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Sample records for kandy sri lanka

  1. Differences in selected lifestyle risk factors for cardiovascular disease between Sri Lankans in Oslo, Norway, and in Kandy, Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Tennakoon, Sampath U B; Kumar, Bernadette N; Meyer, Haakon E

    2015-03-01

    Sri Lankans in Oslo have previously been shown to have lower risk of cardiovascular disease compared with those in Kandy, Sri Lanka. Here we present lifestyle risk factors for cardiovascular diseases: frequency and type of fat consumed, frequency of fruit and vegetable intake, alcohol consumption, and leisure time physical activity between 1145 Sri Lankans living in Oslo and 678 Tamils and Sinhalese Sri Lankans living in Kandy as possible explanatory factors for the differences observed. Those in Oslo were consuming healthier fats and reported higher levels of physical activity but frequency of vegetable and fruit consumption was lower. Alcohol consumption among women was negligible. Type of fats consumed might be protective for Oslo group compared with predominantly saturated fat diet in Kandy. Higher leisure time physical activity may also be protective for the Oslo group. Higher frequency of consumption of vegetables and fruits may be beneficial in Kandy. PMID:23666830

  2. Prevalence and carrier status of leptospirosis in smallholder dairy cattle and peridomestic rodents in Kandy, Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Gamage, Chandika D; Koizumi, Nobuo; Muto, Maki; Nwafor-Okoli, Chinyere; Kurukurusuriya, Shanika; Rajapakse, Jayanthe R P V; Kularatne, Senanayake A M; Kanda, Koji; Lee, Romeo B; Obayashi, Yoshihide; Watanabe, Haruo; Tamashiro, Hiko

    2011-08-01

    Leptospirosis is an important bacterial zoonotic disease globally and one of the notifiable diseases in Sri Lanka. Other than human leptospirosis, little information is available on leptospirosis in domestic and feral animals in Sri Lanka. Thus, this study attempted to determine the prevalence and carrier status of leptospirosis in smallholder dairy cattle and peridomestic rodents to understand the impact of the disease on public health in Kandy, Sri Lanka. Cattle and rodent samples were collected from the Yatinuwara and Udunuwara divisional secretaries in Kandy. Serum samples were analyzed for the presence of antileptospiral antibodies using microscopic agglutination test. DNA was extracted from cattle urine and rodent kidney tissue samples, in which polymerase chain reaction was carried out to detect the Leptospira flaB gene. The cattle in 19 (38.8%) of the 49 farms harbored antileptospiral antibodies. Out of 113 cattle serum samples, 23 (20.3%) were positive; 17 (73.9%) and 6 (26.1%) reacted with serogroups Sejroe and Hebdomadis, respectively. Out of the 74 rodent samples, 13 (17.5%) were positive; 8 (61.5%) and 4 (30.8%) had reactions to serogroups Javanica and Icterohaemorrhagiae, respectively. Leptospiral DNA was detected in one cattle urine sample and identified as Leptospira interrogans. This study revealed a high prevalence of leptospirosis in cattle and rodents in Kandy. These animals were infected with a wide array of leptospiral serogroups, which are consistent with the research findings observed in humans in Kandy. Overall, serological data indicate that relative to rodents, cattle may be a more significant reservoir for human transmission and a greater source of potential risk to local agricultural communities. PMID:21284522

  3. PM 10-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Concentrations, source characterization and estimating their risk in urban, suburban and rural areas in Kandy, Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickramasinghe, A. P.; Karunaratne, D. G. G. P.; Sivakanesan, R.

    2011-05-01

    Kandy, a world heritage city, is a rapidly urbanized area in Sri Lanka, with a high population density of ˜6000 hab km -2. As it is centrally located in a small valley of 26 km 2 surrounded by high mountains, emissions from the daily flow of >100,000 vehicles, most are old and poorly maintained, get stagnant over the study area with an increased emphasis on the associated health impacts. Particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are considered to be major pollutants in vehicular emissions; while PAHs account for the majority of mutagenic potency of PM. The purpose of the current study is to determine the 8 h average concentrations of ambient PM 10 PAHs at twenty sites distributed in the urban, suburban and rural Kandy. Samples on glass micro fibre filters were collected with a high volume air sampler from July/2008 to March/2009, prepared through standard procedures and analyzed for PAHs by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet visible detection. Further, the type and strength of possible anthropogenic emission sources that cause major perturbations to the atmosphere were assessed by traffic volume (24 h) counts and firewood mass burnt/d at each sampling site, with the subsequent societal impact through quantitative cancer risk assessment. The results can serve as a base set to assess the PAH sources, pollution levels and human exposure. Mean total concentrations of 16 prioritized PAHs (∑PAHs) ranged from 57.43 to 1246.12 ng m -3 with 695.94 ng m -3 in urban heavy traffic locations (U/HT), 105.55 ng m -3 in urban light traffic locations, 337.45 ng m -3 in suburban heavy traffic stations, 154.36 ng m -3 in suburban light traffic stations, 192.48 ng m -3 in rural high firewood burning area and 100.31 ng m -3 in rural low firewood burning area. The mean PM 10 concentration was 129 μg m -3 (55-221 μg m -3); which is beyond the WHO air quality standards. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon signature and the spatial variation

  4. Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    1989-12-01

    Sri Lanka has an area of 25,332 square miles and the terrain consists of coastal plains, with hills and mountains in the south central area. Population stands at 16.8 million with a growth rate of 1.6% and ethnic groups include Sinhalese 74%, Tamils 18%, Muslims 7%, and other 1%. The religions are Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, and Christianity. Languages include Sinhala, Tamil and English, and the literacy rate is 87%. 68.9 years is the average life expectancy and the infant mortality rate is 31/1000. The government is a republic with a president, parliament and a court system. The gross national product is $7.2 billion with a 2.7% growth rate and an inflation rate of 14%. Natural resources include limestone, graphite, mineral sands, gems, and phosphate. Agricultural products include tea, rubber, coconuts, rice, and spices. Industry consists of textiles and garments, chemicals and petroleum products, food processing, wood and wood products, basic metal products, paper and paper products. The British ejected the Dutch in 1796 and set up the crown colony of Ceylon. In 1931 the colony was allowed limited self rule, and in 1948 it became independent. It is a less developed country with a annual average per capita income of $430. In 1977 the government undertook reforms and eliminated price and foreign exchange controls, reduced consumer subsidies and promoted private sector development. The results showed a more than 5% growth rate during the decade and tourism and foreign investment increased. Recently the growth has slowed partly because of a communal conflict, a trade imbalance and serious structural imbalances. PMID:12178023

  5. Tsunami: Sri Lanka

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Deep Ocean Tsunami Waves off the Sri Lankan Coast     ... Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) captured this image of deep ocean tsunami waves about 30-40 kilometers from Sri Lanka's southwestern coast. ... Tsunami: Sri Lanka location:  Asia Indian Ocean thumbnail:  ...

  6. Sri Lanka, Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The topography of the island nation of Sri Lanka is well shown in this color-coded shaded relief map generated with digital elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM).

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    For this special view heights below 10 meters (33 feet) above sea level have been colored red. These low coastal elevations extend 5 to 10 km (3.1 to 6.2 mi) inland on Sri Lanka and are especially vulnerable to flooding associated with storm surges, rising sea level, or, as in the aftermath of the earthquake of December 26, 2004, tsunami. These so-called tidal waves have occurred numerous times in history and can be especially destructive, but with the advent of the near-global SRTM elevation data planners can better predict which areas are in the most danger and help develop mitigation plans in the event of particular flood events.

    Sri Lanka is shaped like a giant teardrop falling from the southern tip of the vast Indian subcontinent. It is separated from India by the 50km (31mi) wide Palk Strait, although there is a series of stepping-stone coral islets known as Adam's Bridge that almost form a land bridge between the two countries. The island is just 350km (217mi) long and only 180km (112mi) wide at its broadest, and is about the same size as Ireland, West Virginia or Tasmania.

    The southern half of the island is dominated by beautiful and rugged hill country, and includes Mt Pidurutalagala, the islandaE(TM)s highest point at 2524 meters (8281 ft). The entire northern half comprises a large plain extending from the edge of

  7. Destination: Sri Lanka. Video Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legowski, Margaret

    This video guide was developed by the Peace Corps' Office of World Wise Schools. The activities it describes are designed to supplement elementary and secondary students' exploration of South Asia and to enhance their correspondence with a Peace Corps volunteer. Used in conjunction with the videotape "Destination: Sri Lanka," the activities in the…

  8. Molecular characterization of banana bunchy top virus isolate from Sri Lanka and its genetic relationship with other isolates.

    PubMed

    Wickramaarachchi, W A R T; Shankarappa, K S; Rangaswamy, K T; Maruthi, M N; Rajapakse, R G A S; Ghosh, Saptarshi

    2016-06-01

    Bunchy top disease of banana caused by Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV, genus Babuvirus family Nanoviridae) is one of the most important constraints in production of banana in the different parts of the world. Six genomic DNA components of BBTV isolate from Kandy, Sri Lanka (BBTV-K) were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with specific primers using total DNA extracted from banana tissues showing typical symptoms of bunchy top disease. The amplicons were of expected size of 1.0-1.1 kb, which were cloned and sequenced. Analysis of sequence data revealed the presence of six DNA components; DNA-R, DNA-U3, DNA-S, DNA-N, DNA-M and DNA-C for Sri Lanka isolate. Comparisons of sequence data of DNA components followed by the phylogenetic analysis, grouped Sri Lanka-(Kandy) isolate in the Pacific Indian Oceans (PIO) group. Sri Lanka-(Kandy) isolate of BBTV is classified a new member of PIO group based on analysis of six components of the virus. PMID:27366766

  9. Sri Lanka drops leading condom.

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    Sri Lanka's Family Planning Association has stopped selling its Preethi Regular condom, the backbone of its social marketing program for nearly a decade. Last year nearly 7 times as many Preethi condoms were sold as all other brands combined. The decision was reported to be caused by budget constraints following the International Planned Parenthood Federation's (IPPF) new policy of limiting the number of Preethi Regular condoms supplied to Sri Lanka. IPPF's Asian Regional Officer reported that the Preethi condom is a costly product, and that as many as needed of a US Agency for International Development (USAID) supplied product will be sent to Sri Lanka. The Contraceptive Retail Sales (CRS) program has devised a new sales strategy, based partly on the introduction of a high-priced condom to fill the gap left by the discontinuation of the Preethi Regular. The new Preethi Gold condom is expected to help the project become more financially self-reliant while taing advantage of Preethi's marketplace popularity. Preethi Gold is manufactured by the Malaysia Rubber Company and costs the project US $4.85/gross. It is sold for US $.14 for 3, about 3 times the price of a Preethi Regular. The project is also pushing the Panther condom, donated to IPPF by USAID. 2 Panther condoms sell for about 3.6U, about the cost of Preethi Regulars. The project also sells Moonbeam, Rough Rider, and Stimula condoms, the latter 2 at full commercial prices. A smooth transfer of demand from Preethi to Panther had been desired, but by the end of 1983 some retailers were hesitating to make the product switch because some Preethi Regulars were still available. Total condom sales in 1983 were down by nearly 590,000 from the approximately 6,860,000 sold in 1982. Total condom sales for the 1st quarter of 1984 were slightly over 1,218,000 pieces, compared to about 1,547,000 for the same quarter in 1983, a decline of 21%. The Family Planning Association is gearing up to reverse the downward trend

  10. Lyssavirus in Indian Flying Foxes, Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Gunawardena, Panduka S.; Marston, Denise A.; Ellis, Richard J.; Wise, Emma L.; Karawita, Anjana C.; Breed, Andrew C.; McElhinney, Lorraine M.; Johnson, Nicholas; Banyard, Ashley C.

    2016-01-01

    A novel lyssavirus was isolated from brains of Indian flying foxes (Pteropus medius) in Sri Lanka. Phylogenetic analysis of complete virus genome sequences, and geographic location and host species, provides strong evidence that this virus is a putative new lyssavirus species, designated as Gannoruwa bat lyssavirus. PMID:27434858

  11. Management for Educational Development in Sri Lanka.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernando, Neil, Ed.

    This document reports on 4 broad action programs, constituting a total of 15 projects, in 4 pilot districts in Sri Lanka. The programs, part of a larger effort by the Ministry of Education to actualize policy guidelines, have been attempts to bridge gaps between the capability and efficiency of the established school system and the multiple levels…

  12. Lyssavirus in Indian Flying Foxes, Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Gunawardena, Panduka S; Marston, Denise A; Ellis, Richard J; Wise, Emma L; Karawita, Anjana C; Breed, Andrew C; McElhinney, Lorraine M; Johnson, Nicholas; Banyard, Ashley C; Fooks, Anthony R

    2016-08-01

    A novel lyssavirus was isolated from brains of Indian flying foxes (Pteropus medius) in Sri Lanka. Phylogenetic analysis of complete virus genome sequences, and geographic location and host species, provides strong evidence that this virus is a putative new lyssavirus species, designated as Gannoruwa bat lyssavirus. PMID:27434858

  13. Abortion in Sri Lanka: The Double Standard

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In Sri Lanka, women do not have access to legal abortion except under life-saving circumstances. Clandestine abortion services are, however, available and quite accessible. Although safe specialist services are available to women who can afford them, others access services under unsafe and exploitative conditions. At the time of this writing, a draft bill that will legalize abortion in instances of rape, incest, and fetal abnormalities awaits approval, amid opposition. In this article, I explore the current push for legal reform as a solution to unsafe abortion. Although a welcome effort, this amendment alone will be insufficient to address the public health consequences of unsafe abortion in Sri Lanka because most women seek abortions for other reasons. Much broader legal and policy reform will be required. PMID:23327236

  14. Abortion in Sri Lanka: the double standard.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ramya

    2013-03-01

    In Sri Lanka, women do not have access to legal abortion except under life-saving circumstances. Clandestine abortion services are, however, available and quite accessible. Although safe specialist services are available to women who can afford them, others access services under unsafe and exploitative conditions. At the time of this writing, a draft bill that will legalize abortion in instances of rape, incest, and fetal abnormalities awaits approval, amid opposition. In this article, I explore the current push for legal reform as a solution to unsafe abortion. Although a welcome effort, this amendment alone will be insufficient to address the public health consequences of unsafe abortion in Sri Lanka because most women seek abortions for other reasons. Much broader legal and policy reform will be required. PMID:23327236

  15. Forecasts of Agricultural Drought in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilligan, J. M.; Gunda, T.; Hornberger, G. M.

    2015-12-01

    As the most frequent natural disaster in Sri Lanka, drought greatly affects crop production and livelihoods. Over half of all agricultural crop damage in Sri Lanka is currently due to drought; the frequency and severity of drought in the country is only expected to increase with the changing climate. Previous work indicates that the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) are capable of capturing agricultural drought patterns (between 1881-2010) in the island nation. In this work, PDSI and SPI from 13 long-term meteorological stations will be projected into the future using a combination of artificial neural network and autoregressive integrated moving average models. The impacts of large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns (such as the Niño 3.4 index, a measure of sea surface temperature) and lead times on projection accuracy will also be explored. Model projections will be compared to weather data since 2010 to determine if the 2014 drought could have been forecasted using these methods. Since agricultural systems are strongly influenced by both natural and human systems, it is important to frame these physical findings within a social context. This work is part of an interdisciplinary project that assesses the perceptions of and adaptations to drought by rice farmers in Sri Lanka; disciplines represented in the group include hydrology, social psychology, ethnography, policy, and behavioral economics. Insights from the diverse research perspectives within the group will be drawn upon to highlight the social implications of the physical results.

  16. Village School in Sri Lanka.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Victoria J.

    2000-01-01

    Describes education in poor Sri Lankan villages, examining the effects of poverty (poor teacher training, lack of equipment, and inability of students to attend); the influence of ministerial-level traditional or negative attitudes (questioning the worth of investing in equal education in remote rural areas); and weaknesses in the system that…

  17. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in cats from Colombo, Sri Lanka

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cats are essential in the life cycle of Toxoplasma gondii because they are the only hosts that can excrete the environmentally-resistant oocysts in nature. Nothing is known of the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in cats from Sri Lanka. Serum samples from 86 cats from Colombo, Sri Lanka were tested f...

  18. The University System of Sri Lanka. Vision and Reality. ICES Sri Lanka Studies Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Silva, K. M., Ed.; Peiris, G. H., Ed.

    This book reviews the history of university education in Sri Lanka, paying special attention to the University of Peradeniya, originally the University of Ceylon. The book focuses on how an institution of higher learning, modeled initially on the older universities of Britain, has been influenced by the challenges and constraints of continuing…

  19. Self poisoning in Sri Lanka: motivational aspects.

    PubMed

    Hettiarachchi, J; Kodituwakku, G C

    1989-01-01

    Sri Lanka is a developing Asian country with high suicide rate due to self poisoning, related to a high fatality rate. A study of motivational aspects of self poisoning in 97 consecutive patients showed that there is no greater intention of suicide in them than those from the developed countries. Interpersonal disputes involving domestic problems and love affairs are the main precipitating causes. Improving family relations may help in the prevention of self-poisoning. However the impulsive nature of the act might prove prevention a difficult task. PMID:2767925

  20. Investigations on Piper betle grown in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Arambewela, L. S. R.; Arawwawala, L. D. A. M.; Kumaratunga, K. G; Dissanayake, D. S; Ratnasooriya, W. D.; Kumarasingha, S. P.

    2011-01-01

    Piper betle is an economically important plant cultivated in Sri Lanka. Although more than 12 cultivars of betel are reported in Sri Lanka, very few scientific investigations have been carried out on them. Studies on the chemical constituents indicated that safrole is the major constituent, followed by chavibitol acetate, in the essential oil of common betel leaves of Sri Lanka. Investigations on the bioactivities of P. betle revealed the presence of antimicrobial, insecticidal, antioxidant, antinociceptive, antidiabetic and gastroprotective activities. In addition, P. betle was found to be safe in terms of hepatotoxicity, renotoxicity, hematotoxicity, gross morphology, weights of organs, stress or aversive behaviors in rats. The above findings indicate the vast potential of P. betle yet to be harnessed for the benefit of mankind and the betel industry of Sri Lanka. PMID:22279373

  1. Quantitative and Public Perception of Landslide Risk in Badulla, Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunasekera, R.; Bandara, R. M. S.; Mallawatantri, A.; Saito, K.

    2009-04-01

    Landslides are often triggered by intense precipitation and are exacerbated by increased urbanisation and human activity. There is a significant risk of large scale landslides in Sri Lanka and when they do occur, they have the potential to cause devastation to property, lives and livelihoods. There are several high landslide risk areas in seven districts (Nuwara Eliya, Badulla, Ratnapura, Kegalle, Kandy, Matale and Kalutara) in Sri Lanka. These are also some of the poorest areas in the country and consequently the recovery process after catastrophic landslides become more problematic. Therefore landslide risk management is an important concern in poverty reduction strategies. We focused on the district of Badulla, Sri Lanka to evaluate the a) quantitative scientific analysis of landslide risk and b) qualitative public perception of landslides in the area. Combining high resolution, hazard and susceptibility data we quantified the risk of landslides in the area. We also evaluated the public perception of landslides in the area using participatory GIS techniques. The evaluation of public perception of landslide risk has been complemented by use of Landscan data. The framework of the methodology for Landscan data is based on using the second order administrative population data from census, each 30 arc-second cell within the administrative units receives a probability coefficient based on slope, proximity to roads and land cover. Provision of this information from these complementary methods to the regional planners help to strengthen the disaster risk reduction options and improving sustainable land use practices through enhanced public participation in the decision making and governance processes.

  2. Art Therapy with Child Tsunami Survivors in Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chilcote, Rebekah L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper details art therapy with children affected by the December 2004 tsunami in Sri Lanka. Over 30,000 Sri Lankans lost their lives when the tsunami decimated coastal areas. The child survivors witnessed horrific traumatic events and the loss of loved ones, but had not been given opportunity to express their grief and pain. A 4-week art…

  3. Regional differences of leptospirosis in Sri Lanka: observations from a flood-associated outbreak in 2011.

    PubMed

    Agampodi, Suneth B; Dahanayaka, Niroshan J; Bandaranayaka, Anoma K; Perera, Manoj; Priyankara, Sumudu; Weerawansa, Prasanna; Matthias, Michael A; Vinetz, Joseph M

    2014-01-01

    Leptospirosis is known to be an important cause of weather disaster-related infectious disease epidemics. In 2011, an outbreak of leptospirosis occurred in the relatively dry district of Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka where diagnosis was resisted by local practitioners because leptospirosis was not known in the area and the clinical presentation was considered atypical. To identify the causative Leptospira associated with this outbreak, we carried out a cross-sectional study. Consecutive clinically suspected cases in this district were studied during a two-and-a-half-month period. Of 96 clinically suspected cases, 32 (33.3%) were confirmed by qPCR, of which the etiological cause in 26 cases was identified using 16S rDNA sequencing to the species level. Median bacterial load was 4.1 × 10(2)/mL (inter-quartile range 3.1-6.1 × 10(2)/mL). In contrast to a 2008 Sri Lankan leptospirosis outbreak in the districts of Kegalle, Kandy, and Matale, in which a predominance of Leptospira interrogans serovars Lai and Geyaweera was found, most cases in the 2011 outbreak were caused by Leptospira kirschneri. Seven (21.9%) confirmed cases had acute renal failure; five (15.6%) had myocarditis; severe thrombocytopenia (<20,000/uL) was seen in five (15.6%) cases. This outbreak of leptospirosis in the relatively dry zone of Sri Lanka due primarily to L. kirschneri was characterized by markedly different clinical presentations and low leptospiremia. These observations and data demonstrate the public health relevance of molecular diagnostics in such settings, possibly related to the microgeographic variations of different Leptospira species, but of particular value to public health intervention in what appears to have been a regionally neglected tropical disease. PMID:24454971

  4. The Asian Tsunami in Sri Lanka: A Personal Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Chris

    2005-01-01

    AGU Fellow Chris Chapman experienced the devastating Asian tsunami firsthand in Sri Lanka. The following is his account, written in the immediate aftermath of the disaster; the footnotes were added later. Chapman is a scientific advisor at Schlumberger Cambridge Research and a specialist in theoretical seismology. At 9:30 A.M. local time (0330 GMT) on Boxing Day, 26 December, my wife, Lillian, and I were eating breakfast at the beachside Triton Hotel1 in Ahungalla, Sri Lanka (about 30 km north of Galle). The previous week we had toured Sri Lanka, ending our trip traveling through Yala National Park and Galle. These were places we hardly knew of before, but now images of them are indelibly imprinted on the world. Of about 150 staying at the Yala Safari Game Lodge, only 11 survived. The center of Galle, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, a sixteenth- to seventeenth-century Portuguese/Dutchfort and port, is essentially gone.

  5. Unemployment tables and unemployment-free working life: Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, P

    1986-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the use of the life table model to depict gross and net tables of unemployment in a country, using Sri Lanka as an example. Age specific data on employment in Sri Lanka are analyzed using the lfe table technic. Unemployment-free working life declined for both males and females between 1963 and 1971, indicating deteriorating employment conditions. This measure shows the employment situation in a country better than the simple rates of unemployment or the conventional working life expectancy. It also shows working life from the point of view of the production of goods and services. PMID:12268132

  6. Surface circulation and upwelling patterns around Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vos, A.; Pattiaratchi, C. B.; Wijeratne, E. M. S.

    2014-10-01

    Sri Lanka occupies a unique location within the equatorial belt in the northern Indian Ocean, with the Arabian Sea on its western side and the Bay of Bengal on its eastern side, and experiences bi-annually reversing monsoon winds. Aggregations of blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) have been observed along the southern coast of Sri Lanka during the northeast (NE) monsoon, when satellite imagery indicates lower productivity in the surface waters. This study explored elements of the dynamics of the surface circulation and coastal upwelling in the waters around Sri Lanka using satellite imagery and numerical simulations using the Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS). The model was run for 3 years to examine the seasonal and shorter-term (~10 days) variability. The results reproduced correctly the reversing current system, between the Equator and Sri Lanka, in response to the changing wind field: the eastward flowing Southwest Monsoon Current (SMC) during the southwest (SW) monsoon transporting 11.5 Sv (mean over 2010-2012) and the westward flowing Northeast Monsoon Current (NMC) transporting 9.6 Sv during the NE monsoon, respectively. A recirculation feature located to the east of Sri Lanka during the SW monsoon, the Sri Lanka Dome, is shown to result from the interaction between the SMC and the island of Sri Lanka. Along the eastern and western coasts, during both monsoon periods, flow is southward converging along the southern coast. During the SW monsoon, the island deflects the eastward flowing SMC southward, whilst along the eastern coast, the southward flow results from the Sri Lanka Dome recirculation. The major upwelling region, during both monsoon periods, is located along the southern coast, resulting from southward flow converging along the southern coast and subsequent divergence associated with the offshore transport of water. Higher surface chlorophyll concentrations were observed during the SW monsoon. The location of the flow convergence and hence the

  7. Cost of malaria control in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed Central

    Konradsen, F.; Steele, P.; Perera, D.; van der Hoek, W.; Amerasinghe, P. H.; Amerasinghe, F. P.

    1999-01-01

    The study provides estimates of the cost of various malaria control measures in an area of North-Central Province of Sri Lanka where the disease is endemic. We assumed that each measure was equally effective. In these terms, impregnating privately purchased bednets with insecticide was estimated to cost Rs 48 (US(40.87) per individual protected per year, less than half the cost of spraying houses with residual insecticides. Larviciding of vector breeding sites and especially the elimination of breeding habitats by flushing streams through seasonal release of water from upstream reservoirs was estimated to be cheaper than other preventive measures (Rs 27 (US$ 0.49) and Rs 13 (US$ 0.24) per individual protected, respectively). Inclusion of both operational and capital costs of treatment indicates that the most cost-effective intervention for the government was a centrally located hospital with a relatively large catchment area (Rs 71 (US$ 1.29) per malaria case treated). Mobile clinics (Rs 153 (US$ 2.78) per malaria case treated) and a village treatment centre (Rs 112 (US$ 2.04)) per malaria case treated) were more expensive options for the government, but were considerably cheaper for households than the traditional hospital facilities. This information can guide health planners and government decision-makers in choosing the most appropriate combination of curative and preventive measures to control malaria. However, the option that is cheapest for the government may not be so for the householders, and further studies are needed to estimate the effectiveness of the various preventive measures. PMID:10327708

  8. A bedside test for methemoglobinemia, Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Andrew H; Buckley, Nicholas A

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Problem Propanil is an aniline herbicide that is widely used for rice cultivation, but is also used for self-poisoning. Toxicity from propanil is largely due to methemoglobinemia. In resource-poor settings, the capacity to determine methemoglobin concentration is insufficient and prevents effective case management, which results in increased deaths from propanil poisoning. Approach Blood with a methemoglobin concentration greater than 15% of total haemoglobin levels appears brownish in colour. We introduced a colour reference chart that can be used to semiquantitatively determine methemoglobinemia. Each ward in three rural hospitals received a chart. Ward staff, medical officers and trainee doctors were given a presentation describing the test method and how it should be used with the relevant national treatment guidelines. Local setting In three rural hospitals in Sri Lanka, 401 patients were admitted with a diagnosis of propanil poisoning before the introduction of this test (2003–2007) and 262 patients after it was introduced (2008–2014), 46 of 663 patients died. Relevant changes The chart can be freely produced with any good-quality colour printer. In three rural hospitals, deaths from propanil poisoning fell from 10% of those admitted with this diagnosis in 2003–2007 (38/401) to 3% (8/262) in 2008–2014 and the use of methylene blue increased from 10% (13/136) to 55% (59/107) over this period. Lessons learnt This simple bedside test was associated with increased use of the first line treatment for propanil poisoning and improved survival. In 2011, the test was included in the national guidelines for the management of propanil poisoning. PMID:27516640

  9. Establishing a twin register in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Sumathipala, A; Fernando, D J; Siribaddana, S H; Abeysingha, M R; Jayasekare, R W; Dissanayake, V H; De Silva, N

    2000-12-01

    Nearly all twin registers are based in developed countries and there is no twin register in the developing world. Our objectives were to initiate the process of establishing a nationwide twin register in Sri Lanka by starting a volunteer register first and working towards a population-based register. Regular newspaper advertisements, feature articles, radio talks, and television programmes were used to publicise a competition for twins, their parents/relatives and friends requesting them to participate by sending in details of twins. The competition ran from 28 March 1997 for a period of 3 months. It offered prizes for three winners selected by drawing lots. Advertisements highlighted the objective of the competition as establishing a twin register for future research and emphasised that informed consent would be obtained for individual research projects. Those who registered comprise 4602 twin pairs (same sex: male--1564, female--1885; different sex--1153), 80 sets of triplets (same sex: male--17, female--31; different sex--42) and two sets of quadruplets (different sex). The oldest twins, triplets, quadruplets are 85, 46, and 5 years old, respectively; 88.0% of twins are less than 30 years old. Although others have previously used media publicity to enrol twins in twin registers, we believe this to be the first time that twins have been enrolled through competition. We have more young twins, and our gender and zygosity proportions after applying Weinburg's rule do not match the proportions expected from a volunteer twin sample. Establishing a twin register for research purposes has proved possible in a developing country. PMID:11463139

  10. Century scale climate change in the central highlands of Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, J. De; J Sonnadara, D. U.

    2016-02-01

    In this study, an analysis of century scale climate trends in the central highlands of Sri Lanka is presented. Monthly rainfall and temperature records of the period 1869-2006 from five climatological stations were analyzed. The trend is calculated by the least square regression analysis and the significance of the observed trend is estimated using the Mann-Kendall statistic. The results clearly show that there is a statistically significant decrease in annual rainfall in the western slopes of the central highlands. Throughout the last century, the annual reduction of rainfall in Nuwara Eliya which is at an altitude of 1895 m was 5.2 mm/year. The decrease is largely due to the reduction in southwest monsoon rainfall which contributes to 75% of the total reduction. No significant change was observed on the eastern side of the central highlands which receives rainfall predominantly from the northeast monsoons. The mean annual temperature in the mountainous region shows a uniform increasing trend which is in line with the 100-year global temperature increase of 0.8 ± 0.2∘C. Kandy, which is at an altitude of 477 m and closely linked with the rainfall climatology of Nuwara Eliya, showed no significant change in the mean annual temperature. If the current trend continues, in another 100 years, western and eastern slopes of central highlands will receive the same amount of rainfall from the southwest monsoon and the northeast monsoon which will have far reaching consequences for Sri Lanka's economy and the ecology of the hill country.

  11. An American Montessori Teacher's Experience in Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Irene

    2006-01-01

    What can Montessorians learn from teaching in a war-torn country, and what can they hope to share with others in the process? These questions were much on the author's mind when she went to Sri Lanka in the summer of 2003. This article contains excerpts from e-mails the author sent home, chronicling her experience teaching two high school English…

  12. Can teachers cross continents? Experiences in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Metcalfe, D. H. H.; Varnam, M. A.

    1981-01-01

    We describe our experience of planning and running a workshop in Sri Lanka to prepare doctors for teaching a postgraduate diploma in general practice. We explore whether British models of education for general practice are applicable in other cultures and put forward a check-list of questions which teachers of general practice who are invited to work abroad should ask themselves. PMID:7328545

  13. Microorganisms in the Coloured Rain of Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samaranayake, Anil; Wickramarathne, K.; Wickramasinghe, N. C.

    2013-02-01

    A variety of pigmented microorganisms have been identified in the red, yellow, blue and black rain that fell over Sri Lanka in December 2012 and January 2013. There is tentative evidence for the presence of similar organisms, including diatoms, in meteorites falling over the same time period. These microorganisms are likely to have served as nuclei for the condensation of rain drops.

  14. Feeding Hungry Minds: Grassroots Library Services in Sri Lanka.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corea, Ishvari

    1991-01-01

    Describes three specific programs developed in Sri Lanka to provide library services to urban and rural poor people. Providing reading material to children to help raise literacy levels is emphasized, resources required for these extension services are examined, and the responsibility for the administration of the projects is considered. (LRW)

  15. Learning Organization Dimensions of the Sri Lanka Army

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahanayake, Nishada Dhananjaya; Gamlath, Sharmila

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study intends to investigate the extent to which the Sri Lanka Army can be described as a learning organization. Design/methodology/approach: The main tool of analysis used was the Dimensions of the Learning Organization Questionnaire (DLOQ) developed by Marsick and Watkins, with the exclusion of the sections on financial and…

  16. The Labour Market Experience of University Graduates in Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandrasiri, Sunil

    2008-01-01

    Graduate unemployment has been a major socio-politico-economic problem in the small open economy of Sri Lanka for the past 35 years. The nature of the problem, causal factors and policy responses are examined in this paper with a special focus on the role of higher education within a highly competitive and knowledge-based economic environment. The…

  17. The Geodynamic Evolution Of Sri Lanka: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kehelpannala, K.

    2006-12-01

    The high-grade basement of Sri Lanka exposes part of the middle-lower crust and is composed of three distinctly different crustal blocks amalgamated during the assembly of Gondwana in Pan-African. These blocks are known as the Wanni Complex (WC), the Highland Complex (HC) and the Vijayan Complex (VC). The centrally located Palaeoproterozoic HC, which was probably a microcontinent before it became part of Rodinia, is flanked by the Mesoproterozoic-Neoproterozoic WC to the west and by the 1100-1000 Ma old, juvenile VC to the east. The available isotopic and geochemical data suggest that the WC seems to have formed as part of a late Mesoproterozoic-Neoproterozoic Andean-type magmatic arc, possibly at the outer margin of Rodinia, whereas the VC may represents part of a possible 1100-1000 Ma old island arc that possibly extended to the ~1000 Ma Dronning Maud Land-L¨¹tzow Holm Bay belt of east Antarctica. These three different blocks were amalgamated by two separate collisions, possibly related to some arc accretion around Sri Lanka during the assembly of Gondwana at 610-550 Ma. The first collision occurred between the WC arc and the HC microcontinent and was responsible for D2-D4 deformations and the main granulite facies metamorphism in both these units. Shear sense indicators, such as shear band foliations, ¦Ä-type and ¦Ò-type objects, asymmetric and rotated boudins, sheath folds and asymmetric folds, in the high-grade mylonites found along the contact between the WC and the HC indicate that the former was emplaced from NNW on top of the latter. Almost all the ultrahigh temperature assemblages found in Sri Lanka are located along the boundary between the WC and the HC. The second collision was nearly E-W and brought the amalgamated WC/HC unit into contact with the VC island arc and caused D5 structures in both the WC and HC and all the major ductile structures, upper amphibolite facies metamorphism and migmatization in the VC. The arc accretion by these two

  18. The development of micro-catchments in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udawattage, U. D. S.

    1985-10-01

    This paper gives an informatory account of the development of micro-catchments in Sri Lanka for irrigation. Information for the paper comes from the experience of detailed investigation and preparation of technical proposals for the improvement of 170 existing micro-scale reservoir schemes in the Puttalam and Kurunegala districts, over a period of three years (January, 1982 through December, 1984), under a World Bank-financed project called "Integrated Rural Development (IRD) Project". Investigations were carried out by a private body called Planning Consultancy, a professional staff comprising a team of eight engineers from the Resources Development Consultants Ltd., Sir Lanka, under a contract with the Ministry of Plan Implementation and under the supervision of the Irrigation Department of Sri Lanka and a World Bank-recommended body called Supervisory Consultancy. The writer is a member of the Planning Consultancy team who personally investigated and designed 30 of these schemes.

  19. Mithuri users surveyed in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    1983-01-01

    The Family Planning Association (FPA) of Sri Lanka completed a survey of Mithuri (oral contraceptive) users to determine consumer characteristics. The survey addressed issues such as purchasing habits, user patterns, dealer consumer relationships, levels of consumer satisfaction and motivation, prevalence of side effects, degree and level of medical consultations, and attitudes toward mass media product advertising. A mail survey was used to conduct this quantitative research to reduce the cost of collecting the data. Mail surveys offer the advantage of being able to reach a large number of respondents at a very reasonable cost, but they also require an accurate list of respondents who are representative of the population to be examined. Of the 681 questionnaires delivered, 442 were completed and returned. The majority of those surveyed (86%) purchased Mithuri at pharmacies that are within 5 miles of their residence. 73.2% of the women asked their husbands to make the purchase, and 67.6% purchased 2 cycles at a time. Most respondents reported experiencing no side effects from Mithuri. The majority of the few who experienced side effects considered them to be very slight. 2.7% of the respondents reported becoming pregnant while using Mithuri, 11 of whom ascribed the pregnancy to their failure to take the pill regularly. Most respondents said that they never missed a day. Husbands or "Western" medical practitioners were most often cited as the motivators to use Mithuri. Of the 82% of the respondents who had read the Mithuri newspaper advertisements, 87% indicated they approved of mass media advertising about contraceptives, primarily because they felt that making such information available was an urgent matter. Although advertisements and package circulars urged 1st time users to consult a physician before using Mithuri, less than half the respondents reported consulting any medical person, nurses, and midwives included. They also reported that the dealer gave no

  20. Agricultural Adaptation and Water Management in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, E.; Hornberger, G. M.

    2014-12-01

    Efficient management of freshwater resources is critical as concerns with water security increase due to changes in climate, population, and land use. Effective water management in agricultural systems is especially important for irrigation and water quality. This research explores the implications of tradeoffs between maximization of crop yield and minimization of nitrogen loss to the environment, primarily to surface water and groundwater, in rice production in Sri Lanka. We run the DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC) model under Sri Lankan climate and soil conditions. The model serves as a tool to simulate crop management scenarios with different irrigation and fertilizer practices in two climate regions of the country. Our investigation uses DNDC to compare rice yields, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and nitrogen leaching under different cultivation scenarios. The results will inform best practices for farmers and decision makers in Sri Lanka on the management of water resources and crops.

  1. Diversity and distribution of tick species (Acari: Ixodidae) associated with human otoacariasis and socio-ecological risk factors of tick infestations in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Ariyarathne, S; Apanaskevich, D A; Amarasinghe, P H; Rajakaruna, R S

    2016-09-01

    Tick infestation in humans is a major public health concern. The diversity and distribution of tick species associated with human otoacariasis was studied in five districts: Anuradhapura, Kandy, Kurunegala, Nuwara Eliya and Ratnapura in the main agro-climatic zones of Sri Lanka. Ticks from patients attending the ear, nose and throat clinics of the General Hospitals were collected during a 3 year period. In total 426 ticks were collected. Most human otoacariasis cases were reported from Kandy (33.8 %) and the fewest from Nuwara Eliya (8.2 %). Of the five tick species identified, nymphs of Dermacentor auratus constituted 90.6 % of the collection. Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Hyalomma isaaci, Haemaphysalis bispinosa and Otobius megnini were found rarely infesting humans possibly as an accidental host; H. bispinosa and O. megnini in the human ear canal were first time records in Sri Lanka. Females and children under 10 years were identified as risk groups of human otoacariasis. Subsequently, a field study was carried out to determine socio-ecological risk factors of human tick infestations in the five districts. Based on hospital data, eight villages with high prevalence of otoacariasis were selected from each district. A total 40 villages were visited and 1674 household members were interviewed. Involvement in outdoor activities, presence of wild animals around the house, location of the house in close proximity to a forest and occupation were identified as major risk factors. PMID:27382981

  2. The Asian Tsunami and Problem-Based Learning for Postgraduate Students in Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayawardana, A. K. L.; O'Donnell, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The Asian Tsunami struck Sri Lanka on December 26, 2004. Sri Lanka was the second worst affected country after Indonesia, and this natural disaster killed in excess of 35,000 people and displaced over 1 million. The article explores the Tsunami Disaster Management Program developed by one Sri Lankan university: the Postgraduate Institute of…

  3. Landmarks of History of Soil Science in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mapa, R.

    2012-04-01

    Sri Lanka is a tropical Island in the Southern tip of Indian subcontinent positioned at 50 55' to 90 50' N latitude and 790 42' to 810 53' E longitude surrounded by the Indian Ocean. It is an island 435 km in length and 224 km width consisting of a land are of 6.56 million ha with a population of 20 million. In area wise it is ranked as 118th in the world, where at present ranked as 47 in population wise and ranked 19th in population density. The country was under colonial rule under Portuguese, Dutch and British from 1505 to 1948. The majority of the people in the past and present earn their living from activities based on land, which indicates the important of the soil resource. The objective of this paper is to describe the landmarks of the history of Soil Science to highlight the achievements and failures, which is useful to enrich our present understanding of Sri Lankan soils. The landmarks of the history of Soil Science in Sri Lanka can be divided to three phases namely, the early period (prior to 1956), the middle period (1956 to 1972) and the present period (from 1972 onwards). During the early period, detailed analytical studies of coffee and tea soils were compiled, and these gave mainly information on up-country soils which led to fertilizer recommendations based on field trials. In addition, rice and forest soils were also studied in less detail. The first classification of Sri Lankan soils and a provisional soil map based on parent material was published by Joachim in 1945 which is a major landmark of history of Soil Science in Sri Lanka. In 1959 Ponnamperuma proposed a soil classification system for wetland rice soils. From 1963 to 1968 valuable information on the land resource was collected and documented by aerial resource surveys funded by Canada-Ceylon Colombo plan aid project. This covered 18 major river basins and about 1/4th of Sri Lanka, which resulted in producing excellent soil maps and information of the areas called the Kelani Aruvi Ara

  4. Surface circulation and upwelling patterns around Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vos, A.; Pattiaratchi, C. B.; Wijeratne, E. M. S.

    2013-09-01

    Sri Lanka occupies a unique location within the equatorial belt in the northern Indian Ocean with the Arabian Sea on its western side and the Bay of Bengal on its eastern side. The region is characterised by bi-annually reversing monsoon winds resulting from seasonal differential heating and cooling of the continental land mass and the ocean. This study explored elements of the dynamics of the surface circulation and coastal upwelling in the waters around Sri Lanka using satellite imagery and the Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS) configured to the study region and forced with ECMWF interim data. The model was run for 2 yr to examine the seasonal and shorter term (∼10 days) variability. The results confirmed the presence of the reversing current system in response to the changing wind field: the eastward flowing Southwest Monsoon Current (SMC) during the Southwest (SW) monsoon transporting 11.5 Sv and the westward flowing Northeast Monsoon Current (NMC) transporting 9.5 Sv during the Northeast (NE) monsoon, respectively. A recirculation feature located to the east of Sri Lanka during the SW monsoon, the Sri Lanka Dome, is shown to result from the interaction between the SMC and the Island of Sri Lanka. Along the eastern and western coasts, during both monsoon periods, flow is southward converging along the south coast. During the SW monsoon the Island deflects the eastward flowing SMC southward whilst along the east coast the southward flow results from the Sri Lanka Dome recirculation. The major upwelling region, during both monsoon periods, is located along the south coast and is shown to be due to flow convergence and divergence associated with offshore transport of water. Higher surface chlorophyll concentrations were observed during the SW monsoon. The location of the flow convergence and hence the upwelling centre was dependent on the relative strengths of wind driven flow along the east and west coasts: during the SW (NE) monsoon the flow along the

  5. Description of Duttaphrynus atukoralei (Anura: Bufonidae) tadpoles from Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Bopage, Malaka M; Wewelwala, Krishan; Krvavac, Milivoje; Jovanovic, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Duttaphrynus atukoralei (Bogert & Senanayake, 1966) is a relatively abundant toad known from Southern and Southeastern Sri Lanka. It occurs from sea level up to ~200 m above sea level (IUCN 2014). For almost half a century since its original description there was no information on its life cycle; the only information available is related to its description and distribution (Dutta & Manamendra-Arachchi 1996; Manamendra-Arachchi & Pethiyagoda 2006). PMID:26249461

  6. Determination of the geoid of central highlands in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasanna, Herath Mudiyanselage Indika; Tantrigoda, Dhammika Ariyakumara

    2009-06-01

    The available geoid undulations on the WGS84 ellipsoid at over two hundred GPS stations are interpolated using a least-squares surface fitting technique to determine the geoid of the central highlands in Sri Lanka. However, it is not possible to interpolate these points directly to prepare a detailed map of the geoid surface as the geoid separation varies intense due to the rugged local topography making the interpolation inaccurate. The gravity potential and subsequently the undulation of the local geoid due to the topography have been calculated separately using a topographic model and removed from the available geoid undulations. This model was created using information obtained from 1:50 000 digital topographic maps provided by the Survey department of Sri Lanka. The resulting geoid separations were interpolated and three surface polynomials were employed to determine the geoid using the least-squares surface fitting technique. To avoid possible artefacts in regions without observations, an area including central highlands was selected to determine the geoid. Finally, the geoid undulations due to the topography were added back to the Bouguer co-geoid represented by three mathematical surfaces to create a detailed map of the geoid of Sri Lanka. A local positive geoid surface superimposing a large negative regional surface has been obtained and the local maximum value of the geoid undulation is about -92.05 m in the vicinity of Piduruthalagala peak.

  7. CHARACTERISTICS OF PHLEBOTOMINE SANDFLIES IN SELECTED AREAS OF SRI LANKA.

    PubMed

    Senanayake, S A S C; Abeyewicreme, W; Dotson, E M; N D Karunaweera

    2015-11-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is an endemic disease in Sri Lanka. Studies on vector aspects, although important for better understanding of disease transmission dynamics, are still limited. The present study describes the species distribution and behavioral patterns of sandflies within selected disease-prevalent zones in the country. Adult sandflies were collected from several field sites over a two-year duration in Sri Lanka using cattle-baited net traps, CDC light traps and manual methods. Species identification was performed using standard keys. Leishmania donovani and source of blood meal in blood-fed female sandflies DNA were identified using PCR-based methods. Aggregation period of adult sandflies during overnight collections was also noted. The collected sandflies were identified as Phlebotomus argentipes glaucus (previously known as morphospecies A) and a non-vector species, Sergentomyia zeylanica. Presence of L. donovani DNA was found in 2/634 female sandflies. The parasite ITS1 region of SSU rDNA had 99% sequence similarity with L. donovani from Bangladesh and India. The peak aggregation period of sandflies within cattle-traps was between 8:00 PM to 11:00 PM, indicating that vector control strategies could be conducted during this time period. As Sergentomyia zeylanica is likely to be merely a biting nuisance and showed more of an anthropophilic behavior, whereas the probable vector of CL in Sri Lanka (P. argentipes glaucus) demonstrated zoophilic behavior, has implications for the planning of future vector control strategies. PMID:26867357

  8. Using Climate Information for Disaster Risk Identification in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubair, L.

    2004-12-01

    We have engaged in a concerted attempt to undertake research and apply earth science information for development in Sri Lanka, with a focus on climate sciences. Here, we provide details of an ongoing attempt to harness science for disaster identification as a prelude to informed disaster management. Natural disasters not only result in death and destruction but also undermine decades of development gains as highlighted by recent examples from Sri Lanka. First, in May 2003, flooding and landslides in the South-West led to 260 deaths, damage to 120,000 homes and destruction of schools, infrastructure and agricultural land. Second, on December 26, 2000, a cyclone in the North-Central region left 8 dead, 55,000 displaced, with severe damage to fishing, agriculture, infrastructure and cultural sites. Third, an extended island-wide drought in 2001 and 2002 resulted in a 2% drop in GDP. In the aftermath of these disasters, improved disaster management has been deemed to be urgent by the Government of Sri Lanka. In the past the primary policy response to disasters was to provide emergency relief. It is increasingly recognized that appropriate disaster risk management, including risk assessment, preventive measures to reduce losses and improved preparedness, can help reduce death, destruction and socio-economic disruption. The overwhelming majority of hazards in Sri Lanka - droughts, floods, cyclones and landslides -have hydro-meteorological antecedents. Little systematic advantage has, however, been taken of hydro-meteorological information and advances in climate prediction for disaster management. Disaster risks are created by the interaction between hazard events and vulnerabilities of communities, infrastructure and economically important activities. A comprehensive disaster risk management system encompasses risk identification, risk reduction and risk transfer. We undertook an identification of risks for Sri Lanka at fine scale with the support of the Global Disaster

  9. Delineation of Tsunami Risk Zones for Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijetunge, J. J.

    2008-12-01

    The coastal belts of several Indian Ocean countries including Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India and Thailand suffered massive loss of life and damage to property due to the tsunami unleashed by the great earthquake of moment magnitude 9.1-9.3 in the Andaman-Sunda subduction zone on December 26, 2004. In Sri Lanka, 13 of the 14 administrative districts lying along the coastal belt were affected: the death toll was over 35,000 with 20,000 injured and about 100,000 dwellings and other buildings either completely or partially damaged leaving half a million people homeless and causing massive disruption to livelihoods. However, it was clear in the immediate aftermath of the tsunami that the degree of damage along the coastal belt of Sri Lanka was not uniform: some areas suffered more damage, some less, and in certain other areas, often not far away, there was no damage at all. This suggests that the level of risk for coastal communities from future events of tsunami exhibits considerable variation even along a short stretch of the shoreline. The high cost and the scarcity of coastal lands in many areas demand an accurate assessment of the tsunami risk rather than arbitrary conservative zonation. Moreover, information relating to the spatial distribution of tsunami risk is essential in formulating post-tsunami coastal land use plans as well as in planning of evacuation of people during tsunami warnings. However, neither comprehensive probabilistic assessments of the tsunami hazard nor detailed information pertaining to the vulnerability of coastal communities are available at present for the coastal zone of Sri Lanka. Consequently, the methodology adopted in the present paper is to use field observations and numerical simulations of the December 2004 tsunami, which may be considered a worst-case scenario, in order to obtain the variation along the coastline of three parameters that quantify the tsunami impact. These three parameters are the tsunami height, the horizontal

  10. Cultural Revitalization, Participatory Nonformal Education, and Village Development in Sri Lanka: The Sarvodaya Shramadana Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colletta, N.J.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Reports results of a study of the Sarvodaya Shramadana Movement in Sri Lanka. Sarvodaya is a nonprofit, nongovernment community education-cum-development movement working in nearly 3,000 villages in Sri Lanka. "Sarvodaya" means universal awakening and "Shramadana" means sharing of one's time, energy, and thought for the good of all. (Author)

  11. Equity in Education: Opportunities and Challenges In A Changing Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedere, Upali M.

    2010-01-01

    Equity is a major concern for all development actors. Although Sri Lanka has successfully addressed equity issues in education sector there are unresolved factors and variables those perpetuate inequity. There are emerging new equity issues those that Sri Lanka needs to address. The changing population dynamics and the huge middle class population…

  12. Losing Ground: A Critical Analysis of Teachers' Agency for Peacebuilding Education in Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopes Cardozo, Mieke T. A.; Hoeks, Celine C. M. Q.

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to explore the "agency" of teachers for peacebuilding education in Sri Lanka through a critical multiscalar analysis of the interplay between "context"--education policies and governance--and "agent"--teachers as strategic political actors. It draws on two studies conducted in Sri Lanka in 2006 and…

  13. Completed Suicide among Sinhalese in Sri Lanka: A Psychological Autopsy Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samaraweera, Sudath; Sumathipala, Athula; Siribaddana, Sisira; Sivayogan, S.; Bhugra, Dinesh

    2008-01-01

    Sri Lanka has the one of highest rates of suicide. Important factors associated with suicide were determined via the psychological autopsy approach (which had not been carried out previously in Sri Lanka). Over a 3-month period, in a catchment area, 31 suicides among Sinhalese were identified and 27 were investigated. Males were more likely to…

  14. The Role of UK Qualification Suppliers in Sri Lanka and Zimbabwe: A Comparative Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, J.; Little, A. W.

    2007-01-01

    This paper is based on research on the role of UK qualifications suppliers in providing qualifications and accreditation in Sri Lanka and Zimbabwe in the context of rather different engagements with liberalisation, structural adjustment and globalisation. Sri Lanka's economic liberalisation and growth since the late 1970s has had a "de facto"…

  15. Returns to Education in Sri Lanka: A Pseudo-Panel Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himaz, Rozana; Aturupane, Harsha

    2016-01-01

    This study employs a pseudo-panel approach to estimate the returns to education among income earners in Sri Lanka. Pseudo-panel data are constructed from nine repeated cross sections of Sri Lanka's Labor Force Survey data from 1997 to 2008, for workers born during 1953-1974. The results show that for males, one extra year of education increases…

  16. Language Policy, Ethnic Tensions and Linguistic Rights in Post War Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herath, Sreemali

    2015-01-01

    As in many former colonies, language policy and planning in Sri Lanka has been largely shaped by and continues to be overshadowed by its history of colonial rule. Sri Lanka experienced colonization under three different western powers for over four centuries. This situation was further muddied by the three-decades long ethnic-based civil war which…

  17. The Changing Times: General Education and the Vocational Training System in Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedere, Upali M.

    2010-01-01

    Sri Lanka is widening its scope for vocational education sub-sector. The emerging global trends and the aspirations of the emerging Sri Lanka after defeating terrorism demands the preparation of the graduating youth at different stages of the education system for employment. Vocational education faces many challenges. Though there are…

  18. Ethnic models of fertility behaviour in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Abeykoon, A T

    1987-12-01

    Ethnic differences in fertility behavior confirm that socioeconomic variables exert a strong influence on demographic and family planning variables in developing countries such as Sri Lanka. To explain the effects of ethnicity on fertility behavior, predictive path models were developed for the 4 ethnic groups in Sri Lanka--Sinhalese, Tamils, Moors, and Indian Tamils. The path models used in developing predictive models utilized a series of ordinary least squares regression equations. The data were drawn from the 1982 Contraceptive Prevalence Survey. Current residence had direct negative effects on education for all 4 ethnic groups, with women in urban areas achieving higher levels of education than those in rural or estate areas; current residence further had a direct positive effect on husband's occupation, with higher socioeconomic status reported for women from urban areas. Age at marriage--the most important determinant of children ever born-- had strong negative effects on fertility for all ethnic groups, but the effect was most marked among Sri Lankan Tamils. Contraceptive knowledge had the same effect on the effectiveness of contraceptive use in all ethnic groups, suggesting that informational campaigns would enhance the decline of fertility in the country as a whole. 47% of the variance in additional children desired was explained by children ever born (negative effect), ideal family size (positive effect), and child mortality (positive effect). 11% of the variance in contraceptive usage was contributed by education (positive effect), children ever born (positive effect), and husband's occupation (negative effect), while 24% of the variance in effectiveness of contraceptive use was explained by additional children wanted (negative effect) and contraceptive knowledge (positive effect). Overall, these findings suggest that socioeconomic assimilation, with consequent higher levels of education, will facilitate more modern behaviors such as later age at

  19. Occurrence of toxigenic cyanobacterial blooms in freshwaters of Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Jayatissa, L P; Silva, E I L; McElhiney, J; Lawton, L A

    2006-03-01

    A previous pioneering study of freshwater bodies in Sri Lanka revealed the presence of toxic cyanobacteria in three out of four water bodies tested. It was therefore important to perform a more detailed investigation into the presence of cyanobacteria and their toxins throughout Sri Lanka. The country has a long history of well-planned water management with the agricultural economy and drinking water supply still dependent on thousands of man-made tanks. Seventeen reservoirs from different user categories and different climatic zones were selected to study variations in phytoplankton communities with relation to major nutrients, with particular emphasis on cyanobacteria. The study was carried out during a two-year period and heavy growths or blooms of cyanobacteria observed during the study period were tested for microcystins. The results clearly categorised the 17 reservoirs into four groups parallel to the classification based on the user categories of water bodies. Biomass of total phytoplankton, the abundance of cyanobacteria, the dominance of Microcystis spp. and concentration of nitrate (N) and total phosphorous (P) were the lowest in drinking water bodies and the highest in aesthetic water bodies. Irrigation water bodies showed the second lowest values for phytoplankton biomass, and concentration of N and P, while hydropower reservoirs showed the second highest values for the same parameters. The fraction of cyanobacteria in irrigation waters was higher than that in hydropower reservoirs, but surprisingly the dominance of Microcystis spp. was reversed. Possible reasons for these variations are discussed. More than half of the bloom material tested contained microcystins up to 81microgl(-1). Our findings indicate the potential for high-risk situations due to toxigenic cyanobacterial blooms in susceptible freshwaters of Sri Lanka. PMID:16464697

  20. Determinants of leptospirosis in Sri Lanka: Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is becoming a major public health threat in Sri Lanka as well as in other countries. We designed a case control study to determine the factors associated with local transmission of leptospirosis in Sri Lanka, in order to identify major modifiable determinants of leptospirosis. The purpose of this paper is to describe the study protocol in detail prior to the publishing of the study results, so that the readership will be able to understand and interpret the study results effectively. Methods A hospital based partially matched case control design is proposed. The study will be conducted in three selected leptospirosis endemic districts in central Sri Lanka. Case selection will include screening all acute fever patients admitted to selected wards to select probable cases of leptospirosis and case confirmation using an array of standard laboratory criteria. Age and sex matched group of acute fever patients with other confirmed diagnosis will be used as controls. Case to control ratio will be 1:2. A minimum sample of 144 cases is required to detect 20% exposure with 95% two sided confidence level and 80% power. A pre tested interviewer administered structured questionnaire will be used to collect data from participants. Variables included in the proposed study will be evaluated using conceptual hierarch of variables in three levels; Exposure variables as proximal; reservoir and environmental variables as intermediate; socio-demographic variables as distal. This conceptual hierarch hypothesised that the distal and intermediate variables are mediated through the proximal variables but not directly. A logistic regression model will be used to analyse the probable determinants of leptospirosis. This model will evaluate the effect of same level and upper level variables on the outcome leptospirosis, using three blocks. Discussion The present national control programme of leptospirosis is hampered by lack of baseline data on leptospirosis disease

  1. Spatial and temporal variations of thunderstorm activities over Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnadara, Upul

    2016-05-01

    Spatial and temporal variation of frequencies of thunderstorms over Sri Lanka using thunder day data is presented. A thunder day is simply a calendar day in which thunder is heard at least once at a given location. Two sets of data were collected and analyzed: annual totals for 10 climatological stations for a period of 50 years and monthly totals for 20 climatological stations for a period of 20 years. The average annual thunder days over Sri Lanka was found to be 76. Among the climatological stations considered, a high number of annual thunder days was recorded in Ratnapura (150 days/year), followed by Colombo (108 days/year) and Bandarawela (106 days/year). It appears that there are no widespread long-term increasing or decreasing trends in thunderstorm frequencies. However, Colombo, the capital of Sri Lanka which has over two million people shows an increasing trend of 0.8 thunder days per year. Although there is a high variability between stations reporting the number of thunder days, the overall pattern within a year is clear. Thunderstorm frequencies are high during two periods: March-May and September-November, which coincide with the first inter-monsoon and second inter-monsoon periods. Compared to the dry zone, the wet zone, especially the southwestern region, has high thunderstorm activity. There is a clear spatial difference in thunderstorm activities during the southwest and northeast monsoon seasons. During both these seasons, enhanced thunderstorm activities are reported on the leeward side of the mountain range. A slight reduction in the thunderstorm activities was found in the high elevation areas of the hill country compared to the surrounding areas. A lightning ground flash density map derived using annual thunder days is also presented.

  2. Ayurveda, malaria and the indigenous herbal tradition in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Silva, K T

    1991-01-01

    Using key informants and available records, the way in which inhabitants of purana villages in Nuwarakalaviya, Sri Lanka coped with malaria during the pre-DDT era is examined. This study found that the Nuwarakalaviya peasants responded to endemic malaria through a localized herbal tradition, which was to some extent independent of the scholarly ayurveda system common to the whole of South Asia. The relevant herbal tradition, consisting of a combination of antiparasite and antivector strategies using locally available natural resources, represented an effective adaptation to the local ecosystem. PMID:1887278

  3. Indian Ocean, Maldive Islands, India, and Sri Lanka

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This scene shows a fantastic view of the Indian Ocean with oblique views of the southern portion of India, Palk Strait and Sri Lanka (1.5N, 77.5E). The bottom portion of the photo shows the complete chain of the Maldive Islands. This is a rare detailed view of the atolls that form the Maldives. The dusty atmosphere over India is clearly visible as it extends towards the Bay of Bengal but the atmosphere over the Maldives appears to be clear at this time.

  4. Integrated approach for coastal hazards and risks in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcin, M.; Desprats, J. F.; Fontaine, M.; Pedreros, R.; Attanayake, N.; Fernando, S.; Siriwardana, C. H. E. R.; de Silva, U.; Poisson, B.

    2008-06-01

    The devastating impact of the tsunami of 26 December 2004 on the shores of the Indian Ocean recalled the importance of knowledge and the taking into account of coastal hazards. Sri Lanka was one of the countries most affected by this tsunami (e.g. 30 000 dead, 1 million people homeless and 70% of the fishing fleet destroyed). Following this tsunami, as part of the French post-tsunami aid, a project to establish a Geographical Information System (GIS) on coastal hazards and risks was funded. This project aims to define, at a pilot site, a methodology for multiple coastal hazards assessment that might be useful for the post-tsunami reconstruction and for development planning. This methodology could be applied to the whole coastline of Sri Lanka. The multi-hazard approach deals with very different coastal processes in terms of dynamics as well as in terms of return period. The first elements of this study are presented here. We used a set of tools integrating a GIS, numerical simulations and risk scenario modelling. While this action occurred in response to the crisis caused by the tsunami, it was decided to integrate other coastal hazards into the study. Although less dramatic than the tsunami these remain responsible for loss of life and damage. Furthermore, the establishment of such a system could not ignore the longer-term effects of climate change on coastal hazards in Sri Lanka. This GIS integrates the physical and demographic data available in Sri Lanka that is useful for assessing the coastal hazards and risks. In addition, these data have been used in numerical modelling of the waves generated during periods of monsoon as well as for the December 2004 tsunami. Risk scenarios have also been assessed for test areas and validated by field data acquired during the project. The results obtained from the models can be further integrated into the GIS and contribute to its enrichment and to help in better assessment and mitigation of these risks. The coastal

  5. A feasibility study for the establishment of a national wildlife health centre in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Valeix, S; Lokugalappatti, L G S; Abeynayake, P; Prasad, T; Chandrasiri, A D N; Daniel, S L A; Stephen, C; Leighton, F A

    2011-12-01

    Sri Lanka is a tropical nation within a zoogeographic zone that is at high risk for infectious disease emergence. In 2010, a study was conducted on the feasibility of enhancing capacity in Sri Lanka to manage wildlife diseases through the establishment of a national wildlife health centre. The Canadian Cooperative Wildlife Health Centre was assessed as a potential model for adaptation in Sri Lanka. Interviews and group meetings were conducted with potential key participants from the Sri Lankan Departments of Wildlife Conservation and Animal Production and Health, and the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science of the University of Peradeniya. In addition, site visits were made to potentially participating facilities and the literature on best practices in building scientific capacity was consulted. With strategic enhancements in education and training, additional personnel, improvements in transportation and diagnostic facilities, and central coordination, Sri Lanka appears very well positioned to establish a sustainable wildlife health centre and programme. PMID:22435187

  6. Intimate partner violence in Sri Lanka: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Guruge, S; Jayasuriya-Illesinghe, V; Gunawardena, N; Perera, J

    2015-12-01

    South Asia is considered to have a high prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) against women. Therefore the World Health Organisation has called for context-specific information about IPV from different regions. A scoping review of published and gray literature over the last 35 years was conducted using Arksey and O'Malley's framework. Reported prevalence of IPV in Sri Lanka ranged from 20-72%, with recent reports of rates ranging from 25- 35%. Most research about IPV has been conducted in a few provinces and is based on the experience of legally married women. Individual, family, and societal risk factors for IPV have been studied, but their complex relationships have not been comprehensively investigated. Health consequences of IPV have been reported, with particular attention to physical health, but women are likely to underreport sexual violence. Women seek support mainly from informal networks, with only a few visiting agencies to obtain help. Little research has focused on health sector responses to IPV and their effectiveness. More research is needed on how to challenge gendered perceptions about IPV. Researchers should capture the experience of women in dating/cohabiting relationships and women in vulnerable sectors (post-conflict areas and rural areas), and assess how to effectively provide services to them. A critical evaluation of existing services and programmes is also needed to advance evidence informed programme and policy changes in Sri Lanka. PMID:26778392

  7. Internet-based media coverage on dengue in Sri Lanka between 2007 and 2015

    PubMed Central

    Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Cohn, Emily; Lloyd, David C.; Tozan, Yesim; Brownstein, John S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Internet-based media coverage to explore the extent of awareness of a disease and perceived severity of an outbreak at a national level can be used for early outbreak detection. Dengue has emerged as a major public health problem in Sri Lanka since 2009. Objective To compare Internet references to dengue in Sri Lana with references to other diseases (malaria and influenza) in Sri Lanka and to compare Internet references to dengue in Sri Lanka with notified cases of dengue in Sri Lanka. Design We examined Internet-based news media articles on dengue queried from HealthMap for Sri Lanka, for the period January 2007 to November 2015. For comparative purposes, we compared hits on dengue with hits on influenza and malaria. Results There were 565 hits on dengue between 2007 and 2015, with a rapid rise in 2009 and followed by a rising trend ever since. These hits were highly correlated with the national epidemiological trend of dengue. The volume of digital media coverage of dengue was much higher than of influenza and malaria. Conclusions Dengue in Sri Lanka is receiving increasing media attention. Our findings underpin previous claims that digital media reports reflect national epidemiological trends, both in annual trends and inter-annual seasonal variation, thus acting as proxy biosurveillance to provide early warning and situation awareness of emerging infectious diseases. PMID:27178645

  8. Surveillance for antibodies to Leishmania spp. in dogs from Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Rosypal, A C; Tripp, S; Kinlaw, C; Hailemariam, S; Tidwell, R R; Lindsay, D S; Rajapakse, R P V J; Sreekumar, C; Dubey, J P

    2010-02-01

    The global distribution of leishmaniasis is rapidly expanding into new geographic regions. Dogs are the primary reservoir hosts for human visceral leishmaniasis caused by infection with Leishmania infantum. Natural infections with other Leishmania spp. can occur in dogs, but their role as reservoir hosts for other species of Leishmania is uncertain. Leishmania donovani is traditionally considered a visceralizing anthroponotic species; however, cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. donovani has been reported in Sri Lanka. In the present study, sera from 114 dogs in Sri Lanka were examined for antibodies to visceralizing Leishmania spp. Sera were tested by the canine immunochromatographic strip assays based on recombinant K39 antigen. Anti-Leishmania spp. antibodies were detectable in 1 of 114 (0.9%) dogs from Sri Lanka. Nonetheless, serological evidence suggests that leishmaniasis may be an emerging zoonosis in Sri Lanka. PMID:19803542

  9. Moore's law, Dabbawalas, and pediatric cardiac care in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Samarasinghe, Duminda

    2015-01-01

    Sri Lanka is an island nation in Indian Ocean that provides free healthcare to all citizens through government healthcare system. It has commendable health indices in the region. Pediatric cardiac services have rapidly progressed over past few years helping to further bring down infant and under-five mortality rates. Lady Ridgeway Hospital for Children (LRH) is the only tertiary care referral center for children with heart disease in the country. Currently it performs approximately 1,000 cardiac catheterizations and 1,000 cardiac surgeries every year. Target is to double the surgical output to treat all children with heart diseases in a timely and appropriate manner. Being a middle-income country, this is not an easy task. Technology used in diagnosis and treatment of congenital heart diseases is rapidly advancing with its price tag. In such a setting, it is challenging to proceed to achieve this target in a resource-limited environment. PMID:26085764

  10. Moore's law, Dabbawalas, and pediatric cardiac care in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Samarasinghe, Duminda

    2015-01-01

    Sri Lanka is an island nation in Indian Ocean that provides free healthcare to all citizens through government healthcare system. It has commendable health indices in the region. Pediatric cardiac services have rapidly progressed over past few years helping to further bring down infant and under-five mortality rates. Lady Ridgeway Hospital for Children (LRH) is the only tertiary care referral center for children with heart disease in the country. Currently it performs approximately 1,000 cardiac catheterizations and 1,000 cardiac surgeries every year. Target is to double the surgical output to treat all children with heart diseases in a timely and appropriate manner. Being a middle-income country, this is not an easy task. Technology used in diagnosis and treatment of congenital heart diseases is rapidly advancing with its price tag. In such a setting, it is challenging to proceed to achieve this target in a resource-limited environment. PMID:26085764

  11. Post-Tsunami Reconstruction in Sri Lanka: Houses or Housing?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khazai, B.; Franco, G.; Ingram, J. C.; Rumbaitis del Rio, C.

    2005-12-01

    Reconstruction can be an opportunity to address longer-term livelihood vulnerability within poor communities and households, and to empower the most vulnerable. The post-tsunami reconstruction efforts in Sri Lanka can be seen on two disconnected scales. On a local scale there seems to be a growing recognition by district-level government and NGOs on the importance of households in creating social, human and financial capital, as demonstrated by many programs targeted at rebuilding livelihoods and income-generating activities. On a national scale, however, programs have revealed an emphasis on houses as the physical capital rather than housing as the arena of social and economic life. The aim of national-scale programs is to deliver tangible and quantifiable products, in the form of houses built, often without regard of whether this complements or disrupts livelihoods. One example of such a directive is the implementation of a coastal buffer zone which will ban any new construction within a 100 to 200 meter band from the ocean and allowing only structures that sustained less than 40 percent damage to remain and rebuild. In general these kind of surviving structures along the coast are businesses such as hotels and restaurants. In an island nation such as Sri Lanka, where beach front property is by and large considered low-income housing, typically inhabited by fishermen who rely on the ocean for their livelihoods, the buffer zone constitutes a drastic oversight of local processes shaping these households. The product-oriented solution on the national scale has resulted in building permanent houses for fishery communities in resettlement sites kilometers away from the ocean. The focus of this presentation will be on reconciling the need for immediate shelter needs with a long-term perspective of livelihood rehabilitation using Sri Lanka as a case study. Houses themselves are often not an immediate priority for local people, whose first need is likely to resume income

  12. Coral poaching worsens tsunami destruction in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernando, H. J. S.; McCulley, J. L.; Mendis, S. G.; Perera, K.

    Observations of the trail of destruction of the Sumatra tsunami of 26 December 2004 indicate remarkable, small-scale spatial variations, of the order of a few kilometers, of water inundation and destruction in southwestern Sri Lanka [Shiermeier, 2005; Liu et al., 2005] that are much smaller than the tsunami wavelength of ˜100 km.For example, the town of Peraliya, was awash with an approximately 1.5-km water inundation from a wave of 10 m in height; the inundation there carried the passenger train Samudra Devi (the “Ocean Queen”) inland some 50 m, killing 1700 people. Yet,˜3 km south, in Hikkaduwa, there was a mere 2-3 m wave height, 50-m inundation and no deaths.

  13. Biological response of the sea around Sri Lanka to summer monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinayachandran, P. N.; Chauhan, P.; Mohan, M.; Nayak, S.

    2004-01-01

    Chlorophyll-a concentration (chl a) maps derived from the Ocean Color Monitor (OCM) on board Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS-P4) and Seaviewing Wide field of View sensor (SeaWiFS) show increased chl a in the waters around Sri Lanka during summer monsoon. Physical processes that can lead to the phytoplankton bloom are investigated using upper ocean temperature profiles and satellite derived winds, sea surface temperature (SST) and sea level anomalies (SLA). There is a chl a bloom attached to the southern coast of Sri Lanka accompanied by cool SST, low SLA and upsloping of isotherms towards the coast. Coastal upwelling driven by monsoon winds is identified as the physical mechanism causing nutrient enrichment in the surface layer. The Southwest Monsoon Current (SMC) which flows eastward south of Sri Lanka and then into the Bay of Bengal advects the upwelled water eastward along its path. The chl a rich waters from the Indian coast also advects along with the SMC towards Sri Lanka. East of Sri Lanka the open ocean upwelling associated with the Sri Lanka Dome is also found to be an important process that upwell nutrients.

  14. Supporting elephant conservation in Sri Lanka through MODIS imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perera, Kithsiri; Tateishi, Ryutaro

    2012-10-01

    The latest national elephant survey of Sri Lanka (2011) revealed Sri Lanka has 5,879 elephants. The total forest cover for these elephants is about 19,500 sq km (2012 estimation) and estimated forest area is about 30% of the country when smaller green patches are also counted. However, studies have pointed out that a herd of elephants need about a 100 sq km of forest patch to survive. With a high human population density (332 people per sq km, 2010), the pressure for land to feed people and elephants is becoming critical. Resent reports have indicated about 250 elephants are killed annually by farmers and dozens of people are also killed by elephants. Under this context, researchers are investigating various methods to assess the elephant movements to address the issues of Human-Elephant-Conflict (HEC). Apart from various local remedies for the issue, the conservation of elephant population can be supported by satellite imagery based studies. MODIS sensor imagery can be considered as a successful candidate here. Its spatial resolution is low (250m x 250m) but automatically filters out small forest patches in the mapping process. The daily imagery helps to monitor temporal forest cover changes. This study investigated the background information of HEC and used MODIS 250m imagery to suggest applicability of satellite data for Elephant conservations efforts. The elephant movement information was gathered from local authorities and potentials to identify bio-corridors were discussed. Under future research steps, regular forest cover monitoring through MODIS data was emphasized as a valuable tool in elephant conservations efforts.

  15. Fossilized diatoms in meteorites from recent falls in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Wallis, Jamie; Wickramarathne, Keerthi; Samaranayake, Anil; Williams, George; Jerman, Gregory; Wallis, D. H.; Wickramasinghe, N. C.

    2013-09-01

    On December 29, 2012, a bright yellow and green fireball was observed to disintegrate over the Polonnaruwa District of North Central, Sri Lanka. Many low density, black stones were recovered soon after the observed fall from rice paddy fields near the villages of Aralaganwila and Dimbulagala. These stones were initially studied by optical microscopy methods at the Medical Research Institute in Colombo, Sri Lanka. Soon thereafter, samples were sent to the UK and to the United States. More extensive Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy studies were then carried out at Cardiff University and the NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center. The physico-chemical properties, elemental abundances, mineralogy and stable isotope data clearly indicate that these stones are non-terrestrial. Freshly fractured interior surfaces of the black stones have also been observed to contain the remains of fossilized diatom. Many of the diatom frustules are clearly embedded in the meteorite rock matrix and exhibit nitrogen levels below the EDX detection limits. Some of the fossil diatoms are araphid marine pennates and planktonic forms that are inconsistent with conditions associated with rice paddy fields. These observations indicate the fossilized diatoms are indigenous to the meteorites rather than post-arrival biological contaminants. The carbon content and mineralogy suggests that these stones may represent a previously ungrouped clan of carbonaceous meteorites. The extremely low density (~0.6) of the stones and their observed mineralogy was inconsistent with known terrestrial rocks (e.g., pumice, diatomite and fulgurites). The minerals detected suggest that the parent body of the Polonnaruwa stones may have been the nucleus of a comet. These observations are interpreted as supporting the Hoyle-Wickramasinghe Panspermia hypothesis and the hypothesis that diatoms and other microorganisms might be capable of living and growing in water ice and brines in comets.

