Results of the laboratory experiments indicate that the simultaneous injection of CO{sub 2} and steam increases recovery, reduces injection temperatures, and reduces the heat input required.

  8. Phosphoprotein SAK1 is a regulator of acclimation to singlet oxygen in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    PubMed Central

    Wakao, Setsuko; Chin, Brian L; Ledford, Heidi K; Dent, Rachel M; Casero, David; Pellegrini, Matteo; Merchant, Sabeeha S; Niyogi, Krishna K

    2014-01-01

    Singlet oxygen is a highly toxic and inevitable byproduct of oxygenic photosynthesis. The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is capable of acclimating specifically to singlet oxygen stress, but the retrograde signaling pathway from the chloroplast to the nucleus mediating this response is unknown. Here we describe a mutant, singlet oxygen acclimation knocked-out 1 (sak1), that lacks the acclimation response to singlet oxygen. Analysis of genome-wide changes in RNA abundance during acclimation to singlet oxygen revealed that SAK1 is a key regulator of the gene expression response during acclimation. The SAK1 gene encodes an uncharacterized protein with a domain conserved among chlorophytes and present in some bZIP transcription factors. The SAK1 protein is located in the cytosol, and it is induced and phosphorylated upon exposure to singlet oxygen, suggesting that it is a critical intermediate component of the retrograde signal transduction pathway leading to singlet oxygen acclimation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02286.001 PMID:24859755

  9. Fungi use the SakA (HogA) pathway for phytochrome-dependent light signalling.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhenzhong; Armant, Olivier; Fischer, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    Stress-sensing in fungi depends on a signalling cascade comprised of a two-component phosphorylation relay plus a subsequent MAP kinase cascade to trigger gene expression. Besides osmotic or oxidative stress, fungi sense many other environmental factors, one of which is light(1,2). Light controls morphogenetic pathways but also the production of secondary metabolites such as penicillin. Here we show that phytochrome-dependent light signalling in Aspergillus nidulans involves the stress-sensing and osmosensing signalling pathway. In a screening for 'blind' mutants, the MAP kinase SakA (also known as HogA) was identified by whole-genome sequencing. The phytochrome FphA physically interacted with the histidine-containing phosphotransfer protein YpdA and caused light-dependent phosphorylation of the MAP kinase SakA and its shuttling into nuclei. In the absence of phytochrome, SakA still responded to osmotic stress but not to light. The SakA pathway thus integrates several stress factors and can be considered to be a hub for environmental signals. PMID:27572639

  10. Cloning and sequencing of sakP encoding sakacin P, the bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus sake LTH 673.

    PubMed

    Tichaczek, P S; Vogel, R F; Hammes, W P

    1994-02-01

    Sakacin P is a heat-stable, unmodified peptide bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus sake LTH 673. The strain was isolated from fermented dry sausages and is well adapted to this habitat. The bacteriocin inhibits the growth of the opportunistic food pathogens Enterococcus faecalis and Listeria monocytogenes and therefore, it may improve the hygienic status of fermented food, i.e. meat products. Oligonucleotide probes were designed from the N-terminal amino acid sequence of sakacin P and used to identify sakP, the structural gene of sakacin P, on the chromosome of L. sake LTH 673. SakP was cloned into Escherichia coli NM554 and the nucleotide sequence of the gene and its adjacent regions were determined. Sakacin P appears to be synthesized as a prepeptide of 61 amino acids which is proteolytically processed to the mature bacteriocin consisting of 43 amino acids. Sequencing of the cloned fragment also revealed the presence of two other open reading frames orfX and orfY, which are located upstream and downstream of sakP, respectively, putatively encoding proteins of 52 and 98 amino acids, respectively. The functions of both ORFs remain unknown. Primer extension analysis revealed a promoter upstream of sakP. Two transcripts of approximately 0.35 and 1.0 kb were detected by Northern hybridization encoding either only sakP, or both sakP and orfY, respectively. PMID:8180701

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: PAINT OVERSPRAY ARRESTOR, KOCH FILTER CORPORATION MULTI-SAK 6FZ159-S

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of March 19-23, 1999, tests of Koch Filter Corporation's Multi-Sak 6FZ159-S paint overspray arrestor (POA) as part of an evaluation of POAs by EPA's Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program. The basic per...

  12. Aspergillus nidulans transcription factor AtfA interacts with the MAPK SakA to regulate general stress responses, development and spore functions.

    PubMed

    Lara-Rojas, Fernando; Sánchez, Olivia; Kawasaki, Laura; Aguirre, Jesús

    2011-04-01

    Fungi utilize a phosphorelay system coupled to a MAP kinase module for sensing and processing environmental signals. In Aspergillus nidulans, response regulator SskA transmits osmotic and oxidative stress signals to the stress MAPK (SAPK) SakA. Using a genetic approach together with GFP tagging and molecular bifluorescence we show that SakA and ATF/CREB transcription factor AtfA define a general stress-signalling pathway that plays differential roles in oxidative stress responses during growth and development. AtfA is permanently localized in the nucleus, while SakA accumulates in the nucleus in response to oxidative or osmotic stress signals or during normal spore development, where it physically interacts with AtfA. AtfA is required for expression of several genes, the conidial accumulation of SakA and the viability of conidia. Furthermore, SakA is active (phosphorylated) in asexual spores, remaining phosphorylated in dormant conidia and becoming dephosphorylated during germination. SakA phosphorylation in spores depends on certain (SskA) but not other (SrrA and NikA) components of the phosphorelay system. Constitutive phosphorylation of SakA induced by the fungicide fludioxonil prevents both, germ tube formation and nuclear division. Similarly, Neurospora crassa SakA orthologue OS-2 is phosphorylated in intact conidia and gets dephosphorylated during germination. We propose that SakA-AtfA interaction regulates gene expression during stress and conidiophore development and that SAPK phosphorylation is a conserved mechanism to regulate transitions between non-growing (spore) and growing (mycelia) states. PMID:21320182

  13. Sak1 kinase interacts with Pso2 nuclease in response to DNA damage induced by interstrand crosslink-inducing agents in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Munari, Fernanda M; Revers, Luis F; Cardone, Jacqueline M; Immich, Bruna F; Moura, Dinara J; Guecheva, Temenouga N; Bonatto, Diego; Laurino, Jomar P; Saffi, Jenifer; Brendel, Martin; Henriques, João A P

    2014-01-01

    By isolating putative binding partners through the two-hybrid system (THS) we further extended the characterization of the specific interstrand cross-link (ICL) repair gene PSO2 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Nine fusion protein products were isolated for Pso2p using THS, among them the Sak1 kinase, which interacted with the C-terminal β-CASP domain of Pso2p. Comparison of mutagen-sensitivity phenotypes of pso2Δ, sak1Δ and pso2Δsak1Δ disruptants revealed that SAK1 is necessary for complete WT-like repair. The epistatic interaction of both mutant alleles suggests that Sak1p and Pso2p act in the same pathway of controlling sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents. We also observed that Pso2p is phosphorylated by Sak1 kinase in vitro and co-immunoprecipitates with Sak1p after 8-MOP+UVA treatment. Survival data after treatment of pso2Δ, yku70Δ and yku70Δpso2Δ with nitrogen mustard, PSO2 and SAK1 with YKU70 or DNL4 single-, double- and triple mutants with 8-MOP+UVA indicated that ICL repair is independent of YKu70p and DNL4p in S. cerevisiae. Furthermore, a non-epistatic interaction was observed between MRE11, PSO2 and SAK1 genes after ICL induction, indicating that their encoded proteins act on the same substrate, but in distinct repair pathways. In contrast, an epistatic interaction was observed for PSO2 and RAD52, PSO2 and RAD50, PSO2 and XRS2 genes in 8-MOP+UVA treated exponentially growing cells. PMID:24362320

  14. The SrkA Kinase Is Part of the SakA Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Interactome and Regulates Stress Responses and Development in Aspergillus nidulans

    PubMed Central

    Jaimes-Arroyo, Rafael; Lara-Rojas, Fernando; Bayram, Özgür; Valerius, Oliver; Braus, Gerhard H.

    2015-01-01

    Fungi and many other eukaryotes use specialized mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) of the Hog1/p38 family to transduce environmental stress signals. In Aspergillus nidulans, the MAPK SakA and the transcription factor AtfA are components of a central multiple stress-signaling pathway that also regulates development. Here we characterize SrkA, a putative MAPK-activated protein kinase, as a novel component of this pathway. ΔsrkA and ΔsakA mutants share a derepressed sexual development phenotype. However, ΔsrkA mutants are not sensitive to oxidative stress, and in fact, srkA inactivation partially suppresses the sensitivity of ΔsakA mutant conidia to H2O2, tert-butyl-hydroperoxide (t-BOOH), and menadione. In the absence of stress, SrkA shows physical interaction with nonphosphorylated SakA in the cytosol. We show that H2O2 induces a drastic change in mitochondrial morphology consistent with a fission process and the relocalization of SrkA to nuclei and mitochondria, depending on the presence of SakA. SakA-SrkA nuclear interaction is also observed during normal asexual development in dormant spores. Using SakA and SrkA S-tag pulldown and purification studies coupled to mass spectrometry, we found that SakA interacts with SrkA, the stress MAPK MpkC, the PPT1-type phosphatase AN6892, and other proteins involved in cell cycle regulation, DNA damage response, mRNA stability and protein synthesis, mitochondrial function, and other stress-related responses. We propose that oxidative stress induces DNA damage and mitochondrial fission and that SakA and SrkA mediate cell cycle arrest and regulate mitochondrial function during stress. Our results provide new insights into the mechanisms by which SakA and SrkA regulate the remodelling of cell physiology during oxidative stress and development. PMID:25820520

  15. SOLVENT-BASED ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY PROCESSES TO DEVELOP WEST SAK ALASKA NORTH SLOPE HEAVY OIL RESOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    David O. Ogbe; Tao Zhu

    2004-01-01

    A one-year research program is conducted to evaluate the feasibility of applying solvent-based enhanced oil recovery processes to develop West Sak and Ugnu heavy oil resources found on the Alaska North Slope (ANS). The project objective is to conduct research to develop technology to produce and market the 300-3000 cp oil in the West Sak and Ugnu sands. During the first phase of the research, background information was collected, and experimental and numerical studies of vapor extraction process (VAPEX) in West Sak and Ugnu are conducted. The experimental study is designed to foster understanding of the processes governing vapor chamber formation and growth, and to optimize oil recovery. A specially designed core-holder and a computed tomography (CT) scanner was used to measure the in-situ distribution of phases. Numerical simulation study of VAPEX was initiated during the first year. The numerical work completed during this period includes setting up a numerical model and using the analog data to simulate lab experiments of the VAPEX process. The goal was to understand the mechanisms governing the VAPEX process. Additional work is recommended to expand the VAPEX numerical study using actual field data obtained from Alaska North Slope.

  16. Tomas Rivera, 1935-1984: The Man and His Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lattin, Vernon E., Ed.; And Others

    Tomas Rivera, the son of migrant farmworkers, became a secondary school teacher, university professor, university administrator, and finally Chancellor of the University of California, Riverside (UCR). He published two novels in Spanish and numerous short stories, poems, and essays in Spanish and English. His and his family's experiences as…

  17. A Fast and Efficient Version of the TwO-Moment Aerosol Sectional (TOMAS) Global Aerosol Microphysics Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Yunha; Adams, P. J.

    2012-01-01

    This study develops more computationally efficient versions of the TwO-Moment Aerosol Sectional (TOMAS) microphysics algorithms, collectively called Fast TOMAS. Several methods for speeding up the algorithm were attempted, but only reducing the number of size sections was adopted. Fast TOMAS models, coupled to the GISS GCM II-prime, require a new coagulation algorithm with less restrictive size resolution assumptions but only minor changes in other processes. Fast TOMAS models have been evaluated in a box model against analytical solutions of coagulation and condensation and in a 3-D model against the original TOMAS (TOMAS-30) model. Condensation and coagulation in the Fast TOMAS models agree well with the analytical solution but show slightly more bias than the TOMAS-30 box model. In the 3-D model, errors resulting from decreased size resolution in each process (i.e., emissions, cloud processing wet deposition, microphysics) are quantified in a series of model sensitivity simulations. Errors resulting from lower size resolution in condensation and coagulation, defined as the microphysics error, affect number and mass concentrations by only a few percent. The microphysics error in CN70CN100 (number concentrations of particles larger than 70100 nm diameter), proxies for cloud condensation nuclei, range from 5 to 5 in most regions. The largest errors are associated with decreasing the size resolution in the cloud processing wet deposition calculations, defined as cloud-processing error, and range from 20 to 15 in most regions for CN70CN100 concentrations. Overall, the Fast TOMAS models increase the computational speed by 2 to 3 times with only small numerical errors stemming from condensation and coagulation calculations when compared to TOMAS-30. The faster versions of the TOMAS model allow for the longer, multi-year simulations required to assess aerosol effects on cloud lifetime and precipitation.

  18. The TOMAS software system for approximate analysis of emergency situations at nuclear power stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhukavin, A. P.

    2009-05-01

    The TOMAS software system for carrying out prompt analysis of different emergency situations in power units of nuclear power stations equipped with VVER-1000 and RBMK-1000 reactors is described. This software system can be used by experts of crisis centers for evaluating various situations, as well as for teaching students in higher schools specializing in the appropriate disciplines.

  19. Use of nootkatone as a senescence indicator for Rouge La Toma Cv. grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.).

    PubMed

    Biolatto, Andrea; Sancho, Ana M; Cantet, Rodolfo J C; Güemes, Daniel R; Pensel, Norma A

    2002-08-14

    The objective of this research was to study the usefulness of nootkatone as a senescence indicator for Rouge La Toma cv. grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.), simulating different treatments that included the normal postharvest handling of citrus fruits: temperature conditioning, cold storage, shipment periods to overseas markets such as Japan and the U.S., marketing conditions, and storage at nonchilling temperature (control treatments). The highest nootkatone levels, determined by GLC-MS analyses, were detected in fruits subjected to control treatments. No significant differences were observed in nootkatone levels between treatments either with or without temperature conditioning prior to the start of the cold storage. Levels of nootkatone increased throughout time for all assayed treatments. The linear regressions of nootkatone levels showed correlation coefficients of 0.80 and 0.83 with storage time (29 and 42 days, respectively). Therefore, nootkatone appears to be a good indicator of senescence for Rouge La Toma grapefruit. PMID:12166965

  20. Potential predecessors of the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami — Sedimentary evidence of extreme wave events at Ban Bang Sak, SW Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brill, D.; Brückner, H.; Jankaew, K.; Kelletat, D.; Scheffers, A.; Scheffers, S.

    2011-08-01

    Where historical records are short and/or fragmentary, geological evidence is an important tool to reconstruct the recurrence rate of extreme wave events (tsunamis and/or storms). This is particularly true for those coastal zones around the Indian Ocean, where predecessors of similar magnitude as the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami (IOT) have not been reported by written sources. In this context, the sedimentary record of the Holocene coastal plain of Ban Bang Sak (Phang-nga province, Thailand) provides evidence of multiple prehistoric coastal flooding events in the form of allochthonous sand beds, which were radiocarbon dated to 700-500, 1350-1180, and younger than 2000 cal BP. The layers were assigned to high-energy events of marine origin, which could be either tsunamis or tropical storms, by means of granulometry, geochemistry, vertical structure, and macrofossil content. Although no landfall of a strong storm has occurred in the last 150 years of meteorological data recording, cyclones cannot be ruled out for the last centuries and millennia. However, discrimination between tsunami and storm origin was mainly based on the comparison of the palaeoevent beds with the local deposit of the IOT, which revealed similar characteristics in regard to spatial extend and sediment properties. Furthermore, the youngest palaeoevent correlates with contemporaneous deposits from Thailand and more distant coasts. Hence, we relate it to a basin wide tsunami which took place 700-500 years ago. For the sediments of older extreme events, deposited between 2000 and 1180 cal BP, we found no unambiguous counterparts at other sites; nevertheless, at least for now, they are treated as tsunami candidates.

  1. Obtaining a Well-Aligned ZnO Nanotube Array Using the Hydrothermal Growth Method / Labi Sakārtotu Zno Nanocauruļu Kopu Iegūšana, Izmantojot Hidrotermālo Metodi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasovska, M.; Gerbreders, V.; Paskevics, V.; Ogurcovs, A.; Mihailova, I.

    2015-10-01

    Optimal growing parameters have been found using the hydrothermal method to obtain well-aligned vertical ZnO nanorod and nanotube arrays. The influence of different growing factors (such as temperature, growing solution concentration, method of obtaining seed layer and condition) on nanotube morphology and size is described in the paper. Well-structured ZnO nanotubes have been obtained by using a selfselective etching method with lowering temperatures of growth during the hydrothermal process. It is shown that the optical properties of the nanostructure arrays obtained are sensitive to the medium in which they are placed, which is why they can be used as sensors for pure substance detection and in different solutions for impurity determination. Dotajā darbā tika noteikti optimāli parametri labi sakārtotu ZnO nanocaurulīšu kopu iegūšanai, izmantojot hidrotermālo metodi ar temperatūras pazemināšanu, jeb t.s. selektīvu pa\\vskodināšanas metodi (self-selective etching), ir uzsvērtas šās metodes priekšrocības salīdzinājumā ar ķīmiskās kodināšanas metodi, kā arī tika aprakstīta dažādu augšanas faktora (tādu, ka darba šķīduma koncentrācija, augšanas temperatūra un laiks, iedīgļu slāņa iegūšanas veids un iegūšanas parametri) ietekme uz iegūtu nanostraktūra morfoloģiju. Tika konstatēts, ka noteicošu lomu ZnO nanocaurulīšu audzēšanas procesā spēlē iedīgļu slāņa graudu izmēri, kas savā staipā nosaka augošu nanostieņu izmērus un to tendenci pie pa\\vskodināšanas. Rentgenogrannnas parāda, ka iegūtām pie noteiktiem parametriem ZnO nanostruktūrām piemīt augsta kristāliskuma pakāpe un sakārtotība vertikālā virzienā. Optiskie mērījumi parāda, ka ZnO nanocauralītes ir jutīgas gan pret tīrām vielām (ūdens, spirts), gan pret dažādiem šķīdumiem, kas ļauj izmantot tos kā pie­jaukumu sensora. Salīdzinājumā ar ZnO nanostieņiem caurulīšu jūtība pieaug, jo pieaug nanostrakt

  2. Endogenous DNA Damage and Repair Enzymes: -A short summary of the scientific achievements of Tomas Lindahl, Nobel Laureate in Chemistry 2015.

    PubMed

    Klungland, Arne; Yang, Yun-Gui

    2016-06-01

    Tomas Lindahl completed his medical studies at Karolinska Institute in 1970. Yet, his work has always been dedicated to unraveling fundamental mechanisms of DNA decay and DNA repair. His research is characterized with groundbreaking discoveries on the instability of our genome, the identification of novel DNA repair activities, the characterization of DNA repair pathways, and the association to diseases, throughout his 40 years of scientific career. PMID:26689322

  3. Constraining Basin Geometry and Fault Kinematics on the Santo Tomas Segment of the Agua Blanca Fault Through a Combined Geophysical and Structural Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springer, A.; Wetmore, P.; Fletcher, J.; Connor, C. B.; Callihan, S.; Beeson, J.; Wilson, J.

    2008-12-01

    The Santo Tomas basin, located in northern Baja California, formed at a right step in the dextral Agua Blanca fault (ABF). The ABF extends for more than 120km east from Punta Banda, with an east-west strike, and represents the southernmost fault in the San Andreas system of faulting. The basin is located roughly 40km south of Ensenada where the Agua Blanca fault intersects the Maximos fault. A detailed geophysical analysis defines the basin geometry, and helps to constrain the distribution and offset of mapped and concealed faults. Geophysical and structural data sets are combined to constrain the kinematic evolution of the Santo Tomas basin, including determining the relative amount of dip-slip and strike-slip motion on basin-bounding faults. Gravity data was collected over seven transects across and along the axis of the basin at 500 meter intervals, with 200 meter intervals at locations of known or inferred faults. Magnetic data were taken over the same lines, and are used in conjunction with gravity data to constrain the locations, geometries and displacements of intrabasinal faults. The combined gravity and magnetic data are modeled using Geosoft Oasis montaj software to create 2 3/4D models along profiles across the study area. Modeling of the geophysical data combined with structural mapping indicates that the Santo Tomas basin is bound by two major strike-slip faults, the ABF on the northeastern side and the Maximos fault on south, Based on offset markers, most of the strike-slip motion appears to be concentrated on the ABF on the north side of the basin. The ABF fault is characterized by multiple subparallel fault strands that appear to coalesce into single strands to the northwest and southeast of the basin. The Maximos is characterized by a single strand throughout the basin and it exhibits a minor dip-slip component. Basin sediments thicken slightly against the Maximos fault to as much as 1km. A third fault, cutting across the basin southeast of the

  4. Source attribution of aerosol size distributions and model evaluation using Whistler Mountain measurements and GEOS-Chem-TOMAS simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Andrea, S. D.; Ng, J. Y.; Kodros, J. K.; Atwood, S. A.; Wheeler, M. J.; Macdonald, A. M.; Leaitch, W. R.; Pierce, J. R.

    2016-01-01

    Remote and free-tropospheric aerosols represent a large fraction of the climatic influence of aerosols; however, aerosol in these regions is less characterized than those polluted boundary layers. We evaluate aerosol size distributions predicted by the GEOS-Chem-TOMAS global chemical transport model with online aerosol microphysics using measurements from the peak of Whistler Mountain, British Columbia, Canada (2182 m a.s.l., hereafter referred to as Whistler Peak). We evaluate the model for predictions of aerosol number, size, and composition during periods of free-tropospheric (FT) and boundary-layer (BL) influence at "coarse" 4° × 5° and "nested" 0.5° × 0.667° resolutions by developing simple FT/BL filtering techniques. We find that using temperature as a proxy for upslope flow (BL influence) improved the model-measurement comparisons. The best threshold temperature was around 2 °C for the coarse simulations and around 6 °C for the nested simulations, with temperatures warmer than the threshold indicating boundary-layer air. Additionally, the site was increasingly likely to be in cloud when the measured relative humidity (RH) was above 90 %, so we do not compare the modeled and measured size distributions during these periods. With the inclusion of these temperature and RH filtering techniques, the model-measurement comparisons improved significantly. The slope of the regression for N80 (the total number of particles with particle diameter, Dp, > 80 nm) in the nested simulations increased from 0.09 to 0.65, R2 increased from 0.04 to 0.46, and log-mean bias improved from 0.95 to 0.07. We also perform simulations at the nested resolution without Asian anthropogenic emissions and without biomass-burning emissions to quantify the contribution of these sources to aerosols at Whistler Peak (through comparison with simulations with these emissions on). The long-range transport of Asian anthropogenic aerosol was found to be significant throughout all particle

  5. Source attribution of aerosol size distributions and model evaluation using Whistler Mountain measurements and GEOS-Chem-TOMAS simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Andrea, S. D.; Ng, J. Y.; Kodros, J. K.; Atwood, S. A.; Wheeler, M. J.; Macdonald, A. M.; Leaitch, W. R.; Pierce, J. R.

    2015-09-01

    Remote and free tropospheric aerosols represent a large fraction of the climatic influence of aerosols; however, aerosol in these regions is less characterized than those polluted boundary layers. We evaluate aerosol size distributions predicted by the GEOS-Chem-TOMAS global chemical transport model with online aerosol microphysics using measurements from the peak of Whistler Mountain, BC, Canada (2182 m a.s.l.). We evaluate the model for predictions of aerosol number, size and composition during periods of free tropospheric (FT) and boundary-layer (BL) influence at "coarse" 4° × 5° and "nested" 0.5° × 0.667° resolutions by developing simple FT/BL filtering techniques. We find that using temperature as a proxy for upslope flow (BL influence) improved the model measurement comparisons. The best threshold temperature was around 2 °C for the coarse simulations and around 6 °C for the nested simulations, with temperatures warmer than the threshold indicating boundary-layer air. Additionally, the site was increasingly likely to be in-cloud when the measured RH was above 90 %, so we do not compare the modeled and measured size distributions during these periods. With the inclusion of these temperature and RH filtering techniques, the model-measurement comparisons improved significantly. The slope of the regression for N80 (the total number of particles with particle diameter, Dp > 80 nm) in the nested simulations increased from 0.09 to 0.65, R2 increased from 0.04 to 0.46, and log-mean bias improved from 0.95 to 0.07. We also perform simulations at the nested resolution without Asian anthropogenic (AA) emissions and without biomass-burning (BB) emissions to quantify the contribution of these sources to aerosols at Whistler Peak (through comparison with simulations with these emissions on). The long-range transport of AA aerosol was found to be significant throughout all particle number concentrations, and increased the number of particles larger than 80 nm (N80

  6. Petrography, geochemistry, and depositional setting of the San Pedro and Santo Tomas coal zones: anomalous algae-rich coals in the middle part of the Claiborne Group (Eocene) of Webb County, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warwick, P.D.; Hook, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    Two coal zones, the San Pedro and the overlying Santo Tomas, are presented for nearly 35 km in outcrop, surface and underground mines, and shallow drill holes along the strike of the middle part of the Claiborne Group (Eocene) in Webb County, Texas. A sandstone-dominated interval of 25 to 35 m separates the two coal zones, which range up to 3 m in thickness. The coal-bearing portion of the middle Claiborne Group in the Rio Grande area represents a fining-upward transition from sandstone-dominated, marine-influenced, lower delta plain depositional environments to more inland, mudstone-rich, predominantly freshwater deltaic settings. The less variable nature of the Santo Tomas coal zone reflects its origin in the upper part of an interlobe basin that received only minor clastic influx. Petrographic attributes of the nonbanded coals indicate that they formed subaqueously in fresh to possibly brackish waters. Petrographic study of polished blocks indicates that approximately 10% of the nonbanded coal from both coal zones is composed of green algae fructifications. -from Authors

  7. Is the Dark Side of the Moon Ever Illuminated by the Sun? (Breton Title: O Lado Escuro da Lua Nunca Apanha Sol?) El Lado Oscuro de la Luna Nunca Toma Sol?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovannini, Odilon; Pellenz, Daiana; Catelli, Francisco

    2014-07-01

    This work presents the elaboration of an answer to the question "Is the dark side of the moon ever illuminated by the sun?", in which issues related to the students' conceptions, how they arise, and the core elements that constitute a "good answer" are considered. These issues are initially elaborated from a literature review of the research in the field; then, and also based on this review, a didactic model that involves the relative motions of the Earth - Moon - Sun system is proposed. A description of the application of this model in a learning environment within middle school students is described. This work confirms the students' initial concepts described in the literature; on the other hand, the questions asked by students during the activity provide evidence that meaningful learning, at least to some degree, has occurred. Este trabalho apresenta a elaboração de uma resposta à pergunta "O lado escuro da Lua nunca apanha sol?" na qual são consideradas questões relacionadas às concepções iniciais dos alunos, de onde elas surgem e os elementos centrais que constituem uma "boa resposta". Essas questões são tratadas, inicialmente, a partir de uma revisão da literatura sobre pesquisas na área e, em seguida, também com base nessa revisão, um objeto modelo didático que envolve os movimentos relativos do sistema Terra - Lua - Sol é proposto. Uma descrição detalhada da aplicação deste modelo em um ambiente de aprendizagem com alunos do ensino fundamental é relatada. As concepções iniciais apresentadas na literatura se confirmam e os questionamentos feitos pelos estudantes por ocasião da aplicação do modelo fornecem indícios de que uma aprendizagem significativa, pelo menos em algum grau, ocorreu. El artículo se presenta el desarrollo de una respuesta a la pregunta "¿El lado oscuro de la luna nunca toma sol?", en la que se consideran algunas cuestiones vinculadas que se refieren a las concepciones iniciales de los estudiantes, dónde surgen

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, PAINT OVERSPRAY ARRESTOR KOCH FILTER CORPORATION MULTI-SAK 6FZ159-S

    EPA Science Inventory

    Paint overspray arrestors (POAs) were evaluated by the Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) Verification Center. The performance factor verified was the particle filtration efficiency as a function of size for particles smaller than 10 micrometers. The APCT Verification Center...

  9. Impact of a targeted typhoid vaccination campaign following cyclone Tomas, Republic of Fiji, 2010.

    PubMed

    Scobie, Heather M; Nilles, Eric; Kama, Mike; Kool, Jacob L; Mintz, Eric; Wannemuehler, Kathleen A; Hyde, Terri B; Dawainavesi, Akanisi; Singh, Sheetalpreet; Korovou, Samuel; Jenkins, Kylie; Date, Kashmira

    2014-06-01

    After a category 4 cyclone that caused extensive population displacement and damage to water and sanitation infrastructure in Fiji in March 2010, a typhoid vaccination campaign was conducted as part of the post-disaster response. During June-December 2010, 64,015 doses of typhoid Vi polysaccharide vaccine were administered to persons ≥ 2 years of age, primarily in cyclone-affected areas that were typhoid endemic. Annual typhoid fever incidence decreased during the post-campaign year (2011) relative to preceding years (2008-2009) in three subdivisions where a large proportion of the population was vaccinated (incidence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals: 0.23, 0.13-0.41; 0.24, 0.14-0.41; 0.58, 0.40-0.86), and increased or remained unchanged in 12 subdivisions where little to no vaccination occurred. Vaccination played a role in reducing typhoid fever incidence in high-incidence areas after a disaster and should be considered in endemic settings, along with comprehensive control measures, as recommended by the World Health Organization. PMID:24710618

  10. Hispanicity and Educational Inequality: Risks, Opportunities and the Nation's Future. Tomas Rivera Lecture Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tienda, Marta

    2009-01-01

    This publication reproduces the keynote address delivered by the author at the annual conference of the American Association of Hispanics in Higher Education (AAHHE) in March 2009, in San Antonio, Texas. In her essay, the author discusses the significance of the growing Hispanic presence through the lens of education. To frame the challenges--and…

  11. 27 CFR 25.53 - Submissions of samples of fermented products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... submit samples of: (a) Cereal beverage, saké, or any fermented product produced at the brewery, (b) Materials used in the production of cereal beverage, saké, or any fermented product; and (c) Cereal...

  12. It's Your Life...Take Charge = Es Tu Vida...Toma Control. User's Guide and Student Workbook. Dropout Prevention Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veach, June P.

    These materials and a related videotape are intended to respond to the need to heighten at-risk students' awareness of factors involved in dropping out, of the need for staying in school, and of a process for making choices. The user's guide (in English only) discusses student level, makes suggestions for using the videotape and student booklet…

  13. The University of Santo Tomas Viewed from the Lens of Total Quality Management: Implications to Total Quality Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Guzman, Allan B.; Torres, Josefina R.

    2004-01-01

    Considered as a major management approach for improving organizational performance and competitive advantage, Total Quality Management (TQM) poses a challenge to dynamic institutions to adopt a systemic philosophy that places emphasis on customer needs and a commitment to a culture of excellence. Higher education institutions (HEIs) as learning…

  14. Staphylokinase has distinct modes of interaction with antimicrobial peptides, modulating its plasminogen-activation properties.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Leonard T; Vogel, Hans J

    2016-01-01

    Staphylokinase (Sak) is a plasminogen activator protein that is secreted by many Staphylococcus aureus strains. Sak also offers protection by binding and inhibiting specific antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Here, we evaluate Sak as a more general interaction partner for AMPs. Studies with melittin, mCRAMP, tritrpticin and bovine lactoferricin indicate that the truncation of the first ten residues of Sak (SakΔN10), which occurs in vivo and uncovers important residues in a bulge region, improves its affinity for AMPs. Melittin and mCRAMP have a lower affinity for SakΔN10, and in docking studies, they bind to the N-terminal segment and bulge region of SakΔN10. By comparison, lactoferricin and tritrpticin form moderately high affinity 1:1 complexes with SakΔN10 and their cationic residues form several electrostatic interactions with the protein's α-helix. Overall, our work identifies two distinct AMP binding surfaces on SakΔN10 whose occupation would lead to either inhibition or promotion of its plasminogen activating properties. PMID:27554435

  15. Staphylokinase has distinct modes of interaction with antimicrobial peptides, modulating its plasminogen-activation properties

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Leonard T.; Vogel, Hans J.

    2016-01-01

    Staphylokinase (Sak) is a plasminogen activator protein that is secreted by many Staphylococcus aureus strains. Sak also offers protection by binding and inhibiting specific antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Here, we evaluate Sak as a more general interaction partner for AMPs. Studies with melittin, mCRAMP, tritrpticin and bovine lactoferricin indicate that the truncation of the first ten residues of Sak (SakΔN10), which occurs in vivo and uncovers important residues in a bulge region, improves its affinity for AMPs. Melittin and mCRAMP have a lower affinity for SakΔN10, and in docking studies, they bind to the N-terminal segment and bulge region of SakΔN10. By comparison, lactoferricin and tritrpticin form moderately high affinity 1:1 complexes with SakΔN10 and their cationic residues form several electrostatic interactions with the protein’s α-helix. Overall, our work identifies two distinct AMP binding surfaces on SakΔN10 whose occupation would lead to either inhibition or promotion of its plasminogen activating properties. PMID:27554435

  16. Reversibility of germinative and endocrine testicular function after long-term contraception with a GnRH-agonist implant in the tom-a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Goericke-Pesch, Sandra; Georgiev, Plamen; Antonov, Anton; Vodenicharov, Angel; Navarro, Christelle; Wehrend, Axel

    2014-04-15

    A significantly reduced gonadotropin and testosterone secretion is a well-described result of long-term administration of GnRH agonists in the male dog and cat. To date, no data are available about the duration of efficacy and the reversibility of treatment-induced effects after long-term treatment with a 4.7 mg deslorelin implant. Seven healthy male European Shorthair cats (3.2 ± 0.5 kg, 1-6 years) were treated with a 4.7 mg deslorelin implant. Blood samples (testosterone, T), testicular volume, penile spines, and mating behavior were recorded once weekly. Considering T > 0.5 ng/mL as the biological endpoint, mean duration of efficacy was 78.8 ± 12.9 weeks (range: 61.7-100.7 weeks) with T concentrations increasing rapidly after the last T less than 0.1 ng/mL (basal) (P < 0.0001), and pretreatment T concentrations being reached after 3 weeks. Testicular volume rapidly increased after the first increase of T (P < 0.001) with pretreatment testicular volume being reached after 6.9 ± 3.4 weeks (5-11 weeks). "Normal" libido reoccurred 88.7 ± 12.4 weeks after treatment, and "normal" mating behavior was observed even later. Fertile matings occurred 7 to 42 weeks after the last T less than 0.1 ng/mL with a mean of 4.0 ± 0.0 kittens, and 13.6 to 47.6 weeks afterwards testicular histology revealed normal spermatogenesis. The present data confirm that the use of slow-release GnRH-agonist implants containing deslorelin in tomcats represents an effective and safe reversible alternative for long-term contraception; however, as number of animals is low, further fertility trials are recommended. PMID:24581586

  17. "En el grupo tomas conciencia (in group you become aware)": Latino immigrants' satisfaction with a culturally informed intervention for men who batter.

    PubMed

    Parra-Cardona, José Rubén; Escobar-Chew, Ana Rocío; Holtrop, Kendal; Carpenter, Georgia; Guzmán, Ricardo; Hernández, Dolores; Zamudio, Efraín; González Ramírez, Dolores

    2013-01-01

    Qualitative interviews were conducted with 21 Latino immigrant men who participated in a culturally informed batterer intervention. The objectives of this investigation were twofold. First, to identify the treatment components that facilitated the participants' willingness to engage in a process of change aimed at terminating their abusive behaviors. Second, to describe the treatment components that led to their satisfaction with the intervention. Research findings confirm that the Spanish version of the Duluth curriculum can be beneficial for Latino immigrant batterers. Results also demonstrate the critical role of culture as it refers to content of the intervention and method of delivery. PMID:23404244

  18. Specificity of Structural Assessment of Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trumpower, David L.; Sharara, Harold; Goldsmith, Timothy E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the specificity of information provided by structural assessment of knowledge (SAK). SAK is a technique which uses the Pathfinder scaling algorithm to transform ratings of concept relatedness into network representations (PFnets) of individuals' knowledge. Inferences about individuals' overall domain knowledge based on the…

  19. The Problem of Untested Sexual Assault Kits: Why Are Some Kits Never Submitted to a Crime Laboratory?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Debra; Campbell, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Victims of sexual assault are often advised to seek postassault medical care to have a forensic exam, which includes evidence collection (termed a "sexual assault kit" [SAK]). After the exam, law enforcement personnel are supposed to submit the SAK to a crime laboratory for analysis. However, recent media reports suggest that in many communities…

  20. Toxicology studies with recombinant staphylokinase and with SY 161-P5, a polyethylene glycol-derivatized cysteine-substitution mutant.

    PubMed

    Moons, L; Vanlinthout, I; Roelants, I; Moreadith, R; Collen, D; Rapold, H J

    2001-01-01

    SY 161-P5, a polyethylene glycol derivatized (PEGylated) mutant of the recombinant Staphylokinase (rSak) variant SakSTAR, exhibiting reduced antigenicity is in clinical development for treatment of acute myocardial infarction as a single bolus injection. A series of safety studies were performed in vivo as a routine toxicology program with SY 161-P5 (PEG-rSakSTAR) and with the recombinant Staphylokinase variant Sak42D (rSak42D). For both compounds, intravenous single bolus injections of up to 100-fold therapeutic equivalent, as well as repeated injections during 7 to 28 days revealed no significant pathological findings in mice, rats or hamsters. However, New Zealand white rabbits developed clinically silent, multifocal myocarditis following single or repeat doses of SY 161-P5 or of Sak42D. These findings were dose-independent and reversible. A similar species-specific cardiotoxic effect has previously been described for other proteolytic proteins, including the approved drugs Streptokinase and Acetylated Plasminogen Streptokinase Complex (APSAC). The large experience with these drugs, as well as the clinical data accumulated both with PEGylated and non-PEGylated rSak variants to date, do not indicate cardiotoxic hazards associated with the use of these drugs in humans. PMID:11442014

  1. Adolescent Sexuality: Promoting the Search for Hidden Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiBlasio, Frederick A.

    1989-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy and AIDS warrant a reexamination of child welfare workers' professional values toward adolescent sexuality. Presents an exercise designed to assist practitioners in understanding the hidden values that influence intervention. (SAK)

  2. An Intergenerational Support System for Child Welfare Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harnett, Joan

    1989-01-01

    Describes a program developed by the Children's Aid Society of Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, called Intergenerational Support System (ISS), in which senior volunteers serve as support persons for problem families. (SAK)

  3. Sea Anemone Toxins Affecting Potassium Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diochot, Sylvie; Lazdunski, Michel

    The great diversity of K+ channels and their wide distribution in many tissues are associated with important functions in cardiac and neuronal excitability that are now better understood thanks to the discovery of animal toxins. During the past few decades, sea anemones have provided a variety of toxins acting on voltage-sensitive sodium and, more recently, potassium channels. Currently there are three major structural groups of sea anemone K+ channel (SAK) toxins that have been characterized. Radioligand binding and electrophysiological experiments revealed that each group contains peptides displaying selective activities for different subfamilies of K+ channels. Short (35-37 amino acids) peptides in the group I display pore blocking effects on Kv1 channels. Molecular interactions of SAK-I toxins, important for activity and binding on Kv1 channels, implicate a spot of three conserved amino acid residues (Ser, Lys, Tyr) surrounded by other less conserved residues. Long (58-59 amino acids) SAK-II peptides display both enzymatic and K+ channel inhibitory activities. Medium size (42-43 amino acid) SAK-III peptides are gating modifiers which interact either with cardiac HERG or Kv3 channels by altering their voltage-dependent properties. SAK-III toxins bind to the S3C region in the outer vestibule of Kv channels. Sea anemones have proven to be a rich source of pharmacological tools, and some of the SAK toxins are now useful drugs for the diagnosis and treatment of autoimmune diseases.

  4. [Effect of long-term shallow tillage and straw returning on soil potassium content and stratification ratio in winter wheat/summer maize rotation system in Guanzhong Plain, Northwest China].

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiang-lan; Li, Xiu-shuang; Wang, Shu-juan; Li, Shuo; Li, You-bing; Tian, Xiao-hong

    2015-11-01

    Soil stratified sampling method and potassium chemical fractionation analysis were used to investigate effects of long-term shallow tillage and straw returning on soil K contents and stratification ratios in winter wheat/summer maize rotation system in Guanzhong Plain of Northwest China. The results showed that after 13-year continuous shallow tillage and straw returning, surface accumulation and stratification effect obviously occurred for soil available K (SAK) and non-exchangeable K (NEK), which was particularly remarkable for SAK and its fractions. Serious depletion of SAK occurred in 15-30 cm soil layer, and the SAK value was lower than the critical value of soil potassium deficiency. Meanwhile, significant differences were found between SR1 and SR2 values of SAK and its fractions, SR was obtained by values of topsoil layer (0-5 cm) divided by corresponding values of lower soil layers (5-15 cm layer, SR1, or 15-30 cm layer, SR2). However, no significant difference was observed between SR values of NEK and mineral K. In conclusion, returning of all straw over 10 years in the winter wheat/summer maize rotation system contributed greatly to maintaining soil K pool balance, while special attention should be paid to the negative effects of surface accumulation and stratification of SAK on soil K fertility. PMID:26915186

  5. Turning Awareness into Action: What Your Community Can Do about Drug Use in America = De La Toma de Conciencia a la Accion: Que Puede Hacer la Comunidad Respecto al Consumo de Drogas en America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Office for Substance Abuse Prevention.

    This booklet gives examples of successful community drug abuse prevention programs, as well as guidelines for finding out more about a community's prevention needs and taking action. The first section discusses taking action against drug abuse. It presents examples which illustrate the different approaches communities have taken. Ten steps to help…

  6. One Voice, One Future: A Latino Funding Agenda from the Latino Community and Its Leadership. The Los Angeles County Latino Assessment Study. Full Report. [Tomas Rivera Center Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomas Rivera Center, Claremont, CA.

    This report identifies funding priorities to assist governmental and philanthropic agencies in meeting the long-range needs of the Latino community of Los Angeles (California). Information was gathered from a community survey, a survey of Latino community leaders, and focus groups comprised of representatives from various sectors of the Latino…

  7. The Development of a New Measure of Global Work Autonomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breaugh, James A.

    1998-01-01

    Results of 3 studies, involving 80 adult employees, 6,810 defense contractor employees, and 88 graduate students, support the reliability and validity of a new measure of global work autonomy, the Global Work Autonomy Scale (B. Ashforth and A. Saks, 1995). (SLD)

  8. The pharmaceutics from the foreign empire: the molecular pharming of the prokaryotic staphylokinase in Arabidopsis thaliana plants.

    PubMed

    Hnatuszko-Konka, Katarzyna; Łuchniak, Piotr; Wiktorek-Smagur, Aneta; Gerszberg, Aneta; Kowalczyk, Tomasz; Gatkowska, Justyna; Kononowicz, Andrzej K

    2016-07-01

    Here, we present the application of microbiology and biotechnology for the production of recombinant pharmaceutical proteins in plant cells. To the best of our knowledge and belief it is one of few examples of the expression of the prokaryotic staphylokinase (SAK) in the eukaryotic system. Despite the tremendous progress made in the plant biotechnology, most of the heterologous proteins still accumulate to low concentrations in plant tissues. Therefore, the composition of expression cassettes to assure economically feasible level of protein production in plants remains crucial. The aim of our research was obtaining a high concentration of the bacterial anticoagulant factor-staphylokinase, in Arabidopsis thaliana seeds. The coding sequence of staphylokinase was placed under control of the β-phaseolin promoter and cloned between the signal sequence of the seed storage protein 2S2 and the carboxy-terminal KDEL signal sequence. The engineered binary vector pATAG-sak was introduced into Arabidopsis thaliana plants via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Analysis of the subsequent generations of Arabidopsis seeds revealed both presence of the sak and nptII transgenes, and the SAK protein. Moreover, a plasminogen activator activity of staphylokinase was observed in the protein extracts from seeds, while such a reaction was not observed in the leaf extracts showing seed-specific activity of the β-phaseolin promoter. PMID:27263008

  9. Heavy oil recovery process: Conceptual engineering of a downhole methanator and preliminary estimate of facilities cost for application to North Slope Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Gondouin, M.

    1991-10-31

    The West Sak (Upper Cretaceous) sands, overlaying the Kuparuk field, would rank among the largest known oil fields in the US, but technical difficulties have so far prevented its commercial exploitation. Steam injection is the most successful and the most commonly-used method of heavy oil recovery, but its application to the West Sak presents major problems. Such difficulties may be overcome by using a novel approach, in which steam is generated downhole in a catalytic Methanator, from Syngas made at the surface from endothermic reactions (Table 1). The Methanator effluent, containing steam and soluble gases resulting from exothermic reactions (Table 1), is cyclically injected into the reservoir by means of a horizontal drainhole while hot produced fluids flow form a second drainhole into a central production tubing. The downhole reactor feed and BFW flow downward to two concentric tubings. The large-diameter casing required to house the downhole reactor assembly is filled above it with Arctic Pack mud, or crude oil, to further reduce heat leaks. A quantitative analysis of this production scheme for the West Sak required a preliminary engineering of the downhole and surface facilities and a tentative forecast of well production rates. The results, based on published information on the West Sak, have been used to estimate the cost of these facilities, per daily barrel of oil produced. A preliminary economic analysis and conclusions are presented together with an outline of future work. Economic and regulatory conditions which would make this approach viable are discussed. 28 figs.

