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Sample records for kanamycin neomycin gentamycin

  1. Extremely sensitive sandwich assay of kanamycin using surface-enhanced Raman scattering of 2-mercaptobenzothiazole labeled gold@silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zengin, Adem; Tamer, Ugur; Caykara, Tuncer

    2014-03-19

    Herein, we report the development of extremely sensitive sandwich assay of kanamycin using a combination of anti-kanamycin functionalized hybrid magnetic (Fe3O4) nanoparticles (MNPs) and 2-mercaptobenzothiazole labeled Au-core@Ag-shell nanoparticles as the recognition and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate, respectively. The hybrid MNPs were first prepared via surface-mediated RAFT polymerization of N-acryloyl-L-glutamic acid in the presence of 2-(butylsulfanylcarbonylthiolsulfanyl) propionic acid-modified MNPs as a RAFT agent and then biofunctionalized with anti-kanamycin, which are both specific for kanamycin and can be collected via a simple magnet. After separating kanamycin from the sample matrix, they were sandwiched with the SERS substrate. According to our experimental results, the limit of detection (LOD) was determined to be 2pg mL(-1), this value being about 3-7 times more than sensitive than the LOD of previously reported results, which can be explained by the higher SERS activity of silver coated gold nanoparticles. The analysis time took less than 10min, including washing and optical detection steps. Furthermore, the sandwich assay was evaluated for investigating the kanamycin specificity on neomycin, gentamycin and streptomycin and detecting kanamycin in artificially contaminated milk. PMID:24594815

  2. Neomycin Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... diapers or plastic pants. They can increase the absorption of the drug, which can cause harmful effects. ... it at room temperature and away from excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom). Neomycin may ...

  3. Detection of Tn5-like sequences in kanamycin-resistant stream bacteria and environmental DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Leff, L G; Dana, J R; McArthur, J V; Shimkets, L J

    1993-01-01

    Resistance to kanamycin and neomycin in the bacterial assemblage of a coastal plain stream was detected by growth of colonies on media containing antibiotics. Three of 184 kanamycin-resistant colonies hybridized with a probe containing the nptII gene from transposon Tn5; the nptII gene encodes the enzyme neomycin phosphotransferase and conveys resistance to kanamycin and neomycin. In one of these isolates, the homologous gene was cloned and shown to confer resistance to a kanamycin-sensitive Escherichia coli strain. Since enumeration of bacteria by acridine orange direct counts revealed that less than 0.2% of the bacteria present were cultivated, direct examination of environmental DNA was used to assess abundance of sequences that hybridize to the nptII gene. To examine the resistance potential of bacteria that were not cultured, total DNA was extracted from environmental samples and hybridized with specific probes. The relative amount of eubacterial DNA in each sample was determined by using a eubacterial specific rDNA probe. Then, the abundance of sequences that hybridize to the eubacterial neomycin phosphotransferase gene was determined by hybridization and expressed relative to the total eubacterial DNA in the assemblage. Relative gene abundance was significantly different among assemblages from different habitats (leaves, midchannel sediments, and bank sediments) but did not differ among stream sites. Images PMID:8382021

  4. Neomycin toxicity revisited.

    PubMed

    Masur, H; Whelton, P K; Whelton, A

    1976-07-01

    Nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity represent the most hazardous side effects of the clincial use of neomycin sulfate. Despite therapeutic restriction of the latter compound to topical, irrigant, and bowel sterilization use, serious toxicity is still encountered. A 69-year-old patient was recently treated by us for acute renal failure and total deafness induced as a result of intermittent seven-day lavage of a surgical cavity with neomycin. Peritoneal dialysis reduced the serum concentration of the antibiotic and promoted complete recovery of renal function. The patient, however, remained deaf. This case serves as a reminder that neomycin can be absorbed systemically following its use as an irrigant solution. In such cases, it may produce an unsuspected form of "high output" renal failure and concomitant hearing loss. The renal failure is usually reveesible, but the hearing loss is frequently permanent. PMID:938230

  5. 2-Deoxystreptamine Conjugates by Truncation–Derivatization of Neomycin

    PubMed Central

    Aslam, M. Waqar; Tabares, Leandro C.; Andreoni, Alessio; Canters, Gerard W.; Rutjes, Floris P.J.T.; van Delft, Floris L.

    2010-01-01

    A small library of truncated neomycin-conjugates is prepared by consecutive removal of 2,6-diaminoglucose rings, oxidation-reductive amination of ribose, oxidation-conjugation of aminopyridine/aminoquinoline and finally dimerization. The dimeric conjugates were evaluated for antibacterial activity with a unique hemocyanin-based biosensor. Based on the outcome of these results, a second-generation set of monomeric conjugates was prepared and found to display significant antibacterial activity, in particular with respect to kanamycin-resistant E. coli.

  6. 21 CFR 520.1484 - Neomycin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... susceptible to neomycin sulfate. (iii) Limitations. Add powder to drinking water or milk; not for use in...) Each ounce of powder contains 20.3 grams (g) neomycin sulfate (equivalent to 14.2 g neomycin base)....

  7. Aptasensors for quantitative detection of kanamycin.

    PubMed

    Robati, Rezvan Yazdian; Arab, Atefeh; Ramezani, Mohammad; Langroodi, Fatemeh Alebooye; Abnous, Khalil; Taghdisi, Seyed Mohammad

    2016-08-15

    Up till now, various techniques have been developed to detect kanamycin in biological samples. However, due to some problems involved in these methods including time-consuming, expensive equipment and high consumption of reagents, new strategies for detection and quantitative determination of kanamycin are needed. Aptamer-based biosensors with unique recognition capability have attracted more attention of scientists because of its rapid response, high sensitivity and simple fabrication. Hence, we summarized optical and electrochemical kanamycin aptasensors and focuses on recent advances and modern techniques in aptasensor-based kanamycin detection techniques in order to provide readers with an inclusive understanding of its improvement and progress. PMID:27085947

  8. DNase I induced DNA degradation is inhibited by neomycin.

    PubMed

    Woegerbauer, M; Burgmann, H; Davies, J; Graninger, W

    2000-03-01

    Preparations of antimicrobials from biotechnological sources containing nucleic acids may serve as vector for the dissemination of resistance genes. An essential prerequisite for the acquisition of a new resistance phenotype in a transformational scenario is the availability of physically intact DNA molecules capable of transforming competent microorganisms. DNA is thought to be an easy target for catabolic processes when present in the natural habitat of bacteria (e.g. gastrointestinal tract, soil) due to the overall presence of nucleolytic enzymes. Aminoglycoside antibiotics are known to display a strong affinity to nucleic acids rendering these compounds to be primary candidates for exerting DNA protective functions in the gastrointestinal tract when applied orally during antibiotic chemotherapy. Using a DNase I protection assay it could be demonstrated that neomycin B at a concentration of 2 mM completely inhibited degradation of plasmid DNA in vitro. No inhibition of degradation was observed with streptomycin and kanamycin and the non-aminoglycoside antibiotics oxytetracycline and ampicillin under identical assay conditions. Thus, neomycin preparations may be able to promote structural integrity of contaminating DNA-fragments in DNase-rich environments. PMID:10819299

  9. Nephroprotection of lacidipine against gentamycin-induced nephrotoxicity in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Kamal, Sahar

    2010-01-01

    Aim Gentamycin, a widely-used aminoglycoside antibiotic, is recognized as possessing significant nephrotoxic potential in human beings. Gentamycin-induced nephrotoxicity is suggested to be mediated via reactive oxygen species. The present study investigated the possible antioxidant nephroprotective effect of lacidipine as a calcium-channel blocker in a gentamycin-induced nephrotoxicity model in albino rats. Methods Albino rats were divided into 3 groups. Group 1 received normal saline. Group 2 received gentamycin 80 mg/kg intraperitoneally for 14 days. Group 3 received lacidipine 1 mg/kg intraperitoneally 3 days before and 14 days concurrently with gentamycin. This dose does not affect the blood pressure of rats, as evidenced in the pilot study. Results Gentamycin-induced nephrotoxicity was evidenced by a marked reduction in creatinine clearance. Treatment with lacidipine improved creatinine clearance compared to the gentamycin-treated group. In addition, it reduced thiobarbituric acid reactive substance, as an index of lipid peroxidation, with significant increases in superoxide dismutase enzyme in erythrocyte lysates and kidney catalase enzyme activities. Conclusion This study recommends the use of lacidipine in prophylaxis against gentamycin-induced nephrotoxicity.

  10. HPLC-ELSD determination of kanamycin B in the presence of kanamycin A in fermentation broth.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; He, Hui-Min; Zhang, Jin; Liu, Feng-Jiao; Li, Chao; Wang, Bing-Wu; Qiao, Ren-Zhong

    2015-03-01

    A novel method for the direct determination of kanamycin B in the presence of kanamycin A in fermentation broth using high performance liquid chromatography with evaporative light scattering detector (HPLC-ELSD) was developed. An Agilent Technologies C18 column was utilized, evaporation temperature of 40°C and nitrogen pressure of 3.5 bar, the optimized mobile phase was water-acetonitrile (65:35, v/v), containing 11.6 mm heptafluorobutyric acid (isocratic elution with flow rate of 0.5 mL/min) with the gain 11. Kanamycin B was eluted at 5.6 min with an asymmetry factor of 1.827. The method showed good linearity over the concentration range of 0.05 to 0.80 mg/mL for the kanamycin B (r(2) = 0.9987). The intra-day and inter-day coefficients of variation obtained from kanamycin B were less than 4.3%. Mean recovery of kanamycin B from spiked fermentation broth was 95%. The developed method was applied to the determination of kanamycin B without any interference from other constituents in the fermentation broth. This method offers simple, rapid and quantitative detection of kanamycin B. PMID:25042110

  11. Inhibition of digoxin absorption by neomycin.

    PubMed

    Lindenbaum, J; Maulitz, R M; Butler, V P

    1976-09-01

    The effect of the administration of the antibiotic neomycin sulfate on the absorption of digoxin was assessed in crossover studies in normal human volunteers. Doses of neomycin (1 and 3 g) markedly depressed serum digoxin concentrations, the areas under the serum concentration-time curves, and cumulative 6-day urinary digoxin excretion after the oral ingestion of 0.5 mg of the cardiac glycoside in tablet form. Neomycin also prolonged the mean time at which peak serum digoxin levels were attained by 1.7 to 3 hr. The inhibition of digoxin absorption was also seen: (1) when the antibiotic was given 3 or 6 hr before the cardiac glycoside, (2) with digoxin tablets of varying dissolution rate, (3) when digoxin or neomycin solutions were used instead of tablets, and (4) in a patient who had had a total gastrectomy. When neomycin was administered with maintenance doses of digoxin, steady state serum digoxin concentrations were significantly reduced. When neomycin was given after a 9-day period of digitalization, the terminal serum digoxin half-life was not significantly shortened. Single doses of neomycin did not interfere with the extent of absorption of d-xylose. In vitro, neomycin did not affect the movement of digoxin across dialysis membranes, nor did it precipitate digoxin out of human bile or intestinal fluid. Neomycin thus clearly depresses the rate and extent of digoxin absorption in man. The mechanism of this effect remains to be established. PMID:950089

  12. [Sensibility of rabbits to treatment with ampicillin and gentamycin (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Escoula, L; Camguilhem, R; Larrieu, G; More, J

    1981-01-01

    Ampicillin administered to rabbits (20 mg/kg per day) over a period of three days subsequently provoked a death rate of 40%. No deaths were observed after treatment with gentamycin (10 mg/kg per day) or with a combination of ampicillin and gentamycin. On the fourth day weight loss in the three treated groups was 12%, 11% and 9%, respectively, compared to controls. At the same time food intake in the treated groups was only 15% to 20% of the amount consumed by controls. In the caecum, ampicillin treatment resulted in dominance of a strain of Enterobacter aerogenes. Gentamycin had no effect on bacterial flora, although in combination with ampicillin, the number of caecal bacteria (aerobic and anaerobic) was reduced. Flora modification might be responsible for accumulation of NH3 and an unbalance of free acids. Caecotrophy was inhibited by administration of ampicillin. When administered intramuscularly, ampicillin produced results comparable with those obtained orally, although gentamycin was ineffective. PMID:7342822

  13. Inhibition of the hammerhead ribozyme by neomycin.

    PubMed Central

    Stage, T K; Hertel, K J; Uhlenbeck, O C

    1995-01-01

    A series of antibiotics was tested for stimulation or inhibition of the hammerhead ribozyme cleavage reaction. Neomycin was found to be a potent inhibitor of the reaction with a Kl of 13.5 microM. Two hammerheads with well-characterized kinetics were used to determine which steps in the reaction mechanism were inhibited by neomycin. The data suggest that neomycin interacts preferentially with the enzyme-substrate complex and that this interaction leads to a reduction in the cleavage rate by stabilizing the ground state of the complex and destabilizing the transition state of the cleavage step. A comparison of neomycin with other aminoglycosides and inhibitors of hammerhead cleavage implies that the ammonium ions of neomycin are important for the antibiotic-hammerhead interaction. PMID:7489494

  14. Comparative analysis of combination kanamycin-furosemide versus kanamycin alone in the mouse cochlea.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Keiko; Sato, Eisuke

    2011-02-01

    Combinations of aminoglycosides and loop diuretics have been known to have a synergistic effect in ototoxic injury. Because murine hair cells are relatively resistant to ototoxicity compared to those of other mammals, investigators have turned to combination therapies to create ototoxic lesions in the mouse inner ear. In this paper, we perform a systematic comparison of hearing thresholds, hair cell damage and monocyte migration into the mouse cochlea after kanamycin versus combined kanamycin/furosemide and explore the pathophysiology of enhanced hair cell loss in aminoglycoside ototoxicity in the presence of loop diuretic. Combined kanamycin-furosemide resulted in elevation of threshold not only in the high frequencies, but across all frequencies with more extensive loss of outer hair cells when compared to kanamycin alone. The stria vascularis was severely atrophied and stellate cells in the spiral limbus were missing in kanamycin-furosemide exposed mice while these changes were not observed in mice receiving kanamycin alone. Monocytes and macrophages were recruited in large numbers to the spiral ligament and spiral ganglion in these mice. Combination therapy resulted in a greater number of macrophages in total, and many more macrophages were present further apically when compared to mice given kanamycin alone. Combined kanamycin-furosemide provides an effective method of addressing the relative resistance to ototoxicity that is observed in most mouse strains. As the mouse becomes increasingly more common in studies of hearing loss, and combination therapies gain popularity, recognition of the overall effects of combined aminoglycoside-loop diuretic therapy will be critical to interpretation of the interventions that follow. PMID:21044672

  15. 21 CFR 520.1204 - Kanamycin, bismuth subcarbonate, activated attapulgite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Kanamycin, bismuth subcarbonate, activated... § 520.1204 Kanamycin, bismuth subcarbonate, activated attapulgite. (a) Specifications—(1) Each 5 milliliters (mL) of suspension contains 100 milligrams (mg) kanamycin (as the sulfate), 250 mg...

  16. 21 CFR 520.1204 - Kanamycin, bismuth subcarbonate, activated attapulgite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Kanamycin, bismuth subcarbonate, activated... § 520.1204 Kanamycin, bismuth subcarbonate, activated attapulgite. (a) Specifications—(1) Each 5 milliliters (mL) of suspension contains 100 milligrams (mg) kanamycin (as the sulfate), 250 mg...

  17. 21 CFR 520.1204 - Kanamycin, bismuth subcarbonate, activated attapulgite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Kanamycin, bismuth subcarbonate, activated... § 520.1204 Kanamycin, bismuth subcarbonate, activated attapulgite. (a) Specifications—(1) Each 5 milliliters (mL) of suspension contains 100 milligrams (mg) kanamycin (as the sulfate), 250 mg...

  18. 21 CFR 520.1204 - Kanamycin, bismuth subcarbonate, activated attapulgite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Kanamycin, bismuth subcarbonate, activated... § 520.1204 Kanamycin, bismuth subcarbonate, activated attapulgite. (a) Specifications—(1) Each 5 milliliters (mL) of suspension contains 100 milligrams (mg) kanamycin (as the sulfate), 250 mg...

  19. 21 CFR 520.1204 - Kanamycin, bismuth subcarbonate, activated attapulgite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Kanamycin, bismuth subcarbonate, activated... § 520.1204 Kanamycin, bismuth subcarbonate, activated attapulgite. (a) Specifications—(1) Each 5 milliliters (mL) of suspension contains 100 milligrams (mg) kanamycin (as the sulfate), 250 mg...

  20. 21 CFR 522.1484 - Neomycin sulfate sterile solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate sterile solution. 522.1484... § 522.1484 Neomycin sulfate sterile solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains 50 milligrams of neomycin sulfate (equivalent to 35 milligrams of neomycin base).1...

  1. 21 CFR 522.1484 - Neomycin sulfate sterile solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate sterile solution. 522.1484... § 522.1484 Neomycin sulfate sterile solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains 50 milligrams of neomycin sulfate (equivalent to 35 milligrams of neomycin base).1...

  2. 21 CFR 522.1484 - Neomycin sulfate sterile solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate sterile solution. 522.1484... § 522.1484 Neomycin sulfate sterile solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains 50 milligrams of neomycin sulfate (equivalent to 35 milligrams of neomycin base).1...

  3. 21 CFR 522.1484 - Neomycin sulfate sterile solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate sterile solution. 522.1484... § 522.1484 Neomycin sulfate sterile solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains 50 milligrams of neomycin sulfate (equivalent to 35 milligrams of neomycin base).1...

  4. Preparation and in vitro characterization of gentamycin-impregnated biodegradable beads suitable for treatment of osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Meyer, J D; Falk, R F; Kelly, R M; Shively, J E; Withrow, S J; Dernell, W S; Kroll, D J; Randolph, T W; Manning, M C

    1998-09-01

    A new method for preparing poly(L-lactide) (PLA) biodegradable beads impregnated with an ionic aminoglycoside, gentamycin, is described. The process employs hydrophobic ion pairing to solubilize gentamycin in a solvent compatible with PLA, followed by precipitation with a compressed antisolvent (supercritical carbon dioxide). The resulting precipitate is a homogeneous dispersion of the ion-paired drug in PLA microspheres. The microspheres are approximately 1 microm in diameter and can be compressed into beads (3-6 mm in diameter) strung on surgical sutures for implantation. The bead strings exhibit no significant change in release kinetics upon sterilization with a hydrogen peroxide plasma (Ster-Rad). The kinetics of gentamycin release from the PLA beads are consistent with a matrix-controlled diffusion mechanism. While nonbiodegradable poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) beads initially release gentamycin in a similar manner, the drug release from PMMA ceases after 8 or 9 weeks, while the PLA beads continue to release drug for over 4 months. Moreover, only 10% of the gentamycin is released from the PMMA beads, while PLA beads release more than 60% of their load, if serum is present in the release medium. The PLA system displays improved release kinetics relative to PMMA, is biodegradable, is unaltered by gas sterilization, can be used for a range of antibiotics, and can be manipulated without disintegration. These are all desirable properties for an implantable drug delivery system for the prevention or treatment of osteomyelitis. PMID:9724569

  5. The aminoglycoside antibiotic kanamycin damages DNA bases in Escherichia coli: caffeine potentiates the DNA-damaging effects of kanamycin while suppressing cell killing by ciprofloxacin in Escherichia coli and Bacillus anthracis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Tina Manzhu; Yuan, Jessica; Nguyen, Angelyn; Becket, Elinne; Yang, Hanjing; Miller, Jeffrey H

    2012-06-01

    The distribution of mutants in the Keio collection of Escherichia coli gene knockout mutants that display increased sensitivity to the aminoglycosides kanamycin and neomycin indicates that damaged bases resulting from antibiotic action can lead to cell death. Strains lacking one of a number of glycosylases (e.g., AlkA, YzaB, Ogt, KsgA) or other specific repair proteins (AlkB, PhrB, SmbC) are more sensitive to these antibiotics. Mutants lacking AlkB display the strongest sensitivity among the glycosylase- or direct lesion removal-deficient strains. This perhaps suggests the involvement of ethenoadenine adducts, resulting from reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation, since AlkB removes this lesion. Other sensitivities displayed by mutants lacking UvrA, polymerase V (Pol V), or components of double-strand break repair indicate that kanamycin results in damaged base pairs that need to be removed or replicated past in order to avoid double-strand breaks that saturate the cellular repair capacity. Caffeine enhances the sensitivities of these repair-deficient strains to kanamycin and neomycin. The gene knockout mutants that display increased sensitivity to caffeine (dnaQ, holC, holD, and priA knockout mutants) indicate that caffeine blocks DNA replication, ultimately leading to double-strand breaks that require recombinational repair by functions encoded by recA, recB, and recC, among others. Additionally, caffeine partially protects cells of both Escherichia coli and Bacillus anthracis from killing by the widely used fluoroquinolone antibiotic ciprofloxacin. PMID:22391551

  6. The Aminoglycoside Antibiotic Kanamycin Damages DNA Bases in Escherichia coli: Caffeine Potentiates the DNA-Damaging Effects of Kanamycin while Suppressing Cell Killing by Ciprofloxacin in Escherichia coli and Bacillus anthracis

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Tina Manzhu; Yuan, Jessica; Nguyen, Angelyn; Becket, Elinne; Yang, Hanjing

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of mutants in the Keio collection of Escherichia coli gene knockout mutants that display increased sensitivity to the aminoglycosides kanamycin and neomycin indicates that damaged bases resulting from antibiotic action can lead to cell death. Strains lacking one of a number of glycosylases (e.g., AlkA, YzaB, Ogt, KsgA) or other specific repair proteins (AlkB, PhrB, SmbC) are more sensitive to these antibiotics. Mutants lacking AlkB display the strongest sensitivity among the glycosylase- or direct lesion removal-deficient strains. This perhaps suggests the involvement of ethenoadenine adducts, resulting from reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation, since AlkB removes this lesion. Other sensitivities displayed by mutants lacking UvrA, polymerase V (Pol V), or components of double-strand break repair indicate that kanamycin results in damaged base pairs that need to be removed or replicated past in order to avoid double-strand breaks that saturate the cellular repair capacity. Caffeine enhances the sensitivities of these repair-deficient strains to kanamycin and neomycin. The gene knockout mutants that display increased sensitivity to caffeine (dnaQ, holC, holD, and priA knockout mutants) indicate that caffeine blocks DNA replication, ultimately leading to double-strand breaks that require recombinational repair by functions encoded by recA, recB, and recC, among others. Additionally, caffeine partially protects cells of both Escherichia coli and Bacillus anthracis from killing by the widely used fluoroquinolone antibiotic ciprofloxacin. PMID:22391551

  7. 21 CFR 558.364 - Neomycin sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate. 558.364 Section 558.364 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS Specific New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds § 558.364 Neomycin...

  8. 21 CFR 520.1484 - Neomycin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Neomycin. 520.1484 Section 520.1484 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1484 Neomycin. (a) Specifications—(1) Each ounce of powder contains 20.3 grams...

  9. 21 CFR 524.1484k - Prednisolone and neomycin suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Prednisolone and neomycin suspension. 524.1484k... § 524.1484k Prednisolone and neomycin suspension. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of suspension contains 2.5 milligrams of prednisolone acetate and 5 milligrams of neomycin sulfate equivalent to...

  10. 21 CFR 862.3520 - Kanamycin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Kanamycin test system. 862.3520 Section 862.3520 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862.3520 Kanamycin test system. (a)...

  11. 21 CFR 524.1200b - Kanamycin ophthalmic aqueous solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Kanamycin ophthalmic aqueous solution. 524.1200b... § 524.1200b Kanamycin ophthalmic aqueous solution. (a) Specifications. The drug, which is in an aqueous solution including suitable and harmless preservatives and buffer substances, contains 10 milligrams...

  12. 21 CFR 524.1200b - Kanamycin ophthalmic aqueous solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Kanamycin ophthalmic aqueous solution. 524.1200b... § 524.1200b Kanamycin ophthalmic aqueous solution. (a) Specifications. The drug, which is in an aqueous solution including suitable and harmless preservatives and buffer substances, contains 10 milligrams...

  13. 21 CFR 522.1204 - Kanamycin sulfate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Kanamycin sulfate injection. 522.1204 Section 522.1204 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1204 Kanamycin sulfate injection....