  16. Historical Evolution and Present Status of Family Medicine in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Ramanayake, R. P. J. C.

    2013-01-01

    Sri Lankan health system consists of Allopathic, Ayurvedic, Unani, and several other systems of medicine and allopathic medicine is catering to the majority of the health needs of the people. As in many other countries, Sri Lankan health system consists of both the state and the private sector General practitioners, MOs in OPDs of hospitals and MOs of central dispensaries, provide primary medical care in Sri Lanka. Most of the general practices are solo practices. One does not need postgraduate qualification or training in general practice to start a general practice. There is no registered population for any particular health care institution in the state sector or in the private sector and there is no strict referral procedure from primary care to secondary or tertiary care. Family doctors have been practicing in Sri Lanka for well over 150 years. The first national organization of general practitioners was Independent Medical Practitioner (IMPA)'s organization which was founded in 1929 and the College of General Practitioners of Sri Lanka was founded in 1974. College conducts its own Membership Course and Examination (MCGP) since 1999. Family Medicine was introduced to undergraduate curriculum in Sri Lanka in early 1980s and now almost all the medical faculties in the country have included Family Medicine in their curricula. In 1979, General Practice/Family Medicine was recognized as a specialty in Sri Lanka by the postgraduate institute of Medicine. Diploma in Family Medicine (DFM) and MD Family Medicine are the pathways for postgraduate training in Sri Lanka. At present 50 to 60 doctors enroll for DFM every year and the country has about 20 specialists (with MD) in Family Medicine. The author's vision for the future is that all the primary care doctors to have a postgraduate qualification in Family Medicine either DFM, MD, or MCGP which is a far cry from the present status. PMID:24479065

  17. E-waste issues in Sri Lanka and the Basel Convention.

    PubMed

    Suraweera, Inoka

    2016-03-01

    E-waste is hazardous, complex and expensive to treat in an environmentally sound manner. The management of e-waste is considered a serious challenge in both developed and developing countries and Sri Lanka is no exception. Due to significant growth in the economy and investments and other reasons the consumption of electronic and electrical equipment in Sri Lanka has increased over the years resulting in significant generation of e-waste. Several initiatives such as introduction of hazardous waste management rules, ratification of the Basel Convention in 1992 and the introduction of a National Corporate E-waste Management Program have been undertaken in Sri Lanka to manage e-waste. Strengthening policy and legislation, introducing methods for upstream reduction of e-waste, building capacity of relevant officers, awareness raising among school children and the general public and development of an e-waste information system are vital. Research on e-waste needs to be developed in Sri Lanka. The health sector could play a leading role in the provision of occupational health and safety for e-waste workers, advocacy, capacity building of relevant staff and raising awareness among the general public about e-waste. Improper e-waste management practices carried out by informal sector workers need to be addressed urgently in Sri Lanka. PMID:26943598

  18. 77 FR 69592 - U.S. Multi-Sector Trade Mission to South India and Sri Lanka

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ... Sri Lanka (Colombo) February 3-8, 2013, published at 77 FR 48499, August 14, 2012 to revise the... Mission to Chennai and Cochin, India and Colombo, Sri Lanka on February 3-8, 2013, published at 77 FR 48499, August 14, 2012, as previously amended by notice at 77 FR 59899 (Oct. 1, 2012)...

  19. The use and abuse of female domestic workers from Sri Lanka in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Abu-habib, L

    1998-03-01

    Women who migrate from Sri Lanka to become domestic workers in Lebanon face gender, class, and race discrimination that often results in abuse, yet the predicament of these women is largely ignored by local and international humanitarian and human rights agencies. Public consciousness about the plight of Asian domestic workers in the Persian Gulf region was raised in 1990 when domestic workers were repatriated in the wake of the Gulf War. In Lebanon, nearly half of the work permits granted to foreigners in 1997 were to women from Sri Lanka. This migration began in the 1970s and is sanctioned by the Sri Lanka government because of the economic benefits accruing from wages sent home by these women. Lebanese families procure domestic positions through an employment agency that arranges transportation and entry for the Sri Lankan women. These women, especially minors, often have to bribe Sri Lankan government agents to falsify travel documents. Upon arrival in Lebanon, the women have no support systems or job security. Most employment contracts last 3 years and pay $100/month with no benefits or protection from local labor laws. Domestic workers are made vulnerable by employers who withhold salaries or travel documents. Upon return to Sri Lanka, former domestic workers face social disapproval and marital problems. To redress this situation, the governments of sending and receiving countries must take action to protect female migrant workers, and nongovernmental organizations must publicize the plight of these women and take action to address the abuses they face. PMID:12321536

  20. Molecular characterisation and disease severity of leptospirosis in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Bandara, Kanchana Kumari; Weerasekera, Manjula; Gunasekara, Chinthika P; Ranasinghe, Nilantha; Marasinghe, Chamil; Fernando, Neluka

    2015-06-01

    Leptospirosis is a re-emerging zoonotic disease all over the world, important in tropical and subtropical areas. A majority of leptospirosis infected patients present as subclinical or mild disease while 5-10% may develop severe infection requiring hospitalisation and critical care. It is possible that several factors, such as the infecting serovar, level of leptospiraemia, host genetic factors and host immune response, may be important in predisposition towards severe disease. Different Leptospira strains circulate in different geographical regions contributing to variable disease severity. Therefore, it is important to investigate the circulating strains at geographical locations during each outbreak for epidemiological studies and to support the clinical management of the patients. In this study immunochromatography, microscopic agglutination test and polymerase chain reaction were used to diagnose leptospirosis. Further restriction fragment length polymorphism and DNA sequencing methods were used to identify the circulating strains in two selected geographical regions of Sri Lanka. Leptospira interrogans, Leptospira borgpetersenii and Leptospira kirschneri strains were identified to be circulating in western and southern provinces. L. interrogans was the predominant species circulating in western and southern provinces in 2013 and its presence was mainly associated with renal failure. PMID:26061234

  1. Human body donation programs in Sri Lanka: Buddhist perspectives.

    PubMed

    Subasinghe, Sandeepani Kanchana; Jones, D Gareth

    2015-01-01

    Considerable attention is being given to the availability of bodies for anatomical education. This raises the question of the manner in which they are obtained, that is, whether they are unclaimed or donated. With increasing emphasis upon the ethical desirability of using body bequests, the spotlight tends to be focused on those countries with factors that militate against donations. However, little attention has been paid to cultures where donations are readily available. One such country is Sri Lanka where the majority of the Buddhist population follows Theravada Buddhism. Within this context, the expectation is that donations will be given selflessly without expecting anything in return. This is because donation of one's body has blessings for a better outcome now and in the afterlife. The ceremonies to honor donors are outlined, including details of the "Pirith Ceremony." The relevance for other cultures of these features of body donation is discussed paying especial attention to the meaning of altruism and consent, and justification for the anonymization of cadavers. The degree to which anatomy is integrated into the surrounding culture also emerges as significant. PMID:25689145

  2. Managing shallow aquifers in the dry zone of Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Sood, Aditya; Manthrithilake, Herath; Siddiqui, Salman; Rajah, Ameer; Pathmarajah, S

    2015-07-01

    This study looks at the groundwater issues in the dry zone of Sri Lanka and shows how the use of remote sensing with high-resolution images can help in groundwater management. A new approach is developed for automatic extraction of the location of agro-wells using high-spatial-resolution satellite imageries. As an example, three pilot sites in three different aquifer systems in the country are considered, and their high-resolution images are analyzed over two temporal time periods. The analysis suggests that the well density in all three regions has increased over the last few years, indicating higher levels of groundwater extraction. Using the well inventory developed by this new approach, the water budgeting was prepared for the mainland of Jaffna Peninsula. The analysis shows a wide variation in well density in the Jaffna Peninsula, ranging from (as little as) less than 15 wells per square kilometer to (as high as) more than 200 wells per square kilometer. Calculations made for the maximum allowable water extraction in each administrative division of Jaffna show that less than 3 h of daily extraction per well is possible in some districts. This points to an increasing pressure on groundwater resources in the region and thus highlights the importance of understanding groundwater budgets for sustainable development of the aquifers. PMID:26041062

  3. Molecular characterisation and disease severity of leptospirosis in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Bandara, Kanchana Kumari; Weerasekera, Manjula; Gunasekara, Chinthika P; Ranasinghe, Nilantha; Marasinghe, Chamil; Fernando, Neluka

    2015-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a re-emerging zoonotic disease all over the world, important in tropical and subtropical areas. A majority of leptospirosis infected patients present as subclinical or mild disease while 5-10% may develop severe infection requiring hospitalisation and critical care. It is possible that several factors, such as the infecting serovar, level of leptospiraemia, host genetic factors and host immune response, may be important in predisposition towards severe disease. Different Leptospira strains circulate in different geographical regions contributing to variable disease severity. Therefore, it is important to investigate the circulating strains at geographical locations during each outbreak for epidemiological studies and to support the clinical management of the patients. In this study immunochromatography, microscopic agglutination test and polymerase chain reaction were used to diagnose leptospirosis. Further restriction fragment length polymorphism and DNA sequencing methods were used to identify the circulating strains in two selected geographical regions of Sri Lanka. Leptospira interrogans, Leptospira borgpetersenii and Leptospira kirschneri strains were identified to be circulating in western and southern provinces. L. interrogans was the predominant species circulating in western and southern provinces in 2013 and its presence was mainly associated with renal failure. PMID:26061234

  4. Problems of Illiteracy in a Literate Developing Society: Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunawardena, Chandra

    1997-09-01

    With 87.0% of its population literate, Sri Lanka occupies a high ranking position among South and South-East Asian nations in educational development. The high percentage of literacy achieved through progressive measures in education spanning half a century, however, has led to a state of complacency and less priority being given to efforts at eradicating illiteracy. This paper will focus on a recent study conducted on the incidence of illiteracy in specific disadvantaged communities in the country which indicated that in the present era of technological advancement, lack of literacy will continue to affect the life-chances of people in these communities where the rate of literacy remains much lower than the national average. The study investigates into the factors associated with illiteracy, and the attitudes and perceptions of the communities themselves towards literacy programmes and regarding the modalities and strategies of providing literacy. The implications of the study and the final recommendations drawn up in consultation with the policy makers at national and provincial levels in governmental and non-governmental sectors are also discussed in the paper.

  5. A modern terrestrial phosphorite-an example from Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahanayake, Kapila; Subasinghe, S. M. N. D.

    1989-02-01

    At Eppawala in Central Sri Lanka, a thick weathering profile is mined for use as phosphate fertilizer. Recent tropical subaerial weathering processes have produced a phosphate-enriched horizon in the weathering profile which has developed on a Precambrian apatite marble formation. The enriched horizon with P 2O 5 compositions ranging from 10 to 40% is formed essentially of laminar phoscretes occurring in a network of sinkholes. Detailed examination of the laminar phoscretes reveals that primary metamorphic apatite crystals occur in association with phosphatic allochems such as coated grains, ooids, pisoids and intraclasts in a finely layered groundmass. It has been observed that the primary apatite grains released from the parent apatite marble due to tropical weathering processes have been deposited in sinkholes where nutrient-rich percolating meteoric waters were precipitating secondary apatite. Subsequent diagenetic processes active in such sinkhole sedimentary environments have produced the phosphatic allochems characteristic of secondary phosphate mineralization. The allochems together with their mineralized groundmass and the associated primary apatite grains have given rise to the Eppawala phosphorite deposit.

  6. Leishmania donovani causing cutaneous leishmaniasis in Sri Lanka: a wolf in sheep's clothing?

    PubMed

    Karunaweera, Nadira D

    2009-10-01

    Research involving leishmaniasis, a newly established disease in Sri Lanka, has focused mostly on parasitological and clinical factors, with inadequate understanding of other aspects, including its epidemiology and vector. The escalation in the spread of cutaneous leishmaniasis cases within Sri Lanka and the close resemblance (genotypic and phenotypic) between the local parasite Leishmania donovani MON-37 and the parasite causing visceral leishmaniasis in India (L. donovani MON-2), underscored by the more recent case reports of autochthonous cases of visceral and mucocutaneous-like disease, are clear warnings to the health authorities, scientists and policy makers. An effective control strategy is needed to contain further spread of cutaneous disease and avert a more-virulent form of leishmaniasis becoming endemic in Sri Lanka. PMID:19734098

  7. USE OF AND ATTITUDES TOWARD TOBACCO AND ALCOHOL AMONG ADULTS IN SOUTHERN SRI LANKA

    PubMed Central

    Lombardo, Sarah; Perera, Bilesha; Beaudry, Lauren; Grad, Jennifer; Maselko, Joanna; Østbye, Truls

    2014-01-01

    The adverse health effects of tobacco and alcohol are well known. Alcohol consumption is increasing in Sri Lanka, but few population studies have been conducted. The objective of this study was to document tobacco and alcohol consumption levels among adults in southern Sri Lanka and to identify the main reasons for using or refraining from alcohol and tobacco products. Tobacco and alcohol use within Sri Lanka is relatively common, particularly among adult males. Reasons given for smoking and drinking frequently relate to social and image-based motivators. Women may be especially susceptible to the influence of peer pressure in social situations. Public health efforts should consider the use of demographic-specific anti-tobacco and anti-alcohol messages, as the motivators driving behavior appear to differ across gender and age groups. PMID:24437324

  8. The assistant medical officer in Sri Lanka: mid-level health worker in decline.

    PubMed

    De Silva, Vijitha; Strand de Oliveira, Justine; Liyanage, Mahinda; Østbye, Truls

    2013-09-01

    The history of Assistant Medical Officers (AMOs) in Sri Lanka can be traced back to the 1860s. Their training from the beginning followed an allopathic, 'evidence based' model. AMOs have played a key role in rural and peripheral health care, through staffing of government central dispensaries and maternity homes and may have contributed to Sri Lanka's favorable health outcomes. While there are currently approximately 2000 AMOs, their training course was discontinued in 1995. It was argued that the quality of care provided by the AMOs is substandard relative to that of physicians. The success, rapid expansion and integration of physician assistant programs into the US health care system have recently spurred other countries to introduce similar programs. This paper reviews Sri Lanka's move in the opposite direction, phasing out the AMO profession, without any research into their contributions to access to interprofessional primary health care and positive health outcomes. PMID:23659623

  9. Use of and attitudes toward tobacco and alcohol among adults in southern Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Sarah; Perera, Bilesha; Beaudry, Lauren; Grad, Jennifer; Maselko, Joanna; Ostbye, Truls

    2013-09-01

    The adverse health effects of tobacco and alcohol are well known. Alcohol consumption is increasing in Sri Lanka, but few population studies have been conducted. The objective of this study was to document tobacco and alcohol consumption levels among adults in southern Sri Lanka and to identify the main reasons for using or refraining from alcohol and tobacco products. Tobacco and alcohol use within Sri Lanka is relatively common, particularly among adult males. Reasons given for smoking and drinking frequently relate to social and image-based motivators. Women may be especially susceptible to the influence of peer pressure in social situations. Public health efforts should consider the use of demographic-specific anti-tobacco and anti-alcohol messages, as the motivators driving behavior appear to differ across gender and age groups. PMID:24437324

  10. Preventing ragging: outcome of an integrated programme in a medical faculty in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Lekamwasam, Sarath; Rodrigo, Mahinda; Wickramathilake, Madhu; Wijesinghe, Champa; Wijerathne, Gaya; Silva, Aruna De; Napagoda, Mayuri; Attanayake, Anoja; Perera, Clifford

    2015-01-01

    Ragging is prevalent in higher educational institutes in Sri Lanka and the deaths of some new entrants in the past have been directly linked to physical and emotional torture caused by cruel acts of ragging. Although there are general anti-ragging rules in place, the effectiveness of these measures is unknown. We developed an action plan to prevent ragging by integrating the views of the major stakeholders, implemented the plan and assessed its success. This article highlights the action plan and its success in a medical faculty in southern Sri Lanka. PMID:26322639

  11. Leachate plume delineation and lithologic profiling using surface resistivity in an open municipal solid waste dumpsite, Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Wijesekara, Hasintha Rangana; De Silva, Sunethra Nalin; Wijesundara, Dharani Thanuja De Silva; Basnayake, Bendict Francis Antony; Vithanage, Meththika Suharshini

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the use of direct current resistivity techniques (DCRT) for investigation and characterization of leachate-contaminated subsurface environment of an open solid waste dumpsite at Kandy, Sri Lanka. The particular dumpsite has no liner and hence the leachate flows directly to the nearby river via subsurface and surface channels. For the identification of possible subsurface flow paths and the direction of the leachate, DCRT (two-dimensional, three-dimensional and vertical electrical sounding) have been applied. In addition, the physico-chemical parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity (EC), alkalinity, hardness, chloride, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC) of leachate collected from different points of the solid waste dumping area and leachate drainage channel were analysed. Resistivity data confirmed that the leachate flow is confined to the near surface and no separate plume is observed in the downstream area, which may be due to the contamination distribution in the shallow overburden thickness. The stratigraphy with leachate pockets and leachate plume movements was well demarcated inside the dumpsite via low resistivity zones (1-3 Ωm). The recorded EC, alkalinity, hardness and chloride contents in leachate were averaged as 14.13 mS cm⁻¹, 3236, 2241 and 320 mg L⁻¹, respectively, which confirmed the possible causes for low resistivity values. This study confirms that DCRT can be effectively utilized to assess the subsurface characteristics of the open dumpsites to decide on corridor placement and depth of permeable reactive barriers to reduce the groundwater contamination. PMID:25209886

  12. Parasitic infections in freshwater ornamental fish in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Thilakaratne, I D S I P; Rajapaksha, G; Hewakopara, A; Rajapakse, R P V J; Faizal, A C M

    2003-03-31

    A total of 1520 ornamental fish of 13 species from 26 export farms in Sri Lanka were collected between October 1999 and March 2000 and examined for parasites. Fish species examined were guppy Poecilia reticulata, goldfish Carassius auratus, platy Xiphophorus maculatus, molly Poecilia sphenops, angel Pterophyllum scalare, swordtail Xiphophorus helleri, tetras Hyphessobrycon species, barbs Capeota and Puntius spp., gourami Colisa sp., carp Cyprinus carpio, fighters Betta spelendens and others (Brachydanio and Astronotus spp.). Nine species of monogenean trematodes (Dactylogyrus extensus, Dactylogyrus cf. extensus, D. vastator, Dactylogyrus cf. vastator Dactylogyrus spp., Gyrodactylus turnbulli, G. katherineri, Gyrodactylus cf. katherineri, Gyrodactylus spp.), 7 protozoan species (Trichodina nigra, Trichodina spp., Tetrahymena corlissi, T. pyriformis, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Ichthyobodo necator, Piscinoodinium spp.), 3 species of copepod arthropods (Lernaea cyprinacea, Ergasilus ceylonensis, Argulus foliaceus), 1 metacercarial stage of a digenean trematode (Centrocestus spp.) and 1 nematode (Capillaria spp.) were identified. Parasites were found in fish from 23 of the 26 farms with an overall prevalence of parasitism in 45.3% of fish. The variation in farm prevalence among different parasites was significant (p < 0.01). Fish infection rates with monogenean trematodes, protozoans, copepod crustaceans, digenean trematodes and nematodes were 28.3, 18.4, 4.8, 0.8 and 0.4%, respectively. In all, 50 out of 590 (50/590) guppies were infected with Tetrahymena, compared with 13/930 for all other species, which is a statistically significant result (p < 0.01). Similarly, 13/44 and 18/44 carp were infected with Argulus foliaceus and Lernaea cyprinacea, compared with 7/1476 and 15/1476, respectively, for all other species combined (p < 0.01). Capillaria spp. was found only in guppies (4/590) and angel fish (3/92) while Centrocestus spp. was found in goldfish (12/153) only

  13. Molecular characterization of cyanobacterial diversity in Lake Gregory, Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magana-Arachchi, Dhammika; Wanigatunge, Rasika; Liyanage, Madhushankha

    2011-07-01

    Eutrophication or the process of nutrient enrichment of stagnant waters due to excessive use of fertilizer is becoming a critical issue worldwide. Lake Gregory, an artificial lake situated in Nuwara Eliya, Sri Lanka was once a very attractive landscape feature and recreational area attracting a large number of visitors. Rapid urbanization in surrounding areas and the consequent intensification of agricultural and industrial activities led to eutrophication and siltation in the lake. Present study was conducted to detect cyanobacterial diversity and their ability to produce hepatotoxic microcystins using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based techniques. Twenty five water samples (surface and bottom) were collected from the lake and total nitrogen and total carbon were estimated. Cyanobacterial cultures were grown in appropriate media and microscopic observations were used to determine the morphological diversity of cyanobacteria isolated from different sites. Genomic DNA was isolated and purified from cyanobacteria using Boom's method. DNA samples were analyzed by PCR with oligonucleotide primers for 16S rRNA gene and mcyA gene of the operon that encodes a microcystin synthetase. The 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed the presences of cyanobacteria belong to Synechococcus sp., Microcystis aeruginosa, Calothrix sp., Leptolyngbya sp., Limnothrix sp., order Oscillatoriales and order Chroococcales. The sequences obtained from this study were deposited in the database under the accession numbers (GenBank: GU368104-GU368116). PCR amplification of mcyA primers indicated the potential for toxin formation of isolated M. aeruginosa from Lake Gregory. This preliminary study shows that the Lake Gregory is under the potential risk of cyanobacterial toxicity. Clearly more work is needed to extend this finding and clarify if other cyanobacterial isolates have genetic potential to produce microcystin since this lake is utilized for recreational activities.

  14. Insecticide resistance and, efficacy of space spraying and larviciding in the control of dengue vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Karunaratne, S H P P; Weeraratne, T C; Perera, M D B; Surendran, S N

    2013-09-01

    Unprecedented incidence of dengue has been recorded in Sri Lanka in recent times. Source reduction and use of insecticides in space spraying/fogging and larviciding, are the primary means of controlling the vector mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus in the island nation. A study was carried out to understand insecticide cross-resistance spectra and mechanisms of insecticide resistance of both these vectors from six administrative districts, i.e. Kandy, Kurunegala, Puttalam, Gampaha, Ratnapura and Jaffna, of Sri Lanka. Efficacy of the recommended dosages of frequently used insecticides in space spraying and larviciding in dengue vector control programmes was also tested. Insecticide bioassay results revealed that, in general, both mosquito species were highly resistant to DDT but susceptible to propoxur and malathion except Jaffna Ae. aegypti population. Moderate resistance to malathion shown by Jaffna Ae. aegypti population correlated with esterase and malathion carboxylesterase activities of the population. High levels of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) insensitivity in the absence of malathion and propoxur resistance may be due to non-synaptic forms of AChE proteins. Moderate pyrethroid resistance in the absence of high monooxygenase levels indicated the possible involvement of 'kdr' type resistance mechanism in Sri Lankan dengue vectors. Results of the space spraying experiments revealed that 100% mortality at a 10 m distance and >50% mortality at a 50 m distance can be achieved with malathion, pesguard and deltacide even in a ground with dense vegetation. Pesguard and deltacide spraying gave 100% mortality up to 50 m distance in open area and areas with little vegetation. Both species gave >50% mortalities for deltacide at a distance of 75 m in a dense vegetation area. Larval bioassays conducted in the laboratory showed that a 1 ppm temephos solution can maintain a larval mortality rate of 100% for ten months, and the mortality rate declined to 0% in the

  15. Incorporating environmental concerns into power sector decision-making: A case study of Sri Lanka. World Bank Environment Paper 6

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, P.; Munasinghe, M.; Team, S.L.S.

    1994-04-01

    Weighs Sri Lanka`s options for addressing environmental concerns during the planning stages of energy policymaking. Here is a holistic approach to analyzing the environmental impact of various power systems. Unlike standard impact studies that begin at the project level, this method calls for environmental assessments that start at the planning stage of a national framework for energy policymaking. The framework would take into account the energy needs of Sri Lanka`s total economy. It also would make it easier to incorporate environmental goals into power sector decisionmaking at the critical investment stage. Sri Lanka`s development options for the power sector are reviewed in detail. Topics include alternative ways to assess the economic value of a power plant`s impact on biodiversity, human health, and air and water pollution. The study also assesses which energy planning options work best and recommends ways in which the Ceylon Electricity Board can improve its environmental policies.

  16. A cost effectiveness analysis of the preferred antidotes for acute paracetamol poisoning patients in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Acute paracetamol poisoning is a rapidly increasing problem in Sri Lanka. The antidotes are expensive and yet no health economic evaluation has been done on the therapy for acute paracetamol poisoning in the developing world. The aim of this study is to determine the cost effectiveness of using N-acetylcysteine over methionine in the management of acute paracetamol poisoning in Sri Lanka. Methods Economic analysis was applied using public healthcare system payer perspective. Costs were obtained from a series of patients admitted to the National Hospital of Sri Lanka with a history of acute paracetamol overdose. Evidence on effectiveness was obtained from a systematic review of the literature. Death due to hepatotoxicity was used as the primary outcome of interest. Analysis and development of decision tree models was done using Tree Age Pro 2008. Results An affordable treatment threshold of Sri Lankan rupees 1,537,120/death prevented was set from the expected years of productive life gained and the average contribution to GDP. A cost-minimisation analysis was appropriate for patients presenting within 10 hours and methionine was the least costly antidote. For patients presenting 10-24 hours after poisoning, n-acetylcysteine was more effective and the incremental cost effectiveness ratio of Sri Lankan rupees 316,182/life saved was well under the threshold. One-way and multi-way sensitivity analysis also supported methionine for patients treated within 10 hours and n-acetylcysteine for patients treated within 10-24 hours as preferred antidotes. Conclusions Post ingestion time is an important determinant of preferred antidotal therapy for acute paracetamol poisoning patients in Sri Lanka. Using n-acetylcysteine in all patients is not cost effective. On economic grounds, methionine should become the preferred antidote for Sri Lankan patients treated within 10 hours of the acute ingestion and n-acetylcysteine should continue to be given to patients treated

  17. Women and Management in Higher Education. CHESS Workshop (Colombo, Sri Lanka, January 5-11, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University Grants Commission (Sri Lanka).

    The Commonwealth Higher Education Support Scheme (CHESS) 1997 Workshop was designed to promote the professional development of women in leadership positions in higher education. Participants were drawn from senior university academics and administrators from five countries: Bangladesh, India, Malaysia, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. Specific objectives…

  18. Dengue Virus Transmission by Blood Stem Cell Donor after Travel to Sri Lanka; Germany, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Punzel, Michael; Korukluoğlu, Gülay; Caglayik, Dilek Yagci; Menemenlioglu, Dilek; Bozdag, Sinem Civriz; Tekgündüz, Emre; Altuntaş, Fevzi; Campos, Renata de Mendonca; Burde, Bernd; Günther, Stephan; Tappe, Dennis; Cadar, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Three days after donation of peripheral blood stem cells to a recipient with acute myeloblastic leukemia, dengue virus was detected in the donor, who had recently traveled to Sri Lanka. Transmission to the recipient, who died 9 days after transplant, was confirmed. PMID:25062084

  19. Lest the World Forget: Sri Lanka's Educational Needs after the 2004 Tsunami

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cashman, Timothy G.; Asing-Cashman, Joyce G.

    2006-01-01

    This qualitative study strives to provide a greater understanding of the past, current, and future state of education in Sri Lanka after the 2004 tsunami. The researchers' key objectives are to provide additional insight to educators of the far-reaching impact of the tsunami via a website they created. Rather than concentrate on the same sort of…

  20. Grassroots Empowerment of Women: Portraits of Four Villages in Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeris, Laurel; Gajanayake, Jaya; Ismail, Jesima; Ebert, Seela; Peris, Amara; Wanasundara, Leelangi; Diyadawagamage, Nalika

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a participatory research (PR) project encompassing a capacity-development programme and advocacy skill-building initiative for rural women. The project actively engaged four prominent women's non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in Sri Lanka: Agromart Foundation, Centre for Women's Research (CENWOR), Sarvodaya Women's…

  1. Distribution and ecological aspects of sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) species in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Ozbel, Yusuf; Sanjoba, Chizu; Alten, Bulent; Asada, Masahito; Depaquit, Jerome; Matsumoto, Yasunobu; Demir, Samiye; Siyambalagoda, R R M L R; Rajapakse, R P V J; Matsumoto, Yoshitsugu

    2011-03-01

    Human indigenous cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania donovani complex is endemic in Sri Lanka. We performed an entomological survey to determine the distribution of probable vector species. Sand flies were collected in districts in the dry zone, in the wet zone highlands, and in the wet zone coastal belt of Sri Lanka using CDC light traps, sticky traps and cattle-baited net traps during July, 2005. The survey was reconducted in February, 2006. Overall, 584 sand flies belonging to Phlebotomus (266 specimens, 2 species) and Sergentomyia (318 specimens, 8 species) genera were collected. A total of 266 Phlebotomus was identified as P. argentipes (258/266; 97%) and P. stantoni (8/266; 3%) . The identification studies of Sergentomyia specimens showed that there are at least 8 species in Sri Lanka. Higher number of Phlebotomus sand flies (76/266) were caught in the southern part of the country compared to the other parts probably due to different ecological aspects. P. argentipes were widely distributed throughout the island whereas P. stantoni were collected only in four districts. Since P. argentipes is known to be the vector of L. donovani responsible of visceral leishmaniasis in India, this species may be incriminated as the most possible vector of human cutaneous leishmaniasis in Sri Lanka. PMID:21366784

  2. Education Participation in Sri Lanka--Why All Are Not in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arunatilake, Nisha

    2006-01-01

    Despite Sri Lanka's 1990 commitment to provide 10-11 years of free education to all, only 93% of children in the 5-14-year-old age group were in school by the year 2000. Moreover, the education participation rates are not equitable across the country, varying by socio-economic groups. This paper examines the determinants of school…

  3. Mass Communication in Sri Lanka: An Annotated Bibliography. Asian Mass Communication Bibliography Series 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goonetileke, H. A. I., Comp.; And Others

    Published and unpublished materials dealing with the multidisciplinary field of mass communication in Sri Lanka are listed in this bibliography. The 362 entries are grouped into 20 sections: bibliography and reference material; communication theory and research methods; general communication; media development and characteristics; newspapers;…

  4. Maternal employment and income affect dietary calorie adequacy in households in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Rathnayake, Ishara M; Weerahewa, Jeevika

    2005-06-01

    Nutritional deficiencies among children and mothers in lower-income households in Sri Lanka continue to be a major obstacle to the country's social and economic development. This study investigates the factors affecting dietary caloric adequacy in Sri Lanka, paying special attention to maternal income. An econometric analysis was performed using a household data set collected from a sample of 183 low-income households in the urban, rural, and estate sectors. The results showed that on average, mothers and children in the sample did not consume adequate levels of calories according to the recommendations of the Medical Research Institute of Sri Lanka. The mother's income and educational status, the number of children and adults in the family, and the ages, sexes, and birth orders of the children significantly influenced household and individual caloric adequacy. Specifically, the mother's income had a significant positive effect on the total caloric intake (CI) and caloric adequacy ratio (CAR) of the household, mother, and children and a significant negative effect on the relative caloric allocation (RCA) of the children. The results imply that when maternal employment generates extra income, the CIs of all individuals increase, yet the allocation of calories to the children of the household is reduced. Thus, provision of employment opportunities for mothers, along with adequate child-care facilities and nutritional educational programs, is a possible strategy to improve caloric adequacy among low-income households in Sri Lanka. PMID:16060223

  5. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in dogs from Sri Lanka and genetic characterization of the parasite isolates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in 86 unwanted dogs obtained in two batches (36 in batch 1, 50 in batch 2) from Sri Lanka was determined. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed by the modified agglutination test (MAT) and found in 58 (67.4%) of 86 dogs with titers of 1:20 in seven, 1:40 in four, ...

  6. Speaking Conflict: Ideological Barriers to Bilingual Policy Implementation in Civil War Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Christina P.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a holistic view of ideological barriers to bilingual policy implementation in Sri Lanka, a conflict-ridden postcolonial nation-state. I examine Sinhalese youth and adults' Tamil as a second language (TSL) learning and speaking practices across three contexts: a multilingual school, a program for government servants, and an…

  7. Mathematics Performance and Principal Effectiveness: A Case Study of Some Coastal Primary Schools in Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egodawatte, Gunawardena

    2012-01-01

    This mixed method research study is situated in the school effectiveness research paradigm to examine the correlation between the effectiveness of urban, primary school principals and their students' performance in mathematics. Nine, urban, primary schools from Negombo, a coastal fishing area in Sri Lanka, were selected; their student achievements…

  8. Deployable laboratory response to emergence of melioidosis in central Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Inglis, Timothy J J; Merritt, Adam; Montgomery, Joanne; Jayasinghe, Indika; Thevanesam, Vasanthi; McInnes, Russell

    2008-10-01

    A portable molecular diagnostic laboratory was used to provide molecular confirmation of suspected melioidosis cases seen at Peradeniya Hospital, central Sri Lanka. Soil supernatants from rice field and rubber plantation samples also produced PCR-positive results. These procedures could be used for melioidosis field work in other remote locations. PMID:18716231

  9. Feasibility of an appliance energy testing and labeling program for Sri Lanka

    SciTech Connect

    Biermayer, Peter; Busch, John; Hakim, Sajid; Turiel, Issac; du Pont, Peter; Stone, Chris

    2000-04-01

    A feasibility study evaluated the costs and benefits of establishing a program for testing, labeling and setting minimum efficiency standards for appliances and lighting in Sri Lanka. The feasibility study included: refrigerators, air-conditioners, flourescent lighting (ballasts & CFls), ceiling fans, motors, and televisions.

  10. Duty and Service: Life and Career of a Tamil Teacher of English in Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, David

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the life and career of a Tamil teacher of English working in the government education system in northern Sri Lanka. Based on data gathered in an extended life history interview, the article explores the teacher's own experiences of schooling, his reasons for entering teaching as a profession, his professional training, and…

  11. Atlas of Microorganisms in Coloured Rains and Meteorites in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samaranayake, Anil; Wickramarathne, K.; Karunanayake, S. P. D.

    2013-02-01

    As a continuation of our earlier studies we present here an atlas of microscope images of organisms that we have discovered in a variety of coloured rain samples and meteorites that fell over Sri Lanka in December 2012 and January 2013.

  12. Financing and Educational Policy in Sri Lanka (Ceylon). Financing Educational Systems: Country Case Studies-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallak, Jacques

    The retrospective case study presented is part of a research project undertaken to determine ways in which developing nations can best allocate resources to education in light of their social and economic levels. Past socioeconomic trends in Sri Lanka and its economy in the 1970's are considered first. The case study then moves into descriptions…

  13. Peace Education in Conflict Zones--Experience from Northern Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Simon; Lewer, Nick

    2008-01-01

    In September 2005, adult students from Kilinochchi, located in the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE)-controlled Wanni region of northern Sri Lanka, were awarded University of Bradford, UK, validated postgraduate certificates or diplomas in conflict resolution and peace preparedness. The diploma is, we think, a landmark in peace education…

  14. Education Policy Reform in Sri Lanka: The Double-Edged Sword of Political Will

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Angela W.

    2011-01-01

    In 1997, the Government of Sri Lanka launched a comprehensive set of education reforms designed to promote equitable access to basic education and improvements in learning outcomes. The package of reforms arose as a political response to widespread youth unrest in the late 1980s and attracted considerable "political will", a vague but much vaunted…

  15. Human Bocavirus in Patients with Encephalitis, Sri Lanka, 2009–2010

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Daisuke; Ranawaka, Udaya; Yamada, Kentaro; Rajindrajith, Shaman; Miya, Kazushi; Perera, Harsha Kumara Kithsiri; Matsumoto, Takashi; Dassanayake, Malka; Mitui, Marcelo Takahiro; Mori, Hisashi; Nishizono, Akira; Söderlund-Venermo, Maria

    2013-01-01

    We identified human bocavirus (HBoV) DNA by PCR in cerebrospinal fluid from adults and children with encephalitis in Sri Lanka. HBoV types 1, 2, and 3 were identified among these cases. Phylogenetic analysis of HBoV1 strain sequences found no subclustering with strains previously identified among encephalitis cases in Bangladesh. PMID:24188380

  16. Malaria Control and Elimination in Sri Lanka: Documenting Progress and Success Factors in a Conflict Setting

    PubMed Central

    Abeyasinghe, Rabindra R.; Galappaththy, Gawrie N. L.; Smith Gueye, Cara; Kahn, James G.; Feachem, Richard G. A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Sri Lanka has a long history of malaria control, and over the past decade has had dramatic declines in cases amid a national conflict. A case study of Sri Lanka's malaria programme was conducted to characterize the programme and explain recent progress. Methods The case study employed qualitative and quantitative methods. Data were collected from published and grey literature, district-level and national records, and thirty-three key informant interviews. Expenditures in two districts for two years – 2004 and 2009 – were compiled. Findings Malaria incidence in Sri Lanka has declined by 99.9% since 1999. During this time, there were increases in the proportion of malaria infections due to Plasmodium vivax, and the proportion of infections occurring in adult males. Indoor residual spraying and distribution of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets have likely contributed to the low transmission. Entomological surveillance was maintained. A strong passive case detection system captures infections and active case detection was introduced. When comparing conflict and non-conflict districts, vector control and surveillance measures were maintained in conflict areas, often with higher coverage reported in conflict districts. One of two districts in the study reported a 48% decline in malaria programme expenditure per person at risk from 2004 to 2009. The other district had stable malaria spending. Conclusions/Significance Malaria is now at low levels in Sri Lanka – 124 indigenous cases were found in 2011. The majority of infections occur in adult males and are due to P. vivax. Evidence-driven policy and an ability to adapt to new circumstances contributed to this decline. Malaria interventions were maintained in the conflict districts despite an ongoing war. Sri Lanka has set a goal of eliminating malaria by the end of 2014. Early identification and treatment of infections, especially imported ones, together with effective surveillance and response, will

  17. Assessing sloth bears as surrogates for carnivore conservation in Sri Lanka

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ratnayeke, Shyamala; Van Manen, Frank T.

    2012-01-01

    Bears are large, charismatic mammals whose presence often garners conservation attention. Because healthy bear populations typically require large, contiguous areas of habitat, land conservation actions often are assumed to benefit co-occurring species, including other mammalian carnivores. However, we are not aware of an empirical test of this assumption. We used remote camera data from 2 national parks in Sri Lanka to test the hypothesis that the frequency of detection of sloth bears (Melursus ursinus) is associated with greater richness of carnivore species. We focused on mammalian carnivores because they play a pivotal role in the stability of ecological communities and are among Sri Lanka's most endangered species. Seven of Sri Lanka's carnivores are listed as endangered, vulnerable, or near threatened, and little empirical information exists on their status and distribution. During 2002–03, we placed camera traps at 152 sites to document carnivore species presence. We used Poisson regression to develop predictive models for 3 categories of dependent variables: species richness of (1) all carnivores, (2) carnivores considered at risk, and (3) carnivores of least conservation concern. For each category, we analyzed 8 a priori models based on combinations of sloth bear detections, sample year, and study area and used Akaike's information criterion (AICc) to test our research hypothesis. We detected sloth bears at 55 camera sites and detected 13 of Sri Lanka's 14 Carnivora species. Species richness of all carnivores showed positive associations with the number of sloth bear detections, regardless of study area. Sloth bear detections were also positively associated with species richness of carnivores at risk across both study years and study areas, but not with species richness of common carnivores. Sloth bears may serve as a valuable surrogate species whose habitat protection would contribute to conservation of other carnivores in Sri Lanka.

  18. Twelve Years of Rabies Surveillance in Sri Lanka, 1999–2010

    PubMed Central

    Karunanayake, Dushantha; Matsumoto, Takashi; Wimalaratne, Omala; Nanayakkara, Susilakanthi; Perera, Devika; Nishizono, Akira; Ahmed, Kamruddin

    2014-01-01

    Background Rabies is endemic in Sri Lanka, but little is known about the temporal and spatial trends of rabies in this country. Knowing these trends may provide insight into past control efforts and serve as the basis for future control measures. In this study, we analyzed distribution of rabies in humans and animals over a period of 12 years in Sri Lanka. Methods Accumulated data from 1999 through 2010 compiled by the Department of Rabies Diagnosis and Research, Medical Research Institute (MRI), Colombo, were used in this study. Results The yearly mean percentage of rabies-positive sample was 62.4% (47.6–75.9%). Three-fourths of the rabies-positive samples were from the Colombo, Gampaha, and Kalutara districts in Western province, followed by Galle in Southern province. A high percentage of the rabies samples were from dogs (85.2%), followed by cats (7.9%), humans (3.8%), wild animals (2.0%), and livestock (1.1%). Among wild animals, mongooses were the main victims followed by civets. The number of suspect human rabies cases decreased gradually in Sri Lanka, although the number of human samples submitted for laboratory confirmation increased. Conclusions The number of rabid dogs has remained relatively unchanged, but the number of suspect human rabies is decreasing gradually in Sri Lanka. These findings indicate successful use of postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) by animal bite victims and increased rabies awareness. PEP is free of charge and is supplied through government hospitals by the Ministry of Health, Sri Lanka. Our survey shows that most positive samples were received from Western and Southern provinces, possibly because of the ease of transporting samples to the laboratory. Submissions of wild animal and livestock samples should be increased by creating more awareness among the public. Better rabies surveillance will require introduction of molecular methods for detection and the establishment of more regional rabies diagnostic laboratories. PMID:25299511

  19. Comparative Assessment of Irrigation Water Quality in Sri Lanka's Tank-Cascade and Mahaweli Irrigation Schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunda, T.; Hornberger, G. M.

    2013-12-01

    Two distinct irrigation systems dominate the landscape in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. The tank-cascade system, which originates from third century BC, is a small-scale system that has been the traditional method for communities to meet their farming water needs. The Mahaweli reservoir system, in contrast, is a large-scale irrigation scheme initiated in the 1970s that diverts water across hundreds of kilometers from the headwaters of the Mahaweli River to farmers. Although approximately equal amounts of paddy land are irrigated under these two systems, very little comparative analysis has been conducted on the spatial variation of irrigation water quality in Sri Lanka. An exploratory study was conducted in June 2013 in Anuradhapura district, an area that experiences the highest level of paddy production instability and has had long-standing irrigation water quality issues. A total of 30 water samples from both cascade systems and Mahaweli system H-7 were analyzed for pH, temperature, conductivity, turbidity, and chromatic dissolved organic matter using field instruments. A subset of these samples was further analyzed for nitrate and ammonia using colorimetric methods. While the sparse data from our study revealed some interesting trends, it is difficult to extrapolate in detail. Therefore, we compare inferences drawn about the Sri Lanka data to a more detailed analysis of chromatic dissolved organic matter in a Tennessee watershed. This comparison will provide insight into possible interpretations relative to the water quality data collected in Sri Lanka. As Sri Lanka continues to develop its irrigation resources, water quality assessments such as this one are critical for identifying factors limiting paddy production in the country.

  20. Heavy metals in Ratnapura alluvial gem sediments, Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vithanage, M. S.; Hettiarachchi, J. K.; Rajapaksha, A. U.; Wijesekara, H.; Hewawasam, T.

    2011-12-01

    The valuable gems in Sri Lanka are found from the sedimentary gem deposits in Ratnapura District, which are found as alluvial deposits some are about >50 m deep. Gem bearing gravel layer is taken out from the mine, washed by panning to recover the gem minerals in the heavy mineral fraction, is a common practice in the gem mining area. Gem bearing sediment layer is associated with different heavy minerals in which different trace metals as Co, Cr, Cu, Al, Zr, Pb and As also can be present. During panning, the sediment is washed away and the heavy metals attached to the sediments are released into the environment. Hence we studied the lability and bioavailability of arsenic and other heavy metals from the gem sediments. Sediment samples were collected from 15 small scale gem mines (3 soil layers- top, gem mineral layer and layer below gem bearing gravel layer), air dried and sieved to obtain <63μm fraction. Bioavailable, exchangeable and residual fractions were 0.01M CaCl2, 1M NaOAc, pH 8.2 and microwave digestion using HF, HNO3 and HClO4. Filtered samples were analyzed for As, Co, Zn, Mn, Cu, Ni, Pb and Fe using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (GBC 933AA). Total digestion results in different layers indicated that heavy metals show an increasing pattern with depth. About 4 gem bearing gravel layers were consist of high concentrations of Ni (>150 mg/kg), Cu (>150 mg/kg), Pb (>400 mg/kg), Zn (>600 mg/kg) and Co ions (>100 mg/kg). Arsenite in the gem sediments were low and recorded as <5mg/kg. Total arsenic analysis is under investigation. Highest concentrations for bioavailable and exchangeable (leach to water) metals were Fe>Co>Zn>Mn>Ni>Cu>Pb. Sediments from few gem pits showed considerably high concentrations of metals analyzed. In some places Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn reported high in bioavailable fractions 70, 25, 20, 10 mg/kg respectively. Mobilization of these metals may increase due to changes in the pH and the presence of other ions in the environment. High

  1. Stabilising a victor's peace? Humanitarian action and reconstruction in eastern Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Goodhand, Jonathan

    2010-10-01

    This paper focuses on the 'Sri Lankan model' of counter-insurgency and stabilisation and its implications for humanitarian and development actors. The Sri Lanka case shows that discourses, policies and practices associated with 'stabilisation' are not confined to 'fragile state' contexts in which there is heavy (and often militarised) international engagement--even though exemplars such as Afghanistan and Iraq have tended to dominate debates on this issue. Rather than being a single template, the 'stabilisation agenda' takes on very different guises in different contexts, presenting quite specific challenges to humanitarian and development actors. This is particularly true in settings like Sri Lanka, where there is a strong state, which seeks to make aid 'coherent' with its own vision of a militarily imposed political settlement. Working in such environments involves navigating a highly-charged domestic political arena, shaped by concerns about sovereignty, nationalism and struggles for legitimacy. PMID:20846349

  2. A new canopy-dwelling species of Dendrelaphis (Serpentes: Colubridae) from Sinharaja, World Heritage Site, Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Wickramasinghe, L J Mendis

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Dendrelaphis, Dendrelaphis sinharajensis sp. nov. is described, the sixth species of the genus known from Sri Lanka. The new species is readily distinguished from all other congeners by its colour pattern and scalation. The species is a canopy-dweller known only from the Sinharaja World Heritage Site and its vicinity, in the lowland wet zone of Sri Lanka. PMID:27615987

  3. Chikungunya as a Cause of Acute Febrile Illness in Southern Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Reller, Megan E.; Akoroda, Ufuoma; Nagahawatte, Ajith; Devasiri, Vasantha; Kodikaarachchi, Wasantha; Strouse, John J.; Chua, Robert; Hou, Yan'an; Chow, Angelia; Sessions, October M.; Østbye, Truls; Gubler, Duane J.; Woods, Christopher W.; Bodinayake, Champica

    2013-01-01

    Background Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) re-emerged in Sri Lanka in late 2006 after a 40-year hiatus. We sought to identify and characterize acute chikungunya infection (CHIK) in patients presenting with acute undifferentiated febrile illness in unstudied rural and semi-urban southern Sri Lanka in 2007. Methodology/Principal Findings We enrolled febrile patients ≥ 2 years of age, collected uniform epidemiologic and clinical data, and obtained serum samples for serology, virus isolation, and real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR). Serology on paired acute and convalescent samples identified acute chikungunya infection in 3.5% (28/797) patients without acute dengue virus (DENV) infection, 64.3% (18/28) of which were confirmed by viral isolation and/or real-time RT-PCR. No CHIKV/DENV co-infections were detected among 54 patients with confirmed acute DENV. Sequencing of the E1 coding region of six temporally distinct CHIKV isolates (April through October 2007) showed that all isolates posessed the E1-226A residue and were most closely related to Sri Lankan and Indian isolates from the same time period. Except for more frequent and persistent musculoskeletal symptoms, acute chikungunya infections mimicked DENV and other acute febrile illnesses. Only 12/797 (1.5%) patients had serological evidence of past chikungunya infection. Conclusions/Significance Our findings suggest CHIKV is a prominent cause of non-specific acute febrile illness in southern Sri Lanka. PMID:24312651

  4. Sri Lanka in global medical research: a scientific analysis of the Sri Lankan research output during 2000-2009

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Scientific research is an essential component in guiding improvements in health systems. There are no studies examining the Sri Lankan medical research output at international level. The present study evaluated the Sri Lankan research performance in medicine as reflected by the research publications output between years 2000-2009. Methods This study was based on Sri Lankan medical research publication data, retrieved from the SciVerse Scopus® from January 2000 to December 2009. The process of article selection was as follows: Affiliation - 'Sri Lanka' or 'Ceylon', Publication year - 'January 2000 to December 2009' and Subject area - 'Life and Health Sciences'. The articles identified were classified according to disease, medical speciality, institutions, major international collaborators, authors and journals. Results Sri Lanka's cumulative medical publications output between years 2000-2009 was 1,740 articles published in 160 different journals. The average annual publication growth rate was 9.1%. Majority of the articles were published in 'International' (n = 950, 54.6%) journals. Most articles were descriptive studies (n = 611, 35.1%), letters (n-345, 19.8%) and case reports (n = 311, 17.9%). The articles were authored by 148 different Sri Lankan authors from 146 different institutions. The three most prolific local institutions were Universities of; Colombo (n = 547), Kelaniya (n = 246) and Peradeniya (n = 222). Eighty four countries were found to have published collaborative papers with Sri Lankan authors during the last decade. UK was the largest collaborating partner (n = 263, 15.1%). Malaria (n = 75), Diabetes Mellitus (n = 55), Dengue (n = 53), Accidental injuries (n = 42) and Lymphatic filariasis (n = 40) were the major diseases studied. The 1,740 publications were cited 9,708 times, with an average citation of 5.6 per paper. The most cited paper had 203 citations, while there were 597 publications with no citations. The Sri Lankan authors

  5. Girls' identity formation in the changing social structure of Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    de Silva, S; Stiles, D A; Gibbons, J L; Gibbon, J L

    1992-06-01

    Adolescent girls (N = 118) from diverse social backgrounds in Sri Lanka described their views of womanhood. Qualities of the ideal woman considered most important were kindness and honesty, liking children, intelligence, and having a good job. Although the traditional role of the Sri Lankan woman is that of homemaker, most girls in the study (55%) drew the ideal woman working outside the home, often as a teacher or a doctor. Nevertheless, adolescent girls emphasized traditional qualities of the woman at both work and home as self-sacrificing and serving others. PMID:1512588

  6. "Education Is All about Opportunities, Isn't It?": A Biographical Perspective on Learning and Teaching English in Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, David

    2010-01-01

    In this article, David Hayes explores the language learning and teaching experiences of a teacher of English in Sri Lanka. He shows how the acquisition of English enabled the teacher to access the social capital available to speakers of English, which holds a divisive place in postcolonial Sri Lankan society. In his reflections on his career, this…

  7. A hazards-model analysis of the covariates of infant and child mortality in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Trussell, J; Hammerslough, C

    1983-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is twofold: (a) to provide a complete self-contained exposition of estimating life tables with covariates through the use of hazards models, and (b) to illustrate this technique with a substantive analysis of child mortality in Sri Lanka, thereby demonstrating that World Fertility Survey data are a valuable source for the study of child mortality. We show that life tables with covariates can be easily estimated with standard computer packages designed for analysis of contingency tables. The substantive analysis confirms and supplements an earlier study of infant and child mortality in Sri Lanka by Meegama. Those factors found to be strongly associated with mortality are mother's and father's education, time period of birth, urban/rural/estate residence, ethnicity, sex, birth order, age of the mother at the birth, and type of toilet facility. PMID:6832431

  8. Groundwater overuse and farm-level technical inefficiency: evidence from Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athukorala, Wasantha; Wilson, Clevo

    2012-08-01

    Extraction of groundwater for onion and other cash crop production has been increasing rapidly during the last two decades in the dry zone areas of Sri Lanka. As a result of overuse, the quantity of available groundwater is gradually declining, while water quality is deteriorating. The deteriorating water quality has a negative impact on agricultural production, especially for crops (such as onions) that are sensitive to increases in salinity levels. This issue is examined with respect to onion production in Sri Lanka. A stochastic frontier production function (SFPF) is used, in which technical efficiency and the determinants of inefficiencies are estimated simultaneously. The results show that farmers are overusing groundwater in their onion cultivation, which has resulted in decreasing yields. Factors contributing to inefficiency in production are also identified. The results have important policy implications.

  9. Sri Lanka field survey after the December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goff, James; Liu, Philip L-F.; Higman, Bretwood; Morton, Robert; Jaffe, Bruce E.; Fernando, Haindra; Lynett, Patrick; Fritz, Hermann; Synolakis, Costas; Fernando, Starin

    2006-01-01

    An International Tsunami Survey Team (ITST) consisting of scientists from the United States, New Zealand, and Sri Lanka evaluated the impacts of the 26 December 2004 transoceanic tsunami in Sri Lanka two weeks after the event. Tsunami runup height, inundation distance, morphological changes, and sedimentary characteristics of deposits were recorded and analyzed along the southwest and east coasts of the country. Preliminary results show how local topography and bathymetry controlled the limits of inundation and associated damage to the infrastructure. The largest wave height of 8.71 m was recorded at Nonagama, while the greatest inundation distance of 390 m and runup height of 12.50 m was at Yala. At some sites, human alterations to the landscape increased the damage caused by the tsunami; this was particularly evident in areas of coral poaching and of sand dune removal.

  10. Detection of variant infectious bronchitis viruses in Sri Lanka (2012-2015).

    PubMed

    Ball, Christopher; Forrester, Anne; Ganapathy, Kannan

    2016-06-01

    Poultry production is an important sector of agriculture in Sri Lanka; however, there is a lack of information regarding circulation of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). RNA was extracted from chicken tissues, subjected to IBV S1 RT-PCR, and sequenced. Overall, 19 out of 34 (55.88 %) samples were IBV positive and contained the genotype 793B (n = 13; 68.42 %), D274 (n = 4; 21.05 %) or Massachusetts (n = 2; 10.53 %). All three genotypes contained at least one strain with less than 99 % nucleotide sequence identity to the corresponding vaccine strains. This report identified co-circulation of IBV strains 793B, Massachusetts and D274, in Sri Lanka that are divergent from the respective vaccine strains. PMID:27020570

  11. Non-fatal self-poisoning across age groups, in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Rajapakse, Thilini; Christensen, Helen; Cotton, Sue; Griffiths, Kathleen Margaret

    2016-02-01

    Attempted or non-fatal self-poisoning in common in Sri Lanka, but little is known about variation of psychiatric morbidity and suicidal intent across differing ages. The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka across three different age groups (namely 14-24 years, 25-34 years and ≥35 years). It was anticipated that the findings of the study would inform and guide development of preventive interventions for non-fatal self-poisoning in this country. 935 participants were interviewed within one week of admission to hospital for medical management of non-fatal self-poisoning, over a consecutive 14-month period. Socio-demographic factors, types of poison ingested, triggers and psychiatric morbidity was examined as a function of age. Results showed that a majority (83%) of participants were aged below 35 years. Younger participants aged <25 years were significantly more likely to ingest medicinal overdoses, compared to older persons (aged 25-34 years, and ≥35 years), who were more likely to ingest pesticides. Recent interpersonal conflict was a proximal trigger seen in all age groups, but suicidal intent, depression and alcohol use disorders increased with age. The overall study findings indicate that most who carry out acts of non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka are young (aged <35 years). Interpersonal conflict as a trigger is common to all age groups, but psychiatric morbidity and suicidal intent is higher in the older age groups, as is pesticide ingestion. Age specific interventions may be efficacious in the prevention of non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka. PMID:26957344

  12. Developing tools to link environmental flows science and its practice in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriyagma, N.; Jinapala, K.

    2014-09-01

    The term "Environmental Flows (EF)" may be defined as "the quantity, timing and quality of water flows required to sustain freshwater and estuarine ecosystems and the human livelihoods and well-being that depend on these ecosystems". It may be regarded as "water for nature" or "environmental demand" similar to crop water requirements, industrial or domestic water demand. The practice of EF is still limited to a few developed countries such as Australia, South Africa and the UK. In many developing countries EF is rarely considered in water resources planning and is often deemed "unimportant". Sri Lanka, being a developing country, is no exception to this general rule. Although the country underwent an extensive irrigation/water resources development phase during the 1960s through to the 1980s, the concept of EF was hardly considered. However, as Sri Lanka's water resources are being exploited more and more for human usage, ecologists, water practitioners and policymakers alike have realized the importance of EF in sustaining not only freshwater and estuarine ecosystems, but also their services to humans. Hence estimation of EF has been made mandatory in environmental impact assessments (EIAs) of all large development projects involving river regulation/water abstraction. Considering EF is especially vital under the rapid urbanization and infrastructure development phase that dawned after the end of the war in the North and the East of the country in 2009. This paper details simple tools (including a software package which is under development) and methods that may be used for coarse scale estimation of EF at/near monitored locations on major rivers of Sri Lanka, along with example applications to two locations on River Mahaweli. It is hoped that these tools will help bridge the gap between EF science and its practice in Sri Lanka and other developing countries.

  13. Dehydration and malaria augment the risk of developing chronic kidney disease in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Siriwardhana, E. A. R. I. E.; Perera, P. A. J.; Sivakanesan, R.; Abeysekara, T.; Nugegoda, D. B.; Jayaweera, J. A. A. S.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) of unknown etiology (CKDu) is a serious health issue in Sri Lanka. One-to-one age and sex-matched two sample comparative study was carried out in the Medawachchiya divisional secretariat area of the North Central Province (NCP) of Sri Lanka, by randomly selecting 100 CKDu patients and 100 age and sex-matched subjects from non-CKDu affected families from the same area. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used for the collection of data pertaining to occupation, medical history and lifestyle. Data were analyzed using a conditional linear logistic model. Working for >6 h in the field per day, exposure to sun, drinking water only from well, consumption of <3 L of water per day, and having a history of malaria were found to be having significant (P < 0.05) likelihood toward the development of CKDu. Treatment of water prior to consumption had a significant protective effect against CKDu. Dehydration, history of malaria and drinking untreated well water from are likely contribute to the development of CKD of unknown etiology among the inhabitants of NCP, Sri Lanka. PMID:26060363

  14. Resistance Towards the Language of Globalisation - The Case of Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punchi, Lakshman

    2001-07-01

    This paper relates the contemporary educational reforms in Sri Lanka to the processes of globalisation. The international monetary organisations such as the IMF and the World Bank and the regional organisations like the Asian Development Bank (ADB) play a dominant role in influencing the debt-receiving countries when it comes to their educational practice. The intensity of the influence of these organisations can vary depending on the existing educational policy of the aid receiving countries. This paper, after a brief introduction on globalisation, examines its effects on the education policy in Sri Lanka with a special emphasis on the current language policy. Equity in education is usually advocated at primary level based on the universal primary education concept so highly upheld by the World Bank. However, the present high human development indicators are undoubtedly due to Sri Lanka's free education policy in native languages. The paper concludes stressing the importance to retain the national education policy as a means of empowerment and liberation of its masses and creating stronger ethnic harmony.

  15. Climate Change Impacts on Rice Farming Systems in Northwestern Sri Lanka. Chapter 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zubair, Lareef; Nissanka, Sarath P.; Weerakoon, W. M. W.; Herath, Dumindu I.; Karunaratne, Asha S; Prabodha, A. S. M.; Agalawatte, M. B.; Herath, Rasnayaka; Yahiya, S. Zeenas; Punyawardhene, B. V. R.; Vishwanathan, Janan; Delpitiya, Punya; Wijekoon, A. Erandika N.; Gunaratna, Janaka; Chandrasekara, Sewwandhi S. K.; Wickramagamage, P.; Weerasinghe, K. D. N.; Navaratne, Champa M.; Perera, Ruchika S.; Gunesekara, Asela I.; Kumara, G. M. Pradeep; Wallach, Daniel; Valdivia, Roberto O.; McDermid, Sonali

    2015-01-01

    Sri Lanka has achieved tremendous progress since 1950 in crop production and food availability. Yields grew at an impressive rate until leveling off in the mid-eighties. Sri Lanka's population is anticipated to grow in the coming decades, creating an ever-greater demand for food security on the household, sub-district, regional, and national scales.The agricultural sector in Sri Lanka is vulnerable to climate shocks. An unusual succession of droughts and floods from 2008 to 2014 has led to both booms and busts in agricultural production, which were reflected in food prices. In both instances, the majority of farmers and consumers were adversely affected.At present the rice-farming systems are under stress due to inadequate returns for the farmers and difficulty in coping with shocks due to climate, pests, and diseases, and prices for produce. There are government price-support mechanisms, fertilizer-subsidy schemes, and crop insurance schemes, but the levels of the supports are modest and often do not effectively reach the farmers.

  16. Occupational risk factors for low back pain among drivers of three-wheelers in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Noda, Misa; Malhotra, Rahul; DeSilva, Vijitha; Sapukotana, Pasindu; DeSilva, Asela; Kirkorowicz, Jacob; Allen, John; Østbye, Truls

    2015-01-01

    Background: Approximately 5% of all households in Sri Lanka operate a three-wheeler as their primary source of income. However, very little is known about the occupational health risks associated with driving these vehicles. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess occupational risk factors, including the number of hours worked associated with the 4-week prevalence of low back pain (LBP) among drivers of three-wheelers. Methods: Questionnaires were administered to 200 full-time drivers of three-wheelers from the Galle District in Sri Lanka. Occupational, psychological, socio-demographic, lifestyle, and anthropometric variables were collected. Univariate and multivariate analysis were used to investigate the correlation between occupational risk factors of the prevalence of LBP. Results: 15.5% of respondents reported experiencing LBP in the previous 4 months. Univariate analysis revealed that the number of hours worked per week, feeling pressure to compete with other drivers, and perceived stress scale scores were significantly associated with the 4-week prevalence of LBP. Multivariate analysis found that the number of hours worked per week and engine type were significantly associated with LBP. Conclusions: LBP is common among drivers of three-wheelers in Sri Lanka. Long work hours and two-stroke engines were significantly associated with LBP. Results from this study point towards a role for educational, behavioral health, and policy interventions to help prevent and reduce LBP among these drivers. PMID:25133353

  17. Caregiving expectations and challenges among elders and their adult children in Southern Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Watt, Melissa H.; Perera, Bilesha; Østbye, Truls; Ranabahu, Shyama; Rajapakse, Harshini; Maselko, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    The elderly population in Sri Lanka is growing rapidly. Elders are traditionally cared for in the homes of their adult children, but the shifting socio-economic environment in Sri Lanka challenges this arrangement. This paper describes the dynamics of elder-caregiver relationships in Southern Sri Lanka. Data included 4 focus group discussions and 5 in-depth interviews with elderly, and 10 in-depth interviews with adult children of the elderly. Discussion guide topics included caregiving arrangements, and roles/responsibilities of elders and caregivers. Using a grounded theory approach, a comprehensive analytic memo was developed and discussed to explore emerging themes on the caregiver dynamic. Both elders and caregivers felt that elders should be taken care of in the home by their children. They pointed to a sense of duty and role modeling of parental caregiving that is passed down through generations. Even as elders desired support from their children, they feared losing their independence, and saw financial autonomy as important for maintaining relationship balance. Caregiving challenges included: households where both the adult child and his/her spouse worked outside the home; households where elders had a disproportionate amount of household work; economically stressed households; and lack of direct communication between elders and caregivers regarding conflicts. Results point to strong values around caring for elderly in the home, but identify challenges to this arrangement in the future. PMID:25152553

  18. Characterization of imported malaria, the largest threat to sustained malaria elimination from Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Dharmawardena, Priyani; Premaratne, Risintha G; Gunasekera, W M Kumudunayana T de A W; Hewawitarane, Mihirini; Mendis, Kamini; Fernando, Deepika

    2015-01-01

    Sri Lanka has reached zero indigenous malaria cases in November 2012, two years before its targeted deadline for elimination. Currently, the biggest threat to the elimination efforts are the risk of resurgence of malaria due to imported cases. This paper describes two clusters of imported malaria infections reported in 2013 and 2014, one among a group of Pakistani asylum-seekers resident in Sri Lanka, and the other amongst local fishermen who returned from Sierra Leone. The two clusters studied reveal the potential impact of imported malaria on the risk of reintroducing the disease, as importation is the only source of malaria in the country at present. In the event of a case occurring, detection is a major challenge both amongst individuals returning from malaria endemic countries and the local population, as malaria is fast becoming a "forgotten" disease amongst health care providers. In spite of a very good coverage of diagnostic services (microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests) throughout the country, malaria is being repeatedly overlooked by health care providers even when individuals present with fever and a recent history of travel to a malaria endemic country. Given the high receptivity to malaria in previously endemic areas of the country due to the prevalence of the vector mosquito, such cases pose a significant threat for the reintroduction of malaria to Sri Lanka. The challenges faced by the Anti Malaria Campaign and measures taken to prevent the resurgence of malaria are discussed here. PMID:25902716

  19. The economic, demographic, sociocultural and political setting for emigration from Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Gunatilleke, G

    1995-01-01

    This study of emigration from Sri Lanka is introduced by a brief review of the situation during the colonial period and an overview of recent migration experience. The second section of the paper deals with data collection and sources for labor migration, political migration, and estimates of total net migration. The third section looks at economic and demographic trends in terms of the growth of the economy, population growth and social well-being, the growth of the labor force, unemployment, the structure of the work force, internal migration and access to agricultural lands, and income distribution and poverty. The sociocultural setting is then explored by considering exposure to the international environment, ethnicity and cultural affinity, the formation of information and job placement networks, the supportive role of the family, and the impact of success and failure. Moving on the influence of the political setting, the paper then discusses the government policy of foreign employment promotion as well as the influence of political developments on migration. In conclusion, the paper notes that future demand for domestic service workers will likely increase, and that Sri Lanka will continue to have a surplus of workers to fill this demand until the end of the 1990s, when a tightening domestic labor market and increased real wages will ease the push for migration. Political factors will continue to favor migration, however, unless a liberal democratic regime becomes the governing force in Sri Lanka. PMID:12347013

  20. Antivenom for snakebite envenoming in Sri Lanka: the need for geographically specific antivenom and improved efficacy.

    PubMed

    Keyler, D E; Gawarammana, I; Gutiérrez, J M; Sellahewa, K H; McWhorter, K; Malleappah, R

    2013-07-01

    Sri Lanka is a tropical developing island nation that endures significant economic and medical burden as a result of snakebite envenomation, having not only a high prevalence of envenomations, but also one of the highest incidence rates (200 snakebites/100,000 people/year) of venomous snakebite in the world (Kasturiratne et al., 2005). Ironically, the very snakes responsible for this human morbidity and mortality are a valuable biomedical and ecological national resource, despite the medical and economic consequences of envenomation. Currently, no snake antivenom is produced using venoms from native Sri Lankan snakes as immunogens, and there is a true need for an efficacious Sri Lanka, poly-specific snake antivenom. An approach to fulfilling this need via combining the scientific, technological and economical resources from Costa Rica and the United States with the knowledge and talent of Sri Lankan official governmental agencies, legal counsels, environmental, medical and veterinary academic institutions, and religious and cultural leaders has been initiated, coordinated and funded by Animal Venom Research International (AVRI), a nonprofit charity. This bridging of nations and the cooperative pooling of their resources represents a potential avenue for antivenom development in a developing country that suffers the consequences of few specific resources for the medical management of venomous snakebite. The desired final outcome of such an endeavor for Sri Lanka is, most importantly, improved medical outcomes for snakebite patients, with enhanced and expanded science and technology relating to snake venoms and antivenoms, and the collateral benefits of reduced economic cost for the country. PMID:23454626

  1. Saw-scaled viper bites in Sri Lanka: is it a different subspecies? Clinical evidence from an authenticated case series.

    PubMed

    Gnanathasan, Ariaranee; Rodrigo, Chaturaka; Peranantharajah, Thambipillai; Coonghe, Anthonia

    2012-02-01

    The saw-scaled viper (SSV) (Echis carinatus) is considered to be a highly venomous snake in Sri Lanka despite any published clinical justification. Being a rarity, the clinical profile of SSV bites is not well established in Sri Lanka. We report a series of 48 (n-48) SSV bites from the Northern Province of Sri Lanka. The majority (65%) of victims had evidence of local envenoming at the site of the bite; however, 29% showed spontaneous bleeding and 71% had coagulopathy. There were no deaths in the series. The envenoming was mild in contrast to the mortality and significant morbidity associated with SSV bites in West Africa and some parts of India. These observations need to be further explored with laboratory studies to identify the venom components, study of morphological characteristics, and genetic profiling of the Sri Lankan SSV to see if it is different from the subspecies found elsewhere. PMID:22302858

  2. Large-scale deforestation for plantation agriculture in the hill country of Sri Lanka and its impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickramagamage, P.

    1998-10-01

    The forest cover in the hill country river catchment areas of Sri Lanka has been reduced to isolated patches on hilltops and a handful of reserves above the 1524 m (5000 ft) contour. Most of the land that was under forest cover at the turn of the nineteenth century is now covered with plantation crops. The districts of Kandy, Matale, Nuwara Eliya, Badulla, Ratnapura and Kegalle are the main hill country plantation areas. Within a period of less than half a century most of the forests in the hill country were cleared for plantation crops. Shifting cultivation was responsible for deforestation in the drier parts of the hill country. At the time of the British conquest of the hill country, the population of the whole island was not more than 3/4 to 1 million and they had settled in isolated villages at elevations below 1066 m. Subsistence agriculture was the main occupation of this predominantly rural population.During the first phase (1830-1880) of the plantation industry, large tracts of mostly forest land were cleared for coffee cultivation. By 1878, the extent of the coffee plantations reached its maximum of 111 336 ha most of which was situated in the wet zone hill country. The second phase of plantation agriculture began as the coffee industry was completely wiped out by a leaf disease. Most of the abandoned coffee plantations and the remaining forests were converted to tea, rubber and cinchona estates. The first two crops managed to survive price fluctuations in the world market, while the latter collapsed because of over production.During the period of large-scale deforestation in the hill country, the climate also underwent changes as exemplified by rainfall and temperature trends. However, these trends are not uniform everywhere in the plantation areas of the hill country. The temperature has risen a few degrees over a period of about a century and quarter in the hill country stations, while rainfall has declined significantly at some stations. These changes

  3. An Overview of Meat Industry in Sri Lanka: A Comprehensive Review

    PubMed Central

    Alahakoon, Amali U.; Jo, Cheorun

    2016-01-01

    Livestock is considered as one of the most important segments in agriculture since animal husbandry was practiced for centuries as a backyard system by rural families. Livestock plays as a powerful tool in rural development where meat industry contributes a dominant part. Meat and meat products become a vital component in the diet, which had been one of the main protein sources traditionally as well. The development in the livestock and meat industry of Sri Lanka basically depends upon religious, cultural, and economic factors. There is a growing demand for processed meat products in Sri Lankan urban culture and several large scale processors entered the business during the past few decades. The consumption of meat and meat products shows an upward trend in Sri Lanka during the last decade and is anticipated to increase further in future. The growth potential of the local meat industry is considerably high owing to the improvement of the market and consumer perception. The present status, trends, and future prospects for the Sri Lankan meat industry with respect to production, consumption, processing, marketing, and improvement are discussed in this review. PMID:27194920

  4. An Overview of Meat Industry in Sri Lanka: A Comprehensive Review.

    PubMed

    Alahakoon, Amali U; Jo, Cheorun; Jayasena, Dinesh D

    2016-01-01

    Livestock is considered as one of the most important segments in agriculture since animal husbandry was practiced for centuries as a backyard system by rural families. Livestock plays as a powerful tool in rural development where meat industry contributes a dominant part. Meat and meat products become a vital component in the diet, which had been one of the main protein sources traditionally as well. The development in the livestock and meat industry of Sri Lanka basically depends upon religious, cultural, and economic factors. There is a growing demand for processed meat products in Sri Lankan urban culture and several large scale processors entered the business during the past few decades. The consumption of meat and meat products shows an upward trend in Sri Lanka during the last decade and is anticipated to increase further in future. The growth potential of the local meat industry is considerably high owing to the improvement of the market and consumer perception. The present status, trends, and future prospects for the Sri Lankan meat industry with respect to production, consumption, processing, marketing, and improvement are discussed in this review. PMID:27194920

  5. Application of Modis Data to Assess the Latest Forest Cover Changes of Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perera, K.; Herath, S.; Apan, A.; Tateishi, R.