  10. Becoming Dean: Selection and Socialization Processes of an Academic Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enomoto, Ernestine; Matsuoka, Jon

    2007-01-01

    In this qualitative case study, we offer an insider's perspective on the selection and socialization processes of an academic leader. The primary method of data collection was through a series of interviews with the candidate over a five-year period. Analysis drew from an organizational socialization model devised by Saks and Ashforth, which…

  11. The Best of ESL: Practical-Strategy Guide for ESL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Wesley; Blue, Jama; Bosma, Amy Sak; Gillet, Rosemary; Korzhenyak, Ida; McCoy, Angelita Lopez; Nikiforov, Victoria; Nowak, Charlotte; Rande, Eileen; Rice, Susan M.

    The guide consists of essays on classroom practice and strategy in adult English-as-a-second-language (ESL) instruction. Essays on practice include: "Benefits of Cooperative Learning: A Guide for Beginning ESL Teachers" (Amy Sak Bosma); "Process Writing in the Adult Education Classroom" (Rosemary Gillet); "Grammar for Pre-Literates" (Ida…

  12. Altering Depth and Complexity in the Science Curriculum for the Gifted: Results of an Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çalikoglu, Burcu Seher; Kahveci, Nihat Gürel

    2015-01-01

    The Republic of Turkey has developed democratic support for equity in education for groups who have various learning needs (Levent, 2011, p. 89-91). In connection with Turkey's central policy of education, current educational applications have addressed these diverse needs to a certain extent. Sak (2011) drew our attention to the insufficiency of…

  13. Targeting the oxidative stress response system of fungi with safe, redox-potent chemosensitizing agents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One mode of action of the antimycotics amphotericin B (AMB) or itraconazole (ITZ) against filamentous fungi involves cellular oxidative stress response. Aspergillus fumigatus sakA', a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) gene deletion mutant in the antioxidation system, was more sensitive to AMB ...

  14. An Expert System for Environmental Data Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berka, Petr; Jirku, Petr

    1995-01-01

    Examines the possibility of using expert system tools for environmental data management. Describes the domain-independent expert system shell SAK and Knowledge EXplorer, a system that learns rules from data. Demonstrates the functionality of Knowledge EXplorer on an example of water quality evaluation. (LZ)

  15. Characteristics of Families at Risk of Problems in Parenting: Findings from a Home-Based Secondary Prevention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowal, Loretta W.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Describes a study of the effects of the Good Start program, which provides home-based intervention to families at risk of child maltreatment. Finds that families appear to improve over the course of treatment. Notes signs that indicate which families are most likely to improve. (SAK)

  16. Pharmacokinetic and thrombolytic properties of cysteine-linked polyethylene glycol derivatives of staphylokinase.

    PubMed

    Vanwetswinkel, S; Plaisance, S; Zhi-Yong, Z; Vanlinthout, I; Brepoels, K; Lasters, I; Collen, D; Jespers, L

    2000-02-01

    Recombinant staphylokinase (SakSTAR) variants obtained by site-directed substitution with cysteine, in the core (lysine 96 [Lys96], Lys102, Lys109, and/or Lys135) or the NH(2)-terminal region that is released during activation of SakSTAR (serine 2 [Ser2] and/or Ser3), were derivatized with thiol-specific (ortho-pyridyl-disulfide or maleimide) polyethylene glycol (PEG) molecules with molecular weights of 5,000 (P5), 10,000 (P10), or 20,000 (P20). The specific activities and thrombolytic potencies in human plasma were unaltered for most variants derivatized with PEG (PEGylates), but maleimide PEG derivatives had a better temperature stability profile. In hamsters, SakSTAR was cleared at 2.2 mL/min; variants with 1 P5 molecule were cleared 2-to 5-fold; variants with 2 P5 or 1 P10 molecules were cleared 10-to 30-fold; and variants with 1 P20 molecule were cleared 35-fold slower. A bolus injection induced dose-related lysis of a plasma clot, fibrin labeled with 125 iodine ((125)I-fibrin plasma clot), and injected into the jugular vein. A 50% clot lysis at 90 minutes required 110 microg/kg SakSTAR; 50 to 110 microg/kg of core-substitution derivatives with 1 P5; 25 microg/kg for NH(2)-terminal derivatives with 1 P5; 5 to 25 microg/kg with derivatives with 2 P5 or 1 P10; and 7 microg/kg with P20 derivatives. Core substitution with 1 or 2 P5 molecules did not significantly reduce the immunogenicity of SakSTAR in rabbits. Derivatization of staphylokinase with a single PEG molecule allows controllable reduction of the clearance while maintaining thrombolytic potency at a reduced dose. This indicates that mono-PEGylated staphylokinase variants may be used for single intravenous bolus injection. PMID:10648406

  17. Murine J774 Macrophages Recognize LPS/IFN-g, Non-CpG DNA or Two-CpG DNA-containing Sequences as Immunologically Distinct

    PubMed Central

    Crosby, Lynn; Casey, Warren; Morgan, Kevin; Ni, Hong; Yoon, Lawrence; Easton, Marilyn; Misukonis, Mary; Burleson, Gary; Ghosh, Dipak K.

    2010-01-01

    Specific bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS), IFN-γ, and unmethylated cytosine or guanosine-phosphorothioate containing DNAs (CpG) activate host immunity, influencing infectious responses. Macrophages detect, inactivate and destroy infectious particles, and synthetic CpG sequences invoke similar responses of the innate immune system. Previously, murine macrophage J774 cells treated with CpG induced the expression of nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2) and cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX2) mRNA and protein. In this study murine J774 macrophages were exposed to vehicle, interferon γ + lipopolysaccharide (IFN-g/LPS), non-CpG (SAK1), or two-CpG sequence-containing DNA (SAK2) for 0–18 hr and gene expression changes measured. A large number of immunostimulatory and inflammatory changes were observed. SAK2 was a stronger activator of TNFα- and chemokine expression-related changes than LPS/IFN-g. Up regulation included tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily genes (TNFRSF’s), IL-1 receptor signaling via stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK), NF-κB activation, hemopoietic maturation factors and sonic hedgehog/wingless integration site (SHH/Wnt) pathway genes. Genes of the TGF-β pathway were down regulated. In contrast, LPS/IFN-g -treated cells showed increased levels for TGF-β signaling genes, which may be linked to the observed up regulation of numerous collagens and down regulation of Wnt pathway genes. SAK1 produced distinct changes from LPS/IFN-g or SAK2. Therefore, J774 macrophages recognize LPS/IFN-g, non-CpG DNA or two-CpG DNA-containing sequences as immunologically distinct. PMID:20097302

  18. Los padres como consejeros o coparticipes en la toma de decisiones. Serie E: [E1] logro de la participacion de los padres. cuaderno 3. Edicion para el maestro. Cuadernos para el entrenamiento de maestros de educacion bilingue. (Parents as Advisors or Participants in Decision Making. Series E: Parent Participation, Book 3. Teacher Edition. Bilingual Education Teacher Training Packet).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Rodolfo, Comp.

    This guide on training bilingual education teachers focuses on parents as advisors in the decision making process at bilingual schools. The two units, "An Introduction to Parent Participation" and "Parent Participation in Educational Decision Making," include objectives, definitions of terms, lists of materials and equipment, and learning…

  19. Consulta regional sobre investigacion en educacion y toma de decisiones en America Latina: Informe final (Lima, Peru, 11-15 de mayo de 1987) (Regional Meeting on Research in Education and Decision Making in Latin America: Final Report [Lima, Peru, May 11-15, 1987]).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    This report presents the highlights of a United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) conference that was convened to give impetus to and encourage research programs, to analyze research policy formation, and to establish research priorities in the field of educational planning and administration. The document…

  20. Los padres como consejeros o coparticipes en la toma de decisiones. Serie E: El logro de la participacion de los padres, cuaderno III. Edicion para el estudiante. Cuadernos para el entrenamiento de maestros de educacion bilingue. (Parents as Advisors or Participants in Decision Making. Series E: Success with Parent Participation, Book III. Student Edition. Bilingual Education Teacher Training Packet).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Rodolfo, Comp.

    The student version of a learning module for teacher training in bilingual education is one of three focusing on promoting parent participation in the school system, and concentrates specifically on the role of parents as counselors and co-participants in decisionmaking. An introductory section discussing the overall objectives of the materials is…

  1. Two-Component Signaling Regulates Osmotic Stress Adaptation via SskA and the High-Osmolarity Glycerol MAPK Pathway in the Human Pathogen Talaromyces marneffei.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Kylie J; Cao, Cunwei; Andrianopoulos, Alex

    2016-01-01

    For successful infection to occur, a pathogen must be able to evade or tolerate the host's defense systems. This requires the pathogen to first recognize the host environment and then signal this response to elicit a complex adaptive program in order to activate its own defense strategies. In both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, two-component signaling systems are utilized to sense and respond to changes in the external environment. The hybrid histidine kinases (HHKs) at the start of the two-component signaling pathway have been well characterized in human pathogens. However, how these HHKs regulate processes downstream currently remains unclear. This study describes the role of a response regulator downstream of these HHKs, sskA, in Talaromyces marneffei, a dimorphic human pathogen. sskA is required for asexual reproduction, hyphal morphogenesis, cell wall integrity, osmotic adaptation, and the morphogenesis of yeast cells both in vitro at 37°C and during macrophage infection, but not during dimorphic switching. Comparison of the ΔsskA mutant with a strain in which the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) of the high-osmolarity glycerol pathway (SakA) has been deleted suggests that SskA acts upstream of this pathway in T. marneffei to regulate these morphogenetic processes. This was confirmed by assessing the amount of phosphorylated SakA in the ΔsskA mutant, antifungal resistance due to a lack of SakA activation, and the ability of a constitutively active sakA allele (sakA(F316L) ) to suppress the ΔsskA mutant phenotypes. We conclude that SskA regulates morphogenesis and osmotic stress adaptation in T. marneffei via phosphorylation of the SakA MAPK of the high-osmolarity glycerol pathway. IMPORTANCE This is the first study in a dimorphic fungal pathogen to investigate the role of a response regulator downstream of two-component signaling systems and its connection to the high-osmolarity glycerol pathway. This study will inspire further research into the

  2. Two-Component Signaling Regulates Osmotic Stress Adaptation via SskA and the High-Osmolarity Glycerol MAPK Pathway in the Human Pathogen Talaromyces marneffei

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Cunwei; Andrianopoulos, Alex

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT For successful infection to occur, a pathogen must be able to evade or tolerate the host’s defense systems. This requires the pathogen to first recognize the host environment and then signal this response to elicit a complex adaptive program in order to activate its own defense strategies. In both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, two-component signaling systems are utilized to sense and respond to changes in the external environment. The hybrid histidine kinases (HHKs) at the start of the two-component signaling pathway have been well characterized in human pathogens. However, how these HHKs regulate processes downstream currently remains unclear. This study describes the role of a response regulator downstream of these HHKs, sskA, in Talaromyces marneffei, a dimorphic human pathogen. sskA is required for asexual reproduction, hyphal morphogenesis, cell wall integrity, osmotic adaptation, and the morphogenesis of yeast cells both in vitro at 37°C and during macrophage infection, but not during dimorphic switching. Comparison of the ΔsskA mutant with a strain in which the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) of the high-osmolarity glycerol pathway (SakA) has been deleted suggests that SskA acts upstream of this pathway in T. marneffei to regulate these morphogenetic processes. This was confirmed by assessing the amount of phosphorylated SakA in the ΔsskA mutant, antifungal resistance due to a lack of SakA activation, and the ability of a constitutively active sakA allele (sakAF316L) to suppress the ΔsskA mutant phenotypes. We conclude that SskA regulates morphogenesis and osmotic stress adaptation in T. marneffei via phosphorylation of the SakA MAPK of the high-osmolarity glycerol pathway. IMPORTANCE This is the first study in a dimorphic fungal pathogen to investigate the role of a response regulator downstream of two-component signaling systems and its connection to the high-osmolarity glycerol pathway. This study will inspire further research into

  3. Station Commander Congratulates New Flight Directors

    NASA Video Gallery

    Aboard the International Space Station, Expedition 29 Commander Mike Fossum congratulates Judd Frieling, Tomas Gonzalez-Torres and Greg Whitney on being selected as NASA's newest flight directors. ...

  4. Evaluation of a multifunctional staphylokinase variant with thrombin inhibition and antiplatelet aggregation activities produced from salt-inducible E. coli GJ1158.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anmol; Pulicherla, Krishna Kanth; Mayuren, Candasamy; Kotra, Seetharam; Rao, Krothapalli Rajasurya Sambasiva

    2013-10-01

    Reocclusion is one of the major root causes for secondary complications that arise during thrombolytic therapy. A multifunctional staphylokinase variant SRH (staphylokinase (SAK) linked with tripeptide RGD and didecapeptide Hirulog) with antiplatelet and antithrombin activities in addition to clot specific thrombolytic function, was developed to address the reocclusion problem. We preferred to use Escherichia coli GJ1158 as the host in this study for economic production of SRH by osmotic (0.3 mol/L sodium chloride) induction, to overcome the problems associated with the yeast expression system. The therapeutic potential of SRH was evaluated in the murine model of vascular thrombosis. The SAK protein (1 mg/kg body mass) and SRH protein (1 mg/kg and 2 mg/kg) were administered intravenously to the different treatment groups. The results have shown a dose-dependent antithrombotic effect in carrageenan-induced mouse tail thrombosis. The thrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and prothrombin time were significantly prolonged (p < 0.05) in the SRH-infused groups. Moreover, SRH inhibited platelet aggregation in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.05), while the bleeding time was significantly (p < 0.05) prolonged. All of these results inferred that the osmotically produced multifunctional fusion protein SRH (SAK-RGD-Hirulog) is a promising thrombolytic agent, and one which sustained its multifunctionality in the animal models. PMID:24144055

  5. Molecular Evaluation of Genetic Diversity in Wild-Type Mastic Tree (Pistacia lentiscus L.).

    PubMed

    Abuduli, Alimu; Aydin, Yıldız; Sakiroglu, Muhammet; Onay, Ahmet; Ercisli, Sezai; Uncuoglu, Ahu Altinkut

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the patterns of genetic variation and phylogenetic relationships of mastic tree (Pistacia lentiscus L.) genotypes including 12 males and 12 females were evaluated using SSR, RAPD, ISSR, and ITS markers yielding 40, 703, 929 alleles, and 260-292 base pairs for ITS1 region, respectively. The average number of alleles produced from SSR, RAPD, and ISSR primers were 5.7, 14, and 18, respectively. The grouping pattern obtained from Bayesian clustering method based on each marker dataset was produced. Principal component analyses (PCA) of molecular data was investigated and neighbor joining dendrograms were subsequently created. Overall, the results indicated that ISSR and RAPD markers were the most powerful to differentiate the genotypes in comparison with other types of molecular markers used in this study. The ISSR results indicated that male and female genotypes were distinctly separated from each other. In this frame, M9 (Alaçatı) and M10 (Mesta Sakız Adası-Chios) were the closest genotypes and while F11 (Seferihisar) and F12 (Bornova/Gökdere) genotypes fall into same cluster and showing closer genetic relation. The RAPD pattern indicated that M8 (Urla) and M10 (Mesta Sakız Adası-Chios), and F10 (Mesta Sakız Adası-Chios) and F11 (Seferihisar) genotypes were the closest male and female genotypes, respectively. PMID:27246402

  6. METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Sigal; Kent Newsham; Thomas Williams; Barry Freifeld; Timothy Kneafsey; Carl Sondergeld; Shandra Rai; Jonathan Kwan; Stephen Kirby; Robert Kleinberg; Doug Griffin

    2005-02-01

    Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrate potential agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. The work scope drilled and cored a well The Hot Ice No. 1 on Anadarko leases beginning in FY 2003 and completed in 2004. An on-site core analysis laboratory was built and utilized for determining the physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. The well was drilled from a new Anadarko Arctic Platform that has a minimal footprint and environmental impact. The final efforts of the project are to correlate geology, geophysics, logs, and drilling and production data and provide this information to scientists developing reservoir models. No gas hydrates were encountered in this well; however, a wealth of information was generated and is contained in this report. The Hot Ice No. 1 well was drilled from the surface to a measured depth of 2300 ft. There was almost 100% core recovery from the bottom of surface casing at 107 ft to total depth. Based on the best estimate of the bottom of the methane hydrate stability zone (which used new data obtained from Hot Ice No. 1 and new analysis of data from adjacent wells), core was recovered over its complete range. Approximately 580 ft of porous, mostly frozen, sandstone and 155 of conglomerate were recovered in the Ugnu Formation and approximately 215 ft of porous sandstone were recovered in the West Sak Formation. There were gas shows in the bottom

  7. Could Nasal Spray Curtail Nighttime Bathroom Trips?

    MedlinePlus

    ... obesity. Kaminetsky is a clinical assistant professor of urology at NYU Langone Medical Center in New York ... this year. Dr. Tomas Griebling, a professor of urology at the University of Kansas, described the study ...

  8. Notas sobre los Sonidos Consonantes en Espanol (Notes on Consonant Sounds in Spanish)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ezquerra, Raimundo

    1974-01-01

    This paper examines the Spanish phonetic system, as set forth by Navarro Tomas in his "Manual de Pronunciacion Espanola," and discusses the influences exerted by certain sounds over others. (Text is in Spanish.) (CK)

  9. The Intrinsic Fragility of DNA (Nobel Lecture).

    PubMed

    Lindahl, Tomas

    2016-07-18

    Our cells contain common molecules, such as water or oxygen, that can damage DNA. In his studies Tomas Lindahl has shown how specific repair enzymes remove and replace damaged parts of DNA in a process of vital importance. PMID:27220039

  10. Heavy oil recovery process: Conceptual engineering of a downhole methanator and preliminary estimate of facilities cost for application to North Slope Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    Results from Tasks 8 and 9 are presented. Task 8 addressed the cost of materials and manufacturing of the Downhole Methanator and the cost of drilling and completing the vertical cased well and two horizontal drain holes in the West Sak reservoir. Task 9 addressed the preliminary design of surface facilities to support the enhanced recovery of heavy oil. Auxiliary facilities include steam reformers for carbon dioxide-rich natural gas reforming, emergency electric generators, nitrogen gas generators, and an ammonia synthesis unit. The ammonia is needed to stabilize the swelling of clays in the reservoir. Cost estimations and a description of how they were obtained are given.

  11. METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST

    SciTech Connect

    Donn McGuire; Steve Runyon; Richard Sigal; Bill Liddell; Thomas Williams; George Moridis

    2005-02-01

    Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrate potential agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. This gas-hydrate project is in the final stages of a cost-shared partnership between Maurer Technology, Noble Corporation, Anadarko Petroleum, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Methane Hydrate R&D program. The purpose of the project is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition to identify, quantify and predict production potential for hydrates located on the North Slope of Alaska. Hot Ice No. 1 was planned to test the Ugnu and West Sak sequences for gas hydrates and a concomitant free gas accumulation on Anadarko's 100% working interest acreage in section 30 of Township 9N, Range 8E of the Harrison Bay quadrangle of the North Slope of Alaska. The Ugnu and West Sak intervals are favorably positioned in the hydrate-stability zone over an area extending from Anadarko's acreage westward to the vicinity of the aforementioned gas-hydrate occurrences. This suggests that a large, north-to-south trending gas-hydrate accumulation may exist in that area. The presence of gas shows in the Ugnu and West Sak reservoirs in wells situated eastward and down dip of the Hot Ice location indicate that a free-gas accumulation may be trapped by gas hydrates. The Hot Ice No. 1 well was designed to core from the surface to the base of the West Sak interval using the revolutionary and new

  12. Characterization of oil and gas reservoir heterogeneity

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the cooperative research program is to characterize Alaskan reservoirs in terms of their reserves, physical and chemical properties, geologic configuration and structure, and the development potential. The tasks completed during this period include: (1) geologic reservoir description of Endicott Field; (2) petrographic characterization of core samples taken from selected stratigraphic horizons of the West Sak and Ugnu (Brookian) wells; (3) development of a polydispersed thermodynamic model for predicting asphaltene equilibria and asphaltene precipitation from crude oil-solvent mixtures, and (4) preliminary geologic description of the Milne Point Unit.

  13. Characterization of oil and gas reservoir heterogeneity. Annual report, November 1, 1990--October 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    The objective of the cooperative research program is to characterize Alaskan reservoirs in terms of their reserves, physical and chemical properties, geologic configuration and structure, and the development potential. The tasks completed during this period include: (1) geologic reservoir description of Endicott Field; (2) petrographic characterization of core samples taken from selected stratigraphic horizons of the West Sak and Ugnu (Brookian) wells; (3) development of a polydispersed thermodynamic model for predicting asphaltene equilibria and asphaltene precipitation from crude oil-solvent mixtures, and (4) preliminary geologic description of the Milne Point Unit.

  14. Nest survival of piping plovers at a dynamic reservoir indicates an ecological trap for a threatened population.

    PubMed

    Anteau, Michael J; Shaffer, Terry L; Sherfy, Mark H; Sovada, Marsha A; Stucker, Jennifer H; Wiltermuth, Mark T

    2012-12-01

    In the past 60 years, reservoirs have reshaped riverine ecosystems and transformed breeding habitats used by the threatened piping plover (Charadrius melodus; hereafter plover). Currently, 29 % of the Northern Great Plains plover population nests at reservoirs that might function as ecological traps because reservoirs have more diverse habitat features and greater dynamics in water levels than habitats historically used by breeding plovers. We examined factors influencing daily survival rates (DSR) of 346 plover nests at Lake Sakakawea (SAK; reservoir) during 2006-2009 by evaluating multiple a priori models, and we used our best model to hindcast nest success of plovers during 1985-2009. Our observed and hindcast estimates of nest success were low compared to published estimates. Previous findings indicate that plovers prefer nest sites that are low relative to water level. We found that elevation of nests above the water level had a strong positive correlation with DSR because water levels of SAK typically increased throughout the nesting period. Habitat characteristics on the reservoir differ from those that shaped nest-site selection for plovers. Accordingly, extraordinary nest loss occurs there in many years, largely due to inundation of nests, and based on low fledging rates those losses were not compensated by potential changes in chick survival. Therefore, our example supports the concept of ecological traps in birds because it addresses quantitative assessments of habitat preference and productivity over 25 years (since species listing) and affects a large portion of the population. PMID:22700065

  15. Nest survival of piping plovers at a dynamic reservoir indicates an ecological trap for a threatened population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anteau, Michael J.; Shaffer, Terry L.; Sherfy, Mark H.; Sovada, Marsha A.; Stucker, Jennifer H.; Wiltermuth, Mark T.

    2012-01-01

    In the past 60 years, reservoirs have reshaped riverine ecosystems and transformed breeding habitats used by the threatened piping plover (Charadrius melodus; hereafter plover). Currently, 29 % of the Northern Great Plains plover population nests at reservoirs that might function as ecological traps because reservoirs have more diverse habitat features and greater dynamics in water levels than habitats historically used by breeding plovers. We examined factors influencing daily survival rates (DSR) of 346 plover nests at Lake Sakakawea (SAK; reservoir) during 2006–2009 by evaluating multiple a priori models, and we used our best model to hindcast nest success of plovers during 1985–2009. Our observed and hindcast estimates of nest success were low compared to published estimates. Previous findings indicate that plovers prefer nest sites that are low relative to water level. We found that elevation of nests above the water level had a strong positive correlation with DSR because water levels of SAK typically increased throughout the nesting period. Habitat characteristics on the reservoir differ from those that shaped nest-site selection for plovers. Accordingly, extraordinary nest loss occurs there in many years, largely due to inundation of nests, and based on low fledging rates those losses were not compensated by potential changes in chick survival. Therefore, our example supports the concept of ecological traps in birds because it addresses quantitative assessments of habitat preference and productivity over 25 years (since species listing) and affects a large portion of the population.

  16. Characterization of oil and gas reservoir heterogeneity; Final report, November 1, 1989--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, G.D.

    1993-09-01

    The Alaskan North Slope comprises one of the Nation`s and the world`s most prolific oil province. Original oil in place (OOIP) is estimated at nearly 70 BBL (Kamath and Sharma, 1986). Generalized reservoir descriptions have been completed by the University of Alaska`s Petroleum Development Laboratory over North Slope`s major fields. These fields include West Sak (20 BBL OOIP), Ugnu (15 BBL OOIP), Prudhoe Bay (23 BBL OOIP), Kuparuk (5.5 BBL OOIP), Milne Point (3 BBL OOIP), and Endicott (1 BBL OOIP). Reservoir description has included the acquisition of open hole log data from the Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission (AOGCC), computerized well log analysis using state-of-the-art computers, and integration of geologic and logging data. The studies pertaining to fluid characterization described in this report include: experimental study of asphaltene precipitation for enriched gases, CO{sup 2} and West Sak crude system, modeling of asphaltene equilibria including homogeneous as well as polydispersed thermodynamic models, effect of asphaltene deposition on rock-fluid properties, fluid properties of some Alaskan north slope reservoirs. Finally, the last chapter summarizes the reservoir heterogeneity classification system for TORIS and TORIS database.

  17. Paired Insulators and High-Temperature Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geballe, T. H.; Kivelson, S. A.

    In common with all condensed matter physicists of our generations, our way of thinking about our field was shaped and greatly inspired by countless seminal works of Phil Anderson -- a debt we are pleased to have the opportunity to acknowledge. Discussing plans for this article, we spent many pleasant times debating which particular contribution to highlight -- super-exchange (THG), Anderson-Higgs (SAK), the Anderson--Morel pseudopotential (THG), poor man's scaling (SAK), etc. In the end, we opted to highlight a single specific paper which greatly affected each of us at the time, and which has continued to exert a strong intellectual influence on us in the ensuing years. Almost 40 years ago in Ref. 1, Phil introduced the negative U center to account for the fact that most glasses and amorphous semiconductors are diamagnetic. This paper has been highly influential, but certainly does not rank among Phil's most famous works; however, focusing on it enables us to re-acquaint a younger generation with another of Phil's contributions, and to use this as a springboard to discuss some forward-looking extensions that continue to fascinate us...

  18. Bacteriocin production and inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes by Lactobacillus sakei subsp. sakei 2a in a potentially synbiotic cheese spread.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Rafael Chacon Ruiz; Staliano, Cristina Dini; Vieira, Antonio Diogo Silva; Villarreal, Martha Lissete Morales; Todorov, Svetoslav Dimitrov; Saad, Susana Marta Isay; Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo

    2015-06-01

    Survival, bacteriocin(s) production, and antilisterial effect of Lactobacillus sakei subsp. sakei 2a were evaluated in a potentially synbiotic cheese spread, throughout storage at 4 °C and 15 °C for up to 28 days, using culture-dependent (plate count) and culture-independent (qPCR) methods. Bacteriocin(s) production in the food product was monitored by phenotypic and molecular (RT-qPCR) techniques. Three cheese spread trials (T) containing the prebiotic fiber inulin were produced in duplicates and studied: T1 (control - without inoculation of lactic acid bacteria); T2 (inoculated with the non-bacteriocinogenic Lb. sakei ATCC 15521 strain), and T3 (inoculated with the bacteriocinogenic Lb. sakei 2a strain). The cheese spreads were challenged with Listeria monocytogenes serotypes 4b and 1/2a, individually added to the food product. The counts of Lb. sakei 2a in the cheese spread T3 remained high during storage and the growth of L. monocytogenes was inhibited at both temperatures, especially L. monocytogenes 4b in the food product kept at 15 °C due to the production of bacteriocins (up to 6,400 AU/mL). Expression of the genes sakP and sakQ encoding for bacteriocins production during the cheese spread storage was demonstrated. Lb. sakei 2a can be used for production of potentially synbiotic cheese spreads with increased safety. PMID:25791002

  19. Dealing with periodical loads and harmonics in operational modal analysis using time-varying transmissibility functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weijtjens, Wout; Lataire, John; Devriendt, Christof; Guillaume, Patrick

    2014-12-01

    Periodical loads, such as waves and rotating machinery, form a problem for operational modal analysis (OMA). In OMA only the vibrations of a structure of interest are measured and little to nothing is known about the loads causing these vibrations. Therefore, it is often assumed that all dynamics in the measured data are linked to the system of interest. Periodical loads defy this assumption as their periodical behavior is often visible within the measured vibrations. As a consequence most OMA techniques falsely associate the dynamics of the periodical load with the system of interest. Without additional information about the load, one is not able to correctly differentiate between structural dynamics and the dynamics of the load. In several applications, e.g. turbines and helicopters, it was observed that because of periodical loads one was unable to correctly identify one or multiple modes. Transmissibility based OMA (TOMA) is a completely different approach to OMA. By using transmissibility functions to estimate the structural dynamics of the system of interest, all influence of the load-spectrum can be eliminated. TOMA therefore allows to identify the modal parameters without being influenced by the presence of periodical loads, such as harmonics. One of the difficulties of TOMA is that the analyst is required to find two independent datasets, each associated with a different loading condition of the system of interest. This poses a dilemma for TOMA; how can an analyst identify two different loading conditions when little is known about the loads on the system? This paper tackles that problem by assuming that the loading conditions vary continuously over time, e.g. the changing wind directions. From this assumption TOMA is developed into a time-varying framework. This development allows TOMA to not only cope with the continuously changing loading conditions. The time-varying framework also enables the identification of the modal parameters from a single dataset

  20. Identification of a tomatinase in the tomato-pathogenic actinomycete Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis NCPPB382.

    PubMed

    Kaup, Olaf; Gräfen, Ines; Zellermann, Eva-Maria; Eichenlaub, Rudolf; Gartemann, Karl-Heinz

    2005-10-01

    The insertion site of a transposon mutant of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis NCPPB382 was cloned and found to be located in the gene tomA encoding a member of the glycosyl hydrolase family 10. The intact gene was obtained from a cosmid library of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. The deduced protein TomA (543 amino acids, 58 kDa) contains a predicted signal peptide and two domains, the N-terminal catalytic domain and a C-terminal fibronectin III-like domain. The closest well-characterized relatives of TomA were tomatinases from fungi involved in the detoxification of the tomato saponin alpha-tomatine which acts as a growth inhibitor. Growth inhibition of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis by alpha-tomatine was stronger in the tomA mutants than in the wild type. Tomatinase activity assayed by deglycosylation of alpha-tomatine to tomatidine was demonstrated in concentrated culture supernatants of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. No activity was found with the tomA mutants. However, neither the transposon mutant nor a second mutant constructed by gene disruption was affected in virulence on the tomato cv. Moneymaker. PMID:16255248

  1. CO2 exchange following peat extraction - a comparison of two paired restored/unrestored peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strachan, Ian; Strack, Maria; Pelletier, Luc; Nugent, Kelly; Rankin, Tracy

    2016-04-01

    Peat extraction is an important industry in parts of Canada and elsewhere globally. The resulting disturbance from drainage and vacuum-harvesting is mitigated through best practices which now incorporate restoration intended to return the peatland's biodiversity and greenhouse gas (GHG) exchange to that resembling the pre-disturbance state. We examine the net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE) in two sets of paired peatlands. Within each pair, the extraction year was the same and the sites were treated identically post-extraction in terms of management (blocking drains or leveling as applicable). The first pair is located in the vicinity of Rivière-du-Loup, Québec, Canada and were harvested in 1980. The Bois-des-Bel (BDB) site was restored in 1999 following the methods of Quinty and Rochefort (2003). GHG fluxes have been studied at various points since restoration (e.g. Strack and Zuback, 2013) largely using chamber measurements. The site now hosts a thriving bog ecosystem with Sphagnum, Eriophorum and shrub communities. A site 30 km away near Saint-Alexandre de Kamouraska (SAK) was managed post-harvest as BDB with drains blocked but was left unrestored and now has only sparse Eriophorum with invasive species. The second pair of peatlands represents a newly extracted site near Seba Beach, Alberta, Canada. One field was restored (SBR) in autumn 2012 as per the Québec sites but with ditches infilled when the fields were levelled while the other (SBU) was left unrestored. In the summer of 2013, eddy covariance towers were installed at each location and measured NEE continuously at 10Hz throughout the subsequent periods. BDB and SBR remain operational today while SBU was removed in fall 2014 and SAK in fall 2015. In this presentation, we will focus on the coincident years of operation. After 15 years, BDB has measured NEE in the range of that observed at natural peatlands. A summer sink and winter release lead to annual uptake of CO2. At SAK, the lack of establishment

  2. The Distribution of Mobile Genetic Elements (MGEs) in MRSA CC398 Is Associated with Both Host and Country

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Alex J.; Witney, Adam A.; Gould, Katherine A.; Moodley, Arshnee; Guardabassi, Luca; Voss, Andreas; Denis, Olivier; Broens, Els M.; Hinds, Jason; Lindsay, Jodi A.

    2011-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clonal complex (CC) 398 has emerged from pigs to cause human infections in Europe and North America. We used a new 62-strain S. aureus microarray (SAM-62) to compare genomes of isolates from three geographical areas (Belgium, Denmark, and Netherlands) to understand how CC398 colonizes different mammalian hosts. The core genomes of 44 pig isolates and 32 isolates from humans did not vary. However, mobile genetic element (MGE) distribution was variable including SCCmec. φ3 bacteriophage and human specificity genes (chp, sak, scn) were found in invasive human but not pig isolates. SaPI5 and putative ruminant specificity gene variants (vwb and scn) were common but not pig specific. Virulence and resistance gene carriage was host associated but country specific. We conclude MGE exchange is frequent in CC398 and greatest among populations in close contact. This feature may help determine epidemiological associations among isolates of the same lineage. PMID:21920902

  3. Is Lebesgue measure the only [sigma]-finite invariant Borel measure?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elekes, Marton; Keleti, Tamas

    2006-09-01

    S. Saks and recently R.D. Mauldin asked if every translation invariant [sigma]-finite Borel measure on is a constant multiple of Lebesgue measure. The aim of this paper is to investigate the versions of this question, since surprisingly the answer is "yes and no," depending on what we mean by Borel measure and by constant. According to a folklore result, if the measure is only defined for Borel sets, then the answer is affirmative. We show that if the measure is defined on a [sigma]-algebra containing the Borel sets, then the answer is negative. However, if we allow the multiplicative constant to be infinity, then the answer is affirmative in this case as well. Moreover, our construction also shows that an isometry invariant [sigma]-finite Borel measure (in the wider sense) on can be non-[sigma]-finite when we restrict it to the Borel sets.

  4. The Weakly Coupled Pfaffian as a Type I Quantum Hall Liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parameswaran, S. A.; Kivelson, S. A.; Sondhi, S. L.; Spivak, B. Z.

    2011-03-01

    The Pfaffian phase of electrons in the proximity of a half-filled Landau level is understood to be a p + ip superconductor of composite fermions. We consider the properties of this paired quantum Hall phase when the pairing scale is small, i.e. in the weak-coupling, BCS, limit, where the coherence length is much larger than the charge screening length. We find that, as in a Type I superconductor, the vortices attract so that, upon varying the magnetic field from its magic value at ν = 5 / 2 , the system exhibits Coulomb frustrated phase separation. We propose that the weakly and strongly coupled Pfaffian states exemplify a general dichotomy between Type I and Type II quantum Hall fluids. This work was supported in part by NSF grants DMR-1006608 and PHY-1005429 (SAP, SLS), DMR-0758356 (SAK) and DMR-0704151 (BZS).

  5. Electronic Pair-Binding and Hund's Rule Violations in Doped C60

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Hong-Chen; Kivelson, Steven

    We calculate the electronic properties of the t-J model on a C60 molecule using the density-matrix renormalization group and show that Hund's first rule is violated and that for an average of three added electron per molecule, an effective attraction (pair-binding) arises for intermediate values of t=J. Specifically, it is energetically favorable to put four electrons on one C60 and two on a second rather than putting three on each. Our results show that a dominantly electronic mechanism of superconductivity is possible in doped C60. HCJ and SAK were supported by the Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division, under Contract DE-AC02-76SF00515.

  6. Enhancement of Commercial Antifungal Agents by Kojic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong H.; Chang, Perng-Kuang; Chan, Kathleen L.; Faria, Natália C. G.; Mahoney, Noreen; Kim, Young K.; Martins, Maria de L.; Campbell, Bruce C.

    2012-01-01

    Natural compounds that pose no significant medical or environmental side effects are potential sources of antifungal agents, either in their nascent form or as structural backbones for more effective derivatives. Kojic acid (KA) is one such compound. It is a natural by-product of fungal fermentation commonly employed by food and cosmetic industries. We show that KA greatly lowers minimum inhibitory (MIC) or fungicidal (MFC) concentrations of commercial medicinal and agricultural antifungal agents, amphotericin B (AMB) and strobilurin, respectively, against pathogenic yeasts and filamentous fungi. Assays using two mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) mutants, i.e., sakAΔ, mpkCΔ, of Aspergillus fumigatus, an agent for human invasive aspergillosis, with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or AMB indicate such chemosensitizing activity of KA is most conceivably through disruption of fungal antioxidation systems. KA could be developed as a chemosensitizer to enhance efficacy of certain conventional antifungal drugs or fungicides. PMID:23203038

  7. [Influence of long-used staphylokinase derivative on hemoagglutinative and fibrinolytic systems].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan-Yuan; Long, Min-Hui; Wang, Jin-Feng; Zhu, He; Wang, Min; Zou, Min-Ji; Liu, Shen; Xu, Tao; Wang, Jia-Xi; Xu, Dong-Gang

    2009-06-01

    This study was aimed to explore the influence of staphylokinase derivative (SAKD) on the hemoagglutinative and fibrinolytic systems, and to determine the safety of the staphylokinase derivative in application. The normal and model rats each 30 were divided into normal saline, SAKD and rSAK groups. The hemorrhage, bleeding time (BT), blood platelet count (BPC), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), thrombin time (TT), fibrinogen (Fg), D-dimer (D-D), plasminogen (PLG) and plasmin inhibitor activity (PI) were detected before and after the administration with staphylokinase derivative 0.5 mg/kg body weight, once three days for consecutive 15 days. The results indicated that one case of normal rats with SAKD and two cases of high fat diet model group had mild hemorrhage, all of which showed automatic hemostasis; and 3 cases in rSAK group had mild hemorrhage. And the platelet counting, D-D, PLG and PI in all groups did not significantly change. The rats of high fat diet group treated with SAKD showed the significant extension of APTT, PT and TT times, and the decrease of Fg time (p < 0.05). All the experimental results demonstrated that the influence of SAKD on the hemagglutination of the normal animals was lower, however, which can improve the high-hemagglutination status of the rats with high fat diet. It is concluded that the SAKD at the dosage of this study has the higher safety, which can alleviate the high hemagglutination symptoms of the rats with high fat diet. PMID:19549385

  8. Poultry-Like pA+ Biotype of Staphylococcus aureus CC346/084 Clone in Human Population.

    PubMed

    Piechowicz, Lidia; Garbacz, Katarzyna

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the study was (1) to analyse the prevalence of P-like pA+ biotype of S. aureus in material from healthy and diseased individuals, not employed at slaughterhouses or meat processing plants, and (2) to analyse the relatedness of these strains and their genetic variability. The study included 344 strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from hospitalized patients with staphylococcal infections and from healthy carriers. The biotypes of S. aureus were determined on the basis of fibrinolysin and β-haemolysin production, coagulation of bovine plasma, and type of growth on crystal violet agar. Additionally, the strains were tested for the synthesis of protein A in order to distinguish between P-like pA+ and poultry biotypes. Fibrinolysin gene (sak) and methicillin resistance (mecA) were detected by means of PCR. The clonal structure of studied strains was analysed using pulsed field gel electrophoresis and sequencing of spa gene. Finally, the strains were typed with a basic set of 23 bacteriophages. The strains belonging to P-like pA+ biotype corresponded to nearly 20 % of all the studied strains. In contrast to the human biotype, they formed one clonal complex, spa-CC346/084. The P-like pA+ biotype strains did not synthesize fibrinolysin, lacked the sak gene, and showed susceptibility to methicillin. In contrast to the human biotype strains, they belonged mostly to phage group II. The P-like pA+ biotype strains, previously described solely in meat products and meat industry workers, can be also present in hospitalized patients and extra-hospital carriers. These strains form a single, fibrinolysin-negative, clonal complex t084/CC346. PMID:27061586

  9. Designer and natural peptide toxin blockers of the KcsA potassium channel identified by phage display.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ruiming; Dai, Hui; Mendelman, Netanel; Cuello, Luis G; Chill, Jordan H; Goldstein, Steve A N

    2015-12-15

    Peptide neurotoxins are powerful tools for research, diagnosis, and treatment of disease. Limiting broader use, most receptors lack an identified toxin that binds with high affinity and specificity. This paper describes isolation of toxins for one such orphan target, KcsA, a potassium channel that has been fundamental to delineating the structural basis for ion channel function. A phage-display strategy is presented whereby ∼1.5 million novel and natural peptides are fabricated on the scaffold present in ShK, a sea anemone type I (SAK1) toxin stabilized by three disulfide bonds. We describe two toxins selected by sorting on purified KcsA, one novel (Hui1, 34 residues) and one natural (HmK, 35 residues). Hui1 is potent, blocking single KcsA channels in planar lipid bilayers half-maximally (Ki) at 1 nM. Hui1 is also specific, inhibiting KcsA-Shaker channels in Xenopus oocytes with a Ki of 0.5 nM whereas Shaker, Kv1.2, and Kv1.3 channels are blocked over 200-fold less well. HmK is potent but promiscuous, blocking KcsA-Shaker, Shaker, Kv1.2, and Kv1.3 channels with Ki of 1-4 nM. As anticipated, one Hui1 blocks the KcsA pore and two conserved toxin residues, Lys21 and Tyr22, are essential for high-affinity binding. Unexpectedly, potassium ions traversing the channel from the inside confer voltage sensitivity to the Hui1 off-rate via Arg23, indicating that Lys21 is not in the pore. The 3D structure of Hui1 reveals a SAK1 fold, rationalizes KcsA inhibition, and validates the scaffold-based approach for isolation of high-affinity toxins for orphan receptors. PMID:26627718

  10. Selection Indicates Preference in Diverse Habitats: A Ground-Nesting Bird (Charadrius melodus) Using Reservoir Shoreline

    PubMed Central

    Anteau, Michael J.; Sherfy, Mark H.; Wiltermuth, Mark T.

    2012-01-01

    Animals use proximate cues to select resources that maximize individual fitness. When animals have a diverse array of available habitats, those selected could give insights into true habitat preferences. Since the construction of the Garrison Dam on the Missouri River in North Dakota, Lake Sakakawea (SAK) has become an important breeding area for federally threatened piping plovers (Charadrius melodus; hereafter plovers). We used conditional logistic regression to examine nest-site selection at fine scales (1, 3, and 10 m) during summers 2006–2009 by comparing characteristics at 351 nests to those of 668 random sites within nesting territories. Plovers selected sites (1 m2) that were lower than unused random sites, increasing the risk of nest inundation. Plovers selected nest sites that were flat, had little silt, and at least 1 cobble; they also selected for 3-m radius nest areas that were relatively flat and devoid of vegetation and litter. Ninety percent of nests had <38% coverage of silt and <10% slope at the site, and <15% coverage of vegetation or litter and <31% slope within the 3-m radius. Gravel was selected for at nest sites (11% median), but against in the area 10-m from the nest, suggesting plovers select for patches or strips of gravel. Although elevation is rarely evaluated in studies of ground-nesting birds, our results underscore its importance in habitat-selection studies. Relative to where plovers historically nested, habitat at SAK has more diverse topography, substrate composition, vegetation communities, and greater water-level fluctuations. Accordingly, our results provide an example of how habitat-selection results can be interpreted as habitat preferences because they are not influenced by desired habitats being scarce or absent. Further, our results will be useful for directing habitat conservation for plovers and interpreting other habitat-selection studies. PMID:22299037

  11. Assessment of Alaska's North Slope Oil Field Capacity to Sequester CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Umekwe, Pascal; Mongrain, Joanna; Ahmadi, Mohabbat; Hanks, Catherine

    2013-03-15

    The capacity of 21 major fields containing more than 95% of the North Slope of Alaska's oil were investigated for CO{sub 2} storage by injecting CO{sub 2} as an enhanced oil recovery (EOR) agent. These fields meet the criteria for the application of miscible and immiscible CO{sub 2}-EOR methods and contain about 40 billion barrels of oil after primary and secondary recovery. Volumetric calculations from this study indicate that these fields have a static storage capacity of 3 billion metric tons of CO{sub 2}, assuming 100% oil recovery, re-pressurizing the fields to pre-fracturing pressure and applying a 50% capacity reduction to compensate for heterogeneity and for water invasion from the underlying aquifer. A ranking produced from this study, mainly controlled by field size and fracture gradient, identifies Prudhoe, Kuparuk, and West Sak as possessing the largest storage capacities under a 20% safety factor on pressures applied during storage to avoid over-pressurization, fracturing, and gas leakage. Simulation studies were conducted using CO{sub 2} Prophet to determine the amount of oil technically recoverable and CO{sub 2} gas storage possible during this process. Fields were categorized as miscible, partially miscible, and immiscible based on the miscibility of CO{sub 2} with their oil. Seven sample fields were selected across these categories for simulation studies comparing pure CO{sub 2} and water-alternating-gas injection. Results showed that the top two fields in each category for recovery and CO{sub 2} storage were Alpine and Point McIntyre (miscible), Prudhoe and Kuparuk (partially miscible), and West Sak and Lisburne (immiscible). The study concludes that 5 billion metric tons of CO{sub 2} can be stored while recovering 14.2 billion barrels of the remaining oil.

  12. Alaska North Slope National Energy Strategy initiative: Analysis of five undeveloped fields

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, C.P.; Allaire, R.B.; Doughty, T.C.; Faulder, D.D.; Irving, J.S.; Jamison, H.C.; White, G.J.