  14. The synergistic effect of visible light and gentamycin on Pseudomona aeruginosa microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Reznick, Yana; Banin, Ehud; Lipovsky, Anat; Lubart, Rachel; Polak, Pazit; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2013-01-01

    Recently there were several publications on the bactericidal effect of visible light, most of them claiming that blue part of the spectrum (400 nm-500 nm) is responsible for killing various pathogens(1-5). The phototoxic effect of blue light was suggested to be a result of light-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation by endogenous bacterial photosensitizers which mostly absorb light in the blue region(4,6,7). There are also reports of biocidal effect of red and near infra red(8) as well as green light(9). In the present study, we developed a method that allowed us to characterize the effect of high power green (wavelength of 532 nm) continuous (CW) and pulsed Q-switched (Q-S) light on Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Using this method we also studied the effect of green light combined with antibiotic treatment (gentamycin) on the bacteria viability. P. aeruginosa is a common noscomial opportunistic pathogen causing various diseases. The strain is fairly resistant to various antibiotics and contains many predicted AcrB/Mex-type RND multidrug efflux systems(10). The method utilized free-living stationary phase Gram-negative bacteria (P. aeruginosa strain PAO1), grown in Luria Broth (LB) medium exposed to Q-switched and/or CW lasers with and without the addition of the antibiotic gentamycin. Cell viability was determined at different time points. The obtained results showed that laser treatment alone did not reduce cell viability compared to untreated control and that gentamycin treatment alone only resulted in a 0.5 log reduction in the viable count for P. aeruginosa. The combined laser and gentamycin treatment, however, resulted in a synergistic effect and the viability of P. aeruginosa was reduced by 8 log's. The proposed method can further be implemented via the development of catheter like device capable of injecting an antibiotic solution into the infected organ while simultaneously illuminating the area with light. PMID:23852319

  15. The Synergistic Effect of Visible Light and Gentamycin on Pseudomona aeruginosa Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Reznick, Yana; Banin, Ehud; Lipovsky, Anat; Lubart, Rachel; Polak, Pazit; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2013-01-01

    Recently there were several publications on the bactericidal effect of visible light, most of them claiming that blue part of the spectrum (400 nm-500 nm) is responsible for killing various pathogens1-5. The phototoxic effect of blue light was suggested to be a result of light-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation by endogenous bacterial photosensitizers which mostly absorb light in the blue region4,6,7. There are also reports of biocidal effect of red and near infra red8 as well as green light9. In the present study, we developed a method that allowed us to characterize the effect of high power green (wavelength of 532 nm) continuous (CW) and pulsed Q-switched (Q-S) light on Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Using this method we also studied the effect of green light combined with antibiotic treatment (gentamycin) on the bacteria viability. P. aeruginosa is a common noscomial opportunistic pathogen causing various diseases. The strain is fairly resistant to various antibiotics and contains many predicted AcrB/Mex-type RND multidrug efflux systems10. The method utilized free-living stationary phase Gram-negative bacteria (P. aeruginosa strain PAO1), grown in Luria Broth (LB) medium exposed to Q-switched and/or CW lasers with and without the addition of the antibiotic gentamycin. Cell viability was determined at different time points. The obtained results showed that laser treatment alone did not reduce cell viability compared to untreated control and that gentamycin treatment alone only resulted in a 0.5 log reduction in the viable count for P. aeruginosa. The combined laser and gentamycin treatment, however, resulted in a synergistic effect and the viability of P. aeruginosa was reduced by 8 log's. The proposed method can further be implemented via the development of catheter like device capable of injecting an antibiotic solution into the infected organ while simultaneously illuminating the area with light. PMID:23852319

  16. 21 CFR 520.1484 - Neomycin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .../kg) for 5 days. (ii) Indications for use. For the control of mortality associated with E. coli... neomycin base). (b) Sponsors. See sponsors in § 510.600(c) of this chapter for use as in paragraph (e) of... paragraph (e)(1) of this section. (2) Nos. 000009, 046573, 058005, and 061623 for use of product...

  17. 21 CFR 520.1484 - Neomycin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .../kg) for 5 days. (ii) Indications for use. For the control of mortality associated with E. coli... neomycin base). (b) Sponsors. See sponsors in § 510.600(c) of this chapter for use as in paragraph (e) of... paragraph (e)(1) of this section. (2) Nos. 000009, 046573, 058005, and 061623 for use of product...

  18. 21 CFR 520.1484 - Neomycin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .../kg) for 5 days. (ii) Indications for use. For the control of mortality associated with E. coli... neomycin base). (b) Sponsors. See sponsors in § 510.600(c) of this chapter for use as in paragraph (e) of... paragraph (e)(1) of this section. (2) Nos. 000009, 046573, 058005, and 061623 for use of product...

  19. FGF22 protects hearing function from gentamycin ototoxicity by maintaining ribbon synapse number.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuna; Hang, Lihua; Ma, Yongming

    2016-02-01

    Inner hair cell (IHC) ribbon synapses of cochlea play important role in transmitting sound signal into auditory nerve and are sensitive to ototoxicity. However, ototoxic damage of ribbon synapses is not understood clearly. Roles of fibroblast growth factor 22 (FGF22) on synapse formation were explored under gentamycin ototoxicity. 6-week-old mice were injected intraperitoneally once daily with 50-150 mg/kg gentamicin for 10 days. Immunostaining with anti- GluR2&3/CtBP2 was used to estimate the number of ribbon synapses in the cochlea. Expression of FGF22 and myocyte enhancer factor 2D (MEF2D) was assayed with RT-PCR. Expression and localization of FGF22 protein were visualized with anti-FGF22 immunostaining. Hearing thresholds were assessed using auditory brainstem responses. Gentamicin administration caused reduction in ribbon synapse number and hearing impairment without effect on hair cells in CBA/J mouse model. Immunohistochemistry showed that FGF22 protein was expressed in IHCs, but not OHCs of cochlea. Gentamycin attenuated expression of FGF22 but enhanced expression of MEF2D. Cochlear infusion of recombinant FGF22 inhibited expression of MEF2D, preserved ribbon synapses, and restored hearing function impaired by gentamycin. FGF22 restores hearing loss through maintaining ribbon synapse number, likely via inhibition of MEF2D. Activating FGF22 might provide the conceptual basis for the therapeutic strategies. PMID:26639016

  20. Modulatory effects of dietary inclusion of garlic (Allium sativum) on gentamycin-induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats

    PubMed Central

    Ademiluyi, Adedayo O; Oboh, Ganiyu; Owoloye, Tosin R; Agbebi, Oluwaseun J

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the ameliorative effect of dietary inclusion of garlic (Allium sativum) on gentamycin-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Methods Adult male rats were randomly divided into four groups with six animals in each group. Groups 1 and 2 were fed basal diet while Groups 3 and 4 were fed diets containing 2% and 4% garlic respectively for 27 d prior to gentamycin administration. Hepatotoxicity was induced by the intraperitoneal administration of gentamycin (100 mg/kg body weight) for 3 d. The liver and plasma were studied for hepatotoxicity and antioxidant indices. Results Gentamycin induces hepatic damage as revealed by significant (P<0.05) elevation of liver damage marker enzymes (aspartate transaminase and alanine aminotransferase) and reduction in plasma albumin level. Gentamycin also caused a significant (P<0.05) alteration in plasma and liver enzymatic (catalase, glutathione and super oxygen dehydrogenises) and non-enzymatic (glutathione and vitamin C) antioxidant indices with concomitant increase in the malondialdehyde content; however, there was a significant (P<0.05) restoration of the antioxidant status coupled with significant (P<0.05) decrease in the tissues' malondialdehyde content, following consumption of diets containing garlic. Conclusions These results suggest that dietary inclusion of garlic powder could protect against gentamycin-induced hepatotoxicity, improve antioxidant status and modulate oxidative stress; a function attributed to their phenolic constituents. PMID:23730560

  1. Radioenzymatic assays for aminoglycosides with kanamycin 6'- acetyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, A.; Smith, A.L.; Opheim, K.E.

    1985-03-01

    To facilitate the rapid and accurate quantitation of parenterally administered aminoglycosides, the optimum conditions (pH, duration of incubation, and cofactor concentrations) were defined to permit radioenzymatic assays with kanamycin acetyltransferase. The accuracy in quantitating tobramycin, netilmicin, kanamycin, and amikacin at concentrations in the therapeutic range was greater than 90%, with a mean recovery of 102.8%. The mean of the interassay coefficient of variation was 7.8%. Typical standard curves at six different concentrations resulted in a correlation coefficient (r value) of greater than 0.99 for each aminoglycoside. The radioenzymatic assay correlates well with the bioassay (tobramycin and netilmicin) and radioimmunoassay (amikacin and kanamycin); the correlation coefficient is greater than 0.90 for all. The authors conclude that the radioenzymatic assay utilizing kanamycin 6'-acetyltransferase is feasible for all commercially available parenterally administered aminoglycosides.

  2. Development of a novel bead-based 96-well filtration plate competitive immunoassay for the detection of Gentamycin.

    PubMed

    Ho, Tien Yu Jessica; Chan, Chia-Chung; Chan, KinGho; Wang, Yu Chieh; Lin, Jing-Tang; Chang, Cheng-Ming; Chen, Chien-Sheng

    2013-11-15

    We developed a sensitive, simple, inexpensive and rapid bead-based immunoassay platform, composed of liposomal nanovesicle amplification system, Gentamycin sulfate beads and 96-well filtration plates. In the beginning of the assay, Gentamycin sulfate beads, Gentamycin sulfate and Gentamycin specific antibody were incubated in a bottom-sealed 96-well filtration plate. After incubation, washing was done by running washing buffer through the unsealed filtration plate with only gravity and the antibody-Gentamycin bead complexes were retained in the plate. Fluorescent dye-loaded protein G-liposomal nanovesicles were then added to specifically bind to antibodies on the retained beads. After washing unbound nanovesicles, millions of fluorescent dye molecules were released by adding a detergent solution to lyse liposomal nanovesicles. The limit of detection (LOD) of this novel detection platform in TBS and in skim milk were 52.65 ng/mL and 14.16 ng/mL, which are both sufficient for detecting the 200 ng/mL Codex maximum residual level (MRL). The dynamic ranges were both from each of their LODs to 100 μg/mL. The 50% inhibition concentrations (IC50) in TBS and skim milk were 199.66 ng/mL and 360.81 ng/mL, respectively. We also demonstrated the good specificity of this platform by comparing detection results between pure Gentamycin solution and a mixture solution of 6 different antibiotics including Gentamycin in skim milk. The entire assay with 60 samples was conducted within 2h. In sum, this novel biosensing platform not only fulfilled most benefits of magnetic bead-based assays, but also was inexpensive and convenient by replacing the magnetic separation with filtration plate separation. PMID:23728198

  3. 21 CFR 524.1484h - Neomycin, penicillin, polymyxin B, and hydrocortisone suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., atopic dermatitis, interdigital eczema, and otitis externa caused by bacteria susceptible to neomycin... caused by bacteria susceptible to neomycin, penicillin, and polymyxin B. (3) Limitations. For use in...

  4. Immunoassay Analysis of Kanamycin in Serum Using the Tobramycin Kit.

    PubMed

    Dijkstra, J A; Voerman, A J; Greijdanus, B; Touw, D J; Alffenaar, J W C

    2016-08-01

    Kanamycin is one of the aminoglycosides used in the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Blood concentrations of kanamycin are predictive for the treatment efficacy and the occurrence of side effects, and dose adjustments can be needed to optimize therapy. However, an immunoassay method for the quantification of kanamycin is not commercially available. We modified the existing tobramycin immunoassay to analyze kanamycin. This modified method was tested in a concentration range of 0.3 to 80.0 mg/liter for inaccuracy and imprecision. In addition, the analytical results of the immunoassay method were compared to those obtained by a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analytical method using Passing and Bablok regression. Within-day imprecision varied from 2.3 to 13.3%, and between-day imprecision ranged from 0.0 to 11.3%. The inaccuracy ranged from -5.2 to 7.6%. No significant cross-reactivity with other antimicrobials and antiviral agents was observed. The results of the modified immunoassay method were comparable with the LC-MS/MS analytical outcome. This new immunoassay method enables laboratories to perform therapeutic drug monitoring of kanamycin without the need for complex and expensive LC-MS/MS equipment. PMID:27185806

  5. 21 CFR 524.981c - Fluocinolone and neomycin cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fluocinolone and neomycin cream. 524.981c Section 524.981c Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... § 524.981c Fluocinolone and neomycin cream. (a) Specifications. The drug contains 0.025...

  6. 21 CFR 524.1484a - Neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment. 524.1484a... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1484a Neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment. (a) Specifications. Each gram of the ointment...

  7. Recognition of HIV TAR RNA by triazole linked neomycin dimers

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sunil

    2013-01-01

    A series of neomycin dimers have been synthesized using “click chemistry” with varying linker functionality and length to target the TAR RNA region of HIV virus. TAR (Trans Activation Response) RNA region, a 59 base pair stem loop structure located at 5′-end of all nascent HIV-1 transcripts interacts with a key regulatory protein, Tat, and necessitates the replication of HIV-1 virus. Neomycin, an aminosugar, has been shown to exhibit more than one binding site with HIV TAR RNA. Multiple TAR binding sites of neomycin prompted us to design and synthesize a small library of neomycin dimers using click chemistry. The binding between neomycin dimers and HIV TAR RNA was characterized using spectroscopic techniques including FID (Fluorescent Intercalator Displacement) titration and UV-thermal denaturation. UV thermal denaturation studies demonstrate that neomycin dimer binding increase the melting temperature (Tm) of the HIV TAR RNA up to 10 °C. Ethidium bromide displacement titrations revealed nanomolar IC50 between neomycin dimers and HIV TAR RNA, whereas with neomycin, a much higher IC50 in the micromolar range is observed. PMID:21757341

  8. 21 CFR 862.3520 - Kanamycin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Kanamycin test system. 862.3520 Section 862.3520 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems §...

  9. 21 CFR 862.3520 - Kanamycin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Kanamycin test system. 862.3520 Section 862.3520 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems §...

  10. 21 CFR 862.3520 - Kanamycin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Kanamycin test system. 862.3520 Section 862.3520 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems §...

  11. 21 CFR 862.3520 - Kanamycin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Kanamycin test system. 862.3520 Section 862.3520 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems §...

  12. 21 CFR 524.1200a - Kanamycin ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... for use in dogs in various eye infections due to kanamycin sensitive bacteria. It is used treating... the affected eye three or four times daily or more frequently if deemed advisable. Treatment should be continued for at least 48 hours after the eye appears normal. For use only by or on the order of a...

  13. 21 CFR 524.1200a - Kanamycin ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... for use in dogs in various eye infections due to kanamycin sensitive bacteria. It is used treating... the affected eye three or four times daily or more frequently if deemed advisable. Treatment should be continued for at least 48 hours after the eye appears normal. For use only by or on the order of a...

  14. 21 CFR 524.1200a - Kanamycin ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... for use in dogs in various eye infections due to kanamycin sensitive bacteria. It is used treating... the affected eye three or four times daily or more frequently if deemed advisable. Treatment should be continued for at least 48 hours after the eye appears normal. For use only by or on the order of a...

  15. Kanamycin Resistance Cassette for Genetic Manipulation of Treponema denticola

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuebin; Ruby, John

    2015-01-01

    Treponema denticola has been recognized as an important oral pathogen of the “red complex” bacterial consortium that is associated with the pathogenesis of endodontal and periodontal diseases. However, little is known about the virulence of T. denticola due to its recalcitrant genetic system. The difficulty in genetically manipulating oral spirochetes is partially due to the lack of antibiotic resistance cassettes that are useful for gene complementation following allelic replacement mutagenesis. In this study, a kanamycin resistance cassette was identified and developed for the genetic manipulation of T. denticola ATCC 35405. Compared to the widely used ermF-ermAM cassette, the kanamycin cassette used in the transformation experiments gave rise to additional antibiotic-resistant T. denticola colonies. The kanamycin cassette is effective for allelic replacement mutagenesis as demonstrated by inactivation of two open reading frames of T. denticola, TDE1430 and TDE0911. In addition, the cassette is also functional in trans-chromosomal complementation. This was determined by functional rescue of a periplasmic flagellum (PF)-deficient mutant that had the flgE gene coding for PF hook protein inactivated. The integration of the full-length flgE gene into the genome of the flgE mutant rescued all of the defects associated with the flgE mutant that included the lack of PF filament and spirochetal motility. Taken together, we demonstrate that the kanamycin resistance gene is a suitable cassette for the genetic manipulation of T. denticola that will facilitate the characterization of virulence factors attributed to this important oral pathogen. PMID:25888173

  16. Indications and results of gentamycin injection into the middle ear of patients with meniére's disease.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, S; Kato, I; Takahashi, K; Yoshino, K; Takeyama, I

    1995-01-01

    Forty-six cases in whom endolymphatic drainage surgery was performed between 1986 and 1992 were followed up for more than 2 years. The results of numerical values (1985 AAOHNS) revealed complete control of definite spells in 26 cases; substantial control of definite spells in 18 cases; limited control of definite spells in 1 case; and insignificant control of definite spells in 1 case. Hence, endolymphatic drainage surgery for Meniére's disease was effective. There are, however, cases who cannot be operated on because of old age or underlying diseases. In these, we injected gentamycin sulfates mixed with prednisolone through a ventilated tube into the middle ear. The results for gentamycin injection based on numerical values showed complete control of definite spells in 12 cases; and substantial control of definite spells in 7 cases. Our treatment of choice for Meniére's disease is endolymphatic drainage surgery which resulted in 96% control of vertigo. In patients for whom operation has failed, in old patients and in those with hearing impairment more than 50 dB, gentamycin injection into the middle ear has proved to be an effective procedure to control vertigo attacks. PMID:7610887

  17. Screening for engineered neomycin riboswitches that control translation initiation.

    PubMed

    Weigand, Julia E; Sanchez, Martin; Gunnesch, Ewald-Bernd; Zeiher, Sabrina; Schroeder, Renee; Suess, Beatrix

    2008-01-01

    Riboswitches are genetic control elements that regulate gene expression in a small molecule-dependent way. We developed a two-stage strategy of in vitro selection followed by a genetic screen and identified several artificial small molecule-binding riboswitches that respond to the aminoglycoside neomycin. Structure-function relationships and structural probing revealed that they adopt the general neomycin-binding motif. They display no sequence similarities to in vitro selected neomycin aptamers but contain parts of the decoding site that is the binding site for neomycin on the ribosomal RNA. We propose a model of a composed binding pocket of an internal loop as primary docking site and a terminal flaplike loop structure fixing neomycin in a sandwich-like manner. Such binding pockets characterized by multiple contacts between ligand and RNA are described for both natural and engineered riboswitches. We anticipate that combination of in vitro selection and in vivo screening is a useful strategy to identify RNA molecules with a desired functionality. PMID:18000033

  18. [Value of gentamycin concentration in aqueous humor of a rabbit's eye depending on the method of application. Summary of a doctoral thesis].

    PubMed

    Philips, R H

    1992-10-01

    Pharmacokinetics of gentamycin in the primary and secondary rabbit's aqueous was examined by using a new experimental method of subconjunctival application (without breaking the continuity of the conjunctiva). It was established that after subconjunctival application one cannot obtain any therapeutical concentrations in the primary or secondary aqueous. Presented are conditions which have to be fulfilled to obtain a therapeutical concentration of gentamycin in the secondary aqueous. PMID:1306533

  19. Bioactive polymers 54. Pharmacological properties of modified neomycin.

    PubMed

    Dumitriu, S; Popa, M; Dumitriu, M; Vancea, P; Mungiu, O C; Costin, D; Dumitriu, D

    1991-07-01

    Modified neomycin prepared by the ionic coupling on xanthan with an activity of 380 UI/mg was characterized in regard to its in vitro and in vivo release rate and therapeutic action with artificial tear eluent. The dynamic system in vitro release showed that after 4 h, there appears a "zero-order" kinetic. Ophthalmic inserts were prepared from modified neomycin and they are used in treating bacterial conjunctivitis. Sterilization of the conjunctival sac is obtained 12 h after insert administration. PMID:1920071

  20. 21 CFR 524.1883 - Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate... DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1883 Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment. (a) Specifications. Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment...

  1. 21 CFR 524.1883 - Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate... DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1883 Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment. (a) Specifications. Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment...

  2. 21 CFR 524.1484g - Neomycin sulfate-thiabendazole-dexamethasone solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate-thiabendazole-dexamethasone... NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1484g Neomycin sulfate-thiabendazole-dexamethasone solution. (a) Specifications. Each cubic centimeter of neomycin sulfate-thiabendazole-dexamethasone solution contains: 40...

  3. 21 CFR 524.1484g - Neomycin sulfate-thiabendazole-dexamethasone solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate-thiabendazole-dexamethasone... NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1484g Neomycin sulfate-thiabendazole-dexamethasone solution. (a) Specifications. Each cubic centimeter of neomycin sulfate-thiabendazole-dexamethasone solution contains: 40...

  4. 21 CFR 524.1484g - Neomycin sulfate-thiabendazole-dexamethasone solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate-thiabendazole-dexamethasone... NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1484g Neomycin sulfate-thiabendazole-dexamethasone solution. (a) Specifications. Each cubic centimeter of neomycin sulfate-thiabendazole-dexamethasone solution contains: 40...

  5. 21 CFR 524.1484h - Neomycin, penicillin, polymyxin, hydrocortisone suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Neomycin, penicillin, polymyxin, hydrocortisone... NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1484h Neomycin, penicillin, polymyxin, hydrocortisone suspension. (a... milligrams of neomycin, 10,000 international units of penicillin G procaine, 5,000 international units...

  6. 21 CFR 524.1484h - Neomycin, penicillin, polymyxin, hydrocortisone suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Neomycin, penicillin, polymyxin, hydrocortisone... NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1484h Neomycin, penicillin, polymyxin, hydrocortisone suspension. (a... milligrams of neomycin, 10,000 international units of penicillin G procaine, 5,000 international units...

  7. 21 CFR 524.1484h - Neomycin, penicillin, polymyxin, hydrocortisone suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neomycin, penicillin, polymyxin, hydrocortisone... NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1484h Neomycin, penicillin, polymyxin, hydrocortisone suspension. (a... milligrams of neomycin, 10,000 international units of penicillin G procaine, 5,000 international units...

  8. 21 CFR 524.1484h - Neomycin, penicillin, polymyxin, hydrocortisone suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Neomycin, penicillin, polymyxin, hydrocortisone... NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1484h Neomycin, penicillin, polymyxin, hydrocortisone suspension. (a... milligrams of neomycin, 10,000 international units of penicillin G procaine, 5,000 international units...

  9. 21 CFR 524.1880 - Prednisolone-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prednisolone-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment... ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1880 Prednisolone-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment. (a) Specifications. Prednisolone-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment contains 2 milligrams prednisolone and 5 milligrams...

  10. 21 CFR 524.1880 - Prednisolone-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Prednisolone-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment... ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1880 Prednisolone-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment. (a) Specifications. Prednisolone-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment contains 2 milligrams prednisolone and 5 milligrams...

  11. 21 CFR 524.1881b - Prednisolone acetate-neomycin sulfate sterile suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prednisolone acetate-neomycin sulfate sterile... NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1881b Prednisolone acetate-neomycin sulfate sterile suspension. (a) Specifications. Prednisolone acetate-neomycin sulfate sterile suspension contains 2.5 milligrams of...

  12. 21 CFR 524.1883 - Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate... DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1883 Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment. (a) Specifications. Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment...

  13. 21 CFR 524.1881b - Prednisolone acetate-neomycin sulfate sterile suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Prednisolone acetate-neomycin sulfate sterile... NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1881b Prednisolone acetate-neomycin sulfate sterile suspension. (a) Specifications. Prednisolone acetate-neomycin sulfate sterile suspension contains 2.5 milligrams of...

  14. 21 CFR 524.1484k - Neomycin sulfate, prednisolone, tetracaine, and squalane topical-otic suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate, prednisolone, tetracaine, and... TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1484k Neomycin sulfate, prednisolone, tetracaine, and squalane... sulfate (equivalent to 3.5 milligrams neomycin base), 2 milligrams prednisolone, 5 milligrams...

  15. 21 CFR 524.1883 - Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate... DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1883 Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment. (a) Specifications. Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment...

  16. 21 CFR 524.1484k - Neomycin sulfate, prednisolone, tetracaine, and squalane topical-otic suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate, prednisolone, tetracaine, and... TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1484k Neomycin sulfate, prednisolone, tetracaine, and squalane... sulfate (equivalent to 3.5 milligrams neomycin base), 2 milligrams prednisolone, 5 milligrams...

  17. 21 CFR 524.1881b - Prednisolone acetate-neomycin sulfate sterile suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Prednisolone acetate-neomycin sulfate sterile... NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1881b Prednisolone acetate-neomycin sulfate sterile suspension. (a) Specifications. Prednisolone acetate-neomycin sulfate sterile suspension contains 2.5 milligrams of...

  18. 21 CFR 524.1881b - Prednisolone acetate-neomycin sulfate sterile suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Prednisolone acetate-neomycin sulfate sterile... NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1881b Prednisolone acetate-neomycin sulfate sterile suspension. (a) Specifications. Prednisolone acetate-neomycin sulfate sterile suspension contains 2.5 milligrams of...

  19. Scar formation in mice deafened with kanamycin and furosemide.

    PubMed

    Żak, Magdalena; van der Linden, Cynthia A; Bezdjian, Aren; Hendriksen, Ferry G; Klis, Sjaak F L; Grolman, Wilko

    2016-08-01

    In mammals, hair cell loss is irreversible and leads to hearing loss. To develop and test the functioning of different strategies aiming at hair cell regeneration, animal models of sensorineural hearing loss are essential. Although cochleae of these animals should lack hair cells, supporting cells should be preserved forming an environment for the regenerated hair cells. In this study, we investigated how ototoxic treatment with kanamycin and furosemide changes the structure of cochlear sensory epithelium in mice. The study also compared different tissue preparation protocols for scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cochleae were collected from deafened and nondeafened mice and further processed for plastic mid modiolar sections and SEM. For comparing SEM protocols, cochleae from nondeafened mice were processed using three protocols: osmium-thiocarbohydrazide-osmium (OTO), tannic acid-arginine-osmium, and the conventional method with gold-coating. The OTO method demonstrated optimal cochlear tissue preservation. Histological investigation of cochleae of deafened mice revealed that the supporting cells enlarged and ultimately replaced the lost hair cells forming types 1 and 2 phalangeal scars in a base towards apex gradient. The type 3 epithelial scar, flattened epithelium, has not been seen in analysed cochleae. The study concluded that mice deafened with kanamycin and furosemide formed scars containing supporting cells, which renders this mouse model suitable for testing various hair cell regeneration approaches. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:766-772, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27311812

  20. Producing a Mammalian GFP Expression Vector Containing Neomycin Resistance Gene.

    PubMed

    Izadi, Manizheh; Abiri, Maryam; Keramatipour, Mohammad

    2009-04-01

    The green fluorescent protein (GFP) was originally isolated from the Jellyfish Aequorea Victoria that fluoresces green when exposed to blue light. GFP protein is composed of 238 amino acids with the molecular mass of 26.9 kD. The GFP gene is frequently used in cellular and molecular biology as a reporter gene. To date, many bacterial, yeast, fungal, plants, fly and mammalian cells, including human, have been created which express GFP. Martin Chalfie, Osamu Shimomura, and Roger Tsien were awarded the 2008 noble prize in chemistry for their discovery and development of GFP. In many studies on mammalian cells, GFP gene is introduced into cells using vector-based systems or a recombinant virus to track the location of a target protein or to study the expression level of the gene of interest, but in these studies there is no selection marker to normalize transfection. According to the importance of neomycin gene as a selection marker in mammalian cells, we aimed to produce a GFP expression vector that contains neomycin gene. GFP gene was separated from pEGFP-N1 vector and was inserted in the back-bone of pCDNA3.1/His/LacZ vector that contained the neomycin gene. The resulted vector contained GFP beside neomycin gene. PMID:23407141

  1. Development of immunoassays for the detection of kanamycin in veterinary fields

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yong; Jang, Jin-Wook; Han, Chang-Hoon

    2006-01-01

    Monoclonal antibody against kanamycin was prepared, and competitive direct ELISA and immunochromatographic assay were developed using the antibody to detect kanamycin in animal plasma and milk. The monoclonal antibody produced was identified to be IgG1, which has a kappa light chain. No cross-reactivity of the antibody was detected with other aminoglycosides, indicating that the monoclonal antibody was highly specific for kanamycin. Based on competitive direct ELISA, the detection limits of kanamycin were determined to be 1.1 ng/ml in PBS, 1.4 ng/ml in plasma, and 1.0 ng/ml in milk. The concentration of intramuscularly injected kanamycin was successfully monitored in rabbit plasma with competitive direct ELISA. Based on the colloidal gold-based immunochromatographic assay, the detection limits of kanamycin were estimated to be about 6-8 ng/ml in PBS, plasma, and milk. The immunochromatographic assay would be suitable for rapid and simple screening of kanamycin residues in veterinary medicine. Screened positives can be confirmed using a more sensitive laboratory method such as competitive direct ELISA. Therefore, the assays developed in this study could be used to complement each other as well as other laboratory findings. Moreover, instead of slaughtering the animals to obtain test samples, these methods could be applied to determine kanamycin concentration in the plasma of live animals. PMID:16645333

  2. 21 CFR 524.1204 - Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin, and hydrocortisone acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin, and hydrocortisone acetate. 524.1204 Section 524.1204 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... or cream contains: 5.0 milligrams of kanamycin activity as the sulfate, 5.0 milligrams of...

