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Sample records for kangaroo island south

  1. Diatexite Deformation and Magma Extraction on Kangaroo Island, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasalova, Pavlina; Weinberg, Roberto; Ward, Lindsay; Fanning, Mark

    2013-04-01

    Migmatite terranes are structurally complex because of strong rheological contrast between layers with different melt contents and because of magma migration leading to volume changes. Migmatite deformation is intimately linked with magma extraction and the origin of granitoids. We investigate here the relationships between an evolving deformation and magma extraction in migmatites formed during the ca. 500Ma Delamerian orogeny, exposed on Kangaroo Island, South Australia. Here, several phases of deformation occurred in the presence of melt. During an early upright, non-cylindrical folding event, magma was channeled towards the hinge zones of antiforms. Funnel-shaped networks of leucosomes form a root zone that link up towards a central axial planar channel, forming the main magma extraction paths during folding. Extraction was associated with fold limb collapse, and antiformal hinge disruption by magma accumulation and transfer. During a later deformation phase, melt-rich diatexites were deformed, and schollen were disaggregated into smaller blocks and schlieren, and deformed into asymmetric, sigmoidal shapes indicative of dextral shearing flow. During flow, magma accumulated preferentially along shear planes, indicating a dilatational component during shearing (transtension) and in strain shadows of schollen. As deformation waned, magma extraction from these diatexites gave rise to N-trending, steeply dipping, funnel-shaped channels not associated to any deformational feature. The funnel-shape of these structures indicates the direction of magma flow. Structures developed during this phase are comparable with those formed during dewatering of soft sediments. Despite a high degree of complexity, magma migration and extraction features record distinct responses to the evolving deformation which can be used to understand deformation, and nature and direction of melt extraction. The oldest and youngest magmatic rocks from migmatites were dated (U-Pb monazite, SHRIMP

  2. Diatexite Deformation and Magma Extraction on Kangaroo Island, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasalova, P.; Weinberg, R. F.; Ward, L.; Fanning, C. M.

    2012-12-01

    Migmatite terranes are structurally complex. We have investigated the relationships between deformation and magma extraction in migmatites formed during the Delamerian orogeny on Kangaroo Island. Several phases of deformation occurred in the presence of melt (D1-D4) and we describe how magma segregation, accumulation and extraction changes with deformation style. During an early upright folding event (D2), magma was channelled towards the hinge of antiforms. Funnel-shaped networks of leucosomes form a root that link towards a central axial planar channel, marking the main magma extraction paths. Extraction was associated with limb collapse, and antiformal hinge disruption. During a later deformation phase (D4), diatexites were sheared so that schollen were disaggregated into smaller blocks and schlieren, and deformed into asymmetric, sigmoidal shapes. Foliations in the magmatic matrix and schollen asymmetry indicate dextral shearing. During flow, magma accumulated in shear planes, indicating a dilational component during shearing (transtension) and on strain shadows of schollen. As deformation waned (post-D4), magma extraction from these diatexites gave rise to steeply dipping, funnel-shaped channels, similar to those developed during folding. The funnel-shape networks are interpreted as magma extraction networks and indicate magma flow direction. Structures developed during this phase are comparable with those developed during dewatering of soft sediments. The magmatic rocks from migmatites formed early, during folding, and formed late after deformation waned were dated. Both have two monazite (U-Pb, SHRIMP) age groups of ~490Ma and ~505-520Ma. The older sample has a well-defined peak at 505-510Ma and trails into the younger ages. The younger sample has the opposite, with few old spots and a well-defined young peak at ~490Ma. The age range indicates the duration of anatexis, and well-defined peaks are interpreted to mark the age of individual magma batch

  3. Thorough assessment of DNA preservation from fossil bone and sediments excavated from a late Pleistocene-Holocene cave deposit on Kangaroo Island, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haouchar, Dalal; Haile, James; McDowell, Matthew C.; Murray, Dáithí C.; White, Nicole E.; Allcock, Richard J. N.; Phillips, Matthew J.; Prideaux, Gavin J.; Bunce, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Fossils and sediments preserved in caves are an excellent source of information for investigating impacts of past environmental changes on biodiversity. Until recently studies have relied on morphology-based palaeontological approaches, but recent advances in molecular analytical methods offer excellent potential for extracting a greater array of biological information from these sites. This study presents a thorough assessment of DNA preservation from late Pleistocene-Holocene vertebrate fossils and sediments from Kelly Hill Cave Kangaroo Island, South Australia. Using a combination of extraction techniques and sequencing technologies, ancient DNA was characterised from over 70 bones and 20 sediment samples from 15 stratigraphic layers ranging in age from >20 ka to ˜6.8 ka. A combination of primers targeting marsupial and placental mammals, reptiles and two universal plant primers were used to reveal genetic biodiversity for comparison with the mainland and with the morphological fossil record for Kelly Hill Cave. We demonstrate that Kelly Hill Cave has excellent long-term DNA preservation, back to at least 20 ka. This contrasts with the majority of Australian cave sites thus far explored for ancient DNA preservation, and highlights the great promise Kangaroo Island caves hold for yielding the hitherto-elusive DNA of extinct Australian Pleistocene species.

  4. Early palaeozoic palaeomagnetism in Australia I. Cambrian results from the Flinders Ranges, South Australia II. Late Early Cambrian results from Kangaroo Island, South Australia III. Middle to early-Late Cambrian results from the Amadeus Basin, Northern Territory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klootwijk, C. T.

    1980-04-01

    I. Cambrian results from the Flinders Ranges, South Australia A total of 460 samples from six sequences spanning the Cambrian succession of the Flinders Ranges (Adelaide "Geosyncline", South Australia) has been analyzed through thermal demagnetization studies. All samples showed a recent field component, generally constituting more than 50% of the initial intensity, which in most cases was removed by 200-400°C. Two characteristic magnetic components have been identified: (A) A secondary magnetic component of Cambro-Ordovician age (S-pole at 75.3°E 26.0°N, α95 = 7.4°, N = 5 localities) interpreted as having been induced by thermochemical activity during a period of enhanced heat flux prior to the Late Cambrian-Early Ordovician diastrophistic phases of the Delamarian Orogeny. (B) A primary magnetic component, which indicates rapid polar motion during the Early Cambrian and a much reduced polar motion during the Middle Cambrian. Representative palaeomagnetic pole positions for the primary component are: (1) Basal Hawker Group (earliest Cambrian): S-pole at 2.3°E 26.7°S, d p = 8.1°, d m = 14.3°, N = 10 (sites). (2) Billy Creek Formation— Wirrealpa Limestone— Aroona Creek Limestone (late Early Cambrian to early Middle Cambrian): S-pole at 20.1°E 37.4°S, d p = 7.2°, dm = 14.4°, N = 11(sites). (3) Basal Lake Frame Group (Middle Cambrian): S-pole at 26.1°E 29.3°S, d p = 6.6°, d m = 13.1°, N =10 (sites). (4) Pantapinna Formation (late Middle Cambrian?): S-pole at 29.2°E 36.4°S, d p = 8.4°, dm = 16.7°, N = 4 (sites). Available data suggest that deposition of the Lake Frome Group beds probably did not continue into the Late Cambrian. II. Late Early Cambrian results from Kangaroo Island, South Australia A total of 108 block samples from a late Early Cambrian red-bed sequence on Kangaroo Island (Adelaide "Geosyncline", South Australia) has been analysed through thermal demagnetization studies. All samples contained a recent field component of

  5. Early palaeozoic palaeomagnetism in Australia I. Cambrian results from the Flinders Ranges, South Australia II. Late Early Cambrian results from Kangaroo Island, South Australia III. Middle to early-Late Cambrian results from the Amadeus Basin, Northern Territory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klootwijk, C. T.

    1980-04-01

    I. Cambrian results from the Flinders Ranges, South Australia A total of 460 samples from six sequences spanning the Cambrian succession of the Flinders Ranges (Adelaide "Geosyncline", South Australia) has been analyzed through thermal demagnetization studies. All samples showed a recent field component, generally constituting more than 50% of the initial intensity, which in most cases was removed by 200-400°C. Two characteristic magnetic components have been identified: (A) A secondary magnetic component of Cambro-Ordovician age (S-pole at 75.3°E 26.0°N, α95 = 7.4°, N = 5 localities) interpreted as having been induced by thermochemical activity during a period of enhanced heat flux prior to the Late Cambrian-Early Ordovician diastrophistic phases of the Delamarian Orogeny. (B) A primary magnetic component, which indicates rapid polar motion during the Early Cambrian and a much reduced polar motion during the Middle Cambrian. Representative palaeomagnetic pole positions for the primary component are: (1) Basal Hawker Group (earliest Cambrian): S-pole at 2.3°E 26.7°S, d p = 8.1°, d m = 14.3°, N = 10 (sites). (2) Billy Creek Formation— Wirrealpa Limestone— Aroona Creek Limestone (late Early Cambrian to early Middle Cambrian): S-pole at 20.1°E 37.4°S, d p = 7.2°, dm = 14.4°, N = 11(sites). (3) Basal Lake Frame Group (Middle Cambrian): S-pole at 26.1°E 29.3°S, d p = 6.6°, d m = 13.1°, N =10 (sites). (4) Pantapinna Formation (late Middle Cambrian?): S-pole at 29.2°E 36.4°S, d p = 8.4°, dm = 16.7°, N = 4 (sites). Available data suggest that deposition of the Lake Frome Group beds probably did not continue into the Late Cambrian. II. Late Early Cambrian results from Kangaroo Island, South Australia A total of 108 block samples from a late Early Cambrian red-bed sequence on Kangaroo Island (Adelaide "Geosyncline", South Australia) has been analysed through thermal demagnetization studies. All samples contained a recent field component of

  6. Effects of Kangaroo Care on Neonatal Pain in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Seo, Young Sun; Lee, Joohyun; Ahn, Hye Young

    2016-06-01

    Blood sampling for a newborn screening test is necessary for all neonates in South Korea. During the heel stick, an appropriate intervention should be implemented to reduce neonatal pain. This study was conducted to identify the effectiveness of kangaroo care (KC), skin contact with the mother, on pain relief during the neonatal heel stick. Twenty-six neonates undergoing KC and 30 control neonates at a university hospital participated in this study. Physiological responses of neonates, including heart rate, oxygen saturation, duration of crying and Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP) scores were measured and compared before, during and 1 min and 2 min after heel sticks. The heart rate of KC neonates was lower at both 1 and 2 min after sampling than those of the control group. Also, PIPP scores of KC neonates were significantly lower both during and after sampling. The duration of crying for KC neonates was around 10% of the duration of the control group. In conclusion, KC might be an effective intervention in a full-term nursery for neonatal pain management. PMID:26867561

  7. Hosts of the exotic ornate kangaroo tick, Amblyomma triguttatum triguttatum Koch, on southern Yorke Peninsula, South Australia.

    PubMed

    Waudby, Helen P; Petit, Sophie; Dixon, Bruce; Andrews, Ross H

    2007-10-01

    Amblyomma triguttatum triguttatum is assumed to be endemic to south-western Western Australia (including Barrow Island), Queensland (excluding Cape York Peninsula), and New South Wales, south to Dubbo and Barham. The species has been recorded on a range of mammalian hosts including macropods and domestic animals. In Queensland, A. triguttatum triguttatum is implicated in the epidemiology of Q fever. In 2000, the species was detected on southern Yorke Peninsula in South Australia. We aimed to identify A. triguttatum triguttatum's hosts through trapping, sampling of carcasses, and opportunistic capture of vertebrates on Yorke Peninsula. A. triguttatum triguttatum was removed from black rats (Rattus rattus), wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus), Tammar wallabies (M. eugenii eugenii), domesticated cats and dogs, and humans. Before this study, A. triguttatum triguttatum had not been found on black rats or rabbits in the wild. This research has implications for the management of wildlife, livestock, and visitors on Yorke Peninsula. The potential for A. triguttatum triguttatum to spread to other areas of Yorke Peninsula and South Australia is considerable, as visitors (tourists) to southern Yorke Peninsula report the presence of ticks both on themselves and among camping equipment on arriving home. PMID:17611781

  8. About Skin-to-Skin Care (Kangaroo Care)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Size Email Print Share About Skin-to-Skin Care Page Content Article Body You may be able ... care, also called kangaroo care. What is Kangaroo Care? Kangaroo care was developed in South America as ...

  9. Taking kangaroo mother care forward in South Africa: The role of district clinical specialist teams.

    PubMed

    Feucht, Ute Dagmar; van Rooyen, Elise; Skhosana, Rinah; Bergh, Anne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    The global agenda for improved neonatal care includes the scale-up of kangaroo mother care (KMC) services. The establishment of district clinical specialist teams (DCSTs) in South Africa (SA) provides an excellent opportunity to enhance neonatal care at district level and ensure translation of policies, including the requirement for KMC implementation, into everyday clinical practice. Tshwane District in Gauteng Province, SA, has been experiencing an increasing strain on obstetric and neonatal services at central, tertiary and regional hospitals in recent years as a result of growing population numbers and rapid up-referral of patients, with limited down-referral of low-risk patients to district-level services. We describe a successful multidisciplinary quality improvement initiative under the leadership of the Tshwane DCST, in conjunction with experienced local KMC implementers, aimed at expanding the district's KMC services. The project subsequently served as a platform for improvement of other areas of neonatal care by means of a systematic approach. PMID:26792305

  10. A survey to detect the presence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in Kangaroo Island macropods.

    PubMed

    Cleland, P C; Lehmann, D R; Phillips, P H; Cousins, D V; Reddacliff, L A; Whittington, R J

    2010-10-26

    The aim of this study was to determine whether Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (M. a. paratuberculosis) infection was present in macropods grazing with infected sheep on Kangaroo Island in 2001-2002, and to assess the likely role of such infection in the epidemiology of ovine paratuberculosis. Ileum and associated lymphatics from 482 macropods were examined using radiometric culture followed by PCR for IS900 and restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) for species identification, and isolates were strain typed using PCR for IS1311 and REA. Ileum and mesenteric lymph nodes from animals with positive tissue cultures or gross lesions suggestive of paratuberculosis were examined histologically. Faeces from a total of 840 animals were cultured in pools of 20, and individual faecal cultures were done from tissue culture positive animals, from those with microscopic lesions, and from selected animals with gross lesions. Eight animals (1.7%) yielded positive tissue cultures, and all isolates were the sheep (S) strain. Two animals that were tissue culture positive also had histopathological evidence of paratuberculosis. Twelve culture negative animals had microscopic lesions consistent with mycobacterial infection, and M. genavense was identified by PCR from a paraffin block from one of these animals. All faecal cultures were negative. These results indicate that a small proportion of macropods can become infected with M. a. paratuberculosis when grazing with infected sheep. However, excretion of large numbers of viable organisms is rare in macropods, and it is unlikely that macropods provide a wildlife reservoir of infection that would seriously compromise control efforts for paratuberculosis in sheep. PMID:20400245

  11. Kangaroo care.

    PubMed

    Hamelin, K; Ramachandran, C

    1993-06-01

    Kangaroo care is the practice of holding a small, premature infant, naked except for a diaper and hat, against a parent's chest. This skin-to-skin contact resembles how marsupials such as kangaroos and koalas care for their young. Initially established in overcrowded nurseries in developing countries as a substitute for incubators and monitors, kangaroo care is now practised in the neonatal intensive care units of developed countries. PMID:8508434

  12. A new species of Near-shore Marine Goby (Pisces: Gobiidae: Nesogobius) from Kangaroo Island, Australia.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Michael P; Hoese, Douglass F; Bertozzi, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Nesogobius is one of two goby genera with all species wholly restricted to temperate Australian waters. Described here is a new member of the genus discovered during near-shore marine and estuarine fish sampling along the central southern Australian coastline. The tiger sandgoby Nesogobius tigrinus sp. nov. is distinguished from other congeners by a combination of colouration including four prominent vertical black bars on males; morphological characters involving body scales (large), head scales (naked), body depth (slender) and gill opening (wide); meristic counts including a lack of second dorsal and anal fin spines; and mitochondrial DNA sequence divergence. The species appears to be a narrow range endemic, restricted to specific sub-tidal habitat in the unique sheltered embayments of northeast Kangaroo Island. This study forms part of ongoing investigations to more fully describe the biodiversity and conservation requirements of the regional ichthyofauna. PMID:26701487

  13. Kangaroo care.

    PubMed

    Wallace, J; Ridpath-Parker, J

    1993-01-01

    Kangaroo Care--skin-to-skin contact between parent and baby--is becoming a popular adjunct to the routine, technology-driven care provided to premature babies in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) across the country. Research suggests that Kangaroo Care is safe and that it is therapeutic for the infant and parent alike. The purpose of this article is to review the Kangaroo Care Program at Brigham and Women's Hospital and to illustrate how it meets the needs of parents of premature infants. PMID:10131016

  14. 2. Light tower, view west towards Squirrel Island, south and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Light tower, view west towards Squirrel Island, south and east sides - Ram Island Light Station, Ram Island, south of Ocean Point & just north of Fisherman Island, marking south side of Fisherman Island Passage, Ocean Point, Lincoln County, ME

  15. 3. Light tower, view northwest, south side Ram Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Light tower, view northwest, south side - Ram Island Light Station, Ram Island, south of Ocean Point & just north of Fisherman Island, marking south side of Fisherman Island Passage, Ocean Point, Lincoln County, ME

  16. Cool-water Eocene-Oligocene carbonate sedimentation on a paleobathymetric high, Kangaroo Island, southern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Noel P.; Matenaar, Joanne; Bone, Yvonne

    2016-07-01

    The Kingscote Limestone is a thin, biofragmental ~ 41 m thick Paleogene subtropical to cool-temperate carbonate interpreted to have accumulated in a seaway developed between a series of mid-shelf islands. It is a pivotal section that allows interpretation of a region in which there is little exposure of early Cenozoic shelf sediments. Sedimentation occurred on part of the shelf along the northern margin of an extensive Eocene embayment that evolved into a narrow Oligocene ocean following collapse of the Tasman Gateway. Eocene strata are subtropical echinoid-rich floatstones with conspicuous bryozoans, and mollusks, together with large and small benthic foraminifers. Numerous echinoid rudstone storm deposits punctuate the succession. Correlation with coeval Eocene strata across southern Australia supports a regional facies model wherein inner neritic biosiliceous spiculitic sediments passed outboard into calcareous facies. The silica was derived from land covered by a thriving subtropical forest and attendant deep weathering. Oligocene rocks are distinctively cooler cyclic cross-bedded bryozoan rudstones and floatstones with a similar benthic biota but dominated by bryozoans and containing no large benthic foraminifers. These deposits are interpreted as flood-dominated tidal subaqueous dunes that formed in a flood-tide dominated inter-island strait. Omission surfaces at the top of the Eocene and at the top of most Oligocene cycles are Fe-stained hardgrounds that underwent extensive multigeneration seafloor and meteoric diagenesis prior to deposition of the next cycle. Cycles in the Kingscote Limestone, although mostly m-scale and compositionally distinct are similar to those across the region and point to a recurring cycle motif controlled by icehouse eustasy and local paleogeography.

  17. Kangaroos in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borst, Richard

    1989-01-01

    Describes a kangaroo simulation which can be adapted for use with radio tracking activities for other animals. Outlines procedures and information to help implement the activity. Provides a map of Australia, calculations, and sample kangaroo movement data. (RT)

  18. Skeletal Pathology of Eastern Grey Kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) Exposed to High Environmental Fluoride Levels in South-Eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Hufschmid, J; Beveridge, I; Coulson, G; Walker, G; Shen, P; Reynolds, E; Charles, J

    2015-01-01

    Significantly elevated bone fluoride concentrations have been reported in a population of eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) resident near a fluoride-emitting aluminum smelter in southeastern Australia. This paper describes the skeletal and synovial joint lesions observed post mortem in the same sample of kangaroos (n = 76). The prevalence and severity of skeletal lesions, specifically the formation of multiple, large, smooth exostoses over the diaphysis of long bones (especially, but not exclusively, on the tibia, fibula and metatarsi), were positively associated with bone fluoride concentration. So too were lesions of degenerative joint disease, including periarticular osteophytosis, articular cartilage erosion/ulceration, synovial hyperplasia and joint capsular fibrosis. Joint lesions were most commonly seen in the knee, hock and metatarsophalangeal joints. This is the first study to describe in detail the full range of lesions induced by chronic fluorosis in a marsupial species. PMID:26186808

  19. Ambae Island, Vanuatu (South Pacific)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The recently active volcano Mt. Manaro is the dominant feature in this shaded relief image of Ambae Island, part of the Vanuatu archipelago located 1400 miles northeast of Sydney, Australia. About 5000 inhabitants, half the island's population, were evacuated in early December from the path of a possible lahar, or mud flow, when the volcano started spewing clouds of steam and toxic gases 10,000 feet into the atmosphere.

    Last active in 1996, the 1496 meter (4908 ft.) high Hawaiian-style basaltic shield volcano features two lakes within its summit caldera, or crater. The ash and gas plume is actually emerging from a vent at the center of Lake Voui (at left), which was formed approximately 425 years ago after an explosive eruption.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion

  20. SeaWinds - South Georgia Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Winds are blocked by an island mountain barrier that produces a long 'shadow' of low winds on the downwind side of the island stretching for hundreds of kilometers (about 500 miles long) in this image produced from data from NASA's SeaWinds instrument on the QuikScat satellite.

    South Georgia Island, in the South Atlantic Ocean (approximately 1,500 kilometers, or miles, east of the Falkland/Malvinas Islands, is only 170 kilometers long (about 106 miles) and 30 kilometers (about 19 miles)wide, but contains 13 peaks exceeding 2,000 meters (more than 6,500 feet) in height. The island thus acts as a significant barrier to the surface winds in this forbidding part of the world oceans.

    Mountainous islands and steep coastal topography can modify the surface wind field for many hundreds of kilometers seaward. The detailed air-sea-land interaction processes involved are not well understood, largely because of a lack of accurate, high-resolution, extensive wind speed and direction measurements. The broad-swath, all-weather SeaWinds instrument on NASA's QuikScat satellite is providing unique measurements of ocean winds, revealing previously unknown wind patterns caused by island topography and allowing development of improved models for coastal ocean winds.

    This image shows QuikScat measurements of wind speed and direction during a single pass over South Georgia Island on September 13, 1999. The island itself is shown as black (for heights less than 750 meters(less than half a mile), green (for heights between 750 and 1,500 meters (less than half a mile to about one mile), and red (for regions greater than 1,500 meters, or about one mile in altitude). The white area surrounding the island represents the region where land contamination does not allow wind measurements to be made. The horizontal and vertical coordinates are in kilometers, with origin on the island at latitude 54.5 degrees south, longitude 30 degrees east.

    This large-scale view shows regions of

  1. VIEW OF NORTH ELEVATION; CAMERA FACING SOUTH Mare Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF NORTH ELEVATION; CAMERA FACING SOUTH - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Transportation Building & Gas Station, Third Street, south side between Walnut Avenue & Cedar Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  2. VIEW OF SOUTH ELEVATION; CAMERA FACING NORTH Mare Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF SOUTH ELEVATION; CAMERA FACING NORTH - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Transportation Building & Gas Station, Third Street, south side between Walnut Avenue & Cedar Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  3. South Central California Coastline and Channel Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This distant and very oblique image of the south Central California Coastline and Channel Islands (35.0N, 119.0W) offers a spectacular and scenic view of the southern west coast, the central San Joaquin Valley, the entire Sierra Nevada Range and across the southwest to the Rocky Mountains on the horizon.

  4. SPRINGING OF THE ARCH, SOUTH END OF BRIDGE, STATEN ISLAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SPRINGING OF THE ARCH, SOUTH END OF BRIDGE, STATEN ISLAND SIDE (CONTACT PRINT MADE FROM 5 1/4" X 4 1/2" NEGATIVE) - Bayonne Bridge, Spanning Kill Van Kull between Bayonne & Staten Island, Bayonne, Hudson County, NJ

  5. View of south elevation; camera facing northeast. Mare Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of south elevation; camera facing northeast. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Hospital Headquarters, Johnson Lane, west side at intersection of Johnson Lane & Cossey Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  6. 29. Aerial photograph (1973) looking south across Gould Island. Firing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Aerial photograph (1973) looking south across Gould Island. Firing pier (still possessing third and fourth levels) in foreground. Pitched roof extending from south end of firing pier marks location of frame approach between pier and shop building (center rear) and power plant (to right of shop). Photo courtesy of Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Newport, Rhode Island. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  7. Fires, East Falkland Island, South Atlantic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This near-nadir image (looking almost straight down) of the Falkland Islands in the South Atlantic was acquired at the southernmost extent of the International Space Station's latitudinal orbit range of approximately 52 degrees north to 52 degrees south relative to the surface of the Earth. The windy and relatively dry climate, which includes roughly 600 millimeters (24 inches) of precipitation annually, has given rise to natural vegetation comprised of treeless grassland with scattered bogs. The grasslands are ideal for sheep rearing--the dominant occupation until recent decades, when fishing (mainly squid for Spain) and tourism became the mainstays of the economy. These expanses of grassland provide ready fuel for fires, as indicated by the several long smoke plumes visible in this astronaut photograph. Astronaut photograph ISS015-E-30526 was acquired on September 25, 2007, with a Kodak 760C digital camera fitted with a 58 mm lens. The image was taken by the Expedition 15 crew, and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations experiment and Image Science and Analysis Laboratory, Johnson Space Center. The image in this article has been cropped and enhanced to improve contrast. Lens artifacts have been removed.

  8. Small population size and extremely low levels of genetic diversity in island populations of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus

    PubMed Central

    Furlan, Elise; Stoklosa, J; Griffiths, J; Gust, N; Ellis, R; Huggins, R M; Weeks, A R

    2012-01-01

    Genetic diversity generally underpins population resilience and persistence. Reductions in population size and absence of gene flow can lead to reductions in genetic diversity, reproductive fitness, and a limited ability to adapt to environmental change increasing the risk of extinction. Island populations are typically small and isolated, and as a result, inbreeding and reduced genetic diversity elevate their extinction risk. Two island populations of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, exist; a naturally occurring population on King Island in Bass Strait and a recently introduced population on Kangaroo Island off the coast of South Australia. Here we assessed the genetic diversity within these two island populations and contrasted these patterns with genetic diversity estimates in areas from which the populations are likely to have been founded. On Kangaroo Island, we also modeled live capture data to determine estimates of population size. Levels of genetic diversity in King Island platypuses are perilously low, with eight of 13 microsatellite loci fixed, likely reflecting their small population size and prolonged isolation. Estimates of heterozygosity detected by microsatellites (HE= 0.032) are among the lowest level of genetic diversity recorded by this method in a naturally outbreeding vertebrate population. In contrast, estimates of genetic diversity on Kangaroo Island are somewhat higher. However, estimates of small population size and the limited founders combined with genetic isolation are likely to lead to further losses of genetic diversity through time for the Kangaroo Island platypus population. Implications for the future of these and similarly isolated or genetically depauperate populations are discussed. PMID:22837830

  9. [Dengue fever in the Reunion Island and in South Western islands of the Indian Ocean].

    PubMed

    D'Ortenzio, E; Balleydier, E; Baville, M; Filleul, L; Renault, P

    2011-09-01

    South Western islands of the Indian Ocean are permanently threatened by dengue fever outbreaks. On the Reunion Island, two dengue outbreaks were biologically documented (1977-1978 and 2004). And since July 2004 there has been an inter-epidemic period for the island with sporadic cases and clusters. Between January 1, 2007 and October 5, 2009, the epidemiologic surveillance system detected five confirmed autochthonous cases, five confirmed imported cases (South-East Asia), and 71 probable cases. All the five autochthonous confirmed cases occurred in Saint-Louis during two consecutive clusters. In other South Western islands of the Indian Ocean, several dengue fever outbreaks have been reported. Importation of dengue virus from South-East Asia is a major risk for a new outbreak on the island. The introduction of a new serotype could lead to the emergence of new and severe clinical forms, including dengue hemorrhagic fever. PMID:21295427

  10. 16. AERIAL VIEW OF GOOSE ISLAND, LOOKING SOUTH, CIRCA 1960. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. AERIAL VIEW OF GOOSE ISLAND, LOOKING SOUTH, CIRCA 1960. BRIDGE No. Z-2 AT LOWER LEFT OF FRAME. - Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway, Bridge No. Z-2, Spanning North Branch Canal at North Cherry Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  11. Impacts of visitor number on Kangaroos housed in free-range exhibits.

    PubMed

    Sherwen, Sally L; Hemsworth, Paul H; Butler, Kym L; Fanson, Kerry V; Magrath, Michael J L

    2015-01-01

    Free range exhibits are becoming increasingly popular in zoos as a means to enhance interaction between visitors and animals. However very little research exists on the impacts of visitors on animal behaviour and stress in free range exhibits. We investigated the effects of visitor number on the behaviour and stress physiology of Kangaroo Island (KI) Kangaroos, Macropus fuliginosus fuliginosus, and Red Kangaroos, Macropus rufus, housed in two free range exhibits in Australian zoos. Behavioural observations were conducted on individual kangaroos at each site using instantaneous scan sampling to record activity (e.g., vigilance, foraging, resting) and distance from the visitor pathway. Individually identifiable faecal samples were collected at the end of each study day and analysed for faecal glucocorticoid metabolite (FGM) concentration. When visitor number increased, both KI Kangaroos and Red Kangaroos increased the time spent engaged in visitor-directed vigilance and KI Kangaroos also increased the time spent engaged in locomotion and decreased the time spent resting. There was no effect of visitor number on the distance kangaroos positioned themselves from the visitor pathway or FGM concentration in either species. While there are limitations in interpreting these results in terms of fear of visitors, there was no evidence of adverse effects animal welfare in these study groups based on avoidance behaviour or stress physiology under the range of visitor numbers that we studied. PMID:26036594

  12. Island-arc magmatic processes beneath South Pagan Volcano, Northern Mariana Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marske, J. P.; Trusdell, F. A.; Garcia, M. O.; Pietruszka, A. J.

    2007-12-01

    The island-arc volcanoes that make up the Northern Mariana Islands are among the most historically active stratovolcanoes along the Pacific plate, yet they have been poorly studied due to their remote location and difficult accessibility. One of the least studied areas in the Northern Mariana Islands is Pagan Island, located near the center of the Mariana ridge. Pagan Island consists of two Holocene stratovolcanoes, Mount Pagan and South Pagan. Remarkably little is known about South Pagan including its eruptive history, potential volcanic hazards, and geochemical evolution due to a small population of inhabitants, a short and intermittent recorded history, and few geological studies. There is abundant evidence that eruption of South Pagan could pose significant hazards to both residents of the Northern Mariana Islands and to aircraft flying in the western Pacific. For example, following Mount Pagan's most recent explosive eruption (VEI = 4) in 1981, destructive rain-triggered volcanic debris flows buried large tracts of land, including the site of a village that contained a school, dispensary, church, and power generating buildings. Preliminary field studies in May 2006 by the USGS showed that a full spectrum of hazardous phenomena originated from South Pagan in the past, including pyroclastic flows and surges, caldera collapses, and volcanic debris flows. Two previously unrecognized active fumaroles near the summit of South Pagan were discovered suggesting that potential volcanic hazards currently exist in this area. A majority of the new lava samples are vesicular, clinopyroxene-plagioclase basalts with minor plagioclase xenocrysts and gabbroic xenoliths. The purpose of this study is to understand the compositional history of South Pagan and how it relates to the crustal and mantle magmatic processes beneath the central Northern Mariana Islands. Pb, Sr and Nd isotope ratios, major and trace element abundances, and mineral chemistry were determined and will be

  13. 12. View of closed bridge looking south towards Terminal Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. View of closed bridge looking south towards Terminal Island near water line and railroad track on the east side of the bridge. - Henry Ford Bridge, Spanning Cerritos Channel, Los Angeles-Long Beach Harbor, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  14. 15. View of open bridge looking south towards Terminal Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. View of open bridge looking south towards Terminal Island near water line and railroad track on the east side of the bridge. - Henry Ford Bridge, Spanning Cerritos Channel, Los Angeles-Long Beach Harbor, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. Phylogeography of the dark kangaroo mouse, Microdipodops megacephalus: cryptic lineages and dispersal routes in North America's Great Basin.

    PubMed

    Hafner, John C; Upham, Nathan S

    2011-06-01

    AIM: The rodent genus Microdipodops (kangaroo mice) includes two sand-obligate endemics of the Great Basin Desert: M. megacephalus and M. pallidus. The dark kangaroo mouse, M. megacephalus, is distributed throughout the Great Basin and our principal aims were to formulate phylogenetic hypotheses for this taxon and make phylogeographical comparisons with its congener. LOCATION: The Great Basin Desert of western North America. METHODS: DNA sequence data from three mitochondrial genes were examined from 186 individuals of M. megacephalus, representing 47 general localities. Phylogenetic inference was used to analyse the sequence data. Directional analysis of phylogeographical patterns was used to examine haplotype sharing patterns and recover routes of gene exchange. Haplotype-area curves were constructed to evaluate the relationship between genetic variation and distributional island size for M. megacephalus and M. pallidus. RESULTS: Microdipodops megacephalus is a rare desert rodent (trapping success was 2.67%). Temporal comparison of trapping data shows that kangaroo mice are becoming less abundant in the study area. The distribution has changed slightly since the 1930s but many northern populations now appear to be small, fragmented, or locally extinct. Four principal phylogroups (the Idaho isolate and the western, central and eastern clades) are evident; mean sequence divergence between phylogroups for cytochrome b is c. 8%. Data from haplotype sharing show two trends: a north-south trend and a web-shaped trend. Analyses of haplotype-area curves reveal significant positive relationships. MAIN CONCLUSIONS: The four phylogroups of M. megacephalus appear to represent morphologically cryptic species; in comparison, a companion study revealed two cryptic lineages in M. pallidus. Estimated divergence times of the principal clades of M. megacephalus (c. 2-4 Ma) indicate that these kangaroo mice were Pleistocene invaders into the Great Basin coincident with the formation

  16. Current knowledge of Kangaroo Mother Intervention.

    PubMed

    Charpak, N; Ruiz-Peláez, J G; Figueroa de Calume, Z

    1996-04-01

    Kangaroo Mother Intervention (KMI) started in 1978 in Colombia as a way of dealing with overcrowding and scarcity of resources in hospitals caring for low birth weight infants. Currently the intervention comprises three components: kangaroo position (skin-to-skin contact), kangaroo nutrition (exclusive or nearly exclusive breast-feeding), and kangaroo discharge policies (early discharge in kangaroo position regardless of weight or gestational age). Different authors have adopted and adapted diverse components of the KMI to suit the particular needs of their parents. We discuss different modalities of kangaroo care reported in developed and in developing countries and also describe in some detail the components of the whole KMI program. In addition, results from a systematic review of kangaroo-related papers published in English between 1991 and 1995 are provided, together with a summary of current knowledge (evidence-based) and research needs. PMID:8723803

  17. Kangaroo Network. Annual Report, 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seumahu, E. Steve

    This extensive report describes activities of the PEACESAT AUSTRALIA Project (the Kangaroo Network) which parallels, on the Australian continent, the endeavors of PEACESAT (Pacific Educational and Communication Experiment by SATellite), and other Pacific Basin ATS-1 networks. An executive summary reviews the development of the project and its…

  18. An Examination of Rayleigh Wave Phase Velocities, South Shetland Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson Maurice, S. D.; Wiens, D. A.; Lawrence, J. F.

    2003-12-01

    We examine the crustal and upper mantle structure of Bransfield Strait, the South Shetland Islands, and the Antarctic Peninsula using data from the Seismic Experiment in Patagonia and Antarctica (SEPA). We use Rayleigh wave phase velocity dispersion measurements from 20 teleseismic events to determine the interstation phase velocities at periods between 16 and 120 seconds. Maps of the velocities indicate crust with continental properties beneath the South Shetland Islands, the Antarctic Peninsula, and the area southwest of the Hero Fracture Zone. Thinner crust (less than 20 km thick) with backarc spreading mantle velocities lies within the Bransfield Basin proper. The seismic velocities indicate more established spreading in the northeastern portion of Bransfield Strait, and we see no evidence of anisotropy within the mantle.

  19. Glacier surface velocity fields in South Shetland Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osmanoglu, B.; Giseke, H.; Navarro, F. J.; Rueckamp, M.; Falk, U.; Corcuera, M. I.; Braun, M.

    2011-12-01

    In this study surface velocity of glaciers in South Shetland Islands (Antarctic Peninsula) are calculated based on synthetic aperture radar data from ALOS PALSAR and TerraSAR-X as well as differential GPS measurements. The obtained glacier velocities will be used to calculate the total glacier mass budget and to better understand the contribution of the study areas to the sea level rise. Only recent studies have examined the region for mass balance and sea level rise estimates. However, larger scale mass budget computations are not yet available. Ice dynamics obtained from satellite data have only been derived in a few occasions, often due to lacking spatial resolution or temporal decorrelation. Hence, any spacebased information on ice dynamics can significantly improve estimates of calving fluxes and mass loss. In this study we analysed over 30 PALSAR and 30 TSX scenes acquired over the King George Island and Livingston Island, the two largest islands in the South Shetland Island group. In the study areas the glacier velocities are calculated using two independent data sets; namely satellite radar imagery and GPS. Feature-tracking methods are applied to the radar imagery to obtain glacier velocities using Gamma Interferometric SAR Processor and TU-Delft DORIS. Results from Gamma and Doris software packages are compared to each other as well as GPS measurements where available. For a subset of the study area tracking results from different acquisitions modes (stripmap and spotlight) and orbits are compared. Comparison of glacier velocities obtained by radar and GPS provide an estimate for the uncertainties in the measured rates. The results obtained from all data sets are then compiled to construct a map of glacier velocities for the entire island group.

  20. Ambient seismic noise tomography of Jeju Island, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. J.; Rhie, J.; Kim, S.; Kang, T. S.; Kim, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Jeju Island, formed by Cenozoic basaltic eruptions, is an island off the southern coast of the Korean Peninsula. This volcanic island is far from the plate boundaries and the fundamental cause of the volcanic activity in this region is not understood well. To understand the origin of the island, resolving the detailed seismic velocity structures is crucial. Therefore, we applied ambient noise tomography to study the velocity structures of the island. Continuous waveform data recorded at 20 temporary and 3 permanent broad-band seismic stations are used. The group and phase velocity dispersion curves of the fundamental mode Rayleigh waves are extracted from cross-correlograms for 253 station pairs by adopting multiple filter technique. The fast marching method and the subspace method are jointly applied to construct 2-D group and phase velocity maps for periods ranging between 1 and 15 s. 1-D shear wave velocity models and their uncertainties are estimated by the Bayesian technique. The optimal number of the layers are determined at the end of the burn-in period based on the Bayesian Information Criteria (BIC). Final 3-D velocity model of the island is constructed by compiling 1-D models. In our 3-D model, a distinct low velocity anomaly appears beneath Mt. Halla from surface to about 6 km depth. The surficial extent of the anomaly is more or less consistent with the surface geologic feature of the third-stage basaltic eruption reported by previous studies but the vertical extension of the anomaly is not well constrained. To improve the velocity model, especially enhance the vertical resolution of the anomaly, we will apply joint analysis of the surface wave dispersions and teleseismic receiver functions. The improved model will provide more information to infer the tectonic or volcanic implications of the anomaly and unravel the origin of the strange volcanic island in South Korea.

  1. Flows in the Tasman Front south of Norfolk Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, Philip J. H.; Bowen, Melissa

    2014-05-01

    The Tasman Front is a narrow band of eastward flowing subtropical water crossing the Tasman Sea from Australia to North Cape, New Zealand. It is the link between the two subtropical western boundary currents of the South Pacific, the East Australian Current (EAC) off eastern Australia, and the East Auckland Current (EAUC) off northeastern New Zealand. Here we report the first direct measurements of flow in the Tasman Front from a moored array deployed across gaps in the submarine ridges south of Norfolk Island and hydrographic and ADCP measurements during the deployment and recovery voyages. The mean flow through the array over July 2003 to August 2004 was found to be eastward only in the upper 800 m with a transport of ˜6 Sv. Below 800 m a weak westward mean flow (˜1.5 Sv) was measured, associated with Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW). Using sea surface height to account for additional transport south of the moored array results in a total mean eastward transport between Norfolk Island and North Cape, New Zealand of ˜8 Sv, varying between -4 and 18 Sv. The measurements show that the Tasman Front is much shallower than either the EAC or EAUC, both of which extend below 2000 m depth, has less transport than either the EAC or EAUC and has instances of flow reversal. Thus, the Tasman Front is a weaker connection between the EAC and EAUC than the paradigm of a contiguous South Pacific western boundary current system would suggest.

  2. Continuous Greenhouse Gas Monitoring on South Atlantic Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowry, D.; Fisher, R. E.; Lanoiselle, M.; Nisbet, E. G.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Manning, A. C.

    2010-12-01

    Analytical instruments based on cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) with automated calibration systems are being deployed on South Atlantic Islands to monitor atmospheric CO2 and CH4. Data have been returned daily from the CRDS analyzer deployed at the Meteorological Office Ascension Island site since 22 June 2010. Installation of a second instrument near Stanley Airport on the Falkland Islands is due to take place in October 2010. The equipment will reach the Falklands on the British Antarctic Survey ship, James Clark Ross and will monitor CO2 and CH4 continuously on the Atlantic voyage from the UK, providing additional important greenhouse gas data for the South Atlantic as well as for the south and east coast of the UK. Data for Ascension Island winter (June to August) show variations in CO2 between 387 and 390 ppm and CH4 between 1760 and 1778 ppb, but with prolonged periods of 3 weeks or more with both gas species toward the upper or lower ends of these ranges. These trends are also observed in twice weekly NOAA flask samples collected within 100 m of the RHUL air inlet. The averaged mixing ratio for NOAA flask samples collected over this period is within 0.04 ppm for CO2 and 0.4 ppb for CH4 of the averaged continuous CRDS record. Data for δ13C of methane measured on flask samples collected by RHUL since 2000 show a range of -47.2 to -46.7‰ with a maximum seasonal cycle of 0.3‰. Comparison of RHUL data for 2000-2004 and 2009-2010 suggest an isotopic enrichment of 0.2 per mil associated with an increase in mixing ratio of 15-20 ppb over this period.

  3. Paleomagnetism of King George Island, South Shetlands, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slotznick, S. P.; Kirschvink, J. L.; Raub, T. D.; Swanson-Hysell, N.; Edgar, L.

    2011-12-01

    During December of 2009 when the US R/V Lawrence M. Gould was iced out of the Antarctic Peninsula, we collected core and block samples from 17 different flows and dikes at three sampling areas on Weaver Peninsula and Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. Two of the three sampling areas on Weaver Peninsula and Fildes Peninsula were near dikes with Ar-Ar ages of 54.6 ± 3.8 Ma and 57.4 ± 2.1 Ma respectively, close in age to the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) (Kraus 2005, Kraus et al. 2007). After removal of significant magnetically soft components by low-temperature cycling and weak AF demagnetization, the basaltic flows from the Weaver Peninsula preserve a dual-polarity characteristic remanence isolated by higher-field AF demagnetization with an in-situ magnetization of D = 166.3, I= 65.4 (n/N = 24/30, α95 = 6.31). This direction, prior to correction for bedding tilt, is indistinct from a plausible Cenozoic reversed polarity magnetization for the site, while correcting for bedding tilt results in anomalously shallow inclinations. This result implies a post-tilting thermochemical remagnetization origin for the characteristic remanence. Analyses of the baked contact, dikes, and conglomerate tests help constrain the age of this event in context of subsequent Cenozoic magmatism on King George Island. Rock magnetic and Kappabridge experiments show that the magnetic mineralogy of the samples is often dominated by magnetite, with titanomagnetite and hematite present in some flows. The results of this multi-site study of Weaver and Fildes Peninsulas add to a growing paleomagnetic database for volcanic rocks from King George Island (Valencio et al. 1979, Kraus et al. 2010, Watts et al. 1984, Nawrocki et al. 2010) and contribute to a better understanding of the complex tectonic and magmatic activity of the South Shetland Islands.

  4. Venereal diseases in the islands of the South Pacific.

    PubMed Central

    Willcox, R R

    1980-01-01

    The island territories of the South Pacific vary considerably in area and in size of population; Pitcairn has a population of 100 in two square miles whereas Papua New Guinea has a population of 2,990,000 in approximately 175,000 square miles. Today the whole ocean is traversed by air routes. Recently, the prevalence of gonorrhoea has decreased in the northern region but increased in the eastern and western; in all these regions the reported prevalence exceeds 200 cases per 100,00 population. In an area where yaws was once widespread, syphilis is being increasingly recognised. Although the figures for syphilis are clearly higher because of the greater use of serological screening, many of the reported cases are of early infection. Yaws has been eliminated from most of the South Pacific Islands but is still present in the western region--more than 99% of the reported cases occurring in Papua New Guinea, particularly in the offshore islands. PMID:7427693

  5. How Does a Hopping Kangaroo Breathe?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giuliodori, Mauricio J.; Lujan, Heidi L.; Janbaih, Hussein; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    We developed a model to demonstrate how a hopping kangaroo breathes. Interestingly, a kangaroo uses less energy to breathe while hopping than while standing still. This occurs, in part, because rather than using muscle power to move air into and out of the lungs, air is pulled into (inspiration) and pushed out of (expiration) the lungs as the…

  6. Small population size and extremely low levels of genetic diversity in island populations of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus.

    PubMed

    Furlan, Elise; Stoklosa, J; Griffiths, J; Gust, N; Ellis, R; Huggins, R M; Weeks, A R

    2012-04-01

    Genetic diversity generally underpins population resilience and persistence. Reductions in population size and absence of gene flow can lead to reductions in genetic diversity, reproductive fitness, and a limited ability to adapt to environmental change increasing the risk of extinction. Island populations are typically small and isolated, and as a result, inbreeding and reduced genetic diversity elevate their extinction risk. Two island populations of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, exist; a naturally occurring population on King Island in Bass Strait and a recently introduced population on Kangaroo Island off the coast of South Australia. Here we assessed the genetic diversity within these two island populations and contrasted these patterns with genetic diversity estimates in areas from which the populations are likely to have been founded. On Kangaroo Island, we also modeled live capture data to determine estimates of population size. Levels of genetic diversity in King Island platypuses are perilously low, with eight of 13 microsatellite loci fixed, likely reflecting their small population size and prolonged isolation. Estimates of heterozygosity detected by microsatellites (H(E)= 0.032) are among the lowest level of genetic diversity recorded by this method in a naturally outbreeding vertebrate population. In contrast, estimates of genetic diversity on Kangaroo Island are somewhat higher. However, estimates of small population size and the limited founders combined with genetic isolation are likely to lead to further losses of genetic diversity through time for the Kangaroo Island platypus population. Implications for the future of these and similarly isolated or genetically depauperate populations are discussed. PMID:22837830

  7. Entanglement of Antarctic fur seals at Bird Island, South Georgia.

    PubMed

    Waluda, Claire M; Staniland, Iain J

    2013-09-15

    Between November 1989 and March 2013, 1033 Antarctic fur seals Arctocephalus gazella were observed entangled in marine debris at Bird Island, South Georgia. The majority of entanglements involved plastic packaging bands (43%), synthetic line (25%) or fishing net (17%). Juvenile male seals were the most commonly entangled (44%). A piecewise regression analysis showed that a single breakpoint at 1994 gave the best description of inter-annual variability in the data, with higher levels of entanglements prior to 1994 (mean=110±28) followed by persistent lower levels (mean=28±4). Records of entanglements from other sites monitored in the Scotia Sea are also presented. Legislation imposed by the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) has, to a certain extent, been effective, but persistent low levels of seal entanglements are still a cause for concern at South Georgia. PMID:23915979

  8. STS-56 ESC Earth observation of New Zealand (South Island)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-56 electronic still camera (ESC) Earth observation image shows New Zealand (South Island) as recorded on the 45th orbit of Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103. Westport is easily delineated in the image, which was recorded by the Hand-held, Earth-oriented, Real-time, Cooperative, User-friendly, Location-targeting and Environmental System (HERCULES). HERCULES is a device that makes it simple for shuttle crewmembers to take pictures of Earth as they merely point a modified 35mm camera and shoot any interesting feature, whose latitude and longitude are automatically determined in real-time. Center coordinates are 41.836 degrees south latitude and 171.641 degrees east longitude. (300mm lens, no filter). Digital file name is ESC07007.IMG.

  9. Island Formation through Bar Deposition and Channel Cutoff in the Bedrock Controlled South River, Virginia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurk, D.; Pizzuto, J. E.

    2010-12-01

    Islands in braided and meandering alluvial channels form by bar accretion and channel cutoff, however, island formation in bedrock-controlled channels is poorly understood. The South River is a single-thread, sinuous, gravel-bed, bedrock river. It is neither meandering nor braided but aerial photographs show the development of gravel bars and the formation of islands that have formed through channel cutoff. This study deciphers processes that lead to both types of island formation and their role in the channel morphology of the South River. The South River was analyzed using aerial photographs and work in the field provided additional data that were used to identify islands and their properties. A Geographic Information System (GIS) was used to evaluate historical aerial photographs dating back to 1937 for location, morphology, origin, and development of islands along an approximately 40 km study reach. Field studies included the surveying of cross sections to determine elevations of islands relative to neighboring floodplains, as well as pebble counts and cores to define sediment characteristics. Aerial photographs indicate that six islands had formed before and an additional 12 islands formed after 1937, placing the average island formation frequency at 0.005 islands per km per year since 1937. Field data indicate that elevation, grain size, stratigraphy, and vegetation of some islands closely resemble those of the floodplains supporting the hypothesis that those islands formed through cutoff, while one island’s sediment was similar to that of the channel and did not show similarities to floodplains or any other islands indicating formation through in-channel sediment deposition. Studies of bank erosion rates along the South River demonstrate that 33% of bank erosion along the South River occurs in divided reaches of the channel associated with islands. Understanding the formation and evolution of these islands may allow for an accurate prediction of future

  10. 76 FR 20706 - South Farallon Islands Nonnative Mouse Eradication Project; Farallon National Wildlife Refuge...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... Impact to guide the management of Farallon National Wildlife Refuge over a 15- year period (75 FR 5102... Fish and Wildlife Service South Farallon Islands Nonnative Mouse Eradication Project; Farallon National... project to eradicate nonnative mice from the South Farallon Islands, part of the Farallon...

  11. 78 FR 64002 - South Farallon Islands Invasive House Mouse Eradication Project; Farallon National Wildlife...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... house mice from the South Farallon Islands, see our August 16, 2013, notice (78 FR 50082). Public... FR 50082) announcing the availability of the DEIS for a proposed project to eradicate non-native... Fish and Wildlife Service South Farallon Islands Invasive House Mouse Eradication Project;...

  12. Monitoring the evolution of Deception Island volcano from magnetic anomaly data (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalán, Manuel; Martos, Yasmina M.; Galindo-Zaldívar, Jesús; Funaki, Minoru

    2014-12-01

    Deception Island is a young and active volcano located in the south-western part of Bransfield back-arc basin. During the last twenty years the Royal Observatory of the Spanish Navy has carried out geophysical surveys in the area. In addition, an unmanned aerial vehicle flight was conducted in 2011 at 800 m height on the northern half of Deception Island. Analysing and comparing magnetic grids obtained in different periods and tie point readings allow us to detect temporal changes and isolate signals of volcanic origin. Magnetic survey cruises performed in Deception Island's inner bay (1988, 1999 and 2008), and the study of its outer area's magnetic anomaly changes, point to a period of high variations concentrated between December 1989 and December 1999 that may be related to the two main recent periods of seismic activity (1992 and January 1999). From December 1999 to December 2008, there were no significant changes in seismic activity; nevertheless, our data show some magnetic alterations, which might signal the slow progress of a volcanic environment towards equilibrium. Interpreting these magnetic changes called for the construction of several forward models. Additionally, we put forth this kind of study as a suitable, economical and easy method for monitoring an active volcanic system whenever it is possible to measure the magnetic field with accurate positioning, and if the external field components are removed correctly.

  13. Source parameters of large historical (1918-1962) earthquakes, South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doser, Diane I.; Webb, Terry H.; Maunder, Diane E.

    1999-12-01

    We present the results of body waveform modelling studies for 17 earthquakes of Mw>=5.7 occurring in the South Island, New Zealand region between 1918 and 1962, including the 1929 Ms=7.8 Buller earthquake, the largest earthquake to have occurred in the South Island this century. These studies confirm the concept of slip partitioning in the northern South Island between strike-slip faulting in southwestern Marlborough and reverse and strike-slip faulting in the Buller region, but indicate that the zone of reverse faulting is quite localized. In the central South Island, all historical earthquakes appear to be associated with strike-slip faulting, although recent (post-1991) reverse faulting events suggest that slip partitioning also occurs within this region. The difference between historical and recent seismicity in the central South Island may also reflect stress readjustment occurring in response to the 1717 ad rupture along the Alpine fault. Within the Fiordland region (southwestern South Island) none of the historical earthquakes appears to have occurred along the Australian/Pacific plate interface, but rather they are associated with complex deformation of the subducting plate as well as with deformation of the upper (Pacific) plate. Two earthquakes in the Puysegur Bank region south of the South Island suggest that strike-slip deformation east of the Puysegur Trench is playing a major role in the tectonics of the region.

  14. Hydrodynamic comparison between the north and south of Mallorca Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amores, Angel; Monserrat, Sebastià

    2014-10-01

    A hydrodynamic comparison between two zones of fishing interest, one located to the north and the other to the south of Mallorca Island (Balearic Islands, Western Mediterranean) was done. The comparison was conducted using the data from two moorings, one placed in the middle of the Balearic Current, in the Balearic subbasin (herein, Sóller) and the other in the Mallorca Channel, near the Algerian subbasin (called Cabrera). The instruments moored, continuously recorded the temperature, salinity and currents at different depths, for over 15 months. The data analysis suggests that Sóller is hydrodynamically more active than Cabrera, at least during the time of recording the measurements. The mean currents were higher at Sóller than at Cabrera at all depths, also showing greater maximum speeds and variability. In addition, the presence of more mesoscale eddies in Sóller became evident from the altimetry data. These eddies were not only significantly more energetic near the surface, they also generally reached to greater depths, affecting the velocities of the seabed currents. Subsequent to each significant eddy episode, strong changes in temperature and/or salinity were observed, along the entire water column. Spectral analysis revealed the presence of high frequency oscillations with periods of a few hours. One energy peak, with a period around 3.7 h, was observed at both locations, probably related to trapped waves around Mallorca or the Balearic Islands, while others (3 h and 2 h) were reflected only in Sóller, suggesting they could be associated with some standing resonance waves between the Iberian Peninsula and Mallorca.

  15. Geodetic implications on block formation and geodynamic domains in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrocoso, M.; Fernández-Ros, A.; Prates, G.; García, A.; Kraus, S.

    2016-01-01

    The South Shetland Islands archipelago is dynamically complex due to its tectonic surroundings. Most islands are part of a formerly active volcanic arc, although Deception, Penguin and Bridgeman Islands, as well as several submarine volcanoes, are characterized by active back-arc volcanism. Geodetic benchmarks were deployed and the movement of the lithosphere to which they were fixed measured to provide geodynamic insight for the South Shetland Islands, Bransfield Basin and Antarctic Peninsula area based on surface deformation. These benchmarks' data add spatial and temporal coverage to previous results. The results reveal two different geodynamic patterns, each confined to a distinct part of the South Shetland Islands archipelago. The inferred absolute horizontal velocity vectors for the benchmarks in the northeastern part of the archipelago are consistent with the opening of the Bransfield Basin, while benchmark vectors in the southwestern part of the archipelago are similar to those of the benchmarks on the Antarctic Peninsula. In between, Snow, Deception and Livingston Islands represent a transition zone. In this area, the horizontal velocity vectors relative to the Antarctic plate shift northeastwards from N to NW. Furthermore, the South Shetland Islands benchmarks, except for that at Gibbs (Elephant) Islands, indicate subsidence, which might be a consequence of the slab roll-back at the South Shetland Trench. In contrast, the uplift revealed by the Antarctic Peninsula benchmarks suggests glacial isostatic adjustment after the Larson B ice-shelf breakup.

  16. Energy audit data for a resort island in the South China Sea

    PubMed Central

    Basir Khan, M. Reyasudin; Jidin, Razali; Pasupuleti, Jagadeesh

    2015-01-01

    The data consists of actual generation-side auditing including the distribution of loads, seasonal load profiles, and types of loads as well as an analysis of local development planning of a resort island in the South China Sea. The data has been used to propose an optimal combination of hybrid renewable energy systems that able to mitigate the diesel fuel dependency on the island. The resort island selected is Tioman, as it represents the typical energy requirements of many resort islands in the South China Sea. The data presented are related to the research article “Optimal Combination of Solar, Wind, Micro-Hydro and Diesel Systems based on Actual Seasonal Load Profiles for a Resort Island in the South China Sea” [1]. PMID:26900590

  17. Energy audit data for a resort island in the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Basir Khan, M Reyasudin; Jidin, Razali; Pasupuleti, Jagadeesh

    2016-03-01

    The data consists of actual generation-side auditing including the distribution of loads, seasonal load profiles, and types of loads as well as an analysis of local development planning of a resort island in the South China Sea. The data has been used to propose an optimal combination of hybrid renewable energy systems that able to mitigate the diesel fuel dependency on the island. The resort island selected is Tioman, as it represents the typical energy requirements of many resort islands in the South China Sea. The data presented are related to the research article "Optimal Combination of Solar, Wind, Micro-Hydro and Diesel Systems based on Actual Seasonal Load Profiles for a Resort Island in the South China Sea" [1]. PMID:26900590

  18. Pi'ilani Highway side on south side of island, Manawainui Bridge, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pi'ilani Highway side on south side of island, Manawainui Bridge, constructed in 1993 to modern ASHTO standards; note difference in scale with historic Hana Belt Road bridges - Hana Belt Road, Between Haiku and Kaipahulu, Hana, Maui County, HI

  19. Shallow submarine volcano group in the early stage of island arc development: Geology and petrology of small islands south off Hahajima main island, the Ogasawara Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanayama, Kyoko; Umino, Susumu; Ishizuka, Osamu

    2014-05-01

    Small Islands south off Hahajima, the southernmost of the Ogasawara Archipelago, consist of primitive basalts (<12 wt.% MgO) to dacite erupted during the transitional stage immediately following boninite volcanism on the incipient arc to sustained typical oceanic arc. Strombolian to Hawaiian fissure eruptions occurring on independent volcanic centers for the individual islands under a shallow sea produced magnesian basalt to dacite fall-out tephras, hyaloclastite and a small volume of pillow lava, which were intruded by NE-trending dikes. These volcanic strata are correlated to the upper part (<40 Ma) of the Hahajima main island. Volcanic rock samples have slightly lower FeO*/MgO ratios than the present volcanic front lavas, and are divided into three types with high, medium and low La/Yb ratios. Basalt to dacite of high- and medium-La/Yb types show both tholeiitic (TH) and calc-alkaline (CA) differentiation trends. Low-La/Yb type belongs only to TH basalt. The multiple magma types are coexistence on the each island. TH basalts have phenocrysts of olivine, clinopyroxene and plagioclase, while CA basalts are free from plagioclase phenocrysts.

  20. A Brief History of Kangaroos (and Lesser Mammals).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Bernard N.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a new hypothesis regarding the origin of bulungamayine kangaroos. Suggests that this group of Oglio-Miocene kangaroos independently evolved adaptations for herbivory and are likely to be ancestral to modern and recently extinct plant-eating kangaroos. (Contains 17 references.) (Author/WRM)

  1. Previously Unknown Fault Shakes New Zealand's South Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quigley, M.; Villamor, P.; Furlong, K.; Beavan, J.; Van Dissen, R.; Litchfield, N.; Stahl, T.; Duffy, B.; Bilderback, E.; Noble, D.; Barrell, D.; Jongens, R.; Cox, S.

    2010-12-01

    At 4:35 A.M. local time on 4 September (1635 UTC, 3 September), a previously unrecognized fault system ruptured in the Canterbury region of New Zealand’s South Island, producing a moment magnitude (Mw) 7.1 earthquake that caused widespread damage throughout the area. In stark contrast to the 2010 Mw 7.0 Haiti earthquake, no deaths occurred and only two injuries were reported despite the epicenter's location about 40 kilometers west of Christchurch (population ˜386,000). The Canterbury region now faces a rebuilding estimated to cost more than NZ$4 billion (US$2.95 billion). On the positive side, this earthquake has provided an opportunity to document the dynamics and effects of a major strike-slip fault rupture in the absence of death or serious injury. The low-relief and well-maintained agricultural landscape of the Canterbury Plains helped scientists characterize very subtle earthquake-related ground deformation at high resolution, helping to classify the earthquake's basic geological features [Quigley et al., 2010]. The prompt mobilization of collaborating scientific teams allowed for rapid data capture immediately after the earthquake, and new scientific programs directed at developing a greater understanding of this event are under way.

  2. The South Stradbroke Island Resort: An Approach to Teaching Ecology at the Senior Secondary School Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Anthony

    2000-01-01

    Describes an activity in which students gather information on a field trip to South Stradbroke Island in Australia and conduct a symposium on whether it would be suitable to build a resort on the island. Students role-play the viewpoints of various special interest groups that would be involved in the controversy. (Author/WRM)

  3. 33 CFR 334.220 - Chesapeake Bay, south of Tangier Island, Va.; naval firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Island, Va.; naval firing range. 334.220 Section 334.220 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....220 Chesapeake Bay, south of Tangier Island, Va.; naval firing range. (a) The danger zone. Beginning... especially notified to the contrary. (2) All vessels, other than naval craft, are forbidden to anchor...

  4. 33 CFR 334.220 - Chesapeake Bay, south of Tangier Island, Va.; naval firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Island, Va.; naval firing range. 334.220 Section 334.220 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....220 Chesapeake Bay, south of Tangier Island, Va.; naval firing range. (a) The danger zone. Beginning... especially notified to the contrary. (2) All vessels, other than naval craft, are forbidden to anchor...

  5. Data from renewable energy assessments for resort islands in the South China Sea

    PubMed Central

    Basir Khan, M. Reyasudin; Jidin, Razali; Pasupuleti, Jagadeesh

    2015-01-01

    Renewable energy assessments for resort islands in the South China Sea were conducted that involves the collection and analysis of meteorological and topographic data. The meteorological data was used to assess the PV, wind and hydropower system potentials on the islands. Furthermore, the reconnaissance study for hydro-potentials were conducted through topographic maps in order to determine the potential sites suitable for development of run-of-river hydropower generation. The stream data was collected for 14 islands in the South China Sea with a total of 51 investigated sites. The data from this study are related to the research article “Optimal combination of solar, wind, micro-hydro and diesel systems based on actual seasonal load profiles for a resort island in the South China Sea” published in Energy (Khan et al., 2015) [1]. PMID:26779562

  6. Data from renewable energy assessments for resort islands in the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Basir Khan, M Reyasudin; Jidin, Razali; Pasupuleti, Jagadeesh

    2016-03-01

    Renewable energy assessments for resort islands in the South China Sea were conducted that involves the collection and analysis of meteorological and topographic data. The meteorological data was used to assess the PV, wind and hydropower system potentials on the islands. Furthermore, the reconnaissance study for hydro-potentials were conducted through topographic maps in order to determine the potential sites suitable for development of run-of-river hydropower generation. The stream data was collected for 14 islands in the South China Sea with a total of 51 investigated sites. The data from this study are related to the research article "Optimal combination of solar, wind, micro-hydro and diesel systems based on actual seasonal load profiles for a resort island in the South China Sea" published in Energy (Khan et al., 2015) [1]. PMID:26779562

  7. Phylogeography of Eastern Grey Kangaroos, Macropus giganteus, Suggests a Mesic Refugium in Eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Coghlan, Brett A; Goldizen, Anne W; Thomson, Vicki A; Seddon, Jennifer M

    2015-01-01

    Phylogeographic studies around the world have identified refugia where fauna were able to persist during unsuitable climatic periods, particularly during times of glaciation. In Australia the effects of Pleistocene climate oscillations on rainforest taxa have been well studied but less is known about the effects on mesic-habitat fauna, such as the eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus). The eastern grey kangaroo is a large mammal that is common and widespread throughout eastern Australia, preferring dry mesic habitat, rather than rainforest. As pollen evidence suggests that the central-eastern part of Australia (southeast Queensland and northern New South Wales) experienced cycles of expansion in mesic habitat with contraction in rainforests, and vice versa during glacial and interglacial periods, respectively, we hypothesise that the distribution of the eastern grey kangaroo was affected by these climate oscillations and may have contracted to mesic habitat refugia. From 375 mitochondrial DNA control region sequences from across the distribution of eastern grey kangaroos we obtained 108 unique haplotypes. Phylogenetic analysis identified two clades in Queensland, one of which is newly identified and restricted to a small coastal region in southern Queensland north of Brisbane, known as the Sunshine Coast. The relatively limited geographic range of this genetically isolated clade suggests the possibility of a mesic habitat refugium forming during rainforest expansion during wetter climate cycles. Other potential, although less likely, reasons for the genetic isolation of the highly distinct clade include geographic barriers, separate northward expansions, and strong local adaptation. PMID:26024370

  8. Phylogeography of Eastern Grey Kangaroos, Macropus giganteus, Suggests a Mesic Refugium in Eastern Australia

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Phylogeographic studies around the world have identified refugia where fauna were able to persist during unsuitable climatic periods, particularly during times of glaciation. In Australia the effects of Pleistocene climate oscillations on rainforest taxa have been well studied but less is known about the effects on mesic-habitat fauna, such as the eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus). The eastern grey kangaroo is a large mammal that is common and widespread throughout eastern Australia, preferring dry mesic habitat, rather than rainforest. As pollen evidence suggests that the central-eastern part of Australia (southeast Queensland and northern New South Wales) experienced cycles of expansion in mesic habitat with contraction in rainforests, and vice versa during glacial and interglacial periods, respectively, we hypothesise that the distribution of the eastern grey kangaroo was affected by these climate oscillations and may have contracted to mesic habitat refugia. From 375 mitochondrial DNA control region sequences from across the distribution of eastern grey kangaroos we obtained 108 unique haplotypes. Phylogenetic analysis identified two clades in Queensland, one of which is newly identified and restricted to a small coastal region in southern Queensland north of Brisbane, known as the Sunshine Coast. The relatively limited geographic range of this genetically isolated clade suggests the possibility of a mesic habitat refugium forming during rainforest expansion during wetter climate cycles. Other potential, although less likely, reasons for the genetic isolation of the highly distinct clade include geographic barriers, separate northward expansions, and strong local adaptation. PMID:26024370

  9. Lithospheric shear velocity structure of South Island, New Zealand, from amphibious Rayleigh wave tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, Justin S.; Sheehan, Anne F.; Stachnik, Joshua C.; Lin, Fan-Chi; Yeck, William L.; Collins, John A.

    2016-05-01

    We present a crust and mantle 3-D shear velocity model extending well offshore of New Zealand's South Island, imaging the lithosphere beneath the South Island as well as the Campbell and Challenger Plateaus. Our model is constructed via linearized inversion of both teleseismic (18-70 s period) and ambient noise-based (8-25 s period) Rayleigh wave dispersion measurements. We augment an array of 4 land-based and 29 ocean bottom instruments deployed off the South Island's east and west coasts in 2009-2010 by the Marine Observations of Anisotropy Near Aotearoa experiment with 28 land-based seismometers from New Zealand's permanent GeoNet array. Major features of our shear wave velocity (Vs) model include a low-velocity (Vs < 4.4 km/s) body extending from near surface to greater than 75 km depth beneath the Banks and Otago Peninsulas and high-velocity (Vs~4.7 km/s) mantle anomalies underlying the Southern Alps and off the northwest coast of the South Island. Using the 4.5 km/s contour as a proxy for the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, our model suggests that the lithospheric thickness of Challenger Plateau and central South Island is substantially greater than that of the inner Campbell Plateau. The high-velocity anomaly we resolve at subcrustal depths (>50 km) beneath the central South Island exhibits strong spatial correlation with upper mantle earthquake hypocenters beneath the Alpine Fault. The ~400 km long low-velocity zone we image beneath eastern South Island and the inner Bounty Trough underlies Cenozoic volcanics and the locations of mantle-derived helium measurements, consistent with asthenospheric upwelling in the region.

  10. Functional morphology of the forelimb of living and extinct tree-kangaroos (Marsupialia: Macropodidae).

    PubMed

    Warburton, Natalie M; Harvey, Kathryn J; Prideaux, Gavin J; O'Shea, James E

    2011-10-01

    Tree-kangaroos are a unique group of arboreal marsupials that evolved from terrestrial ancestors. The recent discovery of well-preserved specimens of extinct tree-kangaroo species (genus Bohra) within Pleistocene cave deposits of south-central Australia provides a unique opportunity to examine adaptive evolution of tree-kangaroos. Here, we provide the first detailed description of the functional anatomy of the forelimb, a central component of the locomotor complex, in the extant Dendrolagus lumholtzi, and compare its structure and function with representatives of other extant marsupial families. Several features were interpreted as adaptations for coping with a discontinuous, uneven and three-dimensional arboreal substrate through enhanced muscular strength and dexterity for propulsion, grasping, and gripping with the forelimbs. The forelimb musculoskeletal anatomy of Dendrolagus differed from terrestrial kangaroos in the following principal ways: a stronger emphasis on the development of muscles groups responsible for adduction, grasping, and gripping; the enlargement of muscles that retract the humerus; and modified shape of the scapula and bony articulations of the forelimb bones to allow improved mobility. Many of these attributes are convergent with other arboreal marsupials. Tree-kangaroos, however, still retain the characteristic bauplan of their terrestrial ancestors, particularly with regard to skeletal morphology, and the muscular anatomy of the forelimb highlights a basic conservatism within the group. In many instances, the skeletal remains of Bohra have similar features to Dendrolagus that suggest adaptations to an arboreal habit. Despite the irony of their retrieval from deposits of the Nullarbor "Treeless" Plain, forelimb morphology clearly shows that the species of Bohra were well adapted to an arboreal habitat. PMID:21630322

  11. Elements in the hair of South-east Asian islanders.

    PubMed

    Foo, S C; Tan, T C

    1998-01-19

    Mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) in hair samples from Singapore island (85 samples) and two islands off Batam, Indonesia (68 samples) were analysed to assess the environmental uptake of elements. Hair samples were washed with 0.1% Triton X-100 solution for 20 min in an ultrasonic bath, rinsed five times with de-ionized water and air dried. Ten to 20 mg of hair samples were digested with 1 ml of ultra-pure concentrated nitric acid in Parr bombs at 120 degrees C for 2 h. Hair digests were analysed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Hg was determined by the cold vapour AAS method and Pb, Cd and Cu by the electro-thermal graphite furnace AAS method. For Singapore hair, the contents of Cd (in microgram/g) averaged 0.17 (range 0.02-1.81); Cu 13.2 (range 3.1-70.1); Hg 5.92 (range 1.14-35.52); and Pb 6.74 (range 0.06-107.8). For the islands off Batam, Cd was 0.32 (range 0.06-1.80); Cu 21.1 (range 3.8-143.6); Hg 5.59 (range 0.78-60.86); and Pb 15.1 (range 0.13-116.6). Statistically significant differences in Cd, Pb and Hg contents were observed between the hair samples from Singapore and those of the islands off Batam in cumulative logit analysis. Hair from Singapore contained more Hg, but less Cd and Pb compared to hair from the islands off Batam. For Pb in hair, significant differences were also observed between the two islands off Batam (island 1, 18.9; and island 2, 10.2). These differences in hair metal contents are due to differences in community lifestyle (dietary, environmental or occupational intake). PMID:9514039

  12. The critical role of islands for waterbird breeding and foraging habitat in managed ponds of the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project, South San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Hartman, C. Alex; Herzog, Mark P.; Smith, Lacy M.; Moskal, Stacy M.; De La Cruz, Susan E. W.; Yee, Julie L.; Takekawa, John Y.

    2014-01-01

    The South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project aims to restore 50–90 percent of former salt evaporation ponds into tidal marsh in South San Francisco Bay, California. However, large numbers of waterbirds use these ponds annually as nesting and foraging habitat. Islands within ponds are particularly important habitat for nesting, foraging, and roosting waterbirds. To maintain current waterbird populations, the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project plans to create new islands within former salt ponds in South San Francisco Bay. In a series of studies, we investigated pond and individual island attributes that are most beneficial to nesting, foraging, and roosting waterbirds.

  13. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from South Brother Island Channel, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Barrows, E.S.; Gardiner, W.W.; Antrim, L.D.; Gruendell, B.D.; Word, J.Q.; Tokos, J.J.S.

    1996-09-01

    South Brother Island Channel was one of seven waterways that the US Army Crops of Engineers-New York District requested the Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal. Tests and analyses were conducted on South Brother Island Channel sediment core samples and evaluations were performed. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from South Brother Island Channel included bulk sediment chemical analyses, chemical analyses of site water and elutriate, water-column and benthic acute toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation studies. Individual sediment core samples collected from Souther Brother Island Channel were analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon. a composite sediment sample, representing the entire area proposed for dredging, was analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl congers, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and 1,4- dichlorobenzene. Site water and elutriate water, prepared from the suspended-particle phase of South Brother Island Channel sediment, were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBs.

  14. A new species of Paraproto (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Phtisicidae) collected from the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Ichiro

    2015-12-01

    A new species of amphipod crustacean (Amphipoda: Phtisicidae), Paraproto mccaini n. sp. is described based on specimens collected from south of Elephant Island, the South Shetland Islands near the Antarctic Peninsula. This species was first reported as Paraproto condylata (Haswell, 1885) [sensu lato], recorded from a temperate region of Australia. P. mccaini n. sp. is distinct from P. condylata [sensu stricto] by an elongated head with pereonite 1, presence of a mid-lateral projection on pereonites 2-4, and lack of a distal round projection on the propodus of gnathopod 2. Paraproto differs from Pseudoprotomima, the most phylogenetically similar genus, in having gills on pereonites 3 and 4.

  15. Miocene structural features of north and south Padre Island and OCS areas, offshore south Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Ghamdi, A.M.; Watkins, J.S.