    2012-07-01

    Assessing forest cover of Sri Lanka is becoming important to lower the pressure on forest lands as well as man-elephant conflicts. Furthermore, the land access to north-east Sri Lanka after the end of 30 years long civil war has increased the need of regularly updated land cover information for proper planning. This study produced an assessment of the forest cover of Sri Lanka using two satellite data based maps within 23 years of time span. For the old forest cover map, the study used one of the first island-wide digital land cover classification produced by the main author in 1988. The old land cover classification was produced at 80 m spatial resolution, using Landsat MSS data. A previously published another study by the author has investigated the application feasibility of MODIS and Landsat MSS imagery for a selected sub-section of Sri Lanka to identify the forest cover changes. Through the light of these two studies, the assessment was conducted to investigate the application possibility of MODIS 250 m over a small island like Sri Lanka. The relation between the definition of forest in the study and spatial resolution of the used satellite data sets were considered since the 2012 map was based on MODIS data. The forest cover map of 1988 was interpolated into 250 m spatial resolution to integrate with the GIS data base. The results demonstrated the advantages as well as disadvantages of MODIS data in a study at this scale. The successful monitoring of forest is largely depending on the possibility to update the field conditions at regular basis. Freely available MODIS data provides a very valuable set of information of relatively large green patches on the ground at relatively real-time basis. Based on the changes of forest cover from 1988 to 2012, the study recommends the use of MODIS data as a resalable method to forest assessment and to identify hotspots to be re-investigated. It's noteworthy to mention the possibility of uncounted small isolated pockets of

  6. International Enterprise Education in Sri Lanka: A Blended Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasturiratne, Dulekha; Lean, Jonathan; Phippen, Andy

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore how enterprise education was adapted from a UK higher education institution (HEI) setting into an international context through collaboration with two Sri Lankan universities. It demonstrates the value of enterprise education in different cultures, and presents learning from the challenges faced by…

  7. Culture, Gender, and Suicidal Behavior in Sri Lanka.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marecek, Jeanne

    1998-01-01

    The current pattern of suicides, including sex differences, is described. Institutional practices, material conditions, and social norms are explored. A study inquiring into Sri Lankan's perceptions of the problem is presented. Gender differences and cultural meanings of suicide are discussed, and questions addressing the source of suicidal…

  8. Staffing Practices in the Private Sector in Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickramasinghe, Vathsala

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to present and discuss the findings of a study of staffing practices in the Sri Lankan private sector with particular reference to junior level managerial jobs. The scope of staffing practices consisted of six major areas, namely the usage of information from job analysis in staffing, the sources of labour, selection…

  9. The Pearl of Great Price: Achieving Equitable Access to Primary and Secondary Education and Enhancing Learning in Sri Lanka. CREATE Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 29

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aturupane, Harsha

    2009-01-01

    The experience of public policy in Sri Lanka has had a profound impact on the thinking of the global development community in relation to the role of education in economic development. In particular, the example of Sri Lanka helped to persuade policy makers around the world that governments can successfully develop a general education system to…

  10. An assessment of CSIRO Conformal Cubic Atmospheric Model simulations over Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thevakaran, A.; McGregor, J. L.; Katzfey, J.; Hoffmann, P.; Suppiah, R.; Sonnadara, D. U. J.

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we present an assessment of the Conformal Cubic Atmospheric Model (CCAM) 50 km simulations forced by the sea surface temperature and sea ice concentration of six global climate models (GCMs) (ACCESS1-0, CCSM4, GFDL-CM3, NorESM, MPI-ESM and CNRM-CM5) from the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) over South Asia, centred on Sri Lanka. The model simulations were compared with the data provided by the Asian Precipitation Highly Resolved Observational Data Integration towards Evaluation of Water Resource (APHRODITE) project and ERA-Interim from the European Centre for Medium range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) over a broad region centred on Sri Lanka. This broad region includes South Asia and northern Indian Ocean. Statistical measures such as pattern correlations, mean biases and root mean square errors were calculated separately for the four seasons. Results based on statistical tests indicate that the current CCAM simulations capture the spatial patterns of 10 m wind speed, mean sea level pressure, temperature and rainfall over a broad region over South Asia fairly well. The annual cycles of temperature and rainfall were also compared against observations over the northern and southern regions of Sri Lanka by taking the field average of each model and the observed data. The characteristics of the observed annual variations of rainfall and temperature over the smaller domains are not very well captured by the CCAM simulations. There are differences in the magnitudes of the temperature and rainfall in the six member CCAM simulations. Comparatively, the two CCAM simulations CNRM-CM5 and GFDL-CM3 show slightly better agreement over the Sri Lankan region.

  11. The process and costs of publishing medical journals in Sri Lanka: an economic evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Y S; Abeygunasekara, A M

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Medical journals have contributed to the advancement of medicine by helping to disseminate scientific knowledge and providing a forum for medical communities to debate issues in depth. To the authors' knowledge, there are no studies examining the process of medical journal publication in developing Asian countries. The authors analysed the process and costs of publishing medical journals in Sri Lanka, a developing country in South Asia. Methods Data were collected by interviewing the editors and perusing the records at the editorial offices of the respective medical journals. Articles published in 2009 (or 2008 for journals not published in 2009) were analysed by perusing the respective journals. Results A total of 44 medical journals were published in Sri Lanka's history, of which only 28 journals remained in publication after 2007. A majority (54%) of the journals published after 2007 were published once per year. Seventeen journals in publication after 2007 were published in paper version only, and 11 journals were also available online. The mean cost of printing one issue was Sri Lankan Rupees (LKR) 97 720 (US$888) (range LKR 28 000–270 000). The cost of distribution ranged from LKR 2000 to 140 000 (US$18–1273). The mean cost of publishing one article was LKR 6646 (US$60). A total of 456 articles were published in 2009 (/2008). The total number of pages published was 1723. Conclusion The infrastructure for medical journal publishing in Sri Lanka has many good qualities such as free access, minimum charges for authors and potential for online availability. The journals are solely academic (non-profit), but the costs remain high. PMID:22021741

  12. Viper bites complicate chronic agrochemical nephropathy in rural Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Snakebite is a common occupational health hazard among Sri Lankan agricultural workers, particularly in the North Central Province. Viperine snakes, mainly Russell’s viper envenomation, frequently lead to acute renal failure. During the last two decades, an agrochemical nephropathy, a chronic tubulointerstitial disease has rapidly spread over this area leading to high morbidity and mortality. Most of the epidemiological characteristics of these two conditions overlap, increasing the chances of co-occurrence. Herein, we describe four representative cases of viperine snakebites leading to variable clinical presentations, in patients with chronic agrochemical nephropathy, including two patients presented with acute and delayed anuria. These cases suggest the possibility of unusual manifestations of snakebite in patients with Sri Lankan agrochemical nephropathy, of which the clinicians should be aware. It could be postulated that the existing scenario in the Central America could also lead to similar clinical presentations. PMID:25136354

  13. Diffusion of a Sustainable Farming Technique in Sri Lanka: An Agent-Based Modeling Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobi, J. H.; Gilligan, J. M.; Carrico, A. R.; Truelove, H. B.; Hornberger, G.

    2012-12-01

    We live in a changing world - anthropogenic climate change is disrupting historic climate patterns and social structures are shifting as large scale population growth and massive migrations place unprecedented strain on natural and social resources. Agriculture in many countries is affected by these changes in the social and natural environments. In Sri Lanka, rice farmers in the Mahaweli River watershed have seen increases in temperature and decreases in precipitation. In addition, a government led resettlement project has altered the demographics and social practices in villages throughout the watershed. These changes have the potential to impact rice yields in a country where self-sufficiency in rice production is a point of national pride. Studies of the climate can elucidate physical effects on rice production, while research on social behaviors can illuminate the influence of community dynamics on agricultural practices. Only an integrated approach, however, can capture the combined and interactive impacts of these global changes on Sri Lankan agricultural. As part of an interdisciplinary team, we present an agent-based modeling (ABM) approach to studying the effects of physical and social changes on farmers in Sri Lanka. In our research, the diffusion of a sustainable farming technique, the system of rice intensification (SRI), throughout a farming community is modeled to identify factors that either inhibit or promote the spread of a more sustainable approach to rice farming. Inputs into the ABM are both physical and social and include temperature, precipitation, the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), community trust, and social networks. Outputs from the ABM demonstrate the importance of meteorology and social structure on the diffusion of SRI throughout a farming community.

  14. Cardiac involvement in dengue virus infections during the 2004/2005 dengue fever season in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Wichmann, Dominic; Kularatne, Senanayake; Ehrhardt, Stephan; Wijesinghe, Sriyal; Brattig, Norbert W; Abel, Walter; Burchard, Gerd D

    2009-07-01

    Sri Lanka experienced a dramatic increase in dengue cases (15,400) in the 2004 - 2005 season. We carried out a prospective study to investigate cardiac involvement in dengue virus infected patients during the 2004 - 2005 season in Peradeniya, Central Province, Sri Lanka. Cardiac involvement was defined as elevated levels of myoglobin, creatine kinase-muscle brain-type, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, heart-type fatty acid-binding protein and troponin T. Twenty-five percent of dengue virus infected patients had one or more of the above tests with abnormal results. PMID:19842405

  15. Characterisation of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Matara district, southern Sri Lanka: evidence for case clustering.

    PubMed

    Kariyawasam, K K G D U L; Edirisuriya, C S; Senerath, U; Hensmen, D; Siriwardana, H V Y D; Karunaweera, N D

    2015-10-01

    Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease transmitted by Phlebotomus spp. sand flies. Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Sri Lanka is caused by Leishmania donovani. Transmission patterns are different in Southern and Northern Sri Lanka. Current study examined the prevalence, risk factors and distribution of CL in Matara District, Southern Sri Lanka. Total of 2260 individuals from four District Secretariat divisions (DSDs) were screened by house to house surveys using an interviewer administered questionnaire. The study population had an age range of 1-90 years (median  =  43  ±  17.31), low monthly income ( < 20 000 LKR, 52.8%) and a male to female ratio of 1 : 2. Thirty eight patients were diagnosed by light microscopy, culture and/or PCR with a disease prevalence of 1.68%. Spatial mapping provided evidence for significant case clustering, which tended to be more prominent with proximity to forest areas. The risk factors identified were un-plastered brick walls, absence or low usage of protective measures against insect bites, low income and excessive time (>4 hours/day) spent outdoors. However, exposure of limbs while outdoors, unawareness about the disease, type of occupation, common water source as the mode of water supply and presence of animal shelters within 200 m were not associated with the risk of acquiring the disease. Peri-domestic transmission is likely to contribute to the observed case clustering with all age groups at risk of acquiring the infection. Human behavioural habits coinciding with that of the vector, sand fly are likely to enable host-vector contact promoting its spread. Appropriate vector control measures, improvement of housing conditions, public education regarding preventive measures are required to contain the spread of disease. PMID:26345305

  16. Environmental and Socio-Demographic Determinants of Dengue Fever in Colombo City, Sri Lanka

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tipre, Meghan; Luvall, Jeffrey; Haque, Akhlaque; McClure, Leslie; Zaitchik, Ben; Sathiakumar, Nalini

    2014-01-01

    Dengue fever has increased exponentially in Sri Lanka, from 24.4 cases per 100,000 in 2003 to 165.3 per 100,000 population in 2013. Although early warning systems using predictor models have been previously developed in other settings, it is important to develop such models in each local setting. Further, the ability of these models to be applicable at smaller geographic units will enhance current vector control and disease surveillance measures. The aim of this paper was to identify environmental and socio-economic status (SES) risk factors that may predict dengue fever at the Gram Niladhari Divisions (GND) level (smallest administrative unit) in Colombo city, Sri Lanka. These factors included landcover classes, amount of vegetation, population density, water access and neighborhood SES as determined by roof type. A geographically weighted regression (GWR) was used to develop the prediction model. A total 55 GND units covering an area of 37 sq km were investigated. We found that GND units with decreased vegetation, higher built-up area, higher population density and poor access to tap-water supply were associated with high risk of dengue; the pertinent GND units were concentrated in the center of the city. This is the first study in Sri Lanka to include both environmental and socio-demographic factors in prediction models for dengue fever. The methodology may be useful in enhancing ongoing dengue fever control measures in the country, and to be extended to other countries in the region that have an increasing incidence of dengue fever.

  17. Mapping the Risk of Snakebite in Sri Lanka - A National Survey with Geospatial Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ediriweera, Dileepa Senajith; Kasturiratne, Anuradhani; Pathmeswaran, Arunasalam; Gunawardena, Nipul Kithsiri; Wijayawickrama, Buddhika Asiri; Jayamanne, Shaluka Francis; Isbister, Geoffrey Kennedy; Dawson, Andrew; Giorgi, Emanuele; Diggle, Peter John; Lalloo, David Griffith; de Silva, Hithanadura Janaka

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a paucity of robust epidemiological data on snakebite, and data available from hospitals and localized or time-limited surveys have major limitations. No study has investigated the incidence of snakebite across a whole country. We undertook a community-based national survey and model based geostatistics to determine incidence, envenoming, mortality and geographical pattern of snakebite in Sri Lanka. Methodology/Principal Findings The survey was designed to sample a population distributed equally among the nine provinces of the country. The number of data collection clusters was divided among districts in proportion to their population. Within districts clusters were randomly selected. Population based incidence of snakebite and significant envenoming were estimated. Model-based geostatistics was used to develop snakebite risk maps for Sri Lanka. 1118 of the total of 14022 GN divisions with a population of 165665 (0.8%of the country’s population) were surveyed. The crude overall community incidence of snakebite, envenoming and mortality were 398 (95% CI: 356–441), 151 (130–173) and 2.3 (0.2–4.4) per 100000 population, respectively. Risk maps showed wide variation in incidence within the country, and snakebite hotspots and cold spots were determined by considering the probability of exceeding the national incidence. Conclusions/Significance This study provides community based incidence rates of snakebite and envenoming for Sri Lanka. The within-country spatial variation of bites can inform healthcare decision making and highlights the limitations associated with estimates of incidence from hospital data or localized surveys. Our methods are replicable, and these models can be adapted to other geographic regions after re-estimating spatial covariance parameters for the particular region. PMID:27391023

  18. Chronic kidney diseases of uncertain etiology (CKDue) in Sri Lanka: geographic distribution and environmental implications.

    PubMed

    Chandrajith, Rohana; Nanayakkara, Shanika; Itai, Kozuyoshi; Aturaliya, T N C; Dissanayake, C B; Abeysekera, Thilak; Harada, Kouji; Watanabe, Takao; Koizumi, Akio

    2011-06-01

    The increase in the number of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients from the north central region of Sri Lanka has become a environmental health issue of national concern. Unlike in other countries where long-standing diabetes and hypertension are the leading causes of renal diseases, the majority of CKD patients from this part of Sri Lanka do not show any identifiable cause. As the disease is restricted to a remarkably specific geographical terrain, particularly in the north central dry zone of the country, multidisciplinary in-depth research studies are required to identify possible etiologies and risk factors. During this study, population screening in the prevalent region and outside the region, analysis of geoenvironmental and biochemical samples were carried out. Population screening that was carried out using a multistage sampling technique indicated that the point prevalence of CKD with uncertain etiology is about 2-3% among those above 18 years of age. Drinking water collected from high-prevalent and non-endemic regions was analyzed for their trace and ultratrace element contents, including the nephrotoxic heavy metals Cd and U using ICP-MS. The results indicate that the affected regions contain moderate to high levels of fluoride. The Cd contents in drinking water, rice from affected regions and urine from symptomatic and non-symptomatic patients were much lower indicating that Cd is not a contributing factor for CKD with uncertain etiology in Sri Lanka. Although no single geochemical parameter could be clearly and directly related to the CKD etiology on the basis of the elements determined during this study, it is very likely that the unique hydrogeochemistry of the drinking water is closely associated with the incidence of the disease. PMID:20853020

  19. The Malaysian Orthopaedic Association humanitarian mission to Indonesia and Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Sharaf, I; Saw, A; Hyzan, Y; Sivananthan, K S

    2005-07-01

    The tsunami which occurred off the west coast of North Sumatra on December 26, 2004 devastated the coastal areas of North Sumatra, South-West Thailand, South-East India and Sri Lanka killing more than a quarter of a million people. The destruction was enormous with many coastal villages destroyed. The other countries affected were Malaysia, Myanmar, Maldives, Bangladesh, Somalia, Kenya, Tanzania and the Seychelles. In January 2005, volunteers went in weekly rotation to Banda Aceh in collaboration with Global Peace Mission. These were Dr Hyzan Yusof, Dr Suryasmi Duski, Dr Sharaf Ibrahim, Dr Saw Aik, Dr Kamariah Nor and Dr Nor Azlin. In Banda Aceh, the surgical procedures that we could do were limited to external fixation of open fractures and debriding infected wounds at the Indonesian Red Crescent field hospital. In February, a team comprising Dato Dr K S Sivananthan, Dr T Kumar and Dr S Vasan spent a week in Sri Lanka. In Sri Lanka, Dato Sivananthan and his team were able to perform elective orthopaedic operations in Dr Poonambalam Memorial Hospital. We appealed for national and international aid and received support from local hospitals and the orthopaedic industry. International aid bound for Banda Aceh arrived in Kuala Lumpur from the Philippine Orthopaedic Association, the Chiba Children's Hospital in Japan and the Chinese Orthopaedic Association. The COA donated 1.5 tons of orthopaedic equipments. A special handing over ceremony from the COA to the Indonesian Orthopaedic Association was held in Putrajaya in March. Malaysia Airlines flew in the donated equipment to Kuala Lumpur while the onward flight to Aceh was provided by the Royal Malaysian Air Force. In April, Dr Saw Aik and Dr Yong Su Mei joined the Tsu-Chi International Medical Association for volunteer services on Batam Island, Indonesia. The MOA acknowledges the many individuals and organizations, both governmental and non-governmental, for their contributions in the humanitarian efforts. PMID

  20. Chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology in Sri Lanka: Are leptospirosis and Hantaviral infection likely causes?

    PubMed

    Gamage, Chandika Damesh; Sarathkumara, Yomani Dilukshi

    2016-06-01

    Chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology (CKDu) has been a severe burden and a public health crisis in Sri Lanka over the past two decades. Many studies have established hypotheses to identify potential risk factors although causative agents, risk factors and etiology of this disease are still uncertain. Several studies have postulated that fungal and bacterial nephrotoxins are a possible etiological factor; however, the precise link between hypothesized risk factors and the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease has yet to be proven in prior studies. Leptospirosis and Hantavirus infections are important zoonotic diseases that are naturally maintained and transmitted via infected rodent populations and which present similar clinical and epidemiological features. Both infections are known to be a cause of acute kidney damage that can proceed into chronic renal failure. Several studies have reported presence of both infections in Sri Lanka. Therefore, we hypothesized that pathogenic Leptospira or Hantavirus are possible causative agents of acute kidney damage which eventually progresses to chronic kidney disease in Sri Lanka. The proposed hypothesis will be evaluated by means of an observational study design. Past infection will be assessed by a cross-sectional study to detect the presence of IgG antibodies with further confirmatory testing among chronic kidney disease patients and individuals from the community in selected endemic areas compared to low prevalence areas. Identification of possible risk factors for these infections will be followed by a case-control study and causality will be further determined with a cohort study. If the current hypothesis is true, affected communities will be subjected for medical interventions related to the disease for patient management while considering supportive therapies. Furthermore and possibly enhance their preventive and control measures to improve vector control to decrease the risk of infection. PMID:27142134

  1. Field Survey of Tsunami Effects in Sri Lanka due to the Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake of December 26, 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Shusaku; Wijeyewickrema, Anil C.; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Miura, Hiroyuki; Gunaratna, Priyantha; Madurapperuma, Manoj; Sekiguchi, Toru

    2007-03-01

    The December 26, 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake that registered a moment magnitude (M w ) of 9.1 was one of the largest earthquakes in the world since 1900. The devastating tsunami that resulted from this earthquake caused more casualties than any previously reported tsunami. The number of fatalities and missing persons in the most seriously affected countries were Indonesia - 167,736, Sri Lanka - 35,322, India - 18,045 and Thailand - 8,212. This paper describes two field visits to assess tsunami effects in Sri Lanka by a combined team of Japanese and Sri Lankan researchers. The first field visit from December 30, 2004 January 04, 2005 covered the western and southern coasts of Sri Lanka including the cities of Moratuwa, Beruwala, Bentota, Pereliya, Hikkaduwa, Galle, Talpe, Matara, Tangalla and Hambantota. The objectives of the first field visit were to investigate the damage caused by the tsunami and to obtain eyewitness information about wave arrival times. The second field visit from March 10 18, 2005 covered the eastern and southern coasts of Sri Lanka and included Trincomalee, Batticaloa, Arugam Bay, Yala National Park and Kirinda. The objectives of the second visit were mainly to obtain eyewitness information about wave arrival times and inundation data, and to take relevant measurements using GPS instruments.

  2. Religious beliefs, possession States, and spirits: three case studies from sri lanka.

    PubMed

    Hanwella, Raveen; de Silva, Varuni; Yoosuf, Alam; Karunaratne, Sanjeewani; de Silva, Pushpa

    2012-01-01

    We describe three patients from different religious backgrounds in Sri Lanka whose possession states were strongly influenced by their religious beliefs. Patient A was a Buddhist who claimed to have special powers given by a local deity named Paththini. Patient B was a Catholic who experienced spirits around her whom she believed were sent by Satan. Patient C was a Muslim and believed she was possessed by spirits. The religious beliefs also influenced the help-seeking behaviour and the rituals or treatments to which they responded. PMID:22970398

  3. Religious Beliefs, Possession States, and Spirits: Three Case Studies from Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Hanwella, Raveen; de Silva, Varuni; Yoosuf, Alam; Karunaratne, Sanjeewani; de Silva, Pushpa

    2012-01-01

    We describe three patients from different religious backgrounds in Sri Lanka whose possession states were strongly influenced by their religious beliefs. Patient A was a Buddhist who claimed to have special powers given by a local deity named Paththini. Patient B was a Catholic who experienced spirits around her whom she believed were sent by Satan. Patient C was a Muslim and believed she was possessed by spirits. The religious beliefs also influenced the help-seeking behaviour and the rituals or treatments to which they responded. PMID:22970398

  4. Laboratory studies of Miocene limestone for the use of construction industry in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Silva Jayawardena, Upali

    2016-04-01

    Geologically ten percent of Sri Lanka is made up of Miocene limestone which covers northern and north-western coastal belt of the Island. It is used as a raw material for various industries but only cement and lime are being used for the construction industry. Except its chemical composition there is no available literature to study about other properties. Therefore the author carried out a series of laboratory tests to find out the mechanical properties of limestone in Sri Lanka. The objective of this paper is to make a note on the various properties of Miocene limestone and describe its suitability to use as an aggregate for the construction industry in Sri Lanka. Borehole samples (NX size) of limestone were obtained from various drilling sites in Northern Province of Sri Lanka and selected samples were prepared for different laboratory tests after visual observations. The tests were carried out according to ASTM Standards at the geotechnical and materials testing laboratories. The number of samples per each test was different. The range (and average result) for each property can be mentioned here as bulk density 2213-2643 (2452) kg/m3, water absorption 2.2-4.5 (1.91)%, porosity 1-15 (6.5)%, specific gravity 2.58-2.68(2.62), ultrasonic pulse velocity P wave 4480-6338 (5668) m/s and S wave 2688-3802 (3400) m/s, uniaxial compressive strength 11-92 (35)MPa, point load strength 1.2-7.1 (3.7)MPa, aggregate impact value, AIV 25-30 (28)%, LAAV 35-38 (36)%, and Brazilian tensile strength 2.1-4.4 (3.2)MPa. Poisson's ratio 0.12-0.68 (0.22) and modulus of elasticity 42-85 (62) GPa were obtained by using P and S ultrasonic wave velocity values. According to LAAV and AIV this limestone may be suitable as the base course material for road construction but may not be suitable for surface material of highways and rail road ballasts. Ultrasonic velocity waves indicate that limestone is highly compacted and solid. According to the compressive strength of solid limestone rock a few

  5. Health changes in Sri Lanka: benefits of primary health care and public health.

    PubMed

    Karunathilake, Indika Mahesh

    2012-07-01

    The Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka is an island in the Indian Ocean that has achieved a unique status in the world with health indicators that are comparable with those of developed countries. This is illustrated, among others, by the reduction in both child and maternal mortality in the country. This achievement is the result of a range of long-term interventions, including providing education and health care free of charge, training of health care workers, developing public health infrastructure in rural areas, and adopting steps to improve sanitation, nutrition, and immunization coverage. PMID:22815304

  6. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in captive elephants (Elephaus maximus maximus) in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Dangolla, A; Ekanayake, D K; Rajapakse, R P V J; Dubey, J P; Silva, I D

    2006-04-15

    Serum samples collected during August 2003-June 2004 from 45 privately owned captive and 8 elephants from the Pinnawala Elephant Orphanage were tested for the presence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii using the direct modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies were found in sera of 14 of 45 (32%) privately owned elephants with titers of 1:25 in three, 1:50 in three, 1:100 in three, 1:200 in three, and 1:400 in three elephants. The elephants from Pinnawala Elephant Orphanage were seronegative. This is the first report of T. gondii seroprevalence in elephants in Sri Lanka. PMID:16414192

  7. Content Analysis of Food and Beverages Advertisements Targeting Children and Adults on Television in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Prathapan, Shamini; Wijewardena, Kumudu; Low, Wah Yun

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Food marketing is one of the main factors in the increase in childhood obesity. The objective is to compare the strategies used for promotion of food and beverages advertisements on Sri Lankan television for children and adults. Method Among 16 analog television channels in Sri Lanka, 50% of the channels were selected randomly after stratifying according to language. Recording was during weekdays and weekends. In total, 95 different food and beverages advertisements were analyzed irrespective of the channel. Results Among all food and beverages–related advertisements, 78% were child focused, and among these 74% claimed health benefits. A statistically significant difference was found in terms of implications related to nutrition or health (P < .05). None of the advertisements contained disclaimers. Conclusion and recommendations The Ministry of Health needs to pursue all food and beverages–focused advertisements for policy formulation and implementation. PMID:26658325

  8. Spontaneously resolving cerebellar syndrome as a sequelae of dengue viral infection: a case series from Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Weeratunga, Praveen N; Caldera, H P Manjula C; Gooneratne, I Kishara; Gamage, Ranjanie; Perera, W Sujith P; Ranasinghe, Gayan V; Niraj, Mahboob

    2014-06-01

    Sri Lanka is hyperendemic for dengue viral infection. Dengue has a wide spectrum of neurological manifestations including previously reported Sri Lankan cases with a 6th nerve palsy and a cerebellar syndrome from a co-infection with dengue and Epstein-Barr virus. This series describes a spontaneously resolving cerebellar syndrome following a dengue viral infection. Dengue is potentially an important cause of cerebellar syndromes in countries hyperendemic for the disease; patients need further studies to identify the responsible serotypes. PMID:23840070

  9. Impacts of the 2004 tsunami on groundwater resources in Sri Lanka

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Illangasekare, T.; Tyler, S.W.; Clement, T.P.; Villholth, K.G.; Perera, A.P.G.R.L.; Obeysekera, J.; Gunatilaka, A.; Panabokke, C.R.; Hyndman, D.W.; Cunningham, K.J.; Kaluarachchi, J.J.; Yeh, W.W.-G.; Van Genuchten, M. T.; Jensen, K.

    2006-01-01

    The 26 December 2004 tsunami caused widespread destruction and contamination of coastal aquifers across southern Asia. Seawater filled domestic open dug wells and also entered the aquifers via direct infiltration during the first flooding waves and later as ponded seawater infiltrated through the permeable sands that are typical of coastal aquifers. In Sri Lanka alone, it is estimated that over 40,000 drinking water wells were either destroyed or contaminated. From February through September 2005, a team of United States, Sri Lankan, and Danish water resource scientists and engineers surveyed the coastal groundwater resources of Sri Lanka to develop an understanding of the impacts of the tsunami and to provide recommendations for the future of coastal water resources in south Asia. In the tsunami-affected areas, seawater was found to have infiltrated and mixed with fresh groundwater lenses as indicated by the elevated groundwater salinity levels. Seawater infiltrated through the shallow vadose zone as well as entered aquifers directly through flooded open wells. Our preliminary transport analysis demonstrates that the intruded seawater has vertically mixed in the aquifers because of both forced and free convection. Widespread pumping of wells to remove seawater was effective in some areas, but overpumping has led to upconing of the saltwater interface and rising salinity. We estimate that groundwater recharge from several monsoon seasons will reduce salinity of many sandy Sri Lankan coastal aquifers. However, the continued sustainability of these small and fragile aquifers for potable water will be difficult because of the rapid growth of human activities that results in more intensive groundwater pumping and increased pollution. Long-term sustainability of coastal aquifers is also impacted by the decrease in sand replenishment of the beaches due to sand mining and erosion. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  10. Molecular mechanisms of β-lactam resistance in carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae from Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Hall, Jarrad M; Corea, Enoka; Sanjeewani, H D Anusha; Inglis, Timothy J J

    2014-08-01

    Carbapenemases are increasingly important antimicrobial resistance determinants. Little is known about the carbapenem resistance mechanisms in Sri Lanka. We examined 22 carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae from Sri Lanka to determine their β-lactam resistance mechanisms. The predominant resistance mechanisms we detected in this study were OXA-181, NDM-1 carbapenemases and extended-spectrum β-lactamase CTX-M-15. All isolates were then genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, variable-number tandem repeat sequence analysis and multilocus sequence typing, and seven distinct genotypes were observed. Five OXA-181-positive Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were genotypically related to an isolate of Indian origin. Multilocus sequence typing found that these related isolates belong to ST-14, which has been associated with dissemination of OXA-181 from the Indian subcontinent. Other genotypes we discovered were ST-147 and ST-340, also associated with intercontinental spread of carbapenemases of suspected subcontinental origin. The major porin genes ompK35 and ompK36 from these isolates had insertions, deletions and substitutions. Some of these were exclusive to strains within single pulsotypes. We detected one ompK36 variant, ins AA134-135GD, in six ST-14- and six ST-147, blaOXA-181-positive isolates. This porin mutation was an independent predictor of high-level meropenem resistance in our entire Sri Lankan isolate collection (P=0.0030). Analysis of the Sri Lankan ST-14 and ST-147 ins AA134-135GD-positive isolates found ST-14 was more resistant to meropenem than other isolates (mean MIC: 32±0 µg ml(-1) and 20±9.47 µg ml(-1), respectively, P=0.0277). The likely international transmission of these carbapenem resistance determinants highlights the need for regional collaboration and prospective surveillance of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:24855071

  11. Reconstruction of health service systems in the post-conflict Northern Province in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Mari; Abraham, Sandirasegaram; Okamoto, Miyoko; Kita, Etsuko; Aoyama, Atsuko

    2007-09-01

    Public health problems in armed conflicts have been well documented, however, effective national health policies and international assistance strategies in transition periods from conflict to peace have not been well established. After the long lasted conflicts in Sri Lanka, the Government and the rebel LTTE signed a cease-fire agreement in February 2002. As the peace negotiation has been disrupted since April 2003, a long-term prospect for peace is yet uncertain at present. The objective of this research is to detect unmet needs in health services in Northern Province in Sri Lanka, and to recommend fair and effective health strategies for post-conflict reconstruction. First, we compared a 20-year trend of health services and health status between the post-conflict Northern Province and other areas not directly affected by conflict in Sri Lanka by analyzing data published by Sri Lankan government and other agencies. Then, we conducted open-ended self-administered questionnaires to health care providers and inhabitants in Northern Province, and key informant interviews in Northern Province and other areas. The major health problems in Northern Province were high maternal mortality, significant shortage of human resources for health (HRH), and inadequate water and sanitation systems. Poor access to health facilities, lack of basic health knowledge, insufficient health awareness programs for inhabitants, and mental health problems among communities were pointed by the questionnaire respondents. Shortage of HRH and people's negligence for health were perceived as the major obstacles to improving the current health situation in Northern Province. The key informant interviews revealed that Sri Lankan HRH outside Northern Province had only limited information about the health issues in Northern Province. It is required to develop and allocate HRH strategically for the effective reconstruction of health service systems in Northern Province. The empowerment of inhabitants

  12. Mapping mental health finances in Ghana, Uganda, Sri Lanka, India and Lao PDR

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Limited evidence about mental health finances in low and middle-income countries is a key challenge to mental health care policy initiatives. This study aimed to map mental health finances in Ghana, Uganda, India (Kerala state), Sri Lanka and Lao PDR focusing on how much money is available for mental health, how it is spent, and how this impacts mental health services. Methods A researcher in each region reviewed public mental health-related budgets and interviewed key informants on government mental health financing. A total of 43 key informant interviews were conducted. Quantitative data was analyzed in an excel matrix using descriptive statistics. Key informant interviews were coded a priori against research questions. Results National ring-fenced budgets for mental health as a percentage of national health spending for 2007-08 is 1.7% in Sri Lanka, 3.7% in Ghana, 2.0% in Kerala (India) and 6.6% in Uganda. Budgets were not available in Lao PDR. The majority of ring-fenced budgets (76% to 100%) is spent on psychiatric hospitals. Mental health spending could not be tracked beyond the psychiatric hospital level due to limited information at the health centre and community levels. Conclusions Mental health budget information should be tracked and made publically accessible. Governments can adapt WHO AIMS indicators for reviewing national mental health finances. Funding allocations work more effectively through decentralization. Mental health financing should reflect new ideas emerging from community based practice in LMICs. PMID:20507558

  13. Physics of the environment: possible Sumatra Tsunami warning times for large animals in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browning, David G.; Scheifele, Peter M.; Vonwinkle, William A.

    2005-04-01

    There has previously been significant anecdotal evidence that animals can anticipate or sense seismic events. It is known that large animals, specifically elephants, sense and utilize low frequency sound. The object of this paper is to estimate the possible warning times that large animals in Sri Lanka could have had of the Sumatra Tsunami, assuming they could sense low frequency wave transmission from the initial earthquake arriving by either atmospheric, ocean, or bottom paths. The atmospheric path appears to be the least efficient due to relatively high attenuation and poor coupling to the source. It would also give the shortest warning time: approximately 30 minutes. The ocean path via the deep sound channel, which has been shown by a previous Bermuda experiment to be an efficient means of coupling seismic energy to an island, would give a warning time of more than 1.5 hours. The bottom path(s), which gave strong received signals at a Sri Lanka seismic station, would give a warning time of about 2 hours. These estimates should provide a context for animal behavior reports.

  14. Ompok argestes, a new species of silurid catfish endemic to Sri Lanka (Teleostei: Siluridae).

    PubMed

    Sudasinghe, Hiranya; Meegaskumbura, Madhava

    2016-01-01

    Ompok argestes, a new species of silurid catfish, is described from the southwestern lowlands of Sri Lanka. The new species is distinguished from all other species of Ompok in the Indian subcontinent by a combination of the following characters: body color pattern mottled; predorsal profile uniformly convex; maxillary barbels reach or extend slightly beyond base of dorsal fin; eye diameter 14.2-17.1% head length (HL); body depth at anus 19.8-22.3% standard length (SL); head width 14.3-16.8% SL; caudal peduncle depth 5.6-6.5% SL. Callichrous ceylonensis Günther is shown to be a valid species that is apparently restricted to Sri Lanka, distinguished by a combination of the following characters: distinct concavity in predorsal profile; origin of pelvic fin beneath or slightly posterior to the origin of the dorsal fin; maxillary barbels 108-166 % HL; mandibular barbels 16.1-33.7 % HL; and 58-66 anal-fin rays. PMID:27615884

  15. Evolution of dengue in Sri Lanka-changes in the virus, vector, and climate.

    PubMed

    Sirisena, P D N N; Noordeen, F

    2014-02-01

    Despite the presence of dengue in Sri Lanka since the early 1960s, dengue has become a major public health issue, with a high morbidity and mortality. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are the vectors responsible for the transmission of dengue viruses (DENV). The four DENV serotypes (1, 2, 3, and 4) have been co-circulating in Sri Lanka for more than 30 years. The new genotype of DENV-1 has replaced an old genotype, and new clades of DENV-3 genotype III have replaced older clades. The emergence of new clades of DENV-3 in the recent past coincided with an abrupt increase in the number of dengue fever (DF)/dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) cases, implicating this serotype in severe epidemics. Climatic factors play a pivotal role in the epidemiological pattern of DF/DHF in terms of the number of cases, severity of illness, shifts in affected age groups, and the expansion of spread from urban to rural areas. There is a regular incidence of DF/DHF throughout the year, with the highest incidence during the rainy months. To reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with DF/DHF, it is important to implement effective vector control programs in the country. The economic impact of DF/DHF results from the expenditure on DF/DHF critical care units in several hospitals and the cost of case management. PMID:24334026

  16. A descriptive profile of β-thalassaemia mutations in India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Black, M L; Sinha, S; Agarwal, S; Colah, R; Das, R; Bellgard, M; Bittles, A H

    2010-09-01

    Thalassaemia is a common and debilitating autosomal recessive disorder affecting many populations in South Asia. To date, efforts to create a regional profile of β-thalassaemia mutations have largely concentrated on the populations of India. The present study updates and expands an earlier profile of β-thalassaemia mutations in India, and incorporates comparable data from Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Despite limited data availability, clear patterns of historical and cultural population movements were observed relating to major β-thalassaemia mutations. The current regional mutation profiles of β-thalassaemia have been influenced by historical migrations into and from the Indian sub-continent, by the development and effects of Hindu, Buddhist, Muslim and Sikh religious traditions, and by the major mid-twentieth century population translocations that followed the Partition of India in 1947. Given the resultant genetic complexity revealed by the populations of India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka, to ensure optimum diagnostic efficiency and the delivery of appropriate care, it is important that screening and counselling programmes for β-thalassaemia mutations recognise the underlying patterns of population sub-division throughout the region. PMID:22460247

  17. Formula Funding and Decentralized Management of Schools--Has It Improved Resource Allocation in Schools in Sri Lanka?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arunatilake, Nisha; Jayawardena, Priyanka

    2010-01-01

    Using the experience of the Educational Quality Inputs (EQI) Scheme in Sri Lanka the paper examines the distributional aspects of formula-based funding and efficiency of decentralized management of education funds in a developing country setting. The study finds that the EQI fund distribution is largely pro-poor. However, results show that to…

  18. A Comparative Study of Student Support Services of Allama Iqbal Open University and the Open University of Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gujjar, Aijaz Ahmed; Chaudhry, Bushra Naoreen; Chaudhry, Amtul Hafeez

    2009-01-01

    This paper attempts to compare the availability, quality, similarities and differences in student support services offered by the Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) Pakistan and The Open University of Sri Lanka (OUSL). It also aims to identify and report the deficiencies that students of both the institutions face in the student support services.…

  19. Facilitating Long-Term Recovery from Natural Disasters: Psychosocial Programming for Tsunami-Affected Schools of Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nastasi, Bonnie K.; Jayasena, Asoka; Summerville, Meredith; Borja, Amanda P.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a school-based intervention project conducted in the Southern Province of Sri Lanka 15 to 18 months after the December 2004 Tsunami. The work responds to the need for culturally relevant programming to address long-term psychosocial recovery of children and adolescents affected by large scale disasters. Program…

  20. Wives' Attitudes toward Gender Roles and Their Experience of Intimate Partner Violence by Husbands in Central Province, Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayatilleke, Achini; Poudel, Krishna C.; Sakisaka, Kayako; Yasuoka, Junko; Jayatilleke, Achala Upendra; Jimba, Masamine

    2011-01-01

    The authors conducted a community based, cross-sectional study to describe the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) by husbands and the association between wives' attitudes toward gender roles and their experience of IPV in Central Province, Sri Lanka. This article included a representative sample of 624 wives between 15 and 49 years of…

  1. Comparative Study of Pre-Service Teacher Education Programme at Secondary Stage in Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yadav, S. K.

    2011-01-01

    The present research work has studied and compared the different issues of pre-service teacher education programme in India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh and Pakistan. The data were collected from 24 principals, 88 teacher educators and 157 student teachers from institutions and universities where Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.) course were. The data were…

  2. Sustainability and Local People's Participation in Coastal Aquaculture: Regional Differences and Historical Experiences in Sri Lanka and the Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergquist, Daniel A.

    2007-11-01

    This article discusses environmental sustainability in aquaculture and its contribution to poverty alleviation, based on field studies in Sri Lanka and the Philippines. The aquaculture practices studied are the monoculture of the black tiger prawn ( Penneaus monodon) and milkfish ( Chanos chanos) and the polyculture of the two species together with the mud crab ( Scylla serrata). Factors affecting economic viability, social equity and environmental impacts in aquaculture are discussed and used to illuminate local and regional differences between aquaculture in Sri Lanka and the Philippines. Findings indicate that the most significant difference is the level of participation by local people (i.e., people originating ≤10 km away from the farm location). In the Philippines, 84 % of the people involved in aquaculture are locals, whereas in Sri Lanka, 55% are outsiders. Whether differences between the two areas can be explained by analyzing regional conditions, which might have resulted in different aquaculture practices, is discussed. In Sri Lanka, semi-intensive shrimp monoculture is currently the most common practice, whereas in the Philippines, extensive shrimp/fish polyculture is more common. Previous studies, as well as fieldwork, indicate that extensive culture practices reduce environmental impacts and benefit local people more. Sustainability in aquaculture is, however, also dependent on the extent of mangrove conversion into ponds. As such, extensive and locally owned farms do not necessarily result in an all but sustainable situation. Keeping this in mind, it is discussed if extensive polyculture practices might result in a more sustainable aquaculture, both environmentally and socioeconomically.

  3. Situation Report--Australia, The Gambia, Papua and New Guinea, Rhodesia, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tonga, and Western Samoa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in nine foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Australia, The Gambia, Papua and New Guinea, Rhodesia, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tonga, and Western Somoa. Information is provided under three topics, statistical information, general background information,…

  4. Understanding School Health Environment through Interviews with Key Stakeholders in Lao PDR, Mongolia, Nepal and Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sohyun; Lee, Eun Young; Gittelsohn, Joel; Nkala, Denis; Choi, Bo Youl

    2015-01-01

    Studies on health promoting schools (HPS) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are scarce. To contribute to the development of HPS in these countries, we conducted formative research to understand the school environment in Lao PDR, Mongolia, Nepal, and Sri Lanka. Forty-three teachers, 10 government workers and 5 parents participated in…

  5. Sustainability and local people's participation in coastal aquaculture: regional differences and historical experiences in Sri Lanka and the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Bergquist, Daniel A

    2007-11-01

    This article discusses environmental sustainability in aquaculture and its contribution to poverty alleviation, based on field studies in Sri Lanka and the Philippines. The aquaculture practices studied are the monoculture of the black tiger prawn (Penneaus monodon) and milkfish (Chanos chanos) and the polyculture of the two species together with the mud crab (Scylla serrata). Factors affecting economic viability, social equity and environmental impacts in aquaculture are discussed and used to illuminate local and regional differences between aquaculture in Sri Lanka and the Philippines. Findings indicate that the most significant difference is the level of participation by local people (i.e., people originating < or =10 km away from the farm location). In the Philippines, 84 % of the people involved in aquaculture are locals, whereas in Sri Lanka, 55% are outsiders. Whether differences between the two areas can be explained by analyzing regional conditions, which might have resulted in different aquaculture practices, is discussed. In Sri Lanka, semi-intensive shrimp monoculture is currently the most common practice, whereas in the Philippines, extensive shrimp/fish polyculture is more common. Previous studies, as well as fieldwork, indicate that extensive culture practices reduce environmental impacts and benefit local people more. Sustainability in aquaculture is, however, also dependent on the extent of mangrove conversion into ponds. As such, extensive and locally owned farms do not necessarily result in an all but sustainable situation. Keeping this in mind, it is discussed if extensive polyculture practices might result in a more sustainable aquaculture, both environmentally and socioeconomically. PMID:17929084

  6. Escalating chronic kidney diseases of multi-factorial origin in Sri Lanka: causes, solutions, and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Wimalawansa, Sunil J

    2014-11-01

    During the last two decades, Sri Lanka, located close to the equator, has experienced an escalating incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) of unknown aetiology (CKDue) in dry zonal areas. Similar incidences of unusual CKDs have been reported in the dry zonal, agricultural areas of several other equatorial countries. In Sri Lanka, the incidence of CKDue is highest in the North Central Province (NCP), where approximately 45 % of the country's paddy fields are located. However, in recent years, the disease has spread into areas adjacent to as well as distant from the NCP. The cause of CKD in Sri Lanka is unknown, and may likely due to interactions of different potential agents; thus, CKD is of multi-factorial origin (CKD-mfo). These factors include, the negative effects from overuse of agrochemicals. Nevertheless, the potential interactions and synergism between probable agents have not been studied. This systematic review discusses the proposed hypotheses and causes of CKD-mfo in Sri Lanka, and ways to decrease the incidence of this disease and to eradicate it, and provide some recommendations. During the past decade, a number of groups have investigated this disorder using different methodologies and reported various correlations, but failed to find a cause. Research has focussed on the contamination of water with heavy metals, agrochemicals, hard water, algae, ionicity, climate change, and so forth. Nevertheless, the levels of any of the pollutants or conditions reported in water in NPC are inconsistent not correlated with the prevalence of the disease, and are too low to be the sole cause of CKD-mfo. Meanwhile, several nephrotoxins prevalent in the region, including medications, leptospirosis, toxic herbs, illicit alcohol, locally grown tobacco, and petrochemicals, as well as the effects of changed habits occured over the past four decades have not been studied to date. Taken together, the geographical distribution and overall findings indicate that

  7. Population genetic structure of the Plasmodium vivax circumsporozoite protein (Pvcsp) in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Dias, Sajani; Wickramarachchi, Thilan; Sahabandu, Imeshi; Escalante, Ananias A; Udagama, Preethi V

    2013-04-15

    Molecular methods elucidate evolutionary and ecological processes in parasites, where interaction between hosts and parasites enlighten the evolution of parasite lifestyles and host defenses. Population genetics of Plasmodium vivax parasites accurately describe transmission dynamics of the parasites and evaluation of malaria control measures. As a first generation vaccine candidate against malaria, the Circumsporozoite Protein (CSP) has demonstrated significant potential in P. falciparum. Extensive polymorphism hinders the development of a potent malaria vaccine. Hence, the genetic diversity of Pvcsp was investigated for the first time in 60 Sri Lankan clinical isolates by obtaining the nucleotide sequence of the central repeat (CR) domain and examining the polymorphism of the peptide repeat motifs (PRMs), the genetic diversity indices and phylogenetic relationships. PCR amplicons determined size polymorphism of 610, 700 and 710 bp in Pvcsp of Sri Lanka where all amino acid sequences obtained were of the VK210 variant, consisting variable repeats of 4 different PRMs. The two most abundant PRMs of the CR domain, GDRADGQPA and GDRAAGQPA consisted ~2-4 repeats, while GNRAAGQPA was unique to the island. Though, different nucleotide sequences termed repeat allotypes (RATs) were observed for each PRM, these were synonymous contributing to a less polymorphic CR domain. The genetic diversity of Pvcsp in Sri Lanka was due to the number of repetitive peptide repeat motifs, point mutations, and intragenic recombination. The 19 amino acid haplotypes defined were exclusive to Sri Lanka, whereas the 194 Pvcsp sequences of global isolates generated 57 more distinct a.a. haplotypes of the VK210 variant. Strikingly, the CR domain of both VK210 and VK247 variants was under purifying selection interpreting the scarcity of CSP non-synonymous polymorphisms. Insights to the distribution of RATs in the CR region with geographic clustering of the P. vivax VK210 variant were revealed. The

  8. Chemical Characterization of Gallstones: An Approach to Explore the Aetiopathogenesis of Gallstone Disease in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Weerakoon, Harshi; Navaratne, Ayanthi; Ranasinghe, Shirani; Sivakanesan, Ramaiah; Galketiya, Kuda Banda; Rosairo, Shanthini

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Records on gallstones and associated ailments in Sri Lankan community are scarce, despite frequent detection of gallstone disease. Identification of the chemical composition of gallstones in the local setting is important in defining aetiopathogenic factors which in turn are useful in implementing therapeutic and preventive strategies. This study aimed to describe the chemical composition of gallstones and the socio-demographic factors of a cohort of Sri Lankan patients with gallstone disease. Materials and Methods Data on clinical and socio-demographic factors, and gallstones removed at surgery were collected from patients with cholelithiasis admitted to Teaching Hospital, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka from May 2011 to December 2012. External and cross sectional morphological features of gallstones were recorded by naked eye observation. Compositional analysis was carried out by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, X - ray Powder Diffraction, and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. Scanning Electron Microscopy was used to identify the microstructure of gallstones. Results Data of 102 patients were analyzed. Of them majority (n = 77, 76%) were females with a female: male ratio of 3:1. Mean age of the study group was 46.1±11.6 years. All the patients had primary gallbladder stones. According to the physical and chemical analysis, majority (n = 54, 53%) were pigment gallstones followed by mixed cholesterol gallstones (n = 38, 37%). Only 10 (9%) had pure cholesterol gallstones. Calcium bilirubinate, calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate were the commonest calcium salts identified in pigment gallstones and core of mixed cholesterol gallstones. Conclusion Presence of a pigment nidus in gallstones is a common feature in majority of Sri Lankan patients denoting the possible role of elevated unconjugated bilirubin in bile on the pathogenesis of GS. Hence it is imperative to explore this further to understand the aetiopathogenesis of GS among Sri Lankans. PMID

  9. Gender-specific socioeconomic impacts of development programs in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Stoeckel, J; Sirisena, N L

    1988-10-01

    Data from a Sri Lanka national sample survey -- 3597 households stratified on the basis of development program areas -- were analyzed to compare impacts of 3 national development programs and their combinations upon the occupational and income status of females and males in Sri Lanka. These programs, implemented over the last 30 years, are guaranteed price schemes that develop markets for agricultural produce, land settlement schemes that include irrigation, and rural electrification. To date, no attempt has been made to assess the gender-specific socioeconomic impacts of these individual programs and their combinations. It was hypothesized that the utilization of development program outputs will exert a gender-differential impact upon occupational and income status, but the magnitude and direction of the impacts remain to be determined. Path analysis was applied to estimate the model for each development program and their mixes for males and females separated. A multistage stratified sampling design was utilized. All of the development programs and their mixes exhibited significant effect of educational attainment upon participation in nonagricultural occupations. Rural electrification (RE) was the only program whose effect was positive; in combinations with education it accounted for 15% of the variation in occupation. Among the programs that were negatively related to male participation in nonagricultural occupations, the most important predictors were the land settlement (LS) and guarantee price scheme (GPS) programs. Each program contributed to over 1/5 of the variation in occupation net of educational attainment. RE was the only program that was not significantly related to female participation in nonhousehold occupations. All of the remaining programs exerted a positive effect upon occupation. 3 of these programs -- RE + LS, GPS, and LS + GPS -- were of almost equally high importance in predicting participation of females in nonhousehold occupations, and in

  10. Influence of pesticide regulation on acute poisoning deaths in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Darren M.; Karunarathna, Ayanthi; Buckley, Nick A.; Manuweera, Gamini; Sheriff, M. H. Rezvi; Eddleston, Michael

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess in a developing Asian country the impact of pesticide regulation on the number of deaths from poisoning. These regulations, which were implemented in Sri Lanka from the 1970s, aimed to reduce the number of deaths - the majority from self-poisoning - by limiting the availability and use of highly toxic pesticides. METHODS: Information on legislative changes was obtained from the Ministry of Agriculture, national and district hospital admission data were obtained from the Sri Lanka Health Statistics Unit, and individual details of deaths by pesticide poisoning were obtained from a manual review of patients' notes and intensive care unit records in Anuradhapura. FINDINGS: Between 1986 and 2000, the total national number of admissions due to poisoning doubled, and admissions due to pesticide poisoning increased by more than 50%. At the same time, the case fatality proportion (CFP) fell for total poisonings and for poisonings due to pesticides. In 1991_92, 72% of pesticide-induced deaths in Anuradhapura were caused by organophosphorus (OP) and carbamate pesticides - in particular, the WHO class I OPs monocrotophos and methamidophos. From 1991, the import of these pesticides was reduced gradually until they were banned for routine use in January 1995, with a corresponding fall in deaths. Unfortunately, their place in agricultural practice was taken by the WHO class II organochlorine endosulfan, which led to a rise in deaths from status epilepticus - from one in 1994 to 50 in 1998. Endosulfan was banned in 1998, and over the following three years the number of endosulfan deaths fell to three. However, at the end of the decade, the number of deaths from pesticides was at a similar level to that of 1991, with WHO class II OPs causing the most deaths. Although these drugs are less toxic than class I OPs, the management of class II OPs remains difficult because they are, nevertheless, still highly toxic, and their toxicity is exacerbated by the paucity

  11. Change in Dengue and Japanese Encephalitis Seroprevalence Rates in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Jeewandara, Chandima; Gomes, Laksiri; Paranavitane, S. A.; Tantirimudalige, Mihiri; Panapitiya, Sumedha Sandaruwan; Jayewardene, Amitha; Fernando, Samitha; Fernando, R. H.; Prathapan, Shamini

    2015-01-01

    Background Sri Lanka has been affected by epidemics of dengue infections for many decades and the incidence and severity of dengue infections have been rising each year. Therefore, we investigated the age stratified seroprevalence of dengue infections in order to facilitate future dengue vaccine strategies. In addition, since the symptomatic dengue infections have increased during the past few decades, we also investigated the possible association with Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV) antibody seropositivity with symptomatic dengue in a community cohort in Sri Lanka. Methods 1689 healthy individuals who were attending a primary health care facility were recruited. Dengue and JEV antibody status was determined in all individuals and JEV vaccination status was recorded. Results 1152/1689 (68.2%) individuals were seropositive for dengue and only 133/1152 (11.5%) of them had been hospitalized to due to dengue. A significant and positive correlation was observed for dengue antibody seropositivity and age in children (Spearmans R = 0.84, p = 0.002) and in adults (Spearmans R = 0.96, p = 0.004). We observed a significant rise in the age stratified seroprevalence rates in children over a period of 12 years. For instance, in year 2003 the annual seroconversion rate was 1.5% per annum, which had risen to 3.79% per annum by 2014. We also found that both adults (p<0.001) and in children (p = 0.03) who were hospitalized due to dengue were more likely to be seropositive for JEV antibodies. However, 244 (91.4%) of adults who were seropositive for JEV had not had the JEV vaccine. Conclusions Dengue seroprevalence rates have risen significantly over the last 12 years in Sri Lanka, possibly due to increased transmission. As individuals who were hospitalized due to dengue were more likely to be seropositive for JEV, the possibility of cross-reactive assays and/or of JEV infection on immunity to the DENV and clinical disease severity should be further investigated. PMID:26696417

  12. Impacts of the 2004 Indian ocean tsunami on the southwest coasts of Sri Lanka

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Robert A.; Goff, John A.; Nichol, Scott L.

    2007-01-01

    The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami caused major landscape changes along the southwest coasts of Sri Lanka that were controlled by the flow, natural topography and bathymetry, and anthropogenic modifications of the terrain. Landscape changes included substantial beach erosion and scouring of return-flow channels near the beach, and deposition of sand sheets across the narrow coastal plain. In many areas tsunami deposits also included abundant building rubble due to the extensive destruction of homes and businesses in areas of dense development. Trim lines and flow directions confirmed that shoreline orientation and wave refraction from embayments and rock-anchored headlands locally focused the flow and amplified the inundation. Tsunami deposits were 1 to 36 cm thick but most were less than 25 cm thick. Deposit thickness depended partly on antecedent topography. The deposits were composed of coarse to medium sand organized into a few sets of plane parallel laminae that exhibited overall upward fining and landward thinning trends.

  13. Housing anxiety and multiple geographies in post-tsunami Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Boano, Camillo

    2009-10-01

    Tsunami intervention has been an extraordinary and unprecedented relief and recovery operation. This article underlines the complexities posed by shelter and housing intervention in post-tsunami Sri Lanka, revealing a pragmatic, reductionist approach to shelter and housing reconstruction in a contested and fragmented environment. Competition, housing anxiety and buffer zone implementation have resulted in compulsory villagisation inland, stirring feelings of discrimination and tension, and becoming major obstacles to equitable rebuilding of houses and livelihoods. A new tsunami geography has been imposed on an already vulnerable conflict-based geography, in which shelter has been conceived as a mono-dimensional artefact. An analysis of the process and outcomes of temporary and permanent post-tsunami housing programmes yields information about the extent to which shelter policies and programmes serve not only physical needs but 'higher order' objectives for a comprehensive and sustainable recovery plan. PMID:19459904

  14. An evaluation of the undergraduate teaching programme in ophthalmology in Sri Lanka and Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Dias, P L

    1987-07-01

    The knowledge and clinical and minor surgical skills acquired by 257 medical students in three universities in Sri Lanka and Malaysia were assessed by a questionnaire after they had completed their training period in ophthalmology. This study showed that many medical students graduating from these universities lacked the basic clinical and minor surgical skills essential for a doctor practising in a community in south-east Asia. The responses also indicated that teaching by consultants in all three universities was inadequate and due to these inadequacies the students requested that the duration of their training period be doubled. Ophthalmology is an important component of clinical practice and proper education in this subject is important. An urgent revision of the aims and objectives of the curriculum in ophthalmology is essential to place greater emphasis on this important and much neglected subject, for which very little curricular time is allotted. PMID:3626901

  15. Ethnicity, politics and inequality: post-tsunami humanitarian aid delivery in Ampara District, Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Amarasiri de Silva, M W

    2009-04-01

    The provision of humanitarian aid at times of disaster in multi-ethnic community settings may lead to conflict, tension and even the widening of the distance between various ethnic groups. That aid agencies distribute humanitarian aid directly to affected communities, to speed up recovery, may often lead to chaos and the intensification of ethnic sentiments. The new distribution mechanisms introduced for the delivery of tsunami aid in Ampara District, Sri Lanka, did not recognise local networks and the culture of the ethnically mixed community setting. This paper analyses post-tsunami aid distribution in Ampara and shows how such an extemporised effort in an ethnically cognisant context increased ethnic division, inequality and disorder, while marginalising the poor segments of the affected population. It recommends the inclusion of local networks in aid dissemination as a measure for improving ethnic neutrality and social harmony in disaster-hit multi-ethnic communities. PMID:18717702

  16. The problem of privacy in transcultural research: reflections on an ethnographic study in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Monshi, Bardia; Zieglmayer, Verena

    2004-01-01

    Western laws and codes of ethics frequently require that private health information be treated confidentially. However, cross-cultural research shows that it is not always easy to determine what members of a culture consider to be private or how they wish private information to be handled. This article begins by presenting an ethnographic study of patient-healer relationships in Sri Lanka; researchers were surprised to find that participants' views of health and privacy differed greatly from typical Western views, and that the privacy protections they had put in place caused discomfort among participants. Building on this ethics case study, the article explores two main questions. First, can a single definition of privacy possibly do justice to the cultural variations that exist, or does a conceptual definition inevitably run the risk of ethnocentrism? Second, to what extent is strict compliance with research regulations or ethics codes ethically justifiable when following the rules will obviously cause unease in international participants? PMID:16622990

  17. Municipal solid waste management in the Southern Province of Sri Lanka: Problems, issues and challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Vidanaarachchi, Chandana K. . E-mail: c.vidanaarachchi@civenv.unimelb.edu.au; Yuen, Samuel T.S.; Pilapitiya, Sumith

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes the problems, issues and challenges faced by Sri Lanka based on the outcome of a recent study conducted in the country's Southern Province. The study consists of a public survey, discussions with local authority staff involved in waste management, discussions with Provincial Council and Government officials, dialogue with local politicians, review of documents and field observations. The study revealed that only 24% of the households have access to waste collection and that in rural areas it was less than 2%. A substantial number of households in areas without waste collection expect local authorities to collect their waste. The study also showed that most sites in the province are under capacity to handle any increased demand. Urgent and immediate improvement of the waste disposal sites is necessary to meet the current demand for improved waste collection. The study also revealed that there is a high willingness of people for home composting.

  18. Effect of soil carbohydrates on nutrient availability in natural forests and cultivated lands in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnayake, R. R.; Seneviratne, G.; Kulasooriya, S. A.

    2013-05-01

    Carbohydrates supply carbon sources for microbial activities that contribute to mineral nutrient production in soil. Their role on soil nutrient availability has not yet been properly elucidated. This was studied in forests and cultivated lands in Sri Lanka. Soil organic matter (SOM) fractions affecting carbohydrate availability were also determined. Soil litter contributed to sugars of plant origin (SPO) in croplands. The negative relationship found between clay bound organic matter (CBO) and glucose indicates higher SOM fixation in clay that lower its availability in cultivated lands. In forests, negative relationships between litter and sugars of microbial origin (SMO) showed that litter fuelled microbes to produce sugars. Fucose and glucose increased the availability of Cu, Zn and Mn in forests. Xylose increased Ca availability in cultivated lands. Arabinose, the main carbon source of soil respiration reduced the P availability. This study showed soil carbohydrates and their relationships with mineral nutrients could provide vital information on the availability of limiting nutrients in tropical ecosystems.

  19. Secondary phosphate mineralization in a karstic environment in Central Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahanayake, Kapila; Subasinghe, S. M. N. D.

    1989-07-01

    At Eppawala in central Sri Lanka secondary phosphate mineralization is intimately associated with laminated fabrics within depressions (sinkholes and smaller cavities) formed in the thick weathering profiles of a hilly terrain underlain by a Precambrian apatite-bearing formation. The lowermost levels of the profile show extensive zones of leaching where derived apatite crystals occur within fine-grained, laminated stromatolite sequences. The stromatolitic groundmass, which diagenetically formed by percolating oxygenated phosphate and carbonate-rich groundwaters, is impregnated by the phosphate minerals francolite and collophane. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveals that fine filaments, characteristic of microorganisms, are associated with the secondary phosphate mineralization. Continuous degradation and fragmentation of the stromatolitic mat has produced pellets, peloids, and intraclasts all enriched in secondary apatite. Degrading recrystallization around the edges of the primary apatite crystals has developed coated grains. The widespread occurrence of phosphate-enriched allochems in stromatolitic groundmasses is a unique development of a modern phosphorite in a karstic environment.

  20. Chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology and ground-water ionicity: study based on Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Dharma-Wardana, M W C; Amarasiri, Sarath L; Dharmawardene, Nande; Panabokke, C R

    2015-04-01

    High incidence of chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology (CKDU) in Sri Lanka is shown to correlate with the presence of irrigation works and rivers that bring-in 'nonpoint source' fertilizer runoff from intensely agricultural regions. We review previous attempts to link CKDU with As, Cd and other standard toxins. Those studies (e.g. the WHO-sponsored study), while providing a wealth of data, are inconclusive in regard to aetiology. Here, we present new proposals based on increased ionicity of drinking water due to fertilizer runoff into the river system, redox processes in the soil and features of 'tank'-cascades and aquifers. The consequent chronic exposure to high ionicity in drinking water is proposed to debilitate the kidney via a Hofmeister-type (i.e. protein-denaturing) mechanism. PMID:25119535

  1. Dataset for an analysis of tourism and economic growth: A study of Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ronald Ravinesh; Stauvermann, Peter Josef

    2016-09-01

    We use the sample from 1978 to 2014 for the paper (doi:10.1016/j.tmp.2016.05.005). The data on GDP at constant 2005 USD (US dollar), and the gross fixed capital formation at constant 2005 USD are extracted from the World Bank (2015). The labour stock which includes direct and indirect employment and the tourism receipts (in USD) are sourced from the Sri Lanka Tourism Development Authority (http://www.sltda.lk/statistics). Tourism receipts as a per cent of GDP is used to measure tourism demand. The capital stock data is computed using perpetual inventory method, where a depreciation rate of 8 per cent is assumed with the initial capital stock as 1.05 times the GDP of 1969 at constant 2005 USD. The output per worker and capital per worker is computed by dividing the GDP and capital stock by the labour stock, respectively. PMID:27508224

  2. State-society relations and electricity infrastructure: Negotiating national energy security in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caron, Cynthia Marie

    In this dissertation, I use electricity production and distribution and grid expansion as a lens to view and understand state-society relations. After discussing how electricity has resource-like characteristics and institutional characteristics as a field of organization, I examine how groups in society interact with state officials and their corresponding institutions over electricity production and distribution and the pursuit of national energy security. Taking Sri Lanka as the focus of my inquiry, I conducted a qualitative research project to: (1) identify how class, ethnicity, and locality (urban or rural location) are constitutive of and constituted by electricity-infrastructure development and grid expansion initiatives; (2) identify how grid expansion contributes to processes of social inclusion and exclusion by reconstituting on-grid and off-grid populations, and; (3) determine the effects of privatization and environmental regulation on relationships between the state and groups in society. The methodological approaches include analyses of open-ended interviews, participant observation, surveys of government documents, and speeches and sermons delivered at protests against power-plant sitings to examine how groups in society engage the state as a social force. The study finds that privatization occurring in Sri Lanka's energy sector may have the effect of maintaining exclusion from electricity access rather than increasing access to electricity as the neoliberal paradigm asserts. Environmental regulations enable groups in society to include their concerns into the development process and to challenge state decision making that have been made on their behalf by the Ceylon Electricity Board (CEB). The research suggests that class, ethnic, and rural-urban relations are constitutive factors in electricity production and distribution that complement foci on the technical and economic dimensions of electricity-infrastructure planning.

  3. Determinants of contraceptive method choice in Sri Lanka: an update of a 1987 survey.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, A; Thapa, S

    1991-09-01

    This 1987 update study of the sociocultural and demographic determinants of contraceptive method choice in Sri Lanka reveals a striking consistency with previous investigations of the same issue. In 1975 and 1982, researchers conducted similar studies of the determinants of contraceptive method choice. These studies showed that method choice was primarily a function of demographic factors related to the couple's family-building stages rather than socioeconomic factors, suggesting that in Sri Lanka there were few socioeconomic barriers to accessibility and choice of contraceptive methods. For the update, researchers analyzed the data from the 1987 Demographic and Health Survey, a sample which included 5,449 currently married women between the ages of 15-49. As in the previous studies, the 1987 study four possible outcomes of contraceptive choice: not currently using a method, using a traditional method, using a temporary modern method, and sterilization. The researchers employed a multinominal logistic model as the analytical technique. The results of the analysis reveal a remarkable consistency with the previous studies. Both demographic and socioeconomic factors were important determinants of contraceptive use, evident in the fact that those who use contraception are not only motivated by their family-building stage, but also more likely to be urban, Sinhalese, and better educated. However, the study also found that family-cycle goals, rather than socioeconomic factors, continue to have the greatest influence over method choice, which explains the fact that there is a virtual lack of differentials among users of temporary modern and traditional methods. These findings suggest that government programs have not succeeded in promoting the sue of temporary modern methods of contraception. PMID:12284856

  4. Strength of fertility motivation: its effects on contraceptive use in rural Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Retherford, R D; Thapa, S; De Silva, V

    1989-12-01

    Sri Lanka's Rural Family Planning Survey (RFPS) was done between August of 1985 and February of 1986 by the Family Planning Association with the aid of Family Health International. A 2-stage stratified random sample design was used with probability proportional to size. 3253 interviews took place with currently married women age 20-44. The sample covered 30 rural villages but is not representative of rural Sri Lanka. The use of traditional and modern contraceptive methods is the dependent variable. Traditional methods include the "safe period method" and withdrawal. Sterilized women were excluded. The main independent variable is strength of fertility motivation. The mean desired family size is shown by socioeconomic and demographic characteristics for nonpregnant, fecund, currently married women age 20-44 who report relative preference intensity. Desired family size increases with the duration of marriage, age, and the number of living children. Desired family size is lower for more educated women. Contraceptive usage rates are shown for broad groups of methods. Overall use does not vary much by age, marital duration, number of children living, or age at 1st marriage. The more educated women have higher usage rates of traditional methods as do the more wealthy. Use of modern temporary methods goes down as wealth and education increase. For 5 of the 8 independent variables, there seems to be a "trade-off" between modern temporary methods and traditional methods. 2 alternative logistic models are included, based on relative preference intensity. Estimates of the probability of using contraception by each independent variable shown, the number of living children tends to increase contraceptive use up to about 4 and to decrease it at higher numbers, and age at 1st marriage has a slight negative effect on the use of contraception. PMID:12342629

  5. Mitigation of Sri Lanka Island Effects in Colombo Sounding Data during DYNAMO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciesielski, P. E.; Johnson, R. H.; Yoneyama, K.

    2013-12-01

    During the Dynamics of the MJO (DYNAMO) field campaign, upper-air soundings were launched at Colombo, Sri Lanka as part of the enhanced northern sounding array (NSA) of the experiment. The Colombo soundings were affected at low-levels by diurnal heating of this large island and by flow blocking due to elevated terrain to the east of the Colombo site. Because of the large spacing between sounding sites, these small-scale effects are aliased onto the larger scale impacting analyses and atmospheric budgets over the DYNAMO NSA. To mitigate these local island effects on the large-scale budgets, a procedure was designed which uses ECMWF-analyzed fields in the vicinity of Sri Lanka to estimate open-ocean conditions (i.e, as if this island were not present). These 'unperturbed' ECMWF fields at low-levels are then merged with observed Colombo soundings. This procedure effectively mutes the blocking effects and large diurnal cycle observed in the low-level Colombo fields. In westerly flow regimes, adjusted Colombo winds increase the low-level westerlies by 2-3 m/s with a similar increase of the low-level easterlies in easterly flow regimes. In general, over the NSA the impact of the adjusted Colombo winds results in more low-level divergence (convergence), more mid-level subsidence (rising motion) and reduced (increased) rainfall during the westerly (easterly) wind regimes. In comparison to independent TRMM rainfall estimates, both the mean budget-derived rainfall and its temporal correlation are improved by using the adjusted Colombo soundings. In addition, use of the 'unperturbed' fields result in a more realistic moisture budget analyses, both in its diurnal cycle and during the build-up phase of the November MJO when a gradual deepening of apparent drying was observed. Overall, use of the adjusted Colombo soundings appears to have a beneficial impact on the NSA analyses and budgets.

  6. Precipitant profile of acute heart failure: experience of a tertiary level cardiac centre in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Matthias, Anne Thushara; Ekanayaka, Ruvan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction and objectives Heart failure (HF) is a common cause of hospitalisation in most countries. Data on acute precipitants of HF and hospitalisation is not available in Sri Lanka. Background and methods A prospective study of 100 sequential admissions with HF to the cardiology unit (National Hospital of Sri Lanka) to describe the precipitants and clinical outcome of HF. Results Fifty-eight male and 42 female admissions were studied. Mean age was 60.66 years. Mean hospital stay was 5.5(SD 4.6) days. Sixty had de novo HF and 40 had pre-existing HF. The most common identifiable precipitants were acute ischaemia 37 (37%), anaemia 41 (41%), respiratory tract infection 10 (10%), arrhythmia 11 (11%), worsening renal function 11 (11%) and alcohol 5 (5.7%). Non-adherence to medication 4 (4.6%), smoking 3 (3.9%), exposure to environmental stress 3 (3.4%) and uncontrolled hypertension 1 (1%) were also observed as precipitants. The most common arrhythmia was atrial fibrillation. Out of 34 patients in whom angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin-converting enzyme receptor blockers were indicated, 11% were not on the drug. Among 29 patients in whom spironolactone was indicated, seven patients were not on the drug. Conclusions Most precipitating factors of HF are preventable. Early identification and prevention of anaemia, preventing respiratory tract infection by vaccination, aggressive revascularisation for patients with ischaemia, monitoring of renal functions, and patient education regarding drug and diet compliance, would reduce the number of admissions. PMID:27326091

  7. Species Composition and Diversity of Malaria Vector Breeding Habitats in Trincomalee District of Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Gunathilaka, Nayana; Abeyewickreme, Wimaladharma; Hapugoda, Menaka; Wickremasinghe, Rajitha

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Mosquito larval ecology is important in determining larval densities and species assemblage. This in turn influences malaria transmission in an area. Therefore, understanding larval habitat ecology is important in designing malaria control programs. Method. Larval surveys were conducted in 20 localities under five sentinel sites (Padavisiripura, Gomarankadawala, Thoppur, Mollipothana, and Ichchallampaththu) in Trincomalee District, Eastern Province of Sri Lanka, between June 2010 and July 2013. The relationship between seven abiotic variables (temperature, pH, conductivity, Total Dissolved Solid (TDS), turbidity, Dissolved Oxygen (DO), and salinity) was measured. Results. A total of 21,347 anophelines were recorded representing 15 species. Anopheles subpictus 24.72% (5,278/21,347) was the predominant species, followed by 24.67% (5,267/21,347) of An. nigerrimus and 14.56% (3,109/21,347) of An. peditaeniatus. A total of 9,430 breeding habitats under twenty-one categories were identified. An. culcicifacies was noted to be highest from built wells (20.5%) with high salinity (1102.3 ± 81.8 mg/L), followed by waste water collections (20.2%) having low DO levels (2.85 ± 0.03 mg/L) and high TDS (1,654 ± 140 mg/L). Conclusion. This study opens an avenue to explore new breeding habitats of malaria vectors in the country and reemphasizes the requirement of conducting entomological surveillance to detect potential transmission of malaria in Sri Lanka under the current malaria elimination programme. PMID:26583136

  8. Chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology in Sri Lanka: is cadmium a likely cause?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The rising prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and subsequent end stage renal failure necessitating renal replacement therapy has profound consequences for affected individuals and health care resources. This community based study was conducted to identify potential predictors of microalbuminuria in a randomly selected sample of adults from the North Central Province (NCP) of Sri Lanka, where the burden of CKD is pronounced and the underlying cause still unknown. Methods Exposures to possible risk factors were determined in randomly recruited subjects (425 females and 461 males) from selected areas of the NCP of Sri Lanka using an interviewer administered questionnaire. Sulphosalicylic acid and the Light Dependent Resister microalbumin gel filtration method was used for initial screening for microalbuminuria and reconfirmed by the Micral strip test. Results Microalbumnuria was detected in 6.1% of the females and 8.5% of the males. Smoking (p < 0.001), alcohol use (p = 0.003), hypertension (p < 0.001), diabetes (p < 0.001), urinary tract infection (UTI) (p = 0.034) and consumption of water from wells in the fields (p = 0.025) were associated with microalbuminuria. In the binary logistic regression analysis, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, UTI, drinking well water in the fields, smoking and pesticide spraying were found to be significant predictors of microalbuminuria. Conclusions Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, UTI, and smoking are known risk factors for microalbuminuria. The association between microalbuminuria and consumption of well water suggests an environmental aetiology to CKD in NCP. The causative agent is yet to be identified. Investigations for cadmium as a potential causative agent needs to be initiated. PMID:21726464

  9. Road traffic crashes, injury and fatality trends in Sri Lanka: 1938–2013

    PubMed Central

    Dharmaratne, Samath D; Jayatilleke, Achini C

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To analyse trends in road traffic crashes, injuries and fatalities over 75 years in Sri Lanka. Methods Data on road traffic crashes, injuries and fatalities between 1938 and 2013 were obtained from the Police Statistics Unit. Rates per 100 000 population were calculated and trends were analysed using joinpoint regression analysis. Findings Road traffic crashes and injuries rose substantially between 1938 and 2013: annual crashes increased from 61.2 to 183.6 per 100 000 people; injuries, from 35.1 to 98.6 per 100 000; and fatalities, from 3.0 to 10.8 per 100 000 people per year. Joinpoint analysis showed large fluctuations in crashes and injuries over time but the fatalities rose almost continuously. These fluctuations paralleled the country’s political and economic development. In some years, better traffic law enforcement and improved public transportation may have been associated with reduced crashes and injuries, whereas rapid growth in vehicle numbers, especially two- and three-wheeled vehicles, may have contributed to increased crashes and injuries. In addition, insurance policies that did not require a police report to claim may have led to underreporting of crashes and allowed drivers to avoid prosecution. Conclusion Fluctuations over time in road traffic crashes and injuries in Sri Lanka are associated with changes in political, economic and traffic policy. There is potential for reducing road traffic crashes and injuries through better traffic law enforcement, restrictions on the importation of two- and three-wheeled vehicles and policies to improve road safety and prevent underreporting of crashes. PMID:26478628

  10. A deterministic analysis of tsunami hazard and risk for the southwest coast of Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijetunge, J. J.