  3. 21 CFR 524.1204 - Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin, and hydrocortisone acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin, and hydrocortisone acetate. 524.1204 Section 524.1204 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... or cream contains: 5.0 milligrams of kanamycin activity as the sulfate, 5.0 milligrams of...

  4. 21 CFR 524.1204 - Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin, and hydrocortisone acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin, and hydrocortisone acetate. 524.1204 Section 524.1204 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... or cream contains: 5.0 milligrams of kanamycin activity as the sulfate, 5.0 milligrams of...

  5. 21 CFR 524.1204 - Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin, and hydrocortisone acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin, and hydrocortisone acetate. 524.1204 Section 524.1204 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... or cream contains: 5.0 milligrams of kanamycin activity as the sulfate, 5.0 milligrams of...

  6. 21 CFR 524.1200 - Kanamycin ophthalmic and topical dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Kanamycin ophthalmic and topical dosage forms. 524... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1200 Kanamycin ophthalmic and topical dosage forms....

  7. [Kanamycin concentrations in liver tissue and bile in acute experimental cholecystocholangiohepatitis].

    PubMed

    Alekseenko, A V; Iftodiĭ, A G; Seniutovich, R V; Sidorchuk, I I; Palianina, S I

    1984-11-01

    The levels of kanamycin in the bile and liver tissue were studied on 10 healthy dogs and 10 dogs with experimental acute abacterial cholecystocholangiohepatitis. It was shown that bile excretion of kanamycin in the dogs increased 6-7 times with development of acute inflammation in the biliary system. PMID:6395793

  8. Minocycline Protection of Neomycin Induced Hearing Loss in Gerbils

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Alan M.; Vujanovic, Irena; Richter, Claus-Peter

    2015-01-01

    This animal study was designed to determine if minocycline ameliorates cochlear damage is caused by intratympanic injection of the ototoxic aminoglycoside antibiotic neomycin. Baseline auditory-evoked brainstem responses were measured in gerbils that received 40 mM intratympanic neomycin either with 0, 1.2, or 1.5 mg/kg intraperitoneal minocycline. Four weeks later auditory-evoked brainstem responses were measured and compared to the baseline measurements. Minocycline treatments of 1.2 mg/kg and 1.5 mg/kg resulted in significantly lower threshold increases compared to 0 mg/kg, indicating protection of hearing loss between 6 kHz and 19 kHz. Cochleae were processed for histology and sectioned to allow quantification of the spiral ganglion neurons and histological evaluation of organ of Corti. Significant reduction of spiral ganglion neuron density was demonstrated in animals that did not receive minocycline, indicating that those receiving minocycline demonstrated enhanced survival of spiral ganglion neurons, enhanced survival of sensory hairs cells and spiral ganglion neurons, and reduced hearing threshold elevation correlates with minocycline treatment demonstrating that neomycin induced hearing loss can be reduced by the simultaneous application of minocycline. PMID:25950003

  9. Synthesis and Bioactivities of Kanamycin B-Derived Cationic Amphiphiles.

    PubMed

    Fosso, Marina Y; Shrestha, Sanjib K; Green, Keith D; Garneau-Tsodikova, Sylvie

    2015-12-10

    Cationic amphiphiles derived from aminoglycosides (AGs) have been shown to exhibit enhanced antimicrobial activity. Through the attachment of hydrophobic residues such as linear alkyl chains on the AG backbone, interesting antibacterial and antifungal agents with a novel mechanism of action have been developed. Herein, we report the design and synthesis of seven kanamycin B (KANB) derivatives. Their antibacterial and antifungal activities, along with resistance/enzymatic, hemolytic, and cytotoxicity assays were also studied. Two of these compounds, with a C12 and C14 aliphatic chain attached at the 6″-position of KANB through a thioether linkage, exhibited good antibacterial and antifungal activity, were poorer substrates than KANB for several AG-modifying enzymes, and could delay the development of resistance in bacteria and fungi. Also, they were both relatively less hemolytic than the known membrane targeting antibiotic gramicidin and the known antifungal agent amphotericin B and were not toxic at their antifungal MIC values. Their oxidation to sulfones was also demonstrated to have no effect on their activities. Moreover, they both acted synergistically with posaconazole, an azole currently used in the treatment of human fungal infections. PMID:26592740

  10. 21 CFR 524.981c - Fluocinolone acetonide, neomycin sulfate cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fluocinolone acetonide, neomycin sulfate cream. 524.981c Section 524.981c Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.981c Fluocinolone acetonide, neomycin sulfate cream. (a) Specifications. The...

  11. 21 CFR 524.981c - Fluocinolone acetonide, neomycin sulfate cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fluocinolone acetonide, neomycin sulfate cream. 524.981c Section 524.981c Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.981c Fluocinolone acetonide, neomycin sulfate cream. (a) Specifications. The...

  12. 21 CFR 524.981c - Fluocinolone acetonide, neomycin sulfate cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fluocinolone acetonide, neomycin sulfate cream. 524.981c Section 524.981c Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.981c Fluocinolone acetonide, neomycin sulfate cream. (a) Specifications. The...

  13. 21 CFR 520.82b - Aminopropazine fumarate, neomycin sulfate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aminopropazine fumarate, neomycin sulfate tablets... Aminopropazine fumarate, neomycin sulfate tablets. (a) Specifications. The drug is in tablet form. Each tablet... administered at a dosage level of one to two tablets per 10 pounds of body weight twice daily for 3 days.1...

  14. 21 CFR 520.82b - Aminopropazine fumarate, neomycin sulfate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aminopropazine fumarate, neomycin sulfate tablets... Aminopropazine fumarate, neomycin sulfate tablets. (a) Specifications. The drug is in tablet form. Each tablet... administered at a dosage level of one to two tablets per 10 pounds of body weight twice daily for 3 days.1...

  15. 21 CFR 520.82b - Aminopropazine fumarate, neomycin sulfate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aminopropazine fumarate, neomycin sulfate tablets... Aminopropazine fumarate, neomycin sulfate tablets. (a) Specifications. The drug is in tablet form. Each tablet... administered at a dosage level of one to two tablets per 10 pounds of body weight twice daily for 3 days.1...

  16. 21 CFR 524.1484i - Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, sterile ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, sterile... NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1484i Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, sterile ointment. (a..., and 5 milligrams of hydrocortisone acetate in each gram of ointment.1 (b) Sponsor. No. 000009 in §...

  17. 21 CFR 524.1484e - Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution. 524.1484e Section 524.1484e Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1484e Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution....

  18. 21 CFR 524.1484e - Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution. 524.1484e Section 524.1484e Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1484e Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution....

  19. 21 CFR 524.1484j - Neomycin and prednisolone ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Neomycin and prednisolone ophthalmic ointment. 524.1484j Section 524.1484j Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1484j Neomycin...

  20. 21 CFR 520.82b - Aminopropazine fumarate, neomycin sulfate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... contains both aminopropazine fumarate equivalent to 25 milligrams of aminopropazine base and neomycin sulfate equivalent to 50 milligrams of neomycin base. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000061 in § 510.600(c) of this.... 520.82b Section 520.82b Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  1. 21 CFR 524.1484e - Neomycin and polymyxin B ophthalmic solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Neomycin and polymyxin B ophthalmic solution. 524.1484e Section 524.1484e Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1484e Neomycin and polymyxin B ophthalmic solution. (a) Specifications....

  2. 21 CFR 524.1484 - Neomycin sulfate ophthalmic and topical dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate ophthalmic and topical dosage... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1484 Neomycin sulfate ophthalmic and topical dosage forms....

  3. From GUIDON to NEOMYCIN and HERACLES in Twenty Short Lessons. Final Report. ONR Technical Report #20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clancey, William J.

    This paper reviews the research leading from the GUIDON rule-based tutoring system, including the reconfiguration of MYCIN into NEOMYCIN and NEOMYCIN's generalization into the heuristic classification shell, HERACLES. The presentation is organized chronologically around pictures and dialogues that represent turning points and crystallize the basic…

  4. 21 CFR 524.1484b - Neomycin, isoflupredone, tetracaine, and myristyl-gamma-picolinium powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Neomycin, isoflupredone, tetracaine, and myristyl-gamma-picolinium powder. 524.1484b Section 524.1484b Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... with neomycin-susceptible organisms and/or allergy; as a superficial dressing applied to minor...

  5. 21 CFR 524.1484f - Neomycin, prednisolone, and tetracaine otic suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Neomycin, prednisolone, and tetracaine otic suspension. 524.1484f Section 524.1484f Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... neomycin-susceptible organisms and/or allergy. (3) Limitations. Federal law restricts this drug to use...

  6. 21 CFR 520.82b - Aminopropazine fumarate, neomycin sulfate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... contains both aminopropazine fumarate equivalent to 25 milligrams of aminopropazine base and neomycin sulfate equivalent to 50 milligrams of neomycin base. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000061 in § 510.600(c) of this... administered at a dosage level of one to two tablets per 10 pounds of body weight twice daily for 3 days.1...

  7. Direct electrochemical detection of kanamycin based on peroxidase-like activity of gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunshuai; Liu, Chang; Luo, Jibao; Tian, Yaping; Zhou, Nandi

    2016-09-14

    An enzyme-free, ultrasensitive electrochemical detection of kanamycin residue was achieved based on mimetic peroxidase activity of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and target-induced replacement of the aptamer. AuNPs which were synthesized using tyrosine as a reducing and capping agent, exhibited mimetic peroxidase activity. In the presence of kanamycin-specific aptamer, however, the single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) adsorbed on the surface of AuNPs via the interaction between the bases of ssDNA and AuNPs, and therefore blocked the catalytic site of AuNPs, and inhibited their peroxidase activity. While in the presence of target kanamycin, it bound with the adsorbed aptamer on AuNPs with high affinity, exposed the surface of AuNPs and recovered the peroxidase activity. Then AuNPs catalyzed the reaction between H2O2 and reduced thionine to produce oxidized thionine. The latter exhibited a distinct reduction peak on gold electrode in differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), and could be utilized to quantify the concentration of kanamycin. Under the optimized conditions, the proposed electrochemical assay showed an extremely high sensitivity towards kanamycin, with a linear relationship between the peak current and the concentration of kanamycin in the range of 0.1-60 nM, and a detection limit of 0.06 nM. Moreover, the established approach was successfully applied in the detection of kanamycin in honey samples. Therefore, the proposed electrochemical assay has great potential in the fields of food quality control and environmental monitoring. PMID:27566341

  8. Effect of the Antibiotic Neomycin on the Toxicity of the Glycoside Vicine in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Arbid, Mahmoud S.; Koriem, Khaled M. M.; Asaad, Gihan F.; Megahed, Hoda A.

    2013-01-01

    Vicine is hydrolyzed by microflora to highly reactive free radical generating compound divicine which causes mortality and other adverse effects. This study in the rats established the effect of a broad spectrum and poorly absorbed antibiotic, neomycin sulfate on the toxicity of vicine. The results showed extremely decrease in mortality rate in the group pretreated with neomycin. Hemoglobin (Hb) concentration, hematocrit (Hct) value, and red blood cells (RBCs) count were significantly decreased after injection of vicine and the improvement of these values in the group pretreated with neomycin. The same results were observed in white blood cells (WBCs). The results showed a significant decrease in glucose level and returned to normal in group pretreated with neomycin. Glutathione (GSH) was significantly decreased in the vicine group and returned to normal value in the group pretreated with neomycin. Lipid peroxide (TBARs) was significantly increased in the group treated with vicine and neomycin pretreated group decreased to the normal level. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6-PD) activity was significantly decreased and returned to normal level in rats pretreated with neomycin. Serum protein and globulin were significantly decreased but serum albumin showed insignificant decrease in vicine and neomycin groups compared to control. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were significantly decreased in the vicine group. The group pretreated with neomycin showed significantly increased activities of AST and ALT compared with vicine group. In conclusion, neomycin pretreatment of rats injected with glycoside vicine decreased to a great extent of its toxic and mortality effects and is useful in favism and hemolytic anemia. PMID:23840205

  9. Novel Synthesis of Kanamycin Conjugated Gold Nanoparticles with Potent Antibacterial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Jason N.; Waghwani, Hitesh K.; Connor, Michael G.; Hamilton, William; Tockstein, Sarah; Moolani, Harsh; Chavda, Fenil; Badwaik, Vivek; Lawrenz, Matthew B.; Dakshinamurthy, Rajalingam

    2016-01-01

    With a sharp increase in the cases of multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria all over the world, there is a huge demand to develop a new generation of antibiotic agents to fight them. As an alternative to the traditional drug discovery route, we have designed an effective antibacterial agent by modifying an existing commercial antibiotic, kanamycin, conjugated on the surface of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). In this study, we report a single-step synthesis of kanamycin-capped AuNPs (Kan-AuNPs) utilizing the combined reducing and capping properties of kanamycin. While Kan-AuNPs have increased toxicity to a primate cell line (Vero 76), antibacterial assays showed dose-dependent broad spectrum activity of Kan-AuNPs against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including Kanamycin resistant bacteria. Further, a significant reduction in the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Kan-AuNPs was observed when compared to free kanamycin against all the bacterial strains tested. Mechanistic studies using transmission electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy indicated that at least part of Kan-AuNPs increased efficacy may be through disrupting the bacterial envelope, resulting in the leakage of cytoplasmic content and the death of bacterial cells. Results of this study provide critical information about a novel method for the development of antibiotic capped AuNPs as potent next-generation antibacterial agents. PMID:27330535

  10. Novel Synthesis of Kanamycin Conjugated Gold Nanoparticles with Potent Antibacterial Activity.

    PubMed

    Payne, Jason N; Waghwani, Hitesh K; Connor, Michael G; Hamilton, William; Tockstein, Sarah; Moolani, Harsh; Chavda, Fenil; Badwaik, Vivek; Lawrenz, Matthew B; Dakshinamurthy, Rajalingam

    2016-01-01

    With a sharp increase in the cases of multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria all over the world, there is a huge demand to develop a new generation of antibiotic agents to fight them. As an alternative to the traditional drug discovery route, we have designed an effective antibacterial agent by modifying an existing commercial antibiotic, kanamycin, conjugated on the surface of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). In this study, we report a single-step synthesis of kanamycin-capped AuNPs (Kan-AuNPs) utilizing the combined reducing and capping properties of kanamycin. While Kan-AuNPs have increased toxicity to a primate cell line (Vero 76), antibacterial assays showed dose-dependent broad spectrum activity of Kan-AuNPs against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including Kanamycin resistant bacteria. Further, a significant reduction in the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Kan-AuNPs was observed when compared to free kanamycin against all the bacterial strains tested. Mechanistic studies using transmission electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy indicated that at least part of Kan-AuNPs increased efficacy may be through disrupting the bacterial envelope, resulting in the leakage of cytoplasmic content and the death of bacterial cells. Results of this study provide critical information about a novel method for the development of antibiotic capped AuNPs as potent next-generation antibacterial agents. PMID:27330535

  11. Determination of neomycin in the form of neomycin derivative with dabsyl chloride by thin layer chromatography and densitometry.

    PubMed

    Hubicka, Urszula; Zuromska-Witek, Barbara; Piotrowska, Joanna; Krzek, Jan

    2015-01-01

    A thin layer chromatographic-densitometric method has been developed for identification and quantitative determination of neomycin derivative with dabsyl chloride. The analysis of antibiotic was achieved on the silica gel TLC plates with fluorescent indicator with n-butanol--2-butanone--25% ammonia--water (10 : 6 : 2 : 2, v/v/v/v) as the mobile phase. The densitometric measurements were made at 460 nm. Under these conditions good separation of chosen aminoglycoside antibiotic from reagent used to make a complex was obtained. The method is characterized by high sensitivity, LOD from 0.1953 μg per band and LOQ from 0.5918 μg per band, wide linearity range from 0.5918 to 2.1960 μg per band for neomycin. The precision of the method was good; RSD varied from 1.17 to 2.05%. Satisfactory results of validation of the method were also confirmed by determination of selected antibiotic in pharmaceutical commercial preparation. The results obtained by TLC-densitometric method were compared with those obtained by spectrophotometric method. PMID:25850198

  12. Label-free detection of kanamycin based on a G-quadruplex DNA aptamer-based fluorescent intercalator displacement assay

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Yun-Peng; Liu, Chun; Zhou, Xiao-Hong; Shi, Han-Chang

    2015-01-01

    This work was the first to report that the kanamycin-binding DNA aptamer (5′-TGG GGG TTG AGG CTA AGC CGA-3′) can form stable parallel G-quadruplex DNA (G4-DNA) structures by themselves and that this phenomenon can be verified by nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and circular dichroism spectroscopy. Based on these findings, we developed a novel label-free strategy for kanamycin detection based on the G4-DNA aptamer-based fluorescent intercalator displacement assay with thiazole orange (TO) as the fluorescence probe. In the proposed strategy, TO became strongly fluorescent upon binding to kanamycin-binding G4-DNA. However, the addition of kanamycin caused the displacement of TO from the G4-DNA–TO conjugate, thereby resulting in decreased fluorescent signal, which was inversely related to the kanamycin concentration. The detection limit of the proposed assay decreased to 59 nM with a linear working range of 0.1 μM to 20 μM for kanamycin. The cross-reactivity against six other antibiotics was negligible compared with the response to kanamycin. A satisfactory recovery of kanamycin in milk samples ranged from 80.1% to 98.0%, confirming the potential of this bioassay in the measurement of kanamycin in various applications. Our results also served as a good reference for developing similar fluorescent G4-DNA-based bioassays in the future. PMID:25634469

  13. Label-free detection of kanamycin based on a G-quadruplex DNA aptamer-based fluorescent intercalator displacement assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Yun-Peng; Liu, Chun; Zhou, Xiao-Hong; Shi, Han-Chang

    2015-01-01

    This work was the first to report that the kanamycin-binding DNA aptamer (5'-TGG GGG TTG AGG CTA AGC CGA-3') can form stable parallel G-quadruplex DNA (G4-DNA) structures by themselves and that this phenomenon can be verified by nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and circular dichroism spectroscopy. Based on these findings, we developed a novel label-free strategy for kanamycin detection based on the G4-DNA aptamer-based fluorescent intercalator displacement assay with thiazole orange (TO) as the fluorescence probe. In the proposed strategy, TO became strongly fluorescent upon binding to kanamycin-binding G4-DNA. However, the addition of kanamycin caused the displacement of TO from the G4-DNA-TO conjugate, thereby resulting in decreased fluorescent signal, which was inversely related to the kanamycin concentration. The detection limit of the proposed assay decreased to 59 nM with a linear working range of 0.1 μM to 20 μM for kanamycin. The cross-reactivity against six other antibiotics was negligible compared with the response to kanamycin. A satisfactory recovery of kanamycin in milk samples ranged from 80.1% to 98.0%, confirming the potential of this bioassay in the measurement of kanamycin in various applications. Our results also served as a good reference for developing similar fluorescent G4-DNA-based bioassays in the future.

  14. Neomycin has no persistent sparing effect on vitamin B-12 status in pectin-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Cullen, R W; Oace, S M

    1989-10-01

    In the present study, rats were depleted of vitamin B-12 with fiber-free or 5% pectin diets, with or without neomycin. Through use of this intestinal antibiotic reported to "spare" vitamin B-12, we sought to determine if bacterial fermentation of pectin might explain our previous observations of negative effects of pectin on vitamin B-12 status. However, neomycin did not lessen interference by pectin with vitamin B-12 metabolism. Pectin increased urinary methylmalonate and decreased propionate oxidation to a greater extent in the presence than in the absence of neomycin. Also, regardless of the presence of neomycin, the biologic half-life of injected [57Co]vitamin B-12 was 58 d for rats fed the fiber-free diets and only 38 d for rats fed 5% pectin diets. Neomycin delayed early fecal excretion of 57Co but had no persistent effect. Thus, neomycin-sensitive bacteria do not mediate the negative effects of pectin on vitamin B-12 status. Pectin may interfere directly with vitamin B-12 absorption or may stimulate vitamin B-12 uptake or propionate production by microbial species that have adapted to neomycin. PMID:2555466

  15. Microbiological determination of neomycin in feeds: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Stahl, G L; Kratzer, D D; Kasson, C W

    1989-01-01

    A modification of the AOAC microbiological determination of neomycin in feeds was collaboratively studied by 12 laboratories. The official method was modified by substituting a constant salt concentration diluent for the feed extract diluent, preparing the agar medium in tris buffer, and performing the test with a monolayer plating system. Each laboratory performed single assays on 8 samples in a randomized sequence. The samples included duplicates of a cattle and swine feed at 2 different marketed concentrations. The mean recovery across all laboratories was 110.7% of theory with a range of means of 69.4-128.6 across the 12 laboratories. The results of one laboratory and 2 additional values from different laboratories were deemed outliers and excluded from statistical analysis. The statistical analysis gave a confidence interval of +/- 26% for individual assays. PMID:2651392

  16. Rapid and Sensitive Chemiluminescent Enzyme Immunoassay for the Determination of Neomycin Residues in Milk.

    PubMed

    Luo, Peng Jie; Zhang, Jian Bo; Wang, Hua Li; Chen, Xia; Wu, Nan; Zhao, Yun Feng; Wang, Xiao Mei; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Ji Yue; Zhu, Lei; Jiang, Wen Xiao

    2016-05-01

    Immunoassays greatly contribute to veterinary drug residue analysis. However, there are few reports on detecting neomycin residues by immunoassay. Here, a rapid and sensitive chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLIEA) was successfully developed for neomycin residue analysis. CLIEA demonstrated good cross-reactivity for neomycin, and the IC50 value was 2.4 ng/mL in buffer. The average recovery range was 88.5%-105.4% for spiked samples (10, 50, and 100 μg/kg), and the coefficient of variation was in the range of 7.5%-14.5%. The limit of detection of CLEIA was 9.4 μg/kg, and this method was compared with the liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method using naturally contaminated samples, producing a correlation coefficient of >0.95. We demonstrate a reliable CLIEA for the rapid screening of neomycin in milk. PMID:27353712

  17. Colorimetric and fluorometric detection of neomycin based on conjugated polydiacetylene supramolecules.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guodong; Wang, Fang; Wang, Huilin; Kambam, Srinivasulu; Chen, Xiaoqiang

    2013-06-13

    Utilizing the colorimetric and fluorogenic changes, a system based on polydiacetylenes (PDAs) is developed for the detection of neomycin. The PDA supramolecules polymerized from the mixed liposome composed of N-(3-hydroxyphenyl)pentacosa-10,12-diynamide (PCDA-AP) and pentacosa-10,12-diynoic acid (PCDA) at an optimized ratio of 1:9 display a unique colorimetric change (blue to red) and fluorescent enhancement in the presence of neomycin. The detection limit for neomycin is estimated to be 2.55 × 10(-7) M by the fluorogenic method. The optical changes induced by neomycin can be attributed to the disruption of the hydrogen bonding between phenol and carboxylic acid from PCDA-AP and PCDA. PMID:23649672

  18. Semi-solid-state fermentation: a promising alternative for neomycin production by the actinomycete Streptomyces fradiae.

    PubMed

    Machado, Isabel; Teixeira, José A; Rodríguez-Couto, Susana

    2013-06-10

    The production of neomycin by the actinomycete Streptomyces fradiae, under semi-solid-state fermentation conditions was the main subject of this study. Two supports (nylon sponge and orange peelings) were tested in order to determine the most suitable one for the production of neomycin by the above-mentioned microorganism. Nylon sponge led to the highest neomycin production, reaching a maximum value of 13,903 μg/mL on the 10th day of cultivation. As a control, the same experiment was performed under submerged fermentation (SmF) conditions, without solid support. Here the production of neomycin by S. fradiae was about 55-fold lower (i.e. 250 μg/mL) than that obtained for SSF. PMID:23570968

  19. Novel plasmid conferring kanamycin and tetracycline resistance in turkey-derived Campylobacter jejuni strain 11601MD

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Campylobacter spp., resistance to the antibiotics kanamycin and tetracycline is frequently associated with plasmid-borne genes. However, relatively few plasmids of Campylobacter jejuni have been fully characterized to date. A novel plasmid (p11601MD; 44,095 bp.) harboring tet(O) was identified in...

  20. [Antitoxic properties of pantothenic acid derivatives, precursors of coenzyme A biosynthesis, with regard to kanamycin].

