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Sample records for kanosei chi kansuru

  1. Tai Chi and Qi Gong

    MedlinePlus

    ... results are mixed. Tai chi also may improve reasoning ability in older people. What do we know ... that tai chi may boost brain function and reasoning ability in older people. NCCIH-supported research suggests ...

  2. Tai chi and chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Peng, Philip W H

    2012-01-01

    In the last 2 decades, a growing body of research aimed at investigating the health benefits of Tai Chi in various chronic health conditions has been recognized in the literature. This article reviewed the history, the philosophy, and the evidence for the role of Tai Chi in a few selected chronic pain conditions. The ancient health art of Tai Chi contributes to chronic pain management in 3 major areas: adaptive exercise, mind-body interaction, and meditation. Trials examining the health benefit of Tai Chi in chronic pain conditions are mostly low quality. Only 5 pain conditions were reviewed: osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia, rheumatoid arthritis, low back pain, and headache. Of these, Tai Chi seems to be an effective intervention in osteoarthritis, low back pain, and fibromyalgia. The limitations of the Tai Chi study design and suggestions for the direction of future research are also discussed. PMID:22609642

  3. Tomo-chi-chi, The Story of an American Indian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrell, Sara Gordon

    Tomo-chi-chi was a Creek Indian leader who did much to insure peaceful relations between the first English colonists in Georgia and the native Americans. His wisdom and dedication to peace were known and respected by the Creek people and the English colonists. He developed a lifelong friendship with General James Oglethorpe, the English founder of…

  4. chi Cygnids observation in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiba, Yasuo

    2015-12-01

    The chi Cygnids (IAU MDC code: 00757 CCY) are a new meteor shower reported by Green (2015) green15 in 2015 September. I find members of the chi Cygnids in the 2015 data of the Japanese TV meteor observing network the `SonotaCo network'. Additionally a few meteors from this shower were observed in 2010.

  5. Does Chi Give or Take?

    PubMed Central

    Stahl, Franklin W.; Lieb, M.; Stahl, Mary M.

    1984-01-01

    In lytic cycle crosses with Red-Gam- λ phage, particles were examined that had undergone an Int-mediated exchange. It was assumed that this exchange dimerized the circular λ, making it packageable. Among these Int-mediated recombinants, particles were identified that had, in addition, enjoyed a close double exchange mediated by the RecBC pathway. Such close double exchanges indicate localized negative interference and are analogous to eukaryotic conversions that have retained parental configuration of flanking markers. These events are stimulated by Chi, a recombinator specific to the RecBC pathway. When Chi is present in only one parent in the cross, the complementary double exchange recombinants are Chi stimulated to the same degree. This behavior of Chi contrasts with that of characterized eukaryotic recombinators. PMID:6239810

  6. Postseismic deformation of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Chi-Hsien; Hsu, Ya-Ju; Barbot, Sylvain; Chang, Wu-Lung

    2015-04-01

    On September 21, 1999, the Mw 7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake broke the Chelungpu fault in Taiwan and generated large coseismic slip with more than 10 meters. Significant postseismic surface displacements of Chi-Chi earthquake are recorded by the GPS network in Taiwan after the first year. Previous studies suggest that afterslip is the dominant mechanism of the early and near-field postseismic deformation; while viscoelastic relaxation responds for the long-term and far-field deformation.In order to illustrate the postseismic deformation over the past 15 years or so, we analyzed GPS position time series from 1999 to 2013 after the Chi-Chi mainshock and 1993 to 1999 prior to the mainshock as the interseismic period. The interseismic velocities with respect to S01R located at the Penghu Island are about 15 ~ 20 mm/yr in the rupture area. In contrast, postseismic horizontal displacements in the first year after the mainshock are almost five times of the interseismic horizontal velocity. Postseismic displacements rapidly decrease and the amplitude of the secular horizontal velocity near the rupture area after a decade falls in a similar range of the interseismic velocity. On the other hand, the secular velocities at the far-field stations is still fast than the interseismic velocity and suggest that the postseismic relaxation time is much longer than a decade. We constructed a 3D semi-analytic model of postseismic deformation driven by coseismic stress perturbation that afterslip and viscoelastic flow are fully coupled. The model requires rheological properties changes beneath the Taiwan orogenic belt in order to obtain a satisfactory fit to postseismic GPS data. Our model shows the viscosity of lower crust is about 1019 Pa s, while the middle crust below the Central Range is about 1018 Pa s.