    2014-05-01

    This paper describes a multi-scenario, deterministic analysis carried out as a pilot study to evaluate the tsunami hazard and risk distribution in the southwest coast of Sri Lanka. The hazard and risk assessment procedure adopted was also assessed against available field records of the impact of the Indian Ocean tsunami in 2004. An evaluation of numerically simulated nearshore tsunami amplitudes corresponding to ‘maximum-credible' scenarios from different subduction segments in the Indian Ocean surrounding Sri Lanka suggests that a seismic event similar to that generated the tsunami in 2004 can still be considered as the ‘worst-case' scenario for the southwest coast. Furthermore, it appears that formation of edge waves trapped by the primary waves diffracting around the southwest significantly influences the nearshore tsunami wave field and is largely responsible for relatively higher tsunami amplitudes in certain stretches of the coastline under study. The extent of inundation from numerical simulations corresponding to the worst-case scenario shows good overall agreement with the points of maximum penetration of inundation from field measurements in the aftermath of the 2004 tsunami. It can also be seen that the inundation distribution is strongly influenced by onshore topography. The present study indicates that the mean depth of inundation could be utilised as a primary parameter to quantify the spatial distribution of the tsunami hazard. The spatial distribution of the risk of the tsunami hazard to the population and residential buildings computed by employing the standard risk formula shows satisfactory correlation with published statistics of the affected population and the damage to residential property during the tsunami in 2004.

  11. Addressing domestic violence through antenatal care in Sri Lanka's plantation estates: Contributions of public health midwives.

    PubMed

    Infanti, Jennifer J; Lund, Ragnhild; Muzrif, Munas M; Schei, Berit; Wijewardena, Kumudu

    2015-11-01

    Domestic violence in pregnancy is a significant health concern for women around the world. Globally, much has been written about how the health sector can respond effectively and comprehensively to domestic violence during pregnancy via antenatal services. The evidence from low-income settings is, however, limited. Sri Lanka is internationally acknowledged as a model amongst low-income countries for its maternal and child health statistics. Yet, very little research has considered the perspectives and experiences of the key front line health providers for pregnant women in Sri Lanka, public health midwives (PHMs). We address this gap by consulting PHMs about their experiences identifying and responding to pregnant women affected by domestic violence in an underserved area: the tea estate sector of Badulla district. Over two months in late 2014, our interdisciplinary team of social scientists and medical doctors met with 31 estate PHMs for group interviews and a participatory workshop at health clinics across Badulla district. In the paper, we propose a modified livelihoods model to conceptualise the physical, social and symbolic assets, strategies and constraints that simultaneously enable and limit the effectiveness of community-based health care responses to domestic violence. Our findings also highlight conceptual and practical strategies identified by PHMs to ensure improvements in this complex landscape of care. Such strategies include estate-based counselling services; basic training in family counselling and mediation for PHMs; greater surveillance of abusive men's behaviours by male community leaders; and performance evaluation and incentives for work undertaken to respond to domestic violence. The study contributes to international discussions on the meanings, frameworks, and identities constructed at the local levels of health care delivery in the global challenge to end domestic violence. In turn, such knowledge adds to international debates on the roles

  12. Is Hiding Foot and Mouth Disease Sensitive Behavior for Farmers? A Survey Study in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Gunarathne, Anoma; Kubota, Satoko; Kumarawadu, Pradeep; Karunagoda, Kamal; Kon, Hiroichi

    2016-02-01

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) has a long history in Sri Lanka and was found to be endemic in various parts of the country and constitutes a constant threat to farmers. In Sri Lanka, currently there is no regular, nationwide vaccination programme devised to control FMD. Therefore, improving farmers' knowledge regarding distinguishing FMD from other diseases and ensuring prompt reporting of any suspicion of FMD as well as restricting movement of animals are critical activities for an effective FMD response effort. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between farmers' knowledge levels and their behaviors to establish a strategy to control FMD. In our study, item count technique was applied to estimate the number of farmers that under-report and sell FMD-infected animals, although to do so is prohibited by law. The following findings were observed: about 63% of farmers have very poor knowledge of routes of FMD transmission; 'under-reporting' was found to be a sensitive behavior and nearly 23% of the farmers were reluctant to report FMD-infected animals; and 'selling FMD-infected animals' is a sensitive behavior among high-level knowledge group while it is a non-sensitive behavior among the low-level knowledge group. If farmers would understand the importance of prompt reporting, they may report any suspected cases of FMD to veterinary officials. However, even if farmers report honestly, they do not want to cull FMD-infected animals. Thus, education programs should be conducted not only on FMD introduction and transmission, but also its impact. Furthermore, consumers may criticize the farmers for culling their infected animals. Hence, not only farmers, but also consumers need to be educated on the economic impact of FMD and the importance of controlling an outbreak. If farmers have a high knowledge of FMD transmission, they consider selling FMD-infected animals as a sensitive behavior. Therefore, severe punishment should be levied for

  13. Collective trauma in northern Sri Lanka: a qualitative psychosocial-ecological study

    PubMed Central

    Somasundaram, Daya

    2007-01-01

    Background Complex situations that follow war and natural disasters have a psychosocial impact on not only the individual but also on the family, community and society. Just as the mental health effects on the individual psyche can result in non pathological distress as well as a variety of psychiatric disorders; massive and widespread trauma and loss can impact on family and social processes causing changes at the family, community and societal levels. Method This qualitative, ecological study is a naturalistic, psychosocial ethnography in Northern Sri Lanka, while actively involved in psychosocial and community mental health programmes among the Tamil community. Participatory observation, key informant interviews and focus group discussion with community level relief and rehabilitation workers and government and non-governmental officials were used to gather data. The effects on the community of the chronic, man-made disaster, war, in Northern Sri Lanka were compared with the contexts found before the war and after the tsunami. Results Fundamental changes in the functioning of the family and the community were observed. While the changes after the tsunami were not so prominent, the chronic war situation caused more fundamental social transformations. At the family level, the dynamics of single parent families, lack of trust among members, and changes in significant relationships, and child rearing practices were seen. Communities tended to be more dependent, passive, silent, without leadership, mistrustful, and suspicious. Additional adverse effects included the breakdown in traditional structures, institutions and familiar ways of life, and deterioration in social norms and ethics. A variety of community level interventions were tried. Conclusion Exposure to conflict, war and disaster situations impact on fundamental family and community dynamics resulting in changes at a collective level. Relief, rehabilitation and development programmes to be effective will

  14. Characteristics of Narrow Bipolar Pulses observed from lightning in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunasekara, T. A. L. N.; Fernando, M.; Sonnadara, U.; Cooray, V.

    2016-02-01

    A detailed study on electric field characteristics of Narrow Bipolar Pulses (NBP) observed in Sri Lanka is presented here. NBPs analyzed in this work were recorded at a coastal location in the Southern part of Sri Lanka (Matara: 5.95 °N, 8.53 °E), from five highly active consecutive thunderstorm days during the month of May in 2013. The waveforms were recorded with a 10 ns resolution within a 100 ms time window. Both positive and negative NBPs were observed in this study with the negative type being the most frequent. Parameters presented in this study were the rise time (Tr), zero crossing time (Tz), the duration of slow front (Ts), the full width of half maximum (FWHM), the pulse duration and the ratio of amplitude of overshoot to the corresponding peak amplitude (Os/Pa). The corresponding average values of negative NBPs for these parameters were found to be 0.58 μs, 3.01 μs, 0.20 μs, 1.38 μs, 19.21 μs and 0.19 respectively. Similarly, for positive events corresponding values were 1.38 μs, 4.66 μs, 0.48 μs, 1.93 μs, 16.42 μs and 0.37 respectively. The above values conforms to a much narrower bipolar events when compared to previously reported values which is considered to be caused by the propagation effects of signals captured by the apparatus.

  15. Factors Affecting Mental Health of Local Staff Working in the Vanni Region, Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Cardozo, Barbara Lopes; Crawford, Carol; Petit, Pilar; Ghitis, Frida; Sivilli, Teresa I.; Scholte, Willem F.; Ager, Alastair; Eriksson, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    In the aftermath of the civil war that extended from 1983–2009, humanitarian organizations provided aid to the conflict-affected population of the Vanni region in northern Sri Lanka. In August, 2010, a needs assessment was conducted to determine the mental-health status of Sri Lankan national humanitarian aid staff working in conditions of stress and hardship, and consider contextual and organizational characteristics influencing such status. A total of 398 staff members from nine organizations working in the Vanni area participated in the survey, which assessed stress, work characteristics, social support, coping styles, and symptoms of psychological distress. Exposure to traumatic, chronic, and secondary stressors was common. Nineteen percent of the population met criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 53% of participants reported elevated anxiety symptoms, and 58% reported elevated depression symptoms. Those reporting high levels of support from their organizations were less likely to suffer depression and PTSD symptoms than those reporting lower levels of staff support (OR =.23, p < .001) and (OR =.26, p < .001), respectively. Participants who were age 55 or older were significantly less likely to suffer anxiety symptoms than those who were between 15 and 34 years of age (OR =.13, p = .011). Having experienced travel difficulties was significantly associated with more anxiety symptoms (OR = 3.35, p < .001). It was recommended that organizations provide stress-management training and increase support to their staff. PMID:27099648

  16. The gift of disaster: the commodification of good intentions in post-tsunami Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Korf, Benedikt; Habullah, Shahul; Hollenbach, Pia; Klem, Bart

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the commodification of post-tsunami aid in Sri Lanka, a process that 'contaminated' the 'purity' of good intentions with the politics of patronage and international aid. It argues that gifts are not just material transfers of 'aid', but also embodiments of cultural symbolism, social power, and political affiliations. The tsunami gift re-enforced and reconfigured exchange relationships among different patrons and clients in Sri Lankan communities, perpetuating the political economy that has driven social conflict and discontent in the post-independence years. Beyond dominant rationales of ethnic or political party patronage, the paper finds that gifts by disingenuous patrons not only became patrimonial, but that the patrimonial rationale emerged as much from above as from below--a dynamic that became nearly inescapable and self-reinforcing. Through three case studies, we explore the intricate chain of relations, obligations, and expectations pertinent in the co-evolving, but often contradictory, gift rationales that permeate the practices, performances, and discourses of tsunami aid. PMID:19486354

  17. Reactogenicity and safety of the human rotavirus vaccine, Rotarix™ in The Philippines, Sri Lanka, and India: A post-marketing surveillance study

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Lulu; Chitraka, Amarjeet; Liu, Aixue; Choudhury, Jaydeep; Kumar, Kishore; Berezo, Lennie; Cimafranca, Leonard; Chatterjee, Pallab; Garg, Pankaj; Siriwardene, Prasanna; Bernardo, Rommel; Mehta, Shailesh; Balasubramanian, Sundaram; Karkada, Naveen; Htay Han, Htay

    2014-01-01

    Regulatory bodies in The Philippines, Sri Lanka, and India require post-marketing surveillance to provide additional safety data on Rotarix™ in real-life settings. In such studies conducted in The Philippines (November 2006 to July 2012; NCT00353366), Sri Lanka (November 2008 to August 2009; NCT00779779), and India (August 2009 to April 2010; NCT00938327), 2 doses of Rotarix™ were administered according to the local prescribing information (PI). The occurrence of at least Grade “2”/”3” solicited adverse event (AE) (fever, vomiting, or diarrhea), within 15 days in The Philippines or 8 days in Sri Lanka and India; unsolicited AEs within 31 days and serious adverse events (SAEs) throughout the study were recorded. Of the 1494, 522, and 332 infants enrolled in The Philippines, Sri Lanka, and India, 14.7% 14.9% and 12.7% infants, respectively recorded at least Grade “2”/”3” solicited AEs. The most commonly reported solicited AEs were irritability in The Philippines (32.2% post-Dose-1; 23.5% post-Dose-2) and India (23.0% post-Dose-1; 13.2% post-Dose-2), and fever (18.0% post-Dose-1; 20.2% post-Dose-2) in Sri Lanka. Unsolicited AEs were recorded in 24.5% (The Philippines), 4.8% (Sri Lanka), and 6.9% (India) of infants. Forty-one SAEs were recorded in the Philippines of which 6 (decreased oral intake with increased sleeping time and constipation; pneumonia, urinary tract infection, and intussusception) were considered by the investigators as causally related to vaccination. One vaccine-unrelated SAE occurred in a Sri Lankan infant. All SAEs resolved and the infants recovered. Two doses of Rotarix™, administered to healthy infants according to local PI, were well tolerated in The Philippines, Sri Lanka, and India. PMID:25424932

  18. Chronic kidney disease of uncertain aetiology: adding vital piece of information to the national project team report of Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Jayalal, T B Ananda

    2015-01-01

    In a recent study published by the National Project Team on chronic kidney diseases of unknown origin in Sri Lanka, identified cadmium as a major risk factor but strong conclusions were not made as the identified environmental toxins were within the permissible levels.Sri Lankan food consumption pattern is different so that approach of total exposure of cadmium by food and water been calculated. Such calculation point out that total exposure of cadmium exceed the provisional tolerable weekly intake determined by international agencies. PMID:26701260

  19. Regression analysis of "current status" life tables on duration of breastfeeding in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Smith, D P

    1985-01-01

    Provided that women report the dates of their children's births with reasonable accuracy, it is possible to derive good estimates of the duration of breastfeeding from women's breastfeeding status at the time of the interview. This paper illustrates the application of conventional regression techniques to the analysis of breastfeeding rates derived in this manner. Construction of current status rates is explained and a comparison between open interval, closed interval, and current status breastfeeding life tables is presented, indicating the extent of bias to which tables of the former types are open. Birth-weighted rates are used for WFS data from Sri Lanka; the variables entered into the regression equation include parity, educational level, residence, work experience since marriage and use of contraception since the birth. Contraception is not found to influence net breastfeeding rates in the 1st interval (1-16 months), although it is about as prevalent as in later intervals. The positive coefficients at intervals beyond the 1st also imply that contraceptive use is not a substitute for lactation in Sri Lanka or not a predominant one. Lifetime urban residence is associated with short durations of breastfeeding, and being an urban migrant is associated with intermediate durations relative to those of rural women. The effects of residence on breastfeeding are especially pronounced in the 1st interval. By parity as by contraception, differences in breastfeeding rates are not significant at short durations but become so with time as lower parity women reach pregnancy. Patterns by age are similar, but less sharp. Middle school attendance and work at home are both strongly associated with with lactation behavior, the former negatively and the latter to about an equal degree positively. Working outside the home seems not to influence breastfeeding to any great extent. In the multiple attribute regressions, middle schooling depresses breastfeeding durations about as

  20. Village agroforestry systems and tree-use practices: A case study in Sri Lanka. Multipurpose tree species network research series

    SciTech Connect

    Wickramasinghe, A.

    1992-01-01

    Village agroforestry systems in Sri Lanka have evolved through farmers' efforts to meet their survival needs. The paper examines farmers' land-use systems and their perceptions of the role of trees in the villages of Bambarabedda and Madugalla in central Sri Lanka. The benefits of village agroforestry are diverse food, fuelwood, fodder, timber, and mulch, but food products are of outstanding importance. The ability of Artocarpus heterophyllus (the jackfruit tree) and Cocos nucifera (coconut) to ensure food security during the dry season and provide traditional foods throughout the year, as well as to grow in limited space, make them popular crops in the two study villages. The study recommends that further research precede the formulation of agricultural interventions and that efforts to promote improved tree varieties recognize farmers' practices and expressed needs.

  1. On the road to eliminate malaria in Sri Lanka: lessons from history, challenges, gaps in knowledge and research needs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Malaria is one of the most important tropical diseases that has caused devastation throughout the history of mankind. Malaria eradication programmes in the past have had many positive effects but failed to wipe out malaria from most tropical countries, including Sri Lanka. Encouraged by the impressive levels of reduction in malaria case numbers during the past decade, Sri Lanka has launched a programme to eliminate malaria by year 2014. This article reviews the historical milestones associated with the malaria eradication programme that failed subsequently and the events that led to the launch of the ongoing malaria elimination plans at national-level and its strategies that are operational across the entire country. The existing gaps in knowledge are also discussed together with the priority areas for research to fill in these gaps that are posing as challenges to the envisaged goal of wiping out malaria from this island nation. PMID:24548783

  2. Homegardens as a multi-functional land-use strategy in Sri Lanka with focus on carbon sequestration.

    PubMed

    Mattsson, Eskil; Ostwald, Madelene; Nissanka, S P; Marambe, Buddhi

    2013-11-01

    This paper explores the concept of homegardens and their potential functions as strategic elements in land-use planning, and adaptation and mitigation to climate change in Sri Lanka. The ancient and locally adapted agroforestry system of homegardens is presently estimated to occupy nearly 15 % of the land area in Sri Lanka and is described in the scientific literature to offer several ecosystem services to its users; such as climate regulation, protection against natural hazards, enhanced land productivity and biological diversity, increased crop diversity and food security for rural poor and hence reduced vulnerability to climate change. Our results, based on a limited sample size, indicate that the homegardens also store significant amount of carbon, with above ground biomass carbon stocks in dry zone homegardens (n = 8) ranging from 10 to 55 megagrams of carbon per hectare (Mg C ha(-1)) with a mean value of 35 Mg C ha(-1), whereas carbon stocks in wet zone homegardens (n = 4) range from 48 to 145 Mg C ha(-1) with a mean value of 87 Mg C ha(-1). This implies that homegardens may contain a significant fraction of the total above ground biomass carbon stock in the terrestrial system in Sri Lanka, and from our estimates its share has increased from almost one-sixth in 1992 to nearly one-fifth in 2010. In the light of current discussions on reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+), the concept of homegardens in Sri Lanka provides interesting aspects to the debate and future research in terms of forest definitions, setting reference levels, and general sustainability. PMID:23456780

  3. Use of Social Media in Facilitating Health Care Research Among Nursing and Allied Health Undergraduates in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Silva, S N

    2016-01-01

    A mentoring program was designed to promote conduction, completion and dissemination of undergraduate research among Nursing and Allied Health students in Sri Lanka. Several social media platforms were used; mainly the Facebook, YouTube and Google Hangouts. Knowledge sharing, interaction and collaboration were promoted. Student motivation was also done. Research presentation skills and applying for conferences was also facilitated. Over 90% of the participated 262 students completed a research project and close to 50% presented them both locally and internationally. PMID:27332276

  4. Costs of Dengue Control Activities and Hospitalizations in the Public Health Sector during an Epidemic Year in Urban Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Thalagala, Neil; Tissera, Hasitha; Palihawadana, Paba; Amarasinghe, Ananda; Ambagahawita, Anuradha; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Shepard, Donald S.; Tozan, Yeşim

    2016-01-01

    Background Reported as a public health problem since the 1960s in Sri Lanka, dengue has become a high priority disease for public health authorities. The Ministry of Health is responsible for controlling dengue and other disease outbreaks and associated health care. The involvement of large numbers of public health staff in dengue control activities year-round and the provision of free medical care to dengue patients at secondary care hospitals place a formidable financial burden on the public health sector. Methods We estimated the public sector costs of dengue control activities and the direct costs of hospitalizations in Colombo, the most heavily urbanized district in Sri Lanka, during the epidemic year of 2012 from the Ministry of Health’s perspective. The financial costs borne by public health agencies and hospitals are collected using cost extraction tools designed specifically for the study and analysed retrospectively using a combination of activity-based and gross costing approaches. Results The total cost of dengue control and reported hospitalizations was estimated at US$3.45 million (US$1.50 per capita) in Colombo district in 2012. Personnel costs accounted for the largest shares of the total costs of dengue control activities (79%) and hospitalizations (46%). The results indicated a per capita cost of US$0.42 for dengue control activities. The average costs per hospitalization ranged between US$216–609 for pediatric cases and between US$196–866 for adult cases according to disease severity and treatment setting. Conclusions This analysis is a first attempt to assess the economic burden of dengue response in the public health sector in Sri Lanka. Country-specific evidence is needed for setting public health priorities and deciding about the deployment of existing or new technologies. Our results suggest that dengue poses a major economic burden on the public health sector in Sri Lanka. PMID:26910907

  5. Toxic polyneuropathy due to gingili oil contaminated with tri-cresyl phosphate affecting adolescent girls in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Senanayake, N; Jeyaratnam, J

    1981-01-10

    An outbreak of acute polyneuropathy affected over 20 young females in Sri Lanka during 1977-78. The illness was restricted to girls attaining menarche and to women after childbirth. The cause of the neuropathy could be traced to tri-cresyl phosphate found as a contaminant in gingili oil. Contamination probably occurred during transport of the oil in containers previously used for storing mineral oils. PMID:6109132

  6. Estimating dengue type reproduction numbers for two provinces of Sri Lanka during the period 2013-14.

    PubMed

    Sardar, Tridip; Sasmal, Sourav Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Joydev

    2016-02-17

    Dengue is an endemic disease in the southeast Asian country Sri Lanka. Two seasonal peaks of dengue incidence were observed every year since 2002 onwards. In this study, we formulate a 2-strain dengue model for analyzing the monthly seasonal dengue incidence data from 2 provinces of Sri Lanka during the period April 2013 to September 2014. The seasonality is incorporated in the model in terms of mosquito biting rate, which we assume to be time periodic. We estimated 2 primary reproduction numbers and the basic reproduction number in a periodic environment using dengue incidence data from the western and the central provinces of Sri Lanka. We also estimated different time-average type reproduction numbers from the model using the data from these 2 provinces. Using univariate sensitivity analysis, we measured the sensitivity of the time average reproduction number ([Formula: see text]) When we vary different parameters of the proposed dengue model, we find the transmission probability of human susceptibility to strain-I infection and the mosquito mortality rate parameters are the most sensitive parameters in dengue transmission in these 2 provinces. PMID:26646355

  7. Home ranges and habitat use of sloth bears Melursus ursinus inornatus in Wasgomuwa National Park, Sri Lanka

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ratnayeke, S.; Van Manen, F.T.; Padmalal, U.K.G.K.

    2007-01-01

    We studied home ranges and habitat selection of 10 adult sloth bears Melursus ursinus inornatus at Wasgomuwa National Park, Sri Lanka during 2002-2003. Very little is known about the ecology and behaviour of M. u. inornatus, which is a subspecies found in Sri Lanka. Our study was undertaken to assess space and habitat requirements typical of a viable population of M. u. inornatus to facilitate future conservation efforts. We captured and radio-collared 10 adult sloth bears and used the telemetry data to assess home-range size and habitat use. Mean 95% fixed kernel home ranges were 2.2 km2 (SE = 0.61) and 3.8 km2 (SE = 1.01) for adult females and males, respectively. Although areas outside the national park were accessible to bears, home ranges were almost exclusively situated within the national park boundaries. Within the home ranges, high forests were used more and abandoned agricultural fields (chenas) were used less than expected based on availability. Our estimates of home-range size are among the smallest reported for any species of bear. Thus, despite its relatively small size, Wasgomuwa National Park may support a sizeable population of sloth bears. The restriction of human activity within protected areas may be necessary for long-term viability of sloth bear populations in Sri Lanka as is maintenance of forest or scrub cover in areas with existing sloth bear populations and along potential travel corridors. ?? Wildlife Biology 2007.

  8. Enhydrina schistosa (Elapidae: Hydrophiinae) the most dangerous sea snake in Sri Lanka: three case studies of severe envenoming.

    PubMed

    Kularatne, S A M; Hettiarachchi, R; Dalpathadu, J; Mendis, A S V; Appuhamy, P D S A N; Zoysa, H D J; Maduwage, K; Weerasinghe, V S; de Silva, A

    2014-01-01

    Sea snakes are highly venomous and inhabit tropical waters of the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Enhydrina schistosa is a common species of sea snake that lives in the coastal waters, lagoons, river mouths and estuaries from the Persian Gulf through Sri Lanka and to Southeast Asia. It is considered one of the most aggressive sea snakes in Sri Lanka where fishermen and people wading are at high risk. However, sea snake bites are rarely reported. In this report, we describe three cases where E. schistosa was the offending species. These three patients presented to two hospitals on the west coast of Sri Lanka within the course of 14 months from November 2011 with different degrees of severity of envenoming. The first patient was a 26-year-old fisherman who developed severe myalgia with very high creatine kinase (CK) levels lasting longer than 7 days. The second patient was a 32-year-old fisherman who developed gross myoglobinuria, high CK levels and hyperkalaemia. Both patients recovered and their electromyographic recordings showed myopathic features. The nerve conduction and neuromuscular transmission studies were normal in both patients suggesting primary myotoxic envenoming. The third patient was a 41-year-old man who trod on a sea snake in a river mouth and developed severe myalgia seven hours later. He had severe rhabdomyolysis and died three days later due to cardiovascular collapse. In conclusion, we confirm that E. schistosa is a deadly sea snake and its bite causes severe rhabdomyolysis. PMID:24239658

  9. Impact of economic labour migration: a qualitative exploration of left-behind family member perspectives in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Siriwardhana, Chesmal; Wickramage, Kolitha; Jayaweera, Kaushalya; Adikari, Anushka; Weerawarna, Sulochana; Van Bortel, Tine; Siribaddana, Sisira; Sumathipala, Athula

    2015-06-01

    Sri Lanka is a major labour sending country in Asia, with a high proportion of female labour migrants employed as domestic housemaids in the Middle East with increasing remittances. Despite such financial gains for families and national economy, health and social effects on the left-behind families have had limited exploration. This qualitative study was carried out across five districts with high labour migration rates in Sri Lanka. Twenty in-depth interviews were conducted with participants recruited through purposive sampling. Data was analysed using content and thematic analysis and emerging themes were mapped. Pre-migration socio-economic situation, economic difficulties and higher earning possibilities abroad were considered to be the major push and pull factors for labour migration. Post-migration periods were shown to be of mixed benefit to left-behind families and children suffer the negative effects of parental absence. The absence of support mechanisms for dealing with adverse events such as serious injury, death, abuse or imprisonment were cited as major concerns. Post-migration periods affect the health, well-being and family structures of left-behind families. Promoting economic prosperity while ensuring health and social protection is a formidable policy challenge for 'labour sending' countries such as Sri Lanka. PMID:24242226

  10. Comparative Analysis of Lipid Content and Fatty Acid Composition of Commercially Important Fish and Shellfish from Sri Lanka and Japan.

    PubMed

    Devadason, Chandravathany; Jayasinghe, Chamila; Sivakanesan, Ramiah; Senarath, Samanthika; Beppu, Fumiaki; Gotoh, Naohiro

    2016-01-01

    Sri Lanka is surrounded by the Indian Ocean, allowing plenty of fishes to be caught. Moreover, these fishes represent one of the undocumented fish resources in the world and their detailed lipid profiles have not been previously examined. In this study, the lipid content and fatty acid composition of 50 commercially important fishes from the Indian Ocean (Sri Lanka) and the Pacific Ocean (Japan) were compared. The total lipid content and fatty acid composition, including eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5n-3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n-3, DHA), differed significantly among species. Fish from the Pacific Ocean had higher proportions of fatty acids, including EPA and DHA. Herrings and mackerels from both oceanic areas demonstrated high levels of EPA and DHA, and n-3/n-6 ratio. Brackish and freshwater fishes from both groups showed low levels of PUFAs. Fish from the Indian Ocean were high in n-6 fatty acids. Monounsaturated fatty acid levels were high in omnivorous fish from the Pacific Ocean, and saturated fatty acid levels were high in fish from the Indian Ocean. The results of this study will be of value in determining the dietary usefulness of fish caught in Sri Lanka. PMID:27373421

  11. Morphology and surface topography of the schistosome Bivitellobilharzia nairi from the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus maximus) in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Rajapakse, R P V J; Iwagami, M; Wickramasinghe, S; Walker, S M; Agatsuma, T

    2013-09-01

    Bivitellobilharzia nairi was first recorded from an Indian elephant (Elephas maximus) in Berlin. Infections with this parasite have become increasingly important in E. maximus maximus populations in Sri Lanka. The present work is the first morphological description of this schistosome from Sri Lanka. A number of adult worms were recovered from a dead Asian elephant near the elephant orphanage, Pinnawala, in Sri Lanka. The observed clinical features of the infected elephant included emaciation, subventral oedema and anaemia. Post-mortem results indicated that the liver was enlarged and adult schistosomes were found in the blood vessels of the liver parenchyma. The total number of worms recovered from a portion of the liver was 129,870, which is an average of 22 worms per 100 g of liver. The present study uses both light microscopic and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques for the morphological and topographical characterization of this parasite and to permit comparison with other species of schistosomes. Morphologically, these worms correspond very well to the description of B. nairi by Dutt & Srivastava (1955). Moreover, it is clear that B. nairi is a distinctive species easily differentiated from other schistosomes. The SEM study of the tegument of male worms shows that the surface of B. nairi is smoother than in other schistosomes. PMID:22989615

  12. A new species of the genus Calotes (Squamata: Agamidae) from high elevations of the Knuckles massif of Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Amarasinghe, A A Thasun; Karunarathna, D M S Suranjan; Hallermann, Jakob; Fujinuma, Junichi; Grillitsch, Heinz; Campbell, Patrick D

    2014-01-01

    A new species of agamid lizard, of the genus Calotes, is described based on morphological evidence. This species is restricted to the Knuckles massif (>900 m elevation) of Sri Lanka. The genus Calotes consists of seven species in Sri Lanka, five of which appear to form an endemic radiation. The new species most closely resembles C. liocephalus Günther, 1872 which has an isolated population in the central highlands and is only known from Pundaluoya (~1000m), Dickoya (~1200m), Upcot (~1400m), Agrapatanas (1665m) and Peak Wilderness (Sri Pada) (>1400m). The populations from Pundaluoya and Dickoya appear to be locally extinct from the wild and are known only from museum specimens collected over 120 years ago. Males of the new species are different from males of C. liocephalus because of the absence of a gular pouch; by having mid gular scales smaller in size than those of its counterpart; scales on the snout which are larger in size than those on the occipital and forehead; pectoral scales which are not enlarged; elongated subcaudal scales; slightly carinate and acuminate abdominal scales; and scales on venter which are somewhat larger in size than those on dorsum at the same level. Finally, we also redescribe Calotes liocephalus, and provide a key to the Sri Lankan species of genus Calotes. PMID:24872171

  13. Is Hiding Foot and Mouth Disease Sensitive Behavior for Farmers? A Survey Study in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Gunarathne, Anoma; Kubota, Satoko; Kumarawadu, Pradeep; Karunagoda, Kamal; Kon, Hiroichi

    2016-01-01

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) has a long history in Sri Lanka and was found to be endemic in various parts of the country and constitutes a constant threat to farmers. In Sri Lanka, currently there is no regular, nationwide vaccination programme devised to control FMD. Therefore, improving farmers’ knowledge regarding distinguishing FMD from other diseases and ensuring prompt reporting of any suspicion of FMD as well as restricting movement of animals are critical activities for an effective FMD response effort. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between farmers’ knowledge levels and their behaviors to establish a strategy to control FMD. In our study, item count technique was applied to estimate the number of farmers that under-report and sell FMD-infected animals, although to do so is prohibited by law. The following findings were observed: about 63% of farmers have very poor knowledge of routes of FMD transmission; ‘under-reporting’ was found to be a sensitive behavior and nearly 23% of the farmers were reluctant to report FMD-infected animals; and ‘selling FMD-infected animals’ is a sensitive behavior among high-level knowledge group while it is a non-sensitive behavior among the low-level knowledge group. If farmers would understand the importance of prompt reporting, they may report any suspected cases of FMD to veterinary officials. However, even if farmers report honestly, they do not want to cull FMD-infected animals. Thus, education programs should be conducted not only on FMD introduction and transmission, but also its impact. Furthermore, consumers may criticize the farmers for culling their infected animals. Hence, not only farmers, but also consumers need to be educated on the economic impact of FMD and the importance of controlling an outbreak. If farmers have a high knowledge of FMD transmission, they consider selling FMD-infected animals as a sensitive behavior. Therefore, severe punishment should

  14. Laboratory studies of dune sand for the use of construction industry in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Silva Jayawardena, Upali; Wijesuriya, Roshan; Abayaweera, Gayan; Viduranga, Tharaka

    2015-04-01

    With the increase of the annual sand demand for the construction industry the excessive excavation of river sand is becoming a serious environmental problem in Sri Lanka. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the possibility for an alternative to stop or at least to minimize river sand mining activities. Dune sand is one of the available alternative materials to be considered instead of river sand in the country. Large quantities of sand dunes occur mainly along the NW and SE coastal belt which belong to very low rainfall Dry Zone coasts. The height of dune deposits, vary from 1m to about 30 meters above sea level. The objective of this paper is to indicate some studies and facts on the dune sand deposits of Sri Lanka. Laboratory studies were carried out for visual observations and physical properties at the initial stage and then a number of tests were carried out according to ASTM standards to obtain the compressive strength of concrete cylinders and mortar cubes mixing dune sand and river sand in different percentages keeping a constant water cement ratio. Next the water cement ratio was changed for constant dune sand and river sand proportion. Microscopic analysis shows that the dune sand consist of 95 % of quartz and 5 % of garnet, feldspar, illmenite and other heavy minerals with clay, fine dust, fine shell fragments and organic matters. Grains are sub-rounded to angular and tabular shapes. The grain sizes vary from fine to medium size of sand with silt. The degree of sorting and particle size observed with dune sands are more suited with the requirement of fine aggregates in the construction industry. The test result indicates that dune sand could be effectively used in construction work without sieving and it is ideal for wall plastering due to its'-uniformity. It could also be effectively used in concrete and in mortars mixing with river sand. The best mixing ratio is 75% dune sand and 25% river sand as the fine aggregate of concrete. For mortar the mixing

  15. A Historical Analysis of the Relationship Between Rice Production and PDSI Values in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobi, J. H.; Hornberger, G. M.

    2011-12-01

    As world population grows, there are ever increasing demands being placed on the food production systems throughout the world. Climate change is complicating these stressors even further through more frequent severe weather events. In the developing world, where there are fewer resources to mitigate the effects of climate change, the combination of these two factors can have drastic consequences. In Sri Lanka, farmers in major rice production areas of the country are already struggling to produce enough rice, a staple food of the local diet, and a severe wet or dry spell could be ruinous. Faced with a changing climate and a growing demand for rice, it is important to be able to anticipate how climatic changes will affect rice production. By examining how extreme wet and dry spells have historically affected rice production, decision makers may be better able to predict and prepare for potential food shortages. We conducted an analysis of historic temperature, precipitation, and rice production statistics in order to determine the effects of extreme wet and dry spells on rice production. We also created a timeline of major developments in Sri Lankan agriculture in order to compare effects on rice production due to changes in agricultural practices with meteorological changes. Historical temperature and precipitation data were used to calculate the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) for a number of stations distributed throughout the Mahaweli river basin. The basin, the largest in the country, contains three different climatic regions - dry, intermediate, and wet - that all receive different amounts of annual precipitation. The PDSI values were used to quantify drought and wetness during the Yala (April-September) and Maha (October-March) growing seasons. Analysis of historical PDSI values, agricultural advances, and rice production statistics shows great promise for anticipating and mitigating future food shortages.

  16. Nephrotoxic contaminants in drinking water and urine, and chronic kidney disease in rural Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Rango, Tewodros; Jeuland, Marc; Manthrithilake, Herath; McCornick, Peter

    2015-06-15

    Chronic kidney disease of unknown ("u") cause (CKDu) is a growing public health concern in Sri Lanka. Prior research has hypothesized a link with drinking water quality, but rigorous studies are lacking. This study assesses the relationship between nephrotoxic elements (namely arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and uranium (U)) in drinking water, and urine samples collected from individuals with and/or without CKDu in endemic areas, and from individuals without CKDu in nonendemic areas. All water samples - from a variety of source types (i.e. shallow and deep wells, springs, piped and surface water) - contained extremely low concentrations of nephrotoxic elements, and all were well below drinking water guideline values. Concentrations in individual urine samples were higher than, and uncorrelated with, those measured in drinking water, suggesting potential exposure from other sources. Mean urinary concentrations of these elements for individuals with clinically diagnosed CKDu were consistently lower than individuals without CKDu both in endemic and nonendemic areas. This likely stems from the inability of the kidney to excrete these toxic elements via urine in CKDu patients. Urinary concentrations of individuals were also found to be within the range of reference values measured in urine of healthy unexposed individuals from international biomonitoring studies, though these reference levels may not be safe for the Sri Lankan population. The results suggest that CKDu cannot be clearly linked with the presence of these contaminants in drinking water. There remains a need to investigate potential interactions of low doses of these elements (particularly Cd and As) with other risk factors that appear linked to CKDu, prior to developing public health strategies to address this illness. PMID:25782025

  17. Exposure to conflict and disaster: A national survey on the prevalence of psychotic experiences in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Keraite, Arune; Sumathipala, Athula; Siriwardhana, Chesmal; Morgan, Craig; Reininghaus, Ulrich

    2016-03-01

    Recent research conducted in high-income countries suggests psychotic experiences are common in the general population, but evidence from low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) remains limited. Sri Lanka is a LMIC affected by three decades of civil conflict and, in 2004, a devastating tsunami. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of psychotic experiences in a general population sample in Sri Lanka and associations with conflict- and tsunami-related trauma. This is a first National Mental Health Survey conducted in Sri Lanka. A cross-sectional, multi-stage, cluster sampling design was used to estimate the prevalence of psychotic symptoms. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, conflict- and tsunami-related trauma, and psychotic experiences were collected using culturally validated measures in a sample of 5927 participants. The weighted prevalence of psychotic symptoms was 9.7%. Exposure to one or more conflict-related events (adj. OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.40-2.31, p<0.001) and loss or injury of a family member or friend through conflict (adj. OR, 1.83, 95% CI 1.42-2.37, p<0.001) were associated with increased odds of reporting psychotic experiences. Psychotic experiences were more common in individuals directly exposed to tsunami disaster (adj. OR, 1.68, 95% CI 1.04-2.73, P=0.035) and in those who had a family member who died or was injured as result of tsunami (adj. OR, 1.42, 95% CI 1.04-1.94, p=0.029). Our findings suggest that psychotic experiences are common in the Sri Lankan population. Exposure to traumatic events in armed conflicts and natural disasters may be important socio-environmental factors in the development of psychotic experiences. PMID:26817400

  18. An investigation into the role of alcohol in self-harm in rural Sri Lanka: a protocol for a multimethod, qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Sørensen, Jane Brandt; Rheinländer, Thilde; Sørensen, Birgitte Refslund; Pearson, Melissa; Agampodi, Thilini; Siribaddana, Sisira; Konradsen, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Sri Lanka has one of the highest suicide and self-harm rates in the world and although alcohol has been found to be a risk factor for self-harm in Sri Lanka, we know little about the connection between the two. This paper comprises a protocol for a qualitative study investigating alcohol's role in self-harm in rural Sri Lanka at three levels: the individual, community and policy level. The analysis will bring new understanding of the link between alcohol and self-harm in Sri Lanka, drawing on structural, cultural and social concepts. It will equip researchers, health systems and policy makers with vital information for developing strategies to address alcohol-related problems as they relate to self-harm. Methods and analysis To capture the complexity of the link between alcohol and self-harm in the Anuradhapura district in the North Central Province in Sri Lanka, qualitative methods will be utilised. Specifically, the data will consist of serial narrative life-story interviews with up to 20 individuals who have non-fatally self-harmed and where alcohol directly or indirectly was involved in the incidence as well as with their significant others; observations in communities and families; six focus group discussions with community members; and key-informant interviews with 15–25 stakeholders who have a stake in alcohol distribution, marketing, policies, prevention and treatment as they relate to self-harm. Ethics and dissemination The study has received ethical approval from the Ethical Review Committee of the Faculty of Medicine and Allied Sciences, Rajarata University of Sri Lanka. A sensitive data collection technique will be used and ethical issues will be considered throughout the study. Results The results will be disseminated in scientific peer-reviewed articles in collaboration with Sri Lankan and other international research partners. PMID:25293385

  19. Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome type 4 in a patient from Sri Lanka with pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Bachli, Esther B; Brack, Thomas; Eppler, Elisabeth; Stallmach, Thomas; Trüeb, Ralph M; Huizing, Marjan; Gahl, William A

    2004-06-01

    Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by oculocutaneous albinism and a platelet storage pool deficiency. Some patients also develop fatal pulmonary fibrosis and some have granulomatous colitis. Six human genes HPS1, ADB3A, HPS3, HPS4, HPS5, and HPS6 have been identified as cause of the six known subtypes of HPS. While there exist nearly 500 Puerto Rican and non-Puerto Rican HPS-1 patients, very few HPS-4 patients have been reported, and most of these have not been described in detail. We now delineate the clinical characteristics of an HPS-4 patient homozygous for a novel HPS-4 mutation, P685delC. The patient, the first individual with HPS reported from Sri Lanka, had severe pulmonary fibrosis, typical of HPS-1 disease, without granulomatous colitis. We conclude that pulmonary fibrosis occurs as part of HPS-4 and that HPS should be considered in all ethnic groups. PMID:15108212

  20. Geologic impacts of the 2004 Indian ocean tsunami on Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and the Maldives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richmond, B.M.; Jaffe, B.E.; Gelfenbaum, G.; Morton, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    The December 26, 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami was generated by a large submarine earthquake (magnitude ???9.1) with an epicenter located under the seafloor in the eastern Indian Ocean near northern Sumatra, Indonesia. The resulting tsunami was measured globally and had significant geologic impacts throughout the Indian Ocean basin. Observations of tsunami impacts, such as morphologic change, sedimentary deposits, and water-level measurements, are used to reconstruct tsunamogenic processes. Data from Sumatra, Sri Lanka, and the Maldives provide a synoptic view of tsunami characteristics from a wide range of coastal environments both near- and far-field from the tsunami origin. Impacts to the coast as a result of the tsunami varied depending upon the height of the wave at impact, orientation of the coast with regard to direction of wave approach, and local topography, bathymetry, geology, and vegetation cover. Tsunami deposits were observed in all the countries visited and can be generally characterized as relatively thin sheets (<80 cm), mostly of sand. ?? 2006 Gebru??der Borntraeger.

  1. Implementation of genomic medicine in Sri Lanka: Initial experience and challenges.

    PubMed

    Sirisena, Nirmala D; Neththikumara, Nilaksha; Wetthasinghe, Kalum; Dissanayake, Vajira H W

    2016-06-01

    The recent advances in next generation sequencing technologies have made it possible to implement genomic medicine in developing countries such as Sri Lanka where capacity for utilization is limited. This paper aims to describe our initial experience and challenges faced in integrating genomic medicine into routine clinical practice. Using the Illumina MiSeq Next generation sequencing (NGS) platform and an in-house developed bioinformatics pipeline/workflow, we successfully implemented clinical exome sequencing for rare disorders, complex disorders with unusual coexisting phenotypes, and multigene cancer panel testing for inherited cancer syndromes. The advantages of implementing these tests, the challenges for bioinformatics analysis and reporting, the ethical, legal, and social implications of moving from genetic to genomic counseling, and special policy issues related to implementing these tests are further discussed. The implementation of genomic medicine into our routine clinical practice has facilitated improved care for our patients, attesting to the ability of resource limited countries to improve care using advanced genomic technology. PMID:27354939

  2. Predictors of violence against children in Tamil families in northern Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Sriskandarajah, Vathsalan; Neuner, Frank; Catani, Claudia

    2015-12-01

    Children living in post-conflict settings are not only at high risk of developing war-related psychopathology but also of experiencing maltreatment within their families. However, little is known about the mechanisms of the relationship between war and family violence. In order to investigate the variables associated with the experience and perpetration of child maltreatment, we conducted a two-generational study with Tamil families in the North of Sri Lanka, a region affected by war and Tsunami. We interviewed children and the corresponding family dyads and triads with 359 children, 122 mothers, and 88 fathers on the basis of standardized questionnaires to assess their exposure to adverse life experiences and mental health symptoms. Using multivariate regression analyses, we found that the strongest predictors for children's report of victimization were children's exposure to mass trauma and child psychopathology. Mothers' experiences of mass trauma, family violence and partner violence were each significantly related to mother-reported maternal perpetration as well as child-reported victimization. Likewise, all types of traumatic events reported by fathers were significantly related to child-reported victimization and father-reported perpetration. Fathers' alcohol use was the strongest predictor of father-reported paternal perpetration. These findings provide further support for the transmission of mass trauma into family violence, and emphasize the role of child psychopathology as well as alcohol consumption in this relationship. PMID:26521032

  3. Effect of Hydroxypropylation on Functional Properties of Different Cultivars of Sweet Potato Starch in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Senanayake, Suraji; Gunaratne, Anil; Ranaweera, K K D S; Bamunuarachchi, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    Starches obtained from different cultivars of sweet potatoes commonly consumed in Sri Lanka, were chemically modified with hydroxypropyl substitution, to analyze the changes in the physicochemical properties. Significant changes (P < 0.05) in the crude digestibility level, thermal properties, and the water separation (syneresis) of starch gels (7.0% db) during cold and frozen storage were observed due to the modification. Hydroxypropylation increased the gel stability, water solubility, digestibility, and storage stability of the native starches in the cold storage to a significant level. Lowered gelatinization and retrogradation enthalpies as well as gelatinization temperature were observed for derivatized starches compared to the native starch. Low levels of pasting stability with increased levels of breakdown and reduced cold paste viscosity were observed in the hydroxypropylated starch samples except for the Malaysian cultivar (S5). Chemically modified starch gels stored under cold storage did not show a syneresis for two weeks in the cycle and the frozen storage showed much improved stability in the starch gels within the four-week cycle. Chemical modification of sweet potato starch with hydroxyl propyl substitution can enhance the functional characteristics of the native starch which will improve its potential application in the food industry. PMID:26904619

  4. Beyond individual war trauma: domestic violence against children in Afghanistan and Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Catani, Claudia; Schauer, Elisabeth; Neuner, Frank

    2008-04-01

    To date, research on the psychosocial consequences of mass trauma resulting from war and organized violence on children has primarily focused on the individual as the unit of treatment and analysis with particular focus on mental disorders caused by traumatic stress. This body of research has stimulated the development of promising individual-level treatment approaches for addressing psychological trauma. In contrast, there is virtually no literature addressing the effects of mass trauma on the family and community systems. Research conducted in Sri Lanka and Afghanistan, two long-standing war-torn societies, found that in addition to multiple exposure to war or disaster-related traumatic events children also indicated high levels of exposure to family violence. These findings point to the need for conjoint family- and community-based programs of prevention and intervention that are specifically tailored for the context of the affected society. In particular, programs should take issues such as poverty, child labor, and parental alcohol use into account in assessing and treating children in the aftermath of mass trauma. PMID:18412824

  5. Contemplating choice: attitudes towards intervening in human reproduction in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Simpson, B; Dissanayake, V H W; Jayasekara, R W

    2005-04-01

    To date, relatively little is known about the ethical, legal and social responses to recent advances in reproductive and genetic technology outside Europe and North America. This article reports on a survey carried out among doctors (n=278) and medical students (n=1256) in Sri Lanka to find out more about their responses to novel interventions in human reproduction such as In-Vitro Fertilization, Pre-Implantation Genetic Diagnosis and genetic engineering. In the first part of the paper comparisons are drawn between this survey and a survey carried out in 1985 which also considered issues surrounding amniocentesis and therapeutic termination. The second part of the paper deals with more recent developments. The analysis reveals high levels of support for the use of new technologies in treating infertility and identifying genetic disorders. However, differences are apparent among the major religious communities represented in the sample and these are particularly in evidence in relation to prenatal genetic diagnosis. An important theme throughout both surveys is the continuing tension surrounding State policy and termination of pregnancy and the implications this has for the development of screening and counseling services where genetic disorders are concerned. PMID:16552923

  6. Sexual dimorphism in digital dermatoglyphic traits among Sinhalese people in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate gender-wise diversity of digital dermatoglyphic traits in a sample of Sinhalese people in Sri Lanka. Findings Four thousand and thirty-four digital prints of 434 Sinhalese individuals (217 males and 217 females) were examined for their digital dermatoglyphic pattern distribution. The mean age for the entire group was 23.66 years (standard deviation = 4.93 years). The loop pattern is observed more frequently (n = 2,592, 59.72%) compared to whorl (n = 1,542, 35.53%) and arch (n = 206, 4.75%) in the Sinhalese population. Females (n = 1,274, 58.71%) have a more ulnar loop pattern than males (n = 1,231, 56.73%). The plain whorl pattern is observed more frequently in males (n = 560, 25.81%) compared to females (n = 514, 23.69%).The double loop pattern is observed more frequently on the right and left thumb (digit 1) of both males and females. Pattern intensity index, Dankmeijer index and Furuhata index are higher in males. Conclusions Ulnar loop is the most frequently occurring digital dermatoglyphic pattern among the Sinhalese. All pattern indices are higher in males. To some extent, dermatoglyphic patterns of Sinhalese are similar to North Indians and other Caucasoid populations. Further studies with larger sample sizes are recommended to confirm our findings. PMID:24377367

  7. Effect of Hydroxypropylation on Functional Properties of Different Cultivars of Sweet Potato Starch in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Senanayake, Suraji; Gunaratne, Anil; Ranaweera, K. K. D. S.; Bamunuarachchi, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    Starches obtained from different cultivars of sweet potatoes commonly consumed in Sri Lanka, were chemically modified with hydroxypropyl substitution, to analyze the changes in the physicochemical properties. Significant changes (P < 0.05) in the crude digestibility level, thermal properties, and the water separation (syneresis) of starch gels (7.0% db) during cold and frozen storage were observed due to the modification. Hydroxypropylation increased the gel stability, water solubility, digestibility, and storage stability of the native starches in the cold storage to a significant level. Lowered gelatinization and retrogradation enthalpies as well as gelatinization temperature were observed for derivatized starches compared to the native starch. Low levels of pasting stability with increased levels of breakdown and reduced cold paste viscosity were observed in the hydroxypropylated starch samples except for the Malaysian cultivar (S5). Chemically modified starch gels stored under cold storage did not show a syneresis for two weeks in the cycle and the frozen storage showed much improved stability in the starch gels within the four-week cycle. Chemical modification of sweet potato starch with hydroxyl propyl substitution can enhance the functional characteristics of the native starch which will improve its potential application in the food industry. PMID:26904619

  8. Trophic interactions in the coastal ecosystem of Sri Lanka: An ECOPATH preliminary approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haputhantri, S. S. K.; Villanueva, M. C. S.; Moreau, J.

    2008-01-01

    This study attempts to assemble and summarize existing information in order to build a general representation of the trophic interactions within the shallow coastal ecosystem of Sri Lanka. A multispecific ecosystem-based approach on trophic relationships and their possible variations was performed using ECOPATH. Thirty-nine functional groups were considered representing all trophic levels in the food web. Time-dynamic simulation was carried out using the ECOSIM routine to evaluate the impact of the 1998 El Niño event on key functional groups. Results show that the time needed for any impacted functional group to recover to its initial abundance increased with the trophic level. Two time-series data sets derived from commercial catch and effort statistics were used for validation of ECOSIM results. The El Niño simulation results validated by the time-series data confirmed the ability of the proposed multispecies model to describe the sudden environmental changes. Possible impacts due to increase of fishing effort were also simulated by separately considering frequently used fishing gears. The analysis revealed that small-mesh gillnet fishery operates independently from the other existing developing fisheries in the same area and can be managed accordingly. Fishing-effort simulations suggest that the increase of fishing intensity by small-mesh gillnets would contribute to the decline of small pelagic catch. This was also found to influence the overall catch. The present level of exploitation of small pelagic fishery resources does not seem sustainable.

  9. Frontiers of the food-energy-water trilemma: Sri Lanka as a microcosm of tradeoffs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrone, Debra; Hornberger, George

    2016-01-01

    Food, energy, and water are three critical resources for humanity. As climate variability, population growth, and lifestyle changes amplify the stress placed on each of the resources, the interrelationships among food, energy, and water systems become more pronounced. Political conflict, social and cultural norms, and spatial and temporal distribution of the resources add additional layers of complexity. It is in this context that the significance of understanding the impacts of water scarcity on the decisions around food and energy productions has emerged. Our work establishes tradeoff frontiers (TFs) as a method useful in illustrating the system-level tradeoffs between allocating water for food and water for energy. This paper illustrates how TFs can be used to (1) show how scarcity in water resources affects the tradeoffs between food and energy and (2) explore the political and social constraints that can move production away from what is feasible technically. We use Sri Lanka, a country where water resources are variable both in space and time and a country with relatively self-contained energy and agricultural sectors, as a microcosm of the food security, energy security, and water security trilemma. Nevertheless, our application of tradeoff frontiers is applicable widely to other systems.

  10. Leptospirosis as Frequent Cause of Acute Febrile Illness in Southern Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Bodinayake, Champika; Nagahawatte, Ajith; Devasiri, Vasantha; Kodikara-Arachichi, Wasantha; Strouse, John J.; Flom, Judith E.; Dumler, J. Stephen; Woods, Christopher W.

    2011-01-01

    To determine the proportion of fevers caused by leptospirosis, we obtained serum specimens and epidemiologic and clinical data from patients in Galle, Sri Lanka, March–October 2007. Immunoglobulin M ELISA was performed on paired serum specimens to diagnose acute (seroconversion or 4-fold titer rise) or past (titer without rise) leptospirosis and seroprevalence (acute). We compared (individually) the diagnostic yield of acute-phase specimens and clinical impression with paired specimens for acute leptospirosis. Of 889 patients with paired specimens, 120 had acute leptosoirosis and 241 had past leptospirosis. The sensitivity and specificity of acute-phase serum specimens were 17.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 11.2%–25.5%) and 69.2% (95% CI 65.5%–72.7%), respectively, and of clinical impression 22.9% (95% CI 15.4%–32.0%) and 91.7% (95% CI 89.2%–93.8%), respectively. For identifying acute leptospirosis, clinical impression is insensitive, and immunoglobulin M results are more insensitive and costly. Rapid, pathogen-based tests for early diagnosis are needed. PMID:21888794

  11. Hydrodynamic implications of textural trends in sand deposits of the 2004 tsunami in Sri Lanka

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, R.A.; Goff, J.R.; Nichol, S.L.

    2008-01-01

    Field observations and sediment samples at a coastal-plain setting in southeastern Sri Lanka were used to document the erosional and depositional impacts of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and to interpret the hydrodynamic processes that produced an extensive sand-sheet deposit. Tsunami deposit thicknesses ranged from 6 to 22??cm with thickness being controlled partly by antecedent topography. The deposit was composed of coarse to medium sand organized into plane-parallel laminae and a few laminasets. Vertical textural trends showed an overall but non-systematic upward fining and upward thinning of depositional units with an upward increase in heavy-mineral laminations at some locations. Repeated patterns in the vertical textural trends (upward fining, upward coarsening, uniform) were used to subdivide and correlate the deposit into five hydro-textural stratigraphic units. The depositional units were linked to hydrodynamic processes and upcurrent conditions, such as rates of sediment supply and composition of the sediment sources. Vertical changes in grain-size distributions recorded the depositional phases associated with flow acceleration, initial unsteady pulsating flow, relatively stable and uniform flow, flow deceleration, slack water, and return flow or flow redirection. Study results suggest that vertical textural trends from multiple cross-shore sections can be used to interpret complex tsunami flow histories, but at the location examined, interpretation of the lateral textural trends did not provide a basis for identifying the correct sediment transport pathways because flow near the landward boundary was multidirectional.

  12. Characterization of the Temporal and Spatial Dynamics of the Dengue Epidemic in Northern Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anno, S.; Imaoka, K.; Tadono, T.; Igarashi, T.; Sivaganesh, S.; Kannathasan, S.; Kumaran, V.; Surendran, S.

    2014-11-01

    Dengue outbreaks are affected by biological, ecological, socio-economic and demographic factors that vary over time and space. These factors have been examined separately, with limited success, and still require clarification. The present study aimed to investigate the spatial and temporal relationships between these factors and dengue outbreaks in the northern region of Sri Lanka. Remote sensing (RS) data gathered from a plurality of satellites: TRMM TMI, Aqua AMSR-E, GCOM-W AMSR2, DMSP SSM/I, DMSP SSMIS, NOAA-19 AMSU, MetOp-A AMSU and GEO IR were used to develop an index comprising rainfall. Humidity (total precipitable water, or vertically integrated water vapor amount) and temperature (surface temperature) data were acquired from the JAXA Satellite Monitoring for Environmental Studies (JASMES) portal which were retrieved and processed from the Aqua/MODIS and Terra/MODIS data. RS data gathered by ALOS/AVNIR-2 were used to detect urbanization, and a digital land cover map was used to extract land cover information. Other data on relevant factors and dengue outbreaks were collected through institutions and extant databases. The analyzed RS data and databases were integrated into geographic information systems, enabling both spatial association analysis and spatial statistical analysis. Our findings show that the combination of ecological factors derived from RS data and socio-economic and demographic factors is suitable for predicting spatial and temporal patterns of dengue outbreaks.

  13. Population structure and virulence content of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from outbreaks in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Dissanayake, D R A; Octavia, Sophie; Lan, Ruiting

    2014-01-31

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) causes economically significant infections in poultry. The genetic diversity of APEC and phylogenetic relationships within and between APEC and other pathogenic E. coli are not yet well understood. We used multilocus sequence typing (MLST), PCR-based phylogrouping and virulence genotyping to analyse 75 avian E. coli strains, including 55 isolated from outbreaks of colisepticaemia and 20 from healthy chickens. Isolates were collected from 42 commercial layer and broiler chicken farms in Sri Lanka. MLST identified 61 sequence types (ST) with 44 being novel. The most frequent ST, ST48, was represented by only six isolates followed by ST117 with four isolates. Phylogenetic clusters based on MLST sequences were mostly comparable to phylogrouping by PCR and MLST further differentiated phylogroups B1 and D into two subgroups. Genotyping of 16 APEC associated virulence genes found that 27 of the clinical isolates and one isolate from a healthy chicken belonged to highly virulent genotype according to previously established classification schemes. We found that a combination of four genes, ompT, hlyF, iroN and papC, gave a comparable prediction to that of using five and nine genes by other studies. Four STs (ST10, ST48, ST117 and ST2016) contained APEC isolates from this study and human UPEC isolates reported by others, suggesting that these STs are potentially zoonotic. Our results enhanced the understanding of APEC population structure and virulence association. PMID:24388626

  14. Antioxidant properties in some selected cyanobacteria isolated from fresh water bodies of Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Md Fuad; Ratnayake, R R; Meerajini, Kirisnashamy; Wasantha Kumara, K L

    2016-09-01

    Phytonutrients and pigments present in cyanobacteria act as antioxidants, which facilitate the formation of body's defense mechanism against free radical damage to cells. The aim of this investigation was to study the total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), antioxidant activity, phycobiliproteins (PBPs), and active compounds in four cyanobacterial species, that is, Oscillatoria sp., Lyngbya sp., Microcystis sp., and Spirulina sp. isolated from fresh water bodies of Sri Lanka. In this study, Lyngbya sp., showed highest TPC (5.02 ± 0.20 mg/g), TFC (664.07 ± 19.76 mg/g), and total PBPs (127.01 mg/g) value. The ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) was recorded highest in Oscillatoria sp. (39.63 ± 7.02), whereas the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity was also reported the highest in Oscillatoria sp. (465.31 ± 25.76) followed by Lyngbya sp. (248.39 ± 11.97). In FTIR spectroscopy, Lyngbya sp. does not show any N-H stretching band which is ultimately responsible for the inhibition of antioxidant activity. The study revealed that Lyngbya sp. and Oscillatoria sp. can be an excellent source for food, pharmaceutical, and other industrial uses. PMID:27625779

  15. Acceptability and Effect of a Community-Based Alcohol Education Program in Rural Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Siriwardhana, P.; Dawson, A.H.; Abeyasinge, R.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To assess the effectiveness and acceptability of a brief community-based educational program on changing the drinking pattern of alcohol in a rural community. Methods: A longitudinal cohort study was carried out in two rural villages in Sri Lanka. One randomly selected village received a community education program that utilized street dramas, poster campaigns, leaflets and individual and group discussions. The control village had no intervention during this period. The Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) was used to measure the drinking pattern before and at 6 and 24 months after the intervention in males over 18 years of age in both villages. The recall and the impact of various components of the intervention were assessed at 24 months post-intervention. Results: The intervention was associated with the development of an active community action group in the village and a significant reduction in illicit alcohol outlets. The drama component of the intervention had the highest level of recall and preference. Comparing the control and intervention villages, there were no significant difference between baseline drinking patterns and the AUDIT. There was a significant reduction in the AUDIT scores in the intervention village compared with the control at 6 and 24 months (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: A community-based education program had high acceptance and produces a reduction in alcohol use that was sustained for 2 years. PMID:23161893

  16. Modelling and observations of tidal wave propagation, circulation and residence times in Puttalam Lagoon, Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijeratne, E. M. S.; Rydberg, L.

    2007-09-01

    Tidal measurements and a depth-averaged 2D model are used to examine wave progression and circulation in a long, shallow, micro-tidal lagoon in Sri Lanka. Ranges and phase lags for different tidal constituents are used to calibrate the model. A single drag coefficient, Cd = 0.0032, gives almost perfect agreement with data. Current measurements are used for validation of the model. The lagoon tide consists of a combination of progressive and standing waves, where progressive waves dominate in the outer part and standing waves in the inner. A Lagrangian based particle-tracking method is developed to study tidally and wind induced residence times. If tides were the only factor affecting the residual circulation, the residence time inside the narrowest section would be approximately 100 days. Steady winds (of typical monsoon average) decrease the residence times to 60-90 days. Estuarine forcing due to net freshwater supply is not modelled (due to lack of reliable runoff data), but independent, long-term salinity observations and calculations based on volume and salt conservation during periods of negligible freshwater supply (the lagoon is seasonally hypersaline) indicate residence times ranging from 40 to 80 days. Model derived residence times based on tides alone represent a minimum exchange. Even weak forcing, through winds, excess evaporation or freshwater supply efficiently reduces residence times.

  17. The age for the fossil-bearing Tabbowa beds in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, S. C.; Dassanayake, S.; Wang, J.

    2014-12-01

    Well-preserved terrestrial fossils, mainly including conifers, cycads and ferns, were discovered from the Tabbowa beds in northwestern Sri Lanka. The high diversity and abundance of plants and insects from these Jurassic sediments provide a unique window to understand floral evolution and plant-insect co-evolution in the Mesozoic. For example, unearthed fossils from the Tabbowa beds indicate that leaf feeding and dwelling insects played a significant role in the Jurassic ecosystem. For another example, feeding and chewing marks on leaves allow studying insect behavior and paleo-ecology. Additionally, the recent discoveries of Otozamites latiphyllus and Otozamites tabbowensis from these sediments provide evidence that Bennettitales, an extinct order of seed plants, widely spread in the Gondwana during the Jurassic period. Although most fossils are yet to be well studied, and only few of the fossil occurrences have been published in western journals, plant fossils from the Tabbowa beds have great potential for substantially increasing our knowledge of Jurassic terrestrial ecosystems. The fossil-bearing Tabbowa beds are mainly composed of sandstone, siltstone, and mudstone with occasional thin bands of nodular limestone. Until now, radio-isotopic age determinations for the fossil-rich Tabbowa beds are lacking. In this study, we investigate the geological and geochronological setting of this area by dating detrital zircons from the Tabbowa beds. The age data will allow testing several hypotheses regarding the plant evolution, the basin development of this region.

  18. Misunderstanding as therapy: doctors, patients and medicines in a rural clinic in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Sachs, L

    1989-09-01

    In this paper I want to draw attention to the integration of Western medicine into therapeutic choices among patients in rural Sri Lanka. These patients' interpretation and use of Western pharmaceuticals is discussed in relation to the Ayurvedic theory of balance. The influence of this theory on people's ideas of health and illness is highlighted in encounters where laymen and professionals alike use Western medicines according to context and their respective perspectives. Such therapeutic encounters are used to describe how the meaning of therapy is negotiated and communicated. The modes of perception used by doctors and patients seem to be mutually exclusive but each has its own logic. Western medicines are used as a symbolic means which help the patients and the practitioners of Western clinical medicine in a rural health unit to communicate through - rather than despite - "misunderstandings" based on their differing cultural assumptions about the body, about disease and about therapy. This argument is raised in relation to recent theoretical discussions among medical anthropologists concerning doctor-patient relationships, asymmetric medical relations and the analysis of meaning systems. PMID:2776468

  19. A national upgrade of the climate monitoring grid in Sri Lanka. The place of Open Design, OSHW and FOSS.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chemin, Yann; Bandara, Niroshan; Eriyagama, Nishadi

    2015-04-01

    The National Climate Observatory of Sri lanka is a proposition designed for the Government of Sri Lanka in September and discussed with private and public stakeholders in November 2014. The idea was initially to install a networked grid of weather instruments from locally-made open source hardware technology, on land and seas, that report live the state of climate. After initial stakeholder meetings, it was agreed to first try to connect any existing weather stations from different governmental and private sector agencies. This would bring existing information to a common ground through the Internet. At this point, it was realized that extracting information from various vendors set up would take a large amount of efforts, that is still the best and fastest anyway, as considerations from ownership and maintenance are the most important issues in a tropical humid country as Sri Lanka. Thus, the question of Open Design, open source hardware (OSHW) and free and open source software (FOSS) became a pivotal element in considering operationalization of any future elements of a national grid. Reasons range from ownership, to low-cost and customization, but prominently it is about technology ownership, royalty-free and local availability. Building on previous work from (Chemin and Bandara, 2014) we proposed to open design specifications and prototypes for weather monitoring for various kinds of needs, the Meteorological Department clearly specified that the highest variability observed spatially in Sri Lanka is rainfall, and their willingness to investigate OSHW electronics using their new team of electronics and sensors specialists. A local manufacturer is providing an OSHW micro-controller product, a start up is providing additional sensor boards under OSHW specifications and local manufacture of the sensors (tipping-bucket and other wind sensors) is under development and blueprints have been made available in the Public Domain for CNC machine, 3D printing or Plastic

  20. Additional perspectives on chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology (CKDu) in Sri Lanka – lessons learned from the WHO CKDu population prevalence study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The recent emergence of an apparently new form of chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology (CKDu) has become a serious public health crisis in Sri Lanka. CKDu is slowly progressive, irreversible, and asymptomatic until late stages, and is not attributable to hypertension, diabetes, or other known aetiologies. In response to the scope and severity of the emerging CKDu health crisis, the Sri Lanka Ministry of Health and the World Health Organization initiated a collaborative research project from 2009 through 2012 to investigate CKDu prevalence and aetiology. The objective of this paper is to discuss the recently published findings of this investigation and present additional considerations and recommendations that may enhance subsequent investigations designed to identify and understand CKDu risk factors in Sri Lanka or other countries. PMID:25069485

  1. Malathion resistance and prevalence of the malathion carboxylesterase mechanism in populations of mosquito vectors of disease in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed Central

    Karunaratne, S. H.; Hemingway, J.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the levels of malathion resistance and prevalence of the malathion carboxylesterase mechanism among mosquitoes in Sri Lanka. METHODS: Bioassays were carried out using WHO-recommended methods on samples of the following Sri Lankan mosquito vectors: Culex quinquefasciatus, C. tritaeniorhynchus, C gelidus, Anopheles culicifacies B, A. subpictus, Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus. FINDINGS Malathion-specific carboxylesterase mechanisms were found in A. culicifaies and A. subpictus, both giving high rates of insecticide metabolism. In contrast, malathion resistance in C. quinquefasciatus and C. tritaeniorhynchus is linked to broad-spectrum resistance to organophosphorus compounds due to elevated levels of esterases that sequester malaoxon, but are unable to metabolize malathion. CONCLUSIONS: Resistance among the Anophelesspp. must have occurred as a direct result of antimalarial activities, since malathion use in Sri Lanka is limited to public health treatments. In contrast, resistance among Culex spp. has resulted from large-scale use of the organophosphorus insecticide group as larvicides for filariasis control and on rice paddy, where C tritaeniorhynchus predominantly breeds, for agricultural purposes. PMID:11731814

  2. Indoor Fine Particle (PM2.5) Pollution Exposure due to Secondhand Smoke in Selected Public Places of Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Nandasena, Sumal; Wickremasinghe, Ananda Rajitha; Lee, Kiyoung; Sathiakumar, Nalini

    2012-01-01

    Background Secondhand smoke accounts for a considerable proportion of deaths due to tobacco smoke. Although the existing laws ban indoor smoking in public places in Sri Lanka, the level of compliance is unknown. Methods Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) levels in 20 public places in Colombo, Sri Lanka were measured by a PM monitor (Model AM510 - SIDEPAK Personal Aerosol Monitor). Different types of businesses (restaurants, bars, cafés and entertainment venues) were selected by purposive sampling. Only the places where smoking was permitted were considered. Results The average indoor PM2.5 ranged from 33 to 299 μg/m3. The average outdoor PM2.5 ranged from 18 to 83 μg/m3. The indoor to outdoor PM2.5 ratio ranged from 1.05 to 14.93. In all venues, indoor PM2.5 levels were higher than the Sri Lankan ambient PM2.5 standard of 50 μg/m3. All indoor locations had higher PM2.5 levels as compared to their immediate outdoor surroundings. Conclusion The study highlights the importance of improving ventilation and enforcing laws to stop smoking in public places. PMID:22473526

  3. U-Pb isotopic systematics of zircons from prograde and retrograde transition zones in high-grade orthogneisses, Sri Lanka

    SciTech Connect

    Baur, N.; Liew, T.C.; Todt, W.; Hofmann, A.W. ); Kroener, A. ); Williams, I.S. )

    1991-07-01

    The authors present U-Pb zircon isotopic data from locally restricted prograde (arrested in situ charnockitization) and retrograde metamorphic transition zones, which are well exposed in Proterozoic orthogneisses tectonically interbanded with granulite facies supracrustal rocks of the Highland Group in Sri Lanka. These granitoid rocks yield apparent ages of 1942 {plus minus} 22 Ma, {approximately} 770 Ma, {approximately} 660 Ma, and {approximately} 560 Ma. All samples show severe Pb-loss some 550-560 Ma ago. The main phase of granulite-formation could not be dated unambiguously but is bracketed between {approximately} 660 Ma and {approximately} 550 Ma. The pervasive Pb-loss event around 550-560 Ma reflects the end of this period of high-grade metamorphism and was associated with widespread igneous activity and retrogression. This is constrained by the 550 {plus minus} 3 Ma intrusion age for a post-tectonic granite. They relate this late phase of thermal activity to crustal uplift of the Sri Lankan granulites. This data unambiguously prove the high-grade history of the Sri Lanka gneisses to be a late Precambrian event that may be related to the Pan-African evolution along the eastern part of Africa.

  4. Phosphate fertilizer is a main source of arsenic in areas affected with chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Jayasumana, Channa; Fonseka, Saranga; Fernando, Ashvin; Jayalath, Kumudika; Amarasinghe, Mala; Siribaddana, Sisira; Gunatilake, Sarath; Paranagama, Priyani

    2015-01-01

    Chronic Kidney Disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) has escalated into an epidemic in North Central Province (NCP) and adjacent farming areas in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. Studies have shown that this special type of CKD is a toxic nephropathy and arsenic may play a causative role along with a number of other heavy metals. We investigated the hypothesis that chemical fertilizers and pesticide could be a source of arsenic. 226 samples of Fertilizers and 273 samples of pesticides were collected and analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for arsenic and other heavy metals in two university laboratories. Almost all the agrochemicals available to the farmers in the study area are contaminated with arsenic. The highest amount was in triple super phosphate (TSP) with a mean value of 31 mg/kg. Also TSP is a rich source of other nephrotoxic metals including Cr, Co, Ni, Pb and V. Annually more than 0.1 million tons of TSP is imported to Sri Lanka containing approximately 2100 kg of arsenic. The next highest concentration was seen in the rock phosphate obtained from an open pit mine in NCP (8.56 mg/kg). Organic fertilizer contained very low amounts of arsenic. Arsenic contamination in pesticides varied from 0.18 mg/kg to 2.53 mg/kg although arsenic containing pesticides are banned in Sri Lanka. Glyphosate the most widely used pesticide in Sri Lanka contains average of 1.9 mg/kg arsenic. Findings suggest that agrochemicals especially phosphate fertilizers are a major source of inorganic arsenic in CKDu endemic areas. Organic fertilizer available in Sri Lanka is comparatively very low in arsenic and hence the farmers in CKDu endemic areas in Sri Lanka should be encouraged to minimize the use of imported chemical fertilizer and use organic fertilizers instead. PMID:25763302

  5. Helvolic acid, an antibacterial nortriterpenoid from a fungal endophyte, Xylaria sp. of orchid Anoectochilus setaceus endemic to Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Ratnaweera, Pamoda B.; Williams, David E.; de Silva, E. Dilip; Wijesundera, Ravi L.C.; Dalisay, Doralyn S.; Andersen, Raymond J.

    2014-01-01

    An endophytic fungus was isolated from surface sterilized leaf segments of Anoectochilus setaceus, an orchid endemic to Sri Lanka, and was identified as Xylaria sp. by morphological characters and DNA sequencing. Bioassay-guided chromatographic fractionation of the organic extract of a laboratory culture of this fungus led to the isolation of the known antibacterial helvolic acid. Helvolic acid was active against the Gram-positive bacteria, Bacillus subtilis [minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC), 2 μg mL−1] and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MIC, 4 μg mL−1). PMID:24772371

  6. A new species of the genus Scolopsis Cuvier, 1830 (Perciformes: Nemipteridae) from southern India and Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Mishra, S S; Biswas, Sudeepta; Russell, Barry C; Satpathy, K K; Selvanayagam, M

    2013-01-01

    Scolopsis igcarensis, a new species of monocle bream (family Nemipteridae) from the coastal waters of southern India and Sri Lanka is described. The species is distinguished from other species of the genus Scolopsis by a combination of the following characters: scales on top of head reaching forward to between anterior nostril and snout tip; lower margin of eye below the line from snout tip to upper pectoral fin base; a bony ridge below eye; a white band from behind eye to level of end of dorsal fin base. PMID:24699607

  7. Helvolic acid, an antibacterial nortriterpenoid from a fungal endophyte, Xylaria sp. of orchid Anoectochilus setaceus endemic to Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Ratnaweera, Pamoda B; Williams, David E; de Silva, E Dilip; Wijesundera, Ravi L C; Dalisay, Doralyn S; Andersen, Raymond J

    2014-03-01

    An endophytic fungus was isolated from surface sterilized leaf segments of Anoectochilus setaceus, an orchid endemic to Sri Lanka, and was identified as Xylaria sp. by morphological characters and DNA sequencing. Bioassay-guided chromatographic fractionation of the organic extract of a laboratory culture of this fungus led to the isolation of the known antibacterial helvolic acid. Helvolic acid was active against the Gram-positive bacteria, Bacillus subtilis [minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC), 2 μg mL(-1)] and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MIC, 4 μg mL(-1)). PMID:24772371

  8. Vulnerability assessment and protective effects of coastal vegetation during the 2004 Tsunami in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, M.; Renaud, F. G.; Lüchters, G.