    PubMed

    Moĭseenok, A G; Dorofeev, B F; Sheĭbak, V M; Khomich, T I

    1984-11-01

    The effect of calcium pantothenate (CPN)B 4'-phospho-CPN (PCP), pantetheine (PT) and calcium S-sulfopantetheine (SPN) on acute toxicity of kanamycin sulfate was studied on albino mice. The above derivatives of pantothenic acid except PT lowered the antibiotic toxicity. The coefficient of the antitoxic effect (LD50/ED50) of SPN and PCP was 1.3-1.4 times higher than that of CPN. The combined use of kanamycin (1/5 of the LD50) with CPN, PCP or PT (30 mg/kg bw was equivalent to CPN) for 15 days prevented the increase in the total content of CoA and in the content of the fraction of free CoA and the precursors of its biosynthesis participating in the reaction of N-acetylation in the liver and brain. The contents of these substances were within the normal during the whole experiment. A certain increase in the activity of pantothenate kinase in the liver cytosol due to the use of kanamycin was eliminated by the simultaneous use of PCP and PT. The vitamin-containing compounds PCP and SPN were recommended for the clinical trials as agents preventing complications of kanamycin therapy. PMID:6524887

  1. Intestinal Protective Effects of Herbal-Based Formulations in Rats against Neomycin Insult

    PubMed Central

    Bose, Shambhunath; Han, Kyung-Wan; Lee, Myeong-Jong

    2013-01-01

    Disturbance in the gut microbial niche by antibiotics like neomycin produces gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. Here, we evaluated the impact of a mixture of extracts of three herbs (Atractylodis Rhizoma Macrocephalae, Massa Medicata Fermentata, and Dolichoris Semen) with known GI protective activities, either laboratory unfermented (herbal formulation-1 (HF-1)) or fermented/re-fermented (herbal formulation-2 (HF-2)) on neomycin-treated rats using a commercial Lactobacillus probiotic as a reference. Treatment with neomycin augmented stool water content, decreased fecal population of Lactobacillus spp., changed the histology of intestine without inducing inflammation, reduced the colonic expression of zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and claudin-1, and elevated the serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) levels. Coadministration of either HF-2 or probiotic, but not HF-1, restored the fecal content of Lactobacillus spp., normalized the serum CRP level, and significantly increased the colonic expression of ZO-1 and claudin-1 in neomycin-treated rats. The combined treatment with any of the above agents ameliorated the histological changes of cecum and colon in neomycin-treated rats, and the magnitude of this effect was probiotic > HF-2 > HF-1. Our study revealed the intestinal protective effect of a mixture of three herbs against neomycin insult, which is mediated through multiple mechanisms and is potentiated upon prior fermentation/refermentation of the herbs. PMID:23690835

  2. Probing the recognition surface of a DNA triplex: Binding studies with intercalator-neomycin conjugates

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Liang; Xi, Hongjuan; Kumar, Sunil; Gray, David; Davis, Erik; Hamilton, Paris; Skirba, Michael; Arya, Dev P.

    2012-01-01

    Thermodynamic studies on the interactions between intercalator-neomycin conjugates and a DNA polynucleotide triplex [poly(dA)•2poly(dT)] were conducted. To draw a complete picture of such interactions, naphthalenedimide-neomycin (3) and anthraquinone-neomycin (4) were synthesized and used together with two other analogues, previously synthesized pyrene-neomycin (1) and BQQ-neomycin (2), in our investigations. A combination of experiments including UV denaturation, circular dichroism (CD) titration, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) revealed that all four conjugates (1–4) stabilized poly(dA)•2poly(dT) much greater than its parent compound, neomycin. UV melting experiments clearly showed that the temperature (Tm3→2) at which poly(dA)•2poly(dT) dissociated into poly(dA)•poly(dT) and poly(dT) increased dramatically (> 12 °C) in the presence of intercalator-neomycin (1–4) even at a very low concentration (2 µM). In contrast to intercalator-neomycin conjugates, the increment of Tm3→2 of poly(dA)•2poly(dT) induced by neomycin was negligible under the same conditions. The binding preference of intercalator-neomycin (1–4) to poly(dA)•2poly(dT) was also confirmed by competition dialysis and fluorescent intercalator displacement assay. Circular dichroism titration studies revealed that compound 1–4 had slightly larger binding site size (~7–7.5) with poly(dA)•2poly(dT) as compared to neomycin (~6.5). The thermodynamic parameters of these intercalator-neomycin conjugates with poly(dA)•2poly(dT) were derived from an integrated van’t Hoff equation using the Tm3→2 values, the binding site size numbers, and other parameters obtained from DSC and ITC. The binding affinity of all tested ligands with poly(dA)•2poly(dT) increased in the order neomycin < 1 < 3 < 4 < 2. Amongst them, the binding constant [(2.7 ± 0.3) × 108 M−1] of 2 with poly(dA)•2poly(dT) was the highest, almost 1000 fold more

  3. EDTA-dependent Pseudothrombocytopenia Confirmed by Supplementation of Kanamycin; A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Hae Lyun; Jo, Young; Choi, Young Suk; Lee, Jung Yeon; Lee, Hae Woon; Kim, Seong Ryul; Sim, Joon; Lee, Weon; Jin, Chun Jo

    2002-01-01

    EDTA-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia (PTCP) is the phenomenon of a spurious low platelet count due to EDTA-induced aggregation of platelets. Since the failure to recognize EDTA-dependent PTCP may result in incorrect diagnosis and inappropriate treatment, the recognition of this phenomenon is very important. We report an insidious case of EDTA-dependent PTCP confirmed by supplementation of kanamycin to anticoagulant in a 53-year-old women. Although sodium citrate and heparin usually prevented the aggregation of platelets in EDTA-dependent PTCP patients, these anticoagulants failed in preventing PTCP in our case. EDTA-dependent PTCP was confirmed by the findings that the dumping of platelets on microscopic evaluation was found in EDTA-anticoagulated blood samples, whereas thrombocytopenia and platelet aggregation were not revealed in the sample supplemented with kanamycin. PMID:12014216

  4. MAPLE fabrication of thin films based on kanamycin functionalized magnetite nanoparticles with anti-pathogenic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grumezescu, Valentina; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Holban, Alina Maria; Mogoantă, Laurenţiu; Mogoşanu, George Dan; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Stănculescu, Anca; Socol, Gabriel; Iordache, Florin; Maniu, Horia; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen

    2015-05-01

    In this study we aimed to evaluate the biocompatibility and antimicrobial activity of kanamycin functionalized 5 nm-magnetite (Fe3O4@KAN) nanoparticles thin films deposited by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) technique. A laser deposition regime was established in order to stoichiometrically transfer Fe3O4@KAN thin films on silicone and glass substrates. Morphological and physico-chemical properties of powders and coatings were characterized by XRD, TEM, SEM, AFM and IR microscopy (IRM). Our nanostructured thin films have proved efficiency in the prevention of microbial adhesion and mature biofilms development as a result of antibiotic release in its active form. Furthermore, kanamycin functionalized nanostructures exhibit a good biocompatibility, both in vivo and in vitro, demonstrating their potential for implants application. This is the first study reporting the assessment of the in vivo biocompatibility of a magnetite-antimicrobial thin films produced by MAPLE technique.

  5. EDTA-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia confirmed by supplementation of kanamycin; a case report.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Hae Lyun; Jo, Young Il; Choi, Young Suk; Lee, Jung Yeon; Lee, Hae Woon; Kim, Seong Ryul; Sim, Joon; Lee, Weon; Jin, Chun Jo

    2002-03-01

    EDTA-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia (PTCP) is the phenomenon of a spurious low platelet count due to EDTA-induced aggregation of platelets. Since the failure to recognize EDTA-dependent PTCP may result in incorrect diagnosis and inappropriate treatment, the recognition of this phenomenon is very important. We report an insidious case of EDTA-dependent PTCP confirmed by supplementation of kanamycin to anticoagulant in a 53-year-old women. Although sodium citrate and heparin usually prevented the aggregation of platelets in EDTA-dependent PTCP patients, these anticoagulants failed in preventing PTCP in our case. EDTA-dependent PTCP was confirmed by the findings that the clumping of platelets on microscopic evaluation was found in EDTA-anticoagulated blood samples, whereas thrombocytopenia and platelet aggregation were not revealed in the sample supplemented with kanamycin. PMID:12014216

  6. Specificity of neomycin analogues bound to the packaging region of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA.

    PubMed

    McPike, Mark P; Goodisman, Jerry; Dabrowiak, James C

    2004-04-15

    The packaging region of HIV-1 RNA contains a number of structural features which are important in the life cycle of the virus, making this segment of RNA a potential target for new types of AIDS-directed drugs. We studied the binding of three neomycin analogues (neo-guanidino, neo-acridine, and neo-neo) to a 171-mer RNA molecule from the packaging region of HIV-1 using quantitative footprinting and circular dichroism. Neo-guanidino produced footprinting patterns and effects on the CD similar to those observed for neomycin and paromomycin, indicating that all three compounds bind to the same regions of the 171-mer. Neo-guanidino binds to SL 1 where it joins the large internal loop, near a bulge in the stem of SL 1, and on SL 2. Neo-acridine, which has an acridine attached to neomycin, and neo-neo, which has two neomycins linked by a flexible tether, bind bivalently, and give very different footprinting and CD results from the other compounds. The neomycin portion of neo-acridine binds to the same sites as neomycin, while the attached acridine group appears to bind to a duplex region in the main stem of the folded 171-mer. Since the footprinting data for this analogue show few enhancements, bivalent binding of neo-acridine appears to stabilize the folded structure of RNA by effectively 'stapling' parts of the structure together. Neo-neo induces significant structural changes in RNA where neomycin binds. This may be related to the inability of both neomycins of neo-neo it find optimal binding sites adjacent to one another without changing RNA structure. The intensity of a strong negative CD band in the spectrum of psi-RNA at 208 nm is sensitive to drug-induced changes in RNA structure. Neo-guanidino and neo-neo (also neomycin and paromomycin), which change RNA structure, cause an increase in intensity while neo-acridine, which induces little distortion to RNA, causes a decrease in intensity. Molecular modeling analysis shows that C-5' of ribose of neo-acridine and neo

  7. Functional characterization of KanP, a methyltransferase from the kanamycin biosynthetic gene cluster of Streptomyces kanamyceticus.

    PubMed

    Nepal, Keshav Kumar; Yoo, Jin Cheol; Sohng, Jae Kyung

    2010-09-20

    KanP, a putative methyltransferase, is located in the kanamycin biosynthetic gene cluster of Streptomyces kanamyceticus ATCC12853. Amino acid sequence analysis of KanP revealed the presence of S-adenosyl-L-methionine binding motifs, which are present in other O-methyltransferases. The kanP gene was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) to generate the E. coli KANP recombinant strain. The conversion of external quercetin to methylated quercetin in the culture extract of E. coli KANP proved the function of kanP as S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent methyltransferase. This is the first report concerning the identification of an O-methyltransferase gene from the kanamycin gene cluster. The resistant activity assay and RT-PCR analysis demonstrated the leeway for obtaining methylated kanamycin derivatives from the wild-type strain of kanamycin producer. PMID:20015628

  8. 21 CFR 524.154 - Bacitracin or bacitracin zinc-neomycin sulfate-polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bacitracin or bacitracin zinc-neomycin sulfate... TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.154 Bacitracin or bacitracin zinc-neomycin sulfate-polymyxin B... units of polymyxin B. (2) To 000061 and 025463; each gram contains 400 units of bacitracin zinc,...

  9. 21 CFR 524.154 - Bacitracin or bacitracin zinc-neomycin sulfate-polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bacitracin or bacitracin zinc-neomycin sulfate... TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.154 Bacitracin or bacitracin zinc-neomycin sulfate-polymyxin B... units of polymyxin B. (2) To 000061 and 025463; each gram contains 400 units of bacitracin zinc,...

  10. 21 CFR 524.154 - Bacitracin or bacitracin zinc-neomycin sulfate-polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bacitracin or bacitracin zinc-neomycin sulfate... TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.154 Bacitracin or bacitracin zinc-neomycin sulfate-polymyxin B... units of polymyxin B. (2) To 000061 and 025463; each gram contains 400 units of bacitracin zinc,...

  11. 21 CFR 524.155 - Bacitracin zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone or hydrocortisone acetate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bacitracin zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin... zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone or hydrocortisone acetate ophthalmic ointment... of ointment contains 400 units of bacitracin zinc, 10,000 units of polymyxin B sulfate, 5...

  12. 21 CFR 524.154 - Bacitracin or bacitracin zinc-neomycin sulfate-polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bacitracin or bacitracin zinc-neomycin sulfate... TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.154 Bacitracin or bacitracin zinc-neomycin sulfate-polymyxin B... units of polymyxin B. (2) To 000061 and 043264; each gram contains 400 units of bacitracin zinc,...

  13. 21 CFR 524.155 - Bacitracin zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone or hydrocortisone acetate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bacitracin zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin... zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone or hydrocortisone acetate ophthalmic ointment... of ointment contains 400 units of bacitracin zinc, 10,000 units of polymyxin B sulfate, 5...

  14. 21 CFR 524.155 - Bacitracin zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone or hydrocortisone acetate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bacitracin zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin... zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone or hydrocortisone acetate ophthalmic ointment... of ointment contains 400 units of bacitracin zinc, 10,000 units of polymyxin B sulfate, 5...

  15. 21 CFR 524.155 - Bacitracin zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone or hydrocortisone acetate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bacitracin zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin... zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone or hydrocortisone acetate ophthalmic ointment... of ointment contains 400 units of bacitracin zinc, 10,000 units of polymyxin B sulfate, 5...

  16. Wnt activation protects against neomycin-induced hair cell damage in the mouse cochlea

    PubMed Central

    Liu, L; Chen, Y; Qi, J; Zhang, Y; He, Y; Ni, W; Li, W; Zhang, S; Sun, S; Taketo, M M; Wang, L; Chai, R; Li, H

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have reported the role of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in hair cell (HC) development, regeneration, and differentiation in the mouse cochlea; however, the role of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in HC protection remains unknown. In this study, we took advantage of transgenic mice to specifically knockout or overactivate the canonical Wnt signaling mediator β-catenin in HCs, which allowed us to investigate the role of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in protecting HCs against neomycin-induced damage. We first showed that loss of β-catenin in HCs made them more vulnerable to neomycin-induced injury, while constitutive activation of β-catenin in HCs reduced HC loss both in vivo and in vitro. We then showed that loss of β-catenin in HCs increased caspase-mediated apoptosis induced by neomycin injury, while β-catenin overexpression inhibited caspase-mediated apoptosis. Finally, we demonstrated that loss of β-catenin in HCs led to increased expression of forkhead box O3 transcription factor (Foxo3) and Bim along with decreased expression of antioxidant enzymes; thus, there were increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) after neomycin treatment that might be responsible for the increased aminoglycoside sensitivity of HCs. In contrast, β-catenin overexpression reduced Foxo3 and Bim expression and ROS levels, suggesting that β-catenin is protective against neomycin-induced HC loss. Our findings demonstrate that Wnt/β-catenin signaling has an important role in protecting HCs against neomycin-induced HC loss and thus might be a new therapeutic target for the prevention of HC death. PMID:26962686

  17. Wnt activation protects against neomycin-induced hair cell damage in the mouse cochlea.

    PubMed

    Liu, L; Chen, Y; Qi, J; Zhang, Y; He, Y; Ni, W; Li, W; Zhang, S; Sun, S; Taketo, M M; Wang, L; Chai, R; Li, H

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have reported the role of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in hair cell (HC) development, regeneration, and differentiation in the mouse cochlea; however, the role of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in HC protection remains unknown. In this study, we took advantage of transgenic mice to specifically knockout or overactivate the canonical Wnt signaling mediator β-catenin in HCs, which allowed us to investigate the role of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in protecting HCs against neomycin-induced damage. We first showed that loss of β-catenin in HCs made them more vulnerable to neomycin-induced injury, while constitutive activation of β-catenin in HCs reduced HC loss both in vivo and in vitro. We then showed that loss of β-catenin in HCs increased caspase-mediated apoptosis induced by neomycin injury, while β-catenin overexpression inhibited caspase-mediated apoptosis. Finally, we demonstrated that loss of β-catenin in HCs led to increased expression of forkhead box O3 transcription factor (Foxo3) and Bim along with decreased expression of antioxidant enzymes; thus, there were increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) after neomycin treatment that might be responsible for the increased aminoglycoside sensitivity of HCs. In contrast, β-catenin overexpression reduced Foxo3 and Bim expression and ROS levels, suggesting that β-catenin is protective against neomycin-induced HC loss. Our findings demonstrate that Wnt/β-catenin signaling has an important role in protecting HCs against neomycin-induced HC loss and thus might be a new therapeutic target for the prevention of HC death. PMID:26962686

  18. Patch-test-induced "flare-up" reactions to neomycin at prior biopsy sites.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Sharon E; Barland, Chantal; ElSaie, Mohamed L

    2008-01-01

    "Recall dermatitis" classically refers to the uncommon phenomenon of chemotherapy-induced reactivation of skin damage originally induced by radiotherapy months or years earlier. We compare this condition to ectopic flare-up reactions presenting as dermatitis at existing or previous sites by an inducing agent. Enhanced sensitization of an existent allergen by patch testing is rarely described. We describe a case of a 61-year-old man's developing localized allergic contact dermatitis at previous neomycin-treated sites following the diagnosis of neomycin sensitivity on patch testing, which we attribute to a "flare-up" phenomenon. PMID:19134429

  19. Characterization of a radical S-adenosyl-L-methionine epimerase, NeoN, in the last step of neomycin B biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Fumitaka; Hoshi, Shota; Kawashima, Taiki; Kamachi, Toshiaki; Eguchi, Tadashi

    2014-10-01

    The last step of neomycin biosynthesis is the epimerization at C-5‴ of neomycin C to give neomycin B. A candidate enzyme responsible for the epimerization was a putative radical S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) enzyme, NeoN, which is uniquely encoded in the neomycin biosynthetic gene cluster and remained an unassigned protein in the neomycin biosynthesis. The reconstituted and reduced NeoN showed the expected epimerization activity in the presence of SAM. In the epimerization, 1 equiv of SAM was consumed to convert neomycin C into neomycin B. The site of neomycin C reactive toward epimerization was clearly confirmed to be C-5‴ by detecting the incorporation of a deuterium atom from the deuterium oxide-based buffer solution. Further, alanine scanning of the NeoN cysteine residues revealed that C249 is a critical amino acid residue that provides a hydrogen atom to complete the epimerization. Furthermore, electron paramagnetic resonance analysis of the C249A variant in the presence of SAM and neomycin C revealed that a radical intermediate is generated at the C-5‴ of neomycin C. Therefore, the present study clearly illustrates that the epimerization of neomycin C to neomycin B is catalyzed by a unique radical SAM epimerase NeoN with a radical reaction mechanism. PMID:25230155

  20. 21 CFR 524.1484e - Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution. 524.1484e Section 524.1484e Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND...

  1. 21 CFR 524.1484e - Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution. 524.1484e Section 524.1484e Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND...

  2. Neomycin Sulfate Improves the Antimicrobial Activity of Mupirocin-Based Antibacterial Ointments

    PubMed Central

    Blanchard, Catlyn; Brooks, Lauren; Beckley, Andrew; Colquhoun, Jennifer; Dewhurst, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    In the midst of the current antimicrobial pipeline void, alternative approaches are needed to reduce the incidence of infection and decrease reliance on last-resort antibiotics for the therapeutic intervention of bacterial pathogens. In that regard, mupirocin ointment-based decolonization and wound maintenance practices have proven effective in reducing Staphylococcus aureus transmission and mitigating invasive disease. However, the emergence of mupirocin-resistant strains has compromised the agent's efficacy, necessitating new strategies for the prevention of staphylococcal infections. Herein, we set out to improve the performance of mupirocin-based ointments. A screen of a Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drug library revealed that the antibiotic neomycin sulfate potentiates the antimicrobial activity of mupirocin, whereas other library antibiotics did not. Preliminary mechanism of action studies indicate that neomycin's potentiating activity may be mediated by inhibition of the organism's RNase P function, an enzyme that is believed to participate in the tRNA processing pathway immediately upstream of the primary target of mupirocin. The improved antimicrobial activity of neomycin and mupirocin was maintained in ointment formulations and reduced S. aureus bacterial burden in murine models of nasal colonization and wound site infections. Combination therapy improved upon the effects of either agent alone and was effective in the treatment of contemporary methicillin-susceptible, methicillin-resistant, and high-level mupirocin-resistant S. aureus strains. From these perspectives, combination mupirocin-and-neomycin ointments appear to be superior to that of mupirocin alone and warrant further development. PMID:26596945

  3. 21 CFR 524.1484d - Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. 524.1484d Section 524.1484d Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG..., tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. (a) Specifications. The product contains 5 milligrams of neomycin... a lesser degree, chronic otitis externa in dogs and cats. In treatment of ear canker and...

  4. 21 CFR 524.1484d - Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. 524.1484d Section 524.1484d Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG..., tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. (a) Specifications. The product contains 5 milligrams of neomycin... a lesser degree, chronic otitis externa in dogs and cats. In treatment of ear canker and...

  5. 21 CFR 524.1484d - Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. 524.1484d Section 524.1484d Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG..., tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. (a) Specifications. The product contains 5 milligrams of neomycin... a lesser degree, chronic otitis externa in dogs and cats. In treatment of ear canker and...

  6. 21 CFR 524.1484d - Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. 524.1484d Section 524.1484d Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG..., tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. (a) Specifications. The product contains 5 milligrams of neomycin... a lesser degree, chronic otitis externa in dogs and cats. In treatment of ear canker and...

  7. 21 CFR 524.1484f - Neomycin sulfate, prednisolone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride eardrops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate, prednisolone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride eardrops. 524.1484f Section 524.1484f Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...-susceptible organisms and/or allergy. In otitis externa, 2 to 6 drops may be placed in the external ear...

  8. 21 CFR 524.1484f - Neomycin sulfate, prednisolone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride eardrops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate, prednisolone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride eardrops. 524.1484f Section 524.1484f Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...-susceptible organisms and/or allergy. In otitis externa, 2 to 6 drops may be placed in the external ear...

  9. 21 CFR 524.1484c - Neomycin sulfate, isoflupredone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate, isoflupredone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ointment. 524.1484c Section 524.1484c Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS §...

  10. 21 CFR 524.1484f - Neomycin sulfate, prednisolone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride eardrops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate, prednisolone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride eardrops. 524.1484f Section 524.1484f Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...-susceptible organisms and/or allergy. In otitis externa, 2 to 6 drops may be placed in the external ear...

  11. 21 CFR 524.1484c - Neomycin sulfate, isoflupredone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate, isoflupredone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ointment. 524.1484c Section 524.1484c Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... observe animals being treated for evidence of hypersensitivity or allergy to the drug. If such signs...

  12. 21 CFR 524.1484c - Neomycin sulfate, isoflupredone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate, isoflupredone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ointment. 524.1484c Section 524.1484c Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... observe animals being treated for evidence of hypersensitivity or allergy to the drug. If such signs...

  13. 21 CFR 524.1484c - Neomycin sulfate, isoflupredone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate, isoflupredone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ointment. 524.1484c Section 524.1484c Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... observe animals being treated for evidence of hypersensitivity or allergy to the drug. If such signs...

  14. 21 CFR 524.1484f - Neomycin sulfate, prednisolone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride eardrops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate, prednisolone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride eardrops. 524.1484f Section 524.1484f Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS...

  15. 40 CFR 174.521 - Neomycin phosphotransferase II; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT...; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of the neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPTII) enzyme are exempted from the requirement of a tolerance in all food commodities when used as a...

  16. 40 CFR 174.521 - Neomycin phosphotransferase II; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT...; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of the neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPTII) enzyme are exempted from the requirement of a tolerance in all food commodities when used as a...

  17. 40 CFR 174.521 - Neomycin phosphotransferase II; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT...; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of the neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPTII) enzyme are exempted from the requirement of a tolerance in all food commodities when used as a...

  18. 40 CFR 174.521 - Neomycin phosphotransferase II; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT...; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of the neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPTII) enzyme are exempted from the requirement of a tolerance in all food commodities when used as a...

  19. 40 CFR 174.521 - Neomycin phosphotransferase II; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT...; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of the neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPTII) enzyme are exempted from the requirement of a tolerance in all food commodities when used as a...

  20. Glutamate co-transmission from developing medial nucleus of the trapezoid body - Lateral superior olive synapses is cochlear dependent in kanamycin-treated rats

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jae Ho; Pradhan, Jonu; Maskey, Dhiraj; Park, Ki Sup; Hong, Sung Hwa; Suh, Myung-Whan; Kim, Myeung Ju; Ahn, Seung Cheol

    2011-02-11

    Research highlights: {yields} Glutamate co-transmission is enhanced in kanamycin-treated rats. {yields} VGLUT3 expression is increased in kanamycin-treated rats. {yields} GlyR expression is decreased in kanamycin-treated rats. {yields} GlyR, VGLUT3 expression patterns are asymmetric in unilaterally cochlear ablated rat. -- Abstract: Cochlear dependency of glutamate co-transmission at the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) - the lateral superior olive (LSO) synapses was investigated using developing rats treated with high dose kanamycin. Rats were treated with kanamycin from postnatal day (P) 3 to P8. A scanning electron microscopic study on P9 demonstrated partial cochlear hair cell damage. A whole cell voltage clamp experiment demonstrated the increased glutamatergic portion of postsynaptic currents (PSCs) elicited by MNTB stimulation in P9-P11 kanamycin-treated rats. The enhanced VGLUT3 immunoreactivities (IRs) in kanamycin-treated rats and asymmetric VGLUT3 IRs in the LSO of unilaterally cochlear ablated rats supported the electrophysiologic data. Taken together, it is concluded that glutamate co-transmission is cochlear-dependent and enhanced glutamate co-transmission in kanamycin-treated rats is induced by partial cochlear damage.