    1996-12-31

    Integration of 2-D seismic reflection data, paleontological reports, velocity analysis, and well logs has provided a new structural model for North and South Padre Island OCS areas. The Clemente-Tomas fault system (Late Oligocene-Early Miocene) is located above overpressured shale ridges. Sediment loading initiated the faulting over the compacted shale. The Corsair fault system (Early-Middle Miocene) is located seaward of Clemente-Tomas and was formed due to a huge sediment influx that forced the salt to withdraw basinward. The Wanda fault system formed during the Late Miocene because of the further salt withdrawal. Study area is dominated by shale ridges and the salt are only formed beneath the present shelf edge as salt diapirs. Overpressured shale was mapped throughout the study area. Well logs show overpressured shale between 8,800 to 12,000 feet. Berg and Avery suggested that growth faults can seal the faults sheared zones which may cause a structural hydrocarbon trap. We examined most of the responses of the dip logs in the study area and we found that the seal general trend is the drag (non seal) type.

  16. Miocene structural features of north and south Padre Island and OCS areas, offshore south Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Ghamdi, A.M.; Watkins, J.S. )

    1996-01-01

    Integration of 2-D seismic reflection data, paleontological reports, velocity analysis, and well logs has provided a new structural model for North and South Padre Island OCS areas. The Clemente-Tomas fault system (Late Oligocene-Early Miocene) is located above overpressured shale ridges. Sediment loading initiated the faulting over the compacted shale. The Corsair fault system (Early-Middle Miocene) is located seaward of Clemente-Tomas and was formed due to a huge sediment influx that forced the salt to withdraw basinward. The Wanda fault system formed during the Late Miocene because of the further salt withdrawal. Study area is dominated by shale ridges and the salt are only formed beneath the present shelf edge as salt diapirs. Overpressured shale was mapped throughout the study area. Well logs show overpressured shale between 8,800 to 12,000 feet. Berg and Avery suggested that growth faults can seal the faults sheared zones which may cause a structural hydrocarbon trap. We examined most of the responses of the dip logs in the study area and we found that the seal general trend is the drag (non seal) type.

  17. 33 CFR 334.650 - Gulf of Mexico, south of St. George Island, Fla.; test firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico, south of St. George Island, Fla.; test firing range. 334.650 Section 334.650 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....650 Gulf of Mexico, south of St. George Island, Fla.; test firing range. (a) The danger zone. A...

  18. 33 CFR 334.840 - Waters of Lake Michigan south of Northerly Island at entrance to Burnham Park Yacht Harbor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Waters of Lake Michigan south of Northerly Island at entrance to Burnham Park Yacht Harbor, Chicago, Ill.; danger zone adjacent to airport on... Michigan south of Northerly Island at entrance to Burnham Park Yacht Harbor, Chicago, Ill.; danger...

  19. 33 CFR 334.840 - Waters of Lake Michigan south of Northerly Island at entrance to Burnham Park Yacht Harbor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Waters of Lake Michigan south of Northerly Island at entrance to Burnham Park Yacht Harbor, Chicago, Ill.; danger zone adjacent to airport on... Michigan south of Northerly Island at entrance to Burnham Park Yacht Harbor, Chicago, Ill.; danger...

  20. 33 CFR 334.840 - Waters of Lake Michigan south of Northerly Island at entrance to Burnham Park Yacht Harbor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Waters of Lake Michigan south of Northerly Island at entrance to Burnham Park Yacht Harbor, Chicago, Ill.; danger zone adjacent to airport on... Michigan south of Northerly Island at entrance to Burnham Park Yacht Harbor, Chicago, Ill.; danger...

  1. 33 CFR 334.840 - Waters of Lake Michigan south of Northerly Island at entrance to Burnham Park Yacht Harbor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Waters of Lake Michigan south of Northerly Island at entrance to Burnham Park Yacht Harbor, Chicago, Ill.; danger zone adjacent to airport on... Michigan south of Northerly Island at entrance to Burnham Park Yacht Harbor, Chicago, Ill.; danger...

  2. 33 CFR 334.840 - Waters of Lake Michigan south of Northerly Island at entrance to Burnham Park Yacht Harbor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Waters of Lake Michigan south of Northerly Island at entrance to Burnham Park Yacht Harbor, Chicago, Ill.; danger zone adjacent to airport on... Michigan south of Northerly Island at entrance to Burnham Park Yacht Harbor, Chicago, Ill.; danger...

  3. 33 CFR 334.650 - Gulf of Mexico, south of St. George Island, Fla.; test firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico, south of St. George Island, Fla.; test firing range. 334.650 Section 334.650 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....650 Gulf of Mexico, south of St. George Island, Fla.; test firing range. (a) The danger zone. A...

  4. 33 CFR 334.650 - Gulf of Mexico, south of St. George Island, Fla.; test firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico, south of St. George Island, Fla.; test firing range. 334.650 Section 334.650 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....650 Gulf of Mexico, south of St. George Island, Fla.; test firing range. (a) The danger zone. A...

  5. Geothermal Gradient Drilling and Measurements Ascension Island, South Atlantic Ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Sibbett, B.S.; Nielson, D.L.; Adams, M.C.

    1984-07-01

    This technical report on the Phase II geothermal exploration of Ascension Island documents the data collected during thermal gradient drilling and the subsequent thermal and fluid chemical investigations. It also documents the completion of the Phase II exploration strategy which was proposed at the end of the Phase I--Preliminary Examination of Ascension Island. The thermal gradient drilling resulted in seven holes which range from 206 to 1750 ft (53-533 m) deep, with a cumulative footage of 6563 ft (2000 m). The drilling procedure and the problems encountered during the drilling have been explained in detail to provide information valuable for any subsequent drilling program on the island. In addition, the subsurface geology encountered in the holes has been documented and, where possible, correlated with other holes or the geology mapped on the surface of the island. Temperatures measured in the holes reach a maximum of 130 F (54.4 C) at 1285 ft (391.7 m) in hole GH-6. When the temperatures of all holes are plotted against elevation, the holes can be classed into three distinct groups, those which have no thermal manifestations, those with definite geothermal affinities, and one hole which is intermediate between the other two. From consideration of this information, it is clear that the highest geothermal potential on the island is in the Donkey Flat area extending beneath Middleton Ridge, and in the Cricket Valley area. Because of the greater drilling depths and the remote nature of the Cricket Valley area, it is recommended that future exploration concentrate in the area around Middleton Ridge.

  6. Preliminary study on pisionids (Annelida: Polychaeta Pisionidae) from Hainan Island coastal waters, South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Bao-Ling; Ding, Zhi-Hu; Huang, Feng-Peng

    1998-06-01

    Of the four species of Pisione Grube (1856) collected from the coastal waters of Hainan Island, the South China Sea, and described in this paper, Pisione hainanensis n. sp. is new to science; Pisione oerstedii Grube, 1857; Pisione complexa Alikunhi, 1947, and Pisione levisetosa Zhao, Westheide & Wu, 1991 are reported for the first time from this area.

  7. 78 FR 50082 - South Farallon Islands Invasive House Mouse Eradication Project; Farallon National Wildlife...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... Wildlife Refuge (Refuge) over a 15-year period (75 FR 5102, February 1, 2010). The wildlife management goal... published a notice of intent (NOI) to prepare an EIS (76 FR 20706, April 13, 2011). We then developed a..., invertebrates, and plants, as well as to enhance ecosystem processes on the islands. The South Farallon...

  8. The Pacific Way: Sustainability in Higher Education in the South Pacific Island Nations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcoran, Peter Blaze; Koshy, Kanayathu Chacko

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to create an area profile of significant activity and possibility in higher education for sustainable development (ESD) in the island nations of the South Pacific Ocean. Design/methodology/approach: This is a descriptive research paper on philosophy, policy, and practice according to a methodology of…

  9. 75 FR 54695 - Noise Exposure Map Notice; Brownsville South Padre Island International Airport, Brownsville, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Noise Exposure Map Notice; Brownsville South Padre Island International... Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) announces its determination that the noise exposure maps submitted... on the noise exposure maps is August 30, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Lance E. Key,...

  10. New Cultural Economies of Marginality: Revisiting the West Coast, South Island, New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conradson, David; Pawson, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Marginal regions have been the subject of political concern and remedial action in western states for several decades now. The West Coast of the South Island of New Zealand is an interesting case study in this regard, for recent economic growth has confounded earlier expectations of post-restructuring decline, while also contradicting several of…

  11. Quantitative distribution and functional groups of intertidal macrofaunal assemblages in Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, South Shetland Islands, Southern Ocean.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoshou; Wang, Lu; Li, Shuai; Huo, Yuanzi; He, Peimin; Zhang, Zhinan

    2015-10-15

    To evaluate spatial distribution pattern of intertidal macrofauna, quantitative investigation was performed in January to February, 2013 around Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, South Shetland Islands. A total of 34 species were identified, which were dominated by Mollusca, Annelida and Arthropoda. CLUSTER analysis showed that macrofaunal assemblages at sand-bottom sites belonged to one group, which was dominated by Lumbricillus sp. and Kidderia subquadrata. Macrofaunal assemblages at gravel-bottom sites were divided into three groups while Nacella concinna was the dominant species at most sites. The highest values of biomass and Shannon-Wiener diversity index were found in gravel sediment and the highest value of abundance was in sand sediment of eastern coast. In terms of functional group, detritivorous and planktophagous groups had the highest values of abundance and biomass, respectively. Correlation analysis showed that macrofaunal abundance and biomass had significant positive correlations with contents of sediment chlorophyll a, phaeophorbide and organic matter. PMID:26233302

  12. Momentum Flux Estimates for South Georgia Island Mountain Waves in the Stratosphere Observed via Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, M. Joan; Eckermann, Stephen D.; Broutman, Dave; Ma, Jun

    2009-01-01

    We show high-resolution satellite observations of mountain wave events in the stratosphere above South Georgia Island in the remote southern Atlantic Ocean and compute the wave momentum fluxes for these events. The fluxes are large, and they imply important drag forces on the circulation. Small island orography is generally neglected in mountain wave parameterizations used in global climate models because limited model resolution treats the grid cell containing the island as ocean rather than land. Our results show that satellite observations can be used to quantitatively constrain mountain wave momentum fluxes, and they suggest that mountain waves from island topography may be an important missing source of drag on the atmospheric circulation.

  13. Small unmanned aerial vehicles for aeromagnetic surveys and their flights in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funaki, Minoru; Higashino, Shin-Ichiro; Sakanaka, Shinya; Iwata, Naoyoshi; Nakamura, Norihiro; Hirasawa, Naohiko; Obara, Noriaki; Kuwabara, Mikio

    2014-12-01

    We developed small computer-controlled unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs, Ant-Plane) using parts and technology designed for model airplanes. These UAVs have a maximum flight range of 300-500 km. We planned aeromagnetic and aerial photographic surveys using the UAVs around Bransfield Basin, Antarctica, beginning from King George Island. However, we were unable to complete these flights due to unsuitable weather conditions and flight restrictions. Successful flights were subsequently conducted from Livingston Island to Deception Island in December 2011. This flight covered 302.4 km in 3:07:08, providing aeromagnetic and aerial photographic data from an altitude of 780 m over an area of 9 × 18 km around the northern region of Deception Island. The resulting magnetic anomaly map of Deception Island displayed higher resolution than the marine anomaly maps published already. The flight to South Bay in Livingston Island successfully captured aerial photographs that could be used for assessment of glacial and sea-ice conditions. It is unclear whether the cost-effectiveness of the airborne survey by UAV is superior to that of manned flight. Nonetheless, Ant-Plane 6-3 proved to be highly cost-effective for the Deception Island flight, considering the long downtime of the airplane in the Antarctic storm zone.

  14. 33 CFR 334.650 - Gulf of Mexico, south of St. George Island, Fla.; test firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico, south of St....650 Gulf of Mexico, south of St. George Island, Fla.; test firing range. (a) The danger zone. A fan... an arc with a 10,500 meter radius with its center located on the south shore line of St....

  15. 33 CFR 334.650 - Gulf of Mexico, south of St. George Island, Fla.; test firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico, south of St....650 Gulf of Mexico, south of St. George Island, Fla.; test firing range. (a) The danger zone. A fan... an arc with a 10,500 meter radius with its center located on the south shore line of St....

  16. Continuous resistivity profiling data from Great South Bay, Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cross, V.A.; Bratton, J.F.; Kroeger, K.D.; Crusius, John; Worley, C.R.

    2013-01-01

    An investigation of submarine aquifers adjacent to the Fire Island National Seashore and Long Island, New York was conducted to assess the importance of submarine groundwater discharge as a potential nonpoint source of nitrogen delivery to Great South Bay. Over 200 kilometers of continuous resistivity profiling data were collected to image the fresh-saline groundwater interface in sediments beneath the bay. In addition, groundwater sampling was performed at sites (1) along the north shore of Great South Bay, particularly in Patchogue Bay, that were representative of the developed Long Island shoreline, and (2) at sites on and adjacent to Fire Island, a 50-kilometer-long barrier island on the south side of Great South Bay. Other field activities included sediment coring, stationary electrical resistivity profiling, and surveys of in situ pore water conductivity. Results of continuous resistivity profiling surveys are described in this report. The onshore and offshore shallow hydrostratigraphy of the Great South Bay shorelines, particularly the presence and nature of submarine confining units, appears to exert primary control on the dimensions and chemistry of the submarine groundwater flow and discharge zones. Sediment coring has shown that the confining units commonly consist of drowned and buried peat layers likely deposited in salt marshes. Low-salinity groundwater extends from 10 to 100 meters offshore along much of the north and south shores of Great South Bay based on continuous resistivity profiling data, especially off the mouths of tidal creeks and beneath shallow flats to the north of Fire Island adjacent to modern salt marshes. Human modifications of much of the shoreline and nearshore areas along the north shore of the bay, including filling of salt marshes, construction of bulkheads and piers, and dredging of navigation channels, has substantially altered the natural hydrogeology of the bay's shorelines by truncating confining units and increasing

  17. Holocene carbonate sedimentation in Aitutaki Lagoon, Cook Islands, South Pacific

    SciTech Connect

    Richmond, B.M.; Hein, J.R.

    1987-05-01

    Aitutaki, an almost-atoll in the Southern Cook Islands, is characterized by a shallow enclosed lagoon. Sediment distribution within the lagoon can be broadly placed into three sedimentary-bathymetric provinces. (1) A low-relief reef rim (< 2 m deep), including sand flats and washover fans, is comprised mostly of clean sand and gravel. (2) The majority of the lagoon floor, which lies between 3 and 6 m water depth, is dominated by sand and silt; coral-algal patch reefs are common with densities greater than 500 reefs/km/sup 2/. Sediment commonly is coarser grained near the patch reefs. (3) Enclosed and elongate-sinuous topographic lows (basins) up to 10 m deep are marked by coral-algal reef growth along their margins. These features are typically narrow, less than 100 m wide, and are U-shaped in cross section and infilled by carbonate and terrigenous muds. High-resolution continuous seismic profiling and limited drilling indicate that differences in thickness of Holocene sediment result from primary irregularities in the pre-Holocene basement surface. Aitutaki was formed by late Miocene volcanism, with a post-edifice building mid-Pleistocene (0.77 Ma) volcanic episode. Two islets within the lagoon are also of volcanic origin, and sinuous coral ridges which extend for several kilometers probably developed on Quaternary lava flows. The coral ridges and meandering enclosed basins appear to be unique to Aitutaki in the Cook Islands.

  18. The South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands MPA: protecting a biodiverse oceanic island chain situated in the flow of the antarctic circumpolar current.

    PubMed

    Trathan, Philip N; Collins, Martin A; Grant, Susie M; Belchier, Mark; Barnes, David K A; Brown, Judith; Staniland, Iain J

    2014-01-01

    South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands (SGSSI) are surrounded by oceans that are species-rich, have high levels of biodiversity, important endemism and which also support large aggregations of charismatic upper trophic level species. Spatial management around these islands is complex, particularly in the context of commercial fisheries that exploit some of these living resources. Furthermore, management is especially complicated as local productivity relies fundamentally upon biological production transported from outside the area. The MPA uses practical management boundaries, allowing access for the current legal fisheries for Patagonian toothfish, mackerel icefish and Antarctic krill. Management measures developed as part of the planning process designated the whole SGSSI Maritime Zone as an IUCN Category VI reserve, within which a number of IUCN Category I reserves were identified. Multiple-use zones and temporal closures were also designated. A key multiple-use principle was to identify whether the ecological impacts of a particular fishery threatened either the pelagic or benthic domain. PMID:25358297

  19. The May 2010 submarine eruption from South Sarigan seamount, Northern Mariana Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGimsey, R. G.; Neal, C. A.; Searcy, C. K.; Camacho, J. T.; Aydlett, W. B.; Embley, R. W.; Trusdell, F.; Paskievitch, J. F.; Schneider, D. J.

    2010-12-01

    A sudden submarine explosive eruption occurred on May 29, 2010, from a seamount south of Sarigan Island in the Northern Mariana Islands, propelling a diffuse steam and ash cloud to high altitude. Pre-eruptive seismicity was recorded in early April by stations located on Sarigan and Anatahan Island, 42 km to the south, and indicated a source ~12-16 km south of Sarigan. On May 27-28, a change in seismicity—the appearance of tremor-like waveforms—may have marked the onset of volcanic activity. Also on May 27, an elongate patch of discolored ocean water and possible light-colored floating debris about 8-11 km south of Sarigan was observed from a helicopter. This material was likely produced during low-intensity eruptive activity, and an Information Statement from the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI) Emergency Management Office (EMO) and USGS issued at 2353 UTC May 28 described the observation. The Guam Weather Forecast Office of the National Weather Service reported that the area of discoloration, visible on satellite images at 2313 and 2330 UTC on May 28, was about 10 km2, about twice the size of Sarigan Island. Pulses of tremor merged into a nearly continuous signal by 0305 UTC on May 29, lasting for ~4.5 hours followed by nearly 4.5 hours of quiescence. The EMO issued a declaration closing the region south of Sarigan to all local boating traffic and issued an advisory to aircraft. The explosive onset of the main plume-producing event occurred at ~1148 UTC as confirmed by seismic records on Anatahan Island, with the strongest phase ending ~1200 UTC. Soon after, the Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center reported an eruption cloud reaching an estimated 40,000 feet (12 km) ASL that diminished rapidly on satellite imagery suggesting it was water-vapor dominated. Winds carried the cloud southwest over Guam, and although no ash fall was reported, the cloud was visible and was detected in Aura/OMI aerosol index imagery. Biologists on Sarigan Island

  20. Kangaroo mother care: a systematic review of barriers and enablers

    PubMed Central

    Labar, Amy S; Wall, Stephen; Atun, Rifat

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate factors influencing the adoption of kangaroo mother care in different contexts. Methods We searched PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science and the World Health Organization’s regional databases, for studies on “kangaroo mother care” or “kangaroo care” or “skin-to-skin care” from 1 January 1960 to 19 August 2015, without language restrictions. We included programmatic reports and hand-searched references of published reviews and articles. Two independent reviewers screened articles and extracted data on carers, health system characteristics and contextual factors. We developed a conceptual model to analyse the integration of kangaroo mother care in health systems. Findings We screened 2875 studies and included 112 studies that contained qualitative data on implementation. Kangaroo mother care was applied in different ways in different contexts. The studies show that there are several barriers to implementing kangaroo mother care, including the need for time, social support, medical care and family acceptance. Barriers within health systems included organization, financing and service delivery. In the broad context, cultural norms influenced perceptions and the success of adoption. Conclusion Kangaroo mother care is a complex intervention that is behaviour driven and includes multiple elements. Success of implementation requires high user engagement and stakeholder involvement. Future research includes designing and testing models of specific interventions to improve uptake. PMID:26908962

  1. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild kangaroos using an ELISA

    PubMed Central

    Parameswaran, N.; O'Handley, RM.; Grigg, ME.; Fenwick, SG.; Thompson, RCA.

    2009-01-01

    Infection with Toxoplasma gondii is a significant problem in Australian marsupials, and can lead to devastating disease and predispose animals to predation. T. gondii infection in kangaroos is also of public health significance due to the kangaroo meat trade. A moderate seroprevalence of T. gondii was observed in a study of western grey kangaroos located in the Perth metropolitan area in Western Australia. Of 219 kangaroos tested, 15.5% (95%CI: 10.7-20.3) were positive for T. gondii antibodies using an ELISA developed to detect T. gondii IgG in macropod marsupials. When compared with the commercially available MAT (modified agglutination test), the ELISA developed was in absolute agreement and yielded a κ coefficient of 1.00. Of 18 kangaroos tested for the presence of T. gondii DNA by PCR, the 9 ELISA positive kangaroos tested PCR positive and the 9 ELISA negative kangaroos tested PCR negative indicating the ELISA protocol was both highly specific and sensitive and correlated 100% with the more labour intensive PCR assay. PMID:19567231

  2. A new Starlight Reserve for the central South Island of New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hearnshaw, John

    2015-03-01

    The Aoraki Mackenzie International Dark Sky Reserve is a new reserve created in 2012 by the International Dark-Sky Association in the central South Island of New Zealand, and covers over 4300 square kilometres around Mt John University Observatory. It is the first such reserve to be recognized at gold tier level and is the largest dark sky reserve in the world. Astro-tourism in the new reserve will be a prominent activity in the coming years.

  3. Massive Microbiological Groundwater Contamination Associated with a Waterborne Outbreak in Lake Erie, South Bass Island, Ohio

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Theng-Theng; Mansfield, Linda S.; Wilson, David L.; Schwab, David J.; Molloy, Stephanie L.; Rose, Joan B.

    2007-01-01

    Background A groundwater-associated outbreak affected approximately 1,450 residents and visitors of South Bass Island, Ohio, between July and September 2004. Objectives To examine the microbiological quality of groundwater wells located on South Bass Island, we sampled 16 wells that provide potable water to public water systems 15–21 September 2004. Methods We tested groundwater wells for fecal indicators, enteric viruses and bacteria, and protozoa (Cryptosporidium and Giardia). The hydrodynamics of Lake Erie were examined to explore the possible surface water–groundwater interactions. Results All wells were positive for both total coliform and Escherichia coli. Seven wells tested positive for enterococci and Arcobacter (an emerging bacterial pathogen), and F+-specific coliphage was present in four wells. Three wells were positive for all three bacterial indicators, coliphages, and Arcobacter; adenovirus DNA was recovered from two of these wells. We found a cluster of the most contaminated wells at the southeast side of the island. Conclusions Massive groundwater contamination on the island was likely caused by transport of microbiological contaminants from wastewater treatment facilities and septic tanks to the lake and the subsurface, after extreme precipitation events in May–July 2004. This likely raised the water table, saturated the subsurface, and along with very strong Lake Erie currents on 24 July, forced a surge in water levels and rapid surface water–groundwater interchange throughout the island. Landsat images showed massive influx of organic material and turbidity surrounding the island before the peak of the outbreak. These combinations of factors and information can be used to examine vulnerabilities in other coastal systems. Both wastewater and drinking water issues are now being addressed by the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency and the Ohio Department of Health. PMID:17589591

  4. Physical oceanographic conditions to the northwest of the sub-Antarctic Island of South Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandon, Mark A.; Murphy, E. J.; Trathan, P. N.; Bone, D. G.

    2000-10-01

    Ocean physics is a key aspect of the operation of island ecosystems, yet the hydrodynamics is sometimes poorly understood. A high-resolution oceanographic survey to the north of South Georgia identified two water masses. These are South Georgia Shelf Water (SGSW) and Antarctic Zone Water (AZW). At the surface, SGSW is both colder and fresher than AZW; at the near-surface temperature minimum these differences are reversed. There are two causes: SGSW is close to the island and has an additional contribution to the heat and salt balance from increased precipitation and island runoff, and second, AZW has advected from higher latitudes. Both of these mechanisms imply SGSW is retained around the island. Between these water masses is a variable width frontal region that has a mixture of both water masses. In general terms, the mean current of the AZW is to the west. In the SGSW the general flow also appears to be to the west, but at reduced magnitude; there is evidence of a stronger westerly current close to the shore. In both water masses there are easterly surface currents most likely driven by the prevailing wind. An approximation for the limit of SGSW is that it is constrained to water depths <500 m. A significant deviation is caused by an anticyclonic flow around a prominent bank that can be associated with significant upwelling. Finally, we comment on the ecological significance of the system observed.

  5. Solomon Islands: Summary Report. Educational Experience Survey: Education, Language and Literacy Experience. Asia-South Pacific Education Watch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Guzman, Sylvia

    2007-01-01

    The Education Watch initiative is being implemented in the Solomon Islands by the Coalition on Education Solomon Islands (COESI) in partnership with Asian South Pacific Bureau of Adult Education (ASPBAE). COESI aims to generate a reliable body of information that will: (1) Accurately explain how much the national government has done and can do to…

  6. Where was the 1898 Mare Island Earthquake? Insights from the 2014 South Napa Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hough, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    The 2014 South Napa earthquake provides an opportunity to reconsider the Mare Island earthquake of 31 March 1898, which caused severe damage to buildings at a Navy yard on the island. Revising archival accounts of the 1898 earthquake, I estimate a lower intensity magnitude, 5.8, than the value in the current Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast (UCERF) catalog (6.4). However, I note that intensity magnitude can differ from Mw by upwards of half a unit depending on stress drop, which for a historical earthquake is unknowable. In the aftermath of the 2014 earthquake, there has been speculation that apparently severe effects on Mare Island in 1898 were due to the vulnerability of local structures. No surface rupture has ever been identified from the 1898 event, which is commonly associated with the Hayward-Rodgers Creek fault system, some 10 km west of Mare Island (e.g., Parsons et al., 2003). Reconsideration of detailed archival accounts of the 1898 earthquake, together with a comparison of the intensity distributions for the two earthquakes, points to genuinely severe, likely near-field ground motions on Mare Island. The 2014 earthquake did cause significant damage to older brick buildings on Mare Island, but the level of damage does not match the severity of documented damage in 1898. The high intensity files for the two earthquakes are more over spatially shifted, with the centroid of the 2014 distribution near the town of Napa and that of the 1898 distribution near Mare Island, east of the Hayward-Rodgers Creek system. I conclude that the 1898 Mare Island earthquake was centered on or near Mare Island, possibly involving rupture of one or both strands of the Franklin fault, a low-slip-rate fault sub-parallel to the Rodgers Creek fault to the west and the West Napa fault to the east. I estimate Mw5.8 assuming an average stress drop; data are also consistent with Mw6.4 if stress drop was a factor of ≈3 lower than average for California earthquakes. I

  7. HYPOALDOSTERONISM IN A MATSCHIE'S TREE KANGAROO (DENDROLAGUS MATSCHIEI).

    PubMed

    Whoriskey, Sophie T; Bartlett, Susan L; Baitchman, Eric

    2016-06-01

    A 20-yr-old female Matschie's tree kangaroo (Dendrolagus matschiei) was diagnosed with hypoaldosteronism, a rare condition in which the body fails to produce normal amounts of the mineralocorticoid aldosterone. Aldosterone plays a key role in body salt homeostasis, increasing sodium reabsorption and promoting excretion of potassium. Hypoaldosteronism resulted in decreased appetite, lethargy, and weight loss in conjunction with hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, and hypercalcemia in this tree kangaroo. The animal was successfully managed with mineralocorticoid replacement using desoxycorticosterone pivalate. To the authors' knowledge this is the first report of hypoaldosteronism in a tree kangaroo and one of the few reports in the veterinary literature in any species. PMID:27468039

  8. The motilin gene evolved a new function in kangaroo rats and kangaroo mice (Dipodomyinae).

    PubMed

    He, Jing; Zhou, Taicheng; Irwin, David M; Shen, Yongyi; Zhang, Yaping

    2012-10-01

    The motilin receptor gene was lost in the ancestral lineage of rodents. Subsequently, the gene encoding its ligand, motilin, has experienced different evolutionary fates. Previous genomic analyses had shown that the motilin gene (MLN) became a pseudogene independently in the lineages leading to the guinea pig and the common ancestor of the mouse and rat, yet an intact, and thus potentially functional, open reading frame for the MLN was preserved in the Dipodomys ordii genome. As only a single MLN haplotype from D. ordii was available, and this sequence is from a low coverage draft genome, it is possible that the intact MLN found in the draft kangaroo rat genome is an artifact, or represents an intermediate in the process of becoming a pseudogene. In order to establish whether an intact MLN is retained in kangaroo rats despite the loss of its specific receptor, and to investigate the evolutionary mechanisms underlying the retention of this gene sequence, we isolated MLN sequences from species that represent the diversity of the Dipodomyinae [the monophyletic Dipodomyinae subfamily consists of two genera: Dipodomys (kangaroo rats) and Microdipodops (kangaroo mice)]. The results demonstrate that the MLN sequence is well conserved in Dipodomyinae, and it codes for a predicted motilin peptide sequence possessing a conserved N-terminal pharmacophore and the potential to be processed and secreted as a hormone. The observations that the MLN evolved as a functional gene during the radiation of the Dipodomyinae, species that have lost their original motilin receptor, suggest that the MLN has undergone a lineage-specific physiological adaptation to a new function. PMID:23138633

  9. A Reproductive Management Program for an Urban Population of Eastern Grey Kangaroos (Macropus giganteus)

    PubMed Central

    Tribe, Andrew; Hanger, Jon; McDonald, Ian J.; Loader, Jo; Nottidge, Ben J.; McKee, Jeff J.; Phillips, Clive J. C.

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary We designed a programme to control free-ranging kangaroos on a Queensland golf course, using contraceptive implants in females and vasectomisation or testicle removal in males. This reduced the numbers of pouch young to about one half of pre-intervention levels and controlled the population over a 2–4 year period. However, the necessary darting caused a mortality rate of 5–10% of captured animals, mainly due to complications before and after anaesthesia. It is concluded that population control is possible but careful management of kangaroos around the time of anaesthesia induction and recovery is important in such programmes to minimise losses. Abstract Traditionally, culling has been the expedient, most common, and in many cases, the only tool used to control free-ranging kangaroo populations. We applied a reproductive control program to a population of eastern grey kangaroos confined to a golf course in South East Queensland. The program aimed to reduce fecundity sufficiently for the population to decrease over time so that overgrazing of the fairways and the frequency of human–animal conflict situations were minimised. In 2003, 92% of the female kangaroos above 5 kg bodyweight were implanted with the GnRH agonist deslorelin after darting with a dissociative anaesthetic. In 2007, 86% of the females above 5 kg were implanted with deslorelin and also 87% of the males above 5 kg were sterilised by either orchidectomy or vasectomy. In 2005, 2008 and 2009, the population was censused to assess the effect of each treatment. The 2003 deslorelin program resulted in effective zero population growth for approximately 2.5 years. The combined deslorelin–surgery program in 2007 reduced the birth rate from 0.3 to 0.06%/year for 16 months, resulting in a 27% population reduction by November 2009. The results were consistent with implants conferring contraception to 100% of implanted females for at least 12 months. The iatrogenic mortality rates for each

  10. Sex-linked and autosomal microsatellites provide new insights into island populations of the tammar wallaby

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, A J; FitzSimmons, N N; Chambers, B; Renfree, M B; Sarre, S D

    2014-01-01

    The emerging availability of microsatellite markers from mammalian sex chromosomes provides opportunities to investigate both male- and female-mediated gene flow in wild populations, identifying patterns not apparent from the analysis of autosomal markers alone. Tammar wallabies (Macropus eugenii), once spread over the southern mainland, have been isolated on several islands off the Western Australian and South Australian coastlines for between 10 000 and 13 000 years. Here, we combine analyses of autosomal, Y-linked and X-linked microsatellite loci to investigate genetic variation in populations of this species on two islands (Kangaroo Island, South Australia and Garden Island, Western Australia). All measures of diversity were higher for the larger Kangaroo Island population, in which genetic variation was lowest at Y-linked markers and highest at autosomal markers (θ=3.291, 1.208 and 0.627 for autosomal, X-linked and Y-linked data, respectively). Greater relatedness among females than males provides evidence for male-biased dispersal in this population, while sex-linked markers identified genetic lineages not apparent from autosomal data alone. Overall genetic diversity in the Garden Island population was low, especially on the Y chromosome where most males shared a common haplotype, and we observed high levels of inbreeding and relatedness among individuals. Our findings highlight the utility of this approach for management actions, such as the selection of animals for translocation or captive breeding, and the ecological insights that may be gained by combining analyses of microsatellite markers on sex chromosomes with those derived from autosomes. PMID:24169646

  11. Community structure and feeding ecology of mesopelagic fishes in the slope waters of King George Island (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pusch, C.; Hulley, P. A.; Kock, K.-H.

    2004-11-01

    The role of mesopelagic fishes in the Southern Ocean ecosystem and more particular their trophic effect on the standing stock of mesozooplankton is at present poorly understood. To get a deeper insight in the Antarctic mid-water ecosystem the mesopelagic fish community of the King George Island slope (South Shetland Islands) was sampled with a pelagic trawl in 1996. The community structure was analysed and the feeding ecology was studied of the five most abundant species. A total of 18 mesopelagic fish species in 10 families was identified. Of these, the Myctophidae was the most important family by species number (9 species), individual number (98.5% of all individuals) and fish wet weight (87.3% of the total weight). The assemblage was numerically dominated by four myctophids (Electrona antarctica, Gymnoscopelus braueri, Gymnoscopelus nicholsi, Protomyctophum bolini) and one gempilyd (Paradiplospinus gracilis). Multivariate statistical analysis of the mesopelagic fish data reveals two major groups of stations according to the sampled depth: a shallow group of stations (295-450 m depth) and a deeper group of stations (440-825 m depth). The change in relative abundance of mesopelagic fish species at 440-450 m coincides with the presence of warmer and denser Circumpolar Deep Water at and below these depths. Deeper stations were characterized by a higher density and increased diversity of mesopelagic fish species. The community patterns identified correlated well with the vertical depth distribution of the most abundant species. Dietary analysis reveals that myctophids are mostly zooplanktivorous, while the gempilyd P. gracilis is classified as a piscivorous predator. The small P. bolini feed mainly on copepods of the species Metridia gerlachei, while the most important prey item of the larger myctophids E. antarctica, G. braueri, and G. nicholsi were various species of euphausiids. Investigation of feeding chronology showed that G. nicholsi and P. bolini were feeding

  12. Subcrustal earthquakes in the plate boundary zone of New Zealand's South Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boese, C. M.; Stern, T. A.; Townend, J.; Sheehan, A. F.; Molnar, P. H.; Collins, J. A.; Karalliyadda, S.; Bourguignon, S.; Bannister, S. C.

    2012-12-01

    Sporadic, intermediate-depth earthquakes have been observed for ~40 years in the vicinity of the Alpine Fault, a 460 km-long transpressive fault forming the western boundary of the Southern Alps. The Alpine Fault represents the plate boundary between the Australian and Pacific Plates in New Zealand and links two subduction zones of opposite polarity in the North and South. Several earthquakes at depths of 59-85 km have been recorded by the Southern Alps Microearthquake Borehole Array (SAMBA) since its deployment in November 2008. Due to large numbers of impulsive phase arrivals, focal mechanisms were obtained for these events during routine processing. In 2009 and early 2010, several additional temporary seismometer networks were operating in the central Southern Alps (Alpine Fault Array ALFA, Deep Fault Drilling Project 2010 DFDP10) and the offshore region west of the South Island (Marine Observations of Anisotropy Near Aotearoa MOANA). To gain more insight about the cause and mechanism of these deep events, a comprehensive analysis has been performed incorporating data from all available instruments. Accurate hypocentres of 22 earthquakes (ML<4) and focal mechanisms of at least 14 events have been obtained. The focal mechanisms reveal that reverse faulting predominates at depth in the continental collision zone between the Pacific and Australian Plates. The intermediate-depth events occur below the Moho discontinuity, which has been mapped in detail using wide-angle reflection/refraction data obtained during the South Island Geophysical Transect (SIGHT) project in 1995/96. Although the cause for these subcrustal earthquakes is not yet clear, they have previously been interpreted to result from intra-continental subduction (Reyners 1987), high shear-strain gradients due to depressed geotherms and viscous deformation of mantle lithosphere (Kohler and Eberhart-Phillips 2003). On the basis of the locations and mechanisms obtained using SAMBA, we have argued that

  13. Subaqueous, basaltic lava dome and carapace breccia on King George Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smellie, J. L.; Millar, I. L.; Rex, D. C.; Butterworth, P. J.

    On King George Island during latest Oligocene/earliest Miocene time, submarine eruptions resulted in the emplacement of a small (ca. 500m estimated original diameter) basalt lava dome at Low Head. The dome contains a central mass of columnar rock enveloped by fractured basalt and basalt breccia. The breccia is crystalline and is a joint-block deposit (lithic orthobreccia) interpreted as an unusually thick dome carapace breccia cogenetic with the columnar rock. It was formed in situ by a combination of intense dilation, fracturing and shattering caused by natural hydrofracturing during initial dome effusion and subsequent endogenous emplacement of further basalt melt, now preserved as the columnar rock. Muddy matrix with dispersed hyaloclastite and microfossils fills fractures and diffuse patches in part of the fractured basalt and breccia lithofacies. The sparse glass-rich clasts formed by cooling-contraction granulation during interaction between chilled basalt crust and surrounding water. Together with muddy sediment, they were injected into the dome by hydrofracturing, local steam fluidisation and likely explosive bulk interaction. The basalt lava was highly crystallised and degassed prior to extrusion. Together with a low effusion temperature and rapid convective heat loss in a submarine setting, these properties significantly affected the magma rheology (increased the viscosity and shear strength) and influenced the final dome-like form of the extrusion. Conversely, high heat retention was favoured by the degassed state of the magma (minimal undercooling), a thick breccia carapace and viscous shear heating, which helped to sustain magmatic (eruption) temperatures and enhanced the mobility of the flow.

  14. Soil processes in recently deglaciated environments in Maritime Antarctica: a study case from Elephant Point (Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliva, Marc; Ruiz-Fernández, Jesús; Quijano, Laura; Palazón, Leticia; Navas, Ana

    2016-04-01

    Many ice-free environments in the northern Antarctic Peninsula are undergoing rapid and substantial environmental changes in response to reent climate trends. This is the case of Elephant Point (Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands), where the glacier retreat recorded during the second half of the XX century, has exposed 17% of this small peninsula (1.16 km2). Glacier retreat has exposed new ice-free land surface in the northern part of Elephant Point: a moraine extending from the western to the eastern coastlines and a relatively flat proglacial surface. Besides, a sequence of present-day beach, Holocece marine terraces and bedrock plateaus are also distributed in the southern margin of the peninsula. Periglacial processes are widespread in all the peninsula, but the type and characteristics of soils depen on the timing of glacier retreat. In this research we aim to assess how the glacier retreat affects the recently formed soils. Ten sites were sampled along a transect crossing different geomorphological units (beach, raised beaches, moraine, proglacial environment), following the direction of glacier retreat. To this purpose the upper part of selected soil profiles was sectioned in 3 cm depth interval increments to examine main soil properties, grain size distribution, soil organic carbon and pH. Besides, elemental composition and patterns of fallout (FRNs) and environmental radionuclides (ERNs) were analysed to assess if soil profile characteristics within the active layer are affected by glacier retreat. The results obtained confirm the potential for using geomorphological, edaphic and geochemical data to derive information for assessing the influence of different stages of glacier retreat in the study soils.

  15. A new species of Eunice (Polychaeta: Eunicidae) from Hainan Island, South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xuwen; Sun, Ruiping; Liu, Ruiyu

    2013-01-01

    A taxonomic survey of benthic marine animals from coastal regions of Hainan Island, South China Sea, revealed specimens of a new species of Eunice (Polychaeta: Eunicida: Eunicidae), Eunice uschakovi n. sp., collected from the intertidal zone. The species belongs to the group of Eunice that has yellow tridentate subacicular hooks and branchiae scattered over an extensive region of the body. It resembles E. miurai and E. havaica in having both bidentate and tridentate falcigers, but can be readily distinguished by branchial features. Comparisons between E. uschakovi and the two related species are presented.

  16. Drilling a deep geologic test well at Hilton Head Island, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schultz, Arthur P.; Seefelt, Ellen L.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), is drilling a deep geologic test well at Hilton Head Island, S.C. The test well is scheduled to run between mid-March and early May 2011. When completed, the well will be about 1,000 feet deep. The purpose of this test well is to gain knowledge about the regional-scale Floridan aquifer, an important source of groundwater in the Hilton Head area. Also, cores obtained during drilling will enable geologists to study the last 60 million years of Earth history in this area.

  17. Planning and installation of the 138 kV South Padre Island submarine cable

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.H. ); Polasek, M.J. )

    1993-10-01

    This paper describes the planning, design and installation phases of a 138 kV submarine cable project which was recently completed by Central Power and Light (CPL) to improve the service reliability of South Padre Island and the town of Port Isabel. The project presented unique installation problems due to the shallow water depths combined with the necessity to minimize the environmental impact to sea grasses during the cable installation. This project resulted in the longest 138 kV extruded dielectric submarine cable circuit in the US.

  18. Selected hydrologic data from a wastewater spray disposal site on Hilton Head Island, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Speiran, G.K.; Belval, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    This study presents data collected during a study of the effects on the water table aquifer from wastewater application at rates of up to 5 inches per week on a wastewater spray disposal site on Hilton Head Island, South Carolina. The study was conducted from April 1982 through December 1983. The disposal site covers approximately 14 acres. Water level and water quality data from organic, inorganic, and nutrient analyses from the water table aquifer to a depth of 30 ft and similar water quality data from the wastewater treatment plant are included. (USGS)

  19. Unravelling the magmatic processes behind zoned fall units on Ascension Island, South Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberlain, K. J.; Barclay, J.; Preece, K.; Brown, R. J.; Davidson, J.

    2015-12-01

    Ascension Island, an isolated composite volcano in the south Atlantic, has a wide spectrum of explosive and effusive deposits. Eruptions on the island have produced ash and pumice fall deposits, ignimbrites, scoria cones, lava flows and lava domes, which vary in composition from basalt to rhyolite. We report, for the first time, the presence of multiple, zoned pumice fall deposits. These deposits grade upwards (stepwise or gradationally) from pumice to scoria. We present detailed observations of two key deposits which typify the range in zonation observed in the unusual fall units. Forensic examination of these deposits and their petrological and geochemical characteristics provide critical information about the interactions and processes behind the wide spectrum of magma compositions and past eruptive behaviour on Ascension Island. The first deposit changes gradationally from fayalite-bearing trachytic pumice fall (61.1 wt.% SiO2) at the base, to basaltic trachy-andesite scoria fall (54.5 wt.% SiO2) at the top. The second deposit is more complex. It contains mingled pumice-scoria clasts, has a rapid transition from pumice to scoria and no intermediate clasts were observed. New analyses of H2O, CO2 and key trace elements within melt inclusions combined with systematic whole rock and phenocryst analyses enable us to probe the relationship of these co-erupted magmas to other deposits on the island. This has yielded insights into the magma plumbing system; and improved understanding of the roles that fractional crystallisation and magma mixing play in generating the range in compositions observed at this unique ocean island volcano.

  20. Modeling interpopulation dispersal by banner-tailed kangaroo rats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skvarla, J.L.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.; Waser, P.M.

    2004-01-01

    Many metapopulation models assume rules of population connectivity that are implicitly based on what we know about within-population dispersal, but especially for vertebrates, few data exist to assess whether interpopulation dispersal is just within-population dispersal "scaled up." We extended existing multi-stratum mark-release-recapture models to incorporate the robust design, allowing us to compare patterns of within- and between-population movement in the banner-tailed kangaroo rat (Dipodomys spectabilis). Movement was rare among eight populations separated by only a few hundred meters: seven years of twice-annual sampling captured >1200 individuals but only 26 interpopulation dispersers. We developed a program that implemented models with parameters for capture, survival, and interpopulation movement probability and that evaluated competing hypotheses in a model selection framework. We evaluated variants of the island, stepping-stone, and isolation-by-distance models of interpopulation movement, incorporating effects of age, season, and habitat (short or tall grass). For both sexes, QAICc values clearly favored isolation-by-distance models, or models combining the effects of isolation by distance and habitat. Models with probability of dispersal expressed as linear-logistic functions of distance and as negative exponentials of distance fit the data equally well. Interpopulation movement probabilities were similar among sexes (perhaps slightly biased toward females), greater for juveniles than adults (especially for females), and greater before than during the breeding season (especially for females). These patterns resemble those previously described for within-population dispersal in this species, which we interpret as indicating that the same processes initiate both within- and between-population dispersal.

  1. A Reproductive Management Program for an Urban Population of Eastern Grey Kangaroos (Macropus giganteus).

    PubMed

    Tribe, Andrew; Hanger, Jon; McDonald, Ian J; Loader, Jo; Nottidge, Ben J; McKee, Jeff J; Phillips, Clive J C

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, culling has been the expedient, most common, and in many cases, the only tool used to control free-ranging kangaroo populations. We applied a reproductive control program to a population of eastern grey kangaroos confined to a golf course in South East Queensland. The program aimed to reduce fecundity sufficiently for the population to decrease over time so that overgrazing of the fairways and the frequency of human-animal conflict situations were minimised. In 2003, 92% of the female kangaroos above 5 kg bodyweight were implanted with the GnRH agonist deslorelin after darting with a dissociative anaesthetic. In 2007, 86% of the females above 5 kg were implanted with deslorelin and also 87% of the males above 5 kg were sterilised by either orchidectomy or vasectomy. In 2005, 2008 and 2009, the population was censused to assess the effect of each treatment. The 2003 deslorelin program resulted in effective zero population growth for approximately 2.5 years. The combined deslorelin-surgery program in 2007 reduced the birth rate from 0.3 to 0.06%/year for 16 months, resulting in a 27% population reduction by November 2009. The results were consistent with implants conferring contraception to 100% of implanted females for at least 12 months. The iatrogenic mortality rates for each program were 10.5% and 4.9%, respectively, with 50% of all mortalities due to darting-related injuries, exertional myopathy/hyperthermia or recovery misadventure. The short term sexual and agonistic behaviour of the males was assessed for the 2007 program: no significant changes were seen in adult males given the vasectomy procedure, while sexual behaviours' were decreased in adult males given the orchidectomy procedure. It is concluded that female reproduction was effectively controlled by implantation with deslorrelin and male reproductive behaviour was reduced by orchidectomy, which together achieved population control. PMID:26480325

  2. Modeled connectivity of Acropora millepora populations from reefs of the Spratly Islands and the greater South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorman, Jeffrey G.; Castruccio, Frederic S.; Curchitser, Enrique N.; Kleypas, Joan A.; Powell, Thomas M.

    2016-03-01

    The Spratly Island archipelago is a remote network of coral reefs and islands in the South China Sea that is a likely source of coral larvae to the greater region, but about which little is known. Using a particle-tracking model driven by oceanographic data from the Coral Triangle region, we simulated both spring and fall spawning events of Acropora millepora, a common coral species, over a 46-yr period (1960-2005). Simulated population biology of A. millepora included the acquisition and loss of competency, settlement over appropriate benthic habitat, and mortality based on experimental data. The simulations aimed to provide insights into the connectivity of reefs within the Spratly Islands, the settlement of larvae on reefs of the greater South China Sea, and the potential dispersal range of reef organisms from the Spratly Islands. Results suggest that (1) the Spratly Islands may be a significant source of A. millepora larvae for the Palawan reefs (Philippines) and some of the most isolated reefs of the South China Sea; and (2) the relatively isolated western Spratly Islands have limited source reefs supplying them with larvae and fewer of their larvae successfully settling on other reefs. Examination of particle dispersal without biology (settlement and mortality) suggests that larval connectivity is possible throughout the South China Sea and into the Coral Triangle region. Strong differences in the spring versus fall larval connectivity and dispersal highlight the need for a greater understanding of spawning dynamics of the region. This study confirms that the Spratly Islands are likely an important source of larvae for the South China Sea and Coral Triangle region.

  3. Accommodation of compressional inversion in north-western South Island (New Zealand): Old faults versus new?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghisetti, F. C.; Sibson, R. H.

    2006-11-01

    In the NW South Island, New Zealand, high-angle faults inherited from episodes of Late Cretaceous-Paleocene and Eocene extension have, since the early Miocene, undergone compressional inversion in association with right-lateral shearing and transpression on the Alpine Fault. Active reverse faulting and large historical earthquakes occur along N-S to NNE-SSW trending faults which at the surface dip 45-75° to both the east and west. The faults truncate subparallel folds that deform the Tertiary sequence overlying a composite Paleozoic-Mesozoic crystalline basement. However, the deep geometry of these faults, their penetration into the middle-to-lower crust and their relationship to the Alpine Fault are poorly understood. The tectonic architecture of this compressional inversion province is analysed by reconstructing structural contours at the base of the Oligocene carbonate sequence in the north-west of the South Island. Deformation of the Oligocene carbonate sequence, structural analyses in the field and subsurface data indicate a mixed style of inversion with (1) reactivation of some high-angle normal faults and (2) thrusting on new, moderate-dipping cross-cutting faults that detach slivers of basement and cause flexural folding in the sedimentary cover. These faults may remain blind or concealed beneath cover sequences but are likely to control seismic rupturing in the basement at depths of ˜10-15 km.

  4. Elemental composition of different air masses over Jeju Island, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jeongwon; Choi, Man-Sik; Yi, Hi-Il; Jeong, Kap-Sik; Chae, Jung-Sun; Cheong, Chang-Sik

    2013-03-01

    We investigated the characteristics (concentrations and compositional changes) of atmospheric elements in total suspended particulates through source-receptor relationships using cluster analyses to classify air mass back-trajectories arriving at Gosan, Jeju Island, South Korea, from October 2003 to December 2008. Five trajectory clusters were chosen to explain the transport regimes. Continental outflows of natural and anthropogenic aerosols from Asian dust source regions and eastern China during the colder period could increase element concentrations at Gosan. Elemental levels at Gosan decreased in air masses that passed over marine regions (East China Sea, Pacific Ocean/southern side of Kyushu Island in Japan, and East Sea/southern side of South Korea) during the warmer rainy period due to lower source intensity and dilution by the marine air mass. Anthropogenic pollutants were often major components in air masses passing over marine regions. Air mass characterization by elemental concentration and composition revealed that enrichment by non-sea-salt sulfur in the air mass originated from eastern China, indicative of the main sulfur emitter in northeast Asia. The apportionment of V and Ni by principal component analysis as a marker of heavy oil combustion suggested different residence times and deposition rates from other anthropogenic components in the air. Regionally intermediate concentrations of pollutants were found in the atmosphere over the Korean peninsula.

  5. Geomorphic settings of mangrove ecosystem in South Andaman Island: A geospatial approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuvaraj, E.; Dharanirajan, K.; Jayakumar, S.; Saravanan

    2014-12-01

    Mangroves are habitats in the coasts of tropics and subtropics, hence the geomorphology of the coast prevails in both the ocean and the land processes. To study the geomorphic setting of mangroves, it is necessary to explore both the topography of the land and the bathymetry of the sea. In this study, the geomorphic setting of mangroves in the South Andaman Island has been studied in detail using remote sensing and GIS technology. The ortho-rectified IRS satellite image was used to identify and to map the mangroves and the associated features using the visual interpretation technique. Using the GIS technique, topographic and bathymetric DEMs (Digital Elevation Models) were created to understand the geomorphology and its influence on the mangrove ecosystem. This DEM was interpreted with mangrove distribution and its associated features to create the DTM (Digital Terrain Model) of the mangrove ecosystem. Topography and bathymetry of the coast result in three dominant features like rivers, tides and waves, which play a role in shaping the geomorphic settings of mangroves, which are classified into five major types. In this study, it is identified that all the five categories of major geomorphic settings of the mangrove community exist in the south Andaman. In the field surveys, ground truth of topographic elevation, mangrove species, and associated coastal land cover features were identified and confirmed in these geomorphic settings. It is concluded that topography and bathymetry settings of the island play an indispensable role in this fragile mangrove ecosystem.

  6. An analysis of the current deflection around Dongsha Islands in the northern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dongxiao; Wang, Qiang; Zhou, Weidong; Cai, Shuqun; Li, Li; Hong, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Based on the in situ data and ADCP observation in fall, it is found that a northeastward current at inter-middle level flows on the Northern South China Sea (NSCS) continental shelf. This current flows almost along the isobaths, and it deflects from the isobaths veering toward deep water when flowing over the Dongsha Islands. Geographic currents derived from the climatologic hydrography data (WOA01) and absolute dynamic topography (ADT) data confirm the deflection of the northeastward current on NSCS continent. A fine resolution regional ocean model which can well reproduce the large scale circulation in the NSCS is used to analyze the dynamic about the deflection. The vorticity term balances shows that JEBAR (Joint Effect of Baroclinicity and Relief) drives the water column to depart from the isobaths. To the east of the Dongsha Islands, the isopycnal is almost orthogonal to the isobaths. The joint effect of the topographic and the baroclinic effect supplies negative vorticity and drives the water column to deflect from the isobaths and veer to deeper water. Momentum analysis along the stream line shows that, when the sea water flows around the Dongsha islands, the pressure gradient along the isobath pushes the sea water to accelerate, and then the Coriolis force orthogonal to the isobath increases and overcomes the corresponding pressure gradient, which drives the water deflected from the isobath toward the deep sea.

  7. Coral reef recovery status in south Andaman Islands after the bleaching event 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marimuthu, N.; Jerald Wilson, J.; Vinithkumar, N. V.; Kirubagaran, R.

    2013-03-01

    The Andaman and Nicobar Islands are one of the Union Territories of India, located in the eastern part of the Bay of Bengal. In 2010 summer, the increment in sea surface water temperature (up to 34°C) resulted in the bleaching of about 74% to 77% of corals in the South Andaman. During this event, coral species such as Acropora cerealis, A. humilis, Montipora sp., Favia pallida, Diploastrea sp., Goniopora sp. Fungia concinna, Gardineroseries sp., Porites sp., Favites abdita and Lobophyllia robusta were severely affected. This study is to assess the recovery status of the reef ecosystem by estimating the percentage of Live Coral cover, Bleached coral cover, Dead coral with algae, Rubble, Sandy flat, Algal assemblage and other associated organisms. The sedimentation rate (mg cm-2 d-1) and coral coverage (%) were assessed during this study period. The average sedimentation rate was ranged between 0.27 and 0.89 mg cm-2 d-1. The observed post bleaching recovery of coral cover was 21.1% at Port Blair Bay and 13.29% at Havelock Island. The mortality rate of coral cover due to this bleaching was estimated as 2.05% at Port Blair Bay and 9.82% at Havelock Island. Once the sea water temperature resumed back to the normal condition, most of the corals were found recovered.

  8. Prevalence and Diversity of Leptospires in Different Ecological Niches of Urban and Rural Areas of South Andaman Island

    PubMed Central

    Lall, Chandan; Kumar, K. Vinod; Raj, R. Vimal; Vedhagiri, K.; Vijayachari, P.

    2016-01-01

    Leptospirosis is an emerging disease around the globe. South Andaman Island is an endemic region for leptospirosis. We herein compared the prevalence of leptospires in urban and rural areas of South Andaman Island. The PCR detection and isolation of Leptospira revealed that pathogenic leptospires were prevalent in sewage water and household drainage water in urban areas and in paddy fields, vegetable field water, and stream water in rural areas. These results demonstrate that intermediates are ubiquitously present in the environment and may be responsible for asymptomatic infections, and also provide an insight into disease ecology. PMID:26936796

  9. Prevalence and Diversity of Leptospires in Different Ecological Niches of Urban and Rural Areas of South Andaman Island.

    PubMed

    Lall, Chandan; Kumar, K Vinod; Raj, R Vimal; Vedhagiri, K; Vijayachari, P

    2016-03-26

    Leptospirosis is an emerging disease around the globe. South Andaman Island is an endemic region for leptospirosis. We herein compared the prevalence of leptospires in urban and rural areas of South Andaman Island. The PCR detection and isolation of Leptospira revealed that pathogenic leptospires were prevalent in sewage water and household drainage water in urban areas and in paddy fields, vegetable field water, and stream water in rural areas. These results demonstrate that intermediates are ubiquitously present in the environment and may be responsible for asymptomatic infections, and also provide an insight into disease ecology. PMID:26936796

  10. A high-resolution hindcast of sub-mesoscale Kuroshio-islands-tide interactions in the Izu Islands region, south of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sil, S.; Miyazawa, Y.; Varlamov, S.; Waseda, T.; Guo, X.

    2012-12-01

    The well known western boundary current, Kuroshio, is very strong near the Izu islands region south of Japan, therefore interaction of the strong current with the islands is important to study as the island topography plays an important role in the ocean dynamics. To provide high resolution (1 kilometer) oceanic conditions near Kouzu island, we have started to use Stony Brook Parallel Ocean Model (SBPOM) which is a parallelized, free-surface, sigma-coordinate, primitive equation ocean modeling code based on the Princeton Ocean Model (POM). The lateral boundary conditions and temperature and salinity fields are derived from the coarse resolution operational model (JCOPE) and the model is forced from three-hourly NCEP atmospheric forcing fields. The period covered from July 01, 2011 to March 31, 2012. The higher resolution model is able to show the variability of Kuroshio flow and its interaction with the Izu islands. The comparisons with the coarse resolution (3 kilometer and 10 kilometer) JCOPE models show how mesoscale regime transits to sub-mesoscale regime due to its resolution. The interaction with the Izu islands are clear from the SBPOM simulation which is not clear in the other two models in the subsurface level, however the mesoscale features are reasonable good in all models. It is found that the transition is significantly affected by the islands-Kuroshio interaction. The performance of the model increases when the higher resolution atmospheric forcing and tide are applied in the forcing fields. We are planning to compare the model result with buoy observation near the Kouzu island to understand the dynamics of the interaction of the Kuroshio flow with the island.

  11. New data regarding distribution of cattle ticks in the south-western Indian Ocean islands

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have produced new insight into the origin and distribution of some cattle ticks in the south-western Indian Ocean islands. Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, introduced from Tanzania in 2002, is now well established on Grande Comore but has not yet reached the other islands of the archipelago (Mohéli, Anjouan and Mayotte). Only one of the two clades identified in Africa has settled so far. Amblyomma variegatum, which was not supposed to be able to persist in the Antananarivo region (1300 m) nor in other Malagasy regions of high altitude without regular introductions of ticks by infested cattle, is now endemic as a general rule up to 1600 m although other regions of lower altitude (1400 m) are still free of the tick. This species remains confined in a small area of the west coast on La Reunion Island. On the contrary, Hyalomma dromedarii could not settle on Madagascar where it was introduced in 2008 and Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi is not yet present in Grande Comore despite regular introductions by infested cattle from Tanzania. A phylogeographic approach has been carried out at an intra-specific level for A. variegatum. This study has led to the identification of two main lineages, one covering all species distribution and one restricted to East Africa and the Indian Ocean area. These two lineages are in sympatry in Madagascar where a high genetic diversity has been described, whereas a lower genetic diversity is observed on other islands. These results seem to agree with the historical data concerning the introduction of the tick in the Indian Ocean area. PMID:24016261

  12. Geohydrologic appraisal of water resources of the South Fork, Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nemickas, Bronius; Koszalka, Edward J.

    1982-01-01

    The ground-water resources of the South Fork of Long Island, N.Y., were investigated from April 1974 to September 1977. The study area encompasses 137 square miles and includes the eastern part of the Town of Southampton and the entire Town of East Hampton. The South Fork consists of a Paleozoic basement complex that is overlain by Cretaceous and Pleistocene sediments. The surficial material is composed of Late Wisconsinan glacial and glaciofluvial deposits in association with beach and marsh deposits of Recent age. Till underlies most of the eastern part of the South Fork. Precipitation is the sole source of fresh ground water on the South Fork. Average annual precipitation recorded at Bridgehampton from 1931-76 is 45 inches; about half this amount reaches the ground-water reservoir. It is estimated that overland runoff amounts to 0.5 inches per year, and evapotranspiration is 23 inches per year. Thus, recharge equals approximately 22 inches per year. Hydraulic conductivity and transmissivity of the Magothy (Cretaceous) and upper glacial (Pleistocene) aquifers on the South Fork were estimated from aquifer tests and specific-capacity data. The average horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the Magothy aquifer is 70 feet per day, and of the upper glacial aquifer 350 feet per day. Transmissivity of the Magothy aquifer on the South Fork ranges from 600 to 24,100 feet squared per day; transmissivity of the upper glacial aquifer ranges from 5,400 feet to 22,700 feet squared per day. No potable water is available from the underlying Lloyd aquifer. The position of the freshwater to saline-water interface is depicted in maps. In the southern part of the area, the freshwater reservoir follows the Ghyben-Herzberg principle, but in the northern part, the depth to interface is less than expected owing to a greater degree of anisotropy of the geologic units. Total public-supply pumpage on the South Fork is estimated to be about 3 Mgal/day, (million gallons per day). Public

  13. Barrier Crossing and Transport Activated by Kangaroo Fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostur, M.; Luczka, J.

    1999-01-01

    We study barrier crossing of Brownian particles in a bistable symmetric potential and transport of Brownian particles in spatially periodic structures, driven by both kangaroo fluctuations and thermal equilibrium noise of zero mean values. We consider exponentially and algebraically correlated kangaroo fluctuations. Starting with the full Newton--Langevin equation for the Brownian particle and by introducing scaling as well as dimensionless variables, we show that the equation is very well approximated by overdamped dynamics in which inertial effects can be neglected. We analyze properties of selected macroscopic characteristics of the system such as the mean first passage time (MFPT) of particles from one minimum of the bistable potential to the other and mean stationary velocity of particles moving in a spatially periodic potential. In dependence upon statistics of kangaroo fluctuations and temperature of the system, macroscopic characteristics exhibit distinctive non-monotonic behavior. Accordingly, there exist optimal statistics of fluctuations optimizing macroscopic characteristics.

  14. Seasonal variation in kangaroo tooth enamel oxygen and carbon isotopes in southern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brookman, Tom H.; Ambrose, Stanley H.

    2012-09-01

    Serial sampling of tooth enamel growth increments for carbon and oxygen isotopic analyses of Macropus (kangaroo) teeth was performed to assess the potential for reconstructing paleoseasonality. The carbon isotope composition of tooth enamel apatite carbonate reflects the proportional intake of C3 and C4 vegetation. The oxygen isotopic composition of enamel reflects that of ingested and metabolic water. Tooth enamel forms sequentially from the tip of the crown to the base, so dietary and environmental changes during the tooth's formation can be detected. δ13C and δ18O values were determined for a series of enamel samples drilled from the 3rd and 4th molars of kangaroos that were collected along a 900 km north-south transect in southern Australia. The serial sampling method did not yield pronounced seasonal isotopic variation patterns in Macropus enamel. The full extent of dietary isotopic variation may be obscured by attenuation of the isotopic signal during enamel mineralisation. Brachydont (low-crowned) Macropus teeth may be less sensitive to seasonal variation in isotopic composition due to time-averaging during mineralisation. However, geographic variations observed suggest that there may be potential for tracking latitudinal shifts in vegetation zones and seasonal environmental patterns in response to climate change.

  15. Barrier Island Elevations Relevant to Storm Impacts: South East U.S. Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elko, N. A.; Sallenger, A. H.

    2001-12-01

    A recently developed storm impact scale considers the elevation of wave runup relative to the elevation of two geomorphic features on barrier islands: 1) the elevation of the first line of defense, either the foredune ridge or if no dune is present, the beach berm, (denoted by DHIGH) and 2) the elevation of the base of the dune, the transition between water-laid sand of the beach and eolian deposits of the dune (denoted by DLOW). When compared to runup, DHIGH and DLOW describe the nature and relative magnitude of coastal change that occurs during severe storms. The longshore variability in these parameters has been determined with outstanding spatial resolution, by analyzing high-density topographic data acquired with airborne scanning laser altimetry using a GIS-based analysis program. By digitizing the parameters in map view, DHIGH and DLOW have been resolved for every meter along the South East U.S. Coast from the Virginia/North Carolina border to Key Biscayne, Florida. Barrier island elevation is one important parameter used to assess the vulnerability of U.S. coasts to severe storms. For example, the dunes in northern North Carolina and northern Florida are less susceptible to overtopping (DHIGH = 5.6 m and 4.9 m, respectively) than those in South Carolina and Georgia (DHIGH = 3.2 for both states). Regional-scale maps illustrate the longshore variability in dune heights between and within states. Comparing DHIGH and DLOW to predicted storm surge values (from NOAA's SLOSH model) for various hurricane categories approximates the relative vulnerability of coastal regions to severe storms. For instance, a Category 2 hurricane moving toward the northwest at 5 mph will impart a 9.2 m storm surge on Myrtle Beach, SC and only a 5.2 m surge on Cape Hatteras, NC. Given the mean dune elevations above, this storm would result in overtopping and inundation of the first line of defense on barrier islands in South Carolina (surge > DHIGH) while dune erosion would likely be

  16. The kangaroo's tail propels and powers pentapedal locomotion

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Shawn M.; Dawson, Terence J.; Kram, Rodger; Donelan, J. Maxwell

    2014-01-01

    When moving slowly, kangaroos plant their tail on the ground in sequence with their front and hind legs. To determine the tail's role in this ‘pentapedal’ gait, we measured the forces the tail exerts on the ground and calculated the mechanical power it generates. We found that the tail is responsible for as much propulsive force as the front and hind legs combined. It also generates almost exclusively positive mechanical power, performing as much mass-specific mechanical work as does a human leg during walking at the same speed. Kangaroos use their muscular tail to support, propel and power their pentapedal gait just like a leg. PMID:24990111

  17. Combined Active and Passive Seismology to Study Continental Collision; Central South Island of New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, T.; Okaya, D.; Baldock, G.; Scherwath, M.

    2005-12-01

    Central South Island of New Zealand is a continental region that has undergone both collision and strike-slip shear in the late Tertiary. From a tectonics, or rock-mechanics, view-point there is an interest in how the crust and mantle have been both thickened and sheared. The South Island Geophysical Transect (SIGHT) and the Southern Alps Passive Seismic Experiment (SAPSE) - both jointly funded US-NZ programs - studied these processes. Some of the most important findings came about by merging data from passive and active seismology. Three specific examples will be discussed: 1. Teleseismic P-wave delays from earthquakes in the Western Pacific are used to map a ~ 0.8-1 s speed-up in the mantle right beneath the region of thickest crust and highest topography of the collision zone. Forward modeling of this velocity anomaly shows that the amplitude of the anomaly can be explained by a 100 km-thick body that has a 7% in increase in P-wave speed. From the spatial pattern of the P-wave residuals we can also show that the high-speed body is about 80-100 km wide and roughly vertically disposed beneath the crustal root. The shape and position of the high-speed body beneath the seismically determined crustal root is consistent with it being thickened, and therefore cold, mantle lithosphere that has uniformly strained into a roughly symmetric root beneath the collision zone. 2. Pn anisotropy measurements from our onshore-offshore seismic shooting program allowed us to make mutually perpendicular determinations of Pn wave speeds at three localities. P-wave anisotropies of up to 11 ± 3%, 6.5 ± 2.5% and 0 ± 3%, were measured, depending on the distance of the measurement from the surface trace of the plate boundary (the Alpine Fault). These are necessarily minimum anisotropy values because it assumes that the two axes of measurement are those of minimum and maximum wave speed. Combining these results with SKS splitting values of ~ 2 s from passive seismology allowed us to make

  18. Gastrointestinal parasites in dogs from the Island of St. Pierre off the south coast of Newfoundland.

    PubMed

    Bridger, Kimberly E; Whitney, Hugh

    2009-05-26

    The present work was performed to survey the gastrointestinal parasites of domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) and also to determine if any were infected with Angiostrongylus vasorum (French Heartworm), on the French Island of St. Pierre off the south coast of Newfoundland. A total of 57 fecal samples were collected and examined for intestinal parasites. The overall prevalence of parasitism was 57.9% and the six species found were: Uncinaria stenocephala/Ancylostoma caninum (47.4%), Toxocara canis (22.8%), Isospora canis (8.8%), Trichuris vulpis (7.0%), and Alaria canis (1.8%). There was no significant difference in overall prevalence between genders, except for T. canis, which was more common in female dogs than male dogs (p<0.05). PMID:19303213

  19. Limestone and chert in tectonic blocks from the Esk Head subterrane, South Island, New Zealand

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Silberling, Norman J.; Nichols, K.M.; Bradshaw, J.D.; Blome, C.D.

    1988-01-01

    The Esk Head subterrane is a continuous belt, generally 10-20 km wide, of tectonic melange and broken formation on the South Island of New Zealand. This subterrane separates older and younger parts of the Torlesse terrane which is an extensive accretionary prism composed mostly of quartzo-feldspathic, submarine-fan deposits ranging from Permian to Early Cretaceous in age. The Esk Head subterrane of the Torlesse is especially informative because it includes within it conspicuous tectonic blocks of submarine basalt and a variety of basalt-associated seamount and sea-floor limestones and cherty rocks thought to be representative of the subducted plate. Paleogeographic inferences drawn from megafossils, bioclasts, and radiolarians, as well as from carbonate cements, indicate deposition of the oceanic sedimentary rocks at paleolatitudes somewhat lower than that of the New Zealand part of the Gondwana margin, but higher than paleoequatorial latitudes. -Authors

  20. A structural outline of the Yenkahe volcanic resurgent dome (Tanna Island, Vanuatu Arc, South Pacific)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merle, O.; Brothelande, E.; Lénat, J.-F.; Bachèlery, P.; Garaébiti, E.

    2013-12-01

    A structural study has been conducted on the resurgent Yenkahe dome (5 km long by 3 km wide) located in the heart of the Siwi caldera of Tanna Island (Vanuatu arc, south Pacific). This spectacular resurgent dome hosts a small caldera and a very active strombolian cinder cone - the Yasur volcano - in the west and exhibits an intriguing graben in its central part. Detailed mapping and structural observations make it possible to unravel the volcano-tectonic history of the dome. It is shown that, following the early formation of a resurgent dome in the west, a complex collapse (caldera plus graben) occurred and this was associated with the recent uplift of the eastern part of the present dome. Eastward migration of the underlying magma related to regional tectonics is proposed to explain this evolution.

  1. Seismic hazard of American Samoa and neighboring South Pacific Islands--methods, data, parameters, and results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, Mark D.; Harmsen, Stephen C.; Rukstales, Kenneth S.; Mueller, Charles S.; McNamara, Daniel E.; Luco, Nicolas; Walling, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    American Samoa and the neighboring islands of the South Pacific lie near active tectonic-plate boundaries that host many large earthquakes which can result in strong earthquake shaking and tsunamis. To mitigate earthquake risks from future ground shaking, the Federal Emergency Management Agency requested that the U.S. Geological Survey prepare seismic hazard maps that can be applied in building-design criteria. This Open-File Report describes the data, methods, and parameters used to calculate the seismic shaking hazard as well as the output hazard maps, curves, and deaggregation (disaggregation) information needed for building design. Spectral acceleration hazard for 1 Hertz having a 2-percent probability of exceedance on a firm rock site condition (Vs30=760 meters per second) is 0.12 acceleration of gravity (1 second, 1 Hertz) and 0.32 acceleration of gravity (0.2 seconds, 5 Hertz) on American Samoa, 0.72 acceleration of gravity (1 Hertz) and 2.54 acceleration of gravity (5 Hertz) on Tonga, 0.15 acceleration of gravity (1 Hertz) and 0.55 acceleration of gravity (5 Hertz) on Fiji, and 0.89 acceleration of gravity (1 Hertz) and 2.77 acceleration of gravity (5 Hertz) on the Vanuatu Islands.

  2. A 1400-year terrigenous dust record on a coral island in South China Sea

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yi; Sun, Liguang; Zhou, Xin; Luo, Yuhan; Huang, Wen; Yang, Chengyun; Wang, Yuhong; Huang, Tao

    2014-01-01

    We present analyses of a lacustrine sediment core (DY6) on Dongdao Island, which provides high-resolution paleoclimate records for the South China Sea (SCS). Results of element analyses indicate that the concentrations of Ti and Al in DY6 are much higher than the background on the island. Morphological characteristics of acidic insoluble particles are similar to aeolian in East China. Sr and Nd isotope compositions in these particles are consistent with those in Asian aeolian dust. We inferred that dust in DY6 may have been transported by East Asian Winter Monsoon (EAWM) from inland Asia. The continuous dust records for the past 1400 years in North SCS were presented based on the measured Ti flux, which revealed an opposite trend to the variations in the EAWM for the past 50 years. A comparison of wind fields between cold and warm years shows that north surface wind in southeast China was stronger in cold years. However, 850 hPa wind vector along the east coast of China, the key level of wind for long-distance dust transmission, weakened in cold years. We conclude that differences in the EAWM records can be attributed to the 850 hPa wind pattern in different areas. PMID:24845372

  3. Estimation of lost tourism revenue in Geoje Island from the 2011 marine debris pollution event in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yong Chang; Hong, Sunwook; Lee, Jongmyoung; Lee, Mi Jeong; Shim, Won Joon

    2014-04-15

    Following a period of heavy rainfall in July 2011, a large amount of marine debris was washed up on the beaches of Geoje Island, South Korea, affecting the island's tourism industry. The tourism revenue decreased due to this pollution event and was estimated by multiplying the decreased number of visitors by the average expenditure of visitors to the beaches. Due to the fact that the visitor count at the Island's beaches decreased from 890,435 in 2010 to 330,207 in 2011 (i.e., a reduction of 560,228 persons, 63%), the tourism revenue loss of the island was estimated to be US$29-37 million. This study is one of the few to consider the economic effects of marine debris. PMID:24635983

  4. Shaded Relief with Height as Color, Kerguelen Island, south Indian Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    These two images show exactly the same area, Kerguelen Island in the southern Indian Ocean. The image on the left was created using the best global topographic data set previously available, the U.S. Geological Survey's GTOPO30. In contrast, the much more detailed image on the right was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, which collected enough measurements to map 80 percent of Earth's landmass at this level of precision.

    Discovered in 1772 by French navigator Chevalier Yves deKerguelen-Tremarac, Kerguelen is the largest of a group of 300 islands, islets and reefs that make up the Kerguelen Archipelago. The islands lie atop the Kerguelen-Gaussberg Ridge and are built up of a thick series of lava flows with deposits of fragmented volcanic rock and some granite. Ice covers about one-third of the island, with the large Cook Glacier visible as the tan-colored region at the center-left. The highest point at 1,850 meters (6,068 feet) is glacier-covered Mount Ross, located near the bottom center. The coastline of the main island is highly irregular with a large number of peninsulas linked to the island by narrow isthmuses. Remarkably, although the island is 120 by 140 kilometers (75 by 87 miles) in size no point is more than 20 kilometers (12 miles) from the sea.