    1993-05-01

    The US Department of Energy was directed in the National Energy Strategy to establish a federal interagency task force to identify specific technical and regulatory barriers to the development of five undeveloped North Slope Alaska fields and make recommendations for their resolution. The five fields are West Sak, Point Thomson, Gwydyr Bay, Seal Island/Northstar, and Sandpiper Island. Analysis of environmental, regulatory, technical, and economic information, and data relating to the development potential of the five fields leads to the following conclusions: Development of the five fields would result in an estimated total of 1,055 million barrels of oil and 4.4 trillion cubic feet of natural gas and total investment of $9.4 billion in 1992 dollars. It appears that all five of the fields will remain economically marginal developments unless there is significant improvement in world oil prices. Costs of regulatory compliance and mitigation, and costs to reduce or maintain environmental impacts at acceptable levels influence project investments and operating costs and must be considered in the development decision making process. The development of three of the fields (West Sak, Point Thomson, and Gwydyr Bay) that are marginally feasible would have an impact on North Slope production over the period from about 2000 to 2014 but cannot replace the decline in Prudhoe Bay Unit production or maintain the operation of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) beyond about 2014 with the assumption that the TAPS will shut down when production declines to the range of 400 to 200 thousand barrels of oil/day. Recoverable reserves left in the ground in the currently producing fields and soon to be developed fields, Niakuk and Point McIntyre, would range from 1 billion to 500 million barrels of oil corresponding to the time period of 2008 to 2014 based on the TAPS shutdown assumption.

  13. Designer and natural peptide toxin blockers of the KcsA potassium channel identified by phage display

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ruiming; Dai, Hui; Mendelman, Netanel; Cuello, Luis G.; Chill, Jordan H.; Goldstein, Steve A. N.

    2015-01-01

    Peptide neurotoxins are powerful tools for research, diagnosis, and treatment of disease. Limiting broader use, most receptors lack an identified toxin that binds with high affinity and specificity. This paper describes isolation of toxins for one such orphan target, KcsA, a potassium channel that has been fundamental to delineating the structural basis for ion channel function. A phage-display strategy is presented whereby ∼1.5 million novel and natural peptides are fabricated on the scaffold present in ShK, a sea anemone type I (SAK1) toxin stabilized by three disulfide bonds. We describe two toxins selected by sorting on purified KcsA, one novel (Hui1, 34 residues) and one natural (HmK, 35 residues). Hui1 is potent, blocking single KcsA channels in planar lipid bilayers half-maximally (Ki) at 1 nM. Hui1 is also specific, inhibiting KcsA-Shaker channels in Xenopus oocytes with a Ki of 0.5 nM whereas Shaker, Kv1.2, and Kv1.3 channels are blocked over 200-fold less well. HmK is potent but promiscuous, blocking KcsA-Shaker, Shaker, Kv1.2, and Kv1.3 channels with Ki of 1–4 nM. As anticipated, one Hui1 blocks the KcsA pore and two conserved toxin residues, Lys21 and Tyr22, are essential for high-affinity binding. Unexpectedly, potassium ions traversing the channel from the inside confer voltage sensitivity to the Hui1 off-rate via Arg23, indicating that Lys21 is not in the pore. The 3D structure of Hui1 reveals a SAK1 fold, rationalizes KcsA inhibition, and validates the scaffold-based approach for isolation of high-affinity toxins for orphan receptors. PMID:26627718

  14. The Role of the Social Scientist in Human Resource Development Policy and Programs for Hispanics. National Symposium on Hispanics and CETA (1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furino, Antonio, Ed.

    Conference speakers focused on three topics: Hispanics and Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA) policy and implementation issues; data sources; and research regarding Hispanic manpower. After introductory remarks by James W. Wagener, Eli Ginzberg and Tomas Rivera, Ernest Green discussed Hispanics and CETA. Harry Greenspan described…

  15. Reaching Higher Ground: Parental Outreach Programs at the Postsecondary Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Celina; Marquez, Amalia

    2005-01-01

    In this follow-up study to "College Knowledge: What Latino Parents Need to Know and Why They Don't Know It," [see ED469295], the Tomas Rivera Policy Institute examines how postsecondary institutions are mobilizing to address the need for college information among Latino parents. The primary objective of "Reaching Higher Ground" is to profile in…

  16. The Browning of U.S. Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    The author reports the result of a population analysis released by scholars at the Tomas Rivera Policy Institute at the University of Southern California. The scholars say that changing student demographics may prove the most formidable ever for American colleges and universities as well as for public K-12 school systems. They have pointed to the…

  17. On-the-Spot Workshop Seminar on Early Childhood Education in the Philippines: Report (Manila, Philippines, January 6-14, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jasik, Lynn Sperber

    The College of Education of the University of Santo Tomas and the Kapit-Bahay Community Center, Incorporated, approached the Israeli Embassy in Manila, Philippines, with a request for expertise in the area of early childhood. As a result of this request, the Mount Carmel International Training Centre, located in Haifa, Israel, submitted a proposal…

  18. Separation methods and chemical and nutritional characteristics of tomato pomace

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato processing generates a large amount of pomace as a low value by-product primarily used as livestock feed or disposed. The objectives of this research were to investigate the chemical and nutritional characteristics and determine effective separation methods of peel and seed of commercial toma...

  19. Microwave-assisted maleation of tung oil for bio-based products with versatile applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this work, a simple, “green” and convenient chemical modification of tung oil for maleinized tung oil (TOMA) was developed via microwave-assisted one-step maleation. This modifying process did not involve any solvent, catalyst, or initiator, but demonstrated the most efficiency of functionalizing...

  20. Sensory evaluation of baked chicken wrapped with antimicrobial apple and tomato edible films formulated with Cinnamaldehyde and Carvacrol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Addition of plant essential oils to edible films and coatings has been shown to protect against bacterial pathogens and spoilage while also enhancing sensory properties of foods. This study evaluated the effect of adding 0.5% and 0.75% carvacrol (active ingredient of oregano oil) to apple- and toma...

  1. 76 FR 60509 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings...: Valerie Durrant, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, Center for Scientific Review, National Institutes of.... Contact Person: Tomas Drgon, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, Center for Scientific Review,...

  2. 75 FR 60763 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings... Francisco, CA 94108. Contact Person: Tomas Drgon, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, Center for Scientific...-435- 1017, tdrgon@csr.nih.gov . Name of Committee: Center for Scientific Review Special Emphasis...

  3. College Scholarships for Latino Students: Are Opportunities Being Missed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marquez, Amalia

    2006-01-01

    Previous research by The Tomas Rivera Policy Institute (TRPI) has demonstrated that extensive college financial aid opportunities are available in the form of scholarships, grants, and loans; yet many Latino students and their parents are not aware that numerous grants and scholarships are earmarked especially for them. This report provides…

  4. Buying into the Computer Age: A Look at the Hispanic Middle Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Anthony G.

    The Tomas Rivera Policy Institute conducted focus groups in the summer of 1997 to gain insight into why there is a gap in computer ownership between Hispanic middle-class families and non-Hispanic families of the same middle class income bracket (between 25 and 50 thousand dollars). Results from 6 focus groups of 15 to 20 heads of household each…

  5. A Poetry Workshop in Print: Pat Mora

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Lee Bennett

    2006-01-01

    After a successful career as a writer for adults, Pat Mora began creating books for children. Her first picture book, "Tomas and The Library Lady" (Knopf, 1997) is a tender story of a young migrant worker who unearths new worlds when he discovers the magic a public library holds. The text, cleverly interspersed with foreign words, became a…

  6. African American and Latino Enrollment Trends among Medicine, Law, Business, and Public Affairs Graduate Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Garza, Rodolfo; Moghadam, Sepehr Hejazi

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this Tomas Rivera Policy Institute (TRPI) report is twofold: to provide an analysis of the enrollment trends for African American and Latino students among graduate professional programs in the fields of medicine, business, law, and public affairs, and to present other relevant data pertaining to African American and Latino students…

  7. Gaining or Losing Ground? Equity in Offering Advanced Placement Courses in California High Schools 1997-2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarate, Maria Estela; Pachon, Harry P.

    2006-01-01

    Analysis by researchers of the Tomas Rivera Policy Institute (TRPI) on Advanced Placement (AP) courses in California public high schools in the mid-1990s concluded that although high school AP programs offered talented youngsters the opportunity to stretch their mental horizons and preview the challenges of college-level coursework, the programs…

  8. Annual Review of Information Science and Technology, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Martha E., Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This review contains eight papers on topics within the field of information science and technology. The papers are divided into three sections as follows: (1) Planning Information Systems and Services, including "Information Ownership and Control" (Tomas A. Lipinski); and "Pricing and Marketing Online Information Services" (Sheila Anne Elizabeth…

  9. Challenges in Improving Latino College Enrollment: Opportunities for Systemic Change Viewpoints from California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomas Rivera Policy Institute, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This document includes presentation summaries and policy recommendations from the 2004 Tomas Rivera Policy Institute (TRPI) Education Conference: (1) The Present and Coming Crisis: Demography and Education (Dowell Myers and Estela Mara Bensimon); (2) A View from the Academic Community (Moderators: Jorge Haynes and Jamilah Moore; Presenters:…

  10. An update on sequence diversity of Impatiens necrotic spot virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV; genus Tospovirus, family Bunyaviridae) is an economically important viral pathogen for a wide range of plants, including greenhouse ornamental and vegetable crops. In many cases, symptoms induced by INSV are similar, though not identical, to those induced by Toma...

  11. A career in agriculture and NIR: What I've learned all too often still needs to be learned. Or "The need for caution"

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is a summary of the talk I gave for the 2010 International Diffuse Reflectance Conference for the Tomas Hirschfeld Award for achievements in near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). The objective of the talk was basically to try and pass along some of the observations I have made based both upon my o...

  12. Access/"Acceso": Rising to the Challenge of Improving Higher Education Opportunities for Latinos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Charles B.; Scott, Jack

    2010-01-01

    The Tomas Rivera Lecture Series has a rich history of showcasing prominent lecturers, dating back to 1985. This year's lecture, the 26th in the series, features two influential and well-respected leaders in higher education, Chancellors Charles B. Reed and Jack Scott. Each brings a different perspective about the issues confronting higher…

  13. Latino Public Opinion Survey of Pre-Kindergarten Programs: Knowledge, Preferences, and Public Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomas Rivera Policy Institute, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Valencia, Perez & Echeveste (VPE) and the Tomas Rivera Policy Institute (TRPI) designed a survey to capture Latino adults' opinions about the benefits, importance, and costs associated with enrolling children in pre-kindergarten programs. The objective of the survey was to gauge support for government-subsidized pre-kindergarten programs among the…

  14. Bio-based products via microwave-assisted maleation of tung oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A simple “green” and convenient chemical modification of tung oil for maleinized tung oil (TOMA) was developed via microwave-assisted one-step maleation. The mechanism of this microwave-assisted maleation was investigated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). T...

  15. Perceptions of College Financial Aid among California Latino Youth. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarate, Maria Estela; Pachon, Harry P.

    2006-01-01

    The Tomas Rivera Policy Institute (TRPI) survey of California Latino youth perceptions of college financial aid reveals: (1) Ninety-eight percent of respondents felt it was important to have a college education; (2) Thirty-eight percent of respondents did not feel the benefits of college outweigh the costs; (3) Not being able to work and incurring…

  16. The 2015 Nobel Prize in Chemistry The Discovery of Essential Mechanisms that Repair DNA Damage.

    PubMed

    Lindahl, Tomas; Modrich, Paul; Sancar, Aziz

    2016-01-01

    The Royal Swedish Academy awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for 2015 to Tomas Lindahl, Paul Modrich and Aziz Sancar for their discoveries in fundamental mechanisms of DNA repair. This pioneering research described three different essential pathways that correct DNA damage, safeguard the integrity of the genetic code to ensure its accurate replication through generations, and allow proper cell division. Working independently of each other, Tomas Lindahl, Paul Modrich and Aziz Sancar delineated the mechanisms of base excision repair, mismatch repair and nucleotide excision repair, respectively. These breakthroughs challenged and dismissed the early view that the DNA molecule was very stable, paving the way for the discovery of human hereditary diseases associated with distinct DNA repair deficiencies and a susceptibility to cancer. It also brought a deeper understanding of cancer as well as neurodegenerative or neurological diseases, and let to novel strategies to treat cancer. PMID:27183258

  17. Perspectives on history: military dietetics in the Philippines during World War II.

    PubMed

    Hodges, P A

    1992-07-01

    The history of the profession of dietetics is a history of caring, dedicated, and capable individuals. This article examines the experiences of three dietitians during World War II in the Philippines--their pre-war status and their changing environments as the Japanese invaded the Philippines in overwhelming numbers. It recounts the extreme hardships they endured for 3 years as prisoners of war of the Japanese at Santo Tomas Internment Camp (formerly Santo Tomas University) in Manila. The article covers the time before Army dietitians had military status and concludes shortly after the former prisoners returned to the United States, when they were commissioned and promoted to the rank of first lieutenant. PMID:1624653

  18. Remote Sensing Application of the Geophysical Changes in the Coastlines and Rivers of Zambales, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paz-Alberto, Annie Melinda; Sison, Melissa Joy M.; Bulaong, Edmark Pablo; Pakaigue, Marietta A.

    2016-06-01

    Geophysical changes in river outlet, river upstream and coastlines near the rivers of Bucao and Santo Tomas in Zambales, Philippines were analyzed using the Google Earth's historical satellite imageries from 2004 to 2013. Data in 2015 were gathered from in situ field measurements ground validation. The study aimed to measure and determine changes in the width of river outlet, width of river bank upstream and shifting of coastline. Results revealed that there was a decrease and increase in the width size of the Bucao and Santo Tomas river outlets, respectively during the study period. Geophysical changes occurred in the two rivers due to the continuous supply of lahar as an after effect of the Mount Pinatubo eruption in 1991. Coastline positions near the two rivers also changed. The highest rate of erosion along the coastal area was prevalently observed near the river outlet of both rivers. Moreover, accretion was observed in the coastline of Santo Tomas and erosion phenomenon was observed in the North and South coastlines of Bucao River. The shifting was caused by natural processes such as erosion, sedimentation and natural calamities as well as anthropogenic processes such as reclamation/quarrying. Occurrence of erosion and sedimentation played active roles in the changes of coastlines during the study period. Furthermore, the upstream of the Bucao river changed physically due to deposits of lahar present in the upstream which are being discharged directly and continuously going down to the river. Generally, the width of the Bucao River upstream decreased its size because of the accumulated sediment in the riverbank. On the other hand, the observed erosion is caused by high velocity of river during heavy rains and typhoons. The width of the Santo Tomas river bank upstream did not change due to the construction of concrete dikes which prevent the lahar-filled river from breaching the embankment and flooding the agricultural, residential and commercial areas near

  19. Surfactant-modified bentonite clays: preparation, characterization, and atrazine removal.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Anirban; Singh, Neera

    2015-03-01

    Bentonite clay was modified using quaternary ammonium cations, viz. phenyltrimethylammonium (PTMA), hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA), trioctylmethylammonium (TOMA) [100 % of cation exchange capacity of clay], and stearylkonium (SK) [100 % (SK-I) and 250 % (SK-II) of cation exchange capacity of clay]. The organoclays were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared (IR) spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Atrazine adsorption on modified clays was studied using a batch method. Bentonite clay was a poor adsorbent of atrazine as 9.4 % adsorption was observed at 1 μg mL(-1) atrazine concentration. Modification of clay by PTMA cation did not improve atrazine adsorption capacity. However, atrazine adsorption in HDTMA-, TOMA-, and SK-bentonites varied between 49 and 72.4 % and data fitted well to the Freundlich adsorption isotherm (R > 0.96). Adsorption of atrazine in organoclays was nonlinear and slope (1/n) values were <1. The product of Freundlich adsorption constants, K f(1/n) in HDTMA-, TOMA-, and SK-I-bentonites was 239.2, 302.4, and 256.6, respectively, while increasing the SK cation loading in the clay (SK-II) decreased atrazine adsorption [K f(1/n) - 196.4]. Desorption of atrazine from organoclays showed hysteresis and TOMA- and SK-I-bentonites were the best organoclays to retain the adsorbed atrazine. Organoclays showed better atrazine removal from wastewater than an aqueous solution. The synthesized organoclays may find application in soil and water decontamination and as a carrier for atrazine-controlled released formulations. PMID:25273519

  20. Streptomyces scabies 87-22 Possesses a Functional Tomatinase▿

    PubMed Central

    Seipke, Ryan F.; Loria, Rosemary

    2008-01-01

    The actinomycete Streptomyces scabies 87-22 is the causal agent of common scab, an economically important disease of potato and taproot crops. Sequencing of the S. scabies 87-22 genome revealed the presence of a gene with high homology to the gene encoding the α-tomatine-detoxifying enzyme tomatinase found in fungal tomato pathogens. The tomA gene from S. scabies 87-22 was cotranscribed with a putative family 1 glycosyl hydrolase gene, and purified TomA protein was active only on α-tomatine and not potato glycoalkaloids or xylans. Tomatinase-null mutants were more sensitive to α-tomatine than the wild-type strain in a disk diffusion assay. Interestingly, tomatine affected only aerial mycelium and not vegetative mycelium, suggesting that the target(s) of α-tomatine is not present during vegetative growth. Severities of disease for tomato seedlings affected by S. scabies 87-22 wild-type and ΔtomA1 strains were indistinguishable, suggesting that tomatinase is not important in pathogenicity on tomato plants. However, conservation of tomA on a pathogenicity island in S. acidiscabies and S. turgidiscabies suggests a role in plant-microbe interaction. PMID:18835993

  1. Modeling of alkyl quaternary ammonium cations intercalated into montmorillonite lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Daoudi, El Mehdi; Boughaleb, Yahia; El Gaini, Layla; Meghea, Irina; Bakasse, Mina

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► The modification of montmorillonites by three surfactants increases the basal spacing. ► The model proposed show a bilayer conformation for the surfactant ODTMA. ► The DODMA and TOMA surfactants adopt a paraffin type arrangement. ► Behavior of surfactants in interlayer space was confirmed by TGA and ATR analysis. - Abstract: The objective of this work was to study the conformation of the quaternary ammonium cations viz., octadecyl trimethyl ammonium (ODTMA), dioctadecyl dimethyl ammonium (DMDOA) and trioctadecyl methyl ammonium (TOMA) intercalated within montmorillonite. The modified montmorillonite was characterized by X-ray diffraction in small angle (SAXS), thermal analysis (TGA) and infrared spectroscopy of attenuated total reflection (ATR). The modification of organophilic montmorillonites by the three surfactants ODTMA, DMDOA and TOMA increases the basal spacing from their respective intercalated distances of 1.9 nm, 2.6 nm and 3.4 nm respectively. The increase in the spacing due to the basic organic modification was confirmed by the results of thermal analysis (TGA) and infrared spectroscopy (ATR), and also supported by theoretical calculations of longitudinal and transversal chain sizes of these alkyl quaternary ammonium cations.

  2. Development of a global aerosol microphysics model driven by assimilated meteorology and evaluation against field campaign data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trivitayanurak, Win

    We implement the TwO-Moment Aerosol Sectional (TOMAS) microphysics model into the GEOS-Chem CTM that is driven by assimilated meteorology. TOMAS has 30 size sections covering 0.01 --- 10 mum diameter with conservation equation for both aerosol mass and number. The implementation enables GEOS-Chem to simulate aerosol microphysics, size distributions, mass and number concentrations. In the first stage of development, sulfate and sea-salt aerosol model results from GEOS-Chem with TOMAS are intercompared with global models with sectional microphysics: GISS GCM-II' and GLOMAP. Predictions of CN10 and CCN(0.2%) by all models agree well within a factor of two in the boundary layer but differ more at altitudes. Comparison with marine boundary layer observations of CN10 and CCN(0.2%) shows that all models perform well with average errors of 30 -- 50%. Differences among models stress the need for updated emission inventories and accurate meteorology and oxidant fields. The second stage encompasses implementation of carbonaceous aerosols, including organic mass (OM), elemental carbon (EC), and secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Sensitivity of CCN prediction to the uncertain POA-SOA contribution to the total OA budget is examined by artificially shifting OA sources from POA emission to SOA production rate. The different microphysical pathways of POA and SOA resulting in decreased CCN(0.2%) everywhere as the model changes from POA to SOA because SOA condenses onto mostly accumulation mode. POA is twice as effective per unit mass compared to SOA at CCN production at the model surface. Completely changing from POA to SOA results in 20% CCN(0.2%) reduction at the surface as well as globally. The fully developed TOMAS aerosol microphysics model with sulfate, sea-salt, OM, EC, and dust is evaluated against observations from ACE-Asia field campaign. This is the first highly time-resolved aerosol microphysics evaluation. The Napari et al. (2002) ternary nucleation captures PBL

  3. Low occurrence of the new species Staphylococcus argenteus in a Staphylococcus aureus collection of human isolates from Belgium.

    PubMed

    Argudín, M A; Dodémont, M; Vandendriessche, S; Rottiers, S; Tribes, C; Roisin, S; de Mendonça, R; Nonhoff, C; Deplano, A; Denis, O

    2016-06-01

    Staphylococcus argenteus is a novel Staphylococcus species closely related to Staphylococcus aureus that has been recently described. In this study, we investigated the proportion and the characteristics of S. argenteus recovered from humans in Belgium. S. aureus. human isolates collected in Belgium from 2006 to 2015 (n = 1,903) were retrospectively characterised via the presence of non-pigmented colonies on chocolate agar, spa typing and rpoB sequencing to determine if some of them were in fact S. argenteus. Out of 73 strains non-pigmented on chocolate plates, 3 isolates (0.16 %) showed rpoB sequences, in addition to spa and sequence types (ST2250/t5787, ST2250/t6675, ST3240/t6675), related to S. argenteus. Two of them were methicillin-resistant, harbouring a SCCmec type IV. The three S. argenteus isolates carried genes (sak, scn) of the immune evasion cluster. This first Belgian nationwide analysis showed a low occurrence of S. argenteus. Further studies should be conducted to identify the distribution range and the clinical impact of this new species. PMID:27044019

  4. Re-evolution of the 2-phenylquinolines: ligand-based design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of a potent new class of Staphylococcus aureus NorA efflux pump inhibitors to combat antimicrobial resistance.

    PubMed

    Sabatini, Stefano; Gosetto, Francesca; Iraci, Nunzio; Barreca, Maria Letizia; Massari, Serena; Sancineto, Luca; Manfroni, Giuseppe; Tabarrini, Oriana; Dimovska, Mirjana; Kaatz, Glenn W; Cecchetti, Violetta

    2013-06-27

    Overexpression of efflux pumps is an important mechanism by which bacteria evade the effects of antimicrobial agents that are substrates. NorA is a Staphylococcus aureus efflux pump that confers reduced susceptibility to many structurally unrelated agents, including fluoroquinolones, biocides, and dyes, resulting in a multidrug resistant (MDR) phenotype. In this work, a series of 2-phenylquinoline derivatives was designed by means of ligand-based pharmacophore modeling in an attempt to identify improved S. aureus NorA efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs). Most of the 2-phenylquinoline derivatives displayed potent EPI activity against the norA overexpressing strain SA-1199B. The antibacterial activity of ciprofloxacin, when used in combination with some of the synthesized compounds, was completely restored in SA-1199B and SA-K2378, a strain overexpressing norA from a multicopy plasmid. Compounds 3m and 3q also showed potent synergistic activity with the ethidium bromide dye in a strain overexpressing the MepA MDR efflux pump. PMID:23710549

  5. Evolution from a natural flavones nucleus to obtain 2-(4-Propoxyphenyl)quinoline derivatives as potent inhibitors of the S. aureus NorA efflux pump.

    PubMed

    Sabatini, Stefano; Gosetto, Francesca; Manfroni, Giuseppe; Tabarrini, Oriana; Kaatz, Glenn W; Patel, Diixa; Cecchetti, Violetta

    2011-08-25

    Overexpression of efflux pumps is an important mechanism by which bacteria evade the effects of substrate antimicrobial agents. Inhibition of such pumps is a promising strategy to circumvent this resistance mechanism. NorA is a Staphylococcus aureus efflux pump that confers reduced susceptibility to many structurally unrelated agents, including fluoroquinolones, resulting in a multidrug resistant phenotype. In this work, a series of 2-phenyl-4(1H)-quinolone and 2-phenyl-4-hydroxyquinoline derivatives, obtained by modifying the flavone nucleus of known efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs), were synthesized in an effort to identify more potent S. aureus NorA EPIs. The 2-phenyl-4-hydroxyquinoline derivatives 28f and 29f display potent EPI activity against SA-1199B, a strain that overexpresses norA, in an ethidium bromide efflux inhibition assay. The same compounds, in combination with ciprofloxacin, were able to completely restore its antibacterial activity against both S. aureus SA-K2378 and SA-1199B, norA-overexpressing strains. PMID:21751791

  6. Systematic Global Analysis of Genes Encoding Protein Phosphatases in Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    Winkelströter, Lizziane K.; Dolan, Stephen K.; Fernanda dos Reis, Thaila; Bom, Vinícius Leite Pedro; Alves de Castro, Patrícia; Hagiwara, Daisuke; Alowni, Raneem; Jones, Gary W.; Doyle, Sean; Brown, Neil Andrew; Goldman, Gustavo H.

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is a fungal pathogen that causes several invasive and noninvasive diseases named aspergillosis. This disease is generally regarded as multifactorial, considering that several pathogenicity determinants are present during the establishment of this illness. It is necessary to obtain an increased knowledge of how, and which, A. fumigatus signal transduction pathways are engaged in the regulation of these processes. Protein phosphatases are essential to several signal transduction pathways. We identified 32 phosphatase catalytic subunit-encoding genes in A. fumigatus, of which we were able to construct 24 viable deletion mutants. The role of nine phosphatase mutants in the HOG (high osmolarity glycerol response) pathway was evaluated by measuring phosphorylation of the p38 MAPK (SakA) and expression of osmo-dependent genes. We were also able to identify 11 phosphatases involved in iron assimilation, six that are related to gliotoxin resistance, and three implicated in gliotoxin production. These results present the creation of a fundamental resource for the study of signaling in A. fumigatus and its implications in the regulation of pathogenicity determinants and virulence in this important pathogen. PMID:25943523

  7. Augmenting the Activity of Monoterpenoid Phenols against Fungal Pathogens Using 2-Hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde that Target Cell Wall Integrity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong H; Chan, Kathleen L; Mahoney, Noreen

    2015-01-01

    Disruption of cell wall integrity system should be an effective strategy for control of fungal pathogens. To augment the cell wall disruption efficacy of monoterpenoid phenols (carvacrol, thymol), antimycotic potency of benzaldehyde derivatives that can serve as chemosensitizing agents were evaluated against strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae wild type (WT), slt2Δ and bck1Δ (mutants of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and MAPK kinase kinase, respectively, in the cell wall integrity pathway). Among fourteen compounds investigated, slt2Δ and bck1Δ showed higher susceptibility to nine benzaldehydes, compared to WT. Differential antimycotic activity of screened compounds indicated "structure-activity relationship" for targeting the cell wall integrity, where 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde (2H4M) exhibited the highest antimycotic potency. The efficacy of 2H4M as an effective chemosensitizer to monoterpenoid phenols (viz., 2H4M + carvacrol or thymol) was assessed in yeasts or filamentous fungi (Aspergillus, Penicillium) according to European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing or Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute M38-A protocols, respectively. Synergistic chemosensitization greatly lowers minimum inhibitory or fungicidal concentrations of the co-administered compounds. 2H4M also overcame the tolerance of two MAPK mutants (sakAΔ, mpkCΔ) of Aspergillus fumigatus to fludioxonil (phenylpyrrole fungicide). Collectively, 2H4M possesses chemosensitizing capability to magnify the efficacy of monoterpenoid phenols, which improves target-based (viz., cell wall disruption) antifungal intervention. PMID:26569223

  8. High osmolarity glycerol response PtcB phosphatase is important for Aspergillus fumigatus virulence.

    PubMed

    Winkelströter, Lizziane K; Bom, Vinícius Leite Pedro; de Castro, Patrícia Alves; Ramalho, Leandra Naira Zambelli; Goldman, Maria Helena S; Brown, Neil Andrew; Rajendran, Ranjith; Ramage, Gordon; Bovier, Elodie; Dos Reis, Thaila Fernanda; Savoldi, Marcela; Hagiwara, Daisuke; Goldman, Gustavo H

    2015-04-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is a fungal pathogen that is capable of adapting to different host niches and to avoid host defenses. An enhanced understanding of how, and which, A. fumigatus signal transduction pathways are engaged in the regulation of these processes is essential for the development of improved disease control strategies. Protein phosphatases are central to numerous signal transduction pathways. To comprehend the functions of protein phosphatases in A. fumigatus, 32 phosphatase catalytic subunit encoding genes were identified. We have recognized PtcB as one of the phosphatases involved in the high osmolarity glycerol response (HOG) pathway. The ΔptcB mutant has both increased phosphorylation of the p38 MAPK (SakA) and expression of osmo-dependent genes. The ΔptcB strain was more sensitive to cell wall damaging agents, had increased chitin and β-1,3-glucan, and impaired biofilm formation. The ΔptcB strain was avirulent in a murine model of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. These results stress the importance of the HOG pathway in the regulation of pathogenicity determinants and virulence in A. fumigatus. PMID:25597841

  9. Systematic Global Analysis of Genes Encoding Protein Phosphatases in Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Winkelströter, Lizziane K; Dolan, Stephen K; Fernanda Dos Reis, Thaila; Bom, Vinícius Leite Pedro; Alves de Castro, Patrícia; Hagiwara, Daisuke; Alowni, Raneem; Jones, Gary W; Doyle, Sean; Brown, Neil Andrew; Goldman, Gustavo H

    2015-07-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is a fungal pathogen that causes several invasive and noninvasive diseases named aspergillosis. This disease is generally regarded as multifactorial, considering that several pathogenicity determinants are present during the establishment of this illness. It is necessary to obtain an increased knowledge of how, and which, A. fumigatus signal transduction pathways are engaged in the regulation of these processes. Protein phosphatases are essential to several signal transduction pathways. We identified 32 phosphatase catalytic subunit-encoding genes in A. fumigatus, of which we were able to construct 24 viable deletion mutants. The role of nine phosphatase mutants in the HOG (high osmolarity glycerol response) pathway was evaluated by measuring phosphorylation of the p38 MAPK (SakA) and expression of osmo-dependent genes. We were also able to identify 11 phosphatases involved in iron assimilation, six that are related to gliotoxin resistance, and three implicated in gliotoxin production. These results present the creation of a fundamental resource for the study of signaling in A. fumigatus and its implications in the regulation of pathogenicity determinants and virulence in this important pathogen. PMID:25943523

  10. Relations between short-range and long-range Ising models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelini, Maria Chiara; Parisi, Giorgio; Ricci-Tersenghi, Federico

    2014-06-01

    We perform a numerical study of the long-range (LR) ferromagnetic Ising model with power law decaying interactions (J ∝r-d-σ) on both a one-dimensional chain (d =1) and a square lattice (d =2). We use advanced cluster algorithms to avoid the critical slowing down. We first check the validity of the relation connecting the critical behavior of the LR model with parameters (d,σ) to that of a short-range (SR) model in an equivalent dimension D. We then study the critical behavior of the d =2 LR model close to the lower critical σ, uncovering that the spatial correlation function decays with two different power laws: The effect of the subdominant power law is much stronger than finite-size effects and actually makes the estimate of critical exponents very subtle. By including this subdominant power law, the numerical data are consistent with the standard renormalization group (RG) prediction by Sak [Phys. Rev. B 8, 281 (1973), 10.1103/PhysRevB.8.281], thus making not necessary (and unlikely, according to Occam's razor) the recent proposal by Picco [arXiv:1207.1018] of having a new set of RG fixed points in addition to the mean-field one and the SR one.

  11. Dissemination of Methicillin-Susceptible CC398 Staphylococcus aureus Strains in a Rural Greek Area

    PubMed Central

    Sarrou, Styliani; Liakopoulos, Apostolos; Chasioti, Markella; Foka, Antigoni; Fthenakis, Georgios; Billinis, Charalampos; Spyrou, Vassiliki; Pantelidi, Kleoniki; Roussaki-Schulze, Angeliki; Lachanas, Vassilios; Makaritsis, Konstantinos; Skoulakis, Charalampos; Daikos, Georgios L.; Dalekos, Georgios; Spiliopoulou, Iris; Petinaki, Efthymia

    2015-01-01

    A large collection of Staphylococcus aureus including a. 745 clinically significant isolates that were consecutively recovered from human infections during 2012–2013, b. 19 methicillin-susceptible (MSSA), randomly selected between 2006–2011 from our Staphylococcal Collection, c. 16 human colonizing isolates, and d. 10 strains from colonized animals was investigated for the presence and the molecular characteristics of CC398. The study was conducted in Thessaly, a rural region in Greece. The differentiation of livestock-associated clade from the human clade was based on canSNPs combined with the presence of the φ3 bacteriophage and the tetM, scn, sak, and chp genes. Among the 745 isolates, two MRSA (0.8% of total MRSA) and thirteen MSSA (2.65% of total MSSA) were found to belong to CC398, while, between MSSA of our Staphylococcal Collection, one CC398, isolated in 2010, was detected. One human individual, without prior contact with animals, was found to be colonized by a MSSA CC398. No CC398 was identified among the 10 S. aureus isolated from animals. Based on the molecular markers, the 17 CC398 strains were equally placed in the livestock-associated and in the human clades. This is the first report for the dissemination of S. aureus CC398 among humans in Greece. PMID:25835293

  12. From phenothiazine to 3-phenyl-1,4-benzothiazine derivatives as inhibitors of the Staphylococcus aureus NorA multidrug efflux pump.

    PubMed

    Sabatini, Stefano; Kaatz, Glenn W; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Brandini, David; Fravolini, Arnaldo

    2008-07-24

    Overexpression of efflux pumps is an important mechanism by which bacteria evade effects of substrate antimicrobial agents and inhibition of such pumps is a promising strategy to circumvent this resistance mechanism. NorA is a Staphylococcus aureus multidrug efflux pump, the activity of which confers decreased susceptibility to many structurally unrelated agents, including fluoroquinolones, resulting in a multidrug resistant (MDR) phenotype. In this work, a series of 1,4-benzothiazine derivatives were designed and synthesized as a minimized structural template of phenothiazine MDR efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs) in an effort to identify more potent S. aureus NorA EPIs. Almost all derivatives evaluated showed good activity in combination with ciprofloxacin against S. aureus ATCC 25923; some were capable of completely restoring ciprofloxacin activity in a norA-overexpressing strain (SA-K2378). Compounds 6k and 7j displayed good activity against SA-1199B, a strain that also overexpresses norA, in an ethidium bromide (EtBr) efflux inhibition assay. PMID:18578473

  13. Study of hydrocarbon miscible solvent slug injection process for improved recovery of heavy oil from Schrader Bluff Pool, Milne Point Unit, Alaska. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The National Energy Strategy Plan (NES) has called for 900,000 barrels/day production of heavy oil in the mid-1990s to meet our national needs. To achieve this goal, it is important that the Alaskan heavy oil fields be brought to production. Alaska has more than 25 billion barrels of heavy oil deposits. Conoco, and now BP Exploration have been producing from Schrader Bluff Pool, which is part of the super heavy oil field known as West Sak Field. Schrader Bluff reservoir, located in the Milne Point Unit, North Slope of Alaska, is estimated to contain up to 1.5 billion barrels of (14 to 21{degrees}API) oil in place. The field is currently under production by primary depletion; however, the primary recovery will be much smaller than expected. Hence, waterflooding will be implemented earlier than anticipated. The eventual use of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques, such as hydrocarbon miscible solvent slug injection process, is vital for recovery of additional oil from this reservoir. The purpose of this research project was to determine the nature of miscible solvent slug which would be commercially feasible, to evaluate the performance of the hydrocarbon miscible solvent slug process, and to assess the feasibility of this process for improved recovery of heavy oil from Schrader Bluff reservoir. The laboratory experimental work includes: slim tube displacement experiments and coreflood experiments. The components of solvent slug includes only those which are available on the North Slope of Alaska.

  14. Lysine-acetylation as a fundamental regulator of Ran function: Implications for signaling of proteins of the Ras-superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Knyphausen, Philipp; Kuhlmann, Nora; de Boor, Susanne; Lammers, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The small GTP-binding protein Ran is involved in the regulation of essential cellular processes in interphase but also in mitotic cells: Ran controls the nucleocytoplasmic transport of proteins and RNA, it regulates mitotic spindle formation and nuclear envelope assembly. Deregulations in Ran dependent processes were implicated in the development of severe diseases such as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. To understand how Ran-function is regulated is therefore of highest importance. Recently, several lysine-acetylation sites in Ran were identified by quantitative mass-spectrometry, some being located in highly important regions such as the P-loop, switch I, switch II and the G5/SAK motif. We recently reported that lysine-acetylation regulates nearly all aspects of Ran-function such as RCC1 catalyzed nucleotide exchange, intrinsic nucleotide hydrolysis, its interaction with NTF2 and the formation of import- and export-complexes. As a hint for its biological importance, we identified Ran-specific lysine-deacetylases (KDACs) and -acetyltransferases (KATs). Also for other small GTPases such as Ras, Rho, Cdc42, and for many effectors and regulators thereof, lysine-acetylation sites were discovered. However, the functional impact of lysine-acetylation as a regulator of protein function has only been marginally investigated so far. We will discuss recent findings of lysine-acetylation as a novel modification to regulate Ras-protein signaling. PMID:26507377

  15. Augmenting the Activity of Monoterpenoid Phenols against Fungal Pathogens Using 2-Hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde that Target Cell Wall Integrity

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong H.; Chan, Kathleen L.; Mahoney, Noreen

    2015-01-01

    Disruption of cell wall integrity system should be an effective strategy for control of fungal pathogens. To augment the cell wall disruption efficacy of monoterpenoid phenols (carvacrol, thymol), antimycotic potency of benzaldehyde derivatives that can serve as chemosensitizing agents were evaluated against strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae wild type (WT), slt2Δ and bck1Δ (mutants of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and MAPK kinase kinase, respectively, in the cell wall integrity pathway). Among fourteen compounds investigated, slt2Δ and bck1Δ showed higher susceptibility to nine benzaldehydes, compared to WT. Differential antimycotic activity of screened compounds indicated “structure-activity relationship” for targeting the cell wall integrity, where 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde (2H4M) exhibited the highest antimycotic potency. The efficacy of 2H4M as an effective chemosensitizer to monoterpenoid phenols (viz., 2H4M + carvacrol or thymol) was assessed in yeasts or filamentous fungi (Aspergillus, Penicillium) according to European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing or Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute M38-A protocols, respectively. Synergistic chemosensitization greatly lowers minimum inhibitory or fungicidal concentrations of the co-administered compounds. 2H4M also overcame the tolerance of two MAPK mutants (sakAΔ, mpkCΔ) of Aspergillus fumigatus to fludioxonil (phenylpyrrole fungicide). Collectively, 2H4M possesses chemosensitizing capability to magnify the efficacy of monoterpenoid phenols, which improves target-based (viz., cell wall disruption) antifungal intervention. PMID:26569223

  16. Relations between short-range and long-range Ising models.

    PubMed

    Angelini, Maria Chiara; Parisi, Giorgio; Ricci-Tersenghi, Federico

    2014-06-01

    We perform a numerical study of the long-range (LR) ferromagnetic Ising model with power law decaying interactions (J∝r{-d-σ}) on both a one-dimensional chain (d=1) and a square lattice (d=2). We use advanced cluster algorithms to avoid the critical slowing down. We first check the validity of the relation connecting the critical behavior of the LR model with parameters (d,σ) to that of a short-range (SR) model in an equivalent dimension D. We then study the critical behavior of the d=2 LR model close to the lower critical σ, uncovering that the spatial correlation function decays with two different power laws: The effect of the subdominant power law is much stronger than finite-size effects and actually makes the estimate of critical exponents very subtle. By including this subdominant power law, the numerical data are consistent with the standard renormalization group (RG) prediction by Sak [Phys. Rev. B 8, 281 (1973)], thus making not necessary (and unlikely, according to Occam's razor) the recent proposal by Picco [arXiv:1207.1018] of having a new set of RG fixed points in addition to the mean-field one and the SR one. PMID:25019738

  17. The influence of chemical composition on the properties of Cepheid stars. I. Period-Luminosity relation vs. iron abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romaniello, M.; Primas, F.; Mottini, M.; Groenewegen, M.; Bono, G.; François, P.

    2005-01-01

    We have assessed the influence of the stellar iron content on the Cepheid Period-Luminosity (PL) relation by relating the V band residuals from the Freedman et al. (\\cite{fre01}) PL relation to [Fe/H] for 37 Galactic and Magellanic Clouds Cepheids. The iron abundances were measured from FEROS and UVES high-resolution and high-signal to noise optical spectra. Our data indicate that the stars become fainter as metallicity increases, until a plateau or turnover point is reached at about solar metallicity. Our data are incompatible with both no dependence of the PL relation on iron abundance, and with the linearly decreasing behavior often found in the literature (e.g. Kennicutt et al. \\cite{ken98}; Sakai et al. \\cite{sak04}). On the other hand, non-linear theoretical models of Fiorentino et al. (\\cite{fio02}) provide a fairly good description of the data. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at La Silla and Paranal Observatories under proposal ID 66.D-0571. Table \\ref{tab:log} is only available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org

  18. Geotourism Features of Sinop (Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zehra Seyyah, Memnune; Güngör, Yıldırım

    2016-04-01

    Sinop and its surrounding area presents pretty interesting geological formations formed between Trias and Quaternary. Permo-Trias aged Boyabat Metamorphites is found at the bottom. Above this formation, Jurassic aged Akgöl and Bürnük Formations and Lower Cretaceous aged İnaltı Formation comes. After these, respectively Çaǧlayan Formation, Upper Cretaceous aged Kaplanboǧazı, Yemişliçay, Hamsaros, Görsökü Formations is observed. These units are also overlaid by Paleocene aged Akveren Formation, Eocene aged Atbaşı, Sakızdaǧı Formations and Miocene aged Sinop Formation. Plio-Quaternary aged Sarıkum Formation is located on this sequence. Boyabat columnar basalts and Bedire Formation are the youngest formations of Sinop and its surrounding area. 
 In this geological sequence, columnar basalts, different forms of laminated rocks, fossil containing levels, various sedimentological processes, faults and folds located in laminated rocks, canyons which has been occurred related tectonism in the region, waterfalls run through fault steps take place among the important geotouristical pieces of Sinop and surroundings. In this study, it will be discussed how these geological features contribute to Sinop district that's most important source of income is tourism. 
 Key Words: Geological Heritage, Geopark, Geosite, Geotourism, Sinop

  19. Quantum oscillations in a bilayer with broken mirror symmetry: a minimal model for YBa2Cu3O6+δ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maharaj, Akash; Zhang, Yi; Ramshaw, Brad; Kivelson, Steven

    Using an exact numerical solution and semiclassical analysis, we investigate quantum oscillations (QOs) in a model of a bilayer system with an anisotropic (elliptical) electron pocket in each plane. Key features of QO experiments in the high temperature superconducting cuprate YBCO can be reproduced by such a model, in particular the pattern of oscillation frequencies (which reflect ``magnetic breakdown'' between the two pockets) and the polar and azimuthal angular dependence of the oscillation amplitudes. However, the requisite magnetic breakdown is possible only under the assumption that the horizontal mirror plane symmetry is spontaneously broken and that the bilayer tunneling, t⊥, is substantially renormalized from its `bare' value. Under the assumption that t⊥ = Z ~t⊥(0), where Z ~ is a measure of the quasiparticle weight, this suggests that Z ~ <~ 1 / 20 . Detailed comparisons with new YBa2Cu3O6.58 QO data, taken over a very broad range of magnetic field, confirm specific predictions made by the breakdown scenario. Supported in part by the US DOE, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Contract DE-AC02-76SF00515 (A.V.M.), the US DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences ``Science at 100 T,'' (B.J.R.) and the National Science Foundation Grant No. DMR 1265593 (S.A.K., YZ).

  20. Letters to the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-03-01

    All the Letters to the Editor in this issue are in the same PostScript or PDF file. Contents Comment on `Magnetic and electric field strengths of high voltage power lines and household appliances' José Luis Giordano Dept. de Ciencia y Tecnología de Materiales y Fluidos, CPSI, Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain Twins paradox S R Carson Norton College, Malton, North Yorkshire, UK On alternative ways of finding the ratio of specific heats of gases Tomas Ficker Physics Department, Technical University of Brno, Czech Republic

  1. The Development of Design Tools for Fault Tolerant Quantum Dot Cellular Automata Based Logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, Curtis D.; Humphreys, William M.