  1. In Vitro Activity of Netilmicin Compared with Gentamicin, Tobramycin, Amikacin, and Kanamycin

    PubMed Central

    Eickhoff, Theodore C.; Ehret, Josephine M.

    1977-01-01

    The in vitro activity of netilmicin was compared with that of gentamicin, tobramycin, amikacin, and kanamycin against 636 strains of bacteria recently isolated from clinical sources. Gentamicin was the most active antibiotic, but netilmicin and tobramycin closely paralleled it. Netilmicin was generally four-to eightfold less active than gentamicin against Serratia and group A streptococci, and was twofold less active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. When effects of inoculum size and concentration of divalent cations in the media were evaluated, netilmicin was shown to be similar to gentamicin in vitro. Minimum inhibitory concentrations for P. aeruginosa were increased as much as 18-fold when the Mg2+ and Ca2+ concentrations were increased to physiological levels in Mueller-Hinton broth. PMID:879733

  2. Potent Inhibitors of Acetyltransferase Eis Overcome Kanamycin Resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Willby, Melisa J; Green, Keith D; Gajadeera, Chathurada S; Hou, Caixia; Tsodikov, Oleg V; Posey, James E; Garneau-Tsodikova, Sylvie

    2016-06-17

    A major cause of tuberculosis (TB) resistance to the aminoglycoside kanamycin (KAN) is the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) acetyltransferase Eis. Upregulation of this enzyme is responsible for inactivation of KAN through acetylation of its amino groups. A 123 000-compound high-throughput screen (HTS) yielded several small-molecule Eis inhibitors that share an isothiazole S,S-dioxide heterocyclic core. These were investigated for their structure-activity relationships. Crystal structures of Eis in complex with two potent inhibitors show that these molecules are bound in the conformationally adaptable aminoglycoside binding site of the enzyme, thereby obstructing binding of KAN for acetylation. Importantly, we demonstrate that several Eis inhibitors, when used in combination with KAN against resistant Mtb, efficiently overcome KAN resistance. This approach paves the way toward development of novel combination therapies against aminoglycoside-resistant TB. PMID:27010218

  3. Surface immobilization of kanamycin-chitosan nanoparticles on polyurethane ureteral stents to prevent bacterial adhesion.

    PubMed

    Venkat Kumar, Govindarajan; Su, Chia-Hung; Velusamy, Palaniyandi

    2016-09-13

    Bacterial adhesion is a major problem that can lead to the infection of implanted urological stents. In this study, kanamycin-chitosan nanoparticles (KMCSNPs) were immobilized on the surface of a polyurethane ureteral stent (PUS) to prevent urinary bacterial infection. KMCSNPs were synthesized using the ionic gelation method. The synthesized KMCSNPs appeared spherical with a ζ-average particle size of 225 nm. KMCSNPs were immobilized on the PUS surface by covalent immobilization techniques. The surface-modified PUS was characterized using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The surface-modified PUS showed significantly increased antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli MTCC 729 and Proteus mirabilis MTCC 425 relative to the surface of an unmodified PUS. These findings suggest that the KMCSNP-immobilized PUS has the potential to prevent bacterial infection in the human urinary tract. PMID:27436679

  4. Neomycin inhibits the phosphatidylinositol monophosphate and phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate stimulation of plasma membrane ATPase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Qiuyun; Boss, W.F. )

    1991-05-01

    The inositol phospholipids, phosphatidylinositol monophosphate (PIP) and phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate (PIP{sub 2}), have been shown to increase the vanadate-sensitive ATPase activity of plant plasma membranes. In this paper, the authors show the effect of various concentrations of phosphatidyinositol, PIP, and PIP{sub 2} on the plasma membrane vanadate-sensitive ATPase activity. PIP and PIP{sub 2} at concentrations at 10 nanomoles per 30 microgram membrane protein per milliliter of reaction mixture caused a twofold and 1.8-fold increase in the ATPase activity, respectively. The effect of these negatively charged phospholipids on the ATPase activity was inhibited by adding the positively charged aminoglycoside, neomycin. Neomycin did not affect the endogenous plasma membrane ATPase activity in the absence of exogenous lipids.

  5. Inhibition of K+ currents in type I vestibular hair cells by gentamicin and neomycin.

    PubMed

    Mann, Scott E; Johnson, Matthew; Meredith, Frances L; Rennie, Katherine J

    2013-01-01

    Significant ototoxicity limits the use of aminoglycoside (AG) antibiotics. Several mechanisms may contribute to the death of both auditory and vestibular hair cells. In this study the effects of gentamicin and neomycin on K(+) currents in mature and early postnatal type I vestibular hair cells (HCI) were tested directly. The whole-cell patch clamp technique was used to assess the effects of AG and KCNQ channel modulators on K(+) currents (IK) in HCI acutely isolated from gerbil semicircular canals. Extracellular neomycin (1 mM) rapidly reduced peak outward IK by 16 ± 4% (n = 9) in mature HCI (postnatal days, P, 25-66). Gentamicin (5 mM) reduced outward IK by 16 ± 3% (n = 8). A similar reduction in outward current was seen in immature HCI (P5-9) that lacked the low-voltage-activated component of IK observed in mature cells. Intracellular application of gentamicin and neomycin also reduced IK in mature HCI. Modulators of KCNQ channels were used to probe KCNQ channel involvement. The selective KCNQ antagonist XE991 did not reduce IK and the neomycin-induced reduction in IK was not reversed by the KCNQ agonist flupirtine. Application of intracellular poly-D-lysine to sequester PIP2 did not reduce IK. Application of the K(+) channel blocker 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) strongly reduced IK, and extracellular AG in the presence of 4-AP gave no further inhibition of IK. In summary, AG significantly reduce the 4-AP-sensitive IK in early postnatal and mature HCI. K(+) current inhibition differs from that seen in outer hair cells, since it does not appear to involve PIP2 sequestration or KCNQ channels. PMID:24051519

  6. Mobilization properties of small ColE1-like plasmids carrying kanamycin resistance gene isolated from Salmonella enterica serotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Previously we isolated and characterized various groups of small kanamycin resistance (KanR) ColE1-like plasmids from different serotypes of Salmonella enterica isolates. These plasmids all carried the aph(3)-I gene encoding the aminoglycoside phosphotransferase responsible for the kanam...

  7. Identification of neomycin B-binding site in T box antiterminator model RNA.

    PubMed

    Anupam, Rajaneesh; Denapoli, Leyna; Muchenditsi, Abigael; Hines, Jennifer V

    2008-04-15

    The T box transcription antitermination mechanism regulates the expression of unique genes in many Gram-positive bacteria by responding, in a magnesium-dependent manner, to uncharged cognate tRNA base pairing with an antiterminator RNA element and other regions of the 5'-untranslated region. Model T box antiterminator RNA is known to bind aminoglycosides, ligands that typically bind RNA in divalent metal ion-binding sites. In this study, enzymatic footprinting and spectroscopic assays were used to identify and characterize the binding site of neomycin B to an antiterminator model RNA. Neomycin B binds the antiterminator bulge nucleotides in an electrostatic-dependent manner and displaces 3-4 monovalent cations, indicating that the antiterminator likely contains a divalent metal ion-binding site. Neomycin B facilitates rather than inhibits tRNA binding indicating that bulge-targeted inhibitors that bind the antiterminator via non-electrostatic interactions may be the more optimal candidates for antiterminator-targeted ligand design. PMID:18329274

  8. Follicular contact dermatitis revisited: A review emphasizing neomycin-associated follicular contact dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Philip R

    2014-01-01

    Follicular contact dermatitis clinically presents as individual papules that include a central hair follicle. Pathologic features involve the follicle and the surrounding dermis: spongiosis and vesicle formation of the follicular epithelium associated with perifollicular and perivascular lymphocytic inflammation. Using the PubMed database, an extensive literature search was performed on follicular contact dermatitis and neomycin. Relevant papers were reviewed and the clinical and pathologic features, the associated chemicals (including a more detailed description of neomycin), the hypothesized pathogenesis, and the management of follicular contact dermatitis were described. Several agents-either as allergens or irritants-have been reported to elicit follicular contact dermatitis. Several hypotheses have been suggested for the selective involvement of the follicles in follicular contact dermatitis: patient allergenicity, characteristics of the agent, vehicle containing the agent, application of the agent, and external factors. The differential diagnosis of follicular contact dermatitis includes not only recurrent infundibulofolliculitis, but also drug eruption, mite infestation, viral infection, and dermatoses that affect hair follicles. The primary therapeutic intervention for follicular contact dermatitis is withdrawal of the causative agent; treatment with a topical corticosteroid preparation may also promote resolution of the dermatitis. In conclusion, follicular contact dermatitis may be secondary to allergens or irritants; topical antibiotics, including neomycin, may cause this condition. Several factors may account for the selective involvement of the hair follicle in this condition. Treatment of the dermatitis requires withdrawal of the associated topical agent; in addition, topical corticosteroids may be helpful to promote resolution of lesions. PMID:25516854

  9. In vitro evaluation of the synergistic activity of neomycin-polymyxin B association against pathogens responsible for otitis externa.

    PubMed

    Tempera, G; Mangiafico, A; Genovese, C; Giudice, E; Mastrojeni, S; Nicolosi, D; Ferneri, P M

    2009-01-01

    The most recent guidelines recommend, for otitis externa antibiotic therapy, the use of topical formulations in that they are very safe, have a quicker effect and do not induce bacterial resistance compared to systemic therapy. The choice of the class of antibiotics in empiric therapy of otitis externa must take into consideration the polymicrobic nature of the infection that includes both bacteria (Grampositive and Gram-negative) and mycetes. For this reason, in this study we evaluated the synergic activity of neomycin in association with polymyxin B against the pathogens commonly responsible for otitis externa, compared to that of a single antibiotic (ciprofloxacin). The polymyxinB/neomycin association shows clear synergic effects with values of both Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) reduced by 3-4 times with respect to the single antibiotic; and in P. aeruginosa the synergistic effect of the neomycin/polymyxin B association with respect to neomycin was more evident (5-6 times), with an intrinsic in vitro activity constantly higher than that of ciprofloxacin alone or in association with hydrocortisone. From the analysis of the data obtained in vitro, we can conclude that the possibility of using a topical formulation containing a synergistic association of antibiotics, such as neomycin-polymyxin B, in such a way as to obtain the maximum effect in the minimum time with an increase in the spectrum of action of non-bacterial pathogens, is an optimal choice for the clinician for the empiric therapy of otitis externa. PMID:19505383

  10. Preparation and Microbiological Evaluation of Amphiphilic Kanamycin-Lipoamino Acid Ion-Pairs

    PubMed Central

    Pignatello, Rosario; Leonardi, Antonio; Petronio Petronio, Giulio; Ruozi, Barbara; Puglisi, Giovanni; Furneri, Pio Maria

    2014-01-01

    Amphiphilic ion-pairs of kanamycin (KAN) were prepared by evaporation of a water-ethanol co-solution of KAN base and a lipoamino acid bearing a 12-carbon atoms alkyl side chain (LAA12), at different molar ratios. Infrared spectroscopy confirmed the structure of ion-pairs, while differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and powder X-ray diffractometry (PXRD) studies supported the formation of new saline species with a different crystalline structure than the starting components. The solubility pattern shown in a range of both aqueous and organic solvents confirmed that the ion-pairs possess an amphiphilic character. The LAA12 counter-ion showed not to improve the antibacterial activity of KAN, suggesting that such chemical strategy is not able to favor the penetration of this drug inside the bacteria cells. Nevertheless, a slight improving, i.e., a one-fold dilution, was observed in E. coli. The present study can also serve as the basis for a further evaluation of LAA ion-pairing of antibiotics, as a means to improve the loading of hydrophilic drugs into lipid-based nanocarriers. PMID:27025745

  11. M. tuberculosis ferritin (Rv3841): Potential involvement in Amikacin (AK) & Kanamycin (KM) resistance.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Divakar; Lata, Manju; Faheem, Mohammad; Khan, Asad Ullah; Joshi, Beenu; Venkatesan, Krishnamurthy; Shukla, Sangeeta; Bisht, Deepa

    2016-09-16

    Tuberculosis is an infectious disease, caused by one of the most successful human pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Aminoglycosides, Amikacin (AK) & Kanamycin (KM) are commonly used to treat drug resistant tuberculosis. They target the protein synthesis machinery by interacting with several steps of translation. Several explanations have been proposed to explain the mechanism of aminoglycoside resistance but still our information is inadequate. Iron storing/interacting proteins were found to be overexpressed in aminoglycosides resistant isolates. Iron assimilation and utilization in M. tuberculosis plays a crucial role in growth, virulence and latency. To establish the relationship of ferritin with AK & KM resistance ferritin (Rv3841/bfrB) was cloned, expressed and antimicrobial drug susceptibility testing (DST) was carried out. Rv3841/bfrB gene was cloned and expressed in E. coli BL21 using pQE2 expression vector. Etest results for DST against AK & KM showed that the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ferritin recombinant cells was changed. Recombinants showed two fold changes in MIC with AK and three fold with KM E-strips. Overexpression of ferritin reflect the MIC shift which might be playing a critical role in the survival of mycobacteria by inhibiting/modulating the effects of AK & KM. String analysis also suggests that ferritin interacted with few proteins which are directly and indirectly involved in M. tuberculosis growth, Iron assimilation, virulence, resistance, stresses and latency. PMID:27521892

  12. Novel plasmid conferring kanamycin and tetracycline resistance in the turkey-derived Campylobacter jejuni strain 11601MD.

    PubMed

    Crespo, M D; Altermann, E; Olson, J; Miller, W G; Chandrashekhar, K; Kathariou, S

    2016-07-01

    In Campylobacter spp., resistance to the antimicrobials kanamycin and tetracycline is frequently associated with plasmid-borne genes. However, relatively few plasmids of Campylobacter jejuni have been fully characterized to date. A novel plasmid (p11601MD; 44,095nt) harboring tet(O) was identified in C. jejuni strain 11601MD, which was isolated from the jejunum of a turkey produced conventionally in North Carolina. Analysis of the p11601MD sequence revealed the presence of a high-GC content cassette with four genes that included tet(O) and a putative aminoglycoside transferase gene (aphA-3) highly similar to kanamycin resistance determinants. Several genes putatively involved in conjugative transfer were also identified on the plasmid. These findings will contribute to a better understanding of the distribution of potentially self-mobilizing plasmids harboring antibiotic resistance determinants in Campylobacter spp. from turkeys and other sources. PMID:27268853

  13. Toward Overcoming Staphylococcus aureus Aminoglycoside Resistance Mechanisms with a Functionally Designed Neomycin Analogue

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Deoxygenation of the diol groups in rings A and D of neomycin in combination with the introduction of an N1-(l)-HABA group in the 2-deoxystreptamine subunit (ring B) leads to a novel and potent antibiotic (1) with activity against strains of S. aureus carrying known aminoglycoside resistance determinants, as well as against an extended panel of Methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates (n = 50). Antibiotic 1 displayed >64 fold improvement in MIC50 and MIC90 against this MRSA collection when compared to the clinically relevant aminoglycosides amikacin and gentamicin. The synthesis was achieved in six steps and 15% overall yield. PMID:24900282

  14. Influence of subtherapeutic levels of a combination of neomycin and oxytetracycline on Salmonella typhimurium in swine, calves, and chickens.

    PubMed

    Girard, A E; English, A R; Evangelisti, D G; Lynch, J E; Solomons, I A

    1976-07-01

    Subtherapeutic levels of oxytetracycline plus neomycin in animal feeds did not bring about increases in the quantity, prevalence, or shedding of Salmonella typhimurium in swine, calves, or chickens. In fact, the medication generally reduced the proportion of animals carrying S. typhimurium. The medicated groups were fed rations containing oxytetracycline plus neomycin commencing 5 days prior to oral inoculation with S. typhimurium and continuing through a 28-day postinoculation period. Colonization of S. typhimurium occurred in all three animal species, as evidenced by clinical signs of infection and/or colony counts in feces. Only from swine and on only one occasion was a single resistant colony isolated. It is concluded that no evidence has been obtained which would implicate the continuous low-level feeding of oxytetracycline and neomycin for a 4-week period to a potential increased incidence of disease in animals or as a hazard to humans. PMID:791090

  15. Sodium Selenite Acts as an Otoprotectant against Neomycin-Induced Hair Cell Damage in a Zebrafish Model

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jiwon; Choi, June; Rah, Yoon Chan; Yoo, Myung Hoon; Oh, Kyoung Ho; Im, Gi Jung; Lee, Seung Hoon; Kwon, Soon Young; Park, Hae-Chul; Chae, Sung Won; Jung, Hak Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Sodium selenite is a trace element essential for many physiological functions in the body. It is involved in various biological processes; it acts as a cofactor for antioxidant enzymes that protect against free radicals and is reported to limit metal-mediated oxidative DNA damage. In the present study, we investigated the effect of sodium selenite on neomycin ototoxicity in wild-type and transgenic zebrafish (Brn3C: EGFP). Five or six days post-fertilization, zebrafish larvae were co-exposed to 125 μM neomycin and various concentrations (10 μM, 100 μM, 250 μM, and 500 μM) of sodium selenite for 1 h. Hair cells within neuromasts of the supraorbital (SO1 and SO2), otic (O1), and occipital (OC1) lateral lines were analyzed by fluorescence microscopy (n = 10 fish per treatment). Hair cell survival was estimated as the ratio of the hair cell numbers in each group compared to those of the control group that were not exposed to neomycin. Apoptosis and hair cell damage of neuromasts were evaluated using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay and 2-[4-(dimethylamino) styryl]-N-ethylpyridinium iodide (DASPEI) assay, respectively. Ultrastructural changes were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Neuromast hair cells were preserved in zebrafish exposed to 125 μM neomycin and 500 μM sodium selenite for 1 h. Sodium selenite protected against neomycin-induced hair cell loss of neuromasts, reduced apoptosis, and prevented zebrafish ultrastructural changes. We propose that sodium selenite protects against neomycin-induced hair cell damage by inhibiting apoptosis, decreasing the disarray of stereocilia, and preventing ultrastructural changes in the neuromast hair cells of the zebrafish. PMID:26974429

  16. Growth of soil bacteria, on penicillin and neomycin, not previously exposed to these antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qichun; Dick, Warren A

    2014-09-15

    There is growing evidence that bacteria, in the natural environment (e.g. the soil), can exhibit naturally occurring resistance/degradation against synthetic antibiotics. Our aim was to assess whether soils, not previously exposed to synthetic antibiotics, contained bacterial strains that were not only antibiotic resistant, but could actually utilize the antibiotics for energy and nutrients. We isolated 19 bacteria from four diverse soils that had the capability of growing on penicillin and neomycin as sole carbon sources up to concentrations of 1000 mg L(-1). The 19 bacterial isolates represent a diverse set of species in the phyla Proteobacteria (84%) and Bacteroidetes (16%). Nine antibiotic resistant genes were detected in the four soils but some of these genes (i.e. tetM, ermB, and sulI) were not detected in the soil isolates indicating the presence of unculturable antibiotic resistant bacteria. Most isolates that could subsist on penicillin or neomycin as sole carbon sources were also resistant to the presence of these two antibiotics and six other antibiotics at concentrations of either 20 or 1000 mg L(-1). The potentially large and diverse pool of antibiotic resistant and degradation genes implies ecological and health impacts yet to be explored and fully understood. PMID:24956077

  17. Neomycin Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... to prevent or treat skin infections caused by bacteria. It is not effective against fungal or viral ... not swallow it. Do not apply dressings, bandages, cosmetics, lotions, or other skin medications to the area ...

  18. Optimization of Medium Composition for the Production of Neomycin by Streptomyces fradiae NCIM 2418 in Solid State Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Vastrad, B. M.; Neelagund, S. E.

    2014-01-01

    Neomycin production of Streptomyces fradiae NCIM 2418 was optimized by using response surface methodology (RSM), which is powerful mathematical approach comprehensively applied in the optimization of solid state fermentation processes. In the first step of optimization, with Placket-Burman design, ammonium chloride, sodium nitrate, L-histidine, and ammonium nitrate were established to be the crucial nutritional factors affecting neomycin production significantly. In the second step, a 24 full factorial central composite design and RSM were applied to determine the optimal concentration of significant variable. A second-order polynomial was determined by the multiple regression analysis of the experimental data. The optimum values for the important nutrients for the maximum were obtained as follows: ammonium chloride 2.00%, sodium nitrate 1.50%, L-histidine 0.250%, and ammonium nitrate 0.250% with a predicted value of maximum neomycin production of 20,000 g kg−1 dry coconut oil cake. Under the optimal condition, the practical neomycin production was 19,642 g kg−1 dry coconut oil cake. The determination coefficient (R2) was 0.9232, which ensures an acceptable admissibility of the model. PMID:25009746

  19. 21 CFR 524.1484b - Neomycin sulfate, isoflupredone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride, and myristyl-gamma-picolinium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate, isoflupredone acetate... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... and/or allergy. In addition the product is indicated as superficial dressing applied to minor...

  20. 21 CFR 524.1484b - Neomycin sulfate, isoflupredone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride, and myristyl-gamma-picolinium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate, isoflupredone acetate... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... and/or allergy. In addition the product is indicated as superficial dressing applied to minor...

  1. 21 CFR 524.1484b - Neomycin sulfate, isoflupredone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride, and myristyl-gamma-picolinium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., tetracaine hydrochloride, and myristyl-gamma-picolinium chloride, topical powder. 524.1484b Section 524.1484b..., topical powder. (a) Specifications. The product contains 5 milligrams of neomycin sulfate, equivalent to 3... adherent powder base. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000009 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of...

  2. 21 CFR 524.1484b - Neomycin sulfate, isoflupredone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride, and myristyl-gamma-picolinium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., tetracaine hydrochloride, and myristyl-gamma-picolinium chloride, topical powder. 524.1484b Section 524.1484b..., topical powder. (a) Specifications. The product contains 5 milligrams of neomycin sulfate, equivalent to 3... adherent powder base. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000009 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of...

  3. A self-assembling RNA aptamer-based nanoparticle sensor for fluorometric detection of Neomycin B in milk.

    PubMed

    Ling, Kai; Jiang, Hongyan; Zhang, Linlin; Li, Yang; Yang, Lu; Qiu, Chen; Li, Fu-Rong

    2016-05-01

    To date, there are few reports regarding the development of RNA aptamer-based biosensors for the detection of small molecules. The possible reason is attributed to the weak nuclease resistance of RNA in biological environments. In this study, we have developed an RNA aptamer-based gold nanoparticle (AuNP) sensor for fluorometric detection of Neomycin B in milk. This aptasensor depends on the self-assembly of the RNA aptamer/Neomycin B complex and fluorescence quenching by AuNPs. This biosensor exhibited a low detection limit of 0.01 μM, with a linear dynamic range from 0.1 to 10 μM in milk, and a good selectivity toward Neomycin B. Specifically, because of the shorter RNA fragments and the nuclease inhibition ability of the RNA-modified AuNPs, the RNA sequences remained stable during the experiments. This work will serve as an example for the development of novel biosensors based on RNA aptamers. Graphical Abstract An RNA aptamer-based nanoparticle sensor, developed for the detection of Neomycin B in milk, shows high binding affinity and selectivity. This aptasensor depends on the self-assembly of the aptamer/ligand complex and fluorescence quenching by gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Because of the shorter RNA fragments and the nuclease inhibition ability of RNA-modified AuNPs, RNA sequences remain stable during the detection. PMID:26942739

  4. Protective role of L-ascorbic acid, N-acetylcysteine and apocynin on neomycin-induced hair cell loss in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chia-Yen; Lee, Han-Jung; Liu, Chi-Fang; Korivi, Mallikarjuna; Chen, Hwei-Hsien; Chan, Ming-Huan

    2015-03-01

    Hair cells are highly sensitive to environmental insults and other therapeutic drugs. The adverse effects of drugs such as aminoglycosides can cause hair cell death and lead to hearing loss and imbalance. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the protective activity of L-ascorbic acid, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and apocynin on neomycin-induced hair cell damage in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae at 5 days post fertilization (dpf). Results showed that the loss of hair cells within the neuromasts of the lateral lines after neomycin exposure was evidenced by a significantly lower number of neuromasts labeled with fluorescent dye FM1-43FX observed under a microscope. Co-administration with L-ascorbic acid, NAC and apocynin protected neomycin-induced hair cell loss within the neuromasts. Moreover, these three compounds reduced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in neuromasts exposed to neomycin, indicating that their antioxidant action is involved. In contrast, the neuromasts were labeled with specific fluorescent dye Texas-red conjugated with neomycin to detect neomycin uptake. Interestingly, the uptake of neomycin into hair cells was not influenced by these three antioxidant compounds. These data imply that prevention of hair cell damage against neomycin by L-ascorbic acid, NAC and apocynin might be associated with inhibition of excessive ROS production, but not related to modulating neomycin uptake. Our findings conclude that L-ascorbic acid, NAC and apocynin could be used as therapeutic drugs to protect aminoglycoside-induced listening impairment after further confirmatory studies. PMID:25092119

  5. Protection against Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in Young CBA/J Mice by Low-Dose Kanamycin

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Elizabeth A.; Gagnon, Patricia M.; Clark, William W.