    For some parts of the globe, Shuttle Radar Topography Mission measurements are 30 times more precise than previously available topographical information, according to NASA scientists. Mission data will be a welcome resource for national and local governments, scientists, commercial enterprises, and members of the public alike. The applications are as diverse as earthquake and volcano studies, flood control, transportation, urban and regional planning, aviation, recreation, and communications. The data's military applications include mission planning and rehearsal, modeling, and simulation.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission

  5. The Story behind "Quest for the Tree Kangaroo"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Terrell A.; Ward, Barbara A.

    2007-01-01

    The National Council of Teachers of English awarded the coveted nonfiction prize to "Quest for the Tree Kangaroo: An Expedition to the Cloud Forest of New Guinea." Written by Sy Montgomery, with photographs by Nic Bishop, the book was further honored as a Robert F. Sibert Informational Book Medal Honor recipient by the Association for Library…

  6. Effects of herring gulls and great black-backed gulls on breeding piping plovers, South Monomoy Island, Massachusetts. Final Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keane, S.E.; Fraser, J.D.; Buckley, P.A.

    2002-01-01

    The large population of breeding herring gulls and great black-backed gulls on South Monomoy Island, Cape Cod, Massachusetts has been thought to negatively affect the breeding success of the threatened piping plover. Following the Piping Plover Recovery Plan's call for gull colonies to be removed from piping plover breeding sites, in 1996, the USFWS conducted gull removal on part of South Monomoy Island. We determined relative gull abundance on South Monomoy Island from 1998-2000 by counting gulls within 100-m radius plots located on the shoreline. We quantified piping plover behavior and habitat use by conducting instantaneous and 5-minute behavioral observations. We quantified characteristics of piping plover nesting habitat by measuring characteristics along random transects. We measured gull abundance, beach width, and prey abundance, and then used logistic regression to determine what habitat characteristics influenced piping plover nesting area selection. We monitored piping plover reproductive success and population fluctuations on South Monomoy Island. Gull abundance in the gull-removal area was lower than gull abundance in the reference area throughout the piping plover breeding season. The difference in gull abundance between the areas did not affect piping plover behavior, nest success, chick survival, or productivity. We found that gull removal did not result in an increased piping plover population on the island. In both management areas, prenesting plovers preferred to forage in moist substrate habitats. Wide backshore and open vegetation habitats characterized nesting areas. Broods spent most of their time foraging and preferred moist substrate habitats when available. Plovers were not prevented from occupying more suitable habitat by large gulls. Fewer large gulls were observed near prenesting plovers, plover nests, and plover broods than near random plots. Fewer large gulls were observed in plover nesting areas than in unused areas when the nesting

  7. Millennial mercury records derived from ornithogenic sediment on Dongdao Island, South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hong; Wang, Yuhong; Cheng, Wenhan; Sun, Liguang

    2011-01-01

    Two ornithogenic sediment cores, which have a time span of 1000 years and are influenced by red-footed booby (Sula sula), were collected from Dongdao Islands, South China Sea. The determined mercury concentrations of the two cores show similar and substantial fluctuations during the past millennium, and the fluctuations are most likely caused by the changes in mercury level of the ocean environment and in anthropogenic Hg emission. For the past 500 years, the mercury concentration in the red-footed booby excrement has a striking association with global anthropogenic mercury emission. The mercury concentration increased rapidly after AD 1600 in corresponding to beginning of the unparalleled gold and silver mining in South Central America that left a large volume of anthropogenic mercury pollution. Since the Industrial Revolution, the mercury level has increased at a fast pace, very likely caused by modern coal combustion, chlor-alkali and oil refining industries. The comparison of mercury profiles from different places on earth suggested that anthropogenic mercury pollution after the Industrial Revolution is more severe in Northern Hemisphere than in Antarctica. PMID:22432275

  8. Island of Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The island of Okinawa, (26.5N, 128.0E) largest of the Ryukyu Islands, Japan. The Ryukyu island group lies south of the main home islands of Japan in an arc towards the Chinese island Republic of Taiwan. As is typical throughout the Japanese home islands, intense urban development can be observed all over the island in this near vertical view.

  9. Surface geochemical survey for geothermal exploration in the south-east zone of Tenerife Island, Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz Requejo, M.; Marrero, R.; Padron, E.; Melian, G.; Guerrero, V.; Hernandez Perez, P. A.; Perez, N.; Hidalgo, R.

    2009-12-01

    Water and gas sampling of natural discharges are the most common type of geochemical surveys for geothermal exploration. However, these natural discharges are generally scarces at geothermal exploration areas where the extent of the field is not known. Therefore, soil-volatile (Hg, As, Sb, NH3 and B) and soil-gas surveys (222Rn, CO2, He, H2, CH4, O2, Ar) are becoming a useful geochemical tool to identify permeable areas and potential upflow or boiling zones. These surveys can also help to delineate the margins of a geothermal system, and therefore often complement geophysical surveys particularly where the interpretation of geophysical data shows some difficulties. During July and August, 2008, a surface geochemical survey was undertaken in a ~120 km2 area at the south-east slope of Tenerife Island, Spain. In order to obtain a representative distribution of the whole study area, during the field work a total of 577 sampling points were performed. In-situ measurement of radon (222Rn) and thoron (220Rn) activities together with Hg0 and H2S gas concentration and CO2 and H2S soil effluxes were performed at each sampling point. At the same time, gas samples were taken from the soil atmosphere at 40 cm depth for subsequent chemical analysis by means of micro-gas chromatography and quadrupole mass spectrometry (He, H2, Ne, N2, CO2, CH4, Ar and CO2). At least two geochemical anomalous zones have been identified in the present work: (A) one close to Siete Fuentes-Fasnia historical vents (1704-1705 AD) and (B) located on the southwestern limit of the study area. Relatively high concentrations of H2 and ΔHe as well as high H2/Ar and He/CO2 ratios were observed at both zones, indicating a clear evidence of the existence of an upflow zone with an important contribution of endogenous gases. The existence of a volcanic-hydrothermal system coupled with a vertical permeability structures in both zones could explain these geochemical anomalies observed in the surface environment

  10. Effect of mesoscale orography on tropical cyclones near Hawai'i's Big Island and in the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, Christopher R. S.

    This dissertation presents the results of numerical modeling studies of two contrasting examples of tropical cyclones interacting with topography. The first example investigates the effect of the Big Island of Hawai'i on nearby tropical cyclones. The second example investigates the formation of near-equatorial Typhoon Vamei (2001) in the South China Sea. The Big Island simulations produce topographically forced phenomena that occur primarily because the island is strongly rooted in a flow splitting regime caused by its high and broad mountains, and by its shape. Blocking of lower-tropospheric flow leads to a slowing of movement when storms approach from the east. Southward track deviations occur if storms enter enhanced northeasterly flow south of the island. On close southeasterly approach axisymmetrization of core convection and winds occurs primarily because of blocking of the stronger easterly flow to the north of the storm. It is hypothesized that this led to the unexpected eye formation of Hurricane Flossie (2007) as it approached the Big Island. Storms that pass south of the island, deviate northward if they interact with the strong westerly steering anomaly associated with the island wake. The Hurricane Dot simulations suggest that this effect contributed to the deviation to the north that led to its eventual Kauai landfall. Stronger intensities can occur as a storm interacts with the island wake where there is a tendency for weakened vertical wind shear. Landfall produces large intensity decreases as the lower-level circulation is disrupted. Sharp northward track deviations can occur close to the island as the northerly flow west of the storm center is blocked by the island. In the simulation of Typhoon Vamei, strong northerly flow interacts with the regional landmasses to produce regional scale cyclonic flow near the equator. Mesoscale convective vortices develop along the southeastern flank of the northerly surge in a region of strong horizontal shear

  11. Impacts of earthquake on atoll in Nansha Islands, South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Lei; Zhan, Wenhuan; Xiong, Lijia; Chen, Wujin; Yao, Yantao; Li, Jian

    2016-04-01

    Coral reef is a kind of rock soil masses. It is a special marine geotechnical medium, which are made up of the reef coral debris undergo very long geological age. Atoll is the predominant type of coral reefs in South China Sea. In recent years, there are more and more construction projects on the reef flat in Nansha Islands, South China Sea. Therefore, it is very important to estimate the stability of coral reefs, especially the atolls. According to the geological structure characters of atoll in Nansha Islands, a model of reef body is presented in this paper to study the influence of earthquake. Meanwhile, Geostudio, which is a popular geotechnical engineering simulation software, is used to stimulate the stress and deformation situation of reef body under different six kinds of earthquake intensity. The factor of safety can be calculated by the limit equilibrium method. And the possible scenario of earthquake-induced landslides and sliding scale can be defined through the Newmark sliding block method. The stress distribution and deformation behavior are studied. The main relations between atoll and earthquake are analyzed as follows: (1) the safety factor of reef slope exceeds 1.993 under self-gravity state; (2) It may cause slope's instability and bring slumping when the safety factor is less than one. The factor of safety decreases with increased earthquake intensity and it may fluctuate around a particular value when earthquake intensity continues to increase; (3) The smaller shallow landslide as new developed part of the reef is subject to collapse under earthquake action and the bigger slope of reef is more stable. The results show that it is feasible to evaluate the stability of coral reef by using geotechnical engineering simulation method, which can help to provide some information for construction on coral reefs in South China Sea. In the meantime,the authers wish to thank the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NO.41376063)and the National

  12. Skin-to-skin contact (Kangaroo Care) analgesia for preterm infant heel stick.

    PubMed

    Ludington-Hoe, Susan M; Hosseini, Robert; Torowicz, Deborah L

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare a heel stick conducted during Kangaroo Care (skin-to-skin contact) with the mother to a heel stick in a warmer in reducing premature infant physiologic and behavioral pain responses. Twenty-four premature infants in a university-based neonatal intensive care unit were recruited and randomized to 2 sequences: sequence A group received 3 hours of Kangaroo Care (with a heel stick in Kangaroo Care) followed by 3 hours in a warmer (with a heel stick in the warmer). Sequence B group had warmer care and a heel stick (in the warmer) before Kangaroo Care and a heel stick (in Kangaroo Care). Heart rate, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, crying time, and behavioral state were measured before, during, and after heel stick. Repeated measures ANOVA and Mann Whitney U statistics were performed. Heart rate and length of crying in response to pain were significantly reduced during Kangaroo Care and the Kangaroo Care heel stick as compared to when infants were in the warmer and had a heel stick in the warmer. Three infants did not cry at all during the Kangaroo Care heel stick; infants slept more during Kangaroo Care than in the warmer. Kangaroo Care positioning before and during heel stick is a simple and inexpensive analgesic intervention to ameliorate pain in stable premature infants. PMID:16082239

  13. Survival, site and mate fidelity in south polar skuas Catharacta maccormicki at Anvers Island, Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pietz, P.J.; Parmelee, D.F.

    1993-01-01

    In 1974-1975, 34 adult South Polar Skuas Catharacta maccormicki were colour-ringed on 18 nest territories at Bonaparte Point, Anvers Island, near Palmer Station along the Antarctic Peninsula. Subsequently, the area was searched for these birds during the austral summers of 1975-1976 to 1984-1985 and in 1987-1988 and 1989-1990. Fifty-three percent were seen in 1984-1985, 32% in 1987-1988 and 21% in 1989-1990. Annual survival rate averaged 95% from 1974-1975 to 1984-1985; no sexual differences were detected (n = 28 of known sex). Strong territory and mate fidelity were apparent; 34 skuas averaged 1.1 nest territories and 1.7 mates each in 16 years. Only 4 of 34 individuals (all females) were known to change territories, and each territory change involved a change of mates. Although males showed higher territory fidelity than females (P < 0.01), most females (four of five) retained their territories when previous mates failed to return. Seventeen of 34 birds changed mates a total of 24 times; at least 20 mate changes followed the death or disappearance of the former mate. Males showed slightly higher mate fidelity than females (P < 0.04). Female South Polar and Brown Skuas Catharacta lonnbergi did not differ in territory or mate fidelity. From 1974-1975 to 1984-1985, 120 South Polar Skua chicks were ringed on 18 nest territories on Bonaparte Point; 17 were resighted in the Palmer area when they were 3-10 years old. All 17 returnees were found within 3 km of their natal nest sites, and four of them occupied nest territories on Bonaparte Point.

  14. Teleseismic P wave tomography of South Island, New Zealand upper mantle: Evidence of subduction of Pacific lithosphere since 45 Ma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zietlow, Daniel W.; Molnar, Peter H.; Sheehan, Anne F.

    2016-06-01

    A P wave speed tomogram produced from teleseismic travel time measurements made on and offshore the South Island of New Zealand shows a nearly vertical zone with wave speeds that are 4.5% higher than the background average reaching to depths of approximately 450 km under the northwestern region of the island. This structure is consistent with oblique west-southwest subduction of Pacific lithosphere since about 45 Ma, when subduction beneath the region began. The high-speed zone reaches about 200-300 km below the depths of the deepest intermediate-depth earthquakes (subcrustal to ~200 km) and therefore suggests that ~200-300 km of slab below them is required to produce sufficient weight to induce the intermediate-depth seismicity. In the southwestern South Island, high P wave speeds indicate subduction of the Australian plate at the Puysegur Trench to approximately 200 km depth. A band with speeds ~2-3.5% lower than the background average is found along the east coast of the South Island to depths of ~150-200 km and underlies Miocene or younger volcanism; these low speeds are consistent with thinned lithosphere. A core of high speeds under the Southern Alps associated with a convergent margin and mountain building imaged in previous investigations is not well resolved in this study. This could suggest that such high speeds are limited in both width and depth and not resolvable by our data.

  15. Polycyclic hydrocarbon biomarkers confirm selective incorporation of petroleum in kangaroo rat liver samples near oil well blowout site

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, I.; Lu, Shan-tan; Lee, Ru-po; Warrick, G.

    1996-12-31

    In June 1994, a well blowout occurred at an oil field in the western, part of the San Joaquin Valley, resulting in deposition of crude oil south of the well. Some light oil spray was found up to 13.6 km from the well, but the most heavily affected area was within 0.8 km of the site. Because the location contains habitats for several threatened and endangered species, an evaluation of damages to natural resources was initiated soon after the well was capped. As part of the assessment of damages to wildlife, an investigation was conducted to determine whether kangaroo rats had ingested crude oil hydrocarbons from the spill.

  16. Clay mineralogy of the riverine sediments of Hainan Island, South China Sea: Implications for weathering and provenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Bangqi; Li, Jun; Cui, Ruyong; Wei, Helong; Zhao, Jingtao; Li, Guogang; Fang, Xisheng; Ding, Xue; Zou, Liang; Bai, Fenglong

    2014-12-01

    Clay mineralogy of 54 fluvial samples collected from 20 major rivers on Hainan Island are investigated in order to determine compositional changes of clay minerals and to assess the weathering processes. The clay mineral assemblages consist dominantly of kaolinite (31-66%), with a lesser abundance of chlorite (22-44%) and illite (4-33%), and a trace amount of smectite (0-15%). Fluvial sediments from the east and northwest of Hainan Island are characterized by a higher kaolinite content and illite chemical index and poorer illite crystallinity than those from southwest Hainan. Only minor smectite (mean of 7%) occurs in the sediments from west Hainan; smectite is total lacking in east Hainan. Compared with the adjacent basins, Hainan Island is characterized by moderate to intensive chemical weathering with strong hydrolysis. Our results suggest that rainfall is the principal factor controlling the intensity of chemical weathering on Hainan Island, with more intense chemical weathering occurring in eastern and northwestern Hainan. Another practical implication of this study is that it provides a "missing" end member (Hainan Island) in the provenance discrimination study focused on the northern South China Sea (SCS). Hainan fine-grained sediments likely play an important role in providing clay minerals to the northern SCS carried by the South China Sea Warm Current (SCSWC) during the summer.

  17. Habitat selection of two island-associated dolphin species from the south-west Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condet, Manon; Dulau-Drouot, Violaine

    2016-08-01

    Identifying suitable habitats of protected species is an essential question in ecology and conservation planning. Modelling approaches have been widely used to identify environmental features that contribute to a species' ecological requirements and distribution. On Reunion Island, a fast-growing French territory located in the south-western Indian Ocean, anthropogenic impacts are mainly concentrated along the coast, representing a potential threat for Indo-Pacific bottlenose (Tursiops aduncus) and spinner (Stenella longirostris) dolphins, two resident coastal species. Beside coastal development, commercial and recreational dolphin-watching are growing, particularly along the west coast. To promote effective local management, habitat modelling was applied using presence-only data collected from 2008 to 2012 on the west coast of the island. Ecological Niche Factor Analyses were used to investigate the effect of physiographic variables on the distribution of these two dolphin species and delineate suitable habitats. It was found that the core habitat of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins was mainly restricted by depth and confined to coastal waters ranging from 4.7 to 75.8 m deep. The species preferentially used soft substrates (sand and mud) and tended to be ubiquitous in terms of substrate type/color used. Foraging activities were significantly related to soft substrates. The diurnal core habitat of spinner dolphins was confined to one discrete area, on the flat portion of the insular shelf, between 45.1 m and 70.7 m of depth. Suitable habitat was mainly related to soft and light-colored substrates, with a clear avoidance of dark-colored substrates. The core habitats of both species were very restrained spatially and therefore vulnerable to human activities. The fine scale habitat mapping achieved in this study represents baseline data to conduct ad hoc impact assessment and support conservation actions.

  18. Anthropogenic and biogenic hydrocarbons in soils and vegetation from the South Shetland Islands (Antarctica).

    PubMed

    Cabrerizo, Ana; Tejedo, Pablo; Dachs, Jordi; Benayas, Javier

    2016-11-01

    Two Antarctic expeditions (in 2009 and 2011) were carried out to assess the local and remote anthropogenic sources of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, as well as potential biogenic hydrocarbons. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), n-alkanes, biomarkers such as phytane (Ph) and pristane (Pr), and the aliphatic unresolved complex mixture (UCM), were analysed in soil and vegetation samples collected at Deception, Livingston, Barrientos and Penguin Islands (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica). Overall, the patterns of n-alkanes in lichens, mosses and grass were dominated by odd-over-even carbon number alkanes. Mosses and vascular plants showed high abundances of n-C21 to n-C35, while lichens also showed high abundances of n-C17 and n-C19. The lipid content was an important factor controlling the concentrations of n-alkanes in Antarctic vegetation (r(2)=0.28-0.53, p-level<0.05). n-C12 to n-C35 n-alkanes were analysed in soils with a predominance of odd C number n-alkanes (n-C25, n-C27, n-C29, and n-C31), especially in the background soils not influenced by anthropogenic sources. The large values for the carbon predominance index (CPI) and the correlations between odd alkanes and some PAHs suggest the potential biogenic sources of these hydrocarbons in Antarctica. Unresolved complex mixture and CPI values ~1 detected at soils collected at intertidal areas and within the perimeter of Juan Carlos research station, further supported the evidence that even a small settlement (20 persons during the austral summer) can affect the loading of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in nearby soils. Nevertheless, the assessment of Pr/n-C17 and Ph/n-C18 ratios showed that hydrocarbon degradation is occurring in these soils. PMID:27450242

  19. Coral communities of the remote atoll reefs in the Nansha Islands, southern South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Zhao, M X; Yu, K F; Shi, Q; Chen, T R; Zhang, H L; Chen, T G

    2013-09-01

    During the months of May and June in the year 2007, a survey was conducted regarding coral reef communities in the remote atolls (Zhubi Reef and Meiji Reef) of Nansha Islands, southern South China Sea. The goals of the survey were to: (1) for the first time, compile a scleractinian coral check-list; (2) estimate the total richness, coral cover, and growth forms of the community; and (3) describe preliminary patterns of community structure according to geomorphological units. Findings of this survey revealed a total of 120 species of scleractinia belonging to 40 genera, while the average coral cover was 21 %, ranging from less than 10 % to higher than 50 %. Branching and massive corals were also found to be the most important growth forms of the whole coral community, while Acropora, Montipora, and Porites were the three dominant genera in the overall region, with their contributions to total coral cover measuring 21, 22, and 23 %, respectively. Overall, coral communities of the Nansha Islands were in a relative healthy condition with high species diversity and coral cover. Spatial pattern of coral communities existed among various geomorphological units. Mean coral cover was highest in the patch reef within the lagoon, followed by the fore reef slope, reef flat, and lagoon slope. The greatest contributors to total coral cover were branching Acropora (45 %) in the lagoon slope, branching Montipora (44 %) in the reef flat, and massive Porites (51 %) in the patch reef. Coral cover in the fore reef revealed a greater range of genera than in other habitats. The leeward fore reef slope had higher coral cover (> 50 %) when compared with the windward slope (< 10 %). The coral communities of the inner reef flat were characterized by higher coral cover (27 %) and dominant branching Montipora corals, while lower coral cover (4 %) was dominated by Psammocora with massive growth forms on the outer reef flat. Destructive fishing and coral bleaching were two major threats to

  20. Within community patch dynamics in a tropical montane rain forest of Hainan Island, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, Runguo; Tao, Jianping; Li, Chunyang

    2005-07-01

    According to the forest-growth-cycle theory, forest communities are dynamic, mosaic systems composed of patches in different developmental phases. Based on an investigation in a sample of tropical montane rain forest of Hainan Island in South China, four distinct growth phases or patch types were recognized and patterns of patch mosaics and changes in tree species diversity were studied. Diurnal changes in light and temperature regimes in different patch types of the forest growth cycle were measured and analysed. Our results were as follows: (1) The percentages of different patch types within the sampled forest community were for the gap phase 38.5%, building phase 28.5%, mature phase 27.0% and degenerate phase 6.0%; (2) The change of densities (number of individuals/ha) of trees in the forest growth cycle was mainly caused by the larger sized trees; (3) The changes of species diversity with the forest growth cycle showed a humpback pattern; (4) The average DBH, average height, average basal area at DBH, and average volume of each individual and stand volume all increased with the forest cycle process; (5) Tree species richness and tree density at each phase of the forest cycle were positively correlated; (6) The environmental factors changed significantly, both diurnally and with progress of the forest cycle. Light intensity and soil surface temperature changed more in the gap phase than the other three phases. A framework to explain the mechanism for maintaining biological diversity within the tropical montane forest of Hainan Island is described.

  1. Distribution, Character, and Importance of Sedimentary Furrows in South-Central Long Island Sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poppe, L.; Doran, E.; Moser, M.; Forfinski, N.; Stewart, H.; Gardner, U.; Keene, J.; Christman, E.; Ackerman, S.

    2005-05-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, is producing detailed geologic interpretations of the sea floor in Long Island Sound to improve our understanding of the processes that control the complex distributions of sedimentary environments and benthic habitats. Although the deeper waters of the south-central Sound are generally characterized by relatively weak bottom currents and by depositional conditions, multibeam data reveal the presence of sedimentary furrows. These erosional bedforms occur in fine-grained cohesive sediments and cover an elongate east-west trending area (~80 km2) that lies approximately 5 km off Herod Point, NY, in water depths of 31-41 m. The furrows are irregularly spaced, trend east-northeast, average 9 m wide and 0.4 m deep, and can exceed 1.9 km long. Although most of the furrows appear to taper out gradually, some furrows show a "tuning fork" joining pattern. Most of these junctions open toward the east, indicating net westward sediment transport, but a few junctions open westward suggesting that the tidal regime is important to furrow formation and that the furrows can form when water flows in either direction. The sedimentary furrows in south-central Long Island Sound, which are similar to those we have previously described along the Connecticut side of the estuary, form under recurring directionally stable tidal currents, constrained by the elongate geometry and regional bathymetry of the Sound. These conditions, in turn, produce the secondary helical and turbulent flow patterns conducive to the formation of erosional furrows. Concurrently, bioturbation by crabs not only suspends sediment, but also nutclam shells and other coarse biogenic debris, which are aligned by the secondary flow and abrade the furrows as they saltate in the oscillating tides. Through resuspension due to biological activity and the subsequent

  2. Gene Flow and Hybridization between Numerically Imbalanced Populations of Two Duck Species on the Subantarctic Island of South Georgia

    PubMed Central

    McCracken, Kevin G.; Wilson, Robert E.; Martin, Anthony R.

    2013-01-01

    Hybridization is common between species of animals, particularly in waterfowl (Anatidae). One factor shown to promote hybridization is restricted mate choice, which can occur when 2 species occur in sympatry but one is rare. According to the Hubbs principle, or "desperation hypothesis," the rarer species is more likely to mate with heterospecifics. We report the second of 2 independent examples of hybridization between 2 species of ducks inhabiting island ecosystems in the Subantarctic and South Atlantic Ocean. Yellow-billed pintails (Anas georgica) and speckled teal (Anas flavirostris) are abundant in continental South America, where they are sympatric and coexist in mixed flocks. But on South Georgia, an isolated island in the Subantarctic, the pintail population of approximately 6000 pairs outnumbers a small breeding population of speckled teal 300∶1. Using 6 genetic loci (mtDNA and 5 nuclear introns) and Bayesian assignment tests coupled with coalescent analyses, we identified hybrid-origin speckled teal alleles in 2 pintails on South Georgia. While it is unclear whether introgression has also occurred into the speckled teal population, our data suggest that this hybridization was not a recent event, but occurred some time ago. We also failed to identify unequivocal evidence of introgression in a much larger sample of pintails and speckled teal from Argentina using a 3-population "Isolation-with-Migration" coalescent analysis. Combined with parallel findings of hybridization between these same 2 duck species in the Falkland Islands, where population ratios are reversed and pintails are outnumbered by speckled teal 1:10, our results provide further support for the desperation hypothesis, which predicts that scarcity in one population and abundance of another will often lead to hybridization. While the South Georgia pintail population appears to be thriving, it's possible that low density of conspecific mates and inverse density dependence (Allee effect) may be

  3. Gene flow and hybridization between numerically imbalanced populations of two duck species on the subantarctic island of South Georgia.

    PubMed

    McCracken, Kevin G; Wilson, Robert E; Martin, Anthony R

    2013-01-01

    Hybridization is common between species of animals, particularly in waterfowl (Anatidae). One factor shown to promote hybridization is restricted mate choice, which can occur when 2 species occur in sympatry but one is rare. According to the Hubbs principle, or "desperation hypothesis," the rarer species is more likely to mate with heterospecifics. We report the second of 2 independent examples of hybridization between 2 species of ducks inhabiting island ecosystems in the Subantarctic and South Atlantic Ocean. Yellow-billed pintails (Anas georgica) and speckled teal (Anas flavirostris) are abundant in continental South America, where they are sympatric and coexist in mixed flocks. But on South Georgia, an isolated island in the Subantarctic, the pintail population of approximately 6000 pairs outnumbers a small breeding population of speckled teal 300∶1. Using 6 genetic loci (mtDNA and 5 nuclear introns) and Bayesian assignment tests coupled with coalescent analyses, we identified hybrid-origin speckled teal alleles in 2 pintails on South Georgia. While it is unclear whether introgression has also occurred into the speckled teal population, our data suggest that this hybridization was not a recent event, but occurred some time ago. We also failed to identify unequivocal evidence of introgression in a much larger sample of pintails and speckled teal from Argentina using a 3-population "Isolation-with-Migration" coalescent analysis. Combined with parallel findings of hybridization between these same 2 duck species in the Falkland Islands, where population ratios are reversed and pintails are outnumbered by speckled teal 1:10, our results provide further support for the desperation hypothesis, which predicts that scarcity in one population and abundance of another will often lead to hybridization. While the South Georgia pintail population appears to be thriving, it's possible that low density of conspecific mates and inverse density dependence (Allee effect) may be

  4. Unprovoked fatal shark attack in Lifou Island (Loyalty Islands, New Caledonia, South Pacific) by a great white shark, Carcharodon carcharias.

    PubMed

    Clua, Eric; Séret, Bernard

    2010-09-01

    The case of a fatal, unprovoked shark attack is reported and analyzed. The incident took place on the 30th of September 2007, in the lagoon of Luengoni Bay, Lifou Island (Loyalty Islands, New Caledonia). A young French woman who was snorkeling was severely bitten on the right thigh and died of hemorrhage. An analysis based in particular on the size and color of the shark, the characteristics of the wounds, and the behavior of the shark before and after the bite suggests that the aggressor was a great white shark, Carcharodon carcharias. PMID:20606572

  5. Lithospheric Shear Velocity Structure of South Island, New Zealand from Rayleigh Wave Tomography of Amphibious Array Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, J. S.; Sheehan, A. F.; Stachnik, J. C.; Lin, F. C.; Collins, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    We present the first 3D shear velocity model extending well offshore of New Zealand's South Island, imaging the lithosphere beneath Campbell and Challenger plateaus. Our model is constructed via linearized inversion of both teleseismic (18 -70 s period) and ambient noise-based (8 - 25 s period) Rayleigh wave dispersion measurements. We augment an array of 29 ocean-bottom instruments deployed off the South Island's east and west coasts in 2009-2010 with 28 New Zealand land-based seismometers. The ocean-bottom seismometers and 4 of the land seismometers were part of the Marine Observations of Anisotropy Near Aotearoa (MOANA) experiment, and the remaining land seismometers are from New Zealand's permanent GeoNet array. Major features of our shear wave velocity (Vs) model include a low-velocity (Vs<4.3km/s) body extending to at least 75km depth beneath the Banks and Otago peninsulas, a high-velocity (Vs~4.7km/s) upper mantle anomaly underlying the Southern Alps to a depth of 100km, and discontinuous lithospheric velocity structure between eastern and western Challenger Plateau. Using the 4.5km/s contour as a proxy for the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, our model suggests that the lithospheric thickness of Challenger Plateau is substantially greater than that of Campbell Plateau. The high-velocity anomaly we resolve beneath the central South Island exhibits strong spatial correlation with subcrustal earthquake hypocenters along the Alpine Fault (Boese et al., 2013). The ~400km-long low velocity zone we image beneath eastern South Island underlies Cenozoic volcanics and mantle-derived helium observations (Hoke et al., 2000) on the surface. The NE-trending low-velocity zone dividing Challenger Plateau in our model underlies a prominent magnetic discontinuity (Sutherland et al., 1999). The latter feature has been interpreted to represent a pre-Cretaceous crustal boundary, which our results suggest may involve the entire mantle lithosphere.

  6. Dynamic freshwater-saline water interaction in the coastal zone of Jeju Island, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kue-Young; Park, Yoon-Suk; Kim, Gee-Pyo; Park, Ki-Hwa

    2009-05-01

    Freshwater-saline water interactions were evaluated in a coastal region influenced by external forces including tidal fluctuations and seasonal rainfall variations. Five different coastal zones were considered on Jeju Island, South Korea, and electrical conductivity (EC) profiles from the monitoring wells were examined to identify the configuration of the freshwater-saline water interface. There appeared to be discrepancies among EC profiles measured at different points in time. To analyze the dynamic behavior of freshwater-saline water interactions, groundwater level measurements and multi-depth EC and temperature probes were used to obtain time-series data; the data showed that water level, EC and temperature were influenced by both tidal fluctuations and heavy rainfall. The effects of oceanic tide on EC and temperature differed with depth due to hydraulic properties of geologic formations. A spectral filter was used to eliminate the effects of tidal forces and provide information on the influence of heavy rainfall on water level, EC and temperature. Heavy rainfall events caused different patterns and degrees of variation in EC and temperature with depth. The time-series data of EC and temperature in the subsurface at various depths enable greater understanding of the interaction processes between fresh and saline water.

  7. Symbiodinium spp. associated with high-latitude scleractinian corals from Jeju Island, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Palmas, S.; Denis, V.; Ribas-Deulofeu, L.; Loubeyres, M.; Woo, S.; Hwang, S. J.; Song, J. I.; Chen, C. A.

    2015-09-01

    Most studies on endosymbiotic dinoflagellate algae (genus Symbiodinium) associated with scleractinian corals focus on tropical and sub-tropical reefs. Their diversity in outlying, non-reef coral communities at high latitudes is still not fully documented. In this study, we analyzed the Symbiodinium diversity associated with five scleractinian species collected at eight sites around Jeju Island (South Korea, 33.4°N) between 5 and 15 m depth. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of amplified internal transcribed spacer region 2 distinguished five Symbiodinium types. We observed a high level of specificity between host genera and Symbiodinium spp. despite existing in an environment with large seasonal oscillations in temperature and light. Psammocora albopicta and Psammocora profundacella were associated with C1 and Montipora millepora with C17. Alveopora japonica was associated exclusively with an unusual F-type, the only known clade F representative functionally important to a scleractinian coral. Oulastrea crispata was associated with Symbiodinium boreum (type D15), occasionally co-occurring with type C3 (in 4 % of specimens). In addition to increasing the knowledge of Symbiodinium diversity in high-latitude coral communities, this study constitutes an important baseline upon which the effects of projected environmental change in the near future can be assessed. A better understanding of high-latitude coral communities is critical for understanding how a warming planet will affect the tempo and mode of shifts in the composition of temperate marine communities.

  8. Cancer epidemiology and control in peninsular and island South-East Asia - past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Moore, Malcolm A; Manan, Azizah Ab; Chow, Khuan Yew; Cornain, Santoso F; Devi, C R Beena; Triningsih, F X Ediati; Laudico, Adriano; Mapua, Cynthia A; Mirasol-Lumague, Maria Rica; Noorwati, S; Nyunt, Kan; Othman, Nor Hayati; Shah, Shamsul Azhar; Sinuraya, Evlina Suzanna; Yip, Cheng Har; Sobue, Tomotaka

    2010-01-01

    Malaysia, Brunei, Singapore, Indonesia, East Timor and the Philippines constitute peninsular and island South-East Asia. For reasons of largely shared ethnicity, with Chinese elements added to the basic Austromalaysian populations, as well as geographical contiguity, they can be usefully grouped together for studies of chronic disease prevalence and underlying risk factors. The fact of problems are shared in common, particularly regarding increasing cancer rates, underlines the necessity for a coordinated approach to research and development of control measures. To provide a knowledge base, the present review of available data for cancer registration, epidemiology and control was conducted. The most prevalent cancer site in males is the lung, followed by the liver, colon or the prostate in the majority of cases, while breast and cervical cancers predominate in most female populations. However, there are interesting differences among the racial groups, particularly regarding the stomach. General tendencies for increase in adenocarcinomas but decrease in squamous cell carcinomas and gastric cancer, point to change in environmental influence over time. Variation in risk factors depends to some extent on the level of economic development but overall the countries of the region face similar challenges in achieving effective cancer control. A major task is persuading the general populace of the efficacy of early detection and clinical treatment. PMID:20553070

  9. Seismic and geodetic constraints on plate boundary deformation across the northern Macquarie Ridge and southern South Island of New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, M. A.; Anderson, H. J.; Pearson, C.

    2000-12-01

    In the southern New Zealand region the boundary between the Australian and Pacific plates changes from oblique continental convergence in the central South Island of New Zealand to interoceanic transcurrent motion along the Macquarie Ridge. Source parameters of recent (post-1964) upper crustal events, Mw>=5.3, in the region 43-53°S, 155-175°E are determined using P- and SH-waveform analysis in order to investigate the nature of strain accommodated seismically throughout the region. Repeated occupation of three geodetic networks across the southern South Island provides estimates of contemporary crustal strain. Seismicity over the last 35 years shows uneven spatial and temporal distribution, with clusters of events occurring in regions along the plate boundary that exhibit structural variation. Focal mechanisms of individual earthquakes vary widely but are consistent with the accommodation of long-term estimates of the relative plate motion. Across the southern South Island, geodetically measured principal contraction directions are consistent with P-axis orientations. The mode of accommodation of the relative plate motion varies throughout the region, influenced by the change in crustal composition on either side of the plate boundary, the underlying structure as a relic of previous relative motions, and the variation of obliquity of the relative motion with respect to these structures.

  10. Report of pontoniinae shrimps (crustacea: decapoda) collected by Joint Chinese-German Marine Biology Expeditions to Hainan Island, South China Sea. III. Periclimenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xinzheng; Liu, Ruiyu

    2004-03-01

    The present paper reports 12 species of genus Periclimenes, subfamily Pontoniinae, collected from Hainan Island, South China Sea, by the Joint Chinese-German Marine Biology Expeditions, in which, Periclimenes consobrinus and P. tenuipes are new records from Chinese waters, and Periclimenes amymone, P. holthuisi, P. soror, and P. toloensis are recorded for the first time from Hainan Island.

  11. Reproductive strategies of the kangaroo leech, Marsupiobdella africana (Glossiphoniidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kruger, Natasha; Du Preez, Louis

    2015-01-01

    The Kangaroo Leech, Marsupiobdella africana, is a hermaphroditic organism, with insemination taking place by the planting of a spermatophore on another leech. Spermatophores are mostly planted on the anterior of the recipient leech, but not always. Several spermatophores may be planted by different leeches on a single recipient. The spermatophore consists of two side by side lobes. Within minutes from planting of the spermatophore, the contents are squeezed out and into the body of the recipient. Sperm are believed to find the way to the ova by following chemical cues. Kangaroo Leeches display advanced parental care by transferring fertilized eggs from the reproductive opening to a brood pouch on the ventral side. Fully developed leeches may copulate after detaching from the amphibian host Xenopus laevis, or from the Cape River Crab Potamonautes perlatus with which it maintains a phoretic association. PMID:25830114

  12. Estimated pressure source on Kozu Island volcano, South Central Japan, from GPS measurements (July 1996-August 1999)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimata, Fumiaki; Kariya, Shin-ichi; Fujita, Masayuki; Matsumoto, Kunio; Tabei, Takao; Segawa, Jiro; Yamada, Akiko

    2000-11-01

    Although the Kozu Island Volcano, one of the Izu Islands Volcanoes in the south part Central Japan, is an active volcano, there is no record of the eruption for about 1100 years since the last eruption in 833 A.D. Since 1988, frequent earthquake swarms are observed around the Kozu Island, and the uplift of 2-4 cm/yr is observed on the island by tidal observations. Station velocities detected by GPS measurements since 1989 show velocities that differ from the convergent velocity of the Philippine Sea plate calculated from plate motion models. A local GPS network with 12 stations is occupied around the volcano, and the GPS measurements are repeated every about six month since July 1996. Inflated deformation of 2-4 cm/yr are detected from the GPS measurements and the pressure source is estimated to be located in the northeastern part of the island at a depth of 2.1 km using Mogi solution. Negative gravity changes of more than 30 microgal are also measured above the pressure source in the period November 1998 to July 1999, consistent with uplift.

  13. The amino-acid sequence of kangaroo pancreatic ribonuclease.

    PubMed

    Gaastra, W; Welling, G W; Beintema, J J

    1978-05-01

    Red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) ribonuclease was isolated from pancreatic tissue by affinity chromatography. The amino acid sequence was determined by automatic sequencing of overlapping large fragments and by analysis of shorter peptides obtained by digestion with a number of proteolytic enzymes. The polypeptide chain consists of 122 amino acid residues. Compared to other ribonucleases, the N-terminal residue and residue 114 are deleted. In other pancreatic ribonucleases position 114 is occupied by a cis proline residue in an external loop at the surface of the molecule. Other remarkable substitutions are the presence of a tyrosine residue at position 123 instead of a serine which forms a hydrogen bond with the pyrimidine ring of a nucleotide substrate, and a number of hydrophobichydrophilic interchanges in the sequence 51-55, which forms part of an alpha-helix in bovine ribonuclease and exhibits few substitutions in the placental mammals. Kangaroo ribonuclease contains no carbohydrate, although the enzyme possesses a recognition site for carbohydrate attachment in the sequence Asn-Val-Thr (62-64). The enzyme differs at about 35-40% of the positions from all other mammalian pancreatic ribonucleases sequenced to date, which is in agreement with the early divergence between the marsupials and the placental mammals. From fragmentary data a tentative sequence of red-necked wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus) pancreatic ribonuclease has been derived. Eight differences with the kangaroo sequence were found. PMID:658039

  14. Volatiles in Submarine HIMU Basalts from the Austral Islands, South Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, A. R.; Hanyu, T.; Shimizu, K.; Dosso, L.

    2014-12-01

    Submarine basalts have been collected from the slopes of Rurutu and Tubuai in the Austral Islands, South Pacific with the manned submersible Shinkai 6500. Previous work on the bulk radiogenic isotope and trace element chemistry of these samples suggests that the basalts were generated from a HIMU reservoir derived from an ancient subducted slab that was entrained and mixed with the depleted asthenospheric mantle. Olivines and glasses from the submarine basalts show lower 3He/4He than MORB, similar to subaerial basalts from these islands. Sixteen glass chips from the same submarine samples have now undergone in-situ analysis for major elements (including S and Cl) by EPMA, trace elements by LA-ICP-MS, H2O and CO2 by FTIR, and bulk volatile analysis (S, Cl, F) by ion chromatography combined with pyrohydrolysis. H2O ranges from 0.62-2.44 wt%, while CO2 is below detection (<20 ppm). S measured by EPMA ranges from 612-1889 ppm and by bulk analysis from 582-1301 ppm and, with the exception of one sample, concentrations agree well. Cl measured by EPMA ranges from 151-538 ppm, and by bulk analysis from 188-980 ppm. The higher values suggest that the bulk samples may be contaminated by seawater; otherwise Cl correlates strongly with incompatible elements. F measured in the bulk samples ranges from 221-1243 ppm. S correlates positively with FeO and Cu, but not with incompatible elements, suggesting sulfide saturation. While the highest H2O contents may reflect late-stage hydration and are oversaturated at the depth of collection, the low H2O contents (11 samples with 0.62-0.96 wt%) are undersaturated, and there is a positive correlation between the H2O contents of all chips and their incompatible element concentrations. This suggests that H2O/Ce and Cl/Ce filtered for shallow level processes may reflect source compositions, providing constraints on volatiles in the sources of Rurutu and Tubuai, and indications about the efficiency of subduction-related volatile-loss in the

  15. On the detection of thermohygrometric differences of Juniperus turbinata habitat between north and south faces in the island of El Hierro (Canary Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salva-Catarineu, Montserrat; Salvador-Franch, Ferran; Lopez-Bustins, Joan A.; Padrón-Padrón, Pedro A.; Cortés-Lucas, Amparo

    2016-04-01

    The current extent of Juniperus turbinata in the island of El Hierro is very small due to heavy exploitation for centuries. The recovery of its natural habitat has such a high environmental and scenic interest since this is a protected species in Europe. The study of the environmental factors that help or limit its recovery is indispensable. Our research project (JUNITUR) studied the populations of juniper woodlands in El Hierro from different environments. These environments are mainly determined by their altitude and exposure to north-easterly trade winds. The main objective of this study was to compare the thermohygrometric conditions of three juniper woodlands: La Dehesa (north-west face at 528 m a.s.l.), El Julan (south face at 996 m a.s.l.) and Sabinosa (north face at 258 m a.s.l.). They are located at different altitude and orientation in El Hierro and present different recovery rates. We used air sensor data loggers fixed to tree branches for recording hourly temperature and humidity data in the three study areas. We analysed daily data of three annual cycles (from September 2012 to August 2015). Similar thermohygrometric annual cycles among the three study areas were observed. We detected the largest differences in winter temperature and summer humidity between the north (to windward) (Sabinosa and La Dehesa) and south (to leeward) (El Julan) faces of the island. The juniper woodland with a highest recovery rate (El Julan) showed the most extreme temperature conditions in both winter and summer seasons. The results of this project might contribute to the knowledge of the juniper bioclimatology in El Hierro, where there is the biggest population of Juniperus turbinata throughout the Canary Islands.

  16. Balancing the plate motion budget in the South Island, New Zealand using GPS, geological and seismological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Laura M.; Beavan, John; McCaffrey, Robert; Berryman, Kelvin; Denys, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The landmass of New Zealand exists as a consequence of transpressional collision between the Australian and Pacific plates, providing an excellent opportunity to quantify the kinematics of deformation at this type of tectonic boundary. We interpret GPS, geological and seismological data describing the active deformation in the South Island, New Zealand by using an elastic, rotating block approach that automatically balances the Pacific/Australia relative plate motion budget. The data in New Zealand are fit to within uncertainty when inverted simultaneously for angular velocities of rotating tectonic blocks and the degree of coupling on faults bounding the blocks. We find that most of the plate motion budget has been accounted for in previous geological studies, although we suggest that the Porter's Pass/Amberley fault zone in North Canterbury, and a zone of faults in the foothills of the Southern Alps may have slip rates about twice that of the geological estimates. Up to 5 mm yr-1 of active deformation on faults distributed within the Southern Alps <100 km to the east of the Alpine Fault is possible. The role of tectonic block rotations in partitioning plate boundary deformation is less pronounced in the South Island compared to the North Island. Vertical axis rotation rates of tectonic blocks in the South Island are similar to that of the Pacific Plate, suggesting that edge forces dominate the block kinematics there. The southward migrating Chatham Rise exerts a major influence on the evolution of the New Zealand plate boundary; we discuss a model for the development of the Marlborough fault system and Hikurangi subduction zone in the context of this migration.

  17. High-energy deposits newly recognized in Hawaii Island (South Point): a catastrophic tsunami generated by South Kona or Kalae flank collapse?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, F. O.; Hildenbrand, A.; McMurtry, G. M.

    2012-12-01

    Most of the population and economic activity on Earth is concentrated in coastal areas. Tsunamis, in particular, represent a major threat, because they can travel great distances and impact the far surrounding shorelines within a few hours and cause considerable damage. Two main geological processes can generate destructive tsunamis: (1) high-magnitude earthquakes within the oceans, mostly along active margins, which can generate long-wavelength, low amplitude waves; and (2) giant mass-movements, such as catastrophic flank failure at oceanic volcanoes, which can instantaneously mobilize great amounts of material (several hundreds of km3) and generate high amplitude, medium-wavelength tsunamis. The Hawaiian volcanic chain has been affected by the largest landslides on Earth. Big Island, especially, has faced several catastrophic episodes of flank destabilization, the number, the amplitude and the age of which remain controversial. Knowing that there were flank collapses in South Kona and Kalae, we went to South Point to look for onland evidence of the collapse(s) and related tsunami(s), and found a deposit composed of polygenetic clasts, from mm3 to several m3 in size, mostly angular to sub-rounded, with a sandy to silty matrix. The deposit is covered by pyroclasts (the Pahala ash?), which seem to have been locally remobilized to fill in the spaces in the underlying conglomeratic deposit. The absence of a continuous indurate cement precludes an inland origin for the sedimentary deposit. Moreover, the South Point deposit lies on a flat platform far from the main topographic relief of the Mauna Loa and Kilauea volcanoes. Emplacement of the ash layers covering the deposits requires a highly explosive eruption, which we attribute to pressure release driven by the collapse. Presently the deposit is lying at an altitude of ca. 10 m, but in the past it was higher, since the island has experienced significant ongoing subsidence. From previous estimates of the age of the

  18. The vegetation and climate during the Last Glacial Cold Period, northern South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callard, S. Louise; Newnham, Rewi M.; Vandergoes, Marcus J.; Alloway, Brent V.; Smith, Carol

    2013-08-01

    Pollen assemblages from Howard Valley, South Island, New Zealand, were used to reconstruct the palaeovegetation and infer past climate during the period ca 38-21 cal. ka, which encompasses the Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3/2 transition and Last Glacial Cold Period (LGCP). A glacier occupied the upper Howard Valley during the Last Glacial, whilst extensive glaciofluvial outwash surfaces were constructed in the lower valley. Episodic periods of fluvial aggradation and incision have produced a complex sequence of terraces flanking the main Howard River and its tributaries. Sedimentary sequences from three exposed valley fills, sampled for palynological analysis and radiocarbon dating, consist of a complex vertical and lateral arrangement of coarse textured cobbly sandy gravels interbedded with organic-rich silt deposits. Palynology of these organic-rich horizons was directly compared to an existing beetle record from these same horizons. During late MIS 3 the site was dominated by marshy shrubland vegetation interspersed with mixed beech forest, indicating temperatures ˜2-3 °C cooler than present. Climate cooling began as early as 35.7 cal. ka and coincides with evidence of cooling from other sites in New Zealand, South America and with an Antarctic cooling signature. A three phase vegetation and inferred climate pattern occurs at the site during the LGCP beginning with a transition to an alpine/sub-alpine grassland comparable to communities growing near treeline today marking the change to glacial conditions before 31 cal. ka. A small increase in tree abundance between ca 25.8 and 22.7 cal. ka suggests minor climate amelioration during the mid-LGCP. During this phase, a possible volcanically induced vegetation disruption caused by the deposition of the Kawakawa Tephra at 25 cal. ka is evident in the pollen record. This is followed by a further decline in tree pollen and increase in alpine grassland and herb pollen indicating further deterioration of conditions and a

  19. Provenance analysis of the Oligocene turbidites (Andaman Flysch), South Andaman Island: A geochemical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandopadhyay, P. C.; Ghosh, Biswajit

    2015-07-01

    The Oligocene-aged sandstone-shale turbidites of the Andaman Flysch are best exposed along the east coast of the South Andaman Island. Previously undocumented sandstone-shale geochemistry, investigated here, provides important geochemical constraints on turbidite provenance. The average 70.75 wt% SiO2, 14.52 wt% Al2O3, 8.2 wt% FeMgO and average 0.20 Al2O3/SiO2 and 1.08 K2O/Na2O ratios in sandstones, compare with quartzwackes. The shale samples have average 59.63 wt% SiO2, 20.29 wt% Al2O3, 12.63 wt% FeMgO and average 2.42 K2O/Na2O and 0.34 Al2O3/SiO2 ratios. Geochemical data on CaO-Na2O-K2O diagram fall close to a granite field and on K2O/Na2O-SiO2 diagram within an active continental margin tectonic setting. The range and average values of Rb and Rb/Sr ratios are consistent with acid-intermediate igneous source rocks, while the values and ratios for Cr and Ni are with mafic rocks. Combined geochemical, petrographic and palaeocurrent data indicate a dominantly plutonic-metamorphic provenance with a lesser contribution from sedimentary and volcanic source, which is possibly the Shan-Thai continental block and volcanic arc of the north-eastern and eastern Myanmar. Chemical index of alteration (CIA) values suggests a moderate range of weathering of a moderate relief terrane under warm and humid climate.

  20. Exploring the Pacific-Australian transform plate-boundary in central South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, T.; Okaya, D.; Davey, F.; Henrys, S.; Little, T.

    2006-12-01

    Lithospheric structure beneath and adjacent to the continental transform of central South Island, New Zealand (the Alpine Fault) has been investigated with both geophysical and geological methods. Principal features that have been seismically imaged include a spectacular example of a lower crustal detachment that separates the obducting greywacke-schist rocks from lower crust and mantle below. This detachment can be seen as a zone of strong reflectivity that is sub-horizontal at 35 km depth beneath the Southern Alps. The detachment then forms a SE-dipping ramp that gets progressively steeper until at a depth of ~15 km it dips at 60 degrees. If the reflectivity that defines the detachment is projected upwards it would intersect with the surface trace of the Alpine Fault. In the hanging wall of the Alpine Fault low P-wave seismic wave speeds and high electrical conductivity are mapped. These properties are interpreted to mean inter-connected fluid, high fluid pressures and reduced effective normal stresses. Consistent with such high fluid pressures are extensive quartz veining and geological evidence for deep crustal embrittlement along vertical shear planes. Mantle deformation adjacent to the Alpine Fault is detected with SKS splitting results and Pn wave speeds from mutually perpendicular, offshore, seismic lines. P-wave anisotropy of up to 13% is seen in the mantle lid within 20 km of the fault. Moreover, combining SKS and Pn observations suggest that the lateral extent of mantle deformation may be as much as 200 km from the Alpine Fault, and that all the anisotropy can be assigned to finite deformation of the lithospheric mantle. Flexural modeling shows the effective elastic thickness (Te) to be vanishingly small beneath the Southern Alps. Beyond the coastlines values of Te are greater than 20 km. We propose that the weakness and the wide zone of deformation are phenomena of plate boundaries where both strike-slip and convergence have persisted for several

  1. Steroids in marine aquaculture farms surrounding Hailing Island, South China: occurrence, bioconcentration, and human dietary exposure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shan; Chen, Hui; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Liu, Shuang-Shuang; Sun, Kai-Feng; Zhao, Jian-Liang; Ying, Guang-Guo

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence, bioconcentration, and human dietary exposure via seafood consumption of 24 steroids were investigated by rapid resolution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (RRLC-MS/MS) in six typical marine aquaculture farms surrounding Hailing Island, South China. Ten, 9, 10, 15 of 24 steroids were detected at concentrations ranging from <0.1 (testosterone) to 40 ng/L (prednisolone), from 0.1 (4-androstene-3,17-dione) to 2.4 ng/g (progesterone), from 0.3 ng/g (testosterone) to 21.4 ng/g (epi-androsterone), and from <0.1 (testosterone) to 560 ng/g (cortisol) (wet weight) in the water, sediment, feed and biota samples, respectively. Synthetic steroids (androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione, 17α-boldenone, 17β-boldenone, 17β-trenbolone, prednisolone, norgestrel) were detected in the feed samples, clearly demonstrating the illegal use of steroids in the feed. The field bioconcentration factors (BCFs) of steroids calculated in different aquatic organisms ranged from 93.8 to 4000. The estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of androgens, glucocorticoids, and progestagens via consumption of seafood (i.e., shrimps, crabs, mollusks, and fish) for different age groups were in the range of 33.4-134, 2061-8566, and 40.4-155 ng/d for children (2-5 years), youth (6-18 years), and adults (>18 years), respectively. Even though no significant risk from dietary exposure arises from individual steroid, elevated risk to humans can result from the occurrence of multiple steroids in the seafood raised in the aquaculture farms, especially for the sensitive populations, such as pregnant women and children. PMID:25268569

  2. Retrogradational fluvio-paralic coal-forming environments, South Island, New Zealand

    SciTech Connect

    Flores, R.M. ); Sykes, R. )

    1990-06-01

    The West Coast Region of South Island, New Zealand, records Paleogene history of peneplanation, fluvio-paralic aggradation, and marine transgression. At Buller coalfield, Eocene Brunner coal measures rest unconformably on Paleozoic to Cretaceous basement rocks and interfinger upward with Eocene, marine Kaiata Formation. During Eocene, rising sea level controlled the architecture of fluvio-paralic deposits and strongly influenced the origin and properties of Brunner coals. The Brunner coal measures contain as much as 40-ft thick, high to low volatile bituminous coal beds with 0.5-16% ash and 1-9% sulfur that is greatest in the upper coal beds. The Brunner can be divided informally into lower and upper coal measures. The lower coal measures are dominated by pebble conglomerates and multierosional, trough-crossbedded conglomeratic sandstones; the upper coal measures by stacked, multilateral, trough crossbedded, granular sandstones with subordinate siltstones and mudstones. Bioturbated sandstones with brackish-marine Ophiomorpha-like trace fossils are common in the upper coal measures. The lower coal measures were deposited in exhumed paleovalleys of the peneplain surface. These valleys, as deep as 50 ft, were initially aggraded by gravelly braided streams. Raised bogs formed in abandoned braid valleys and extended onto surrounding basement highs. The upper coal measures were deposited in sandy bedload, meandering streams with paralic wave-reworked deltas, and attached barriers. Peat bogs in the paralic environments accumulated thin coals, whereas bogs that developed on abandoned meander ridges formed thick, lenticular coals. Sea-level rise resulted in inundation introducing sulfur into the peat and resulted in high sinuosity fluvial architecture. Gradual incursion of brackish-marine waters favored bioturbation of paralic sediments along retrograding coastlines.

  3. Phosphorus speciation and availability in sediments off the eastern coast of Hainan Island, South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bin; Liu, Su-Mei; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Jing

    2016-04-01

    Surface and core sediments were collected off the eastern coast of Hainan Island (South China Sea), and a sequential extraction method (SEDEX) was used to separate and quantify five sedimentary phosphorus (P) reservoirs: exchangeable or loosely sorbed P (Ex-P), iron-bound P (Fe-P), authigenic P (Ca-P), detrital P (De-P) and organic P (OP). Total P (TP) in the surface and core sediments ranged from 7.96 to 22.34 μmol g-1, and was dominated by inorganic P (IP). De-P and Ca-P were the main chemical species of P in surface and core sediments. The distribution of the P species in surface and core sediments was governed by various factors, including terrigenous input, biological processes, Fe oxides/hydroxides, organic matter degradation, and sediment grain size. The organic carbon (OC)/OP ratio ranged from 37 to 293 (average, 107±58) in surface sediments, suggesting that the organic matter in sediments had been subject to degradation and comprised mostly refractory compounds. The OC/Preactive ratio (37-69) was relatively low in the core sediments, suggesting an excess of sedimentary reactive P compared with OC. The Fe/P ratio ranged from 2 to 19 in surface and core sediments, which indicates that the higher proportions of the crystalline phases occurred in estuarine areas relative to the offshore areas. The potential bioavailable P accounted for 20.3-54.2% of TP in the surface and core sediments.

  4. Nitropelagi marinus gen. nov., sp. nov., Isolated From Seawater, Je-bu island, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Sun Hwan; Lee, Sang Seob

    2016-09-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, non-spore forming, non-motile and aerobic strain, designated JB22(T), was isolated from seawater, Je-bu Island, South Korea. Strain JB22(T) was catalase and oxidase positive. Optimal growth of JB22(T) was observed at 30 °C and pH 7.0. NaCl tolerance range was 1-9 % (w/v) with an optimum of 2.0 % concentration. The phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain JB22(T) showed the highest sequence similarity to those of Pelagicola litorisediminis D1-W8(T) (95.8 %), Roseovarius litoreus GSW-M15(T) (95.2 %), Roseovarius aestuarii SMK-122(T) (95.0 %), Donghicola eburmeus SW-277(T) (95.0 %), and Roseovarius halotolerans HJ50(T) (94.9 %). It contained ubiquine-10 as the major respiratory quinone and C18:1 ω7c (69.3 %), :0 (9.9 %), C18:1 ω7c 11-methyl (9.6 %) as the major fatty acid. The polar lipid profile included phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, and unidentified aminolipid. The DNA G+C content of the strain JB22(T) was 47 mol  %. Based on physiological and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strain JB22(T) should be regarded as a new genus of the family Rhodobacteraceae, for which the Nitropelagi marinus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JB22(T) (= KEMB 3001-101(T) = JCM 30822(T)). PMID:27246498

  5. Rapid landscape transformation in South Island, New Zealand, following initial Polynesian settlement

    PubMed Central

    McWethy, David B.; Whitlock, Cathy; Wilmshurst, Janet M.; McGlone, Matt S.; Fromont, Mairie; Li, Xun; Dieffenbacher-Krall, Ann; Hobbs, William O.; Fritz, Sherilyn C.; Cook, Edward R.

    2010-01-01

    Humans have altered natural patterns of fire for millennia, but the impact of human-set fires is thought to have been slight in wet closed-canopy forests. In the South Island of New Zealand, Polynesians (Māori), who arrived 700–800 calibrated years (cal y) ago, and then Europeans, who settled ∼150 cal y ago, used fire as a tool for forest clearance, but the structure and environmental consequences of these fires are poorly understood. High-resolution charcoal and pollen records from 16 lakes were analyzed to reconstruct the fire and vegetation history of the last 1,000 y. Diatom, chironomid, and element concentration data were examined to identify disturbance-related limnobiotic and biogeochemical changes within burned watersheds. At most sites, several high-severity fire events occurred within the first two centuries of Māori arrival and were often accompanied by a transformation in vegetation, slope stability, and lake chemistry. Proxies of past climate suggest that human activity alone, rather than unusually dry or warm conditions, was responsible for this increased fire activity. The transformation of scrub to grassland by Europeans in the mid-19th century triggered further, sometimes severe, watershed change, through additional fires, erosion, and the introduction of nonnative plant species. Alteration of natural disturbance regimes had lasting impacts, primarily because native forests had little or no previous history of fire and little resilience to the severity of burning. Anthropogenic burning in New Zealand highlights the vulnerability of closed-canopy forests to novel disturbance regimes and suggests that similar settings may be less resilient to climate-induced changes in the future. PMID:21149690

  6. New host and distributional records for Cryptosporidium sp. (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae) from lizards (Sauria: Gekkonidae, Scincidae) from the Cook Islands and Vanuatu, South Pacific

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McAllister, Chris T.; Duszynski, Donald W.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    Between 1991 and 1993, 295 lizards, comprising 21 species in 2 families (Gekkonidae, Scincidae) from the Cook Islands, Fiji, Palau, Takapoto, and Vanuatu in the South Pacific, were examined for Cryptosporidium oocysts. Only 6 lizards (2%) were found to be passing Cryptosporidium oocysts in their feces, including 2 of 30 (7%) Oceania geckos, Gehyra oceanica, from Rarotonga, Cook Islands, and 4 of 26 (15%) Pacific blue-tailed skinks, Emoia caeruleocauda, from Efate Island, Vanuatu. This represents the largest survey for Cryptosporidium in Pacific island lizards, and we document 2 new host and 2 new locality records for this parasite genus.

  7. Kangaroo rat bone compared to white rat bone after short-term disuse and exercise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muths, E.; Reichman, O. J.

    1996-01-01

    Kangaroo rats (Dipodomys ordii) were used to study the effects of confinement on mechanical properties of bone with a long range objective of proposing an alternative to the white rat model for the study of disuse osteoporosis. Kangaroo rats exhibit bipedal locomotion, which subjects their limbs to substantial accelerative forces in addition to the normal stress of weight bearing. We subjected groups of kangaroo rats and white rats (Rattus norvegicus) to one of two confinement treatments or to an exercise regime; animals were exercised at a rate calculated to replicate their (respective) daily exercise patterns. White laboratory rats were used as the comparison because they are currently the accepted model used in the study of disuse osteoporosis. After 6 weeks of treatment, rats were killed and the long bones of their hind limbs were tested mechanically and examined for histomorphometric changes. We found that kangaroo rats held in confinement had less ash content in their hind limbs than exercised kangaroo rats. In general, treated kangaroo rats showed morphometric and mechanical bone deterioration compared to controls and exercised kangaroo rats appeared to have slightly “stronger” bones than confined animals. White rats exhibited no significant differences between treatments. These preliminary results suggest that kangaroo rats may be an effective model in the study of disuse osteoporosis.

  8. Geology of the insular shelf south of St. Thomas and St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrison, L. E.; Holmes, Charles Ward; Trumbull, James V.

    1971-01-01

    A reconnaissance study has been made of the geology of the insular shelf south of St. Thomas and St. John, Virgin Islands. High-resolution seismic-reflection profiling reveals that a buried northeast-southwest striking bedrock ridge controls the shallow structure of the eastern portion of the shelf. This ridge is thought to be related to the Virgin Islands pluton farther north. Bedrock in the western shelf portion is more deeply buried and is thought to be a flatter terrain, probably lithologically similar to rocks exposed on St. Thomas. The sediment cover appears to consist principally of carbonate grains in the sand-size range. This sand is covered to various degrees by carbonate nodules at depths below about 34 m, but at shallower depths the nodules are not present. Three large areas of sandy bottom were mapped 1) west of Brewers Bay, 2) near Buck Island, and 3) off south-central St. John. Variations in the amounts of land-derived particles, organic matter, and silt/clay sized material were mapped in these bodies.

  9. Trace elements (Cu, Zn, and Hg) and δ(13)C/δ(15)N in seabird subfossils from three islands of the South China Sea and its implications.

    PubMed

    Xu, Liqiang; Liu, Xiaodong; Nie, Yaguang

    2016-05-01

    Seabird subfossils were collected on three islands of the Xisha Archipelago, South China Sea. Via elemental analysis, we identified that bird guano was a significant source for heavy metals Cu, Zn, and Hg. Cu and Zn levels in these guano samples are comparable to their levels in wildbird feces, but guano Hg was lower than previously reported. Trophic positions significantly impacted transfer efficiency of heavy metals by seabirds. Despite of a common source, trace elements, as well as stable isotopes (i.e., guano δ(13)C and collagen δ(15)N), showed island-specific characteristics. Bird subfossils on larger island had relatively greater metal concentrations and revealed higher trophic positions. Partition of element and isotope levels among the islands suggested that transfer efficacy of seabirds on different islands was different, and bird species were probably unevenly distributed among the islets. Island area is possibly a driving factor for distributions of seabird species. PMID:27056479

  10. Seismicity and Tectonics of the South Shetland Islands Region From a Combined Land-Sea Seismograph Deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, S. D.; Wiens, D. A.; Dorman, L. M.; Shore, P. J.; Vera, E.

    2001-12-01

    During 1997-1999 we deployed seven land seismometers and fourteen ocean bottom seismometers (OBSs) in the South Shetland Island - Antarctic Peninsula region. The seven land stations were part of the Seismic Experiment in Patagonia and Antarctica (SEPA), and they were equipped with broadband STS-2 sensors. The OBSs were deployed between December of 1998 and May of 1999. Seven of the OBSs were equipped with broadband PMD sensors and the other seven used 1 Hz L4 sensors. Although the South Shetland Island area displays a low level of seismicity in global catalogs, our data indicates a high level of local seismicity (Mb 2-4). The combination of OBS and land station data allowed us to accurately locate more than 170 events. Subduction beneath the South Shetland Islands either slowed or stopped with the cessation of spreading at the Aluk spreading ridge 4 million years ago; our results show many earthquakes at locations and depths indicative of ongoing subduction. Earthquakes are located on both the outer rise and along the shallow thrust interface. We determined a focal mechanism for the largest shallow interface event using regional waveform inversion and found that it is indeed a thrusting event. The maximum depth of seismicity is approximately 50 km, but the majority of the events are shallower than 30 km. These seismic results are consistent with recent GPS data that suggests a subduction rate of 1 cm/yr (Taylor, personal communication, 1998). We have also located many earthquakes associated with volcanism and rifting in Bransfield Strait. Swarms of events located on a few submarine volcanoes suggest current eruptive activity. Earthquakes associated with rifting in the northeastern portion of the strait are clustered along well-established rifts that are visible in bathymetric profiles, but the seismicity is much more diffuse to the southwest where the rifts are less established. This evidence supports the hypothesis that the backarc rift is propagating from

  11. Effects of high-rate wastewater spray disposal on the water-table aquifer, Hilton Head Island, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Speiran, G.K.

    1985-01-01

    A study by the U.S. Geological Survey from April 1982 through December 1983 evaluated the effects of high-rate disposal of treated wastewater on the water table aquifer, Hilton Head Island, South Carolina. Flooding of topographically low areas resulted from the application of 10.8 inches of wastewater in 10 days in January 1983. The water table remained 2-1/2 to 5-1/2 feet below land surface when wastewater was applied at rates of 5 inches per week in August and December 1983. (USGS)

  12. What is kangaroo mother care? Systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Grace J; Valsangkar, Bina; Kajeepeta, Sandhya; Boundy, Ellen O; Wall, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Background Kangaroo mother care (KMC), often defined as skin–to–skin contact between a mother and her newborn, frequent or exclusive breastfeeding, and early discharge from the hospital has been effective in reducing the risk of mortality among preterm and low birth weight infants. Research studies and program implementation of KMC have used various definitions. Objectives To describe the current definitions of KMC in various settings, analyze the presence or absence of KMC components in each definition, and present a core definition of KMC based on common components that are present in KMC literature. Methods We conducted a systematic review and searched PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, and the World Health Organization Regional Databases for studies with key words “kangaroo mother care”, “kangaroo care” or “skin to skin care” from 1 January 1960 to 24 April 2014. Two independent reviewers screened articles and abstracted data. Findings We screened 1035 articles and reports; 299 contained data on KMC and neonatal outcomes or qualitative information on KMC implementation. Eighty–eight of the studies (29%) did not define KMC. Two hundred and eleven studies (71%) included skin–to–skin contact (SSC) in their KMC definition, 49 (16%) included exclusive or nearly exclusive breastfeeding, 22 (7%) included early discharge criteria, and 36 (12%) included follow–up after discharge. One hundred and sixty–seven studies (56%) described the duration of SSC. Conclusions There exists significant heterogeneity in the definition of KMC. A large number of studies did not report definitions of KMC. Skin–to–skin contact is the core component of KMC, whereas components such as breastfeeding, early discharge, and follow–up care are context specific. To implement KMC effectively development of a global standardized definition of KMC is needed. PMID:27231546

  13. Rethinking conditions necessary for pseudotachylyte formation: Observations from the Otago schists, South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjørnerud, M.

    2010-07-01

    Pseudotachylytes and two distinct types of cataclasite in the Otago Schist at Tucker Hill, South Island, New Zealand, provide evidence for both seismic slip and aseismic creep on a normal fault zone during regional crustal extension in late Cretaceous time. Regional geologic evidence suggests that the fault had its present low-angle dip (ca. 10°) at the time it was active. 'Type A' cataclasites, presumably aseismic, can be recognized by bi-fractal grain size distributions, monomict composition, angular clasts of uniform textural maturity, and a crude fabric defined by oriented grains and transgranular fractures. 'Type B' cataclasites, possibly cosesimic, have characteristics consistent with fluidized grain flow, including heterogeneous clast shapes and types, a bimodal grain size distribution, intrusive relationships with other rocks, and the absence of any fabric or transecting fractures. Pseudotachylyte, which occurs as fault veins, injection veins and more complex types of intrusive structures, consistently cuts across and invades Type A cataclasites but is both intrusive into and included as clasts in Type B cataclasites. These relationships are consistent with a fault evolution model in which the development of a damage zone through aseismic cataclasis (Type A) facilitates the formation of pseudotachylyte in a subsequent seismic event by providing a permeable matrix through which fluids can drain in the early stages of slip, thereby maintaining frictional contact between rock surfaces. The formation of pseudotachylyte, in turn, may seal the fault zone and lead to thermal pressurization in a later seismic cycle, forming fluidized (Type B) cataclasites. Seismic slip on the low-angle normal fault zone at Tucker Hill may have occurred by two distinct modes of dynamic weakening — melt lubrication and thermal pressurization — in successive seismic events. Although there is a perception among geologists that pseudotachylyte is most likely to form in intact

  14. Spatial distributions of earthquake-induced landslides and hillslope preconditioning in northwest South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, R. N.; Hancox, G. T.; Petley, D. N.; Massey, C. I.; Densmore, A. L.; Rosser, N. J.

    2015-01-01

    Current models to explain regional-scale landslide events are not able to account for the possible effects of the legacy of previous earthquakes, which have triggered landslides in the past and are known to drive damage accumulation in brittle hillslope materials. This paper tests the hypothesis that spatial distributions of earthquake-induced landslides are determined by both the conditions at the time of the triggering earthquake (time-independent factors), and also the legacy of past events (time-dependent factors). To explore this, we undertake an analysis of failures triggered by the 1929 Buller and 1968 Inangahua earthquakes, in the northwest South Island of New Zealand. The spatial extent of landslides triggered by these events was in part coincident (overlapping). Spatial distributions of earthquake-triggered landslides are determined by a combination of earthquake and local characteristics, which influence the dynamic response of hillslopes. To identify the influence of a legacy from past events, we use logistic regression to control for the effects of time-independent variables (seismic ground motion, hillslope gradient, lithology, and the effects of topographic amplification caused by ridge- and slope-scale topography), in an attempt to reveal unexplained variability in the landslide distribution. We then assess whether this variability can be attributed to the legacy of past events. Our results suggest that the 1929 Buller earthquake influenced the distribution of landslides triggered by the 1968 Inangahua earthquake. Hillslopes in regions that experienced strong ground motions in 1929 were more likely to fail in 1968 than would be expected on the basis of time-independent factors alone. This effect is consistent with our hypothesis that unfailed hillslopes in the 1929 earthquake were weakened by damage accumulated during this earthquake and its associated aftershock sequence, and this weakening then influenced the performance of the landscape in the

  15. Geothermal potential of Ascension Island, south Atlantic. Phase I. Preliminary examination

    SciTech Connect

    Sibbett, B.S.; Neilson, D.L.; Ramsthaler, J.H.; Shane, M.K.

    1982-09-01

    A preliminary evaluation of the potential for an economic geothermal resource at Ascension Island was completed. It is concluded that there is a high potential for the presence of a geothermal resource under the Island. A conceptual plant has been designed assuming the resource potential located near Gannet Hill is developed. A 7% discounted payback of 5.9 years was calculated for the baseline geothermal plant. Geothermal development can be easily integrated into the Ascension Island power system in that a selection of small, portable, skid mounted, turn key power geothermal generating systems are commercially available. Geologic findings and plant analysis are summarized.

  16. Metagenomic analyses of the dominant bacterial community in the Fildes Peninsula, King George Island (South Shetland Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foong, Choon Pin; Wong Vui Ling, Clemente Michael; González, Marcelo

    2010-08-01

    There is little information on the bacterial diversity of the Fildes Peninsula, King George Island. Hence, this study was conducted to determine the bacterial population of sediments and soils from the lakes, river, glacier and an abandoned oil tank area in the Fildes Peninsula, using a metagenomic approach. DNA was extracted from the sediment and soil samples, and analyzed using the 16S rDNA polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). A total of 299 DNA fragments resolved using the DGGE were sequenced. The results of the analysis provided an overview of the predominant groups of bacteria and the diversity of the bacterial communities. The most abundant phyla of bacteria in Fildes Peninsula were Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospira, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, Spirochaetes, Deinococcus-Thermus, WS3 and BRC1. All of the sediment samples from the lakes had different representatives of dominant bacterial species. Interestingly, 15% of the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) did not group into any of the existing phyla in the Ribosomal Database Project (RDP). One of the OTUs had a similarity of <0.90 when compared to the GenBank sequences and probably was a novel bacterium specific to that location. The majority of the bacterial 16S rDNA sequences were found to be closely related to those found elsewhere.

  17. Factors controlling the geochemical composition of Limnopolar Lake sediments (Byers Peninsula, Livingston Island, South Shetland Island, Antarctica) during the last ca. 1600 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez Cortizas, A.; Rozas Muñiz, I.; Taboada, T.; Toro, M.; Granados, I.; Giralt, S.; Pla-Rabés, S.