    2003-01-01

    We are developing software to explore the fault tolerance of quantum dot cellular automata gate architectures in the presence of manufacturing variations and device defects. The Topology Optimization Methodology using Applied Statistics (TOMAS) framework extends the capabilities of the A Quantum Interconnected Network Array Simulator (AQUINAS) by adding front-end and back-end software and creating an environment that integrates all of these components. The front-end tools establish all simulation parameters, configure the simulation system, automate the Monte Carlo generation of simulation files, and execute the simulation of these files. The back-end tools perform automated data parsing, statistical analysis and report generation.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF SHALLOW VISCOUS OIL RESERVES IN NORTH SLOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2004-12-01

    North Slope of Alaska has huge oil deposits in heavy oil reservoirs such as Ugnu, West Sak and Shrader Bluff etc. The viscosity of the last two reservoir oils vary from {approx}30 cp to {approx}3000 cp and the amount in the range of 10-20 billion barrels. High oil viscosity and low formation strength impose problems to high recovery and well productivity. Water-alternate-gas injection processes can be effective for the lower viscosity end of these deposits in West Sak and Shrader Bluff. Several gas streams are available in the North Slope containing NGL and CO{sub 2} (a greenhouse gas). The goal of this research is to develop tools to find optimum solvent, injection schedule and well-architecture for a WAG process in North Slope shallow sand viscous oil reservoirs. Coreflood, quarter 5-spot study, compositional simulation, wettability, relative permeability study and streamline-based simulation were conducted in this project. 1D compositional simulation results agree reasonably well with those of the slim tube experiments. Injection of CO{sub 2}-NGL is preferable over that of PBG-NGL. MME is sensitive to pressure (in the range of 1300-1800 psi) for the injection of PBG-NGL, but not for CO{sub 2}-NGL. Three hydrocarbon phases form in this pressure range. As the mean thickness of the adsorbed organic layer on minerals increases, the oil-water contact angle increases. The adsorbed organic films left behind after extraction of oil by common aromatic solvents used in core studies, such as toluene and decalin, are thinner than those left behind by non-aromatic solvents, such as cyclohexane. The force of adhesion for minerals aged with just the asphaltene fraction is similar to that of the whole oil implying that asphaltenes are responsible for the mixed-wettability in this reservoir. A new relative permeability model for a four-phase, mixed-wet system has been proposed. A streamline module is developed which can be incorporated in an existing finite-difference based

  3. Operational Challenges in Gas-To-Liquid (GTL) Transportation Through Trans Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Godwin A. Chukwu; Santanu Khataniar; Shirish Patil; Abhijit Dandekar

    2006-06-30

    Oil production from Alaskan North Slope oil fields has steadily declined. In the near future, ANS crude oil production will decline to such a level (200,000 to 400,000 bbl/day) that maintaining economic operation of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) will require pumping alternative products through the system. Heavy oil deposits in the West Sak and Ugnu formations are a potential resource, although transporting these products involves addressing important sedimentation issues. One possibility is the use of Gas-to-Liquid (GTL) technology. Estimated recoverable gas reserves of 38 trillion cubic feet (TCF) on the North Slope of Alaska can be converted to liquid with GTL technology and combined with the heavy oils for a product suitable for pipeline transport. Issues that could affect transport of this such products through TAPS include pumpability of GTL and crude oil blends, cold restart of the pipeline following a prolonged winter shutdown, and solids deposition inside the pipeline. This study examined several key fluid properties of GTL, crude oil and four selected blends under TAPS operating conditions. Key measurements included Reid Vapor Pressure, density and viscosity, PVT properties, and solids deposition. Results showed that gel strength is not a significant factor for the ratios of GTL-crude oil blend mixtures (1:1; 1:2; 1:3; 1:4) tested under TAPS cold re-start conditions at temperatures above - 20 F, although Bingham fluid flow characteristics exhibited by the blends at low temperatures indicate high pumping power requirements following prolonged shutdown. Solids deposition is a major concern for all studied blends. For the commingled flow profile studied, decreased throughput can result in increased and more rapid solid deposition along the pipe wall, resulting in more frequent pigging of the pipeline or, if left unchecked, pipeline corrosion.

  4. Oral cancer malnutrition impacts weight and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Gellrich, Nils-Claudius; Handschel, Jörg; Holtmann, Henrik; Krüskemper, Gertrud

    2015-04-01

    Diet is important for both quality of life (QoL) and survival of patients with oral cancer. Their intake of food is impeded by functional restrictions in chewing and swallowing. In the DÖSAK REHAB STUDY 1652 patients from 38 hospitals within the German-language area of Germany; Austria and Switzerland were examined with regard to functional and psychological variables having an impact on diet. Chewing and swallowing are correlated with mobility of the tongue and the mandible as well as opening of the mouth. Thirty five percent of the patients lost weight; 41% maintained their weight and 24% gained weight. The QoL of patients who were able to maintain their weight and of those who gained weight was significantly better than that of patients who lost weight. A normal diet was important for maintaining weight. Mashed food; liquid food and loss of appetite were closely associated with loss of weight; although it was possible for nutritional counseling and dietary support to be implemented particularly favorably in this respect. Due to problems with eating patients' strength deteriorated; thus restricting activity. Radiotherapy had a negative impact on diet and weight. It influenced sense of taste; dryness of the mouth; swelling and discomfort when ingesting food. Pain and scars in the region of the operation also cause patients to dislike hard; spicy and sour food. Support from a nutritional counselor in implementing a calorie-rich diet remedied this and such support needs to be integrated into patient management. The fact that a poor nutritional status is of such great importance is well-known; but what is often lacking is the systematic implementation of continued professional nutritional counseling over a long period of time; weight control and psycho-social support of the operated patients; particularly those who also have had radiotherapy. PMID:25825828

  5. Oral Cancer Malnutrition Impacts Weight and Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Gellrich, Nils-Claudius; Handschel, Jörg; Holtmann, Henrik; Krüskemper, Gertrud

    2015-01-01

    Diet is important for both quality of life (QoL) and survival of patients with oral cancer. Their intake of food is impeded by functional restrictions in chewing and swallowing. In the DÖSAK REHAB STUDY 1652 patients from 38 hospitals within the German-language area of Germany; Austria and Switzerland were examined with regard to functional and psychological variables having an impact on diet. Chewing and swallowing are correlated with mobility of the tongue and the mandible as well as opening of the mouth. Thirty five percent of the patients lost weight; 41% maintained their weight and 24% gained weight. The QoL of patients who were able to maintain their weight and of those who gained weight was significantly better than that of patients who lost weight. A normal diet was important for maintaining weight. Mashed food; liquid food and loss of appetite were closely associated with loss of weight; although it was possible for nutritional counseling and dietary support to be implemented particularly favorably in this respect. Due to problems with eating patients’ strength deteriorated; thus restricting activity. Radiotherapy had a negative impact on diet and weight. It influenced sense of taste; dryness of the mouth; swelling and discomfort when ingesting food. Pain and scars in the region of the operation also cause patients to dislike hard; spicy and sour food. Support from a nutritional counselor in implementing a calorie-rich diet remedied this and such support needs to be integrated into patient management. The fact that a poor nutritional status is of such great importance is well-known; but what is often lacking is the systematic implementation of continued professional nutritional counseling over a long period of time; weight control and psycho-social support of the operated patients; particularly those who also have had radiotherapy. PMID:25825828

  6. Livestock-Associated Methicillin Resistant and Methicillin Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Sequence Type (CC)1 in European Farmed Animals: High Genetic Relatedness of Isolates from Italian Cattle Herds and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Alba, Patricia; Feltrin, Fabiola; Cordaro, Gessica; Porrero, María Concepción; Kraushaar, Britta; Argudín, María Angeles; Nykäsenoja, Suvi; Monaco, Monica; Stegger, Marc; Aarestrup, Frank M.; Butaye, Patrick; Franco, Alessia; Battisti, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Sequence Type (ST)1, Clonal Complex(CC)1, SCCmec V is one of the major Livestock-Associated (LA-) lineages in pig farming industry in Italy and is associated with pigs in other European countries. Recently, it has been increasingly detected in Italian dairy cattle herds. The aim of this study was to analyse the differences between ST1 MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) from cattle and pig herds in Italy and Europe and human isolates. Sixty-tree animal isolates from different holdings and 20 human isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), spa-typing, SCCmec typing, and by micro-array analysis for several virulence, antimicrobial resistance, and strain/host-specific marker genes. Three major PFGE clusters were detected. The bovine isolates shared a high (≥90% to 100%) similarity with human isolates and carried the same SCCmec type IVa. They often showed genetic features typical of human adaptation or present in human-associated CC1: Immune evasion cluster (IEC) genes sak and scn, or sea; sat and aphA3-mediated aminoglycoside resistance. Contrary, typical markers of porcine origin in Italy and Spain, like erm(A) mediated macrolide-lincosamide-streptograminB, and of vga(A)-mediated pleuromutilin resistance were always absent in human and bovine isolates. Most of ST(CC)1 MRSA from dairy cattle were multidrug-resistant and contained virulence and immunomodulatory genes associated with full capability of colonizing humans. As such, these strains may represent a greater human hazard than the porcine strains. The zoonotic capacity of CC1 LA-MRSA from livestock must be taken seriously and measures should be implemented at farm-level to prevent spill-over. PMID:26322785

  7. Involvement of protein tyrosine phosphatases BcPtpA and BcPtpB in regulation of vegetative development, virulence and multi-stress tolerance in Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qianqian; Yu, Fangwei; Yin, Yanni; Ma, Zhonghua

    2013-01-01

    Tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation have emerged as fundamentally important mechanisms of signal transduction and regulation in eukaryotic cells, governing many processes, but little has been known about their functions in filamentous fungi. In this study, we deleted two putative protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) genes (BcPTPA and BcPTPB) in Botrytis cinerea, encoding the orthologs of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ptp2 and Ptp3, respectively. Although BcPtpA and BcPtpB have opposite functions in conidiation, they are essential for sclerotial formation in B. cinerea. BcPTPA and BcPTPB deletion mutants ΔBcPtpA-10 and ΔBcPtpB-4 showed significantly increased sensitivity to osmotic and oxidative stresses, and to cell wall damaging agents. Inoculation tests showed that both mutants exhibited dramatically decreased virulence on tomato leaves, apples and grapes. In S. cerevisiae, it has been shown that Ptp2 and Ptp3 negatively regulate the high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway and the cell wall integrity (CWI) pathway. Although both BcPtpA and BcPtpB were able to inactive Hog1 and Mpk1 in S. cerevisiae, in contrast to S. cerevisiae, they positively regulate phosphorylation of BcSak1 (the homologue of Hog1) and BcBmp3 (the homologue of Mpk1) in B. cinerea under stress conditions. These results demonstrated that functions of PTPs in B. cinerea are different from those in S. cerevisiae, and BcPtpA and BcPtpB play important roles in regulation of vegetative development, virulence and in adaptation to oxidative, osmotic and cell-wall damage stresses in B. cinerea. PMID:23585890

  8. DNA microarray analysis of Staphylococcus aureus causing bloodstream infection: bacterial genes associated with mortality?

    PubMed

    Blomfeldt, A; Aamot, H V; Eskesen, A N; Monecke, S; White, R A; Leegaard, T M; Bjørnholt, J V

    2016-08-01

    Providing evidence for microbial genetic determinants' impact on outcome in Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infections (SABSI) is challenging due to the complex and dynamic microbe-host interaction. Our recent population-based prospective study reported an association between the S. aureus clonal complex (CC) 30 genotype and mortality in SABSI patients. This follow-up investigation aimed to examine the genetic profiles of the SABSI isolates and test the hypothesis that specific genetic characteristics in S. aureus are associated with mortality. SABSI isolates (n = 305) and S. aureus CC30 isolates from asymptomatic nasal carriers (n = 38) were characterised by DNA microarray analysis and spa typing. Fisher's exact test, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) and elastic net regressions were performed to discern within four groups defined by patient outcome and characteristics. No specific S. aureus genetic determinants were found to be associated with mortality in SABSI patients. By applying LASSO and elastic net regressions, we found evidence suggesting that agrIII and cna were positively and setC (=selX) and seh were negatively associated with S. aureus CC30 versus non-CC30 isolates. The genes chp and sak, encoding immune evasion molecules, were found in higher frequencies in CC30 SABSI isolates compared to CC30 carrier isolates, indicating a higher virulence potential. In conclusion, no specific S. aureus genes were found to be associated with mortality by DNA microarray analysis and state-of-the-art statistical analyses. The next natural step is to test the hypothesis in larger samples with higher resolution methods, like whole genome sequencing. PMID:27177754

  9. Study of hydrocarbon miscible solvent slug injection process for improved recovery of heavy oil from Schrader Bluff Pool, Milne Point Unit, Alaska. Annual report, January 1, 1994--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, G.D.

    1995-07-01

    Alaska is the second largest oil producing state in the nation and currently contributes nearly 24% of the nations oil production. It is imperative that Alaskan heavy oil fields be brought into production. Schrader Bluff reservoir, located in the Milne Point Unit, which is part of the heavy oil field known as West Sak is estimated to contain 1.5 billion barrels of (14 to 21 degree API) oil-in-place. The field is currently under production by primary depletion. The eventual implementation of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques will be vital for the recovery of additional oil from this reservoir. The availability of hydrocarbon gases (solvents) on the Alaska North Slope make the hydrocarbon miscible solvent injection process an important consideration for the EOR project in Schrader Bluff reservoir. Since Schrader Bluff oil is heavy and viscous, a water-alternating-gas (WAG) type of process for oil recovery is appropriate since such a process tends to derive synergetic benefits from both water injection (which provides mobility control and improvement in sweep efficiency) and miscible gas injection (which provides improved displacement efficiency). A miscible solvent slug injection process rather than continuous solvent injection is considered appropriate. Slim tube displacement studies, PVT data and asphaltene precipitation studies are needed for Schrader bluff heavy oil to define possible hydrocarbon solvent suitable for miscible solvent slug displacement process. Coreflood experiments are also needed to determine the effect of solvent slug size, WAG ratio and solvent composition on the recovery and solvent breakthrough. A compositional reservoir simulation study will be conducted later to evaluate the complete performance of the hydrocarbon solvent slug process and to assess the feasibility of this process for improving recovery of heavy oil from Schrader Bluff reservoir.

  10. Wilson's disease: An Indian perspective.

    PubMed

    Taly, A B; Prashanth, L K; Sinha, S

    2009-01-01

    Wilson's disease (WD) is an autosomal recessive disease involving a defect of copper transport by the hepatic lysosomes. It leads to excess copper deposition in the liver, the brain, the kidneys and the skeletal system, affecting most commonly children or young adults and running an invariably fatal course if not adequately treated by de-coppering therapy. The last century has witnessed several changes, notable among these are: Increased awareness, improved diagnostic facilities leading to earlier recognition even in the pre-symptomatic phase, clear distinction from its mimics, aggressive therapeutic approaches owing to availability of effective treatment and an overall reduction in the morbidity and mortality. It is widely acknowledged that the disease is not as rare as once believed. Sir SAK Wilson published his landmark article in 1912, but it was only in 1968 that the first patient of WD was reported from our country. Publications from India on WD have focused on phenotypic characterization, documentations of lesser recognized aspects of the disease e.g. seizures, behavior abnormality, speech and cognitive impairment, sub-clinical affection of visual pathway, heart and autonomic function and pre-symptomatic detection. Attempts have been made to understand the clinical heterogeneity of the disease through identification of biochemical and immunological markers, magnetic resonance imaging, neuropathological study and genetic analysis for novel and/or known mutations. Assessment of impairment and severity and effect of various therapeutic interventions namely zinc sulphate on the long-term outcome and quality of life have also been studied. Nevertheless, clinicians often face difficulties in long-term care of these patients. Diagnostic errors leading to delay in diagnosis and initiation of treatment are common, even in patients with positive family history. There is no consensus regarding therapeutic protocols since the use of penicillamine, once a 'gold standard

  11. Characterization of gprK Encoding a Putative Hybrid G-Protein-Coupled Receptor in Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Jung, Mun-Gu; Kim, Sung Su; Yu, Jae-Hyuk; Shin, Kwang-Soo

    2016-01-01

    The G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family represents the largest and most varied collection of membrane embedded proteins that are sensitized by ligand binding and interact with heterotrimeric G proteins. Despite their presumed critical roles in fungal biology, the functions of the GPCR family members in the opportunistic human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus are largely unknown, as only two (GprC and GprD) of the 15 predicted GPCRs have been studied. Here, we characterize the gprK gene, which is predicted to encode a hybrid GPCR with both 7-transmembrane and regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) domains. The deletion of gprK causes severely impaired asexual development coupled with reduced expression of key developmental activators. Moreover, ΔgprK results in hyper-activation of germination even in the absence of carbon source, and elevated expression and activity of the protein kinase A PkaC1. Furthermore, proliferation of the ΔgprK mutant is restricted on the medium when pentose is the sole carbon source, suggesting that GprK may function in external carbon source sensing. Notably, the absence of gprK results in reduced tolerance to oxidative stress and significantly lowered mRNA levels of the stress-response associated genes sakA and atfA. Activities of catalases and SODs are severely decreased in the ΔgprK mutant, indicating that GprK may function in proper activation of general stress response. The ΔgprK mutant is also defective in gliotoxin (GT) production and slightly less virulent toward the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella. Transcriptomic studies reveal that a majority of transporters are down-regulated by ΔgprK. In summary, GprK is necessary for proper development, GT production, and oxidative stress response, and functions in down-regulating the PKA-germination pathway. PMID:27584150

  12. Expression of modified gene encoding functional human alpha-1-antitrypsin protein in transgenic tomato plants.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Saurabh; Singh, Rahul; Sanyal, Indraneel; Amla, D V

    2008-10-01

    Transgenic plants offer promising alternative for large scale, sustainable production of safe, functional, recombinant proteins of therapeutic and industrial importance. Here, we report the expression of biologically active human alpha-1-antitrypsin in transgenic tomato plants. The 1,182 bp cDNA sequence of human AAT was strategically designed, modified and synthesized to adopt codon usage pattern of dicot plants, elimination of mRNA destabilizing sequences and modifications around 5' and 3' flanking regions of the gene to achieve high-level regulated expression in dicot plants. The native signal peptide sequence was substituted with modified signal peptide sequence of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) pathogenesis related protein PR1a, sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) sporamineA and with dicot-preferred native signal peptide sequence of AAT gene. A dicot preferred translation initiation context sequence, 38 bp alfalfa mosaic virus untranslated region were incorporated at 5' while an endoplasmic reticulum retention signal (KDEL) was incorporated at 3' end of the gene. The modified gene was synthesized by PCR based method using overlapping oligonucleotides. Tomato plants were genetically engineered by nuclear transformation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens harbouring three different constructs pPAK, pSAK and pNAK having modified AAT gene with different signal peptide sequences under the control of CaMV35S duplicated enhancer promoter. Promising transgenic plants expressing recombinant AAT protein upto 1.55% of total soluble leaf protein has been developed and characterized. Plant-expressed recombinant AAT protein with molecular mass of around approximately 50 kDa was biologically active, showing high specific activity and efficient inhibition of elastase activity. The enzymatic deglycosylation established proper glycosylation of the plant-expressed recombinant AAT protein in contrast to unglycosylated rAAT expressed in E. coli ( approximately 45 kDa). Our results demonstrate

  13. Livestock-Associated Methicillin Resistant and Methicillin Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Sequence Type (CC)1 in European Farmed Animals: High Genetic Relatedness of Isolates from Italian Cattle Herds and Humans.

    PubMed

    Alba, Patricia; Feltrin, Fabiola; Cordaro, Gessica; Porrero, María Concepción; Kraushaar, Britta; Argudín, María Angeles; Nykäsenoja, Suvi; Monaco, Monica; Stegger, Marc; Aarestrup, Frank M; Butaye, Patrick; Franco, Alessia; Battisti, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Sequence Type (ST)1, Clonal Complex(CC)1, SCCmec V is one of the major Livestock-Associated (LA-) lineages in pig farming industry in Italy and is associated with pigs in other European countries. Recently, it has been increasingly detected in Italian dairy cattle herds. The aim of this study was to analyse the differences between ST1 MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) from cattle and pig herds in Italy and Europe and human isolates. Sixty-tree animal isolates from different holdings and 20 human isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), spa-typing, SCCmec typing, and by micro-array analysis for several virulence, antimicrobial resistance, and strain/host-specific marker genes. Three major PFGE clusters were detected. The bovine isolates shared a high (≥90% to 100%) similarity with human isolates and carried the same SCCmec type IVa. They often showed genetic features typical of human adaptation or present in human-associated CC1: Immune evasion cluster (IEC) genes sak and scn, or sea; sat and aphA3-mediated aminoglycoside resistance. Contrary, typical markers of porcine origin in Italy and Spain, like erm(A) mediated macrolide-lincosamide-streptograminB, and of vga(A)-mediated pleuromutilin resistance were always absent in human and bovine isolates. Most of ST(CC)1 MRSA from dairy cattle were multidrug-resistant and contained virulence and immunomodulatory genes associated with full capability of colonizing humans. As such, these strains may represent a greater human hazard than the porcine strains. The zoonotic capacity of CC1 LA-MRSA from livestock must be taken seriously and measures should be implemented at farm-level to prevent spill-over. PMID:26322785

  14. Effects of Alternative Fuels and Aromatics on Gas-Turbine Particle Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornhill, K. L., II; Moore, R.; Winstead, E.; Anderson, B. E.; Klettlinger, J. L.; Ross, R. C.; Surgenor, A.

    2015-12-01

    This presentation describes experiments conducted with a Honeywell GTCP36-150 Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) to evaluate the effects of varying fuel composition on particle emissions. The APU uses a single-stage compressor stage, gas turbine engine with a can-type combustor to generate bypass flow and electrical power for supporting small aircraft and helicopters. It is installed in a "hush-house" at NASA Glenn Research Center and is configured as a stand-alone unit that can be fueled from an onboard tank or external supply. It operates at constant RPM, but its fuel flow can be varied by changing the electrical load or volume of bypass flow. For these tests, an external bank of resistors were attached to the APU's DC and AC electrical outlets and emissions measurements were made at low, medium and maximum electrical current loads. Exhaust samples were drawn from several points downstream in the exhaust duct and fed to an extensive suite of gas and aerosol sensors installed within a mobile laboratory parked nearby. Aromatic- and sulfur-free synthetic kerosenes from Rentech, Gevo, UOP, Amyris and Sasol were tested and their potential to reduce PM emissions evaluated against a single Jet A1 base fuel. The role of aromatic compounds in regulating soot emissions was also evaluated by adding metered amounts of aromatic blends (Aro-100, AF-Blend, SAK) and pure compounds (tetracontane and 1-methylnaphthalene) to a base alternative fuel (Sasol). Results show that, relative to Jet A1, alternative fuels reduce nonvolatile particle number emissions by 50-80% and--by virtue of producing much smaller particles—mass emissions by 65-90%; fuels with the highest hydrogen content produced the greatest reductions. Nonvolatile particle emissions varied in proportion to fuel aromatic content, with additives containing the most complex ring structures producing the greatest emission enhancements.

  15. Intramanchette transport (IMT): managing the making of the spermatid head, centrosome, and tail.

    PubMed

    Kierszenbaum, Abraham L

    2002-09-01

    Intramanchette transport (IMT) and intraflagellar transport (IFT) share similar molecular components: a raft protein complex transporting cargo proteins mobilized along microtubules by molecular motors. IFT, initially discovered in flagella of Chlamydomonas, has been also observed in cilia of the worm Caenorhabditis elegans and in mouse ciliated and flagellated cells. IFT has been defined as the mechanism by which protein raft components (also called IFT particles) are displaced between the flagellum and the plasma membrane in the anterograde direction by kinesin-II and in the retrograde direction by cytoplasmic dynein 1b. Mutation of the gene Tg737, encoding one of the components of the raft protein complex, designated Polaris in the mouse and IFT88 in both Chlamydomonas and mouse, results in defective ciliogenesis and flagellar development as well as asymmetry in left-right axis determination. Polaris/IFT88 is detected in the manchette of mouse and rat spermatids. Indications of an IMT mechanism originated from the finding that two proteins associated with the manchette (Sak57/K5 and TBP-1, the latter a component of the 26S proteasome) repositioned to the centrosome and sperm tail once the manchette disassembled. IMT has the features of the IFT machinery but, in addition, facilitates nucleocytoplasmic exchange activities during spermiogenesis. An example is Ran, a small GTPase present in the nucleus and cytoplasm of round spermatids and in the manchette of elongating spermatids. Upon disassembly of the manchette, Ran GTPase is found in the centrosome region of elongating spermatids. Because defective molecular motors and raft proteins result in defective flagella, cilia, and cilia-containing photoreceptor cells in the retina, IMT and IFT are emerging as essential mechanisms for managing critical aspects of sperm development. Details of specific role of Ran GTPase in nucleocytoplasmic transport and its relocation from the manchette to the centrosome to the sperm

  16. Physicochemical and nutritional qualities of grape pomace powder-fortified semi-hard cheeses.

    PubMed

    Marchiani, Roberta; Bertolino, Marta; Ghirardello, Daniela; McSweeney, Paul L H; Zeppa, Giuseppe

    2016-03-01

    Powders obtained from three grape pomaces (Barbera, Chardonnay before distillation, Chardonnay after distillation) were added at two concentration levels (0.8 and 1.6 % w/w) into semi-hard and hard cheeses (Italian Toma-like and Cheddar, respectively) to increase their polyphenol content. Effects on physicochemical characteristics, total phenolic content (TPC), radical scavenging activity (RSA), proteolysis, organic acids content, starter and non-starter bacteria were evaluated during ripening. The amount and the type of powder used did not significantly affect the physicochemical parameters of cheese with the exception of pH their values. Italian Toma-like and Cheddar cheeses fortified with Chardonnay after distillation powder showed at the end of ripening (30 days and 120 days respectively) the highest TPC and RSA values. Proteolysis and microbial counts did not show statistically significant differences between fortified and control cheeses. This study demonstrated that grape pomace powder can be a functional ingredient to increase TPC and RSA in consumers' diets and the addition of this by-product to cheese is an environmentally friendly way to manage winemaking wastes. PMID:27570284

  17. Isolation and Characterization of Plant-Pathogenic Streptomyces Species Associated with Common Scab-Infected Potato Tubers in Newfoundland.

    PubMed

    Fyans, Joanna K; Bown, Luke; Bignell, Dawn R D

    2016-02-01

    Potato common scab (CS) is an economically important crop disease that is caused by several members of the genus Streptomyces. In this study, we characterized the plant-pathogenic Streptomyces spp. associated with CS-infected potato tubers harvested in Newfoundland, Canada. A total of 17 pathogenic Streptomyces isolates were recovered from potato scab lesions, of which eight were determined to be most similar to the known CS pathogen S. europaeiscabiei. All eight S. europaeiscabiei isolates were found to produce the thaxtomin A phytotoxin and to harbor the nec1 virulence gene, and most also carry the putative virulence gene tomA. The remaining isolates appear to be novel pathogenic species that do not produce thaxtomin A, and only two of these isolates were determined to harbor the nec1 or tomA genes. Of the non-thaxtomin-producing isolates, strain 11-1-2 was shown to exhibit a severe pathogenic phenotype against different plant hosts and to produce a novel, secreted phytotoxic substance. This is the first report documenting the plant-pathogenic Streptomyces spp. associated with CS disease in Newfoundland. Furthermore, our findings provide further evidence that phytotoxins other than thaxtomin A may also contribute to the development of CS by Streptomyces spp. PMID:26524546

  18. Mechanistic Investigation of Solvent Extraction Based on Anion-Functionalized Ionic Liquids for Selective Separation of Rare-Earth Ions

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xiaoqi; Luo, Huimin; Dai, Sheng

    2013-01-01

    In this study, solvation has been found to be a dominant mechanism in a comprehensive ionic liquid based extraction system for rare earth elements (REEs). Trioctylmethylammonium di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate ([TOMA][DEHP]), an ionic-liquid extractant, was used in 1-alkyl-3-methylimidizolium bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide ([Cnmim][NTf2], n = 4, 6, 8, 10) and 1-alkyl-3-methylimidizolium bis(perfluoroethanesulfonyl)imide ([Cnmim][BETI], n = 4, 6, 8, 10) for the separation of REEs. Surprisingly, a very similar extraction behavior was observed even as the carbon chain length on the ionic-liquid (IL) cation increased from butyl (C4) to hexyl (C6), to octyl (C8), to decyl (C10). This behavior is in sharp contrast to that exhibited by the conventional neutral extractants, whose extraction efficiencies are strongly dependent on the hydrophobicity of IL cations. Furthermore, the addition of IL cations ([Cnmim]+) or IL anions ([NTf2]- or [BETI]-) to the aqueous phase had little effect on the extraction behavior of the above extraction system, ruling out the strong involvement of the ion-exchange mechanism associated with traditional IL-based extraction systems. Results showed that the extractabilities and selectivities of REEs using [TOMA][DEHP] in [C10mim][NTf2]/[BETI] are several orders of magnitude better than those achieved using conventional organic solvent, diisopropylbenzene (DIPB). This study highlights the potential of developing a comprehensive IL-based extraction strategy for REEs separations.

  19. Miocene structural features of north and south Padre Island and OCS areas, offshore south Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Ghamdi, A.M.; Watkins, J.S.

    1996-12-31

    Integration of 2-D seismic reflection data, paleontological reports, velocity analysis, and well logs has provided a new structural model for North and South Padre Island OCS areas. The Clemente-Tomas fault system (Late Oligocene-Early Miocene) is located above overpressured shale ridges. Sediment loading initiated the faulting over the compacted shale. The Corsair fault system (Early-Middle Miocene) is located seaward of Clemente-Tomas and was formed due to a huge sediment influx that forced the salt to withdraw basinward. The Wanda fault system formed during the Late Miocene because of the further salt withdrawal. Study area is dominated by shale ridges and the salt are only formed beneath the present shelf edge as salt diapirs. Overpressured shale was mapped throughout the study area. Well logs show overpressured shale between 8,800 to 12,000 feet. Berg and Avery suggested that growth faults can seal the faults sheared zones which may cause a structural hydrocarbon trap. We examined most of the responses of the dip logs in the study area and we found that the seal general trend is the drag (non seal) type.

  20. Miocene structural features of north and south Padre Island and OCS areas, offshore south Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Ghamdi, A.M.; Watkins, J.S. )

    1996-01-01

    Integration of 2-D seismic reflection data, paleontological reports, velocity analysis, and well logs has provided a new structural model for North and South Padre Island OCS areas. The Clemente-Tomas fault system (Late Oligocene-Early Miocene) is located above overpressured shale ridges. Sediment loading initiated the faulting over the compacted shale. The Corsair fault system (Early-Middle Miocene) is located seaward of Clemente-Tomas and was formed due to a huge sediment influx that forced the salt to withdraw basinward. The Wanda fault system formed during the Late Miocene because of the further salt withdrawal. Study area is dominated by shale ridges and the salt are only formed beneath the present shelf edge as salt diapirs. Overpressured shale was mapped throughout the study area. Well logs show overpressured shale between 8,800 to 12,000 feet. Berg and Avery suggested that growth faults can seal the faults sheared zones which may cause a structural hydrocarbon trap. We examined most of the responses of the dip logs in the study area and we found that the seal general trend is the drag (non seal) type.

  1. The evolution of biomass-burning aerosol size distributions due to coagulation: dependence on fire and meteorological details and parameterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Kimiko M.; Laing, James R.; Stevens, Robin G.; Jaffe, Daniel A.; Pierce, Jeffrey R.

    2016-06-01

    Biomass-burning aerosols have a significant effect on global and regional aerosol climate forcings. To model the magnitude of these effects accurately requires knowledge of the size distribution of the emitted and evolving aerosol particles. Current biomass-burning inventories do not include size distributions, and global and regional models generally assume a fixed size distribution from all biomass-burning emissions. However, biomass-burning size distributions evolve in the plume due to coagulation and net organic aerosol (OA) evaporation or formation, and the plume processes occur on spacial scales smaller than global/regional-model grid boxes. The extent of this size-distribution evolution is dependent on a variety of factors relating to the emission source and atmospheric conditions. Therefore, accurately accounting for biomass-burning aerosol size in global models requires an effective aerosol size distribution that accounts for this sub-grid evolution and can be derived from available emission-inventory and meteorological parameters. In this paper, we perform a detailed investigation of the effects of coagulation on the aerosol size distribution in biomass-burning plumes. We compare the effect of coagulation to that of OA evaporation and formation. We develop coagulation-only parameterizations for effective biomass-burning size distributions using the SAM-TOMAS large-eddy simulation plume model. For the most-sophisticated parameterization, we use the Gaussian Emulation Machine for Sensitivity Analysis (GEM-SA) to build a parameterization of the aged size distribution based on the SAM-TOMAS output and seven inputs: emission median dry diameter, emission distribution modal width, mass emissions flux, fire area, mean boundary-layer wind speed, plume mixing depth, and time/distance since emission. This parameterization was tested against an independent set of SAM-TOMAS simulations and yields R2 values of 0.83 and 0.89 for Dpm and modal width, respectively. The

  2. Science& Technology Review July/August 2003

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, D H

    2003-07-01

    This month's issue has the following articles: (1) Calling All Nuclear Scientists--Commentary by Tomas Diaz de la Rubia; (2) An Inside Attack on Cancer--Customizing the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, for individual cancers and individual patients, is the goal of a Livermore research initiative; (3) Cells Respond Uniquely to Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation--Mammalian cells and tissues exposed to low-level radiation respond by switching on hundreds of genes specialized in repairing damaged chromosomes, membranes, and proteins and in countering cellular stress. (4) A New Generation of Munitions--Warhead designers are developing low collateral damage munitions that only deliver their destructive force to the intended target; and (5) Whatever the Waste, New Facility Takes It On--A new decontamination and waste treatment facility makes it easier for Livermore to manage a variety of wastes effectively, practically, and responsibly.

  3. Predicting psychological symptoms: the role of perceived thought control ability.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Rachel D; Klein, Jenny; Donnelly, Reesa; Renk, Kimberly

    2009-01-01

    The suppression of intrusive thoughts, which have been related significantly to depressive and anxious symptoms (Blumberg, 2000), has become an area of interest for those treating individuals with psychological disorders. The current study sought to extend the findings of Luciano, Algarabel, Tomas, and Martínez (2005), who developed the Thought Control Ability Questionnaire (TCAQ) and found that scores on this measure were predictive of psychopathology. In particular, this study examined the relationship between scores on the TCAQ and the Personality Assessment Inventory. Findings suggested that individuals' perceived thought control ability correlated significantly with several dimensions of commonly-occurring psychological symptoms (e.g. anxiety) and more severe and persistent psychological symptoms (e.g. schizophrenia). Regression analyses also showed that perceived thought control ability predicted significantly a range of psychological symptoms over and above individuals' sex and perceived stress. Findings suggested that thought control ability may be an important future research area in psychological assessment and intervention. PMID:19235599

  4. STS-121: Discovery Spacewalk Overview Briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The briefing began with the introduction of Tomas Gonzalez-Torres (Lead Extra Vehicular Activity Officer). The spacewalk team included Pierce Sellers (EV-1), Mike Fossum (EV-2) and Mark Kelly (coordinator and pilot). Three new EMU's (space suits) were provided with hardware upgrades (warning systems). The 1st EVA would take place on flight day 5 and would include the exchange of the 3 EMU's. The 1st task was the installation of the blade locker, a device used to prevent severing of cables. The team will also install the Interface Umbilical System (IUS) which is an extension cord for the mobile transporter. EVA-2 task will be to replace the old Trailing Umbilical System (TUS) with a new one.

  5. Ethanol and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Sun, A Y; Ingelman-Sundberg, M; Neve, E; Matsumoto, H; Nishitani, Y; Minowa, Y; Fukui, Y; Bailey, S M; Patel, V B; Cunningham, C C; Zima, T; Fialova, L; Mikulikova, L; Popov, P; Malbohan, I; Janebova, M; Nespor, K; Sun, G Y

    2001-05-01

    This article represents the proceedings of a workshop at the 2000 ISBRA Meeting in Yokohama, Japan. The chair was Albert Y. Sun. The presentations were (1) Ethanol-inducible cytochrome P-4502E1 in alcoholic liver disease, by Magnus Ingelman-Sundberg and Etienne Neve; (2) Regulation of NF-kappaB by ethanol, by H. Matsumoto, Y. Nishitani, Y. Minowa, and Y. Fukui; (3) Chronic ethanol consumption increases concentration of oxidized proteins in rat liver, by Shannon M. Bailey, Vinood B. Patel, and Carol C. Cunningham; (4) Antiphospholipids antibodies and oxidized modified low-density lipoprotein in chronic alcoholic patients, by Tomas Zima, Lenka Fialova, Ludmila Mikulikova, Ptr Popov, Ivan Malbohan, Marta Janebova, and Karel Nespor; and (5) Amelioration of ethanol-induced damage by polyphenols, by Albert Y. Sun and Grace Y. Sun. PMID:11391077

  6. Cell scientist to watch - Emmanuel Boucrot.

    PubMed

    2016-09-01

    Emmanuel Boucrot obtained an undergraduate and a master's degree in biochemistry at the University of Geneva in Switzerland. He pursued his PhD in immunology at the University of Aix-Marseille II in France, supervised by Stéphane Méresse in the laboratory of Jean-Pierre Gorvel. Emmanuel moved to the USA for his postdoctoral training in the laboratory of Tomas Kirchhausen at Harvard Medical School, first as an EMBO fellow and then as a Human Frontiers Science Program fellow. Before starting his own laboratory in 2011, Emmanuel held another postdoctoral position in the laboratory of Harvey McMahon at the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Cambridge, UK. He is a recipient of a Lister Institute Research Prize and a BBSRC David Phillips Research Fellowship. His group at University College London is interested in studying the mechanisms of clathrin-independent endocytosis, as well as investigating properties of quiescent cells. PMID:27587837

  7. Science and Technology Review July/August 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Bearinger, J P

    2009-06-29

    This month's issue has the following articles: (1) Game-Changing Science in the National Interest - Commentary by Tomas Diaz de la Rubia; (2) Preventing Close Encounters of the Orbiting Kind - The Testbed Environment for Space Situational Awareness is improving capabilities for monitoring and detecting threats to space operations; (3) A CAT Scanner for Nuclear Weapon Components - A new x-ray system images nuclear weapon components in three dimensions, promising unprecedented resolution and clarity; (4) Mass-Producing Positrons - Scientists reveal a new method for yielding a greater density of positrons at a much faster rate inside a laboratory setting; and (5) The Next Generation of Medical Diagnostic Devices - Portable medical diagnostic devices using ultrawideband technology help first responders evaluate injuries in emergency situations and could improve overall health care.

  8. Science and Technology Review December 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Blobaum, K M

    2010-10-29

    This month's issue has the following articles: (1) More Insight to Better Understand Climate Change - Commentary by Tomas Diaz de la Rubia; (2) Strengthening Our Understanding of Climate Change - Researchers at the Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry are working to better understand climate variation and sharpen the accuracy of predictive models; (3) Precision Diagnostics Tell All - The National Ignition Facility relies on sophisticated diagnostic instruments for measuring the key physical processes that occur in high-energy-density experiments; (4) Quick Detection of Pathogens by the Thousands - Livermore scientists have developed a device that can simultaneously identify thousands of viruses and bacteria within 24 hours; and (5) Carbon Dioxide into the Briny Deep - A proposed technique for burying carbon dioxide underground could help mitigate the effects of this greenhouse gas while producing freshwater.

  9. Science & Technology Review November 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Aufderheide, M B

    2005-09-19

    This month's issue has the following articles: (1) A Major Advance in Understanding Metals--Commentary by Tomas Diaz de la Rubia; (2) Materials Scientists Discover the Power of ParaDiS--A new supercomputer code is revealing how metals become stronger through the formation of dislocation line junctions; (3) A Wide New Window on the Universe--Livermore scientists and engineers are contributing to the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, which will provide unprecedented digital maps of the changing night sky; (4) Built for Speed: Graphics Processors for General-Purpose Computing--Commercial graphics processors used in the computer gaming industry are providing low-cost solutions for high-performance data processing; and (5) Negative Plasma Densities Raise Questions--Livermore physicists shed light on anomalous results in x-ray interferometry of plasmas.

  10. PubMed

    Barrantes-Monge, Melba; Rodríguez, Eduardo; Lama, Alexis

    2009-01-01

    Existen prejuicios en relación con la vejez, incluso entre los profesionales que se dedican a la gerontología. Uno común y peligroso es considerar que los viejos son todos enfermos o discapacitados.La relación médico-paciente es la piedra angular de la práctica y ética médicas. Para alcanzar el respeto por los adultos mayores es necesaria una medicina prudente, basada en una práctica en la cual la reflexión ética y clínica pueda contribuir. Esto último es posible si se hacen valer los derechos del adulto mayor, en particular como paciente para la toma de decisiones. PMID:20379380

  11. Science and Technology Review May 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Henson, V E

    2004-04-02

    This month's issue has the following articles: (1) ''A Multidisciplinary Attack on Bioterrorism''--Commentary by Tomas Diaz de la Rubia. (2) ''Life at the Nanoscale''--Livermore researchers are exploring the molecules of life at the nanoscale to fight bioterrorism, improve human health, and understand how proteins function. (3) ''Screening Cargo Containers to Remove a Terrorist Threat''--A detection system for cargo containers will search for hidden nuclear materials that terrorists might try to ship to U.S. seaports. (4) ''Improved Algorithms Speed It Up for Codes''--Recent changes to the algorithms used in Monte Carlo calculations are reducing the time needed to run the high-fidelity simulations being developed for the nation's supercomputers. (5) ''The Siren Call of the Seas: Sequestering Carbon Dioxide''--Scientists at Livermore evaluate possible methods for removing carbon dioxide from Earth's atmosphere and storing it in the planet's waters.

  12. Science and Technology Review December 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolic, R J

    2011-11-01

    This month's issue has the following articles: (1) High-Performance Computing for Energy Innovation - Commentary by Tomas Diaz de la Rubia; (2) Simulating the Next Generation of Energy Technologies - Projects using high-performance computing demonstrate Livermore's computational horsepower and improve the quality of energy solutions and the speed of deployment; (3) ARC Comes into Focus - The Advanced Radiographic Capability, a petawatt-class laser, can penetrate dense objects to reveal material dynamics during National Ignition Facility experiments; (4) A New Method to Track Viral Evolution - A sensitive technique developed at the Laboratory can identify virus mutations that may jump from host to host; and (5) Data for Defense: New Software Finds It Fast - Department of Defense warfighters and planners are using Livermore software systems to extract pertinent information from massive amounts of data.

  13. Science& Technology Review November 2003

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, D

    2003-11-01

    This issue of Science & Technology Review covers the following topics: (1) We Will Always Need Basic Science--Commentary by Tomas Diaz de la Rubia; (2) When Semiconductors Go Nano--experiments and computer simulations reveal some surprising behavior of semiconductors at the nanoscale; (3) Retinal Prosthesis Provides Hope for Restoring Sight--A microelectrode array is being developed for a retinal prosthesis; (4) Maglev on the Development Track for Urban Transportation--Inductrack, a Livermore concept to levitate train cars using permanent magnets, will be demonstrated on a 120-meter-long test track; and (5) Power Plant on a Chip Moves Closer to Reality--Laboratory-designed fuel processor gives power boost to dime-size fuel cell.

  14. Science and Technology Review December 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Bearinger, J P

    2009-11-17

    This month's issue has the following articles: (1) Advanced Materials for Our Past, Present, and Future - Commentary by Tomas Diaz de la Rubia; (2) A Defensive 'Coat' for Materials under Attack - Amorphous metal coatings provide the strength and corrosion resistance needed to protect military vessels and spent nuclear fuel containers; (3) Too Close for Comfort - Laboratory scientists are analyzing the feasibility of using nuclear explosives to disrupt or divert asteroids on a collision course with Earth; (4) Hyperion: A Titan of High-Performance Computing Systems - Livermore is collaborating with 10 computing industry leaders to create a test bed for Linux cluster hardware and software technologies; (5) Isolating Pathogens for Speedy Identification - An automated miniature device separates viruses, bacteria, genetic material, and proteins from nasal swabs and blood and urine samples for speedy identification.

  15. Local-field correction to the spontaneous decay rate of atoms embedded in bodies of finite size

    SciTech Connect

    Ho Trung Dung; Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi; Welsch, Dirk-Gunnar

    2006-08-15

    The influence of the size and shape of a dispersing and absorbing dielectric body on the local-field-corrected spontaneous decay of an excited atom embedded in a body is studied on the basis of the real-cavity model. By means of a Born expansion of the Green tensor of the system it is shown that to linear order in the susceptibility of the body the decay rate exactly follows Tomas's formula found for the special case of an atom at the center of a homogeneous dielectric sphere [Phys. Rev. A 63, 053811 (2001)]. It is further shown that for an atom situated at the interior of an arbitrary dielectric body this formula remains valid beyond linear order. The case of an atom embedded in a weakly polarizable sphere is discussed in detail.

  16. A 18^th century thermometer recipe: The begin of experimental physics courses in Guadalajara, M'exico?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Alba Martinez, Durruty Jesus

    2007-03-01

    As a part of the Special Funds Collection of the Jalisco's State Public Library ``Juan Jos'e Arreola'' is a physics course manuscript attributed to Francisco Javier Clavigero s.j. (1731-1787), teacher at the Jesuit Colegio de Santo Tom'as (a college-level institution in Guadalajara before the university opening), inside of the vellum bounded volume is a unbounded folio containing instructions on how to build a thermometer. In this work are discussed some evidences of the belonging of such folio to the manuscript in spite of their differences (it is written in Spanish not in Latin as the whole), we also describe the process to construct the thermometer and how could be the experimental part of the physics course. Also is briefly exposed the importance of the educational role of Clavigero as a builder of the concept of mexicanity.

  17. Importance of Viscoelastic Property Measurement of a New Hydrogel for Health Care

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Niladri; Saha, Nabanita; Kitano, Takeshi; Saha, Petr

    2009-07-01

    A simple technology based new hydrogel "PVP-CMC-BA" has been prepared by the scientists of Tomas Bata University in Zlin, Czech Republic. Its swelling property (in presence of water, human blood and different pH), antimicrobial property (in presence of skin infection causing agents like: Staphylococcus aureus; bacteria and Candida albicans; fungi) and viscoelastic properties such as storage modulus (G'), loss modulus (G") and complex viscosity (η*) were investigated at room temperature (25-28° C) which demonstrate that PVP-CMC-BA hydrogel is maintaining requisite properties for health care application, specially as a wound dressing material. The elasticity and antimicrobial property of PVP-CMC-BA is directly correlated with percentage of boric acid, an antiseptic agent. The consequential values of viscoelastic properties of the hydrogel (before drying) enable us to understand its specific flexible condition to apply on the surface of human body.