    2010-01-01

    Animal studies indicate that a combination of kanamycin (KM) and noise produces a synergistic effect, whereby the threshold shift from the combination is greater than the sum of the shifts caused by either agent alone. Most such studies have focused on adult animals, and it has remained unclear whether younger, presumably more susceptible, animals show an even greater synergistic effect. The present study tested the hypothesis that young CBA/J mice receiving a low dose of KM (300 mg/kg, 2×/day, s.c.) from 20 to 30 days post-gestational age followed by brief noise exposure (110 dB SPL; 4–45 kHz, 30 s) would show greater noise-induced permanent threshold shifts (NIPTS) than mice receiving either treatment alone. Noise exposure produced 30–40 dB of NIPTS and moderate hair cell loss in young saline-treated mice. KM alone at this dose had no effect on thresholds. Surprisingly, mice receiving KM plus noise were protected from NIPTS, showing ABR thresholds not significantly different from unexposed controls. Mice receiving KM prior to noise exposure also showed significantly less outer hair cell loss than saline-treated mice. Additional experiments indicated protection by KM when the noise was applied either 24 or 48 h after the last KM injection. Our results demonstrate a powerful protective effect of sub-chronic low-dose kanamycin against NIPTS in young CBA/J mice. Repeated kanamycin exposure may establish a preconditioned protective state, the molecular bases of which remain to be determined. PMID:20094753

  6. Synergy with Rifampin and Kanamycin Enhances Potency, Kill Kinetics, and Selectivity of De Novo-Designed Antimicrobial Peptides▿

    PubMed Central

    Anantharaman, Aparna; Rizvi, Meryam Sardar; Sahal, Dinkar

    2010-01-01

    By choosing membranes as targets of action, antibacterial peptides offer the promise of providing antibiotics to which bacteria would not become resistant. However, there is a need to increase their potency against bacteria along with achieving a reduction in toxicity to host cells. Here, we report that three de novo-designed antibacterial peptides (ΔFm, ΔFmscr, and Ud) with poor to moderate antibacterial potencies and kill kinetics improved significantly in all of these aspects when synergized with rifampin and kanamycin against Escherichia coli. (ΔFm and ΔFmscr [a scrambled-sequence version of ΔFm] are isomeric, monomeric decapeptides containing the nonproteinogenic amino acid α,β-didehydrophenylalanine [ΔF] in their sequences. Ud is a lysine-branched dimeric peptide containing the helicogenic amino acid α-aminoisobutyric acid [Aib].) In synergy with rifampin, the MIC of ΔFmscr showed a 34-fold decrease (67.9 μg/ml alone, compared to 2 μg/ml in combination). A 20-fold improvement in the minimum bactericidal concentration of Ud was observed when the peptide was used in combination with rifampin (369.9 μg/ml alone, compared to 18.5 μg/ml in combination). Synergy with kanamycin resulted in an enhancement in kill kinetics for ΔFmscr (no killing until 60 min for ΔFmscr alone, versus 50% and 90% killing within 20 min and 60 min, respectively, in combination with kanamycin). Combination of the dendrimeric peptide ΔFq (a K-K2 dendrimer for which the sequence of ΔFm constitutes each of the four branches) (MIC, 21.3 μg/ml) with kanamycin (MIC, 2.1 μg/ml) not only lowered the MIC of each by 4-fold but also improved the therapeutic potential of this highly hemolytic (37% hemolysis alone, compared to 4% hemolysis in combination) and cytotoxic (70% toxicity at 10× MIC alone, versus 30% toxicity in combination) peptide. Thus, synergy between peptide and nonpeptide antibiotics has the potential to enhance the potency and target selectivity of antibacterial

  7. MYCIN and NEOMYCIN: two approaches to generating explanations in rule-based expert systems.

    PubMed

    Sotos, J G

    1990-10-01

    The prototypical rule-based expert system is MYCIN, a computer program developed in the 1970's to diagnose and recommend therapy for serious infections. MYCIN is able to explain its reasoning at any point in a consultation by listing the rules it has under consideration at that moment. However, when MYCIN's rules were used as the subject matter for a computerized infectious disease tutoring system, it became apparent that these rules contained implicit knowledge about how to perform diagnostic tasks and that this knowledge was inaccessible to the explanation system and, therefore, to students. This paper briefly describes NEOMYCIN, an expert system that makes this implicit knowledge explicit, and shows the effect that this reconfiguration of knowledge has on generating explanations. PMID:2241738

  8. Technology of eye drops containing aloe (Aloe arborescens Mill.--Liliaceae) and eye drops containing both aloe and neomycin sulphate.

    PubMed

    Kodym, A; Marcinkowski, A; Kukuła, H

    2003-01-01

    Eye drops made of aloe are a sterile, aqueous extract of fresh leaves of Aloe arborescens Mill., containing necessary additives and neomycin sulphate. The aim of the studies was to establish the technology of eye drops containing biologically active aloe substances and those containing both chemical constituents of aloe and neomycin sulphate. Within the studies, the formulary content and the way of preparing eye drops were determined, criteria were defined and methods of qualitative assessment of drops were proposed. On the basis of the proposed analytical methods, the physicochemical and microbiological stability of the eye drops stored at a temperature of 20-25 degrees C was studied. As the criteria of qualitative assessment of the eye drops, the following analyses were considered: sterility, appearance of the eye drops (clarity), pH, osmotic pressure, density, viscosity, TLC analysis, content of aloenin and aloin, studies of anti-microbial activity of neomycin in the drops, and preservative efficiency of thiomersal in the eye drops. The studies showed that the additives such as: sodium chloride, benzalkonium chloride, chlorhexidine diacetate and digluconate, phenylmercuric borate and Nipagins M and P could not be used to prepare the eye drops because they were involved in pharmaceutical interactions with chemical constituents of aloe in the eye drops. The eye drops containing: aqueous extract of fresh leaves of aloe, boric acid, thiomersal, sodium pyrosulphite, disodium EDTA, beta-phenylethyl alcohol and neomycin sulphate, both freshly prepared and after two years of storage, met the requirements of the Polish Pharmacopoeia (PPh V) mentioned in the monograph Guttae ophthalmicae. They were sterile, clear, their osmotic pressure approximated the osmotic pressure of lacrimal fluid and they were characterized by appropriate pH. Aloenin in the drops was much more stable than aloin. Neomycin after two years of storage retained almost 98% of its starting antimicrobial

  9. Effect of Mutations on the Binding of Kanamycin-B to RNA Hairpins Derived from the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Ribosomal A-Site.

    PubMed

    Truitt, Amber R; Choi, Bok-Eum; Li, Jenny; Soto, Ana Maria

    2015-12-29

    Kanamycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic used in the treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis. Mutations at the rRNA A-site have been associated with kanamycin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates. Understanding the effect of these mutations on the conformation of the M. tuberculosis A-site is critical for understanding the mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in M. tuberculosis. In this work, we have studied RNA hairpins derived from the M. tuberculosis A-site, the wild type and three mutants at the following positions (M. tuberculosis/Escherichia coli numbering): A1400/1408 → G, C1401/1409 → U, and the double mutant G1483/1491 C1401/1409 → UA. Specifically, we used circular dichroism, ultraviolet spectroscopy, and fluorescence spectroscopy to characterize the conformation, stability, and binding affinity of kanamycin-B and other aminoglycoside antibiotics for these RNA hairpins. Our results show that the mutations affect the conformation of the decoding site, with the mutations at position 1401/1409 resulting in significant destabilizations. Interestingly, the mutants bind paromomycin with weaker affinity than the wild type, but they bind kanamycin-B with similar affinity than the wild type. The results suggest that the presence of mutations does not prevent kanamycin-B from binding. Instead, kanamycin may promote different interactions with a third partner in the mutants compared to the wild type. Furthermore, our results with longer and shorter hairpins suggest that the region of the A-site that varies among organisms may have modulating effects on the binding and interactions of the A-site. PMID:26560864

  10. Synthesis and properties of vitamin E analog-conjugated neomycin for delivery of RNAi drugs to liver cells.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Rintaro; Nakayama, Futoshi; Hirochi, Sakie; Sato, Kazuki; Piao, Wenying; Nishina, Kazutaka; Yokota, Takanori; Wada, Takeshi

    2015-02-15

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a promising tool to regulate gene expression by external double stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) such as siRNAs. As an efficient method to deliver siRNAs to liver cells, we propose a novel strategy using vitamin E (VE)-conjugated neomycin derivatives. With the aim of delivering RNAi-based drugs to liver cells, several tripod-type and prodrug-type neomycin derivatives were synthesized, all of which were thermodynamically stabilized RNA duplexes. The prodrug-type derivative 7 and the tripod-type derivative 10 were delivered to liver cancer cells and successfully induced RNAi activity. These results indicated the potential use of natural aminoglycosides as carriers of RNAi drugs. PMID:25597008

  11. Photoelectrochemical aptasensor for the sensitive and selective detection of kanamycin based on Au nanoparticle functionalized self-doped TiO2 nanotube arrays.

    PubMed

    Xin, Yanmei; Li, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Zhonghai

    2015-11-01

    In this communication, a new photoelectrochemical aptasensor with Au nanoparticle functionalized self-doped TiO2 nanotube arrays (Au/SD-TiO2 NTs) as the core sensing unit and aptamers as the recognition unit was set up to accomplish the sensitive and selective detection of kanamycin with the lowest detection limit of 0.1 nM. PMID:26382019

  12. RNA-Seq Analysis of the Effect of Kanamycin and the ABC Transporter AtWBC19 on Arabidopsis thaliana Seedlings Reveals Changes in Metal Content

    PubMed Central

    Mentewab, Ayalew; Matheson, Kinnari; Adebiyi, Morayo; Robinson, Shanice; Elston, Brianna

    2014-01-01

    Plants are exposed to antibiotics produced by soil microorganisms, but little is known about their responses at the transcriptional level. Likewise, few endogenous mechanisms of antibiotic resistance have been reported. The Arabidopsis thaliana ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) transporter AtWBC19 (ABCG19) is known to confer kanamycin resistance, but the exact mechanism of resistance is not well understood. Here we examined the transcriptomes of control seedlings and wbc19 mutant seedlings using RNA-seq analysis. Exposure to kanamycin indicated changes in the organization of the photosynthetic apparatus, metabolic fluxes and metal uptake. Elemental analysis showed a 60% and 80% reduction of iron uptake in control and wbc19 mutant seedlings respectively, upon exposure to kanamycin. The drop in iron content was accompanied by the upregulation of the gene encoding for FERRIC REDUCTION OXIDASE 6 (FRO6) in mutant seedlings but not by the differential expression of other transport genes known to be induced by iron deficiency. In addition, wbc19 mutants displayed a distinct expression profile in the absence of kanamycin. Most notably the expression of several zinc ion binding proteins, including ZINC TRANSPORTER 1 PRECURSOR (ZIP1) was increased, suggesting abnormal zinc uptake. Elemental analysis confirmed a 50% decrease of zinc content in wbc19 mutants. Thus, the antibiotic resistance gene WBC19 appears to also have a role in zinc uptake. PMID:25310285

  13. Isolation and characterization of nifDK::kanamycin and nitrogen fixation proficient Azotobacter vinelandii strain, and its implication on the status of multiple chromosomes in Azotobacter.

    PubMed

    Suh, M H; Pulakat, L; Gavini, N

    2000-01-01

    Several lines of experimental analyses on the ploidy status of Azotobacter vinelandii genome lead to the conclusion that it contains more than 40 copies of its chromosome and therefore it is a polyploid organism. The genetic evidence argues against the existence of polyploidy in these cells since the segregation pattern of genetic markers under lack of selection pressure mimic that of haploids. However, when A. vinelandii was made Nif- by inserting a kanamycin resistance marker gene in the nifDK sequence and the cells were selected for kanamycin resistance and Nif+ phenotype, we were able to score colonies that are both kanamycin resistant and Nif+. Therefore, when the cells were subjected to forced double selection of the same locus, they behaved as if they carried at least two chromosomes, one carrying the kanamycin resistance marker in the nifDK genes and the other carrying the intact nifDK genes. These analyses suggested that at least a diploidy status can be induced in these cells under selection pressure. PMID:11678500

  14. Capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection as an alternative detection mode in CE for the analysis of kanamycin sulphate and its related substances.

    PubMed

    El-Attug, Mohamed N; Adams, Erwin; Hoogmartens, Jos; Van Schepdael, Ann

    2011-09-01

    A method was developed to determine simultaneously kanamycin, its related substances and sulphate in kanamycin sulphate using capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection. Kanamycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic that lacks a strong UV-absorbing chromophore. Due to its physicochemical properties, CE in combination with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection was chosen. The separation method uses a BGE composed of 40 mM 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulphonic acid monohydrate and 40 mM L-histidine, pH 6.35. A 0.6 mM N-cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) solution was added as electroosmotic flow modifier in a concentration below the critical micellar concentration (CMC). Ammonium acetate 50 mg/L was used as internal standard. In total, 30 kV was applied in reverse polarity on a fused-silica capillary (65/41 cm; 75 μm id). The optimized separation was obtained in less than 6 min with good linearity (R(2)=0.9999) for kanamycin. It shows a good precision expressed as RSD on the relative peak areas equal to 0.3 and 1.1% for intra-day and inter-day precision, respectively. The LOD and LOQ are 0.7 and 2.3 mg/L, respectively. Similarly, for sulphate, a good linearity (R(2)=0.9996) and precision (RSD 0.4 and 0.6% for intra-day and inter-day, respectively) were obtained. PMID:21796785

  15. Characterization of Small ColE1-Like Plasmids Conferring Kanamycin Resistance in Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovars Typhimurium and Newport

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multi-antibiotic resistant (MR) Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium and Newport are an increasing concern in human and animal health. Many strains are known to carry antibiotic resistance determinants on multiple plasmids, yet detailed information is scarce. Three plasmids conferring kanamycin...

  16. RNA-seq analysis of the effect of kanamycin and the ABC transporter AtWBC19 on Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings reveals changes in metal content.

    PubMed

    Mentewab, Ayalew; Matheson, Kinnari; Adebiyi, Morayo; Robinson, Shanice; Elston, Brianna

    2014-01-01

    Plants are exposed to antibiotics produced by soil microorganisms, but little is known about their responses at the transcriptional level. Likewise, few endogenous mechanisms of antibiotic resistance have been reported. The Arabidopsis thaliana ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) transporter AtWBC19 (ABCG19) is known to confer kanamycin resistance, but the exact mechanism of resistance is not well understood. Here we examined the transcriptomes of control seedlings and wbc19 mutant seedlings using RNA-seq analysis. Exposure to kanamycin indicated changes in the organization of the photosynthetic apparatus, metabolic fluxes and metal uptake. Elemental analysis showed a 60% and 80% reduction of iron uptake in control and wbc19 mutant seedlings respectively, upon exposure to kanamycin. The drop in iron content was accompanied by the upregulation of the gene encoding for FERRIC REDUCTION OXIDASE 6 (FRO6) in mutant seedlings but not by the differential expression of other transport genes known to be induced by iron deficiency. In addition, wbc19 mutants displayed a distinct expression profile in the absence of kanamycin. Most notably the expression of several zinc ion binding proteins, including ZINC TRANSPORTER 1 PRECURSOR (ZIP1) was increased, suggesting abnormal zinc uptake. Elemental analysis confirmed a 50% decrease of zinc content in wbc19 mutants. Thus, the antibiotic resistance gene WBC19 appears to also have a role in zinc uptake. PMID:25310285

  17. Outer membrane proteomics of kanamycin-resistant Escherichia coli identified MipA as a novel antibiotic resistance-related protein.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Zhang, Dan-feng; Lin, Xiang-min; Peng, Xuan-xian

    2015-06-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are a great threat to human health and food safety and there is an urgent need to understand the mechanisms of resistance for combating these bacteria. In the current study, comparative proteomic methodologies were applied to identify Escherichia coli K-12 outer membrane (OM) proteins related to kanamycin resistance. Mass spectrometry and western blotting results revealed that OM proteins TolC, Tsx and OstA were up-regulated, whereas MipA, OmpA, FadL and OmpW were down-regulated in kanamycin-resistant E. coli K-12 strain. Genetic deletion of tolC (ΔtolC-Km) led to a 2-fold decrease in the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of kanamycin and deletion of mipA (ΔmipA-Km) resulted in a 4-fold increase in the MIC of kanamycin. Changes in the MICs for genetically modified strains could be completely recovered by gene complementation. Compared with the wild-type strain, the survival capability of ΔompA-Km was significantly increased and that of Δtsx-Km was significantly decreased. We further evaluated the role and expression of MipA in response to four other antibiotics including nalidixic acid, streptomycin, chloramphenicol and aureomycin, which suggested that MipA was a novel OM protein related to antibiotic resistance. PMID:25940639

  18. Decreased expression of humanized Fat-1 in porcine fetal fibroblasts following deletion of PGK-neomycin resistance.

    PubMed

    Han, X J; Liang, H; Yun, T; Zhao, Y H; Zhang, M L; Zhao, L H; Li, R F; Li, X L

    2015-01-01

    The neomycin-resistance (neo(r)) gene is widely used as a selectable marker in eukaryotic expression vectors; however, its expression often affects that of target genes. Cre recombinase recognizes LoxP sites, leading to site-specific recombination and deletion of DNA and RNA between two LoxP sites. In the present study, a humanized Fat-1 gene (hFat-1) was generated by DNA Works and used to construct a pC-PGK-neo(r)-hfat-1 expression vector, in which PGK-neo(r) was flanked by two LoxP sites. The pC-PGK-neo(r)-hfat-1 plasmids were transfected into porcine fetal fibroblasts using liposomes, and three transgenic cell lines were obtained by culturing with 400 μg/mL G418 for 7 days. Next, these cell lines were transfected with a Cre recombinase expression plasmid, which contains a puromycin resistance gene, in order to delete neo(r), which was integrated into the genome. hFat-1-neo(r) negative cells were obtained following puromycin selection. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction data indicated that neomycin-resistant cells had higher hFat-1 expression than neomycin-sensitive cells. High performance gas chromatography data suggested that the n-6/n-3 ratio was significantly lower in transfected cells than in wild-type cells. The n-6/n-3 ratio in Cre-treated hFat-1-transfected cells was higher than that in untreated cells, suggesting that deletion of PGK-neo(r) decreased hFat-1 expression. PMID:26436400

  19. Synthesis, characterization and in vitro evaluation of amphiphilic ion pairs of erythromycin and kanamycin antibiotics with liposaccharides.

    PubMed

    Pignatello, Rosario; Simerska, Pavla; Leonardi, Antonio; Abdelrahim, Adel S; Petronio, Giulio Petronio; Fuochi, Virginia; Furneri, Pio Maria; Ruozi, Barbara; Toth, Istvan

    2016-09-14

    The hydrophilic ion paring strategy (HIP) is a method explored to improve the cell/tissue uptake of poorly adsorbed drugs and to optimize their physico-chemical characteristics. In this context, we here describe the synthesis of some ion pairs of two model cationic antibiotics, erythromycin (ERY) and kanamycin A (KAN), with liposaccharides having different levels of lipophilicity and charge. The formation of drug-liposaccharide complexes was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) analysis. The effect of the amphiphilic liposaccharide moieties on the antimicrobial activity of ERY and KAN was assessed by measuring the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the compounds against a panel of bacterial strains that were susceptible or resistant to the parent antibiotics. The ion pairing did not depress the in vitro antibiotic activity, although no lowering of MIC values was registered. The experimental findings would motivate the future investigation of this ion pairing strategy in drug design, for instance allowing improvement of the encapsulation efficiency of hydrophilic antibiotics in lipid-based nanocarriers, or changing their in vivo biodistribution and pharmacokinetic profile. PMID:27236014

  20. A novel signal amplification strategy of an electrochemical aptasensor for kanamycin, based on thionine functionalized graphene and hierarchical nanoporous PtCu.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xiaoli; Yin, Yan; Yu, Huijing; Guo, Wenjuan; Pei, Meishan

    2016-03-15

    An ultrasensitive electrochemical aptasensor for the quantitative detection of kanamycin antibiotic was fabricated based on a novel signal amplification strategy. This aptasensor was developed using thionine functionalized graphene (GR-TH) and hierarchical nanoporous (HNP) PtCu alloy as biosensing substrates for the first time. HNP-PtCu alloy with controllable bimodal ligament/pore distributions was successfully prepared by two-step dealloying of a well-designed PtCuAl precursor alloy combined with an annealing operation. GR-TH composite was synthesized by one-step reduction of graphene oxide (GO) in TH solution. Greatly amplified sensitivity was achieved by using GR-TH/HNP-PtCu composite owing to its large specific surface and good electron-transfer ability. Under the optimized conditions, the proposed aptasensor exhibited a high sensitivity and a wider linearity to kanamycin in the range 5 × 10(-7)-5 × 10(-2) μgmL(-1) with a low detection limit of 0.42 pgmL(-1). This aptasensor also displayed a satisfying electrochemical performance with good stability, selectivity and reproducibility. The as-prepared aptasensor was successfully used for the determination of kanamycin in animal derived food. PMID:26513281

  1. Electrochemical sensor using neomycin-imprinted film as recognition element based on chitosan-silver nanoparticles/graphene-multiwalled carbon nanotubes composites modified electrode.

    PubMed

    Lian, Wenjing; Liu, Su; Yu, Jinghua; Li, Jie; Cui, Min; Xu, Wei; Huang, Jiadong

    2013-06-15

    A novel imprinted electrochemical sensor for neomycin recognition was developed based on chitosan-silver nanoparticles (CS-SNP)/graphene-multiwalled carbon nanotubes (GR-MWCNTs) composites decorated gold electrode. Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were synthesized by electropolymerization using neomycin as the template, and pyrrole as the monomer. The mechanism of the fabrication process and a number of factors affecting the activity of the imprinted sensor have been discussed and optimized. The characterization of imprinted sensor has been carried out by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The performance of the proposed imprinted sensor has been investigated using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and amperometry. Under the optimized conditions, the linear range of the sensor was from 9×10(-9)mol/L to 7×10(-6)mol/L, with the limit of detection (LOD) of 7.63×10(-9)mol/L (S/N=3). The film exhibited high binding affinity and selectivity towards the template neomycin, as well as good reproducibility and stability. Furthermore, the proposed sensor was applied to determine the neomycin in milk and honey samples based on its good reproducibility and stability, and the acceptable recovery implied its feasibility for practical application. PMID:23395725

  2. Determination of aminoglycoside residues in kidney and honey samples by hydrophilic interaction chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Praveen; Rúbies, Antoni; Companyó, Ramon; Centrich, Francesc

    2012-10-01

    Two methods based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry were developed for the determination of ten aminoglycosides (streptomycin, dihydrostreptomycin, spectinomycin, apramycin, paromomycin, kanamycin A, gentamycin C1, gentamycin C2/C2a, gentamycin C1a, and neomycin B) in kidney samples from food-producing animals and in honey samples. The methods involved extraction with an aqueous solution (for the kidney samples) or sample dissolution in water (for the honey samples), solid-phase extraction with a weak cation exchange cartridge and injection of the eluate into a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry system. A zwitterionic hydrophilic interaction chromatography column was used for separation of aminoglycosides and a triple quadrupole mass analyzer was used for detection. The methods were validated according to Decision 2002/657/EC. The limits of quantitation ranged from 2 to 125 μg/kg in honey and 25 to 264 μg/kg in the kidney samples. Interday precision (RSD%) ranged from 6 to 26% in honey and 2 to 21% in kidney. Trueness, expressed as the percentage of error, ranged from 7 to 20% in honey and 1 to 11% in kidney. PMID:23065931

  3. Hydrophilic interaction chromatography for the analysis of aminoglycosides.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Praveen; Rubies, Antoni; Companyó, Ramon; Centrich, Francesc

    2012-02-01

    The effect of mobile-phase constituents (pH and ionic strength) and chromatographic behaviour of ten aminoglycosides (streptomycin, dihydrostreptomycin, spectinomycin, apramycin, paramomycin, kanamycin A, gentamycin C1, gentamycin C2/C2a, gentamycin C1a and neomycin) in the bare silica, amino, amide and zwitterionic phases of hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) were studied systematically. Among the stationary phases studied, the zwitterionic phase provided the best separation of aminoglycosides. The effect of pH, ionic concentration and column temperature on retention time, peak shape and sensitivity was studied using a central composite design. pH affected sensitivity of the detection of analytes but not the retention time. High ionic strength in the mobile phase was necessary to control the ionic interactions between ionised aminoglycosides and the hydrophilic phase, thereby influencing peak shape and retention time. Column temperature affected sensitivity of the detection but not the retention time. During method development, crosstalk between the MS/MS channels of the analytes was observed and resolved. PMID:22282410

  4. Activation of Dormant Secondary Metabolite Production by Introducing Neomycin Resistance into the Deep-Sea Fungus, Aspergillus versicolor ZBY-3

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yuan; Cui, Cheng-Bin; Li, Chang-Wei; Hua, Wei; Wu, Chang-Jing; Zhu, Tian-Jiao; Gu, Qian-Qun

    2014-01-01

    A new ultrasound-mediated approach has been developed to introduce neomycin-resistance to activate silent pathways for secondary metabolite production in a bio-inactive, deep-sea fungus, Aspergillus versicolor ZBY-3. Upon treatment of the ZBY-3 spores with a high concentration of neomycin by proper ultrasound irradiation, a total of 30 mutants were obtained by single colony isolation. The acquired resistance of the mutants to neomycin was confirmed by a resistance test. In contrast to the ZBY-3 strain, the EtOAc extracts of 22 of the 30 mutants inhibited the human cancer K562 cells, indicating that these mutants acquired a capability to produce antitumor metabolites. HPLC-photodiode array detector (PDAD)-UV and HPLC-electron spray ionization (ESI)-MS analyses of the EtOAc extracts of seven bioactive mutants and the ZBY-3 strain indicated that diverse secondary metabolites have been newly produced in the mutant extracts in contrast to the ZBY-3 extract. The followed isolation and characterization demonstrated that six metabolites, cyclo(d-Pro-d-Phe) (1), cyclo(d-Tyr-d-Pro) (2), phenethyl 5-oxo-l-prolinate (3), cyclo(l-Ile-l-Pro) (4), cyclo(l-Leu-l-Pro) (5) and 3β,5α,9α-trihydroxy-(22E,24R)-ergosta-7,22-dien-6-one (6), were newly produced by the mutant u2n2h3-3 compared to the parent ZBY-3 strain. Compound 3 was a new compound; 2 was isolated from a natural source for the first time, and all of these compounds were also not yet found in the metabolites of other A. versicolor strains. Compounds 1–6 inhibited the K562 cells, with inhibition rates of 54.6% (1), 72.9% (2), 23.5% (3), 29.6% (4), 30.9% (5) and 51.1% (6) at 100 μg/mL, and inhibited also other human cancer HL-60, BGC-823 and HeLa cells, to some extent. The present study demonstrated the effectiveness of the ultrasound-mediated approach to activate silent metabolite production in fungi by introducing acquired resistance to aminoglycosides and its potential for discovering new compounds from silent

  5. An adaptable pentaloop defines a robust neomycin-B RNA aptamer with conditional ligand-bound structures

    PubMed Central

    Ilgu, Muslum; Fulton, D. Bruce; Yennamalli, Ragothaman M.; Lamm, Monica H.; Sen, Taner Z.; Nilsen-Hamilton, Marit

    2014-01-01

    Aptamers can be highly specific for their targets, which implies precise molecular recognition between aptamer and target. However, as small polymers, their structures are more subject to environmental conditions than the more constrained longer RNAs such as those that constitute the ribosome. To understand the balance between structural and environmental factors in establishing ligand specificity of aptamers, we examined the RNA aptamer (NEO1A) previously reported as specific for neomycin-B. We show that NEO1A can recognize other aminoglycosides with similar affinities as for neomycin-B and its aminoglycoside specificity is strongly influenced by ionic strength and buffer composition. NMR and 2-aminopurine (2AP) fluorescence studies of the aptamer identified a flexible pentaloop and a stable binding pocket. Consistent with a well-structured binding pocket, docking analysis results correlated with experimental measures of the binding energy for most ligands. Steady state fluorescence studies of 2AP-substituted aptamers confirmed that A16 moves to a more solvent accessible position upon ligand binding while A14 moves to a less solvent accessible position, which is most likely a base stack. Analysis of binding affinities of NEO1A sequence variants showed that the base in position 16 interacts differently with each ligand and the interaction is a function of the buffer constituents. Our results show that the pentaloop provides NEO1A with the ability to adapt to external influences on its structure, with the critical base at position 16 adjusting to incorporate each ligand into a stable pocket by hydrophobic interactions and/or hydrogen bonds depending on the ligand and the ionic environment. PMID:24757168

  6. A novel electrochemical aptasensor for ultrasensitive detection of kanamycin based on MWCNTs-HMIMPF6 and nanoporous PtTi alloy.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wenjuan; Sun, Na; Qin, Xiaoli; Pei, Meishan; Wang, Luyan

    2015-12-15

    A novel aptasensor based on a novel composite film consisting of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), ionic liquid (IL) of 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (HMIMPF6), and nanoporous PtTi (NP-PtTi) alloy was constructed for ultrasensitive detection of kanamycin. The NP-PtTi alloy was successfully fabricated by a simple dealloying of PtTiAl source alloy in HCl solution. The NP-PtTi alloy has uniform interconnected network structure with specific surface area and was used to immobilize aptamer. After modified with the composite material, current signal was amplified obviously, which attributed to the larger specific surface area and excellent electrical conductivity of NP-PtTi and MWCNTs. A number of factors affecting the activity of the aptasensor have been discussed and optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the proposed aptasensor provided a linear range of 0.05-100 ng mL(-1) with a low detection limit of 3.7 pg mL(-1). This aptasensor displayed high sensitivity, stability and reproducibility. In addition, the as-prepared aptasensor was successfully used for the determination of kanamycin in a real sample. PMID:26208174

  7. Synthesis of C-5, C-2' and C-4'-neomycin-conjugated triplex forming oligonucleotides and their affinity to DNA-duplexes.