    2009-08-01

    The tsunami of December 2004 caused extensive human and economic losses along many parts of the Sri Lankan coastline. Thanks to extensive national and international solidarity and support in the aftermath of the event, most people managed to restore their livelihoods completely but some households did not manage to recover completely from the impacts of the event. The differential in recovery highlighted the various vulnerabilities and coping capacities of communities exposed to the tsunami. Understanding the elements causing different vulnerabilities is crucial to reducing the impact of future events, yet capturing them comprehensively at the local level is a complex task. This research was conducted in a tsunami-affected area in southwestern Sri Lanka to evaluate firstly the role of coastal vegetation in buffering communities against the tsunami and secondly to capture the elements of vulnerability of affected communities. The area was chosen because of its complex landscape, including the presence of an inlet connecting the Maduganga estuary with the sea, and because of the presence of remaining patches of coastal vegetation. The vulnerability assessment was based on a comprehensive vulnerability framework and on the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework in order to detect inherent vulnerabilities of different livelihood groups. Our study resulted in the identification of fishery and labour-led households as the most vulnerable groups. Unsurprisingly, analyses showed that damages to houses and assets decreased quickly with increasing distance from the sea. It could also be shown that the Maduganga inlet channelled the energy of the waves, so that severe damages were observed at relatively large distances from the sea. Some reports after the tsunami stated that mangroves and other coastal vegetation protected the people living behind them. Detailed mapping of the coastal vegetation in the study area and subsequent linear regression revealed significant differences

  9. Use of a clinical tool for screening and diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Siriwardana, H. V. Y. D.; Senarath, U.; Chandrawansa, P. H.; Karunaweera, N. D.

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) was first detected in Sri Lanka in 1992.Local disease is caused by a genetically different variant of Leishmania donovani. Early case detection and management is the mainstay of L. donovani control. High degree of clinical suspicion is critical but a clinical diagnostic tool is not available for leishmaniasis. Current study described, for the first time, a two-staged clinical algorhythm that facilitates screening of CL in Sri Lanka by primary health care worker in stage 1 and management by medical professional in stage 2.Selected clinical markers of 400 patients suspected of CL were analysed retrospectively with laboratory confirmation of leishmaniasis. Ten clinical markers predicted CL with a over 90% accuracy. Subsets of markers showed high levels of sensitivities (60–97.2%) and/or significant association with positive laboratory results as compared to negative lesions [typical onset (acne-form, painless non-itchy), (P = 0.026), size up to 2 cm (P = 0.046), well-defined edges (P = 0.002), regular edges (P = 0.018), rounded shape (P = 0.030), and lesions at 5–8 months (P = 0.052)]. Five of them (typical onset, number up to 2, small size, rounded edges, and rounded shape) also had > 70% sensitivity levels as compared to laboratory findings. Typical onset had the highest sensitivity of 97% and a PPV of 72%. Lesions at 5–8 months duration having defined edges (P =  0.013, specificity 89.7%, PPV 83.1) or having regular edges (P = 0.006, specificity 86.2%, PPV 82.4%) were also predictive of CL. Most of early laboratory-confirmed ( < 12 months) lesions remained  < 3 cm (sensitivity > 67%, PPV > 70%) and had defined edges (sensitivity of 52–71%, specificity 46.7–68.8%), (PPV 75.1–86%). Four clinical markers served as good diagnostic markers in both early ( ≤ 4) and late (>12 months) lesions, viz. typical onset (91.3–98.4%), presence of ≤ 2 lesions (sensitivity 82.6

  10. The use of child soldiers in war with special reference to Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Harendra de Silva, D G

    2013-11-01

    Throughout history, the involvement of children in military operations has been extensively documented. The issue of child conscription is multi-faceted, with very few medical but more sociological aspects, including terrorism, politics, economics, history, culture and religion amongst other factors. Many United Nations Instruments as well as the International Criminal Court have documented that child conscription is detrimental to a child's development, violates Child Rights, and is a war crime. Efforts by international bodies to address conscription as child abuse have failed since the process is undertaken by groups rather than individuals, and because the law has no access to the perpetrators. The background to a conflict in Sri Lanka and various ethno-religious and political factors are discussed. The role of the diaspora community, the internet and various fund-raising mechanisms for war are discussed. The history of child conscription and studies examining reasons and the tasks assigned to them as conscripts as well as abusive aspects, especially in relation to emotional abuse, neglect and physical harm, are discussed. Documentation of conscription as child abuse needing a definition including a new definition of 'suicide by proxy' is stressed. The importance of culture and history, and the manipulation of the idealistic mind are discussed in the context of 'setting the stage' for child conscription. The toy weapon industry and the real arms industry, especially small arms, are important in maintaining conflicts, especially in the developing world. The conflicts of interests of members of the UN Security Council and the 'peace-keepers' of the world is discussed. PMID:24070161

  11. Challenges and opportunities of a paperless baseline survey in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Personal digital assistants (PDAs) have been shown to reduce costs associated with survey implementation and digitisation, and to improve data quality when compared to traditional paper based data collection. Few studies, however, have shared their experiences of the use of these devices in rural settings in Asia. This paper reports on our experiences of using a PDA device for data collection in Sri Lanka as part of a large cluster randomised control trial. Findings We found that PDAs were useful for collecting data for a baseline survey of a large randomised control trial (54,000 households). We found that the PDA device and survey format was easy to use by inexperienced field staff, even though the survey was programmed in English. The device enabled the rapid digitisation of survey data, providing a good basis for continuous data quality assurance, supervision of staff and survey implementation. An unexpected advantage was the improved community opinion of the research project as a result of the device, because the use of the technology gave data collectors an elevated status amongst the community. In addition the global positioning system (GPS) functionality of the device allowed precise mapping of households, and hence distinct settlements to be identified as randomisation clusters. Future users should be mindful that to save costs the piloting should be completed before programming. In addition consideration of a local after-care service is important to avoid costs and time delays associated with sending devices back to overseas providers. Discussion Since the start of this study, PDA devices have rapidly developed and are increasingly used. The use of PDA or similar devices for research is not without its problems; however we believe that the universal lessons learnt as part of this study are even more important for the effective utilisation of these rapidly developing technologies in resource poor settings. PMID:25027231

  12. Toward best-practice post-disaster mental health promotion for children: Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Commers, Matthew J; Morival, Marc; Devries, Marten W

    2014-03-01

    There is a pressing need for low-cost intervention models to promote mental health among children in the wake of natural disasters. This article describes an evaluation of one such model: the Happy/Sad Letter Box (HSLB) Project, a mental health promotion intervention designed to minimize trauma in children, resulting from the Indian Ocean tsunami of 26 December 2004. The HSLB Project was implemented in 68 schools in Sri Lanka's Hambantota District from April 2005 forward. Methods included questionnaires (n = 203), interviews, and group consultation with schoolchildren, teachers, teacher counsellors, principals, educational zone directors and parents. The HSLB intervention was seen as relevant and non-stigmatized, cost-effective if implemented after initial recovery steps, anecdotally effective in identifying and helping resolve trauma, accommodating the full range of children's daily stressors and sustainable. Gender, children's age, school size and the level of the tsunami impact for response were found to correlate with response differences. Along four dimensions previously identified in the literature (ability to triage, matching of intervention timing and focus, ability to accommodate a range of stressors and context compatibility), the HSLB Project is a promising intervention model (1) for children; (2) at group-level; (3) relating to natural disasters. The Nairobi Call to Action [WHO (2009) Nairobi Call to Action for Closing the Implementation Gap in Health Promotion. Geneva: World Health Organization] emphasized the importance of mainstreaming health promotion into priority programme areas, specifically including mental health. The HSLB Project represents the integration of health promotion practice into disaster preparedness mental health infrastructure. PMID:22952338

  13. Baseline Evaluation of a Participatory Mobile Health Intervention for Dengue Prevention in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Lwin, May O; Vijaykumar, Santosh; Lim, Gentatsu; Fernando, Owen Noel Newton; Rathnayake, Vajira Sampath; Foo, Schubert

    2016-08-01

    Challenges posed by infectious disease outbreaks have led to a range of participatory mobile phone-based innovations that use the power of crowdsourcing for disease surveillance. However, the dynamics of participatory behavior by crowds in such interventions have yet to be examined. This article reports results from a baseline evaluation of one such intervention called Mo-Buzz, a mobile-based crowdsource-driven socially mediated system developed to address gaps in dengue surveillance and education in Colombo, Sri Lanka. We conducted a 30-minute cross-sectional field survey (N = 404) among potential users of Mo-Buzz in Colombo. We examined individual, institutional, and cultural factors that influence their potential intention-to-use Mo-Buzz and assessed if these factors varied by demographic factors. Descriptive analysis revealed high perceived ease-of-use (PEOU; M = 3.81, SD = 0.44), perceived usefulness (PU; M = 4.01, SD = 0.48), and intention-to-use (PI; M = 3.91, SD = 0.46) among participants. Analysis of variance suggested participants in the 31 to 40 years age group reported highest PEOU, whereas the oldest group reported high perceived institutional efficacy (M = 3.59, SD = 0.64) and collectivistic tendencies. Significant differences (at the p < .05 level) were also found by education and income. Regression analysis demonstrated that PU, behavioral control, institutional efficacy, and collectivism were significant predictors of PI. We concluded that despite high overall PI, future adoption and use of Mo-Buzz will be shaped by a complex mix of factors at different levels of the public health ecology. Implications of study findings from theoretical and practical perspectives related to the future adoption of mobile-based participatory systems in public health are discussed and ideas for a future research agenda presented. PMID:26377525

  14. Burden of Dengue Infection and Disease in a Pediatric Cohort in Urban Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Tissera, Hasitha; Amarasinghe, Ananda; De Silva, Aruna Dharshan; Kariyawasam, Pradeep; Corbett, Kizzmekia S.; Katzelnick, Leah; Tam, Clarence; Letson, G. William; Margolis, Harold S.; de Silva, Aravinda M.

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is the most significant arthropod-borne viral infection of humans. Persons infected with dengue viruses (DENV) have subclinical or clinically apparent infections ranging from undifferentiated fever to dengue hemorrhagic fever/shock syndrome. Although recent studies estimated that the Indian subcontinent has the greatest burden of DENV infection and disease worldwide, we do not have reliable, population-based estimates of the incidence of infection and disease in this region. The goal of this study was to follow-up a cohort of 800 children living in a heavily urbanized area of Colombo, Sri Lanka to obtain accurate estimates of the incidence of DENV infection and disease. Annual blood samples were obtained from all children to estimate dengue seroprevalence at enrollment and to identify children exposed to new DENV infections during the study year. Blood was also obtained from any child in whom fever developed over the course of the study year to identify clinically apparent DENV infections. At enrollment, dengue seroprevalence was 53.07%, which indicated high transmission in this population. Over the study year, the incidence of DENV infection and disease were 8.39 (95% confidence interval = 6.56–10.53) and 3.38 (95% confidence interval = 2.24–4.88), respectively, per 100 children per year. The ratio of clinically inapparent to apparent infections was 1.48. These results will be useful for obtaining more accurate estimates of the burden of dengue in the region and for making decisions about testing and introduction of vaccines. PMID:24865684

  15. Training medical students in general practice: a qualitative study among general practitioner trainers in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Ramanayake, R. P. J. C.; De Silva, A. H. W.; Perera, D. P.; Sumanasekera, R. D. N.; Athukorala, L. A. C. L.; Fernando, K. A. T.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Worldwide Family Medicine has gained an important place in the undergraduate medical curriculum over the last few decades and general practices have become training centers for students. Exposure to patients early in the disease process, out patient management of common problems, follow up of chronic diseases and psychosocial aspects of health and disease are educational advantages of community based training but such training could have varying impact on patients, students and trainers. This study explored the views of General Practitioner (GP) trainers on their experience in training students. Methodology: This qualitative study was conducted among GP trainers of the faculty of medicine, University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka, to explore their experience on wide range of issues related to their role as GP trainers. The interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Themes expressed were identified. Results: Altruistic reasons, self-satisfaction, self-esteem and opportunity to improve their knowledge were the motivations for their involvement in teaching. Teachers were confident of their clinical and teaching skills. They perceived that patients were willing participants of the process and benefited from it. There was a positive impact on consultation dynamics. Time pressure was the major problem and ideal number of trainees per session was two. They were willing to attend teacher training workshops to update their knowledge. Conclusions: GP trainers driven by altruistic reasons were willing participants of student training process. The perceived advantages of involvement of teaching for trainers and patients were an encouragement for potential trainers. University should organize training sessions for trainers which will boost their knowledge, confidence and teaching skills which will eventually benefit students. PMID:25949960

  16. Total mercury, cadmium and lead levels in main export fish of Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Jinadasa, B K K K; Edirisinghe, E M R K B; Wickramasinghe, I

    2014-01-01

    Total mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) levels were determined in the muscle of four commercialised exported fish species Thunnus albacares (yellowfin tuna), Xiphias gladius (swordfish), Makaira indica (black marlin) and Lutjanus sp (red snapper) collected from the Indian Ocean, Sri Lanka, during July 2009-March 2010 and measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results show that swordfish (n = 176) contained the highest total Hg (0.90 ± 0.51 mg/kg) and Cd (0.09 ± 0.13 mg/kg) levels, whereas yellowfin tuna (n = 140) contained the highest Pb levels (0.11 ± 0.16 mg/kg). The lowest total Hg (0.16 ± 0.11 mg/kg), Cd (0.01 ± 0.01 mg/kg) and Pb (0.04 ± 0.04 mg/kg) levels were found in red snapper (n = 28). Black marlin (n = 24) contained moderate levels of total Hg (0.49 ± 0.37), Cd (0.02 ± 0.02) and Pb (0.05 ± 0.05). Even though there are some concerns during certain months of the year, this study demonstrates the safety of main export fish varieties in terms of total Hg, Cd and Pb. PMID:25070289

  17. Assessment of nitrate-N contamination in the Chunnakam aquifer system, Jaffna Peninsula, Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Vithanage, Meththika; Mikunthan, Thushyanthi; Pathmarajah, Selverajah; Arasalingam, Sutharsiny; Manthrithilake, Herath

    2014-01-01

    Jaffna peninsula in Sri Lanka is an area of intensive agriculture using extensive organic and inorganic nitrogenous compounds and hence, this study was focused on assessing vulnerability of karstic aquifer system with specific focus on nitrate contamination, and compare loads of nitrate from agriculture. The total number of the wells sampled in the Chunnakam aquifer is 44. The coverage of wells with measurements of nitrate and nitrite concentrations in the database covering the study period from Januray, 2011 to August, 2011. The intrinsic vulnerability of the area is estimated by the DRASTIC model and the modified DRASTIC method was used to determine the nitrate-specific vulnerability of the aquifers. Average concentrations of nitrate-N and nitrite-N during the study period were 4.869 and 0.014 mg/L respectively. The average number of wells exceeding permissible level of NO3-N is approximately 6-12, which means that about 14-28% out of the 44 wells. Modified DRASTIC (DI) index value computed as explained above increased from DI = 177 to a range of 182 to 197. In spite of the increase, the Modified DI values show that the aquifer vulnerability specific to nitrate contamination remains in "high" category. Although nitrogen loading at the domestic sources and irrigation is of the same order of magnitude, the loading from fertilizer input is much larger which is about 15 times higher. This finding suggests that the fertilizer input in agricultural areas constitute a significant contribution to the nitrogen content in the groundwater and soils in agricultural areas of Jaffna. PMID:24944879

  18. Testimony ceremonies in Asia: integrating spirituality in testimonial therapy for torture survivors in India, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, and the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Agger, Inger; Igreja, Victor; Kiehle, Rachel; Polatin, Peter

    2012-07-01

    This study explores the therapeutic implications of including culturally adapted spiritual ceremonies in the process of testimonial therapy for torture survivors in India, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, and the Philippines. Data were collected through an action research process with Asian mental health and human rights organizations, during which the testimonial method was reconceptualized and modified to include four sessions. In the first two sessions, community workers assist survivors in the writing of their testimony, which is their narrative about the human rights violations they have suffered. In the third session, survivors participate in an honour ceremony in which they are presented with their testimony documents. In the fourth session, the community workers meet with the survivors for a reevaluation of their well-being. The honour ceremonies developed during the action research process came to employ different kinds of symbolic language at each site: human rights (India), religious/Catholic (Sri Lanka), religious/Buddhist (Cambodia), and religious/Moslem (Philippines). They all used embodied spirituality in various forms, incorporating singing, dancing, and religious purification rituals in a collective gathering. We suggest that these types of ceremonies may facilitate an individual's capacity to contain and integrate traumatic memories, promote restorative self-awareness, and engage community support. Additional research is needed to determine the method's applicability in other sociopolitical contexts governed by more Western-oriented medical traditions. PMID:22637721

  19. Testimony ceremonies in Asia: Integrating spirituality in testimonial therapy for torture survivors in India, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, and the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Agger, Inger; Igreja, Victor; Kiehle, Rachel; Polatin, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the therapeutic implications of including culturally adapted spiritual ceremonies in the process of testimonial therapy for torture survivors in India, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, and the Philippines. Data were collected through an action research process with Asian mental health and human rights organizations, during which the testimonial method was reconceptualized and modified to include four sessions. In the first two sessions, community workers assist survivors in the writing of their testimony, which is their narrative about the human rights violations they have suffered. In the third session, survivors participate in an honour ceremony in which they are presented with their testimony documents. In the fourth session, the community workers meet with the survivors for a reevaluation of their well-being. The honour ceremonies developed during the action research process came to employ different kinds of symbolic language at each site: human rights (India), religious/Catholic (Sri Lanka), religious/Buddhist (Cambodia), and religious/Moslem (Philippines). They all used embodied spirituality in various forms, incorporating singing, dancing, and religious purification rituals in a collective gathering. We suggest that these types of ceremonies may facilitate an individual’s capacity to contain and integrate traumatic memories, promote restorative self-awareness, and engage community support. Additional research is needed to determine the method’s applicability in other sociopolitical contexts governed by more Western-oriented medical traditions. PMID:22637721

  20. Diagnosis of dengue in Sri Lanka: improvements to the existing state of the art in the island.

    PubMed

    Senaratne, Thamarasi N; Noordeen, Faseeha

    2014-11-01

    Dengue fever (DF) is a mosquito borne virus infection which is endemic to the tropical regions of the world. In Sri Lanka, the first sero-positive case was reported in the 1960s; since then the island has experienced several outbreaks of DF/dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF). The disease is more prevalent in some parts of the country where rapid urbanisation has taken place. Diagnosis of DF/DHF is mainly done using the clinical features only due to the unavailability of laboratory diagnosis in many parts of the country and this might lead to over or under diagnosis of the disease. A rational diagnostic approach which combines the history and clinical profiles together with specific virological laboratory data would help in the correct identification of the disease. Furthermore, a feasible algorithm for the laboratory diagnosis of dengue will help to confirm the cases with a high level of clinical suspicion. This would then facilitate the notification of correctly identified cases to the public health authorities to assess the dengue burden. The scope of this review is to improve the existing laboratory diagnosis of DF/DHF by proposing a feasible algorithm to implement in Sri Lanka that would enable better detection of cases. PMID:25233937

  1. Religious leaders as potential advocates for HIV/AIDS prevention among the general population in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Koji; Jayasinghe, Ananda; Silva, K Tudor; Priyadarshani, N G W; Delpitiya, N Y; Obayashi, Yoshihide; Arai, Asuna; Gamage, Chandika D; Tamashiro, Hiko

    2013-01-01

    Religious leaders in Sri Lanka may have a high potential of contributing to HIV/AIDS prevention among the general public because of their social status. In order to assess their current HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and attitude and the possibility of becoming community advocates of HIV/AIDS prevention, we conducted a questionnaire survey among Buddhist, Hindu, Muslim and Christian leaders in Sri Lanka in 2009. There were limited correct responses about HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV), and information regarding condoms, HIV testing and counselling were poorly understood. Although a condom was less acceptable as a part of HIV/AIDS prevention, they were willing to learn more about HIV/AIDS and expressed support for both PLHIV and HIV prevention activities. Their experiences, preparedness and willingness of HIV prevention activities were associated with age, knowledge and/or religious background. In conclusion, intensive and systematic learning opportunities should be provided to equip the religious leaders with overall HIV/AIDS knowledge to become key players for HIV/AIDS prevention in their communities. PMID:23205515

  2. Impacts of management alternatives on rice yield and nitrogen losses to the environment: A case study in rural Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Stone, Elizabeth C; Hornberger, George M

    2016-01-15

    Maintaining crop yields is vital as populations increase, but environmental degradation resulting from cultivation must be prevented. In particular, freshwater resources are at risk of nitrate leaching from superfluous fertilization. This research explores the tradeoffs between maximizing yield and limiting environmental impacts of rice production in Sri Lanka. The DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC) model was used to examine how various combinations of fertilization and irrigation management affect yield, nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, and nitrogen (N) leaching in paddy systems under climate and soil conditions in the dry zone of Sri Lanka from 1991 to 2010. Simulated fertilizer application rates ranged from zero to 2700 kgN/ha and simulated irrigation schemes were continuously flooded, marginally flooded, and rain-fed. Increasing fertilizer levels from zero to 300 kgN/ha per year increased yield but application of fertilizer beyond that amount ceased to affect yield for any of the three irrigation schemes. The combination of management options for obtaining the maximum grain yield, near 9000 kgC/ha, with the greatest amount of N uptake and relatively low nitrate leaching was using 225 kgN/ha under a continuously flooded regime. This research explores how cultivation in rice-growing regions in south Asia affects the environment and the N cycle, and demonstrates how informed management of these systems can reduce external inputs of N fertilizer without impacting yield. PMID:26519587

  3. Public health risk associated with the co-occurrence of mycotoxins in spices consumed in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Yogendrarajah, Pratheeba; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Lachat, Carl; Walpita, Chaminda Niroshan; Kolsteren, Patrick; De Saeger, Sarah; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2014-12-01

    A quantitative risk assessment of mycotoxins due to the consumption of chilli (Capsicum annum L.) and black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) was performed in Sri Lanka. A food frequency questionnaire was administered in order to collect the data on consumption of spices by households in the Northern and Southern region (n = 249). The mean chilli consumption in the North was significantly higher (p < 0.001) compared to the South. Mean exposure to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in the North (3.49 ng/kg BW/day) and South (2.13 ng/kg BW/day) have exceeded the tolerable daily intake due to chilli consumption at the lower bound scenario, while exposure to OTA was small. Dietary exposure to other mycotoxins, fumonisin B1, fumonisin B2, sterigmatocystin and citrinin due to spices were estimated. Margin of exposure estimations at the mean exposure to AFB1 were remarkably lower due to chilli (45-78) than for pepper (2315–10,857). Moreover, the hepato cellular carcinoma (HCC) risk associated with the mean AFB1 exposure through chilli at the lower bound was 0.046 and 0.028 HCC cases/year/100,000 based on the North and South consumption, respectively. AFB1 exposure via chilli should be considered as a great public health concern in Sri Lanka due to both high mycotoxin concentration and high consumption. PMID:25455891

  4. From pesticides to medicinal drugs: time series analyses of methods of self-harm in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Senanayake, SM; Dias, P; Hanwella, R

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To explore if recent changes in methods of self-harm in Sri Lanka could explain the decline in the incidence of suicide. Methods Time series analyses of suicide rates and hospitalization due to different types of poisoning were carried out. Findings Between 1996 and 2008 the annual incidence of hospital admission resulting from poisoning by medicinal or biological substances increased exponentially, from 48.2 to 115.4 admissions per 100 000 population. Over the same period, annual admissions resulting from poisoning with pesticides decreased from 105.1 to 88.9 per 100 000. The annual incidence of suicide decreased exponentially, from a peak of 47.0 per 100 000 in 1995 to 19.6 per 100 000 in 2009. Poisoning accounted for 37.4 suicides per 100 000 population in 1995 but only 11.2 suicides per 100 000 in 2009. The case fatality rate for pesticide poisoning decreased linearly, from 11.0 deaths per 100 cases admitted to hospital in 1997 to 5.1 per 100 in 2008. Conclusion Since the mid 1990s, a trend away from the misuse of pesticides (despite no reduction in pesticide availability) and towards increased use of medicinal and other substances has been seen in Sri Lanka among those seeking self-harm. These trends and a reduction in mortality among those suffering pesticide poisoning have resulted in an overall reduction in the national incidence of accomplished suicide. PMID:22271963

  5. Rapid assessment procedures to detect hidden endemic foci in areas not subjected to mass drug administration in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Yahathugoda, Thishan C; Weerasooriya, Mirani V; Sunahara, Toshihiko; Kimura, Eisaku; Samarawickrema, Wilfred A; Itoh, Makoto

    2014-02-01

    For the declaration of elimination of lymphatic filariasis, reliable epidemiological data in all parts of a country are required. In Sri Lanka, due to social disturbance, there are 3 provinces whose endemicity has been declared unknown. Further, a recent report revealed an endemic pocket, which is on the border with the district that was not covered by the national elimination program. These facts indicate the necessity of more extensive studies to discover hidden endemic foci. To facilitate such studies, we evaluated 2 methods of Rapid Assessment Procedure (RAP) in Hambantota district, where the filariasis endemicity was low: (1) indirect questioning by mailing a questionnaire to each local leader (IndQ), asking about the presence of clinical cases, and (2) focus group discussion (FGD) by villagers. The information given by people was validated with clinical examination by doctors (CE) and IgG4 ELISA using urine samples. In the results: there was a strong positive correlation between CE and ELISA rates. The hydrocele rates obtained by FGD or IndQ were associated significantly with CE rates. The rates by FGD or Cluster-IndQ ('modified' IndQ) were also associated significantly with ELISA rates. The IndQ was most cost-effective. Based on these findings, we have concluded that screening by IndQ and confirmation by the ELISA would be an effective and practical way in Sri Lanka to locate endemic foci in hitherto unsurveyed districts. PMID:24060539

  6. Promoting interdisciplinary collaboration in health research in developing countries: lessons from the Triangle Programme in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Silva, K T; Peeters, R; Lewis, J

    1994-08-01

    The Triangle Programme (1989-1992) aimed at strengthening the institutional capacity for health social science research and intervention in Sri Lanka through the promotion of appropriate international and national partnerships. First, it involved an international partnership (Triangle 1) among two universities in the developed world, i.c. University of Antwerp in Belgium and the University of Connecticut in the USA, and one university in the developing world, i.c. the University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka. This partnership facilitated the transfer of knowledge, experience, skills across national boundaries and the North/South divide. Second, it developed a national/local partnership (Triangle 2) among the Faculties of Arts, Agriculture and Medicine at the University of Peradeniya by involving them in a joint programme of health social science research and training covering the entire range of activities from proposal development to dissemination of research results. Focusing on the latter aspect (Triangle 2) this paper reviews the results of the programme from the angle of cross-fertilization of disciplines through their collaboration in applied health research in a developing country setting. PMID:7985551

  7. Determinants of Tobacco Use among Students Aged 13-15 Years in Nepal and Sri Lanka: Results from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabir, M. A.; Goh, Kim-Leng

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to investigate tobacco use behaviours and their correlates among secondary school students in Nepal and Sri Lanka together with cross-country comparisons. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Methods and Settings: The data were obtained from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS), 2007. Current tobacco use was considered as…

  8. Draft Genome Sequences of Citrobacter freundii Strains CF04 and A41 Isolated from Moribund, Septicemic Giant Gourami (Osphronemus goramy) in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Honein, Karim; Jagoda, S S S De S; Arulkanthan, Appudurai; Ushio, Hideki; Asakawa, Shuichi

    2016-01-01

    Citrobacter freundii is a Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen associated with many infectious conditions including septicemia in humans and animals. Here, we announce the draft genome sequences of two multidrug-resistant C. freundii strains (CF04 and A41) isolated from septicemic giant gourami (Osphronemus goramy) collected from aquaria in Sri Lanka. PMID:27516512

  9. Draft Genome Sequences of Citrobacter freundii Strains CF04 and A41 Isolated from Moribund, Septicemic Giant Gourami (Osphronemus goramy) in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Jagoda, S. S. S. De S.; Arulkanthan, Appudurai; Ushio, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    Citrobacter freundii is a Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen associated with many infectious conditions including septicemia in humans and animals. Here, we announce the draft genome sequences of two multidrug-resistant C. freundii strains (CF04 and A41) isolated from septicemic giant gourami (Osphronemus goramy) collected from aquaria in Sri Lanka. PMID:27516512

  10. 77 FR 48499 - U.S. Multi-Sector Trade Mission to South India and Sri Lanka Chennai and Cochin, India and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ... expanding markets for infrastructure, hospitality, healthcare, and environmental and information..., knowledge, hospitality, leisure/tourism and energy. Compared to other South Asian countries, Sri Lanka is..., hospitality and transport sectors will provide opportunities for U.S. companies to expand and grow in...

  11. Identification, evaluation and change detection of highly sensitive wetlands in South-Eastern Sri Lanka using ALOS (AVNIR2, PALSAR) and Landsat ETM+ data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunawardena, Ajith; Fernando, Tamasha; Takeuchi, Wataru; Wickramasinghe, Chathura H.; Samarakoon, Lal

    2014-06-01

    Sri Lanka is an island consists of numerous wetlands and many of these ecosystems have been indiscriminately exploited for a commercial, agricultural, residential and industrial development and waste dumping. Eastern River Basin Region in Sri Lanka is rapidly urbanizing, which leads more threats to the surrounding wetland ecosystems considerably. Therefore, it is important to identify and designated them as reserved areas where necessary in order to protect them under the National Environmental Act of Sri Lanka. Mapping and change detection of wetlands in the selected region is a key requirement to fulfill the above task. GIS and Remote Sensing techniques were used to identify and analyze the wetland eco systems. In this study Landsat ETM+, ALOS-AVNIR2, ALOS-PALSAR images were analyzed for identifying and change detection of wetlands. The secondary information and data were collected through a questionnaire survey to recognize the possible threats and benefits. The collected data and information were incorporated in identification, analyzing and ranking the wetlands. The final outcome of the project is to correlate the satellite data with the field observations to quantify the highly sensitive wetlands to declare as Environmental Protection Areas under the National Environment Act of Sri Lanka.

  12. EQ-5D-3L Derived Population Norms for Health Related Quality of Life in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Kularatna, Sanjeewa; Whitty, Jennifer A.; Johnson, Newell W.; Jayasinghe, Ruwan; Scuffham, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) is an important outcome measure in health economic evaluation that guides health resource allocations. Population norms for HRQoL are an essential ingredient in health economics and in the evaluation of population health. The aim of this study was to produce EQ-5D-3L-derived population norms for Sri Lanka. Method A population sample (n =  780) was selected from four districts of Sri Lanka. A stratified cluster sampling approach with probability proportionate to size was employed. Twenty six clusters of 30 participants each were selected; each participant completed the EQ-5D-3L in a face-to-face interview. Utility weights for their EQ-5D-3L health states were assigned using the Sri Lankan EQ-5D-3L algorithm. The population norms are reported by age and socio-economic variables. Results The EQ-5D-3L was completed by 736 people, representing a 94% response rate. Sixty per cent of the sample reported being in full health. The percentage of people responding to any problems in the five EQ-5D-3L dimensions increased with age. The mean EQ-5D-3L weight was 0.85 (SD 0.008; 95%CI 0.84-0.87). The mean EQ-5D-3L weight was significantly associated with age, housing type, disease experience and religiosity. People above 70 years of age were 7.5 times more likely to report mobility problems and 3.7 times more likely to report pain/discomfort than those aged 18-29 years. Those with a tertiary education were five times less likely to report any HRQoL problems than those without a tertiary education. A person living in a shanty was 4.3 more likely to have problems in usual activities than a person living in a single house. Conclusion The population norms in Sri Lanka vary with socio-demographic characteristics. The socioeconomically disadvantaged have a lower HRQoL. The trends of population norms observed in this lower middle income country were generally similar to those previously reported in high income countries. PMID

  13. A Comprehensive Assessment of Lymphatic Filariasis in Sri Lanka Six Years after Cessation of Mass Drug Administration

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Ramakrishna U.; Nagodavithana, Kumara C.; Samarasekera, Sandhya D.; Wijegunawardana, Asha D.; Premakumara, Welmillage D. Y.; Perera, Samudrika N.; Settinayake, Sunil; Miller, J. Phillip; Weil, Gary J.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Sri Lankan Anti-Filariasis Campaign conducted 5 rounds of mass drug administration (MDA) with diethycarbamazine plus albendazole between 2002 and 2006. We now report results of a comprehensive surveillance program that assessed the lymphatic filariasis (LF) situation in Sri Lanka 6 years after cessation of MDA. Methodology and Principal Findings Transmission assessment surveys (TAS) were performed per WHO guidelines in primary school children in 11 evaluation units (EUs) in all 8 formerly endemic districts. All EUs easily satisfied WHO criteria for stopping MDA. Comprehensive surveillance was performed in 19 Public Health Inspector (PHI) areas (subdistrict health administrative units). The surveillance package included cross-sectional community surveys for microfilaremia (Mf) and circulating filarial antigenemia (CFA), school surveys for CFA and anti-filarial antibodies, and collection of Culex mosquitoes with gravid traps for detection of filarial DNA (molecular xenomonitoring, MX). Provisional target rates for interruption of LF transmission were community CFA <2%, antibody in school children <2%, and filarial DNA in mosquitoes <0.25%. Community Mf and CFA prevalence rates ranged from 0–0.9% and 0–3.4%, respectively. Infection rates were significantly higher in males and lower in people who denied prior treatment. Antibody rates in school children exceeded 2% in 10 study sites; the area that had the highest community and school CFA rates also had the highest school antibody rate (6.9%). Filarial DNA rates in mosquitoes exceeded 0.25% in 10 PHI areas. Conclusions Comprehensive surveillance is feasible for some national filariasis elimination programs. Low-level persistence of LF was present in all study sites; several sites failed to meet provisional endpoint criteria for LF elimination, and follow-up testing will be needed in these areas. TAS was not sensitive for detecting low-level persistence of filariasis in Sri Lanka. We recommend use of

  14. Laboratory-Enhanced Dengue Sentinel Surveillance in Colombo District, Sri Lanka: 2012-2014

    PubMed Central

    Tissera, Hasitha; Amarasinghe, Ananda; Gunasena, Sunethra; DeSilva, Aruna Dharshan; Yee, Leong Wei; Sessions, October; Muthukuda, Chanaka; Palihawadana, Paba; Lohr, Wolfgang; Byass, Peter; Gubler, Duane J.; Wilder-Smith, Annelies

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dengue has emerged as a significant public health problem in Sri Lanka. Historically surveillance was passive, with mandatory dengue notifications based on clinical diagnosis with only limited laboratory confirmation. To obtain more accurate data on the disease burden of dengue, we set up a laboratory-based enhanced sentinel surveillance system in Colombo District. Here we describe the study design and report our findings of enhanced surveillance in the years 2012–2014. Methods Three outpatient clinics and three government hospitals in Colombo District that covered most of the Colombo metropolitan area were selected for the sentinel surveillance system. Up to 60 patients per week presenting with an undifferentiated fever were enrolled. Acute blood samples from each patient were tested by dengue specific PCR, NS1 ELISA and IgM ELISA. A sub-set of samples was sent to Duke-NUS Singapore for quality assurance, virus isolation and serotyping. Trained medical research assistants used a standardized case report form to record clinical and epidemiological data. Clinical diagnoses by the clinicians-in-charge were recorded for hospitalized cases. Results Of 3,127 febrile cases, 43.6% were PCR and/or NS1 positive for dengue. A high proportion of lab confirmed dengue was observed from inpatients (IPD) (53.9%) compared to outpatient (clinics in hospitals and general practice) (7.6%). Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) was diagnosed in 11% of patients at the time of first contact, and the median day of illness at time of presentation to the sentinel sites was 4. Dengue serotype 1 was responsible for 85% of the cases and serotype 4 for 15%. The sensitivity and specificity of the clinicians’ presumptive diagnosis of dengue was 84% and 34%, respectively. Conclusion DENV-1, and to a lesser degree DENV-4, infection were responsible for a high proportion of febrile illnesses in Colombo in the years 2012 to 2014. Clinicians’ diagnoses were associated with high

  15. Prospective policy analysis: how an epistemic community informed policymaking on intentional self poisoning in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Policy analysis is often retrospective and not well suited to helping policy makers decide what to do; in contrast prospective policy analysis seeks to assist in formulating responses to challenging public policy questions. Suicide in Sri Lanka is a major public health problem, with ingestion of pesticides being the primary method. Previous policy interventions have been associated with reduced mortality through restricting access to the most toxic pesticides. Additional means of reducing access are still needed. Methods The prospective policy analysis comprised two stages. The first used a consensus activity within a well defined policy community to generate and frame policy options. The second broadened the analysis to include other stakeholders. We report the consensus activity with seven actors from agriculture, health, and academia. Policy options were identified through two rounds of discussion along with ratings by each participant on their degree of support for each option. Data were analysed quantitatively and discussions analysed with Nvivo 8 to code prominent and recurrent themes. Results The main finding was the strong support and consensus for two proposals: further regulation of pesticides and the novel idea of repackaging pesticides into non-lethal doses. Participants identified several factors that were supportive of future policy change including a strong legislative framework, good links between agriculture, health and academia, and a collaborative relationship with industry. Identified barriers and potential threats to policy change included political interference, difficulties of intersectoral collaboration, acceptability of options to the community, difficulty of implementation in rural communities and the challenge of reducing mortality. Conclusions The development and consideration of policy options within this epistemic community reflected an appreciation and understanding of many of the factors that can facilitate or thwart

  16. The Impacts Of The Indian Ocean Tsunami On Coastal Ecosystems And Resultant Effects On The Human Communities Of Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingram, J.; Rumbaitis-del Rio, C.; Franco, G.; Khazai, B.

    2005-12-01

    The devastating tsunami that hit Sri Lanka on December 26, 2004 has demonstrated vividly the inter-connections between social and ecological resilience. Before the tsunami, the coastal zone of Sri Lanka was inhabited by predominantly poor populations, most of whom were directly dependent upon coastal natural resources, such as fisheries and coconut trees, for supporting their livelihoods. Many of these people have now lost their livelihoods through the destruction of their boats and nets for fishing, the contamination of drinking sources, homes, family members and assets. This presentation focuses on observations of the tsunami impacts on both social and ecological communities made along the affected coastline of Sri Lanka in April-May 2005. This assessment recorded patterns of ecological resistance and damage resulting from the tsunami in relation to damage on the human environment, with an exploration of the physical factors that may have contributed to vulnerability or resistance. This work also involved a preliminary assessment of the resilience and recovery of different natural resource based livelihood strategies following the disaster and an exploration of livelihood possibilities in proposed resettlement sites. From observations made in this and other recent studies, it is apparent that intact ecosystems played a vital role in protection from the impact of the tsunami and are vital for supporting people as they seek to rebuild their livelihoods. However, certain structural and biological characteristics appear to offer certain tree species, such as coconut (Cocos nucifera), an advantage in surviving such events and have been important for providing food and drink to people in the days after the tsunami. Areas where significant environmental damage had occurred prior to the tsunami or where there were few natural defenses present to protect human communities, devastation of homes and lives was extremely high. Although, there is evidence that many previously

  17. A critical review of environmental impact statements in Sri Lanka with particular reference to ecological impact assessment.

    PubMed

    Samarakoon, Miriya; Rowan, John S

    2008-03-01

    This article critically reviews environmental assessment (EA) practices in Sri Lanka, with a particular focus on ecology. An overview is provided of the domestic and international influences which have shaped the administrative process which is currently a two-tiered scheme. An Initial Environmental Examination (IEE) provides a preliminary screening tool, prior to the requirement for a full Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). A comprehensive survey of Sri Lankan national archives showed that 463 EAs were completed in the period 1981-2005, with the bulk of these in the more populated Western and North Western Provinces. Two-thirds were IEE surveys, while the remaining third advanced to full EIA. A representative sample of 130 EAs (both IEEs and full EIAs) spanning a broad range of project types, scales, and environmental settings was selected to evaluate the quality of the ecological investigations within the published environmental impact statements (EISs). These were assigned into five classes of "explanatory power", on the basis of their scientific content in relation to survey, analysis, and reporting of ecological interests. Within most EISs, the ecological impact assessment (EcIA) was restricted to the lowest two categories of ecological assessment, i.e., tokenistic presentation of reconnaissance-level species lists without further analysis of the development implications for individual organisms or communities. None of the assessments reviewed provided statistically rigorous analysis, which would be required if ecological impact studies are to include quantitative and testable predictions of impact, which could then be followed up by appropriate post-impact monitoring programs. Attention to key local issues such as biodiversity or ecosystem services, which also have strong social dimensions in the developing world, was also notably underrepresented. It was thus concluded that despite the existence of a sound legislative framework in Sri Lanka, the analysis

  18. A Critical Review of Environmental Impact Statements in Sri Lanka with Particular Reference to Ecological Impact Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samarakoon, Miriya; Rowan, John S.

    2008-03-01

    This article critically reviews environmental assessment (EA) practices in Sri Lanka, with a particular focus on ecology. An overview is provided of the domestic and international influences which have shaped the administrative process which is currently a two-tiered scheme. An Initial Environmental Examination (IEE) provides a preliminary screening tool, prior to the requirement for a full Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). A comprehensive survey of Sri Lankan national archives showed that 463 EAs were completed in the period 1981 2005, with the bulk of these in the more populated Western and North Western Provinces. Two-thirds were IEE surveys, while the remaining third advanced to full EIA. A representative sample of 130 EAs (both IEEs and full EIAs) spanning a broad range of project types, scales, and environmental settings was selected to evaluate the quality of the ecological investigations within the published environmental impact statements (EISs). These were assigned into five classes of “explanatory power”, on the basis of their scientific content in relation to survey, analysis, and reporting of ecological interests. Within most EISs, the ecological impact assessment (EcIA) was restricted to the lowest two categories of ecological assessment, i.e., tokenistic presentation of reconnaissance-level species lists without further analysis of the development implications for individual organisms or communities. None of the assessments reviewed provided statistically rigorous analysis, which would be required if ecological impact studies are to include quantitative and testable predictions of impact, which could then be followed up by appropriate post-impact monitoring programs. Attention to key local issues such as biodiversity or ecosystem services, which also have strong social dimensions in the developing world, was also notably underrepresented. It was thus concluded that despite the existence of a sound legislative framework in Sri Lanka, the

  19. On cockroaches of the subfamily Epilamprinae (Dictyoptera: Blaberidae) from South India and Sri Lanka, with descriptions of new taxa.

    PubMed

    Anisyutkin, Leonid N

    2014-01-01

    The new genus Indoapterolampra, gen. nov. and two new species (I. rugosiuscula sp. nov. and Morphna lucida sp. nov.) are described. Rhabdoblatta praecipua (Walker, 1868) is removed from the synonymy with 'Polyzosteria' terranea Walker, 1868. The latter species is considered Epilamprinae gen. sp. The lectotype of Phoraspis (Thorax) porcellana Saussure, 1862 is designated. A key for the genera of Epilamprinae from South India and Sri Lanka is provided. Detailed morphological descriptions of the studied taxa are given. The structure of the male genitalia of I. rugosiuscula sp. nov., M. lucida sp. nov., M. plana (Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1865), M. decolyi (Bolivar, 1897) and R. praecipua and that of the female genital complex of M. decolyi, P. (T.) porcellana and Phlebonotus anomalus (Saussure, 1863) are described for the first time. Some aspects of the cockroach evolution are briefly discussed.  PMID:25112343

  20. Dominant role of winds near Sri Lanka in driving seasonal sea level variations along the west coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, I.; Vialard, J.; Izumo, T.; Lengaigne, M.; Han, W.; McCreary, J.; Muraleedharan, P. M.

    2016-07-01

    The strong seasonal cycle of sea level along the west coast of India (WCI) has important consequences for ecosystem and fisheries, and the Lakshadweep high/low in the southeast Arabian Sea is important for fisheries and the Indian summer monsoon. Previous studies suggested that WCI sea level variability is primarily driven by remote wind forcing from the Bay of Bengal and equatorial Indian Ocean through coastal Kelvin wave propagation. Using a linear ocean model, we demonstrate that wind forcing in a relatively small region around the southern tip of India and east of Sri Lanka contribute to ~60% of this variability. Wind variations from the rest of the Bay and the equator only account respectively for ~20% and ~10%. Sea level signals forced by the "southern tip" winds extend westward into the eastern Arabian Sea through Rossby wave propagation, with more than 50% contribution in the Lakshadweep high/low region.

  1. The large tsunami of 26 December 2004: Field observations and eyewitnesses accounts from Sri Lanka, Maldives Is. and Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, Gerassimos A.; Caputo, Riccardo; McAdoo, Brian; Pavlides, Spyros; Karastathis, Vassilios; Fokaefs, Anna; Orfanogiannaki, Katerina; Valkaniotis, Sotiris

    2006-02-01

    Post-event field surveys were conducted and measurements were taken in Sri Lanka and Maldives about two weeks after the catastrophic Indian Ocean tsunami of 26 December 2004. The measurements taken were cross-checked after interviewing with local people. In the southwest, south and east coastal zones of Sri Lanka maximum water levels ranging from h = 3 m to h = 11 m a.m.s.l. were estimated. The highest values observed were in the south of the island: Galle h ˜ 10 m, Hambantota h ˜ 11m. Maximum inundation of d ˜ 2 km was observed in Hambantota. The heavy destruction and thousands of victims caused in coastal communities, buildings and infrastructure, like railways and bridges, is attributed not only to physical parameters, like the strength of the tsunami hydrodynamic flow, coastal geomorphology and the wave erosional action in soil, but also to anthropogenic factors including the increased vulnerability of the non-RC buildings and the high population density. Local people usually described the tsunami as a series of three main waves. The leading wave phase was only a silent sea level rise of h ≤ 1.5 m and d ≤ 150 m, while the second wave was the strongest one. The first two waves occurred between 09:00 and 09:30 local time, depending on the locality. It is well documented that near Galle, southern part, the strong wave arrived at 09:25:30. In the west coast the third wave was a late arrival which possibly represents reflection phases. In Maldives, three waves were also reported to arrive between 09:00 and 09:30 local time. Maximum water level was only h ˜ 3 m in Laamu Atoll, which is interpreted by the wave amplitude damping by the coral reef to the east of the island complex as well as to that the tsunami did not arrived at high tide time. Damage was observed in several islands of Maldives but this was minimal as compared to the heavy destruction observed in Sri Lanka. About 25 Greek eyewitnesses, who happened to experience the tsunami attack in Padong and

  2. Prevalence and molecular characteristics of Vibrio spp. isolated from preharvest shrimp of the North Western Province of Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Koralage, Madura Sanjeevani Gonsal; Alter, Thomas; Pichpol, Duangporn; Strauch, Eckhard; Zessin, Karl-Hans; Huehn, Stephan

    2012-10-01

    This study investigated the prevalence and molecular characteristics of Vibrio spp. in farmed shrimp (Penaeus monodon) in Sri Lanka. A total of 170 shrimp samples (100 g of whole shrimp each) taken from individual ponds from 54 farms were collected 1 week prior to harvest from the North Western Province of Sri Lanka. Overall, 98.1% of the farms and 95.1% of the ponds were positive for Vibrio spp. in shrimp; at the pond level, V. parahaemolyticus (91.2%) was most common, followed by V. alginolyticus (18.8%), V. cholerae non-O1/non-O139 (4.1%), and V. vulnificus (2.4%). Multiple Vibrio spp. were detected in 20.6% of the ponds. None of the V. parahaemolyticus isolates (n = 419) were positive for the virulence-associated tdh (thermostable direct hemolysin) and trh (TDH-related hemolysin) genes. V. cholerae was confirmed by the presence of ompW, and all isolates (n = 8) were negative for the cholera toxin (ctxA) gene. V. cholerae isolates were serogrouped by PCR and identified as V. cholerae non-O1/non-O139. All four V. vulnificus strains, isolated from different ponds of two geographical regions, showed pathogenic potential; they belonged to vcgC sequence type, type B 16S rRNA genotype and contained a pilF polymorphism associated with human pathogenicity. The results of this study revealed the ubiquitous nature of vibrios in farmed shrimp. To minimize the potential risk of Vibrio infections due to handling or consumption of raw or undercooked seafood products, good manufacturing practices as well as proper handling and processing should be addressed. PMID:23043835

  3. Emerging epidemic of fatal human self poisoning with a washing powder in Southern Sri Lanka: A prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Gawarammana, IB; Ariyananda, PL; Palangasinshe, C; de Silva, NGL; Fernando, K; Vidanapathirana, M; Kuruppuarachchi, MA; Munasinghe, MAAK; Dawson, AH

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Self poisoning is a public health problem in Sri Lanka. A new laundry detergent consisting of a sachet each of 1.2g of potassium permanganate (KMNO4) and 12.5g of oxalic acid has become a popular agent amongst the youth for self poisoning. Method Prospective clinical data and major outcomes were recorded in all patients admitted to a referring and a referral hospital. Serial biochemistry was performed in 20 patients. Post-mortem examinations were performed in some patients. Results There were 115 patients. Majority developed symptoms of the gastrointestinal tract within the first 24 hours. There were 18 deaths. Ingestion of oxalic acid was associated with a case fatality ratio (CFR) of 25.4% (95% CI 14-39) while ingestion of both KMNO4 and oxalic acid was associated with a CFR of 9.8% (95% CI 3.2-21). Ingestion of more than one sachet was associated with a significantly higher risk of death (risk ratio 13.26, (95% CI 3.2-54; p<0.05). Majority of the deaths occurred within an hour since ingestion. Post-mortem examinations revealed mucosal ulceration in the majority of deaths. Discussion This case series brings to light an emerging epidemic of fatal self poisoning in Sri Lanka from a compound that is not regulated. As deaths occur soon after ingestion medical management of these patients is bound to be difficult. Conclusion This case series highlights a fatal mode of self poisoning that could be controlled through regulation of the manufacture and sale of the product. PMID:19492931

  4. Quantification of groundwater-seawater interaction in a coastal sandy aquifer system: a study from Panama, Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrajith, Rohana; Chaturangani, Dinusha; Abeykoon, Sumith; Barth, Johannes A. C.; van Geldern, Robert; Edirisinghe, Viraj; Dissanayake, Chandra B.

    2014-05-01

    The Panama coastal aquifer system is an important water resource in the southeast coast of Sri Lanka that provides adequate supplies of water for agriculture and domestic uses. One of the biggest threats to these fragile aquifers is seawater intrusion. In this study [1], recharging mechanism and geochemical evaluation of groundwater in the coastal sandy aquifer of Panama were evaluated using chemical and stable isotope techniques. Thirty groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for their major ion concentrations and stable isotope ratios of oxygen (δ18O) and hydrogen (δ2H). All samples showed a decreasing order of concentrations for major anions in the order Cl- > HCO3- > SO42- > N-NO3- while cation concentrations decreased with Na+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ > K+. Dominant hydrogeochemical characterizations of the groundwater were Na-Cl and mixed Ca-Mg-Cl types of water. Results of saturation index calculations indicate that the investigated groundwater body was mostly saturated with respect to calcite, dolomite and gypsum. In addition, stable isotope and geochemical data suggest that fresh groundwater in the aquifer is recharged mainly by local precipitation with only slight modification from evaporation and saline water intrusions. The communities in the study area depend almost exclusively on groundwater a better understanding of the hydrogeochemical characteristics of the aquifer system becomes increasingly important in the future for better local water resource management. References [1] Chandrajith, R., Chaturangani, D., Abeykoon, S., Barth, J.C., van Geldern, R., Edirisinghe, E.A.N.V. and Dissanayake, C.B. (in press): Quantification of groundwater-seawater interaction in a coastal sandy aquifer system: a study from Panama, Sri Lanka. - Environmental Earth Sciences, [doi:10.1007/s12665-013-3010-y].

  5. Vulnerability analysis in terms of food insecurity and poverty using GIS and remote sensing technology applied to Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahriar, Pervez M.; Ramachandran, Mahadevan; Mutuwatte, Lal

    2003-03-01

    It is becoming increasingly recognized that computer methods such as models and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) can be valuable tools for analyzing a geographical area in terms of it's hazards vulnerability, Vulnerability is an important aspect of households' experience of poverty. The measurement and analysis of poverty, inequality and vulnerability are crucial for cognitive purposes (to know what the situation is), for analytical purposes (to understand the factors determining this situation), for policy making purposes (to design interventions best adapted to the issues), and for monitoring and evaluation purposes (to assess whether current policies are effective, and whether the situation is changing). Here vulnerability defined as the probability or risk today of being in poverty - or falling deeper into poverty - in the future. Vulnerability is a key dimension of well being since it affects individuals' behavior (in terms of investment, production patterns, coping strategies) and their perception of their own situation. This study has been conducted with the joint collaboration of World Food Programme (WFP) and International Water Management Institute (IWMI) in Sri Lanka for identifying regions and population which are food insecure, for analyzing the reasons for vulnerability to food insecurity in order to provide decision-makers with information to identify possible sectors of intervention and for identifying where and for whom food aid can be best utilized in Sri Lanka. This new approach integrates GIS and Remote sensing with other statistical packages to allow consideration of more spatial/physical parameters like accessibility to economic resources, particularly land and the assets of the built environment, creating employment, and attracting investment in order to improve the quality and quantity of goods and services for the analysis which leads the analysis to represent the real scenario. For this study a detailed topographic data are being used

  6. A geoarchaeological perspective on the rise and fall of the ancient capital of Anuradhapura (Sri Lanka)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bebermeier, Wiebke; Kohlmeyer, Kay; Meister, Julia; Reimann, Tony; Wagalawatta, Thusitha; Schütt, Brigitta

    2016-04-01

    Anuradhapura, the ancient capital of the Ceylonese kings (4th century BCE - 11th century CE) is located in the north-central Dry Zone of Sri Lanka. Covering an area of c. 40 km² Anuradhapura is one of the key sites for the development of an urban civilisation in South Asia. The settlement history of Anuradhapura can be traced back to the beginnings of the Protohistoric Iron Age (c. 900-500 BCE). During its existence, the centre of the ancient capital, the so-called Citadel, accumulated c. 10 meters of cultural sediments. Although archaeological research dated back to the beginning of the 20th century, none of the numerous excavations succeeded to extract an undisturbed archaeological sequence covering all periods of the city history. The objective of the presented study is to reconstruct natural surface processes, which went along with the formation and abandonment of the Citadel; possibly even triggering it. Based on sediment analysis (bulk parameters, magnetic susceptibility and mineralogical composition) and the application of dating techniques (radiocarbon, OSL) environmental conditions during and after the abandonment of the Citadel were reconstructed. The results reveal information about four phases of the city history: i) Lower Early Historic Period (500-250 BCE), ii) Mid-Early Historic Period (250-0 BCE), iii) the end of the Anuradhapura period (11th century CE) and iv) after its abandonment (after the 11th century CE). In the first phase mainly wattle and daub constructions characterise the architecture of the site. The facies of correlate sediment layers point to eolian and fluvial facies with intercalated occupation layers. It is concluded, that these layer reflect a typical mix of natural processes and processes induced by humans as typical for rural settlements. With the beginning of the 1st century BCE human made terraces seem to build the base for stone and brick constructions in order to protect them from surface runoff during the rainy seasons

  7. Changing gender roles and health impacts among female workers in export-processing industries in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Attanapola, Chamila T

    2004-06-01

    Since the economic liberalization in 1977, a large number of Sri Lankan women have entered the labour market and engaged in income-generating activities. Some women choose to travel abroad as domestic workers, while others choose to work in export-processing industries. This process has a profound impact on gender and gender roles in Sri Lanka. Young rural women have changed their traditional women's roles to become independent daughters, efficient factory workers and partially modernized women. Even though changing gender roles are identified as a positive impact of industrial work, the new social, cultural, and legal environments of industrial work have negative impacts on these women's lives. This paper explores health impacts of changing gender roles and practices of young rural women, focusing on the experiences of female workers in export-processing industries. Further, it contributes to the literature on gender and health, and on qualitative approaches within health geographic studies. A model is formulated to suggest a conceptual framework for studying women's health. The model describes the determinant factors of individual health status based on the question of who (personal attributes) does what (type of work) where (place), when and how (behaviours). These are also determinant factors of gender and gender roles of a society. The three types of health problems (reproductive, productive and mental health) of a woman, in this case a female industrial worker, are determined by her gender roles and practices associated with these roles. PMID:15047086

  8. The 2004 December 26 Indian Ocean tsunami impact on Sri Lanka: cascade modelling from ocean to city scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poisson, B.; Garcin, M.; Pedreros, R.

    2009-06-01

    The 2004 December 26 Indian Ocean tsunami severely hit Sri Lanka. Although it was not in the direct path of the initial tsunami waves, the western coast was struck by diffracted waves that caused much damage. The numerical model GEOWAVE is used to compute tsunami generation, propagation and inundation from the earthquake source to the Sri Lankan coast. A nested grid system is constructed to increase the resolution until Galle Bay, on the southwestern coast, where a 20 m-grid is used. The six nested topobathymetric grids are interpolated from ETOPO2 and high resolution data, at sea as onshore. Simulation results are compared with tsunami height data from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA; US) and Geological Survey & Mines Bureau (GSMB; Sri Lanka). When the grid resolution increases, the discrepancy between the model and the data remains, on average, good, whereas its spread increases. We then conclude that the order of magnitude of the tsunami height is consistent from the 180 m-resolution grid, but the spatial imprecision is too high to locally predict reliable water heights. Nevertheless, the comparison between computed time-series of sea surface elevation at the Colombo tide station and tide-gauge data shows a very good agreement as both amplitude, and arrival time of the first wave are well reproduced. When focusing onshore, the modelled inundation limit is compared with the limit measured in the field. With its a priori setup, computed inundation spreads much farther behind the field limit. We then integrate more accurate nearshore conditions into the model. Non-linear shallow water equations are chosen instead of fully non-linear Boussinesq equations; the bottom friction on land is increased to a much higher value than at sea; the buildings cover and the low tide conditions are taken into account in the DEM. The resulting high resolution simulation agrees better with field data, even if discrepancies are still locally observed in places of

  9. Haemostatic dysfunction and acute renal failure following envenoming by Merrem's hump-nosed viper (Hypnale hypnale) in Sri Lanka: first authenticated case.

    PubMed

    de Silva, A; Wijekoon, A S; Jayasena, L; Abeysekera, C K; Bao, C X; Hutton, R A; Warrell, D A

    1994-01-01

    A five years old boy was bitten by a Merrem's hump-nosed viper (Hypnale hypnale) in Central Province, Sri Lanka. He developed local swelling, incoagulable blood, thrombocytopenia, bleeding into the gastrointestinal tract, and acute renal failure. Treatment with Serum Institute of Indian polyspecific antivenom (specific for venoms of cobra, common krait, Russell's viper and saw-scaled viper) had no effect on the coagulopathy, which persisted for more than a week. The boy recovered after 27 d in hospital, during which he was treated with peritoneal dialysis for renal failure. Laboratory studies demonstrated that the venom of H. hypnale was procoagulant, fibrinolytic and aggregated platelets. This first authenticated case of life-threatening acute renal failure and haemostatic disturbances caused by H. hypnale, a species responsible for 27% of snake bites in Sri Lanka, demonstrates the need for a new antivenom with specific activity against the venom of this species. PMID:8036678

  10. Irregular Migration as a Potential Source of Malaria Reintroduction in Sri Lanka and Use of Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Tests at Point-of-Entry Screening.

    PubMed

    Wickramage, Kolitha; Galappaththy, Gawrie N L; Dayarathne, D; Peiris, Sharika L; Basnayake, Rajeeka N; Mosca, Davide; Jacobs, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Background. We describe an irregular migrant who returned to Sri Lanka after a failed people smuggling operation from West Africa. Results. On-arrival screening by Anti-Malaria Campaign (AMC) officers using a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) (CareStart Malaria HRP2/PLDH) indicated a negative result. On day 3 after arrival, he presented with fever and chills but was managed as dengue (which is hyperendemic in Sri Lanka). Only on day 7, diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria was made by microcopy and CareStart RDT. The initially negative RDT was ascribed to a low parasite density. Irregular migration may be an unrecognized source of malaria reintroduction. Despite some limitations in detection, RDTs form an important point-of-entry assessment. As a consequence of this case, the AMC is now focused on repeat testing and close monitoring of all irregular migrants from malaria-endemic zones. Conclusion. The present case study highlights the effective collaboration and coordination between inter-governmental agencies such as IOM and the Ministry of Health towards the goals of malaria elimination in Sri Lanka. PMID:23861687

  11. Fluoride in drinking water and diet: the causative factor of chronic kidney diseases in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Dharmaratne, Ranjith W

    2015-07-01

    A significant number of people in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka suffer from chronic kidney diseases (CKD), and the author revisits existing literature related to CKD to find its causative factor. There is a direct connection between high fluoride levels in drinking water and kidney disease, and there are unhealthy levels of fluoride in the groundwater in Sri Lanka's CKD-affected areas. Based on the following observations, the author believes with confidence that excess fluoride in drinking water and in the locally grown food in the affected areas are the culprits of CKD in Sri Lanka. Fluoride excretion rate is considerably lower in children than adults, leading to renal damage of children living in areas with high fluoride. Adults who had renal damage due to fluoride in childhood are vulnerable to CKD with continued consumption of water from the same source. Patients with chronic renal insufficiency are at an increased risk of chronic fluoride toxicity. High content of fluoride in groundwater paves the way to excess fluoride in local food crops, consequently adding more fluoride to the systems of the consumers. People who work outdoors for prolonged periods consume excess water and tea, and are subjected to additional doses of fluoride in their system. In the mid-1980s, the increase in water table levels of the affected areas due to new irrigation projects paved the way to adding more fluorides to their system through drinking water and locally grown foods. PMID:25916575

  12. Free-Education in Sri Lanka. Does It Eliminate the Family Effect?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranasinghe, Athula; Hartog, Joop

    2002-01-01

    Uses human-capital theory to model and estimate the school enrollment and length of schooling decisions of Sri Lankans. Finds a positive association between family background and education decisions. In particular, mother's education and parents' income have a strong effect on the education decisions. (Contains 26 references.) (Authors/PKP)

  13. Counselling in Areas of Armed Conflict: The Case Jaffna, Sri Lanka.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Veer, Guus; Somasundaram, Daya; Damian S.

    2003-01-01

    Counseling is discussed in relation to traditional resources of the Tamil community for dealing with psychosocial and mental health problems. Describes some problems of clients affected by the armed conflict, approaches of local counselors and mental health professionals, and training offered to future Sri Lankan counselors who want to work with…

  14. Outcomes of Parental Use of Psychological Aggression on Children: A Structural Model from Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Zoysa, Piyanjali; Newcombe, Peter A.; Rajapakse, Lalini

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the existence and, if so, the nature of the association between parental use of psychological aggression and psychological maladjustment in a 12-year-old Sri Lankan school population. A stratified random sampling technique was used to select 1,226 children from Colombo district schools. Three instruments,…

  15. Prevalence and severity of micronutrient deficiency: a cross-sectional study among adolescents in Sri Lanka

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to determine the prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies (iron, zinc and folate) in Sri Lankan adolescent school children and the extent to which multiple micronutrient deficiencies exist in this population, a cross-sectional survey (2003) in the Galle district of the micronutrient and ant...

  16. Social, cultural and economical determinants of diabetes mellitus in Kalutara district, Sri Lanka: a cross sectional descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Sri Lanka is a country that is expected to face a high burden of diabetes mellitus (DM). There is a paucity of data on social and demographic determinants of DM, especially in the plantation sector. Aims To describe social and economic correlates and inequalities of DM in Kalutara District. Methods A cross sectional descriptive study was carried out among adults over the age of 35 years. A sample of 1300 individuals was selected using stratified random cluster sampling method from 65 Grama Niladari Divisions (GND), which were representative of urban, rural and plantation sectors. Twenty households were randomly selected from each division and one adult was randomly selected from each household. Data were collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. Fasting plasma blood sugar of ≥126mg/dl was used to define DM. Significance of prevalence of diseases and risk factors across different socio-economic strata were determined by chi square test for trend. Results Of 1234 adults who were screened (628 males), 202 (14.7%) had DM. Higher DM proportions (16.1%) were seen in the highest income quintile and in those educated up to Advanced Levels (AL) and above (17.3%). Prevalence in the urban, rural and plantation sectors were 23.6%, 15.5% and 8.5% respectively. Prevalence among Sinhalese, Tamils and Muslims were 14.4%, 29.0% and 20.0% respectively. There was a gradient in prevalence according to the unsatisfactory basic needs index of the GND with the highest proportion (20.7%) observed in the richest GND. The highest social status quintile demonstrated the highest proportion (17.4%) with diabetes mellitus. Conclusion There is a higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the more affluent and educated segments of society. There is also a higher prevalence among urban compared to rural and estates. Sri Lanka is in an early stage of the epidemic where the wealthy people are at a higher risk of DM. PMID:23237051

  17. Rebuilding community resilience in a post-war context: developing insight and recommendations - a qualitative study in Northern Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Individuals, families and communities in Northern Sri Lanka have undergone three decades of war trauma, multiple displacements, and loss of family, kin, friends, homes, employment and other valued resources. The objective of the study was understanding common psychosocial problems faced by families and communities, and the associated risk and protective factors, so that practical and effective community based interventions can be recommended to rebuild strengths, adaptation, coping strategies and resilience. Methods This qualitative, ecological study is a psychosocial ethnography in post-war Northern Sri Lanka obtained through participant observation; case studies; key- informant interviews; and focus groups discussions with mental health and psychosocial community workers as well as literature survey of media and organizational reports. Qualitative analysis of the data used ethnography, case studies, phenomenology, grounded theory, hermeneutics and symbolic interactionism techniques. Quantitative data on suicide was collected for Jaffna and Killinochchi districts. Results Complex mental health and psychosocial problems at the individual, family and community levels in a post-war context were found to impair recovery. These included unresolved grief; individual and collective trauma; insecurity, self-harm and suicides; poverty and unemployment; teenage and unwanted pregnancies; alcoholism; child abuse and neglect; gender based violence and vulnerability including domestic violence, widows and female headed-household, family conflict and separation; physical injuries and handicap; problems specific for children and elderly; abuse and/or neglect of elderly and disabled; anti-social and socially irresponsible behaviour; distrust, hopelessness, and powerlessness. Protective factors included families; female leadership and engagement; cultural and traditional beliefs, practices and rituals; and creative potential in narratives, drama and other arts. Risk

  18. Long term outcome of acute kidney injury due to leptospirosis? A longitudinal study in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is an important zoonotic disease of variable severity and is a common cause of acute kidney injury (AKI) in tropics. However the knowledge on long term renal outcome in leptospirosis is scarce. This study aims to assess the long-term renal outcome of AKI caused by leptospirosis. Findings Hospital records of patients who had developed AKI following leptospirosis (Serologically confirmed) presented to two Teaching Hospitals in Kandy district over 3 years from 2007 were studied. A total of 44 patients were included and they had been followed up at least for one year in out patient clinics with regular assessment including renal status. Renal histology was studied in two patients. The primary outcome measure was normalization of renal function at one year. Of the 44 patients, 31 were in the risk and injury stage (Group 1), and the rest of them were in the failure stage (Group 2) under RIFLE criteria. Of group 2 patients, 11 had abnormal renal functions on discharge. Their mean serum creatinine and GFR values on discharge were 392 mmol/l and 20 ml/min/1.73 m2. Other two patients had full renal recovery whilst in the hospital. Nine in the group 2 required renal replacement therapy by means of peritoneal dialysis, intermittent haemodialysis or haemofiltration. Seventeen out of the total had persistently abnormal renal functions on discharge. Of them 13 recovered their renal functions to normal. Four patients (9%) who belonged to group 2, had persistently abnormal renal functions after first year compatible with stage 3 chronic kidney disease (CKD). Renal histology of two patients showed tubulointerstitial lymphocyte infiltrate, tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis. Conclusion The long term renal outcome of AKI following leptospirosis is satisfactory as only 9% of patients had abnormal renal functions compatible with early stage of CKD. Even among them, advanced CKD or dialysis dependency had not been observed. PMID:24964804

  19. Prevalence of Major Depressive Disorder Among Spouses of Men Who Use Alcohol in a Rural Community in Central Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Ariyasinghe, Dewasmika; Abeysinghe, Ranil; Siriwardhana, Prabhash; Dassanayake, Tharaka

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To estimate the prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) among spouses of men who use alcohol in two rural areas in Sri Lanka, and to examine whether the severity of alcohol-related problems (ARPs) in men and presence of alcohol-related domestic violence are associated with MDD among these women. Method: In a cross-sectional study, ARPs among men were assessed using Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) questionnaire filled in by men, and domestic violence and husbands' drinking pattern data obtained from the women. MDD among the women was ascertained using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM–IV Disorders for major depression. Using logistic regression we examined whether age, past history of depression, different indices of ARPs and domestic violence were associated with current MDD among the women. Results: Point prevalence of MDD in the sample was 33.3% (95% CI: 25.93, 40.73%). Once adjusted for other factors, morning drinking of the spouse (odds ratio = 4.11, 95% CI: 1.25, 13.47; P = 0.019) and increasing age (odds ratio = 1.05, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.09; P = 0.003) significantly increased the odds of MDD. Being subjected to domestic violence/arguments also had a trend to be associated with MDD among women, but was not significant (odds ratio = 2.29, 95% CI: 0.95, 5.48; P = 0.062). Conclusion: The prevalence of MDD among spouses of men who use alcohol is markedly higher than that has been observed among Sri Lankan women in previous studies. The prevalence of MDD in women seems to increase when their husbands are morning drinkers, and with increasing age. PMID:25589089

  20. Pattern of distribution of selected trace elements in the marine brown alga, Sargassum filipendula Ag. from Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Jayasekera, R

    1994-06-01

    Baseline concentrations together with biological variations of 29 trace elements (Ag, As, Au, Ba, Br, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, I, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sr, Tb, Th, Yb, Zn and Zr) were investigated in the brown alga, Sargassum filipendula collected from the western coast of Sri Lanka. Several elements (Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, Ni, Sc, Se, Th, Zr and the rare earth elements) were found to be enriched in S. filipendula compared to NIES No. 9 Sargasso reference material. Concentration of strontium in S. filipendula was highest at all sites. Chemical abundance of the rare earth elements decreased approximately linearly with increasing atomic numbers. The pattern of elemental distribution appears to be due to the fact that S. filipendula seems capable of concentrating high levels of trace elements under conditions of their very low availability in sea water. Concentration factors for elements in S. filipendula lie in a higher range compared with those reported in the literaure for brown algae. PMID:24197034

  1. Transitions in ancient inland freshwater resource management in Sri Lanka affect biota and human populations in and around coastal lagoons.