  18. Performance optimization of minimally nonlinear irreversible heat engines and refrigerators under a trade-off figure of merit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Rui; Liu, Zhichun; Liu, Wei

    2014-06-01

    A performance optimization for minimally nonlinear heat engines and refrigerators is conducted under an optimization criterion of Ω. The results show that under tight-coupling conditions, the efficiency and coefficient of performance (COP) bounds in asymmetric dissipation limits are the same as those obtained by de Tomas et al. [Phys. Rev. E 87, 012105 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevE.87.012105] for low dissipation heat devices. The efficiency bounds for heat engines under nontight-coupling conditions are also analyzed and the experimental results lie between theoretical results obtained under different coupling strengths. For refrigerators, the theoretical results are also in good agreement with some observed results. The efficiency and COP bounds under the Ω criterion are refined, which are closer to real heat engines and refrigerators.

  19. Science and Technology Review July/August 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Radousky, H B

    2006-05-25

    This month's issue has the following articles: (1) Experiments at the Scale of Simulations--Commentary by Tomas Diaz de la Rubia; (2) A New Realm of Materials Science--Livermore scientists are combining experiment, theory, and simulation to study the response of solids to extreme dynamic stresses at nanometer and subnanosecond scales; (3) Planets and Stars under the Magnifying Glass--An international collaboration involving Laboratory scientists has discovered a planet made of rock or ice orbiting a dim star outside our solar system; and (4) Keeping an Eye on the Prize--A Livermore-IBM team uses a new code and the world's fastest computer to set a performance record for a science application.

  20. Quantoons: Physics, Art, and Literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, Larry D.; Eisenkraft, A.

    2006-12-01

    Quantoons, a new NSTA publication, is a compilation of intricate, engaging, and sophisticated cartoons by noted MAD magazine and Garbage Pail Kid artist Tomas Bunk. These quantoons are accompanied by a literary quote as well as a description of a physics principle and a challenging physics problem and solution. People can appreciate physics through the cartoon, literary, or problem window. The cartoons and quotes provide a way to assess student learning or prior knowledge as presented in the classroom. The problems provide enhanced articulation of the physics principles. Many of these problem have been used in the International Physics Olympiad and will certainly be suitable for undergraduate and graduate students. All illustrations are accompanied by a description of the artist's conceptions and thoughts. A look into science through the creative mind of a non-science person helps us to see how our students can appreciate our science lessons in a novel way.

  1. Science & Technology Review March 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Radousky, H B

    2007-02-05

    This month's issue has the following articles: (1) Partnering to Enhance Americans Health--Commentary by Tomas Diaz de la Rubia; (2) Advancing the Frontiers in Cancer Research--Researchers at the University of California Davis Cancer Center and Lawrence Livermore are teaming up to fight cancer; (3) On the Leading Edge of Atmospheric Predictions--Continual research and development at the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center help mitigate the consequences of toxic airborne hazards; (4) Climate and Agriculture: Change Begets Change--A Livermore researcher is using computer models to explore how a warmer climate may affect crop yields in California; (5) New Routes to High Temperatures and Pressures--With functionally graded density impactors composed of thin metal and polyethylene films, researchers can explore new areas of experimental physics; and (6) From Sound Waves to Stars: Teller's Contributions to Shock Physics--Edward Teller's interest in shock physics led to significant developments in both basic and applied science.

  2. RELACIÓN MÉDICO PACIENTE: DERECHOS DEL ADULTO MAYOR

    PubMed Central

    Barrantes-Monge, Melba; Rodríguez, Eduardo; Lama, Alexis

    2009-01-01

    Existen prejuicios en relación con la vejez, incluso entre los profesionales que se dedican a la gerontología. Uno común y peligroso es considerar que los viejos son todos enfermos o discapacitados. La relación médico-paciente es la piedra angular de la práctica y ética médicas. Para alcanzar el respeto por los adultos mayores es necesaria una medicina prudente, basada en una práctica en la cual la reflexión ética y clínica pueda contribuir. Esto último es posible si se hacen valer los derechos del adulto mayor, en particular como paciente para la toma de decisiones. PMID:20379380

  3. Rhizoremediation of Trichloroethylene by a Recombinant, Root-Colonizing Pseudomonas fluorescens Strain Expressing Toluene ortho-Monooxygenase Constitutively

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Dennis C.; Maynard, Jennifer A.; Wood, Thomas K.

    1998-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) was removed from soils by using a wheat rhizosphere established by coating seeds with a recombinant, TCE-degrading Pseudomonas fluorescens strain that expresses the tomA+ (toluene o-monooxygenase) genes from Burkholderia cepacia PR123(TOM23C). A transposon integration vector was used to insert tomA+ into the chromosome of P. fluorescens 2-79, producing a stable strain that expressed constitutively the monooxygenase at a level of 1.1 nmol/min · mg of protein (initial TCE concentration, 10 μM, assuming that all of the TCE was in the liquid) for more than 280 cell generations (36 days). We also constructed a salicylate-inducible P. fluorescens strain that degraded TCE at an initial rate of 2.6 nmol/min · mg of protein in the presence of 10 μM TCE [cf. B. cepacia G4 PR123(TOM23C), which degraded TCE at an initial rate of 2.5 nmol/min · mg of protein]. A constitutive strain, P. fluorescens 2-79TOM, grew (maximum specific growth rate, 0.78 h−1) and colonized wheat (3 × 106 CFU/cm of root) as well as wild-type P. fluorescens 2-79 (maximum specific growth rate, 0.77 h−1; level of colonization, 4 × 106 CFU/cm of root). Rhizoremediation of TCE was demonstrated by using microcosms containing the constitutive monooxygenase-expressing microorganism, soil, and wheat. These closed microcosms degraded an average of 63% of the initial TCE in 4 days (20.6 nmol of TCE/day · plant), compared to the 9% of the initial TCE removed by negative controls consisting of microcosms containing wild-type P. fluorescens 2-79-inoculated wheat, uninoculated wheat, or sterile soil. PMID:9435067

  4. Weathering Rinds and Soil Development on Basaltic Andesite, Guadeloupe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sak, P. B.; Murphy, M.; Ma, L.; Engel, J.; Pereyra, Y.; Gaillardet, J.; Brantley, S. L.

    2014-12-01

    An oriented clast of basaltic andesite collected from the B horizon of a soil developed in a late Quaternary volcanoclastic debris flow on the eastern, windward side of Basse Terre Island, Guadeloupe exhibits weathering patterns like that observed in many clasts from tropical settings. The sample consists of unweathered core material overlain by a ~19 mm thick weathering rind and a narrow ≤ 2mm thick indurated horizon separating the outer portion of the rind from the overlying >10mm of soil matrix material. Elemental variations are constrained by a seven point bulk ICP-AES vertical transect extending from the core, across the rind and ~15 mm into the overlying soil matix and six parallel electron microprobe transections. The porous-hydrated fraction increases from the core to the rind to the surrounding soil from 7±4% to 45±18% to 60±15%, respectively. Like the well-studied clast from the nearby Bras David watershed (Sak et al., 2010) the isovolumetric transformation from core to rind material is marked by a narrow (< 1500 mm) reaction front and elemental depletion. The hierarchy of elemental loss across the core-rind boundary as characterized by open system mass balances varies in order Ca≈Na>Ba>K≈Mn>Mg>Si>Al≈P>Fe»Ti, consistent with the relative reactivity of phases in the clast from plagioclasepyroxeneglass>apatite>ilmenite. Unlike previously studied clasts, the preservation of the rind-soil interface permits characterization of weathering reactions between the weathering clast and surrounding soil matrix. The abrupt (<1000 μm wide) reaction front at the rind-soil interface is marked by the enrichment of Mn, Ba, Al, Mg and K. The enrichment trends may result from soil waters percolating through atmospherically depositioned dust within the upper few meters of the soil profile, as documented in a deep soil profile in the Bras David watershed. The lack of an enrichment signal within the weathering rind suggests that weathering processes active within

  5. Validating the regional hydrogeological models with stable isotope data in precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalvāns, Andis; Babre, Alise; Popovs, Konārds; Timuhins, Andrejs; Spalviņš, Aivars

    2016-04-01

    Modelling and Simulations (I.RE.MO.S.), Praise Worthy Prize, Naples, Italy, 8, pp. 266-276. Terzer, S., Wassenaar, L. I., Araguás-Araguás, L. J., Aggarwal, P. K., 2013. Global Isoscapes for δ18O and δ2H in Precipitation: Improved Prediction Using Regionalized Climatic Regression Models. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 17, pp. 4713-4728 Virbulis, J., Bethers U., Saks T., Sennikovs, J., Timuhins, A., 2013. Hydrogeological Model of the Baltic Artesian Basin. Hydrogeology Journal, 21, pp. 845-862

  6. Healthcare- and Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Fatal Pneumonia with Pediatric Deaths in Krasnoyarsk, Siberian Russia: Unique MRSA's Multiple Virulence Factors, Genome, and Stepwise Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Khokhlova, Olga E.; Hung, Wei-Chun; Wan, Tsai-Wen; Iwao, Yasuhisa; Takano, Tomomi; Higuchi, Wataru; Yachenko, Svetlana V.; Teplyakova, Olga V.; Kamshilova, Vera V.; Kotlovsky, Yuri V.; Nishiyama, Akihito; Reva, Ivan V.; Sidorenko, Sergey V.; Peryanova, Olga V.; Reva, Galina V.; Teng, Lee-Jene; Salmina, Alla B.; Yamamoto, Tatsuo

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a common multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogen. We herein discussed MRSA and its infections in Krasnoyarsk, Siberian Russia between 2007 and 2011. The incidence of MRSA in 3,662 subjects was 22.0% and 2.9% for healthcare- and community-associated MRSA (HA- and CA-MRSA), respectively. The 15-day mortality rates for MRSA hospital- and community-acquired pneumonia (HAP and CAP) were 6.5% and 50%, respectively. MRSA CAP cases included pediatric deaths; of the MRSA pneumonia episodes available, ≥27.3% were associated with bacteremia. Most cases of HA-MRSA examined exhibited ST239/spa3(t037)/SCCmecIII.1.1.2 (designated as ST239Kras), while all CA-MRSA cases examined were ST8/spa1(t008)/SCCmecIV.3.1.1(IVc) (designated as ST8Kras). ST239Kras and ST8Kras strongly expressed cytolytic peptide (phenol-soluble modulin α, PSMα; and δ-hemolysin, Hld) genes, similar to CA-MRSA. ST239Kras pneumonia may have been attributed to a unique set of multiple virulence factors (MVFs): toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1), elevated PSMα/Hld expression, α-hemolysin, the staphylococcal enterotoxin SEK/SEQ, the immune evasion factor SCIN/SAK, and collagen adhesin. Regarding ST8Kras, SEA was included in MVFs, some of which were common to ST239Kras. The ST239Kras (strain OC3) genome contained: a completely unique phage, φSa7-like (W), with no att repetition; S. aureus pathogenicity island SaPI2R, the first TSST-1 gene-positive (tst+) SaPI in the ST239 lineage; and a super copy of IS256 (≥22 copies/genome). ST239Kras carried the Brazilian SCCmecIII.1.1.2 and United Kingdom-type tst. ST239Kras and ST8Kras were MDR, with the same levofloxacin resistance mutations; small, but transmissible chloramphenicol resistance plasmids spread widely enough to not be ignored. These results suggest that novel MDR and MVF+ HA- and CA-MRSA (ST239Kras and ST8Kras) emerged in Siberian Russia (Krasnoyarsk) associated with fatal pneumonia, and also with ST

  7. North Central Thailand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This radar image shows the dramatic landscape in the Phang Hoei Range of north central Thailand, about 40 kilometers (25 miles) northeast of the city of Lom Sak. The plateau, shown in green to the left of center, is the area of Phu Kradung National Park. This plateau is a remnant of a once larger plateau, another portion of which is seen along the right side of the image. The plateaus have been dissected by water erosion over thousands of years. Forest areas appear green on the image; agricultural areas and settlements appear as red and blue. North is toward the lower right. The area shown is 38 by 50 kilometers (24 by 31 miles) and is centered at 16.96 degrees north latitude, 101.67 degrees east longitude. Colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted and horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted and vertically received; blue is C-band horizontally transmitted and vertically received. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture (SIR-C/X-SAR) imaging radar on October 3, 1994, when it flew aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR is a joint mission of the U.S./German and Italian space agencies.

    Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by

  8. Molecular characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in nosocomial infections in a tertiary-care facility: emergence of new clonal complexes in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Senok, A; Ehricht, R; Monecke, S; Al-Saedan, R; Somily, A

    2016-11-01

    Changes in the molecular epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) continue to be reported. This study was carried out to characterize MRSA isolates in Saudi Arabia. MRSA isolates causing nosocomial infections (n = 117) obtained from 2009-2015 at a tertiary-care facility in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, were studied. Molecular characterization of isolates was carried out using the StaphyType DNA microarray (Alere Technologies, Jena, Germany). Fourteen clonal complexes (CC) were identified, with the most common being CC80 (n = 35), CC6 (n = 15), CC5 (n = 13) and CC22 (n = 12). With the exception of nine ST239 MRSA-III isolates, all others were of community-associated MRSA lineages. The following strains are identified for the first time in Saudi Arabia: ST8-MRSA-IV [PVL(+)/ACME(+)], USA300 (n = 1); ST72-MRSA-IV USA700 (n = 1); CC5-MRSA-IV, [PVL(+)/edinA(+)], WA MRSA-121 (n = 1); CC5-MRSA-V+SCCfus, WA MRSA-14/109 (n = 2), CC97-MRSA-IV, WA MRSA-54/63; CC2250/2277-MRSA-IV and WA MRSA-114. CC15-MRSA (n = 3) was identified for the first time in clinical infection in Saudi Arabia. None of the isolates harboured vancomycin resistance genes, while genes for resistance to mupirocin and quaternary ammonium compounds were found in one and nine isolates respectively. Fifty-seven isolates (48.7%) were positive for Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes. While the staphylokinase (sak) and staphylococcal complement inhibitor (scn) genes were present in over 95% of the isolates, only 37.6% had the chemotaxis-inhibiting protein (chp) gene. Increasing occurrence of community-acquired MRSA lineages plus emergence of pandemic and rare MRSA strains is occurring in our setting. Strict infection control practices are important to limit the dissemination of these MRSA strains. PMID:27621823

  9. Healthcare- and Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Fatal Pneumonia with Pediatric Deaths in Krasnoyarsk, Siberian Russia: Unique MRSA's Multiple Virulence Factors, Genome, and Stepwise Evolution.

    PubMed

    Khokhlova, Olga E; Hung, Wei-Chun; Wan, Tsai-Wen; Iwao, Yasuhisa; Takano, Tomomi; Higuchi, Wataru; Yachenko, Svetlana V; Teplyakova, Olga V; Kamshilova, Vera V; Kotlovsky, Yuri V; Nishiyama, Akihito; Reva, Ivan V; Sidorenko, Sergey V; Peryanova, Olga V; Reva, Galina V; Teng, Lee-Jene; Salmina, Alla B; Yamamoto, Tatsuo

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a common multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogen. We herein discussed MRSA and its infections in Krasnoyarsk, Siberian Russia between 2007 and 2011. The incidence of MRSA in 3,662 subjects was 22.0% and 2.9% for healthcare- and community-associated MRSA (HA- and CA-MRSA), respectively. The 15-day mortality rates for MRSA hospital- and community-acquired pneumonia (HAP and CAP) were 6.5% and 50%, respectively. MRSA CAP cases included pediatric deaths; of the MRSA pneumonia episodes available, ≥27.3% were associated with bacteremia. Most cases of HA-MRSA examined exhibited ST239/spa3(t037)/SCCmecIII.1.1.2 (designated as ST239Kras), while all CA-MRSA cases examined were ST8/spa1(t008)/SCCmecIV.3.1.1(IVc) (designated as ST8Kras). ST239Kras and ST8Kras strongly expressed cytolytic peptide (phenol-soluble modulin α, PSMα; and δ-hemolysin, Hld) genes, similar to CA-MRSA. ST239Kras pneumonia may have been attributed to a unique set of multiple virulence factors (MVFs): toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1), elevated PSMα/Hld expression, α-hemolysin, the staphylococcal enterotoxin SEK/SEQ, the immune evasion factor SCIN/SAK, and collagen adhesin. Regarding ST8Kras, SEA was included in MVFs, some of which were common to ST239Kras. The ST239Kras (strain OC3) genome contained: a completely unique phage, φSa7-like (W), with no att repetition; S. aureus pathogenicity island SaPI2R, the first TSST-1 gene-positive (tst+) SaPI in the ST239 lineage; and a super copy of IS256 (≥22 copies/genome). ST239Kras carried the Brazilian SCCmecIII.1.1.2 and United Kingdom-type tst. ST239Kras and ST8Kras were MDR, with the same levofloxacin resistance mutations; small, but transmissible chloramphenicol resistance plasmids spread widely enough to not be ignored. These results suggest that novel MDR and MVF+ HA- and CA-MRSA (ST239Kras and ST8Kras) emerged in Siberian Russia (Krasnoyarsk) associated with fatal pneumonia, and also with ST

  10. A Livestock-Associated, Multidrug-Resistant, Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Clonal Complex 97 Lineage Spreading in Dairy Cattle and Pigs in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Feltrin, Fabiola; Alba, Patricia; Kraushaar, Britta; Ianzano, Angela; Argudín, María Angeles; Di Matteo, Paola; Porrero, María Concepción; Aarestrup, Frank M.; Butaye, Patrick; Franco, Alessia

    2015-01-01

    Pandemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clonal complex 97 (CC97) lineages originated from livestock-to-human host jumps. In recent years, CC97 has become one of the major MRSA lineages detected in Italian farmed animals. The aim of this study was to characterize and analyze differences in MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) mainly of swine and bovine origins. Forty-seven CC97 isolates, 35 MRSA isolates, and 6 MSSA isolates from different Italian pig and cattle holdings; 5 pig MRSA isolates from Germany; and 1 human MSSA isolate from Spain were characterized by macrorestriction pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, and antimicrobial resistance pattern analysis. Virulence and resistance genes were investigated by PCR and microarray analysis. Most of the isolates were of SCCmec type V (SCCmec V), except for two German MRSA isolates (SCCmec III). Five main clusters were identified by PFGE, with the German isolates (clusters I and II) showing 60.5% similarity with the Italian isolates, most of which (68.1%) grouped into cluster V. All CC97 isolates were Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) negative, and a few (n = 7) tested positive for sak or scn. All MRSA isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR), and the main features were erm(B)- or erm(C)-mediated (n = 18) macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance, vga(A)-mediated (n = 37) pleuromutilin resistance, fluoroquinolone resistance (n = 33), tet(K) in 32/37 tet(M)-positive isolates, and blaZ in almost all MRSA isolates. Few host-associated differences were detected among CC97 MRSA isolates: their extensive MDR nature in both pigs and dairy cattle may be a consequence of a spillback from pigs of a MRSA lineage that originated in cattle as MSSA and needs further investigation. Measures should be implemented at the farm level to prevent spillover to humans in intensive farming

  11. Gas geochemistry of the Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope: implications for gas hydrate exploration in the Arctic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorenson, T.D.; Collett, T.S.; Hunter, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    Gases were analyzed from well cuttings, core, gas hydrate, and formation tests at the BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, drilled within the Milne Point Unit, Alaska North Slope. The well penetrated a portion of the Eileen gas hydrate deposit, which overlies the more deeply buried Prudhoe Bay, Milne Point, West Sak, and Kuparuk River oil fields. Gas sources in the upper 200 m are predominantly from microbial sources (C1 isotopic compositions ranging from −86.4 to −80.6‰). The C1 isotopic composition becomes progressively enriched from 200 m to the top of the gas hydrate-bearing sands at 600 m. The tested gas hydrates occur in two primary intervals, units D and C, between 614.0 m and 664.7 m, containing a total of 29.3 m of gas hydrate-bearing sands. The hydrocarbon gases in cuttings and core samples from 604 to 914 m are composed of methane with very little ethane. The isotopic composition of the methane carbon ranges from −50.1 to −43.9‰ with several outliers, generally decreasing with depth. Gas samples collected by the Modular Formation Dynamics Testing (MDT) tool in the hydrate-bearing units were similarly composed mainly of methane, with up to 284 ppm ethane. The methane isotopic composition ranged from −48.2 to −48.0‰ in the C sand and from −48.4 to −46.6‰ in the D sand. Methane hydrogen isotopic composition ranged from −238 to −230‰, with slightly more depleted values in the deeper C sand. These results are consistent with the concept that the Eileen gas hydrates contain a mixture of deep-sourced, microbially biodegraded thermogenic gas, with lesser amounts of thermogenic oil-associated gas, and coal gas. Thermal gases are likely sourced from existing oil and gas accumulations that have migrated up-dip and/or up-fault and formed gas hydrate in response to climate cooling with permafrost formation.

  12. Response regulators SrrA and SskA are central components of a phosphorelay system involved in stress signal transduction and asexual sporulation in Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Pérez, Itzel; Sánchez, Olivia; Kawasaki, Laura; Georgellis, Dimitris; Aguirre, Jesús

    2007-09-01

    Among eukaryotes, only slime molds, fungi, and plants contain signal transduction phosphorelay systems. In filamentous fungi, multiple sensor kinases appear to use a single histidine-containing phosphotransfer (HPt) protein to relay signals to two response regulators (RR). In Aspergillus nidulans, the RR SskA mediates activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase SakA in response to osmotic and oxidative stress, whereas the functions of the RR SrrA were unknown. We used a genetic approach to characterize the srrA gene as a new member of the skn7/prr1 family and to analyze the roles of SrrA in the phosphorelay system composed of the RR SskA, the HPt protein YpdA, and the sensor kinase NikA. While mutants lacking the HPt protein YpdA are unviable, mutants lacking SskA (DeltasskA), SrrA (DeltasrrA), or both RR (DeltasrrA DeltasskA) are viable and differentially affected in osmotic and oxidative stress responses. Both RR are involved in osmostress resistance, but DeltasskA mutants are more sensitive to this stress, and only SrrA is required for H(2)O(2) resistance and H(2)O(2)-mediated induction of catalase CatB. In contrast, both RR are individually required for fungicide sensitivity and calcofluor resistance and for normal sporulation and conidiospore viability. The DeltasrrA and DeltasskA sporulation defects appear to be related to decreased mRNA levels of the key sporulation gene brlA. In contrast, conidiospore viability defects do not correlate with the activity of the spore-specific catalase CatA. Our results support a model in which NikA acts upstream of SrrA and SskA to transmit fungicide signals and to regulate asexual sporulation and conidiospore viability. In contrast, NikA appears dispensable for osmotic and oxidative stress signaling. These results highlight important differences in stress signal transmission among fungi and define a phosphorelay system involved in oxidative and osmotic stress, cell wall maintenance, fungicide sensitivity, asexual

  13. Time Variation of Seismic Anisotropy, Stress and Cracks on Active Volcanoes (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, M. K.

    2013-12-01

    We summarize measurements of seismic anisotropy and its relation to other geophysical measurements of stress and cracks on eleven active volcanoes; Unzen (Unz), Sakurajima (Sak), Aso, Asama (Asm) and Kirishima (Kir) in Japan; Okmok (Okm) in Alaska, Ruapehu (Rua) and Tongariro (Ton) in New Zealand, Soufriere Hills (Sou) in Montserrat, Kilauea (Kil) in Hawaii and Piton de la Fournaise (PdF) in La Reunion. We used the MFAST shear wave splitting computer code, an objective code that is fully automatic except for the S arrival pick. Fast polarization directions (phi) should be parallel to cracks and hence the maximum horizontal stress direction. Time delays (dt) increase with path length and percent anisotropy, usually related to crack density. Where possible we used S waves from deep earthquakes to ensure that the movement of the earthquakes was not correlated with the volcanic activity. At some volcanoes we used families of repeating events with similar waveforms and at most volcanoes we also computed splitting at earthquakes local to the volcano. We compared the phi and dt variation in time to eruption occurrences and to other available parameters including seismicity rate, b-values, focal mechanisms, isotropic velocity changes from noise cross-correlation, Vp/Vs ratios, Geodetic measurements such as GPS and tilt, and gas flux. All volcanoes had some stations with excellent shear wave arrivals that yielded measureable splitting. Individual measurements showed scatter in most areas, but at most of the volcanoes, moving averages of phi or dt (or both) yielded time variations that correlated with other measurements related to volcanic activity or to stress changes or changes in crack-filling material such as gas flux. The multiplet studies did not yield slowly varying splitting but instead showed distinct jumps in splitting parameters at various times, which appears to be caused in part by cycle skipping. Time resolution of changes depends on the seismicity available

  14. Phase Behavior, Solid Organic Precipitation, and Mobility Characterization Studies in Support of Enhanced Heavy Oil Recovery on the Alaska North Slope

    SciTech Connect

    Shirish Patil; Abhijit Dandekar; Santanu Khataniar

    2008-12-31

    amount of geographically diverse data, it is not possible to develop a comprehensive predictive model. Based on the comprehensive phase behavior analysis of Alaska North Slope crude oil, a reservoir simulation study was carried out to evaluate the performance of a gas injection enhanced oil recovery technique for the West Sak reservoir. It was found that a definite increase in viscous oil production can be obtained by selecting the proper injectant gas and by optimizing reservoir operating parameters. A comparative analysis is provided, which helps in the decision-making process.

  15. Antifungal activity of redox-active benzaldehydes that target cellular antioxidation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Disruption of cellular antioxidation systems should be an effective method for control of fungal pathogens. Such disruption can be achieved with redox-active compounds. Natural phenolic compounds can serve as potent redox cyclers that inhibit microbial growth through destabilization of cellular redox homeostasis and/or antioxidation systems. The aim of this study was to identify benzaldehydes that disrupt the fungal antioxidation system. These compounds could then function as chemosensitizing agents in concert with conventional drugs or fungicides to improve antifungal efficacy. Methods Benzaldehydes were tested as natural antifungal agents against strains of Aspergillus fumigatus, A. flavus, A. terreus and Penicillium expansum, fungi that are causative agents of human invasive aspergillosis and/or are mycotoxigenic. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was also used as a model system for identifying gene targets of benzaldehydes. The efficacy of screened compounds as effective chemosensitizers or as antifungal agents in formulations was tested with methods outlined by the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Results Several benzaldehydes are identified having potent antifungal activity. Structure-activity analysis reveals that antifungal activity increases by the presence of an ortho-hydroxyl group in the aromatic ring. Use of deletion mutants in the oxidative stress-response pathway of S. cerevisiae (sod1Δ, sod2Δ, glr1Δ) and two mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) mutants of A. fumigatus (sakAΔ, mpkCΔ), indicates antifungal activity of the benzaldehydes is through disruption of cellular antioxidation. Certain benzaldehydes, in combination with phenylpyrroles, overcome tolerance of A. fumigatus MAPK mutants to this agent and/or increase sensitivity of fungal pathogens to mitochondrial respiration inhibitory agents. Synergistic chemosensitization greatly lowers minimum inhibitory (MIC) or fungicidal (MFC) concentrations. Effective

  16. Transformation of Resources to Reserves: Next Generation Heavy-Oil Recovery Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Stanford University; Department of Energy Resources Engineering Green Earth Sciences

    2007-09-30

    crude oil. A significant number of laboratory-scale tests were made to evaluate the solution gas drive potential of West Sak (AK) viscous oil. The West Sak sample has a low acid number, low asphaltene content, and does not appear foamy under laboratory conditions. Tests show primary recovery of about 22% of the original oil in place under a variety of conditions. The acid number of other Alaskan North Slope samples tests is greater, indicating a greater potential for recovery by heavy-oil solution gas drive. Effective cold production leads to reservoir pressure depletion that eases the implementation of thermal recovery processes. When viewed from a reservoir perspective, thermal recovery is the enhanced recovery method of choice for viscous and heavy oils because of the significant viscosity reduction that accompanies the heating of oil. One significant issue accompanying thermal recovery in cold environments is wellbore heat losses. Initial work on thermal recovery found that a technology base for delivering steam, other hot fluids, and electrical heat through cold subsurface environments, such as permafrost, was in place. No commercially available technologies are available, however. Nevertheless, the enabling technology of superinsulated wells appears to be realized. Thermal subtasks focused on a suite of enhanced recovery options tailored to various reservoir conditions. Generally, electrothermal, conventional steam-based, and thermal gravity drainage enhanced oil recovery techniques appear to be applicable to 'prime' Ugnu reservoir conditions to the extent that reservoir architecture and fluid conditions are modeled faithfully here. The extent of reservoir layering, vertical communication, and subsurface steam distribution are important factors affecting recovery. Distribution of steam throughout reservoir volume is a significant issue facing thermal recovery. Various activities addressed aspects of steam emplacement. Notably, hydraulic fracturing of horizontal

  17. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Molina Garrido, María José

    2016-01-01

    Cada vez es mayor el número de ancianos con diagnóstico de cáncer que acuden a las consultas de Oncología Médica. El proceso del envejecimiento y la gran variabilidad existente en la población geriátrica implican que, para hacer un abordaje adecuado del paciente, se deba considerar la edad fisiológica del anciano, y no su edad biológica. Para ello, es preciso hacer una evaluación somera, específica e individualizada a cada uno de los ancianos con diagnóstico de cáncer que acudan a nuestra consulta. La valoración geriátrica integral (VGI) es la herramienta clave que permite evaluarlos de forma adecuada, e incluso orienta la toma de decisiones "personalizada" en los ancianos con diagnóstico de cáncer. Dado que la VGI consume mucho tiempo en la consulta diaria, se están desarrollando distintas herramientas de cribado que permitan acortar la atención al paciente, al seleccionar aquellos ancianos que deban someterse a una VGI y aquellos en los que esta no sea necesaria. Se han publicado distintos modelos de VGI en la Oncogeriatría y se han desarrollado distintas herramientas de cribado de fragilidad; los más conocidos son el cuestionario Vulnerable Elders Survey-13 (VES-13) y el cuestionario G-8. En este artículo se hace una revisión acerca de la evidencia científica existente en cuanto a la atención y valoración del anciano oncológico, así como los distintos parámetros de los que se disponen para la toma de decisiones definitiva. Dichos datos reflejan el papel de la Oncogeriatría como la vía para ofrecer una atención global óptima a este grupo poblacional. PMID:27269217

  18. Voting Systems for Environmental Decisions

    PubMed Central

    BURGMAN, MARK A; REGAN, HELEN M; MAGUIRE, LYNN A; COLYVAN, MARK; JUSTUS, JAMES; MARTIN, TARA G; ROTHLEY, KRIS

    2014-01-01

    Voting systems aggregate preferences efficiently and are often used for deciding conservation priorities. Desirable characteristics of voting systems include transitivity, completeness, and Pareto optimality, among others. Voting systems that are common and potentially useful for environmental decision making include simple majority, approval, and preferential voting. Unfortunately, no voting system can guarantee an outcome, while also satisfying a range of very reasonable performance criteria. Furthermore, voting methods may be manipulated by decision makers and strategic voters if they have knowledge of the voting patterns and alliances of others in the voting populations. The difficult properties of voting systems arise in routine decision making when there are multiple criteria and management alternatives. Because each method has flaws, we do not endorse one method. Instead, we urge organizers to be transparent about the properties of proposed voting systems and to offer participants the opportunity to approve the voting system as part of the ground rules for operation of a group. Sistemas de Votación para Decisiones Ambientales Resumen Los sistemas de votación agregan preferencias eficientemente y muy seguido se usan para decidir prioridades de conservación. Las características deseables de un sistema de votación incluyen la transitividad, lo completo que sean y la optimalidad de Pareto, entre otras. Los sistemas de votación que son comunes y potencialmente útiles para la toma de decisiones ambientales incluyen simple mayoría, aprobación y votación preferencial. Desafortunadamente, ningún sistema de votación puede garantizar un resultado y a la vez satisfacer un rango de criterios de desempeño muy razonable. Además, los métodos de votación pueden manipularse por los que toman las decisiones y votantes estratégicos si tienen el conocimiento de los patrones de votación y de las alianzas entre miembros dentro de las poblaciones votantes. Las

  19. Eficacia de la detección sistemática de la gripe en las fronteras en los viajeros que llegan por vía aérea*

    PubMed Central

    Priest, Patricia C.; Jennings, Lance C.; Duncan, Alasdair R.; Brunton, Cheryl R.; Baker, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos. Se midieron los síntomas y la prevalencia de la gripe (también llamada influenza), así como la eficacia del mecanismo de detección sistemática basado en los síntomas y la temperatura para diagnosticar la gripe en viajeros internacionales que llegaban por vía aérea. Métodos. El presente estudio transversal recopiló datos de viajeros que llegaron al aeropuerto internacional de Christchurch (Nueva Zelandia) en el invierno del 2008 mediante un cuestionario de salud, medición de la temperatura y toma de muestras de las vías respiratorias. Resultados. De los viajeros, 15 976 (68%) entregaron los formularios completos. De ellos, 17% notificaron al menos un síntoma de gripe; los síntomas más comunes fueron rinorrea o congestión nasal (10%) y tos (8%). Se tomaron muestras de las vías respiratorias de 3 769 viajeros. La prevalencia estimada de la gripe fue de 1,1% (4% en las personas sintomáticas, 0,2% en las asintomáticas). La sensibilidad de los criterios de detección varió de 84% para “cualquier síntoma” a 3% para la fiebre de 37,8 °C o mayor. El valor predictivo positivo fue bajo para todos los criterios. Conclusiones. El método de detección sistemática en las fronteras mediante la autonotificación de síntomas y la toma de la temperatura presenta limitaciones para impedir que una gripe pandémica entre en un país. Basarse en criterios como “cualquier síntoma” o la tos haría que se investigara a varias personas no infectadas, mientras que algunas personas infectadas pasarían inadvertidas. Si se usaran criterios más específicos como la fiebre, la mayoría de las personas infectadas entrarían en el país a pesar del mecanismo de detección.

  20. Using Uranium-series isotopes to understand processes of rapid soil formation in tropical volcanic settings: an example from Basse-Terre, French Guadeloupe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lin

    2015-04-01

    Lin Ma1, Yvette Pereyra1, Peter B Sak2, Jerome Gaillardet3, Heather L Buss4 and Susan L Brantley5, (1) University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX, United States, (2) Dickinson College, Carlisle, PA, United States, (3) Institute de Physique d Globe Paris, Paris, France, (4) University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom, (5) Pennsylvania State University Main Campus, University Park, PA, United States Uranium-series isotopes fractionate during chemical weathering and their activity ratios can be used to determine timescales and rates of soil formation. Such soil formation rates provide important information to understand processes related to rapid soil formation in tropical volcanic settings, especially with respect to their fertility and erosion. Recent studies also highlighted the use of U-series isotopes to trace and quantify atmospheric inputs to surface soils. Such a process is particularly important in providing mineral nutrients to ecosystems in highly depleted soil systems such as the tropical soils. Here, we report U-series isotope compositions in thick soil profiles (>10 m) developed on andesitic pyroclastic flows in Basse-Terre Island of French Guadeloupe. Field observations have shown heterogeneity in color and texture in these thick profiles. However, major element chemistry and mineralogy show some general depth trends. The main minerals present throughout the soil profile are halloysite and gibbsite. Chemically immobile elements such as Al, Fe, and Ti show a depletion profile relative to Th while elements such as K, Mn, and Si show a partial depletion profile at depth. Mobile elements such as Ca, Mg, and Sr have undergone intensive weathering at depths, and an addition profile near the surface, most likely related to atmospheric inputs. (238U/232Th) activity ratios in one soil profile from the Brad David watershed in this study ranged from 0.374 to 1.696, while the (230Th/232Th) ratios ranged from 0.367 to 1.701. A decrease of (238U/232Th) in the

  1. CCII based fractional filters of different orders.

    PubMed

    Soltan, Ahmed; Radwan, Ahmed G; Soliman, Ahmed M

    2014-03-01

    This paper aims to generalize the design of continuous-time filters to the fractional domain with different orders and validates the theoretical results with two different CCII based filters. In particular, the proposed study introduces the generalized formulas for the previous fractional-order analysis of equal orders. The fractional-order filters enhance the design flexibility and prove that the integer-order performance is a very narrow subset from the fractional-order behavior due to the extra degrees of freedom. The general fundamentals of these filters are presented by calculating the maximum and minimum frequencies, the half power frequency and the right phase frequency which are considered a critical issue for the filter design. Different numerical solutions for the generalized fractional order low pass filters with two different fractional order elements are introduced and verified by the circuit simulations of two fractional-order filters: Kerwin-Huelsman-Newcomb (KHN) and Tow-Tomas CCII-based filters, showing great matching. PMID:25685483

  2. CCII based fractional filters of different orders

    PubMed Central

    Soltan, Ahmed; Radwan, Ahmed G.; Soliman, Ahmed M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to generalize the design of continuous-time filters to the fractional domain with different orders and validates the theoretical results with two different CCII based filters. In particular, the proposed study introduces the generalized formulas for the previous fractional-order analysis of equal orders. The fractional-order filters enhance the design flexibility and prove that the integer-order performance is a very narrow subset from the fractional-order behavior due to the extra degrees of freedom. The general fundamentals of these filters are presented by calculating the maximum and minimum frequencies, the half power frequency and the right phase frequency which are considered a critical issue for the filter design. Different numerical solutions for the generalized fractional order low pass filters with two different fractional order elements are introduced and verified by the circuit simulations of two fractional-order filters: Kerwin–Huelsman–Newcomb (KHN) and Tow-Tomas CCII-based filters, showing great matching. PMID:25685483

  3. PREFACE: HITES 2012: 'Horizons of Innovative Theories, Experiments, and Supercomputing in Nuclear Physics'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecht, K. T.

    2012-12-01

    This volume contains the contributions of the speakers of an international conference in honor of Jerry Draayer's 70th birthday, entitled 'Horizons of Innovative Theories, Experiments and Supercomputing in Nuclear Physics'. The list of contributors includes not only international experts in these fields, but also many former collaborators, former graduate students, and former postdoctoral fellows of Jerry Draayer, stressing innovative theories such as special symmetries and supercomputing, both of particular interest to Jerry. The organizers of the conference intended to honor Jerry Draayer not only for his seminal contributions in these fields, but also for his administrative skills at departmental, university, national and international level. Signed: Ted Hecht University of Michigan Conference photograph Scientific Advisory Committee Ani AprahamianUniversity of Notre Dame Baha BalantekinUniversity of Wisconsin Bruce BarrettUniversity of Arizona Umit CatalyurekOhio State Unversity David DeanOak Ridge National Laboratory Jutta Escher (Chair)Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Jorge HirschUNAM, Mexico David RoweUniversity of Toronto Brad Sherill & Michigan State University Joel TohlineLouisiana State University Edward ZganjarLousiana State University Organizing Committee Jeff BlackmonLouisiana State University Mark CaprioUniversity of Notre Dame Tomas DytrychLouisiana State University Ana GeorgievaINRNE, Bulgaria Kristina Launey (Co-chair)Louisiana State University Gabriella PopaOhio University Zanesville James Vary (Co-chair)Iowa State University Local Organizing Committee Laura LinhardtLouisiana State University Charlie RascoLouisiana State University Karen Richard (Coordinator)Louisiana State University

  4. The current state of eukaryotic DNA base damage and repair.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Nicholas C; Corbett, Anita H; Doetsch, Paul W

    2015-12-01

    DNA damage is a natural hazard of life. The most common DNA lesions are base, sugar, and single-strand break damage resulting from oxidation, alkylation, deamination, and spontaneous hydrolysis. If left unrepaired, such lesions can become fixed in the genome as permanent mutations. Thus, evolution has led to the creation of several highly conserved, partially redundant pathways to repair or mitigate the effects of DNA base damage. The biochemical mechanisms of these pathways have been well characterized and the impact of this work was recently highlighted by the selection of Tomas Lindahl, Aziz Sancar and Paul Modrich as the recipients of the 2015 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for their seminal work in defining DNA repair pathways. However, how these repair pathways are regulated and interconnected is still being elucidated. This review focuses on the classical base excision repair and strand incision pathways in eukaryotes, considering both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and humans, and extends to some important questions and challenges facing the field of DNA base damage repair. PMID:26519467

  5. Improving enzymatic production of diglycerides by engineering binary ionic liquid medium system.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zheng; Kahveci, Derya; Ozçelik, Beraat; Xu, Xuebing

    2009-10-01

    The tunable property of ionic liquids (ILs) offers tremendous opportunity to rethink the strategy of current efforts to resolve technical challenges that occurred in many production approaches. To establish an efficient glycerolysis approach for enzymatic production of diglycerides (DG), this work reported a novel concept to improve DG yield by applying a binary IL system that consisted of one IL with better DG production selectivity and another IL being able to achieve higher conversion of triglycerides (TG). The candidates for combination were determined by individually examining lipase-catalyzed glycerolysis in different ILs, as a result, promising ones are divided into two groups based on their reaction specificities. The effects of parametric variables were then preliminarily evaluated, following a further investigation of the reaction performance in different binary IL systems from cross-group combinations. The combination of TOMA.Tf(2)N/Ammoeng 102 was employed for optimization by Response Surface Methodology. Eighty to eighty-five percent (mol%) of oil conversion and up to 90% (mol%) of total DG yield (73%, wt%) were obtained, which are markedly higher than those previously reported. This work demonstrated the practical feasibility to couple the technical advantage (high TG conversion and high DG production selective in this work) of individual ILs into a binary system to over-perform the reaction. It is believed that binary IL system could be also applicable to other enzymatic reaction systems for establishment of more efficient reaction protocols. PMID:19426844

  6. Accurate state estimation from uncertain data and models: an application of data assimilation to mathematical models of human brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Data assimilation refers to methods for updating the state vector (initial condition) of a complex spatiotemporal model (such as a numerical weather model) by combining new observations with one or more prior forecasts. We consider the potential feasibility of this approach for making short-term (60-day) forecasts of the growth and spread of a malignant brain cancer (glioblastoma multiforme) in individual patient cases, where the observations are synthetic magnetic resonance images of a hypothetical tumor. Results We apply a modern state estimation algorithm (the Local Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter), previously developed for numerical weather prediction, to two different mathematical models of glioblastoma, taking into account likely errors in model parameters and measurement uncertainties in magnetic resonance imaging. The filter can accurately shadow the growth of a representative synthetic tumor for 360 days (six 60-day forecast/update cycles) in the presence of a moderate degree of systematic model error and measurement noise. Conclusions The mathematical methodology described here may prove useful for other modeling efforts in biology and oncology. An accurate forecast system for glioblastoma may prove useful in clinical settings for treatment planning and patient counseling. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Anthony Almudevar, Tomas Radivoyevitch, and Kristin Swanson (nominated by Georg Luebeck). PMID:22185645

  7. Pareto-based evolutionary algorithms for the calculation of transformation parameters and accuracy assessment of historical maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzano-Agugliaro, F.; San-Antonio-Gómez, C.; López, S.; Montoya, F. G.; Gil, C.

    2013-08-01

    When historical map data are compared with modern cartography, the old map coordinates must be transformed to the current system. However, historical data often exhibit heterogeneous quality. In calculating the transformation parameters between the historical and modern maps, it is often necessary to discard highly uncertain data. An optimal balance between the objectives of minimising the transformation error and eliminating as few points as possible can be achieved by generating a Pareto front of solutions using evolutionary genetic algorithms. The aim of this paper is to assess the performance of evolutionary algorithms in determining the accuracy of historical maps in regard to modern cartography. When applied to the 1787 Tomas Lopez map, the use of evolutionary algorithms reduces the linear error by 40% while eliminating only 2% of the data points. The main conclusion of this paper is that evolutionary algorithms provide a promising alternative for the transformation of historical map coordinates and determining the accuracy of historical maps in regard to modern cartography, particularly when the positional quality of the data points used cannot be assured.

  8. Salt-enhanced removal of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol from aqueous solutions by adsorption on activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ganggang; Bao, Zongbi; Zhang, Zhiguo; Xing, Huabin; Su, Baogen; Yang, Yiwen; Ren, Qilong

    2013-12-15

    2-Ethyl-1-hexanol has extensive industrial applications in solvent extraction, however, in view of its potential pollution to environment, the removal and recovery of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol is considered an essential step toward its sustainable use in the future. In this work, we report the removal of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol from aqueous solutions containing salts in high concentrations by adsorption on a coal-based activated carbon. Adsorption thermodynamics showed that the experimental isotherms were conformed well to the Langmuir equation. Also it was found that inorganic salts, i.e. MgCl2 and CaCl2 in high concentration significantly enhanced the adsorption capacity from 223 mg/g in the deionized water to 277 mg/g in a saline water. This phenomenon of adsorption enhancement could be ascribed to the salt-out effect. Kinetic analysis indicated that adsorption kinetics follows the pseudo-second-order equation and the adsorption rate constants increase with the salt concentration. The dynamic breakthrough volume and adsorbed amount of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol were significantly elevated when the salt is present in the water. The dynamic saturated adsorption amount increased from 218.3mg/g in the deionized water to 309.5mg/g in a salt lake brine. The Tomas model was well applied to predict the breakthrough curves and determine the characteristics parameters of the adsorption column. PMID:24144367

  9. The aerosol radiative effects of uncontrolled combustion of domestic waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodros, John K.; Cucinotta, Rachel; Ridley, David A.; Wiedinmyer, Christine; Pierce, Jeffrey R.

    2016-06-01

    Open, uncontrolled combustion of domestic waste is a potentially significant source of aerosol; however, this aerosol source is not generally included in many global emissions inventories. To provide a first estimate of the aerosol radiative impacts from domestic-waste combustion, we incorporate the Wiedinmyer et al. (2014) emissions inventory into GEOS-Chem-TOMAS, a global chemical-transport model with online aerosol microphysics. We find domestic-waste combustion increases global-mean black carbon and organic aerosol concentrations by 8 and 6 %, respectively, and by greater than 40 % in some regions. Due to uncertainties regarding aerosol optical properties, we estimate the globally averaged aerosol direct radiative effect to range from -5 to -20 mW m-2; however, this range increases from -40 to +4 mW m-2 when we consider uncertainties in emission mass and size distribution. In some regions with significant waste combustion, such as India and China, the aerosol direct radiative effect may exceed -0.4 W m-2. Similarly, we estimate a cloud-albedo aerosol indirect effect of -13 mW m-2, with a range of -4 to -49 mW m-2 due to emission uncertainties. In the regions with significant waste combustion, the cloud-albedo aerosol indirect effect may exceed -0.4 W m-2.