  7. Off-shell CHY amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, C. S.; Yao, York-Peng

    2016-06-01

    The Cachazo-He-Yuan (CHY) formula for on-shell scattering amplitudes is extended off-shell. The off-shell amplitudes (amputated Green's functions) are Möbius invariant, and have the same momentum poles as the on-shell amplitudes. The working principles which drive the modifications to the scattering equations are mainly Möbius covariance and energy momentum conservation in off-shell kinematics. The same technique is also used to obtain off-shell massive scalars. A simple off-shell extension of the CHY gauge formula which is Möbius invariant is proposed, but its true nature awaits further study.

  8. CHY formula and MHV amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Yi-Jian; Teng, Fei; Wu, Yong-Shi

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we study the relation between the Cachazo-He-Yuan (CHY) formula and the maximal-helicity-violating (MHV) amplitudes of Yang-Mills and gravity in four dimensions. We prove that only one special rational solution of the scattering equations found by Weinzierl supports the MHV amplitudes. Namely, localized at this solution, the integrated CHY formula produces the Parke-Taylor formula for MHV Yang-Mills amplitudes as well as the Hodges formula for MHV gravitational amplitudes, with an arbitrary number of external gluons/gravitons. This is achieved by developing techniques, in a manifestly Möbius covariant formalism, to explicitly compute relevant reduced Pfaffians/determinants. We observe and prove two interesting properties (or identities), which facilitate the computations. We also check that all the other ( n - 3)! - 1 solutions to the scattering equations do not support the MHV amplitudes, and prove analytically that this is indeed true for the other special rational solution proposed by Weinzierl, that actually supports the anti-MHV amplitudes. Our results reveal a mysterious feature of the CHY formalism that in Yang-Mills and gravity theory, solutions of scattering equations, involving only external momenta, somehow know about the configuration of external polarizations of the scattering amplitudes.

  9. Biomedical wellness by tai chi and sports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Daniel C.; Chin, Amita G.

    2011-06-01

    Tai-chi chuan is popular worldwide especially in China. People practice tai-chi chuan daily with faith believing that they will be rewarded with health and varieties of other rewords. The Tai Chi Chuan Theory by Master Chang and the Tai Chi Chuan Theory by Master Wang are translated to be the baseline of the tai-chi chuan. The theory described in these two papers clearly shows that the tai-chi power source is the combination of the two antigravity forces distinction by each foot. The ying, yang and hollowed, solid discussed in the papers are the properties and body relationship of the two antigravity forces. The antigravity forces presented inside of body are as air to the balloon termed chi. However chi could be generated by any muscle pressing; only the antigravity forces from feet are called nature chi that has the maximum strength of the person. When a person is soft, as an infant the nature chi will fulfill entire body with no time and effort. The sequence forms were designed for deploying the nature chi in speed and power. The combination of chi and tai-chi form make tai chi chuan supreme than other kinds of martial art. In the training process chi massages whole body many time for a sequence form practice that stimulate all organs and could lead to cure body diseases, lose weight, postpone aging process, and remove the aging symptoms. For the people practicing in the park daily with proper guidance they will fulfill their wishes. Tai chi exercise could also apply to other sports as in dancing and golfing they are discussed at the end of the paper.