    PubMed

    Dahdouh-Guebas, F; Hettiarachchi, S; Lo Seen, D; Batelaan, O; Sooriyarachchi, S; Jayatissa, L P; Koedam, N

    2005-03-29

    The increasing anthropogenic pressure on natural environments results in impacts that affect tropical forest areas and their biodiversity. Adverse impacts on terrestrial and oceanic environments often compound in the intertidal area, where mangrove forest ecosystems thrive. In tropical coastal areas of many developing countries where people depend on wood and other mangrove forest products and services, forest degradation leads to socioeconomic problems. At the same time, increasing freshwater needs in these areas are expected to cause additional problems. On the basis of remote sensing and ground truthing complemented by colonial archival material from the Dutch East India Company (1602-1800), we report that changes to the historic system of inland freshwater management have increased dramatically in recent times. Hydrological changes, such as interbasin transfers, have resulted in a qualitative ecological and socioeconomic degradation in three coastal lagoons in southern Sri Lanka. Variations in river hydrology have caused changes in the areas suitable as mangrove habitat and, thus, have resulted in an altered distribution. However, increases in mangrove area can mask the degradation of the site in terms of floristic composition, significance of the species, and biodiversity (this effect is termed "cryptic ecological degradation"). It is important that such changes be carefully monitored to ensure biological and socioeconomic sustainability. PMID:15797030

  2. Integrated school-based surveillance for soil-transmitted helminth infections and lymphatic filariasis in Gampaha district, Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Gunawardena, Sharmini; Gunawardena, Nipul K; Kahathuduwa, Ganga; Karunaweera, Nadira D; de Silva, Nilanthi R; Ranasinghe, Udaya B; Samarasekara, Sandhya D; Nagodavithana, Kumara C; Rao, Ramakrishna U; Rebollo, Maria P; Weil, Gary J

    2014-04-01

    We explored the practicality of integrating surveillance for soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH, assessed by Kato-Katz) with transmission assessment surveys for lymphatic filariasis (LF) in two evaluation units (EUs) in Gampaha district, Sri Lanka (population 2.3 million). The surveys were performed 6 years after five annual rounds of mass drug administration with diethylcarbamazine and albendazole. Each transmission assessment survey tested children (N = 1,462 inland EU; 1,642 coastal EU) sampled from 30 primary schools. Low filarial antigenemia rates (0% and 0.1% for the inland and coastal EUs) suggest that LF transmission is very low in this district. The STH rates and stool sample participation rates were 0.8% and 61% (inland) and 2.8% and 58% (coastal). Most STH detected were low or moderate intensity Trichuris trichiura infections. The added cost of including STH testing was ∼$5,000 per EU. These results suggest that it is feasible to integrate school-based surveillance for STH and LF. PMID:24493672

  3. Effects of the tsunami on fisheries and coastal livelihood: a case study of tsunami-ravaged southern Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    De Silva, D A M; Yamao, Masahiro

    2007-12-01

    Beyond the death toll, the tsunami of 26 December 2004 crippled many of the livelihood assets (human, social, physical, financial and natural) available to assist those directly affected. Drawing on surveys of three villages in three districts in the south of Sri Lanka, this paper describes the livelihood asset building capacity of the fishing communities. Assessments are also made of the impact of the tsunami on coastal communities and the impact of government policy on rebuilding. A livelihood asset score was calculated for each village by comparing their strengths in capacity building. In all aspects of capital building, including human, social, financial, physical and natural capital, the fishing community in Tangalle was significantly ahead of the fishing communities in Hikkaduwa and Weligama. Experienced fishermen with better educational backgrounds had a significant influence on the capacity building of livelihood assets. Relocation and resettlement plans brought persistent uncertainty to fishermen in Hikkaduwa and Weligama and threatened to disrupt their community bonds and social networks. PMID:18028160

  4. Understanding school health environment through interviews with key stakeholders in Lao PDR, Mongolia, Nepal and Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Park, Sohyun; Lee, Eun Young; Gittelsohn, Joel; Nkala, Denis; Choi, Bo Youl

    2015-04-01

    Studies on health promoting schools (HPS) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are scarce. To contribute to the development of HPS in these countries, we conducted formative research to understand the school environment in Lao PDR, Mongolia, Nepal, and Sri Lanka. Forty-three teachers, 10 government workers and 5 parents participated in three one-on-one interviews and 14 natural group interviews. Six themes emerged that centered on insufficient resources as reasons for suboptimal health conditions. At the individual level, participants mentioned the deficiency of personal resources to cope with cold weather and poor diet. At the school level, the lack of physical resources such as water purifiers and latrines was discussed. Interviewees also pointed out the schools' overdependence on external resources and therefore the lack of sustainability. Last, the shortage of health services at the school and community level was commonly mentioned. Based on these results, we believe that the basic concept of HPSs should also be applied when working with schools in LMICs. In conclusion, there was a lack of perception of the importance of policy and capacity development programs, which are important in developing HPSs. Therefore, future school health programs should stress improving these elements. PMID:25503378

  5. Space-time clustering characteristics of dengue based on ecological, socio-economic and demographic factors in northern Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Anno, Sumiko; Imaoka, Keiji; Tadono, Takeo; Igarashi, Tamotsu; Sivaganesh, Subramaniam; Kannathasan, Selvam; Kumaran, Vaithehi; Surendran, Sinnathamby Noble

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify geographical areas and time periods of potential clusters of dengue cases based on ecological, socio-economic and demographic factors in northern Sri Lanka from January 2010 to December 2013. Remote sensing (RS) was used to develop an index comprising rainfall, humidity and temperature data. Remote sensing data gathered by the AVNIR-2 instrument onboard the ALOS satellite were used to detect urbanisation, and a digital land cover map was used to extract land cover information. Other data on relevant factors and dengue outbreaks were collected through institutions and extant databases. The analysed RS data and databases were integrated into a geographical information system (GIS) enabling space-time clustering analysis. Our results indicate that increases in the number of combinations of ecological, socio-economic and demographic factors that are present or above the average contribute to significantly high rates of space-time dengue clusters. The spatio-temporal association that consolidates the two kinds of associations into one can ensure a more stable model for forecasting. An integrated spatiotemporal prediction model at a smaller level using ecological, socioeconomic and demographic factors could lead to substantial improvements in dengue control and prevention by allocating the right resources to the appropriate places at the right time. PMID:26618322

  6. Mapping Unhealthy Behavior Among Economically Active Men Using GIS in Suburban and Rural Areas of Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Silva, J Padmaka

    2016-01-01

    The burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and certain behavioral risk factors related to NCDs (unhealthy behaviors) are becoming more common. This survey aims to map out such common unhealthy behaviors among all men 35 to 50 years old in a Medical Officer of Health area in the Western Province of Sri Lanka using a geographical information system (GIS) and an interviewer administered questionnaire by visiting all households in the study area. Data were analyzed with ARC GIS and SPSS software. Geographical areas where men with unhealthy behaviors cluster together (clusters) were identified and visually and statistically related to locations of schools, places of religious worship, and factories in the area. It was revealed that clusters of unhealthy behaviors are mostly seen in areas with less population density. Smoking and alcohol are clustering in estate areas occupied by Tamils. This way GIS mapping could be used to identify and reduce the burden of NCDs by visualizing clusters and how certain locations affect their spread. PMID:26489433

  7. Complex network analysis of high rainfall events during the northeast monsoon over south peninsular India and Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, P.; Malik, N.; Marwan, N.; Kurths, J.

    2012-04-01

    The Indian Summer monsoon (ISM) accounts for a large part of the annual rainfall budget across most of the Indian peninsula; however, the coastal regions along the southeast Indian peninsula, as well as Sri Lanka, receive 50% or more of their annual rainfall budget during the northeast monsoon (NEM), or winter monsoon, during the months from October through December. In this study, we investigate the behavior of the NEM over the last 60 years using complex network theory. The network is constructed according to a method previously developed for the ISM, using event synchronization of extreme rainfall events as a correlation measure to create directed and undirected links between geographical locations, which represent potential pathways of moisture transport. Network measures, such as degree centrality and closeness centrality, are then used to illuminate the dynamics of the NEM rainfall over the relevant regions, and to examine the spatial distribution and temporal evolution of the rainfall. Understanding the circulation of the monsoon cycle as a whole, i.e. the NEM together with the ISM, is vital for the agricultural industry and thus the population of the affected areas.

  8. Integrated School-Based Surveillance for Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections and Lymphatic Filariasis in Gampaha District, Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Gunawardena, Sharmini; Gunawardena, Nipul K.; Kahathuduwa, Ganga; Karunaweera, Nadira D.; de Silva, Nilanthi R.; Ranasinghe, Udaya B.; Samarasekara, Sandhya D.; Nagodavithana, Kumara C.; Rao, Ramakrishna U.; Rebollo, Maria P.; Weil, Gary J.

    2014-01-01

    We explored the practicality of integrating surveillance for soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH, assessed by Kato-Katz) with transmission assessment surveys for lymphatic filariasis (LF) in two evaluation units (EUs) in Gampaha district, Sri Lanka (population 2.3 million). The surveys were performed 6 years after five annual rounds of mass drug administration with diethylcarbamazine and albendazole. Each transmission assessment survey tested children (N = 1,462 inland EU; 1,642 coastal EU) sampled from 30 primary schools. Low filarial antigenemia rates (0% and 0.1% for the inland and coastal EUs) suggest that LF transmission is very low in this district. The STH rates and stool sample participation rates were 0.8% and 61% (inland) and 2.8% and 58% (coastal). Most STH detected were low or moderate intensity Trichuris trichiura infections. The added cost of including STH testing was ∼$5,000 per EU. These results suggest that it is feasible to integrate school-based surveillance for STH and LF. PMID:24493672

  9. Social media-based civic engagement solutions for dengue prevention in Sri Lanka: results of receptivity assessment.

    PubMed

    Lwin, May O; Vijaykumar, Santosh; Foo, Schubert; Fernando, Owen Noel Newton; Lim, Gentatsu; Panchapakesan, Chitra; Wimalaratne, Prasad

    2016-02-01

    This article focuses on a novel social media-based system that addresses dengue prevention through an integration of three components: predictive surveillance, civic engagement and health education. The aim was to conduct a potential receptivity assessment of this system among smartphone users in the city of Colombo, the epicenter of the dengue epidemic in the island country of Sri Lanka. Grounded in Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) and using a convenience sampling approach, the cross-sectional survey assessed perceived severity (PSe), perceived susceptibility (PSu), perceived response efficacy (PRE), perceived self-efficacy (PSE) and intention-to-use (IU) among 513 individuals. The overall receptivity to the system was high with a score of >4.00 on a five-point scale. Participants belonging to younger, better educated and higher income groups reported significantly better perceptions of the efficaciousness of the system, were confident in their ability to use the system, and planned to use it in the future. PMT variables contributed significantly to regression models predicting IU. We concluded that a social media-based system for dengue prevention will be positively received among Colombo residents and a targeted, strategic health communication effort to raise dengue-related threat perceptions will be needed to encourage greater adoption and use of the system. PMID:26668207

  10. Mapping Unhealthy Behavior Among Economically Active Men Using GIS in Suburban and Rural Areas of Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Silva, J Padmaka; Gunathunga, M W; Jayasinghe, S

    2016-01-01

    The burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and certain behavioral risk factors related to NCDs (unhealthy behaviors) are becoming more common. This survey aims to map out such common unhealthy behaviors among all men 35 to 50 years old in a Medical Officer of Health area in the Western Province of Sri Lanka using a geographical information system (GIS) and an interviewer administered questionnaire by visiting all households in the study area. Data were analyzed with ARC GIS and SPSS software. Geographical areas where men with unhealthy behaviors cluster together (clusters) were identified and visually and statistically related to locations of schools, places of religious worship, and factories in the area. It was revealed that clusters of unhealthy behaviors are mostly seen in areas with less population density. Smoking and alcohol are clustering in estate areas occupied by Tamils. This way GIS mapping could be used to identify and reduce the burden of NCDs by visualizing clusters and how certain locations affect their spread. PMID:26489433

  11. Cascade Screening for Fragile X Syndrome/CGG Repeat Expansions in Children Attending Special Education in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Samuel S.; Rajan-Babu, Indhu-Shree

    2015-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the commonest cause of inherited mental retardation and clinically presents with learning, emotional and behaviour problems. FXS is caused by expansion of cytosine-guanine-guanine (CGG) repeats present in the 5’ untranslated region of the FMR1 gene. The aim of this study was to screen children attending special education institutions in Sri Lanka to estimate the prevalence of CGG repeat expansions. The study population comprised a representative national sample of 850 children (540 males, 310 females) with 5 to 18 years of age from moderate to severe mental retardation of wide ranging aetiology. Screening for CGG repeat expansion was carried out on DNA extracted from buccal cells using 3’ direct triplet primed PCR followed by melting curve analysis. To identify the expanded status of screened positive samples, capillary electrophoresis, methylation specific PCR and Southern hybridization were carried out using venous blood samples. Prevalence of CGG repeat expansions was 2.2%. Further classification of the positive samples into FXS full mutation, pre-mutation and grey zone gave prevalence of 1.3%, 0.8% and 0.1% respectively. All positive cases were male. No females with FXS were detected in our study may have been due to the small sample size. PMID:26694146

  12. Description of a new species of rabbitfish (Perciformes: Siganidae) from southern India, Sri Lanka and the Maldives.

    PubMed

    Woodland, David J; Anderson, R Charles

    2014-01-01

    Siganus insomnis sp. nov. is described from the Maldives, Sri Lanka and southern India. It most closely resembles S. lineatus (Valenciennes) from the Western Pacific but differs in coloration, principally in that most if not all of the bronze bands on its mid and upper sides continue horizontally and unbroken through to the nape and opercular slit. By contrast, in S. lineatus, typically the anterior area below the spinous dorsal fin down to the mid-sides is irregularly marked with golden bronze spots, commas, or a maze of contorted lines. S. guttatus (Bloch) is the third member of this group of sibling species; its sides are covered with orange to bronze-gold spots. It is distributed throughout S.E. Asia, i.e., it occupies a geographic position between the areas inhabited by S. lineatus and S. insomnis. Thus the gene pools of S. lineatus and S. insomnis are quarantined from one another by distance and the intervening presence of S. guttatus in S.E. Asia. The geographical separation of the populations of S. lineatus and S. insomnis from one another is reinforced by the absence of suitable, coralline habitats for these species in the western half of the Bay of Bengal.  PMID:24943153

  13. Chronic renal failure in Sri Lanka caused by elevated dietary cadmium: Trojan horse of the green revolution.

    PubMed

    Bandara, J M R S; Wijewardena, H V P; Liyanege, J; Upul, M A; Bandara, J M U A

    2010-09-15

    The endemic of chronic renal failure (CRF) emerged in 2002 in the farming provinces of Sri Lanka. An estimate of dietary cadmium intake was between 15 and 28 microg/kg body weight per week. The mean urinary cadmium in patients diagnosed with stage 5 kidney failure was 7.6 microg/g creatinine and 11.6 microg/g for asymptomatic persons. The agrochemical triple superphosphate (TSP) fertilizer containing 23.5-71.7 mg Cd/kg was the source of cadmium added to soils. Mean Cd content in cultivated vs. uncultivated soils in Anuradhapura district was 0.02 +/- 0.01 vs. 0.11 +/- 0.19 mg/kg while in Polonnaruwa district, it was 0.005 +/- 0.004 vs. 0.016 +/- 0.005 mg/kg. Prior to the Green Revolution, the amount of fertilizer used in rice cultivation in 1970 was 32,000 metric tons (Mts) rising to 74,000 Mts in 1975. Up to 68.9 Mts of Cd could have entered into the rice-cascade reservoir environment from TSP use since 1973. Diversion of the Mahaweli River in 1970-1980 further increased cadmium input. Cadmium transfer from Upper Mahaweli water to Polgolla was 72.13 kg/day. Cadmium content of the sediments from reservoirs collecting cadmium from irrigated TSP fertilized crop fields (rice and vegetables) was 1.8-2.4 mg/kg. PMID:20430069

  14. Revisiting saw-scaled viper (Echis carinatus) bites in the Jaffna Peninsula of Sri Lanka: distribution, epidemiology and clinical manifestations.

    PubMed

    Kularatne, S A M; Sivansuthan, S; Medagedara, S C; Maduwage, K; de Silva, A

    2011-10-01

    In Sri Lanka, the saw-scaled viper (Echis carinatus) is distributed in the arid, dry and sandy coastal plains and in a prospective study we describe its bites in the Jaffna peninsula. Of the 304 snake bite admissions to the Jaffna Hospital in 2009, 217 (71.4%) were bitten by either venomous species or envenomed by unidentified snakes. There were 99 (45.6%) reported saw-scaled viper bites, of which 26 were confirmed cases. The length of the offending snakes ranged from 228-310mm and bites mainly occurred in the nearby islands. The median age of the confirmed cases was 34 years (range 1.5-72 years); occupations included housewives (8, 31%), school children (4, 15%) and farmers (2, 8%). In 18 patients (69%), bites occurred in daylight and in 8 (31%) within or near the compounds. The fingers were bitten in 8 (31%) and toes/foot in 11 (42%) cases. There were 2 (8%) dry bites and 19 patients (73%) developed local swelling; one patient developed haemorrhagic blisters. In 24 patients (92%), blood incoagulability manifested between 40 and 1095min after the bite, and three patients (12%) developed spontaneous bleeding. One patient (4%) developed mild acute renal dysfunction. The median time for correction of coagulopathy was 802min (range 180-1669min) with Indian polyvalent antivenom. All recovered. The saw scaled viper is responsible for most venomous bites in the Jaffna peninsula. PMID:21868049

  15. Identification and characterization of thermotolerant acetic acid bacteria strains isolated from coconut water vinegar in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Perumpuli, P A B N; Watanabe, Taisuke; Toyama, Hirohide

    2014-01-01

    From the pellicle formed on top of brewing coconut water vinegar in Sri Lanka, three Acetobacter strains (SL13E-2, SL13E-3, and SL13E-4) that grow at 42 °C and four Gluconobacter strains (SL13-5, SL13-6, SL13-7, and SL13-8) grow at 37 °C were identified as Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii, respectively. Acetic acid production by the isolated Acetobacter strains was examined. All three strains gave 4% acetic acid from 6% initial ethanol at 37 °C, and 2.5% acetic acid from 4% initial ethanol at 40 °C. Compared with the two other strains, SL13E-4 showed both slower growth and slower acetic acid production. As well as the thermotolerant SKU1108 strain, the activities of the alcohol dehydrogenase and the aldehyde dehydrogenase of SL13E-2 and SL13E-4 were more stable than those of the mesophilic strain. The isolated strains were used to produce coconut water vinegar at higher temperatures than typically used for vinegar production. PMID:25036846

  16. Cross-Sectional Study to Assess Risk Factors for Leishmaniasis in an Endemic Region in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Ranasinghe, Shalindra; Wickremasinghe, Rajitha; Munasinghe, Asoka; Hulangamuwa, Sanjeeva; Sivanantharajah, Sundaramoorthy; Seneviratne, Kamal; Bandara, Samantha; Athauda, Indira; Navaratne, Chaturi; Silva, Ositha; Wackwella, Hasini; Matlashewski, Greg; Wickremasinghe, Renu

    2013-01-01

    Sri Lanka reports significantly more cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) cases than visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases, both of which are caused by Leishmania donovani MON-37. A cross-sectional study conducted in an area with a high prevalence of CL prevalent included 954 participants of an estimated population of 61,674 to estimate the number of CL cases, ascertain whether there is a pool of asymptomatic VL cases, and identify risk factors for transmission. A total of 31 cases of CL were identified, of whom 21 were previously diagnosed and 10 were new cases. Using rK39 rapid diagnostic test to detect antibodies against Leishmania spp., we found that only one person was seropositive but did not have clinical symptoms of CL or VL, which indicated low transmission of VL in this area. χ2 test, independent sample t-test, and multivariate analysis of sociodemographic and spatial distribution of environmental risk factors showed that living near paddy fields is associated with increased risk for transmission of CL (P ≤ 0.01). PMID:23918217

  17. Cost-effectiveness analyses of self-harm strategies aimed at reducing the mortality of pesticide self-poisonings in Sri Lanka: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, Lizell Bustamante; Eddleston, Michael; Hansen, Kristian Schultz; Pearson, Melissa; Agampodi, Suneth; Jayamanne, Shaluka; Konradsen, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    Introduction An estimated 803 900 people worldwide died as a result of self-harm in 2012. The deliberate ingestion of pesticides has been identified as the method most frequently used to commit fatal self-harm globally. In Sri Lanka, it is estimated that up to 60% of all suicides are committed using this method. The aim of the present study is to assess the cost-effectiveness of an ongoing safe storage intervention currently taking place in a rural Sri Lankan district and to model the cost-effectiveness of implementing the safe storage intervention as well as four potential interventions (legislative, medical management, follow-up contact and mobile phone contact) on a national level. Methods and analysis Study design for all the strategies is a cost-effectiveness analysis. A governmental perspective is adopted. The time horizon for tracking the associated costs and health outcomes of the safe storage intervention on district level runs over 3 years. The time horizon is extended to 5 years when modelling a full national roll-out of the respective interventions. The discounting of costs and health outcomes are undertaken at the recommended real rate of 3%. Threshold analyses of the modelled strategies are employed to assess the strategies potential for cost-effectiveness, running scenarios with health outcome improvements ranging from 1% to 100%. Sensitivity analyses are also performed. The main outcome measures of the safe storage intervention are incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was granted for the safe storage project from the University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka, in March of 2008. An amendment for the present study was granted from Rajarata University of Sri Lanka in November of 2013. Findings will be disseminated to public and private stakeholders in local and national government in Sri Lanka as well as the wider academic audience through peer-reviewed publications and international conferences. Trial

  18. Sri Lankan Teachers' Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dharmadasa, Kiri H.; And Others

    Sri Lanka has a literacy rate of 90 percent despite a gross national product per capita of only $584. It has nearly 190,000 teachers of whom 50,000 were recruited between 1985 and 1995, working in 10,000 public schools (primary through college). Following the Hindu and Buddhist traditions of Sri Lanka, teachers are greatly respected and seen as…

  19. Type-specific PCR assays for Babesia bovis msa-1 genotypes in Asia: Revisiting the genetic diversity in Sri Lanka, Mongolia, and Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Liyanagunawardena, Nilukshi; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Kothalawala, Hemal; Silva, Seekkuge Susil Priyantha; Battsetseg, Badgar; Lan, Dinh Thi Bich; Inoue, Noboru; Igarashi, Ikuo; Yokoyama, Naoaki

    2016-01-01

    Babesia bovis is the most virulent Babesia organism, resulting in a high mortality rate in cattle. The genetic diversity of B. bovis merozoite surface antigens (MSAs), such as MSA-1, MSA-2b, and MSA-2c, might be linked to altered immune profiles in the host animals. The present study aimed to develop type-specific PCR assays for Asian msa-1 genotypes, thereby re-analyzing the genetic diversity of msa-1 in Sri Lanka, Mongolia, and Vietnam. Specific primers were designed for nine Asian msa-1 genotypes, which had been detected based on the phylogeny constructed using msa-1 gene sequences retrieved from the GenBank database. Specificity of the type-specific PCR assays was confirmed using plasmids containing the inserts of msa-1 gene fragments that represent Asian genotypes. Furthermore, no amplicons were observed by these PCR assays when DNA samples of Babesia bigemina, Babesia ovata, Theileria annulata, Theileria orientalis, Trypanosoma evansi, Trypanosoma theileri, Anaplasma marginale, and Anaplasma bovis, and non-infected bovine blood were analyzed. In total, 109 B. bovis-positive blood DNA samples sourced from Sri Lanka (44 cattle), Mongolia (26 cattle), and Vietnam (23 cattle and 16 water buffaloes) were then screened by the type-specific PCR assays. The sequences derived from all of the PCR amplicons were phylogenetically analyzed. Out of 109 DNA samples, 23 (20 from cattle and 3 from water buffaloes) were positive for at least one genotype. In agreement with previous studies, five and four different genotypes were detected among the DNA samples from Sri Lanka and Vietnam, respectively. In contrast, four genotypes, including three novel genotypes, were detected from Mongolia. Five DNA samples were found to be co-infected with multiple genotypes. The sequences of the PCR amplicons clustered phylogenetically within the corresponding clades. These findings indicated that the type-specific PCR assays described herein are useful for the determination of genotypic

  20. Toad radiation reveals into-India dispersal as a source of endemism in the Western Ghats-Sri Lanka biodiversity hotspot

    PubMed Central

    Van Bocxlaer, Ines; Biju, SD; Loader, Simon P; Bossuyt, Franky

    2009-01-01

    Background High taxonomic level endemism in the Western Ghats-Sri Lanka biodiversity hotspot has been typically attributed to the subcontinent's geological history of long-term isolation. Subsequent out of – and into India dispersal of species after accretion to the Eurasian mainland is therefore often seen as a biogeographic factor that 'diluted' the composition of previously isolated Indian biota. However, few molecular studies have focussed on into-India dispersal as a possible source of endemism on the subcontinent. Using c. 6000 base pairs of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, we investigated the evolutionary history and biogeography of true toads (Bufonidae), a group that colonized the Indian Subcontinent after the Indo-Asia collision. Results Contrary to previous studies, Old World toads were recovered as a nested clade within New World Bufonidae, indicating a single colonization event. Species currently classified as Ansonia and Pedostibes were both recovered as being non-monophyletic, providing evidence for the independent origin of torrential and arboreal ecomorphs on the Indian subcontinent and in South-East Asia. Our analyses also revealed a previously unrecognized adaptive radiation of toads containing a variety of larval and adult ecomorphs. Molecular dating estimates and biogeographic analyses indicate that the early diversification of this clade happened in the Western Ghats and Sri Lanka during the Late Oligocene to Early Miocene. Conclusion Paleoclimate reconstructions have shown that the Early Neogene of India was marked by major environmental changes, with the transition from a zonal- to the current monsoon-dominated climate. After arrival in the Western Ghats-Sri Lanka hotspot, toads diversified in situ, with only one lineage able to successfully disperse out of these mountains. Consequently, higher taxonomic level endemism on the Indian Subcontinent is not only the result of Cretaceous isolation, but also of invasion, isolation and radiation of

  1. Implications of global warming for regional climate and water resources of tropical islands: Case studies over Sri Lanka and Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mawalagedara, R.; Kumar, D.; Oglesby, R. J.; Ganguly, A. R.

    2013-12-01

    The IPCC AR4 identifies small islands as particularly vulnerable to climate change. Here we consider the cases of two tropical islands: Sri Lanka in the Indian Ocean and Puerto Rico in the Caribbean. The islands share a predominantly tropical climate with diverse topography and hence significant spatial variability of regional climate. Seasonal variability in temperatures is relatively small, but spatial variations can be large owing to topography. Precipitation mechanisms and patterns over the two islands are different however. Sri Lanka receives a majority of the annual rainfall from the summer and winter monsoons, with convective rainfall dominating in the inter-monsoon period. Rainfall generating mechanisms over Puerto Rico can range from orographic lifting, disturbances embedded in Easterly waves and synoptic frontal systems. Here we compare the projected changes in the regional and seasonal means and extremes of temperature and precipitation over the two islands during the middle of this century with the present conditions. Two 5-year regional climate model runs for each region, representing the present (2006-2010) and future (2056-2060) conditions, are performed using the Weather Research and Forecasting model with the lateral boundary conditions provided using the output from CCSM4 RCP8.5 greenhouse gas emissions pathway simulation from the CMIP5 ensemble. The consequences of global warming for water resources and the overall economy are examined. While both economies have substantial contributions from tourism, there are major differences: The agricultural sector is much more important over Sri Lanka compared to Puerto Rico, while the latter exhibits no recent growth in population or in urbanization trends unlike the former. Policy implications for water sustainability and security are discussed, which highlight how despite the differences, certain lessons learned may generalize across the two relatively small tropical islands, which in turn have diverse

  2. Effect of repeated application of fenthion as a mosquito larvicide on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) inhabiting selected water canals in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Jayasundara, Viranga K; Pathiratne, Asoka

    2008-04-01

    Health status of feral Nile tilapia following repeated applications of fenthion as a mosquito larvicide to selected water canals in Sri Lanka was assessed. With three spray applications of fenthion to the study sites at weekly intervals at the concentration recommended for mosquito control, condition factor and brain acetylcholinesterase activity of the fish were depressed in a time dependent manner. Prominent histopathological alterations displayed were gill hyperplasia and telangiectasis and vacoulation of hepatocytes. Observed ill health effects of fenthion on the fish demonstrate probable ecological risk to the fish populations inhabiting the water canals which receive repeated inputs of fenthion. PMID:18344014

  3. A study of snake bite among children presenting to a paediatric ward in the main Teaching Hospital of North Central Province of Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Snake bite is a common problem in the North Central province of Sri Lanka. Common krait (Bungarus careuleus), Ceylon krait (Bungarus ceylonicus), Cobra (Naja naja), Russell’s viper (Daboia russelii), Saw-scaled viper (Echis carinatus) and Hump-nosed pit viper (Hypnale hypnale) are the six species of venomous land snakes in Sri Lanka. A significant number of adults and children are bitten by snakes every year. However, the majority of research studies done in Sri Lanka and other countries show adults bitten by snakes and studies describing children bitten by snakes are very sparse. Methods A descriptive cross sectional study was performed in the Teaching Hospital Anuradhapura in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka from May 2010 to 2011 May to describe the characteristics associated with cases of snake bite. Results There were 24 males and 20 females. The highest numbers of bites (48%) were in the range of ages 6-12 years. The majority of the bites occurred between 6 pm to 6 am (59%).The foot was the most common bitten site (48%). Out of all the venomous bites, the Hump-nosed pit viper (Hypnale hypnale) accounted for the highest number (44%) and Russell’s viper (Daboia ruselii) accounted for the second highest number (27%). A significant number of venomous bites occurred indoors while sleeping (22%). Antivenom serum was given to (39%) of venomous bites. Deaths occurred in (11%) of the venomous bites. Conclusions Hump-nosed pit viper (Hypnale hypnale) accounted for the highest number of venomous bites. Majority of the bites occurred between 6 pm and 6 am. Foot was the most common bitten site. A significant number of venomous bites occurred indoor while sleeping. Antivenom serum was given to a significant number of venomous bites. Educating the public on making their houses snake proof and using a torch when going out during night time will help in the prevention of getting bitten by snakes. PMID:25073710

  4. Feasibility of hair sampling to assess levels of organophosphate metabolites in rural areas of Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Knipe, D W; Jayasumana, C; Siribaddana, S; Priyadarshana, C; Pearson, M; Gunnell, D; Metcalfe, C; Tzatzarakis, M N; Tsatsakis, A M

    2016-05-01

    Measuring chronic pesticide exposure is important in order to investigate the associated health effects. Traditional biological samples (blood/urine) are difficult to collect, store and transport in large epidemiological studies in settings such as rural Asia. We assessed the acceptability of collecting hair samples from a rural Sri Lankan population and found that this method of data collection was feasible. We also assessed the level of non-specific metabolites (DAPS) of organophosphate pesticides in the hair samples. The median concentration (pg/mg) of each DAP was: diethyl phosphate: 83.3 (IQI 56.0, 209.4); diethyl thiophosphate: 34.7 (IQI 13.8, 147.9); diethyl dithiophosphate: 34.5 (IQI 23.4, 55.2); and dimethyl phosphate: 3 (IQI 3, 109.7). Total diethylphosphates were recovered in >80% of samples and were positively correlated with self-reported pesticide exposure. PMID:26894816

  5. Rostral horn evolution among agamid lizards of the genus ceratophora endemic to Sri Lanka

    SciTech Connect

    Schulte II, James A.; Macey, J. Robert; Pethiyagoda, Rohan; Larson, Allan

    2001-07-10

    The first phylogenetic hypothesis for the Sri Lankan agamid lizard genus Ceratophora is presented based on 1670 aligned base positions (472 parsimony informative) of mitochondrial DNA sequences, representing coding regions for eight tRNAs, ND2, and portions of ND1 and COI. Phylogenetic analysis reveals multiple origins and possibly losses of rostral horns in the evolutionary history of Ceratophora. Our data suggest a middle Miocene origin of Ceratophora with the most recent branching of recognized species occurring at the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary. Haplotype divergence suggests that an outgroup species, Lyriocephalus scutatus, dates at least to the Pliocene. These phylogenetic results provide a framework for comparative studies of the behavioral ecological importance of horn evolution in this group.

  6. Feasibility of hair sampling to assess levels of organophosphate metabolites in rural areas of Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Knipe, D.W.; Jayasumana, C.; Siribaddana, S.; Priyadarshana, C.; Pearson, M.; Gunnell, D.; Metcalfe, C.; Tzatzarakis, M.N.; Tsatsakis, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Measuring chronic pesticide exposure is important in order to investigate the associated health effects. Traditional biological samples (blood/urine) are difficult to collect, store and transport in large epidemiological studies in settings such as rural Asia. We assessed the acceptability of collecting hair samples from a rural Sri Lankan population and found that this method of data collection was feasible. We also assessed the level of non-specific metabolites (DAPS) of organophosphate pesticides in the hair samples. The median concentration (pg/mg) of each DAP was: diethyl phosphate: 83.3 (IQI 56.0, 209.4); diethyl thiophosphate: 34.7 (IQI 13.8, 147.9); diethyl dithiophosphate: 34.5 (IQI 23.4, 55.2); and dimethyl phosphate: 3 (IQI 3, 109.7). Total diethylphosphates were recovered in >80% of samples and were positively correlated with self-reported pesticide exposure. PMID:26894816

  7. Geoenvironmental factors related to high incidence of human urinary calculi (kidney stones) in Central Highlands of Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Abeywickarama, Buddhika; Ralapanawa, Udaya; Chandrajith, Rohana

    2016-10-01

    An area with extremely high incidence of urinary calculi was investigated in the view of identifying the relationship between the disease prevalence and the drinking water geochemistry. The prevalence of the kidney stone disease in the selected Padiyapelella-Hanguranketa area in Central Highlands of Sri Lanka is significantly higher compared with neighboring regions. Drinking water samples were collected from water sources that used by clinically identified kidney stone patients and healthy people. A total of 83 samples were collected and analyzed for major anions and cations. The anions in the area varied in the order HCO3 (-) > Cl(-) > SO4 (2-) > NO3 (-) and cations varied in the order Ca(2+) > Mg(2+) > Na(+) > K(+) > Fe(2+). The dissolved silica that occurs as silicic acid (H4SiO4) in natural waters varied from 8.8 to 84 mg/L in prevalence samples, while it was between 9.7 and 65 mg/L for samples from non-prevalence locations. Hydrogeochemical data obtained from the two groups were compared using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. It showed that pH, total hardness, Na(+), Ca(2+) and Fe(2+) had significant difference (p < 0.005) between water sources used by patients and non-patients. Elemental ratio plots, Gibbs' plot and factor analysis indicated that the chemical composition of water sources in this area is strongly influenced by rock-water interactions, particularly the weathering of carbonate and silicate minerals. This study reveals a kind of association between stone formation and drinking water geochemistry as evident by the high hardness/calcium contents in spring water used by patients. PMID:26620679

  8. Comparative analysis of nutritional quality of five different cultivars of sweet potatoes (Ipomea batatas (L) Lam) in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Senanayake, Suraji A; Ranaweera, K K D S; Gunaratne, Anil; Bamunuarachchi, Arthur

    2013-07-01

    Nutritional attributes of flours obtained from five different cultivars of sweet potato roots commonly available in Sri Lanka showed significant differences in the tested parameters. The starch level ranged between 33% and 64% on the dry basis and the extractability from fresh tubers was governed by the quantity of starch. The crude fiber level ranged between 2.1% and 13.6% on dry basis and the highest level was observed in swp7 (CARI 273) and resistant starch ranged from 14.2% to 17.2%. Higher percentage of resistant starch from total starch was found in Wariyapola red (swp1) cultivar resulting in lower digestion level while higher levels of digestion was evident in cultivars with lower levels of resistant starch with high level of total starch. Low levels of calcium and significant levels of iron were found in the five cultivars studied. Crude protein level was in the range of 1.2-3.3% on dry basis and trypsin inhibitor activity level (TIA) was significantly different (P > 0.05) in the cultivars studied while heating resulted in a significantly high reduction in the TIA level than in unheated condition. Polygonal or round shaped starch granules were in the range of 16.8-23.5 μm and low level of starch digestion was shown in cultivars containing larger granules. Total amylose content lies in the range 15.4-19.6% and cultivars having higher percentage of amylose showed higher level of in vitro pancreatic digestion (Pallepola [swp4] and swp7). The starch digestibility of sweet potato flour was in the range of 36-55% and the highest digestion was observed in swp7. Orange fleshed cultivars (swp4 and swp7) were comparatively rich in nutrients and digestibility than the other three studied cultivars. PMID:24804032

  9. Mental Health Status of Sri Lanka Navy Personnel Three Years after End of Combat Operations: A Follow Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Hanwella, Raveen; Jayasekera, Nicholas E. L. W.; de Silva, Varuni A.

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to assess the mental health status of the Navy Special Forces and regular forces three and a half years after the end of combat operations in mid 2009, and compare it with the findings in 2009. This cross sectional study was carried out in the Sri Lanka Navy (SLN), three and a half years after the end of combat operations. Representative samples of SLN Special Forces and regular forces deployed in combat areas were selected using simple random sampling. Only personnel who had served continuously in combat areas during the one year period prior to the end of combat operations were included in the study. The sample consisted of 220 Special Forces and 275 regular forces personnel. Compared to regular forces a significantly higher number of Special Forces personnel had experienced potentially traumatic events. Compared to the period immediately after end of combat operations, in the Special Forces, prevalence of psychological distress and fatigue showed a marginal increase while hazardous drinking and multiple physical symptoms showed a marginal decrease. In the regular forces, the prevalence of psychological distress, fatigue and multiple somatic symptoms declined and prevalence of hazardous drinking increased from 16.5% to 25.7%. During the same period prevalence of smoking doubled in both Special Forces and regular forces. Prevalence of PTSD reduced from 1.9% in Special Forces to 0.9% and in the regular forces from 2.07% to 1.1%. Three and a half years after the end of combat operations mental health problems have declined among SLN regular forces while there was no significant change among Special Forces. Hazardous drinking among regular forces and smoking among both Special Forces and regular forces have increased. PMID:25254557

  10. A One Health Framework for the Evaluation of Rabies Control Programmes: A Case Study from Colombo City, Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Häsler, Barbara; Hiby, Elly; Gilbert, Will; Obeyesekere, Nalinika; Bennani, Houda; Rushton, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Background One Health addresses complex challenges to promote the health of all species and the environment by integrating relevant sciences at systems level. Its application to zoonotic diseases is recommended, but few coherent frameworks exist that combine approaches from multiple disciplines. Rabies requires an interdisciplinary approach for effective and efficient management. Methodology/Principal Findings A framework is proposed to assess the value of rabies interventions holistically. The economic assessment compares additional monetary and non-monetary costs and benefits of an intervention taking into account epidemiological, animal welfare, societal impact and cost data. It is complemented by an ethical assessment. The framework is applied to Colombo City, Sri Lanka, where modified dog rabies intervention measures were implemented in 2007. The two options included for analysis were the control measures in place until 2006 (“baseline scenario”) and the new comprehensive intervention measures (“intervention”) for a four-year duration. Differences in control cost; monetary human health costs after exposure; Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) lost due to human rabies deaths and the psychological burden following a bite; negative impact on animal welfare; epidemiological indicators; social acceptance of dogs; and ethical considerations were estimated using a mixed method approach including primary and secondary data. Over the four years analysed, the intervention cost US $1.03 million more than the baseline scenario in 2011 prices (adjusted for inflation) and caused a reduction in dog rabies cases; 738 DALYs averted; an increase in acceptability among non-dog owners; a perception of positive changes in society including a decrease in the number of roaming dogs; and a net reduction in the impact on animal welfare from intermediate-high to low-intermediate. Conclusions The findings illustrate the multiple outcomes relevant to stakeholders and allow

  11. Sri Lanka Pilot Study to Examine Respiratory Health Effects and Personal PM2.5 Exposures from Cooking Indoors.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Michael J; Smith, Emily A; Mosquin, Paul L; Chartier, Ryan; Nandasena, Sumal; Bronstein, Katherine; Elledge, Myles F; Thornburg, Vanessa; Thornburg, Jonathan; Brown, Linda M

    2016-01-01

    A pilot study of indoor air pollution produced by biomass cookstoves was conducted in 53 homes in Sri Lanka to assess respiratory conditions associated with stove type ("Anagi" or "Traditional"), kitchen characteristics (e.g., presence of a chimney in the home, indoor cooking area), and concentrations of personal and indoor particulate matter less than 2.5 micrometers in diameter (PM2.5). Each primary cook reported respiratory conditions for herself (cough, phlegm, wheeze, or asthma) and for children (wheeze or asthma) living in her household. For cooks, the presence of at least one respiratory condition was significantly associated with 48-h log-transformed mean personal PM2.5 concentration (PR = 1.35; p < 0.001). The prevalence ratio (PR) was significantly elevated for cooks with one or more respiratory conditions if they cooked without a chimney (PR = 1.51, p = 0.025) and non-significantly elevated if they cooked in a separate but poorly ventilated building (PR = 1.51, p = 0.093). The PRs were significantly elevated for children with wheeze or asthma if a traditional stove was used (PR = 2.08, p = 0.014) or if the cooking area was not partitioned from the rest of the home (PR = 2.46, p = 0.012). For the 13 children for whom the cooking area was not partitioned from the rest of the home, having a respiratory condition was significantly associated with log-transformed indoor PM2.5 concentration (PR = 1.51; p = 0.014). PMID:27527203

  12. Sri Lanka Pilot Study to Examine Respiratory Health Effects and Personal PM2.5 Exposures from Cooking Indoors

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Michael J.; Smith, Emily A.; Mosquin, Paul L.; Chartier, Ryan; Nandasena, Sumal; Bronstein, Katherine; Elledge, Myles F.; Thornburg, Vanessa; Thornburg, Jonathan; Brown, Linda M.

    2016-01-01

    A pilot study of indoor air pollution produced by biomass cookstoves was conducted in 53 homes in Sri Lanka to assess respiratory conditions associated with stove type (“Anagi” or “Traditional”), kitchen characteristics (e.g., presence of a chimney in the home, indoor cooking area), and concentrations of personal and indoor particulate matter less than 2.5 micrometers in diameter (PM2.5). Each primary cook reported respiratory conditions for herself (cough, phlegm, wheeze, or asthma) and for children (wheeze or asthma) living in her household. For cooks, the presence of at least one respiratory condition was significantly associated with 48-h log-transformed mean personal PM2.5 concentration (PR = 1.35; p < 0.001). The prevalence ratio (PR) was significantly elevated for cooks with one or more respiratory conditions if they cooked without a chimney (PR = 1.51, p = 0.025) and non-significantly elevated if they cooked in a separate but poorly ventilated building (PR = 1.51, p = 0.093). The PRs were significantly elevated for children with wheeze or asthma if a traditional stove was used (PR = 2.08, p = 0.014) or if the cooking area was not partitioned from the rest of the home (PR = 2.46, p = 0.012). For the 13 children for whom the cooking area was not partitioned from the rest of the home, having a respiratory condition was significantly associated with log-transformed indoor PM2.5 concentration (PR = 1.51; p = 0.014). PMID:27527203

  13. Mass Fatality Management following the South Asian Tsunami Disaster: Case Studies in Thailand, Indonesia, and Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Oliver W; Sribanditmongkol, Pongruk; Perera, Clifford; Sulasmi, Yeddi; Van Alphen, Dana; Sondorp, Egbert

    2006-01-01

    Background Following natural disasters, mismanagement of the dead has consequences for the psychological well-being of survivors. However, no technical guidelines currently exist for managing mass fatalities following large natural disasters. Existing methods of mass fatality management are not directly transferable as they are designed for transport accidents and acts of terrorism. Furthermore, no information is currently available about post-disaster management of the dead following previous large natural disasters. Methods and Findings After the tsunami disaster on 26 December 2004, we conducted three descriptive case studies to systematically document how the dead were managed in Thailand, Indonesia, and Sri Lanka. We considered the following parameters: body recovery and storage, identification, disposal of human remains, and health risks from dead bodies. We used participant observations as members of post-tsunami response teams, conducted semi-structured interviews with key informants, and collected information from published and unpublished documents. Refrigeration for preserving human remains was not available soon enough after the disaster, necessitating the use of other methods such as dry ice or temporary burial. No country had sufficient forensic capacity to identify thousands of victims. Rapid decomposition made visual identification almost impossible after 24–48 h. In Thailand, most forensic identification was made using dental and fingerprint data. Few victims were identified from DNA. Lack of national or local mass fatality plans further limited the quality and timeliness of response, a problem which was exacerbated by the absence of practical field guidelines or an international agency providing technical support. Conclusions Emergency response should not add to the distress of affected communities by inappropriately disposing of the victims. The rights of survivors to see their dead treated with dignity and respect requires practical guidelines

  14. Comparative analysis of nutritional quality of five different cultivars of sweet potatoes (Ipomea batatas (L) Lam) in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Senanayake, Suraji A; Ranaweera, K K D S; Gunaratne, Anil; Bamunuarachchi, Arthur

    2013-01-01

    Nutritional attributes of flours obtained from five different cultivars of sweet potato roots commonly available in Sri Lanka showed significant differences in the tested parameters. The starch level ranged between 33% and 64% on the dry basis and the extractability from fresh tubers was governed by the quantity of starch. The crude fiber level ranged between 2.1% and 13.6% on dry basis and the highest level was observed in swp7 (CARI 273) and resistant starch ranged from 14.2% to 17.2%. Higher percentage of resistant starch from total starch was found in Wariyapola red (swp1) cultivar resulting in lower digestion level while higher levels of digestion was evident in cultivars with lower levels of resistant starch with high level of total starch. Low levels of calcium and significant levels of iron were found in the five cultivars studied. Crude protein level was in the range of 1.2–3.3% on dry basis and trypsin inhibitor activity level (TIA) was significantly different (P > 0.05) in the cultivars studied while heating resulted in a significantly high reduction in the TIA level than in unheated condition. Polygonal or round shaped starch granules were in the range of 16.8–23.5 μm and low level of starch digestion was shown in cultivars containing larger granules. Total amylose content lies in the range 15.4–19.6% and cultivars having higher percentage of amylose showed higher level of in vitro pancreatic digestion (Pallepola [swp4] and swp7). The starch digestibility of sweet potato flour was in the range of 36–55% and the highest digestion was observed in swp7. Orange fleshed cultivars (swp4 and swp7) were comparatively rich in nutrients and digestibility than the other three studied cultivars. PMID:24804032

  15. Puppets on a string: women's wage work and empowerment among female tea plantation workers of Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Samarasinghe, V

    1993-04-01

    Access to resources and control of ones' income are key features of women's empowerment. The current development strategy is to create opportunities for poor women in developing countries. Because access to income alone does not ensure empowerment, this study examines sociopolitical factors among the Indian Tamil female tea plantation workers in Sri Lanka that impact women's ability to control their own income. 95% of the female Indian Tamil Plantation work force is devoted to the tea industry. Female labor force participation among the Indian Tamil was 54.3% in 1981 compared to total female labor force participation of 26%. The survey encompassed a sample of 420 female and 40 male unskilled workers of 22 large plantations in Nuwara Eliya district, which were managed by government corporations. Variables pertained to income levels, control of income within households, work schedules, household demographics, food habits and within household food allocation patterns, health status and health delivery system, and management structures. Results focused on control incomes, maternity benefits, the double burden for women, women's health and nutrition, female education, and trade unions and male dominance. Although women have increased their wage rate and work hours, there has not been a corresponding increase in women's ability to control their incomes. there remains a male dominated social and political system, which continues to entrap women as a productive resource. One way in which women's empowerment has been stalled has been through the control of women's income and labor, and male dominance both at work and home. Successful schemes for women's empowerment are demonstrated in the Self Employed Women's Association, Working Women's Forum of India, and the Grameen Bank of Bangladesh. PMID:12286574

  16. Early Effects of a ‘Train the Trainer’ Approach to Ponseti Method Dissemination: A Case Study of Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Jayawardena, Asitha; Wijayasinghe, Sunil R.; Tennakoon, Dimuthu; Cook, Thomas; Morcuende, Jose A.

    2013-01-01

    Background The Ponseti method has been established as the standard of care for the treatment of clubfoot in many developed countries for its utility, cost-effectiveness, and efficiency. However, despite its being described as the gold-standard for clubfoot treatment, there are still many areas of the world bereft in formal training in the Ponseti method. This is especially important since 80% of patients with clubfoot are born in developing countries where the need is the greater for experienced providers. This study analyzes a ‘Train the Trainer’ approach, specifically in the island nation of SriLanka, as a model for future dissemination of the Ponseti method throughout the developing world. Methods A rapid ethnographic study design that included interviews, focus groups, and direct observation of 162 patients and healthcare practitioners directly involved with clubfoot care was conducted. Results The average age of the patients at the time of the interview was 75.4 weeks old (SD = 149.2), traveled 45.2 kilometers (SD = 49.8) to receive their care, and received 4 casts (SD = 2.2) for correction of the deformity. Since the initiation of the ‘Train the Trainer’ educational program, clubfoot clinics reportedly grew from 6-7 patients per week to over 60 patients per week. The majority of this patient population growth was attributed to word of mouth. Major barriers to the method included casting materials, bracing materials, and a lack of a dedicated area of the clinic to conduct tenotomies under local anesthesia. Of note, cost was not cited as a major barrier. Conclusion Early evaluation suggests great utility of the ‘Train the Trainer’ method – especially regarding an increased patient demand for treatment. However, further studies are necessary to understand the long-term utility of this training methodology. PMID:24027476

  17. The correlation between dengue incidence and diurnal ranges of temperature of Colombo district, Sri Lanka 2005–2014

    PubMed Central

    Ehelepola, N. D. B.; Ariyaratne, Kusalika

    2016-01-01

    Background Meteorological factors affect dengue transmission. Mechanisms of the way in which different diurnal temperatures, ranging around different mean temperatures, influence dengue transmission were published after 2011. Objective We endeavored to determine the correlation between dengue incidence and diurnal temperature ranges (DTRs) in Colombo district, Sri Lanka, and to explore the possibilities of using our findings to improve control of dengue. Design We calculated the weekly dengue incidence in Colombo during 2005–2014, after data on all of the reported dengue patients and estimated mid-year populations were collected. We obtained daily maximum and minimum temperatures from two Colombo weather stations, averaged, and converted them into weekly data. Weekly averages of DTR versus dengue incidence graphs were plotted and correlations observed. The count of days per week with a DTR of >7.5°C and <7.5°C were also calculated. Wavelet time series analysis was performed to determine the correlation between dengue incidence and DTR. Results We obtained a negative correlation between dengue incidence and a DTR>7.5°C with an 8-week lag period, and a positive correlation between dengue incidence and a DTR<7.5°C, also with an 8-week lag. Conclusions Large DTRs were negatively correlated with dengue transmission in Colombo district. We propose to take advantage of that in local dengue control efforts. Our results agree with previous studies on the topic and with a mathematical model of relative vectorial capacity of Aedes aegypti. Global warming and declining DTR are likely to favor a rise of dengue, and we suggest a simple method to mitigate this. PMID:27566717

  18. Comparison of injuries due to lethal weapons during and after civil strife in Sri Lanka: A medico-legal study

    PubMed Central

    Vidanapathirana, Muditha; Ruwanpura, Rohan P; Amararatne, Sriyantha RRG; Ratnaweera, Ajith RHI

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: “Injuries due to lethal weapons” has emerged as a subject of public discussion in Sri Lanka. This study was conducted to describe the nature and characteristics of injuries due to lethal weapons during civil strife and to compare those with injuries after civil strife. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on patients reported with injuries caused by lethal weapons from 2004 to 2014. Periods before and after May 19, 2009 were considered as during and after civil strife periods, respectively. A total of 21,210 medico-legal examination forms were studied. Results: There were 358 (1.7%) injuries caused by lethal weapons. Of them, 41% (n = 148) were during and 59% (n = 210) were after the civil strife. During civil strife, 63% occurred during daytime (P < 0.05). Types of lethal weapons that caused injuries were sharp weapons (n = 282), explosives (n = 49), and firearms (n = 27). Of them, 32% of during and 01% of after civil strife were explosive injuries (P < 0.01). Regarding severity, 73% of during and 57% of after civil strife injuries were severe (P < 0.05). During civil strife, 34% injuries were in lower limbs (P < 0.01) and after civil strife, 37% were in upper limbs (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The presence of many similarities indicated that both groups learnt their basis in a society that breeds violence. During civil strife, more injuries occurred during daytime, to lower limbs by explosive weapons and after the civil strife during nighttime, to upper limbs by nonexplosive weapons. Nonexplosive lethal weapon use after civil strife needs further investigation to develop evidence-based interventions. PMID:27127743

  19. Test burn with PCB-oil in a local cement kiln in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Karstensen, Kåre Helge; Mubarak, Azeez M; Gunadasa, H N; Wijagunasekara, Bandulasoma; Ratnayake, Niranjanie; Alwis, Ajith De; Fernando, Jayavilal

    2010-02-01

    The production and use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have ceased and most developed countries have disposed off their stocks long time ago. PCBs can however still be found in the environment and one important source is accumulated stocks in developing countries. Sound treatment of PCB is costly and most developing countries do not have dedicated hazardous waste incinerators or non-combustion technologies available for domestic disposal and can usually not afford export. High temperature cement kilns have been used to treat organic hazardous wastes in developed countries for decades and shown to constitute a sound option if well managed and controlled. In contrast to dedicated hazardous waste incinerators and other treatment techniques, cement kilns are already in place in virtually every country and may constitute a treatment option. The objective of this study was therefore to carry out the first test burn with PCB-oil in a developing country cement kiln and to assess its feasibility and destruction performance. The 3 d test burn demonstrated that the Sri Lankan cement kiln was able to destroy PCB in an irreversible and environmental sound manner without causing any new formation of PCDD/PCDF or HCB. The destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) was better than 99.9999% at the highest PCB feeding rate. PMID:20004933

  20. Frequent and potentially fatal envenoming by hump-nosed pit vipers (Hypnale hypnale and H. nepa) in Sri Lanka: lack of effective antivenom.

    PubMed

    Ariaratnam, C A; Thuraisingam, V; Kularatne, S A M; Sheriff, M H R; Theakston, R D G; de Silva, A; Warrell, D A

    2008-11-01

    In a prospective study of snake bites involving 10 hospitals in Sri Lanka, 302 (35%) of 860 patients with bites by identified snakes proved to have been bitten by hump-nosed pit vipers (301 by Hypnale hypnale and 1 by H. nepa). Most victims were males aged between 11 years and 50 years who had been bitten on their feet or ankles while walking at night close to their homes. There was local swelling in 276 (91%) and local necrosis in 48 (16%). Eleven (4%) required amputation of fingers or toes and 12 (4%) received skin grafts. In 117 patients (39%) blood incoagulability was first detected between 15 min and 48 h after the bite, and in 116 of them this was present on admission to hospital. Spontaneous systemic bleeding was observed in 55 patients (18%). Acute renal failure developed in 10%, five of whom died to give an overall case fatality rate of 1.7%. Thus, bites by hump-nosed pit vipers can cause debilitating local and fatal systemic envenoming. In Sri Lanka and southwestern India where bites by these snakes are common, the only available antivenoms (raised against cobra, krait, Russell's viper and saw-scaled viper venoms) are ineffective and carry a high risk of reactions. PMID:18455743

  1. Perfluorinated organic compounds in human blood serum and seminal plasma: a study of urban and rural tea worker populations in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Guruge, Keerthi S; Taniyasu, Sachi; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Wijeratna, Sumedha; Mohotti, Keerthi M; Seneviratne, Harsha R; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Yamanaka, Noriko; Miyazaki, Shigeru

    2005-04-01

    Concentrations and accumulation of 13 fluorinated organic compounds (FOCs) in human sera and seminal plasma were measured in an Asian developing country, Sri Lanka. Six of the FOCs, PFOS (perfluorooctanesulfonate), PFHS (perfluorohexanesulfonate), PFUnA (perfluoroundecanoic acid), PFDA (perfluorodecanoic acid), PFNA (perfluorononanoic acid) and PFOA (perfluorooctanoic acid), were detected in all of the sera samples. Measurable quantities of two main perfluorosulfonates, PFOS and PFHS, were found in all seminal plasma samples. The detection frequency of the predominant perfluoroalkylcarboxylate, PFOA, in seminal plasma was >70%. Accumulation of PFOS in sera was significantly positively correlated with PFOA, PFHS and PFNA. Positive linear regressions were also found between PFNA and PFUnA and PFNA and PFDA suggesting that these compounds may have a similar origin of exposure and accumulation. Significantly positive associations were observed for partitioning of both PFOS and PFNA between sera and seminal plasma. The accumulation of FOCs was not significantly different in sera from Colombo (urban population) and Talawakele (rural conventional tea workers). However, the Haldummulla population (rural organic tea workers) had relatively lower exposure to FOCs compared to the other two groups, urban and rural conventional tea workers. Concentrations of FOCs in Sri Lanka were similar to those reported for industrialized countries suggesting that human exposure to such chemicals is widespread even in developing countries. The novel finding of FOCs in human seminal plasma implies that further studies are needed to determine whether long-term exposure in humans can result in reproductive impairments. PMID:15798805

  2. Perceived Risk of Dengue in Ones’ Living Environment as a Determinant of Behavior Change through Social Mobilization and Communication: Evidence from a High Risk Area in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Banneheke, Hasini; Paranavitane, Sarath; Jayasuriya, Vathsala; Banneheka, Sarath

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to assess community knowledge and behavioral impact of the social mobilization and communication strategy applied in a dengue high-risk area in Sri Lanka. Methods: A group of adults visiting selected primary care facilities in Colombo district were interviewed to collect socio-demographic data, attributes of knowledge regarding dengue and the responsive behaviors adopted by them following the dengue control program though the media and social marketing campaigns. These attributes were classified as ‘good’, ‘fair,’ or ‘poor’ by developing a composite scale for analysis and interpretation of data. Results: The primary source of information was television in the majority. The overall knowledge of the disease, vector and control methods was poor. The overall level of contribution to dengue control activities was good. Conclusion: Awareness of the disease and its complications had not contributed to favorable behavior changes. While the social mobilization and behavior change campaign in Sri Lanka had low impact on knowledge and behaviors, a better understating of community perceptions of DF and how these perceptions are formulated within the social and cultural context; would be useful to improve uptake. This knowledge would be valuable for program planners to strengthen dengue control activities in SL and other similar settings across the region. PMID:27308297

  3. Rising private sector and falling 'good health at low cost': health challenges in China, Sri Lanka, and Indian state of Kerala.

    PubMed

    Thresia, C U

    2013-01-01

    Despite having a captivating history of outstanding health achievements during the second half of the 20th century, China, Sri Lanka, and the Indian state of Kerala face several health challenges, particularly in the context of a shift in financing health care from a predominantly public-sector to a market-oriented provision. Over the 1990s, these "good health at low cost" (GHLC) regions faced widening health inequities and adverse health outcomes in relation to social, economic, and geographical marginalization, compared to another GHLC country, Costa Rica, and to Cuba, which have a similar history of health and economic profile. While the historical process of health development in China, Sri Lanka, and Kerala is closely entangled with the interrelated policies on health and allied social sectors with an abiding public-sector support, the retreat of the state and resultant increase in private-sector medical care and out-of-pocket spending resulted in widening inequities and medical impoverishment. Investigating the public health challenges and associated medical care-induced impoverishment, this article argues that the fundamental root causes of health challenges in these regions are often neglected in policy and in practice and that policymakers, planners, and researchers should make it a priority to address health inequities. PMID:23527452

  4. Proportion of lower limb fungal foot infections in patients with type 2 diabetes at a tertiary care hospital in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Wijesuriya, T. M.; Weerasekera, M. M.; Kottahachchi, J.; Ranasinghe, K. N. P.; Dissanayake, M. S. S.; Prathapan, S.; Gunasekara, T. D. C. P.; Nagahawatte, A.; Guruge, L. D.; Bulugahapitiya, U.; Fernando, S. S. N.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Superficial fungal foot infection (SFFI) in diabetic patients increases the risk of developing diabetic foot syndrome. Sixteen percent of urban population is suffering from diabetes in Sri Lanka. As the diabetes patients are more prone to get fungal foot infections, early intervention is advisable owing to the progressive nature of the infection. There is no data on the prevalence of SFFIs in diabetic patients in Sri Lanka. Objective: To determine the etiological agents causing SFFI in patients with type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods: Three hundred eighty five diabetic patients were included. Nail clippings and swabs were collected from the infected sites using the standard protocol. Laboratory identification was done and pathogens were identified to the species level by morpho physiological methods. Results: Clinically 295 patients showed SFFI, of which 255 (86%) were mycologically confirmed for infection. Out of 236 direct microscopy (KOH) positives, 227 (96%) were culture positive. Two hundred and fifty one patients (98%) with SFFI had diabetes for more than 10 years. Of the patients with SFFIs 92% had >100 mg/dl FBS and 81% had >140 mg/dl PPBS levels and 80% had both elevated FBS and PPBS. Non-dermatophyte fungal species were the commonest pathogens followed by yeast and dermatophytes. Conclusion: Aspergillus niger was the commonest pathogen followed by Candida albicans. SFFIs were seen significantly with the increasing age, gender, duration of diabetes and with less controlled glycaemic level. PMID:24701432

  5. Neuromuscular Effects of Common Krait (Bungarus caeruleus) Envenoming in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Anjana; Maduwage, Kalana; Sedgwick, Michael; Pilapitiya, Senaka; Weerawansa, Prasanna; Dahanayaka, Niroshana J.; Buckley, Nicholas A.; Johnston, Christopher; Siribaddana, Sisira; Isbister, Geoffrey K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective We aimed to investigate neurophysiological and clinical effects of common krait envenoming, including the time course and treatment response. Methodology Patients with definite common krait (Bungarus caeruleus) bites were recruited from a Sri Lankan hospital. All patients had serial neurological examinations and stimulated concentric needle single-fibre electromyography (sfEMG) of orbicularis oculi in hospital at 6wk and 6–9mth post-bite. Principal Findings There were 33 patients enrolled (median age 35y; 24 males). Eight did not develop neurotoxicity and had normal sfEMG. Eight had mild neurotoxicity with ptosis, normal sfEMG; six received antivenom and all recovered within 20–32h. Seventeen patients developed severe neurotoxicity with rapidly descending paralysis, from ptosis to complete ophthalmoplegia, facial, bulbar and neck weakness. All 17 received Indian polyvalent antivenom a median 3.5h post-bite (2.8–7.2h), which cleared unbound venom from blood. Despite this, the paralysis worsened requiring intubation and ventilation within 7h post-bite. sfEMG showed markedly increased jitter and neuromuscular blocks within 12h. sfEMG abnormalities gradually improved over 24h, corresponding with clinical recovery. Muscle recovery occurred in ascending order. Myotoxicity was not evident, clinically or biochemically, in any of the patients. Patients were extubated a median 96h post-bite (54–216h). On discharge, median 8 days (4–12days) post-bite, patients were clinically normal but had mild sfEMG abnormalities which persisted at 6wk post-bite. There were no clinical or neurophysiological abnormalities at 6–9mth. Conclusions Common krait envenoming causes rapid onset severe neuromuscular paralysis which takes days to recover clinically consistent with sfEMG. Subclinical neuromuscular dysfunction lasts weeks but was not permanent. Antivenom effectively cleared venom but did not prevent worsening or reverse neuromuscular paralysis. PMID:26829229

  6. Situation Reports--Afghanistan, Bahrein, Brazil, Ecuador, Indonesia, Iraq, Morocco, Paraguay, People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, Peru, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sri Lanka, St. Christopher/Nevis, Sudan, United Arab Emirates, Yemen Arab Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in 17 foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Afghanistan, Bahrein, Brazil, Ecuador, Indonesia, Iraq, Morocco, Paraguay, People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, Peru, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sri Lanka, St. Christopher/Nevis, Sudan, United Arab Emirates, and…

  7. An Acoustic Analysis of the Genus Microhyla (Anura: Microhylidae) of Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Wijayathilaka, Nayana

    2016-01-01

    Vocalizing behavior of frogs and toads, once quantified, is useful for systematics, rapid species identification, behavioral experimentation and conservation monitoring. But yet, for many lineages vocalizations remain unknown or poorly quantified, especially in diversity rich tropical regions. Here we provide a quantitative acoustical analysis for all four Sri Lankan congeners of the genus Microhyla. Three of these species are endemic to the island, but Microhyla ornata is regionally widespread. Two of these endemics, M. karunaratnei (Critically Endangered) and M. zeylanica (Endangered), are highly threatened montane isolates; the other, M. mihintalei, is relatively common across the dry lowlands. We recorded and analyzed 100 advertisement calls from five calling males for each species, except for M. zeylanica, which only had 53 calls from three males suitable for analyses. All four species call in choruses and their vocal repertoires are simple compared to most frogs. Their calls contain multiple pulses and no frequency modulation. We quantified eight call characters. Call duration and number of pulses were higher for the two montane isolates (inhabiting cooler habitats at higher altitudes) compared to their lowland congeners. Microhyla zeylanica has the longest call duration (of 1.8 ± 0.12 s) and the highest number of pulses (of 61–92 pulses). The smallest of the species, Microhyla karunaratnei (16.2–18.3 mm), has the highest mean dominant frequency (3.3 ± 0.14 kHz) and pulse rate (77 ± 5.8 pulses per second). The calls separate well in the Principal Component space: PC1 axis is mostly explained by the number of pulses per call and call duration; PC2 is mostly explained by the pulse rate. A canonical means plot of a Discriminant Function analysis shows non-overlapping 95% confidence ellipses. This suggests that some call parameters can be used to distinguish these species effectively. We provide detailed descriptions for eight call properties and compare

  8. An Acoustic Analysis of the Genus Microhyla (Anura: Microhylidae) of Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Wijayathilaka, Nayana; Meegaskumbura, Madhava

    2016-01-01

    Vocalizing behavior of frogs and toads, once quantified, is useful for systematics, rapid species identification, behavioral experimentation and conservation monitoring. But yet, for many lineages vocalizations remain unknown or poorly quantified, especially in diversity rich tropical regions. Here we provide a quantitative acoustical analysis for all four Sri Lankan congeners of the genus Microhyla. Three of these species are endemic to the island, but Microhyla ornata is regionally widespread. Two of these endemics, M. karunaratnei (Critically Endangered) and M. zeylanica (Endangered), are highly threatened montane isolates; the other, M. mihintalei, is relatively common across the dry lowlands. We recorded and analyzed 100 advertisement calls from five calling males for each species, except for M. zeylanica, which only had 53 calls from three males suitable for analyses. All four species call in choruses and their vocal repertoires are simple compared to most frogs. Their calls contain multiple pulses and no frequency modulation. We quantified eight call characters. Call duration and number of pulses were higher for the two montane isolates (inhabiting cooler habitats at higher altitudes) compared to their lowland congeners. Microhyla zeylanica has the longest call duration (of 1.8 ± 0.12 s) and the highest number of pulses (of 61-92 pulses). The smallest of the species, Microhyla karunaratnei (16.2-18.3 mm), has the highest mean dominant frequency (3.3 ± 0.14 kHz) and pulse rate (77 ± 5.8 pulses per second). The calls separate well in the Principal Component space: PC1 axis is mostly explained by the number of pulses per call and call duration; PC2 is mostly explained by the pulse rate. A canonical means plot of a Discriminant Function analysis shows non-overlapping 95% confidence ellipses. This suggests that some call parameters can be used to distinguish these species effectively. We provide detailed descriptions for eight call properties and compare these

  9. Institutional and Regulatory Economics of Electricity Market Reforms: the Evidence from India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, and Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Bipulendu

    Five South Asian countries-- India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal and Sri Lanka -- embarked on electricity market reforms in the 1990's. The dissertation uses the framework of New Institutional Economics to assess the effects on electricity sector performance of both observables elements of reform (i.e. privatization, unbundling, establishment of independent regulatory agencies etc.) as well as the unobservable elements (informal beliefs, habit, norms and culture of the actors involved in reforms). The first part of the dissertation -- econometric analysis of the relationship between observable electricity market reform measures and performance indicators -- finds that for the most part electricity market reforms in South Asia are having a positive impact on the performance of the sector. This is particularly the case for reforms that have increased private sector participation in generation and distribution and have vertically unbundled utilities into generation, transmission and distribution entities. Many of the reforms are positively correlated with higher tariffs, indicating a cost to the consumers from the reforms. The relationship between independent regulation and performance indicators , however, is not established. The second part of the dissertation - analytical narrative of the reform experiences of Gujarat and Nepal -- examines the informal elements (such as beliefs, norms, culture) that motivate behavior and explains how and why reform outcomes differed in these two places. The dissertation finds that the strength of formal institutions rules and the nature of social norms and customs have a significant influence on the outcome of reforms. Aided by the strength of its formal institutional framework and more evolved social norms and customs that encouraged people to follow formal rules, reforms in the Indian state of Gujarat were a success. The weakness of the formal institutional framework and the predominance of relation-based norms and customs in

  10. Atmospheric carbon removal capacity of a mangrove ecosystem in a micro-tidal basin estuary in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perera, K. A. R. S.; Amarasinghe, M. D.

    2016-06-01

    Characterization of the micro-tidal mangrove forests in Negombo estuary, located on the west coast of Sri Lanka, with respect to its capacity to remove atmospheric carbon and sequestration in above and below ground plant components is the objective of this study. These mangroves constitute both natural stands (e.g. Kadolkele) and woodlots planted, protected and managed by fishermen (e.g. Wedikanda) to extract twigs and branches to construct "brush parks", a traditional method of fishing in this estuary. Both types of mangrove stands support high species richness and structural diversity, indicating planted mangrove areas have reached a semi-natural state. Allometric relationships were used to calculate biomass increment. Differences in litterfall, above and below ground biomass increment and net primary productivity (NPP) of the two types of mangrove areas were statistically insignificant, thus indicating that they are structurally and functionally comparable. Average rate of mangrove litterfall in Negombo estuary was 802 ± 25 g m-2y-1. The average above ground biomass increment was 1213 ± 95 gm-2y-1 and below ground increment was 267 ± 18 gm-2y-1, thus the average NPP of these mangroves was 2282 ± 125 g m-2y-1. NPP showed a decreasing trend from water towards land, in line with plant density and leaf area index. A statistically significant relationship was found between vegetation structure (represented by complexity index), NPP and rate of organic carbon accumulation in mangroves. Potential carbon accumulation capacity of mangroves of Negombo estuary was estimated to be approximately 12 t ha-1y-1, which is equivalent to the amount of carbon emitted as CO2 through combustion of 19,357 L of diesel or 22,212 L of gasoline in motor vehicles. Potential atmospheric carbon removal capacity of Negombo estuarine mangroves (350 ha in extent) therefore was estimated to be 4143 t y-1, which is equivalent to removal of CO2 emitted through combustion

  11. The Importance of Poisoning vs. Road Traffic Injuries as a Cause of Death in Rural Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Eddleston, Michael; Udayakumara, Nilantha; Adhikari, Sriyantha; de Silva, Dhamika; Sheriff, M. H. Rezvi; Waidyaratne, Dhananjaya L.

    2007-01-01

    Background Road traffic crashes are considered by the WHO to be the most important global cause of death from injury. However, this may not be true for large areas of rural Asia where road vehicles are uncommon. The issue is important, since emphasising the importance of road traffic crashes risks switching resources to urban areas, away from already underfunded rural regions. In this study, we compared the importance of road traffic crashes with other forms of injury in a poor rural region of South Asia. Methodology/Principal Findings We collected data on all deaths from injury in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka (NCP; population 1,105,198 at 2001 census) over 18 months using coronial, hospital, and police data. We calculated the incidence of death from all forms of intentional and unintentional injury in the province. The annual incidence of death from injury in the province was high: 84.2 per 100,000 population. Half of the deaths were from self-harm (41.3/100,000). Poisoning (35.7/100,000)—in particular, pesticide self-poisoning (23.7/100,000)—was the most common cause of death, being 3.9-fold more common than road traffic crashes (9.1/100,000). Conclusions/Significance In poor rural regions of South Asia, fatal self-harm and pesticide self-poisoning in particular are significantly more important than road traffic injuries as a cause of death. It is possible that the data used by the WHO to calculate global injury estimates are biased towards urban areas with better data collection but little pesticide poisoning. More studies are required to inform a debate about the importance of different forms of injury and how avoidable deaths from any cause can be prevented. In the meantime, marked improvements in the effectiveness of therapy for pesticide poisoning, safer storage, reduced pesticide use, or reductions in pesticide toxicity are required urgently to reduce the number of deaths from self-poisoning in rural Asia. PMID:17622344

  12. Farmer Resettlements and Water Energy Stresses Arising From Aggravating Drought Conditions in Mahaweli River Watershed, Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thabrew, L.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change is expected to cause significant changes in water quantity and water quality in river basins throughout the world, with particularly significant impacts in developing regions. Climate change effects are often exacerbated by other simultaneous activities in developing countries, such as population growth, reliance on subsistence agriculture, and expanding provision of electricity. Each of these activities requires access to readily-available freshwater. For example, population growth requires more water for irrigation as food production needs increase. Additionally, water is needed for generating electricity in hydropower facilities as well as other facilities, which require water to run steam turbines or to cool facilities. As such, many developing countries face the real and immediate need to anticipate and adapt to climatic stresses on water resources in both the agricultural and residential sectors. Water withdrawal in both of these sectors is largely driven by individual behaviors, such as electricity use in the home and irrigation practices on farmland, aggregated at the household, community, and regional level. Our ongoing project in Sri Lanka focuses on understanding aforementioned issues in coupled natural and human systems in the Mahaweli River Watershed (MWR) to inform decision-makers to streamline policies and strategies for effective adaptation to worsening drought conditions. MWR produces more than 60% of the rice demand and nearly 40% of the energy requirement of the country. Although irrigation is currently the sector that withdraws the most water, with government plans for resettling farmer communities and developing new urban centers in the region by 2030, electricity production is expected to compete for water against irrigation in the future. Thus, understanding the water-energy nexus is crucial to planning for conservation and efficiency. Through a pilot survey conducted by our interdisciplinary research team, in five locations in

  13. Community uptake of safe storage boxes to reduce self-poisoning from pesticides in rural Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Konradsen, Flemming; Pieris, Ravi; Weerasinghe, Manjula; van der Hoek, Wim; Eddleston, Michael; Dawson, Andrew H

    2007-01-01

    Background Acute poisoning by agricultural pesticides is a well established global public health problem. Keeping pesticides under safe storage is now promoted as a potential way to reduce the number of severe poisoning cases. However, there have been no published studies documenting the feasibility of such an approach. Therefore, the objective of the study presented here was to determine community perceptions and use of in-house safe storage boxes for pesticides in rural Sri Lanka. Methods Boxes with a lock, to be used for the in-house safe storage of pesticides, were distributed to 200 randomly selected farming households in two agricultural communities. A baseline survey determined pesticide storage practices and household characteristics prior to distribution. The selected households were encouraged to make use of the box at community meetings and during a single visit to each household one month after distribution. No further encouragement was offered. A follow-up survey assessed storage practices seven months into the project. Results Following the distribution of the boxes the community identified a number of benefits including the protection of pesticide containers against exposure from the rain and sun and a reduced risk of theft. Data were analysed for 172 households that reported agricultural use of pesticides at follow-up. Of these, 141 (82%) kept pesticides in the house under lock against 3 (2%) at baseline. As expected, the distribution of boxes significantly reduced the number of households storing pesticides in the field, from 79 (46%) at baseline to 4 (2%) at follow-up. There was a significant increase in the number of households keeping pesticides safe from children between baseline (64%) and seven months after the distribution of boxes (89%). The same was true for adults although less pronounced with 51% at baseline and 66% at follow-up. Conclusion The farming community appreciated the storage boxes and made storage of pesticides safer

  14. Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Entamoeba nuttalli Strains Showing Novel Isoenzyme Patterns from Wild Toque Macaques in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Tachibana, Hiroshi; Yanagi, Tetsuo; Feng, Meng; Bandara, K B Anura T; Kobayashi, Seiki; Cheng, Xunjia; Hirayama, Kenji; Rajapakse, R P V Jayanthe

    2016-03-01

    We have proposed the revival of the name Entamoeba nuttalli for a virulent ameba strain, P19-061405, from a rhesus macaque and located it phylogenetically between E. histolytica and E. dispar. As E. nuttalli was originally described for an ameba found in a toque macaque in Sri Lanka, the prevalence and characteristics of Entamoeba species in wild toque macaques were examined. PCR analysis of 227 stool samples from six locations showed positive rates for E. nuttalli, E. dispar, and E. histolytica of 18.5%, 0.4%, and 0%, respectively. Fifteen E. nuttalli strains were cultured successfully from five locations. The 18S ribosomal RNA gene showed only three nucleotide differences in comparison with P19-061405 strain. In isoenzyme analysis, the pattern of hexokinase in Sri Lankan strains was different from that of P19-061405 strains and the difference was confirmed by analysis of the genes. Hepatic inoculation of one of the Sri Lankan E. nuttalli strains in hamsters resulted in amebic abscess formation and body weight loss. These results demonstrate that E. nuttalli is prevalent in wild toque macaques and that several characteristics of the strains are unique. We conclude that use of the name E. nuttalli is appropriate for the new Entamoeba species found in nonhuman primates. PMID:26333681

  15. Development and validation of a tool to assess the physical and social environment associated with physical activity among adults in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Environmental characteristics are known to be associated with patterns of physical activity (PA). Although several validated tools exist, to measure the environment characteristics, these instruments are not necessarily suitable for application in all settings especially in a developing country. This study was carried out to develop and validate an instrument named the “Physical And Social Environment Scale – PASES” to assess the physical and social environmental factors associated with PA. This will enable identification of various physical and social environmental factors affecting PA in Sri Lanka, which will help in the development of more tailored intervention strategies for promoting higher PA levels in Sri Lanka. Methods The PASES was developed using a scientific approach of defining the construct, item generation, analysis of content of items and item reduction. Both qualitative and quantitative methods of key informant interviews, in-depth interviews and rating of the items generated by experts were conducted. A cross sectional survey among 180 adults was carried out to assess the factor structure through principal component analysis. Another cross sectional survey among a different group of 180 adults was carried out to assess the construct validity through confirmatory factor analysis. Reliability was assessed with test re-test reliability and internal consistency using Spearman r and Cronbach's alpha respectively. Results Thirty six items were selected after the expert ratings and were developed into interviewer administered questions. Exploration of factor structure of the 34 items which were factorable through principal component analysis with Quartimax rotation extracted 8 factors. The 34 item instrument was assessed for construct validity with confirmatory factor analysis which confirmed an 8 factor model (x2 = 339.9, GFI = 0.90). The identified factors were infrastructure for walking, aesthetics and facilities for cycling

  16. Controls of evaporative irrigation return flows in comparison to seawater intrusion in coastal karstic aquifers in northern Sri Lanka: evidence from solutes and stable isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrajith, Rohana; Diyabalanage, Saranga; Premathilake, Mahinda; Hanke, Christian; van Geldern, Robert; Barth, Johannes A. C.