    PubMed

    Tähtinen, Ville; Granqvist, Lotta; Virta, Pasi

    2015-08-01

    Neomycin-conjugated homopyrimidine oligo 2'-deoxyribonucleotides have been synthesized on a solid phase and their potential as triplex forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) with DNA-duplexes has been studied. For the synthesis of the conjugates, C-5, C-2' and C-4'-tethered alkyne-modified nucleoside derivatives were used as an integral part of the standard automated oligonucleotide chain elongation. An azide-derived neomycin was then conjugated to the incorporated terminal alkynes by Cu(I)-catalyzed 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition (the click chemistry). Concentrated ammonia released the desired conjugates in acceptable purity and yields. The site of conjugation was expectedly important for the Hoogsteen-face recognition: C-5-conjugation showed a notable positive effect, whereas the influence of the C-2' and C-4'-modification remained marginal. In addition to conventional characterization methods (UV- and CD-spectroscopy), (19)F NMR spectroscopy was applied for the monitoring of triplex/duplex/single strand-conversions. PMID:26118338

  8. Activation of the Silent Secondary Metabolite Production by Introducing Neomycin-Resistance in a Marine-Derived Penicillium purpurogenum G59

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chang-Jing; Yi, Le; Cui, Cheng-Bin; Li, Chang-Wei; Wang, Nan; Han, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Introduction of neomycin-resistance into a marine-derived, wild-type Penicillium purpurogenum G59 resulted in activation of silent biosynthetic pathways for the secondary metabolite production. Upon treatment of G59 spores with neomycin and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), a total of 56 mutants were obtained by single colony isolation. The acquired resistance of mutants to neomycin was testified by the resistance test. In contrast to the G59 strain, the EtOAc extracts of 28 mutants inhibited the human cancer K562 cells, indicating that the 28 mutants have acquired the capability to produce bioactive metabolites. HPLC-photodiode array detector (PDAD)-UV and HPLC-electron spray ionization (ESI)-MS analyses further indicated that diverse secondary metabolites have been newly produced in the bioactive mutant extracts. Followed isolation and characterization demonstrated that five bioactive secondary metabolites, curvularin (1), citrinin (2), penicitrinone A (3), erythro-23-O-methylneocyclocitrinol (4) and 22E-7α-methoxy-5α,6α-epoxyergosta-8(14),22-dien-3β-ol (5), were newly produced by a mutant, 4-30, compared to the G59 strain. All 1–5 were also not yet found in the secondary metabolites of other wild type P. purpurogenum strains. Compounds 1–5 inhibited human cancer K562, HL-60, HeLa and BGC-823 cells to varying extents. Both present bioassays and chemical investigations demonstrated that the introduction of neomycin-resistance into the marine-derived fungal G59 strain could activate silent secondary metabolite production. The present work not only extended the previous DMSO-mediated method for introducing drug-resistance in fungi both in DMSO concentrations and antibiotics, but also additionally exemplified effectiveness of this method for activating silent fungal secondary metabolites. This method could be applied to other fungal isolates to elicit their metabolic potentials to investigate secondary metabolites from silent biosynthetic pathways. PMID:25913704

  9. Mechanistic Study on the Nuclear Modifier Gene MSS1 Mutation Suppressing Neomycin Sensitivity of the Mitochondrial 15S rRNA C1477G Mutation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qiyin; Wang, Wei; He, Xiangyu; Zhu, Xiaoyu; Shen, Yaoyao; Yu, Zhe; Wang, Xuexiang; Qi, Xuchen; Zhang, Xuan; Fan, Mingjie; Dai, Yu; Yang, Shuxu; Yan, Qingfeng

    2014-01-01

    The phenotypic manifestation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations can be modulated by nuclear genes and environmental factors. However, neither the interaction among these factors nor their underlying mechanisms are well understood. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae mtDNA 15S rRNA C1477G mutation (PR) corresponds to the human 12S rRNA A1555G mutation. Here we report that a nuclear modifier gene mss1 mutation suppresses the neomycin-sensitivity phenotype of a yeast C1477G mutant in fermentable YPD medium. Functional assays show that the mitochondrial function of the yeast C1477G mutant was impaired severely in YPD medium with neomycin. Moreover, the mss1 mutation led to a significant increase in the steady-state level of HAP5 (heme activated protein), which greatly up-regulated the expression of glycolytic transcription factors RAP1, GCR1, and GCR2 and thus stimulated glycolysis. Furthermore, the high expression of the key glycolytic enzyme genes HXK2, PFK1 and PYK1 indicated that enhanced glycolysis not only compensated for the ATP reduction from oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in mitochondria, but also ensured the growth of the mss1(PR) mutant in YPD medium with neomycin. This study advances our understanding of the phenotypic manifestation of mtDNA mutations. PMID:24595024

  10. Reduced TRMU expression increases the sensitivity of hair-cell-like HEI-OC-1 cells to neomycin damage in vitro.

    PubMed

    He, Zuhong; Sun, Shan; Waqas, Muhammad; Zhang, Xiaoli; Qian, Fuping; Cheng, Cheng; Zhang, Mingshu; Zhang, Shasha; Wang, Yongming; Tang, Mingliang; Li, Huawei; Chai, Renjie

    2016-01-01

    Aminoglycosides are ototoxic to the cochlear hair cells, and mitochondrial dysfunction is one of the major mechanisms behind ototoxic drug-induced hair cell death. TRMU (tRNA 5-methylaminomethyl-2-thiouridylate methyltransferase) is a mitochondrial protein that participates in mitochondrial tRNA modifications, but the role of TRMU in aminoglycoside-induced ototoxicity remains to be elucidated. In this study, we took advantage of the HEI-OC-1 cell line to investigate the role of TRMU in aminoglycoside-induced cell death. We found that TRMU is expressed in both hair cells and HEI-OC-1 cells, and its expression is significantly decreased after 24 h neomycin treatment. We then downregulated TRMU expression with siRNA and found that cell death and apoptosis were significantly increased after neomycin injury. Furthermore, when we down-regulated TRMU expression, we observed significantly increased mitochondrial dysfunction and increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) after neomycin injury, suggesting that TRMU regulates mitochondrial function and ROS levels. Lastly, the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine rescued the mitochondrial dysfunction and cell apoptosis that was induced by TRMU downregulation, suggesting that ROS accumulation contributed to the increased aminoglycosides sensitivity of HEI-OC-1 cells after TRMU downregulation. This study provides evidence that TRMU might be a new therapeutic target for the prevention of aminoglycoside-induced hair cell death. PMID:27405449

  11. Reduced TRMU expression increases the sensitivity of hair-cell-like HEI-OC-1 cells to neomycin damage in vitro

    PubMed Central

    He, Zuhong; Sun, Shan; Waqas, Muhammad; Zhang, Xiaoli; Qian, Fuping; Cheng, Cheng; Zhang, Mingshu; Zhang, Shasha; Wang, Yongming; Tang, Mingliang; Li, Huawei; Chai, Renjie

    2016-01-01

    Aminoglycosides are ototoxic to the cochlear hair cells, and mitochondrial dysfunction is one of the major mechanisms behind ototoxic drug-induced hair cell death. TRMU (tRNA 5-methylaminomethyl-2-thiouridylate methyltransferase) is a mitochondrial protein that participates in mitochondrial tRNA modifications, but the role of TRMU in aminoglycoside-induced ototoxicity remains to be elucidated. In this study, we took advantage of the HEI-OC-1 cell line to investigate the role of TRMU in aminoglycoside-induced cell death. We found that TRMU is expressed in both hair cells and HEI-OC-1 cells, and its expression is significantly decreased after 24 h neomycin treatment. We then downregulated TRMU expression with siRNA and found that cell death and apoptosis were significantly increased after neomycin injury. Furthermore, when we down-regulated TRMU expression, we observed significantly increased mitochondrial dysfunction and increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) after neomycin injury, suggesting that TRMU regulates mitochondrial function and ROS levels. Lastly, the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine rescued the mitochondrial dysfunction and cell apoptosis that was induced by TRMU downregulation, suggesting that ROS accumulation contributed to the increased aminoglycosides sensitivity of HEI-OC-1 cells after TRMU downregulation. This study provides evidence that TRMU might be a new therapeutic target for the prevention of aminoglycoside-induced hair cell death. PMID:27405449

  12. The expression of NLRX1 in C57BL/6 mice cochlear hair cells: Possible relation to aging- and neomycin-induced deafness.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qianqian; Sun, Gaoying; Cao, Zhixin; Yin, Haiyan; Qi, Qi; Wang, Jinghan; Liu, Wenwen; Bai, Xiaohui; Wang, Haibo; Li, Jianfeng

    2016-03-11

    Nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich-repeat-containing family member X1 (NLRX1) is a cytoplasmic pattern recognition receptor that is predominantly located in mitochondria, which is tightly related to mitochondrial damage, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, inflammation and apoptosis. The present study was designed to explore whether NLRX1 expresses in C57BL/6 mice cochlear hair cells and, if so, to investigate the possible correlations between NLRX1 and hearing. The location and dynamic expression of NLRX1 were investigated by immunofluorescence, real-time PCR and Western blotting. Hearing thresholds of C57BL/6 mice were measured by auditory brainstem response (ABR). Moreover, the downstream inflammatory and apoptotic pathways regulated by NLRX1 were examined in age-related and neomycin-induced hair cell damage. Data showed that NLRX1 expressed in cytoplasm of C57BL/6 cochlear hair cells, especially in the cilia, which were essential for sound sensation. The expression of NLRX1 in hair cells increased as the mice grew up, and, decreased as they aged. Additionally, the activated apoptotic JNK pathway was detected in 9-month old mice with worse-hearing and 3-month old mice treated with neomycin. Overall, results indicate that NLRX1 may relate to hair cell maturity, hearing formation and maintenance, and promote hair cell apoptosis through JNK pathway induced by aging and neomycin. PMID:26836140

  13. Erythromycin versus neomycin in the treatment of hepatic encephalopathy in cirrhosis: a randomized double-blind study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a severe complication in patients with hepatic cirrhosis, which causes numerous hospital admissions and deaths. Antibiotics are the best options in HE treatment, but head-to-head comparisons between these drugs are scarce. Erythromycin combines the antimicrobial effect and prokinetic properties in the same drug, but it has never been used in HE treatment. Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy of erythromycin as an HE treatment. Methods We achieved a randomized controlled trial of adult patients with HE and hepatic cirrhosis admitted in our hospital. After randomization, the subjects received either erythromycin 250 mg or neomycin 1 g orally QID until hospital discharge or prescription of another antibiotic. All subjects were blindly evaluated every day towards quantifying clinical, neuropsychometric, hepatic and renal exams. Statistical analysis was employed to compare the groups and correlate the variables with hospitalization duration. Results 30 patients were evaluated (15 treated with each drug). At hospital admission, the groups were homogeneous, but the erythromycin group subjects achieved a shorter hospitalization stay (p = 0.032) and a more expressive reduction in alanine aminotranspherase levels (p = 0.026). Hospitalization duration was positively correlated with C reactive protein levels measured previous to (p = 0.015) and after treatment (p = 0.01). Conclusions In the sample evaluated erythromycin was associated with significant reductions in hospital stay and in alanine aminotranspherase values. Hospitalization time was positive correlated with C reactive protein levels measured before and after the treatments. PMID:23324408

  14. Gene-targeted embryonic stem cells: real-time PCR assay for estimation of the number of neomycin selection cassettes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In the preparation of transgenic murine ES cells it is important to verify the construct has a single insertion, because an ectopic neomycin phosphortransferase positive selection cassette (NEO) may cause a position effect. During a recent work, where a knockin SCA28 mouse was prepared, we developed two assays based on Real-Time PCR using both SYBR Green and specific minor groove binder (MGB) probes to evaluate the copies of NEO using the comparative delta-delta Ct method versus the Rpp30 reference gene. We compared the results from Southern blot, routinely used to quantify NEO copies, with the two Real-Time PCR assays. Twenty-two clones containing the single NEO copy showed values of 0.98 ± 0.24 (mean ± 2 S.D.), and were clearly distinguishable from clones with two or more NEO copies. This method was found to be useful, easy, sensitive and fast and could substitute for the widely used, but laborious Southern blot method. PMID:22035318

  15. Efficient transformation and regeneration of transgenic cassava using the neomycin phosphotransferase gene as aminoglycoside resistance marker gene.

    PubMed

    Niklaus, Michael; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Vanderschuren, Hervé

    2011-01-01

    Cassava is one of the most important crops in the tropics. Its industrial use for starch and biofuel production is also increasing its importance for agricultural production in tropical countries. In the last decade cassava biotechnology has emerged as a valuable alternative to the breeding constraints of this highly heterozygous crop for improved trait development of cassava germplasm. Cassava transformation remains difficult and time-consuming because of limitations in selecting transgenic tissues and regeneration of transgenic plantlets. We have recently reported an efficient and robust cassava transformation protocol using the hygromycin phosphotransferase II (hptII) gene as selection marker and the aminoglycoside hygromycin at optimal concentrations to maximize the regeneration of transgenic plantlets. In the present work, we expanded the transformation protocol to the use of the neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII) gene as selection marker. Several aminoglycosides compatible with the use of nptII were tested and optimal concentrations for cassava transformation were determined. Given its efficiency equivalent to hptII as selection marker with the described protocol, the use of nptII opens new possibilities to engineer transgenic cassava lines with multiple T-DNA insertions and to produce transgenic cassava with a resistance marker gene that is already deregulated in several commercial transgenic crops. PMID:22179195

  16. 60Co-irradiation as an alternate method for sterilization of penicillin G, neomycin, novobiocin, and dihydrostreptomycin

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuji, K.; Rahn, P.D.; Steindler, K.A.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of the use of 60Co-irradiation to sterilize antibiotics were evaluated. The antibiotic powders were only occasionally contaminated with microorganisms. The D-values of the products and environmental isolates were 0.028, 0.027, 0.015, 0.046, 0.15, 0.018, and 0.19 Mrads for Aspergillus species (UC 7297, 7298), A. fumigatus (UC 7299), Rhodotorula species (UC 7300), Penicillium oxalicum (UC 7269), Pseudomonas maltophilia (UC 6855), and a biological indicator microorganism, Bacillus pumilus spores (ATCC 27142). An irradiation dose of 1.14 Mrads, therefore, was sufficient to achieve a six-log cycle destruction of B. pumilus spores. Based on the bioburden data, a minimum irradiation dose of 1.05 Mrads was calculated to be sufficient to obtain a 10(-6) probability of sterilizing the most radioresistant isolate, Pen. oxalicum. To determine the radiolytic degradation scheme and the stability of the antibiotics following irradiation, high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) methods were developed. The resulting rates of degradation for the antibiotics were 0.6, 1.2, 2.3, and 0.95%/Mrad for penicillin G, neomycin, novobiocin, and dihydrostreptomycin, respectively. Furthermore, radiolytic degradation pathways for the antibiotics were identified and found to be similar to those commonly encountered when antibiotics are subjected to acidic, basic, hydrolytic, or oxidative treatments. No radiolytic compounds unique to 60Co-irradiation were found.

  17. E2F1-CDK1 pathway activation in kanamycin-induced spiral ganglion cell apoptosis and the protective effect of CR8.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-ying; Wang, Guo-peng; Peng, Zhe; Guo, Jing-ying; Wu, Qian; Xie, Jing; Gong, Shu-sheng

    2016-03-23

    Cochlear hair cell loss results in the secondary loss of spiral ganglion cells (SGCs). The death of these SGCs is due to apoptosis. The E2F1-cyclin dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) pathway is believed to represent an important mechanism of neuronal cell death. However, the role of this pathway in spiral ganglion neuronal apoptosis has not yet been reported. In this study, we deafened guinea pigs with a subcutaneous injection of kanamycin followed by an intravenous infusion of furosemide and then assayed the expression levels of cleaved caspase-3, E2F1, CDK1 and cleaved caspase-9 during the induced SGC apoptosis. Our results revealed that co-administration of kanamycin and furosemide rapidly induced hair cell loss in the guinea pigs and then resulted in a progressive loss of SGCs. Expression levels of E2F1 and CDK1 were obviously up-regulated at 1 and 3 days after deafening. Cleaved caspase-9 also increased robustly 1 or 2 weeks after the deafening procedure. The up-regulation of E2F1, CDK1 and cleaved caspase-9 was significantly attenuated by the systemic injection of CR8 (1mg/kg/day, intraperitoneally) starting at 5min after deafening. These findings indicate that the activation of the E2F1-CDK1 pathway and cell cycle re-entry contributes to the apoptosis of SGCs and that the selective inhibition of this signaling cascade may represent an attractive therapeutic strategy. CR8 has the potential to protect SGCs from apoptosis. PMID:26905670

  18. Thermodynamics of aminoglycoside-rRNA recognition: the binding of neomycin-class aminoglycosides to the A site of 16S rRNA.

    PubMed

    Kaul, Malvika; Pilch, Daniel S

    2002-06-18

    We use spectroscopic and calorimetric techniques to characterize the binding of the aminoglycoside antibiotics neomycin, paromomycin, and ribostamycin to a RNA oligonucleotide that models the A-site of Escherichia coli 16S rRNA. Our results reveal the following significant features: (i) Aminoglycoside binding enhances the thermal stability of the A-site RNA duplex, with the extent of this thermal enhancement decreasing with increasing pH and/or Na(+) concentration. (ii) The RNA binding enthalpies of the aminoglycosides become more exothermic (favorable) with increasing pH, an observation consistent with binding-linked protonation of one or more drug amino groups. (iii) Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) studies conducted as a function of buffer reveal that aminoglycoside binding to the host RNA is linked to the uptake of protons, with the number of linked protons being dependent on pH. Specifically, increasing the pH results in a corresponding increase in the number of linked protons. (iv) ITC studies conducted at 25 and 37 degrees C reveal that aminoglycoside-RNA complexation is associated with a negative heat capacity change (Delta C(p)), the magnitude of which becomes greater with increasing pH. (v) The observed RNA binding affinities of the aminoglycosides decrease with increasing pH and/or Na(+) concentration. In addition, the thermodynamic forces underlying these RNA binding affinities also change as a function of pH. Specifically, with increasing pH, the enthalpic contribution to the observed RNA binding affinity increases, while the corresponding entropic contribution to binding decreases. (vi) The affinities of the aminoglycosides for the host RNA follow the hierarchy neomycin > paromomycin > ribostamycin. The enhanced affinity of neomycin relative to either paromomycin or ribostamycin is primarily, if not entirely, enthalpic in origin. (vii) The salt dependencies of the RNA binding affinities of neomycin and paromomycin are consistent with at least

  19. A new cyclic dipeptide penicimutide: the activated production of cyclic dipeptides by introduction of neomycin-resistance in the marine-derived fungus Penicillium purpurogenum G59.

    PubMed

    Wang, Nan; Cui, Cheng-Bin; Li, Chang-Wei

    2016-06-01

    A novel cyclic dipeptide, named penicimutide (1), and four known cyclic dipeptides, cyclo(L-Val-L-Pro) (2), cyclo(L-Ile-L-Pro) (3), cyclo(L-Leu-L-Pro) (4) and cyclo(L-Phe-L-Pro) (5), were isolated from a neomycin-resistant mutant of the marine-derived fungus Penicillium purpurogenum G59. The structure of 1, including the absolute configuration, was determined by spectroscopic and chemical methods, especially NMR and Marfey's analysis. An unusual amino acid in 1, 4,5-didehydro-L-leucine, was found for the first time occurring in nature. HPLC-ESI-MS analysis evidenced that 1-3 were produced only in the mutant strain, but 4 and 5 were produced in both the mutant and parental strains, indicating that the introduction of neomycin-resistance in the mutant activated pathways of 1-3 biosynthesis that were silent in the parental strain. Compound 1 selectively inhibited HeLa cells (among five tested human cancer cell lines) with an inhibition rate (IR %) of 39.4 % at 100 µg/mL, a similar inhibition intensity to that of the positive control 5-fluorouracil (IR % of 41.4 % at 100 µg/mL against HeLa cells). The present work exemplifies the effectiveness of our previous DMSO-mediated method for introducing drug-resistance in fungi to activate silent biosynthetic pathways to obtain new bioactive compounds. PMID:27129688

  20. Central Nervous Activity upon Systemic Salicylate Application in Animals with Kanamycin-Induced Hearing Loss--A Manganese-Enhanced MRI (MEMRI) Study.

    PubMed

    Gröschel, Moritz; Götze, Romy; Müller, Susanne; Ernst, Arne; Basta, Dietmar

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of systemic salicylate on central auditory and non-auditory structures in mice. Since cochlear hair cells are known to be one major target of salicylate, cochlear effects were reduced by using kanamycin to remove or impair hair cells. Neuronal brain activity was measured using the non-invasive manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging technique. For all brain structures investigated, calcium-related neuronal activity was increased following systemic application of a sodium salicylate solution: probably due to neuronal hyperactivity. In addition, it was shown that the central effect of salicylate was not limited to the auditory system. A general alteration of calcium-related activity was indicated by an increase in manganese accumulation in the preoptic area of the anterior hypothalamus, as well as in the amygdala. The present data suggest that salicylate-induced activity changes in the auditory system differ from those shown in studies of noise trauma. Since salicylate action is reversible, central pharmacological effects of salicylate compared to those of (permanent) noise-induced hearing impairment and tinnitus might induce different pathophysiologies. These should therefore, be treated as different causes with the same symptoms. PMID:27078034

  1. Central Nervous Activity upon Systemic Salicylate Application in Animals with Kanamycin-Induced Hearing Loss - A Manganese-Enhanced MRI (MEMRI) Study

    PubMed Central

    Gröschel, Moritz; Götze, Romy; Müller, Susanne; Ernst, Arne; Basta, Dietmar

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of systemic salicylate on central auditory and non-auditory structures in mice. Since cochlear hair cells are known to be one major target of salicylate, cochlear effects were reduced by using kanamycin to remove or impair hair cells. Neuronal brain activity was measured using the non-invasive manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging technique. For all brain structures investigated, calcium-related neuronal activity was increased following systemic application of a sodium salicylate solution: probably due to neuronal hyperactivity. In addition, it was shown that the central effect of salicylate was not limited to the auditory system. A general alteration of calcium-related activity was indicated by an increase in manganese accumulation in the preoptic area of the anterior hypothalamus, as well as in the amygdala. The present data suggest that salicylate-induced activity changes in the auditory system differ from those shown in studies of noise trauma. Since salicylate action is reversible, central pharmacological effects of salicylate compared to those of (permanent) noise-induced hearing impairment and tinnitus might induce different pathophysiologies. These should therefore, be treated as different causes with the same symptoms. PMID:27078034

  2. Hydrocortisone, Neomycin, and Polymyxin

    MedlinePlus

    ... Talk to your pharmacist or contact your local garbage/recycling department to learn about take-back programs in your community. See the FDA's Safe Disposal of Medicines website (http://goo.gl/c4Rm4p) for ...