    2014-07-01

    We sampled a short (57 cm) sediment core in Limnopolar Lake (Byers Peninsula, Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands), which spans the last ca. 1600 years. The core was sectioned at high resolution and analyzed for elemental and mineralogical composition, and scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDS) analysis of glass mineral particles in selected samples. The chemical record was characterized by a contrasted pattern of layers with high Ca, Ti, Zr, and Sr concentrations and layers with higher concentrations of K and Rb. The former were also enriched in plagioclase and, occasionally, in zeolites, while the latter were relatively enriched in 2 : 1 phyllosilicates and quartz. This was interpreted as reflecting the abundance of volcaniclastic material (Ca rich) versus Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous marine sediments (K rich) - the dominant geological material in the lake catchment. SEM-EDS analysis revealed the presence of abundant volcanic shards in the Ca-rich layers, pointing to tephras most probably related to the activity of Deception Island volcano (located 30 km to the SE). The ages of four main peaks of volcanic-rich material (AD ca. 1840-1860 for L1, AD ca. 1570-1650 for L2, AD ca. 1450-1470 for L3, and AD ca. 1300 for L4) matched reasonably well the age of tephra layers (AP1 to AP3) previously identified in lakes of Byers Peninsula. Some of the analyzed metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, and Cr) showed enrichments in the most recent tephra layer (L1), suggesting relative changes in the composition of the tephras as found in previous investigations. No evidence of significant human impact on the cycles of most trace metals (Cu, Zn, Pb) was found, probably due to the remote location of Livingston Island and the modest research infrastructures; local contamination was found by other researchers in soils, waters and marine sediments on areas with large, permanent research stations. Chromium is the only metal showing a steady enrichment in the

  18. Drown carbonate platform and crustal characters in the northern offshore area of the Taiping Island, southern South China Sea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Ying-Hui; Liu, Char-Shine; Chang, Jih-Hsin; Hsu, Ho-Han

    2015-04-01

    A 217-km long multichannel seismic reflection profile, together with magnetic and gravity data have been acquired in a marine geophysical survey of the Taiping Island, north of the Chengho Reefs in northern Dangerous Grounds, South China Sea. A volcanic province is identified at the west end of the seismic profile. Eastward, the seismic profile is characterized by several sets of strong reflectors with their amplitudes dropping off westward. In addition, these reflectors are not vertically aggradational, but show reciprocal stacking patterns of progradation and retrogradation. These reciprocal stacking patterns implicate the relative sea-level fluctuations, and may mark the cessation of the South China Sea seafloor spreading. In the middle of the seismic section, several packages of reflections bounded by disconformible surfaces may stand for tilted carbonate platforms sitting above the rotated blocks. The application of gravity modeling help to delineate the crustal thickness and characteristics of the Chengho Reefs. Magnetic modeling help us determine the magnetic sources underlie the Taiping island, a carbonate platform.

  19. Adoption in Eastern Grey Kangaroos: A Consequence of Misdirected Care?

    PubMed Central

    King, Wendy J.; Forsyth, David M.; Coulson, Graeme; Festa-Bianchet, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Adoption is rare in animals and is usually attributed to kin selection. In a 6-year study of eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus), 11 of 326 juveniles were adopted. We detected eight adoptions by observing behavioural associations and nursing between marked mothers and young and three more by analysing the relatedness of mothers and young using microsatellite DNA. Four adoptions involved reciprocal switches and three were by mothers whose own pouch young were known to subsequently disappear. Adoptive mothers were not closely related to each other or to adoptees but adoptive mothers and young associated as closely as did biological pairs, as measured by half-weight indices. Switch mothers did not associate closely. Maternal age and body condition did not influence the likelihood of adoption but females were more likely to adopt in years with high densities of females with large pouch young. Adoption did not improve juvenile survival. We conclude that adoptions in this wild population were potentially costly and likely caused by misdirected care, suggesting that eastern grey kangaroos may have poorly developed mother-offspring recognition mechanisms. PMID:25970624

  20. Peters anomaly in a red kangaroo (Macropus rufus).

    PubMed

    Suedmeyer, Wm Kirk; Pearce, Jacqueline; Persky, Meredith; Houck, Marlys L

    2014-09-01

    A 10-mo-old female red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) presented with a unilateral congenital corneal opacity OD. Complete ophthalmic examination revealed a shallow anterior chamber and a focal area of corneal edema with multiple persistent pupillary membranes extending from the iris colarette to the corneal endothelium adjacent to the edematous area of cornea. High-resolution B-scan ultrasound of the anterior segment showed an area consistent with thinning of Descemet's membrane in the area of corneal edema. Ophthalmic examination and ultrasound findings are consistent with a diagnosis of Peters anomaly, a form of anterior segment dysgenesis. An electroretinogram performed on the affected animal did not reveal any specific abnormalities. Karyotype analyses revealed a normal diploid number (2n = 20, -XX), with an abnormal pericentric inversion in the second largest chromosomal pair. The kangaroo exhibits mild compensated vision deficits in the affected eye. The maternal and paternal adult pairing has been discontinued in an effort to prevent future offspring anomalies. PMID:25314851

  1. A Biophysical and Economic Profile of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands as Potential Large-Scale Antarctic Protected Areas.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Alex D; Yesson, Christopher; Gravestock, Pippa

    2015-01-01

    The current hiatus in the establishment of a network of marine protected areas (MPAs) in the Antarctic means that other routes to conservation are required. The protection of overseas territories in the Antarctic and sub-Antarctic represents one way to advance the initiation of such a network. This review of the physical and biological features of the United Kingdom (U.K.) overseas territories of South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands (SGSSI) is undertaken to estimate the importance of the islands in terms of marine conservation in the Southern Ocean and globally. The economy and management of SGSSI are also analysed, and the question of whether the islands already have sufficient protection to constitute part of an Antarctic network of MPAs is assessed. The SGSSI comprise unique geological and physical features, a diverse marine biota, including a significant proportion of endemic species and globally important breeding populations of marine predators. Regardless of past exploitation of biotic resources, such as seals, whales and finfish, SGSSI would make a significant contribution to biological diversity in an Antarctic network of MPAs. At present, conservation measures do not adequately protect all of the biological features that render the islands so important in terms of conservation at a regional and global level. However, a general lack of data on Antarctic marine ecosystems (particularly needed for SGSSSI) makes it difficult to assess this fully. One barrier to achieving more complete protection is the continuing emphasis on fishing effort in these waters by U.K. government. Other non-U.K. Antarctic overseas territories of conservation importance are also compromised as MPAs because of the exploitation of fisheries resources in their waters. The possible non-use values of SGSSI as well as the importance of ecosystem services that are indirectly used by people are outlined in this review. Technology is improving the potential for management of remote MPAs

  2. CLINICOPATHOLOGIC CORRELATES OF FASCIOLIASIS IN TWO EASTERN GREY KANGAROOS (MACROPUS GIGANTEUS).

    PubMed

    Portas, Timothy J; Taylor, David

    2015-12-01

    Infection with the introduced trematode Fasciola hepatica was associated with anemia, mild to moderate azotemia, hypoalbuminemia, and elevated liver enzymes and creatine kinase values in two free-ranging eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus). Both kangaroos were euthanized because of the severity of clinical signs associated with infection. Histopathologic changes included severe cholangiohepatitis, biliary hyperplasia, and fibrosis. Hepatic, splenic, and intestinal amyloidosis was present in one kangaroo and hepatic abscessation in the other; neither histologic change has been reported in macropodids with fascioliasis previously. PMID:26667560

  3. Final Report: Phase II Geothermal Exploration and Geothermal Power Plant Update for Ascension Island, South Atlantic Ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Nielson, D.L.; Sibbett, B.S.; Shane, M.K.; Whitbeck, J.F.

    1984-07-01

    The Phase I study of the geothermal potential of Ascension Island concluded that the possibility of a geothermal resource existing under the island was excellent. This conclusion was based on the presence of young volcanic rocks (a heat source close to the surface), an ample supply of water from the sea, and high permeability of many of the rocks which make up the island. The assumption was made that the resource would be similar to geothermal systems in the Azores or Japan, and a conceptual design of a power plant to utilize the resource was prepared upon which cost estimates and an economic analysis were subsequently performed. The results of the economic analysis were very favorable, and the Air Force decided to proceed into Phase II of the project. Under Phase II, an exploration program was designed and carried out. The purpose of the program was to ascertain whether or not a geothermal resource existed beneath Ascension island and, to the extent possible, to evaluate the quality of that resource. The exploration involved a detailed aeromagnetic survey of the island, reconnaissance and detailed electrical resistivity surveys, and drilling of holes for the measurement of temperatures. These methods have confirmed the existence of geothermal activity beneath Ascension. Measured temperature gradients and bottom hole temperatures as well as chemical geothermometers indicate temperatures sufficient for the generation of electricity within reasonable drilling depths. This report documents those conclusions and the supporting data. This report also documents the results of the power plant update with new data supplied from the Phase II exploration activities on the island. The power plant scenario has been changed to reflect the fact that the resource temperature may not be as high as that originally assumed in the Phase I study, the location of the production wells will in all likelihood be farther from the existing Air Force facilities--either north of Grazing

  4. 3D Geometry of Active Shortening, Uplift and Subsidence West of the Alpine Fault (South Island, New Zealand)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghisetti, F.; Sibson, R. H.; Hamling, I. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Alpine Fault is the principal component of the transform boundary between the Australian and Pacific plates across the South Island of New Zealand, linking the opposite dipping Hikurangi and Puysegur subduction zones. In the northern South Island, the transition from the subducted W-dipping Pacific slab of the Hikurangi margin to the intra-continental transform margin is defined by earthquake foci from 350 to 100 km deep. West of the Alpine Fault the Australian crust above the slab has been incorporated into the collisional plate boundary and uplifted in a compressional belt up to 100 km wide. Retro-deformation and back-stripping of 10 regional transects utilising surface geology, seismic reflection lines and exploration wells define the progressive deformation of the Australian crust since 35 Ma along the collisional margin. The reconstructed geometry of faulted basement blocks is tied to localisation and evolution of overlying sedimentary basins, coeval with displacement on the Alpine Fault. Amounts of shortening, uplift and subsidence and fault activity are heterogeneous in space and time across the margin, and are controlled by compressional reactivation of inherited high-angle, N-S Paleogene normal faults oblique to the margin. However, significant differences also occur along the strike of the collisional margin, with major contrasts in uplift and subsidence north and south of lat. 41°.7, i.e. the region overlying the southern termination of the Hikurangi slab. These differences are highlighted by present day hydrographic anomalies in the Buller region, and by the pattern of filtered topography at > 75 km wavelength. Our data show that the 3D geometry of the Australian plate cannot be entirely attributed to inherited crustal heterogeneity of a flexured "retro-foreland" domain in the footwall of the Alpine Fault, and suggest the need of deeper dynamic interaction between the Pacific and Australian lithosphere along the subduction-collision margin.

  5. Emplacement mechanisms of the South Kona slide complex, Hawaii Island: Sampling and observations by remotely operated vehicle Kaiko

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yokose, H.; Lipman, P.W.

    2004-01-01

    Emplacement of a giant submarine slide complex, offshore of South Kona, Hawaii Island, was investigated in 2001 by visual observation and in-situ sampling on the bench scarp and a megablock, during two dives utilizing the Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) Kaiko and its mother ship R/V Kairei. Topography of the bench scarp and megablocks were defined in 3-D perspective, using high-resolution digital bathymetric data acquired during the cruise. Compositions of 34 rock samples provide constraints on the landslide source regions and emplacement mechanisms. The bench scarp consists mainly of highly fractured, vesiculated, and oxidized a-a lavas that slumped from the subaerial flank of ancestral Mauna Loa. The megablock contains three units: block facies, matrix facies, and draped sediment. The block facies contains hyaloclastite interbedded with massive lava, which slid from the shallow submarine flank of ancestral Mauna Loa, as indicated by glassy groundmass of the hyaloclastite, low oxidation state, and low sulfur content. The matrix facies, which directly overlies the block facies and is similar to a lahar deposit, is thought to have been deposited from the water column immediately after the South Kona slide event. The draped sediment is a thin high-density turbidite layer that may be a distal facies of the Alika-2 debris-avalanche deposit; its composition overlaps with rocks from subaerial Mauna Loa. The deposits generated by the South Kona slide vary from debris avalanche deposit to turbidite. Spatial distribution of the deposits is consistent with deposits related to large landslides adjacent to other Hawaiian volcanoes and the Canary Islands. ?? Springer-Verlag 2004.

  6. A Detailed Geochemical Study of Island Arc Crust: The Talkeetna Arc Section, South-central Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, A. R.; Debari, S. M.; Kelemen, P. B.; Clift, P. D.; Blusztajn, J.

    2002-12-01

    The Talkeetna arc section in south-central Alaska is recognized as the exposed upper mantle and crust of an accreted, Late Triassic to Middle Jurassic island arc. Detailed geochemical studies of layered gabbronorite from the middle and lower crust of this arc and a diverse suite of volcanic and plutonic rocks from the middle and upper crust provide crucial data for understanding arc magma evolution. We also present new data on parental magma compositions for the arc. The deepest level of the arc section consists of residual mantle and ultramafic cumulates adjacent to garnet gabbro and basal gabbronorite interlayered with pyroxenite. The middle crust is primarily layered gabbronorite, ranging from anorthosite to pyroxenite in composition, and is the most widespread plutonic lithology. The upper mid crust is a heterogenous assemblage of dioritic to tonalitic rocks mixed with gabbro and intruded by abundant mafic dikes and chilled pillows. The upper crust of the arc is comprised of volcanic rocks of the Talkeetna Formation ranging from basalt to rhyolite. Most of these volcanic rocks have evolved compositions (<5% MgO, Mg# <60) and overlap the composition of intermediate to felsic plutonic rocks (<3.5% MgO, Mg# <45). However, several chilled mafic rocks and one basalt have primitive characteristics (>8% MgO, Mg# >60). Ion microprobe analyses of clinopyroxene in mid-crustal layered gabbronorites have parallel REE patterns with positive-sloping LREE segments (La/Sm(N)=0.05-0.17; mean 0.11) and flat HREE segments (5-25xchondrite; mean 10xchondrite). Liquids in REE equilibrium with the clinopyroxene in these gabbronorite cumulates were calculated in order to constrain parental magmas. These calculated liquids(La/Sm(N)=0.77-1.83; mean 1.26) all fall within the range of dike and volcanic rock(La/Sm(N)=0.78-2.12; mean 1.23) compositions. However, three lavas out of the 44 we have analyzed show strong HREE depletion, which is not observed in any of the liquid compositions

  7. Are ovine fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) staggers and kangaroo gait of lactating ewes two clinically and pathologically similar nervous disorders?

    PubMed

    Bourke, Ca

    2009-03-01

    Fenugreek staggers has occurred in sheep in Victoria, as both an acute and a chronic syndrome. Signs included quadraparesis, a high stepping fore limb gait and a 'bunny-hopping' hind limb gait. Changes consistent with acute oedema were found in the brain and spinal cord of acute cases, and Wallerian degeneration in the peripheral nerves of chronic cases. Kangaroo gait occurred in ewes in New South Wales, and the clinical signs and microscopic changes were remarkably similar to those of fenugreek staggers. Although the diet associated with each is different the causal agent may be the same. PMID:19245621

  8. Hydrogeology, water quality, and saltwater intrusion in the Upper Floridan Aquifer in the offshore area near Hilton Head Island, South Carolina, and Tybee Island, Georgia, 1999-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Falls, W. Fred; Ransom, Camille; Landmeyer, James E.; Reuber, Eric J.; Edwards, Lucy E.

    2005-01-01

    To assess the hydrogeology, water quality, and the potential for saltwater intrusion in the offshore Upper Floridan aquifer, a scientific investigation was conducted near Tybee Island, Georgia, and Hilton Head Island, South Carolina. Four temporary wells were drilled at 7, 8, 10, and 15 miles to the northeast of Tybee Island, and one temporary well was drilled in Calibogue Sound west of Hilton Head Island. The Upper Floridan aquifer at the offshore and Calibogue sites includes the unconsolidated calcareous quartz sand, calcareous quartz sandstone, and sandy limestone of the Oligocene Lazaretto Creek and Tiger Leap Formations, and the limestone of the late Eocene Ocala Limestone and middle Avon Park Formation. At the 7-, 10-, and 15-mile sites, the upper confining unit between the Upper Floridan and surficial aquifers correlates to the Miocene Marks Head Formation. Paleochannel incisions have completely removed the upper confining unit at the Calibogue site and all but a 0.8-foot-thick interval of the confining unit at the 8-mile site, raising concern about the potential for saltwater intrusion through the paleochannel-fill sediments at these two sites. The paleochannel incisions at the Calibogue and 8-mile sites are filled with fine- and coarse-grained sediments, respectively. The hydrogeologic setting and the vertical hydraulic gradients at the 7- and 10-mile sites favored the absence of saltwater intrusion during predevelopment. After decades of onshore water use in Georgia and South Carolina, the 0-foot contour in the regional cone of depression of the Upper Floridan aquifer is estimated to have been at the general location of the 7- and 10-mile sites by the mid-1950s and at or past the 15-mile site by the 1980s. The upward vertical hydraulic gradient reversed, but the presence of more than 17 feet of upper confining unit impeded the downward movement of saltwater from the surficial aquifer to the Upper Floridan aquifer at the 7- and 10-mile sites. At the 10

  9. A micro case study of the legal and administrative arrangements for river health in the Kangaroo River (NSW).

    PubMed

    Mooney, C; Farrier, D

    2002-01-01

    Kangaroo Valley is a drinking water supply catchment for Kangaroo Valley village, parts of the Southern Highlands and Sydney. It is also a popular recreation area both for swimming and canoeing. Land use has traditionally been dominated by dairy farming but there has been significant and continuing development of land for hobby farms and rural residential subdivision. Dairy industry restructuring has affected the viability of some farms in the Valley and created additional pressure for subdivision. River health is a function of flows, water quality, riparian vegetation, geomorphology and aquatic habitat and riverine biota. River flows in the Kangaroo River are affected by water extraction and storage for urban water supply and extraction by commercial irrigators and riparian land holders which have a significant impact at low flows. Current water quality often does not meet ANZECC Guidelines for primary contact and recreation and the river is a poor source of raw drinking water. Key sources of contaminants are wastewater runoff from agriculture, and poorly performing on-site sewage management systems. Riparian vegetation, which is critical to the maintenance of in-stream ecosystems suffers from uncontrolled stock access and weed infestation. The management of land use and resulting diffuse pollution sources is critical to the long term health of the river. The Healthy Rivers Commission of New South Wales Independent Inquiry into the Shoalhaven River System Final Report July, 1999 found that the longer term protection of the health of the Kangaroo River is contingent upon achievement of patterns of land use that have regard to land capability and also to the capability of the river to withstand the impacts of inappropriate or poorly managed land uses. This micro case study of Kangaroo Valley examines the complex legal and administrative arrangements with particular reference to the management of diffuse pollution for river health. In the past, diffuse pollution has

  10. Beaded-chain collars: A new method to radiotag kangaroo rats for short-term studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harker, M.B.; Rathbun, G.B.; Langtimm, C.A.

    1999-01-01

    To study burrow use by small mammals, we needed to develop a simple, non-invasive radiotag for the endangered giant kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ingens). We designed and tested a radiocollar made of beaded-chain on 4 captive Heermann's kangaroo rats (D. heermanii). Attachment of the collar required no anesthesia, the collar was easily fitted in 1-2 minutes, and it caused minimal stress to the animals. Once the collar design and attachment technique were perfected on the surrogate animals, we fitted radiocollars on 48 giant kangaroo rats for about 15 days. Upon recapture, 12 animals showed some minor fur or skin abrasion on the neck. Overall, the attachment performed as expected and proved to be a reliable method to radiotrack kangaroo rats during our short-term field study.

  11. The effect of formal, neonatal communication-intervention training on mothers in kangaroo care

    PubMed Central

    van Rooyen, Elise

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Due to low-birth-weight, preterm birth, HIV and/or AIDS and poverty-related factors, South Africa presents with an increased prevalence of infants at risk of language delay. A Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) unit offers unique opportunities for training. Aim The aim of the present study was to determine if formal, neonatal communication-intervention training had an effect on mothers’ knowledge and communication interaction with their high-risk infants. Methods Three groups of mothers participated: Group 1 was trained whilst practicing KMC; Group 2 was not trained but practiced KMC; and Group 3 was also not trained but practiced sporadic KMC. Ten mothers per group were matched for age, education level and birth order of their infants. The individual training was based on graded sensory stimulation and responsive mother-infant communication interaction, which emphasised talking and singing by the mother. Results Significant differences were found in mother-infant communication interaction between all three groups, which indicated a positive effect on Group 1 with training. Group 2, KMC without training, also had a positive effect on interaction. However, Group 1 mothers with training demonstrated better knowledge of their infants and were more responsive during interaction than the other two groups. Conclusion The present study suggests that neonatal communication-intervention training adds value to a KMC programme. PMID:26245414

  12. Population genomic analysis uncovers African and European admixture in Drosophila melanogaster populations from the south-eastern United States and Caribbean Islands.

    PubMed

    Kao, Joyce Y; Zubair, Asif; Salomon, Matthew P; Nuzhdin, Sergey V; Campo, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Drosophila melanogaster is postulated to have colonized North America in the past several 100 years in two waves. Flies from Europe colonized the east coast United States while flies from Africa inhabited the Caribbean, which if true, make the south-east US and Caribbean Islands a secondary contact zone for African and European D. melanogaster. This scenario has been proposed based on phenotypes and limited genetic data. In our study, we have sequenced individual whole genomes of flies from populations in the south-east US and Caribbean Islands and examined these populations in conjunction with population sequences from the west coast US, Africa, and Europe. We find that west coast US populations are closely related to the European population, likely reflecting a rapid westward expansion upon first settlements into North America. We also find genomic evidence of African and European admixture in south-east US and Caribbean populations, with a clinal pattern of decreasing proportions of African ancestry with higher latitude. Our genomic analysis of D. melanogaster populations from the south-east US and Caribbean Islands provides more evidence for the Caribbean Islands as the source of previously reported novel African alleles found in other east coast US populations. We also find the border between the south-east US and the Caribbean island to be the admixture hot zone where distinctly African-like Caribbean flies become genomically more similar to European-like south-east US flies. Our findings have important implications for previous studies examining the generation of east coast US clines via selection. PMID:25735402

  13. A retrospective study of Babesia macropus associated with morbidity and mortality in eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) and agile wallabies (Macropus agilis)

    PubMed Central

    Donahoe, Shannon L.; Peacock, Christopher S.; Choo, Ace Y.L.; Cook, Roger W.; O'Donoghue, Peter; Crameri, Sandra; Vogelnest, Larry; Gordon, Anita N.; Scott, Jenni L.; Rose, Karrie

    2015-01-01

    This is a retrospective study of 38 cases of infection by Babesia macropus, associated with a syndrome of anaemia and debility in hand-reared or free-ranging juvenile eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) from coastal New South Wales and south-eastern Queensland between 1995 and 2013. Infection with B. macropus is recorded for the first time in agile wallabies (Macropus agilis) from far north Queensland. Animals in which B. macropus infection was considered to be the primary cause of morbidity had marked anaemia, lethargy and neurological signs, and often died. In these cases, parasitised erythrocytes were few or undetectable in peripheral blood samples but were sequestered in large numbers within small vessels of visceral organs, particularly in the kidney and brain, associated with distinctive clusters of extraerythrocytic organisms. Initial identification of this piroplasm in peripheral blood smears and in tissue impression smears and histological sections was confirmed using transmission electron microscopy and molecular analysis. Samples of kidney, brain or blood were tested using PCR and DNA sequencing of the 18S ribosomal RNA and heat shock protein 70 gene using primers specific for piroplasms. The piroplasm detected in these samples had 100% sequence identity in the 18S rRNA region with the recently described Babesia macropus in two eastern grey kangaroos from New South Wales and Queensland, and a high degree of similarity to an unnamed Babesia sp. recently detected in three woylies (Bettongia penicillata ogilbyi) in Western Australia. PMID:26106576

  14. A retrospective study of Babesia macropus associated with morbidity and mortality in eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) and agile wallabies (Macropus agilis).

    PubMed

    Donahoe, Shannon L; Peacock, Christopher S; Choo, Ace Y L; Cook, Roger W; O'Donoghue, Peter; Crameri, Sandra; Vogelnest, Larry; Gordon, Anita N; Scott, Jenni L; Rose, Karrie

    2015-08-01

    This is a retrospective study of 38 cases of infection by Babesia macropus, associated with a syndrome of anaemia and debility in hand-reared or free-ranging juvenile eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) from coastal New South Wales and south-eastern Queensland between 1995 and 2013. Infection with B. macropus is recorded for the first time in agile wallabies (Macropus agilis) from far north Queensland. Animals in which B. macropus infection was considered to be the primary cause of morbidity had marked anaemia, lethargy and neurological signs, and often died. In these cases, parasitised erythrocytes were few or undetectable in peripheral blood samples but were sequestered in large numbers within small vessels of visceral organs, particularly in the kidney and brain, associated with distinctive clusters of extraerythrocytic organisms. Initial identification of this piroplasm in peripheral blood smears and in tissue impression smears and histological sections was confirmed using transmission electron microscopy and molecular analysis. Samples of kidney, brain or blood were tested using PCR and DNA sequencing of the 18S ribosomal RNA and heat shock protein 70 gene using primers specific for piroplasms. The piroplasm detected in these samples had 100% sequence identity in the 18S rRNA region with the recently described Babesia macropus in two eastern grey kangaroos from New South Wales and Queensland, and a high degree of similarity to an unnamed Babesia sp. recently detected in three woylies (Bettongia penicillata ogilbyi) in Western Australia. PMID:26106576

  15. National Environmental/Energy Workforce Assessment, National Summary: South Dakota-Virgin Islands. Volume Four.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Field Research Center Inc., Iowa City, IA.

    This report is one in a four-volume National Summary which presents existing workforce levels, training programs and career potentials for each of the states, Washington, D.C., Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. Each individual state program summary is followed by a depiction of the current and projected (1976-1981) workforce figures for the…

  16. Effects of aerial applications of naled on nontarget insects at Parris Island, South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Breidenbaugh, M S; de Szalay, F A

    2010-04-01

    Testing impacts of large-scale aerial spraying to control public health pests under realistic field conditions are needed to understand impacts on natural populations of nontarget insects. Responses of terrestrial insects to aerial applications of an organophosphate insecticide, naled, used for mosquito and biting midge control were studied on Parris Island Marine Corps Recruit Depot, Parris Island, SC. Aerial applications were made with C-130 aircraft at dusk in 2003 and in 2005. In 2003, we sampled two locations on Parris Island with Malaise traps before and after spraying, and used Before-After analyses to examine changes in terrestrial insect diversity and abundance. In 2005, we sampled insects with yellow pan traps at three locations on Parris Island and at an untreated control site. A Before-After Control-Impact analysis at each location was conducted to compare changes. In 2003, numbers of four of 12 common taxa (Dolichopodidae, Sarcophagidae, Syrphidae, Tachinidae) were lower after sprays. However, there were no significant changes in numbers of common taxa or total numbers in 2005. Shannon diversities (H') were not different in either year indicating that sprays had minimal impact on overall community biodiversity. In contrast, populations of pestiferous biting midges (Culicoides spp.) collected in CDC-style traps were reduced by 94-99% after spraying in both years; mosquito numbers declined by 88.2% in 2003 and 92.5% in 2005, after sprays. PMID:20388292

  17. Reef fish structure and distribution in a south-western Atlantic Ocean tropical island.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, H T; Ferreira, C E L; Joyeux, J-C; Santos, R G; Horta, P A

    2011-12-01

    The community structure of the reef fish fauna of Trindade Island, a volcanic oceanic island located 1160 km off the coast of Brazil, is described based on intensive visual censuses. Seventy-six species were encountered in 252 censuses, with mean ± S.E. of 99 ± 3 individuals and 15.7 ± 0.3 species 40 m(-2) transect. The average fish biomass, calculated from length-class estimation, was 22.1 kg 40 m(-2) transect. The species contributing most to biomass were, in decreasing order, Melichthys niger, Cephalopholis fulva, Kyphosus spp., Holocentrus adscensionis, Sparisoma amplum, Sparisoma axillare, Acanthurus bahianus and Epinephelus adscensionis. Carnivorous fishes were the largest trophic group in terms of biomass, followed by omnivores and roving herbivores. The two predominant types of reef habitat, fringing reefs built by coralline algae and rocky reefs made of volcanic boulders, showed significant differences in the biomass and the abundance of the trophic guilds. Within each habitat type, significant differences in species richness, density and biomass were detected among crest, slope and interface zones. Although similar in overall species composition to coastal reefs in Brazil, the fish fauna of Trindade Island shares certain characteristics, such as a high abundance of planktivores, with other Brazilian oceanic islands. Despite comparatively high fish biomass, including the macro-carnivorous species habitually targeted by fisheries, signs of overfishing were evident. These findings highlight the urgency for a conservation initiative for this isolated, unique and vulnerable reef system. PMID:22141900

  18. The Prince Edward Islands pelagic ecosystem, south Indian Ocean: a review of achievements, 1976 1990

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakhomov, E. A.; Froneman, P. W.

    1999-01-01

    This review summarizes the main research findings of the multi-year oceanographic and biological studies conducted in the vicinity of the Prince Edward Archipelago during the period 1976 to 1990. The Prince Edward Islands represent a flow-through system on the mainstream of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Although there are no taxonomic differences between the pelagic communities of the upstream, inter-island and downstream regions, these mesoscale subsystems may operate differently. The mesoscale oceanographic and biological processes appear to be affected by the position of the Subantarctic Front (SAF) in the vicinity of the islands. Both the rich benthic community, which is supported by the local enhancement of primary production, and the strong advection of zooplankton/micronekton from the upstream region provide the food resources necessary for the survival of the huge community of land-based predators present on the islands. Collectively this is termed the `life-support system'. Future studies should concentrate on the meridional shifts in the position of the SAF and its influence on background productivity upstream and downstream of the Prince Edward Archipelago.

  19. Endogenous nitrogen excretion by red kangaroos (Macropus rufus): effects of animal age and forage quality.

    PubMed

    Munn, Adam J; Dawson, Terence J; Hume, Ian D

    2006-01-01

    Red kangaroos (Macropus rufus) are large (>20 kg) herbivorous marsupials common to arid and semiarid Australia. The population dynamics of red kangaroos are linked with environmental factors, operating largely through juvenile survival. A crucial period is the young-at-foot (YAF) stage, when juveniles have permanently left the mother's pouch but still take milk from a teat in the pouch. Forage quantity and quality have been implicated in drought-related mortalities of juvenile kangaroos. Here we compared how forage quality affected nitrogen (N) intake and excretion by YAF, weaned, and mature, nonlactating female red kangaroos. On high-quality forage (chopped lucerne hay, Medicago sativa) low in neutral-detergent fiber (43%+/-1%) and high in N (2.9%+/-0.1%), YAF and weaned kangaroos had ideal growth rates and retained 460-570 mg dietary N kg(-0.75) d(-1). But on poor-quality forage (chopped oaten hay, Avena sativa) high in neutral-detergent fiber (64%+/-1%) and low in N (0.9%+/-0.1%), YAF and weaned kangaroos could not sustain growth and were in negative N balance at -103+/-26 mg and -57+/-31 mg N kg(-0.75) d(-1), respectively. Notably, the YAF kangaroos excreted 64% of their truly digestible N intake from forage as nondietary fecal N (NDFN). By weaning age, the situation had improved, but the juveniles still lost 40% of their truly digestible N intake as NDFN compared with only 30% by the mature females. Our findings support field observations that forage quality, and not just quantity, is a major factor affecting the mortality of juvenile red kangaroos during drought. PMID:16555200

  20. Locomotion in Extinct Giant Kangaroos: Were Sthenurines Hop-Less Monsters?

    PubMed Central

    Janis, Christine M.; Buttrill, Karalyn; Figueirido, Borja

    2014-01-01

    Sthenurine kangaroos (Marsupialia, Diprotodontia, Macropodoidea) were an extinct subfamily within the family Macropodidae (kangaroos and rat-kangaroos). These “short-faced browsers” first appeared in the middle Miocene, and radiated in the Plio-Pleistocene into a diversity of mostly large-bodied forms, more robust than extant forms in their build. The largest (Procoptodon goliah) had an estimated body mass of 240 kg, almost three times the size of the largest living kangaroos, and there is speculation whether a kangaroo of this size would be biomechanically capable of hopping locomotion. Previously described aspects of sthenurine anatomy (specialized forelimbs, rigid lumbar spine) would limit their ability to perform the characteristic kangaroo pentapedal walking (using the tail as a fifth limb), an essential gait at slower speeds as slow hopping is energetically unfeasible. Analysis of limb bone measurements of sthenurines in comparison with extant macropodoids shows a number of anatomical differences, especially in the large species. The scaling of long bone robusticity indicates that sthenurines are following the “normal” allometric trend for macropodoids, while the large extant kangaroos are relatively gracile. Other morphological differences are indicative of adaptations for a novel type of locomotor behavior in sthenurines: they lacked many specialized features for rapid hopping, and they also had anatomy indicative of supporting their body with an upright trunk (e.g., dorsally tipped ischiae), and of supporting their weight on one leg at a time (e.g., larger hips and knees, stabilized ankle joint). We propose that sthenurines adopted a bipedal striding gait (a gait occasionally observed in extant tree-kangaroos): in the smaller and earlier forms, this gait may have been employed as an alternative to pentapedal locomotion at slower speeds, while in the larger Pleistocene forms this gait may have enabled them to evolve to body sizes where hopping was

  1. Locomotion in extinct giant kangaroos: were sthenurines hop-less monsters?

    PubMed

    Janis, Christine M; Buttrill, Karalyn; Figueirido, Borja

    2014-01-01

    Sthenurine kangaroos (Marsupialia, Diprotodontia, Macropodoidea) were an extinct subfamily within the family Macropodidae (kangaroos and rat-kangaroos). These "short-faced browsers" first appeared in the middle Miocene, and radiated in the Plio-Pleistocene into a diversity of mostly large-bodied forms, more robust than extant forms in their build. The largest (Procoptodon goliah) had an estimated body mass of 240 kg, almost three times the size of the largest living kangaroos, and there is speculation whether a kangaroo of this size would be biomechanically capable of hopping locomotion. Previously described aspects of sthenurine anatomy (specialized forelimbs, rigid lumbar spine) would limit their ability to perform the characteristic kangaroo pentapedal walking (using the tail as a fifth limb), an essential gait at slower speeds as slow hopping is energetically unfeasible. Analysis of limb bone measurements of sthenurines in comparison with extant macropodoids shows a number of anatomical differences, especially in the large species. The scaling of long bone robusticity indicates that sthenurines are following the "normal" allometric trend for macropodoids, while the large extant kangaroos are relatively gracile. Other morphological differences are indicative of adaptations for a novel type of locomotor behavior in sthenurines: they lacked many specialized features for rapid hopping, and they also had anatomy indicative of supporting their body with an upright trunk (e.g., dorsally tipped ischiae), and of supporting their weight on one leg at a time (e.g., larger hips and knees, stabilized ankle joint). We propose that sthenurines adopted a bipedal striding gait (a gait occasionally observed in extant tree-kangaroos): in the smaller and earlier forms, this gait may have been employed as an alternative to pentapedal locomotion at slower speeds, while in the larger Pleistocene forms this gait may have enabled them to evolve to body sizes where hopping was no longer

  2. 76 FR 31851 - Safety Zone; Put-in-Bay Fireworks, Fox's the Dock Pier; South Bass Island, Put-in-Bay, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Put-in-Bay Fireworks, Fox's the Dock Pier...-0417 Safety Zone; Put-In-Bay Fireworks, Fox's the Dock Pier, South Bass Island; Put-In-Bay, OH....

  3. Nurses' adherence to the Kangaroo Care Method: support for nursing care management1

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Laura Johanson; Leite, Josete Luzia; Scochi, Carmen Gracinda Silvan; da Silva, Leila Rangel; da Silva, Thiago Privado

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: construct an explanatory theoretical model about nurses' adherence to the Kangaroo Care Method at the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, based on the meanings and interactions for care management. METHOD: qualitative research, based on the reference framework of the Grounded Theory. Eight nurses were interviewed at a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The comparative analysis of the data comprised the phases of open, axial and selective coding. A theoretical conditional-causal model was constructed. RESULTS: four main categories emerged that composed the analytic paradigm: Giving one's best to the Kangaroo Method; Working with the complexity of the Kangaroo Method; Finding (de)motivation to apply the Kangaroo Method; and Facing the challenges for the adherence to and application of the Kangaroo Method. CONCLUSIONS: the central phenomenon revealed that each nurse and team professional has a role of multiplying values and practices that may or may not be constructive, potentially influencing the (dis)continuity of the Kangaroo Method at the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. The findings can be used to outline management strategies that go beyond the courses and training and guarantee the strengthening of the care model. PMID:26155013

  4. The effect of kangaroo care on neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Head, Lauren M

    2014-01-01

    Preterm birth is associated with long-term deficits in executive functioning and cognitive performance. As advances in neonatal care enable more preterm infants to survive, development of strategies to address high rates of neurodevelopmental disabilities and poor academic achievement in preterm infants are crucial. Evidence suggests that infants' brains are plastic in nature and, therefore, can be shaped by the environment. Kangaroo care has become popularized as a means of modifying the stress of the NICU environment. However, few studies have examined whether kangaroo care affects neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm infants. This review examined available literature that investigated the effect of kangaroo care on cognition in preterm infants. Current evidence suggests that short-term benefits of kangaroo care are associated with improved neurodevelopment. However, few studies have examined the long-term impact of kangaroo care on cognitive outcomes in preterm infants. To address neurological disparities in children born preterm, research using kangaroo care as a strategy to improve neurodevelopment in preterm infants is warranted. PMID:25347107

  5. Methane production and digestibility measurements in the grey kangaroo and sheep.

    PubMed

    Kempton, T J; Murray, R M; Leng, R A

    1976-07-01

    Three grey knagaroos and three sheep were given a diet of lucerne chaff and measurements were made of feed intake, digestibility coefficients, methane production rate and volatile fatty acid content of the "stomach" and caecum for each animal. The kangaroos had lower intakes of digestible dry matter and organic matter than the sheep; this was related to lower intakes of dry matter and lower apparent digestibility coefficients particularly of the crude fibre fraction. Methane production in the sheep (collected in respired air through a mask) was 0-81 litre/h; no methane was collected in the respired air from kangaroos. Anal release of methane in sheep and kangaroos indicated that some methane was produced in the hind gut of kangaroos and that all of this methane was lost via the anus. This finding was different to the sheep which apparently excreted 80-90% of the hind gut methane via the lungs. Thus in both sites of apparent high microbial growth in the gut of kangaroos methane production is negligible or lower than in the same sites in sheep. Possible explanations for the absence of measurable methane production in the kangaroo fore-stomachs are discussed. PMID:985222

  6. Studying and Dating Indian Ocean Tsunamis by Using Benthic Foraminifera in the Sediment Stratigraphy of South Andaman Islands, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, F. C.

    2015-12-01

    We analyzed the foraminifera and dated them to identify the sea level fluctuations in the coastal sediment stratigraphy of Andaman Islands. Our recent paleotsunami investigations are specially focused on unusual large magnitude earthquake and tsunamis in the south coast of Andaman. Our detailed study on the foraminifers preserved in the near sub surface stratigraphy and AMS ages show a strong signature of the tsunami event very much similar to the modern tsunami of December 2004. We found that foraminifer is an ideal geological key to bracket paleotsunami events. The AMS ages of these foraminifers supports the ages given by corals of Sumatra with a small error bar. The recent research approach to identify the ruptures and tsunami based on the corals of south Sumatra suggests a large time span of 1000 years for such mega events. Our foraminiferal archives obtained from 10g soil samples from the 2.5m deep Holocene stratigraphy suggests four seismic predecessors similar to the 2004 event with ~Mw9 with huge rupture. Huge foraminiferal population in the sedimentary stratigraphy is an indicative of sea level changes and the signatures of abrasion in the foraminifer's test (180µm) indicate strong wave surges and bead load transport during tsunami events. Spontaneous death of organisms due to tsunami waves gives an exact time frame with a narrow age limit than the charcoal. Sediment stratigraphy of south Andaman had such changes in each millennium. Sediment stratigraphy sections shows the huge population and assemblages and the AMS dates of this foraminifera in south Andaman shows four mega events. This kind of fossil assemblages are commonly associated with the sea regression and transgressions in the geological time scale. Tamil 'Sangam literatures' one of the oldest literature available in Indian main land and the corals ages from Sumatra are also emphasizes the predecessors of such unusual large magnitude earthquakes and tsunamis in the Indian Ocean. All these

  7. Considerations for implementation of a neonatal kangaroo care protocol.

    PubMed

    DiMenna, Lisa

    2006-01-01

    Kangaroo care (KC) is skin-to-skin contact between an infant and parent, where the infant is usually held chest-to-chest in an upright prone position. It is a very simple, beneficial developmental intervention for both baby and parent, as demonstrated in the literature, but many parents and health care professionals are not aware of KC, its benefits, or how to perform it. The purpose of this article is (1) to inform health care professionals about the research literature on KC and its benefits and (2) to develop a list of evidence-based KC guidelines for the use of all infants and their parents. Increased knowledge of and education on KC for healthcare providers should lead to increased, routine use of this beneficial intervention. PMID:17163001

  8. Virtopsy in a red kangaroo with oral osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ki-Ja; Sasaki, Motoki; Miyauchi, Aki; Kishimoto, Miori; Shimizu, Junichiro; Iwasaki, Toshiroh; Miyake, Yoh-Ichi; Yamada, Kazutaka

    2011-03-01

    This report describes the use of computed tomography (CT) in a nondomestic species. Postmortem CT was performed on a red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) and a diagnosis of oral osteomyelitis was made. CT examination revealed bony remodeling of the right mandible, an intraosseous lesion of the right temporal bone, muscle necrosis around the right mandible, and the absence of the right, first, upper molar tooth. Cardiac and intrahepatic gas and a distended intestine due to postmortem gas accumulation were also seen. All the lesions identified with CT were also identified by conventional necropsy, except the cardiac and intrahepatic gases. Virtopsy may be a useful procedure for the noninvasive identification of cause of death and as a guide for necropsy in animals. PMID:22946383

  9. Calcium carbonate obstructive urolithiasis in a red kangaroo (Macropus rufus).

    PubMed

    Lindemann, Dana M; Gamble, Kathryn C; Corner, Sarah

    2013-03-01

    A 6-yr-old male red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) presented for a history of inappetance, abnormal behavior, and unconfirmed elimination for 6 hr prior to presentation. Based on abdominal ultrasound, abdominocentesis, and cystocentesis, a presumptive diagnosis of urinary tract obstruction with uroabdomen and hydronephrosis was reached. Abdominal radiographs did not assist in reaching an antemortem diagnosis. Postmortem examination confirmed a urinary bladder rupture secondary to urethral obstruction by a single urethrolith. Bilateral hydronephrosis and hydroureter were identified and determined to be a result of bilateral ureteroliths. Urolith analysis revealed a composition of 100% calcium carbonate. A dietary analysis was performed, implicating an increased Ca:P ratio from a food preparation miscommunication as a contributing factor. Appropriate husbandry changes were made, and mob surveillance procedures were performed, which resolved the urolithiasis risk for the remaining five animals. PMID:23505728

  10. Boundary-layer turbulence as a kangaroo process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekker, H.; de Leeuw, G.; Maassen van den Brink, A.

    1995-09-01

    A nonlocal mixing-length theory of turbulence transport by finite size eddies is developed by means of a novel evaluation of the Reynolds stress. The analysis involves the contruct of a sample path space and a stochastic closure hypothesis. The simplifying property of exhange (strong eddies) is satisfied by an analytical sampling rate model. A nonlinear scaling relation maps the path space onto the semi-infinite boundary layer. The underlying near-wall behavior of fluctuating velocities perfectly agrees with recent direct numerical simulations. The resulting integro-differential equation for the mixing of scalar densities represents fully developed boundary-layer turbulence as a nondiffusive (Kubo-Anderson or kangaroo) type of stochastic process. The model involves a scaling exponent ɛ (with ɛ-->∞ in the diffusion limit). For the (partly analytical) solution for the mean velocity profile, excellent agreement with the experimental data yields ɛ~=0.58.

  11. Food habits of fishes on an exposed sandy beach at Fukiagehama, South-West Kyushu Island, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakane, Yukinori; Suda, Yusuke; Sano, Mitsuhiko

    2011-06-01

    To clarify the feeding habits and major food sources of sandy beach fishes, the gut contents of 55 fish species collected on a sandy beach at Fukiagehama, South-West Kyushu Island, Japan, were examined. Ontogenetic changes in food preference were recognized in nine species ( Hypoatherina valenciennei, Lateolabrax japonicus, Trachurus japonicus, Sillago japonica, Sphyraena japonica, Paralichthys olivaceus, Heteromycteris japonica, Paraplagusia japonica, and Takifugu niphobles). A cluster analysis based on dietary overlaps showed that the sandy beach fish assemblage comprised six trophic groups (mysid, amphipod, zooplankton, juvenile fish, terrestrial insect, and mollusk feeders). Of these, the first three groups were the most abundantly represented, whereas the last two were represented by only a single species. These results indicated that epibenthic macrofauna, such as mysids and gammaridean amphipods, and zooplankton, were important food resources for the fish assemblage at the study site, but infaunal macrobenthos, such as polychaetes and bivalves, being relatively unimportant.

  12. Sewers as a source and sink of chlorinated-solvent groundwater contamination, Marine Corps Recruit Depot, Parris Island, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vroblesky, D.A.; Petkewich, M.D.; Lowery, M.A.; Landmeyer, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater contamination by tetrachloroethene and its dechlorination products is present in two partially intermingled plumes in the surficial aquifer near a former dry-cleaning facility at Site 45, Marine Corps Recruit Depot, Parris Island, South Carolina. The northern plume originates from the vicinity of former above-ground storage tanks. Free-phase tetrachloroethene from activities in this area entered the groundwater. The southern plume originates at a nearby, new dry-cleaning facility, but probably was the result of contamination released to the aquifer from a leaking sanitary sewer line from the former dry-cleaning facility. Discharge of dissolved groundwater contamination is primarily to leaking storm sewers below the water table. The strong influence of sanitary sewers on source distribution and of storm sewers on plume orientation and discharge at this site indicates that groundwater-contamination investigators should consider the potential influence of sewer systems at their sites. ?? 2011, National Ground Water Association.

  13. Isotopic ages from the Nelson region of South Island New Zealand: crustal structure and definition of the Median Tectonic Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimbrough, D. L.; Tulloch, A. J.; Geary, E.; Coombs, D. S.; Landis, C. A.

    1993-10-01

    Plutonic rocks in the Rotoroa Complex and Drumduan Terrane of South Island, New Zealand yield zircon U/Pb dates of 156 and 142 Ma, respectively, that are interpreted as crystallization ages. Hornblende and biotite 40Ar/ 39Ar dates of 140-130 Ma from the Rotoroa represent either emplacement ages, cooling ages or a metamorphic resetting event. These two units crop out between the Brook Street Terrane and the Separation Point Batholith and lack any clear affinity with tectonostratigraphic terranes of the New Zealand Western or Eastern provinces. The Rotoroa Complex and Drumduan Terrane are interpreted as part of a series of dismembered Mesozoic volcanic-plutonic arc complexes that are sandwiched between terranes of the Western and Eastern provinces, occupying a structural position here referred to as the Median Tectonic Zone (MTZ). Correlative units in Fiordland on the opposite side of the Alpine Fault include the Mackay Intrusives, Darran Complex, Largs Terrane, Lochburn Formation and the Halfway Peak Gabbro. Farther south on Stewart Island the Anglern Complex and Paterson Group are part of the same structural belt. The MTZ is an extension of the original concept of the Median Tectonic Line put forth by Landis and Coombs (1967). Dismemberment and juxtaposition of arc magmatic assemblages in the MTZ with Western and Eastern Province terranes is related to large-scale transcurrent faulting in the Early Cretaceous. Its essential features as a regional tectonostratigraphic terrane were established by ~ 117 Ma as indicated by stitching of the Rotoroa Complex to the Takaka Terrane (Western Province) by the Separation Point Batholith (117-114 Ma). The Echinus Granite yields a 310 Ma U/Pb zircon crystallization age that suggests the granite and associated gneisses are part of the Western Province which may constrain the position of the western margin of the MTZ near Nelson City.

  14. Coastal Sedimentation Associated with the Tohoku Tsunami of 11 March 2011 in South Kuril Islands, NW Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razjigaeva, N. G.; Ganzey, L. A.; Grebennikova, T. A.; Ivanova, E. D.; Kharlamov, A. A.; Kaistrenko, V. M.; Shishkin, A. A.

    2013-06-01

    Sediment deposited by the Tohoku tsunami of March 11, 2011 in the Southern Kurils (Kunashir, Shikotan, Zeleniy, Yuri, Tanfiliev islands) was radically different from sedimentation during local strong storms and from tsunamis with larger runup at the same location. Sediments from the 2011 Tohoku tsunami were surveyed in the field, immediately and 6 months after the event, and analyzed in the laboratory for sediment granulometry, benthos Foraminifa assemblages, and diatom algae. Run-up elevation and inundation distance were calculated from the wrackline (accumulations of driftwood, woody debris, grass, and seaweed) marking the distal edge of tsunami inundation. Run-up of the tsunami was 5 m at maximum, and 3-4 m on average. Maximum distance of inundation was recorded in river mouths (up to 630 m), but was generally in the range of 50-80 m. Although similar to the local strong storms in runup height, the tsunami generally did not erode the coast, nor leave a deposit. However, deposits uncharacteristic of tsunami, described as brown aleuropelitic (silty and clayey) mud rich in organic matter, were found in closed bays facing the South Kuril Strait. These closed bays were covered with sea ice at the time of tsunami. As the tsunami waves broke the ice, the ice floes enhanced the bottom erosion on shoals and destruction of low-lying coastal peatland even at modest ranges of runup. In the muddy tsunami deposits, silt comprised up to 64 % and clay up to 41.5 %. The Foraminifera assemblages displayed features characteristic of benthic microfauna in the near-shore zone. Deep-sea diatoms recovered from tsunami deposits in two closely situated bays, namely Krabovaya and Otradnaya bays, had different requirements for environmental temperature, suggesting these different diatoms were brought to the bays by the tsunami wave entraining various water masses when skirting the island from the north and from the south.

  15. The PKP travel time anomaly of the South Sandwich Island earthquakes in the context of inner core anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, J.; Tkalcic, H.

    2015-12-01

    Using both PKP differential travel times and normal modes, the inner core (IC) has long been modeled by simple cylindrical anisotropy with fast axis parallel or quasi-parallel to the Earth's rotation axis. Such a model is popular because it can explain, to some extent, both of these data sets. However in recent years it has become clear that this simplistic model cannot explain all observed PKP differential travel times; in particular, the cluster of earthquakes from the South Sandwich Islands (SSI) recorded in Alaska, which show consistent deviation of 2-4 seconds above predicated arrival times in PKPbc-df data. Due to the sparsity of paths sampling the IC in a polar direction, these residuals form the basis of models of IC anisotropy, but their origins are not well understood. We have created a new hand picked South Sandwich Island dataset of 500 PKPbc-df and 216 PKPab-df measurements from 36 events using a cross correlation method. In addition, we adopt two complimentary measurement techniques that have not so far been utilised on PKP waveforms, to add a measurement of uncertainty and statistical significance to existing measurements and to make sure these residual values are not a result of systematic error in picking of the core phases. The new data set and methods suggest that these anomalous residuals are likely not due to the miss picking of core phases. Given that almost all high residual values are recorded on paths with azimuths towards Alaska and, given their scatter, a velocity anomaly due to subduction geometry at the source or receiver side is a possible cause when we consider a non-inner core origin. Here we explore whether the western hemisphere SSI residuals can be modeled using subduction geometry and velocity contrasts at the SSI subduction zone. Such a model could have significant implications for inner core anisotropy.

  16. Review Article: Potential geomorphic consequences of a future great (Mw = 8.0+) Alpine Fault earthquake, South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, T. R.; Davies, T. R. H.

    2013-09-01

    The Alpine Fault in New Zealand's South Island has not sustained a large magnitude earthquake since ca. AD 1717. The time since this rupture is close to the average inferred recurrence interval of the fault (~300 yr). The Alpine Fault is therefore expected to generate a large magnitude earthquake in the near future. Previous ruptures of this fault are inferred to have generated Mw = 8.0 or greater earthquakes and to have resulted in, amongst other geomorphic hazards, large-scale landslides and landslide dams throughout the Southern Alps. There is currently 85% probability that the Alpine Fault will cause a Mw = 8.0+ earthquake within the next 100 yr. While the seismic hazard is fairly well understood, that of the consequential geomorphic activity is less well studied, and these consequences are explored herein. They are expected to include landsliding, landslide damming, dam-break flooding, debris flows, river aggradation, liquefaction, and landslide-generated lake/fiord tsunami. Using evidence from previous events within New Zealand as well as analogous international examples, we develop first-order estimates of the likely magnitude and possible locations of the geomorphic effects associated with earthquakes. Landsliding is expected to affect an area > 30 000 km2 and involve > 1billion m3 of material. Some tens of landslide dams are expected to occur in narrow, steep-sided gorges in the affected region. Debris flows will be generated in the first long-duration rainfall after the earthquake and will continue to occur for several years as rainfall (re)mobilises landslide material. In total more than 1000 debris flows are likely to be generated at some time after the earthquake. Aggradation of up to 3 m will cover an area > 125 km2 and is likely to occur on many West Coast alluvial fans and floodplains. The impact of these effects will be felt across the entire South Island and is likely to continue for several decades.

  17. Investigating Rainfall Variability in the South Pacific Convergence Zone using the Geochemistry of Stalagmites from the Solomon Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekhon, N.; Quinn, T. M.; Partin, J. W.; Edwards, R. L.; Cheng, H.

    2015-12-01

    The South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ), which extends southeastward from New Guinea to Tahiti, is the largest perennial rainfall feature in the Southern Hemisphere. The position of the SPCZ and its associated rainfall varies significantly on multidecadal timescales, as documented by instrumental and climate proxy data. For example, stalagmite δ18O records (rainfall proxy) from Espiritu Santo, Vanuatu (Partin et al., 2013) and Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands (Maupin et al., 2014), document large (~1‰), abrupt changes in stalagmite δ18O on multidecadal timescales over the past 600 years that arise from internal variability in the climate system. The proxy data agree with the type of rainfall changes observed in the instrumental record, such as the change across 1976/77, but the older changes are larger in relative magnitude. We expand on these earlier studies of rainfall variability in the SPCZ system using stable isotope variations in stalagmites from two other locations in the Solomon Islands (Munda, New Georgia, 8.3°S, 157.3°E; Suku, Nggela Pile (9.8° S, 160.2° E). These stalagmites range in age from about 400 CE to 1850 CE, based on U-Th dating, and have relatively fast growth rates (60 to 300 µm/yr). Stalagmite δ18O time series were generated from sub-samples milled every 500 µm, or approximately 1 to 8 years per data point. Initial results from these two new Solomon Island stalagmites not only confirm the presence of multidecadal variability in stalagmite δ18O identified in previous studies, but suggest that the same amplitude of variability has occurred over several windows of time during the past 1600 years. When complete, these new proxy rainfall records from Munda and Suku will further constrain the pattern and mechanism of SPCZ rainfall variability in western tropical Pacific region.

  18. 7. Outhouse and shed, view west northwest, south and east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Outhouse and shed, view west northwest, south and east sides - Ram Island Light Station, Ram Island, south of Ocean Point & just north of Fisherman Island, marking south side of Fisherman Island Passage, Ocean Point, Lincoln County, ME

  19. Methyl mercury concentrations in edible fish and shellfish from Dunedin, and other regions around the South Island, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Sadhu, Ashish K; Kim, Jonathan P; Furrell, Hamish; Bostock, Ben

    2015-12-15

    Methyl mercury (MeHg) concentrations were determined in edible fish and shellfish available in local markets in Dunedin, New Zealand. While most of the fish species were sourced in Dunedin, some specimens of fish were also collected from waters off Picton, around Stewart Island and also off-shore of the South Island in the Puysegur and Subantarctic regions. The concentrations of MeHg were analysed in 25 different fish species and shellfish (103 muscle tissue samples). Total mercury (HgT) levels were also analysed in a few (n=12) selected fish samples. Most of the Hg was in the form of MeHg (≥ 96%). Higher MeHg concentrations were found in fish at higher trophic levels, particularly in predatory fish species such as ling, school shark, spiny dogfish and albacore tuna. Concentrations of MeHg in all samples ranged from 0.002 to 2.515 μg MeHg/g. PMID:26478458

  20. Polyphasic characterization of 10 selected ecologically relevant filamentous cyanobacterial strains from the South Shetland Islands, Maritime Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Jancusova, Miroslava; Kovacik, Lubomir; Pereira, Antonio Batista; Dusinsky, Roman; Wilmotte, Annick

    2016-07-01

    The evolutionary relationships of 10 Antarctic cyanobacterial strains of the order Oscillatoriales isolated from King George and Deception Islands, South Shetland Islands were studied by a polyphasic approach (morphology, 16S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer sequences). The studied taxa are characteristic of coastal Antarctic biotopes, where they form distinct populations and ecologically delimited communities. They were isolated from terrestrial habitats: microbial mats in seepages; crusts on soil, rocks, bones and mosses; mud, sometimes close to bird colonies; and from guano. Based on major phenotypic features, the strains were divided into four distinct morphotypes: Leptolyngbya borchgrevinkii (A), Leptolyngbya frigida (B), Microcoleus sp. (C) and Wilmottia murrayi (D). This morphological identification was in agreement with the phylogenetic relationships. For the first time, the 16S rRNA gene sequence of a strain corresponding to the L. borchgrevinkii morphotype was determined. Morphotype B is most related to sequences assigned to L. frigida isolated from microbial mats of coastal lakes in East Antarctica. Morphotype C belongs to a cluster including strains with morphotypes corresponding to Microcoleus attenuatus, Microcoleus favosus and Microcoleus sp., which are from Antarctica and other continents. Morphotype D is grouped with sequences assigned to W. murrayi mostly isolated from Antarctica. PMID:27162184

  1. A report on the outbreak of Zika virus on Easter Island, South Pacific, 2014.

    PubMed

    Tognarelli, J; Ulloa, S; Villagra, E; Lagos, J; Aguayo, C; Fasce, R; Parra, B; Mora, J; Becerra, N; Lagos, N; Vera, L; Olivares, B; Vilches, M; Fernández, J

    2016-03-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus circulating in Asia and Africa. In 2013, a large outbreak was reported on the archipelago of French Polynesia. In this study, we report the detection and molecular characterization of Zika virus for the first time in Chile from an outbreak among the inhabitants of Easter Island. A total of 89 samples from patients suspected of having ZIKV infection were collected between the period from January to May, 2014. Molecular diagnosis of the virus was performed by RT-PCR followed by the sequencing of the region containing the NS5 gene. A comparison of the viral nucleic acid sequence with those of other strains of ZIKA virus was performed using the MEGA software. Fifty-one samples were found positive for ZIKV by RT-PCR analysis. Further analysis of the NS5 gene revealed that the ZIKV strains identified in Easter Island were most closely related to those found in French Polynesia (99.8 to 99.9% nt and 100% aa sequence identity). These results strongly suggest that the transmission pathway leading to the introduction of Zika virus on Easter Island has its origin in French Polynesia. PMID:26611910

  2. Distribution of a 27-bp deletion in the band 3 gene in South Pacific islanders.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Masako; Tamam, Moedrik; Soemantri, Augustinus; Nakazawa, Minato; Ataka, Yuji; Ohtsuka, Ryutaro; Ishida, Takafumi

    2003-01-01

    Distribution of a 27-bp deletion in the band 3 gene (B3Delta27) that causes Southeast Asian/Melanesian ovalocytosis has scarcely been studied in remote insular Southeast Asia and New Guinea. Here the presence of the B3Delta27 was surveyed among a total of 756 subjects from the indigenous populations inhabiting New Guinean islands and remote insular Southeast Asia by using a polymerase chain reaction method. In remote insular Southeast Asia where Austronesian-speaking peoples inhabit, the B3Delta27 frequency ranged between 0.04 and 0.15. In New Guinea Island, hinterland or Papuan groups showed the absence of the B3Delta27 or a very low gene frequency (0.01 in the Gidra) of the B3Delta27. However, groups of the coastal regions (Asmat, Sorong, and others) and of the nearby islands (Biak and Manus) where Austronesian infiltration had occurred showed substantial frequencies of the deletion (0.02-0.09). It is likely that the B3Delta27 was introduced into this region about 3,500 years ago with the arrival of Austronesian-speaking peoples. Once being introduced, the B3Delta27 may have been selected because of its resistance against malaria, while founder effect and genetic drift might have occurred in the New Guinean tribes with small population size, which helped to generate a variety of the B3Delta27 frequencies. PMID:14618418

  3. SECTION G FROM SOUTH DRIVE, SHOWING UPRIGHT HEADSTONES. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SECTION G FROM SOUTH DRIVE, SHOWING UPRIGHT HEADSTONES. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Rock Island National Cemetery, Rock Island Arsenal, 0.25 mile north of southern tip of Rock Island, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  4. Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, bounded on the south by The Hawk Island and on the north by The Crow Island. These islands are located seven miles east of Ranier, Minnesota, three miles west of Voyageur National Park, and one mile south of the international border of the United States of America and Canada. The legal description of Mallard Island is Lot 6, Section 19, T-17-N, R-22-W, Koochiching County, Minnesota, Ranier, Koochiching County, MN

  5. Why is the South Orkney Island shelf (the world's first high seas marine protected area) a carbon immobilization hotspot?

    PubMed

    Barnes, David K A; Ireland, Louise; Hogg, Oliver T; Morley, Simon; Enderlein, Peter; Sands, Chester J

    2016-03-01

    The Southern Ocean archipelago, the South Orkney Islands (SOI), became the world's first entirely high seas marine protected area (MPA) in 2010. The SOI continental shelf (~44 000 km(2) ), was less than half covered by grounded ice sheet during glaciations, is biologically rich and a key area of both sea surface warming and sea-ice losses. Little was known of the carbon cycle there, but recent work showed it was a very important site of carbon immobilization (net annual carbon accumulation) by benthos, one of the few demonstrable negative feedbacks to climate change. Carbon immobilization by SOI bryozoans was higher, per species, unit area and ice-free day, than anywhere-else polar. Here, we investigate why carbon immobilization has been so high at SOI, and whether this is due to high density, longevity or high annual production in six study species of bryozoans (benthic suspension feeders). We compared benthic carbon immobilization across major regions around West Antarctica with sea-ice and primary production, from remotely sensed and directly sampled sources. Lowest carbon immobilization was at the northernmost study regions (South Georgia) and southernmost Amundsen Sea. However, data standardized for age and density showed that only SOI was anomalous (high). High immobilization at SOI was due to very high annual production of bryozoans (rather than high densities or longevity), which were 2x, 3x and 5x higher than on the Bellingshausen, South Georgia and Amundsen shelves, respectively. We found that carbon immobilization correlated to the duration (but not peak or integrated biomass) of phytoplankton blooms, both in directly sampled, local scale data and across regions using remote-sensed data. The long bloom at SOI seems to drive considerable carbon immobilization, but sea-ice losses across West Antarctica mean that significant carbon sinks and negative feedbacks to climate change could also develop in the Bellingshausen and Amundsen seas. PMID:26682944

  6. H2O2 levels in rainwater collected in south Florida and the Bahama Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zika, R.; Saltzman, E.; Chameides, W. L.; Davis, D. D.

    1982-01-01

    Measurements of H2O2 in rainwater collected in Miami, Florida, and the Bahama Islands area indicate the presence of H2O2 concentration levels ranging from 100,000 to 700,000 M. No systematic trends in H2O2 concentration were observed during an individual storm, in marked contrast to the behavior of other anions for example, NO3(-), SO4(-2), and Cl(-). The data suggest that a substantial fraction of the H2O2 found in precipitation is generated by aqueous-phase reactions within the cloudwater rather than via rainout and washout of gaseous H2O2.

  7. Positive interactions between desert granivores: localized facilitation of harvester ants by kangaroo rats.

    PubMed

    Edelman, Andrew J

    2012-01-01

    Facilitation, when one species enhances the environment or performance of another species, can be highly localized in space. While facilitation in plant communities has been intensely studied, the role of facilitation in shaping animal communities is less well understood. In the Chihuahuan Desert, both kangaroo rats and harvester ants depend on the abundant seeds of annual plants. Kangaroo rats, however, are hypothesized to facilitate harvester ants through soil disturbance and selective seed predation rather than competing with them. I used a spatially explicit approach to examine whether a positive or negative interaction exists between banner-tailed kangaroo rat (Dipodomys spectabilis) mounds and rough harvester ant (Pogonomyrmex rugosus) colonies. The presence of a scale-dependent interaction between mounds and colonies was tested by comparing fitted spatial point process models with and without interspecific effects. Also, the effect of proximity to a mound on colony mortality and spatial patterns of surviving colonies was examined. The spatial pattern of kangaroo rat mounds and harvester ant colonies was consistent with a positive interspecific interaction at small scales (<10 m). Mortality risk of vulnerable, recently founded harvester ant colonies was lower when located close to a kangaroo rat mound and proximity to a mound partly predicted the spatial pattern of surviving colonies. My findings support localized facilitation of harvester ants by kangaroo rats, likely mediated through ecosystem engineering and foraging effects on plant cover and composition. The scale-dependent effect of kangaroo rats on abiotic and biotic factors appears to result in greater founding and survivorship of young colonies near mounds. These results suggest that soil disturbance and foraging by rodents can have subtle impacts on the distribution and demography of other species. PMID:22348030

  8. The migration of doctors and nurses from South Pacific Island Nations.

    PubMed

    Brown, Richard P C; Connell, John

    2004-06-01

    Little is known of the structure of the international migration of skilled health professionals. Accelerated migration of doctors and nurses from the Pacific island states of Fiji, Samoa and Tonga to the Pacific periphery is part of the globalization of health care. The findings from a recent survey of 251 doctors and nurses from the three island countries are reported here. Key determinants of both present migration status and future migration intentions were analyzed using econometric methods. Nurses' and doctors' propensities to migrate are influenced by both income and non-income factors, including ownership of businesses and houses. Migrants also tend to have more close relatives overseas, to have trained there, and so experienced superior working conditions. Migration propensities vary between countries, and between nurses and doctors within countries. Tongan nurses have a higher propensity to migrate, mainly because of greater relative earnings differentials, but are also more likely to return home. The role of kinship ties, relative income differentials and working conditions is evident in other developing country contexts. Remittances and return migration, alongside business investment, bring some benefits to compensate for the skill drain. National development policies should focus on encouraging return migration, alongside retention and recruitment, but are unlikely to prevent out migration. PMID:15047077

  9. 33 CFR 80.717 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-westernmost point on Sapelo Island to Wolf Island. (h) A north-south line (longitude 81°17.1′ W.) drawn from the south-easternmost point of Wolf Island to the northeasternmost point on Little St. Simons...

  10. 33 CFR 80.717 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-westernmost point on Sapelo Island to Wolf Island. (h) A north-south line (longitude 81°17.1′ W.) drawn from the south-easternmost point of Wolf Island to the northeasternmost point on Little St. Simons...

  11. 33 CFR 80.717 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-westernmost point on Sapelo Island to Wolf Island. (h) A north-south line (longitude 81°17.1′ W.) drawn from the south-easternmost point of Wolf Island to the northeasternmost point on Little St. Simons...

  12. 33 CFR 80.717 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-westernmost point on Sapelo Island to Wolf Island. (h) A north-south line (longitude 81°17.1′ W.) drawn from the south-easternmost point of Wolf Island to the northeasternmost point on Little St. Simons...

  13. 33 CFR 80.717 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-westernmost point on Sapelo Island to Wolf Island. (h) A north-south line (longitude 81°17.1′ W.) drawn from the south-easternmost point of Wolf Island to the northeasternmost point on Little St. Simons...

  14. A new species of Phyllochaetopterus Grube, 1863 (Polychaeta: Chaetopteridae) from Hainan Island, South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yueyun; Li, Xinzheng

    2016-04-01

    Phyllochaetopterus species are widely distributed on the coast of China. Here, Phyllochaetopterus hainanensis n. sp., a new species collected from Hainan Island (China), is reported. It is characterized by having a V-shaped peristomium, two eyespots covered by a pair of large curved peristomial notopodia (cirri located beneath the palps), 13-14 chaetigers in the anterior body region, with three enlarged modified chaetae on the fourth notopodium, and more than five chaetigers in the middle body region. The modified chaeta has a slightly inflated head with an obliquely truncate end. The new species resembles Phyllochaetopterus socialis Claparède, 1869, but differs in the shape of peristomial notopodia and peristomium. Twelve species of Phyllochaetopterus have been described from the Pacific Ocean, including the new species described here. An identification key to the known Pacific species is provided together with a brief discussion of the taxonomic value of the eyespots for the genus.

  15. Decreasing methane yield with increasing food intake keeps daily methane emissions constant in two foregut fermenting marsupials, the western grey kangaroo and red kangaroo.

    PubMed

    Vendl, Catharina; Clauss, Marcus; Stewart, Mathew; Leggett, Keith; Hummel, Jürgen; Kreuzer, Michael; Munn, Adam

    2015-11-01

    Fundamental differences in methane (CH4) production between macropods (kangaroos) and ruminants have been suggested and linked to differences in the composition of the forestomach microbiome. Using six western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus) and four red kangaroos (Macropus rufus), we measured daily absolute CH4 production in vivo as well as CH4 yield (CH4 per unit of intake of dry matter, gross energy or digestible fibre) by open-circuit respirometry. Two food intake levels were tested using a chopped lucerne hay (alfalfa) diet. Body mass-specific absolute CH4 production resembled values previously reported in wallabies and non-ruminant herbivores such as horses, and did not differ with food intake level, although there was no concomitant proportionate decrease in fibre digestibility with higher food intake. In contrast, CH4 yield decreased with increasing intake, and was intermediate between values reported for ruminants and non-ruminant herbivores. These results correspond to those in ruminants and other non-ruminant species where increased intake (and hence a shorter digesta retention in the gut) leads to a lower CH4 yield. We hypothesize that rather than harbouring a fundamentally different microbiome in their foregut, the microbiome of macropods is in a particular metabolic state more tuned towards growth (i.e. biomass production) rather than CH4 production. This is due to the short digesta retention time in macropods and the known distinct 'digesta washing' in the gut of macropods, where fluids move faster than particles and hence most likely wash out microbes from the forestomach. Although our data suggest that kangaroos only produce about 27% of the body mass-specific volume of CH4 of ruminants, it remains to be modelled with species-specific growth rates and production conditions whether or not significantly lower CH4 amounts are emitted per kg of meat in kangaroo than in beef or mutton production. PMID:26538176

  16. Nutrient dynamics in tropical rivers, lagoons, and coastal ecosystems of eastern Hainan Island, South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, R. H.; Liu, S. M.; Li, Y. W.; Zhang, G. L.; Ren, J. L.; Zhang, J.

    2014-01-01

    Nutrient dynamics based on field observations made along the eastern Hainan Island during the period 2006-2009 were investigated to understand nutrient biogeochemical processes, and to provide an overview of human perturbations of coastal ecosystems in this tropical region. The rivers showed seasonal variations in nutrient concentrations, with enrichment of dissolved inorganic nitrogen and dissolved silicate, and depletion of PO43-. High riverine concentrations of nitrate mainly originated from agricultural fertilizer inputs. The DIN : PO43- ratios ranged from 37 to 1063, suggesting preferential depletion of PO43- relative to nitrogen in rivers. Chemical weathering in the drainage area might explain the high levels of dissolved silicate. Aquaculture ponds contained high concentrations of NH4+ and dissolved organic nitrogen. The particulate phosphorus concentrations in the study area were lower than those reported for estuaries worldwide. The particulate silicate levels in rivers and lagoons were lower than the global average level. Nutrient biogeochemistry in coastal areas was affected by human activities (e.g., aquaculture, agriculture), and by natural phenomena including typhoons. The nutrient concentrations in coastal waters were low because of dispersion of land-derived nutrients in the sea. Nutrient budgets were built based on a steady-state box model, which showed that riverine fluxes are magnified by estuarine processes (e.g., regeneration, desorption) in estuaries and Laoyehai Lagoon, but not in Xiaohai Lagoon. Riverine and groundwater inputs were the major sources of nutrients to Xiaohai and Laoyehai lagoons, respectively, and riverine inputs and aquaculture effluents were the major sources for the eastern coast of Hainan Island. Nutrient inputs to the coastal ecosystem increased with typhoon-induced runoff of rainwater, elucidating the important influence of typhoons on small tropical rivers.

  17. Galapagos Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of the Galapagos Islands was acquired on March 12, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The Galapagos Islands, which are part of Ecuador, sit in the Pacific Ocean about 1000 km (620 miles) west of South America. As the three craters on the largest island (Isabela Island) suggest, the archipelago was created by volcanic eruptions, which took place millions of years ago. Unlike most remote islands in the Pacific, the Galapagos have gone relatively untouched by humans over the past few millennia. As a result, many unique species have continued to thrive on the islands. Over 95 percent of the islands' reptile species and nearly three quarters of its land bird species cannot be found anywhere else in the world. Two of the more well known are the Galapagos giant tortoise and marine iguanas. The unhindered evolutionary development of the islands' species inspired Charles Darwin to begin The Origin of Species eight years after his visit there. To preserve the unique wildlife on the islands, the Ecuadorian government made the entire archipelago a national park in 1959. Each year roughly 60,000 tourists visit these islands to experience what Darwin did over a century and a half ago. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  18. Polar gravel beach-ridge systems as archive of climate variations (South Shetland Islands / Western Antarctic Peninsula)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindhorst, Sebastian; Schutter, Ilona; Betzler, Christian

    2014-05-01

    The architecture of polar gravel beach-ridge systems is presented and their potential as archive of past wave-climate conditions is evaluated. Raised beaches are common on paraglacial coasts which experienced a net uplift during the Holocene as the result of postglacial isostatic rebound. Ground-penetrating radar data obtained along the coasts of Potter Peninsula (King George Island) show that beach ridges unconformably overlie seaward-dipping strata of the strand plain. Whereas strand-plain progradation is the result of swash sedimentation at the beach face under enduring calm conditions, ridge construction reflects enhanced wave action at the beach as the result of increased storminess or reduced nearshore sea ice. The number of individual ridges which are preserved from a given time interval varies along the coast depending on the morphodynamic setting: Sheltered coasts are characterized by numerous small ridges, whereas fewer but larger ridges develop on exposed beaches. The sedimentary architecture of individual beach ridges is interpreted to reflect maximum wave-runup height during the time of ridge construction. Ridges at sheltered parts of the coast exhibit either seaward-dipping beds, interpreted to result from swash deposition, or an aggradational stacking pattern being the result of wave overtopping. At exposed beaches, larger ridges develop composed of seaward- as well as landward-dipping beds. Radiocarbon data indicate that the frequency of ridge building ranges from decades in low-energy settings to more than 1500 years under high-energy conditions. In the study area, beach ridges group into four distinct levels: up to 4 m, 5.5 m, 7.5 m, and 10 m above the present day storm beach. Hence, these levels are interpreted to reflect periods of increased wave activity in the area of the South Shetland Islands at about 4.3, 3.1, 1.9, and 0.35 ka cal BP.