  10. The current state of eukaryotic DNA base damage and repair

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Nicholas C.; Corbett, Anita H.; Doetsch, Paul W.

    2015-01-01

    DNA damage is a natural hazard of life. The most common DNA lesions are base, sugar, and single-strand break damage resulting from oxidation, alkylation, deamination, and spontaneous hydrolysis. If left unrepaired, such lesions can become fixed in the genome as permanent mutations. Thus, evolution has led to the creation of several highly conserved, partially redundant pathways to repair or mitigate the effects of DNA base damage. The biochemical mechanisms of these pathways have been well characterized and the impact of this work was recently highlighted by the selection of Tomas Lindahl, Aziz Sancar and Paul Modrich as the recipients of the 2015 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for their seminal work in defining DNA repair pathways. However, how these repair pathways are regulated and interconnected is still being elucidated. This review focuses on the classical base excision repair and strand incision pathways in eukaryotes, considering both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and humans, and extends to some important questions and challenges facing the field of DNA base damage repair. PMID:26519467

  11. Lactancia Materna y VIH/SIDA

    PubMed Central

    Valeria Cortés, F.; Jaime Pérez, A.; Lilian Ferrer, L.; Rosina Cianelli, A.; Báltica Cabieses, V.

    2009-01-01

    Resumen VIH/SIDA es una pandemia que afecta a hombres, mujeres y niños, pero que presenta una tendencia hacia la feminización, afectando especialmente a mujeres jóvenes. Su consecuencia es el aumento de la transmisión vertical, durante el embarazo, parto o lactancia materna. Este estudio bibliográfico describe la relación entre VIH/SIDA y lactancia materna, explicitando factores que influyen en la elección de la modalidad de alimentación de madres viviendo con VIH/SIDA. Se describen causas de morbimortalidad infantil asociada y recomendaciones internacionales de lactancia en mujeres con VIH/SIDA. En un mundo globalizado con constantes migraciones poblacionales, estos resultados representan un llamado de atención para profesionales de salud quienes deben considerar factores sociales que influenciarán la toma de decisión de madres viviendo con VIH/SIDA al escoger la modalidad de lactancia. No sólo basta conocer el riesgo de transmisión vertical, sino que se debe tomar conciencia de aquellos factores dinámicos y específicos de cada comunidad. PMID:20046815

  12. Efecto del Programa de Entrenamiento “Manejo del Dolor” en la Documentación de Enfermería en el Expediente Electrónico

    PubMed Central

    Monsiváis, María Guadalupe Moreno; Guzmán, Ma. Guadalupe Interial; Flores, Paz Francisco Sauceda; Arreola, Leticia Vázquez

    2012-01-01

    Resumen En el presente trabajo se muestra la importancia de entrenar al personal de enfermería para mejorar la documentación en el expediente electrónico. Se eligió el manejo del dolor por ser un área prioritaria; una alta proporción de pacientes en período post operatorio cursa con dolor, por lo tanto, la documentación debe ser útil para la toma de decisiones clínicas. Se implementó un programa de entrenamiento denominado “Manejo del Dolor” dirigido al personal de enfermería. Se utilizó la tecnología de la información como herramienta para fortalecer el conocimiento con base en la revisión sistemática de la literatura; el personal de enfermería participante seleccionó la mejor evidencia; posteriormente se trabajó en la transferencia de este conocimiento a la práctica a través del diseño de un protocolo para el manejo del dolor. Se concluye que el conocimiento del manejo del dolor es fundamental para que enfermería documente con mayor precisión sus intervenciones. PMID:24199106

  13. Social and news media enable estimation of epidemiological patterns early in the 2010 Haitian cholera outbreak.

    PubMed

    Chunara, Rumi; Andrews, Jason R; Brownstein, John S

    2012-01-01

    During infectious disease outbreaks, data collected through health institutions and official reporting structures may not be available for weeks, hindering early epidemiologic assessment. By contrast, data from informal media are typically available in near real-time and could provide earlier estimates of epidemic dynamics. We assessed correlation of volume of cholera-related HealthMap news media reports, Twitter postings, and government cholera cases reported in the first 100 days of the 2010 Haitian cholera outbreak. Trends in volume of informal sources significantly correlated in time with official case data and was available up to 2 weeks earlier. Estimates of the reproductive number ranged from 1.54 to 6.89 (informal sources) and 1.27 to 3.72 (official sources) during the initial outbreak growth period, and 1.04 to 1.51 (informal) and 1.06 to 1.73 (official) when Hurricane Tomas afflicted Haiti. Informal data can be used complementarily with official data in an outbreak setting to get timely estimates of disease dynamics. PMID:22232449

  14. Two-species Coherent Transport Adiabatic passage and Quantum Gate implementation in an Optical Superlattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Kunal; Gajdacz, Miroslav; Opatrny, Tomas

    2011-05-01

    In an optical super-lattice of triple wells, containing two mutually interacting atom species in every cell, we show that one species (A) can be transported from the left well to the right well without ever significantly occupying the central well. This occurs simultaneously in every unit cell in the lattice. We demonstrate that this can be achieved with or without the presence of an atom of the second species (B) in the intermediate well of each cell, thereby allowing species-selective transport that avoids spatial overlap and direct interaction among the two species. Furthermore, by using optimal quantum control, we also demonstrate the lattice-wide parallel implementation of CNOT quantum gates in this configuration by using the presence or absence of an atom B in the central well of each cell as a control bit, and the localization of an atom A in the left well or the right well as the target bit. Supported by a NSF grant PHY-0970012 for Kunal Das, and a Czech Science Foundation grant P205/10/1657 for Tomas Opatrny.

  15. Scatterometer Observes Extratropical Transition of Pacific Typhoons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, W. Timothy; Tang, Wen-Qing; Dunbar, R. Scott

    1997-01-01

    From September 15 to 25, 1996, NASA's scatterometer (NSCAT) monitored the evolution of twin typhoons-Violet and Tom-as they moved north from the western tropical Pacific, acquiring features of mid-latitude storms. The typhoons developed frontal structures, increased asymmetry, and dry air was introduced into their cores. Violet hit Japan, causing death and destruction, and Tom merged with a mid-latitude trough and evolved into a large extratropical storm with gale-force winds. We understand relatively little about the extratropical transition of tropical cyclones because of the complex thermodynamics involved, but we do know that the mid-latitude storms resulting from tropical cyclones usually generate strong winds and heavy precipitation. Since the transition usually occurs over the ocean, few measurements have been made. The transition is a fascinating science problem, but it also has important economic consequences. The transition occurs over the busiest trans-ocean shipping lanes, and when the resulting storms hit land, they usually devastate populated areas. NSCAT was successfully launched into a near-polar, sunsynchronous orbit on the Japanese Advanced Earth Observing Satellite (ADEOS) in August 1996 from Tanegashima Space Center in Japan. NSCAT's six antennas send microwave pulses at a frequency of 14 GHz to the Earth's surface and measure the backscatter.

  16. Social and News Media Enable Estimation of Epidemiological Patterns Early in the 2010 Haitian Cholera Outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Chunara, Rumi; Andrews, Jason R.; Brownstein, John S.

    2012-01-01

    During infectious disease outbreaks, data collected through health institutions and official reporting structures may not be available for weeks, hindering early epidemiologic assessment. By contrast, data from informal media are typically available in near real-time and could provide earlier estimates of epidemic dynamics. We assessed correlation of volume of cholera-related HealthMap news media reports, Twitter postings, and government cholera cases reported in the first 100 days of the 2010 Haitian cholera outbreak. Trends in volume of informal sources significantly correlated in time with official case data and was available up to 2 weeks earlier. Estimates of the reproductive number ranged from 1.54 to 6.89 (informal sources) and 1.27 to 3.72 (official sources) during the initial outbreak growth period, and 1.04 to 1.51 (informal) and 1.06 to 1.73 (official) when Hurricane Tomas afflicted Haiti. Informal data can be used complementarily with official data in an outbreak setting to get timely estimates of disease dynamics. PMID:22232449

  17. Direct, immunological and molecular techniques for a fasciolosis survey in a rural area of San Luis, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Carnevale, Silvana; Cabrera, Marta Graciela; Cucher, Marcela Alejandra; di Risio, Cecilia Alicia; Malandrini, Jorge Bruno; Kamenetzky, Laura; Alazraqui, Marcio; Etchart, Cristina Beatriz; Pantano, María Laura; Velásquez, Jorge Néstor

    2013-10-01

    Fasciolosis is a zoonosis caused by the trematode Fasciola hepatica, prevalent in cattle, that is actually emerging as a cause of disease in humans. The goal of this work was to describe the characteristics of fasciolosis in arroyo El Juncal region, La Toma, San Luis province, Argentina. In order to get this objective, a transversal, quantitative study was carried out by a fieldwork that allowed the collection of data, human, animal, and environmental samples. The materials were processed by direct, immunological and/or molecular diagnostic techniques. According to the geographical characteristics and in presence of all the definitive and intermediate hosts, reservoirs, and sources of infection, it was possible to describe the persistence of fasciolosis in the area. The prevalence was 11.90 % in humans (by serology), 5.26 % in cattle (by coprological analysis) and 61.76 % in snails (by PCR). The situation that was found for this area indicates that any measure of intervention for the control of this zoonosis should be adopted by multidisciplinary teams. PMID:24431579

  18. XVII International Conference on the Use of Computers in Radiation Therapy (ICCR 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-03-01

    Verification, Risk assessment and IGRT • Trials, registries and more Each of the streams had its own theme editor and we would like to thank Peter Greer, Sarah Gulliford, Tomas Janssen, Joerg Lehmann and Peter Metcalfe and for their invaluable contributions. I believe we all shared the joy of reading the huge variety of manuscripts which reflect a dynamic field and a truly international authorship. All manuscripts have been peer reviewed by at least two independent referees. Still, proceedings are different from journal articles. The focus of the proceedings is on interest for others, novelty and creativity. While trying to ensure a common format to all contributions we have also aimed to maintain the style and approach of the individual authors. We would like to thank all authors and reviewers for their contribution to these ICCR proceedings. On behalf of the editorial team we would like to invite you to explore the proceedings and hope that you enjoy reading them as much as we did editing them. Yours sincerely Annette Haworth and Tomas Kron Editors, Proceedings of the 17th ICCR

  19. Representation of Nucleation Mode Microphysics in a Global Aerosol Model with Sectional Microphysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Y. H.; Pierce, J. R.; Adams, P. J.

    2013-01-01

    In models, nucleation mode (1 nmTOMAS) aerosol microphysics model running with the GISS GCM II-prime by varying its lowest diameter boundary: 1 nm, 3 nm, and 10 nm. The model with the 1 nm boundary simulates the nucleation mode particles with fully resolved microphysical processes, while the model with the 10 nm and 3 nm boundaries uses a nucleation mode dynamics parameterization to account for the growth of nucleated particles to 10 nm and 3 nm, respectively.We also investigate the impact of the time step for aerosol microphysical processes (a 10 min versus a 1 h time step) to aerosol number predictions in the TOMAS models with explicit dynamics for the nucleation mode particles (i.e., 3 nm and 1 nm boundary). The model with the explicit microphysics (i.e., 1 nm boundary) with the 10 min time step is used as a numerical benchmark simulation to estimate biases caused by varying the lower size cutoff and the time step. Different representations of the nucleation mode have a significant effect on the formation rate of particles larger than 10 nm from nucleated particles (J10) and the burdens and lifetimes of ultrafinemode (10 nm=Dp =70 nm) particles but have less impact on the burdens and lifetimes of CCN-sized particles. The models using parameterized microphysics (i.e., 10 nm and 3 nm boundaries) result in higher J10 and shorter coagulation lifetimes of ultrafine-mode particles than the model with explicit dynamics (i.e., 1 nm boundary). The spatial distributions of CN10 (Dp =10 nm) and CCN(0.2 %) (i.e., CCN concentrations at 0.2%supersaturation) are moderately affected, especially CN10 predictions above 700 h

  20. Fe-dominated samarskite - a new member of the samarskite 'group'?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolescu, S.; Davis, F. E.; Cornell, D.; Eckert, J., Jr.; Bojar, H.; Walter, F.; Luzik, E.

    2013-12-01

    Davis and Nicolescu (2011) alluded to the fact that Fe-dominated samarskite from the pegmatite at the Spinelli prospect in Glastonbury, CT is a potential new member of the samarskite mineral 'group'. Further work on untreated material from the same occurrence confirms Fe dominance at the A site, and based on 29 microprobe and four LA-ICP-MS analyses the following empirical formula is obtained: (Fe3+0.384[Y0.239Dy0.026Gd0.018Sm0.012Nd0.007Er0.006Tb0.005Yb0.005Ho0.003Ce0.003Pr0.001Tm0.001]Σ0.326U0.090Mn0.052Th0.047Ti0.033Ca0.009Pb0.006Mg0.003Al0.003Si0.001Sc0.001)0.956(Nb0.814Ta0.149Sn0.026W0.019)1.007O4. The corresponding simplified formula is (Fe3+,Y,U,REE)(Nb,Ta)O4. Due to its UO2 and ThO2 content (9.12 and 4.67 wt. %, respectively) and age of ~ 260 Ma, Spinelli prospect samarskite is completely metamict. Literature data (Simmons et al., 2006 and references therein) suggest that annealing metamict samarskite in a slightly reducing atmosphere of 95 % Ar - 5 % H2 for 12 hrs. at 1100° C will result in recrystallized samarskite. Repeated experiments conducted on powdered Spinelli prospect material under these conditions, at gas flow rates of 100 cm3/min. and 200 cm3/min., resulted in sintered material composed of an ill-defined mixture of fergusonite, columbite, possible samarskite and an unidentified phase. Moreover, in each of the 1100° C annealing experiments a black radioactive sublimate was deposited at the cold end of the annealing apparatus, suggesting significant changes in the chemistry of the annealed material. Annealing the powdered metamict phase for 21 hrs. at 650° C (Tomašić et al., 2004) in a 95 % Ar - 5 % H2 atmosphere at a flow rate of 100 cm3/min. resulted in a mineral phase yielding broad X-ray diffraction peaks, especially at elevated diffraction angles. Because of the broad diffraction peaks and one ambiguous peak impossible to index, attempts to calculate the unit cell parameters of the annealed phase were unsuccessful for either monoclinic

  1. Causal production of the electromagnetic energy flux and role of the negative energies in the Blandford-Znajek process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toma, Kenji; Takahara, Fumio

    2016-06-01

    The Blandford-Znajek process, the steady electromagnetic energy extraction from a rotating black hole (BH), is widely believed to work for driving relativistic jets in active galactic nuclei, gamma-ray bursts, and Galactic microquasars, although it is still under debate how the Poynting flux is causally produced and how the rotational energy of the BH is reduced. We generically discuss the Kerr BH magnetosphere filled with a collisionless plasma screening the electric field along the magnetic field, extending the arguments of Komissarov [S. S. Komissarov, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 50, 427 (2004)] and our previous [K. Toma and F. Takahara, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 442, 2855 (2014)] paper, and propose a new picture for resolving the issues. For the magnetic field lines threading the equatorial plane in the ergosphere, we find that the inflow of particles with negative energy as measured in the coordinate basis is generated near that plane as a feedback from the Poynting flux production, which appears to be a similar process to the mechanical Penrose process. For the field lines threading the event horizon, we first show that the concept of the steady inflow of negative electromagnetic energy is not physically essential, partly because the sign of the electromagnetic energy density depends on the coordinates. Then we build an analytical toy model of a time-dependent process in both the Boyer-Lindquist and Kerr-Schild coordinate systems, in which the force-free plasma injected continuously fills a vacuum, and suggest that the structure of the steady outward Poynting flux is causally constructed by the displacement current and the cross-field current at the ingoing boundary between the plasma and the vacuum. In the steady state, the Poynting flux is maintained without any electromagnetic source.

  2. Role of atmospheric ammonia in particulate matter formation in Houston during summertime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Longwen; Lewicki, Rafał; Griffin, Robert J.; Tittel, Frank K.; Lonsdale, Chantelle R.; Stevens, Robin G.; Pierce, Jeffrey R.; Malloy, Quentin G. J.; Travis, Severin A.; Bobmanuel, Loliya M.; Lefer, Barry L.; Flynn, James H.

    2013-10-01

    Simultaneous high-time-resolution measurements of atmospheric NH3, HNO3, soluble gas-phase chloride, and aerosol species were made in Houston, TX, from August 5, 2010 to August 9, 2010. Gaseous NH3 was measured using a 10.4-μm external cavity quantum cascade laser-based sensor employing conventional photo-acoustic spectroscopy, while gaseous HNO3 and HCl were sampled using a mist chamber-ion chromatograph (IC) system. Particle chemical composition was determined using a particle-into-liquid-sampler-IC system. There was a large amount of variability in the gas phase mixing ratios of NH3 (3.0 ± 2.5 ppb), HNO3 (287.4 ± 291.6 ppt), and HCl (221.3 ± 260.7 ppt). Elevated NH3 levels occurred around mid-day when NH (0.5 ± 1.0 μg m-3) and SO (4.5 ± 4.3 μg m-3) also increased considerably, indicating that NH3 likely influenced aerosol particle mass. By contrast, the formation of NH4NO3 and NH4Cl was not observed during the measurements. Point sources (e.g., power plant and chemical plant) might be potential contributors to the enhancements in NH3 at the measurement site under favorable meteorological conditions. Increased particle number concentrations were predicted by the SAM-TOMAS model downwind of a large coal-fired power plant when NH3 emissions (based on these measurements) were included, highlighting the potential importance of NH3 with respect to particle number concentration. Separate measurements also indicate the role of NH3 in new particle formation in Houston under low-sulfur conditions.

  3. Assessment of the Microbiological Potential for the Natural Attenuation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in a Shallow Aquifer System.

    PubMed

    Stapleton; Sayler

    1998-11-01

    Abstract A multidisciplinary field study investigating the fate and transport of petroleum hydrocarbons commonly associated with jet-fuel contamination is currently underway at Columbus Air Force Base (AFB), Mississippi. Sixty sediment cores from 12 boreholes were recovered from the study aquifer. The goal of this initial sampling was to characterize the potential microbial activity using 14C-labeled substrates, as well as the presence, abundance, and distribution of specific hydrocarbon degrading genotypes using DNA:DNA hybridization. Enumeration of total microbial abundance using a 16S rDNA universal oligonucleotide probe was compared to traditional enumeration methods. Total culturable populations determined by spread plate analysis ranged from a low of 10(4) to more than 10(6) organisms per gram sediment. Microbial abundance estimated by DNA hybridization studies with 16S rDNA genes ranged from 10(7) to 10(8) organisms per gram sediment. Molecular analysis of aquifer samples using DNA probes targeting genes encoding the degradative enzymes alkane hydroxylase (alkB), catechol 2,3-dioxygenase (nahH), naphthalene dioxygenase (nahA), toluene dioxygenase (todC1C2), toluene monooxygenase (tomA), and xylene monooxygenase (xylA), as well as two probes measuring methanogenic microorganisms, codh (carbon monoxide dehydrogenase) and mcr (methyl coenzyme reductase), revealed that each target gene sequence was present in nearly all 60 samples. The presence of organisms demonstrating the phenotype to degrade BTEX and naphthalene was further supported using mineralization assays with 14C-labeled benzene, toluene, naphthalene, and phenanthrene. Minimal activity occurred during the first 24 hours. After a period of 5-7 days, greater than 40% of the target compounds were mineralized in aquifer sediments. PMID:9852514

  4. Aerosol size distribution and radiative forcing response to anthropogenically driven historical changes in biogenic secondary organic aerosol formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Andrea, S. D.; Acosta Navarro, J. C.; Farina, S. C.; Scott, C. E.; Rap, A.; Farmer, D. K.; Spracklen, D. V.; Riipinen, I.; Pierce, J. R.

    2015-03-01

    Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) have changed in the past millennium due to changes in land use, temperature, and CO2 concentrations. Recent reconstructions of BVOC emissions have predicted that global isoprene emissions have decreased, while monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions have increased; however, all three show regional variability due to competition between the various influencing factors. In this work, we use two modeled estimates of BVOC emissions from the years 1000 to 2000 to test the effect of anthropogenic changes to BVOC emissions on secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation, global aerosol size distributions, and radiative effects using the GEOS-Chem-TOMAS (Goddard Earth Observing System; TwO-Moment Aerosol Sectional) global aerosol microphysics model. With anthropogenic emissions (e.g., SO2, NOx, primary aerosols) turned off and BVOC emissions changed from year 1000 to year 2000 values, decreases in the number concentration of particles of size Dp > 80 nm (N80) of > 25% in year 2000 relative to year 1000 were predicted in regions with extensive land-use changes since year 1000 which led to regional increases in the combined aerosol radiative effect (direct and indirect) of > 0.5 W m-2 in these regions. We test the sensitivity of our results to BVOC emissions inventory, SOA yields, and the presence of anthropogenic emissions; however, the qualitative response of the model to historic BVOC changes remains the same in all cases. Accounting for these uncertainties, we estimate millennial changes in BVOC emissions cause a global mean direct effect of between +0.022 and +0.163 W m-2 and the global mean cloud-albedo aerosol indirect effect of between -0.008 and -0.056 W m-2. This change in aerosols, and the associated radiative forcing, could be a largely overlooked and important anthropogenic aerosol effect on regional climates.

  5. Aerosol Size Distribution Response to Anthropogenically Driven Historical Changes in Biogenic Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, J. R.; D'Andrea, S.; Acosta Navarro, J. C.; Farina, S.; Scott, C.; Farmer, D. K.; Spracklen, D. V.; Riipinen, I.

    2014-12-01

    Emissions of biological volatile organic compounds (BVOC) have changed in the past millennium due to changes in land use, temperature and CO2 concentrations. A recent model reconstruction of BVOC emissions over the past millennium predicted the changes in the three dominant secondary organic aerosol (SOA) producing BVOC classes (isoprene, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes). The reconstruction predicted that in global averages isoprene emissions have decreased (land-use changes to crop/grazing land dominate the reduction), while monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions have increased (temperature increases dominate the increases); however, all three show both increases and decreases in certain regions due to competition between the various influencing factors. These BVOC changes have largely been anthropogenic in nature, and land-use change was shown to have the most dramatic effect by decreasing isoprene emissions. We use these modeled estimates of these three dominant BVOC classes' emissions from the years 1000 to 2000 to test the effect of anthropogenic changes to BVOC emissions on SOA formation and global aerosol size distributions using the GEOS-Chem-TOMAS global aerosol microphysics model. With anthropogenic emissions (e.g. SO2, NOx, primary aerosols) held at present day values and BVOC emissions changed from year 1000 to year 2000 values, decreases in the number concentration of particles of size Dp > 80 nm (N80) of >25% in year 2000 relative to year 1000 were predicted in regions with extensive land-use changes since year 1000. This change in N80 was predominantly driven by a shift towards crop/grazing land that produces less BVOC than the natural vegetation. Similar sensitivities to year 1000 vs. year 2000 BVOC emissions exist when anthropogenic emissions are turned off. This large decrease in N80 could be a largely overlooked and important anthropogenic aerosol effect on regional climates.

  6. Integrating oral health into Haiti's National Health Plan: from disaster relief to sustainable development.

    PubMed

    Estupiñán-Day, Saskia; Lafontant, Christina; Acuña, Maria Cecilia

    2011-11-01

    In 2010, Haiti suffered three devastating national emergencies: a 7.0 magnitude earthquake that killed over 200 000 and injured 300 000; a cholera outbreak that challenged recovery efforts and caused more deaths; and Hurricane Tomas, which brought additional destruction. In the aftermath, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) reoriented its technical cooperation to face the myriad of new challenges and needs. Efforts included support and technical assistance to the Ministry of Health and Population of Haiti and coordination of actions by the United Nations Health Cluster. This Special Report focuses specifically on the PAHO Regional Oral Health Program's call to action in Haiti and the institutional partnerships that were developed to leverage resources for oral health during this critical time and beyond. To date, achievements include working with Haiti's private sector, dental schools, public health associations, and other stakeholders, via the Oral Health of Haiti (OHOH) Coalition. The OHOH aims to meet the immediate needs of the dental community and to rebuild the oral health component of the health system; to provide dental materials and supplies to oral health sites in affected areas; and to ensure that the "Basic Package of Health Services" includes specific interventions for oral health care and services. The experience in Haiti serves as a reminder to the international community of how important linking immediate/short-term disaster-response to mid- and longterm strategies is to building a health system that provides timely access to health services, including oral health. Haiti's humanitarian crisis became an important time to rethink the country's health system and services in terms of the right to health and the concepts of citizenship, solidarity, and sustainable development. PMID:22262276

  7. [Recent evolution of schistosomiasis in the water project of Sourou in Burkina Faso].

    PubMed

    Poda, J N; Wango, S P; Sorgho, H; Dianou, D

    2004-02-01

    In order to help the hydro-agricultural projects in the management of water resources together with a schistosomiasis control programme, it is important to evaluate the extent of the problem. This is the reason why parasitological and clinical surveys were conducted in schools associated with malacological surveys in transmission sites of several water projects including the one from Sourou. The data-collecting for the research on molluscs was carried out in surface water and as for parasitologic investigations on school-aged children, urine filtration and Kato-Katz were used to evaluate the parasitic load. The levels of prevalence were respectively in Guiédougou, Niassan, Di and Toma-île, in 2000, 60.5%, 40%, 48.8% and 51.9% for the urinary schistosomiasis, 5.3%, 0%, 6.9% and 50.6% for the intestinal schistosomiasis and in 2002, 56%, 51.9%, 51.6% and 43.4% for the urinary schistosomiasis, 10.1%, 8.2%, 22.7% and 90.8% for the intestinal schistosomiasis. The molluscs species collected and identified were: Biomphalaria pfeifferi for the intestinal schistosomiasis and Bulinus truncatus rohlfsi and B. senegalensis for the urinary schistosomiasis. B. senegalensis and B. truncatus were found naturally infested by S. haematobium. Water projects constitute amplifying factors of the proliferation of the species and parasitic exchange. All the actors (developers, populations, scientists) are questioning the means at their disposal to reduce the development of schistosomiasis which decrease the expected benefit of hydro-agricultural installations. PMID:15104151

  8. Separation of compounds with multiple -OH groups from dilute aqueous solutions via complexation with organoboronate

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, Tina Kuo Fung

    1992-05-01

    The complexing extractant agent investigated in this work is 3-nitrophenylboronic acid (NPBA) in its anionic form (NPB). NPBA and Aliquat 336 (quaternary amine) is dissolved in 2-ethyl-l-hexanol, and the extractant is contacted with aq. NaOH. Solutes investigated were 1,2-propanediol, glycerol, fructose, sorbitol and lactic acid. Batch extraction experiments were performed at 25{degree}C. Partition coefficients, distribution ratios and loadings are reported for varying concentrations of solute and NPB. All solutes complexed with NPB{sup {minus}}, with all complexes containing only one NPB{sup {minus}} per complex. The 1:1 complexation constants for the solutes glycerol, fructose and sorbitol follow trends similar to complexation with B(OH){sub 4}{sup {minus}} (aq.), i.e. the complexation constants increase with increasing number of {minus}OH groups available for complexation. Assumption of 1:1 complex is not valid for 1, 2-propanediol, which showed overloading (more than one mole of solute complexed to one mole NPB{sup {minus}}) at higher concentrations. The {minus}OH group on the NPB{sup {minus}} which is left uncomplexed after one solute molecule had bound to the other two {minus}OH groups may be responsible for the overloading. Overloading is also observed in extraction of tactic acid, but through a different mechanism. It was found that TOMA{sup +} can extract lactic acid to an extent comparable to the uptake of lactic acid by NPB{sup {minus}}. The complexation is probably through formation of an acid-base ion pair. Losses of NPBA into the aqueous phase could lead to problems, poor economics in industrial separation processes. One way of overcoming this problem would be to incorporate the NPBA onto a solid support.

  9. Separation of compounds with multiple -OH groups from dilute aqueous solutions via complexation with organoboronate. [1,2-propanediol

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, Tina Kuo Fung.

    1992-05-01

    The complexing extractant agent investigated in this work is 3-nitrophenylboronic acid (NPBA) in its anionic form (NPB). NPBA and Aliquat 336 (quaternary amine) is dissolved in 2-ethyl-l-hexanol, and the extractant is contacted with aq. NaOH. Solutes investigated were 1,2-propanediol, glycerol, fructose, sorbitol and lactic acid. Batch extraction experiments were performed at 25{degree}C. Partition coefficients, distribution ratios and loadings are reported for varying concentrations of solute and NPB. All solutes complexed with NPB{sup {minus}}, with all complexes containing only one NPB{sup {minus}} per complex. The 1:1 complexation constants for the solutes glycerol, fructose and sorbitol follow trends similar to complexation with B(OH){sub 4}{sup {minus}} (aq.), i.e. the complexation constants increase with increasing number of {minus}OH groups available for complexation. Assumption of 1:1 complex is not valid for 1, 2-propanediol, which showed overloading (more than one mole of solute complexed to one mole NPB{sup {minus}}) at higher concentrations. The {minus}OH group on the NPB{sup {minus}} which is left uncomplexed after one solute molecule had bound to the other two {minus}OH groups may be responsible for the overloading. Overloading is also observed in extraction of tactic acid, but through a different mechanism. It was found that TOMA{sup +} can extract lactic acid to an extent comparable to the uptake of lactic acid by NPB{sup {minus}}. The complexation is probably through formation of an acid-base ion pair. Losses of NPBA into the aqueous phase could lead to problems, poor economics in industrial separation processes. One way of overcoming this problem would be to incorporate the NPBA onto a solid support.

  10. Guadua zuloagae sp. nov., the First Petrified Bamboo Culm Record from the Ituzaingó Formation (Pliocene), Paraná Basin, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Brea, Mariana; Zucol, Alejandro F.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims The anatomical characterization and morphology of Guadua zuloagae nov. sp. (Poaceae–Bambusoideae) culm was determined. This material was collected at the Toma Vieja fossil locality, Paraná basin, Argentina. This fossil culm is the first record of Bambusoideae in sediments of the Pliocene from the Ituzaingó Formation. The studied specimen was compared with the taxa of the Bambusoideae sub-family, especially with the American woody bamboos and others taxa that have woody culms, including Arundo, Thysalonaena and Gynerium. Methods The material was preserved by siliceous cellular permineralization, and it was prepared for microscopic examination by surface polishing and thin sections. The morphology and anatomy of this new species were described. The estimated height, critical buckling height and safety factor were calculated on the basis of the fossil bamboo diameter using the formula of Niklas. The relationship and comparison with the nearest living relatives (NLRs) are discussed. Key Results Well-preserved petrified culm with internodes and nodes from the Pliocene of Argentina provides the basis for the description of a new fossil bamboo, Guadua zuloagae. The results of the anatomical analysis of the fossil bamboo showed a great affinity with the extant species Guadua angustifolia and constitute the first evidence of petrified bamboo culm. Conclusions The new fossil bamboo culm constitutes the only fossil record, preserved as permineralized by silicification, in the world. This fossil record indicates that the genus Guadua was more widespread in the past than today. Discovery of G. zuloagae allows the presence of a Bambusoideae understorey in the mixed forests described for the Ituzaingó Formation to be inferred. The climatic conditions inferred from fossil bamboo and sedimentary deposits indicate a temperate-warm, humid climate. PMID:17728337

  11. Floating into Deep Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Frenais, R.; Saraceno, T.; Powell, J.

    2014-04-01

    Is it possible for spaceflight to become more sustainable? Artist and architect Tomas Saraceno proposes a long-term artscience research project based on his initial work with solar balloons to join with the efforts of engineers such as John Powell, working on the Airship to Orbit experiments, which describe a three stage process of using airships to fly to a large suborbital "Dark Sky Station' then literally floating into orbit with additional electrical and chemical propulsion. (See: http://www.jpaerospace.com) In his artworks Tomás Saraceno proposes cell-like flying cities as possible architectonic living spaces in direct reference to Buckminster Fuller's Cloud Nine (circa 1960). The fantastic architectural utopia Cloud Nine consists of a freely floating sphere measuring one mile in diameter that offers living space to several autonomous communities encompassing thousands of inhabitants each. The notion of the cloud is essential to the artist's work. The cloud as metaphor stands for artistic intention, for the meaning of territory and border in today's (urban) society, and for exploring possibilities for the sustainable development of the human living environment. In Saraceno's work this environment is not limited to the earth, but is explicitly conceived to reach into outer space. (Biomimetic Constructions- On the works of Tomás Saraceno By Katharina Schlüter) Saraceno is also interested in human factors experiments using his existing constructions as analogue environments for living on Mars and is proposing carry out a series of workshops, experiments and solar balloon launces in White Sands desert in early 2016 in collaboration with the curator Dr Rob La Frenais, the Rubin Center at The University of Texas at El Paso and various scientific partners.

  12. Development of taste sensor system for differentiation of Indonesian herbal medicines

    SciTech Connect

    Kaltsum, U.; Triyana, K. Siswanta, D.

    2014-09-25

    In Indonesia, herbal medicines are usually produced by small and medium enterprises which are relatively low in quality control. The purpose of this paper is to report that we have developed a taste sensor system with global selectivity, i.e., electronic tongue (e-tongue) for differentiation of Indonesian herbal medicines. The e-tongue was composed of five kinds of ion selective electrodes as working electrodes, data acquisition system, and pattern recognition system. Each ion selective electrode (ISE) was built by attaching lipid/polymer membrane. For this purpose, the five kinds of membranes were built by mixing lipid, plasticizer (nitrophenyl octyl ether/NPOE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and tetrahydrofuran (THF). In this study, we employed five kinds of lipid, namely oleic acid (OA), dioctyl phosphate (DOP), decyl alcohol (DA), dodecylamine (DDC), and trioctyl methyl ammonium chloride (TOMA). In this case, the membranes transform information of taste substances into electric signal. The five kinds of Indonesian herbal medicine were purchased from local supermarket in Yogyakarta, i.e., kunyit asam (made from turmeric and tamarind), beras kencur (made from rice and kencur), jahe wangi (made from ginger and fragrance), sirih wangi (made from betel leaf), and temulawak (made from Javanese ginger). Prior to detecting the taste from the Indonesian herbal medicine samples, each ion selective electrode was tested with five basic taste samples, i.e., for saltiness, sweetness, umami, bitterness, and sourness. All ISEs showed global selectivity to all samples. Furthermore, the array of ISEs showed specific response pattern to each Indonesian herbal medicine. For pattern recognition system, we employed principle component analysis (PCA). As a result, the e-tongue was able to differentiate five kinds of Indonesian herbal medicines, proven by the total variance of first and second principle components is about 93%. For the future, the e-tongue may be developed for quality

  13. Development of taste sensor system for differentiation of Indonesian herbal medicines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaltsum, U.; Triyana, K.; Siswanta, D.

    2014-09-01

    In Indonesia, herbal medicines are usually produced by small and medium enterprises which are relatively low in quality control. The purpose of this paper is to report that we have developed a taste sensor system with global selectivity, i.e., electronic tongue (e-tongue) for differentiation of Indonesian herbal medicines. The e-tongue was composed of five kinds of ion selective electrodes as working electrodes, data acquisition system, and pattern recognition system. Each ion selective electrode (ISE) was built by attaching lipid/polymer membrane. For this purpose, the five kinds of membranes were built by mixing lipid, plasticizer (nitrophenyl octyl ether/NPOE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and tetrahydrofuran (THF). In this study, we employed five kinds of lipid, namely oleic acid (OA), dioctyl phosphate (DOP), decyl alcohol (DA), dodecylamine (DDC), and trioctyl methyl ammonium chloride (TOMA). In this case, the membranes transform information of taste substances into electric signal. The five kinds of Indonesian herbal medicine were purchased from local supermarket in Yogyakarta, i.e., kunyit asam (made from turmeric and tamarind), beras kencur (made from rice and kencur), jahe wangi (made from ginger and fragrance), sirih wangi (made from betel leaf), and temulawak (made from Javanese ginger). Prior to detecting the taste from the Indonesian herbal medicine samples, each ion selective electrode was tested with five basic taste samples, i.e., for saltiness, sweetness, umami, bitterness, and sourness. All ISEs showed global selectivity to all samples. Furthermore, the array of ISEs showed specific response pattern to each Indonesian herbal medicine. For pattern recognition system, we employed principle component analysis (PCA). As a result, the e-tongue was able to differentiate five kinds of Indonesian herbal medicines, proven by the total variance of first and second principle components is about 93%. For the future, the e-tongue may be developed for quality

  14. Effect of In-Plume Aerosol Processing on the Efficacy of Marine Cloud Albedo Enhancement from Controlled Sea-Spray Injections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, R. G.; Spracklen, D.; Korhonen, H.; Pierce, J. R.

    2010-12-01

    The intentional enhancement of cloud albedo via controlled sea-spray injection from ships has been suggested as a possible means to control anthropogenic global warming (1); however, there remains significant uncertainty in the efficacy of this method due to uncertainties in aerosol and cloud microphysics. Recent analysis showed that more sea-spray may be necessary than previously assumed to reach a desired cooling due to nonlinearities in the aerosol/cloud microphysics (2). A major assumption used in (2) is that all sea-spray was emitted uniformly into some oceanic grid boxes, and thus did not account for sub-grid aerosol microphysics within the sea-spray plumes. However, as a consequnce of the fast sea-spray injection rates which are proposed, in the order of 1x10^17 1/s (1), particle concentrations in these plumes may be quite high and particle coagulation may significantly reduce the number of emitted particles and increase their average size. Therefore, it is possible that the emissions necessary to reach a desired cooling may be even larger than currently assumed. We explore the processing of the freshly emitted sea-spray plumes in the Large-Eddy Simulation (LES)/Cloud Resolving Model (CRM) the System for Atmospheric Modelling (SAM, 3) with the online aerosol microphysics module TOMAS (4). We determine how the final number and size of particles (once well mixed with background air) depends on the emission rate and size distribution of the sea-spray plume and on the pre-existing aerosol concentrations and local atmospheric conditions. Finally, we make suggestions for effective size-resolved emissions for use in climate models. (1) Salter, S. et al., Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A., 2008. (2) Korhonen, H. et al., Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 4133-4143, 2010. (3) Khairoutdinov, M., and Randall, D.,. J. Atmos. Sci., 60, 607-625, 2003. (4) Pierce, J. and Adams, P., Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 1339-1356, 2009.

  15. Historical anthropogenic radiative forcing of changes in biogenic secondary aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta Navarro, Juan; D'Andrea, Stephen; Pierce, Jeffrey; Ekman, Annica; Struthers, Hamish; Zorita, Eduardo; Guenther, Alex; Arneth, Almut; Smolander, Sampo; Kaplan, Jed; Farina, Salvatore; Scott, Catherine; Rap, Alexandru; Farmer, Delphine; Spracklen, Domink; Riipinen, Ilona

    2016-04-01

    Human activities have lead to changes in the energy balance of the Earth and the global climate. Changes in atmospheric aerosols are the second largest contributor to climate change after greenhouse gases since 1750 A.D. Land-use practices and other environmental drivers have caused changes in the emission of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) well before 1750 A.D, possibly causing climate effects through aerosol-radiation and aerosol-cloud interactions. Two numerical emission models LPJ-GUESS and MEGAN were used to quantify the changes in aerosol forming BVOC emissions in the past millennium. A chemical transport model of the atmosphere (GEOS-Chem-TOMAS) was driven with those BVOC emissions to quantify the effects on radiation caused by millennial changes in SOA. We found that global isoprene emissions decreased after 1800 A.D. by about 12% - 15%. This decrease was dominated by losses of natural vegetation, whereas monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions increased by about 2% - 10%, driven mostly by rising surface air temperatures. From 1000 A.D. to 1800 A.D, isoprene, monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions decline by 3% - 8% driven by both, natural vegetation losses, and the moderate global cooling between the medieval climate anomaly and the little ice age. The millennial reduction in BVOC emissions lead to a 0.5% to 2% reduction in climatically relevant aerosol particles (> 80 nm) and cause a direct radiative forcing between +0.02 W/m² and +0.07 W/m², and an indirect radiative forcing between -0.02 W/m² and +0.02 W/m².

  16. Active Strike-Slip Faulting in the Inner Continental Borderland, Southern California: Results From New High-Resolution Seismic Reflection Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, J. E.; Ryan, H. F.; Sliter, R. W.

    2008-12-01

    The inner Continental Borderland offshore of southern California accommodates about 7 mm/yr of slip between the North American and Pacific plates. Nearly half of this total has previously been thought to be taken up on the Palos Verdes (PV) and Coronado Bank (CB) fault zones, which have been modeled as a single, continuous fault zone in recent seismic hazard assessments for southern California. Although these faults lie roughly on strike with each other, a connection between these faults has not been clearly demonstrated. Newly acquired high-resolution seismic reflection data indicate that the PV fault terminates southwest of Lasuen Knoll in a horsetail splay that becomes progressively buried to the south. The lack of a connection between the PV and CB fault zones implies that a significant amount of slip must be taken up elsewhere in the inner Continental Borderland. Two other significant offshore faults, the San Diego Trough (SDT) and San Pedro Basin (SPB) fault zones, lie about 10-15 km southwest of and sub parallel to the trace of the PV and CB faults. The SDT fault zone extends from south of the Mexican border near Punta Santo Tomas for about 150 km northward to near Crespi Knoll. The SPB fault zone extends northward from off Santa Catalina Island to near Point Dume. The new seismic reflection data reveal a previously unmapped but apparently active fault zone along strike and in the area between the known strands of the SDT and the SPB fault zones. This newly recognized fault links the SDT and SPB faults, forming a continuous, active fault zone that extends about 250 km along the inner Continental Borderland. Although there are no slip rate data available for this fault zone, its overall length, continuity, and active character suggest that a significant portion of the plate motion that occurs offshore is accommodated along the SDT-SPB fault zone, which may pose a more significant seismic hazard than previously recognized.

  17. The contribution of sub-grid, plume-scale nucleation to global and regional aerosol and CCN concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, R.; Pierce, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    New-particle formation in the plumes of coal-fired power plants and other anthropogenic sulphur sources may be an important source of particles in the atmosphere. It has been unclear, however, how best to reproduce this formation in global and regional aerosol models with grid-box lengths that are 10s of kilometres and larger. The predictive power of these models is thus limited by the resultant uncertainties in aerosol size distributions. Based on the results of the System for Atmospheric Modelling (SAM), a Large-Eddy Simulation/Cloud-Resolving Model (LES/CRM) with online TwO Moment Aerosol Sectional (TOMAS) microphysics, we develop the Predicting Particles Produced in Power-Plant Plumes (P6) parameterization: a computationally-efficient, but physically-based, parameterization that predicts the characteristics of aerosol formed within sulphur-rich plumes based on parameters commonly available in global- and regional-scale models. Given large-scale mean meteorological parameters, emissions from the source, the desired distance from the source, and the mean background SO2, NOx, and condensation sink, the parameterization will predict the fraction of the emitted SO2 that is oxidized to H2SO4, the fraction of that H2SO4 that forms new particles instead of condensing onto preexisting particles, the median diameter of the newly-formed particles, and the number of newly-formed particles per kilogram SO2 emitted. We implement the P6 parameterization in the GEOS-Chem global chemical-transport model in order to evaluate the contributions of coal-fired power plants globally to particle number and CCN concentrations.