    2016-04-01

    Groundwater in Miocene karstic aquifers in the Jaffna Peninsula of Sri Lanka is an important resource since no other fresh water sources are available in the region. The subsurface is characterized by highly productive limestone aquifers that are used for drinking and agriculture purposes. A comprehensive hydrogeochemical study was carried out to reveal the processes affecting the groundwater quality in this region. Major and trace element composition and environmental isotope ratios of oxygen and hydrogen (δ18OH2O and δ2HH2O) were determined in 35 groundwater samples for this investigation. The ion abundance of groundwater in the region was characterized by an anion sequence order with HCO3¯ >Cl¯ >SO4¯ >NO3¯ . For cations, average Na++K+ contents in groundwater exceeded those of Ca2++Mg2+ in most cases. Ionic relationships of major solutes indicated open system calcite dissolution while seawater intrusions are also evident but only close to the coast. The solute contents are enriched by agricultural irrigation returns and associated evaporation. This was confirmed by the stable isotope composition of groundwater that deviated from the local meteoric water line (LMWL) and formed its own regression line denoted as the local evaporation line (LEL). The latter can be described by δ2HH2O=5.8 ×δ18OH2O - 2.9. Increased contents of nitrate (up to 26 mg/L), sulfate (up to 430 mg/L) and fluoride (up to 1.5 mg/L) provided evidences for anthropogenic inputs of solutes, most likely from agriculture activities. Among trace elements Ba, Sr, As and Se levels in the Jaffna groundwater were higher compared to that of the dry zone metamorphic aquifers in Sri Lanka. Solute geochemistry and stable isotope evidences from the region indicates that groundwater in the area is mainly derived from local modern precipitation but modified heavily by progressive evaporative concentration rather than seawater intrusion. The currently most imminent vulnerability of groundwater in the

  17. Genetic evidence for malaria vectors of the Anopheles sundaicus complex in Sri Lanka with morphological characteristics attributed to Anopheles subpictus species B

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Anopheles subpictus sensu lato, a widespread malaria vector in Asia, is reportedly composed of four sibling species A - D. Mosquitoes morphologically identified as belonging to the Subpictus complex were collected from different locations near the east coast of Sri Lanka, and specific ribosomal DNA sequences determined to validate their taxonomic status. Methods Anopheles subpictus s.l. larvae and blood-fed adults were collected from different locations in the Eastern province and their sibling species status was determined based on published morphological characteristics. DNA sequences of the D3 domain of 28 S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and the internal transcribed spacer -2 (ITS-2) of mosquitoes morphologically identified as An. subpictus sibling species A, B, C and D were determined. Results Phylogenetic analysis based on D3 domain of rDNA resulted in two clades: one clade with mosquitoes identified as An. subpictus species A, C, D and some mosquitoes identified as species B, and another clade with a majority of mosquitoes identified as species B with D3 sequences that were identical to Anopheles sundaicus cytotype D. Analysis of ITS-2 sequences confirmed a close relationship between a majority of mosquitoes identified as An. subpictus B with members of the An. sundaicus complex and others identified as An. subpictus B with An. subpictus s.l. Conclusions The study suggests that published morphological characteristics are not specific enough to identify some members of the Subpictus complex, particularly species B. The sequences of the ITS-2 and D3 domain of rDNA suggest that a majority that were identified morphologically as An. subpictus species B in the east coast of Sri Lanka, and some identified elsewhere in SE Asia as An. subpictus s.l., are in fact members of the Sundaicus complex based on genetic similarity to An. sundaicus s.l. In view of the well-known ability of An. sundaicus s.l. to breed in brackish and fresh water and its proven ability to

  18. First molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia from bovines (Bos taurus and Bubalus bubalis) in Sri Lanka: unexpected absence of C. parvum from pre-weaned calves

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The genetic characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia has important implications for investigating their epidemiology and underpins their control. We undertook the first molecular epidemiological survey of domestic bovids in selected regions of Sri Lanka to establish whether they excreted Cryptosporidium and/or Giardia with zoonotic potential. Methods Faecal samples were collected from dairy calves (n = 340; Bos taurus; < 3 months of age; weekly sampling for six weeks) and water buffaloes (n = 297; Bubalus bubalis; <6 months and ≥6 months of age; one sampling) from seven different farms in Sri Lanka. Genomic DNAs were extracted from individual faecal samples and then tested for the presence of parasite DNA using a PCR-based mutation scanning-targeted sequencing-phylogenetic approach, employing genetic markers within the small subunit of nuclear ribosomal RNA and 60 kDa glycoprotein genes (designated pSSU and pgp60, respectively) for Cryptosporidium, and within the triose phosphate isomerise (ptpi) gene for Giardia. Results Based on pSSU sequence data, C. bovis, C. ryanae and six new genotypes that were genetically similar but not identical to C. andersoni (n = 1), C. bovis (n = 1), C. ryanae (n = 3) and C. suis (n = 1) were recorded in cattle. For pSSU, two other, new genotypes were defined in water buffalo, which were genetically most similar to Cryptosporidium genotypes recorded previously in this host species in other countries including Australia. Consistent with the findings for pSSU, no species or genotypes of Cryptosporidium with zoonotic potential were detected using pgp60. Based on ptpi sequence data, G. duodenalis assemblages A and E were detected in four and 137 samples from cattle, respectively, and assemblage E in two samples from water buffaloes. Conclusions The present study showed that C. parvum, the most commonly reported zoonotic species of Cryptosporidium recognised in bovine calves globally, was not

  19. "No God and no Norway": collective resource loss among members of Tamil NGO's in Norway during and after the last phase of the civil war in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Studies on the mental health of refugees have tended to focus upon the impact of traumatic experiences in the country of origin, and acculturation processes in exile. The effects of crises in the country of origin on refugees living in exile have been little studied. This article examines how the final stages of the civil war in Sri Lanka in 2009 influenced members of pro-LTTE Tamil NGO's in Norway. Method Ethnographic fieldwork methods were employed within Tamil NGO's in the two largest cities in Norway between November 2008 and June 2011. Results The findings suggest that collective resources became severely drained as a result of the crisis, severely disrupting the fabric of social life. Public support from the majority community remained scarce throughout the crisis. Conclusions The study suggests that there is a need for public support to exile groups indirectly affected by man-made crises in their country of origin. PMID:21849029

  20. Hydrogen sulphide inhalational toxicity at a petroleum refinery in Sri Lanka: a case series of seven survivors following an industrial accident and a brief review of medical literature

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This case series details clinical observations in 7 survivors of accidental hydrogen sulphide inhalation toxicity at a petroleum refinery in Sri Lanka. One survivor developed status epilepticus and severe neurotoxicity whilst another survivor developed delayed respiratory failure; both patients required intensive care management. One victim manifested mild bronchospasms in the immediate post-exposure period and another developed mild perioral numbness 2 days following the exposure. A brief literature review explores the manifestations, pathophysiology and available modalities of treatment of hydrogen sulphide inhalation toxicity. Background Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is a highly toxic gas. Accidental deaths following H2S exposure is a known hazard amongst petroleum workers exposed to by-products of refineries. Toxicity results mainly due to cellular respiratory poisoning which impairs oxidative phosphorylation. The heart, brain and the lungs are the organs most commonly affected in H2S inhalational toxicity leading to varied clinical presentations. PMID:23578012

  1. What Can We Learn From Historical Trends and Distributions of Malaria? Historical Case Studies From the US, Italy, and Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, E.

    2008-12-01

    Malaria is currently prevalent in many countries and has been for centuries. Primary controllers of the distribution and incidence of malaria in the past have been economic, social, military, political etc. with a modest contribution from local climate variations. Studies of potential impacts of climate change on the epidemiology of diseases such as malaria have focused on the impact of changing environmental conditions on vector physiology but little attention has been paid to factors that explain historical variations in spatial and temporal distributions of the disease. This talk reports results of three historical case studies from the US, Italy and Sri Lanka that bring together a breadth of information from varied sources in order to illustrate the value of including such information in studies of disease-climate connections.

  2. Dhilirolides E-N, meroterpenoids produced in culture by the fungus Penicillium purpurogenum collected in Sri Lanka: structure elucidation, stable isotope feeding studies, and insecticidal activity.

    PubMed

    Centko, Ryan M; Williams, David E; Patrick, Brian O; Akhtar, Yasmin; Garcia Chavez, Miguel Angel; Wang, Yan Alexander; Isman, Murray B; de Silva, E Dilip; Andersen, Raymond J

    2014-04-18

    Extracts of laboratory cultures of the fungus Penicilium purpurogenum obtained from rotting fruit of the tree Averrhoa bilimbi growing in Sri Lanka have yielded 10 new meroterpenoids, dhilirolides E-N (5-14). The structures of the new dhilirolides have been elucidated by analysis of spectroscopic data and a single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis of dhilirolide L (12). Dhilirolides A-N (1-14) represent the four unprecedented and rearranged dhilirane, isodhilirane, 14,15-dinordhilirane, and 23,24-dinorisodhilirane meroterpenoid carbon skeletons. Stable isotope feeding studies have confirmed the meroterpenoid biogenetic origin of the dhilirolides and provided support for a proposed genesis of the new carbon skeletons. Dhilirolide L (12) showed significant feeding inhibition and sublethal developmental disruption in the cabbage looper Trichoplusia ni, an important agricultural pest, at low concentrations. PMID:24684453

  3. Controls of evaporative irrigation return flows in comparison to seawater intrusion in coastal karstic aquifers in northern Sri Lanka: Evidence from solutes and stable isotopes.

    PubMed

    Chandrajith, Rohana; Diyabalanage, Saranga; Premathilake, K M; Hanke, Christian; van Geldern, Robert; Barth, Johannes A C

    2016-04-01

    Groundwater in Miocene karstic aquifers in the Jaffna Peninsula of Sri Lanka is an important resource since no other fresh water sources are available in the region. The subsurface is characterized by highly productive limestone aquifers that are used for drinking and agriculture purposes. A comprehensive hydrogeochemical study was carried out to reveal the processes affecting the groundwater quality in this region. Major and trace element composition and environmental isotope ratios of oxygen and hydrogen (δ(18)OH2O and δ(2)HH2O) were determined in 35 groundwater samples for this investigation. The ion abundance of groundwater in the region was characterized by an anion sequence order with HCO3->Cl->SO4->NO3-. For cations, average Na(+)+K(+) contents in groundwater exceeded those of Ca(2+)+Mg(2+) in most cases. Ionic relationships of major solutes indicated open system calcite dissolution while seawater intrusions are also evident but only close to the coast. The solute contents are enriched by agricultural irrigation returns and associated evaporation. This was confirmed by the stable isotope composition of groundwater that deviated from the local meteoric water line (LMWL) and formed its own regression line denoted as the local evaporation line (LEL). The latter can be described by δ(2)HH2O=5.8×δ(18)OH2O -- 2.9. Increased contents of nitrate-N (up to 5mg/L), sulfate (up to 430mg/L) and fluoride (up to 1.5mg/L) provided evidences for anthropogenic inputs of solutes, most likely from agriculture activities. Among trace elements Ba, Sr, As and Se levels in the Jaffna groundwater were higher compared to that of the dry zone metamorphic aquifers in Sri Lanka. Solute geochemistry and stable isotope evidences from the region indicates that groundwater in the area is mainly derived from local modern precipitation but modified heavily by progressive evaporative concentration rather than seawater intrusion. PMID:26803741

  4. OSL Dating and GPR Mapping of Palaeotsunami Inundation: A 4000-Year History of Indian Ocean Tsunamis as recorded in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Premasiri, Ranjith; Styles, Peter; Shrira, Victor; Cassidy, Nigel; Schwenninger, Jean-Luc

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate and mitigate tsunami hazard, as long as possible records of inundations and dates of past events are needed. Coastal sediments deposited by tsunamis (tsunamites) can potentially provide this information. However, of the three key elements needed for reconstruction of palaeotsunamis (identification of sediments, dating and finding the inundation distance) the latter remains the most difficult. The existing methods for estimating the extent of a palaeotsunami inundation rely on extensive excavation, which is not always possible. Here, by analysing tsunamites from Sri Lanka identified using sedimentological and paleontological characteristics, we show that their internal dielectric properties differ significantly from surrounding sediments. The significant difference in the value of dielectric constant of the otherwise almost indistinguishable sediments is due to higher water content of tsunamites. The contrasts were found to be sharp and not to erode over thousands of years; they cause sizeable electromagnetic wave reflections from tsunamite sediments, which permit the use of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) to trace their extent and morphology. In this study of the 2004 Boxing Day Indian Ocean tsunami, we use GPR in two locations in Sri Lanka to trace four identified major palaeotsunami deposits for at least 400 m inland (investigation inland was constrained by inaccessible security zones). The subsurface extent of tsunamites (not available without extensive excavation) provides a good proxy for inundation. The deposits were dated using the established method of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). This dating, partly corroborated by available historical records and independent studies, contributes to the global picture of tsunami hazard in the Indian Ocean. The proposed method of combined GPR/OSL-based reconstruction of palaeotsunami deposits enables estimates of inundation, recurrence and, therefore, tsunami hazard for any sandy coast with

  5. Patterns of hospital transfer for self-poisoned patients in rural Sri Lanka: implications for estimating the incidence of self-poisoning in the developing world.

    PubMed Central

    Eddleston, Michael; Sudarshan, K.; Senthilkumaran, M.; Reginald, K.; Karalliedde, Lakshman; Senarathna, Lalith; de Silva, Dhammika; Rezvi Sheriff, M. H.; Buckley, Nick A.; Gunnell, David

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Most data on self-poisoning in rural Asia have come from secondary hospitals. We aimed to: assess how transfers from primary to secondary hospitals affected estimates of case-fatality ratio (CFR); determine whether there was referral bias according to gender or poison; and estimate the annual incidence of all self-poisoning, and of fatal self-poisoning, in a rural developing-world setting. METHODS: Self-poisoning patients admitted to Anuradhapura General Hospital, Sri Lanka, were reviewed on admission from 1 July to 31 December 2002. We audited medical notes of self-poisoning patients admitted to 17 of the 34 surrounding peripheral hospitals for the same period. FINDINGS: A total of 742 patients were admitted with self-poisoning to the secondary hospital; 81 died (CFR 10.9%). 483 patients were admitted to 17 surrounding peripheral hospitals. Six patients (1.2%) died in peripheral hospitals, 249 were discharged home, and 228 were transferred to the secondary hospital. There was no effect of gender or age on likelihood of transfer; however, patients who had ingested oleander or paraquat were more likely to be transferred than were patients who had taken organophosphorus pesticides or other poisons. Estimated annual incidences of self-poisoning and fatal self-poisoning were 363 and 27 per 100,000 population, respectively, with an overall CFR of 7.4% (95% confidence interval 6.0-9.0). CONCLUSION: Fifty per cent of patients admitted to peripheral hospitals were discharged home, showing that CFRs based on secondary hospital data are inflated. However, while incidence of self-poisoning is similar to that in England, fatal self-poisoning is three times more common in Sri Lanka than fatal self-harm by all methods in England. Population based data are essential for making international comparisons of case fatality and incidence, and for assessing public health interventions. PMID:16628300

  6. Climate Change Projections for Sri Lanka for the mid-twentieth Century from CMIP5 Simulations under a High Emissions Scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubair, L.; Agalawatte, P.

    2014-12-01

    Under the Agricultural Model Inter-Comparison program (AgMIP), climate change projections for Sri Lanka were undertaken from the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project (CMIP5) archives for five locations covering Sri Lanka. These datasets were first quality checked after removing questionable data entries. The gaps in data were filled using AgMERRA data set for the specific location developed by Alex Ruane and Sonali McDermid at NASA- GISS after applying the necessary bias corrections. Future climate projections for 2040- 2070 are based on projections for high Carbon Dioxide emissions (RCP8.5). Analysis was undertaken on the outputs of 20 General Circulation Models (GCMs). Observed climate datasets (for the period 1980- 2010) for each location were used to generate downscaled future predictions. Future projections for maximum temperature, minimum temperature and rainfall were generated while holding solar radiation constant and changing the CO2 value up to 499 ppm. Results for 5 GCMs that simulate the monsoon region best were then selected for further analysis. These are CCSM4, GFDL-ESM2M, HadGEM2-ES, MIROC5, MPI-ESM-MR. All 20 GCM outputs predicted that both minimum and maximum temperature shall rise by around 2 ⁰C throughout the year. This result is consistent across all 5 locations and the uncertainty associated with this prediction was observed to be low compared to that of rainfall. In the case of the rainfall, majority (80- 95%) of GCMs predicted an increment in the annual rainfall by around 0.5 mm/day. Rainfall during September- October- November was predicted to have a high increment (around 2- 7 mm/day) and during February- March a decrement of around 1- 2 mm/day was predicted. The uncertainty of this prediction based on outputs of all 20 GCMs were observed to be high. These results are consistent with the Fourth Assessment Report by the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change.

  7. Slow advance of the weathering front during deep, supply-limited saprolite formation in the tropical Highlands of Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewawasam, Tilak; von Blanckenburg, Friedhelm; Bouchez, Julien; Dixon, Jean L.; Schuessler, Jan A.; Maekeler, Ricarda

    2013-10-01

    Silicate weathering - initiated by major mineralogical transformations at the base of ten meters of clay-rich saprolite - generates the exceptionally low weathering flux found in streams draining the crystalline rocks of the mountainous and humid tropical Highlands of Sri Lanka. This conclusion is reached from a thorough investigation of the mineralogical, chemical, and Sr isotope compositions of samples within a regolith profile extending >10 m from surface soil through the weathering front in charnockite bedrock (a high-grade metamorphic rock), corestones formed at the weathering front, as well as from the chemical composition of the dissolved loads in nearby streams. Weatherable minerals and soluble elements are fully depleted at the top of the profile, showing that the system is supply-limited, such that weathering fluxes are controlled directly by the supply of fresh minerals. We determine the weathering rates using two independent means: (1) in situ-produced cosmogenic nuclides in surface soil and creek sediments in the close vicinity of the regolith combined with immobile element mass balance across the regolith and (2) river dissolved loads. Silicate weathering rates determined from both approaches range from 16 to 36 t km-2 y-1, corresponding to a weathering front advance rate of 6-14 mm ky-1. These rates agree across the 101 to 104 y time scales over which our rate metrics integrate, suggesting that the weathering system operates at steady state. Within error these rates are furthermore compatible with those obtained by modeling the advance rate of the weathering front from chemical gradients and mineral dissolution rates. The silicate weathering flux out of the weathering profile, measured on small creeks, amounts to 84% of the profile’s export flux; the remaining 16% is contributed by non-silicate, atmospheric-derived input. The silicate weathering flux, as measured by dissolved loads in large catchments, amounts to ca. 50% of the total dissolved flux

  8. A Social Media mHealth Solution to Address the Needs of Dengue Prevention and Management in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Rathnayake, Vajira Sampath; Lim, Gentatsu; Panchapakesan, Chitra; Foo, Schubert; Wijayamuni, Ruwan; Wimalaratne, Prasad; Fernando, Owen Noel Newton

    2016-01-01

    Background Sri Lanka has witnessed a series of dengue epidemics over the past five years, with the western province, home to the political capital of Colombo, bearing more than half of the dengue burden. Existing dengue monitoring prevention programs are exhausted as public health inspectors (PHIs) cope with increasing workloads and paper-based modes of surveillance and education, characterizing a reactive system unable to cope with the enormity of the problem. On the other hand, the unprecedented proliferation and affordability of mobile phones since 2009 and a supportive political climate have thus far remained unexploited for the use of mobile-based interventions for dengue management. Objective To conduct a needs assessment of PHIs in Colombo with respect to their dengue-related tasks and develop a new mobile-based system to address these needs while strengthening existing systems. Methods One-on-one in-depth interviews were conducted with 29 PHIs to a) gain a nuanced, in-depth understanding of the current state of surveillance practices, b) understand the logistical, technological and social challenges they confront, and c) identify opportunities for mobile-based interventions. Quantitative analysis included simple descriptive statistics while qualitative analysis comprised textual analysis of 209 pages of transcripts (or nearly 600 minutes of conversations) using grounded theory approaches. Results Current paper-based data collection practices for dengue surveillance involved a circuitous, time consuming process that could take between 7-10 days to officially report and record a single case. PHIs confronted challenges in terms of unreliable, standalone GIS devices, delays in registering mosquito breeding sites and lack of engagement from communities while delivering dengue education. These findings, in concert with a high motivation to use mobile-based systems, informed the development of Mo-Buzz, a mobile-based system that integrates three components

  9. Polymerase chain reaction detection of Leishmania DNA in skin biopsy samples in Sri Lanka where the causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis is Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed

    Ranasinghe, Shalindra; Wickremasinghe, Renu; Hulangamuwa, Sanjeeva; Sirimanna, Ganga; Opathella, Nandimithra; Maingon, Rhaiza D C; Chandrasekharan, Vishvanath

    2015-12-01

    Leishmania donovani is the known causative agent of both cutaneous (CL) and visceral leishmaniasis in Sri Lanka. CL is considered to be under-reported partly due to relatively poor sensitivity and specificity of microscopic diagnosis. We compared robustness of three previously described polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based methods to detect Leishmania DNA in 38 punch biopsy samples from patients presented with suspected lesions in 2010. Both, Leishmania genus-specific JW11/JW12 KDNA and LITSR/L5.8S internal transcribed spacer (ITS)1 PCR assays detected 92% (35/38) of the samples whereas a KDNA assay specific forL. donovani (LdF/LdR) detected only 71% (27/38) of samples. All positive samples showed a L. donovani banding pattern upon HaeIII ITS1 PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. PCR assay specificity was evaluated in samples containing Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium leprae, and human DNA, and there was no cross-amplification in JW11/JW12 and LITSR/L5.8S PCR assays. The LdF/LdR PCR assay did not amplify M. leprae or human DNA although 500 bp and 700 bp bands were observed in M. tuberculosis samples. In conclusion, it was successfully shown in this study that it is possible to diagnose Sri Lankan CL with high accuracy, to genus and species identification, using Leishmania DNA PCR assays. PMID:26676321

  10. A phylogeny of the only ground-dwelling radiation of Cyrtodactylus (Squamata, Gekkonidae): diversification of Geckoella across peninsular India and Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Ishan; Karanth, K Praveen

    2015-01-01

    The subgenus Geckoella, the only ground-dwelling radiation within Cyrtodactylus, closely overlaps in distribution with brookii group Hemidactylus in peninsular India and Sri Lanka. Both groups have Oligocene origins, the latter with over thrice as many described species. The striking difference in species richness led us to believe that Geckoella diversity is underestimated, and we sampled for Geckoella across peninsular India. A multi-locus phylogeny reveals Geckoella diversity is hugely underestimated, with at least seven undescribed species, doubling previously known richness. Strikingly, the new species correspond to cryptic lineages within described Indian species (complexes); a number of these endemic lineages from the hills of peninsular India outside the Western Ghats, highlighting the undocumented diversity of the Indian dry zone. The Geckoella phylogeny demonstrates deep splits between the Indian species and Sri Lankan G. triedrus, and between Indian dry and wet zone clades, dating back to the late Oligocene. Geckoella and brookii group Hemidactylus show contrasting diversification patterns. Geckoella shows signals of niche conservatism and appears to have retained its ancestral forest habitat. The late Miocene burst in speciation in Geckoella may be linked to the expansion of rain forests during the mid-Miocene climatic optimum and subsequent fragmentation with increasing late Miocene aridification. PMID:25281922

  11. Polymerase chain reaction detection of Leishmania DNA in skin biopsy samples in Sri Lanka where the causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis is Leishmania donovani

    PubMed Central

    Ranasinghe, Shalindra; Wickremasinghe, Renu; Hulangamuwa, Sanjeeva; Sirimanna, Ganga; Opathella, Nandimithra; Maingon, Rhaiza DC; Chandrasekharan, Vishvanath

    2015-01-01

    Leishmania donovani is the known causative agent of both cutaneous (CL) and visceral leishmaniasis in Sri Lanka. CL is considered to be under-reported partly due to relatively poor sensitivity and specificity of microscopic diagnosis. We compared robustness of three previously described polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based methods to detectLeishmania DNA in 38 punch biopsy samples from patients presented with suspected lesions in 2010. Both, Leishmaniagenus-specific JW11/JW12 KDNA and LITSR/L5.8S internal transcribed spacer (ITS)1 PCR assays detected 92% (35/38) of the samples whereas a KDNA assay specific forL. donovani (LdF/LdR) detected only 71% (27/38) of samples. All positive samples showed a L. donovani banding pattern upon HaeIII ITS1 PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. PCR assay specificity was evaluated in samples containing Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium leprae, and human DNA, and there was no cross-amplification in JW11/JW12 and LITSR/L5.8S PCR assays. The LdF/LdR PCR assay did not amplify M. leprae or human DNA although 500 bp and 700 bp bands were observed in M. tuberculosis samples. In conclusion, it was successfully shown in this study that it is possible to diagnose Sri Lankan CL with high accuracy, to genus and species identification, using Leishmania DNA PCR assays. PMID:26676321

  12. The availability and validity of safety information of over the counter herbal products for use in diabetes in Sri Lanka: A cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Medagama, Arjuna Bandara; Widanapahirana, Heshan; Prasanga, Tharindu

    2015-01-01

    Aims: There is an increase of over-the-counter (OTC) herbal products for use in diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study is to evaluate the safety information provided with OTC herbal remedies intended for diabetic patients in Sri Lanka and to assess the completeness of the information provided. Methods: Inclusion criteria consisted of OTC herbal remedies meant for use in diabetes. They were bought from local Sri Lankan supermarkets and non-ayurvedic pharmacies and product information regarding the risk of hypoglycemia, precautions for use, adverse events, dose, and interactions were assessed using a scoring system. The accuracy of the information was then compared against published data. Results: 11 products fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Five products contained a single constituent and five contained more than one. None had complete and accurate safety information according to our criteria. None specifically warned against the risk of hypoglycemia. 9 out of 11 products (81.8%) carried ≤3 items of the five essential factual information we expected. Hypoglycemic coma, gastrointestinal symptoms, hepatotoxicity, carcinogenesis, and interactions causing elevated drug levels of Carbamazepine were some of the safety information that was missing. Conclusions: Key safety information was absent in most products. Regulation of sale, provision of key safety information and adverse event reporting should be a priority. PMID:26649230

  13. A comparative study of venomics of Naja naja from India and Sri Lanka, clinical manifestations and antivenomics of an Indian polyspecific antivenom.

    PubMed

    Sintiprungrat, Kitisak; Watcharatanyatip, Kamolwan; Senevirathne, W D S T; Chaisuriya, Papada; Chokchaichamnankit, Daranee; Srisomsap, Chantragan; Ratanabanangkoon, Kavi

    2016-01-30

    Naja naja (Indian cobra) from Sri Lanka and India is the WHO Category 1 medically important snakes in both countries. Some antivenom produced against Indian N. naja (NNi) were less effective against Sri Lankan N. naja (NNsl). Proteomes of NNi and NNsl venoms were studied by RP-HPLC, SDS-PAGE and LC/MS/MS. Six protein families were identified in both venoms with the most abundant were the 3 finger toxins (3FTs) where cytotoxins (CTX) subtype predominated, followed by phospholipase A2, cysteine-rich venom protein, snake venom metalloproteases, venom growth factors, and protease inhibitors. Qualitative and quantitative differences in the venomics profiles were observed. Some proteins were isolated from either NNi or NNsl venom. Postsynaptic neurotoxins (NTX) were identified for the first time in NNsl venom. Thus, there are geographic intra-specific variations of venom composition of the two N. naja. The relative abundance of CTX and NTX explained well the clinical manifestations of these venoms. Antivenomics study of an Indian antivenom (Vins) showed the antibodies effectively bound all venom toxins from both snakes but more avidly to the Indian venom proteins. The lower antibody affinity towards the 'heterologous' venom was the likely cause of poor efficacy of the Indian antivenom used to treat NNsl envenoming. PMID:26506536

  14. [Application of a CO2 laser for oral soft tissue surgery in children in Sri Lanka--introduction of a laser through activities of aid to a developing country].

    PubMed

    Kato, Junji; Jayawardena, Jayanetti Asiri; Wijeyeweera, Rafel Luxhmen; Moriya, Kayoko; Takagi, Yuzo

    2002-03-01

    The objective of this study was to clarify the effect of CO2 laser irradiation on oral tissue problems in children in Sri Lanka, through the activities of aid to a developing country by the Japan International Cooperation Agency. This study took about six months, during two times periods: from November 2000 to February 2001, and from July 2001 to October 2001, in the paedodontic clinic of the Faculty of Dental Science, University of Peradeniya, in Sri Lanka. A CO2 laser was used on 48 subjects (51 cases), aged between 1 and 15 years, having main indications for labial frenectomy, frenectomy in ankyloglossia, and excision of mucocele. The results indicated that the CO2 laser had the following advantages. 1. Soft tissue cutting was efficient, with no bleeding, giving a clear operative field during operation. 2. There was no need to use sutures. 3. The surgery itself was simple and less time-consuming. Hence, there was no need for general anesthesia for such cases as tongue tie operation in small children. 4. There was no postsurgical infection. As a result, there was no need for analgesics or antibiotics, as post-surgical pain and infection were prevented. 5. Wound contraction and scarring were decreased or eliminated. Considering the above advantages, the use of a CO2 laser proved to be very safe and effective for soft tissue surgery, especially for children in developing countries such as Sri Lanka. PMID:11968836

  15. Evaluation of acceptability and use of lockable storage devices for pesticides in Sri Lanka that might assist in prevention of self-poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Hawton, Keith; Ratnayeke, Lakshmi; Simkin, Sue; Harriss, Louise; Scott, Vanda

    2009-01-01

    Background Self-poisoning with pesticides is a major reason for high suicide rates in rural areas of many developing countries. Safer storage of pesticides may be one means of prevention. We have conducted a study to assess the acceptability and use of lockable boxes for storing pesticides in rural Sri Lanka. Methods Four hundred lockable metal storage boxes were given to farming households, 100 in each of four villages. Assessment interviews were conducted by Sumithrayo (NGO) field workers immediately after boxes were supplied (T1), 11 – 14 weeks later (T2), 30 weeks later (T3), and 18 months later (T4). Data on suicide and self-harm were collected from local police and hospitals. Results At T1 only 1.8% (7/396) of households reported locking up pesticides, 72.5% (279/385) easy access to pesticides for adults and 50.4% (195/387) easy access for children. At T3 most informants in households using pesticides reported using the box all (82.3%, 298/362) or most of the time (7.2%, 26/362). Informants usually reported always locking the box (92.8%, 336/362) and most boxes were locked on inspection (93.6%, 339/362). By T4 there was some reduction in reporting that the box was kept locked all of the time (75.2%, 267/355) and the box being locked on inspection (73.8%, 262/355). Easy child access to the key was reported in relatively few households (10.7% at T4), although interviewers judged that this was possible in rather more (20.6%). Most informants regarded the box as useful (100% at T3 and 99.4% at T4), with convenience for storage, security, avoiding wastage, and protection of children being major factors. A message on the box about how to deal with bad feelings and the importance of safer storage was well received. The locks had been broken or the key lost in a few households. Conclusion Introduction of lockable boxes for storing pesticides to farming households in Sri Lanka appeared to be acceptable. Most households used the boxes responsibly, although there was

  16. Patient satisfaction and uptake of private-sector run malaria diagnosis clinics in a post-conflict district in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background With the incidence of malaria in Sri Lanka declining, intensive parasitological surveillance has been identified as a key strategy to achieve elimination by end 2014. Tropical and Environmental Diseases and Health Associates Private Limited (TEDHA) in collaboration with the Anti-Malaria Campaign established 43 malaria diagnostic laboratories (MDL) in four post-conflict districts of the Northern and Eastern Provinces. This study assesses the patterns of referral of patients with fever for malaria diagnosis by health care providers (HCPs) in four government hospitals in one of the districts of the Northern Province, and patient satisfaction with the laboratory services offered. Methods In this prospective descriptive study, data was collected on the proportion of fever patients being referred by the HCP in hospitals for malaria screening, and the proportion thereof who underwent screening. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was also used to assess patient satisfaction among those attending MDL, which was graded on a scale of 0–4. Results Of patients presenting to the hospitals with fever, only 44.3% were referred for malaria screening; 81.7% of them underwent screening. Referral depended largely on the presence of a permanent staff HCP. Satisfaction levels were high, with 86.55% giving an overall rating of 4. Comfort within the laboratory was rated satisfactory in three of the four hospitals. Conclusions This study demonstrates the success of a public-private partnership in the malaria control programme in Sri Lanka. Malaria is considered low on the differential diagnosis in patients with fever even in previously malaria-endemic areas, due to the declining incidence of malaria and the increase in other febrile illnesses in these areas during the recent past. Private sector run malaria diagnostic services provided free of charge within government hospitals are viable and effective, and had good patient satisfaction ratings. In a country on the

  17. The effect of land-use on the diversity and mass-abundance relationships of understory avian insectivores in Sri Lanka and southern India

    PubMed Central

    Sreekar, Rachakonda; Srinivasan, Umesh; Mammides, Christos; Chen, Jin; Manage Goodale, Uromi; Wimalabandara Kotagama, Sarath; Sidhu, Swati; Goodale, Eben

    2015-01-01

    Understory avian insectivores are especially sensitive to deforestation, although regional differences in how these species respond to human disturbance may be linked to varying land-use histories. South Asia experienced widespread conversion of forest to agriculture in the nineteenth century, providing a comparison to tropical areas deforested more recently. In Sri Lanka and the Western Ghats of India, we compared understory insectivores to other guilds, and to insectivores with different vertical strata preferences, both inside mixed-species flocks and for the whole bird community. Overall species richness did not change across the land-use gradient, although there was substantial turnover in species composition between land-use types. We found that the proportion of species represented by insectivores was ~1.14 times higher in forest compared to agriculture, and the proportion of insectivores represented by understory species was ~1.32 times higher in forests. Mass-abundance relationships were very different when analyzed on mixed-species flocks compared to the total community, perhaps indicating reduced competition in these mutualisms. We show that South Asia fits the worldwide pattern of understory insectivores declining with increased land-use intensity, and conclude that these species can be used globally as indicator and/or umbrella species for conservation across different disturbance time scales. PMID:26108368

  18. Phytoremediation of Pb by Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh and spatial variation of Pb in the Batticaloa Lagoon, Sri Lanka during driest periods: a field study.

    PubMed

    Kularatne, Ranil K A

    2014-01-01

    Batticaloa Lagoon (Sri Lanka) is subjected to significant pollution as a result of anticipated unplanned development works since the cessation of a civil war in May, 2009. This paper presents the effectiveness of Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh in the phytoremediation of Pb and the variation of Pb in sediments and water in the intertidal zone under drier weather conditions. Four pristine areas and 4 mangroves cut areas within the Manmunai North Divisional Secretariat Division/Batticaloa Municipal Council areas were investigated. Pb levels in the sediments and plants were negligible at all locations (i.e., below the method detection limit of the AAS for sediments and plants which is 0.25 mg/kg dry weight and 0.5 mg/kg dry weight, respectively). However, the water environment showed significant contamination (0.17-0.29 mg/L and 0.26-0.34 mg/L in pristine areas and cleared areas, respectively), hence Pb bioaccumulation is likely in fish and other biota. Avicennia marina is not effective to phytoremediate Pb under significant saline conditions. PMID:24912232

  19. Outcome of Home-Based Early Intervention for Autism in Sri Lanka: Follow-Up of a Cohort and Comparison with a Nonintervention Group

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Hemamali; Jeewandara, Kamal Chandima; Seneviratne, Sudarshi; Guruge, Chandima

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the outcome of a home-based autism intervention program (HBAIP) in 18- to 40-month-old children newly diagnosed and treatment naïve. Intervention was exclusively implemented at home. Outcome was measured at 3 months and 6 months after intervention and compared with a group of newly diagnosed children with autism who were >40 months at intake but had not received any autism specific clinical management. Aim was also to estimate whether natural development would contribute to gain in skills and compare with the effect of intervention. Five selected parameters of behavior representing social interaction and social communication were used to assess outcome. Results showed a statistically significant improvement between preintervention and postintervention in all the measured parameters. The effect size was large when compared to preintervention and gains were indicated by changes in mean scores and p values within a narrow confidence interval. Highest gains were in first 3 months of postintervention which continued up to 6 months. Although the comparison group was more advanced in the measured skills at intake, they were significantly below the level reached by experimental group at 3 months and 6 months after intervention. This study was registered in the Sri Lanka Clinical Trials Registry (SLCTR/2009/011). PMID:27419131

  20. Extreme violence--homicide; an analysis of 265 cases from the offices of JMO Colombo and Ragama--a study from Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Edirisinghe, P A S; Kitulwatte, I D G

    2009-04-01

    Violence in a society can be categorized into many areas such as interpersonal violence, domestic violence, violence against children, violence of human rights, violence due to wars etc. The most extreme form of violence is killing of another human. To study whether the underlying reasons (motives) for killing has a relationship to the methods employed for killing. A retrospective descriptive study based on autopsy reports, magistrate orders and case notes attached was carried out on all the cases examined at the office of the JMO Colombo and Ragama from July 2005 to June 2006. The data were analyzed using SPSS statistical package. Out of 265 autopsy examinations alleged to be homicides, 39% of deaths were related to terrorist acts while previous enmity was recorded in 35% of cases. The commonest method of homicide was firearms (31%) while explosives recorded the second highest (28%). Blunt force and sharp force trauma were the reasons for 23% and 14% of homicides respectively. Almost all the deaths related to war was caused by firearms and bombs (96%) where as 47% of previous enmity deaths were caused by firearms. Firearms were never used in homicides of sudden provocation or drunken brawls. The increased use of firearms was not only seen in terrorism related homicides, but also in homicides related to previous enmity. Further research is needed in this area as to why it occurs despite having a tight firearm policy in Sri Lanka. PMID:19398365

  1. Characteristics of Rural Leptospirosis Patients Admitted to Referral Hospitals during the 2008 Leptospirosis Outbreak in Sri Lanka: Implications for Developing Public Health Control Measures

    PubMed Central

    Agampodi, Suneth B.; Nugegoda, Dhanaseela B.; Thevanesam, Vasanthi; Vinetz, Joseph M.

    2015-01-01

    To determine the exposure risk factors of highly endemic rural leptospirosis in tropical setting, we conducted a prospective, hospital-based case control study in Sri Lanka. A conceptual hierarchy of variables was used to analyze the data. Case patients included 38 (34%) females and 73 (66%) males with a mean age of 36 yr (SD 12.7 yr). Using piped, chlorinated water for drinking/general purposes (odds ratio [OR] 0.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.16–0.67), paddy fields in the vicinity of home (OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.06–2.97), sighting dogs at home yard/dog ownership (OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.11–2.91), sighting cattle at home yard/cattle ownership (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.00–2.84), and work in a paddy field (OR 3.02, 95% CI 1.68, 5.41) were the main predictors of leptospirosis among febrile patients. In high endemic tropical settings with rural leptospirosis, risk factors in residential environments, rather than individual exposures, seemed to play a major role in leptospirosis disease transmission. PMID:25331809

  2. Modelling the flood-risk extent using LISFLOOD-FP in a complex watershed: case study of Mundeni Aru River Basin, Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amarnath, G.; Umer, Y. M.; Alahacoon, N.; Inada, Y.

    2015-06-01

    Flood management is adopting a more risk-based approach, whereby flood risk is the product of the probability and consequences of flooding. Two-dimensional flood inundation modeling is a widely used tool to aid flood-risk management. The aim of this study is to develop a flood inundation model that uses historical flow data to produce flood-risk maps, which will help to identify flood protection measures in the rural areas of Sri Lanka. The LISFLOOD-FP model was developed at the basin scale using available historical data, and also through coupling with a hydrological modelling system, to map the inundation extent and depth. Results from the flood inundation model were evaluated using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images to assess product accuracy. The impacts of flooding on agriculture and livelihoods were analyzed to assess the flood risks. It was identified that most of the areas under paddy cultivation that were located near the middle and downstream part of the river basin are more susceptible to flood risks. This paper also proposes potential countermeasures for future natural disasters to prevent and mitigate possible damages.

  3. Community-Based Study on Family-Related Contributory Factors for Childhood Unintentional Injuries in an Urban Setting of Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Punyadasa, Dhanusha; Samarakkody, Diana

    2016-01-01

    A community-based descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out among children aged 1 to 4 years residing in an urban setting of Sri Lanka to assess the incidence and associated family-related factors of unintentional injuries. A total of 458 children were recruited using simple random sampling technique, giving a response rate of 91.6%. The incidence of unintentional injuries that needed medical attention during the study period of 3 months was 28.1 per 100 children (95% CI = 19.46–36.74). The factors that were significantly associated with the occurrence of unintentional injuries among children are low monthly income of the family (P = .045), low social support to the mother of index child (P = .022), nonauthoritative type of parenting of the mother of index child (P = .039), cared by person other than mother during day time (P = .002), frequent arguments between parents (P = .004), and frequent alcohol consumption of father (P = .001). PMID:26658485

  4. Outcome of Home-Based Early Intervention for Autism in Sri Lanka: Follow-Up of a Cohort and Comparison with a Nonintervention Group.

    PubMed

    Perera, Hemamali; Jeewandara, Kamal Chandima; Seneviratne, Sudarshi; Guruge, Chandima

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the outcome of a home-based autism intervention program (HBAIP) in 18- to 40-month-old children newly diagnosed and treatment naïve. Intervention was exclusively implemented at home. Outcome was measured at 3 months and 6 months after intervention and compared with a group of newly diagnosed children with autism who were >40 months at intake but had not received any autism specific clinical management. Aim was also to estimate whether natural development would contribute to gain in skills and compare with the effect of intervention. Five selected parameters of behavior representing social interaction and social communication were used to assess outcome. Results showed a statistically significant improvement between preintervention and postintervention in all the measured parameters. The effect size was large when compared to preintervention and gains were indicated by changes in mean scores and p values within a narrow confidence interval. Highest gains were in first 3 months of postintervention which continued up to 6 months. Although the comparison group was more advanced in the measured skills at intake, they were significantly below the level reached by experimental group at 3 months and 6 months after intervention. This study was registered in the Sri Lanka Clinical Trials Registry (SLCTR/2009/011). PMID:27419131

  5. Glyphosate, Hard Water and Nephrotoxic Metals: Are They the Culprits Behind the Epidemic of Chronic Kidney Disease of Unknown Etiology in Sri Lanka?

    PubMed Central

    Jayasumana, Channa; Gunatilake, Sarath; Senanayake, Priyantha

    2014-01-01

    The current chronic kidney disease epidemic, the major health issue in the rice paddy farming areas in Sri Lanka has been the subject of many scientific and political debates over the last decade. Although there is no agreement among scientists about the etiology of the disease, a majority of them has concluded that this is a toxic nephropathy. None of the hypotheses put forward so far could explain coherently the totality of clinical, biochemical, histopathological findings, and the unique geographical distribution of the disease and its appearance in the mid-1990s. A strong association between the consumption of hard water and the occurrence of this special kidney disease has been observed, but the relationship has not been explained consistently. Here, we have hypothesized the association of using glyphosate, the most widely used herbicide in the disease endemic area and its unique metal chelating properties. The possible role played by glyphosate-metal complexes in this epidemic has not been given any serious consideration by investigators for the last two decades. Furthermore, it may explain similar kidney disease epidemics observed in Andra Pradesh (India) and Central America. Although glyphosate alone does not cause an epidemic of chronic kidney disease, it seems to have acquired the ability to destroy the renal tissues of thousands of farmers when it forms complexes with a localized geo environmental factor (hardness) and nephrotoxic metals. PMID:24562182

  6. Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and human papillomavirus in a sexual health clinic setting in urban Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Samarawickrema, N A; Tabrizi, S N; Young, E; Gunawardena, P; Garland, S M

    2015-09-01

    The prevalences of Trichomonas vaginalis, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and human papillomavirus (HPV) in Sri Lanka are not well reported; the objective of this study is to describe the prevalences of these four sexually transmitted infections among attendees of sexual health clinic in an urban setting. Vaginal swabs were collected from consenting women attending a sexual health clinic and tested for the presence of the above sexually transmitted infections using nucleic acid amplification techniques. Basic demographic details were sought from each participant (483 women of age range 14-61, median 30 years, IQR 12 years) via a research assistant-administered questionnaire. Overall, a prevalence of T. vaginalis, C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae and HPV was 2.3%, (95% CI: 1.2-4.1%), 8.2% (95% CI: 5.6-11.4%), 7.6% (95% CI: 5.2-10.8%), and 44.4% (95% CI: 39.8-49.1%), respectively. Among the 197 positive for HPV, HPV6 accounted for 23.1%, HPV16 (12.5%), then HPV11, HPV66 and HPV58 were the commonest. Vaccine-related types (6/11/16/18) were detected in 59.9% of cases (95%CI: 52.7-66.8%). The high prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (45.2%) is a potential risk factor for an increase in HIV infections in the country and the high carriage of HPV supports the need for cervical cancer screening and prevention programmes. PMID:25258396

  7. The effect of land-use on the diversity and mass-abundance relationships of understory avian insectivores in Sri Lanka and southern India.

    PubMed

    Sreekar, Rachakonda; Srinivasan, Umesh; Mammides, Christos; Chen, Jin; Manage Goodale, Uromi; Kotagama, Sarath Wimalabandara; Sidhu, Swati; Goodale, Eben

    2015-01-01

    Understory avian insectivores are especially sensitive to deforestation, although regional differences in how these species respond to human disturbance may be linked to varying land-use histories. South Asia experienced widespread conversion of forest to agriculture in the nineteenth century, providing a comparison to tropical areas deforested more recently. In Sri Lanka and the Western Ghats of India, we compared understory insectivores to other guilds, and to insectivores with different vertical strata preferences, both inside mixed-species flocks and for the whole bird community. Overall species richness did not change across the land-use gradient, although there was substantial turnover in species composition between land-use types. We found that the proportion of species represented by insectivores was ~1.14 times higher in forest compared to agriculture, and the proportion of insectivores represented by understory species was ~1.32 times higher in forests. Mass-abundance relationships were very different when analyzed on mixed-species flocks compared to the total community, perhaps indicating reduced competition in these mutualisms. We show that South Asia fits the worldwide pattern of understory insectivores declining with increased land-use intensity, and conclude that these species can be used globally as indicator and/or umbrella species for conservation across different disturbance time scales. PMID:26108368

  8. Characteristics of rural leptospirosis patients admitted to referral hospitals during the 2008 leptospirosis outbreak in Sri Lanka: implications for developing public health control measures.

    PubMed

    Agampodi, Suneth B; Nugegoda, Dhanaseela B; Thevanesam, Vasanthi; Vinetz, Joseph M

    2015-01-01

    To determine the exposure risk factors of highly endemic rural leptospirosis in tropical setting, we conducted a prospective, hospital-based case control study in Sri Lanka. A conceptual hierarchy of variables was used to analyze the data. Case patients included 38 (34%) females and 73 (66%) males with a mean age of 36 yr (SD 12.7 yr). Using piped, chlorinated water for drinking/general purposes (odds ratio [OR] 0.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.16-0.67), paddy fields in the vicinity of home (OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.06-2.97), sighting dogs at home yard/dog ownership (OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.11-2.91), sighting cattle at home yard/cattle ownership (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.00-2.84), and work in a paddy field (OR 3.02, 95% CI 1.68, 5.41) were the main predictors of leptospirosis among febrile patients. In high endemic tropical settings with rural leptospirosis, risk factors in residential environments, rather than individual exposures, seemed to play a major role in leptospirosis disease transmission. PMID:25331809

  9. Has irrigated water from Mahaweli River contributed to the kidney disease of uncertain etiology in the dry zone of Sri Lanka?

    PubMed

    Diyabalanage, Saranga; Abekoon, Sumith; Watanabe, Izumi; Watai, Chie; Ono, Yuko; Wijesekara, Saman; Guruge, Keerthi S; Chandrajith, Rohana

    2016-06-01

    The Mahaweli is the largest river basin in Sri Lanka that provides water to the dry zone region through multipurpose irrigation schemes . Selenium, arsenic, cadmium, and other bioimportant trace elements in surface waters of the upper Mahaweli River were measured using ICP-MS. Trace element levels were then compared with water from two other rivers (Maha Oya, Kalu Ganga) and from six dry zone irrigation reservoirs. Results showed that the trace metal concentrations in the Mahaweli upper catchment were detected in the order of Fe > Cu > Zn > Se > Cr > Mn > As > Ni > Co > Mo. Remarkably high levels of Ca, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, As, and Se were observed in the Mahaweli Basin compared to other study rivers. Considerably high levels of Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, and Se were found in upstream tributaries of the Mahaweli River. Such metals possibly originated from phosphate and organic fertilizers that are heavily applied for tea and vegetable cultivations within the drainage basin. Cadmium that is often attributed to the etiology of unknown chronic kidney diseases in certain parts of the dry zone is much lower than previously reported levels. Decrease in these metals in the lower part of the Mahaweli River could be due to adsorption of trace metals onto sediment and consequent deposition in reservoirs. PMID:26183039

  10. Major and trace elements in plants and soils in Horton Plains National Park, Sri Lanka: an approach to explain forest die back

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrajith, Rohana; Koralegedara, Nadeesha; Ranawana, K. B.; Tobschall, H. J.; Dissanayake, C. B.

    2009-03-01

    Forest die back has been observed from 1980s in the montane moist forest of Horton Plains in the Central Sri Lanka for which the aetiology appears to be uncertain. The concentration levels of Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Ni, Zn and Pb in canopy leaves, bark and roots, which were collected from dying and healthy plants of three different endemic species, Calophyllum walkeri, Syzygium rotundifolium and Cinnamomum ovalifolium, from three different die back sites were studied. Soils underlying the plants were also analyzed for their extractable trace metals and total contents of major oxides. Analysis of dead and healthy plants does not show any remarkable differences in the concentrations of studied trace elements. The results show that there is a low status of pollution based on the concentrations of chemical elements of environmental concern. Extractable and total trace element analysis indicates a low content of Ca in soils due to high soil acidity that probably leads to Mg and Al toxicity to certain plants. Relatively high Al levels in the soil would affect the root system and hamper the uptake and transport of essential cations to the plant. It therefore seems that the forest declining appears to be a natural phenomenon, which occurs due to the imbalance of macro and micronutrients in the natural forest due to excessive weathering and the continuous leaching of essential elements.

  11. Human used upper montane ecosystem in the Horton Plains, central Sri Lanka - a link to Lateglacial and early Holocene climate and environmental changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Premathilake, Rathnasiri

    2012-09-01

    This study utilizes radiocarbon-dated pollen, spores, Sphagnum spp. macrofossils and total organic carbon proxies to examine variability of past climate, environment and human activity in montane rainforest, grassland and wetland of the Horton Plains (HP), central Sri Lanka since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The LGM is largely characterized by grasslands and xerophytic herbs dominated open habitats. Arid-LGM punctuated climatic ameliorations, which took place in short episodes. Humans appear to have reached the HP ecosystem after 18,000 cal yrs BP occasionally. The first Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) induced changes in South West Monsoon (SWM) rains occurred at low latitudes between 16,200 and 15,900 cal yrs BP suggesting an onset of monsoon rains. After this event, monsoon rains weakened for several millennia except the period 13,700-13,000 cal yrs BP, but human activity seems to have continued with biomass burning and clearances by slash and burn. Very large size grass pollen grains, which are morphologically similar to pollen from closer forms of Oryza nivara, were found after 13,800 cal yrs BP. Early Holocene extreme and abrupt climate changes seem to have promoted the forms of O. nivara populations in association with humans. New data from the HP would therefore be most interesting to investigate the dispersal and use of domesticated rice in South Asia.

  12. Summary of ground-water conditions in the Jaffna Peninsula, Republic of Sri Lanka, with a plan for investigating feasibility of ground-water development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meisler, Harold

    1977-01-01

    Ground water in the Jaffna Peninsula of Sri Lanka, Ceylon, occurs within solution openings of the Jaffna Limestone of Miocene age. The freshwater forms a complex of lenses up to 25 meters thick overlying saline water derived from the sea. Salt-water intrusion and upconing of the salt water has occurred at several locations primarily along the coast. Recharge to the aquifer occurs during October-December. Discharge is primarily to wells and to springs along the north coast. Spring discharge is small compared to withdrawal from wells. Pumping from wells in an intensively studied 142-square-kilometer area of the Peninsula was 55.5 million cubic meters in 1976, whereas discharge to visible springs was an estimated 9.3 million cubic meters. Pumping during January-September removes water from storage causing heads to decline and the salt water-freshwater interface to rise. The storage is replenished as heads increase and the interface is depressed during the following October-December. Consequently, most of the recharge goes into storage rather than discharging to the sea. (Woodard-USGS)

  13. Collective trauma in the Vanni- a qualitative inquiry into the mental health of the internally displaced due to the civil war in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background From January to May, 2009, a population of 300,000 in the Vanni, northern Sri Lanka underwent multiple displacements, deaths, injuries, deprivation of water, food, medical care and other basic needs caught between the shelling and bombings of the state forces and the LTTE which forcefully recruited men, women and children to fight on the frontlines and held the rest hostage. This study explores the long term psychosocial and mental health consequences of exposure to massive, existential trauma. Methods This paper is a qualitative inquiry into the psychosocial situation of the Vanni displaced and their ethnography using narratives and observations obtained through participant observation; in depth interviews; key informant, family and extended family interviews; and focus groups using a prescribed, semi structured open ended questionnaire. Results The narratives, drawings, letters and poems as well as data from observations, key informant interviews, extended family and focus group discussions show considerable impact at the family and community. The family and community relationships, networks, processes and structures are destroyed. There develops collective symptoms of despair, passivity, silence, loss of values and ethical mores, amotivation, dependency on external assistance, but also resilience and post-traumatic growth. Conclusions Considering the severity of family and community level adverse effects and implication for resettlement, rehabilitation, and development programmes; interventions for healing of memories, psychosocial regeneration of the family and community structures and processes are essential. PMID:20667090

  14. Treating children traumatized by war and Tsunami: A comparison between exposure therapy and meditation-relaxation in North-East Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Catani, Claudia; Kohiladevy, Mahendran; Ruf, Martina; Schauer, Elisabeth; Elbert, Thomas; Neuner, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Background The North-Eastern part of Sri Lanka had already been affected by civil war when the 2004 Tsunami wave hit the region, leading to high rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in children. In the acute aftermath of the Tsunami we tested the efficacy of two pragmatic short-term interventions when applied by trained local counselors. Methods A randomized treatment comparison was implemented in a refugee camp in a severely affected community. 31 children who presented with a preliminary diagnosis of PTSD were randomly assigned either to six sessions Narrative Exposure Therapy for children (KIDNET) or six sessions of meditation-relaxation (MED-RELAX). Outcome measures included severity of PTSD symptoms, level of functioning and physical health. Results In both treatment conditions, PTSD symptoms and impairment in functioning were significantly reduced at one month post-test and remained stable over time. At 6 months follow-up, recovery rates were 81% for the children in the KIDNET group and 71% for those in the MED-RELAX group. There was no significant difference between the two therapy groups in any outcome measure. Conclusion As recovery rates in the treatment groups exceeded the expected rates of natural recovery, the study provides preliminary evidence for the effectiveness of NET as well as meditation-relaxation techniques when carried out by trained local counselors for the treatment of PTSD in children in the direct aftermath of mass disasters. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:NCT00820391 PMID:19439099

  15. Understanding the explanatory model of the patient on their medically unexplained symptoms and its implication on treatment development research: a Sri Lanka Study

    PubMed Central

    Sumathipala, Athula; Siribaddana, Sisira; Hewege, Suwin; Sumathipala, Kethaki; Prince, Martin; Mann, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Background Patients with medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) are often distressed, disabled and dissatisfied with the care they receive. Illness beliefs held by patients have a major influence on the decision to consult, persistence of symptoms and the degree of disability. Illness perception models consist of frameworks to organise information from multiple sources into distinct but interrelated dimensions: identity (the illness label), cause, consequences, emotional representations perceived control and timeline. Our aim was to elicit the illness perceptions of patients with MUS in Sri Lankan primary care to modify and improve a CBT intervention. Method An intervention study was conducted in a hospital primary care clinic in Colombo, Sri Lanka using CBT for MUS. As a part of the baseline assessment, qualitative data was collected using; the Short Explanatory Model Interview (SEMI), from 68 patients (16–65 years) with MUS. We categorised the qualitative data in to key components of the illness perception model, to refine CBT intervention for a subsequent larger trial study. Results The cohort was chronically ill and 87% of the patients were ill for more than six months (range six months to 20 years) with 5 or more symptoms and 6 or more visits over preceding six months. A majority were unable to offer an explanation on identity (59%) or the cause (56%), but in the consequence domain 95% expressed significant illness worries; 37% believed their symptoms indicated moderately serious illness and 58% very serious illness. Reflecting emotional representation, 33% reported fear of death, 20% fear of paralysis, 13% fear of developing cancer and the rest unspecified incurable illness. Consequence and emotional domains were significant determinants of distress and consultations. Their repeated visits were to seek help to alleviate symptoms. Only a minority expected investigations (8.8 %) or diagnosis (8.8%). However, the doctors who had previously treated them allegedly

  16. Effects of climatic, socio-economic and behavioural factors on the transmission of hookworm (Necator americanus) on two low-country plantations in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Gunawardena, G S A; Karunaweera, N D; Ismail, M M

    2005-09-01

    The climatic, socio-economic and behavioural factors influencing hookworm (Necator americanus) infection in Sri Lanka were explored between February 2000 and June 2001. In February 2000, a single stool sample was collected from each of the 477 subjects investigated, who were aged 2-74 years (median = 13 years) and lived on the 'lowcountry' Maliboda and Ayr plantations. The 'baseline' prevalence (28.5%) and intensity of hookworm infection (0- 4828.5 eggs/g faeces, with a mean of 128.4 eggs/g) were then determined by examining these initial samples, as Kato-Katz smears. Subsequently, each participant was treated with a single, 500-mg dose of mebendazole and then followed-up, at monthly intervals, for the next 15 months. Whenever a subject was found smear-positive for hookworm eggs at one of the monthly follow-ups, he or she was treated again with mebendazole. This approach allowed the monthly incidence of hookworm infection to be determined for each subject, assuming that subjects became smear-positive approximately 6 weeks post-infection. During the study period, rainfall and mean temperature were recorded daily and then converted to monthly values so that the relationship between the incidence of infection over each month and the rainfall and mean temperature over the same period could be explored. In addition, potentially relevant data on the socio-economic status and behaviour of each subject were collected, in questionnaire-based interviews with the adult subjects and the caregivers of the children investigated. Odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were then calculated for each factor that might increase the risk of hookworm infection. The monthly incidence of hookworm infection showed three peaks -- in September 2000 (21.3%), January 2001 (20.8%) and May 2001 (17.5%) -- at Maliboda, and two peaks -- in September 2000 (25.0%) and February 2001 (29.2%) -- at Ayr. With the data for all subjects combined, incidence showed a statistically

  17. Prevalence of depression and its associated factors among patients attending primary care settings in the post-conflict Northern Province in Sri Lanka: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In Sri Lanka, civilians in the Northern Province were affected by a long-term armed conflict that ended in 2009. This study aims to describe the prevalence of depression and its associated factors among adult patients attending primary care settings in the Northern Province in Sri Lanka. Methods We report data from a cross-sectional patient morbidity registry established in 16 primary care facilities (12 Divisional Hospitals and 4 Primary Medical Care Units) in four districts of the Northern Province. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) was used to assess depression among all patients aged ≥18 years, between March and May 2013. A sample of 12,841 patient records was included in the analysis. A total score of ≥10 in the PHQ-9 was considered as major depression. Factors associated with major depression were tested using multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results The prevalence of major depression was 4.5% (95% CI: 4.1-4.9) and mild depression was 13.3% (95% CI: 12.7-13.9). The major depression was significantly higher in females than males (5.1% vs. 3.6%) and among unpaid family workers (6.0%) than any other category who earned an income (varied between 1.2% and 3.2%). The prevalence was rising significantly with advancing age, and ranged from 0.3% in the youngest to 11.6% in the elderly. Multivariable regression analysis revealed that the females have a higher risk for major depression than males (OR = 1.4; 95% CI: 1.1-1.7). Older patients were more likely to be depressed than younger patients, OR (95% CI) were 4.9 (1.9-12.5), 5.6 (2.2-14.0), 5.7 (2.3-14.2) and 4.7 (1.8-11.9) for the age groups 25–34, 35–49, 50–64, and ≥65 years respectively, in contrast to 18–24 year group. Disability in walking (OR = 7.5; 95% CI: 5.8-9.8), cognition (OR = 4.5; 95% CI: 3.6-5.6), self-care (OR = 2.6; 95% CI: 1.7-4.0), seeing (OR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.8-3.0), and hearing (OR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.5-2.5) showed significant associations with depression

  18. Family violence, war, and natural disasters: A study of the effect of extreme stress on children's mental health in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Catani, Claudia; Jacob, Nadja; Schauer, Elisabeth; Kohila, Mahendran; Neuner, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Background The consequences of war violence and natural disasters on the mental health of children as well as on family dynamics remain poorly understood. Aim of the present investigation was to establish the prevalence and predictors of traumatic stress related to war, family violence and the recent Tsunami experience in children living in a region affected by a long-lasting violent conflict. In addition, the study looked at whether higher levels of war violence would be related to higher levels of violence within the family and whether this would result in higher rates of psychological problems in the affected children. Methods 296 Tamil school children in Sri Lanka's North-Eastern provinces were randomly selected for the survey. Diagnostic interviews were carried out by extensively trained local Master level counselors. PTSD symptoms were established by means of a validated Tamil version of the UCLA PTSD Index. Additionally, participants completed a detailed checklist of event types related to organized and family violence. Results 82.4% of the children had experienced at least one war-related event. 95.6% reported at least one aversive experience out of the family violence spectrum. The consequences are reflected in a 30.4% PTSD and a 19.6% Major Depression prevalence. Linear regression analyses showed that fathers' alcohol intake and previous exposure to war were significantly linked to the amount of maltreatment reported by the child. A clear dose-effect relationship between exposure to various stressful experiences and PTSD was found in the examined children. Conclusion Data argue for a relationship between war violence and violent behavior inflicted on children in their families. Both of these factors, together with the experience of the recent Tsunami, resulted as significant predictors of PTSD in children, thus highlighting the detrimental effect that the experience of cumulative stress can have on children's mental health. PMID:18454851

  19. A Decade After the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami: The Progress in Disaster Preparedness and Future Challenges in Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Thailand and the Maldives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suppasri, Anawat; Goto, Kazuhisa; Muhari, Abdul; Ranasinghe, Prasanthi; Riyaz, Mahmood; Affan, Muzailin; Mas, Erick; Yasuda, Mari; Imamura, Fumihiko

    2015-12-01

    The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami was one of the most devastating tsunamis in world history. The tsunami caused damage to most of the Asian and other countries bordering the Indian Ocean. After a decade, reconstruction has been completed with different levels of tsunami countermeasures in most areas; however, some land use planning using probabilistic tsunami hazard maps and vulnerabilities should be addressed to prepare for future tsunamis. Examples of early-stage reconstruction are herein provided alongside a summary of some of the major tsunamis that have occurred since 2004, revealing the tsunami countermeasures established during the reconstruction period. Our primary objective is to report on and discuss the vulnerabilities found during our field visits to the tsunami-affected countries—namely, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Thailand and the Maldives. For each country, future challenges based on current tsunami countermeasures, such as land use planning, warning systems, evacuation facilities, disaster education and disaster monuments are explained. The problem of traffic jams during tsunami evacuations, especially in well-known tourist areas, was found to be the most common problem faced by all of the countries. The readiness of tsunami warning systems differed across the countries studied. These systems are generally sufficient on a national level, but local hazards require greater study. Disaster reduction education that would help to maintain high tsunami awareness is well established in most countries. Some geological evidence is well preserved even after a decade. Conversely, the maintenance of monuments to the 2004 tsunami appears to be a serious problem. Finally, the reconstruction progress was evaluated based on the experiences of disaster reconstruction in Japan. All vulnerabilities discussed here should be addressed to create long-term, disaster-resilient communities.

  20. Socio-economic and behavioural factors affecting the prevalence of Ascaris infection in a low-country tea plantation in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Gunawardena, G S A; Karunaweera, N D; Ismail, M M

    2004-09-01

    The identification of the factors that affect the prevalences of geohelminthiases should help to maximize the effectiveness of programmes for the control of these diseases. In the present study, the relationships between the prevalence and intensity of human infection with Ascaris and the availability of sanitary facilities, socio-economic status and personal health habits have been explored in Sri Lanka. The 176 subjects, who lived on a low-country tea plantation, were aged 2-50 years (median = 13 years) and were investigated between the July and December of 2000. When the prevalence and intensity of Ascaris infection were determined, using Kato-Katz smears, 50.0% of the subjects were found to be secreting the eggs of the parasite. Almost all (96.6%) of the subjects lived in terraces of one-room houses built by the plantation owners, and only 30.7% had access to a latrine. Most (90.3%) obtained their drinking water from common taps, and 48.8% boiled their drinking water. The subjects who only drank water that had been boiled and those who washed their hands before meals were relatively unlikely to be infected (P < 0.05 for each). In congested living conditions with poor sanitary facilities, the level of faecal contamination of the environment is invariably high. Even under these conditions, however, good hygiene and the boiling of all drinking water can reduce the risks of Ascaris infection. In the study setting and in similar environments, regular anthelmintic therapy, improvements in housing conditions and sanitary facilities, and health education, to promote risk-reducing patterns of behaviour, would all be beneficial. PMID:15324467

  1. Outcomes and moderators of a preventive school-based mental health intervention for children affected by war in Sri Lanka: a cluster randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    TOL, WIETSE A.; KOMPROE, IVAN H.; JORDANS, MARK J.D.; VALLIPURAM, ANAVARATHAN; SIPSMA, HEATHER; SIVAYOKAN, SAMBASIVAMOORTHY; MACY, ROBERT D.; DE JONG, JOOP T.

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to examine outcomes, moderators and mediators of a preventive school-based mental health intervention implemented by paraprofessionals in a war-affected setting in northern Sri Lanka. A cluster randomized trial was employed. Subsequent to screening 1,370 children in randomly selected schools, 399 children were assigned to an intervention (n=199) or waitlist control condition (n=200). The intervention consisted of 15 manualized sessions over 5 weeks of cognitive behavioral techniques and creative expressive elements. Assessments took place before, 1 week after, and 3 months after the intervention. Primary outcomes included post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depressive, and anxiety symptoms. No main effects on primary outcomes were identified. A main effect in favor of intervention for conduct problems was observed. This effect was stronger for younger children. Furthermore, we found intervention benefits for specific subgroups. Stronger effects were found for boys with regard to PTSD and anxiety symptoms, and for younger children on pro-social behavior. Moreover, we found stronger intervention effects on PTSD, anxiety, and function impairment for children experiencing lower levels of current war-related stressors. Girls in the intervention condition showed smaller reductions on PTSD symptoms than waitlisted girls. We conclude that preventive school-based psychosocial interventions in volatile areas characterized by ongoing war-related stressors may effectively improve indicators of psychological wellbeing and posttraumatic stress-related symptoms in some children. However, they may undermine natural recovery for others. Further research is necessary to examine how gender, age and current war-related experiences contribute to differential intervention effects. PMID:22654944

  2. A retrospective analysis of cannabis use in a cohort of mentally ill patients in Sri Lanka and its implications on policy development

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Several epidemiological studies have shown that cannabis; the most widely used illegal drug in the world, is associated with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD). Aims To assess the characteristics of cannabis use and its association with SSD in a cohort of psychiatrically ill patients and discuss the implications for policy development Methods This is a retrospective analytical study of a cohort of psychiatric patients who received treatment in the psychiatry unit of the Provincial General Hospital, Ratnapura, Sri Lanka over five years (2000 - 2004). The schizophrenia spectrum disorders defined in this article include schizophrenia and the schizoaffective disorders. Results A total of 3644 patient records were analyzed. The percentage of self reported life time cannabis (LTC) use was 2.83% (103, all males). Sixteen percent (576) of the total cohort was diagnosed with SSD by 2009. Male sex and LTC use were significantly associated with SSD (p < 0.01 and 0.001 respectively). In the majority (91.5%), cannabis use preceded the diagnosis. There were 17(16.5%) patients diagnosed as cannabis induced psychosis and 7 (41.2%) of them were subsequently diagnosed as SSD. This group was significantly more likely to have had a past psychiatric consultation, but other demographic and clinical correlates did not differ from the rest of the LTC users. Conclusions Self reported LTC use was strongly associated with being diagnosed with SSD. However we could not identify a particular subgroup of users that are at increased risk to recommend targeted primary prophylaxis. The policy implications of this observation are discussed. PMID:20615208

  3. Redefining Gold Standard Testing for Diagnosing Leptospirosis: Further Evidence from a Well-Characterized, Flood-Related Outbreak in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Agampodi, Suneth B; Dahanayaka, Niroshan J; Nöckler, Karsten; Anne, Mayer-Scholl; Vinetz, Joseph M

    2016-09-01

    A gap in the leptospirosis field remains the lack of well-characterized sample collections that allow for comparison of new methods to standard ones. In the context of a flood-related outbreak of leptospirosis evaluated in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka, a specimen bank was obtained with detailed metadata accompanied by gold standard diagnostic test results. Blood samples collected on admission and 14 days later from suspected cases of leptospirosis were tested using microscopic agglutination test (MAT) (17 serovars), an in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a locally obtained strain of Leptospira kirschneri as sonicated antigen, a commercially available ELISA based on sonicated Leptospira biflexa, and a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay targeting the pathogenic Leptospira-specific 16S rRNA gene. Of 62 patients presenting within the first 2 days of illness, 31 had confirmed leptospirosis based either on paired-sample MAT or qPCR. During the acute phase, qPCR was most sensitive, detecting 74% of definitively diagnosed cases; immunoglobulin G (IgG) ELISA (in-house), IgG ELISA (commercial), and MAT had sensitivities of 35.5%, 12.0%, and 22.6%, respectively, in detecting definitively diagnosed cases using acute phase serum. Of 40 patients with paired sera, 10 were qPCR positive. Of these, five samples were negative by paired-sample MAT. Of the 11 MAT-positive samples, only five were detected using qPCR confirming that both tests are needed for maximal sensitivity. Regional leptospiral serovar-specific IgG ELISA was superior to MAT. Knowing the regionally dominant serovars improves serological sensitivity in the analysis of acute specimens by ELISA, but qPCR was most sensitive in this patient population. PMID:27402521

  4. A Systematic Approach to Capacity Strengthening of Laboratory Systems for Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases in Ghana, Kenya, Malawi and Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Njelesani, Janet; Dacombe, Russell; Palmer, Tanith; Smith, Helen; Koudou, Benjamin; Bockarie, Moses; Bates, Imelda

    2014-01-01

    Background The lack of capacity in laboratory systems is a major barrier to achieving the aims of the London Declaration (2012) on neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). To counter this, capacity strengthening initiatives have been carried out in NTD laboratories worldwide. Many of these initiatives focus on individuals' skills or institutional processes and structures ignoring the crucial interactions between the laboratory and the wider national and international context. Furthermore, rigorous methods to assess these initiatives once they have been implemented are scarce. To address these gaps we developed a set of assessment and monitoring tools that can be used to determine the capacities required and achieved by laboratory systems at the individual, organizational, and national/international levels to support the control of NTDs. Methodology and principal findings We developed a set of qualitative and quantitative assessment and monitoring tools based on published evidence on optimal laboratory capacity. We implemented the tools with laboratory managers in Ghana, Malawi, Kenya, and Sri Lanka. Using the tools enabled us to identify strengths and gaps in the laboratory systems from the following perspectives: laboratory quality benchmarked against ISO 15189 standards, the potential for the laboratories to provide support to national and regional NTD control programmes, and the laboratory's position within relevant national and international networks and collaborations. Conclusion We have developed a set of mixed methods assessment and monitoring tools based on evidence derived from the components needed to strengthen the capacity of laboratory systems to control NTDs. Our tools help to systematically assess and monitor individual, organizational, and wider system level capacity of laboratory systems for NTD control and can be applied in different country contexts. PMID:24603407

  5. Detection of Ni, Cd, and Cu in green leafy vegetables collected from different cultivation areas in and around Colombo District, Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Kananke, Thilini; Wansapala, Jagath; Gunaratne, Anil

    2016-03-01

    Five types of green leafy vegetables ["Kankun" (Ipomoea aquatica), "Mukunuwenna" (Alternanthera sessilis), "Thampala" (Amaranthus viridis), "Nivithi" (Basella alba), and "Kohila leaves" (Lasia spinosa)] were randomly collected from six different locations (Wellampitiya, Kolonnawa, Kottawa, Piliyandala, Bandaragama, and Kahathuduwa) in and around Colombo District, Sri Lanka, and subjected to analysis of three heavy metals [nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd), and copper (Cu)] by atomic absorption spectrometry. Soils from green leafy vegetable cultivation lands and irrigated water were also tested. The average concentrations of heavy metals Ni, Cd, and Cu in soils were 51.5 ± 45.5, 1.4 ± 1.1, and 66.5 ± 59.5 mg kg(-1), respectively. The highest Ni contamination was detected in the irrigated water samples from Wellampitiya (2.02 mg L(-1)) followed by Kolonnawa (1.02 mg L(-1)) and Kahathuduwa (0.25 mg L(-1)) areas. This has exceeded the WHO/FAO guideline (0.2 mg L(-1)). However, Cd and Cu contents in all tested irrigated water samples were well below the detection limits. Significant differences were observed in Ni, Cd, and Cu levels, between both production sites and green leafy vegetables analyzed (P < 0.05). The mean concentrations (mg kg(-1), dry weight basis) of heavy metals in all green leafy vegetable samples collected from six areas varied as 0.23 ± 0.15 for Cd, 12.60 ± 9.01 for Cu, and 7.62 ± 8.41 for Ni. Maximum Ni, Cd, and Cu contaminations were found in the green leafy vegetables collected from Kolonnawa area. Among the green leafy vegetables analyzed, "Kohila leaves" have the highest tendency to accumulate Ni, Cd, and Cu from the environment. PMID:26911591

  6. Rare evidence for formation of garnet + corundum during isobaric cooling of ultrahigh temperature metapelites: New insights for retrograde P-T trajectory of the Highland Complex, Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dharmapriya, P. L.; Malaviarachchi, Sanjeeva P. K.; Galli, Andrea; Su, Ben-Xun; Subasinghe, N. D.; Dissanayake, C. B.