  19. Draft De Novo Transcriptome of the Rat Kangaroo Potorous tridactylus as a Tool for Cell Biology.

    PubMed

    Udy, Dylan B; Voorhies, Mark; Chan, Patricia P; Lowe, Todd M; Dumont, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    The rat kangaroo (long-nosed potoroo, Potorous tridactylus) is a marsupial native to Australia. Cultured rat kangaroo kidney epithelial cells (PtK) are commonly used to study cell biological processes. These mammalian cells are large, adherent, and flat, and contain large and few chromosomes-and are thus ideal for imaging intra-cellular dynamics such as those of mitosis. Despite this, neither the rat kangaroo genome nor transcriptome have been sequenced, creating a challenge for probing the molecular basis of these cellular dynamics. Here, we present the sequencing, assembly and annotation of the draft rat kangaroo de novo transcriptome. We sequenced 679 million reads that mapped to 347,323 Trinity transcripts and 20,079 Unigenes. We present statistics emerging from transcriptome-wide analyses, and analyses suggesting that the transcriptome covers full-length sequences of most genes, many with multiple isoforms. We also validate our findings with a proof-of-concept gene knockdown experiment. We expect that this high quality transcriptome will make rat kangaroo cells a more tractable system for linking molecular-scale function and cellular-scale dynamics. PMID:26252667

  20. Draft De Novo Transcriptome of the Rat Kangaroo Potorous tridactylus as a Tool for Cell Biology

    PubMed Central

    Udy, Dylan B.; Voorhies, Mark; Chan, Patricia P.; Lowe, Todd M.; Dumont, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    The rat kangaroo (long-nosed potoroo, Potorous tridactylus) is a marsupial native to Australia. Cultured rat kangaroo kidney epithelial cells (PtK) are commonly used to study cell biological processes. These mammalian cells are large, adherent, and flat, and contain large and few chromosomes—and are thus ideal for imaging intra-cellular dynamics such as those of mitosis. Despite this, neither the rat kangaroo genome nor transcriptome have been sequenced, creating a challenge for probing the molecular basis of these cellular dynamics. Here, we present the sequencing, assembly and annotation of the draft rat kangaroo de novo transcriptome. We sequenced 679 million reads that mapped to 347,323 Trinity transcripts and 20,079 Unigenes. We present statistics emerging from transcriptome-wide analyses, and analyses suggesting that the transcriptome covers full-length sequences of most genes, many with multiple isoforms. We also validate our findings with a proof-of-concept gene knockdown experiment. We expect that this high quality transcriptome will make rat kangaroo cells a more tractable system for linking molecular-scale function and cellular-scale dynamics. PMID:26252667

  1. Observation of a novel Babesia spp. in Eastern Grey Kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Dawood, Kaiser E.; Morgan, Jess A.T.; Busfield, Frances; Srivastava, Mukesh; Fletcher, Taryn I.; Sambono, Jacqueline; Jackson, Louise A.; Venus, Bronwyn; Philbey, Adrian W.; Lew-Tabor, Ala E.

    2012-01-01

    The roles and epidemiological features of tick-borne protozoans are not well elicited in wildlife. Babesia spp. are documented in many domestic animals, including cattle, horses, pigs, dogs and cats. Three cases affecting eastern grey kangaroos are described. The kangaroos exhibited neurological signs, depression and marked anaemia, and microscopic examination of blood smears revealed intraerythrocytic piroplasms. One to seven intraerythrocytic spherical, oval, pyriform and irregularly-shaped parasites consistent with Babesia spp. were seen in the blood smears and the percentage of infected erythrocytes was estimated to be approximately 7% in each case. Data suggest that the tick vector for this kangaroo Babesia sp. is a Haemaphysalis species. For Case 2, ultrastructural examination of the erythrocytes of the renal capillaries showed parasites resembling Babesia spp. and 18 of 33 erythrocytes were infected. DNA sequencing of the amplified 18S rDNA confirmed that the observed intraerythrocytic piroplasms belong to the genus Babesia. The phylogenetic position of this new kangaroo Babesia sp. (de novo Babesia macropus), as a sister species to the new Australian woylie Babesia sp., suggests a close affinity to the described Afro–Eurasian species Babesia orientalis and Babesia occultans suggesting perhaps a common ancestor for the Babesia in kangaroos. PMID:24533316

  2. Botfly (Diptera:Oestridae) parasitism of Ord's kangaroo rats (Dipodomys ordii) at Suffield National Wildlife Area, Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Gummer, D L; Forbes, M R; Bender, D J; Barclay, R M

    1997-08-01

    During field study of Ord's kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ordii) at Suffield National Wildlife Area, Alberta, Canada, a high prevalence of parasitism by botfly (Diptera: Oestridae) larvae was observed. Botflies have not previously been documented as parasites of kangaroo rats. Botfly parasitism could have a significant impact on the growth, survival, and reproduction of Ord's kangaroo rat, which is considered a vulnerable species in Canada. Therefore, it is important to investigate how botfly parasitism varies with season and with gender or age of host. In 1995, 525 individual kangaroo rats were caught by nightlighting and live trapping for a total of 952 capture records. Upon capture, each kangaroo rat was ear-tagged and thoroughly examined for parasites and wounds. Third-instar botfly (Cuterebra polita) larvae were observed in kangaroo rats between 16 June and 23 August. Prevalence was 34% based on 454 kangaroo rats sampled during that time, whereas the mean intensity was 2.3 larvae per infested host (n = 156, range = 1-11). In contrast to some other studies of botfly parasitism of rodents, there were no gender or age biases in either prevalence or intensity of infestation. The index of dispersion was 2.8, indicating that the parasites were aggregated in hosts. Botfly parasitism could be an important factor affecting northern populations of kangaroo rats; future investigations into the potential effects of botfly larvae on host fitness are warranted. PMID:9267398

  3. Chihuahuan Desert kangaroo rats: nonlinear effects of population dynamics, competition, and rainfall.

    PubMed

    Lima, Mauricio; Ernest, S K Morgan; Brown, James H; Belgrano, Andrea; Stenseth, Nils C

    2008-09-01

    Using long-term data on two kangaroo rats in the Chihuahuan Desert of North America, we fitted logistic models including the exogenous effects of seasonal rainfall patterns. Our aim was to test the effects of intraspecific interactions and seasonal rainfall in explaining and predicting the numerical fluctuations of these two kangaroo rats. We found that logistic models fit both data sets quite well; Dipodomys merriami showed lower maximum per capita growth rates than Dipodomys ordii, and in both cases logistic models were nonlinear. Summer rainfall appears to be the most important exogenous effect for both rodent populations; models including this variable were able to predict independent data better than models including winter rainfall. D. merriami was also negatively affected by another kangaroo rat (Dipodomys spectabilis), consistent with previous experimental evidence. We hypothesized that summer rainfall influences the carrying capacity of the environment by affecting seed availability and the intensity of intraspecific competition. PMID:18831180

  4. Physical mechanisms underlying the strain-rate-dependent mechanical behavior of kangaroo shoulder cartilage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thibbotuwawa, Namal; Oloyede, Adekunle; Li, Tong; Singh, Sanjleena; Senadeera, Wijitha; Gu, YuanTong

    2015-09-01

    Due to anatomical and biomechanical similarities to human shoulder, kangaroo was chosen as a model to study shoulder cartilage. Comprehensive enzymatic degradation and indentation tests were applied on kangaroo shoulder cartilage to study mechanisms underlying its strain-rate-dependent mechanical behavior. We report that superficial collagen plays a more significant role than proteoglycans in facilitating strain-rate-dependent behavior of the kangaroo shoulder cartilage. By comparing the mechanical properties of degraded and normal cartilages, it was noted that proteoglycan and collagen degradation significantly compromised strain-rate-dependent mechanical behavior of the cartilage. Superficial collagen contributed equally to the tissue behavior at all strain-rates. This is different to the studies reported on knee cartilage and confirms the importance of superficial collagen on shoulder cartilage mechanical behavior. A porohyperelastic numerical model also indicated that collagen disruption would lead to faster damage of the shoulder cartilage than when proteoglycans are depleted.

  5. Identifying Centres of Plant Biodiversity in South Australia

    PubMed Central

    Guerin, Greg R.; Biffin, Ed; Baruch, Zdravko; Lowe, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to identify regional centres of plant biodiversity in South Australia, a sub-continental land area of 983,482 km2, by mapping a suite of metrics. Broad-brush conservation issues associated with the centres were mapped, specifically climate sensitivity, exposure to habitat fragmentation, introduced species and altered fire regimes. We compiled 727,417 plant species records from plot-based field surveys and herbarium records and mapped the following: species richness (all species; South Australian endemics; conservation-dependent species; introduced species); georeferenced weighted endemism, phylogenetic diversity, georeferenced phylogenetic endemism; and measures of beta diversity at local and state-wide scales. Associated conservation issues mapped were: climate sensitivity measured via ordination and non-linear modelling; habitat fragmentation represented by the proportion of remnant vegetation within a moving window; fire prone landscapes assessed using fire history records; invasive species assessed through diversity metrics, species distribution and literature. Compared to plots, herbarium data had higher spatial and taxonomic coverage but records were more biased towards major transport corridors. Beta diversity was influenced by sampling intensity and scale of comparison. We identified six centres of high plant biodiversity for South Australia: Western Kangaroo Island; Southern Mount Lofty Ranges; Anangu Pitjantjatjara Yankunytjatjara lands; Southern Flinders Ranges; Southern Eyre Peninsula; Lower South East. Species composition in the arid-mediterranean ecotone was the most climate sensitive. Fragmentation mapping highlighted the dichotomy between extensive land-use and high remnancy in the north and intensive land-use and low remnancy in the south. Invasive species were most species rich in agricultural areas close to population centres. Fire mapping revealed large variation in frequency across the state. Biodiversity scores were not always

  6. Identifying Centres of Plant Biodiversity in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Guerin, Greg R; Biffin, Ed; Baruch, Zdravko; Lowe, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to identify regional centres of plant biodiversity in South Australia, a sub-continental land area of 983,482 km2, by mapping a suite of metrics. Broad-brush conservation issues associated with the centres were mapped, specifically climate sensitivity, exposure to habitat fragmentation, introduced species and altered fire regimes. We compiled 727,417 plant species records from plot-based field surveys and herbarium records and mapped the following: species richness (all species; South Australian endemics; conservation-dependent species; introduced species); georeferenced weighted endemism, phylogenetic diversity, georeferenced phylogenetic endemism; and measures of beta diversity at local and state-wide scales. Associated conservation issues mapped were: climate sensitivity measured via ordination and non-linear modelling; habitat fragmentation represented by the proportion of remnant vegetation within a moving window; fire prone landscapes assessed using fire history records; invasive species assessed through diversity metrics, species distribution and literature. Compared to plots, herbarium data had higher spatial and taxonomic coverage but records were more biased towards major transport corridors. Beta diversity was influenced by sampling intensity and scale of comparison. We identified six centres of high plant biodiversity for South Australia: Western Kangaroo Island; Southern Mount Lofty Ranges; Anangu Pitjantjatjara Yankunytjatjara lands; Southern Flinders Ranges; Southern Eyre Peninsula; Lower South East. Species composition in the arid-mediterranean ecotone was the most climate sensitive. Fragmentation mapping highlighted the dichotomy between extensive land-use and high remnancy in the north and intensive land-use and low remnancy in the south. Invasive species were most species rich in agricultural areas close to population centres. Fire mapping revealed large variation in frequency across the state. Biodiversity scores were not always

  7. Mercury contamination in fish and human hair from Hainan Island, South China Sea: Implication for human exposure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jin-Ling; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Yu, Shen; Cheng, Hefa; Peng, Jia-Xi; Hong, Yi-Guo; Feng, Xin-Bin

    2014-11-01

    Hair has long been recognized as a good biomarker for human exposure to Hg. The mercury concentrations in 14 species of marine fish and hair samples from 177 coastal residents in Hainan, South China Sea were investigated to assess the status of mercury exposure associated with marine fish consumption. Concentrations of total Hg (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in the fish muscles were 0.094 ± 0.008 and 0.066 ± 0.006 μg/gww, respectively, which were far below the limit considered safe for consumption (0.5 μg/g). The average THg concentrations in hair of adults (1.02 ± 0.92 μg/g) were lower than the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) level of 2.2 μg/g. However, 23.7% of children had a hair THg level exceeding the RfD level of 1μg/g, indicating a great risk of Hg exposure to children via fish consumption. The concentration of THg in hair was significantly correlated with fish consumption but not with gender-specific fish intake. With higher fish consumption frequency, the fishermen had significantly elevated hair Hg levels compared to the students and the other general public, who had similar hair THg levels but different fish consumption patterns, indicating the existence of other sources of Hg exposure to the residents of Hainan Island. PMID:25262073

  8. Evidence of macroalgal colonization on newly ice-free areas following glacial retreat in Potter Cove (South Shetland Islands), Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Quartino, María Liliana; Deregibus, Dolores; Campana, Gabriela Laura; Latorre, Gustavo Edgar Juan; Momo, Fernando Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Climate warming has been related to glacial retreat along the Western Antarctic Peninsula. Over the last years, a visible melting of Fourcade Glacier (Potter Cove, South Shetland Islands) has exposed newly ice-free hard bottom areas available for benthic colonization. However, ice melting produces a reduction of light penetration due to an increase of sediment input and higher ice impact. Seventeen years ago, the coastal sites close to the glacier cliffs were devoid of macroalgae. Are the newly ice-free areas suitable for macroalgal colonization? To tackle this question, underwater video transects were performed at six newly ice-free areas with different degree of glacial influence. Macroalgae were found in all sites, even in close proximity to the retreating glacier. We can show that: 1. The complexity of the macroalgal community is positively correlated to the elapsed time from the ice retreat, 2. Algae development depends on the optical conditions and the sediment input in the water column; some species are limited by light availability, 3. Macroalgal colonization is negatively affected by the ice disturbance, 4. The colonization is determined by the size and type of substrate and by the slope of the bottom. As macroalgae are probably one of the main energy sources for the benthos, an expansion of the macroalgal distribution can be expected to affect the matter and energy fluxes in Potter Cove ecosystem. PMID:23484000

  9. [Reproduction of the Spanish sardine, Sardinella aurita (Clupeiformes: Clupeidae) from the south-eastern area of Margarita Island, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Gassman, Juan; Eslava, Nora; González, Leo W

    2008-12-01

    Sex ratio, sexual maturity, fecundity and time of spawning of the Spanish sardine (Sardinella aurita) from the south-eastern area of Margarita Island were determined through monthly samplings of commercial fisheries, from January 2004 to April 2005. A total of 3 736 individuals were examined. Sex ratio was 55.47% females and 44.53% males, with a 1:1.25 sexual proportion (chi2 = 44.454, p < 0.05). Length at first sexual maturity (L50) was 20 cm. Spawning of the species was confirmed to be partial and continuous throughout the year, with two peaks of intensity during the first and last quarters. Absolute fecundity ranged from 10,530 to 83,779 oocytes and it was proportional to body length (F = -100,900 + 6696.2 * L) and to body weight (F = 13,327 + 5666.3 * P). Relative fecundity ranged from 149 to 1020 oocytes/g and also was proportional to body length and weight. We concluded that the Spanish sardine exhibits two peaks of spawning activity per year with a very fluctuating partial fecundity which could possibly be explained by environmental variability. PMID:19419083

  10. Deposits, flow characteristics, and landscape change resulting from the September 2009 South Pacific tsunami in the Samoan islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richmond, Bruce M.; Buckley, Mark; Etienne, Samuel; Chagué-Goff, Catherine; Clark, Kate; Goff, James; Dominey-Howes, Dale; Strotz, Luke

    2011-07-01

    The September 29th 2009 tsunami caused widespread coastal modification within the islands of Samoa and northern Tonga in the South Pacific. Preliminary measurements indicate maximum runup values of around 17 m (Okal et al., 2010) and shore-normal inundation distances of up to ~ 620 m (Jaffe et al., 2010). Geological field reconnaissance studies were conducted as part of an UNESCO-IOC International Tsunami Survey Team survey within three weeks of the event in order to document the erosion, transport, and deposition of sediment by the tsunami. Data collected included: a) general morphology and geological characteristics of the coast, b) evidence of tsunami flow (inundation, flow depth and direction, wave height and runup), c) surficial and subsurface sediment samples including deposit thickness and extent, d) topographic mapping, and e) boulder size and location measurements. Four main types of sedimentary deposits were identified: a) gravel fields consisting mostly of isolated cobbles and boulders, b) sand sheets from a few to ~ 25 cm thick, c) piles of organic (mostly vegetation) and man-made material forming debris ramparts, and d) surface mud deposits that settled from suspension from standing water in the tsunami aftermath. Tsunami deposits within the reef system were not widespread, however, surficial changes to the reefs were observed.

  11. Maturity and fecundity of Champsocephalus gunnari, Chaenocephalus aceratus and Pseudochaenichthys georgianus in South Georgia and Shag Rocks Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Militelli, M. I.; Macchi, G. J.; Rodrigues, K. A.

    2015-06-01

    The reproductive biology of three species of icefishes (family Channicthyidae), Champsocephalus gunnari, Pseudochaenichthys georgianus and Chaenocephalus aceratus in South Georgia and Shag Rocks Islands was studied by means of a histological analysis. Parental care, a widespread behaviour among icefishes such as C. aceratus, is not observed in C. gunnari, which has a broadcast spawning strategy. There were large differences in total fecundity mainly due to the different sizes reached by each species (total fecundity range was 2,500-21,300 hydrated oocytes). Nevertheless, when comparing relative fecundity values, the average results were, in general, similar for P. georgianus and C. aceratus (6-9 hydrated oocytes per female gram). However, relative fecundity estimated for C. gunnari was 10-37 hydrated oocytes per ovary-free female gram. The difference may be a consequence of the smaller oocyte size of the species as compared to other icefishes. The small diameter of hydrated oocytes was also associated with low values of dry weight. The high relative fecundity recorded for C. gunnnari may compensate, in part, for a broadcast spawning strategy.

  12. Deposits, flow characteristics, and landscape change resulting from the September 2009 South Pacific tsunami in the Samoan islands

    PubMed Central

    Richmond, Bruce M.; Buckley, Mark; Etienne, Samuel; Chagué-Goff, Catherine; Clark, Kate; Goff, James; Dominey-Howes, Dale; Strotz, Luke

    2011-01-01

    The September 29th 2009 tsunami caused widespread coastal modification within the islands of Samoa and northern Tonga in the South Pacific. Preliminary measurements indicate maximum runup values of around 17 m (Okal et al., 2010) and shore-normal inundation distances of up to ~ 620 m (Jaffe et al., 2010). Geological field reconnaissance studies were conducted as part of an UNESCO-IOC International Tsunami Survey Team survey within three weeks of the event in order to document the erosion, transport, and deposition of sediment by the tsunami. Data collected included: a) general morphology and geological characteristics of the coast, b) evidence of tsunami flow (inundation, flow depth and direction, wave height and runup), c) surficial and subsurface sediment samples including deposit thickness and extent, d) topographic mapping, and e) boulder size and location measurements. Four main types of sedimentary deposits were identified: a) gravel fields consisting mostly of isolated cobbles and boulders, b) sand sheets from a few to ~ 25 cm thick, c) piles of organic (mostly vegetation) and man-made material forming debris ramparts, and d) surface mud deposits that settled from suspension from standing water in the tsunami aftermath. Tsunami deposits within the reef system were not widespread, however, surficial changes to the reefs were observed. PMID:27065478

  13. Fluid transport by solitary waves along growing faults. A field example from the South Eugene Island Basin, Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revil, A.; Cathles, L. M.

    2002-09-01

    The Red Fault system is one of the main growth faults found in the South Eugene Island Basin, a salt withdrawal minibasin located offshore Louisiana, in the Gulf of Mexico. This fault system corresponds to a lateral boundary between fluid overpressured compartments. In addition, there is a set of observations indicating that the Red Fault system exhibits rapid episodic migration of fluids. This fault represents an example of preferential pathway for the upward episodic migration of overpressured hydrocarbons from deep, heavily pressured, compartments on time scales of years. The migrations of fluids into active growing faults could take the form of propagating surges (solitary waves) that propagate upward along the fault planes in a wave-like manner at km/yr. Solitary waves represent a very efficient mechanism for the upward transport of fluids along growth faults in sedimentary basins generating its own permeability. In addition, this mechanism is compatible with the fact that the fault plane is observed to sustain a static pore fluid pressure difference between its two sides. The propagation of solitary waves in active growth faults appears as a fundamental mechanism to understand the nature of upward fast migration of fluids along active growth faults in compartimentalized sedimentary basins.

  14. Three tropical seagrasses as potential bio-indicators to trace metals in Xincun Bay, Hainan Island, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lei; Huang, Xiaoping

    2012-03-01

    Concentrations of the trace metals Cu, Cd, Pb, and Zn were measured in seawater, rhizosphere sediments, interstitial water, and the tissues of three tropical species of seagrasses ( Thalassia hemprichii, Enhalus acoroides and Cymodocea rotundata) from Xincun Bay of Hainan Island, South China. We analyzed different environmental compartments and the highest concentrations of Pb and Zn were found in the interstitial and seawater. The concentrations of Cd and Zn were significantly higher in blades compared with roots or rhizomes in T. hemprichii and E. acoroides, respectively. A metal pollution index (MPI) demonstrated that sediment, interstitial water, and seagrasses in the sites located nearest anthropogenic sources of pollution had the most abundant metal concentrations. There was obvious seasonal variation of these metals in the three seagrasses with higher concentrations of Cu, Pb and Zn in January and Cd in July. Furthermore, the relationships between metal concentrations in seagrasses and environmental compartments were positively correlated significantly. The bioconcentration factors (BCF) demonstrated that Cd from the tissues of the three seagrasses might be absorbed from the sediment by the roots. However, for C. rotundata, Zn is likely to be derived from the seawater through its blades. Therefore, the blades of T. hemprichii, E. acoroides and C. rotundata are potential bio-indicators to Cd content in sediment, and additionally Zn content ( C. rotundata only) in seawater.

  15. A micro-hydropower system model with PD load frequency controller for Resort Islands in the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyasudin Basir Khan, M.; Pasupuleti, Jagadeesh; Jidin, Razali

    2016-03-01

    A model of high-penetration micro-hydropower system with no storage is presented in this paper. This technology is designed in order to reduce the diesel fuel consumption and cost of electricity supply in a resort island located in the South China Sea. The optimal hydropower generation for this system depends on the available stream flow at the potential sites. At low stream flow, both the micro-hydropower system and the currently installed diesel generators are required to feed the load. However, when the hydropower generation exceeds the load demand, the diesel generator is shut down. Meanwhile, the system frequency is controlled by a secondary load bank that absorbs the hydropower which exceeds the consumer demand. This paper also presents a discrete frequency control system using proportional-derivative (PD) controller. The controller is employed in order to manipulate the system frequency by controlling the secondary load system. The simulation results indicate that a variety of load conditions can be satisfactorily controlled by the PD controller. Hence, this particular type of controller is suitable to be implemented in micro-grid systems for remote areas that require low cost and easy-to- maintain controllers.

  16. Continuous Tidal Streamflow and Gage-Height Data for Bass and Cinder Creeks on Kiawah Island, South Carolina, September 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conrads, Paul A.; Erbland, John W.

    2009-01-01

    A three-dimensional model of Bass and Cinder Creeks on Kiawah Island, South Carolina, was developed to evaluate methodologies for determining fecal coliform total maximum daily loads for shellfish waters. To calibrate the model, two index-velocity sites on the creeks were instrumented with continuous acoustic velocity meters and water-level sensors to compute a 21-day continuous record of tidal streamflows. In addition to monitoring tidal cycles, streamflow measurements were made at the index-velocity sites, and tidal-cycle streamflow measurements were made at the mouth of Bass Creek and on the Stono River to characterize the streamflow dynamics near the ocean boundary of the three-dimensional model at the beginning, September 6, 2007, and end, September 26, 2007, of the index-velocity meter deployment. The maximum floodtide and ebbtide measured on the Stono River by the mouth of Bass Creek for the two measurements were -155,000 and 170,000 cubic feet per second (ft3/s). At the mouth of Bass Creek, the maximum floodtide and ebbtide measurements during the 2 measurement days were +/-10,200 ft3/s. Tidal streamflows for the 21-day deployment on Bass Creek ranged from -2,510 ft3/s for an incoming tide to 4,360 ft3/s for an outgoing tide. On Cinder Creek, the incoming and outgoing tide varied from -2,180 to 2,400 ft3/s during the same period.

  17. Evidence of Macroalgal Colonization on Newly Ice-Free Areas following Glacial Retreat in Potter Cove (South Shetland Islands), Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Quartino, María Liliana; Deregibus, Dolores; Campana, Gabriela Laura; Latorre, Gustavo Edgar Juan; Momo, Fernando Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Climate warming has been related to glacial retreat along the Western Antarctic Peninsula. Over the last years, a visible melting of Fourcade Glacier (Potter Cove, South Shetland Islands) has exposed newly ice-free hard bottom areas available for benthic colonization. However, ice melting produces a reduction of light penetration due to an increase of sediment input and higher ice impact. Seventeen years ago, the coastal sites close to the glacier cliffs were devoid of macroalgae. Are the newly ice-free areas suitable for macroalgal colonization? To tackle this question, underwater video transects were performed at six newly ice-free areas with different degree of glacial influence. Macroalgae were found in all sites, even in close proximity to the retreating glacier. We can show that: 1. The complexity of the macroalgal community is positively correlated to the elapsed time from the ice retreat, 2. Algae development depends on the optical conditions and the sediment input in the water column; some species are limited by light availability, 3. Macroalgal colonization is negatively affected by the ice disturbance, 4. The colonization is determined by the size and type of substrate and by the slope of the bottom. As macroalgae are probably one of the main energy sources for the benthos, an expansion of the macroalgal distribution can be expected to affect the matter and energy fluxes in Potter Cove ecosystem. PMID:23484000

  18. Oblique collision and accretion of the Netherlands Leeward Antilles island arc: A structural analysis of the Caribbean-South American plate boundary zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beardsley, Amanda Gail

    2007-12-01

    The Netherlands Leeward Antilles volcanic island arc is an ideal natural laboratory to study the evolution of the Caribbean-South American plate boundary. The Leeward Antilles islands (Aruba, Curacao, and Bonaire) are located offshore western Venezuela, within the obliquely convergent diffuse plate boundary zone. Outcrop analysis, microthermometry, and 2D marine seismic reflection data provide evidence of three generations of regional deformation since the Late Cretaceous. Outcrop analysis of structural features, including faults, joints, and veins, characterizes the kinematic history of the islands. Fluid inclusion analysis of quartz and calcite veins coupled with apatite fission-track dating provides the island exhumation history. Finally, marine reflection seismic data processing and interpretation of newly acquired data elucidates offshore structures to integrate with our onshore results. The oldest regional deformation, resulting in both ductile (D1) and brittle (F 1) structures, is attributed to displacement partitioning along the arcuate Caribbean plate boundary. Associated crustal thinning initiated island exhumation, at a rate of 0.18 km/my, from a maximum burial depth of 6 km in the Late Cretaceous (˜89 Ma). Coeval with D1/F1 deformation and exhumation, stretching of the island arc resulted in extensive basin rifting that separated the island blocks. At ˜55 Ma, a change in the relative motion of the Caribbean plate altered plate boundary dynamics. Displacement along the right-lateral Caribbean transform fault and Oca - San Sebastian - El Pilar strike-slip fault system created a wrench tectonic regime within the diffuse plate boundary zone. A second generation of brittle structures (F2) developed while the islands were at a maximum burial depth of 2 km during the Paleocene/Eocene. Since ˜45 Ma, continued motion along the strike-slip fault systems and oblique plate convergence resulted in the youngest generation of structural features (F3). Regional

  19. Bilateral lens luxation and intracapsular lens extractions in a Matshchie's tree kangaroo.

    PubMed

    McLean, Nancy Johnstone; Zimmerman, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    An adult, female, captive, Matshchie's tree kangaroo was diagnosed with an anterior lens luxation in the right eye and a lens subluxation in the left eye. Both eyes were treated surgically with intracapsular lens extractions. A 360° rhegmatogenous retinal detachment was diagnosed 6 months postoperatively in the left eye. Aphakic vision was maintained in the right eye 9 months postoperatively. Based on family history and the lack of antecedent ocular disease, the lens luxations were presumed to be inherited and veterinarians should be aware of this condition within the captive tree kangaroo population. PMID:25135107

  20. [West and South West Pacific Ocean Islands: General Information and a Bibliography of English-Language Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sperry, Robert

    This collection of 10 bibliographies covers islands located in the west and southwest region of the Pacific Ocean. The islands include American Samoa, Fiji, Guam, Kiribati, the Marshall Islands, Pohnpei, Tonga, Truk, Nauru and the New Hebrides (Vanuatu). All the bibliographies focus on education, and all except two (American Samoa and Fiji)…

  1. Variation in the biomass density and demography of Antarctic krill in the vicinity of the South Shetland Islands during the 1999/2000 austral summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewitt, R. P.; Kim, S.; Naganobu, M.; Gutierrez, M.; Kang, D.; Takao, Y.; Quinones, J.; Lee, Y.-H.; Shin, H.-C.; Kawaguchi, S.; Emery, J. H.; Demer, D. A.; Loeb, V. J.

    2004-06-01

    Vessels from Japan, Peru, and the USA conducted four sequential surveys designed to estimate the biomass density and demography of Antarctic krill in the vicinity of the South Shetland Islands between late December 1999 and early March 2000. The surveys were conducted during the same austral summer as the CCAMLR 2000 Survey in the Scotia Sea (Watkins et al., Deep-Sea Research, II, this issue [doi: 10.1016/j.dsr2.2004.06.010]), and the data were analyzed in a similar manner. Biomass densities were not significantly different between the surveys and averaged 49 g m -2. Maps of krill biomass indicate three areas of consistently high density: one near the eastern end of Elephant Island, one mid-way between Elephant Island and King George Island, and one near Cape Shirreff on the north side of Livingston Island. The areas of highest krill density appeared to move closer to the shelf break as the season progressed. This apparent movement was accompanied by a change in the demographic structure of the population, with smaller krill absent and a larger proportion of sexually mature animals present in late summer.

  2. Phylogeography of the pallid kangaroo mouse, Microdipodops pallidus: a sand-obligate endemic of the Great Basin, western North America

    PubMed Central

    Hafner, John C; Upham, Nathan S; Reddington, Emily; Torres, Candice W

    2008-01-01

    Aim Kangaroo mice, genus Microdipodops Merriam, are endemic to the Great Basin and include two species: M. pallidus Merriam and M. megacephalus Merriam. The pallid kangaroo mouse, M. pallidus, is a sand-obligate desert rodent. Our principal intent is to identify its current geographical distribution and to formulate a phylogeographical hypothesis for this taxon. In addition, we test for orientation patterns in haplotype sharing for evidence of past episodes of movement and gene flow. Location The Great Basin Desert region of western North America, especially the sandy habitats of the Lahontan Trough and those in south-central Nevada. Methods Mitochondrial DNA sequence data from portions of three genes (16S ribosomal RNA, cytochrome b, and transfer RNA for glutamic acid) were obtained from 98 individuals of M. pallidus representing 27 general localities sampled throughout its geographical range. Molecular sequence data were analysed using neighbour-joining, maximum-parsimony, maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods of phylogenetic inference. Directional analysis of phylogeographical patterns, a novel method, was used to examine angular measurements of haplotype sharing between pairs of localities to detect and quantify historical events pertaining to movement patterns and gene flow. Results Collecting activities showed that M. pallidus is a rather rare rodent (mean trapping success was 2.88%), and its distribution has changed little from that determined three-quarters of a century ago. Two principal phylogroups, distributed as eastern and western moieties, are evident from the phylogenetic analyses (mean sequence divergence for cytochrome b is c. 8%). The western clade shows little phylogenetic structure and seems to represent a large polytomy. In the eastern clade, however, three subgroups are recognized. Nine of the 42 unique composite haplotypes are present at two or more localities and are used for the orientation analyses. Axial data from haplotype sharing

  3. Magnetic mineralogy of a weathered tropical basalt, Hainan Island, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Tingping; Tang, Zhihua; Zhao, Xiang; Tian, Chengjing; Ma, Jinlong; Wei, Gangjian; Huang, Ningsheng; Li, Mingkun; Bian, Yong

    2015-03-01

    Numerous studies have shown that mineral magnetic properties are sensitive indicators of weathering and soil formation (pedogenesis). However, the formation pathways and subsequent alteration mechanisms of specific weathering products are poorly constrained. We report a detailed magnetic investigation through a basalt profile that has been weathered under tropical conditions in South China. The rock magnetic analyses show that hot and humid conditions led to the neoformation of fine-grained magnetite and promoted mineral transformations in the form of maghemitization and hematization. Thus, although the basaltic parent material is rich in titanomagnetite, the final products of the weathering process are maghemite and hematite. Magnetic grain-size varies through the profile, with a combination of pseudo-single domain and single-domain particles at the base, with fining to single-domain in the middle and a mixture of superparamagnetic and single-domain particles in the uppermost profile. Importantly, the magnetic mineral assemblage through the profile is influenced by the mobilization and migration of iron through the sequence. This process is illustrated by concentration-dependent magnetic parameters, which reach maxima at the assembly depth of major and trace elements and minima at the oxic front where Fe content is its lowest.

  4. Areas contributing ground water to the Peconic Estuary, and ground-water budgets for the north and south forks and Shelter Island, eastern Suffolk County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schubert, C.E.

    1998-01-01

    The Peconic Estuary, at the eastern end of Long Island, has been plagued by a recurrent algal bloom, locally referred to as ?Brown Tide,? that has caused the severe decline of local marine resources. Although the factors that trigger Brown Tide blooms remain uncertain, groundwater discharge has previously been shown to affect surface-water quality in the western part of the estuary. A U.S. Geological Survey groundwater- flow model of the main body of Long Island indicates that a total of about 7.5 x 106 ft3/d (cubic feet per day) of freshwater discharges to the western part of the estuary, but the model does not include the ground-water flow systems on the North and South Forks and Shelter Island, which contribute significant amounts of freshwater to the central and eastern parts of the estuary. The need for information on freshwater discharge to the entire estuary prompted the U.S. Geological Survey to evaluate ground-water discharge from the North and South Forks and Shelter Island. Source areas that contribute ground water to the Peconic Estuary were delineated, and groundwater budgets for these areas were developed, to evaluate the distribution and magnitude of ground-water discharge to the central and eastern parts of the estuary. Contributing-area boundaries that were delineated coincide with the hydraulic boundaries of the fresh ground-water-flow systems of the North and South Forks and Shelter Island; these boundaries are of two types? external (saltwater bodies) and internal (groundwater divides). Hydrologic components that were evaluated include recharge from precipitation, public-supply withdrawal and return flow, and agricultural withdrawal. Values for each of these components were calculated or estimated for the individual freshwater flow subsystems that form each ground-water-budget area, then summed to obtain the total discharge of fresh ground water to tidewater. Ground-water discharge to the Peconic Estuary is about 3.8 x 106 ft3/d from the North

  5. Abundance, species composition of microzooplankton from the coastal waters of Port Blair, South Andaman Island

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Microzooplankton consisting of protists and metazoa <200 μm. It displays unique feeding mechanisms and behaviours that allow them to graze cells up to five times their own volume. They can grow at rates which equal or exceed prey growth and can serve as a viable food source for metazoans. Moreover, they are individually inconspicuous, their recognition as significant consumers of oceanic primary production. The microzooplankton can be the dominant consumers of phytoplankton production in both oligo- and eutrophic regions of the ocean and are capable of consuming >100% of primary production. Results The microzooplankton of the South Andaman Sea were investigated during September 2011 to January 2012. A total of 44 species belong to 19 genera were recorded in this study. Tintinnids made larger contribution to the total abundance (34%) followed in order by dinoflagellates (24%), ciliates (20%) and copepod nauplii (18%). Foraminifera were numerically less (4%). Tintinnids were represented by 20 species belong to 13 genera, Heterotrophic dinoflagellates were represented by 17 species belong to 3 genera and Ciliates comprised 5 species belong to 3 genera. Eutintinus tineus, Tintinnopsis cylindrical, T. incertum, Protoperidinium divergens, Lomaniella oviformes, Strombidium minimum were the most prevalent microzooplankton. Standing stock of tintinnids ranged from 30–80 cells.L-1 and showed a reverse distribution with the distribution of chlorophyll a relatively higher species diversity and equitability was found in polluted harbour areas. Conclusions The change of environmental variability affects the species composition and abundance of microzooplankton varied spatially and temporarily. The observations clearly demonstrated that the harbor area differed considerably from other area in terms of species present and phytoplankton biomass. Further, the phytoplankton abundance is showed to be strongly influenced by tintinnid with respect to the relationship of

  6. Description and application of capture zone delineation for a wellfield at Hilton Head Island, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landmeyer, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    Ground-water capture zone boundaries for individual pumped wells in a confined aquffer were delineated by using groundwater models. Both analytical and numerical (semi-analytical) models that more accurately represent the $round-water-flow system were used. All models delineated 2-dimensional boundaries (capture zones) that represent the areal extent of groundwater contribution to a pumped well. The resultant capture zones were evaluated on the basis of the ability of each model to realistically rapresent the part of the ground-water-flow system that contributed water to the pumped wells. Analytical models used were based on a fixed radius approach, and induded; an arbitrary radius model, a calculated fixed radius model based on the volumetric-flow equation with a time-of-travel criterion, and a calculated fixed radius model derived from modification of the Theis model with a drawdown criterion. Numerical models used induded the 2-dimensional, finite-difference models RESSQC and MWCAP. The arbitrary radius and Theis analytical models delineated capture zone boundaries that compared least favorably with capture zones delineated using the volumetric-flow analytical model and both numerical models. The numerical models produced more hydrologically reasonable capture zones (that were oriented parallel to the regional flow direction) than the volumetric-flow equation. The RESSQC numerical model computed more hydrologically realistic capture zones than the MWCAP numerical model by accounting for changes in the shape of capture zones caused by multiple-well interference. The capture zone boundaries generated by using both analytical and numerical models indicated that the curnmtly used 100-foot radius of protection around a wellhead in South Carolina is an underestimate of the extent of ground-water capture for pumped wetis in this particular wellfield in the Upper Floridan aquifer. The arbitrary fixed radius of 100 feet was shown to underestimate the upgradient

  7. Investigation of the microbial metabolism of carbon dioxide and hydrogen in the kangaroo foregut by stable isotope probing

    PubMed Central

    Godwin, Scott; Kang, Alicia; Gulino, Lisa-Maree; Manefield, Mike; Gutierrez-Zamora, Maria-Luisa; Kienzle, Marco; Ouwerkerk, Diane; Dawson, Kerri; Klieve, Athol V

    2014-01-01

    Kangaroos ferment forage material in an enlarged forestomach analogous to the rumen, but in contrast to ruminants, they produce little or no methane. The objective of this study was to identify the dominant organisms and pathways involved in hydrogenotrophy in the kangaroo forestomach, with the broader aim of understanding how these processes are able to predominate over methanogenesis. Stable isotope analysis of fermentation end products and RNA stable isotope probing (RNA-SIP) were used to investigate the organisms and biochemical pathways involved in the metabolism of hydrogen and carbon dioxide in the kangaroo forestomach. Our results clearly demonstrate that the activity of bacterial reductive acetogens is a key factor in the reduced methane output of kangaroos. In in vitro fermentations, the microbial community of the kangaroo foregut produced very little methane, but produced a significantly greater proportion of acetate derived from carbon dioxide than the microbial community of the bovine rumen. A bacterial operational taxonomic unit closely related to the known reductive acetogen Blautia coccoides was found to be associated with carbon dioxide and hydrogen metabolism in the kangaroo foregut. Other bacterial taxa including members of the genera Prevotella, Oscillibacter and Streptococcus that have not previously been reported as containing hydrogenotrophic organisms were also significantly associated with metabolism of hydrogen and carbon dioxide in the kangaroo forestomach. PMID:24621520

  8. Bird remains from an archaeological site on Henderson Island, South Pacific: Man-caused extinctions on an “uninhabited” island

    PubMed Central

    Steadman, David W.; Olson, Storrs L.

    1985-01-01

    Long thought never to have been inhabited and to be in a pristine ecological state, Henderson Island (southeast Pacific) is now known to have been colonized and then abandoned by Polynesians. Bones from an archaeological site on the island associated with 14C dates of ≈800 and ≈500 years B.P. include specimens of 12 species of birds, of which 3, a storm-petrel and two pigeons (Nesofregetta fuliginosa, Ducula cf. aurorae or D. pacifica, and Ducula cf. galeata), no longer occur on Henderson, and two others (Puffinus nativitatis and Sula sula) still visit but are not known to breed. The vanished species were presumably exterminated by Polynesians and the biota of Henderson Island can thus no longer be regarded as being in an unaltered state. The prehistoric abandonment of various small, unarable islands by Polynesians may have been due to the depletion of seabirds and pigeons, the only readily available food source. The species of pigeons identified from Henderson are known historically only from distant archipelagos and have never before been found sympatrically. Distributional patterns resulting from man-caused extinctions may give rise to erroneous interpretations of the relationships and evolutionary history of insular organisms. Certain endangered species, such as Ducula galeata, might effectively be preserved by reintroduction to abandoned islands that they occupied before human intervention. Images PMID:16593606

  9. Altered environment and risk of malaria outbreak in South Andaman, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, India affected by tsunami disaster

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamoorthy, Kaliannagoun; Jambulingam, Purushothaman; Natarajan, R; Shriram, AN; Das, Pradeep K; Sehgal, SC

    2005-01-01

    Background Pools of salt water and puddles created by giant waves from the sea due to the tsunami that occurred on 26th December 2004 would facilitate increased breeding of brackish water malaria vector, Anopheles sundaicus. Land uplifts in North Andaman and subsidence in South Andaman have been reported and subsidence may lead to environmental disturbances and vector proliferation. This warrants a situation analysis and vector surveillance in the tsunami hit areas endemic for malaria transmitted by brackish water mosquito, An. sundaicus to predict the risk of outbreak. Methods An extensive survey was carried out in the tsunami-affected areas in Andaman district of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India to assess the extent of breeding of malaria vectors in the habitats created by seawater flooding. Types of habitats in relation to source of seawater inundation and frequency were identified. The salinity of the water samples and the mosquito species present in the larval samples collected from these habitats were recorded. The malaria situation in the area was also analysed. Results South Andaman, covering Port Blair and Ferrargunj sub districts, is still under the recurring phenomenon of seawater intrusion either directly from the sea or through a network of creeks. Both daily cycles of high tides and periodical spring tides continue to cause flooding. Low-lying paddy fields and fallow land, with a salinity ranging from 3,000 to 42,505 ppm, were found to support profuse breeding of An. sundaicus, the local malaria vector, and Anopheles subpictus, a vector implicated elsewhere. This area is endemic for both vivax and falciparum malaria. Malaria slide positivity rate has started increasing during post-tsunami period, which can be considered as an indication of risk of malaria outbreak. Conclusion Paddy fields and fallow land with freshwater, hitherto not considered as potential sites for An. sundaicus, are now major breeding sites due to saline water. Consequently

  10. Three-dimensional P- and S-wave velocity structure along the central Alpine Fault, South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, B.; Thurber, C. H.; Roecker, S. W.; Townend, J.; Rawles, C.; Chamberlain, C. J.; Boese, C. M.; Bannister, S. C.

    2014-12-01

    The Deep Fault Drilling Project (DFDP) on the central Alpine Fault, South Island, New Zealand, has motivated a broad range of geophysical and geological studies aiming to characterize the fault system in the locality of the drill site at various scales. We have been developing three-dimensional P- and S-wave velocity models of the region by double-difference tomography utilizing datasets from multiple seismic networks (WIZARD, SAMBA, ALFA, GeoNet, and others). In our previous work, the quality of the S-wave model has been poor due to the small number of available S-wave picks. We have utilized a new high-accuracy automatic S-wave picker to increase the number of usable S arrivals by an order of magnitude, thereby dramatically improving the S-wave velocity model. Compared to previous studies, e.g. Eberhart-Phillips and Bannister (2002) and Feenstra et al (2013), our updated P-wave model shows a clear high Vp body (Vp > 6km/s) at depths of 5-15 km near the drill site. With our better resolved S-wave velocity model, we can see a sharp high Vs body (Vs > 3.7 km/s) in the same region. The newly added S-picks help to improve the accuracy of the relocations of the earthquakes . This in turn has highlighted the presence of earthquake swarms within the low velocity zone. Together with the updated earthquake relocations, the P- and S-wave tomography results reveal the Alpine Fault to be marked by a velocity contrast throughout most of the study region. The fault dips steeply from 5 to 20 km depth with an average dip of 50-60° SE, as inferred from the velocity structure and the seismicity.

  11. A comparison of primary production models in an area of high mesoscale variability (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Muñoz, Cristina; López-Urrutia, Ángel; Lubián, Luis M.; García, Carlos M.; Hernández-León, Santiago

    2013-10-01

    Three types of primary productivity (PP) models were evaluated in a mesoscale area around the South Shetland Islands (Antarctica). Input variables were: phytoplankton carbon biomass, Chlorophyll a, sea water temperature, daily irradiance, among others, collected in situ during an oceanographic cruise (COUPLING, January 2010). Models of the first type were based on Chl a measurements: the widely used model VGPM (Behrenfeld and Falkowski, 1997) and a derived version developed for the Western Antarctic Peninsula (Dierssen et al., 2000). The second type included two models based on phytoplankton carbon biomass: one developed for the whole Southern Ocean (Arrigo et al., 2008) and one based on the Metabolic Theory of Ecology developed by López-Urrutia et al. (2006), being the first time that a model with these features is used for Antarctic waters. The third type was an updated version of the carbon-based model CbPM (first described by Behrenfeld et al. (2005)) based on the Chl a/carbon biomass ratio modulation. The degree of agreement among the results between the different types of models turned out to be low (> 30% of difference), but high within models of the same type (< 10% of difference). Biomass-based model predictions differed the most from those estimated by the other two types. The differences in PP estimates were primarily attributed to the different ways these models treat the phytoplankton assemblage, along with the difference in input variables. Among the five models evaluated, the output from the modified version of the CbPM showed the lowest bias (0.55) being the most realistic. It made a special attempt to detect the factors controlling phytoplankton physiological state, showing a nutrient limitation towards the Drake area similar to the one observed for the in situ PP values.

  12. Stratigraphic evidence for earthquakes and tsunamis on the west coast of South Andaman Island, India during the past 1000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Javed N.; Banerjee, Chiranjib; Khan, Afzal; Johnson, Frango C.; Shishikura, Masanobu.; Satake, Kenji.; Singhvi, Ashok K.

    2015-10-01

    Stratigraphic records from west coast of South Andaman Island revealed evidence of three historical earthquakes and associated transoceanic tsunamis during past 1000 yrs, in addition to the Mw 9.3 tsunamigenic earthquake of 26 December, 2004. Our finding suggests that along with Sumatran arc segment the Andaman-Arakan segment is also capable of generating mega-subduction zone earthquakes and transoceanic tsunamis. To study the near sub-surface stratigraphic succession we excavated shallow trenches and obtained geoslices from two sites around Collinpur (sites 1 and 2). The exposed succession comprised 11 lithounits (Unit a - youngest and k - oldest) of alternating sequence of coarser units overlain by peaty soils and some of these are indicative of deposition during paleo-tsunami events. Event I that predated AD 800, and is marked by a 35-40 cm thick deposit of fine gravel to coarse sands along with broken shell fragments (Unit k). Event II dated around AD 660-800, is represented by 20-25 cm thick coarse sand and broken shell fragments (Unit i). Based on stratigraphic evidences of land-level changes, this event is attributed to a near source rupture along Andaman-Arakan segment, accompanied by a transoceanic tsunami. Event III, occurred around AD 1120-1300, is marked by a 50 cm thick sand deposit (Unit g). The 2004 tsunami resulted in deposition of 15 cm thick medium to coarse sand at the same location. We infer that the 2004 tsunami and Event III resulted in different styles of sedimentation at the same site. Four events at Collinpur along with the record of a subsidence event of AD 1679 from the east coast of Andaman, close-to, Port Blair (Malik et al., 2011), suggest that mega-subduction zone earthquakes and associated tsunamis recur at an interval of 300-500 years at variable locations along the Sumatra-Andaman subduction zone.

  13. Volume 3: Characterization of representative reservoirs -- South Marsh Island 73, B35K and B65G Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Young, M.A.; Salamy, S.P.; Reeves, T.K.; Kimbrell, W.C.; Sawyer, W.K.

    1998-07-01

    This report documents the results of a detailed study of two Gulf of Mexico salt dome related reservoirs and the application of a publicly available PC-based black oil simulator to model the performances of gas injection processes to recover attic oil. The overall objective of the research project is to assess the oil reserve potential that could result from the application of proven technologies to recover bypassed oil from reservoirs surrounding piercement salt domes in the Gulf of Mexico. The specific study objective was to simulate the primary recovery and attic gas injection performance of the two subject reservoirs to: (1) validate the BOAST model; (2) quantify the attic volume; and (3) predict the attic oil recovery potential that could result from additional updip gas injection. The simulation studies were performed on the B-35K Reservoir and the B-65G Reservoir in the South Marsh Island Block 73 Field using data provided by one of the field operators. A modified PC-version of the BOAST II model was used to match the production and injection performances of these reservoirs in which numerous gas injection cycles had been conducted to recover attic oil. The historical performances of the gas injection cycles performed on both the B-35K Reservoir and B-65G Reservoir were accurately matched, and numerous predictive runs were made to define additional potential for attic oil recovery using gas injection. Predictive sensitivities were conducted to examine the impact of gas injection rate, injection volume, post-injection shut-in time, and the staging of gas injection cycles on oil recovery.

  14. Low-Frequency Earthquakes of the Southern Alps, South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberlain, C. J.; Shelly, D. R.; Townend, J.; Stern, T. A.

    2013-12-01

    additional stations installed south of the tremor in early 2013. We conclude that tremor on the Alpine Fault is composed, as elsewhere, of sequences of LFEs and suggest that these events relate to along-strike variations in shallow (<15 km) and deep seismicity (>45 km) on the Alpine Fault (Boese et al., 2013). We hypothesize that along-strike variations in LFE abundance may be controlled by variations in lithospheric structure inherited from prior rifting. Shelly, D. R., W. L. Ellsworth, T. Ryberg, C. Haberland, G. S. Fuis, J. Murphy, R. M. Nadeau, and R. Bürgmann (2009), Precise location of San Andreas Fault tremors near Cholame, California using seismometer clusters: Slip on the deep extension of the fault?, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L01303, doi:10.1029/2008GL036367. Wech, A. G., C. M. Boese, T. A. Stern, and J. Townend (2012), Tectonic tremor and deep slow slip on the Alpine Fault, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L10303, doi:10.1029/2012GL051751. C.M. Boese, T.A. Stern, J. Townend, S. Bourguignon, A. Sheehan, E.G.C. Smith, Sub-crustal earthquakes within the Australia-Pacific plate boundary zone beneath the Southern Alps, New Zealand, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2013.06.030.

  15. Experimental manipulation reveals few subclinical impacts of a parasite community in juvenile kangaroos

    PubMed Central

    Cripps, Jemma; Beveridge, Ian; Ploeg, Richard; Coulson, Graeme

    2014-01-01

    Large mammalian herbivores are commonly infected with gastrointestinal helminths. In many host species, these helminths cause clinical disease and may trigger conspicuous mortality events. However, they may also have subclinical impacts, reducing fitness as well as causing complex changes to host growth patterns and body condition. Theoretically, juveniles should experience significantly greater costs from parasites, being immunologically naive and undergoing a significant growth phase. The aims of our study were to quantify the subclinical effects of helminths in juvenile eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus), which commonly harbour large burdens of gastrointestinal nematodes and are susceptible to associated mass mortality during cold, wet conditions. We conducted a field experiment on a population of free-ranging kangaroos, removing nematodes from one group of juveniles using an anthelmintic treatment. We then compared growth parameters (body condition and growth rates) and haematological parameters of this group with an age-matched, parasitised (untreated) control group. Treated juvenile kangaroos had significantly higher levels of plasma protein (albumin) but, contrary to our predictions, showed negligible changes in all the other parameters measured. Our results suggest that juvenile kangaroos are largely unaffected by their gastrointestinal helminth burdens, and may be able to compensate for the costs of parasites. PMID:25161906

  16. To kill a kangaroo: understanding the decision to pursue high-risk/high-gain resources

    PubMed Central

    Jones, James Holland; Bird, Rebecca Bliege; Bird, Douglas W.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we attempt to understand hunter–gatherer foraging decisions about prey that vary in both the mean and variance of energy return using an expected utility framework. We show that for skewed distributions of energetic returns, the standard linear variance discounting (LVD) model for risk-sensitive foraging can produce quite misleading results. In addition to creating difficulties for the LVD model, the skewed distributions characteristic of hunting returns create challenges for estimating probability distribution functions required for expected utility. We present a solution using a two-component finite mixture model for foraging returns. We then use detailed foraging returns data based on focal follows of individual hunters in Western Australia hunting for high-risk/high-gain (hill kangaroo) and relatively low-risk/low-gain (sand monitor) prey. Using probability densities for the two resources estimated from the mixture models, combined with theoretically sensible utility curves characterized by diminishing marginal utility for the highest returns, we find that the expected utility of the sand monitors greatly exceeds that of kangaroos despite the fact that the mean energy return for kangaroos is nearly twice as large as that for sand monitors. We conclude that the decision to hunt hill kangaroos does not arise simply as part of an energetic utility-maximization strategy and that additional social, political or symbolic benefits must accrue to hunters of this highly variable prey. PMID:23884091

  17. To kill a kangaroo: understanding the decision to pursue high-risk/high-gain resources.

    PubMed

    Jones, James Holland; Bird, Rebecca Bliege; Bird, Douglas W

    2013-09-22

    In this paper, we attempt to understand hunter-gatherer foraging decisions about prey that vary in both the mean and variance of energy return using an expected utility framework. We show that for skewed distributions of energetic returns, the standard linear variance discounting (LVD) model for risk-sensitive foraging can produce quite misleading results. In addition to creating difficulties for the LVD model, the skewed distributions characteristic of hunting returns create challenges for estimating probability distribution functions required for expected utility. We present a solution using a two-component finite mixture model for foraging returns. We then use detailed foraging returns data based on focal follows of individual hunters in Western Australia hunting for high-risk/high-gain (hill kangaroo) and relatively low-risk/low-gain (sand monitor) prey. Using probability densities for the two resources estimated from the mixture models, combined with theoretically sensible utility curves characterized by diminishing marginal utility for the highest returns, we find that the expected utility of the sand monitors greatly exceeds that of kangaroos despite the fact that the mean energy return for kangaroos is nearly twice as large as that for sand monitors. We conclude that the decision to hunt hill kangaroos does not arise simply as part of an energetic utility-maximization strategy and that additional social, political or symbolic benefits must accrue to hunters of this highly variable prey. PMID:23884091

  18. Signals of typhoon induced hydrologic alteration in particulate organic matter from largest tropical river system of Hainan Island, South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, U. K.; Wu, Ying; Wang, Xiaona; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Guosen

    2016-03-01

    Tropical river systems affected by climatic extremes (typhoon) are recognized as significant source of particulate organic matter (POM) delivered to their adjacent seas. Studies on POM composition in typhoon affected rivers of tropical Hainan Island are limited. The Nandu River-Estuary (NRE) is the largest river system on Hainan Island in the South China Sea, affected by frequent typhoons every year. We used elemental contents, stable isotope ratios of organic carbon and lignin phenols to characterize POM compositions in NRE during typhoon affected wet season (August, 2011) vs. normal wet season (October, 2012). Short term and heavy precipitation during typhoon in August, 2011 was evidenced with a significant hydrologic change as well as change in POM composition along the NRE. The multi-proxy results suggest that POM was degraded and their sources significantly changed along the NRE hydrograph. Results from an end member mixing model indicated that POM constituted nearly similar OM input from soil (35%) and freshwater plankton (32%) during August, 2011, in contrast POM dominated with OM from freshwater plankton (51%) during October 2012 in riverine regions of NRE. In the estuarine region, POM constituted dominant inputs from marine plankton during August, 2011 (44%) and October, 2012 (56%) as compared to other sources. Collectively, the nature of POM composition change in the vicinity of typhoon induced copious precipitation, with potential land-use intervention across the Hainan Island are key factors affecting the carbon cycling in NRE and adjacent South China Sea.

  19. Hopping Down the Main Street: Eastern Grey Kangaroos at Home in an Urban Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Coulson, Graeme; Cripps, Jemma K.; Wilson, Michelle E.

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary Eastern Grey Kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) occur throughout the seaside town of Anglesea in southern Victoria, Australia. We have tagged about half of these kangaroos in a longitudinal study of population dynamics and behavior. A golf course forms the nucleus of this population. Females live on and around the golf course, but males roam across the town in autumn and winter, living in bush reserves, empty blocks and back yards. Most females breed every year, but over half of their young disappear. Vehicles are the major cause of adult deaths, killing a much higher proportion of males than females. Abstract Most urban mammals are small. However, one of the largest marsupials, the Eastern Grey Kangaroo Macropus giganteus, occurs in some urban areas. In 2007, we embarked on a longitudinal study of this species in the seaside town of Anglesea in southern Victoria, Australia. We have captured and tagged 360 individuals to date, fitting each adult with a collar displaying its name. We have monitored survival, reproduction and movements by resighting, recapture and radio-tracking, augmented by citizen science reports of collared individuals. Kangaroos occurred throughout the town, but the golf course formed the nucleus of this urban population. The course supported a high density of kangaroos (2–5/ha), and approximately half of them were tagged. Total counts of kangaroos on the golf course were highest in summer, at the peak of the mating season, and lowest in winter, when many males but not females left the course. Almost all tagged adult females were sedentary, using only part of the golf course and adjacent native vegetation and residential blocks. In contrast, during the non-mating season (autumn and winter), many tagged adult males ranged widely across the town in a mix of native vegetation remnants, recreation reserves, vacant blocks, commercial properties and residential gardens. Annual fecundity of tagged females was generally high (≥70%), but

  20. How important is milk for near-weaned red kangaroos ( Macropus rufus) fed different forages?

    PubMed

    Munn, A J; Dawson, T J

    2003-03-01

    Red kangaroos (Macropus rufus) are large (>20 kg) herbivorous marsupials common to the arid and semi-arid regions of inland Australia, where drought is frequent. Young-at-foot (YAF) red kangaroos are the age/size class usually most affected by drought. Kangaroos at this YAF stage are making the transition from a milk-based diet to one of herbivory and an inability to adequately digest high-fibre feeds may contribute to their high mortalities during drought. We examined the role of milk in the nutrition of YAF red kangaroos fed forages of different fibre content and evaluated it as an extra energy and/or nitrogen source. Milk intake had little impact on the digestion of herbage by YAF red kangaroos fed low-fibre chopped lucerne (alfalfa) hay. Organic matter (OM) intake was 210+/-20 g day(-1) and 228+/-22 g day(-1), respectively, by YAF fed lucerne and lucerne with milk. Apparent digestibility of lucerne OM was ca. 55%, regardless of milk intake. Fed lucerne, with and without milk, YAF sustained growth rates of ca. 45 g day(-1). Conversely, even with a milk supplement, YAF red kangaroos ingested only 90+/-11 g day(-1) of high-fibre chopped oaten hay, of which they digested only ca. 36%. Despite milk intake, YAF fed chopped oaten hay lost between 0 and 75 g body mass day(-1) and were in negative nitrogen balance (-0.40+/-0.11 g N day(-1)). On all diets nitrogen loss was primarily as endogenous nitrogen (urinary and faecal) rather than as dietary nitrogen. Endogenous nitrogen losses were elevated in YAF fed chopped oaten hay, primarily as non-dietary faecal nitrogen. Overall, when high-quality feed was available, YAF were not markedly dependent on milk. However, YAF fed poor-quality chopped oaten hay would require up to 540 ml day(-1) of late-stage kangaroo milk to attain intakes of energy and nitrogen, and hence growth rates, comparable with those YAF fed lucerne. PMID:12624652

  1. Ober's Island: The Mallard Ober's Island, One of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Ober's Island: The Mallard - Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, bounded on the south by The Hawk Island and on the north by The Crow Island. These islands are located seven miles east of Ranier, Minnesota, three miles west of Voyageur National Park, and one mile south of the international border of the United States of America and Canada. The legal description of Mallard Island is Lot 6, Section 19, T-17-N, R-22-W, Koochiching County, Minnesota, Ranier, Koochiching County, MN

  2. Architecture of kangaroo rat inner medulla: segmentation of descending thin limb of Henle's loop.

    PubMed

    Urity, Vinoo B; Issaian, Tadeh; Braun, Eldon J; Dantzler, William H; Pannabecker, Thomas L

    2012-03-15

    We hypothesize that the inner medulla of the kangaroo rat Dipodomys merriami, a desert rodent that concentrates its urine to more than 6,000 mosmol/kgH(2)O water, provides unique examples of architectural features necessary for production of highly concentrated urine. To investigate this architecture, inner medullary nephron segments in the initial 3,000 μm below the outer medulla were assessed with digital reconstructions from physical tissue sections. Descending thin limbs of Henle (DTLs), ascending thin limbs of Henle (ATLs), and collecting ducts (CDs) were identified by immunofluorescence using antibodies that label segment-specific proteins associated with transepithelial water flux (aquaporin 1 and 2, AQP1 and AQP2) and chloride flux (the chloride channel ClC-K1); all tubules and vessels were labeled with wheat germ agglutinin. In the outer 3,000 μm of the inner medulla, AQP1-positive DTLs lie at the periphery of groups of CDs. ATLs lie inside and outside the groups of CDs. Immunohistochemistry and reconstructions of loops that form their bends in the outer 3,000 μm of the inner medulla show that, relative to loop length, the AQP1-positive segment of the kangaroo rat is significantly longer than that of the Munich-Wistar rat. The length of ClC-K1 expression in the prebend region at the terminal end of the descending side of the loop in kangaroo rat is about 50% shorter than that of the Munich-Wistar rat. Tubular fluid of the kangaroo rat DTL may approach osmotic equilibrium with interstitial fluid by water reabsorption along a relatively longer tubule length, compared with Munich-Wistar rat. A relatively shorter-length prebend segment may promote a steeper reabsorptive driving force at the loop bend. These structural features predict functionality that is potentially significant in the production of a high urine osmolality in the kangaroo rat. PMID:22237592

  3. Preterm newborns at Kangaroo Mother Care: a cohort follow-up from birth to six months

    PubMed Central

    Menezes, Maria Alexsandra da S.; Garcia, Daniela Cavalcante; de Melo, Enaldo Vieira; Cipolotti, Rosana

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate clinical outcomes, growth and exclusive breastfeeding rates in premature infants assisted by Kangaroo Mother Care at birth, at discharge and at six months of life. METHODS: Prospective study of a premature infants cohort assisted by Kangaroo Mother Care in a tertiary public maternity in Northeast Brazil with birth weight ≤1750g and with clinical conditions for Kangaroo care. RESULTS: The sample was composed by 137 premature infants, being 62.8% female, with average birth weight of 1365±283g, average gestational age of 32±3 weeks and 26.2% were adequate for gestational age. They have been admitted in the Kangaroo Ward with a median of 13 days of life, weighing 1430±167g and, at this time, 57.7% were classified as small for corrected gestational age. They were discharged with 36.8±21.8 days of chronological age, weighing 1780±165g and 67.9% were small for corrected gestational age. At six months of life (n=76), they had an average weight of 5954±971g, and 68.4% presented corrected weight for gestational age between percentiles 15 and 85 of the World Health Organization (WHO) weight curve. Exclusive breastfeeding rate at discharge was 56.2% and, at six months of life, 14.4%. CONCLUSIONS: In the studied sample, almost two thirds of the children assisted by Kangaroo Mother Care were, at six months of life, between percentiles 15 and 85 of the WHO weight curves. The frequency of exclusive breastfeeding at six months was low. PMID:25119747

  4. Hopping Down the Main Street: Eastern Grey Kangaroos at Home in an Urban Matrix.

    PubMed

    Coulson, Graeme; Cripps, Jemma K; Wilson, Michelle E

    2014-01-01

    Most urban mammals are small. However, one of the largest marsupials, the Eastern Grey Kangaroo Macropus giganteus, occurs in some urban areas. In 2007, we embarked on a longitudinal study of this species in the seaside town of Anglesea in southern Victoria, Australia. We have captured and tagged 360 individuals to date, fitting each adult with a collar displaying its name. We have monitored survival, reproduction and movements by resighting, recapture and radio-tracking, augmented by citizen science reports of collared individuals. Kangaroos occurred throughout the town, but the golf course formed the nucleus of this urban population. The course supported a high density of kangaroos (2-5/ha), and approximately half of them were tagged. Total counts of kangaroos on the golf course were highest in summer, at the peak of the mating season, and lowest in winter, when many males but not females left the course. Almost all tagged adult females were sedentary, using only part of the golf course and adjacent native vegetation and residential blocks. In contrast, during the non-mating season (autumn and winter), many tagged adult males ranged widely across the town in a mix of native vegetation remnants, recreation reserves, vacant blocks, commercial properties and residential gardens. Annual fecundity of tagged females was generally high (≥70%), but survival of tagged juveniles was low (54%). We could not determine the cause of death of most juveniles. Vehicles were the major (47%) cause of mortality of tagged adults. Road-kills were concentrated (74%) in autumn and winter, and were heavily male biased: half of all tagged males died on roads compared with only 20% of tagged females. We predict that this novel and potent mortality factor will have profound, long-term impacts on the demography and behavior of the urban kangaroo population at Anglesea. PMID:26480041

  5. Scaling of left ventricle cardiomyocyte ultrastructure across development in the kangaroo Macropus fuliginosus.

    PubMed

    Snelling, Edward P; Taggart, David A; Maloney, Shane K; Farrell, Anthony P; Leigh, Christopher M; Waterhouse, Lyn; Williams, Ruth; Seymour, Roger S

    2015-06-01

    The heart and left ventricle of the marsupial western grey kangaroo Macropus fuliginosus exhibit biphasic allometric growth, whereby a negative shift in the trajectory of cardiac growth occurs at pouch exit. In this study, we used transmission electron microscopy to examine the scaling of left ventricle cardiomyocyte ultrastructure across development in the western grey kangaroo over a 190-fold body mass range (0.355-67.5 kg). The volume-density (%) of myofibrils, mitochondria, sarcoplasmic reticuli and T-tubules increase significantly during in-pouch growth, such that the absolute volume (ml) of these organelles scales with body mass (Mb; kg) with steep hyperallometry: 1.41Mb (1.38), 0.64Mb (1.29), 0.066Mb (1.45) and 0.035Mb (1.87), respectively. Maturation of the left ventricle ultrastructure coincides with pouch vacation, as organelle volume-densities scale independent of body mass across post-pouch development, such that absolute organelle volumes scale in parallel and with relatively shallow hypoallometry: 4.65Mb (0.79), 1.75Mb (0.77), 0.21Mb (0.79) and 0.35Mb (0.79), respectively. The steep hyperallometry of organelle volumes and volume-densities across in-pouch growth is consistent with the improved contractile performance of isolated cardiac muscle during fetal development in placental mammals, and is probably critical in augmenting cardiac output to levels necessary for endothermy and independent locomotion in the young kangaroo as it prepares for pouch exit. The shallow hypoallometry of organelle volumes during post-pouch growth suggests a decrease in relative cardiac requirements as body mass increases in free-roaming kangaroos, which is possibly because the energy required for hopping is independent of speed, and the capacity for energy storage during hopping could increase as the kangaroo grows. PMID:25908057

  6. Genetic analysis of Black Tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) across its natural distribution range reveals more recent colonization of Fiji and other South Pacific islands

    PubMed Central

    Waqairatu, Salote S; Dierens, Leanne; Cowley, Jeff A; Dixon, Tom J; Johnson, Karyn N; Barnes, Andrew C; Li, Yutao

    2012-01-01

    The Black Tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) has a natural distribution range from East Africa to the South Pacific Islands. Although previous studies of Indo-Pacific P. monodon have found populations from the Indian Ocean and Australasia to differ genetically, their relatedness to South Pacific shrimp remains unknown. To address this, polymorphisms at eight shared microsatellite loci and haplotypes in a 418-bp mtDNA-CR (control region) sequence were examined across 682 P. monodon from locations spread widely across its natural range, including the South Pacific islands of Fiji, Palau, and Papua New Guinea (PNG). Observed microsatellite heterozygosities of 0.82–0.91, allele richness of 6.85–9.69, and significant mtDNA-CR haplotype variation indicated high levels of genetic diversity among the South Pacific shrimp. Analysis of microsatellite genotypes using a Bayesian STRUCTURE method segregated Indo-Pacific P. monodon into eight distinct clades, with Palau and PNG shrimp clustering among others from Southeast Asia and eastern Australia, respectively, and Fiji shrimp clustering as a distinct group. Phylogenetic analyses of mtDNA-CR haplotypes delineated shrimp into three groupings, with shrimp from Fiji again being distinct by sharing no haplotypes with other populations. Depending on regional location, the genetic structures and substructures identified from the genotyping and mtDNA-CR haplotype phylogeny could be explained by Metapopulation and/or Member–Vagrant type evolutionary processes. Neutrality tests of mutation-drift equilibrium and estimation of the time since population expansion supported a hypothesis that South Pacific P. monodon were colonized from Southeast Asia and eastern Australia during the Pleistocene period over 60,000 years ago when land bridges were more expansive and linked these regions more closely. PMID:22957205

  7. South Fork Latrine, oblique view showing south and east sides; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South Fork Latrine, oblique view showing south and east sides; view northwest - Fort McKinley, South Fork Latrine, West side of East Side Drive, approximately 225 feet south of Weymouth Way, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

  8. Cytoplasmic incompatibility as a means of controlling Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus mosquito in the islands of the south-western Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Atyame, Célestine M; Pasteur, Nicole; Dumas, Emilie; Tortosa, Pablo; Tantely, Michaël Luciano; Pocquet, Nicolas; Licciardi, Séverine; Bheecarry, Ambicadutt; Zumbo, Betty; Weill, Mylène; Duron, Olivier

    2011-12-01

    The use of the bacterium Wolbachia is an attractive alternative method to control vector populations. In mosquitoes, as in members of the Culex pipiens complex, Wolbachia induces a form of embryonic lethality called cytoplasmic incompatibility, a sperm-egg incompatibility occurring when infected males mate either with uninfected females or with females infected with incompatible Wolbachia strain(s). Here we explore the feasibility of the Incompatible Insect Technique (IIT), a species-specific control approach in which field females are sterilized by inundative releases of incompatible males. We show that the Wolbachia wPip(Is) strain, naturally infecting Cx. p. pipiens mosquitoes from Turkey, is a good candidate to control Cx. p. quinquefasciatus populations on four islands of the south-western Indian Ocean (La Réunion, Mauritius, Grande Glorieuse and Mayotte). The wPip(Is) strain was introduced into the nuclear background of Cx. p. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes from La Réunion, leading to the LR[wPip(Is)] line. Total embryonic lethality was observed in crosses between LR[wPip(Is)] males and all tested field females from the four islands. Interestingly, most crosses involving LR[wPip(Is)] females and field males were also incompatible, which is expected to reduce the impact of any accidental release of LR[wPip(Is)] females. Cage experiments demonstrate that LR[wPip(Is)] males are equally competitive with La Réunion males resulting in demographic crash when LR[wPip(Is)] males were introduced into La Réunion laboratory cages. These results, together with the geographic isolation of the four south-western Indian Ocean islands and their limited land area, support the feasibility of an IIT program using LR[wPip(Is)] males and stimulate the implementation of field tests for a Cx. p. quinquefasciatus control strategy on these islands. PMID:22206033

  9. 3. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH ELEVATION IN UNALTERED CONDITION. DATED MARCH 19, 1945. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 61, Rodman Avenue & First Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  10. 8. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH ELEVATON IN UNALTERED CONDITION. ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED 1898. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 68, Rodman Avenue between Fourth Street & East Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  11. 10. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. INTERIOR, LOOKING WEST. DATED OCTOBER 2, 1945. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 138, Second Avenue between South Avenue & Ramsey Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  12. 10. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS IN UNALTERED CONDITION. DATED APRIL 18, 1941. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 56, North Avenue & East Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  13. 7. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS. DATED MARCH 19, 1945. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 62, Rodman Avenue between First & Second Streets, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  14. EAST FRONT AND SOUTH SIDE OF ADMINISTRATION BUILDING. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAST FRONT AND SOUTH SIDE OF ADMINISTRATION BUILDING. VIEW TO NORTH. - Rock Island National Cemetery, Rock Island Arsenal, 0.25 mile north of southern tip of Rock Island, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  15. Kangaroo mother care: a multi-country analysis of health system bottlenecks and potential solutions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Preterm birth is now the leading cause of under-five child deaths worldwide with one million direct deaths plus approximately another million where preterm is a risk factor for neonatal deaths due to other causes. There is strong evidence that kangaroo mother care (KMC) reduces mortality among babies with birth weight <2000 g (mostly preterm). KMC involves continuous skin-to-skin contact, breastfeeding support, and promotion of early hospital discharge with follow-up. The World Health Organization has endorsed KMC for stabilised newborns in health facilities in both high-income and low-resource settings. The objectives of this paper are to: (1) use a 12-country analysis to explore health system bottlenecks affecting the scale-up of KMC; (2) propose solutions to the most significant bottlenecks; and (3) outline priority actions for scale-up. Methods The bottleneck analysis tool was applied in 12 countries in Africa and Asia as part of the Every Newborn Action Plan process. Country workshops involved technical experts to complete the survey tool, which is designed to synthesise and grade health system "bottlenecks", factors that hinder the scale-up, of maternal-newborn intervention packages. We used quantitative and qualitative methods to analyse the bottleneck data, combined with literature review, to present priority bottlenecks and actions relevant to different health system building blocks for KMC. Results Marked differences were found in the perceived severity of health system bottlenecks between Asian and African countries, with the former reporting more significant or very major bottlenecks for KMC with respect to all the health system building blocks. Community ownership and health financing bottlenecks were significant or very major bottlenecks for KMC in both low and high mortality contexts, particularly in South Asia. Significant bottlenecks were also reported for leadership and governance and health workforce building blocks. Conclusions There

  16. Source, Transport, and Fate of Groundwater Contamination at Site 45, Marine Corps Recruit Depot, Parris Island, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Petkewich, Matthew D.; Landmeyer, James E.; Lowery, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater contamination by tetrachloroethene and its dechlorination products is present in two partially intermingled plumes in the surficial aquifer near a former dry-cleaning facility at Site 45, Marine Corps Recruit Depot, Parris Island, South Carolina. The northern plume originates from the vicinity of former above-ground storage tanks. Free-phase tetrachloroethene from activities in this area entered the groundwater and the storm sewer. The southern plume originates at a nearby new dry-cleaning facility, but probably was the result of contamination released to the aquifer from a leaking sanitary sewer line from the former dry-cleaning facility. Discharge of dissolved groundwater contamination is primarily to leaking storm sewers below the water table. Extensive biodegradation of the contamination takes place in the surficial aquifer; however, the biodegradation is insufficient to reduce trichloroethene to less than milligram-per-liter concentrations prior to discharging into the storm sewers. The groundwater volatile organic compounds entering the storm sewers are substantially diluted by tidal flushing upon entry and are subject to volatilization as they are transported through the storm sewer to a discharge point in a tributary to Ballast Creek. TCE concentrations of about 2-6 micrograms per liter were present in storm-sewer water near the discharge point (sampled at manhole STS26). On three out of four sampling events at manhole STS14, the storm-sewer water contained no vinyl chloride. During a time of relatively high groundwater levels, however, 20 micrograms per liter of vinyl chloride was present in STS14 storm-sewer water. Because groundwater leaks into that storm sewer and because the storm sewer upgradient from manhole STS14 is adjacent to part of the aquifer where 2,290 micrograms per liter of vinyl chloride have been detected, there is a potential for substantially increased concentrations of vinyl chloride to discharge at the storm-sewer outfall

  17. Depositional controls on coal distribution and quality in the Eocene Brunner Coal Measures, Buller Coalfield, South Island, New Zealand

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flores, R.M.; Sykes, R.