  18. High resistance to pyrethroid insecticides associated with ineffective field treatments in Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) from Northern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Picollo, María Inés; Vassena, Claudia; Santo Orihuela, Pablo; Barrios, Silvia; Zaidemberg, Mario; Zerba, Eduardo

    2005-07-01

    Field populations of Triatoma infestans Klug were collected during 2002 from four villages in northern Argentina (El Chorro, La Toma, El Sauzal, and Salvador Mazza), after application of deltamethrin and other pyrethroids was ineffective. High levels of resistance to the pyrethroid insecticides deltamethrin, beta-cypermethrin, beta-cyfluthrin, and lambda-cyhalothrin were detected in all of the evaluated populations. The resistance ratio to pyrethroids determined by topical application ranged from 50.5 (deltamethrin, El Sauzal) to 667.6 (beta-cyfluthrin, Salvador Mazza). None of the pyrethroid-resistant insects was resistant to the organophosphorus insecticide fenitrothion. Topical application of piperonyl butoxide to the most deltamethrin-resistant population (Salvador Mazza) led to slight reduction in levels of resistance. Activity of P450 monooxygenase, measured in individual insects through ethoxycoumarine-O-deethylase, showed a slight but noticeable difference in the distribution of activities between susceptible and resistant populations. The total percentage of insects below 0.48 pmol of 7-OH coumarine/min/ insect was 36.4 for Salvador Mazza population and 64.3 pmol of 7-OH coumarine/min/insect for CIPEIN strain. Whereas a low level of resistance to deltamethrin was previously related to monooxygenase activity in T. infestans, the high levels of resistance shown by these populations seem to involve monooxygenase in combination with other resistance mechanisms, for example, insensitivity of nervous membrane. Research on T. infestans resistance is in progress to improve Chagas vector control programs in Latin America and to implement resistance management strategies. PMID:16119553

  19. Incentivizing Monitoring and Compliance in Trophy Hunting

    PubMed Central

    BUNNEFELD, NILS; EDWARDS, CHARLES T T; ATICKEM, ANAGAW; HAILU, FETENE; MILNER-GULLAND, E J

    2014-01-01

    enfocan más en los conductores del comportamiento humano y en las implicaciones de varias fuentes de incertidumbre en la toma de decisiones de manejo. La cacería de trofeos ha sido sugerida como una herramienta de conservación porque le otorga valor económico a la vida silvestre, pero ejemplos recientes muestran que la sobrecolecta es un problema sustancial y que las limitaciones de datos son abundantes. Usamos el estudio de caso de la cacería de trofeos de un antílope en peligro, el nyala de las montañas (Tragelaphus buxtoni), para explorar como las incertidumbres generadas por el monitoreo de poblaciones y el tráfico de especies interactúan con la toma de decisiones de 2 actores clave: las compañías de safari y el gobierno. Construimos un modelo de evaluación de estrategia de manejo que incluye la dinámica poblacional del nyala de las montañas, un modelo de monitoreo y un modelo de toma de decisiones de una compañía. Investigamos escenarios de inversión en el combate del tráfico de especies y el monitoreo por el gobierno y las compañías de safari. La estrategia de colecta fue robusta hacia la incertidumbre en los estimados de población obtenidos del monitoreo, pero el tráfico de especies tuvo un efecto más fuerte sobre la cuota y la sustentabilidad; por esto, reducir el tráfico de especies está dentro de los intereses de compañías que desean incrementar la rentabilidad de las empresas, por ejemplo al hacer participar a los miembros de la comunidad como guías de caza. Hay un nivel umbral de incertidumbre en los estimados de población más allá del cual la variación anual en la cuota de trofeos previene la planeación por parte de las compañías de safari. Esto sugiere un papel para el gobierno asegurando que un nivel base de monitoreo de población se lleve a cabo para que este nivel no sea excedido. Nuestros resultados ilustran la importancia de considerar los incentivos de partes interes

  20. What makes Aspergillus fumigatus a successful pathogen? Genes and molecules involved in invasive aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Abad, Ana; Fernández-Molina, Jimena Victoria; Bikandi, Joseba; Ramírez, Andoni; Margareto, Javier; Sendino, Javier; Hernando, Fernando Luis; Pontón, Jose; Garaizar, Javier; Rementeria, Aitor

    2010-01-01

    -C, fumitremorgin A-C, verruculogen, fumagillin, helvolic acid, aflatoxin B1 and G1, and laeA. Two sections cover genes and molecules related with nutrient uptake, signaling and metabolic regulations involved in virulence, including enzymes, such as serine proteases (alp/asp f 13, alp2, and asp f 18), metalloproteases (mep/asp f 5, mepB, and mep20), aspartic proteases (pep/asp f 10, pep2, and ctsD), dipeptidylpeptidases (dppIV and dppV), and phospholipases (plb1-3 and phospholipase C); siderophores and iron acquisition (sidA-G, sreA, ftrA, fetC, mirB-C, and amcA); zinc acquisition (zrfA-H, zafA, and pacC); amino acid biosynthesis, nitrogen uptake, and cross-pathways control (areA, rhbA, mcsA, lysF, cpcA/gcn4p, and cpcC/gcn2p); general biosynthetic pathway (pyrG, hcsA, and pabaA), trehalose biosynthesis (tpsA and tpsB), and other regulation pathways such as those of the MAP kinases (sakA/hogA, mpkA-C, ste7, pbs2, mkk2, steC/ste11, bck1, ssk2, and sho1), G-proteins (gpaA, sfaD, and cpgA), cAMP-PKA signaling (acyA, gpaB, pkaC1, and pkaR), His kinases (fos1 and tcsB), Ca(2+) signaling (calA/cnaA, crzA, gprC and gprD), and Ras family (rasA, rasB, and rhbA), and others (ace2, medA, and srbA). Finally, we also comment on the effect of A. fumigatus allergens (Asp f 1-Asp f 34) on IA. The data gathered generate a complex puzzle, the pieces representing virulence factors or the different activities of the fungus, and these need to be arranged to obtain a comprehensive vision of the virulence of A. fumigatus. The most recent gene expression studies using DNA-microarrays may be help us to understand this complex virulence, and to detect targets to develop rapid diagnostic methods and new antifungal agents. PMID:20974273

  1. Chemical Methods for Ugnu Viscous Oils

    SciTech Connect

    Kishore Mohanty

    2012-03-31

    The North Slope of Alaska has large (about 20 billion barrels) deposits of viscous oil in Ugnu, West Sak and Shraeder Bluff reservoirs. These shallow reservoirs overlie existing productive reservoirs such as Kuparuk and Milne Point. The viscosity of the Ugnu reservoir on top of Milne Point varies from 200 cp to 10,000 cp and the depth is about 3300 ft. The same reservoir extends to the west on the top of the Kuparuk River Unit and onto the Beaufort Sea. The depth of the reservoir decreases and the viscosity increases towards the west. Currently, the operators are testing cold heavy oil production with sand (CHOPS) in Ugnu, but oil recovery is expected to be low (< 10%). Improved oil recovery techniques must be developed for these reservoirs. The proximity to the permafrost is an issue for thermal methods; thus nonthermal methods must be considered. The objective of this project is to develop chemical methods for the Ugnu reservoir on the top of Milne Point. An alkaline-surfactant-polymer (ASP) formulation was developed for a viscous oil (330 cp) where as an alkaline-surfactant formulation was developed for a heavy oil (10,000 cp). These formulations were tested in one-dimensional and quarter five-spot Ugnu sand packs. Micromodel studies were conducted to determine the mechanisms of high viscosity ratio displacements. Laboratory displacements were modeled and transport parameters (such as relative permeability) were determined that can be used in reservoir simulations. Ugnu oil is suitable for chemical flooding because it is biodegraded and contains some organic acids. The acids react with injected alkali to produce soap. This soap helps in lowering interfacial tension between water and oil which in turn helps in the formation of macro and micro emulsions. A lower amount of synthetic surfactant is needed because of the presence of organic acids in the oil. Tertiary ASP flooding is very effective for the 330 cp viscous oil in 1D sand pack. This chemical formulation

  2. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    San Mauro-Martín, Ismael; Collado-Yurrita, Luis; Blumenfeld-Olivares, Javier Andrés; Cuadrado-Cenzual, María Ángeles; Calle-Purón, María Elisa; Hernández-Cabria, Marta; Garicano-Vilar, Elena; Pérez-Arruche, Eva; Arce-Delgado, Esperanza; CiudadCabañas, María José

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la hipercolesterolemia es uno de los principales factores de riesgo en la enfermedad cardiovascular. Los esteroles vegetales se han postulado como agentes reguladores y beneficiosos para el control de esta.Objetivo: analizar el efecto de los esteroles vegetales añadidos en una leche en la reducción del colesterol plasmático en adultos jóvenes.Métodos: ensayo clínico, controlado, aleatorizado, doble ciego y cruzado. Los esteroles (2,24 g diarios) fueron administrados en dos tomas de 350 ml de una leche comercial desnatada, durante dos periodos de 3 semanas, separados por una "fase de lavado" de 2 semanas, en el grupo experimental. Al grupo control se le administró la misma cantidad de leche desnatada, sin esteroles. Tanto al inicio como al final de cadaperiodo de intervención se extrajeron muestras sanguíneas. Se analizaron la composición corporal, hábitos de salud y los siguientes marcadores sanguíneos: perfil lipídico, hematológico, inflamación, etc.Resultados: se incluyeron 54 personas en el estudio con una edad media de 38,8 ± 7,3 años. La diferencia porcentual entre los marcadores basales y finales para el colesterol total, colesterol-LDL, colesterol-HDL, triglicéridos y colesterol no-HDL fueron del 9,73%, 12,5%, 1,9%, 3,15% y 13,2%, respectivamente. Se obtuvieron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre el grupo experimental y el grupo control, para todos los marcadores analizados excepto para los triglicéridos.Conclusión: los esteroles vegetales suministrados en un alimento de consumo habitual, como la leche, pueden ser una estrategia terapéutica no farmacológica para el control de la hipercolesterolemia de alto interés sanitario. PMID:27513506

  3. Aerosol size distribution and radiative forcing response to anthropogenically driven historical changes in biogenic secondary organic aerosol formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Andrea, S. D.; Acosta Navarro, J. C.; Farina, S. C.; Scott, C. E.; Rap, A.; Farmer, D. K.; Spracklen, D. V.; Riipinen, I.; Pierce, J. R.

    2014-10-01

    Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) have changed in the past millennium due to changes in land use, temperature and CO2 concentrations. Recent model reconstructions of BVOC emissions over the past millennium predicted changes in dominant secondary organic aerosol (SOA) producing BVOC classes (isoprene, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes). The reconstructions predicted that global isoprene emissions have decreased (land-use changes to crop/grazing land dominate the reduction), while monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions have increased (temperature increases dominate the increases); however, all three show regional variability due to competition between the various influencing factors. These BVOC changes have largely been anthropogenic in nature, and land-use change was shown to have the most dramatic effect by decreasing isoprene emissions. In this work, we use two modeled estimates of BVOC emissions from the years 1000 to 2000 to test the effect of anthropogenic changes to BVOC emissions on SOA formation, global aerosol size distributions, and radiative effects using the GEOS-Chem-TOMAS global aerosol microphysics model. With anthropogenic emissions (e.g. SO2, NOx, primary aerosols) held at present day values and BVOC emissions changed from year 1000 to year 2000 values, decreases in the number concentration of particles of size Dp > 80 nm (N80) of >25% in year 2000 relative to year 1000 were predicted in regions with extensive land-use changes since year 1000 which led to regional increases in direct plus indirect aerosol radiative effect of >0.5 W m-2 in these regions. We test the sensitivity of our results to BVOC emissions inventory, SOA yields and the presence of anthropogenic emissions; however, the qualitative response of the model to historic BVOC changes remains the same in all cases. Accounting for these uncertainties, we estimate millennial changes in BVOC emissions cause a global mean direct effect of between +0.022 and +0.163 W m-2

  4. Joint Multifractal Analysis of penetration resistance variability in an olive orchard.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Herrera, Juan; Herrero-Tejedor, Tomas; Saa-Requejo, Antonio; Villeta, Maria; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2016-04-01

    analysis of crop yield and terrain slope. Agro. j. 92: 1279-1290. López de Herrera, J., Tomas Herrero Tejedor, Antonio Saa-Requejo and Ana M. Tarquis (2015a) Influence of tillage in soil penetration resistance variability in an olive orchard. Geophysical Research Abstracts, 17, EGU2015-15425. López de Herrera, J., Tomás Herrero Tejedor, Antonio Saa-Requejo, A.M. Tarquis. Influence of tillage in soil penetration resistance variability in an olive orchard. Soil Research, accepted, 2015b. doi: SR15046 Zeleke TB, Si BC (2004) Scaling properties of topographic indices and crop yield: Multifractal and joint multifractal approaches. Agro. j. 96: 1082-1090.

  5. Weak global sensitivity of cloud condensation nuclei and the aerosol indirect effect to Criegee + SO2 chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, J. R.; Evans, M. J.; Scott, C. E.; D'Andrea, S. D.; Farmer, D. K.; Swietlicki, E.; Spracklen, D. V.

    2013-03-01

    H2SO4 vapor is important for the nucleation of atmospheric aerosols and the growth of ultrafine particles to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) sizes with important roles in the global aerosol budget and hence planetary radiative forcing. Recent studies have found that reactions of stabilized Criegee intermediates (CIs, formed from the ozonolysis of alkenes) with SO2 may be an important source of H2SO4 that has been missing from atmospheric aerosol models. For the first time in a global model, we investigate the impact of this new source of H2SO4 in the atmosphere. We use the chemical transport model, GEOS-Chem, with the online aerosol microphysics module, TOMAS, to estimate the possible impact of CIs on present-day H2SO4, CCN, and the cloud-albedo aerosol indirect effect (AIE). We extend the standard GEOS-Chem chemistry with CI-forming reactions (ozonolysis of isoprene, methyl vinyl ketone, methacrolein, propene, and monoterpenes) from the Master Chemical Mechanism. Using a fast rate constant for CI+SO2, we find that the addition of this chemistry increases the global production of H2SO4 by 4%. H2SO4 concentrations increase by over 100% in forested tropical boundary layers and by over 10-25% in forested NH boundary layers (up to 100% in July) due to CI+SO2 chemistry, but the change is generally negligible elsewhere. The predicted changes in CCN were strongly dampened to the CI+SO2 changes in H2SO4 in some regions: less than 15% in tropical forests and less than 2% in most mid-latitude locations. The global-mean CCN change was less than 1% both in the boundary layer and the free troposphere. The associated cloud-albedo AIE change was less than 0.03 W m-2. The model global sensitivity of CCN and the AIE to CI+SO2 chemistry is significantly (approximately one order-of-magnitude) smaller than the sensitivity of CCN and AIE to other uncertain model inputs, such as nucleation mechanisms, primary emissions, SOA (secondary organic aerosol) and deposition. Similarly

  6. Statistical methods for detecting periodic fragments in DNA sequence data

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    presence of eroded periodicity. The autocorrelation method was identified as poorly suited for use with the blockwise bootstrap. Application of our methods to the genomes of two model organisms revealed a striking proportion of the yeast and mouse genomes are spanned by NPS. Despite their markedly different sizes, roughly equivalent proportions (19-21%) of the genomes lie within period-10 spans of the NPS dinucleotides {AA, TT, TA}. The biological significance of these regions remains to be demonstrated. To facilitate this, the genomic coordinates are available as Additional files 1, 2, and 3 in a format suitable for visualisation as tracks on popular genome browsers. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Prof Tomas Radivoyevitch, Dr Vsevolod Makeev (nominated by Dr Mikhail Gelfand), and Dr Rob D Knight. PMID:21527008

  7. Uncertainties in global aerosols and climate effects due to biofuel emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodros, J. K.; Scott, C. E.; Farina, S. C.; Lee, Y. H.; L'Orange, C.; Volckens, J.; Pierce, J. R.

    2015-08-01

    Aerosol emissions from biofuel combustion impact both health and climate; however, while reducing emissions through improvements to combustion technologies will improve health, the net effect on climate is largely unconstrained. In this study, we examine sensitivities in global aerosol concentration, direct radiative climate effect, and cloud-albedo aerosol indirect climate effect to uncertainties in biofuel emission factors, optical mixing state, and model nucleation and background secondary organic aerosol (SOA). We use the Goddard Earth Observing System global chemical-transport model (GEOS-Chem) with TwO Moment Aerosol Sectional (TOMAS) microphysics. The emission factors include amount, composition, size, and hygroscopicity, as well as optical mixing-state properties. We also evaluate emissions from domestic coal use, which is not biofuel but is also frequently emitted from homes. We estimate the direct radiative effect assuming different mixing states (homogeneous, core-shell, and external) with and without absorptive organic aerosol (brown carbon). We find the global-mean direct radiative effect of biofuel emissions ranges from -0.02 to +0.06 W m-2 across all simulation/mixing-state combinations with regional effects in source regions ranging from -0.2 to +0.8 W m-2. The global-mean cloud-albedo aerosol indirect effect (AIE) ranges from +0.01 to -0.02 W m-2 with regional effects in source regions ranging from -1.0 to -0.05 W m-2. The direct radiative effect is strongly dependent on uncertainties in emissions mass, composition, emissions aerosol size distributions, and assumed optical mixing state, while the indirect effect is dependent on the emissions mass, emissions aerosol size distribution, and the choice of model nucleation and secondary organic aerosol schemes. The sign and magnitude of these effects have a strong regional dependence. We conclude that the climate effects of biofuel aerosols are largely unconstrained, and the overall sign of the aerosol

  8. Uncertainties in global aerosols and climate effects due to biofuel emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodros, J. K.; Scott, C. E.; Farina, S. C.; Lee, Y. H.; L'Orange, C.; Volckens, J.; Pierce, J. R.

    2015-04-01

    Aerosol emissions from biofuel combustion impact both health and climate; however, while reducing emissions through improvements to combustion technologies will improve health, the net effect on climate is largely unconstrained. In this study, we examine sensitivities in global aerosol concentration, direct radiative climate effect, and cloud-albedo aerosol indirect climate effect to uncertainties in biofuel emission factors, optical mixing-state, and model nucleation and background SOA. We use the Goddard Earth Observing System global chemical-transport model (GEOS-Chem) with TwO Moment Aerosol Sectional (TOMAS) microphysics. The emission factors include: amount, composition, size and hygroscopicity, as well as optical mixing-state properties. We also evaluate emissions from domestic coal use, which is not biofuel but is also frequently emitted from homes. We estimate the direct radiative effect assuming different mixing states (internal, core-shell, and external) with and without absorptive organic aerosol (brown carbon). We find the global-mean direct radiative effect of biofuel emissions ranges from -0.02 to +0.06 W m-2 across all simulation/mixing state combinations with regional effects in source regions ranging from -0.2 to +1.2 W m-2. The global-mean cloud-albedo aerosol indirect effect ranges from +0.01 to -0.02 W m-2 with regional effects in source regions ranging from -1.0 to -0.05 W m-2. The direct radiative effect is strongly dependent on uncertainties in emissions mass, composition, emissions aerosol size distributions and assumed optical mixing state, while the indirect effect is dependent on the emissions mass, emissions aerosol size distribution and the choice of model nucleation and secondary organic aerosol schemes. The sign and magnitude of these effects have a strong regional dependence. We conclude that the climate effects of biofuel aerosols are largely unconstrained, and the overall sign of the aerosol effects is unclear due to uncertainties

  9. Processes controlling the annual cycle of Arctic aerosol number and size distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croft, Betty; Martin, Randall V.; Leaitch, W. Richard; Tunved, Peter; Breider, Thomas J.; D'Andrea, Stephen D.; Pierce, Jeffrey R.

    2016-03-01

    Measurements at high-Arctic sites (Alert, Nunavut, and Mt. Zeppelin, Svalbard) during the years 2011 to 2013 show a strong and similar annual cycle in aerosol number and size distributions. Each year at both sites, the number of aerosols with diameters larger than 20 nm exhibits a minimum in October and two maxima, one in spring associated with a dominant accumulation mode (particles 100 to 500 nm in diameter) and a second in summer associated with a dominant Aitken mode (particles 20 to 100 nm in diameter). Seasonal-mean aerosol effective diameter from measurements ranges from about 180 in summer to 260 nm in winter. This study interprets these annual cycles with the GEOS-Chem-TOMAS global aerosol microphysics model. Important roles are documented for several processes (new-particle formation, coagulation scavenging in clouds, scavenging by precipitation, and transport) in controlling the annual cycle in Arctic aerosol number and size. Our simulations suggest that coagulation scavenging of interstitial aerosols in clouds by aerosols that have activated to form cloud droplets strongly limits the total number of particles with diameters less than 200 nm throughout the year. We find that the minimum in total particle number in October can be explained by diminishing new-particle formation within the Arctic, limited transport of pollution from lower latitudes, and efficient wet removal. Our simulations indicate that the summertime-dominant Aitken mode is associated with efficient wet removal of accumulation-mode aerosols, which limits the condensation sink for condensable vapours. This in turn promotes new-particle formation and growth. The dominant accumulation mode during spring is associated with build up of transported pollution from outside the Arctic coupled with less-efficient wet-removal processes at colder temperatures. We recommend further attention to the key processes of new-particle formation, interstitial coagulation, and wet removal and their delicate

  10. Effect of Organic Sea Spray Aerosol on Global and Regional Cloud Condensation Nuclei Concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westervelt, D. M.; Nenes, A.; Moore, R.; Adams, P. J.

    2009-12-01

    Physical processes on the ocean surface (bubble bursting) result in formation of sea spray aerosol. It is now recognized that this aerosol source includes a significant amount of organic matter (O’Dowd et al. 2004). Higher amounts of aerosol lead to higher cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations, which perturb climate by brightening clouds in what is known as the aerosol indirect effect (Twomey 1977). This work quantifies the marine organic aerosol global emission source as well the effect of the aerosol on CCN by implementing an organic sea spray source function into a series of global aerosol simulations. The new organic sea spray source function correlates satellite retrieved chlorophyll concentrations to fraction of organic matter in sea spray aerosol (O’Dowd et al. 2008). Using this source function, a global marine organic aerosol emission rate of 17.2 Tg C yr-1 is estimated. Effect on CCN concentrations (0.2% supersaturation) is modeled using the Two-Moment Aerosol Sectional (TOMAS) microphysics algorithm coupled to a general circulation model (Adams and Seinfeld 2002). Upon including organic sea spray aerosol in global simulations, changes in CCN concentrations are induced by the changed aerosol composition as well as the ability of the organic matter to serve as surfactants. To explore surfactant effects, surface tension depression data from seawater samples taken near the Georgia coast were applied as a function of carbon concentrations (Moore et al. 2008). Preliminary findings suggest that organic sea spray aerosol exerts a localized influence on CCN(0.2%) concentrations. Surfactant effects appear to be the most important impact of marine organic aerosol on CCN(0.2%), as changes in aerosol composition alone have a weak influence, even in regions of high organic sea spray emissions. 1. O’Dowd, C.D., Facchini, M.C. et al., Nature, 431, (2004) 2. Twomey, S., J. Atmos. Sci., 34, (1977) 3. O’Dowd C.D et al. Geophys. Res. Let., 35, (2008) 4

  11. Malformaciones arteriovenosas revisión y análisis descriptivo de 52 mavs tratadas durante el periodo de 2000-2010

    PubMed Central

    Rinaldi, Mariano; Mezzano, Emilio; Berra, Matias S.; Parés, Herald R.; Olocco, Ricardo V.; Papalini, Francisco R.

    2015-01-01

    Objetivo: Describir nuestra experiencia en el manejo de las Mavs analizando las características clínicas de los pacientes y los resultados postoperatorios. Método de análisis: Realizamos un análisis retrospectivo de 52 pacientes admitidos en el Servicio de neurocirugía para manejo quirúrgico: La información de referencia incluyo síntomas al inicio, diagnostico de admisión, hallazgos neurológicos y hallazgos en estudio por imágenes tales como tomografía cerebral, IRM cerebral y angiografía por sustracción digital. Los hallazgos postoperatorios de interés fueron: Mortalidad, examen neurológico postoperatorio y complicaciones asociadas. Presentamos nuestro análisis estadístico. Resultados: Edad promedio: 37,7 años. Distribución: Hombres: 61,5%. Motivos de consulta más frecuentes: Cefalea 63,5%, evento hemorrágico 59,6%, convulsiones 26,9%. Localización: Supratentorial: 92,9%, Infratentorial: 7,2%. 30,8%, de las Mavs fueron grado 2 y grado 3 Cincuenta por ciento del total presentaron aneurismas, del total de la MAVs, 59,6% debutó con sangrado, 26,9% con Crisis Convulsivas y 13,5% con déficit neurológico. Recibieron tratamiento endovascular previo a cirugía 30,7%. Durante el postoperatorio 23,1% presentaron mejoría clínica, 57,7% no presento modificación, 19,2% empeoraron en el postoperatorio. La mortalidad fue 13,5%. Conclusión: Creemos que el subgrupo de Mavs grados III a V representan una entidad que requiere una compleja toma de decisiones dada la alta incidencia de aneurismas asociados que presentan y su asociación con eventos de sangrado. Nuestra mortalidad postoperatoria coincide con la bibliografía. Palabras clave, Mavs- aneurismas asociados- Acv hemorrágico- convulsiones. PMID:26600984

  12. La implantacion del enfoque constructivista en el aula de ciencia: Estudio de caso multiple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arroyo Betancourt, Luz I.

    Esta investigacion estudia la implantacion del enfoque constructivista en tres aulas de ciencia del contexto puertorriqueno. Se auscultaron las practicas educativas que utilizan maestras consideradas constructivistas y la correspondencia de sus practicas educativas con los elementos esenciales de la didactica que proponen los teoricos de los planteamientos constructivistas. Se ausculto, ademas, a que vision del enfoque constructivista responden las expresiones de las maestras acerca de su practica educativa y como compara con su quehacer, a la luz de los elementos esenciales de las visiones constructivistas piagetiana, social y radical. Se utilizo el diseno de estudio descriptivo de caso multiple. El estudio se baso en entrevistas a profundidad, revision de documentos y observacion no participativa a la sala de clases. El contexto fueron tres escuelas publicas de la Region Educativa de San Juan, una elemental, una intermedia y una superior. Los resultados confirmaron que la transicion hacia el enfoque constructivista es un proceso que toma tiempo, dedicacion y la participacion en adiestramientos y readiestramientos acerca del nuevo enfoque. Las maestras coinciden en la mayoria de las practicas educativas que utilizan para implantar el enfoque constructivista de ensenanza y difieren en algunas debido, probablemente, a que han tenido que adaptarlas a los correspondientes niveles de ensenanza: elemental, intermedio y superior. Dos de las maestras planifican por conceptos generadores, mientras que una de ellas planifica siguiendo la guia que recibe del Departamento de Educacion. Difieren ademas, en el enfasis que confieren al inquirir cientifico. Con relacion a la correspondencia entre la vision manifestada por las maestras a la luz de las visiones piagetiana, social y radical, aparentemente, las preguntas del protocolo de entrevistas no lograron evocar la informacion con suficiente profundidad, por lo que la investigadora tuvo que inferir las visiones de las

  13. Small karstic Dobra River (Croatia) suggested as natural laboratory for impactite research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frančišković-Bilinski, Stanislav; Bilinski, Halka; Sikder, Arif M.

    2016-04-01

    An unexpected anomaly of magnetic susceptibility (MS) was observed in stream sediments of the upper course of the karstic Dobra River (Croatia). Preliminary results pointed to a possible impactite, formed by a shock event caused by a meteorite impact or by volcanic processes [1]. In addition to geophysical experiments, petrological and geochemical studies are reported [2, 3]. The multidisciplinary work for identification and confirmation of impact structure is still in progress. Results will be presented and the difficulties due to weathering and transport processes will be discussed and compared with recent literature [4, 5]. In reported results numerous evidences exist, which are in support of impact origin, such as vesicular glass with quench texture, ballen textures in the lechatelierite, presence of Troilite, etc. We suggest that the Dobra River from its source to the abyss in Ogulin (Upper Dobra) is a possible natural laboratory for studying processes of mixing between impactite material and fluvial sediments within a small area, including spherules exposed to water and in the overbank sediments. Especially the introduction of isotope studies in this research and enlargement of multinational team of experts are suggested. Literature: [1] Franči\\vsković-Bilinski, S., Bilinski, H., Scholger, R., Tomašić, N., Maldini, K. (2014): Magnetic spherules in sediments of the sinking karstic Dobra River (Croatia). Journal of soils and sediments 14(3), 600-614. [2] Franči\\vsković-Bilinski, S., Sikder, A.M., Bilinski, H., Castano, C.E., Garman, G.C. (2015): Traces of meteorite impact in the sediments of karstic Dobra River (Croatia). 15th International multidisciplinary scientific geoconference SGEM 2015 Conference proceedings, Vol. 1, 507-514. [3] Sikder, A.M., Franči\\vsković-Bilinski, S., Bilinski, H., Castano, C.E., Clifford, D.M., Turner, J.B., Garman, G.C. (2015): Petrographic analysis of the magnetic spherules from the sediments of karastic Dobra River

  14. Design and fabrication of soft x-ray photolithography experimental beam line at Beijing National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Changxin

    1991-08-01

    The synchrotron radiation (SR) soft x-ray photolithography experimental beam line (3B1 beam line) at Beijing National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, was completed and tested in June 1990. A soft x-ray photolithography experiment was successfully completed, and the width of linear etch on a silicon chip by the device with a 3B1 beam line is up to 0.5 micrometers . This SR soft x-ray photolithography experiment was done successfully for the first time in China. This paper describes the design of the beam line and the fabrication of the most important optical element--the cylindrical scanning mirror in the beam line. The 3B1 beam line consists of the shielding light plate with water-cooling, laser simulation light source system, 3-D adjustable scanning mirror, high pass-band filer (beryllium window), acoustic sensor, helium gas chamber, and vacuum system. The main specifications of the 3B1 beam line are as follows: spectral range 0.4-2 nm; horizontal acceptance angle 7.5 mrad; vertical acceptance angle 0.4 mrad; grazing incidence angle 1.5 deg; light spot size 35 nm X 12 nm; vacuum degree of the mirror box 5 X 10-10 torr (static). The cylindrical scanning mirror in grazing incidence is used in the beam line for photolithography to obtain uniform distributed intensity of illumination of the SR source in the vertical direction (Gaussian distribution) and sufficiently concentrated energy. It is made of aluminum alloy LD2 with a supersmooth optical surface. The curvature radius of the cylindrical surface is 527.5 mm; surface figure error is less than (lambda) /10; surface roughness is better than 1 nm RMS, and fold coating on the surface of the mirror under UHV of 109 torr. The laser simulation light source system is used for adjusting the optical system in the beam line instead of the SR source. The cylindrical mirror was polished supersmoothly using Al2O3 ultra micropower grinding material made in TOMAS in Japan on modified traditional machine tools, and surface

  15. Gulf of Mexico miocene CO₂ site characterization mega transect

    SciTech Connect

    Meckel, Timothy; Trevino, Ramon

    2014-09-30

    This project characterized the Miocene-age sub-seafloor stratigraphy in the near-offshore portion of the Gulf of Mexico adjacent to the Texas coast. The large number of industrial sources of carbon dioxide (CO₂) in coastal counties and the high density of onshore urbanization and environmentally sensitive areas make this offshore region extremely attractive for long-term storage of carbon dioxide emissions from industrial sources (CCS). The study leverages dense existing geologic data from decades of hydrocarbon exploration in and around the study area to characterize the regional geology for suitability and storage capacity. Primary products of the study include: regional static storage capacity estimates, sequestration “leads” and prospects with associated dynamic capacity estimates, experimental studies of CO₂-brine-rock interaction, best practices for site characterization, a large-format ‘Atlas’ of sequestration for the study area, and characterization of potential fluid migration pathways for reducing storage risks utilizing novel high-resolution 3D (HR3D) seismic surveys. In addition, three subcontracted studies address source-to-sink matching optimization, offshore well bore management and environmental aspects. The various geologic data and interpretations are integrated and summarized in a series of cross-sections and maps, which represent a primary resource for any near-term commercial deployment of CCS in the area. The regional study characterized and mapped important geologic features (e.g., Clemente-Tomas fault zone, the regionally extensive Marginulina A and Amphistegina B confining systems, etc.) that provided an important context for regional static capacity estimates and specific sequestration prospects of the study. A static capacity estimate of the majority of the Study area (14,467 mi2) was estimated at 86 metric Gigatonnes. While local capacity estimates are likely to be lower due to reservoir-scale characteristics, the

  16. Improving supplementary feeding in species conservation

    PubMed Central

    Ewen, John G; Walker, Leila; Canessa, Stefano; Groombridge, Jim J

    2015-01-01

    ón suplementaria con frecuencia es una reacción instintiva a la declinación de poblaciones y su aplicación no se evalúa críticamente, lo que lleva a opiniones polarizadas sobre su uso entre los manejadores. Aquí abogamos por una estrategia más decisiva para la alimentación suplementaria para que la opción de usarla esté claramente justificada sobre, o en combinación con, otras acciones de manejo y las consecuencias pronosticadas sean entonces evaluadas críticamente después de su implementación. Proponemos combinar métodos de otro conjunto de disciplinas especialistas que permitirán la evaluación crítica de la necesidad, el beneficio y los riesgos de la alimentación suplementaria. Por medio del uso de la ecología nutricional, la ecología de poblaciones y la toma de decisiones estructuradas, quienes manejan la conservación pueden tomar mejores decisiones sobre qué y cómo alimentar al estimar las consecuencias de la recuperación poblacional a través de un rango de acciones posibles. Esta estrategia estructurada también informa al monitoreo enfocado y permite con mayor claridad la integración de la alimentación suplementaria a los planes de recuperación y reduce el riesgo de decisiones ineficientes. En Nueva Zelanda, los manejadores del hihi (Notiomystis cincta) que se encuentra en peligro de extinción, con frecuencia dependen de la alimentación suplementaria para apoyar a las poblaciones reintroducidas. En la isla de Kapiti, la población reintroducida de hihis ha respondido de buena manera a la alimentación suplementaria, pero la logística de proporcionar a una demanda en crecimiento recientemente sobrepasó la capacidad de manejo. Para decidir si el régimen alimentario debería revisarse y cómo hacerlo, los manejadores usaron una estrategia estructurada de toma de decisiones con información sobre las respuestas de la población a regímenes alternativos de a

  17. Mid-Holocene variability of the East Asian monsoon based on bulk organic δ13C and C/N records from the Pearl River estuary, southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, F.; Lloyd, J. M.; Zong, Y.; Leng, M. J.; Switzer, A. D.; Yim, W. W.; Huang, G.

    2010-12-01

    Understanding the mid-Holocene dynamics of the East Asian monsoon (EAM) is integral to modelling the Holocene development of the global climate system (Webster et al., 1998). Thus the mid-Holocene EAM history was reconstructed using bulk organic carbon isotopes (δ13C), total carbon to total nitrogen (C/N) ratios and total organic carbon (TOC) from a sediment core (UV1), at a mean resolution of 10 years, from the Pearl River estuary, southern China. Sedimentary δ13C, C/N and TOC from the Pearl River estuary is a good indicator of changes in monsoonal precipitation strength (Zong et al., 2006; Yang et al., 2010), eg sediments buried during a period of high precipitation exhibit a high proportion of terrigenous sediments, and have low δ13C and high C/N, and vice versa (Yu et al., 2010). Results suggest a general decreasing trend in monsoonal precipitation from 6650-2215 cal yr BP due to the weakening insolation over northern hemisphere most likely related to the current precession circle (An, 2000). Superimposed on this trend are apparent dry-wet oscillations at centennial to millennial timescales most likely in response to solar activity. Mismatch between δ13C and results from the Dongge Cave in southern China at millennial-timescale oscillations (Wang et al., 2005), may indicate that the δ13C from the Pearl River estuary reveals changes in precipitation in a broader area than the δ18O from Dongge Cave does. Reference An Z (2000) The history and variability of the East Asian paleomonsoon climate. Quaternary Science Reviews 19: 171-187. Wang Y, Cheng H, Edwards RL, He Y, Kong X, An Z, Wu J, Kelly MJ, Dykoski CA and Li X (2005) The Holocene Asian Monsoon: Links to Solar Changes and North Atlantic Climate. Science 308: 854-857. Webster PJ, Magaña VO, Palmer TN, Shukla J and Tomas RA (1998) Monsoons: Processes, predictability, and the prospects for prediction. Journal of Geophysical Research 103(C7): 14451-14510. Yang S, Tang M, Yim WWS, Zong Y, Huang G, Switzer

  18. Investigation of particle and vapor wall-loss effects on controlled wood-smoke smog-chamber experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Q.; May, A. A.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Pierce, J. R.

    2015-10-01

    Smog chambers are extensively used to study processes that drive gas and particle evolution in the atmosphere. A limitation of these experiments is that particles and gas-phase species may be lost to chamber walls on shorter timescales than the timescales of the atmospheric processes being studied in the chamber experiments. These particle and vapor wall losses have been investigated in recent studies of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation, but they have not been systematically investigated in experiments of primary emissions from combustion. The semi-volatile nature of combustion emissions (e.g. from wood smoke) may complicate the behavior of particle and vapor wall deposition in the chamber over the course of the experiments due to the competition between gas/particle and gas/wall partitioning. Losses of vapors to the walls may impact particle evaporation in these experiments, and potential precursors for SOA formation from combustion may be lost to the walls, causing underestimations of aerosol yields. Here, we conduct simulations to determine how particle and gas-phase wall losses contributed to the observed evolution of the aerosol during experiments in the third Fire Lab At Missoula Experiment (FLAME III). We use the TwO-Moment Aerosol Sectional (TOMAS) microphysics algorithm coupled with the organic volatility basis set (VBS) and wall-loss formulations to examine the predicted extent of particle and vapor wall losses. We limit the scope of our study to the dark periods in the chamber before photo-oxidation to simplify the aerosol system for this initial study. Our model simulations suggest that over one-third of the initial particle-phase organic mass (41 %) was lost during the experiments, and over half of this particle-organic mass loss was from direct particle wall loss (65 % of the loss) with the remainder from evaporation of the particles driven by vapor losses to the walls (35 % of the loss). We perform a series of sensitivity tests to understand

  19. Investigation of particle and vapor wall-loss effects on controlled wood-smoke smog-chamber experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Q.; May, A. A.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Pierce, J. R.

    2015-06-01

    Smog chambers are extensively used to study processes that drive gas and particle evolution in the atmosphere. A limitation of these experiments is that particles and gas-phase species may be lost to chamber walls on shorter timescales than the timescales of the atmospheric processes being studied in the chamber experiments. These particle and vapor wall losses have been investigated in recent studies of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation, but they have not been systematically investigated in experiments of primary emissions from combustion. The semi-volatile nature of combustion emissions (e.g. from wood smoke) may complicate the behavior of particle and vapor wall deposition in the chamber over the course of the experiments due to the competition between gas/particle and gas/wall partitioning. Losses of vapors to the walls may impact particle evaporation in these experiments, and potential precursors for SOA formation from combustion may be lost to the walls, causing underestimates of aerosol yields. Here, we conduct simulations to determine how particle and gas-phase wall losses contributed to the observed evolution of the aerosol during experiments in the third Fire Lab At Missoula Experiment (FLAME III). We use the TwO-Moment Aerosol Sectional (TOMAS) microphysics algorithm coupled with the organic volatility basis set (VBS) and wall-loss formulations to examine the predicted extent of particle and vapor wall losses. We limit the scope of our study to the dark periods in the chamber before photo-oxidation to simplify the aerosol system for this initial study. Our model simulations suggest that over one third of the initial particle-phase organic mass (36%) was lost during the experiments, and roughly half of this particle organic mass loss was from direct particle wall loss (56% of the loss) with the remainder from evaporation of the particles driven by vapor losses to the walls (44% of the loss). We perform a series of sensitivity tests to understand

  20. The history of the Laboratory of Pathology of the Cluj-Napoca Oncological Institute.

    PubMed

    Simu, G; Buiga, R

    2006-01-01

    The Laboratory of Pathology of the actual "Professor Ion Chiricută" Oncological Institute of Cluj-Napoca, former "Iuliu Maniu" Institute for Cancer Study and Prophylaxis, had the privilege that in its framework carry on an important part of their activity professors Titu Vasiliu and Rubin Popa, who are forming, beside Victor Babeş, the golden trinity of the Romanian pathology. The Cancer Institute of Cluj, one of the first in the World, was founded in 1929, especially by the clear-sightedness and the efforts of Professor Iuliu Moldovan, the master of the modern Romanian school of hygiene. The clinic division was assisted by a Laboratory of Pathology, whose chief was appointed the young pathologist of high competence, Rubin Popa, associate Professor of this department of the Cluj School of Medicine. In 1942' he became director of the Institute, function accomplished until his premature disappearance in 1958. Titu Vasiliu worked in the Oncological Institute from 1949, a year after his forced retreat from the chair of pathology, up to 1958. Fortunately, his premature disappearance did not interrupt the activity of the laboratory, because the management of the Oncological Institute was committed to Ion Chiricută, an experimented and modern surgeon of Bucharest. From 1960, the Laboratory of Pathology has been led by Professor Augustin Mureşan, an experimented, rigorous and prudent pathologist, who has imprinted these indispensable qualities to his disciples learning under his leadership. The activity of the laboratory has been very favorably influenced by the presence of Professor Gheorghe Badenski from the Department of Microbiology. The collaboration with Professor Eugen Pora from Babeş-Bolyai Department of Animal Physiology and his disciples, Virgil Toma, Draga Nestor, Sena Roşculet, Carmen Stugren and Georgette Buga has carried on the performance of interesting works concerning the thymus involution in tumor-bearing hosts and its signification for the

  1. Mid-Holocene variability of the East Asian monsoon based on bulk organic δ13C and C/N records from the Pearl River estuary, southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, F.; Zong, Y.; Lloyd, J. M.; Leng, M. J.; Switzer, A. D.; Yim, W. W.; Huang, G.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding the mid-Holocene dynamics of the East Asian monsoon (EAM) is integral to modelling the Holocene development of the global climate system (Webster et al., 1998). Thus the mid-Holocene EAM history was reconstructed using bulk organic carbon isotopes (δ13C), total carbon to total nitrogen (C/N) ratios and total organic carbon (TOC) from a sediment core (UV1), at a mean resolution of 7-10 years, from the Pearl River estuary, southern China. Sedimentary δ13C, C/N and TOC from the Pearl River estuary is a good indicator of changes in monsoonal precipitation strength (Zong et al., 2006; Yang et al., 2010; Yu et al., 2010), eg sediments buried during a period of high precipitation exhibit a high proportion of terrigenous sediments, and have low δ13C and high C/N, and vice versa (Yu et al., 2010). Results suggest a general decreasing trend in monsoonal precipitation from 6650 to 2215 cal yr BP because of the weakening Northern Hemisphere insolation most likely related to the current precession circle (An, 2000). Superimposed on this trend are apparent dry-wet oscillations at centennial to millennial timescales most likely in response to solar activity. Mismatch between δ13C and results from the Dongge Cave in southern China at millennial-timescale oscillations (Wang et al., 2005), may indicate that the δ13C from the Pearl River estuary reveals changes in precipitation in a broader area than the δ18O from Dongge Cave does. Reference An Z (2000) The history and variability of the East Asian paleomonsoon climate. Quaternary Science Reviews 19: 171-187. Wang Y, Cheng H, Edwards RL, He Y, Kong X, An Z, Wu J, Kelly MJ, Dykoski CA and Li X (2005) The Holocene Asian Monsoon: Links to Solar Changes and North Atlantic Climate. Science 308: 854-857. Webster PJ, Magaña VO, Palmer TN, Shukla J and Tomas RA (1998) Monsoons: Processes, predictability, and the prospects for prediction. Journal of Geophysical Research 103(C7): 14451-14510. Yang S, Tang M, Yim WWS, Zong

  2. The Sunphotometer Airborne Validation Experiment 2012: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estellés, Victor; Marenco, Franco; Ryder, Claire L.; Campanelli, Monica; Expósito, Francisco; Solá, Yolanda; Segura, Sara; Marcos, Carlos; Toledano, Carlos; Berjón, Alberto; Guirado, Carmen; Claxton, Bernard; Todd, Martin

    2013-04-01

    to provide detailed vertically resolved aerosol measurements, in order to compare these to sunphotometer retrievals. Simultaneously, 4 different ground AERONET - Cimel sites were deployed in the Tenerife island, at different latitudes and altitudes for further investigation of spatial and vertical variability. Three of these sites also measured solar radiation components with CM21 pyranometers and CHP1 pirheliometers, for further research on radiative forcing of aerosols. One site was equipped with a Prede POM sun-sky radiometer for comparison with Cimel sunphotometer. On the other hand, for the FENNEC campaign another AERONET Cimel sunphotometer was deployed in Zouerate (Mauritania). The ideal conditions for such a comparison consisted of cloudless skies and high mineral aerosol burdens, brought by the Saharan outflow. Although these conditions were not reached in the Tenerife area during the scheduled field campaign, appropriate conditions were met in western Mauritania, over the AERONET Zouerate site. In this study, we perform a preliminary analysis of the columnar properties of aerosols in the Canary Islands and West Sahara areas during the FENNEC 2011 and FENNEC-SAVEX 2012 field campaigns, with an emphasis on the comparison between the size distributions retrieved from both AERONET and SKYRAD algorithms using the Zouerate Cimel site data. Validation of the vertical integrated aerosol size distributions will be also presented. References - M.Campanelli, V.Estelles, T. Smyth, T. Nakajima, M. Hashimoto, A.Lupi, C. Tomas, "Retrieval of aerosol radiative properties from sun-sky radiometers measurements of ESR network: comparison between the inversion codes Skyrad4.2.pack and the new Skyrad5.pack", European Aerosol Conference, 2011. - V. Estellés, M. Campanelli, M. P. Utrillas, F. Expósito, and J. A. Martínez-Lozano, "Comparison of AERONET and SKYRAD4.2 inversion products retrieved from a Cimel CE318 sunphotometer", Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 569—579, 2012.

  3. L-Moments Regional Frequency Analysis Methodology Application in maximum rainfall values over the Bogota River's basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, Claudia; Mesa, Duvan

    2015-04-01

    L-Moments Regional Frequency Analysis Methodology Application in maximum rainfall values over the Bogota River's basin 1°Claudia Patricia Romero Hernández; 2°Duvan Javier Mesa Fernández Universidad Santo Tomas; Colombia The application area of this methodology is the Bogota River's basin, which is located in Cundinamarca; a Colombian department with a total surface area of 589.143 hectares. This basin includes 19 sub-basins, and it is the most densely urbanized of the country. Including its metropolitan area, this region boasts a population of 9.000.000 inhabitants; which composes approximately 23% of Colombia's population and possesses around 19% of the country's industries. This basin has shown a notorious increase of complicated floods frequency in the last few years due to climatic variations. These climatic periods correspond to a weather pattern called Niña Phenomenon (2010-2011), which affected 57.000 citizens in this department and 4,900 people directly in Bogota city, with an estimated economic damage of 277'121,052 USD. The Regional Frequency Analysis methodology is a statistics procedure that consists in adding information from multiple samples in a single large sample, assuming previously that all of these come from the same probability model, except for a difference between them due to a scale factor. These samples are defined by a "regionalization" procedure known as the "Avenue Index" or "Flood Index". This procedure groups several kinds of information that comes from a common probability model, such as temperature, rainfall, and water flow. This model must be similar for all of the weather stations located in a homogeneous region. Maps for each of 4 return periods (5, 10, 50 and 100 years) were developed based on 120 weather stations located on this basin. The information used in this process comes from median monthly rainfall data, based on historical series between 30 and 40 years average. An increase in the annual median rainfall was

  4. PREFACE: International Conference on Computing in High Energy and Nuclear Physics (CHEP'09)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruntorad, Jan; Lokajicek, Milos

    2010-11-01

    Physics Milos Lokajicek (co-chair), Institute of Physics AS CR, v.v.i., Prague Vojtech Petracek, Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering and especially the Programme Committee for their careful choice of conference contributions and their enormous work with organization of 340 post conference proceedings paper review Ludek Matyska (chair), CESNET Online Computing Volker Gülzow, DESY Jiri Masik, University of Manchester/on leave from Institute of Physics AS CR, Prague Event Processing Elizabeth Sexton-Kennedy, FNAL Tomas Davidek, Charles University, Prague Software Components, Tools and Databases Paolo Calafiura, LBNL Julius Hrivnac, LAL Track 4 Hardware and Computing Fabrics Takashi Sasaki, KEK Jiri Chudoba, Institute of Physics AS CR, Prague Grid Middleware and Networking Technologies Francesco Giacomini, CERN Ales Krenek, Masaryk University, Brno/CESNET Distributed Processing and Analysis Latchezar Betev, CERN Simon Lin, ASGC, Taipei Dagmar Adamova, Nuclear Physics Institute AS CR, Prague Collaborative Tools Eva Hladka, Masaryk University, Brno/CESNET Thank you to all who made CHEP'09 a success. Jan Gruntorad and Milos Lokajicek CHEP'09 Conference Chairs Prague, March 2010 The PDF and HTML files contain a list of all CHEP'09 contributions.