    2015-04-01

    We report the occurrence of coexisting garnet + corundum in spinel- and corundum-bearing, garnet-sillimanite-biotite-graphite gneiss (pelitic granulites) from the Highland Complex (HC), Sri Lanka. In the investigated pelitic granulites, two domains such as quartz-saturated and quartz-undersaturated are distinguishable. The quartz-saturated domains consist of porphyroblastic garnet, quartz, plagioclase, alkali-feldspar and biotite flakes rimming garnet. The quartz-undersaturated domains are constituted of two generations of garnet (Grt1 and Grt2), sillimanite, plagioclase, alkali-feldspar, corundum, spinel and biotite. Grt1 encloses rare Ti-rich biotite and numerous rutile needles and apatite rods. Grt2 contains rare sillimanite and/or spinel inclusions. Corundum occurs in mutual contact with Grt2, partially embedded at the rim or as an inclusions in Grt2. Thermobarometry on inclusion phases in Grt1 indicates that during the prograde history pelitic granulites attained a P of 10.5-11 kbar at T of ~ 850 °C. Textural observations coupled with both pseudosections calculated in the NCKFMASHTMnO system and Ti-in-Garnet geothermobarometry suggest that peak metamorphism occurred at ultrahigh temperature (UHT) conditions of 950-975 °C and pressures of 9-9.5 kbar. Peak T was followed by a period of isobaric cooling that formed corundum and Grt2 at approx. 930 °C along with exsolution of rutile needles and apatite rods in Grt1. Thermodynamic modelling confirms that corundum appears along an isobaric cooling path at about 920-930 °C and 9-9.5 kbar. Therefore, the investigated granulites provide a rare example of post-peak crystallization of garnet + corundum along a retrograde metamorphic trajectory under UHT conditions. Thus, isobaric cooling at the base of the crust could be regarded as an alternative process to form coexisting garnet + corundum.

  7. Comparison of low cost materials to remove fluoride from drinking water in Sri Lanka; Response to health problems associated with contiguous hydrogeochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vithanage, M. S.; Randiligama, S.

    2010-12-01

    Considering medical geology, Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD), dental and skeletal fluorosis is emerging as major health problems in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. In the year of 2008, over 5,000 patients were under treatment for renal failure in the North Central Province. Large number of cases has been found with the dental fluorosis while few skeletal fluorosis is also reported. Recent research carried out in the CKD prevalent areas also demonstrated that there is a significant relationship between fluoride-rich areas and the high incidence of CKD. In some areas fluoride in drinking water reported as high as 9-10 ppm where the WHO maximum permissible limit is 1.5 ppm. Therefore, it is essential to remove excessive fluoride from water before drinking. This study was performed to investigate the effectiveness of low cost and locally available filter materials to be used easily in household filters. Batch experiments were carried out for different fluoride loadings (10, 20 and 50 ppm) and time for diverse adsorbents such as laterite, bricks, charcoal, serpentine, tile, quartz, marble and white clay balls (impure kaolinite) based on the adsorption technique. It was found that untreated charcoal and quartz have no effect on defluoridation and local bricks as well as marble demonstrated less defluoridation ability i.e. 28.83% and 12.7% respectively. White clay and laterite showed higher adsorption efficiency than tile chips and serpentinite. When consider adsorption amounts white clay, laterite and serpentinite exhibited 96.0%, 94.25% and 93.54% % respectively for 10 ppm initial concentration of fluoride. For the rest adsorbate loadings it showed similar behavior with more than 90 % adsorption. Most of the materials attend to equilibrium after 60 minutes. The presence of aluminium and iron oxides would place these materials on top of the better adsorbent list. Column experiments, effect of temperature on the adsorbents and modeling are under investigation for white clay

  8. Biological differences between brackish and fresh water-derived Aedes aegypti from two locations in the Jaffna peninsula of Sri Lanka and the implications for arboviral disease transmission.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, Ranjan; Jude, Pavilupillai J; Veluppillai, Thabothiny; Eswaramohan, Thampoe; Surendran, Sinnathamby N

    2014-01-01

    The mainly fresh water arboviral vector Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) can also undergo pre-imaginal development in brackish water of up to 15 ppt (parts per thousand) salt in coastal areas. We investigated differences in salinity tolerance, egg laying preference, egg hatching and larval development times and resistance to common insecticides in Ae. aegypti collected from brackish and fresh water habitats in Jaffna, Sri Lanka. Brackish water-derived Ae. aegypti were more tolerant of salinity than fresh water-derived Ae. aegypti and this difference was only partly reduced after their transfer to fresh water for up to five generations. Brackish water-derived Ae. aegypti did not significantly discriminate between 10 ppt salt brackish water and fresh water for oviposition, while fresh water-derived Ae. aegypti preferred fresh water. The hatching of eggs from both brackish and fresh water-derived Ae. aegypti was less efficient and the time taken for larvae to develop into pupae was prolonged in 10 ppt salt brackish water. Ae. aegypti isolated from coastal brackish water were less resistant to the organophosphate insecticide malathion than inland fresh water Ae. aegypti. Brackish and fresh water-derived Ae. aegypti however were able to mate and produce viable offspring in the laboratory. The results suggest that development in brackish water is characterised by pertinent biological changes, and that there is restricted genetic exchange between coastal brackish and inland fresh water Ae. aegypti isolates from sites 5 km apart. The findings highlight the need for monitoring Ae. aegypti developing in coastal brackish waters and extending vector control measures to their habitats. PMID:25170879

  9. Norms for a neuropsychological test battery to diagnose dementia in the elderly: A study from Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Srikanth; Jaleel, Qadir

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To pilot a neuropsychological battery for diagnosing dementia and provide normative scores in an elderly Sri Lankan sample. Materials and Methods: Consecutive subjects over the age of 60 yrs were administered tests assessing the individual domains of language, verbal episodic memory, visual perceptuospatial skills and executive functions in the Sinhala language. Results: There were a total of 230 subjects in the final sample. The mean age of the entire sample was 69 years, mean education level was 12 years and the sample comprised 53% female. One-month test-retest reliability ranged from 0.71 to 0.85 for the various tests. Most tests were significantly influenced by age and education level but not gender. The exceptions to this were some language subtests (repetition, grammar comprehension and word picture matching) and two tests of executive functioning (maze completion and alternate target cancellation), which were uninfluenced by age. The subtests where ceiling performance was attained by almost all subjects were repetition, grammar comprehension and word picture matching from the language domain, dot position discrimination from the visuospatial domain and maze completion test from the executive function domain. Scores for various tests after stratifying subjects by age and educational level are given. Conclusions: The tests were well received and could provide a basis for cognitive profiling in similar settings elsewhere. PMID:25883476

  10. Programmatic Use of Molecular Xenomonitoring at the Level of Evaluation Units to Assess Persistence of Lymphatic Filariasis in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Ramakrishna U.; Samarasekera, Sandhya D.; Nagodavithana, Kumara C.; Punchihewa, Manjula W.; Dassanayaka, Tharanga D. M.; P. K. D, Gamini; Ford, Ethan; Ranasinghe, Udaya S. B.; Henderson, Ralph H.; Weil, Gary J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Sri Lanka’s Anti Filariasis Campaign distributed 5 rounds of mass drug administration (MDA with DEC plus albendazole) to all endemic regions in the country from 2002–2006. Post-MDA surveillance results have generally been encouraging. However, recent studies have documented low level persistence of Wuchereria bancrofti in Galle district based on comprehensive surveys that include molecular xenomonitoring (MX, detection of filarial DNA in mosquitoes) results. The purposes of this study were to demonstrate the use of MX in large evaluation units (EUs) and to field test different mosquito sampling schemes. Methodology/Principal Findings Galle district (population 1.1 million) was divided into two EUs. These included a coastal EU with known persistent LF and an inland EU with little persistent LF. Mosquitoes were systematically sampled from ~300 trap locations in 30 randomly selected clusters (health administrative units) per EU. Approximately 28,000 Culex quinquefasciatus were collected with gravid traps and tested for filarial DNA by qPCR. 92/625 pools (14.7%) from the coastal EU and 8/583 pools (1.4%) from the inland EU were positive for filarial DNA. Maximum likelihood estimates (MLE) for filarial DNA rates were essentially the same when the same number of mosquito pools were collected and tested from 75, 150, or 300 trap sites (range 0.61–0.78% for the coastal EU and 0.04–0.07% for the inland EU). The ability to use a smaller number of trap sites reduces the cost and time required for mosquito sampling. Conclusions/Significance These results suggest there is widespread persistence of W. bancrofti infection in the coastal Galle EU 8 years after the last round of MDA in 2006, and this is consistent with other data from the district. This study has shown that MX can be used by national programs to assess and map the persistence of W. bancrofti at the level of large EUs in areas with Culex transmission. PMID:27196431

  11. Two new species of the genus Sitana Cuvier, 1829 (Reptilia: Agamidae) from Sri Lanka, including a taxonomic revision of the Indian Sitana species.

    PubMed

    Amarasinghe, A A Thasun; Ineich, Ivan; Karunarathna, D M S Suranjan; Botejue, W Madhava S; Campbell, Patrick D

    2015-01-01

    The genus Sitana was described by Cuvier (1829) on the basis of a single species, S. ponticeriana. The secondly described, Sitana minor Günther, 1864, is identical to S. ponticeriana Cuvier, 1829, and should be considered as a junior objective synonym of the latter. The syntypes of S. deccanensis Jerdon, 1870 have been rediscovered, misplaced among the syntypes of S. minor (sensu Boulenger 1885) at the Natural History Museum (London) and the former taxon is here recognised as a valid species and redescribed. There is some doubt surrounding the taxon Sitana ponticeriana mucronata Deraniyagala, 1957. Its type is lost and no live populations have been found since its original description; therefore, we here consider this trinomen as a nomen dubium. The Sitana populations which are distributed in drier and warmer areas of the lower peneplain of Sri Lanka are sufficiently different from the known Indian species and are thus herein described as new species. The two new species, Sitana bahiri sp. nov. and Sitana devakai sp. nov., differ from mainland Indian congeners by having the following combination of characters: SVL 40.0-50.0 mm; axilla-dewlap length 28.3-32.5% of axilla-groin length; snout length 54.7-63.2% of head width; femur length 70.6-78.4% of tibia length; foot length 154.7-180.2% of head length; 49-59 midbody scales; 87-108 ventral scales; unequal and irregular lateral scales with intermediate enlarged scales; 7-9 supralabials; 14-17 subdigital lamellae on toe III; 21-26 subdigital lamellae on toe IV; enlarged scales above the tympanum; a single pale stripe from the snout up to the shoulder. Sitana bahiri sp. nov. differs from Sitana devakai sp. nov. by having ventrals 87-89 (vs. 100-108), mucronate lateral scales (vs. rounded) in males, and rounded (vs. mucronate) ventral scales in females, plus several other characters discussed later . The remaining Sitana populations in India seem to represent several undescribed species, but extensive field work and

  12. Genetic polymorphisms associated with anti-malarial antibody levels in a low and unstable malaria transmission area in southern Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The incidence of malaria in Sri Lanka has significantly declined in recent years. Similar trends were seen in Kataragama, a known malaria endemic location within the southern province of the country, over the past five years. This is a descriptive study of anti-malarial antibody levels and selected host genetic mutations in residents of Kataragama, under low malaria transmission conditions. Methods Sera were collected from 1,011 individuals residing in Kataragama and anti-malarial antibodies and total IgE levels were measured by a standardized ELISA technique. Host DNA was extracted and used for genotyping of selected SNPs in known genes associated with malaria. The antibody levels were analysed in relation to the past history of malaria (during past 10 years), age, sex, the location of residence within Kataragama and selected host genetic markers. Results A significant increase in antibodies against Plasmodium falciparum antigens AMA1, MSP2, NANP and Plasmodium vivax antigen MSP1 in individuals with past history of malaria were observed when compared to those who did not. A marked increase of anti-MSP1(Pf) and anti-AMA1(Pv) was also evident in individuals between 45–59 years (when compared to other age groups). Allele frequencies for two SNPs in genes that code for IL-13 and TRIM-5 were found to be significantly different between those who have experienced one or more malaria attacks within past 10 years and those who did not. When antibody levels were classified into a low-high binary trait, significant associations were found with four SNPs for anti-AMA1(Pf); two SNPs for anti-MSP1(Pf); eight SNPs for anti-NANP(Pf); three SNPs for anti-AMA1(Pv); seven SNPs for anti-MSP1(Pv); and nine SNPs for total IgE. Eleven of these SNPs with significant associations with anti-malarial antibody levels were found to be non–synonymous. Conclusions Evidence is suggestive of an age–acquired immunity in this study population in spite of low malaria

  13. How does the quality of life and the underlying biochemical indicators correlate with the performance in academic examinations in a group of medical students of Sri Lanka?

    PubMed Central

    Hettiarachchi, Manjula; Lakmal Fonseka, Chathuranga; Gunasekara, Priyanka; Jayasinghe, Prasanjanie; Maduranga, Dasun

    2014-01-01

    Background Individual variation of examination performance depends on many modifiable and non-modifiable factors, including pre-examination anxiety. Medical students’ quality of life (QoL) and certain biochemical changes occurring while they are preparing for examinations has not been explored. Purpose We hypothesize that these parameters would determine the examination performance among medical students. Methods Fourth-year medical students (n=78) from the University of Ruhuna, Sri Lanka, were invited. Their pre- and post-exam status of QoL, using the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaire, and the level of biochemical marker levels (i.e., serum levels of thyroid profile including thyroglobulin, cortisol and ferritin) were assessed. Differences between the scores of QoL and serum parameters were compared with their performance at the examination. Results The mean QoL score was significantly lower at pre-exam (56.19±8.1) when compared with post-exam (61.7±7.1) levels (p<0.001). The median serum TSH level prior to the exam (0.9 mIU/L; interquartile range 0.74–1.4 mIU/L) was significantly lower (p=0.001) when compared with the level after the exam (median of 2.7 mIU/L; IQR 1.90–3.60). The mean±SD fT4 level was significantly higher before the exam (19.48±0.4 pmol/L at study entry vs. 17.43±0.3 pmol/L after the exam; p<0.001). Median serum ferritin (SF) level prior to the exam (43.15 (23.5–63.3) µg/L) was significantly lower (p≤0.001) when compared with after-exam status (72.36 (49.9–94.9) µg/L). However, there was no difference in mean serum cortisol levels (16.51±0.7 at pre-exam and 15.88±0.7 at post-exam, respectively; p=0.41). Conclusions Students had higher fT4 and low ferritin levels on pre-exam biochemical assessment. It was evident that students who perform better at the examination had significantly higher QoL scores at each domain tested through the questionnaire (Physical health, Psychological, Social

  14. A natural field example indicating spinel + quartz as a non-diagnostic assemblage for ultrahigh temperature metamorphis from the Highland Complex, Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laksthitha Dharmapriya, Prasanna; Galli, Andrea; Prabath Malaviarachchi, Sanjeeva; Su, Ben-Xun; Deepal Subasinghe, Nalaka; Dissanayake, Chandrasekara; Nimalsiri, Thusitha; Zhu, Bin

    2014-05-01

    Though, co-existing spinel + quartz has been reported from a number of ultra-high-temperature (UHT) granulite terrains, experimental studies suggest that the stability of the assemblage could be shifted towards lower temperatures due to the incorporation into the spinel structure of Zn, Cr, Ti, Ni, V or Fe3+ at high oxidizing conditions. In this study, we report co-existing spinel + quartz within garnet-porphyroblasts in a non-UHT spinel- and cordierite-bearing garnet-sillimanite-biotite-graphite gneiss (khondalite) interbedded with orthopyroxene-garnet-biotite-bearing intermediate granulites from the Highland Complex (HC) in Sri Lanka. Zn-rich spinels were observed in four textural settings which probably formed during different stages along the PT trajectory followed by the khondalite: (a) spinel co-existing with tiny quartz (ZnO = 12.67-12.85 wt%), (b) spinel surrounded by sillimanite moats and in intergrowth with skeletal sillimanites (ZnO = 9.03-9.17 wt%), (c) symplectitic spinels at the margin of sillimanite (ZnO = 4.09-4.28 wt%), and (d) spinel co-existing with ilmenite or as isolated grains (ZnO = 7.61-7.97 wt% and Cr2O3 = 5.99-6.27 wt%). Textural settings (a) and (b) occur within garnet-porphyroblasts, while textures of (c) and (d) are present within cordierite moats after garnet in the rock matrix. Pseudosections calculated in the CNKFMASHTMnO system and conventional geothermobarometry suggest that the metamorphic peak conditions attained by the spinel + quartz bearing khondalites and associated intermediate granulites approached but not exceeded T of 900 °C at P of 7.5-8.5 kbar. After the peak of the metamorphism, the khondalite has undergone a stage of nearly-isobaric cooling down to T of 770 °C and P of 7.5 kbar, followed by a late stage of isothermal decompression down to P < 6.5 kbar and T of 770 °C. Hence, the stabilization of coexisting spinel + quartz to T < 900 °C could be due to the incorporation into spinel of large amount of Zn, which was

  15. P-T evolution of a spinel + quartz bearing khondalite from the Highland Complex, Sri Lanka: Implications for non-UHT metamorphism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dharmapriya, P. L.; Malaviarachchi, Sanjeewa P. K.; Galli, Andrea; Su, Ben-Xun; Subasinghe, N. D.; Dissanayake, C. B.; Nimalsiri, T. B.; Zhu, Bin

    2014-12-01

    Here, we report a natural field example for the coexistence of spinel + quartz as a non-UHT assemblage in spinel- and cordierite-bearing garnet-sillimanite-biotite-graphite gneiss (khondalite) interbedded with orthopyroxene-garnet-biotite bearing intermediate granulites from the Highland Complex (HC) in Sri Lanka. The khondalite contains Zn-rich spinel mainly in four textural assemblages namely: (a) spinel co-existing with tiny quartz (ZnO = 12.67-12.85 wt%), (b) spinel surrounded by sillimanite moates and in intergrowth with skeletal sillimanites (ZnO = 9.03-9.17 wt%), (c) symplectitic spinels at the margin of sillimanite (ZnO = 4.09-4.28 wt%) and (d) spinel co-existing with ilmenite or as isolated grains (ZnO = 7.61-7.97 wt% and Cr2O3 = 5.99-6.27 wt%). Assemblage (a) and (b) occur within garnet while assemblages of (c) and (d) are present within cordierite moates after garnet in the matrix. Pseudosections calculated in the NCKFMASHTMnO system and conventional geothermobarometry suggest that the metamorphic peak conditions attained by the spinel + quartz bearing khondalites and associated intermediate granulites did not exceed T of 900 °C and P of 7.5-8.5 kbar. Post-peak evolution was characterized by a stage of nearly-isobaric cooling down to T of 770 °C and P of 7.5 kbar, followed by a late stage of isothermal decompression down to P < 6.5 kbar and T of 770 °C. We propose that the incorporation of large amount of Zn into spinel from exotic, metasomatic fluids and possibly incorporation of Fe3+ into spinel under high oxidizing conditions may have shifted the stabilization of co-existing spinel + quartz to T < 900 °C. Hence, this study provides insights into the occurrence of spinel + quartz as a non- UHT assemblage suggesting that the coexistence of spinel + quartz should be treated with care and considered only as indicative, but not diagnostic of UHT metamorphism.

  16. Prediction of Ungauged River Basin for Hydro Power Potential and Flood Risk Mitigation; a Case Study at Gin River, Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnayake, A. S.

    2011-12-01

    The most of the primary civilizations of the world emerged in or near river valleys or floodplains. The river channels and floodplains are single hydrologic and geomorphic system. The failure to appreciate the integral connection between floodplains and channel underlies many socioeconomic and environmental problems in river management today. However it is a difficult task of collecting reliable field hydrological data. Under such situations either synthetic or statistically generated data were used for hydraulic engineering designing and flood modeling. The fundamentals of precipitation-runoff relationship through synthetic unit hydrograph for Gin River basin were prepared using the method of the Flood Studies Report of the National Environmental Research Council, United Kingdom (1975). The Triangular Irregular Network model was constructed using Geographic Information System (GIS) to determine hazard prone zones. The 1:10,000 and 1:50,000 topography maps and field excursions were also used for initial site selection of mini-hydro power units and determine flooding area. The turbines output power generations were calculated using the parameters of net head and efficiency of turbine. The peak discharge achieves within 4.74 hours from the onset of the rainstorm and 11.95 hours time takes to reach its normal discharge conditions of Gin River basin. Stream frequency of Gin River is 4.56 (Junctions/ km2) while the channel slope is 7.90 (m/km). The regional coefficient on the catchment is 0.00296. Higher stream frequency and gentle channel slope were recognized as the flood triggering factors of Gin River basin and other parameters such as basins catchment area, main stream length, standard average annual rainfall and soil do not show any significant variations with other catchments of Sri Lanka. The flood management process, including control of flood disaster, prepared for a flood, and minimize it impacts are complicated in human population encroached and modified

  17. Sri Lankan Teachers' Preferred Modes of Helping Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dharmadasa, Kiri H.; Gorrell, Jeffrey

    Citing research indicating that U.S. teachers commonly use verbal persuasion techniques to help low achieving students, this study extends the research to Sri Lanka to explore differences in helping strategies adopted by teachers across cultures. Study participants were 237 Sri Lanka teachers who represented the majority Sinhalese population and…

  18. Formation of garnet + corundum during isobaric cooling at UHT conditions: an example from pelitic granulites of the Highland Complex, Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laksthitha Dharmapriya, Prasanna; Galli, Andrea; Prabath Malaviarachchi, Sanjeeva; Su, Ben-Xun

    2014-05-01

    Coexisting garnet and corundum have been reported from different rock types such as UHP rocks, aluminous eclogites, kimberlites and numerous granulites worldwide which experienced UHT conditions of 900-1050 °C at relatively high but not eclogitic pressures of 10-12 kbar. In pelitic granulites the assemblage garnet + corundum is usually interpreted to form at peak P during prograde heating along a clock-wise metamorphic path and subsequently breaks down during decompression to form sapphirine, cordierite-sapphirine-spinel or spinel-sillimanite bearing assemblages, depending on the PT-trajectory and bulk rock composition. In any cases, coexisting garnet + corundum are rarely preserved. Even less usual is the occurrence of garnet + corundum in pyroxene-free rocks. In this study, we report the occurrence of coexisting garnet + corundum within spinel- and corundum-bearing, orthopyroxene-free garnet-sillimanite-biotite-graphite gneisses from the Highland Complex (HC), Sri Lanka. In the investigated pelitic granulites, quartz-saturated domains and quartz-deficient domains are distinguishable. Quartz-saturated domains consist of quartz, plagioclase, alkali-feldspar, garnet-porphyroblasts and biotite flakes around garnet. Quartz-deficient domains are constituted of sillimanite, plagioclase, alkali-feldspar, corundum, spinel, biotite and two generations of garnet. Grt1 is coarse- to medium-grained (0.5-3 cm in diameter) and encloses rare Ti-rich biotite and numerous rutile needles and apatite rods. Grt2 is medium- to fine-grained (0.25-1 cm in diameter), contains rare sillimanite and/or spinel inclusions and is always associated with corundum. Corundum occurs in mutual contact with Grt2, partially embedded within rim area of Grt2 or as inclusions in Grt2. Rarely, tiny spinel inclusions can be observed in corundum. The chemistry of minerals preserved as inclusion in Grt1 indicates that pelitic granulites attained maximal P of 10.5-11 kbar at T around 850°C during their

  19. Growing Pains: The Impact of Disaster-Related and Daily Stressors on the Psychological and Psychosocial Functioning of Youth in Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernando, Gaithri A.; Miller, Kenneth E.; Berger, Dale E.

    2010-01-01

    Daily stressors may mediate the relation between exposure to disaster-related stressors and psychological and psychosocial distress among youth in disaster-affected countries. A sample of 427 Sri Lankan Sinhalese, Tamil, and Muslim youth (mean age = 14.5) completed a survey with measures of exposure to disaster-related stressors and daily…

  20. A study of genetic polymorphisms in mitochondrial DNA hypervariable regions I and II of the five major ethnic groups and Vedda population in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Ranasinghe, Ruwandi; Tennekoon, Kamani H; Karunanayake, Eric H; Lembring, Maria; Allen, Marie

    2015-11-01

    Diversity of the hypervariable regions (HV) I and II of the mitochondrial genome was studied in maternally unrelated Sri Lankans (N=202) from six ethnic groups (i.e.: Sinhalese, Sri Lankan Tamil, Muslim, Malay, Indian Tamil and Vedda). DNA was extracted from blood and buccal swabs and HVI and HVII regions were PCR amplified and sequenced. Resulting sequences were aligned and edited between 16024-16365 and 73-340 regions and compared with revised Cambridge reference sequences (rCRS). One hundred and thirty-five unique haplotypes and 22 shared haplotypes were observed. A total of 145 polymorphic sites and 158 polymorphisms were observed. Hypervariable region I showed a higher polymorphic variation than hypervariable region II. Nucleotide diversities were quite low and similar for all ethnicities apart from a slightly higher value for Indian Tamils and a much lower value for the Vedda population compared to the other groups. When the total population was considered South Asian (Indian) haplogroups were predominant, but there were differences in the distribution of phylo-geographical haplogroups between ethnic groups. Sinhalese, Sri Lankan Tamil and Vedda populations had a considerable presence of West Eurasian haplogroups. About 2/3rd of the Vedda population comprised of macro-haplogroup N or its subclades R and U, whereas macro-haplogroup M was predominant in all other populations. The Vedda population clustered separately from other groups and Sri Lankan Tamils showed a closer genetic affiliation to Sinhalese than to Indian Tamils. Thus this study provides useful information for forensic analysis and anthropological studies of Sri Lankans. PMID:26065620

  1. Awareness and views of the law on termination of pregnancy and reasons for resorting to an abortion among a group of women attending a clinic in Colombo, Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Abeyasinghe, N L; Weerasundera, B J; Jayawardene, P A; Somarathna, S D

    2009-04-01

    In Sri Lanka, induced abortion is a criminal offence except to save the life of the mother. This study determined the awareness and views of the law on abortion among women seeking an abortion. Three hundred and thirteen women were interviewed. The characteristics of the study group are discussed. 65.8% of the respondents stated they knew the current law, 25.6% stated they did not and 8.3% were unsure. On detailed analysis of each respondent's knowledge regarding the situations where abortion is legalized including those who stated that they did not know the law, only 11.2% had an accurate knowledge. More than 75% stated that abortion should be legalized when the mother's life was in danger, where there was pregnancy after rape or incest, when there was psychiatric illness in the mother and when there were fetal anomalies. Reasons for resorting to an abortion are discussed. Although 11.2% were aware of the law, there was no difference in the reasons for resorting to an abortion when compared with those who were unaware of the law. This study highlights the fact that availability of abortion services to women depend not only on the law and its awareness, but on how it is interpreted and enforced. PMID:19239963

  2. Rates and Psychological Effects of Exposure to Family Violence among Sri Lankan University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haj-Yahia, Muhammad M.; de Zoysa, Piyanjli

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The study had two objectives: to examine the rates of exposure to family violence among students in a non-Western society, with Sri Lanka as a case study and to examine the psychological effects of their exposure. Method: Four hundred seventy six medical students in Sri Lanka were surveyed. A self-administered questionnaire was…

  3. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices on Lifestyle and Cardiovascular Risk Factors Among Metabolic Syndrome Patients in an Urban Tertiary Care Institute in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Amarasekara, Priyanwada; de Silva, Angela; Swarnamali, Hasinthi; Senarath, Upul; Katulanda, Prasad

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a significant predictor of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). A pretested questionnaire was used to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) of CVD and its risks among Sri Lankan urban adults (35–55 years) with MetS. KAP scores were predefined as high, moderate, and low. Of the participants (n = 423), 13% were males and 87% were females. Attitudes scores were high among this population, though their knowledge and practices scores on CVD risk factors were moderate. Participants with high mean knowledge scores had significantly lower waist circumference (WC) and showed a trend toward reduced fasting blood glucose levels. Participants with high practice scores had significantly lower BMI and WC, which signify that better knowledge and practices are associated with decrease in CVD risk markers in these patients. The study reveals that urban MetS patients have a moderate knowledge and practice score, though their attitude score is high regarding CVD risk factors. PMID:26512029

  4. Is the staple diet eaten in Medawachchiya, Sri Lanka, a predisposing factor in the development of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology? - A comparison based on urinary β2-microglobulin measurements

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Exact mechanism of causation of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) in Sri Lanka is not described to date, despite the identification of possible multiple risk factors. Questions have been raised as to why only some are affected while others remain intact, though they are inhabitants of the same locality. Methods Comparative studies were carried out, assessing urinary β2 microglobulin (β2m) and the dietary patterns of CKDu patients and age sex matched non-CKDu subjects. Urinary β2m levels of spot urine samples were analyzed using the Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and dietary patterns were studied using twenty four hour dietary recalls and frequency consumption of foods of animal origin performed on three occasions at six months intervals within a period of one and half years. Results The mean urinary β2m level of CKDu patients from Medawachchiya was significantly (p < 0.05) higher when compared with that of the non-CKDu subjects. The mean urinary β2m level of the non-CKDu subjects was within the reference limits for spot urine samples (0 – 0.3 μg/mL). White raw rice was the staple diet of both CKDu patients and non-CKDu subjects and the level of consumption was almost the same. The consumption of fresh water fish products of CKDu patients under high (14, 14%), moderate (36, 36%), low (26, 26%) and less (20, 20%) categories did not show significant variations (p > 0.05) compared to non-CKDu subjects. Conclusions Staple food in diet and the consumption pattern of CKDu patients from Medawachchiya were similar to that of non-CKDu subjects from the same area despite their urinary β2m concentration being significantly higher. PMID:24988874

  5. Redescription of Cateria gerlachi (Kinorhyncha, Cyclorhagida) from Sri Lanka and of C. styx from Brazil, with notes on C. gerlachi from India and C. styx from Chile, and the ground pattern of the genus.

    PubMed

    Neuhaus, Birger; Kegel, Antje

    2015-01-01

    Cateria gerlachi is redescribed based on specimens from the west coast of Sri Lanka by light microscopical observations of 57 adult and 47 juvenile specimens and by SEM investigations of 33 adult and 10 juvenile specimens. Cateria styx from Brazil is redescribed from 33 adult and 5 juvenile specimens mounted for light microscopy (original material). The original material of C. gerlachi from India and new material of C. styx from Chile have been studied for comparison. Cateria gerlachi can be distinguished from C. styx by leaf-like cuticular hairs dorsally but not laterally on the tergal plate of segment 1 and on the midsternal plate of segments 1-2 vs scales with a posterior process on the entire tergal plate of segment 1 and on the midsternal plate of segments 1-2 in C. styx, fewer lines of leaf-like hairs of the secondary fringe on segments 2-10 in C. gerlachi, broader scales in the central part of the segments in C. gerlachi, the blunt tube on segment 5 in a lateral accessory vs a lateroventral position in C. styx, the lack of a midlateral spine on segment 11 vs its existence on segment 11 of C. styx, the lack of a protrusible dorsal organ at the border of segments 5 and 6 vs its existence in C. styx and type-5 sensory spots and gland cell outlets present on different segments and positions in the two species. We report and document for species of Cateria detailed morphological data, including variability within populations, a female and a male life-history stage, as well as moulting of an adult stage to another adult stage. In contrast to previous records, C. gerlachi occurs in sandy intertidal habitats not only deeply buried in the sediment but also at the surface. PMID:26249473

  6. The Effectiveness of a ‘Train the Trainer’ Model of Resuscitation Education for Rural Peripheral Hospital Doctors in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Rajapakse, Bishan N.; Neeman, Teresa; Dawson, Andrew H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Sri Lankan rural doctors based in isolated peripheral hospitals routinely resuscitate critically ill patients but have difficulty accessing training. We tested a train-the-trainer model that could be utilised in isolated rural hospitals. Methods Eight selected rural hospital non-specialist doctors attended a 2-day instructor course. These “trained trainers” educated their colleagues in advanced cardiac life support at peripheral hospital workshops and we tested their students in resuscitation knowledge and skills pre and post training, and at 6- and 12-weeks. Knowledge was assessed through 30 multiple choice questions (MCQ), and resuscitation skills were assessed by performance in a video recorded simulated scenario of a cardiac arrest using a Resuci Anne Skill Trainer mannequin. Results/Discussion/Conclusion Fifty seven doctors were trained. Pre and post training assessment was possible in 51 participants, and 6-week and 12-week follow up was possible for 43, and 38 participants respectively. Mean MCQ scores significantly improved over time (p<0.001), and a significant improvement was noted in “average ventilation volume”, “compression count”, and “compressions with no error”, “adequate depth”, “average depth”, and “compression rate” (p<0.01). The proportion of participants with compression depth ≥40mm increased post intervention (p<0.05) and at 12-week follow up (p<0.05), and proportion of ventilation volumes between 400-1000mls increased post intervention (p<0.001). A significant increase in the proportion of participants who “checked for responsiveness”, “opened the airway”, “performed a breathing check”, who used the “correct compression ratio”, and who used an “appropriate facemask technique” was also noted (p<0.001). A train-the-trainer model of resuscitation education was effective in improving resuscitation knowledge and skills in Sri Lankan rural peripheral hospital doctors. Improvement was

  7. L2 Reading Motivation among Sri Lankan University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhanapala, Kusumi Vasantha; Hirakawa, Yukiko

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the extent of the motivational processes that facilitated the text comprehension among 406 Sri Lankan university students in Sri Lanka. Students' L2 text comprehension and reading motivation were assessed using a reading comprehension test and a reading motivation and attitude questionnaire. The Principal Componential…

  8. Blended Learning in Distance Education: Sri Lankan Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liyanagunawardena, T. R.; Adams, A. A.; Rassool, N.; Williams, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the implementation of online learning in distance educational delivery at Yellow Fields University (pseudonymous) in Sri Lanka. The implementation of online distance education at the University included the use of blended learning. The policy initiative to introduce online for distance education in Sri Lanka…

  9. Association between underweight and taste sensitivity in middle- to old-aged nursing home residents in Sri Lanka: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Fuchida, S; Yamamoto, T; Takiguchi, T; Kandaudahewa, G; Yuyama, N; Hirata, Y

    2013-11-01

    Low taste sensitivity may be one factor related to undernutrition, which is a major problem in developing countries. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine the association between underweight, one indicator of undernutrition, and taste sensitivity in middle- to old-aged Sri Lankan nursing home residents. Participants were 946 residents with BMI of <25·0 from 25 nursing homes. Data were obtained on height, weight, taste sensitivity, subjective taste ability, sex, age, ethnicity, number of years in nursing homes, activities of daily living (ADL), frequency of exercise, bowel movements, smoking status, drinking status, current number of chronic diseases, number and kinds of medications used, self-reporting questionnaire 20 (SRQ20), subjective smell ability, number of teeth present, Eichner index and flow rate of saliva. Low sensitivity to bitter taste, being male, old age, low ADL, smoking experience, drinking experience, fewer medications used and no use of medication for hypertension and diabetes were each associated with underweight (P < 0·05). In a multilevel Poisson regression model adjusted for sex, age, ADL, smoking status, drinking status, number of medications used, use of medication for hypertension and diabetes and flow rate of saliva, subjects with low sensitivity (>0·003% quinine hydrochloride dihydrate) to bitter taste had a significant 1·70 times higher prevalence ratio (95% confident interval 1·04-2·80) for underweight compared with those with high sensitivity (0·0001% quinine hydrochloride dihydrate). These results suggest that low taste sensitivity to bitter taste may be one factor related to underweight. PMID:24111976

  10. Gender Equity in Science and Technology in Sri Lankan Universities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malmini, Ranasinghe

    2009-04-01

    Women's composition in the field of science and technology (S&T) in the university system of Sri Lanka was analyzed for the last 12 years. All state universities, including older established and newly introduced S&T oriented, were considered. Sri Lanka data revealed a general increase in female students. In university admissions, the proportion of women in bioscience is more than twice that of women in physical science. A very high percentage of students is majoring in physics. The female qualified percentage to enter university has risen from 56% to 62% in bioscience and from 24% to 32% in physical science. Physical science has seen an increase of qualifying females in the last 12 years. In Sri Lanka, there are about 2,250 university academic staff in S&T, about 36% of whom are women. Only a handful of women physicists work at Sri Lankan state universities; therefore, information on every woman physicist in state universities is given.

  11. Efficacy of intravenous hydrocortisone administered 2-4 h prior to antivenom as prophylaxis against adverse drug reactions to snake antivenom in Sri Lanka: An open labelled randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kularatne, Senanayake A M; Weerakoon, Kosala; Silva, Anjana; Maduwage, Kalana; Walathara, Chamara; Rathnayake, Ishani; Medagedara, Senal; Paranagama, Ranjith; Mendis, Suresh; Kumarasiri, P V R

    2016-09-15

    The prevention of adverse drug reactions to antivenom serum poses a formidable challenge in the management of snakebite. Hydrocortisone is being used concurrently with antivenom in order to prevent these adverse drug reactions without a proven benefit. However, all previous studies seemed to ignore the testing of effectiveness of hydrocortisone therapy during its pharmacological effects, which come hours later. On this principle, we aimed to test the effectiveness of intravenous hydrocortisone given 2 h or more prior to the commencement of antivenom therapy to reduce adverse drug reactions to antivenom. In an open-labelled randomized controlled trial, patients with a history of snakebite were randomly assigned to receive either 500 mg intravenous hydrocortisone bolus given 2 h or more prior to antivenom therapy (Group A) or at the time of antivenom therapy (Group B). The primary endpoint was the reduction of adverse drug reactions to antivenom of any grade of severity within the first 48 h. This trial has been registered with the "Sri Lanka Clinical Trials Registry", number SLCTR/2010/005. A total of 236 patients were randomized to group A or Group B. In the group A, 38 participants received hydrocortisone 2 h before administration of antivenom whilst 33 received hydrocortisone less than 2 h before administration of antivenom. In the Group B, 84 participants received hydrocortisone at the time of antivenom therapy. In Group A (n, 38), and Group B (n, 84), 15 patients (39%) and 29 patients (35%) developed reactions respectively and the difference is not significant (p = 0.598). Moreover, hydrocortisone therapy did not significantly reduce the occurrence of antievnom reactions of any grade of severity. Further, it didn't delay the occurrence of antivenom reactions in patients who received hydrocortisone either more than 2 h or less than 2 h before the antivenom as opposed to the control group (group B). Intravenous hydrocortisone shows no difference in the

  12. Quest to identify geochemical risk factors associated with chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) in an endemic region of Sri Lanka-a multimedia laboratory analysis of biological, food, and environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Levine, Keith E; Redmon, Jennifer Hoponick; Elledge, Myles F; Wanigasuriya, Kamani P; Smith, Kristin; Munoz, Breda; Waduge, Vajira A; Periris-John, Roshini J; Sathiakumar, Nalini; Harrington, James M; Womack, Donna S; Wickremasinghe, Rajitha

    2015-10-01

    The emergence of a new form of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) in Sri Lanka's North Central Province (NCP) has become a catastrophic health crisis. CKDu is characterized as slowly progressing, irreversible, and asymptomatic until late stages and, importantly, not attributed to diabetes, hypertension, or other known risk factors. It is postulated that the etiology of CKDu is multifactorial, involving genetic predisposition, nutritional and dehydration status, exposure to one or more environmental nephrotoxins, and lifestyle factors. The objective of this limited geochemical laboratory analysis was to determine the concentration of a suite of heavy metals and trace element nutrients in biological samples (human whole blood and hair) and environmental samples (drinking water, rice, soil, and freshwater fish) collected from two towns within the endemic NCP region in 2012 and 2013. This broad panel, metallomics/mineralomics approach was used to shed light on potential geochemical risk factors associated with CKDu. Based on prior literature documentation of potential nephrotoxins that may play a role in the genesis and progression of CKDu, heavy metals and fluoride were selected for analysis. The geochemical concentrations in biological and environmental media areas were quantified. Basic statistical measurements were subsequently used to compare media against applicable benchmark values, such as US soil screening levels. Cadmium, lead, and mercury were detected at concentrations exceeding US reference values in many of the biological samples, suggesting that study participants are subjected to chronic, low-level exposure to these elements. Within the limited number of environmental media samples, arsenic was determined to exceed initial risk screening and background concentration values in soil, while data collected from drinking water samples reflected the unique hydrogeochemistry of the region, including the prevalence of hard or very hard water, and

  13. Hydro-epidemiology of Chronic Kidney Disease(CKD) in Sri Lanka and Its Similarities to the CKD Epidemic in Meso-America.Sarath Gunatilake M.D, Dr. P.H, Professor, California State University, Long Beach California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illangasekera, T.; Gunatilake, S.

    2015-12-01

    Over 2000 years ago Sri Lanka was known as the granary of the east. This distinction was achieved with a massive rice production aided by an efficient irrigation system. The basic structural unit of this irrigation system -with thousands of man-made lakes- was a large reservoir collecting rain water from tributaries and redistributing it to a cascade of rice paddy farms. The rice cultivation used organic fertilizer and natural pesticides made from ancient Ayurvedic recipes. The sociopolitical changes initiated in the county in 1977 resulted in a modernized agricultural economy with the renovation of the old irrigation system. Heavy use of pesticides, mostly Glyphosate (brand name "Round Up") with government subsidized cheap synthetic fertilizer (mostly triple phosphate) contaminated with heavy metals, including Arsenic and Cadmium, became a common practice. As a result, the shallow aquifers in the lowest lying areas, recharged by the irrigation water, was contaminated with Calcium, Magnesium phosphates, and the heavy metals, rendering the drinking water from shallow wells in these areas, extremely hard and unpalatable. The practice of drinking water from the shallow wells in low lying areas, most of which are abandoned now, and the use and spraying of pesticides particularly Glyphosate (often without proper personal protective equipment) have been identified in a case control study, as the main risk factors responsible for a massive epidemic of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) affecting 450,000 young farmers, resulting in 23,000 deaths. It is hypothesized that the Glyphosate chelates heavy metals delivering it to the kidney, with contaminated drinking water and food, causing progressive kidney damage. The same irrigation system that contributed to past prosperity has now become a scourge within the realm of a modernized agriculture. Climatic variations, global warming and severe dehydration also have been identified as contributory factors. Similar CKD epidemic killing

  14. High lethality and minimal variation after acute self-poisoning with carbamate insecticides in Sri Lanka – implications for global suicide prevention

    PubMed Central

    Lamb, Thomas; Selvarajah, Liza R.; Mohamed, Fahim; Jayamanne, Shaluka; Gawarammana, Indika; Mostafa, Ahmed; Buckley, Nicholas A.; Roberts, Michael S.; Eddleston, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Highly hazardous organophosphorus (OP) insecticides are responsible for most pesticide poisoning deaths. As they are removed from agricultural practice, they are often replaced by carbamate insecticides of perceived lower toxicity. However, relatively little is known about poisoning with these insecticides. Methods: We prospectively studied 1288 patients self-poisoned with carbamate insecticides admitted to six Sri Lankan hospitals. Clinical outcomes were recorded for each patient and plasma carbamate concentration measured in a sample to confirm the carbamate ingested. Findings: Patients had ingested 3% carbofuran powder (719), carbosulfan EC25 liquid (25% w/v, 389), or fenobucarb EC50 liquid (50% w/v, 127) formulations, carbamate insecticides of WHO Toxicity Classes Ib, II, and II, respectively. Intubation and ventilation was required for 183 (14.2%) patients while 71 (5.5%) died. Compared with carbofuran, poisoning with carbosulfan or fenobucarb was associated with significantly higher risk of death [carbofuran 2.2%; carbosulfan 11.1%, OR 5.5 (95% CI 3.0–9.8); fenobucarb 6.3%, OR 3.0 (1.2–7.1)] and intubation [carbofuran 6.1%; carbosulfan 27.0%, OR 5.7 (3.9–8.3); fenobucarb 18.9%, OR 3.6 (2.1–6.1)]. The clinical presentation and cause of death did not differ markedly between carbamates. Median time to death was similar: carbofuran 42.3 h (IQR 5.5–67.3), carbosulfan 21.3 h (11.5–71.3), and fenobucarb 25.3 h (17.3–72.1) (p = 0.99); no patients showed delayed onset of toxicity akin to the intermediate syndrome seen after OP insecticide poisoning. For survivors, median duration of intubation was 67.8 h (IQR 27.5–118.8) with no difference in duration between carbamates. Reduced GCS at presentation was associated with worse outcome although some patients with carbosulfan died after presentation with normal GCS. Conclusions: We did not find carbamate insecticide self-poisoning to vary markedly according to the carbamate

  15. Examining Washback: The Sri Lankan Impact Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Dianne; Alderson, J. Charles

    A study in Sri Lanka concerning the effects of second language tests, specifically the O-Level examination in English as a Second Language, on classroom language instruction is reported. The study investigates the phenomenon of washback or backwash, the influence of testing on instruction. It is cited as the only known research investigating…

  16. Sri Lankan Case Study on Public/Private Participation in the Promotion of Wind Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Rod; Thanthilage, Rohitha

    2007-10-01

    Micro wind power systems are one of the most appropriate and comparatively economical renewable energy sources to meet the off-grid energy needs of Sri Lanka. To penetrate the target markets and intended beneficiaries of Sri Lanka, it requires sound demonstrations to prove its technical, financial and or economic viability. This paper, presents a case study of a successful wind powered rural electrification project and the establishment of a revolving fund with public/private participation.

  17. Essential drugs and registration of pharmaceuticals: the Sri Lankan experience.

    PubMed Central

    Weerasuriya, K.

    1993-01-01

    Many factors influence the regulation of pharmaceuticals in a country. The essential drugs concept, formulated by the World Health Organization to assist developing countries in selecting appropriate drugs, also provides a basis for regulation. Sri Lanka has long regulated pharmaceuticals as part of its health policy. Over 70% of 3436 pharmaceutical product registrations were found to be drugs (or alternatives) named in the country's essential drugs list. This is despite the fact that product registrations are mainly for the private health care sector, and the list is for the state sector. The essential drugs concept therefore appears to have influenced the pharmaceuticals registered in Sri Lanka. PMID:8490987

  18. Evidence for perennial malaria in rural and urban areas under the Sudanian climate of Kandi, Northeastern Benin

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In arid settings, droughts usually lead to periods of very low or no malaria transmission. However, in rural Kandi (Sonsoro) in northeastern Benin, several malaria cases are often diagnosed during dry seasons. The underlying factors accounting for this phenomenon remain unknown. Methods The entomological profile of Sonsoro has been studied compared to a location in urban Kandi (Gansosso) for a period of one year. During this period, Anopheles larval habitats were investigated and populations of Anopheles gambiae s.l. were sampled by human landing catches in both areas. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (CSP) were conducted on vector specimens and the entomological inoculation rates (EIR) were determined per season (wet versus dry) in each area. In addition, during the severe drought period, Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs) were conducted on school children under the age 10 years in these areas to provide a global view of drought-malaria prevalence and to perform a crossing with entomological data in Kandi. Results Overall, An. gambiae s.l. was particularly abundant in rural Kandi compared to the urban area with a significant decrease of vector density in both sites during the dry season. In this period, larval sampling data identified household water sources as potential breeding sites in urban and rural Kandi. We also observed a significant seasonal variation of the infectivity rate in both areas but for each period (season), the EIR was higher in the rural site than in the urban. Data of P. falciparum detection was the reflection of entomological findings. The drought-malaria prevalence was 5.5 times higher in rural Kandi as compared to urban Kandi. The presence of a permanent water site and the low level of urbanization in rural Kandi were identified as a risk factor. Conclusion Our data showed a high level of malaria transmission in the municipality of Kandi. Household water source plays an

  19. The Impact of Education Investment on Sri Lankan Economic Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganegodage, K. Renuka; Rambaldi, Alicia N.

    2011-01-01

    We evaluate the contribution of investment on education to Sri Lanka's economic growth during the period 1959-2008. Physical capital, economic policy changes and the ethnic war are also evaluated due to their substantial importance. This study uses a framework encompassing both the neoclassical and endogenous growth model. The impact of education…

  20. Training Objectives, Transfer, Validation and Evaluation: A Sri Lankan Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickramasinghe, Vathsala M.

    2006-01-01

    Using a stratified random sample, this paper examines the training practices of setting objectives, transfer, validation and evaluation in Sri Lanka. The paper further sets out to compare those practices across local, foreign and joint-venture companies based on the assumption that there may be significant differences across companies of different…

  1. Malaria Eradication and Educational Attainment: Evidence from Paraguay and Sri Lanka†

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, Adrienne M.

    2013-01-01

    Mid-twentieth century malaria eradication campaigns largely eliminated malaria from Paraguay and Sri Lanka. Using these interventions as quasi-experiments, I estimate malaria’s effect on lifetime female educational attainment through the combination of pre-existing geographic variation in malarial intensity and cohort exposure based on the timing of the national anti-malaria campaigns. The estimates from Sri Lanka and Paraguay are similar and indicate that malaria eradication increased years of educational attainment and literacy. The similarity of the estimates across the countries reinforces our confidence in the validity of the identification strategy. PMID:23946866

  2. Attitude Towards Health Information Privacy and Electronic Health Records Among Urban Sri Lankan Adults.

    PubMed

    Tissera, Shaluni R; Silva, S N

    2016-01-01

    Sri Lanka is planning to move towards an Electronic Health Record (EHR) system. This research argues that the public preparedness should be considered in order to implement a functioning and an effective EHR system in a country. When asked about how concerned the participants were about the security of their health records, 40.5% stated they were concerned and 38.8% were very concerned. They were asked to rate the 'level of trust' they have on health institutes in Sri Lanka on a scale from 1 to 10 (1 lowest level of trust and 10 highest), 66.1% rated at level 5 or less. PMID:27332453

  3. The health behavior of Sri Lankan Buddhist nuns with type 2 diabetes: duty, devotion, and detachment.

    PubMed

    Wijesinghe, Sunny; Mendelson, Cindy

    2013-12-01

    Sri Lanka has experienced an increase in the rate of type 2 diabetes. Selfmanagement of diabetes among Sri Lanka's Buddhist nuns, who depend on food donations and limit physical activity in accord with the monastic code of conduct, presents unique challenges and has not been previously studied. The purpose of this focused ethnographic study of 10 Buddhist nuns was to understand how they managed their illness within the restrictions on diet and physical activity. Three themes-duty, devotion, and detachment-explained and described their health behavior regarding type 2 diabetes within the context of their daily routines and obligations. PMID:22395758

  4. Z-Score Demystified: A Critical Analysis of the Sri Lankan University Admission Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warnapala, Yajni; Silva, Karishma

    2011-01-01

    In the year 2001, the University Grants Commission of Sri Lanka successfully appealed to change the method of determining the cut-off scores for university admissions from raw scores to standardized z-scores. This standardization allegedly eliminated the discrepancy caused due to the assumption of equal difficulty levels across all subjects. This…

  5. Developing Government Policies for Distance Education: Lessons Learnt from Two Sri Lankan Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liyanagunawardena, Tharindu Rekha; Adams, Andrew A.; Rassool, Naz; Williams, Shirley A.

    2014-01-01

    Education, especially higher education, is considered vital for maintaining national and individual competitiveness in the global knowledge economy. Following the introduction of its "Free Education Policy" as early as 1947, Sri Lanka is now the best performer in basic education in the South Asian region, with a remarkable record in…

  6. Sri Lankan National Melioidosis Surveillance Program Uncovers a Nationwide Distribution of Invasive Melioidosis.

    PubMed

    Corea, Enoka M; Merritt, Adam J; Ler, Yi-Horng; Thevanesam, Vasanthi; Inglis, Timothy J J

    2016-02-01

    The epidemiologic status of melioidosis in Sri Lanka was unclear from the few previous case reports. We established laboratory support for a case definition and started a nationwide case-finding study. Suspected Burkholderia pseudomallei isolates were collated, identified by polymerase chain reaction assay, referred for Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight analysis and multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and named according to the international MLST database. Between 2006 and early 2014, there were 32 patients with culture-confirmed melioidosis with an increasing annual total and a falling fatality rate. Patients were predominantly from rural communities, diabetic, and male. The major clinical presentations were sepsis, pneumonia, soft tissue and joint infections, and other focal infection. Burkholderia pseudomallei isolates came from all parts of Sri Lanka except the Sabaragamuwa Province, the south central hill country, and parts of northern Sri Lanka. Bacterial isolates belonged to 18 multilocus sequence types, one of which (ST 1137) was associated with septicemia and a single-organ focus (Fisher's exact, P = 0.004). Melioidosis is an established endemic infection throughout Sri Lanka, and is caused by multiple genotypes of B. pseudomallei, which form a distinct geographic group based upon related sequence types (BURST) cluster at the junction of the southeast Asian and Australasian clades. PMID:26621560

  7. Genetic diversity of variants involved in drug response and metabolism in Sri Lankan populations: implications for clinical implementation of pharmacogenomics

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Sze Ling; Samaranayake, Nilakshi; Ross, Colin J.D.; Toh, Meng Tiak; Carleton, Bruce; Hayden, Michael R.; Teo, Yik Ying; Dissanayake, Vajira H.W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Interpopulation differences in drug responses are well documented, and in some cases they correspond to differences in the frequency of associated genetic markers. Understanding the diversity of genetic markers associated with drug response across different global populations is essential to infer population rates of drug response or risk for adverse drug reactions, and to guide implementation of pharmacogenomic testing. Sri Lanka is a culturally and linguistically diverse nation, but little is known about the population genetics of the major Sri Lankan ethnic groups. The objective of this study was to investigate the diversity of pharmacogenomic variants in the major Sri Lankan ethnic groups. Methods We examined the allelic diversity of more than 7000 variants in genes involved in drug biotransformation and response in the three major ethnic populations of Sri Lanka (Sinhalese, Sri Lankan Tamils, and Moors), and compared them with other South Asian, South East Asian, and European populations using Wright’s Fixation Index, principal component analysis, and STRUCTURE analysis. Results We observed overall high levels of similarity within the Sri Lankan populations (median FST=0.0034), and between Sri Lankan and other South Asian populations (median FST=0.0064). Notably, we observed substantial differentiation between Sri Lankan and European populations for important pharmacogenomic variants related to warfarin (VKORC1 rs9923231) and clopidogrel (CYP2C19 rs4986893) response. Conclusion These data expand our understanding of the population structure of Sri Lanka, provide a resource for pharmacogenomic research, and have implications for the clinical use of genetic testing of pharmacogenomic variants in these populations. PMID:26444257

  8. NA2EDTA ENHANCES THE ABSORPTION OF IRON AND ZINC FROM FORTIFIED RICE FLOUR IN SRI LANKAN CHILDREN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice flour was proposed as a vehicle for iron and zinc fortification in Sri Lanka. Although widely consumed, rice flour has not been evaluated as a fortified food, and the absorption of minerals including iron and zinc from this flour is unknown. Determination of the bioavailability of these nutrien...

  9. Awareness and perceptions on prevention, first aid and treatment of snakebites among Sri Lankan farmers: a knowledge practice mismatch?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Snakebite is a global health problem associated with high morbidity and mortality. In Sri Lanka, snakebite is mainly an occupational health hazard associated with farming. Understanding awareness and perceptions in risk populations on the preventive measures, first aid and treatment for snakebite becomes pivotal in designing snakebite prevention and control programs. Using an investigator assisted self completed questionnaire, we assessed the awareness and perceptions of 176 part-time and full-time, Chena and paddy farmers from three dry zone districts of Sri Lanka where agriculture is the main economic activity. Findings High percentages of the participants were aware of practices that minimize snakebites in houses and outside, available treatments and most of the recommended first aid measures. Western medical treatment was preferred by the vast majority of the farmers over the traditional treatment. Conclusion Some of the protective measures that the farmers were aware of are not practiced generally in Sri Lanka, suggesting a knowledge-practice mismatch. We suggest studies to understand the effects of socioeconomic and cultural determinants on snakebite prevention in Sri Lanka. PMID:24847375

  10. Teaching Teachers through Distance Methods: An Evaluation of a Sri Lankan Programme. Education Division Document, No. 40.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dock, Alan W.; And Others

    This report describes the development process of a distance education program in Sri Lanka run by the Institute of Distance Education for nongraduate teachers inservice, and presents results of the program's evaluation. Two teacher education courses--an elementary education course and a combined science/mathematics course--were offered. The…

  11. Na2EDTA enhances the absorption of iron and zinc from fortified rice flour in Sri Lankan children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice flour was proposed as a vehicle for iron and zinc fortification in Sri Lanka. Although widely consumed, rice flour has not been evaluated as a fortified food, and the absorption of minerals including iron and zinc from this flour is unknown. Determination of the bioavailability of these nutrien...

  12. Ichnological constraints on the depositional environment of the Sawahlunto Formation, Kandi, northwest Ombilin Basin, west Sumatra, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zonneveld, J.-P.; Zaim, Y.; Rizal, Y.; Ciochon, R. L.; Bettis, E. A.; Aswan; Gunnell, G. F.

    2012-02-01

    A low diversity trace fossil assemblage is described from the Oligocene Sawahlunto Formation near Kandi, in the northwestern part of the Ombilin Basin in western Sumatra, Indonesia. This trace fossil assemblage includes six ichnogenera attributed to invertebrate infaunal and epifaunal activities ( Arenicolites, Diplocraterion, Planolites, Monocraterion/ Skolithos and Coenobichnus) and two ichnotaxa attributed to vertebrate activity (avian footprints: two species of Aquatilavipes). Arenicolites, Diplocraterion and Monocraterion/ Skolithos record the suspension feeding activities of either arthropods (most likely amphipods) or vermiform organisms. Planolites reflects the presence of an infaunal deposit feeder. Coenobichnus records the walking activities of hermit crabs. Both the Coenobichnus and the avian footprints record the surficial detritus scavenging of epifaunal organisms within a subaerial setting. These traces occur within a fine-grained sandstone succession characterized by planar laminae and low-relief, asymmetrical, commonly mud-draped (locally bidirectional) ripples. The presence of traces attributable to suspension feeders implies deposition in a subaqueous setting. Their occurrence (particularly the presence of Arenicolites and Diplocraterion) in a sandstone bed characterized by mud-draped and bidirectional ripples implies emplacement in a tidally-influenced marine to marginal marine setting. Co-occurrence of these traces with well-preserved avian footprints ( Aquatilavipes) further implies periodic subaerial exposure. Thus, it is most likely that the Sawahlunto Formation near Kandi records deposition within an intertidal flat setting. Definitive evidence of marine influences in the Oligocene interval of the Ombilin Basin implies a more complex tectono-stratigraphic history than has previously been implied.

  13. Metabolic syndrome among Jaffna Tamil community, Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Amarasinghe, Sivarathy; Sandrasegarampillai, Balakumar; Arasaratnam, Vasanthy

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The prevalence and associated risk factors of metabolic syndrome (MS) among adults over 18 years old in Jaffna district. Materials and Methods: It was community-based cross-sectional descriptive study. Multistage stratified cluster sampling technique was employed. An interviewer administered questionnaire was used to obtain the relevant information. Waist circumference (WC) and blood pressure (BP) measurements were recorded. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and triacylglycerols were analyzed by the enzymatic colorimetric assay using semi-automated analyzer (Teco Diagnostics TC-3300). International Diabetic Federation guideline for Asians was used to identify MS. Results: Sample response rate was 95.3% and of them, 43.8% (n = 224) was male. The prevalence of central obesity (WC for male ≥90 cm, female ≥80 cm) was 23.9%. Raised FPG (≥100 mg/dL, or previously diagnosed diabetes mellitus), hypertriacylglycerolemia (≥150 mg/dl), low level of HDL cholesterol (<40 mg/dL in males, <50 mg/dL in females), and raised BP (systolic BP ≥130 or diastolic BP ≥85 mmHg or previously diagnosed hypertension) were found in 23.9%, 25%, 79.3%, and 36.6% of the participants. The prevalence of MS was 15.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 12.8–19.3) and it was 17.4% in males and 14.6% in females. Participants living in the urban area had a higher prevalence of MS when compared with participants in a rural area (P = 0.015). Older age (P < 0.001) was a risk factor for development of MS. Smoking (P = 0.005) was a risk factor for the development of MS. Participants having sedentary, moderately active, and highly active lifestyle had the prevalence of MS 20.6% (95% CI: 13.2–29.7), 14.7% (95% CI: 10.6–19.5), and 14.7% (95% CI: 9.3–21.6), respectively (P = 0.247). Conclusion: Older age, urban living, and smoking carry a higher risk for development of MS among Jaffna Tamil community. PMID:26425479

  14. Energy Efficiency Building Code for Commercial Buildings in Sri Lanka

    SciTech Connect

    Busch, John; Greenberg, Steve; Rubinstein, Francis; Denver, Andrea; Rawner, Esther; Franconi, Ellen; Huang, Joe; Neils, Danielle

    2000-09-30

    1.1.1 To encourage energy efficient design or retrofit of commercial buildings so that they may be constructed, operated, and maintained in a manner that reduces the use of energy without constraining the building function, the comfort, health, or the productivity of the occupants and with appropriate regard for economic considerations. 1.1.2 To provide criterion and minimum standards for energy efficiency in the design or retrofit of commercial buildings and provide methods for determining compliance with them. 1.1.3 To encourage energy efficient designs that exceed these criterion and minimum standards.

  15. Investigation of the agricultural resources in Sri Lanka

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva, A. T. M.; Nanayakkara, S. D. F. C.; Herath, L. S. K. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. It is observed that LANDSAT data is easily adaptable to photogrammetric techniques. With such adaptations, revision of topographic or thematic maps can be performed at very little cost. Revision of maps up to scale 1:100,000 (or better) can be performed. The LANDSAT image has definite advantages over the standard methods in areas of extensive development where the synoptic view of the LANDSAT image offers the required control in the form of distant mapped data in one frame.

  16. Spatial and temporal variation of rainfall trends of Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickramagamage, P.

    2016-08-01

    This study was based on daily rainfall data of 48 stations distributed over the entire island covering a 30-year period from 1981 to 2010. Data analysis was done to identify the spatial pattern of rainfall trends. The methods employed in data analysis are linear regression and interpolation by Universal Kriging and Radial Basis function. The slope of linear regression curves of 48 stations was used in interpolation. The regression coefficients show spatially and seasonally variable positive and negative trends of annual and seasonal rainfall. About half of the mean annual pentad series show negative trends, while the rest shows positive trends. By contrast, the rainfall trends of the Southwest Monsoon (SWM) season are predominantly negative throughout the country. The first phase of the Northeast Monsoon (NEM1) displays downward trends everywhere, with the exception of the Southeastern coastal area. The strongest negative trends were found in the Northeast and in the Central Highlands. The second phase (NEM2) is mostly positive, except in the Northeast. The Inter-Monsoon (IM) periods have predominantly upward trends almost everywhere, but still the trends in some parts of the Highlands and Northeast are negative. The long-term data at Watawala Nuwara Eliya and Sandringham show a consistent decline in the rainfall over the last 100 years, particularly during the SWM. There seems to be a faster decline in the rainfall in the last 3 decades. These trends are consistent with the observations in India. It is generally accepted that there has been changes in the circulation pattern. Weakening of the SWM circulation parameters caused by global warming appears to be the main causes of recent changes. Effect of the Asian Brown Cloud may also play a role in these changes.

  17. Investigation of the agricultural resources in Sri Lanka

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva, A. T. M.; Nanayakkara, S. D. F. C.; Herath, L. S. K. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Several in-house capabilities were developed. The facilities to prepare color composites of excellent quality were developed, using bulk B/W 70 mm transparencies or 1:1,000,000 positive transparencies. These color composites were studied through optical devices on light tables. A zoom transfer scope was also added, enabling direct transfer of LANDSAT composite data on to base maps.

  18. Sri Lankan students campaign for rational medicine: the story of SIRHA.

    PubMed

    Ranwella, S

    1993-01-01

    Students Involved in Rational Health Activities (SIRHA) is a group of Sri Lankan medical students dedicated to increasing awareness of rational health care. SIRHA has hosted a seminar on rational therapeutics for medical students. Clinicians and academicians discussed case histories of inappropriate drug treatment at the seminar. A panel organized by the International Advertisers Association addressed the levels of control needed for medical drug advertising. Another seminar focused on how to facilitate the provision of low cost quality drugs based on rational prescriptions to all Sri Lankans. The Director-General of Health Services, the Chairman of the State Pharmaceuticals Corporation, and other government officials discussed drug registration, tenders, local manufacture of drugs, quality assurance, distribution, and pricing. At the annual meeting of the Sri Lankan Medical Association, SIRHA members prepared a leaflet comparing statements on promotional material of pharmaceutical companies with the text of internationally recognized standard works of reference. Company representatives were at the meeting. The Medical Lobby for Appropriate Marketing addressed one of the promotional materials in an August 1993 international letter. SIRHA members have also targeted irrational and misleading advertising of health-related products in the mass media. They have succeeded in bringing about the withdrawal of a misleading ad with unsubstantiated claims by a multinational company operating in Sri Lanka. SIRHA has submitted a complaint to the People's Tribunal on pharmaceutical pricing, unethical promotion, and the availability of an irrationally large number of me-too drugs in Sri Lanka. The Tribunal found the complaint justified and recommended the adoption of regulations proposed by SIRHA. SIRHA continues to monitor pharmaceutical advertising practices in Sri Lanka. It has established good relations with local and international groups. PMID:12319049

  19. Sri Lankan livelihoods after the tsunami: searching for entrepreneurs, unveiling relations of power.

    PubMed

    Kapadia, Kamal

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses the performance of aid-funded livelihoods recovery efforts in Sri Lanka following the Indian Ocean tsunami of 26 December 2004, with special attention paid to the effects on the rural poor. It argues that successful livelihoods recovery was hampered by an excessive focus by aid agencies on entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship, and by the lack of a politically informed understanding of the economy. Based on ethnographic and survey-based research, the study demonstrates that the category of 'entrepreneur' is misleading for large parts of the economy. Indeed, the desire to build an entrepreneurial economy actually hampered successful livelihoods recovery in Sri Lanka and, in some cases, reinforced inequitable relations of power. The paper concludes that for livelihoods recovery programmes to be effective, they must be founded on an understanding of the relations of power that constitute the economy; these relations operate across scales, and are historically and geographically specific. PMID:25231676

  20. Suffering, frustration, and anger: class, gender and history in Sri Lankan suicide stories.

    PubMed

    Widger, Tom

    2012-06-01

    This paper explores competing stories of suffering, frustration and anger that shape the performance and reception of suicidal behaviours in contemporary Sri Lanka. Drawing from the results of 21 months of ethnographic fieldwork, I show how suicidal acts fit within broader narratives of class and gender experience and expression that draw from contemporary and historical 'folk' and 'state' discourses. Debates over whether suffering, frustration and anger are legitimate socio-effective states to exhibit come to determine the kinds of claims and counter-claims that suicidal people on the one hand, and those charged with their treatment and management on the other, can make with regard to the efficacy of suicide as a means of social action. Through such debates-not only what it means to be suicidal in Sri Lanka but also what it means to be middle class or working class, male or female, etc. are made and remade anew. PMID:22392638

  1. Energy and nutrient intakes among Sri Lankan adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The epidemic of nutrition related non-communicable diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity has reached to epidemic portion in the Sri Lanka. However, to date, detailed data on food consumption in the Sri Lankan population is limited. The aim of this study is to identify energy and major nutrient intake among Sri Lankan adults. Methods A nationally-representative sample of adults was selected using a multi-stage random cluster sampling technique. Results Data from 463 participants (166 Males, 297 Females) were analyzed. Total energy intake was significantly higher in males (1913 ± 567 kcal/d) than females (1514 ± 458 kcal/d). However, there was no significant gender differences in the percentage of energy from carbohydrate (Male: 72.8 ± 6.4%, Female: 73.9 ± 6.7%), fat (Male: 19.9 ± 6.1%, Female: 18.5 ± 5.7%) and proteins (Male: 10.6 ± 2.1%, Female: 10.9 ± 5.6%). Conclusion The present study provides the first national estimates of energy and nutrient intake of the Sri Lankan adult population. PMID:25067954

  2. Creative Destruction and the Aftermath of the Tsunami: Aiding the Recovery of Southern Sri Lankan Small Businesses in the Face of Inertia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perera, Travis

    2007-01-01

    The tsunami of 26 December 2004 killed over 35,000 people in Sri Lanka, made 400,000 jobless and damaged the economy by 6.5%. The physical damage was around U.S. $1.5 billion, with reconstruction costing $2 billion. Although entrepreneurs are opportunity seekers, take risks and thrive in uncertainty, the alignment of competency and institutional…

  3. Developing government policies for distance education: Lessons learnt from two Sri Lankan case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liyanagunawardena, Tharindu Rekha; Adams, Andrew A.; Rassool, Naz; Williams, Shirley A.

    2014-12-01

    Education, especially higher education, is considered vital for maintaining national and individual competitiveness in the global knowledge economy. Following the introduction of its "Free Education Policy" as early as 1947, Sri Lanka is now the best performer in basic education in the South Asian region, with a remarkable record in terms of high literacy rates and the achievement of universal primary education. However, access to tertiary education is a bottleneck, due to an acute shortage of university places. In an attempt to address this problem, the government of Sri Lanka has invested heavily in information and communications technologies (ICTs) for distance education. Although this has resulted in some improvement, the authors of this article identify several barriers which are still impeding successful participation for the majority of Sri Lankans wanting to study at tertiary level. These impediments include the lack of infrastructure/resources, low English language proficiency, weak digital literacy, poor quality of materials and insufficient provision of student support. In the hope that future implementations of ICT-enabled education programmes can avoid repeating the mistakes identified by their research in this Sri Lankan case, the authors conclude their paper with a list of suggested policy options.

  4. Dry season refugia for anopheline larvae and mapping of the seasonal distribution in mosquito larval habitats in Kandi, northeastern Benin

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The dynamics of mosquito populations depends on availability of suitable surface water for oviposition. It is well known that suitable management of mosquito larval habitats in the sub-Saharan countries, particularly during droughts, could help to suppress vector densities and malaria transmission. We conducted a field survey to investigate the spatial and seasonal distribution of mosquito larval habitats and identify drought-refugia for anopheline larvae. Methods A GIS approach was used to identify, geo-reference and follow up longitudinally from May 2012 to May 2013, all mosquito breeding sites in two rural sites (Yondarou and Thui), one urban (Kossarou), and one peri-urban (Pèdè) site at Kandi, a municipality in northeastern Benin. In Kandi, droughts are excessive with no rain for nearly six months and a lot of sunshine. A comprehensive record of mosquito larval habitats was conducted periodically in all sites for the identification of drought-refugia of anopheline larval stages. With geospatialisation data, seasonal larval distribution maps were generated for each study site with the software ArcGIS version 10.2. Results Overall, 187 mosquito breeding sites were identified of which 29.95% were recorded during drought. In rural, peri-urban and urban sites, most of the drought-refugia of anopheline larvae were domestic in nature (61.54%). Moreover, in rural settings, anopheline larvae were also sampled in cisterns and wells (25% of larval habitats sampled during drought in Yondarou and 20% in Thui). The mapping showed a significant decrease in the spatial distribution of mosquito larval habitats in rural, peri-urban and urban sites during drought, except in Yondarou (rural) where the aridity did not seem to influence the distribution of larval habitats. Conclusion Our data showed that the main drought-refugia of anopheline larvae were of a domestic nature as well as wells and cisterns. A suitable management of mosquito larvae in sub-Saharan countries

  5. Impact of Adverse Childhood Experiences on Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration among Sri Lankan Men.

    PubMed

    Fonseka, Ruvani W; Minnis, Alexandra M; Gomez, Anu Manchikanti

    2015-01-01

    In Sri Lanka, over one in three women experience intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization in their lifetime, making it a serious pu