    1996-01-01

    The Buller Coalfield on the West Coast of the South Island, New Zealand, contains the Eocene Brunner Coal Measures. The coal measures unconformably overlie Paleozoic-Cretaceous basement rocks and are conformably overlain by, and laterally interfinger with, the Eocene marine Kaiata Formation. This study examines the lithofacies frameworks of the coal measures in order to interpret their depositional environments. The lower part of the coal measures is dominated by conglomeratic lithofacies that rest on a basal erosional surface and thicken in paleovalleys incised into an undulating peneplain surface. These lithofacies are overlain by sandstone, mudstone and organic-rich lithofacies of the upper part of the coal measures. The main coal seam of the organic-rich lithofacies is thick (10-20 m), extensive, locally split, and locally absent. This seam and associated coal seams in the Buller Coalfield are of low- to high-volatile bituminous rank (vitrinite reflectance between 0.65% and 1.75%). The main seam contains a variable percentage of ash and sulphur. These values are related to the thickening and areal distribution of the seam, which in turn, were controlled by the nature of clastic deposition and peat-forming mire systems, marine transgression and local tidal incursion. The conglomeratic lithofacies represent deposits of trunk and tributary braided streams that rapidly aggraded incised paleovalleys during sea-level stillstands. The main seam represents a deposit of raised mires that initially developed as topogenous mires on abandoned margins of inactive braidbelts. Peat accumulated in mires as a response to a rise in the water table, probably initially due to gradual sea-level rise and climate, and the resulting raised topography served as protection from floods. The upper part of the coal measures consists of sandstone lithofacies of flu vial origin and bioturbated sandstone, mudstone and organic-rich lithofacies, which represent deposits of paralic (deltaic

  18. Denudation rates derived from spatially-averaged cosmogenic nuclide analysis in Nelson catchments, South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdis, A.; Norton, K. P.; Ditchburn, B.; Zondervan, A.

    2013-12-01

    events. This is highlighted by sediment yields reaching ~2535 t km-2 yr-1 following storm events in the Nelson region (Basher et al., 2011). At least on the northern South Island of New Zealand, extreme climatic events appear to be the main driver of elevated denudation rates. Basher, L., Hicks, D., Clapp, B., & Hewitt, T. (2011). Sediment Yield Response to Large Storm Events and Forest Harvesting, Motueka River, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal ofMarine and Freshwater Research, Vol. 45, No. 3 , 333-356.

  19. Spatial distributions of earthquake-induced landslides and hillslope preconditioning in the northwest South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, R. N.; Hancox, G. T.; Petley, D. N.; Massey, C. I.; Densmore, A. L.; Rosser, N. J.

    2015-10-01

    Current models to explain regional-scale landslide events are not able to account for the possible effects of the legacy of previous earthquakes, which have triggered landslides in the past and are known to drive damage accumulation in brittle hillslope materials. This paper tests the hypothesis that spatial distributions of earthquake-induced landslides are determined by both the conditions at the time of the triggering earthquake (time-independent factors) and the legacy of past events (time-dependent factors). To explore this, we undertake an analysis of failures triggered by the 1929 Buller and 1968 Inangahua earthquakes, in the northwest South Island of New Zealand. The spatial extents of landslides triggered by these events were in part coincident. Spatial distributions of earthquake-triggered landslides are determined by a combination of earthquake and local characteristics, which influence the dynamic response of hillslopes. To identify the influence of a legacy from past events, we first use logistic regression to control for the effects of time-independent variables. Through this analysis we find that seismic ground motion, hillslope gradient, lithology, and the effects of topographic amplification caused by ridge- and slope-scale topography exhibit a consistent influence on the spatial distribution of landslides in both earthquakes. We then assess whether variability unexplained by these variables may be attributed to the legacy of past events. Our results suggest that hillslopes in regions that experienced strong ground motions in 1929 were more likely to fail in 1968 than would be expected on the basis of time-independent factors alone. This effect is consistent with our hypothesis that unfailed hillslopes in the 1929 earthquake were weakened by damage accumulated during this earthquake and its associated aftershock sequence, which influenced the behaviour of the landscape in the 1968 earthquake. While our results are tentative, they suggest that the

  20. Impact of the earthquake and tsunami of December 26, 2004, on the groundwater regime at Neill Island (south Andaman).

    PubMed

    Singh, V S

    2008-10-01

    The aquifer and groundwater regime has been affected by the earthquake and tsunami of December 26, 2004, particularly on the islands and coastal regions of India. The groundwater regime on many islands of Andaman and Nicobar islands, which is the only source of fresh water on the islands, has been found to be deteriorated. Detailed hydrogeological studies have been carried out at one of the tiny islands of Andaman, namely Neill Island, and results have been compared with prior observations. It has been found that the shell limestone aquifer at a few places has developed cracks due to the earthquake and these openings have allowed quick movement of seawater into the aquifer resulting into deterioration of groundwater quality. In the places where the aquifer is at sea level, the tsunami waves have caused seawater ingress. Most parts of the island which have hard mudstone as a base and where the aquifer lies much above sea level, did not show any change in groundwater regime. PMID:17509746

  1. Zircon ages and geochemical compositions of the Manlay ophiolite and coeval island arc: Implications for the tectonic evolution of South Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Mingshuai; Baatar, Munkhtsengel; Miao, Laicheng; Anaad, Chimedtseren; Zhang, Fochin; Yang, Shunhu; Li, Yueming

    2014-12-01

    Numerous small dismembered ophiolite fragments occur in South Mongolia, but they are very poorly studied. The lack of age data and geochemical analysis hampers our understanding of the Paleozoic tectonic evolution of the region. We conducted detailed studies on the Manlay ophiolitic complex and Huree volcanic rocks south of the Main Mongolian Lineament (MML) to provide some constraints on these rocks. The Manlay ophiolite consists of dunite, harzburgite, pyroxenite, gabbro, plagiogranite, basalt and chert, locally with chromite mineralization in dunite. The gabbro and plagiogranite yielded SHRIMP zircon weighted mean 206Pb/238U ages of 509 ± 5 Ma and 482 ± 4 Ma, respectively. The basalt and dolerite samples of this complex show enrichment in LREE and LILE and negative Nb, Ta and Ti anomalies, and the chrome spinel from the chromitite lens in the dunite is characterized by high Cr# and low TiO2 contents. These features suggest a supra-subduction zone (SSZ) origin for the ophiolitic complex. The Huree volcanic rocks, ranging from basalt to dacite, display enrichment in LREE and LILE, weak Eu anomalies and distinctly negative Nb, Ta and Ti anomalies, consistent with those of typical magmas in a subduction environment. An andesite sample from this arc yielded a SHRIMP 206Pb/238U zircon age of 487 ± 5 Ma, which is the oldest reliable age for an island arc in South Mongolia. Recognition of an Early Paleozoic ophiolitic complex and a coeval island arc indicates that South Mongolia underwent a period of active volcanism during Late Cambrian to Ordovician. Additionally, the tuff overlying the ophiolitic complex and a granite intruding the ophiolite have SHRIMP zircon U-Pb ages of 391 ± 5 Ma and 304 ± 4 Ma, respectively. Combining the available data, we propose that the Early Paleozoic subduction-accretionary complexes likely constitute the basement of the Late-Paleozoic arc formations and correlate with the Lake Zone in western Mongolia.

  2. Iron fluxes from the shelf regions near the South Shetland Islands in the Drake Passage during the austral-winter 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatta, M.; Measures, C. I.; Selph, K. E.; Zhou, M.; Hiscock, W. T.

    2013-06-01

    Spatial distributions of dissolved iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) and aluminum (Al) in the upper 500 m of the water column near the Antarctic Peninsula (AP) during the 2006 austral-winter are consistent with diagenetically-produced sedimentary sources and are somewhat higher than data obtained in this region during the 2004 austral-summer. In contrast, surface phytoplankton abundances were 6-7 times lower relative to the 2004 austral-summer. Near the South Shetland Islands elevated levels of dissolved Al, Fe and Mn were found corresponding to high loads of resuspended material above the shelf as indicated by the transmissometer signal. Despite these high levels of trace metals, phytoplankton abundances in this area were lower than in the offshore Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) waters. Offshore ACC stations had low concentrations of Fe, but up to five times greater abundance of phytoplankton. The difference in phytoplankton abundance between the regions seems largely driven by light availability, as indicated by mixed layer depths. The elevated trace metal concentrations near King George Island in the Bransfield Strait (BS) correspond to the flow path of the Bransfield Current. This enriched plume can also be seen exiting the BS, between Clarence and Elephant islands into the Ona Basin where it mixes with high nutrient low trace metal concentration ACC waters leading to high productivity in this region and further downstream in the Scotia Sea during the growing season.

  3. P and trace metal contents in biomaterials, soils, sediments and plants in colony of red-footed booby (Sula sula) in the Dongdao Island of South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaodong; Zhao, Sanping; Sun, Liguang; Yin, Xuebin; Xie, Zhouqin; Honghao, Luo; Wang, Yuhong

    2006-10-01

    Concentrations of P and trace metals Zn, Cu, Cd, Pb and Hg in the faeces, bones, eggshells and feathers of seabirds and in the plants, soils and sediments with and without seabird influence on Dongdao Island, South China Sea, were determined and analyzed. Among the seabird biomaterials, the levels of P, Zn, Cu and Cd are the highest in the droppings and several times those in other materials; the Hg concentration is the highest in the feathers; and the Pb content is comparable among these biomaterials. These marked differences indicate different intake-bioaccumulation-elimination pathways for different trace metals. The levels of P, Zn, Cu, Cd and Hg in the plant, soil and sediment samples with the influence of seabird droppings are significantly higher than those in the samples without, and they are significantly correlated with each other. Thus, P, Zn, Cu, Cd and Hg are very likely to have a common source-predominantly bird guano-and the faeces of red-footed booby is an important vector for the flux of nutrient phosphorus and trace metals Zn, Cu, Cd and Hg from marine to island ecosystems on Dongdao Island. PMID:16530247

  4. Circum-Pacific accretion of oceanic terranes to continental blocks: accretion of the Early Permian Dun Mountain ophiolite to the E Gondwana continental margin, South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Alastair

    2016-04-01

    Accretionary orogens, in part, grow as a result of the accretion of oceanic terranes to pre-existing continental blocks, as in the circum-Pacific and central Asian regions. However, the accretionary processes involved remain poorly understood. Here, we consider settings in which oceanic crust formed in a supra-subduction zone setting and later accreted to continental terranes (some, themselves of accretionary origin). Good examples include some Late Cretaceous ophiolites in SE Turkey, the Jurassic Coast Range ophiolite, W USA and the Early Permian Dun Mountain ophiolite of South Island, New Zealand. In the last two cases, the ophiolites are depositionally overlain by coarse clastic sedimentary rocks (e.g. Permian Upukerora Formation of South Island, NZ) that then pass upwards into very thick continental margin fore-arc basin sequences (Great Valley sequence, California; Matai sequence, South Island, NZ). Field observations, together with petrographical and geochemical studies in South Island, NZ, summarised here, provide evidence of terrane accretion processes. In a proposed tectonic model, the Early Permian Dun Mountain ophiolite was created by supra-subduction zone spreading above a W-dipping subduction zone (comparable to the present-day Izu-Bonin arc and fore arc, W Pacific). The SSZ oceanic crust in the New Zealand example is inferred to have included an intra-oceanic magmatic arc, which is no longer exposed (other than within a melange unit in Southland), but which is documented by petrographic and geochemical evidence. An additional subduction zone is likely to have dipped westwards beneath the E Gondwana margin during the Permian. As a result, relatively buoyant Early Permian supra-subduction zone oceanic crust was able to dock with the E Gondwana continental margin, terminating intra-oceanic subduction (although the exact timing is debatable). The amalgamation ('soft collision') was accompanied by crustal extension of the newly accreted oceanic slab, and

  5. The complete mitochondrial genome of the eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus).

    PubMed

    Dodt, William G; McComish, Bennet J; Nilsson, Maria A; Gibb, Gillian C; Penny, David; Phillips, Matthew J

    2016-01-01

    We present the complete mitochondrial genome (accession number: LK995454) of an iconic Australian species, the eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus). The mitogenomic organization is consistent with other marsupials, encoding 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, an origin of light strand replication and a control region or D-loop. No repetitive sequences were detected in the control region. The M. giganteus mitogenome exemplifies a combination of tRNA gene order and structural peculiarities that appear to be unique to marsupials. We present a maximum likelihood phylogeny based on complete mitochondrial protein and RNA coding sequences that confirms the phylogenetic position of the grey kangaroo among macropodids. PMID:25103427

  6. Fluorosis as a probable cause of chronic lameness in free ranging eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus).

    PubMed

    Clarke, Emily; Beveridge, Ian; Slocombe, Ron; Coulson, Graeme

    2006-12-01

    A population of eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) inhabiting heathland and farmland surrounding an aluminum smelter at Portland, Victoria, Australia, exhibited clinical signs of lameness. An investigation was undertaken to determine the cause of this lameness. Hematology, necropsy, histopathology, fecal egg count, total worm count, reproductive status, and the population age range were examined and failed to reveal any additional underlying disease state. The specific problem of lameness was addressed with bone histopathology, radiography, quantitative ultrasonography, microradiography, and multielement analysis of bone ash samples. The significant lesions observed were: osteophytosis of the distal tibia and fibula, tarsal bones, metatarsus IV, and proximal coccygeal vertebrae; osteopenia of the femur, tibia, and metatarsus IV; incisor enamel hypoplasia; stained, uneven, and abnormal teeth wear; abnormal bone matrix mineralization and mottling; increased bone density; and elevated bone fluoride levels. Microradiography of affected kangaroos exhibited "black osteons," which are a known manifestation of fluorosis. Collectively, these lesions were consistent with a diagnosis of fluorosis. PMID:17315432

  7. Late pleistocene Australian marsupial DNA clarifies the affinities of extinct megafaunal kangaroos and wallabies.

    PubMed

    Llamas, Bastien; Brotherton, Paul; Mitchell, Kieren J; Templeton, Jennifer E L; Thomson, Vicki A; Metcalf, Jessica L; Armstrong, Kyle N; Kasper, Marta; Richards, Stephen M; Camens, Aaron B; Lee, Michael S Y; Cooper, Alan

    2015-03-01

    Understanding the evolution of Australia's extinct marsupial megafauna has been hindered by a relatively incomplete fossil record and convergent or highly specialized morphology, which confound phylogenetic analyses. Further, the harsh Australian climate and early date of most megafaunal extinctions (39-52 ka) means that the vast majority of fossil remains are unsuitable for ancient DNA analyses. Here, we apply cross-species DNA capture to fossils from relatively high latitude, high altitude caves in Tasmania. Using low-stringency hybridization and high-throughput sequencing, we were able to retrieve mitochondrial sequences from two extinct megafaunal macropodid species. The two specimens, Simosthenurus occidentalis (giant short-faced kangaroo) and Protemnodon anak (giant wallaby), have been radiocarbon dated to 46-50 and 40-45 ka, respectively. This is significantly older than any Australian fossil that has previously yielded DNA sequence information. Processing the raw sequence data from these samples posed a bioinformatic challenge due to the poor preservation of DNA. We explored several approaches in order to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio in retained sequencing reads. Our findings demonstrate the critical importance of adopting stringent processing criteria when distant outgroups are used as references for mapping highly fragmented DNA. Based on the most stringent nucleotide data sets (879 bp for S. occidentalis and 2,383 bp for P. anak), total-evidence phylogenetic analyses confirm that macropodids consist of three primary lineages: Sthenurines such as Simosthenurus (extinct short-faced kangaroos), the macropodines (all other wallabies and kangaroos), and the enigmatic living banded hare-wallaby Lagostrophus fasciatus (Lagostrophinae). Protemnodon emerges as a close relative of Macropus (large living kangaroos), a position not supported by recent morphological phylogenetic analyses. PMID:25526902

  8. Partitioning the effects of an ecosystem engineer: kangaroo rats control community structure via multiple pathways.

    PubMed

    Prugh, Laura R; Brashares, Justin S

    2012-05-01

    1. Ecosystem engineers impact communities by altering habitat conditions, but they can also have strong effects through consumptive, competitive and other non-engineering pathways. 2. Engineering effects can lead to fundamentally different community dynamics than non-engineering effects, but the relative strengths of these interactions are seldom quantified. 3. We combined structural equation modelling and exclosure experiments to partition the effects of a keystone engineer, the giant kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ingens), on plants, invertebrates and vertebrates in a semi-arid California grassland. 4. We separated the effects of burrow creation from kangaroo rat density and found that kangaroo rats increased the diversity and abundance of other species via both engineering and non-engineering pathways. 5. Engineering was the primary factor structuring plant and small mammal communities, whereas non-engineering effects structured invertebrate communities and increased lizard abundance. 6. These results highlight the importance of the non-engineering effects of ecosystem engineers and shed new light on the multiple pathways by which strong-interactors shape communities. PMID:22098534

  9. Anthelmintic Treatment Does Not Change Foraging Strategies of Female Eastern Grey Kangaroos, Macropus giganteus

    PubMed Central

    Cripps, Jemma K.; Martin, Jennifer K.; Coulson, Graeme

    2016-01-01

    Large mammalian herbivores are commonly infected with gastrointestinal helminths. Heavily parasitised hosts are likely to have increased nutritional requirements and would be predicted to increase their food intake to compensate for costs of being parasitised, but experimental tests of the impacts of these parasites on the foraging efficiency of hosts are lacking, particularly in free-ranging wildlife. We conducted a field experiment on a population of free-ranging eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) to test this prediction, removing nematodes from one group of adult females using an anthelmintic treatment. We then carried out observations before and following treatment to assess the influence of parasites on foraging behaviour. Contrary to our predictions, the manipulation of parasite burdens did not result in changes in any of the key foraging variables we measured. Our results suggest that despite carrying large burdens of gastrointestinal parasites, the foraging strategy of female kangaroos is likely be driven by factors unrelated to parasitism, and that kangaroos in high nutritional environments may be able acquire sufficient nutrients to offset the costs of parasitism. We conclude that the drivers of forage intake likely differ between domesticated and free-ranging herbivores, and that free-ranging hosts are likely more resilient to parasitism. PMID:26784582

  10. Extinction implications of a chenopod browse diet for a giant Pleistocene kangaroo

    PubMed Central

    Prideaux, Gavin J.; Ayliffe, Linda K.; DeSantis, Larisa R. G.; Schubert, Blaine W.; Murray, Peter F.; Gagan, Michael K.; Cerling, Thure E.

    2009-01-01

    Kangaroos are the world's most diverse group of herbivorous marsupials. Following late-Miocene intensification of aridity and seasonality, they radiated across Australia, becoming the continent's ecological equivalents of the artiodactyl ungulates elsewhere. Their diversity peaked during the Pleistocene, but by approximately 45,000 years ago, 90% of larger kangaroos were extinct, along with a range of other giant species. Resolving whether climate change or human arrival was the principal extinction cause remains highly contentious. Here we combine craniodental morphology, stable-isotopic, and dental microwear data to reveal that the largest-ever kangaroo, Procoptodon goliah, was a chenopod browse specialist, which may have had a preference for Atriplex (saltbushes), one of a few dicots using the C4 photosynthetic pathway. Furthermore, oxygen isotope signatures of P. goliah tooth enamel show that it drank more in low-rainfall areas than its grazing contemporaries, similar to modern saltbush feeders. Saltbushes and chenopod shrublands in general are poorly flammable, so landscape burning by humans is unlikely to have caused a reduction in fodder driving the species to extinction. Aridity is discounted as a primary cause because P. goliah evolved in response to increased aridity and disappeared during an interval wetter than many it survived earlier. Hunting by humans, who were also bound to water, may have been a more decisive factor in the extinction of this giant marsupial. PMID:19556539

  11. Ophthalmic examination findings in a captive colony of western gray kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus).

    PubMed

    Labelle, Amber L; Low, Martha; Hamor, Ralph E; Breaux, Carrie B; Langan, Jennifer N; Zarfoss, Mitzi K; Zachariah, Trevor T

    2010-09-01

    Complete ophthalmic examination of a mob of western gray kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus) was performed under chemical restraint. Examination included intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement by rebound and applanation tonometry, fluorescein staining, corneal diameter measurement, slit-lamp biomicroscopy and indirect funduscopy. The corneal diameters had a mean of 19.52 mm, SD 2.16 mm, 95% confidence interval (CI) 18.71-20.32 mm. Ocular abnormalities were noted in 4/8 (50%) of examined kangaroos. Intraocular pressure as estimated by rebound tonometry was 9.00 mm Hg with a 25-75% quartile range of 6.5-10.75 mm Hg and a minimum-maximum range of 5.00-23.00 mm Hg. Intraocular pressure as estimated by applanation tonometry was 11.50 mm Hg with a 25-75% quartile range of 10.00-17.00 mm Hg and a minimum-maximum range of 9.00-20.00 mm Hg. This is the first report of ocular examination findings in a mob of captive western gray kangaroos and provides ranges and values for tonometry and corneal diameter. PMID:20945644

  12. Anthelmintic Treatment Does Not Change Foraging Strategies of Female Eastern Grey Kangaroos, Macropus giganteus.

    PubMed

    Cripps, Jemma K; Martin, Jennifer K; Coulson, Graeme

    2016-01-01

    Large mammalian herbivores are commonly infected with gastrointestinal helminths. Heavily parasitised hosts are likely to have increased nutritional requirements and would be predicted to increase their food intake to compensate for costs of being parasitised, but experimental tests of the impacts of these parasites on the foraging efficiency of hosts are lacking, particularly in free-ranging wildlife. We conducted a field experiment on a population of free-ranging eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) to test this prediction, removing nematodes from one group of adult females using an anthelmintic treatment. We then carried out observations before and following treatment to assess the influence of parasites on foraging behaviour. Contrary to our predictions, the manipulation of parasite burdens did not result in changes in any of the key foraging variables we measured. Our results suggest that despite carrying large burdens of gastrointestinal parasites, the foraging strategy of female kangaroos is likely be driven by factors unrelated to parasitism, and that kangaroos in high nutritional environments may be able acquire sufficient nutrients to offset the costs of parasitism. We conclude that the drivers of forage intake likely differ between domesticated and free-ranging herbivores, and that free-ranging hosts are likely more resilient to parasitism. PMID:26784582

  13. Millennial-scale precipitation variability over Easter Island (South Pacific) during MIS 3: inter-hemispheric teleconnections with North Atlantic abrupt cold events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margalef, O.; Cacho, I.; Pla-Rabes, S.; Cañellas-Boltà, N.; Pueyo, J. J.; Sáez, A.; Pena, L. D.; Valero-Garcés, B. L.; Rull, V.; Giralt, S.

    2015-04-01

    Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS 3, 59.4-27.8 kyr BP) is characterized by the occurrence of rapid millennial-scale climate oscillations known as Dansgaard-Oeschger cycles (DO) and by abrupt cooling events in the North Atlantic known as Heinrich events. Although both the timing and dynamics of these events have been broadly explored in North Atlantic records, the response of the tropical and subtropical latitudes to these rapid climatic excursions, particularly in the Southern Hemisphere, still remains unclear. The Rano Aroi peat record (Easter Island, 27° S) provides a unique opportunity to understand atmospheric and oceanic changes in the South Pacific during these DO cycles because of its singular location, which is influenced by the South Pacific Anticyclone (SPA), the Southern Westerlies (SW), and the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) linked to the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ). The Rano Aroi sequence records 6 major events of enhanced precipitation between 38 and 65 kyr BP. These events are compared with other hydrological records from the tropical and subtropical band supporting a coherent regional picture, with the dominance of humid conditions in Southern Hemisphere tropical band during Heinrich Stadials (HS) 5, 5a and 6 and other Stadials while dry conditions prevailed in the Northern tropics. This antiphased hydrological pattern between hemispheres has been attributed to ITCZ migration, which in turn might be associated with an eastward expansion of the SPCZ storm track, leading to an increased intensity of cyclogenic storms reaching Easter Island. Low Pacific Sea Surface Temperature (SST) gradients across the Equator were coincident with the here-defined Rano Aroi humid events and consistent with a reorganization of Southern Pacific atmospheric and oceanic circulation also at higher latitudes during Heinrich and Dansgaard-Oeschger stadials.

  14. The Mt. Ochi melange (South Evvia Island, Greece): a case study for HP metamorphism and syn-convergent exhumation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moustaka, Eleni; Soukis, Konstantinos; Huet, Benjamin; Lozios, Stylianos; Magganas, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    The Attic-Cycladic complex (central Aegean Sea, Greece) experienced profound extension since at least the Oligo-Miocene boundary during which the previously thickened crust was reworked by a series of detachments forming the NE directed North Cycladic Detachment System (NCDS) and the SSW directed West Cycladic Detachment System (WCDS). South Evvia Island is located at the northwestern part of the Attic Cycladic complex linking the highly thinned and polymetamorphosed central part of the complex with mainland Greece. Furthermore, greenschists-facies retrograde metamorphism has only partially overprinted the HP mineral assemblages. Consequently, it is an ideal area to study tectonic processes associated with subduction, HP metamorphism and subsequent exhumation from eclogitic depths to the surface. Geological mapping in 1:2:000 scale revealed that the tectonostratigraphy of Mt. Ochi includes three distinct units all metamorphosed in HP conditions followed by greenschist facies overprint. These units are from top to bottom a) the Ochi Unit, a thick metavolcanosedimentary sequence with some intensely folded cipoline marble intercalations and isolated occurrences of metabasic rocks b) the ophiolitic mélange (metagabbros, metawherlites, peridotites, metabasites within a metasedimentary+serpentinite matrix) and c) the lowermost Styra Unit, a cipoline marble-dominated unit with thin mica schists and rare quartzitic layers often boudinaged. The thrust fault that was responsible for the juxtaposition of these three units acted in an early stage during HP metamorphism and it was isoclinally folded and sheared by the following syn-metamorphic deformation events. Detailed structural study in meso- and microscopic scale combined with petrological and geochemical analyses of the Mt Ochi rocks led to the distinction of at least three syn-metamorphic and two post-metamorphic deformation episodes that affected all units. The oldest structure identified is a relic foliation formed

  15. Providing University Education in Physical Geography across the South Pacific Islands: Multi-Modal Course Delivery and Student Grade Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, James P.; Poole, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Enormous distances across the vast South Pacific hinder student access to the main Fiji campus of the regional tertiary education provider, the University of the South Pacific (USP). Fortunately, USP has been a pioneer in distance education (DE) and promotes multi-modal delivery of programmes. Geography has embraced DE, but doubts remain about…

  16. Derivation of soil screening thresholds to protect chisel-toothed kangaroo rat from uranium mine waste in northern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinck, Jo E.; Linder, Greg L.; Otton, James K.; Finger, Susan E.; Little, Edward E.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2013-01-01

    Chemical data from soil and weathered waste material samples collected from five uranium mines north of the Grand Canyon (three reclaimed, one mined but not reclaimed, and one never mined) were used in a screening-level risk analysis for the Arizona chisel-toothed kangaroo rat (Dipodomys microps leucotis); risks from radiation exposure were not evaluated. Dietary toxicity reference values were used to estimate soil-screening thresholds presenting risk to kangaroo rats. Sensitivity analyses indicated that body weight critically affected outcomes of exposed-dose calculations; juvenile kangaroo rats were more sensitive to the inorganic constituent toxicities than adult kangaroo rats. Species-specific soil-screening thresholds were derived for arsenic (137 mg/kg), cadmium (16 mg/kg), copper (1,461 mg/kg), lead (1,143 mg/kg), nickel (771 mg/kg), thallium (1.3 mg/kg), uranium (1,513 mg/kg), and zinc (731 mg/kg) using toxicity reference values that incorporate expected chronic field exposures. Inorganic contaminants in soils within and near the mine areas generally posed minimal risk to kangaroo rats. Most exceedances of soil thresholds were for arsenic and thallium and were associated with weathered mine wastes.

  17. A fall land bird migration across the South China Sea from Indo-China to the Greater Sunda Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.; Kepler, A.K.; Kepler, C.B.

    1994-01-01

    We encountered 150 land birds representing 14 families along the cruise track of the Soviet Oceanographic Research Vessel AKADEMlK KOROLEV in the South China Sea. We saw most of these birds during a 3 -day period in a small area c. 350 km southeast of the southern tip of the Indo-China peninsula. These observations suggest that a significant land bird migration corridor crosses the South China Sea from Viet Nam to Borneo.

  18. Persistent Organic Pollutants in albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga) from Reunion Island (Southwest Indian Ocean) and South Africa in relation to biological and trophic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Munschy, C; Bodin, N; Potier, M; Héas-Moisan, K; Pollono, C; Degroote, M; West, W; Hollanda, S J; Puech, A; Bourjea, J; Nikolic, N

    2016-07-01

    The contamination of albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga) by Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), namely polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT), was investigated in individuals collected from Reunion Island (RI) and South Africa's (SA) southern coastlines in 2013, in relation to biological parameters and feeding ecology. The results showed lower PCB and DDT concentrations than those previously reported in various tuna species worldwide. A predominance of DDTs over PCBs was revealed, reflecting continuing inputs of DDT. Tuna collected from SA exhibited higher contamination levels than those from RI, related to higher dietary inputs and higher total lipid content. Greater variability in contamination levels and profiles was identified in tuna from RI, explained by a higher diversity of prey and more individualistic foraging behaviour. PCB and DDT contamination levels and profiles varied significantly in tuna from the two investigated areas, probably reflecting exposure to different sources of contamination. PMID:27084988

  19. Long-term prediction of groundwater recharge by climate changes in the Gosan agricultural area, Jeju Island of South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koh, E. H.; Kaown, D.; Lee, K. K.

    2015-12-01

    Evaluation of long-term changes in groundwater recharge due to the climate changes is needed to secure the sustainable use of grounwater. In Jeju Island, which is composed of various formations of porous volcanic rocks, groundwater is a sole resource for water supply because of its hydrogeological characteristics. Therefore, preservation of the groundwater resource is an essential issue in the island. Prior to establishing a management plan for maintaining the groundwater resources in Jeju Island, long-term estimation of influencing factors are necessary. The Gosan study area is located in the western part of the island, where extensive agricultural activity has been performed and groundwater is a main source of supply for watering crops. In this study, we estimated the recharge changes for 100 years (2000~2099) in the Gosan agricultural area based on two climate change scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5) by using the HELP3 (Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance) program. The estimated component of water budget in this study are as follows (averaged in 2000~2014), precipitation: 1.28x108 m3/yr; ET: 6.49x107 m3/yr; runoff: 5.84x106 m3/yr; and recharge: 5.27x107 m3/yr. Over the 100 years of the estimated period, precipitation will have a highest increase among other meteorological parameters to be 6.16x109 m3 (RCP4.5) and 6.34 x109 m3 (RCP8.5). Increase in recharge by RCP8.5 scenario (2.75 x109 m3) will be less than that by RCP4.5 (2.77x109 m3) because ET by RCP 8.5 (ET: 3.34x109 m3; runoff: 2.27x108 m3) is estimated to be higher than ET by RCP4.5 (ET: 3.15x109 m3; runoff: 2.35x108 m3). Jeju volcanic island is known to have higher recharge proportions to the precipitation due to the distributed highly porous volcanic rocks. Therefore, variations in precipitation by climate changes would greatly affect the groundwater resource of the island. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by the research project of "Advanced Technology for

  20. Hybridization and back-crossing in giant petrels (Macronectes giganteus and M. halli) at Bird Island, South Georgia, and a summary of hybridization in seabirds.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ruth M; Techow, N M S Mareile; Wood, Andrew G; Phillips, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Hybridization in natural populations provides an opportunity to study the evolutionary processes that shape divergence and genetic isolation of species. The emergence of pre-mating barriers is often the precursor to complete reproductive isolation. However, in recently diverged species, pre-mating barriers may be incomplete, leading to hybridization between seemingly distinct taxa. Here we report results of a long-term study at Bird Island, South Georgia, of the extent of hybridization, mate fidelity, timing of breeding and breeding success in mixed and conspecific pairs of the sibling species, Macronectes halli (northern giant petrel) and M. giganteus (southern giant petrel). The proportion of mixed-species pairs varied annually from 0.4-2.4% (mean of 1.5%), and showed no linear trend with time. Mean laying date in mixed-species pairs tended to be later than in northern giant petrel, and always earlier than in southern giant petrel pairs, and their breeding success (15.6%) was lower than that of conspecific pairs. By comparison, mixed-species pairs at both Marion and Macquarie islands always failed before hatching. Histories of birds in mixed-species pairs at Bird Island were variable; some bred previously or subsequently with a conspecific partner, others subsequently with a different allospecific partner, and some mixed-species pairs remained together for multiple seasons. We also report the first verified back-crossing of a hybrid giant petrel with a female northern giant petrel. We discuss the potential causes and evolutionary consequences of hybridization and back-crossing in giant petrels and summarize the incidence of back-crossing in other seabird species. PMID:25815478

  1. Regional hard coral distribution within geomorphic and reef flat ecological zones determined by satellite imagery of the Xisha Islands, South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Xiuling; Su, Fenzhen; Zhao, Huanting; Zhang, Junjue; Wang, Qi; Wu, Di

    2016-06-01

    Coral reefs in the Xisha Islands (also known as the Paracel Islands in English), South China Sea, have experienced dramatic declines in coral cover. However, the current regional scale hard coral distribution of geomorphic and ecological zones, essential for reefs management in the context of global warming and ocean acidification, is not well documented. We analyzed data from field surveys, Landsat-8 and GF-1 images to map the distribution of hard coral within geomorphic zones and reef flat ecological zones. In situ surveys conducted in June 2014 on nine reefs provided a complete picture of reef status with regard to live coral diversity, evenness of coral cover and reef health (live versus dead cover) for the Xisha Islands. Mean coral cover was 12.5% in 2014 and damaged reefs seemed to show signs of recovery. Coral cover in sheltered habitats such as lagoon patch reefs and biotic dense zones of reef flats was higher, but there were large regional differences and low diversity. In contrast, the more exposed reef slopes had high coral diversity, along with high and more equal distributions of coral cover. Mean hard coral cover of other zones was <10%. The total Xisha reef system was estimated to cover 1 060 km2, and the emergent reefs covered ~787 m2. Hard corals of emergent reefs were considered to cover 97 km2. The biotic dense zone of the reef flat was a very common zone on all simple atolls, especially the broader northern reef flats. The total cover of live and dead coral can reach above 70% in this zone, showing an equilibrium between live and dead coral as opposed to coral and algae. This information regarding the spatial distribution of hard coral can support and inform the management of Xisha reef ecosystems.

  2. Paleomagnetism from Deception Island (South Shetlands archipelago, Antarctica), new insights into the interpretation of the volcanic evolution using a geomagnetic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliva-Urcia, B.; Gil-Peña, I.; Maestro, A.; López-Martínez, J.; Galindo-Zaldívar, J.; Soto, R.; Gil-Imaz, A.; Rey, J.; Pueyo, O.

    2016-07-01

    Deception Island shows the most recent exposed active volcanism in the northern boundary of the Bransfield Trough. The succession of the volcanic sequence in the island is broadly divided into pre- and post-caldera collapse units although a well-constrained chronological identification of the well-defined successive volcanic episodes is still needed. A new paleomagnetic investigation was carried out on 157 samples grouped in 20 sites from the volcanic deposits of Deception Island (South Shetlands archipelago, Antarctic Peninsula region) distributed in: (1) volcanic breccia (3 sites) and lavas (2 sites) prior to the caldera collapse; (2) lavas emplaced after the caldera collapse (10 sites); and (3) dikes cutting pre- and the lowermost post-caldera collapse units (5 sites). The information revealed by paleomagnetism provides new data about the evolution of the multi-episodic volcanic edifice of this Quaternary volcano, suggesting that the present-day position of the volcanic materials is close to their original emplacement position. The new data have been combined with previous paleomagnetic results in order to tentatively propose an age when comparing the paleomagnetic data with a global geomagnetic model. Despite the uncertainties in the use of averaged paleomagnetic data per volcanic units, the new data in combination with tephra occurrences noted elsewhere in the region suggest that the pre-caldera units (F1 and F2) erupted before 12,000 year BC, the caldera collapse took place at about 8300 year BC, and post-caldera units S1 and S2 are younger than 2000 year BC.

  3. Paleomagnetism from Deception Island (South Shetlands archipelago, Antarctica), new insights into the interpretation of the volcanic evolution using a geomagnetic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliva-Urcia, B.; Gil-Peña, I.; Maestro, A.; López-Martínez, J.; Galindo-Zaldívar, J.; Soto, R.; Gil-Imaz, A.; Rey, J.; Pueyo, O.

    2015-10-01

    Deception Island shows the most recent exposed active volcanism in the northern boundary of the Bransfield Trough. The succession of the volcanic sequence in the island is broadly divided into pre- and post-caldera collapse units although a well-constrained chronological identification of the well-defined successive volcanic episodes is still needed. A new paleomagnetic investigation was carried out on 157 samples grouped in 20 sites from the volcanic deposits of Deception Island (South Shetlands archipelago, Antarctic Peninsula region) distributed in: (1) volcanic breccia (3 sites) and lavas (2 sites) prior to the caldera collapse; (2) lavas emplaced after the caldera collapse (10 sites); and (3) dikes cutting pre- and the lowermost post-caldera collapse units (5 sites). The information revealed by paleomagnetism provides new data about the evolution of the multi-episodic volcanic edifice of this Quaternary volcano, suggesting that the present-day position of the volcanic materials is close to their original emplacement position. The new data have been combined with previous paleomagnetic results in order to tentatively propose an age when comparing the paleomagnetic data with a global geomagnetic model. Despite the uncertainties in the use of averaged paleomagnetic data per volcanic units, the new data in combination with tephra occurrences noted elsewhere in the region suggest that the pre-caldera units (F1 and F2) erupted before 12,000 year BC, the caldera collapse took place at about 8300 year BC, and post-caldera units S1 and S2 are younger than 2000 year BC.

  4. Hybridization and Back-Crossing in Giant Petrels (Macronectes giganteus and M. halli) at Bird Island, South Georgia, and a Summary of Hybridization in Seabirds

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ruth M.; Techow, N. M. S. Mareile; Wood, Andrew G.; Phillips, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Hybridization in natural populations provides an opportunity to study the evolutionary processes that shape divergence and genetic isolation of species. The emergence of pre-mating barriers is often the precursor to complete reproductive isolation. However, in recently diverged species, pre-mating barriers may be incomplete, leading to hybridization between seemingly distinct taxa. Here we report results of a long-term study at Bird Island, South Georgia, of the extent of hybridization, mate fidelity, timing of breeding and breeding success in mixed and conspecific pairs of the sibling species, Macronectes halli (northern giant petrel) and M. giganteus (southern giant petrel). The proportion of mixed-species pairs varied annually from 0.4–2.4% (mean of 1.5%), and showed no linear trend with time. Mean laying date in mixed-species pairs tended to be later than in northern giant petrel, and always earlier than in southern giant petrel pairs, and their breeding success (15.6%) was lower than that of conspecific pairs. By comparison, mixed-species pairs at both Marion and Macquarie islands always failed before hatching. Histories of birds in mixed-species pairs at Bird Island were variable; some bred previously or subsequently with a conspecific partner, others subsequently with a different allospecific partner, and some mixed-species pairs remained together for multiple seasons. We also report the first verified back-crossing of a hybrid giant petrel with a female northern giant petrel. We discuss the potential causes and evolutionary consequences of hybridization and back-crossing in giant petrels and summarize the incidence of back-crossing in other seabird species. PMID:25815478

  5. Testing models of speciation from genome sequences: divergence and asymmetric admixture in Island South-East Asian Sus species during the Plio-Pleistocene climatic fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Frantz, Laurent A F; Madsen, Ole; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Groenen, Martien A M; Lohse, Konrad

    2014-11-01

    In many temperate regions, ice ages promoted range contractions into refugia resulting in divergence (and potentially speciation), while warmer periods led to range expansions and hybridization. However, the impact these climatic oscillations had in many parts of the tropics remains elusive. Here, we investigate this issue using genome sequences of three pig (Sus) species, two of which are found on islands of the Sunda-shelf shallow seas in Island South-East Asia (ISEA). A previous study revealed signatures of interspecific admixture between these Sus species (Genome biology, 14, 2013, R107). However, the timing, directionality and extent of this admixture remain unknown. Here, we use a likelihood-based model comparison to more finely resolve this admixture history and test whether it was mediated by humans or occurred naturally. Our analyses suggest that interspecific admixture between Sunda-shelf species was most likely asymmetric and occurred long before the arrival of humans in the region. More precisely, we show that these species diverged during the late Pliocene but around 23% of their genomes have been affected by admixture during the later Pleistocene climatic transition. In addition, we show that our method provides a significant improvement over D-statistics which are uninformative about the direction of admixture. PMID:25294645

  6. Testing models of speciation from genome sequences: divergence and asymmetric admixture in Island South-East Asian Sus species during the Plio-Pleistocene climatic fluctuations

    PubMed Central

    Frantz, Laurent A F; Madsen, Ole; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Groenen, Martien A M; Lohse, Konrad

    2014-01-01

    In many temperate regions, ice ages promoted range contractions into refugia resulting in divergence (and potentially speciation), while warmer periods led to range expansions and hybridization. However, the impact these climatic oscillations had in many parts of the tropics remains elusive. Here, we investigate this issue using genome sequences of three pig (Sus) species, two of which are found on islands of the Sunda-shelf shallow seas in Island South-East Asia (ISEA). A previous study revealed signatures of interspecific admixture between these Sus species (Genome biology,14, 2013, R107). However, the timing, directionality and extent of this admixture remain unknown. Here, we use a likelihood-based model comparison to more finely resolve this admixture history and test whether it was mediated by humans or occurred naturally. Our analyses suggest that interspecific admixture between Sunda-shelf species was most likely asymmetric and occurred long before the arrival of humans in the region. More precisely, we show that these species diverged during the late Pliocene but around 23% of their genomes have been affected by admixture during the later Pleistocene climatic transition. In addition, we show that our method provides a significant improvement over D-statistics which are uninformative about the direction of admixture. PMID:25294645

  7. Shore platform development on an uplifting limestone island over multiple sea-level cycles, Niue, South Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, David M.; Marsters, T. Helene; Woods, Josephine L. D.; Woodroffe, Colin D.

    2012-03-01

    Niue is an uplifted limestone island, which preserves an atoll morphology with a sequence of terraces around its outer margin. A modern terrace fringes much of the island and this paper examines the extent to which this terrace can be considered accretionary and constructed by coral and coralline algae, or erosional and truncated by those processes that form shore platforms. The occurrence of Pleistocene limestone outcropping across this terrace and the continuation of caves and other karst features, dissecting the sub-aerial limestones, onto the forereef indicate the overall significance of erosion. At present live coral cover is restricted to isolated colonies growing in grooves, potholes and karstic channels eroded into the modern terrace surface. Coralline algae coat the outer margin of this terrace, and also veneer prominent surf benches that occur on the windward shore, 1-2 m above the terrace surface. Terrace evolution on Niue therefore appears to be primarily erosional in origin. There is little accommodation space for reef growth and, as a result, accretional fringing reefs are absent around most of the island. Erosional processes have also dominated landscape evolution for at least the past few eustatic cycles. Fringing reef growth is absent or severely restricted during the last interglacial and occurs as sporadic small reefs on the seaward margin of an erosional terrace during the penultimate interglacial. The development of terrace features in uplifting reef settings does not necessarily originate through accretional reef processes and may in fact be entirely erosional. Although reef terraces are frequently depositional in other settings, those present on Niue indicate a predominance of erosion, indicating the need to discriminate emergent terraces in terms of the extent to which they are erosional or accretionary when using such features to reconstruct island palaeoenvironments.

  8. Cladistic assessment of subtribal affinities within the tribe Moriomorphini with description of Rossjoycea glacialis, gen. n. and sp. n. from the South Island, and revision of Meonochilus Liebherr and Marris from the North Island, New Zealand (Coleoptera, Carabidae).

    PubMed

    Liebherr, James K

    2011-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships within the tribe Moriomorphini Sloane, 1890 are analyzed cladistically based on 75 morphological characters and 21 ingroup terminal taxa rooted at a Trechus obtusus Erichson outgroup. Based on the resultant cladistic relationships, two subtribes-Moriomorphina and Amblytelina Blackburn, 1892-are recognized, with the following new synonymies proposed: Meonides Sloane, 1898 = Amblytelina (NEW SYNONYMY); Tropopterides Sloane, 1898 = Amblytelina (NEW SYNONYMY); Mecyclothoracitae Jeannel, 1940 = Amblytelina (NEW SYNONYMY). Monophyly of Moriomorphina is based on presence of elongate, parallel-sided and glabrous to nearly glabrous male parameres, whereas Amblytelina are defined most broadly by possession of conchoid parameres with narrowed, setose apices, subtending a clade defined by a more derived parameral configuration whereby elongate styloid parameres terminate in a whip-like apical extension. Representatives of all New Zealand moriomorphine genera are included in the analysis, with cladistic results necessitating description of Rossjoycea glacialis, gen. n. and sp. n., known from a single locality near the Franz Josef Glacier, Westland, South Island, New Zealand. Monophyly of Meonochilus Liebherr and Marris, 2009 is demonstrated, and its six species are taxonomically revised: Meonochilus amplipennis (Broun), Meonochilus eplicatus (Broun), Meonochilus placens (Broun), Meonochilus bellorum, sp. n., Meonochilus rectus, sp. n., and Meonochilus spiculatus, sp. n. Geographic restriction of Meonochilus to the North Island of New Zealand, coupled with its sister-group status to an Australian-based Amblytelus Erichson-Mecyclothorax Sharp clade reinforce the interpretation that Meonochilus was isolated in New Zealand by vicariance along the Norfolk Ridge, subsequent to New Zealand's initial Cretaceous isolation from Tasmania and southeastern Australia via opening of the Tasman Sea. PMID:22371667

  9. Cladistic assessment of subtribal affinities within the tribe Moriomorphini with description of Rossjoycea glacialis, gen. n. and sp. n. from the South Island, and revision of Meonochilus Liebherr and Marris from the North Island, New Zealand (Coleoptera, Carabidae)

    PubMed Central

    Liebherr, James K.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Phylogenetic relationships within the tribe Moriomorphini Sloane, 1890 are analyzed cladistically based on 75 morphological characters and 21 ingroup terminal taxa rooted at a Trechus obtusus Erichson outgroup. Based on the resultant cladistic relationships, two subtribes–Moriomorphina and Amblytelina Blackburn, 1892–are recognized, with the following new synonymies proposed: Meonides Sloane, 1898 = Amblytelina (NEW SYNONYMY); Tropopterides Sloane, 1898 = Amblytelina (NEW SYNONYMY); Mecyclothoracitae Jeannel, 1940 = Amblytelina (NEW SYNONYMY). Monophyly of Moriomorphina is based on presence of elongate, parallel-sided and glabrous to nearly glabrous male parameres, whereas Amblytelina are defined most broadly by possession of conchoid parameres with narrowed, setose apices, subtending a clade defined by a more derived parameral configuration whereby elongate styloid parameres terminate in a whip-like apical extension. Representatives of all New Zealand moriomorphine genera are included in the analysis, with cladistic results necessitating description of Rossjoycea glacialis, gen. n. and sp. n., known from a single locality near the Franz Josef Glacier, Westland, South Island, New Zealand. Monophyly of Meonochilus Liebherr and Marris, 2009 is demonstrated, and its six species are taxonomically revised: Meonochilus amplipennis (Broun), Meonochilus eplicatus (Broun), Meonochilus placens (Broun), Meonochilus bellorum, sp. n., Meonochilus rectus, sp. n., and Meonochilus spiculatus, sp. n. Geographic restriction of Meonochilus to the North Island of New Zealand, coupled with its sister-group status to an Australian-based Amblytelus Erichson-Mecyclothorax Sharp clade reinforce the interpretation that Meonochilus was isolated in New Zealand by vicariance along the Norfolk Ridge, subsequent to New Zealand’s initial Cretaceous isolation from Tasmania and southeastern Australia via opening of the Tasman Sea. PMID:22371667

  10. Southernmost Andes and South Georgia Island, North Scotia Ridge: Zircon U-Pb and muscovite {40Ar }/{39Ar } age constraints on tectonic evolution of Southwestern Gondwanaland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukasa, Samuel B.; Dalziel, Ian W. D.

    1996-11-01

    Zircon U-Pb and muscovite {40Ar }/{39Ar } isotopic ages have been determined on rocks from the southernmost Andes and South Georgia Island, North Scotia Ridge, to provide absolute time constraints on the kinematic evolution of southwestern Gondwanaland, until now known mainly from stratigraphic relations. The U-Pb systematics of four zircon fractions from one sample show that proto-marginal basin magmatism in the northern Scotia arc, creating the peraluminous Darwin granite suite and submarine rhyolite sequences of the Tobifera Formation, had begun by the Middle Jurassic (164.1 ± 1.7 Ma). Seven zircon fractions from two other Darwin granites are discordant with non-linear patterns, suggesting a complex history of inheritances and Pb loss. Reference lines drawn through these points on concordia diagrams give upper intercept ages of ca. 1500 Ma, interpreted as a minimum age for the inherited zircon component. This component is believed to have been derived from sedimentary rocks in the Gondwanaland margin accretionary wedge that forms the basement of the region, or else directly from the cratonic "back stop" of that wedge. Ophiolitic remnants of the Rocas Verdes marginal basin preserved in the Larsen Harbour complex on South Georgia yield the first clear evidence that Gondwanaland fragmentation had resulted in the formation of oceanic crust in the Weddell Sea region by the Late Jurassic (150 ± 1 Ma). The geographic pattern in the observed age range of 8 to 13 million years in these ophiolitic materials, while not definitive, is in keeping with propagation of the marginal basin floor northwestward from South Georgia Island to the Sarmiento Complex in southern Chile. Rocks of the Beagle granite suite, emplaced post-tectonically within the uplifted marginal basin floor, have complex zircon U-Pb systematics with gross discordances dominated by inheritances in some samples and Pb loss in others. Of eleven samples processed, only two had sufficient amounts of zircon for

  11. Seasonal evolution of the upper-ocean adjacent to the South Orkney Islands, Southern Ocean: Results from a “lazy biological mooring”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meredith, Michael P.; Nicholls, Keith W.; Renfrew, Ian A.; Boehme, Lars; Biuw, Martin; Fedak, Mike

    2011-07-01

    A serendipitous >8-month time series of hydrographic properties was obtained from the vicinity of the South Orkney Islands, Southern Ocean, by tagging a southern elephant seal ( Mirounga leonina) on Signy Island with a Conductivity-Temperature-Depth/Satellite-Relay Data Logger (CTD-SRDL) in March 2007. Such a time series (including data from the austral autumn and winter) would have been extremely difficult to obtain via other means, and it illustrates with unprecedented temporal resolution the seasonal progression of upper-ocean water mass properties and stratification at this location. Sea ice production values of around 0.15-0.4 m month -1 for April to July were inferred from the progression of salinity, with significant levels still in September (around 0.2 m month -1). However, these values presume that advective processes have negligible effect on the salinity changes observed locally; this presumption is seen to be inappropriate in this case, and it is argued that the ice production rates inferred are better considered as "smeared averages" for the region of the northwestern Weddell Sea upstream from the South Orkneys. The impact of such advective effects is illustrated by contrasting the observed hydrographic series with the output of a one-dimensional model of the upper-ocean forced with local fluxes. It is found that the difference in magnitude between local (modelled) and regional (inferred) ice production is significant, with estimates differing by around a factor of two. A halo of markedly low sea ice concentration around the South Orkneys during the austral winter offers at least a partial explanation for this, since it enabled stronger atmosphere/ocean fluxes to persist and hence stronger ice production to prevail locally compared with the upstream region. The year of data collection was an El Niño year, and it is well-established that this phenomenon can impact strongly on the surface ocean and ice field in this sector of the Southern Ocean, thus

  12. Lagoonal reef accretion and holocene sea-level history from three atolls in the Cook Islands, Central South Pacific

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, S.C.; Hein, J.R.

    2005-01-01

    Radiocarbon ages of corals from cores collected at nine drill sites in the lagoons of three atolls (Pukapuka, Rakahanga, Aitutaki, Cook Islands) provide a history of lagoon sedimentation in response to Holocene sea-level rise and stabilization. Holocene lagoonal reefs were established between 8700 and 7800 years B.P. on 130,000-200,000 year-old reef platforms that are presently 7 to 22 m below the floor of the lagoons. Comparison of radiocarbon ages of the deepest corals to published sea-level curves indicate that Holocene reefs colonized these substrates rapidly (Islands is consistent with other oceanic islands. An assessment of the response of reef development to sea-level change during the Holocene provides a baseline to predict how future sea-level changes may affect the morphology of modern reefs.

  13. Impact of early Polynesian occupation on the land snail fauna of Henderson Island, Pitcairn group (South Pacific)

    PubMed Central

    Preece, R. C.

    1998-01-01

    Henderson Island, an uninhabited raised coral atoll in the Pitcairn group, has recently been designated a World Heritage Site because of its unique and relatively undisturbed ecosystem. The island is believed to have been uplifted and subaerially exposed during the last 275 kyr. This therefore provides the maximum age for the terrestrial biota that includes several endemic taxa. Henderson today supports 16 strictly terrestrial species of snails, about half of which are endemic. Analyses of sediments beneath Polynesian occupation horizons dated between the 11th and 17th centuries AD, have yielded 11 species of land snail present in the modern fauna, together with at least six (and possibly as many as eight) further species that no longer occur on the island. These extinct taxa are illustrated and formal descriptions provided for five (Pleuropoma hendersoni, Orobophana carinacosta, Minidonta macromphalus, Philonesia pyramidalis, P. weisleri); a sixth, known only from broken shells, appears to belong to the genus Hiona. The two remaining taxa are 'tornatellinids' that have not been recognized among the modern fauna. Radiocarbon dates from bones of associated extinct land birds confirm their occurrence on Henderson before the first signs of Polynesian settlement. The extinction of these taxa seems to coincide with the Polynesian occupation and evidence for large-scale burning, at least around parts of the plateau margin, suggests that their demise can be linked with habitat destruction. At least three species, Gastrocopta pediculus, Lamellidea oblonga and Pupisoma orcula, first appear in Polynesian occupation horizons. Their status as prehistoric introductions is therefore confirmed but G. pediculus no longer lives on Henderson. Pacificella variabilis, Tornatellides oblongus parvulus and Elasmias sp., all previously thought to have been other prehistoric introductions to Henderson, were recovered from pre-Polynesian levels and are therefore native.

  14. The physics of articulated toys—a jumping and rotating kangaroo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güémez, J.; Fiolhais, M.

    2014-07-01

    We describe the physics of an articulated toy with an internal source of energy provided by a spiral spring. The toy is a funny low cost kangaroo which jumps and rotates. The study consists of mechanical and thermodynamical analyses that make use of the Newton and centre of mass equations, the rotational equations and the first law of thermodynamics. This amazing toy provides a nice demonstrative example of how new physics insights can be brought about when links with thermodynamics are established in the study of mechanical systems.

  15. Phylogenetic analysis of New World screwworm fly, Cochliomyia hominivorax, suggests genetic isolation of some Caribbean island populations following colonization from South America.

    PubMed

    McDonagh, L; García, R; Stevens, J R

    2009-06-01

    Larval infestations of the New World screwworm (NWS) fly, Cochliomyia hominivorax, cause considerable economic losses through the direct mortality and reduced production of livestock. Since the 1950s, NWS populations in North and Central America have been the target of virtually continuous eradication attempts by sterile insect technique (SIT). Nevertheless, in some areas, such as Jamaica, SIT-based control programmes have failed. Reasons for the failure of SIT-based programmes in some locations are unknown, but it is hypothesized that failure may be related to the mating incompatibility between sterile and wild flies or to the existence of sexually incompatible cryptic species. Accordingly, the current research investigates intraspecific phylogenetic relationships and associated biogeographic patterns between NWS populations from the Caribbean and South America, which represent those populations involved in, or earmarked for, forthcoming SIT programmes. Uniquely, this study also includes analyses of two North American samples, collected in Texas in 1933 and 1953 prior to initiation of the SIT-based eradication programme. The study utilizes three nucleotide datasets: elongation factor-1alpha (nuclear); cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (mitochondrial), and 12S rRNA (mitochondrial). Phylogenetic analysis of these data, representing populations from across the Caribbean, South America and Texas, indicates sub-structuring of fly populations on several of the larger Caribbean islands, suggesting a period of isolation and/or founder effects following colonization from South America; significantly, our findings do not support a North American origin for Cuban flies. The importance of these findings in the light of proposed SIT programmes in the region is discussed. PMID:19335826

  16. A new bathymetric compilation for the South Orkney Islands, Antarctic Peninsula (49°- 39°W to 64°- 59°S): insights into the glacial development of the continental shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickens, William; Graham, Alastair; Smith, James; Dowdeswell, Julian; Larter, Robert; Hillenbrand, Claus-Dieter; Trathan, Phil; Arndt, Jan

    2014-05-01

    We present a new, high resolution (300 m) bathymetric grid of the South Orkney Islands and surrounding continental shelf, northeast of the Antarctic Peninsula. The new grid, derived from a compilation of marine echo-sounding data offers significant and demonstrable improvements over previous regional bathymetric representations and helps to visualise the morphology of the shelf in unrivalled detail. With multiple end users (oceanographers, glacial modellers, biologists and geologists) the new compilation forms important baseline information for a range of scientific applications. In particular, due to our limited understanding of glacial history in this region, the new bathymetry grid provides the first detailed insights into past glacial regimes. The continental shelf is dominated by seven glacially eroded troughs, marking the pathways of glacial outlets that once drained a former ice cap centered on the South Orkney Islands. During previous glacial periods, grounded ice extended to the shelf break to the north of the islands. A large, ~ 250 km long sediment depocenter, interpreted as a maximum former ice limit of one or more Cenozoic glaciations, suggests that ice was only grounded to the ~ 300 m contour in the South. Using observations from the new bathymetric grid, we propose a preliminary ice cap reconstruction for maximum glaciation of the South Orkney plateau suggesting an areal ice coverage in the region of ~ 19000 km2. The timing of maximum ice extent, number of past advances and pattern of subsequent deglaciation(s) remain uncertain and will require further targeted marine geological and geophysical investigations to resolve.

  17. Hurricane Sandy's Impact on Coastal Sedimentation on Long Island's South Shore: Results from a 2013 Rapid Response Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, B. A.; Goff, J. A.; Flood, R. D.; Austin, J. A., Jr.; Browne, C. M.; Saustrup, S.

    2014-12-01

    To understand the impact of Hurricane Sandy on the NY coast, we conducted subsurface and multi-beam analyses, ground-truthed by grab samples, in 3 areas: the western end of Fire Island (FIW), eastern Fire Island (FIE) where a new inlet formed during the storm, and Long Beach (LB). Grab samples yielded sands and muds, a surprise given the shallow (10-25m) water depths. Muds rested on top of sands and were removed for additional analyses. Since percent mud could not be determined absolutely, sediments were washed through a 63 mm sieve, RoTapped for 10 minutes at ¼ Φ, and weight percent calculated for the coarse fraction. At FIW and FIE, fine sands dominate the shallowest depths studied, consistent with previous studies. At FIE, the sedimentary wedge extends to ~15m, with finest sands (peak 3-3.5 Φ) in shallowest waters surveyed (~10m). Slightly coarser (2.5Φ) sediments plus relict gravels are present in swales where the wedge shoals. This supports mapping results indicating sand ridges migrated to the SW. Medium to fine sand is present at the deepest extent of the wedge; the grain size distribution matches a sample taken in the swash zone on the eastern flank of the new breach. Sediments may have been transported shoreward and then reworked post-Sandy. Samples seaward of the new breach were capped by a mud layer, which in turn had a layer of fine sand resting on it, evidence of a nascent ebb tidal deposit. At FIW, sediments in the shallow NE swale are finer (3.5Φ) and better sorted. As the region is underlain by relict sediments, these fine sands may be relicts exposed by storm-driven bedform migration. Deeper water (~22m w.d.) samples at FIW are coarser and contain shell hash. Sand on the lee side of the sand ridge, which CHIRP profiles show did not migrate significantly and accumulated sands, are medium (1.5 Φ), and match the grain sizes found on Fire Island beach. Muds contain heavy metals in concentrations consistent with transport from adjacent estuaries.

  18. An interdisciplinary approach to controlling chikungunya outbreaks on French islands in the south-west Indian ocean.

    PubMed

    Flahault, A; Aumont, G; Boisson, V; de Lamballerie, X; Favier, F; Fontenille, D; Journeaux, S; Lotteau, V; Paupy, C; Sanquer, M A; Setbon, M; Gaüzere, B A

    2012-03-01

    The outbreak of chikungunya that occurred on French Island territories in the southwest Indian Ocean in 2005 and 2006 caused severe morbidity and mortality. In the aftermath, French authorities set up a scientific task force including experts in epidemiology, public health, entomology, virology, immunology, sociology, animal health, community and hospital medicine. The mission of the task force was to conceive and propose research programs needed to increase understanding of the disease and epidemic and to help public health officials in improving epidemic response measures. The purpose of this article is to describe the findings of the task force at the end of its two-year existence and initial outcomes in the the areas studied. Discussion emphasizes topics requiring further study. PMID:22693932

  19. 4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. NORTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS BEFORE REMODELING OF PARAPET AND AFTER REMOVAL OF SMOKESTACK FROM SOUTH ELEVATION. DATED APRIL 7, 1941. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 133, Gillespie Avenue between South Avenue & Ramsey Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  20. 4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH ELEVATION AFTER ADDITION OF REINFORCED-CONCRETE SECTION WITH CYCLONE SEPARATOR. DATED NOVEMBER 11, 1944. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 105, South Avenue between Gillespie Avenue & Second Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  1. 5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. WEST AND SOUTH ELEVATIONS BEFORE REPLACEMENT OF STRAP-HINGE DOOR. DATED NOVEMBER 1, 1944. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 140, Second Street between Ramsey Street & South Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  2. 5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS AFTER ADDITION OF BRICK STAIR TOWERS ON SOUTH FACADE. DATED NOVEMBER 1, 1944. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 110, Rodman Avenue between Fourth Street & East Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  3. 5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS AFTER ADDITION OF STAIR TOWERS ON SOUTH FACADE. DATED NOVEMBER 1, 1944. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 104, Rodman Avenue between First & Second Streets, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  4. 9. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS BEFORE REMOVAL OF VENTILATORS. ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED 1898. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 138, Second Avenue between South Avenue & Ramsey Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  5. Dominance, body size and internal relatedness influence male reproductive success in eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus).

    PubMed

    Miller, Emily J; Eldridge, Mark D B; Cooper, Desmond W; Herbert, Catherine A

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of the determinants of reproductive success is essential for understanding the adaptive significance of particular traits. The present study examined whether particular behavioural, morphological, physiological or genetic traits were correlated with male dominance and reproductive success using three semi-free-ranging captive populations (n = 98) of the eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus). The morphological traits measured included bodyweight, head, forearm, tail, pes and leg length, forearm and bicep circumference, and testis size. Blood samples were collected to determine serum testosterone concentrations. All individuals were typed for 10 microsatellite loci and paternity determined for each pouch young. To determine the influence of relatedness and genetic diversity on male reproductive success, internal relatedness, standardised heterozygosity and mean d(2) were calculated. Dominant males sired a significantly higher proportion of offspring than smaller, lower-ranked males and had higher testosterone concentrations. Males that sired offspring were significantly heavier and had larger body size. Sires were significantly more heterozygous and genetically dissimilar to breeding females than non-sires. Despite the wealth of knowledge on the social organisation of kangaroos, this is the first study to assign parentage and male reproductive success using molecular evidence. PMID:20188027

  6. [Comparative study of two methods of holding premature infants: the kangaroo method versus the traditional method].

    PubMed

    Legault, M; Goulet, C

    1993-01-01

    This study compared two methods of holding preterm infants: 1) the kangaroo, or skin-to-skin method (K) and 2) the traditional method, or normal handling (T). Skin temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate and oxygen saturation were monitored during both the kangaroo and the traditional handling methods. After testing with the two methods, the mothers indicated their satisfaction and preference. Sixty-one pairs of mothers and babies were tested once with the K method and once with the T method. The first method tested was determined at random: 50% began with K and 50% with T. Skin temperature, heart rate and respiratory rate were similar with both K and T methods. Whereas oxygen saturation was significantly lower (92.8% vs 90.5%, p < 0.0001) under the T method, time of testing was longer (29.5 min vs 25.3 min, p = 0.02) for the K method than for T method. In summary, the findings suggested that mothers preferred the K method because the cold stress factor was avoided, oxygenation was better maintained, and mothers felt closer to their infants. PMID:10603808

  7. Kangaroo (skin-to-skin) care with a preterm infant before, during, and after mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Swinth, Joan Y; Anderson, Gene Cranston; Hadeed, Anthony J

    2003-01-01

    Using kangaroo care (KC) with unstable and/or ventilated infants remains controversial. In this article, potential advantages for ventilated infants and their mothers are discussed. The 33-week-gestation infant in this case study presented with mild respiratory distress at birth, requiring supplemental oxygen at hour 2. With no improvement by hour 18, KC was also begun, first for 1.25 hours and then, 2 hours later, for 3.5 hours. The infant was intubated at hour 45 for increasing respiratory distress, and KC resumed 24 hours later for 1 hour and 3 hours after that for an additional 3 hours. Extubation occurred at hour 90. Kangaroo care resumed 2 hours later for periods of 1.5, 1.5, and 1 hour over the next 8 hours, 2.5 hours more later that day (day 5, the last day of data collection). Thereafter, KC was done intermittently until discharge on day 9. Total KC times for pre-vent, vent, and immediate post-vent periods were 4.75, 4, and 6.5 hours, respectively. The data from this study suggest that KC may assist in, rather than retard, recovery from respiratory distress. KC may also foster maternal relaxation and minimize maternal stress. PMID:14700180

  8. Studies on the in vitro cultivation of ciliate protozoa from the kangaroo forestomach.

    PubMed

    Dehority, Burk A; Wright, André-Denis G

    2014-08-01

    The methods used for culturing rumen protozoa were found to be unsatisfactory for growth of ciliate protozoa from the kangaroo forestomach. Based on published measurements of physical parameters in the marsupial forestomach, several modifications were incorporated into the procedure, i.e., an increase in % hydrogen in the gas phase, adjustment of initial pH of the medium to 6.9-7.0 range, feed only forage as a substrate and incubate at a lower temperature (33-36 °C). Only incubation at the lower temperature increased survival time of the kangaroo protozoa. Two species of Bitricha were still viable after 28 d in culture. Cultures had to be terminated at that time. One of the species differed considerably in size and shape from previously described species and based on 18S rRNA data, may represent a new species of Bitricha. The second species, present in low numbers was identified as Bitricha oblata. In a separate trial, Macropodinium yalanbense survived for 11 d, at which time these cultures also had to be terminated. PMID:25051515

  9. Holocene climate and vegetation changes revealed by lipid biomarkers from a peat and sediment sequence on Nightingale Island, central South Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z.; Kjung, K.; Bjorck, S.; Bradley, R. S.

    2010-12-01

    A variable Holocene climate has been shown for most areas on globe. In the Atlantic region ocean circulation is one key factor in these climate fluctuations but high-resolution records are lacking due to low sedimentation rates in the marine environments. Here we present a biomarker study of peat and lake sediments from Nightingale Island, situated in the Tristan da Cunha Islands in the central South Atlantic. The sequence has previously been analyzed for its pollen, elemental carbon and nitrogen content, and chronologically constrained by a large number of radiocarbon dates. These results have revealed a variable hydrology, with periods of increased erosion rates and precipitation, throughout the Holocene. In the present study we focus on changes in lipid biomarker distributions, and use them as proxies for past climate and environmental changes. The variations of chain lengths of n-alkanes reflect the change of vegetation in the watershed or growing in the lake while soil bacterial GDGT-based MBT and CBT indice could reveal temperature and pH changes. Long chain n-alkanes (n-C29 and/or C31) generally dominate throughout the sequence, but predominance or significant abundance of chain n-alkanes (n-C21-C25) indicated periods of higher inferred precipitation and probably higher erosion rates. MBT inferred temperatures are variable throughout the sequence, and periods with lower inferred temperatures coincides with periods of higher erosion rates. pH inferred by CBT is variable with lowest values in the peat, accumulated before app. 9 ka BP. The CBT inferred pH is higher during periods of increased erosion rates and precipitation, probably caused by dilution of the pond water during heavy rainfall. Bacterial hopanoid biomarkers are abundant throughout the peat and sediments. Their abundances are negatively correlated with the CBT inferred pH, indicating increasing bacterial growth and biomarker transformation at low pH.

  10. Aerosol chemical properties and related pollutants measured in Dongsha Island in the northern South China Sea during 7-SEAS/Dongsha Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Ming-Tung; Chang, Shuenn-Chin; Lin, Neng-Huei; Wang, Jia-Lin; Sheu, Guey-Rong; Chang, You-Jia; Lee, Chung-Te

    2013-10-01

    Aerosol observations were conducted at Dongsha Island in two batches from 19 to 23 March and 10 to 19 April 2010. Dongsha Island is located in a remote area over the northern South China Sea (SCS), distantly surrounded by southern China, Taiwan, the Philippines, and the Indochinese Peninsula. During the study period, the average PM10 and PM2.5 mass concentrations were 26.5 ± 19.4 and 12.6 ± 6.0 μg m-3, respectively. In particular, a daily PM10 concentration of 94.1 μg m-3 caused by a yellow-dust event originating from the Asian Continent was recorded on 21 March. Other than this event, the PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 daily levels were 7.1 ± 1.2 and 12.6 ± 5.0 μg m-3, respectively, on days without pollution from anthropogenic sources in the surrounding areas. Water-soluble ions (WSIs) were the predominant components that accounted for 58.7% ± 10.5% and 51.1% ± 7.2% of the PM10 and PM2.5 mass. The second most abundant component was carbonaceous content, which accounted for 9.5% ± 4.7% and 17.5% ± 5.3% of PM10 and PM2.5, respectively. SO42- was the most abundant PM2.5 WSI, whereas the Na+ and Cl- pair was the most abundant PM10-2.5 WSI. Based on the U.S. IMPROVE protocol, the resolved carbonaceous fractions were mainly distributed in PM2.5 and influenced by coal combustion, mobile vehicles, and biomass burning. Most of the resolved WSIs in particles were in the liquid phase due to the humid environment around the northern SCS.

  11. Plasma endotoxin activity in kangaroos with oral necrobacillosis (lumpy jaw disease) using an automated handheld testing system

    PubMed Central

    SOTOHIRA, Yukari; SUZUKI, Kazuyuki; SASAKI, Haruka; SANO, Tadashi; TSUCHIYA, Masakazu; SUZUKI, Yohko; SHIMAMORI, Toshio; TSUKANO, Kenji; SATO, Ayano; YOKOTA, Hiroshi; ASAKAWA, Mitsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the reliability and effectiveness of directly determining endotoxin activity in plasma samples from kangaroos with lumpy jaw disease (LJD, n=15) and healthy controls (n=12). Prior to the present study, the ability of the commercially available automated handheld portable test system (PTSTM) to detect endotoxin activity in kangaroo plasma was compared with that of the traditional LAL-kinetic turbidimetric (KT) assay. Plasma samples, which were obtained from endotoxin-challenged cattle, were diluted 1:20 in endotoxin-free water and heated to 80°C for 10 min. The performance of the PTSTM was not significantly different from that of the traditional LAL-based assay. The data obtained using PTSTM correlated with those using KT (r2=0.963, P<0.001). These findings indicated that the PTSTM is applicable as a simplified system to assess endotoxin activity in macropods. In the present study, we demonstrated the diagnostic value of plasma endotoxin activity in kangaroos with systemic inflammation caused by oral necrobacillosis and identified plasma endotoxin activity as a sensitive marker of systemic inflammation in kangaroos with LJD. Based on ROC curves, we proposed a diagnostic cut-off point for endotoxin activity of >0.22 EU/ml for the identification of LJD. Our results indicate that the assessment of plasma endotoxin activity is a promising diagnostic tool for determining the outcome of LJD in captive macropods. PMID:26902804

  12. Plasma endotoxin activity in kangaroos with oral necrobacillosis (lumpy jaw disease) using an automated handheld testing system.