  5. The Kosice meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toth, J.; Svoren, J.

    2012-01-01

    Sciences (under the leadership of the second author), Comenius University in Bratislava (under the leadership of the first author), and the Czech Academy of Sciences (under the leadership of Pavel Spurny) started to sweep meadows and forests at the calculated area. The first meteorite was discovered by Juraj Toth on March 20th. By October 6th, 77 meteorite fragments were found. The heaviest fragment weighs 2.17 kg and was found by Tereza Krejcova; the smallest pieces were only about 0.5 g (finder Julius Koza). The total mass recovered is 4.3 kg. There were 28 finders: Juraj Toth, Diana Buzova, Marek Husarik, Tereza Krejcova, Jan Svoren, Julius Koza, David Capek, Pavel Spurny, Stanislav Kaniansky, Eva Schunova, Marcel Skreka, Dusan Tomko, Pavol Zigo, Miroslav Seben, Jiri Silha, Leonard Kornos, Marcela Bodnarova, Peter Veres, Jozef Nedoroscik, Zuzana Mimovicova, Zuzana Krisandova, Jaromir Petrzala, Stefan Gajdos, Tomas Dobrovodsky, Peter Delincak, Zdenko Bartos, Ales Kucera, and Jozef Vilagi. Preliminary as well as complex mineralogic analysis implies that the recovered meteorite is classified as an ordinary H5 chondrite (Dr. J. Haloda, Czech Geological Survey, D. Ozdin, and P. Uher, Comenius University in Bratislava). The authors are grateful to all collaborators mentioned above. More details about the meteorite will be published in the near future.

  6. Micromechanical Analyses of Sturzstroms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imre, Bernd; Laue, Jan; Springman, Sarah M.

    2010-05-01

    have been made observable and reproducible within a physical and a distinct element numerical modelling environment (DEM). As link between field evidence gained from the deposits of natural sturzstroms, the physical model within the ETH Geotechnical Drum Centrifuge (Springman et al., 2001) and the numerical model PFC-3D (Cundall and Strack, 1979; Itasca, 2005), serves a deterministic fractal analytical comminution model (Sammis et al., 1987; Steacy and Sammis, 1991). This approach allowed studying the effects of dynamic fragmentation within sturzstroms at true (macro) scale within the distinct element model, by allowing for a micro-mechanical, distinct particle based, and cyclic description of fragmentation at the same time, without losing significant computational efficiency. Theses experiments indicate rock mass and boundary conditions, which allow an alternating fragmenting and dilating dispersive regime to evolve and to be sustained long enough to replicate the spreading and run out of sturzstroms. The fragmenting spreading model supported here is able to explain the run out of a dry granular flow, beyond the travel distance predicted by a Coulomb frictional sliding model, without resorting to explanations by mechanics that can only be valid for certain, specific of the boundary conditions. The implications derived suggest that a sturzstrom, because of its strong relation to internal fractal fragmentation and other inertial effects, constitutes a landslide category of its own. Its mechanics differ significantly from all other gravity driven mass flows. This proposition does not exclude the possible appearance of frictionites, Toma hills or suspension flows etc., but it considers them as secondary features. The application of a fractal comminution model to describe natural and experimental sturzstrom deposits turned out to be a useful tool for sturzstrom research. Implemented within the DEM, it allows simulating the key features of sturzstrom successfully and

  7. GaN Initiative for Grid Applications (GIGA)

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, George

    2015-07-03

    For nearly 4 ½ years, MIT Lincoln Laboratory (MIT/LL) led a very successful, DoE-funded team effort to develop GaN-on-Si materials and devices, targeting high-voltage (>1 kV), high-power, cost-effective electronics for grid applications. This effort, called the GaN Initiative for Grid Applications (GIGA) program, was initially made up of MIT/LL, the MIT campus group of Prof. Tomas Palacios (MIT), and the industrial partner M/A Com Technology Solutions (MTS). Later in the program a 4th team member was added (IQE MA) to provide commercial-scale GaN-on-Si epitaxial materials. A basic premise of the GIGA program was that power electronics, for ubiquitous utilization -even for grid applications - should be closer in cost structure to more conventional Si-based power electronics. For a number of reasons, more established GaN-on-SiC or even SiC-based power electronics are not likely to reach theses cost structures, even in higher manufacturing volumes. An additional premise of the GIGA program was that the technical focus would be on materials and devices suitable for operating at voltages > 1 kV, even though there is also significant commercial interest in developing lower voltage (< 1 kV), cost effective GaN-on-Si devices for higher volume applications, like consumer products. Remarkable technical progress was made during the course of this program. Advances in materials included the growth of high-quality, crack-free epitaxial GaN layers on large-diameter Si substrates with thicknesses up to ~5 μm, overcoming significant challenges in lattice mismatch and thermal expansion differences between Si and GaN in the actual epitaxial growth process. Such thick epilayers are crucial for high voltage operation of lateral geometry devices such as Schottky barrier (SB) diodes and high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). New “Normally-Off” device architectures were demonstrated – for safe operation of power electronics circuits. The trade-offs between lateral and

  8. Corals from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patzert, William C.

    1999-01-01

    The goal of this research is to monitor the health and vigor of coral reef ecosystems, and their sensitivity to natural and anthropogenic climate changes. To achieve these lofty goals, this research is investigating the feasibility of using spaceborne high-resolution spectrometers (on the US Landsat, French Systeme Probatoire pour l'Observation de la Terre [SPOT] and/or the Indian Resources Satellite [IRS 1C & 1D] spacecraft) to first map the aerial extent of coral reef systems, and second separate the amount of particular corals. If this is successful, we could potentially provide a quantum leap in our understanding of coral reef systems, as well as provide much needed baseline data to measure future changes in global coral reef ecosystems. In collaboration with Tomas Tomascik, Yann Morel, and other colleagues, a series of experiments were planned to coordinate in situ coral observations, high-resolution spaceborne imagery (from Landsat, SPOT, and, possibly, IRS IC spacecraft), and NASA Space Shuttle photographs and digital images. Our eventual goal is to develop "coral health algorithms" that can be used to assess time series of imagery collected from satellite sensors (Landsat since 1972, SPOT since 1986) in concert with in situ observations. The bad news from last year was that from 1997 to mid- 1998, the extreme cloudiness over southeast Asia due to prolonged smoke from El Nino-related fires and the economic chaos in this region frustrated both our space and reef-based data collection activities. When this volatile situation stabilizes, we will restart these activities. The good news was that in collaboration with Al Strong at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) we had an exciting year operationally using the NOAA's Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer sensor derived sea surface temperature products to warn of coral "bleaching" at many locations throughout the tropics. Data from NOAA's satellites showed that during the El Nino of

  9. The influence of regional Arctic sea-ice decline on stratospheric and tropospheric circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna, Christine; Bracegirdle, Thomas; Shuckburgh, Emily; Haynes, Peter

    2016-04-01

    region (one perturbation experiment combines all regions). These regions correspond to sea-ice loss hotspots such as the Barents-Kara Seas and the Bering Sea. The differences between the control and perturbation runs yields the effects of the imposed sea-ice loss on the polar vortex. To detect and count SSWs for each run, we use the World Meteorological Organisation's definition of an SSW (a reversal in zonal mean zonal wind at 10 hPa and 60° N, and a reversal in zonal mean meridional temperature gradient at 10 hPa between 60° N and 90° N). The poster will present and discuss the initial results of this study. Implications of the results for future change in the lower latitude mid-troposphere will be discussed. References Sun, L., C. Deser, and R. A. Tomas, 2015: Mechanisms of Stratospheric and Tropospheric Circulation Response to Projected Arctic Sea Ice Loss. J. Climate, 28, 7824-7845, doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0169.1.

  10. Elastoplasticidad anisotropa de metales en grandes deformaciones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caminero Torija, Miguel Angel

    Eterovic y Bathe para incluir la posibilidad de plasticidad anisotropa con endurecimiento mixto. Este primer algoritmo esta restringido a casos de isotropia elastica. La isotropia elastica es una hipotesis bastante habitual en plasticidad anisotropa y tiene la ventaja de que permite el uso de formulaciones mixtas u/p. El segundo algoritmo, mas complejo y general, incluye la posibilidad de elasticidad anisotropa, plasticidad anisotropa y endurecimiento mixto. Este algoritmo supone una contribucion importante ya que esta basado en hipotesis comunmente aceptadas y utilizadas en elastoplasticidad isotropa: descomposicion multiplicativa del gradiente de deformaciones en parte elastica y parte plastica, descripcion hiperelastica sencilla en funcion de deformaciones logaritmicas e integracion exponencial que conserva el volumen. Ademas, la estructura final del algoritmo es modular y relativamente sencilla, consistiendo en un pre- y un postprocesador geometrico y una correccion plastica realizada en pequenas deformaciones. El algoritmo esta consistentemente linealizado para conservar la convergencia cuadratica asintotica de los metodos de Newton y la forma final que toma dicha linealizacion es similar al caso de isotropia elastoplastica implementado; consiste en el modulo tangente algoritmico de pequenas deformaciones sobre el que se aplica una transformacion para convertirlo en el de grandes deformaciones. Todos estos modelos han sido implementados en un codigo propio de elementos finitos denominado DULCINEA, el cual tiene formulaciones lagrangianas totales y actualizadas para grandes deformaciones. Una de las tareas necesarias para poder realizar las simulaciones, ha sido el estudio e implementacion de diferentes elementos que no sufran el bloqueo volumetrico severo que se observa en formulaciones estandar basadas en desplazamientos. Este bloqueo se debe a la condicion de quasi-incompresibilidad que imponen los modelos de plasticidad desviadores y consiste en una respuesta

  11. Testing Pixel Translation Digital Elevation Models to Reconstruct Slip Histories: An Example from the Agua Blanca Fault, Baja California, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, J.; Wetmore, P. H.; Malservisi, R.; Ferwerda, B. P.; Teran, O.

    2012-12-01

    We use recently collected slip vector and total offset data from the Agua Blanca fault (ABF) to constrain a pixel translation digital elevation model (DEM) to reconstruct the slip history of this fault. This model was constructed using a Perl script that reads a DEM file (Easting, Northing, Elevation) and a configuration file with coordinates that define the boundary of each fault segment. A pixel translation vector is defined as a magnitude of lateral offset in an azimuthal direction. The program translates pixels north of the fault and prints their pre-faulting position to a new DEM file that can be gridded and displayed. This analysis, where multiple DEMs are created with different translation vectors, allows us to identify areas of transtension or transpression while seeing the topographic expression in these areas. The benefit of this technique, in contrast to a simple block model, is that the DEM gives us a valuable graphic which can be used to pose new research questions. We have found that many topographic features correlate across the fault, i.e. valleys and ridges, which likely have implications for the age of the ABF, long term landscape evolution rates, and potentially provide conformation for total slip assessments The ABF of northern Baja California, Mexico is an active, dextral strike slip fault that transfers Pacific-North American plate boundary strain out of the Gulf of California and around the "Big Bend" of the San Andreas Fault. Total displacement on the ABF in the central and eastern parts of the fault is 10 +/- 2 km based on offset Early-Cretaceous features such as terrane boundaries and intrusive bodies (plutons and dike swarms). Where the fault bifurcates to the west, the northern strand (northern Agua Blanca fault or NABF) is constrained to 7 +/- 1 km. We have not yet identified piercing points on the southern strand, the Santo Tomas fault (STF), but displacement is inferred to be ~4 km assuming that the sum of slip on the NABF and STF is

  12. Comparison of overbank fines magnetic pollution in the rivers of Czech Republic by using MS/Fe ratio and enrichment factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Famera, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Martin Famera1, Tereza Novakova3,4, Tomas Matys Grygar3, Jitka Elznicová, Andrea Tipanová1, Ondrej Babek1,2, Martin Chadima5 1Department of Geology, Palacky University, 17. listopadu 1192/12, 771 46 Olomouc, Czech Republic 2Department of Geological Sciences, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, 611 37 Brno, Czech Republic 3Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR, v.v.i., 250 68 Rez, Czech Republic 4Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Science, Albertov 6, 128 43 Prague, Czech Republic 5Agico, s.r.o., Jecna 29a, 621 00 Brno, Czech Republic Magnetic susceptibility (MS) normalized to the content of Fe is able to effectively remove the influence of facies (grain-size effect) in determining the background values, as well as Al normalization of heavy metal concentrations. Normalization MS/Fe is also used to determine the contamination of sediments by magnetic particles, using calculation of enrichment factor of magnetic susceptibility in sediments. In our study, we compared the magnetic enrichment of overbank fines of five rivers in Czech Republic (the Ploucnice, the Morava, the Jizera, the Litavka, and the Berounka rivers). Magnetic susceptibility was measured using KLY-2 Kappabridge (Agico, Czech Republic) and mass-specific data were expressed in m3×kg-1. X-ray fluorescence elementary analysis of powdered sediments was performed by ED XRF MiniPal 4.0 (PANalytical, the Netherlands). ED XRF results were calibrated to ppm values using results obtained from selected samples by ICP MS. Compared samples were taken from lithogenic parts of profiles, unaffected by anthropogenic contamination and pedogenetic and reductimorphic processes. Results showed high variability of the measured values. In the Litavka and the Morava River sediments were measured low values of MS (˂150×10-9) at relatively high contents of Fe (20-45 000 ppm). In contrast, lower flow of the Jizera River showed low Fe contents (˂12000 ppm) having MS values in a wide range (70-800×10-9). The Plou

  13. Microfluidics—from fundamental research to industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köster, Sarah

    2013-03-01

    The advance of microfluidics started in the early 1980s. At the time, researchers realized that many processes and reactions in chemistry and biology, which typically take place on small length scales, can be defined, controlled and understood much better when using tools on equally small length scales. Reactions and reaction kinetics rely on (gradual) concentration differences and microfluidics provides the unique possibility to establish exactly such gradients of solutes, ion concentrations, pH value and so on. Nowadays the variety of specific microfluidic methods is large. In principle, they can be divided into two groups: (i) monophase flow, where miscible (e.g. aqueous) fluids are mixed, mostly by diffusion owing to the laminar flow on small length scales and (ii) multiphase flow, the most prominent example of which is probably droplet microfluidics, where water-in-oil or oil-in-water emulsions are used to encapsulate chemical or biological systems and separate them from each other, much like in 'micron-scale test tubes'. Now, 30 years later, microfluidic techniques are seriously considered for industrial applications, although some important steps in the upscaling process are still missing. The purpose of this special issue is to shed light on the different aspects in microfluidics research starting from fundamental research reaching all the way to industrial applications. The study by Toma and co-workers takes advantage of the controlled diffusive mixing when co-flowing aqueous, miscible solutions. They combine microfluidics with optical, spectroscopic and scattering techniques to study DNA packing. Nunes et al review the different regimes when replacing one of the fluids by an oil phase and varying flow rates and device geometries with a particular emphasis on using multiphase microfluidics for synthesis of particles or fibres. Going into the third dimension by fabricating microfluidic devices with several layers, producing emulsions can also be achieved by

  14. EDITORIAL: Focus on Quantum Information and Many-Body Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisert, Jens; Plenio, Martin B.

    2010-02-01

    and F Verstraete SIMULATION AND DYNAMICS A quantum differentiation of k-SAT instances B Tamir and G Ortiz Classical Ising model test for quantum circuits Joseph Geraci and Daniel A Lidar Exact matrix product solutions in the Heisenberg picture of an open quantum spin chain S R Clark, J Prior, M J Hartmann, D Jaksch and M B Plenio Exact solution of Markovian master equations for quadratic Fermi systems: thermal baths, open XY spin chains and non-equilibrium phase transition Tomaž Prosen and Bojan Žunkovič Quantum kinetic Ising models R Augusiak, F M Cucchietti, F Haake and M Lewenstein ENTANGLEMENT AND SPECTRAL PROPERTIES Ground states of unfrustrated spin Hamiltonians satisfy an area law Niel de Beaudrap, Tobias J Osborne and Jens Eisert Correlation density matrices for one-dimensional quantum chains based on the density matrix renormalization group W Münder, A Weichselbaum, A Holzner, Jan von Delft and C L Henley The invariant-comb approach and its relation to the balancedness of multipartite entangled states Andreas Osterloh and Jens Siewert Entanglement scaling of fractional quantum Hall states through geometric deformations Andreas M Läuchli, Emil J Bergholtz and Masudul Haque Entanglement versus gap for one-dimensional spin systems Daniel Gottesman and M B Hastings Entanglement spectra of critical and near-critical systems in one dimension F Pollmann and J E Moore Macroscopic bound entanglement in thermal graph states D Cavalcanti, L Aolita, A Ferraro, A García-Saez and A Acín Entanglement at the quantum phase transition in a harmonic lattice Elisabeth Rieper, Janet Anders and Vlatko Vedral Multipartite entanglement and frustration P Facchi, G Florio, U Marzolino, G Parisi and S Pascazio Entropic uncertainty relations—a survey Stephanie Wehner and Andreas Winter Entanglement in a spin system with inverse square statistical interaction D Giuliano, A Sindona, G Falcone, F Plastina and L Amico APPLICATIONS Time-dependent currents of one-dimensional bosons

  15. PREFACE: Selected contributions from the 3rd Theory Meets Industry International Workshop, TMI2009 (Nagoya, Japan, 11-13 November 2009) Selected contributions from the 3rd Theory Meets Industry International Workshop, TMI2009 (Nagoya, Japan, 11-13 November 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Isao; Hafner, Jürgen; Wimmer, Erich; Asahi, Ryoji

    2010-09-01

    . Lectures and poster presentations were thus solicited from leading international academic and industrial researchers. The large audience that attended responded to the high quality of the talks with pertinent questions and lively discussions. The third workshop, TMI2009, was held over three days from 11-13 November, 2009, at the Nagoya International Center, Nagoya, Japan. Invited talks were given by 23 speakers from 9 countries from both the academic and industry sectors. The speakers were Ryoji Asahi (Toyota Central R&D Labs, Japan), Tomas Bucko (University of Vienna, Austria), Gábor Csányi (University of Cambridge, UK), Alessandro De Vita (King's College London, UK), Bernard Delley (Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland), Christophe Domain (EDF, France), George Fitzgerald (Accelrys, USA), Takeo Fujiwara (University of Tokyo, Japan), Jürgen Hafner (University of Vienna, Austria), Masaya Ishida (Sumitomo Chemicals, Japan), Werner Janse Van Rensburg (Sasol Technology, South Africa), Masanori Kohyama (AIST, Japan), Takao Kotani (Tottori University, Japan), Georg Kresse (University of Vienna, Austria), Katsuyuki Matsunaga (Kyoto University, Japan), Stefan Müller (University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Germany), Shin-ichiro Nakamura (Mitsubishi Chemicals, Japan), Fumiyasu Oba (Kyoto University, Japan), Tamio Oguchi (Hiroshima University, Japan), Pascal Raybaud (IFP, France), Isao Tanaka (Kyoto University/JFCC, Japan), Göran Wahnström (Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden), and Erich Wimmer (Materials Design Inc., USA). There were 40 poster presentations in total. The workshop was attended by approximately 120 participants with approximately 50 per cent from industry. The invited talks covered advances in ab initio solid-state calculations and their practical use in industry. Presentations outlining the progress made in treating large and complex systems, as well as more accurate and efficient calculation methods, were given from the theory side. Examples of the use of ab

  16. Managing for sustainability in an arid climate: lessons learned from 20 years of groundwater management in Arizona, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Katharine L.; Holway, James M.

    'importance de données de haute qualité dans la prise de décisions de gestion. Resumen Se ha logrado un progreso substancial en el centro de Arizona para conseguir un futuro más sustentable del agua, particularmente al trasladar la demanda urbana desde un suministro basado principalmente en aguas subterráneas no renovables hacia una mayor dependencia de las aguas superficiales de los ríos Colorado y Salado y de los efluentes de aguas depuradas. Los esfuerzos de gestión incluyen un amplio rango de programas legales y voluntarios que han tenido un éxito combinado. El Departamento de Recursos Hídricos ha aprendido diversas lecciones clave a lo largo de los años, y este artículo intenta establecer el contexto de la gestión del agua e identificar lo averiguado para beneficio de terceros que quieran evaluar enfoques alternativos para gestionar las aguas subterráneas. Entre los temas tratados, destaca la evaluación de los enfoques de gestión del agua en un contexto político público, la efectividad de enfoques alternativos de gestión y los méritos relativos de los esfuerzos regulativos y no regulativos, y la importancia de los datos de alta calidad para la toma de decisiones de gestión. Groundwater use in many areas of Arizona greatly exceeds the natural replenishment of the aquifer, so although a portion of the groundwater use is renewable, the majority is not.

  17. EDITORIAL: Focus on Quantum Information and Many-Body Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisert, Jens; Plenio, Martin B.

    2010-02-01

    and F Verstraete SIMULATION AND DYNAMICS A quantum differentiation of k-SAT instances B Tamir and G Ortiz Classical Ising model test for quantum circuits Joseph Geraci and Daniel A Lidar Exact matrix product solutions in the Heisenberg picture of an open quantum spin chain S R Clark, J Prior, M J Hartmann, D Jaksch and M B Plenio Exact solution of Markovian master equations for quadratic Fermi systems: thermal baths, open XY spin chains and non-equilibrium phase transition Tomaž Prosen and Bojan Žunkovič Quantum kinetic Ising models R Augusiak, F M Cucchietti, F Haake and M Lewenstein ENTANGLEMENT AND SPECTRAL PROPERTIES Ground states of unfrustrated spin Hamiltonians satisfy an area law Niel de Beaudrap, Tobias J Osborne and Jens Eisert Correlation density matrices for one-dimensional quantum chains based on the density matrix renormalization group W Münder, A Weichselbaum, A Holzner, Jan von Delft and C L Henley The invariant-comb approach and its relation to the balancedness of multipartite entangled states Andreas Osterloh and Jens Siewert Entanglement scaling of fractional quantum Hall states through geometric deformations Andreas M Läuchli, Emil J Bergholtz and Masudul Haque Entanglement versus gap for one-dimensional spin systems Daniel Gottesman and M B Hastings Entanglement spectra of critical and near-critical systems in one dimension F Pollmann and J E Moore Macroscopic bound entanglement in thermal graph states D Cavalcanti, L Aolita, A Ferraro, A García-Saez and A Acín Entanglement at the quantum phase transition in a harmonic lattice Elisabeth Rieper, Janet Anders and Vlatko Vedral Multipartite entanglement and frustration P Facchi, G Florio, U Marzolino, G Parisi and S Pascazio Entropic uncertainty relations—a survey Stephanie Wehner and Andreas Winter Entanglement in a spin system with inverse square statistical interaction D Giuliano, A Sindona, G Falcone, F Plastina and L Amico APPLICATIONS Time-dependent currents of one-dimensional bosons

  18. Elastoplasticidad anisotropa de metales en grandes deformaciones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caminero Torija, Miguel Angel

    Eterovic y Bathe para incluir la posibilidad de plasticidad anisotropa con endurecimiento mixto. Este primer algoritmo esta restringido a casos de isotropia elastica. La isotropia elastica es una hipotesis bastante habitual en plasticidad anisotropa y tiene la ventaja de que permite el uso de formulaciones mixtas u/p. El segundo algoritmo, mas complejo y general, incluye la posibilidad de elasticidad anisotropa, plasticidad anisotropa y endurecimiento mixto. Este algoritmo supone una contribucion importante ya que esta basado en hipotesis comunmente aceptadas y utilizadas en elastoplasticidad isotropa: descomposicion multiplicativa del gradiente de deformaciones en parte elastica y parte plastica, descripcion hiperelastica sencilla en funcion de deformaciones logaritmicas e integracion exponencial que conserva el volumen. Ademas, la estructura final del algoritmo es modular y relativamente sencilla, consistiendo en un pre- y un postprocesador geometrico y una correccion plastica realizada en pequenas deformaciones. El algoritmo esta consistentemente linealizado para conservar la convergencia cuadratica asintotica de los metodos de Newton y la forma final que toma dicha linealizacion es similar al caso de isotropia elastoplastica implementado; consiste en el modulo tangente algoritmico de pequenas deformaciones sobre el que se aplica una transformacion para convertirlo en el de grandes deformaciones. Todos estos modelos han sido implementados en un codigo propio de elementos finitos denominado DULCINEA, el cual tiene formulaciones lagrangianas totales y actualizadas para grandes deformaciones. Una de las tareas necesarias para poder realizar las simulaciones, ha sido el estudio e implementacion de diferentes elementos que no sufran el bloqueo volumetrico severo que se observa en formulaciones estandar basadas en desplazamientos. Este bloqueo se debe a la condicion de quasi-incompresibilidad que imponen los modelos de plasticidad desviadores y consiste en una respuesta

  19. Micromechanical Analyses of Sturzstroms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imre, Bernd; Laue, Jan; Springman, Sarah M.

    2010-05-01

    have been made observable and reproducible within a physical and a distinct element numerical modelling environment (DEM). As link between field evidence gained from the deposits of natural sturzstroms, the physical model within the ETH Geotechnical Drum Centrifuge (Springman et al., 2001) and the numerical model PFC-3D (Cundall and Strack, 1979; Itasca, 2005), serves a deterministic fractal analytical comminution model (Sammis et al., 1987; Steacy and Sammis, 1991). This approach allowed studying the effects of dynamic fragmentation within sturzstroms at true (macro) scale within the distinct element model, by allowing for a micro-mechanical, distinct particle based, and cyclic description of fragmentation at the same time, without losing significant computational efficiency. Theses experiments indicate rock mass and boundary conditions, which allow an alternating fragmenting and dilating dispersive regime to evolve and to be sustained long enough to replicate the spreading and run out of sturzstroms. The fragmenting spreading model supported here is able to explain the run out of a dry granular flow, beyond the travel distance predicted by a Coulomb frictional sliding model, without resorting to explanations by mechanics that can only be valid for certain, specific of the boundary conditions. The implications derived suggest that a sturzstrom, because of its strong relation to internal fractal fragmentation and other inertial effects, constitutes a landslide category of its own. Its mechanics differ significantly from all other gravity driven mass flows. This proposition does not exclude the possible appearance of frictionites, Toma hills or suspension flows etc., but it considers them as secondary features. The application of a fractal comminution model to describe natural and experimental sturzstrom deposits turned out to be a useful tool for sturzstrom research. Implemented within the DEM, it allows simulating the key features of sturzstrom successfully and

  20. Contribution of Systematic Reviews to Management Decisions

    PubMed Central

    COOK, CARLY N; POSSINGHAM, HUGH P; FULLER, RICHARD A

    2014-01-01

    Decisiones de Manejo Resumen Las revisiones sistemáticas resumen integralmente la evidencia sobre la efectividad de las intervenciones de conservación. Investigamos la contribución de las decisiones de manejo hechas por este creciente cuerpo de literatura. Identificamos 43 revisiones sistemáticas de evidencia de conservación, 23 de las cuales hicieron algunas conclusiones concretas relevantes al manejo. La mayoría de las revisiones se dirigían a intervenciones de conservación relevantes a las decisiones políticas; sólo el 35% consideraba intervenciones de manejo sobre-la-causa prácticas. La mayoría de las revisiones cubrieron solo una pequeña fracción de la amplitud geográfica y taxonómica a la que buscaban dirigirse (mediana = 13% de los países relevantes y 16% de los taxones relevantes). La probabilidad de que las revisiones tuvieran por lo menos algunas implicaciones para el manejo tendió a incrementar conforme la cobertura geográfica incrementaba y a declinar conforme aumentaba la amplitud taxonómica. Estos resultados sugieren que la amplitud de una revisión taxonómica requiere de una consideración cuidadosa. Las revisiones identificaron una media de 312 estudios primarios relevantes pero excluyeron 88% de estos por deficiencias en el diseño o fallas para coincidir con otros criterios de inclusión. Las revisiones resumieron en promedio 248 juegos de datos y 112 años de actividad de investigación, pero la probabilidad de que sus resultados tuvieran por lo menos algunas implicaciones para el manejo no incrementaron mientras la cantidad de investigación primaria resumida aumentaba. En algunos casos, las conclusiones fueron elusivas a pesar de la inclusión de cientos de conjuntos de datos y años de actividad de investigación acumulada. Las revisiones sistemáticas son una parte importante del juego de herramientas en la toma de decisiones de conservación, aunque consideramos que los beneficios de las revisiones sistemáticas podrían ser

  1. The conceptualization model problem—surprise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bredehoeft, John

    2005-03-01

    que le modèle conceptuel peut bien changer lorsque des nouvelles informations apparaissent. Dans l'analyse finale le hydrogéologue prend une décision subjective sur le modèle conceptuel approprié. Le problème du le modèle conceptuel ne doit pas rendre le modèle inutilisable. Ce problème introduit une incertitude qui n'est pas toujours reconnue. Les incertitudes du modèle conceptuel deviennent plus importantes dans les cases de prévisions à long terme dans l'analyse de performance. La base para hacer un análisis de un modelo es el modelo conceptual. Se define aquí la sorpresa como los datos nuevos que convierten en incoherente al modelo conceptual previamente aceptado; tal como se define aquí esto representa un cambio de paradigma. Los datos empíricos limitados indican que estas sorpresas suceden entre un 20 a un 30% de los análisis de modelos. Esto sugiere que los analistas de modelos de agua subterránea tienen dificultades al seleccionar el modelo conceptual apropiado. No hayotra solución disponible a este problema del modelo conceptual diferente de: (1) Recolectar tanta información como sea posible, mediante la utilización de todos los métodos aplicables, lo cual puede resultar en que esta nueva información ayude a cambiar el modelo conceptual vigente, y (2) Que el analista de modelos se mantenga siempre abierto al hecho de que un modelo conceptual puede cambiar de manera total, en la medida en que se colecte mas información. En el análisis final el hidrogeólogo toma una decisión subjetiva en cuanto al modelo conceptual apropiado. El problema de la conceptualización no produce modelos inútiles. El problema presenta una incertidumbre, la cual a menudo no es tenida en cuentade manera adecuada. Esta incertidumbre en los modelos conceptuales se aumenta, cuando se hacen predicciones a largo plazo del comportamiento de un sistema dado.

  2. Geochemistry and the understanding of ground-water systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glynn, Pierre D.; Plummer, L. Niel

    2005-03-01

    mecanismos de flujo y transporte en sistemas de agua subterránea, y han ayudado a descifrar un archivo de información paleoambiental. Información hidroquímica e isotópica puede utilizarse para interpretar el origen y modo de recarga de agua subterránea, descifrar procesos reactivos, aportar información paleohidrológica, y calibrar modelos de flujo de agua subterránea. Necesita avanzarse en la obtención de muestras representativas. Se necesitan mejoras en la interpretación de la información obtenida y en la construcción e interpretación de modelos numéricos que utilizan datos hidroquímicos. El mejor enfoque asegurará un proceso iterativo optimizado entre toma y análisis de datos de campo, interpretación, y la aplicación de herramientas de modelizado estadísticas, directas, e inversas. Se anticipan avancesa partir de investigaciones microbiológicas, la caracterización de orgánicos naturales, caracterización isotópica, aplicaciones de mediciones de gas disuelto, y los campos de cinética de reacción y procesos acoplados. Se ofrece una perspectiva termodinámica que podría facilitar la comparación y entendimiento de los múltiples procesos físicos, químicos, y biológicos que afectan sistemas de aguas subterráneas.

  3. Chlorine-36 and the initial value problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Stanley N.; Cecil, DeWayne; Zreda, Marek; Sharma, Pankaj

    atmosféricos. También se produjeron grandes cantidades en las pruebas termonucleares que tuvieron lugar entre 1952-58. Al tratarse de un anión monovalente, el cloruro es la forma más común en que se presenta el cloro en la hidrosfera, y al ser extremadamente móvil en sistemas acuosos, los análisis tanto de Cl- total como de 36Cl han tenido gran importancia en muchos estudios hidrológicos. En la mayoría de aplicaciones del 36Cl, el conocimiento de los niveles iniciales (pre-antropogénicos) de 36Cl es esencial. Los métodos tradicionales para la determinación de los valores iniciales han sido: (a) calcular la producción cosmogénica teórica y su aporte a la superficie de la Tierra, que varía en función de la latitud; (b) medir el 36Cl en las precipitaciones actuales, asumiendo que las contribuciones antropogénicas son despreciables; (c) asumir que las aguas subterráneas más superficiales mantienen la concentración inicial; (d) extraer los contenidos de 36Cl en perfiles verticales profundos en suelos desérticos (e) realizar la misma operación en muestras de hielo glaciar; y (f) calcular la producción subsuperficial de 36Cl para un agua que lleva sin contacto con la atmósfera durante más de un millón de años. El valor inicial de los perfiles de suelo y de las muestras de hielo se toma como el valor que se presenta directamente por debajo del punto que marca el pico producido por las bombas, y que es fácilmente identificable. Los seis métodos tienen sus puntos débiles. Entre los factores que complican la interpretación se incluyen las concentraciones de 36Cl no relacionadas con fuentes cosmogénicas, las variaciones temporales en la producción cosmogénica, la mezcla de fuentes de cloruro en las aguas subterráneas, el deshielo y recongelación del agua en los glaciares, y la recarga estacional que contiene concentraciones de 36Cl que no se corresponden con el promedio anual.

  4. a Passage to the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-11-01

    a concluding Press Conference , during which the outcome of this unique event will be summarized by the participants and the organisers: Monday, November 20, 1995, 15:30 pm, at the ESO Headquarters, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching, Germany List of National First-Prize Winners Belgium: Mr. Freddy Allemeersch (Teacher), Mr. Pieter De Ceuninck, Mr. Jeroen Staelens (Onze-Lieve-Vrouwecollege, Brugge) Denmark: Mr. Joern C. Olsen, Mr. Henrik Struckmann, Mr. Uffe A. Hansen, Mr. Mogens Winther (Teacher) (Soenderborg Amtsgymnasium) Finland: Mr. Reima Eresmaa, Ms. Laura Elina Nykyri, Ms. Reetamaija Janhonen (Cygnaeues-Lukeo, Jyvaeskylae and Jyvaeskylaen Lyseon Lukeo) France: Mr. Rene Cavaroz (Teacher), Mr. Vincent Hardy, Mr. Antoine Lesuffleur (Lycee Chartier, Bayeux) Germany: Ms. Dorothee Barth, Mr. Walter Czech (Teacher), Mr. Uwe Kranz, Ms. Karin Wieland (Immanuel-Kant-Gymnasium, Leinfelden-Echterdingen, Baden-Wuerttemberg) Greece: Ms. Agni Ioannidi, Ms. Elena Katifori, Mr. Vassilis Samiotis, Mr. Vassillos Tzotzes (Teacher) (Second Varvakelo Experimental Lyceum, Athens) Ireland: Mr. Declan Maccuarta (Teacher), Mr. Colm Mcloughlin (St. Peter's College, Wexford, Co. Wexford) Italy: Mr. Pasquale Ciarletta, Ms. Francesca D'elia, Ms. Ada Fortugna (Teacher), Mr. Alfredo Pudano (Liceo Scientifico `Leonardo da Vinci', Reggio Calabria) The Netherlands: Mr. Alex De Beer, Mr. Klaas Huijbregts, Mr. Ruud Nellen (Norbertuscollege, Rosendaal) Spain: Mr. Aritz Atela Aio, Mr. Julen Sarasola Manich (Teacher), Mr. Jon Huertas Rodriquez (Txorierri Batxilergoko Institua, Derio Bizkaia) Sweden: Mr. Rahman Amanullah, Mr. Kjell L. Bonander (Teacher), Mr. Tomas Oppelstrup, Ms. Christin Wiedemann (Saltsjoebadens Samskola, Saltsjoebaden) United Kingdom: Mr. Michael Ching, Dr. Richard Field (Teacher) (Oundle School, Peterborough) National Committees Further information about the national contests may be obtained from the National Committees: Belgium: Dr. C. Sterken, Vrije Universiteit

  5. About some processes of replacement of PGM from the placers of Southern Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvedov, G. I.; Knyazev, V. N.; Nekos, V. V.

    2003-04-01

    placer of Sysim river (Eastern Sayan). The similar composition of phase was described by S.A.Toma and S.Murphy /6/. In placer of Talanovaya river (Kuznetsky Alatau) the edging of idealized composition Os_2S (tab., No. 4-1) are develops on the grain of Os-Ir-ruthenium (tab., No.4). It indicates deficit of sulfur in a solution. In case of increased concentration of arsenic the minerals of Os-Ir-Ru system (tab., No. 5) are replaced by diarsenides (anduoite - omeiite series) (tab., No. 5-1) or sulfoarsenides of these elements as it was observed in PGM from placer of Rudnaya river (Western Sayan). In the extremely rare cases at superposition of sulfurless and arsenicless solutions the replacement of alloys Os-Ir-Ru by exotic phases can happen. For example, authors find the grain of native iridium, which was heavily deformed and impregnated on microgaps by phases of generalized composition from Pt(Ni,Cu,Fe)_2 to Ir(Ni,Fe,Cu)_3 in placer of Bolshoy Khaylik river /7/. The forming of similar phases can be initiated by very specific conditions: the extremely reducing conditions, very low fugitivity of sulfur and oxygen, absence of other anion-forming elements, high activity of a nickel, iron and cooper. The similar phases were found in streak-schlieren chromitic ores in one massif of alpine-type ultramafic rocks of Koryak Highland /3/. Also rather rare replacement of platinum with the high contents of ruthenium and iridium (platruthenosmiridium by old nomenclature) (tab., No.6) by Pt-Fe alloys (tab., No.6-1). It was observed by authors in PGM from placer of Talanovaya river (Kuznetsky Alatau). In the system Pt-Fe most widespread placer-forming minerals are ferriferous platinum, tetraferroplatinum and isoferroplatinum. In placers that were investigated by the authors the Pt-Fe alloys most frequently is replaced by cuperite, which forms the various thickness edgings. It usual phenomenon in some cases becomes complicated by forming of narrow (first microns) intermittent band of high

  6. Preface: SciDAC 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Rick

    2008-07-01

    talks from several European groups, including Laurent Gicquel of CERFACS, who spoke on `Large-Eddy Simulations of Turbulent Reacting Flows of Real Burners: Status and Challenges', and Jean-Francois Hamelin from EDF, who presented a talk on `Getting Ready for Petaflop Capacities and Beyond: A Utility Perspective'. Two other compelling addresses gave attendees a glimpse into the future. Tomas Diaz de la Rubia of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory spoke on a vision for a fusion/fission hybrid reactor known as the `LIFE Engine' and discussed some of the materials and modeling challenges that need to be overcome to realize the vision for a 1000-year greenhouse-gas-free power source. Dan Reed from Microsoft gave a capstone talk on the convergence of technology, architecture, and infrastructure for cloud computing, data-intensive computing, and exascale computing (1018 flops/sec). High-performance computing is making rapid strides. The SciDAC community's computational resources are expanding dramatically. In the summer of 2008 the first general purpose petascale system (IBM Cell-based RoadRunner at Los Alamos National Laboratory) was recognized in the top 500 list of fastest machines heralding in the dawning of the petascale era. The DOE's leadership computing facility at Argonne reached number three on the Top 500 and is at the moment the most capable open science machine based on an IBM BG/P system with a peak performance of over 550 teraflops/sec. Later this year Oak Ridge is expected to deploy a 1 petaflops/sec Cray XT system. And even before the scientific community has had an opportunity to make significant use of petascale systems, the computer science research community is forging ahead with ideas and strategies for development of systems that may by the end of the next decade sustain exascale performance. Several talks addressed barriers to, and strategies for, achieving exascale capabilities. The last day of the conference was devoted to tutorials hosted by

  7. Participatory groundwater management in Jordan: Development and analysis of options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chebaane, Mohamed; El-Naser, Hazim; Fitch, Jim; Hijazi, Amal; Jabbarin, Amer

    ómicos, se ha recomendado la implementación de cinco opciones complementarias de gestión: establecimiento de un Servicio Asesor de Riego; adquisición de pozos de granjas; imposición de límites estrictos en las extracciones de pozos y superficies de riego; substitución de las aguas subterráneas con aguas residuales depuradas; y medidas para incrementar la eficiencia de los usos municipales e industriales del agua. Se ha agrupado varias combinaciones y niveles de dichas opciones en escenarios, representando estrategias posibles de implementación. Los escenarios han sido diseñados para ayudar a los gestores en la toma de decisiones, a los propietarios de pozos y a otros agentes para que se vaya consiguiendo de forma gradual un régimen de extracciones sustentable. Se ha analizado los aspectos sociales y económicos de cada opción y de cada escenario, presentándolos a los diversos agentes, además de generar un resumen de ramificaciones legales, institucionales y medioambientales. Se ha concebido la combinación de un análisis científico con un enfoque participativo en la cuenca de Ammán-Zarga como un prototipo de gestión de las aguas subterráneas que puede ser aplicado a la gestión de otras cuencas en Jordania. También sería útil en otros lugares del mundo que estén experimentando problemas similares de sobreexplotación de los recursos hídricos subterráneos.

  8. List of Participants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-11-01

    Università di Napoli Federico II Elena Méndez Escobar University of Edinburgh Iulian Negru University of Craiova Emil NissimovInstitute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Sofia Teake NutmaCentre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen Niels Obers Niels Bohr Institute, København Olof Ohlsson SaxUppsala University Rodrigo OleaIstituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano Domenico OrlandoUniversité de Neuchâtel Marta Orselli Niels Bohr Institute, København Tomas OrtinInstituto de Física Teórica, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid Yaron OzTel Aviv University Enrico PajerLudwig-Maximilians-Universität, München Angel Paredes GalanUtrecht University Sara PasquettiUniversité de Neuchâtel Silvia PenatiUniversità di Milano-Bicocca Jan PerzKatholieke Universiteit Leuven Igor PesandoUniversità di Torino Tassos PetkouUniversity of Crete Marios PetropoulosCenter de Physique Théorique, École Polytechnique, Palaiseau Franco PezzellaIstituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Napoli Moises Picon PonceUniversity of Padova Marco PirroneUniversità di Milano-Bicocca Andrea PrinslooUniversity of Cape Town Joris RaeymaekersKatholieke Universiteit Leuven Alfonso RamalloUniversidade de Santiago de Compostela Carlo Alberto RattiUniversità di Milano-Bicocca Marco RauchPhysikalisches Institut, Universität Bonn Ronald Reid-EdwardsUniversity of Hamburg Patricia RitterUniversity of Edinburgh Peter RoenneDESY, Hamburg Jan RosseelUniversità di Torino Clement RuefService de Physique Théorique, CEA Saclay Felix RustMax-Planck-Institut für Physik, München Thomas RyttovNiels Bohr Institute, København and CERN, Geneva Agustin Sabio VeraCERN, Geneva Christian SaemannTrinity College, Dublin Houman Safaai SISSA, Trieste Henning SamtlebenÉcole Normale Supérieure, Lyon Alberto SantambrogioIstituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano Silviu Constantin SararuUniversity of Craiova Ricardo SchiappaCERN, Geneva Ionut Romeo SchiopuChalmers University, G

  9. PREFACE: CEWQO Topical Issue CEWQO Topical Issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozic, Mirjana; Man'ko, Margarita

    2009-09-01

    conducting plates (modifications of the decay rate between such plates) and the three-level Jaynes-Cummings dynamics in the single-mode regime. Tomas studies the interaction between two atoms, one excited and the other in its ground state near the interface between two media. It is shown that the nonretarded van der Waals force gets enhanced by almost three orders of magnitude at the surface mode resonance. Vuskovic et al write about the plasma treatment of a bulk Nb surface which is very efficient for producing high-Q factor microwave cavities. Nemeth et al review the theory and experiments of the coherently pumped micromaser. With varied atomic inversion in a coherently pumped micromaser, a sudden switch occurs between two distinctively different field states, with high and low photon numbers. Moi et al show that alkali-metal atoms adsorbed either in organic films or in porous glass are released into the vapor phase (desorbed) under illumination, the action of many photons. Several papers are devoted to matter-wave interference and quantum fluids. By analyzing unavoidable quantum losses as they appear in neutron phase-echo and spin rotation experiments, Rauch concludes that basic quantum irreversibility exists in neutron interferometry. Rauch also shows how entanglement effects in a single particle system demonstrate quantum contextuality, and then argues that a quantum system carries much more information than is usually extracted. The time evolution of the wave function of an atom hit by a photon in a three-grating interferometer is used by Arsenovic et al to interpret the intriguing results of the corresponding experiment by Chapman et al. Grujic et al demonstrate dark Raman resonance due to Ramsey interference in a spatially separated pump and probe laser beams co-propagating through a pure 87Rb vapor cell. Obtained EIT profiles are explained by solving Bloch's equations for an atom in a magnetic field moving through pump and probe laser regions. Gawlik et al present