  3. Hydrocortisone, Neomycin, and Polymyxin

    MedlinePlus

    This combination of medications comes as eardrops, eye drops, and a topical cream and ointment. The eye drops are usually used every 3 to 4 hours. ... this procedure easier, have someone else instill the drops): Wash your hands thoroughly with soap and warm ...

  4. Enzymatic and nucleotide sequence studies of a kanamycin-inactivating enzyme encoded by a plasmid from thermophilic bacilli in comparison with that encoded by plasmid pUB110.

    PubMed Central

    Matsumura, M; Katakura, Y; Imanaka, T; Aiba, S

    1984-01-01

    The product of a kanamycin resistance gene encoded by plasmid pTB913 isolated from a thermophilic bacillus was identified as a kanamycin nucleotidyltransferase which is similar to that encoded by plasmid pUB110 from a mesophile, Staphylococcus aureus. The enzyme encoded by pTB913 was more thermostable than that encoded by pUB110. In view of a close resemblance of restriction endonuclease cleavage maps around the BglII site in the structural genes of both enzymes, ca. 1,200 base pairs were sequenced, followed by amino-terminal amino acid sequencing of the enzyme. The two nucleotide sequences were found to be identical to each other except for only one base in the midst of the structural gene. Each structural gene, initiating from a GUG codon as methionine, was composed of 759 base pairs and 253 amino acid residues (molecular weight, ca. 29,000). The sole difference was transversion from a cytosine (pUB110) to an adenine (pTB913) at a position + 389, counting the first base of the initiation codon as + 1. That is, a threonine at position 130 for the pUB110-coded kanamycin nucleotidyltransferase was replaced by a lysine for the pTB913-coded enzyme. The difference in thermostability between the two enzymes caused by a single amino acid replacement is discussed in light of electrostatic effects. Images PMID:6090428

  5. 2-Dimensional Combinatorial Screening Identifies Specific 6′Acylated Kanamycin A and 6′ Acylated Neamine-RNA Hairpin Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Aminova, Olga; Paul, Dustin J.; Childs-Disney, Jessica L.; Disney, Matthew D.

    2009-01-01

    Herein, we report the RNA hairpin loops from a 6-nucleotide hairpin library that bind 6′-acylated kanamycin A (1) and 6′-acylated neamine (2) identified by 2-Dimensional Combinatorial Screening (2DCS). Hairpins selected to bind 1 have Kd's ranging from 235-1035 nM, with an average Kd of 618 nM. For 2, the selected hairpins bind with Kd's ranging from 135-2300 nM, with an average Kd of 1010 nM. The selected RNA hairpin-ligand interactions are also specific for the ligand that they were selected to bind compared to the other arrayed ligand. For example, the mixture of hairpins selected for 1 on average bind 33-fold more tightly to 1 than 2 while the mixtures of hairpins selected for 2 on average bind 11-fold more tightly to 2 than 1. Secondary structure prediction of the selected sequences was completed to determine the motifs that each ligand binds, and the hairpin loop preferences for 1 and 2 were computed. For 1, the preferred hairpin loops contain an adenine separated by at least two nucleotides from a cytosine, for example ANNCNN (two-tailed p-value = 0.0010) and ANNNCN (two-tailed p-value <0.0001). For 2, the preferred hairpin loops contain both 5′GC and 5′CG steps (two-tailed p-value <0.0001). These results expand the information available on the RNA hairpin loops that bind small molecules and could prove useful for targeting RNA. PMID:18991404

  6. Neomycin damage and regeneration of hair cells in both mechanoreceptor and electroreceptor lateral line organs of the larval Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii).

    PubMed

    Fan, Chunxin; Zou, Sha; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Bo; Song, Jiakun

    2016-05-01

    The lateral line found in some amphibians and fishes has two distinctive classes of sensory organs: mechanoreceptors (neuromasts) and electroreceptors (ampullary organs). Hair cells in neuromasts can be damaged by aminoglycoside antibiotics and they will regenerate rapidly afterward. Aminoglycoside sensitivity and the capacity for regeneration have not been investigated in ampullary organs. We treated Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii) larvae with neomycin and observed loss and regeneration of sensory hair cells in both organs by labeling with DASPEI and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The numbers of sensory hair cells in both organs were reduced to the lowest levels at 6 hours posttreatment (hpt). New sensory hair cells began to appear at 12 hpt and were regenerated completely in 7 days. To reveal the possible mechanism for ampullary hair cell regeneration, we analyzed cell proliferation and the expression of neural placodal gene eya1 during regeneration. Both cell proliferation and eya1 expression were concentrated in peripheral mantle cells and both increased to the highest level at 12 hpt, which is consistent with the time course for regeneration of the ampullary hair cells. Furthermore, we used Texas Red-conjugated gentamicin in an uptake assay following pretreatment with a cation channel blocker (amiloride) and found that entry of the antibiotic was suppressed in both organs. Together, our results indicate that ampullary hair cells in Siberian sturgeon larvae can be damaged by neomycin exposure and they can regenerate rapidly. We suggest that the mechanisms for aminoglycoside uptake and hair cell regeneration are conserved for mechanoreceptors and electroreceptors. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:1443-1456, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26502298

  7. Comparison of Boric Acid and Combination Drug of Polymyxin, Neomycin and Hydrocortisone (polymyxin NH) in the Treatment of Acute Otitis Externa

    PubMed Central

    Moeini, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Acute otitis externa is an inflammation of the external auditory canal known as "swimmer’s ear". Direct costs including medical treatment, painkillers, antibiotics, steroids or both and indirect costs are also remarkable. Aim The aim of this study was to compare the effect of boric acid and polymyxin, neomycin and hydrocortisone composition in the treatment of acute otitis externa. Materials and Methods This randomized clinical trial was carried out on 80 patients aged more than 17-year-old who were referred to Kashani hospital clinic with a diagnosis of acute otitis externa by otolaryngologist. The patients were randomly allocated to two groups (A: Boric acid and B: polymyxin NH ear drops) and Painkiller was prescribed and administered orally for all patients and in the presence of fever, cellulitis around the ears and neck adenopathy, broad-spectrum systemic antibiotics were used besides topical treatment. Symptoms of patients who were evaluated by a physician includes pain, discharge from the ear, swelling of the ear canal, auricle swelling, tenderness, and ear itching. In addition, pain was evaluated in patients and was recorded by Macgill Pain Questionnaire, in the first, third, seventh and tenth days. Results Results showed that itching on third day (p=0.007) and swelling of the ear canal in the examination of the third day (p=0.006) and the seventh day (p=0.001) in the polymyxin NH group was more than those of boric acid group. Overall mean pain based on McGill questionnaire was 11.10±1.49 in boric acid group in the examination on the first day and was 4.05±0.22 in the examination on the tenth day and in the polymyxin NH group, it was 10.9±0.99 on the first day and 4.20±0.40 on the tenth day. In both groups, pain relief was the same and there was no significant difference between two groups (p=0.075). Conclusion The findings of this study showed slight differences in the effectiveness of the boric acid drug and combination of polymyxin

  8. Thermodynamic insights into drug-surfactant interactions: Study of the interactions of naporxen, diclofenac sodium, neomycin, and lincomycin with hexadecytrimethylammonium bromide by using isothermal titration calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Sinjan; Talele, Paurnima; Kishore, Nand

    2015-08-01

    The success of drug delivery depends on the efficiency of the route of administration, which in turn relies on properties of the drug and its transport vehicle. A quantitative knowledge of association of drugs with transport vehicles is lacking when the latter are in the category of self assembled structures. The work reported in this manuscript addresses the mechanism of partitioning of naproxen, diclofenac sodium, neomycin and lincomycin in the micelles of hexadecytrimethylammonium bromide and that is quantitatively based on the measurement of thermodynamic parameters of interactions by using isothermal titration calorimetry. The addressed mechanism of partitioning is based on the identification of the type of interactions of these drugs with the surfactant micelles and monomers, along with the effect of the former on the micellization properties of the surfactant. The conclusions are based on the interpretation of the values of partitioning constant, standard molar enthalpy change, standard molar entropy change and the stoichiometry of the interaction. The results of this study have implications for deriving guidelines for the target oriented synthesis of new drugs that are to be used for effective delivery via micellar media. PMID:26057731

  9. Binding of Neomycin-Class Aminoglycoside Antibiotics to Mutant Ribosomes with Alterations in the A Site of 16S rRNA

    PubMed Central

    Hobbie, Sven N.; Pfister, Peter; Bruell, Christian; Sander, Peter; François, Boris; Westhof, Eric; Böttger, Erik C.

    2006-01-01

    Aminoglycoside antibiotics that bind to the aminoacyl-tRNA site (A site) of the ribosome are composed of a common neamine core in which a glycopyranosyl ring is attached to position 4 of a 2-deoxystreptamine moiety. The core is further substituted by one (ribostamycin), two (neomycin and paromomycin), or three (lividomycin A) additional sugars attached to position 5 of the 2-deoxystreptamine. To study the role of rings III, IV, and V in aminoglycoside binding, we used isogenic Mycobacterium smegmatis ΔrrnB mutants carrying homogeneous populations of mutant ribosomes with alterations in the 16S rRNA A site. MICs were determined to investigate drug-ribosome interactions, and the results were compared with that of the previously published crystal structure of paromomycin bound to the ribosomal A site. Our analysis demonstrates that the stacking interaction between ring I and G1491 is largely sequence independent, that rings III and IV each increase the strength of drug binding to the ribosome, that ring IV of the 6′-NH3+ aminoglycosides compensates for loss of interactions between ring II and U1495 and between ring III and G1491, that the aminoglycosides rely on pseudo-base pairing between ring I and A1408 for binding independently of the number of sugar rings attached to the neamine core, that addition of ring V to the 6′-OH 4,5-aminoglycoside paromomycin does not alter the mode of binding, and that alteration of the U1406 · U1495 wobble base pair to the Watson-Crick interaction pair 1406C-1495G yields ribosomal drug susceptibilities to 4,5-aminoglycosides comparable to those seen with the wild-type A site. PMID:16569869

  10. Ceftazidime Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... sure to mention any of the following: amikacin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, kanamycin, neomycin (Neo-Fradin), streptomycin, and tobramycin. ... your doctor may send a report to the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting ...

  11. A method of batch-purifying microalgae with multiple antibiotics at extremely high concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jichang; Wang, Song; Zhang, Lin; Yang, Guanpin; Zhao, Lu; Pan, Kehou

    2016-01-01

    Axenic microalgal strains are highly valued in diverse microalgal studies and applications. Antibiotics, alone or in combination, are often used to avoid bacterial contamination during microalgal isolation and culture. In our preliminary trials, we found that many microalgae ceased growing in antibiotics at extremely high concentrations but could resume growth quickly when returned to an antibiotics-free liquid medium and formed colonies when spread on a solid medium. We developed a simple and highly efficient method of obtaining axenic microalgal cultures based on this observation. First, microalgal strains of different species or strains were treated with a mixture of ampicillin, gentamycin sulfate, kanamycin, neomycin and streptomycin (each at a concentration of 600 mg/L) for 3 days; they were then transferred to antibiotics-free medium for 5 days; and finally they were spread on solid f/2 media to allow algal colonies to form. With this method, five strains of Nannochloropsis sp. (Eustigmatophyceae), two strains of Cylindrotheca sp. (Bacillariophyceae), two strains of Tetraselmis sp. (Chlorodendrophyceae) and one strain of Amphikrikos sp. (Trebouxiophyceae) were purified successfully. The method shows promise for batch-purifying microalgal cultures.

  12. Multiple antibiotic resistance indexing of Escherichia coli to identify high-risk sources of faecal contamination of water.

    PubMed

    Titilawo, Yinka; Sibanda, Timothy; Obi, Larry; Okoh, Anthony

    2015-07-01

    We evaluated the antibiogram profile of Escherichia coli (n = 300) isolated from selected rivers in Osun State, Nigeria. The identities of the E. coli isolates were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Susceptibility of the isolates to 20 antibiotics conventionally used in clinical cases was assessed in vitro by the standardized agar disc-diffusion method. All the isolates were susceptible to imipenem, meropenem, amikacin and gatilofloxacin. The isolates were variously susceptible to the other antibiotics as follows: ciprofloxacin (96 %), kanamycin (95 %), neomycin (92 %), streptomycin (84 %), chloramphenicol (73 %), nalidixic acid (66 %), nitrofurantoin (64 %), gentamycin (63 %), doxycycline (58 %), cefepime (57 %), tetracycline (49 %) and cephalothin (42 %). The multiple antibiotic resistance indexing ranged from 0.50 to 0.80 for all the sampling locations and exceeded the threshold value of 0.2, suggesting the origin of the isolates to be of high antimicrobial usage. Our findings signify an increase in the incidence of antimicrobial resistance of E. coli towards conventionally used antibiotics necessitating proper surveillance programmes towards the monitoring of antimicrobial resistance determinants in water bodies. PMID:25779106

  13. Occurrence of antimicrobial residues in Brazilian food animals in 2008 and 2009.

    PubMed

    Nonaka, C K V; Oliveira, A M G; Paiva, C R; Almeida, M P; Rezende, C P; Moraes, C G O; Botelho, B G; Souza, L F; Dias, P G

    2012-01-01

    Brazil is one of the most important countries as a producer and exporter of cattle and poultry. In 2009 cattle accounted for 30% of the export market and 41.4% for poultry meat. The Brazilian National Residues and Contaminants Control Plan (PNCRC) follows the guidelines set by the Codex Alimentarius Commission and checks compliance maximum residue limits (MRLs) to ensure the quality of these commodities. Kidney samples (n = 2978) were analysed between January 2008 and December 2009. Fifteen antibiotics of the macrolide and aminoglycoside groups (clindamycin, eritromycin, lincomycin, tylmicosin, tylosin, amikacin, apramycin, dihydrostreptomycin, gentamycin, higromycin, kanamycin, neomycin, spectinomycin, streptomycin, tobramycin) were determined by a microbiological screening method (FAST) and confirmed/quantified using liquid chromatography (LC-MS/MS and UPLC-MS/MS). In 2008, 1459 samples were analysed by a screening test and liquid chromatography with only one sample (0.07%) exceeded Brazilian legislation limits (>MRL). In 2009, 1519 samples were analysed and none exceeding Brazilian legislation limits (>MRL). The slaughterhouses of 16 states were monitored during the year of 2008, and 18 states were monitored in 2009, being the major producing states most sampled by the PNCRC. PMID:22129165

  14. Occurrence of antibiotics in pharmaceutical industrial wastewater, wastewater treatment plant and sea waters in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Tahrani, Leyla; Van Loco, Joris; Ben Mansour, Hedi; Reyns, Tim

    2016-04-01

    Antibiotics are among the most commonly used group of pharmaceuticals in human medicine. They can therefore reach surface and groundwater bodies through different routes, such as wastewater treatment plant effluents, surface runoff, or infiltration of water used for agricultural purposes. It is well known that antibiotics pose a significant risk to environmental and human health, even at low concentrations. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the presence of aminoglycosides and phenicol antibiotics in municipal wastewaters, sea water and pharmaceutical effluents in Tunisia. All analysed water samples contained detectable levels of aminoglycoside and phenicol antibiotics. The highest concentrations in wastewater influents were observed for neomycin and kanamycin B (16.4 ng mL(-1) and 7.5 ng mL(-1), respectively). Chloramphenicol was found in wastewater influents up to 3 ng mL(-1). It was observed that the waste water treatment plants were not efficient in completely removing these antibiotics. Chloramphenicol and florfenicol were found in sea water samples near aquaculture sites at levels up to, respectively, 15.6 ng mL(-1) and 18.4 ng mL(-1). Also aminoglycoside antibiotics were found near aquaculture sites with the highest concentration of 3.4 ng mL(-1) for streptomycin. In pharmaceutical effluents, only gentamycin was found at concentrations up to 19 ng mL(-1) over a sampling period of four months. PMID:27105406

  15. [Microbiological research for the Hungarian pharmaceutical industry].

    PubMed

    Ambrus, G

    2001-01-01

    A survey is presented on the last 50 years of biotechnological R & D activities in the Institute for Drug Research, Budapest. In the 1950s and 1960s this Institute played an important role in the industry of antibiotics in Hungary, contributing to the development of manufacturing processes for streptomycin, oxytetracycline, neomycin and nystatine. In the late 1950s a microbial screening program was initiated, which led to the discovery of several new antibiotics and the isolation of microorganisms producing medically important, known antibiotics and other therapeutical agents of microbial origin from natural sources. In the 1970s and 1980s the biotechnological research group elaborated new industrial processes for the production of several antibacterial antibiotics, such as gentamycin C, sisomicin, tobramycin, apramycin, kanamycin B and mupirocin and the antitumor antibiotic daunomycin. In the last 15 years new processes have been developed for manufacturing the immunosuppressants cyclosporin A and mycophenolic acid and the hypocholesterolemic agents mevinolin and pravastatin as well as recombinant hirudin, a thrombin inhibitor. Research on steroid bioconversions has also been continued from the mid 1950s up to now. In the early 1960s manufacturing processes were developed for the anti-inflammatory prednisolone and the anabolic drug methandrostenolone. The results on microbial transformations (stereoselective reduction, hydroxylation) were utilized in the synthesis of contraceptive drugs. Since the mid 1960s several new microbial processes have been discovered for the selective side chain cleavage of natural sterols, resulting in various key intermediates for the synthesis of a wide variety of steroid drugs. PMID:11769096

  16. Neomycin, Polymyxin, and Bacitracin Ophthalmic

    MedlinePlus

    ... hands thoroughly with soap and water. Use a mirror or have someone else apply the ointment. Avoid ... your medications or monitor you carefully for side effects.tell your doctor if you have or have ...

  17. Neomycin, Polymyxin, and Bacitracin Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... not use this medication to treat deep cuts, puncture wounds, animal bites, serious burns, or any injuries ... injured area with soap and water and pat dry thoroughly with a clean towel. Apply a small ...

  18. Neomycin, Polymyxin, and Bacitracin Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... Talk to your pharmacist or contact your local garbage/recycling department to learn about take-back programs in your community. See the FDA's Safe Disposal of Medicines website (http://goo.gl/c4Rm4p) for ...

  19. Genotypic susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates for amikacin and kanamycin resistance by use of a rapid sloppy molecular beacon-based assay identifies more cases of low-level drug resistance than phenotypic Lowenstein-Jensen testing.

    PubMed

    Chakravorty, Soumitesh; Lee, Jong Seok; Cho, Eun Jin; Roh, Sandy S; Smith, Laura E; Lee, Jiim; Kim, Cheon Tae; Via, Laura E; Cho, Sang-Nae; Barry, Clifton E; Alland, David

    2015-01-01

    Resistance to amikacin (AMK) and kanamycin (KAN) in clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains is largely determined by specific mutations in the rrs gene and eis gene promoter. We developed a rapid, multiplexed sloppy molecular beacon (SMB) assay to identify these mutations and then evaluated assay performance on 603 clinical M. tuberculosis DNA samples collected in South Korea. Assay performance was compared to gold-standard phenotypic drug susceptibility tests, including Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) absolute concentration, mycobacterial growth indicator tubes (MGIT), and TREK Sensititre MycoTB MIC plate (MycoTB) methods. Target amplicons were also tested for mutations by Sanger sequencing. The SMB assay correctly detected 115/116 mutant and mixed sequences and 487/487 wild-type sequences (sensitivity and specificity of 99.1 and 100%, respectively). Using the LJ method as the reference, sensitivity and specificity for AMK resistance were 92.2% and 100%, respectively, and sensitivity and specificity for KAN resistance were 87.7% and 95.6%, respectively. Mutations in the rrs gene were unequivocally associated with high-level cross-resistance to AMK and KAN in all three conventional drug susceptibility testing methods. However, eis promoter mutations were associated with KAN resistance using the MGIT or MycoTB methods but not the LJ method. No testing method associated eis promoter mutations with AMK resistance. Among the discordant samples with AMK and/or KAN resistance but wild-type sequence at the target genes, we discovered four new mutations in the whiB7 5' untranslated region (UTR) in 6/22 samples. All six samples were resistant only to KAN, suggesting the possible role of these whiB7 5' UTR mutations in KAN resistance. PMID:25339395

  20. Controlled multicenter study on chronic suppurative otitis media treated with topical applications of ciprofloxacin 0.2% solution in single-dose containers or combination of polymyxin B, neomycin, and hydrocortisone suspension.

    PubMed

    Miró, N

    2000-11-01

    Otic drops of either ciprofloxacin 0.2% solution (CIP) or a combination of polymyxin B, neomycin, and hydrocortisone suspension (PNH) were administered for 6 to 12 days to patients (14-71 years old) with chronic suppurative otitis media in a randomized, nonblinded, multicenter clinical trial. Two hundred thirty-two enrolled patients were analyzed for efficacy on a "per protocol" basis. The most frequently identified causal agents were Staphylococcus aureus (28% of the patients), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (19%), and Staphylococcus sp (9%). Clinical success was observed in 91% and 87% of the CIP-and PNH-treated patients, respectively. At 1-month follow-up, 4% of CIP and 6% of PNH patients showed a relapse of otorrhea. Bacteriologic eradication was seen in 89% and 85% of patients in the CIP and PNH groups, respectively. At 1-month follow-up, reinfection or recurrence of infection appeared in 3 patients in the PNH group and in 1 patient in the CIP group. Both treatments were well tolerated. The most frequently reported adverse events were pruritus, stinging, and earache. Audiometric tests did not show changes attributable to study drugs in any but 1 patient in the PNH group. This clinical trial shows that topical 0.2% ciprofloxacin solution in single-dose containers is effective and well tolerated in patients with chronic suppurative otitis media. PMID:11077352

  1. Molecular characterization and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of caprine Shiga toxin producing-Escherichia coli (STEC) isolates from India

    PubMed Central

    Mahanti, A.; Samanta, I.; Bandyopadhyay, S.; Joardar, S. N.

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to detect the occurrence, serotype, genotype, phylogenetic relationship and antimicrobial resistance pattern of STEC from healthy goats of West Bengal, India. From the 125 faecal samples collected from healthy goats, 245 isolates were identified as Escherichia coli. The E. coli harbouring any gene for Shiga toxins (stx1/stx2) was detected in 36 (14.7%) of the 245 E. coli isolates. These STEC strains belonged to 22 different serogroups (O2, O5, O20, O21, O22, O25, O41, O44, O45, O60, O71, O76, O84, O85, O87, O91, O103, O112, O113, O120, O156, and O158) and three were untypeable. The stx1 and stx2 was detected in 26 (72.2%) and 21 (58.3%) of Shiga toxin producing-E. coli (STEC) isolates, respectively. Further, E. coli harbouring eaeA only (Enteropathogenic E. coli) and ehxA was detected in 22 (61.1%) and 28 (77.7%) isolates, respectively. Whereas the saa was present in 8 (22.2%) E. coli isolates. The subtyping of the 26 E. coli strains possessing stx1 showed that 73.% (19/26) of these isolates were positive for stx1C subtype. Of the 21 isolates with the stx2 gene, 42.8% (9/21) were positive for stx2C, and 38.1% (8/21) were positive for stx2d gene. The phylogenetic analysis of STEC strains after RAPD reveals eight major clusters. However, no serogroup specific cluster was observed. Resistance was observed most frequently to erythromycin (80.5%), amikacin (52.7%), cephalothin (50%), kanamycin (41.6%), neomycin (36.1%) and gentamycin (36.1%) and less frequently to norfloxacin (2.7%), enrofloxacin (2.7%), and ciprofloxacin (2.7%). Multidrug resistance was observed in eleven STEC isolates. PMID:27175147

  2. 21 CFR 556.430 - Neomycin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., and goats. 7.2 parts per million (ppm) in kidney (target tissue) and fat, 3.6 ppm in liver, and 1.2 ppm in muscle. (2) Turkeys. 7.2 ppm in skin with adhearing fat, 3.6 ppm in liver, and 1.2 ppm...

  3. 21 CFR 556.430 - Neomycin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., and goats. 7.2 parts per million (ppm) in kidney (target tissue) and fat, 3.6 ppm in liver, and 1.2 ppm in muscle. (2) Turkeys. 7.2 ppm in skin with adhearing fat, 3.6 ppm in liver, and 1.2 ppm...

  4. 21 CFR 556.430 - Neomycin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., and goats. 7.2 parts per million (ppm) in kidney (target tissue) and fat, 3.6 ppm in liver, and 1.2 ppm in muscle. (2) Turkeys. 7.2 ppm in skin with adhearing fat, 3.6 ppm in liver, and 1.2 ppm...

  5. 21 CFR 556.430 - Neomycin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., and goats. 7.2 parts per million (ppm) in kidney (target tissue) and fat, 3.6 ppm in liver, and 1.2 ppm in muscle. (2) Turkeys. 7.2 ppm in skin with adhearing fat, 3.6 ppm in liver, and 1.2 ppm...

  6. 21 CFR 556.430 - Neomycin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., and goats. 7.2 parts per million (ppm) in kidney (target tissue) and fat, 3.6 ppm in liver, and 1.2 ppm in muscle. (2) Turkeys. 7.2 ppm in skin with adhearing fat, 3.6 ppm in liver, and 1.2 ppm...

  7. 21 CFR 558.364 - Neomycin sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS Specific New Animal Drugs for Use... disease signs, and environmental temperature and humidity, each of which affects feed consumption. If... hours beyond remission of disease symptoms. Discontinue treatment prior to slaughter as follows:...

  8. 21 CFR 558.364 - Neomycin sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS Specific New Animal Drugs for Use... disease signs, and environmental temperature and humidity, each of which affects feed consumption. If... hours beyond remission of disease symptoms. Discontinue treatment prior to slaughter as follows:...

  9. 21 CFR 558.364 - Neomycin sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS Specific New Animal Drugs for Use... disease signs, and environmental temperature and humidity, each of which affects feed consumption. If... hours beyond remission of disease symptoms. Discontinue treatment prior to slaughter as follows:...

  10. 21 CFR 558.364 - Neomycin sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS Specific New Animal Drugs for Use... disease signs, and environmental temperature and humidity, each of which affects feed consumption. If... hours beyond remission of disease symptoms. Discontinue treatment prior to slaughter as follows:...