    PubMed

    Sotohira, Yukari; Suzuki, Kazuyuki; Sasaki, Haruka; Sano, Tadashi; Tsuchiya, Masakazu; Suzuki, Yohko; Shimamori, Toshio; Tsukano, Kenji; Sato, Ayano; Yokota, Hiroshi; Asakawa, Mitsuhiko

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the reliability and effectiveness of directly determining endotoxin activity in plasma samples from kangaroos with lumpy jaw disease (LJD, n=15) and healthy controls (n=12). Prior to the present study, the ability of the commercially available automated handheld portable test system (PTS(TM)) to detect endotoxin activity in kangaroo plasma was compared with that of the traditional LAL-kinetic turbidimetric (KT) assay. Plasma samples, which were obtained from endotoxin-challenged cattle, were diluted 1:20 in endotoxin-free water and heated to 80°C for 10 min. The performance of the PTS(TM) was not significantly different from that of the traditional LAL-based assay. The data obtained using PTS(TM) correlated with those using KT (r(2)=0.963, P<0.001). These findings indicated that the PTS(TM) is applicable as a simplified system to assess endotoxin activity in macropods. In the present study, we demonstrated the diagnostic value of plasma endotoxin activity in kangaroos with systemic inflammation caused by oral necrobacillosis and identified plasma endotoxin activity as a sensitive marker of systemic inflammation in kangaroos with LJD. Based on ROC curves, we proposed a diagnostic cut-off point for endotoxin activity of >0.22 EU/ml for the identification of LJD. Our results indicate that the assessment of plasma endotoxin activity is a promising diagnostic tool for determining the outcome of LJD in captive macropods. PMID:26902804

  13. Circulating levels of prolactin and progesterone in a wild population of red kangaroos (Macropus rufus) Marsupialia: Macropodidae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muths, E.; Hinds, L. A.

    1996-01-01

    Circulating progesterone and prolactin levels were measured in shot and live-caught wild red kangaroos using radioimmunoassays validated for the red kangaroo. The objective of the study was to correlate hormone profiles with reproductive status and determine if red kangaroos follow the general pattern elucidated for other macropodids. During Phase 2a lactation (<70 days) plasma progesterone concentrations were <189 pg/ml (n= 41). This value increased to >600 pg/ml (n= 32) during the transition to Phase 3 lactation (181 to 235 days) when the quiescent corpus luteum and embryo were reactivated. Progesterone concentrations then decreased to <300 pg/ml (n= 29) during dual lactation when females were suckling a neonate and a young at foot. Concentrations of prolactin during Phase 2a were <6 ng/ml (n= 17). Coincident with the period of reactivation of the diapausing blastocyst (181 to 235 days), plasma prolactin concentrations increased to 15 ng/ml (n= 32), then decreased and remained low through the subsequent stage of dual lactation. These results indicate that progesterone and prolactin profiles in wild red kangaroos follow patterns found previously in other macropodid species, the tammar and Bennett's wallabies.

  14. The nephelinitic–phonolitic volcanism of the Trindade Island (South Atlantic Ocean): Review of the stratigraphy, and inferences on the volcanic styles and sources of nephelinites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, Gustavo Luiz Campos; Bongiolo, Everton Marques

    2016-12-01

    Trindade Island is located in the South Atlantic Ocean, 1170 km from the Brazilian coast, and represents the eastern end of the E-W Vitória-Trindade Chain. It shows the youngest plume-induced (ca. 3.7 to <0.17 Ma) subaerial volcanism on the South American plate, associated with the Trindade plume activity. Almeida (1961) recognized five volcanogenic successions at Trindade (in decreasing age): the Trindade Complex (TC, >2.4 Ma) and the Desejado (DF, ∼2.4 to 1.5 Ma), Morro Vermelho (MV, <0.17 Ma), Valado (VF, no age) and Paredão (PF, no age) formations, composed of effusive-pyroclastic deposits and subvolcanic intrusions associated with nephelinite-phonolite volcanic episodes. We revised the original Almeida's (1961) stratigraphy with additional field work and petrography to recognize eruptive styles and processes within the nephelinite-phonolite volcanism. Also, available geochemical databases were used to improve the stratigraphic correlation between nephelinites from different units and to characterize their mantle sources. The nephelinitic volcanism may represent Strombolian and Hawaiian-type activity of low viscosity and volatile-rich lavas interlayered with pyroclastic successions (fall-out deposits). Phonolitic deposits record explosive Vulcanian-style episodes of volatile-rich and higher-viscosity lavas interlayered with pyroclastic deposits (mostly pyroclastic flows). Geochemical data allowed the individualization of nephelinites as follows: (1) MV olivine-rich nephelinites and all olivine-free varieties are low K2O/Na2O, K2O/TiO2 and intermediate CaO/Al2O3 that may be derived from N-MORB and HIMU mantle components; (2) the VF olivine-rich nephelinites have high K2O/Na2O, K2O/TiO2 and CaO/Al2O3 that indicates both EM and HIMU mantle sources and; (3) the PF olivine-rich nephelinites show high K2O/TiO2 similar to those from VF, and intermediate CaO/Al2O3 as nephelinites from MV rocks, suggesting a mixed source with EM + HIMU > N-MORB components. We

  15. The Last Termination in the South Indian Ocean: A unique terrestrial record from Kerguelen Islands (49°S) situated within the Southern Hemisphere westerly belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van der Putten, Nathalie; Verbruggen, Cyriel; Björck, Svante; Michel, Elisabeth; Disnar, Jean-Robert; Chapron, Emmanuel; Moine, Bertrand N.; de Beaulieu, Jacques-Louis

    2015-08-01

    The awareness of the significance of the Southern Ocean in the Earth's climate system has become increasingly obvious. The deglacial atmospheric CO2 rise during warming periods in Antarctica has been attributed to CO2 ventilation from the deep ocean caused by enhanced upwelling around the Antarctic Divergence. It has been hypothesized that, more intense Southern Hemisphere westerly winds aligned with the Antarctic Circumpolar Current due to a southward shift of the wind belt from its Last Glacial Maximum equator-ward position, are the main drivers. Reconstructions of past changes in atmospheric circulation in the Southern Hemisphere are still scarce and the overall picture is patchy with sometimes contradictory results. For obvious reasons, most terrestrial records originate from southern South America and New Zealand. Here we present a terrestrial record from the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean, from Kerguelen Islands located at 49°S. A peat record is investigated using a multi-proxy approach (pollen and plant macrofossils, magnetic susceptibility, XRF analyses, biogenic silica content, Rock-Eval6 analysis and humification degree). Peat accumulation starts at about 16,000 cal yr BP with relatively warm and dry conditions. The most prominent change in our proxy data occurs at 13,600 cal yr BP, when peat ponds were established on the peat surface, resulting in lacustrine-type deposits, as a result of very high humidity, and with proxies implying very windy conditions. Within chronological uncertainties, this onset coincides with the onset of the so-called Oceanic Cold Reversal, based on the deuterium excess data in the EPICA Dome C ice core record. Kerguelen Islands are located in the moisture source area of Dome C and a change in atmospheric circulation at that time could explain both records. Around 12,900 cal yr BP, at the end of the Antarctic Cold Reversal, pond/lake sediments give way to more peaty deposits, with proxies suggesting slightly drier

  16. Distribution and mechanism of Neogene to present-day vertical axis rotations, Pacific-Australian Plate Boundary Zone, South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Timothy A.; Roberts, Andrew P.

    1997-01-01

    Remarkably little knowledge exists about mechanisms of vertical axis rotation in continental crust. Steeply dipping basement rocks in South Island, New Zealand, provide an opportunity to map the distribution of rotations across the Pacific-Australian plate boundary zone, and to delineate boundaries of rotated blocks in unusual detail. We synthesize new structural data with new and existing paleomagnetic data, with geodetic data, and with patterns of Neogene-Quaternary faulting in the strike-slip Marlborough fault system. For the past 20 m.y., vertical axis rotations have been hinged about two crustal-scale boundaries near the east coast. The NE hinge accommodated ˜50° of early-middle Miocene clockwise rotation, which caused deformation of the eastern ends of the Alpine-Wairau and Clarence strike-slip faults. The SW hinge has accommodated a further 30°-50° of finite clockwise rotation since ˜4 Ma and deflects active fault traces. The locus of rotation has shifted southwestward astride a subduction margin that is lengthening in that direction. Rotating rocks are pinned to the south against a locked collision zone where the continental Chatham Rise impinges against the margin. Slip on inland strike-slip faults is transformed seaward across a zone of fault termination into rigid body rotation of a large continental block that has been thrust eastward over the downgoing subducted slab of the Pacific plate. The rotation mechanism is a "migrating hinge," which resembles a flexed telephone book. Strike-slip faults are translated through a brecciated hinge region that does not coincide with a fixed material line in the rock.

  17. South San Francisco Bay tidal marsh vegetation and elevation surveys-Corkscrew Marsh, Bird Island, and Palo Alto Baylands, California, 1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orlando, James L.; Drexler, Judy Z.; Dedrick, Kent G.

    2005-01-01

    Changes in the topography and ecology of the San Francisco Bay Estuary ('Estuary') during the past 200 years have resulted in the loss of nearly 80 percent of the historical salt marsh in the region. Currently, numerous projects are being undertaken by federal, state, and local governments in an attempt to restore wetland habitat and ecosystem function at a number of locations within the Estuary. Much information is needed concerning the historical topographic and ecologic characteristics of the Estuary to facilitate these restoration efforts. This report presents previously unpublished vegetation and elevation data collected in 1983 by the California State Lands Commission at Corkscrew marsh, Bird Island, and Palo Alto Baylands, all located in South San Francisco Bay. These precise and detailed elevation and plant surveys represent a snapshot of South Bay flora before invasion by the Atlantic smooth cordgrass, Spartina alterniflora. Such precise elevation data are rare for relatively undisturbed marshes in the San Francisco Bay; publication of these historical data may facilitate wetland restoration efforts. Marsh-surface and tidal-channel elevations were determined at a total of 962 stations by differential leveling to established tidal benchmark stations at each site and referenced to Mean Lower Low Water (MLLW) relative to the National Tidal Datum Epoch (1960-78). In addition, presence or absence of nine salt marsh species, percentage plant cover, and percentage bare soil were recorded for 1-square meter quadrats at 648 stations where elevations were determined. Collectively, over the three sites, salt marsh vegetation ranged in elevation from 0.98 to 2.94 m above MLLW. S. foliosa and Salicornia virginica were the most frequently observed plant species. Atriplex patula, Deschampsia cespitosa, and Limonium californicum were each recorded at only one of the three sites.

  18. Expanding the tephrostratigraphical framework for the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica, by combining compositional and textural tephra characterisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, E. J.; Oliva, M.; Antoniades, D.; Giralt, S.; Granados, I.; Pla-Rabes, S.; Toro, M.; Geyer, A.

    2016-07-01

    Tephra layers preserved in lake sedimentary sequences provide valuable isochrons with which to synchronise palaeoclimatic records. However, in regions where tephra inputs are dominated by a single volcanic source, overlapping chemical compositions can preclude unambiguous correlation of tephra layers. In this study, we characterise multiple visible (macrotephra) layers within sedimentary sequences from three lakes in Byers Peninsula, Antarctica. By combining compositional analyses with additional constraints from textural componentry, we identify three distinct tephra isochrons-T1, T2, and T3-each with distinct textural properties. The relative proportion of glassy compared to crystal-rich grains varies from ~ 50% (T3) to ~ 3% (T1) of the total sample. Although the proportion of dense to vesicular grains differs only slightly between all sampled tephra layers, the dominant vesicle shape varies from spherical (T3) to irregular and polylobate (T1/T2). These textural differences can be related to variations in the eruptive processes occurring at the Deception Island source volcano. This study highlights the efficacy of a correlative approach based on both chemical and physical tephra properties for deconvolving the tephra stratigraphy in regions where chemical compositions are non-unique.

  19. Bd on the beach: high prevalence of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in the lowland forests of Gorgona Island (Colombia, South America).

    PubMed

    Flechas, Sandra Victoria; Sarmiento, Carolina; Amézquita, Adolfo

    2012-09-01

    The amphibian chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Bd, has been implicated in the decimation and extinction of many amphibian populations worldwide, especially at mid and high elevations. Recent studies have demonstrated the presence of the pathogen in the lowlands from Australia and Central America. We extend here its elevational range by demonstrating its presence at the sea level, in the lowland forests of Gorgona Island, off the Pacific coast of Colombia. We conducted two field surveys, separated by four years, and diagnosed Bd by performing polymerase chain reactions on swab samples from the skin of five amphibian species. All species, including the Critically Endangered Atelopus elegans, tested positive for the pathogen, with prevalences between 3.9 % in A. elegans (in 2010) and 52 % in Pristimantis achatinus. Clinical signs of chytridiomycosis were not detected in any species. To our knowledge, this is the first report of B. dendrobatidis in tropical lowlands at sea level, where temperatures may exceed optimal growth temperatures of this pathogen. This finding highlights the need to understand the mechanisms allowing the interaction between frogs and pathogen in lowland ecosystems. PMID:22669408

  20. Origin of shallow groundwater of Csepel Island (south of Budapest, Hungary, River Danube): isotopic and chemical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fórizs, I.; Berecz, T.; Molnár, Z.; Süveges, M.

    2005-11-01

    The shallowest aquifer of the alluvial Csepel Island is used for drinking water supply for Budapest and the surrounding villages. A previous two-dimensional hydraulic model failed to explain many observations; therefore, a three-dimensional hydraulic model was constructed using the software application MODFLOW. Isotopic and hydrogeochemical investigations were carried out during the period 1998 to 2002 in order to provide model data. Four water sources have been identified, having different isotopic (and chemical) characteristics. Danube water is characterized by seasonally varying 18O values: its unweighted mean 18O value is -10.9 for the years 1998 to 2002. The most negative 18O values occur in late spring and summertime. Average tritium content is 20 TU. Infiltrated precipitation has 18O values between -9.0 and -9.5. The average tritium content of the precipitation is 10 TU, and that of infiltrated precipitation must be close to this value and about half that of the Danube. The 18O value of lake water is > -9.0. Its stable isotope composition plots on the right side of the local meteoric water line on the D-18O diagram. Ascending deep groundwater (sampled depth of 20-140 m) has 18O values between -12.0 and -13.5. Its radiocarbon age is between 16 000 and 30 000 years BP, probably infiltrated during and around the last glacial maximum (Würm III) period of the latest glaciation. Copyright

  1. Diurnal and seasonal variations of carbonate system parameters on Luhuitou fringing reef, Sanya Bay, Hainan Island, South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chenglong; Huang, Hui; Ye, Cheng; Huang, Liangmin; Li, Xiubao; Lian, Jiansheng; Liu, Sheng

    2013-11-01

    The 3-day diurnal dynamics of carbonate system and related parameters on Luhuitou fringing reef of Sanya Bay-adjacent to the South China Sea (SCS) were observed in December of 2009 (early winter), April (spring), July (summer) and November (late-autumn) of 2010. The Luhuitou fringing reef ecosystem was generally dominated by macro and planktonic algae throughout the year except by coralline algae in winter. The system parameters showed distinct diurnal trends in the four seasons. Averaged ranges of diurnal variation for dissolved oxygen and partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) were higher in the autumn, 4.67mgL-1 and 218.2μatm, respectively than other seasons. Averaged ranges of diurnal variation for normalized total alkalinity (NTA) was higher in the winter (61.3μmolkg-1), and lower in the spring (16.0μmolkg-1). The diurnal variations are mainly controlled by biological activities, especially by the processes of photosynthesis and respiration in the reef ecosystem. In winter, however, calcification and dissolution contributed more to the diurnal variations, compared with the other three seasons. Total alkalinity was largely related to seasonal changes in river inflow rates. Dissolved oxygen, pH, total CO2 and aragonite saturation also showed seasonal variations. These variations were mainly controlled by the seasonal changes of photosynthesis and respiration, which were mainly affected by changes in benthic community structure, temperature and river inflow rates. The oversaturated pCO2 in the reef ecosystem with respect to the atmosphere in the winter and summer resulted in CO2 discharge from the reef ecosystem to the SCS. The whole system served as net source of CO2 to the atmosphere and the adjacent South China Sea on an annual time scale.

  2. Tracing the Holocene environmental evolution on the island of South Georgia by lipid biomarkers and compound-specific radiocarbon analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jivcov, S.; Berg, S.; Kusch, S.; Viehberg, F. A.; Rethemeyer, J.; Melles, M.

    2015-12-01

    We present lipid biomarker data of a sedimentary record that spans the entire Holocene and was recovered from a marine inlet located at the northern coast of South Georgia (Cumberland West Bay) to adress two major objectives, namely: a) the identification of temporal variations in reservoir effects and b) the reconstruction of regional environmental changes during the last deglaciation. For objective a) we compare compound-specific radiocarbon ages of terrigeneous lipid biomarkers (n-alcohols) with 14C ages of bulk sedimentary organic matter to detect potential reservoir effects and changes over time. The study site experienced different environmental conditions following the retreat of the local glaciers in the early Holocene. After an initial freshwater stage when the inlet was separated from the sea, it passed into brackish and finally fully marine conditions. These hydrological changes probably resulted in variable reservoir ages. For objective b) we investigate biomarkers, comprising n-alkanes (C15-C35) and n-alcohols (C14-C28), including high molecular weight compounds typically derived from land plants and low molecular weight compounds like C17 n-alkanes and C16 n-alcohols, mostly originating from aquatic organisms. We noticed an abrupt increase in TOC values and sums of biomarkers after the glacier retreat, culminating in highest concentrations at the transition from freshwater to brackish conditions. Subsequently, the concentrations decline and vary at low levels until the inlet becomes fully marine. The marine stage is characterized by relatively constant TOC values but variable biomarker concentrations. Lowest biomarker levels occur around 1870±134 cal yr BP and between 6204±115 and 9666±161 cal yr BP and correspond to phases of glacier advance as suggested by studies of lake and peat deposits from South Georgia.

  3. Analysis of high-resolution lidar digital topographic data along the Marlborough Fault System: The Awatere and Clarence faults, South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinke, R. W.; Dolan, J. F.; Rhodes, E. J.; Van Dissen, R. J.; Langridge, R.; Grenader, J.; McGuire, C. P.; Nicol, A.

    2014-12-01

    We analyze newly acquired lidar high-resolution digital topographic data to measure offset geomorphic markers along the Awatere and Clarence faults in the Marlborough Fault System, northern South Island, New Zealand. With an average shot density of ≥ 12 shots/m2, these lidar data, which were acquired for us by the US National Center for Airborne Laser Mapping (NCALM) and New Zealand Aerial Mapping, offer a uniquely detailed view of the topography along ~90 km of the Awatere fault and ~160 km of the Clarence fault, allowing us to measure geomorphic offsets ranging in size from ~1 m to 100s of meters. In this specific study, we examine offset river terraces at the well-known Saxton River site on the Awatere fault, and at Tophouse Road on the Clarence fault. By constraining the ages of those river terraces using post-IR IRSL (225 °C) single-grain K-feldspar dating protocols, we determine latest Pleistocene to late-Holocene slip histories of the Awatere and Clarence faults at those locations. This project is part of a broader effort to generate incremental slip rates and paleoearthquake ages from the four main faults that comprise the Marlborough Fault System with the goal of further understanding how mechanically complementary faults work together to accommodate relative plate motions.

  4. Bathymetric zonation and diversity gradient of gastropods and bivalves in West Antarctica from the South Shetland Islands to the Bellingshausen Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldea, Cristian; Olabarria, Celia; Troncoso, Jesús S.

    2008-03-01

    Depth-related zonation and diversity patterns are important topics in the study of deep-sea fauna, at both species and assemblage levels. These patterns may be attributed to complex and combined physical and/or biological factors. The lack of information about the West Antarctic deep sea is an important handicap to understanding the global-scale benthic diversity patterns. Detailed studies of the bathymetric distributions and diversity of deep-sea species in the Antarctic are needed to elucidate the factors contributing to global-scale benthic patterns. This study, based on a large data set, examined the bathymetric distribution, patterns of zonation and diversity-depth trends of gastropods and bivalves in West Antarctica, from the South Shetland Islands to the Bellingshausen Sea, a very poorly known area. A total of 647 individuals of gastropods belonging to 82 species and a total of 2934 individuals of bivalves belonging to 52 species were collected. Most gastropods showed discrete depth distributions, whereas most bivalves showed broader depth ranges. Replacement of species with depth was more gradual for bivalves than gastropods. Nevertheless, three bathymetric boundaries could be recognized: (1) a continental shelf zone from 0 to 400 m with a gradual rate of succession, (2) an upper slope zone from 400 to 800 m and (3) a lower slope zone from 800 to 2000 m, extending to 3300 m for bivalves. Diversity patterns were complex for both groups with no significant trends with depth.

  5. Project Ahupua'a: Solar meteorological field measurements on the Island of Hawaii, summer 1978. 3: Trade wind interactions with local winds in South Kohala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, T. A.

    1980-02-01

    Instrumented vans monitored meteorological elements related to solar energy in the leeward South Kohala district of the Island of Hawaii between 23 and 28 June 1978. This phase of Project Ahupua'a concentrated on sea breeze circulations and their interactions with synoptic scale winds. Supplementary data were collected as in previous phases. In addition, visual observations were made from Anaehoomalu Beach and from an automobile traversing the transect. Daily weather conditions were documented by ground-based photography. The study period was characterized by abnormally high tropospheric moisture content and passage of significant tradewind disturbances. Local weather variability was greater than in earlier phases of project Ahupua'a. Sea breeze intrusion was frequent below 300 m MSL, but occurred at higher elevations only in response to significant synoptic systems. Diurnal variations of measured parameters were strong and reflected diminished sea breeze influence above 300 m. Heating of lava surfaces drives local circulations through two opposing physical processes. Surface pressure gradients support sea breeze development while vertical transport of horizontal (trade wind) momentum creates intense downslope flows.

  6. Hepatic cytochrome P450 activity and pollutant concentrations in paradise shelducks and southern black-backed gulls in the South Island of New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Numata, Mihoko; Fawcett, J Paul; Saville, Dorothy J; Rosengren, Rhonda J

    2008-11-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes catalyse the oxidative metabolism of various xenobiotics including environmental pollutants. We investigated liver microsomal CYP marker activities in 60 paradise shelducks (Tadorna variegata; herbivore) and 77 southern black-backed gulls (Larus dominicanus; omnivore) collected at three sites with putatively different levels of pollution in the South Island of New Zealand. Ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity was high in birds at an urban landfill site compared to those at a relatively pristine and an agricultural site. Analysis of p-nitrophenol hydroxylase and erythromycin demethylase activities indicated the presence of two additional CYP isoforms in shelducks but no additional form in gulls. Total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations (ranges: shelducks, 0.073-6.2; gulls, 8.2-330 ng/g wet weight) were high in landfill samples suggesting a link to EROD induction and, in landfill shelducks, EROD was independently associated with Hg and Pb concentration. PCB congener-specific assessments indicated the metabolism of at least two congeners (#28 and #74) is induced in shelducks. DDE concentrations (ranges: shelducks, 0.85-320; gulls, 44-4800 ng/g) were high in birds at the landfill and agricultural sites. Body weight tended to be lower in landfill birds, but whether this reflects the greater energetic demands of pollutant detoxification remains to be investigated. PMID:18473165

  7. 5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. WEST AND SOUTH ELEVATIONS, BEFORE REMOVAL OF CHIMNEY, FINIALS, GINGERBREAD, AND VARIEGATED SLATE ROOFING. DATED C. 1876. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 321, Rodman Avenue & Rock Island Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  8. Unilateral failure of development of mandibular premolars and molars in an Eastern Grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus) and its effects on molar progression.

    PubMed

    Barber, D; Campbell, J; Davey, J; Luke, T; Agren, E; Beveridge, I

    2008-01-01

    An adult male Eastern Grey kangaroo from a wildlife reserve near Melbourne was submitted for necropsy examination and was discovered to have abnormal dentition. There was no evidence that any premolars or molars had ever been present on the right mandible, whilst the incisors were normal. The age of the kangaroo was estimated to be 1 year 9 months using the right maxillary molars and 2 years 4 months old using the contralateral side, presumably due to the asymmetry of the dental arcades. 'Lumpy jaw', a common periodontal disease of kangaroos, from which Bacteroides sp was cultured, was present on the base of the vertical ramus of the left mandible. Complete unilateral absence of premolar and molar teeth in the mandible of a kangaroo has not been described. This condition affected molar progression in both sets of maxillary molars. PMID:18271832

  9. Ductile nappe stacking and refolding in the Cycladic Blueschist Unit: insights from Sifnos Island (south Aegean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aravadinou, Eirini; Xypolias, Paraskevas; Chatzaras, Vasileios; Iliopoulos, Ioannis; Gerogiannis, Nikolaos

    2015-10-01

    New geological and structural mapping combined with kinematic and amphibole chemistry analyses is used to investigate the deformation history of the Cycladic Blueschist Unit (CBU) on Sifnos Island (Cyclades, Aegean Sea). We concentrate on north Sifnos, an area characterized by exceptionally well-preserved eclogites and blueschists. Our data show that the early, main phase (D2) of ductile deformation in the CBU occurred synchronous with the transition from prograde to close-to-peak retrograde conditions. This deformation phase took place at middle Eocene and is related to ESE-directed thrusting that emplaced the metavolcano-sedimentary subunit over the Marble subunit. The subsequent exhumation-related (D3) deformation is characterized by gently NE-plunging folds and NE-directed contractional shear zones that formed parallel to the axial planes of folds. NE-directed shearing occurred under blueschist and transitional blueschist-/greenschist-facies conditions during late Eocene-Oligocene and caused the restacking of the early nappe pile. We suggest that a mechanism of ductile extrusion of the CBU in a tectonic setting of net compression could explain better the recorded exhumation-related deformation than a mechanism of syn- and post-orogenic extension. Our new kinematic results in combination with previous works in the Cyclades area reveal a regional scale change in tectonic transport direction from (W)NW-(E)SE at Late Cretaceous-middle Eocene to (E)NE-(W)SW at late Eocene-Oligocene times. The observed change in transport direction may be governed by the relative motion of Africa with respect to Europe during Alpine orogeny.

  10. A New, Continuous 5400 Yr-long Paleotsunami Record from Lake Huelde, Chiloe Island, South Central Chile.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempf, P.; Moernaut, J.; Vandoorne, W.; Van Daele, M. E.; Pino, M.; Urrutia, R.; De Batist, M. A. O.

    2014-12-01

    After the last decade of extreme tsunami events with catastrophic damage to infrastructure and a horrendous amount of casualties, it is clear that more and better paleotsunami records are needed to improve our understanding of the recurrence intervals and intensities of large-scale tsunamis. Coastal lakes (e.g. Bradley Lake, Cascadia; Kelsey et al., 2005) have the potential to contain long and continuous sedimentary records, which is an important asset in view of the centennial- to millennial-scale recurrence times of great tsunami-triggering earthquakes. Lake Huelde on Chiloé Island (42.5°S), Chile, is a coastal lake located in the middle of the Valdivia segment, which is known for having produced the strongest ever instrumentally recorded earthquake in 1960 AD (MW: 9.5), and other large earthquakes prior to that: i.e. 1837 AD, 1737 AD (no report of a tsunami) and 1575 AD (Lomnitz, 1970, 2004, Cisternas et al., 2005). We present a new 5400 yr-long paleotsunami record with a Bayesian age-depth model based on 23 radiocarbon dates that exceeds all previous paleotsunami records from the Valdivia segment, both in terms of length and of continuity. 18 events are described and a semi-quantitative measure of the event intensity at the study area is given, revealing at least two predecessors of the 1960 AD event in the mid to late Holocene that are equal in intensity. The resulting implications from the age-depth model and from the semi-quantitative intensity reconstruction are discussed in this contribution.

  11. Composition and sources of aliphatic lipids and sterols in sediments of a tropical island, southern South China Sea: preliminary assessment.

    PubMed

    Mohd Tahir, N; Pang, S Y; Abdullah, N A; Suratman, S

    2013-12-01

    Near-shore surface sediment was collected from five stations off Redang Island located on the eastern coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Freeze-dried sediments were Soxhlet extracted and then fractionated using column chromatography into aliphatic and polar fractions. Determination of these fractions was carried out using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The concentration of total resolved aliphatic hydrocarbons in sediments ranged from 157 to 308 ng/g. The distribution of aliphatic fraction showed the presence of n-alkanes ranging from nC15 to nC33 with a minor odd-to-even predominance exhibiting carbon maximum, depending on station, at nC17, nC26, nC29 or nC31. Calculation of Carbon Preference Index (CPI) for CPI(15-33) gave values ranging from 1.09 to 1.46. n-Alkanol in all sediment exhibits even-to-odd carbon predominance ranging from nC16 to nC28 and maximising at nC22. n-Fatty acids distribution ranged from nC14 to nC24 with a dominant maximum at nC16 and exhibiting high values of short chain fatty acids (≤nC20) to long chain fatty acids (>nC20) ratios. Unsaturated fatty acids, particularly nC16:1 and nC18:1 is also ubiquitous in all samples. Cholesterol is the most abundant compound amongst the sterol group ranging from 42.8 to 62.6% of the total sterols. β-Sitosterol, brassicasterol and stigmasterol, are also present but of relatively lower amount. These observations suggest that the aliphatic lipids and sterols in the study area originate, mainly, from biogenic sources of marine microbial with minor contribution from epiticular waxes of terrestrial plants. PMID:23856812

  12. Populations at risk: conservation genetics of kangaroo mice (Microdipodops) of the Great Basin Desert

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, John J; Portnoy, David S; Hafner, John C; Light, Jessica E

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The Great Basin Desert of western North America has experienced frequent habitat alterations due to a complex biogeographic history and recent anthropogenic impacts, with the more recent alterations likely resulting in the decline of native fauna and flora. Dark (Microdipodops megacephalus) and pallid (M. pallidus) kangaroo mice are ecological specialists found within the Great Basin Desert and are potentially ideal organisms for assessing ecosystem health and inferring the biogeographic history of this vulnerable region. Herein, newly acquired nuclear-encoded microsatellite loci were utilized to assess patterns of variation within and among spatially discrete groups of kangaroo mice and to evaluate gene flow, demographic trends, and genetic integrity. Results confirm that there are at least three genetically distinct units within M. megacephalus and two such units within M. pallidus. The three units of M. megacephalus appear to have different demographic histories, with effectively no gene flow among them since their divergence. Similarly, the two units of M. pallidus also appear to have experienced different demographic histories, with effectively no gene exchange. Contemporary effective population sizes of all groups within Microdipodops appear to be low (<500), suggesting that each genetic lineage may have difficulty coping with changing environmental pressures and hence may be at risk of extirpation. Results of this study indicate that each Microdipodops group should be recognized, and therefore managed, as a separate unit in an effort to conserve these highly specialized taxa that contribute to the diversity of the Great Basin Desert ecosystem. The Great Basin Desert of western North America has experienced frequent habitat alterations due to a complex biogeographic history and recent anthropogenic impacts, with the more recent alterations likely resulting in the decline of native fauna and flora. Herein, newly acquired nuclear

  13. Populations at risk: conservation genetics of kangaroo mice (Microdipodops) of the Great Basin Desert.

    PubMed

    Andersen, John J; Portnoy, David S; Hafner, John C; Light, Jessica E

    2013-08-01

    The Great Basin Desert of western North America has experienced frequent habitat alterations due to a complex biogeographic history and recent anthropogenic impacts, with the more recent alterations likely resulting in the decline of native fauna and flora. Dark (Microdipodops megacephalus) and pallid (M. pallidus) kangaroo mice are ecological specialists found within the Great Basin Desert and are potentially ideal organisms for assessing ecosystem health and inferring the biogeographic history of this vulnerable region. Herein, newly acquired nuclear-encoded microsatellite loci were utilized to assess patterns of variation within and among spatially discrete groups of kangaroo mice and to evaluate gene flow, demographic trends, and genetic integrity. Results confirm that there are at least three genetically distinct units within M. megacephalus and two such units within M. pallidus. The three units of M. megacephalus appear to have different demographic histories, with effectively no gene flow among them since their divergence. Similarly, the two units of M. pallidus also appear to have experienced different demographic histories, with effectively no gene exchange. Contemporary effective population sizes of all groups within Microdipodops appear to be low (<500), suggesting that each genetic lineage may have difficulty coping with changing environmental pressures and hence may be at risk of extirpation. Results of this study indicate that each Microdipodops group should be recognized, and therefore managed, as a separate unit in an effort to conserve these highly specialized taxa that contribute to the diversity of the Great Basin Desert ecosystem. The Great Basin Desert of western North America has experienced frequent habitat alterations due to a complex biogeographic history and recent anthropogenic impacts, with the more recent alterations likely resulting in the decline of native fauna and flora. Herein, newly acquired nuclear-encoded microsatellite

  14. Sources of carbon isotope variation in kangaroo bone collagen and tooth enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Brett P.; Bowman, David M. J. S.; Gagan, Michael K.

    2007-08-01

    The stable carbon isotopic composition (expressed as δ 13C) of herbivore remains is commonly used to reconstruct past changes in the relative abundance of C 4 versus C 3 grass biomass (C 4 relative abundance). However, the strength of the relationship between herbivore δ 13C and C 4 relative abundance in extant ecosystems has not been thoroughly examined. We determined sources of variation in δ 13C of bone collagen and tooth enamel of kangaroos ( Macropus spp.) collected throughout Australia by measuring δ 13C of bone collagen (779 individuals) and tooth enamel (694 individuals). An index of seasonal water availability, i.e. the distribution of rainfall in the C 4 versus C 3 growing seasons, was used as a proxy for C 4 relative abundance, and this variable explained a large proportion of the variation in both collagen δ 13C (68%) and enamel δ 13C (68%). These figures increased to 78% and 77%, respectively, when differences between kangaroo species were accounted for. Vegetation characteristics, such as woodiness and the presence of an open forest canopy, had no effect on collagen or enamel δ 13C. While there was no relationship between collagen δ 13C and kangaroo age at death, tooth enamel produced later in life, following weaning, was enriched in 13C by 3.5‰ relative to enamel produced prior to weaning. From the observed relationships between seasonal water availability and collagen and enamel δ 13C, enrichment factors ( ɛ∗) for collagen-diet and enamel-diet (post-weaning) were estimated to be 5.2‰ ± 0.5 (95% CI) and 11.7‰ ± 0.6 (95% CI), respectively. The findings of this study confirm that at a continental scale, collagen and enamel δ 13C of a group of large herbivores closely reflect C 4 relative abundance. This validates a fundamental assumption underpinning the use of isotopic analysis of herbivore remains to reconstruct changes in C 4 relative abundance.

  15. Spatial dynamics of the bacterial community structure in the gastrointestinal tract of red kangaroo (Macropus rufus).

    PubMed

    Li, Meirong; Jin, Wei; Li, Yuanfei; Zhao, Lingling; Cheng, Yanfen; Zhu, Weiyun

    2016-06-01

    The quantification and community of bacteria in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract (stomach, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon and rectum) of red kangaroos (Macropus rufus) were examined by using real-time PCR and paired-end Illumina sequencing. The quantification of bacteria showed that the number of bacteria in jejunum and rectum was significantly lower than that in colon and cecum (P < 0.05). A total of 1,872,590 sequences was remained after quality-filtering and 50,948 OTUs were identified at the 97 % similarity level. The dominant phyla in the GI tract of red kangaroos were identified as Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. At the level of genus, the samples from different parts of GI tract clustered into three groups: stomach, small intestine (jejunum and ileum) and large intestine (cecum and rectum). Prevotella (29.81 %) was the most dominant genus in the stomach and significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that in other parts of GI tract. In the small intestine, Bifidobacterium (33.04, 12.14 %) and Streptococcus (22.90, 19.16 %) were dominant genera. Unclassified Ruminococcaceae was the most dominant family in large intestine and the total relative abundance of unclassified bacteria was above 50 %. In identified genera, Dorea was the most important variable to discriminate large intestine and it was significantly higher in cecum than in stomach, small intestine and colon (P < 0.05). Bifidobacterium (21.89 %) was the only dominant genus in colon. Future work on culture in vitro and genome sequencing of those unidentified bacteria might give us insight into the function of these microorganisms in the GI tract. In addition, the comparison of the bacterial community in the foregut of kangaroos and other herbivores and the rumen might give us insight into the mechanism of fiber degradation and help us exploit approaches to improve the feed efficiency and subsequently, reduce the methane emission from herbivores. PMID:27116964

  16. First evidence of widespread active methane seepage in the Southern Ocean, off the sub-Antarctic island of South Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Römer, M.; Torres, M.; Kasten, S.; Kuhn, G.; Graham, A. G. C.; Mau, S.; Little, C. T. S.; Linse, K.; Pape, T.; Geprägs, P.; Fischer, D.; Wintersteller, P.; Marcon, Y.; Rethemeyer, J.; Bohrmann, G.

    2014-10-01

    An extensive submarine cold-seep area was discovered on the northern shelf of South Georgia during R/V Polarstern cruise ANT-XXIX/4 in spring 2013. Hydroacoustic surveys documented the presence of 133 gas bubble emissions, which were restricted to glacially-formed fjords and troughs. Video-based sea floor observations confirmed the sea floor origin of the gas emissions and spatially related microbial mats. Effective methane transport from these emissions into the hydrosphere was proven by relative enrichments of dissolved methane in near-bottom waters. Stable carbon isotopic signatures pointed to a predominant microbial methane formation, presumably based on high organic matter sedimentation in this region. Although known from many continental margins in the world's oceans, this is the first report of an active area of methane seepage in the Southern Ocean. Our finding of substantial methane emission related to a trough and fjord system, a topographical setting that exists commonly in glacially-affected areas, opens up the possibility that methane seepage is a more widespread phenomenon in polar and sub-polar regions than previously thought.

  17. Morphology of the lingual papillae in the brush-tailed rat kangaroo.

    PubMed

    Emura, Shoichi; Okumura, Toshihiko; Chen, Huayue

    2014-01-01

    We examined the dorsal lingual surface of an adult brush-tailed rat kangaroo (Bettongia penicillata) by scanning electron microscopy. The filiform and fungiform papillae on the lingual apex and body consisted of a main papilla and secondary papillae. The connective tissue core of the filiform papillae on the lingual apex was cylindrical in shape with a crushed top. The connective tissue core of the filiform papillae on the lingual body had one large and several small processes. The fungiform papillae were round in shape. The connective tissue core of the fungiform papillae had several depressions on its top. The surface of the vallate papillae was rough and the papillae were surrounded by a groove and a pad. Several long conical papillae derived from the posterolateral margin of the tongue where foliate papillae have been shown to be distributed in many other animal species. The long conical papillae were very similar to those of the koala and opossum. PMID:24815106

  18. Salivation in the red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) during sympathetic nerve stimulation.

    PubMed

    Beal, A M

    1989-01-01

    1. Continuous electrical stimulation at low frequency (5 Hz) and short pulse duration (500 microseconds) of the cervical sympathetic trunk for periods up to 15 min caused no obvious flow from the parotid or mandibular glands of the red kangaroo. 2. Higher frequencies combined with longer pulse durations caused both glands to secrete. Flow reached maximum in less than 3 min and then declined but, on cessation of stimulation, flow increased again for a short period. This flow response may be caused by the interaction of the secretory response with myoepithelial contraction. 3. The parotid saliva had substantially higher protein, phosphate and hydrogen ion concentrations, and lower sodium concentrations than cholinergic parotid saliva. The low pH indicates bicarbonate concentrations far lower than in other sympathetic salivas. 4. The mandibular saliva had higher protein, urea and potassium, and lower chloride and hydrogen concentrations than cholinergic mandibular saliva. PMID:2566416

  19. Kangaroo care compared to incubators in maintaining body warmth in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Ludington-Hoe, S M; Nguyen, N; Swinth, J Y; Satyshur, R D

    2000-07-01

    Many preterm infants cared for in incubators do not experience Kangaroo Care (KC), skin-to-skin contact with their mothers, due to fear of body heat loss when being held outside the incubator. A randomized clinical trial of 16 KC and 13 control infants using a pretest-test-posttest design of three consecutive interfeeding intervals of 2.5 to 3.0 h duration each was conducted over 1 day. Infant abdominal and toe temperatures were measured in and out of the incubator; maternal breast temperature was measured during KC. Repeated measures ANOVA showed no change in abdominal temperature across all periods and between groups. Toe temperatures were significantly higher during KC than incubator periods, and maternal breast temperature met each infant's neutral thermal zone requirements within 5 min of onset of KC. Preterm infants similar to those studied here will maintain body warmth with up to 3 h of KC. PMID:11232513

  20. Maternal kangaroo (skin-to-skin) care in the NICU beginning 4 hours postbirth.

    PubMed

    Moran, M; Radzyminski, S G; Higgins, K R; Dowling, D A; Miller, M J; Anderson, G C

    1999-01-01

    Kangaroo care (KC) for preterm infants is becoming well known in the United States. Typically, KC is given by mothers in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) beginning days or weeks postbirth. This case report documents KC beginning at 4.5 hours postbirth with a healthy mother whose 32-week, 1,953 gram infant required initial care in the NICU. The nurse's role in supporting this care is described. Both parents experienced KC with their son and were soon convinced of the exceptional benefits he received. The infant was transferred to intermediate care on Day 2, regained his birth weight by Day 12, was discharged home on Day 21. He was breast-feeding exclusively at 40 weeks corrected age, and had Bayley mental and motor development scores within normal limits at 6 months corrected age. PMID:10083783

  1. Greenhouse gases in the South Atlantic Ocean: recent trends and anomalies from continuous island and shipboard measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowry, David; Fisher, Rebecca; Lanoisellé, Mathias; France, James; Nisbet, Euan

    2013-04-01

    In-situ observation of tropical and southern Atlantic greenhouse gases is still limited. Continuous high-precision greenhouse gas measurement by CRDS in the South Atlantic started in 2010 on Ascension Is. (8° S) and near Stanley on East Falkland Is. (52° S), and in 2012 on the British Antarctic Survey ship RRS James Clark Ross, which sails annually from the UK to Antarctica and back. Both the Ascension and Falklands records show sustained inter-annual growth in both CO2 and CH4. NOAA data from a small number of stations indicate that Southern Tropical Methane has been increasing since 2007 but that growth is now slowing. This is confirmed by our new data. Strong CH4 growth of 11 ppb was observed on Ascension between July 2010 and July 2011 (winter to winter), of 7 ppb/yr from Jan 2011 to Jan 2012 (summer-to-summer) and decreased further to 4 ppb from July 2011 to July 2012. This compares with a fairly constant growth of 4-5 ppb/yr for the Falklands site. Isotopic evidence for the causes of the 2010-11 southern hemisphere sub-tropical methane anomaly is inconclusive. A slight depletion in 13C on Ascension during the period of growth might indicate that wetland emissions are the dominant cause of the anomaly, fitting with much higher than average sub-tropical rainfall during recent years, but a much longer data set is required to isolate the anomaly from the long-term trend. On 23 April 2011, Ascension experienced a 20-year event when the ITCZ moved far south of its normal position. In very clean marine air, in the space of 3 minutes the methane jumped from a normal autumn southern hemisphere level of 1763 ppb to 1795 ppb, closer to the concentrations of northern hemisphere spring, settling near to 1800 ppb for six hours, after which it rapidly fell back to 1760 ppb. Simultaneously CO2 rose from 389 to about 392 ppm, then to 396 ppm before falling back to 388 ppm. During this period there was very heavy rainfall, with nearly 300 mm on the slopes of Green Mountain

  2. Effects of sea-level rise and pumpage elimination on saltwater intrusion in the Hilton Head Island area, South Carolina, 2004-2104

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Payne, Dorothy F.

    2010-01-01

    Saltwater intrusion of the Upper Floridan aquifer has been observed in the Hilton Head area, South Carolina since the late 1970s and currently affects freshwater supply. Rising sea level in the Hilton Head Island area may contribute to the occurrence of and affect the rate of saltwater intrusion into the Upper Floridan aquifer by increasing the hydraulic gradient and by inundating an increasing area with saltwater, which may then migrate downward into geologic units that presently contain freshwater. Rising sea level may offset any beneficial results from reductions in groundwater pumpage, and thus needs to be considered in groundwater-management decisions. A variable-density groundwater flow and transport model was modified from a previously existing model to simulate the effects of sea-level rise in the Hilton Head Island area. Specifically, the model was used to (1) simulate trends of saltwater intrusion from predevelopment to the present day (1885-2004) and evaluate the conceptual model, (2) project these trends from the present day into the future based on different potential rates of sea-level change, and (3) evaluate the relative influences of pumpage and sea-level rise on saltwater intrusion. Four scenarios were simulated for 2004-2104: (1) continuation of the estimated sea-level rise rate over the last century, (2) a doubling of the sea-level rise, (3) a cessation of sea-level rise, and (4) continuation of the rate over the last century coupled with an elimination of all pumpage. Results show that, if present-day (year 2004) pumping conditions are maintained, the extent of saltwater in the Upper Floridan aquifer will increase, whether or not sea level continues to rise. Furthermore, if all pumpage is eliminated and sea level continues to rise, the simulated saltwater extent in the Upper Floridan aquifer is reduced. These results indicate that pumpage is a strong driving force for simulated saltwater intrusion, more so than sea-level rise at current rates

  3. Geochemical modeling and Nd-Sr data links nephelinite-phonolite successions and xenoliths of Trindade Island (South Atlantic Ocean, Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bongiolo, E. M.; Pires, G. L. C.; Geraldes, M. C.; Santos, A. C.; Neumann, R.

    2015-11-01

    The Trindade Island corresponds to the eastern end of the submarine E-W Vitória-Trindade Chain as part of the Trindade plume track on the South American plate. It is a suitable site for petrogenetic investigations, since a series of unusual rock compositions crops out within nephelinite-phonolite successions and scarce xenoliths. Software-based geochemical modeling and Nd-Sr analyses, coupled with field work, petrography and literature data were used to evaluate and model the petrogenetic processes that led to the formation of variable rock compositions. Results show the formation of: (1) nephelinites at 1490 °C and 3 GPa, from 0.1 to 7% of partial melting of an enriched garnet-lherzolitic source or from 1 to 5% partial melting of TiO2-rich garnet-phogopite lherzolite (up to 2.5 wt.% of CO2). Nephelinites represent low viscosity (18 Pa s), high-temperature (1170 °C) and high-density (2.79 g/cm3) lavas; (2) pyroxenite, jacupirangite and melteigite cumulates at 900 °C and 0.5 GPa, after 46%, 49% and 56% fractional crystallization of nephelinites, and leaving phonotephrites as residual liquids; (3) monchiquites, from fractional melting of enriched, CO2-bearing garnet-amphibole-phlogopite peridotites or from hydrated nephelinite magmas. They may evolved to sannaite via fractional crystallization or may generate phonolites through extraction of pyroxene and amphibole cumulates at 1080 to 970 °C and 1.2 to 0.9 GPa; (4) sannaites may represent 'hydrous' phonotephrites, and can evolve to phonolites and phonolitic foidites via fractional crystallization; and (5) bebedourite cumulates at 850 °C and 0.38 to 0.4 GPa, from phonotephritic or sannaitic magmas after 20% and 26% of fractional crystallization, leaving phonolites and phonolite-foidites as residual liquids. Phonolites and phonolitic foidites, the most evolved rocks of the nephelinite-phonolite association, represent higher-viscosity (1.1 × 106 Pa s), lower-temperature (950 °C), and lower-density (2.48 g/cm3

  4. Silica- and LREE-enriched spinel peridotite xenoliths from the Quaternary intraplate alkali basalt, Jeju Island, South Korea: Old subarc fragments?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Yonghoon; Yang, Kyounghee; Kil, Youngwoo; Yun, Sung-Hyo; Arai, Shoji

    2014-11-01

    Spinel harzburgite to lherzolite xenoliths are entrapped in Quaternary intraplate alkali basalts on Jeju Island, South Korea. These xenoliths are unusual in containing late-stage secondary orthopyroxene, free of deformation and exsolution that is replacing olivine as the main pervasive metasomatic mineral. These xenoliths are characterized by high Mg# in olivine, orthopyroxene, and clinopyroxene (89-93) and variable Cr# of spinel (9-53), representing residues left after variable degrees of melt extraction (~ 25%). In contrast to their depleted major-element compositions, clinopyroxenes in the xenoliths are enriched in most incompatible trace elements. Clinopyroxenes display enrichment in light rare earth elements (LREE) or spoon-shaped REE with a general enrichment in La over Ce, and depletion in high field strength elements (HFSE; e.g., Nb-Ta, Zr-Hf, Ti). Orthopyroxenes (either primary or secondary) are characterized by low TiO2, high Al2O3, and moderate CaO contents, and resemble those of sub-continental arc peridotites from the eastern Pacific. The geochemical evidence, in addition to the formation of secondary orthopyroxene, indicates that Jeju peridotite xenoliths have been subjected to different degrees of metasomatism by subduction-related silica- and LREE-enriched fluids (or melts). However, chemical equilibrium is evident between the primary and secondary orthopyroxene, implying that the duration of post-metasomatic high temperatures enabled complete resetting/reequilibration of the mineral compositions. The metasomatic enrichment pre-dates the host Jeju Quaternary magmatism, and a genetic relationship with the host magmas is considered unlikely. We therefore propose that the Jeju peridotite xenoliths went through a two-stage evolution, with their composition primarily controlled by early fractional melt extraction, which was subsequently modified by residual slab-derived fluids (or melts). Following enrichment in the peridotite protolith in the mantle

  5. Polar gravel beach-ridge systems: Sedimentary architecture, genesis, and implications for climate reconstructions (South Shetland Islands/Western Antarctic Peninsula)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindhorst, Sebastian; Schutter, Ilona

    2014-09-01

    The sedimentary architecture of polar gravel-beach ridges is presented and it is shown that ridge internal geometries reflect past wave-climate conditions. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data obtained along the coasts of Potter Peninsula (King George Island) show that beach ridges unconformably overlie the prograding strand plain. Development of individual ridges is seen to result from multiple storms in periods of increased storm-wave impact on the coast. Strand-plain progradation, by contrast, is the result of swash sedimentation at the beach-face under persistent calm conditions. The sedimentary architecture of beach ridges in sheltered parts of the coast is characterized by seaward-dipping prograding beds, being the result of swash deposition under stormy conditions, or aggrading beds formed by wave overtopping. By contrast, ridges exposed to high-energy waves are composed of seaward- as well as landward-dipping strata, bundled by numerous erosional unconformities. These erosional unconformities are the result of sediment starvation or partial reworking of ridge material during exceptional strong storms. The number of individual ridges which are preserved from a given time interval varies along the coast depending on the morphodynamic setting: sheltered coasts are characterized by numerous small ridges, whereas fewer but larger ridges develop on exposed beaches. The frequency of ridge building ranges from decades in the low-energy settings up to 1600 years under high-energy conditions. Beach ridges in the study area cluster at 9.5, 7.5, 5.5, and below 3.5 m above the present-day storm beach. Based on radiocarbon data, this is interpreted to reflect distinct periods of increased storminess and/or shortened annual sea-ice coverage in the area of the South Shetland Islands for the times around 4.3, c. 3.1, 1.9 ka cal BP, and after 0.65 ka cal BP. Ages further indicate that even ridges at higher elevations can be subject to later reactivation and reworking. A

  6. Parasitic nematode communities of the red kangaroo, Macropus rufus: richness and structuring in captive systems.

    PubMed

    Lott, M J; Hose, G C; Power, M L

    2015-08-01

    Captive management practices have the potential to drastically alter pre-existing host-parasite relationships. This can have profound implications for the health and productivity of threatened species in captivity, even in the absence of clinical symptoms of disease. Maximising the success of captive breeding programmes requires a detailed knowledge of anthropogenic influences on the structure of parasite assemblages in captive systems. In this study, we employed two high-throughput molecular techniques to characterise the parasitic nematode (suborder Strongylida) communities of the red kangaroo, Macropus rufus, across seven captive sites. The first was terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of a region of rDNA encompassing the internal transcribed spacers 1 (ITS1), the 5.8S rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2). The second was Illumina MiSeq next-generation sequencing of the ITS2 region. The prevalence, intensity of infection, taxonomic composition and comparative structure of strongylid nematode assemblages was assessed at each location. Prevalence (P = <0.001) and mean infection intensity (df = 6, F = 17.494, P = <0.001) differed significantly between the seven captive sites. Significant levels of parasite community structure were observed (ANOSIM, P = 0.01), with most of the variation being distributed within, rather than between, captive sites. The range of nematode taxa that occurred in captive red kangaroos appeared to differ from that of wild conspecifics, with representatives of the genus Cloacina, a dominant nematode parasite of the macropodid forestomach, being detected at only two of the seven study sites. This study also provides the first evidence for the presence of the genus Trichostrongylus in a macropodid marsupial. Our results demonstrate that contemporary species management practices may exert a profound influence on the structure of parasite communities in captive systems. PMID

  7. Biphasic Allometry of Cardiac Growth in the Developing Kangaroo Macropus fuliginosus.

    PubMed

    Snelling, Edward P; Taggart, David A; Maloney, Shane K; Farrell, Anthony P; Seymour, Roger S

    2015-01-01

    Interspecific studies of adult mammals show that heart mass (M(h), g) increases in direct proportion to body mass (M(b), kg), such that M(h) ∝ M(b)(1.00). However, intraspecific studies on heart mass in mammals at different stages of development reveal considerable variation between species, M(h) ∝ M(b)(0.70-1.00). Part of this variation may arise as a result of the narrow body size range of growing placental mammals, from birth to adulthood. Marsupial mammals are born relatively small and offer an opportunity to examine the ontogeny of heart mass over a much broader body size range. Data from 29 western grey kangaroos Macropus fuliginosus spanning 800-fold in body mass (0.084-67.5 kg) reveal the exponent for heart mass decreases significantly when the joey leaves the pouch (ca. 5-6 kg body mass). In the pouch, the heart mass of joeys scales with hyperallometry, M(h(in-pouch)) = 6.39 M(b)(1.10 ± 0.05), whereas in free-roaming juveniles and adults, heart mass scales with hypoallometry, M(h(postpouch)) = 14.2 Mb(0.77 ± 0.08). Measurements of heart height, width, and depth support this finding. The relatively steep heart growth allometry during in-pouch development is consistent with the increase in relative cardiac demands as joeys develop endothermy and the capacity for hopping locomotion. Once out of the pouch, the exponent decreases sharply, possibly because the energy required for hopping is independent of speed, and the efficiency of energy storage during hopping increases as the kangaroo grows. The right:left ventricular mass ratios (0.30-0.35) do not change over the body mass range and are similar to those of other mammals, reflecting the principle of Laplace for the heart. PMID:25730276

  8. Detail of south wing south elevation wall section; camera facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of south wing south elevation wall section; camera facing northwest - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Defense Electronics Equipment Operating Center, I Street, terminus west of Cedar Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  9. Terminal suturing of Gondwana along the southern margin of South China Craton: Evidence from detrital zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotopes in Cambrian and Ordovician strata, Hainan Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yajun; Cawood, Peter A.; Du, Yuansheng; Zhong, Zengqiu; Hughes, Nigel C.

    2014-12-01

    Hainan Island, located near the southern end of mainland South China, consists of the Qiongzhong Block to the north and the Sanya Block to the south. In the Cambrian, these blocks were separated by an intervening ocean. U-Pb ages and Hf isotope compositions of detrital zircons from the Cambrian succession in the Sanya Block suggest that the unit contains detritus derived from late Paleoproterozoic and Mesoproterozoic units along the western margin of the West Australia Craton (e.g., Northampton Complex) or the Albany-Fraser-Wilkes orogen, which separates the West Australia and Mawson cratons. Thus, in the Cambrian the Sanya Block was not part of the South China Craton but rather part of the West Australian Craton and its environs. In contrast, overlying Late Ordovician strata display evidence for input of detritus from the Qiongzhong Block, which constituted part of the southeastern convergent plate margin of the South China Craton in the early Paleozoic. The evolving provenance record of the Cambrian and Ordovician strata suggests that the juxtaposition of South China and West Australian cratons occurred during the early to mid-Ordovician. The event was linked with the northern continuation of Kuungan Orogeny, with South China providing a record of final assembly of Gondwana.

  10. Agroforestry In-Service Training. A Training Aid for Asia & the Pacific Islands (Honiara, Solomon Islands, South Pacific, October 23-29, 1983). Training for Development. Peace Corps Information Collection & Exchange Training Manual No. T-16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fillion, Jacob; Weeks, Julius

    The Forestry/Natural Resources Sector in the Office of Training and Program Support of the Peace Corps conducted an agroforestry inservice training workshop in Honiara, Solomon Islands, in 1983. Participants included Peace Corps volunteers and their host country national counterparts from six countries of the Pacific Islands and Asia (Western…

  11. Isotopic composition of water-soluble nitrate in bulk atmospheric deposition at Dongsha Island: sources and implications of external N supply to the northern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.-Y. T.; Hsu, S.-C.; Dai, M.; Hsiao, S. S.-Y.; Kao, S.-J.

    2013-06-01

    Increased reactive nitrogen (Nr, NO3- + NH4+ + dissolved organic nitrogen) emission from Asian continent poses profound threats on ecosystem safety from terrestrial throughout the ocean proper. To diagnose the sources of atmospheric Nr input and quantify its influence on marine nitrogen cycle of the South China Sea (SCS), an oligotrophic marginal sea adjacent to the emission hotspot China, we conducted measurements of dual isotopes of water-soluble nitrate (δ15NNO3 and δ18ONO3) and concentrations of major ions for bulk atmospheric deposition collected from Dongsha Island off south China. The δ15NNO3 and δ18ONO3 for bulk deposition ranged from -7.5‰ to +3.9‰ and ˜ +17‰ to +88‰, respectively. A relatively uniform low δ15NNO3 and high δ18ONO3 endmember were observed in winter. Non-sea-salt sulfate/calcium (nssSO42- and nssCa2+) peaked as the increasing nitrate depositional flux (one exception caused by typhoon), implying a pollution source of nitrate during high deposition. Meanwhile, the flux-weighted average of δ15NNO3 was -2.7± 2.3‰, resembling the isotopic signature of fossil fuel combustion in inland China. More variable dual isotopic values observed in July and September suggest relatively dynamics sources and conversion chemistry. During the period affected by the peripheral circumfluence of Typhoon Fanapi, a high nitrate deposition with uniform isotopic composition (δ15NNO3 of ~ -0.5‰ and δ18ONO3 of ˜ +19‰) was observed accompanying with low terrestrial constituents such as dust and pollutants (e.g. nssSO42- and nssCa2+). This high nitrate deposition was likely a natural endmember sourced from lightning. The summarized total atmospheric Nr deposition (AND) is ˜ 50 mmol N m-2 yr-1. If without this additional AND fertilization, CO2 release (currently 460 ± 430 mmol C m-2 yr-1) from the SCS would be doubled. Our study demonstrates that AND may serve as an important external Nr supply to the SCS yet difficult to separate from N

  12. A new bathymetric compilation for the South Orkney Islands region, Antarctic Peninsula (49°-39°W to 64°-59°S): Insights into the glacial development of the continental shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickens, William A.; Graham, Alastair G. C.; Smith, James A.; Dowdeswell, Julian A.; Larter, Robert D.; Hillenbrand, Claus-Dieter; Trathan, Phil N.; Erik Arndt, Jan; Kuhn, Gerhard

    2014-06-01

    present a new, high resolution (300 m) bathymetric grid of the continental shelf surrounding the South Orkney Islands, northeast of the Antarctic Peninsula. The new grid, derived from a compilation of marine echo-sounding data, improves previous regional bathymetric representations and helps to visualize the morphology of the shelf in unrivalled detail. The compilation forms important baseline information for a range of scientific applications and end users including oceanographers, glacial modelers, biologists, and geologists. In particular, due to the limited understanding of glacial history in this region, the bathymetry provides the first detailed insights into past glacial regimes. The continental shelf is dominated by seven glacially eroded troughs, marking the pathways of glacial outlets that once drained a former ice cap centered on the South Orkney Islands. During previous glacial periods, grounded ice extended to the shelf edge north of the islands. A large, ˜250 km long sediment depocenter, interpreted as a maximum former ice limit of one or more Cenozoic glaciations, suggests that ice was only grounded to the ˜300-350 m contour in the south. Hypsometric analyses support this interpretation, indicating that a significant proportion of the shelf has been unaffected by glacial erosion. Using these observations, we propose a preliminary ice cap reconstruction for maximum glaciation of the South Orkney plateau, suggesting an ice coverage of about ˜19,000 km2. The timing of maximum ice extent, number of past advances and pattern of subsequent deglaciation(s) remain uncertain and will require further targeted marine geological and geophysical investigations to resolve.

  13. Syn-Rift Subsidence Deficit of the Qiongdongnan Basin and the Synchronous Rapid Uplift of South Hainan Island: Some Clues on Surface Response to the Hainan Plume, NW South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, X.

    2014-12-01

    Based on tomography, geochemical and petrological evidences, a mantle plume called Hainan Plume has been suggested lying under Hainan Island. Our recent studies on basin subsidence and surface topography indicated that there existed surface vertical motion response to the suggested mantle plume. Post-rift rapid subsidence in the Qiongdongnan basin, which lies south of Hainan Island, is well known and accepted phenomenon. A particular feature is that the rapid subsidence did not just follow the end of syn-rift phase at ~ 21 Ma, but began after a ~10 my relatively tectonic quiescence. Different tectonic processes have been proposed to account for this rapid subsidence event. However, all these proposed mechanisms just focus on the rapid subsidence episode since Late Miocene. Our details subsidence analyses show that its tectonic subsidence is of a two-stage anomalous character: the deficit subsidence at the end of the syn-rift phase and the well known post-rift rapid subsidence after 10.5 Ma. Numerical analyses show that the stretching factor βs based on syn-rift sequences is much less than the observed crustal stretching factor βc, and the present basement depth can be almost predictable if assuming that the lithosphere was thinned with stretching factor βc; The crustal thinning happened during the syn-rift phase (before 21 Ma), and a new rifting and lower crustal flow after 21 Ma were not supported, proposing further that the syn-rift subsidence is deficit. Our further analyses proposed that the syn-rift subsidence deficit might be caused by the dynamic support of the secondary plume, and the post-rift rapid subsidence might result from the losing support of the thermal source decaying, therefore occurred to compensate the subsidence deficit of the syn-rift phase. The cooling history of the southern Hainan deduced by low temperature chronometry data, also indicated there exist an uplift event in the Late Oligocene (Shi et al., 2011). All the samples show that

  14. Segregation or aggregation? Sex-specific patterns in the seasonal occurrence of white sharks Carcharodon carcharias at the Neptune Islands, South Australia.

    PubMed

    Bruce, B; Bradford, R

    2015-12-01

    The seasonal patterns of occurrence of male and female white sharks Carcharodon carcharias at the Neptune Islands in South Australia were reviewed. Analyses of a 14 year data series indicate that females seasonally aggregate in late autumn and winter coinciding with the maximum in-water availability of lactating female long-nose fur seals and seal pups. During this period, observed male:female sex ratios were similar; whereas during late spring and summer, males continued to visit, but females were rarely recorded. There was no evidence for segregation by sex or size at the Neptunes, but the highly focused seasonal pattern of occurrence of females compared with the year-round records of males suggests that there are likely to be differences between the sexes in overall distribution and movement patterns across southern Australia. It is suggested that foraging strategies and prey selection differ between sexes in C. carcharias across the life-history stages represented and that sex-specific foraging strategies may play an important role in structuring movement patterns and the sex ratios observed at such aggregation sites. Differences between sexes in distribution, movement patterns and foraging strategies are likely to have implications for modelling the consequences of fisheries by-catch between regions or jurisdictions and other spatially or temporally discrete anthropogenic effects on C. carcharias populations. Such differences urge for caution when estimating the size of C. carcharias populations based on observations at pinniped colonies due to the likelihood of sex-specific differences in movements and patterns of residency. These differences also suggest a need to account for sex-specific movement patterns and distribution in population and movement models as well as under conservation actions. PMID:26709211

  15. Seasonal streamflow prediction using ensemble streamflow prediction technique for the Rangitata and Waitaki River basins on the South Island of New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Shailesh Kumar

    2014-05-01

    Streamflow forecasts are essential for making critical decision for optimal allocation of water supplies for various demands that include irrigation for agriculture, habitat for fisheries, hydropower production and flood warning. The major objective of this study is to explore the Ensemble Streamflow Prediction (ESP) based forecast in New Zealand catchments and to highlights the present capability of seasonal flow forecasting of National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA). In this study a probabilistic forecast framework for ESP is presented. The basic assumption in ESP is that future weather pattern were experienced historically. Hence, past forcing data can be used with current initial condition to generate an ensemble of prediction. Small differences in initial conditions can result in large difference in the forecast. The initial state of catchment can be obtained by continuously running the model till current time and use this initial state with past forcing data to generate ensemble of flow for future. The approach taken here is to run TopNet hydrological models with a range of past forcing data (precipitation, temperature etc.) with current initial conditions. The collection of runs is called the ensemble. ESP give probabilistic forecasts for flow. From ensemble members the probability distributions can be derived. The probability distributions capture part of the intrinsic uncertainty in weather or climate. An ensemble stream flow prediction which provide probabilistic hydrological forecast with lead time up to 3 months is presented for Rangitata, Ahuriri, and Hooker and Jollie rivers in South Island of New Zealand. ESP based seasonal forecast have better skill than climatology. This system can provide better over all information for holistic water resource management.

  16. Compositional variability of selected sandy intervals in a muddy continental shelf-to-slope succession, Canterbury Basin, South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsaglia, K. M.; Bender-Whitaker, C.; Bailey, C. H.; Nolasco, J.

    2012-12-01

    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 317 drilled four sites in the Canterbury Basin off South Island, New Zealand. The goal of the expedition was to provide a complete stratigraphic record of the shelf and slope for correlation with interpreted seismic stratigraphy. Recovered lithologies were mostly mud and sandy mud with lesser shell hash, sand, and muddy sand (Fulthorpe et al., 2010). The objective of our study was to determine the compositional variability of Holocene to Pliocene sandy intervals from both shelf (U1351, U1353, U1354) and slope (U1352) sites. Sandy sediment was sampled systematically throughout recovered intervals, which included several potential seismic sequence boundaries. Samples were sieved and sand fractions were made into thin sections. Thin sections were stained for feldspar identification and point counted (400 points) using the Gazzi-Dickinson method to minimize effects of grain size variation. A detailed classification scheme of monomineralic, lithic and bioclastic components was used. The sand samples are fairly uniform in composition: predominantly feldspathic, with lesser quartz and lithic components (average QFL%Q= 39; F= 48; % L= 13). The feldspar includes both plagioclase and potassium varieties, whereas the quartz is predominantly monocrystalline. Lithic components are mainly metamorphic (e.g., quartz-mica tectonite) and sedimentary (mudstone), with rare volcanic fragments. Other common minerals include chlorite and mica, with lesser dense minerals. Bioclastic debris ranges from 0 to 70% of the sand fraction. There are no significant differences in composition among the samples from shelf and slope sites. Sand samples near or at horizons linked to seismic sequence boundaries showed no consistent compositional trends in terrigenous components or percent carbonate (bioclastic debris) as compared to others. This is in contrast to results from other workers focusing on the composition of muddy lithofacies within the

  17. Investigation of Seafloor Depressions East of New Zealand's South Island to Explore Their Potential Link to Methane Transport Processes Between the Seafloor and Ocean.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillman, J. I. T.; Gorman, A. R.; Pecher, I. A.; Pallentin, A.; Lamarche, G.

    2014-12-01

    Numerous seafloor depressions, ranging in size from 20 to 700 m in diameter, have been identified off the east coast of New Zealand's South Island. Depressions or pockmarks are a commonly observed seafloor expression of focused fluid flow or gas venting. The positions of these structures correlate well with the expected gas hydrate stability zone in the region; however, limited geophysical or geochemical evidence exists to support the hypothesis that gas hydrate dissociation is the primary mechanism responsible for their formation. The purpose of this project is to investigate these depressions, focusing on their geomorphology and underlying shallow subsurface structures, in order to determine the most probable mechanism of formation. In addition to recently acquired data from the CHatham RIse Mega Pockmarks (CHRIMP) project, existing data sets from research and industry sources have been used in this study. One of the aims of the project is the use of multibeam bathymetry and backscatter data to characterise the lithology of the seafloor in the vicinity of these seafloor depressions. This work has been done by correlating automated supervised segmentation of backscatter data to sediment samples, underwater images, and subsurface profiles from seismic and parasound data. The morphometric variability of these structures indicates that multiple processes were involved in their formation over a period of time. Shallow gas release and gas hydrate dissociation may have been a factor in the initial formation of some of the larger structures on the Chatham Rise; however, they subsequently have been modified and maintained by the action of strong current systems in the region, e.g. the northeasterly flowing Subtropical Front in the region. Along the Canterbury Shelf, the interaction of current systems and complex seafloor canyon systems has strongly influenced the geomorphology of the seafloor.

  18. Geomorphology and geodynamics of the Cook-Austral island-seamount chain in the South Pacific Ocean: Implications for hotspots and plumes

    SciTech Connect

    Dickinson, W.R.

    1998-12-01

    Among Pacific hotspot tracks, the Cook-Austral island-seamount chain is distinctly anomalous in geodynamic behavior, exhibiting repetitive episodes of volcanism at multiple sites, uplift of selected islands long after initial immersion by subsidence, and multiple alignments of volcanic edifices. Cook-Austral islands include a variety of disparate geomorphic types: volcanic islands without reefs, with fringing reefs, and with barrier reefs enclosing shallow lagoons, low-lying atolls; and makatea islands composted of volcanic cores surrounded by annular limestone tablelands. The distribution of subsided and uplifted islands along the Cook-Austral chain reflects multiple hotspot activity, probably related to multiple mantle diapirs of local character rather than to deep-seated plumes. Rapid Pacific plate motion can generate elongate hotspot tracks from transient hotspot activity unrelated to columnar advective plumes.

  19. Mother–offspring distances reflect sex differences in fine-scale genetic structure of eastern grey kangaroos

    PubMed Central

    King, Wendy J; Garant, Dany; Festa-Bianchet, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Natal dispersal affects life history and population biology and causes gene flow. In mammals, dispersal is usually male-biased so that females tend to be philopatric and surrounded by matrilineal kin, which may lead to preferential associations among female kin. Here we combine genetic analyses and behavioral observations to investigate spatial genetic structure and sex-biased dispersal patterns in a high-density population of mammals showing fission–fusion group dynamics. We studied eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) over 2 years at Wilsons Promontory National Park, Australia, and found weak fine-scale genetic structure among adult females in both years but no structure among adult males. Immature male kangaroos moved away from their mothers at 18–25 months of age, while immature females remained near their mothers until older. A higher proportion of male (34%) than female (6%) subadults and young adults were observed to disperse, although median distances of detected dispersals were similar for both sexes. Adult females had overlapping ranges that were far wider than the maximum extent of spatial genetic structure found. Female kangaroos, although weakly philopatric, mostly encounter nonrelatives in fission–fusion groups at high density, and therefore kinship is unlikely to strongly affect sociality. PMID:26045958

  20. The role of strength anisotropy in the development of deep-seated gravitational slope deformation features in schist at Roys Peak, South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brideau, M.

    2013-12-01

    This study looked at the interaction between the rock strength anisotropy and discontinuity orientations on the development of well-expressed deep-seated gravitational slope deformation (DSGSD) features around Roys Peak. The project area is located near the town of Wanaka in the Otago region of New Zealand's South Island. The Roys Peak area has well defined geomorphological features (antislope scarps and split ridges) typically associated with DSGSD over a distance extending almost 4.5 km along the Lake Wanaka Valley. The summit corresponds with the intersection of two prominent ridges running approximately north-south and east-west and has an elevation of 1580 metres above sea level with a local relief of 1250 m. The bedrock geology at Roys Peak consists of Late Paleozoic to Mid Mesozoic pelitic schist having a granitic protolith. The study area has been glaciated several times during the Quaternary Period. Glaciers have strongly influenced the landscape by rounding the spurs in the valley bottom and steepening the lower parts of mountains. Roys Peak is located approximately 75km south from the Alpine Fault (boundary between the Pacific and Australian plates) and as such the project area is not particularly seismically active with only 52 earthquakes with a magnitude greater than 4 within a 50km radius of the project area listed in the New Zealand Historical Earthquake Database. Engineering geological mapping at Roys Peak identified three discontinuity sets and a pervasive schistose fabric in a dip-slope position with the main valley orientation. The rock mass quality was described in the field using the Geological Strength Index (GSI). The observed rock mass quality at Roys Peak had a GSI range between 30-45. This corresponds to a blocky/disturbed/seamy structure with fair quality discontinuity surfaces. The intact rock strength of the schist rock was evaluated using field estimates, Schmidt hammer rebound values, and point load tests. The three methods overlap

  1. 50 CFR Appendix E to Part 622 - Caribbean Island/Island Group Management Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Caribbean Island/Island Group Management..., AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Pt. 622, App. E Appendix E to Part 622—Caribbean Island/Island Group Management... St. Thomas/St. John island group to Point C C 18°13′59.0606″ 65°05′33.058″ D 18°01′16.9636″...

  2. 50 CFR Appendix E to Part 622 - Caribbean Island/Island Group Management Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Caribbean Island/Island Group Management..., AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Pt. 622, App. E Appendix E to Part 622—Caribbean Island/Island Group Management... St. Thomas/St. John island group to Point C C 18°13′59.0606″ 65°05′33.058″ D 18°01′16.9636″...

  3. 4. Keeper's house and light tower, view south, northeast and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Keeper's house and light tower, view south, northeast and northwest sides - Seguin Island Light Station, Summit of Seguin Island, south of mouth of Kennebec River, Popham Beach, Sagadahoc County, ME

  4. Radionuclide transport from soil to air, native vegetation, kangaroo rats and grazing cattle on the Nevada test site.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, R O; Shinn, J H; Essington, E H; Tamura, T; Romney, E M; Moor, K S; O'Farrell, T P

    1988-12-01

    Between 1970 and 1986 the Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG), U.S. Department of Energy, conducted environmental radionuclide studies at weapons-testing sites on or adjacent to the Nevada Test Site. In this paper, NAEG studies conducted at two nuclear (fission) sites (NS201, NS219) and two nonnuclear (nonfission) sites (Area 13 [Project 57] and Clean Slate 2) are reviewed, synthesized and compared regarding (1) soil particle-size distribution and physical-chemical characteristics of 239 + 240Pu-bearing radioactive particles, (2) 239 + 240Pu resuspension rates and (3) transuranic and fission-product radionuclide transfers from soil to native vegetation, kangaroo rats and grazing cattle. The data indicate that transuranic radionuclides were transferred more readily on the average from soil to air, the external surfaces of native vegetation and to tissues of kangaroo rats at Area 13 than at NS201 or NS219. The 239 + 240Pu resuspension factor for undisturbed soil at Area 13 was three to four orders-of-magnitude larger than at NS201 and NS219, the geometric mean (GM) vegetation-over-soil 239 + 240Pu concentration ratio was from ten to 100 times larger than at NS201, and the GM GI-over-soil, carcass-over-soil and pelt-over-soil 239 + 240Pu ratios for kangaroo rats were about ten times larger than at NS201. These results are consistent with the finding that Area 13, compared with NS201 or NS219, has a higher percentage of radioactivity associated with smaller soil particles and a larger percentage of resuspendable and respirable soil. However, the resuspension factor increased by a factor of 27 at NS201 when the surface soil was disturbed, and by a factor of 12 at NS219 following a wildfire. The average (GM) concentration of 239 + 240Pu for the GI (and contents) of Area 13 kangaroo rats and for the rumen contents of beef cattle that grazed Area 13 were very similar (400 vs. 440 Bq kg-1 dry wt, respectively) although the variability between individuals was very large. The

  5. Fiji in the South Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Rosalind; Semaan, Leslie

    This text introduces Fiji and other island nations located in the Pacific, the world's largest ocean. Cut off from the world by vast expanses of water, these people developed a unique culture. Contents include: Teacher Overview, Geography of the South Pacific Islands, History of the South Pacific, Fiji, Traditional Village Life, Yaquna Ceremony,…

  6. Seasonal Variations in Physical Characteristics of the South Australian Shelf Waters -Results from the Southern Australian Integrated Marine Observing System (SAIMOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, C.; Luick, J.; Leterme, S. C.; Middleton, J.; Seuront, L.

    2009-04-01

    The Southern Australia Integrated Marine Observing System, or SAIMOS, is one of five nodes operating as part of the Australia-wide Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS). This is a collaborative program designed to observe Australia's oceans, both coastal and blue-water. Since February 2008 Physical Data has been collected for SAIMOS in both summer and winter months during 8 surveys. The data collected during summer are used to characterise the nature and dynamics of the Kangaroo Island-Eyre Peninsula upwelling system during a record upwelling event in February 2008. During this event a plume of very cool water was observed along the bottom from South of KI to the Eyre Peninsula. This plume dissipated rapidly after the end of upwelling favourable winds and by March 2008 had disappeared entirely from the observations. The data are also used to study the dense high salinity outflow from Spencer Gulf observed during the winter months. The dense plume result from surface cooling of high salinity waters at the head of Spencer Gulf. One striking result of these observations is that the outflow occurs during a series of strong pulses with a period of approximately 2 weeks and duration of 1-3 days. During these pulses bottom velocities at 100 m can exceed 1 m/s.

  7. Derivation of soil-screening thresholds to protect the chisel-toothed kangaroo rat from uranium mine waste in northern Arizona.

    PubMed

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; Linder, Greg; Otton, James K; Finger, Susan E; Little, Edward; Tillitt, Donald E

    2013-08-01

    Chemical data from soil and weathered waste material samples collected from five uranium mines north of the Grand Canyon (three reclaimed, one mined but not reclaimed, and one never mined) were used in a screening-level risk analysis for the Arizona chisel-toothed kangaroo rat (Dipodomys microps leucotis); risks from radiation exposure were not evaluated. Dietary toxicity reference values were used to estimate soil-screening thresholds presenting risk to kangaroo rats. Sensitivity analyses indicated that body weight critically affected outcomes of exposed-dose calculations; juvenile kangaroo rats were more sensitive to the inorganic constituent toxicities than adult kangaroo rats. Species-specific soil-screening thresholds were derived for arsenic (137 mg/kg), cadmium (16 mg/kg), copper (1,461 mg/kg), lead (1,143 mg/kg), nickel (771 mg/kg), thallium (1.3 mg/kg), uranium (1,513 mg/kg), and zinc (731 mg/kg) using toxicity reference values that incorporate expected chronic field exposures. Inorganic contaminants in soils within and near the mine areas generally posed minimal risk to kangaroo rats. Most exceedances of soil thresholds were for arsenic and thallium and were associated with weathered mine wastes. PMID:23604138

  8. Trindade and Martı´n Vaz Islands, South Atlantic: Isotopic (Sr, Nd, Pb) and trace element constraints on plume related magmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siebel, W.; Becchio, R.; Volker, F.; Hansen, M. A. F.; Viramonte, J.; Trumbull, R. B.; Haase, G.; Zimmer, M.

    2000-05-01

    Highly alkaline silica undersaturated lavas erupted at Trindade Island over its 5 Ma geologic history and comprise primitive nephelinites-basanites and more evolved nepheline-bearing phonolitic rocks. Nephelinites-basanites and phonolitic rocks are thought to be genetically related via crystal fractionation, as indicated by the very limited range in Sr, Nd and Pb isotope ratios, systematically increasing contents of incompatible trace elements from primitive to evolved rock types, and similar variation in chemical composition of the major phenocryst phases (clinopyroxene, amphibole, feldspar) in all rock types. Tb/Yb ratios of the primitive lavas are high (2.6-4.1) and silica contents are low (39.8-42.9 wt.% SiO 2), indicating that the melts were generated at deep mantle depths (˜150 km), within the garnet lherzolite stability field. Non-radiogenic 87Sr/ 86Sr (0.70377-0.70421) and radiogenic 143Nd/ 144Nd (0.512752-0.512837) values show that the Trindade and Martı´n Vaz rocks are derived from moderately depleted sources relative to bulk-earth. The lavas have moderate radiogenic 206Pb/ 204Pb ratios of 19.00-19.33, 207Pb/ 204Pb of 15.56-15.60, and 208Pb/ 204Pb of 38.89-39.34; they plot close to the Northern Hemisphere Reference Lines (NHRL). The narrow range of Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic compositions in the Trindade and Martı´n Vaz lavas suggests either that the source region was homogeneous (similar to the common mantle components FOZO and "C"), or that melts from a heterogeneous three-component mantle source, involving HIMU, enriched mantle EM I, and depleted N-type MORB, were well mixed before eruption. Late Cretaceous to Present volcanism ranging from interior Brazil towards Trindade is thought to record the passage of the South American plate over the Trindade mantle plume (e.g., O'Connor and Duncan, 1990). Comparison with published data from other mafic rocks along the suggested plume track shows that Trindade isotopic compositions match those of transitional

  9. Formation and evolution of the Solander Basin, southwestern South Island, New Zealand, controlled by a major fault in continental crust and upper mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, Rupert; Melhuish, Anne

    2000-02-01

    Seismic reflection and refraction data from the Solander Basin, southern New Zealand, show that its structural evolution has been controlled by a major fault, named here the Tauru Fault, that cuts the entire crust and splays into a diffuse zone in the upper mantle. The tectonic setting of the Solander Basin has evolved from Eocene-Oligocene extension and transtension to Miocene-Quaternary transpression and subduction. The Tauru Fault is 100 km east of the active Puysegur subduction zone thrust and is part of the overriding plate. On the basis of lower crustal reflectivity, the base of the crust beneath the adjacent Stewart Island shelf is at ˜30 km depth (˜9 s two-way time (TWT)), and rises to ˜20 km (˜8 s TWT) beneath the Solander Basin. This is consistent with gravity data. Prominent dipping reflections show that the Tauru Fault can be traced to ˜30 km depth (˜12 s TWT), where it merges with a zone of subhorizontal reflectors in the upper mantle. The Tauru Fault dips ˜30° northeast and appears to offset the Moho in a reverse sense. Stratigraphic relationships show that the Tauru Fault was active as a normal fault during Eocene extension, when Solander Basin crust was thinned and ocean crust was generated farther south in the Solander Trough. It has been reactivated as a reverse fault during at least two phases of Miocene-Quaternary compression and is still active. The strike of the Tauru Fault, which is parallel to Paleozoic-Mesozoic structures and was poorly oriented for the known Eocene extension direction, strongly suggests that it formed prior to Eocene time. The Tauru Fault significantly influenced the geometry of Eocene basin formation, producing a strongly asymmetric basin dominated by east dipping normal faults, with a single eastern boundary fault. Our data demonstrate that Miocene-Quaternary simple shear associated with the Tauru Fault cuts the whole crust and continues into the upper mantle. We conclude that variations in strength of the

  10. Exhumation History of an Oblique Plate Boundary: Investigating Kaikoura Mountain-building within the Marlborough Fault System, NE South Island New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collett, C.; Duvall, A. R.; Flowers, R. M.; Tucker, G. E.

    2015-12-01

    The Kaikoura Mountains stand high as topographic anomalies in the oblique Pacific-Australian plate boundary zone known as the Marlborough Fault System (MFS), NE South Island New Zealand. The base of both the Inland and Seaward Kaikoura Ranges are bound on the SE by major, steeply NW-dipping, right lateral, active strike-slips (Clarence and Hope faults of the MFS, respectively). Previous geologic mapping, observations of predominantly horizontal fault slip at the surface from GPS and offset Quaternary deposits, and uplift of marine terraces, provide evidence for shortening and mountain-building via distributed deformation off of the main MFS strike-slip faults. However, quantitative estimates of the magnitude and spatial patterns of exhumation and of the timing of mountain-building in the Kaikouras are needed to understand more fully the nature of oblique deformation in the MFS. We present new apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He ages from opposite sides of the Hope and Clarence faults, spanning over 2 km of relief within the Kaikoura Mountains to identify spatial and temporal changes in exhumation rates in relation to the adjacent faults. Young (~3 Ma) apatite He ages and rapid (potentially > 1 mm/yr) exhumation rates from opposite sides of the faults are consistent with previously mentioned evidence of recent, regional, distributed deformation off of the main MFS faults. Moreover, early Miocene zircon He ages imply that parts of this region experienced an earlier phase of fault-related exhumation. Large changes in zircon He ages across the faults from ~20 Ma to > 100 Ma support hypotheses that portions of the Marlborough Faults may be re-activated, early Miocene thrusts. The zircon data are also consistent with the hypothesis of an early Miocene initiation of the oblique Pacific-Australian plate boundary in this region. Evidence for this comes from a change in sedimentation during this time from fine marine sediments to coarse, terrigenous conglomerates. Observing more

  11. Air-sea exchange of gaseous mercury in the tropical coast (Luhuitou fringing reef) of the South China Sea, the Hainan Island, China.

    PubMed

    Ci, Zhijia; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Wang, Zhangwei

    2016-06-01

    The air-sea exchange of gaseous mercury (mainly Hg(0)) in the tropical ocean is an important part of the global Hg biogeochemical cycle, but the related investigations are limited. In this study, we simultaneously measured Hg(0) concentrations in surface waters and overlaying air in the tropical coast (Luhuitou fringing reef) of the South China Sea (SCS), Hainan Island, China, for 13 days on January-February 2015. The purpose of this study was to explore the temporal variation of Hg(0) concentrations in air and surface waters, estimate the air-sea Hg(0) flux, and reveal their influencing factors in the tropical coastal environment. The mean concentrations (±SD) of Hg(0) in air and total Hg (THg) in waters were 2.34 ± 0.26 ng m(-3) and 1.40 ± 0.48 ng L(-1), respectively. Both Hg(0) concentrations in waters (53.7 ± 18.8 pg L(-1)) and Hg(0)/THg ratios (3.8 %) in this study were significantly higher than those of the open water of the SCS in winter. Hg(0) in waters usually exhibited a clear diurnal variation with increased concentrations in daytime and decreased concentrations in nighttime, especially in cloudless days with low wind speed. Linear regression analysis suggested that Hg(0) concentrations in waters were positively and significantly correlated to the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) (R (2) = 0.42, p < 0.001). Surface waters were always supersaturated with Hg(0) compared to air (the degree of saturation, 2.46 to 13.87), indicating that the surface water was one of the atmospheric Hg(0) sources. The air-sea Hg(0) fluxes were estimated to be 1.73 ± 1.25 ng m(-2) h(-1) with a large range between 0.01 and 6.06 ng m(-2) h(-1). The high variation of Hg(0) fluxes was mainly attributed to the greatly temporal variation of wind speed. PMID:26931659

  12. Sediment Transport and Infilling of a Borrow Pit on an Energetic Sandy Ebb Tidal Delta Offshore of Hilton Head Island, South Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wren, A.; Xu, K.; Ma, Y.; Sanger, D.; Van Dolah, R.

    2014-12-01

    Bottom-mounted instrumentation was deployed at two sites on an ebb tidal delta to measure hydrodynamics, sediment transport, and seabed elevation. One site ('borrow site') was 2 km offshore and used as a dredging site for beach nourishment of nearby Hilton Head Island in South Carolina, and the other site ('reference site') was 10 km offshore and not directly impacted by the dredging. In-situ time-series data were collected during two periods after the dredging: March 15 - June 12, 2012('spring') and August 18 - November 18, 2012 ('fall'). At the reference site directional wave spectra and upper water column current velocities were measured, as well as high-resolution current velocity profiles and suspended sediment concentration profiles in the Bottom Boundary Layer (BBL). Seabed elevation and small-scale seabed changes were also measured. At the borrow site seabed elevation and near-bed wave and current velocities were collected using an Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter. Throughout both deployments bottom wave orbital velocities ranged from 0 - 110 m/s at the reference site. Wave orbital velocities were much lower at the borrow site ranging from 10-20 cm/s, as wave energy was dissipated on the extensive and rough sand banks before reaching the borrow site. Suspended sediment concentrations increased throughout the BBL when orbital velocities increased to approximately 20 cm/s. Sediment grain size and critical shear stresses were similar at both sites, therefore, re-suspension due to waves was less frequent at the borrow site. However, sediment concentrations were highly correlated with the tidal cycle at both sites. Semidiurnal tidal currents were similar at the two sites, typically ranging from 0 - 50 cm/s in the BBL. Maximum currents exceeded the critical shear stress and measured suspended sediment concentrations increased during the first hours of the tidal cycle when the tide switched to flood tide. Results indicate waves contributed more to sediment mobility at

  13. 33 CFR 80.1122 - Channel Islands Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Channel Islands Harbor, CA. 80... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1122 Channel Islands Harbor, CA. (a) A line drawn from Channel Islands Harbor South Jetty Light 2 to Channel Islands Harbor...

  14. 33 CFR 80.1122 - Channel Islands Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Channel Islands Harbor, CA. 80... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1122 Channel Islands Harbor, CA. (a) A line drawn from Channel Islands Harbor South Jetty Light 2 to Channel Islands Harbor...

  15. 33 CFR 80.1122 - Channel Islands Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Channel Islands Harbor, CA. 80... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1122 Channel Islands Harbor, CA. (a) A line drawn from Channel Islands Harbor South Jetty Light 2 to Channel Islands Harbor...

  16. 33 CFR 80.1122 - Channel Islands Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Channel Islands Harbor, CA. 80... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1122 Channel Islands Harbor, CA. (a) A line drawn from Channel Islands Harbor South Jetty Light 2 to Channel Islands Harbor...

  17. 33 CFR 80.1122 - Channel Islands Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Channel Islands Harbor, CA. 80... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1122 Channel Islands Harbor, CA. (a) A line drawn from Channel Islands Harbor South Jetty Light 2 to Channel Islands Harbor...

  18. 14. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. CENTER CRANEWAY, SHOWING MACHINING OF BREECH MECHANISM FOR 155MM ARTILLERY GUN. DATED JUNE 12, 1945. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 250, Gillespie Avenue between Ramsey Street & South Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  19. 6. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office, SOUTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS BEFORE REMODELING OF PARAPET. DATED MARCH 8, 1945. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 251, Gillespie Avenue & Ramsey Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  20. 6. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. WEST AND SOUTH ELEVATIONS IN FINAL STAGE OF CONSTRUCTION. DATED C. 1870. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 60, Rodman Avenue between Gillespie Avenue & First Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  1. 7. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. WEST AND SOUTH ELEVATIONS, IN UNALTERED CONDITION. PROBABLY TAKEN ABOUT 1910. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 60, Rodman Avenue between Gillespie Avenue & First Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  2. 9. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH ELEVATION AFTER ADDITION OF HOSE DRYING TOWER. DATED SEPTEMBER 26, 1919. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 225, Rodman Avenue between Flagler Street & Gillespie Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  3. 6. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. INTERIOR SHOWING STORAGE OF WALNUT FOR GUN STOCKS. ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED 1922. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 140, Second Street between Ramsey Street & South Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  4. 5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH ELEVATION BEFORE REPLACEMENT OF STEEL SASH WITH CONCRETE BLOCK. DATED APRIL 27, 1956. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 109, Rodman Avenue & Fourth Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  5. 11. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS AFTER ADDITION OF WING TO CENTER OF EAST FACADE. DATED NOVEMBER 4, 1944. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 90, East Avenue between North Avenue & King Drive, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  6. 10. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH AND WEST (FRONT) ELEVATIONS; EAST (REAR) AND NORTH ELEVATIONS, BEFORE REMOVAL OF CHIMNEYS AND ADDITION OF WING TO CENTER OF EAST FACADE. ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED 1898. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 90, East Avenue between North Avenue & King Drive, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  7. 5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. EAST AND NORTH ELEVATIONS BEFORE REMOVAL OF STRAP-HINGE DOOR. DATED NOVEMBER 21, 1944. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 139, Second Street between Ramsey Street & South Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  8. 4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS DURING FINAL STAGE OF CONSTRUCTION. DATED 1871. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 104, Rodman Avenue between First & Second Streets, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  9. 7. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. INTERIOR LOOKING EAST, SHOWING STORAGE OF LUMBER. DATED OCTOBER 2, 1945. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 140, Second Street between Ramsey Street & South Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  10. Staff experiences in implementing guidelines for Kangaroo Mother Care--a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Wallin, Lars; Rudberg, Agneta; Gunningberg, Lena

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate staff experiences in implementing guidelines for Kangaroo Mother Care in neonatal care. The study was part of a randomized controlled trial, the overall goal of which was to assess the impact of external facilitation. A total of eight focus group interviews were held at two intervention and two control units. The establishment of a change team to implement the guideline resulted in activities that impacted staff behaviour, which in turn was perceived to influence patients' well-being. The guideline and contextual factors, such as leadership and staff colleagues' attitudes, were of significant importance in that process. The study intervention--facilitation--promoted implementation activities and was highly appreciated by the change teams. However, reviewing the development of events at one of the control units, the provided facilitation appeared to be no more effective than an improvement-focused organizational culture in which the nurse manager was actively involved in the change process. Overall, learning and behaviour change seemed to be a social phenomenon, something that greatly benefited from people's interaction with one another. PMID:15582640

  11. Kangaroo Care in a Neonatal Context: Parents’ Experiences of Information and Communication of Nurse-Parents

    PubMed Central

    Lemmen, Desirée; Fristedt, Petra; Lundqvist, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Kangaroo Care (KC) is an evidence-based nursing practice with many benefits for infants and parents. The purpose of this study was to describe parents’ experience of information and communication mediated by staff nurses before and during KC at neonatal wards. Methodology and Participants: A qualitative study with semi-structured interviews was performed. The sample consisted of 20 parents. Results: The results show that the information and communication were experienced as both optimal and suboptimal including following categories: initially conflicting emotions in relation to KC, participation and confidence in KC is evolving, strengthening preparation and context is decisive as well as parental sense and caution. The overall theme was that good preparation will contribute to a positive experience of KC. Conclusion: The conclusion is that most of the parents had positive experiences of KC. The information and communication from the staff nurses encouraged and motivated the parents to practice KC, in a sense that it was a natural way to get to know the infant, when the staff nurses were well versed in the method and coherent and supportive. Conflicting emotions emerged when staff nurses practised KC as a routine without deeper knowledge and skills of the method and its advantages as well as without sensitivity to parents’ vulnerable situation. PMID:23802029

  12. Behavioural syndromes in Merriam's kangaroo rats (Dipodomys merriami): a test of competing hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Dochtermann, Ned A; Jenkins, Stephen H

    2007-09-22

    Behavioural syndromes, correlations of behaviours conceptually analogous to personalities, have been a topic of recent attention due to their potential to explain trade-offs in behavioural responses, apparently maladaptive behaviour and limits to plasticity. Using Merriam's kangaroo rats (Dipodomys merriami), we assessed the explanatory power and generality of hypothesized syndrome structures derived from the literature and the natural history of the species. Several aspects of functionally distinct behavioural responses of D. merriami were quantified. Syndrome structures were compared using structural equation modelling and model selection procedures. A domain-general behavioural syndrome incorporating cross-functional relationships between measures of boldness, agonistic behaviour, flexibility and food hoarding best explained the data. This pattern suggests that D. merriami behaviours should not be viewed as discrete elements but as components of a multivariate landscape. Our results support arguments that a lack of independence between behaviours may be a general aspect of behavioural phenotypes and suggest that the ability of D. merriami's behaviour to respond to selection may be constrained by underlying connections. PMID:17623643

  13. The effect of kangaroo mother care on mental health of mothers with low birth weight infants

    PubMed Central

    Badiee, Zohreh; Faramarzi, Salar; MiriZadeh, Tahereh

    2014-01-01

    Background: The mothers of premature infants are at risk of psychological stress because of separation from their infants. One of the methods influencing the maternal mental health in the postpartum period is kangaroo mother care (KMC). This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of KMC of low birth weight infants on their maternal mental health. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the Department of Pediatrics of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. Premature infants were randomly allocated into two groups. The control group received standard caring in the incubator. In the experimental group, caring with three sessions of 60 min KMC daily for 1 week was practiced. Mental health scores of the mothers were evaluated by using the 28-item General Health Questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed by the analysis of covariance using SPSS. Results: The scores of 50 infant-mother pairs were analyzed totally (25 in KMC group and 25 in standard care group). Results of covariance analysis showed the positive effects of KMC on the rate of maternal mental health scores. There were statistically significant differences between the mean scores of the experimental group and control subjects in the posttest period (P < 0.001). Conclusion: KMC for low birth weight infants is a safe way to improve maternal mental health. Therefore, it is suggested as a useful method that can be recommended for improving the mental health of mothers. PMID:25371871

  14. Ord's kangaroo rats living in floodplain habitats: Factors contributing to habitat attraction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, M.S.; Wilson, K.R.; Andersen, D.C.

    2003-01-01

    High densities of an aridland granivore, Ord's kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ordii), have been documented in floodplain habitats along the Yampa River in northwestern Colorado. Despite a high probability of inundation and attendant high mortality during the spring flood period, the habitat is consistently recolonized. To understand factors that potentially make riparian habitats attractive to D. ordii, we compared density and spatial pattern of seeds, density of a competitor (western harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex occidentalis), and digging energetics within floodplain habitats and between floodplain and adjacent upland habitats. Seed density within the floodplain was greatest in the topographically high (rarely flooded) floodplain and lowest immediately after a spring flood in the topographically low (frequently flooded) floodplain. Seed densities in adjacent upland habitat that never floods were higher than the lowest floodplain habitat. In the low floodplain prior to flooding, seeds had a clumped spatial pattern, which D. ordii is adept at exploiting; after spring flooding, a more random pattern resulted. Populations of the western harvester ant were low in the floodplain relative to the upland. Digging by D. ordii was energetically less expensive in floodplain areas than in upland areas. Despite the potential for mortality due to annual spring flooding, the combination of less competition from harvester ants and lower energetic costs of digging might promote the use of floodplain habitat by D. ordii.

  15. Simulation of saltwater movement in the Upper Floridan aquifer in the Savannah, Georgia-Hilton Head Island, South Carolina, area, predevelopment-2004, and projected movement for 2000 pumping conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Provost, Alden M.; Payne, Dorothy F.; Voss, Clifford I.

    2006-01-01

    A digital model was developed to simulate ground-water flow and solute transport for the Upper Floridan aquifer in the Savannah, Georgia-Hilton Head Island, South Carolina, area. The model was used to (1) simulate trends of saltwater intrusion from predevelopment to the present day (1885-2004), (2) project these trends from the present day into the future, and (3) evaluate the relative influence of different assumptions regarding initial and boundary conditions and physical properties. The model is based on a regional, single-density ground-water flow model of coastal Georgia and adjacent parts of South Carolina and Florida. Variable-density ground-water flow and solute transport were simulated using the U.S. Geological Survey finite-element, variable-density solute-transport simulator SUTRA, 1885-2004. The model comprises seven layers: the surficial aquifer system, the Brunswick aquifer system, the Upper Floridan aquifer, the Lower Floridan aquifer, and the intervening confining units. The model was calibrated to September 1998 water levels, for single-density freshwater conditions, then refined using variable density and chloride concentration to give a reasonable match to the trend in the chloride distribution in the Upper Floridan aquifer inferred from field measurements of specific conductance made during 2000, 2002, 2003, and 2004. The model was modified to simulate solute transport by allowing saltwater to enter the system through localized areas near the northern end of Hilton Head Island, at Pinckney Island, and near the Colleton River, and was calibrated to match chloride concentrations inferred from field measurements of specific conductance. This simulation is called the 'Base Case.'

  16. Successful transfer of a Goodfellow's tree kangaroo (Dendrolagus goodfellowi) pouch young to a yellow-footed rock wallaby (Petrogale xanthopus) surrogate.

    PubMed

    McLelland, David J; Fielder, Kate; Males, Gayl; Langley, Nathan; Schultz, David

    2015-01-01

    A 47-day-old orphaned Goodfellow's tree kangaroo (Dendrolagus goodfellowi) joey was successfully cross-fostered onto a yellow-footed rock wallaby (Petrogale xanthopus). The joey was subsequently taken for hand-rearing at age 5 months. This is the first report of the cross-fostering technique, well-established in other macropods, being applied to a Dendrolagus sp. This technique can be considered as a viable option to raise young orphaned tree kangaroos, and as a tool to accelerate breeding in captive breeding programs of Dendrolagus spp. PMID:26189660

  17. Biological assessment of the effects of petroleum production activities, Naval Petroleum Reserves in California, on the endangered giant kangaroo rat, Dipodomys ingens

    SciTech Connect

    O'Farrell, T.P.; Kato, T.T.

    1987-09-01

    This Biological Assessment evaluates the potential adverse effects that production activities conducted on the Naval Petroleum Reserveys in California may have on the endangered giant kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ingens). DOE concluded that the direct, indirect, and cumulative effects of the proposed activities will not jeopardize the continued existence of the species because results of surveys indicated that giant kangaroo rat burrow systems and habitat was initiated; a habitat restoration program was developed and implemented; and administrative policies to reduce vehicle speeds, contain oil and waste water spills, restrict off-road vehicle travel, and to regulate public access, livestock grazing, and agricultural activities were maintained. 33 refs., 3 figs.

  18. Sakhalin Island terrain intelligence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey Military Geology Branch

    1943-01-01

    This folio of maps and explanatory tables outlines the principal terrain features of Sakhalin Island. Each map and table is devoted to a specialized set of problems; together they cover the subjects of terrain appreciation, climate, rivers, water supply, construction materials, suitability for roads, suitability for airfields, fuels and other mineral resources, and geology. In most cases, the map of the island is divided into two parts: N. of latitude 50° N., Russian Sakhalin, and south of latitude 50° N., Japanese Sakhalin or Karafuto. These maps and data were compiled by the United States Geological Survey during the period from March to September, 1943.

  19. 12. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. BIRD'S-EYE RENDERING; LOOKING SW. TNT BUILDING (SEE HAER NO. IL-20V) IS SHOWN AT THE UPPER LEFT, ATTACHED BY OVERHEAD PASSAGEWAYS TO THE BUILDING'S SOUTH ELEVATION. RENDERING PREPARED BY WESTINGHOUSE-CHURCH-KERR COMPANY OF NEW YORK. DATED APRIL 18, 1917. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 250, Gillespie Avenue between Ramsey Street & South Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  20. Radionuclide transport from soil to air, native vegetation, kangaroo rats and grazing cattle on the Nevada test site

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, R.O.; Shinn, J.H.; Essington, E.H.; Tamura, T.; Romney, E.M.; Moor, K.S.; O'Farrell, T.P.

    1988-12-01

    Between 1970 and 1986 the Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG), U.S. Department of Energy, conducted environmental radionuclide studies at weapons-testing sites on or adjacent to the Nevada Test Site. In this paper, NAEG studies conducted at two nuclear (fission) sites (NS201, NS219) and two nonnuclear (nonfission) sites (Area 13 (Project 57) and Clean Slate 2) are reviewed, synthesized and compared regarding (1) soil particle-size distribution and physical-chemical characteristics of 239 + 240Pu-bearing radioactive particles, (2) 239 + 240Pu resuspension rates and (3) transuranic and fission-product radionuclide transfers from soil to native vegetation, kangaroo rats and grazing cattle. The data indicate that transuranic radionuclides were transferred more readily on the average from soil to air, the external surfaces of native vegetation and to tissues of kangaroo rats at Area 13 than at NS201 or NS219. The 239 + 240Pu resuspension factor for undisturbed soil at Area 13 was three to four orders-of-magnitude larger than at NS201 and NS219, the geometric mean (GM) vegetation-over-soil 239 + 240Pu concentration ratio was from ten to 100 times larger than at NS201, and the GM GI-over-soil, carcass-over-soil and pelt-over-soil 239 + 240Pu ratios for kangaroo rats were about ten times larger than at NS201. These results are consistent with the finding that Area 13, compared with NS201 or NS219, has a higher percentage of radioactivity associated with smaller soil particles and a larger percentage of resuspendable and respirable soil. However, the resuspension factor increased by a factor of 27 at NS201 when the surface soil was disturbed, and by a factor of 12 at NS219 following a wildfire.

  1. Design of a breathing mattress based on the respiratory movement of kangaroo mother care for the development of neonates.

    PubMed

    Schets, M W M; Chen, W; Bambang Oetomo, S

    2015-01-01

    Kangaroo mother care (KMC) benefits the development of neonates. This paper focuses on the design and implementing the extension of KMC for infants at Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU). A breathing mattress is proposed to comfort infants and stimulate them to breathe regularly by mimicking the movement of the parent's chest during KMC. The incubator mattress simulates the breathing of the parent's chest with embedded electronics and pneumatic technology for mattress motion actuating systems. The stakeholders, including the child, parents and NICU staff, were directly involved during the concept development, prototyping and evaluation. PMID:26737846

  2. Estimated water use and availability in the lower Blackstone River basin, northern Rhode Island and south-central Massachusetts, 1995-99

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barolw, Lora K.

    2003-01-01

    The Blackstone River basin includes approximately 475 square miles in northern Rhode Island and south-central Massachusetts. The study area (198 square miles) comprises six subbasins of the lower Blackstone River basin. The estimated population for the study period 1995?99 was 149,651 persons. Water-use data including withdrawals, use, and return flows for the study area were collected. Withdrawals averaged 29.869 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) with an estimated 12.327 Mgal/d exported and an estimated 2.852 Mgal/d imported; this resulted in a net export of 9.475 Mgal/d. Public-supply withdrawals were 22.694 Mgal/d and self-supply withdrawals were 7.170 Mgal/d, which is about 24 percent of total withdrawals. Two users withdrew 4.418 Mgal/d of the 7.170 Mgal/d of self-supply withdrawals. Total water use averaged 20.388 Mgal/d. The largest aggregate water use was for domestic supply (10.113 Mgal/d, 50 percent of total water use), followed by industrial water use (4.127 Mgal/d, 20 percent), commercial water use (4.026 Mgal/d, 20 percent), non-account water use (1.866 Mgal/d, 9 percent) and agricultural water use (0.252 Mgal/d, 1 percent). Wastewater disposal averaged 15.219 Mgal/d with 10.395 Mgal/d or 68 percent disposed at National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) outfalls for municipal wastewater-treatment facilities. The remaining 4.824 Mgal/d or 32 percent was self-disposed, 1.164 Mgal/d of which was disposed through commercial and industrial NPDES outfalls. Water availability (base flow plus safe-yield estimates minus streamflow criteria) was estimated for the low-flow period, which included June, July, August, and September. The median base flow for the low-flow period from 1957 to 1999 was estimated at 0.62 Mgal/d per square mile for sand and gravel deposits and 0.19 Mgal/d per square mile for till deposits. Safe-yield estimates for public-supply reservoirs totaled 20.2 Mgal/d. When the 7-day, 10-year low flow (7Q10) was subtracted from base

  3. Interactions among social monitoring, anti-predator vigilance and group size in eastern grey kangaroos

    PubMed Central

    Favreau, François-René; Goldizen, Anne W.; Pays, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    Group size is known to affect both the amount of time that prey animals spend in vigilance and the degree to which the vigilance of group members is synchronized. However, the variation in group-size effects reported in the literature is not yet understood. Prey animals exhibit vigilance both to protect themselves against predators and to monitor other group members, and both forms of vigilance presumably influence group-size effects on vigilance. However, our understanding of the patterns of individual investment underlying the time sharing between anti-predator and social vigilance is still limited. We studied patterns of variation in individual vigilance and the synchronization of vigilance with group size in a wild population of eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) subject to predation, in particular focusing on peripheral females because we expected that they would exhibit both social and anti-predator vigilance. There was no global effect of group size on individual vigilance. The lack of group-size effect was the result of two compensating effects. The proportion of time individuals spent looking at other group members increased, whereas the proportion of time they spent scanning the environment decreased with group size; as a result, overall vigilance levels did not change with group size. Moreover, a degree of synchrony of vigilance occurred within groups and that degree increased with the proportion of vigilance time peripheral females spent in anti-predator vigilance. Our results highlight the crucial roles of both social and anti-predator components of vigilance in the understanding of the relationship between group size and vigilance, as well as in the synchronization of vigilance among group members. PMID:20219737

  4. Barriers and Enablers of Kangaroo Mother Care Practice: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Seidman, Gabriel; Unnikrishnan, Shalini; Kenny, Emma; Myslinski, Scott; Cairns-Smith, Sarah; Mulligan, Brian; Engmann, Cyril

    2015-01-01

    Kangaroo mother care (KMC) is an evidence-based approach to reducing mortality and morbidity in preterm infants. Although KMC is a key intervention package in newborn health initiatives, there is limited systematic information available on the barriers to KMC practice that mothers and other stakeholders face while practicing KMC. This systematic review sought to identify the most frequently reported barriers to KMC practice for mothers, fathers, and health practitioners, as well as the most frequently reported enablers to practice for mothers. We searched nine electronic databases and relevant reference lists for publications reporting barriers or enablers to KMC practice. We identified 1,264 unique publications, of which 103 were included based on pre-specified criteria. Publications were scanned for all barriers / enablers. Each publication was also categorized based on its approach to identification of barriers / enablers, and more weight was assigned to publications which had systematically sought to understand factors influencing KMC practice. Four of the top five ranked barriers to KMC practice for mothers were resource-related: “Issues with the facility environment / resources,” “negative impressions of staff attitudes or interactions with staff,” “lack of help with KMC practice or other obligations,” and “low awareness of KMC / infant health.” Considering only publications from low- and middle-income countries, “pain / fatigue” was ranked higher than when considering all publications. Top enablers to practice were included “mother-infant attachment” and “support from family, friends, and other mentors.” Our findings suggest that mother can understand and enjoy KMC, and it has benefits for mothers, infants, and families. However, continuous KMC may be physically and emotionally difficult, and often requires support from family members, health practitioners, or other mothers. These findings can serve as a starting point for

  5. The effect of beta-sympathomimetic stimulation on parotid salivation in the red kangaroo (Macropus rufus).

    PubMed

    Beal, A M

    1989-01-01

    Salivation was stimulated by intracarotid isoprenaline infusion given alone or combined with acetylcholine. By itself, isoprenaline (0.12-1.2 nmol kg-1 min-1) stimulated flow rates of 0.037-0.233 ml min-1 (2.77-10.5 microliters/g gland per min). Salivary Na, Cl, PO4 and total solute concentrations were positively correlated with flow; K, Mg and urea were negatively correlated with flow; and Ca, H+, HCO3, protein and amylase activity were not correlated with flow. Relative to cholinergic saliva, isoprenaline-evoked saliva had higher levels of amylase activity, urea, protein, K, Mg, H+, PO4 and Cl but lower osmolality, Na, Ca and HCO3. At a steady flow (1 ml min-1), isoprenaline infusion (0.3 nmol kg-1 min-1) superimposed on a pre-existing acetylcholine infusion increased salivary amylase activity, protein, urea, K, Mg, Cl and PO4, reduced HCO3 and did not alter Na, Ca, H+ and osmolality. Superimposition of isoprenaline infusion (0.5 nmol kg-1 min-1) on a low-level acetylcholine infusion increased flow rate by 400-900%. Excretion rates of K, Mg, Cl and PO4 were higher and Ca lower than predicted for saliva secreted at equivalent flows during acetylcholine stimulation. Na, H+ and HCO3 were as predicted for the same flow rate under cholinergic stimulation. The simplest coherent interpretation of these data is that isoprenaline affects transport of protein and ions at the end organs, but has little effect on the resting transport characteristics of the striated and excretory ducts of the kangaroo parotid, in accord with the known nerve distribution of this gland. PMID:2480771

  6. The implementation of kangaroo mother care and nurses’ perspective of barriers in Iranian’ NICUs

    PubMed Central

    Namnabati, Mahboobeh; Talakoub, Sedigheh; Mohammadizadeh, Majid; Mousaviasl, Fatemesadat

    2016-01-01

    Background: Kangaroo mother care (KMC) is the most implementation intervention in caring of the infants, as in this method, both the mothers and infants are cared. The World Health Organization recommends implementation of KMC for all infants. However, there are some barriers in the way of its application. The purpose of this study was evaluation of the practical application of KMC and nurses’ perspective about its implantation barriers in the neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in Iran. Materials and Methods: The descriptive study was conducted on 96 infants and 80 nurses working in the NICUs of two university hospitals in Isfahan, Iran. Data were collected by a two-section questionnaire and analyzed by t-test through SPSS 14. Results: Study findings indicated that mean weight and age of the infants with KMC were 1510 g and 32 weeks, respectively. KMC was implantation for 32 min in a day. From nurses’ perspective, mother-related barriers were the main barriers in the implantation of KMC as mothers were not present by their infants. Another barrier was the mothers’ fear of touching their infants. In the domain of organizational barriers, physician's order was found to be the most important barrier in application of KMC. Conclusions: Identifying barriers in implantation of KMC is essential to support the mothers. Regarding mother-related barriers, organizational barriers, and the need for a physician's order for implementation of KMC, policy makers must provide facilities and equipment for applying KMC practice for mothers and improve the protocol of KMC in the NICU. PMID:26985227

  7. Effect of Kangaroo Mother Care on Vital Physiological Parameters of The Low Birth Weight Newborn

    PubMed Central

    Bera, Alpanamayi; Ghosh, Jagabandhu; Singh, Arun Kumarendu; Hazra, Avijit; Som, Tapas; Munian, Dinesh

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Low birth weight (LBW; <2500 g), which is often associated with preterm birth, is a common problem in India. Both are recognized risk factors for neonatal mortality. Kangaroo mother care (KMC) is a non-conventional, low-cost method for newborn care based upon intimate skin-to-skin contact between mother and baby. Our objective was to assess physiological state of LBW babies before and after KMC in a teaching hospital setting. Materials and Methods: Study cohort comprised in-born LBW babies and their mothers - 300 mother-baby pairs were selected through purposive sampling. Initially, KMC was started for 1 hour duration (at a stretch) on first day and then increased by 1 hour each day for next 2 days. Axillary temperature, respiration rate (RR/ min), heart rate (HR/ min), and oxygen saturation (SpO2) were assessed for 3 consecutive days, immediately before and after KMC. Results: Data from 265 mother-baby pairs were analyzed. Improvements occurred in all 4 recorded physiological parameters during the KMC sessions. Mean temperature rose by about 0.4°C, RR by 3 per minute, HR by 5 bpm, and SpO2 by 5% following KMC sessions. Although modest, these changes were statistically significant on all 3 days. Individual abnormalities (e.g. hypothermia, bradycardia, tachycardia, low SpO2) were often corrected during the KMC sessions. Conclusions: Babies receiving KMC showed modest but statistically significant improvement in vital physiological parameters on all 3 days. Thus, without using special equipment, the KMC strategy can offer improved care to LBW babies. These findings support wider implementation of this strategy. PMID:25364150

  8. VIEW OF EAST ELEVATION; CAMERA FACING WEST Mare Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF EAST ELEVATION; CAMERA FACING WEST - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Transportation Building & Gas Station, Third Street, south side between Walnut Avenue & Cedar Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  9. VIEW OF WEST ELEVATION: CAMERA FACING NORTHEAST Mare Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF WEST ELEVATION: CAMERA FACING NORTHEAST - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Transportation Building & Gas Station, Third Street, south side between Walnut Avenue & Cedar Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  10. South Fork Latrine showing north and west sides, general view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South Fork Latrine showing north and west sides, general view to southeast - Fort McKinley, South Fork Latrine, West side of East Side Drive, approximately 225 feet south of Weymouth Way, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

  11. South Fork Latrine, east elevation showing structure in context, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South Fork Latrine, east elevation showing structure in context, view west - Fort McKinley, South Fork Latrine, West side of East Side Drive, approximately 225 feet south of Weymouth Way, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

  12. Forage fibre digestion, rates of feed passage and gut fill in juvenile and adult red kangaroos Macropus rufus Desmarest: why body size matters.

    PubMed

    Munn, Adam J; Dawson, Terence J

    2006-04-01

    Using red kangaroos Macropus rufus Desmarest, a large (>20 kg) marsupial herbivore, we compared the digestive capabilities of juveniles with those of mature, non-lactating females on high-quality forage (chopped lucerne Medicago sativa hay) of 43+/-1% neutral-detergent fibre (NDF) and poorer quality, high-fibre forage (chopped oaten Avena sativa hay) of 64+/-1% NDF. On chopped lucerne apparent dry matter (DM) digestibilities by young-at-foot (YAF) red kangaroos (an age that would normally be taking some milk from their mother), weaned juveniles and mature females were similar (55-59%). On chopped oaten hay apparent DM digestibility was lower in the YAF (35.9+/-2.3%) followed by weaned (43.4+/-2.8%) and mature females (44.6+/-1%). The digestion of NDF and its components (mainly cellulose and hemicellulose) was lowest among the YAF followed by weaned and then mature females. The YAF and weaned kangaroos could not sustain growth on the poor-quality diet, and appeared to be at or near maximal gut fill on both forages; the values being 114-122 g DM for YAF and 151-159 g DM for weaned kangaroos. Mean retention times (MRT) of particle and solute markers were significantly longer for the YAF and weaned kangaroos on oaten hay than on lucerne hay, and DM intake (g d(-1)) was approximately 50% lower on the oaten hay. In contrast, solute and particle MRTs in the mature females were not significantly affected by diet; they maintained DM intakes by increasing DM gut fill from 264+/-24 g on chopped lucerne to 427+/-26 g DM on chopped oaten hay. Clearly, the mature female kangaroos did not maximise gut fill on the high-quality forage, presumably as a consequence of their proportionally lower energy requirements compared with still-growing juveniles. Overall, we have provided the first mechanistic link between the physiological constraints faced by juvenile red kangaroos in relation to their drought-related mortalities, rainfall and forage quality. PMID:16574810

  13. Influence of an island land mass on the frequency of waterspout and tornado formation in its vicinity. Example of the Isle of Wight with regard to waterspouts and tornadoes affecting the English South Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meaden, G. T.; Matthews, P.; Bolton, N.; Elsom, D. M.; Gilbert, A.; Reynolds, D. J.; Rowe, M. W.

    2005-04-01

    This research deals with the incidence of tornadoes and waterspouts along the coasts of Hampshire and Sussex. In particular, the areas north and east of the Isle of Wight are studied and some cases analysed. The severity of the property damage indicates tornado tracks up to 900 m wide (as at Selsey on 7 January 1998) and suggests tornado intensities up to T8 on the International Tornado Scale. On extreme occasions (e.g. 14 December 1810, 28 September 1876, 7-8 January 1998, 28 October 2000, 30 October 2000) many dozens-and sometimes hundreds-of properties were damaged. The work suggests that the presence of the Isle of Wight's land mass in westerly and south-westerly conditions disturbs the atmospheric circulation sufficiently to trigger or to intensify tornadic vortices from storm cells, and implies that in the absence of the island there would be fewer such occurrences.

  14. [The influence of immobilized fibronectin on karyotypic variability of two rat kangaroo kidney cell lines].

    PubMed

    Polianskaia, G G; Goriachaia, T S; Pinaev, G P

    2007-01-01

    The numerical and structural karyotypic variability has been investigated in "markerless" Rat kangaroo kidney cell lines NBL-3-17 and NBL-3-11 when cultivating on a fibronectin-coated surface. In cell line NBL-3-17, cultivated on the fibronectin-coated surface for 1, 2, 4 and 8 days, the character of cell distribution for the chromosome number has changed. These changes involve a significant decrease in frequency of cells with modal number of chromosomes, and an increase in frequency of cells with lower chromosomal number. Many new additional structural variants of the karyotype (SVK) appear. The observed alterations seem to be due preference adhesion of cells with lower chromosome number, disturbances of mitotic apparatus and selection of SVK, which are more adopted to changes in culture conditions. Detachment of cells from the fibronectin-coated surface, followed by 5 days cultivation on a hydrophilic surface restored control distribution. In cell line NBL-3-11, cultivated on the fibronectin-coated surface for 1, 2, 4 and 8 days, the character of numerical karyotypic variability did not change compared to control variants. In cell line NBL-3-17 the frequency of chromosomal aberrations under cultivation on the fibronectin-coated surface for 1, 2, 4 and 8 days did not change relative to control variants. In cell line NBL-3-11 the frequency of chromosomal aberrations under the same conditions significantly increases, mainly at the expence of chromosomal, chromatid breaks and dicentrics (telomeric association) relative to control variants. We discuss possible reasons of differences in the character of numerical and structural karyotypic variability between cell lines NBL-3-17 (hypotriploid) and NBL-3-11 (hypodiploid) under cultivation on fibronectin. The reasons of the observed interline karyotypic differences possibly consist in peculiarity of karyotypic structure of cell line NBL-3-11 and in the change of gene expression, namely in a dose of certain functioning

  15. Electrolyte composition of parotid saliva from sodium-replete red kangaroos (Macropus rufus).

    PubMed

    Beal, A M

    1984-07-01

    Saliva was collected from the parotid salivary gland of anaesthetized sodium-replete red kangaroos (Macropus rufus) by catheterization of the parotid duct through its opening in the mouth. Salivary secretion was stimulated by ipsilateral intracarotid infusion of acetylcholine at varying rates to produce salivary flow rates ranging from 0.056 +/- 0.0042 (S.E. of mean) to 4.509 +/- 0.1136 ml min-1. The concentrations of sodium (142.2 +/- 1.93 to 157.0 +/- 1.17 mmol l-1), calcium (40.1 +/- 7.08 to 72.8 +/- 8.0 mumol l-1) and bicarbonate (68.6 +/- 3.48 to 143.3 +/- 0.67 mmol l-1) and the osmolality (270.1 +/- 2.98 to 291.7 +/- 2.10 mosmol kg-1) were positively correlated with salivary flow rate, whereas the concentrations of potassium (11.4 +/- 0.57 to 6.92 +/- 0.19 mmol l-1), magnesium (206.0 +/- 34.1 to 9.3 +/- 0.78 mumol l-1), hydrogen ion (17.0 +/- 1.89 to 6.82 +/- 0.49 nmol l-1), chloride (30.7 +/- 2.41 to 4.11 +/- 0.23 mmol l-1) and phosphate (47.6 +/- 2.65 to 14.9 +/- 0.81 mmol l-1) were negatively correlated with flow rate. The relationships between flow rate and concentration were curvilinear for all the inorganic solutes. The rates of secretion for each ion and for total solute were positively correlated with salivary flow rate. These regressions for sodium, potassium, calcium, hydrogen ion, bicarbonate and osmolality were always linear, with highly significant correlation coefficients and variance ratios, which indicated that the changes in concentration of these ions were related solely to flow rate and were not due to any other factor modifying glandular function. Spontaneous secretion was not observed during anaesthesia. PMID:6491590

  16. Effects of long term raw pig slurry inputs on nutrient and metal contamination of tropical volcanogenic soils, Uvéa Island (South Pacific).

    PubMed

    Gunkel-Grillon, P; Roth, E; Laporte-Magoni, C; Le Mestre, M

    2015-11-15

    In small Polynesian islands, family pig breeding is usually conducted without recovery of pig slurry. Raw pig slurry is spread onto the soil without any treatment. So far, most of the studies were carried out in temperate climate and for industrial digested pig slurry applications on agricultural lands. In the present case study, conducted in Uvéa Island, the aim is to determine if long term application of raw pig slurry on tropical soils, naturally rich in heavy metals has a significant influence on elements concentrations and mobility. Two types of tropical soils and two pig breeding systems, pig enclosure on small concrete pens or pig enclosure in large land pens, were investigated. Here we demonstrate that raw pig slurry inputs on soils can lead to an increase of total nitrogen and phosphorus content with high Contamination Factors. The Pollution Load Index values (1.3; 5.3; 2.5; 2.3) were indicative of multi-heavy metals pollution (Fe, Mn, Al, Cu, Zn, Cr and Ni) in mixed calcareous soils of the coastal area and they are exchangeable while they are immobilized or less mobile in inland pure ferralitic soils. For mixed calcareous soils of the coastal area, family pig breeding represents a drainage risk of soluble species (phosphorus, inorganic nitrogen, Fe, Mn, Al, Cu, Zn, Cr and Ni). For inland ferralitic soils, family pig breeding is more compatible with a sustainable management of the environment in Uvéa Island and by extension in volcanic tropical islands with respect to the investigated chemical elements. PMID:26172601

  17. Morphological modifications of the Kerguelen Islands (South Indian Ocean) in response to Neogene climate change: evidence from 40Ar/39Ar and (U-Th)/He thermochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahadi, Floriane; Delpech, Guillaume; Gautheron, Cécile; Nomade, Sébastien; Pinna-jamme, Rosella; Ponthus, Léandre; Guillaume, Damien

    2016-04-01

    The processes driving erosion in geodynamic contexts in which regional tectonics is of minor importance, such as in oceanic islands, can be seen as a combination of positive/negative retroactions between climate change, isostasy or dynamic topography. The Kerguelen Islands (48-50° S, 68.5-70.5° E) are of particular interest to understand the impact of Cenozoïc climatic variations on the long-term geomorphological evolution of emerged reliefs at mid-latitudes. The Kerguelen Islands (6700 km2) are the emerged part of the vast Kerguelen oceanic plateau and reach a maximum height of 1852m asl. The archipelago is mostly made up of Oligocene basaltic traps (≈25 Ma) up to 1000m asl that are cross-cut by a dense network of large and deep valleys. The impact of glacial erosion during the last Quaternary glaciations on the landscape morphology is attested by the occurrence of U-shaped valleys, abundant moraines, erratic blocs and glacial lakes, as well as remnants of glaciers. Numerous plutonic complexes of various age (25-4.5 Ma) locally intrude theses traps and cover about 15% of the main island's surface; the largest being located in the Rallier du Baty peninsula (800 km2). This plutonic complex is mainly constituted of syenites with minor occurrence of gabbros and monzonites. The southern part of this complex has a laccolith structure with satellites plutons and formed between 13.7 and 8.0 Ma. The cooling history of syenites from the Rallier du Baty plutonic complex was investigated in order to identify one or several denudation periods and to understand the potential role of climate change on the geomorphological evolution of the islands since the Oligocene. We conducted the first thermochronological study on the Kerguelen Islands using the biotite 40Ar/39Ar thermochronometer and the apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronometer (AHe). The 40Ar/39Ar ages range from 9.44 ± 0.13 Ma to 13.84 ± 0.07 Ma for the various parts of the southern complex. These ages are identical to

  18. Educational Challenge to the Island States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saemala, Francis J.

    1973-01-01

    Argues that educational developments in the South Pacific island communities have been such that education itself has become a war against the people's cultural enrichment, and proposes a possible strategy as an initial step towards reorienting them; the discussion focuses specifically on the Solomon Islands scene. (Author/JM)

  19. The Kangaroo Book: Developmental Activities Related to the State Kindergarten Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corley, Rhonda; And Others

    Intended for use in conjunction with the guidebook, "Early Childhood Education in South Carolina," this book of experiential activities aims to help kindergarten teachers plan an appropriate program for their children. Each activity described realizes one of the 18 objectives for kindergarten that were adopted by the South Carolina State Board of…

  20. Public health assessment for USMC Marine Corps Recruit Depot (a/k/a Parris Island Marine Corps Recruit Depot), Parris Island, Beaufort County, South Carolina, Region 4. Cerclis No. SC6170022762

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-12

    Marine Corps Recruit Depot, (MCRD) Parris Island was proposed for listing on U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s National Priorities List in August 1994. We identified two areas where chemical contaminants in soil entered the surface water wetland areas and bioaccumulated in edible fish and shellfish species: (1) contaminated fish and shellfish at the Causeway Landfill (Site 3) and (2) contaminated shellfish near the Rifle Range. These exposure situations pose no apparent public health hazard due to the low levels of contaminants detected in fish and shellfish. However, because the landfill has no impermeable cap nor leachate collection system, it is not known whether contaminants in fish and shellfish will increase over time. The remaining 57 contaminated areas pose no public health hazard because people are not coming in contact with contaminants.

  1. Akpatok Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Akpatok Island lies in Ungava Bay in northern Quebec, Canada. Accessible only by air, Akpatok Island rises out of the water as sheer cliffs that soar 500 to 800 feet (150 to 243 m) above the sea surface. The island is an important sanctuary for cliff-nesting seabirds. Numerous ice floes around the island attract walrus and whales, making Akpatok a traditional hunting ground for native Inuit people. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on January 22, 2001. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  2. An assemblage of mollusks associated with the high latitude scleractinian coral Alveopora japonica (Eguchi 1968) in Jeju Island, off the south coast of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noseworthy, Ronald G.; Hong, Hyun-Ki; Keshavmurthy, Shashank; Lee, Hee-Jung; Jeung, Hee-Do; Ju, Se-Jong; Kim, Jong-Bin; Jung, Sukgeun; Choi, Kwang-Sik

    2016-03-01

    Corals reefs and communities support a wide range of flora and fauna. The complete richness and abundance of faunal communities in either coral reefs or communities is not fully understood. This is especially true for high-latitude coral communities. In this work, we carried out an analysis of an Alveopora japonica associated mollusk assemblage, in Jeju Island, Korea. A. japonica is one of the major coral species present in high abundance (88-155 colonies m-2), with a high recruitment rate (7.8 juvenile corals m-2 yr-1) in Jeju Island, and may serve as a habitat for other benthic organisms. In 2012, a total number of 579 A. japonica colonies with sizes ranging between 15.1-346.7 cm2 in the surface area were collected from a 1m× 10m quadrat installed at a depth of 10 m at Keumneung, on the northwest coast of Jeju Island. Numerous benthic invertebrates were found to be associated with A. japonica colonies. Twenty-seven bivalves and gastropods were identified, including a boring mytilid, Lithophaga curta, and an arcid, Barbatia stearnsi. A zonalgeographical examination of the distribution ranges of these mollusks revealed a majority of warmer water species. Our observations also showed that A. japonica may be providing a habitat to grazing gastropod, Turbo cornutus, and encrusting Spondylidae and Chamidae bivalves. A. japonica forms a coral carpet with a distinct assemblage of bivalves. It is thought that the presence of these mollusks species in the coral indicates its use as a nursery for juvenile species, a ready food supply of organic detritus, and a refuge from predators.

  3. Reshaping US Navy Pacific response in mitigating disaster risk in South Pacific Island nations: adopting community-based disaster cycle management.

    PubMed

    Reaves, Erik J; Termini, Michael; Burkle, Frederick M

    2014-02-01

    The US Department of Defense continues to deploy military assets for disaster relief and humanitarian actions around the world. These missions, carried out through geographically located Combatant Commands, represent an evolving role the US military is taking in health diplomacy, designed to enhance disaster preparedness and response capability. Oceania is a unique case, with most island nations experiencing "acute-on-chronic" environmental stresses defined by acute disaster events on top of the consequences of climate change. In all Pacific Island nation-states and territories, the symptoms of this process are seen in both short- and long-term health concerns and a deteriorating public health infrastructure. These factors tend to build on each other. To date, the US military's response to Oceania primarily has been to provide short-term humanitarian projects as part of Pacific Command humanitarian civic assistance missions, such as the annual Pacific Partnership, without necessarily improving local capacity or leaving behind relevant risk-reduction strategies. This report describes the assessment and implications on public health of large-scale humanitarian missions conducted by the US Navy in Oceania. Future opportunities will require the Department of Defense and its Combatant Commands to show meaningful strategies to implement ongoing, long-term, humanitarian activities that will build sustainable, host nation health system capacity and partnerships. This report recommends a community-centric approach that would better assist island nations in reducing disaster risk throughout the traditional disaster management cycle and defines a potential and crucial role of Department of Defense's assets and resources to be a more meaningful partner in disaster risk reduction and community capacity building. PMID:24360285

  4. Soil-geomorphology interactions and paleoclimatic implications of an ornithogenic soil toposequence on Rata Island, Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, South Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, Fábio Soares; Schaefer, Carlos Ernesto G. R.; Abrahão, Walter Antônio Pereira; Clemente, Eliane de Paula; Simas, Felipe Nogueira Bello

    2014-07-01

    The formation of highly phosphatized soils on sites of avian activity is a common feature of oceanic islands. We characterized a toposequence of phosphatic soils on Rata Island, to evaluate the soil genesis based on local topographic variations. For this purpose, four soils ranging from the upper hill down to the lowest landscape position on the island, representing a range of parent materials (basalt and calcareous sands), were analyzed. In the lowest landscape position a shallow Regosol was identified, strongly influenced by birds and marine sprays, developed on “karstified” Pleistocene calcarenites; the three other soils in the upper part of the toposequence are Ornithogenic Cambisols, ranging from a deep Cambisol profile on Basalt lava to intermediate Cambisols on mixed colluvial sediments of the basalt/calcareous. The lowermost Regosol is associated with a rugged landscape with strong calcarenite dissolution and karstification. The soil phosphatization is clearly an inherited process of the Late Quaternary age, when climate conditions were different. Initial weathering took place in the last interglacial period, under wetter conditions during which the Tertiary basalts were strongly weathered, leaving corestones in a saprolitic, oxidized mass. In the late Pleistocene, a gentle surface distributed these weathering products along the pediment slopes as colluvial materials, whereas in the coastal areas aeolian processes formed large sand dunes composed of reworked calcareous sands from marine sources during a time of very low sea level. During this time, widespread bird activity accounted for secondary apatite formation on the surface of calcareous oolites. Finally, the Holocene warming was accompanied by increasing sea level, enhanced tropical weathering, Fe and Al mobility and variscite formation superimposed on degraded Ca-phosphates, forming two phase phosphatic aggregates.

  5. Late Pleistocene-Holocene acceleration of uplift rate in southwest Erromango Island, Southern Vanuatu, South Pacific: relation to the growth of the Vanuatuan Mid Sedimentary Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Neef, G.; Hendy, C.

    1988-07-01

    Late Quaternary and Holocene raised coral reefs are well developed in southwestern Erromango Island, which lies in the frontal arc area of the Vanuatuan Island Arc. Eight uranium series ages and one /sup 14/C age from samples from coral reefs at three localities range in age from 4800 B.P. to about 320,000 B.P. Six of the samples dated are from the Matiwo Point area. Here the youngest reef has given a /sup 230/Th//sup 234/U age of 4800 B.P. and a slightly older reef, 4.3 m higher in elevation, has a /sup 14/C age of 5270 B.P. Inland of a cliff the youngest three of four northeastward-tilted raised reefs have given /sup 230/Th//sup 234/U ages ranging from 104,000 B.P. to about 320,000 B.P. These data indicate accelerating uplift rates for southwest Erromango: during the periods 320,000-133,000 B.P., 133,000-6000 B.P., and 6000 - 0 B.P. average uplift rates were 0.33 mm/yr, 0.65 mm/yr, and about 1 mm/yr respectively. These data are interpreted to indicate the growth of the Mid Sedimentary Basin, which lies within the frontal and volcanic arc part of the island arc complex. This increase in uplift/eastward-tilting could represent a Quaternary-Late Pleistocene increase in the subduction rate of the Australian Plate beneath Erromango.

  6. Plant Conservation in the Caribbean Island Biodiversity Hotspot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Caribbean Islands, comprising the Bahamas, Greater and Lesser Antilles and some islands located off the northern coast of South America, represent the most important insular system of the New World. As one of the 34 biodiversity hotspots, these islands represent a global priority for conservatio...

  7. 5. Photocopy of photograph. Aerial view of island, looking northwest, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photocopy of photograph. Aerial view of island, looking northwest, showing A-Frame of vessel 53 and hull outline of vessel 54 visible at lower left. Circa 1969, photographer not known. (Original in South Stroot Seaport Museum, New York, New York) - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  8. Marsupial and monotreme serum immunoglobulin binding by proteins A, G and L and anti-kangaroo antibody.

    PubMed

    Vaz, Paola K; Hartley, Carol A; Browning, Glenn F; Devlin, Joanne M

    2015-12-01

    Serological studies are often conducted to examine exposure to infectious agents in wildlife populations. However, specific immunological reagents for wildlife species are seldom available and can limit the study of infectious diseases in these animals. This study examined the ability of four commercially available immunoglobulin-binding reagents to bind serum immunoglobulins from 17 species within the Marsupialia and Monotremata. Serum samples were assessed for binding, using immunoblots and ELISAs (Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays), to three microbially-derived proteins - staphylococcal protein A, streptococcal protein G and peptostreptococcal protein L. Additionally, an anti-kangaroo antibody was included for comparison. The inter- and intra-familial binding patterns of the reagents to serum immunoglobulins varied and evolutionary distance between animal species was not an accurate predictor of the ability of reagents to bind immunoglobulins. Results from this study can be used to inform the selection of appropriate immunological reagents in future serological studies in these clades. PMID:26523413

  9. Estimating average base flow at low-flow partial-record stations on the south shore of Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buxton, H.T.

    1985-01-01

    Base flows of the 29 major streams in southeast Nassau and southwest Suffolk Counties, New York, were statistically analyzed to discern the correlation among flows of adjacent streams. Concurrent base-flow data from a partial-record and a nearby continuous-record station were related; the data were from 1968-75, a period near hydrologic equilibrium on Long Island. The average base flow at each partial-record station was estimated from a regression equation and average measured base flow for the period at the continuous-record stations. Regression analyses are presented for the 20 streams with partial-record stations. Average base flow of the nine streams with a continuous record totaled 90 cu ft/sec; the predicted average base flow for the 20 streams with a partial record was 73 cu ft/sec (with a 95% confidence interval of 63 to 84 cu ft/sec.) Results indicate that this method provides reliable estimates of average low flow for streams such as those on Long Island, which consist mostly of base flow and are geomorphically similar. (USGS)

  10. Formulation of an organic carbon trajectory over a 10-year period on a restored spoil island in south-central Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schafer, T.; Ellis, R.; Osborne, T.; Hicks Pries, C.

    2015-12-01

    Long-term monitoring of restoration projects aims to determine long-term sustainability and stability of restored systems. In coastal wetlands, one indicator of restoration of ecosystem function can be seen with organic matter (specifically carbon) accretion. SL-15, a spoil island in Fort Pierce, Fl was restored in 2005, and has been monitored for return to natural condition over the last 10 years.. To assess sediment carbon accretion, sediment cores were collected in a set of eight plots, located on the SL-15 mangrove island and the surrounding seagrass recruitment area. These were analyzed for organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon, extractable carbon, and total nitrogen. The biogeochemical data collected in the previous year was compared to data collected in 2005-2007. Vegetation surveys were also completed to show the build-up of organic material in accordance with vegetation shift over the 9-year period. From this information, a trajectory has been formulated on organic carbon accretion and vegetation shift from the time of orginal restoration activities. By comparison to control sites nearby, realistic estimates of time required to reach natural levels of carbon and vegetation community structure can be calculated..

  11. Analysis of rhizobial strains nodulating Phaseolus vulgaris from Hispaniola Island, a geographic bridge between Meso and South America and the first historical link with Europe.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Alcántara, César-Antonio; Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; Mulas, Daniel; García-Fraile, Paula; Gómez-Moriano, Alicia; Peix, Alvaro; Velázquez, Encarna; González-Andrés, Fernando

    2014-03-01

    Hispaniola Island was the first stopover in the travels of Columbus between America and Spain, and played a crucial role in the exchange of Phaseolus vulgaris seeds and their endosymbionts. The analysis of recA and atpD genes from strains nodulating this legume in coastal and inner regions of Hispaniola Island showed that they were almost identical to those of the American strains CIAT 652, Ch24-10 and CNPAF512, which were initially named as Rhizobium etli and have been recently reclassified into Rhizobium phaseoli after the analysis of their genomes. Therefore, the species R. phaseoli is more abundant in America than previously thought, and since the proposal of the American origin of R. etli was based on the analysis of several strains that are currently known to be R. phaseoli, it can be concluded that both species have an American origin coevolving with their host in its distribution centres. The analysis of the symbiovar phaseoli nodC gene alleles carried by different species isolated in American and European countries suggested a Mesoamerican origin of the α allele and an Andean origin of the γ allele, which is supported by the dominance of this latter allele in Europe where mostly Andean cultivars of common beans have been traditionally cultivated. PMID:24239274

  12. Island Hopping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Gayle

    2009-01-01

    At some institutions, it may feel as though faculty live on one island and advancement staff on another. The islands form part of an archipelago, and they exchange ambassadors and send emissaries occasionally, but interactions are limited. It may even seem as though the two groups speak different languages, deal in different currencies, and abide…

  13. Characterization of expressed class II MHC sequences in the banner-tailed kangaroo rat (Dipodomys spectabilis) reveals multiple DRB loci.

    PubMed

    Busch, Joseph D; Waser, Peter M; DeWoody, J Andrew

    2008-11-01

    Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are exceptionally polymorphic due to the combined effects of natural and sexual selection. Most research in wild populations has focused on the second exon of a single class II locus (DRB), but complete gene sequences can provide an illuminating backdrop for studies of intragenic selection, recombination, and organization. To this end, we characterized class II loci in the banner-tailed kangaroo rat (Dipodomys spectabilis). Seven DRB-like sequences (provisionally named MhcDisp-DRB*01 through *07) were isolated from spleen cDNA and most likely comprise > or =5 loci; this multiformity is quite unlike the situation in muroid rodents such as Mus, Rattus, and Peromyscus. In silico translation revealed the presence of important structural residues for glycosylation sites, salt bonds, and CD4+ T-cell recognition. Amino-acid distances varied widely among the seven sequences (2-34%). Nuclear DNA sequences from the Disp-DRB*07 locus (approximately 10 kb) revealed a conventional exon/intron structure as well as a number of microsatellites and short interspersed nuclear elements (B4, Alu, and IDL-Geo subfamilies). Rates of nucleotide substitution at Disp-DRB*07 are similar in both exons and introns (pi = 0.015 and 0.012, respectively), which suggests relaxed selection and may indicate that this locus is an expressed pseudogene. Finally, we performed BLASTn searches against Dipodomys ordii genomic sequences (unassembled reads) and find 90-97% nucleotide similarity between the two kangaroo rat species. Collectively, these data suggest that class II diversity in heteromyid rodents is based on polylocism and departs from the muroid architecture. PMID:18836711

  14. Recent demographic bottlenecks are not accompanied by a genetic signature in banner-tailed kangaroo rats (Dipodomys spectabilis).

    PubMed

    Busch, Joseph D; Waser, Peter M; Dewoody, J Andrew

    2007-06-01

    Single-sample methods of bottleneck detection are now routine analyses in studies of wild populations and conservation genetics. Three common approaches to bottleneck detection are the heterozygosity excess, mode-shift, and M-ratio tests. Empirical groundtruthing of these methods is difficult, but their performances are critical for the accurate reconstruction of population demography. We use two banner-tailed kangaroo rat (Dipodomys spectabilis) populations from southeastern Arizona (USA) that are known to have experienced recent demographic reductions to search for genetic bottleneck signals with eight microsatellite loci. Over eight total sample-years, neither population showed a genetic bottleneck signature. M-ratios in both populations were large, stable, and never fell below a critical significance value (Mc). The mode shift test did not detect any distortion of allele frequencies, and tests of heterozygosity excess were not significant in postbottleneck samples when we used standard microsatellite mutation models. The genetic effects of bottlenecks like those experienced by our study populations should be strongly influenced by rates of mutation and migration. We used genetic parentage data to estimate a relatively high mutation rate in D. spectabilis (0.0081 mutants/generation/locus), but mutation alone is unlikely to explain the temporal distribution of rare alleles that we observed. Migration (gene flow) is a more likely explanation, despite prior mark-recapture analysis that estimated very low rates of interpopulation dispersal. We interpret our kangaroo rat data in light of the broader literature and conclude that in natural populations connected by dispersal, demographic bottlenecks may prove difficult to detect using molecular genetic data. PMID:17561905

  15. Genetic evaluation of the Association of Zoos and Aquariums Matschie's tree kangaroo (Dendrolagus matschiei) captive breeding program.

    PubMed

    McGreevy, Thomas J; Dabek, Lisa; Husband, Thomas P

    2011-01-01

    Matschie's tree kangaroo (Dendrolagus matschiei) is an endangered species that has been bred in captivity since the 1970s. In 1992, the Tree Kangaroo Species Survival Plan(®) (TKSSP) was established to coordinate the captive management of Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA) D. matschiei. The TKSSP makes annual breeding recommendations primarily based on the mean kinship (MK) strategy. Captive breeding programs often use the MK strategy to preserve genetic diversity in small populations-to avoid the negative consequences of inbreeding and retain their adaptive potential. The ability of a captive breeding program to retain the population's genetic diversity over time can be evaluated by comparing the genetic diversity of the captive population to wild populations. We analyzed DNA extracted from blood and fecal samples from AZA (n = 71), captive (n = 28), and wild (n = 22) D. matschiei using eight microsatellite markers and sequenced the partial mitochondrial DNA control region gene. AZA D. matschiei had a similar expected heterozygosity (H(e) = 0.595 ± 0.184) compared with wild D. matschiei (H(e) = 0.628 ± 0.143), but they had different allelic frequencies (F(ST) = 0.126; P < 0.001). AZA D. matschiei haplotype diversity was almost two times lower than wild D. matschiei Ĥ = 0.740 ± 0.063. These data will assist management of AZA D. matschiei and serve as a baseline for AZA and wild D. matschiei genetic diversity values that could be used to monitor future changes in their genetic diversity. PMID:22147592

  16. Actin localisation and the effect of cytochalasin D on the osmotic tolerance of cauda epididymidal kangaroo spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    McClean, R; MacCallum, C; Blyde, D; Holt, W; Johnston, S

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the hypothesis that filamentous actin associated with the complex cytoskeleton of the kangaroo sperm head and tail may be contributing to lack of plasma membrane plasticity and a consequent loss of membrane integrity during cryopreservation. In the first study, the distribution of G and F actin within Eastern Grey Kangaroo (EGK, Macropus giganteus) cauda epididymidal spermatozoa was successfully detected using DNAse-FITC and a monoclonal F-actin antibody (ab205, Abcam), respectively. G-actin staining was most intense in the acrosome but was also observed with less intensity over the nucleus and mid-piece. F-actin was located in the sperm nucleus but was not discernable in the acrosome or sperm tail. To investigate whether cytochalasin D (a known F-actin depolymerising agent) was capable of improving the osmotic tolerance of EGK cauda epididymal spermatozoa, sperm were incubated in hypo-osmotic media (61 and 104 mOsm) containing a range of cytochalasin D concentrations (0-200 microM). Cytochalasin D had no beneficial effect on plasma membrane integrity of sperm incubated in hypo-osmotic media. However, when EGK cauda epididymidal sperm were incubated in isosmotic media, there was a progressive loss of sperm motility with increasing cytochalasin D concentration. The results of this study indicated that the F-actin distribution in cauda epididymidal spermatozoa of the EGK was surprisingly different from that of the Tammar Wallaby (M. eugenii) and that cytochalasin-D does not appear to improve the tolerance of EGK cauda epididymidal sperm to osmotically induced injury. PMID:16990953

  17. Distribution of the endangered giant kangaroo rat, Dipodomys ingens, on the Naval Petroleum Reserves, Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect

    O'Farrell, T.P.; Mathews, N.E.; Kato, T.T.; McCue, P.M.; McManus, J.S.; Sauls, M.L.

    1987-07-01

    Field surveys were conducted to determine the distribution and relative abundance of burrow systems of the endangered giant kangaroo rat, Dipodomys ingens, on the US Department of Energy's Naval Petroleum Reserves (NPR-1, NPR-2) in Kern County, California. A total of 1080 burrow systems were observed on 30 sections of NPR-1, 22 sections of NPR-2, and six adjoining sections. Most burrow systems were found in clusters on deep sandy loams in Buena Vista Valley, but isolated burrows were found in similar soils on the upper slopes or crests of ridges in 30 other sections of the reserves. Burrow systems had an average of 3.3 horizontal entrances measuring 2.7 in. high and 3.4 in. wide, and an average of 1.4 vertical entrances 2.0 in. in diameter. In the valleys burrows occurred in a density of 28.2 per acre; had an average slope angle of 4.3/sup 0/; were within 3.3 yd of a perennial shrub, usually a cheese-bush, Hymenoclea salsola; had a predominantly southern aspect; and were grazed by sheep, but were remote from petroleum production activities. In the uplands burrows occurred in a density of 0.1 per acre; had an average slope angle of 6.4/sup 0/; were within 5.1 yd of a perennial shrub, usually a desert saltbush, Atriplex polycarpa; had no particular aspect; and were not grazed by sheep, but were close to petroleum production activities. Since 1980, preconstruction surveys have helped conserve giant kangaroo rat burrows that may have been inadvertently threatened by construction projects on the reserves.

  18. 77 FR 20330 - Disestablishment of Restricted Area; Rhode Island Sound off Newport, RI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ... Sound off Newport, RI AGENCY: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, DoD. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The U.S... located in the waters of Rhode Island Sound, 4 nau