  10. Disaster management following the Chi-Chi earthquake in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yu-Feng; Alagappan, Kumar; Gandhi, Arpita; Donovan, Colleen; Tewari, Malti; Zaets, Sergey B

    2006-01-01

    The earthquake that occurred in Taiwan on 21 September 1999 killed >2,000 people and severely injured many survivors. Despite the large scale and sizeable impact of the event, a complete overview of its consequences and the causes of the inadequate rescue and treatment efforts is limited in the literature. This review examines the way different groups coped with the tragedy and points out the major mistakes made during the process. The effectiveness of Taiwan's emergency preparedness and disaster response system after the earthquake was analyzed. Problems encountered included: (1) an ineffective command center; (2) poor communication; (3) lack of cooperation between the civil government and the military; (4) delayed prehospital care; (5) overloading of hospitals beyond capacity; (6) inadequate staffing; and (7) mismanaged public health measures. The Taiwan Chi-Chi Earthquake experience demonstrates that precise disaster planning, the establishment of one designated central command, improved cooperation between central and local authorities, modern rescue equipment used by trained disaster specialists, rapid prehospital care, and medical personnel availability, as well earthquake-resistant buildings and infrastructure, are all necessary in order to improve disaster responses. PMID:16892885

  11. Journal of the Chinese Institute of Engineers. Special Issue: Commemoration of Chi-Chi Earthquake (II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-09-01

    Contents include the following: Deep Electromagnetic Images of Seismogenic Zone of the Chi-Chi (Taiwan) Earthquake; New Techniques for Stress-Forecasting Earthquakes; Aspects of Characteristics of Near-Fault Ground Motions of the 1999 Chi-Chi (Taiwan) Earthquake; Liquefaction Damage and Related Remediation in Wufeng after the Chi-Chi Earthquake; Fines Content Effects on Liquefaction Potential Evaluation for Sites Liquefied during Chi-Chi Earthquake 1999; Damage Investigation and Liquefaction Potential Analysis of Gravelly Soil; Dynamic Characteristics of Soils in Yuan-Lin Liquefaction Area; A Preliminary Study of Earthquake Building Damage and Life Loss Due to the Chi-Chi Earthquake; Statistical Analyses of Relation between Mortality and Building Type in the 1999 Chi-Chi Earthquake; Development of an After Earthquake Disaster Shelter Evaluation Model; Posttraumatic Stress Reactions in Children and Adolescents One Year after the 1999 Taiwan Chi-Chi Earthquake; Changes or Not is the Question: the Meaning of Posttraumatic Stress Reactions One Year after the Taiwan Chi-Chi Earthquake.

  12. Tai Chi philosophy and nursing epistemology.

    PubMed

    Alperson, Sunny Yim

    2008-01-01

    This article analyzes the philosophy underpinning Tai Chi practice in light of nursing epistemology. The first half of the article reviews the general characteristics of major Chinese philosophical traditions that have been merged in Tai Chi: Confucianism, Daoism, and Buddhism. In the second half, themes of integration and praxis in Tai Chi are linked with Carper's fundamental patterns of knowing in nursing. Tai Chi is a practical fusion of humanistic philosophy with an experiential dimension of movement in a nondualistic foundation. The author argues that TC philosophy can be applied to integrated knowledge development and nursing praxis. PMID:20531257

  13. CHI: A General Agent Communication Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, S.Y.; Phillips, L.R.; Spires, S.V.

    1998-12-17

    We have completed and exercised a communication framework called CHI (CLOS to HTML Interface) by which agents can communicate with humans. CHI follows HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol) and produces HTML (HyperText Markup Language) for use by WWW (World-Wide Web) browsers. CHI enables the rapid and dynamic construction of interface mechanisms. The essence of CHI is automatic registration of dynamically generated interface elements to named objects in the agent's internal environment. The agent can access information in these objects at will. State is preserved, so an agent can pursue branching interaction sequences, activate failure recovery behaviors, and otherwise act opportunistically to maintain a conversation. The CHI mechanism remains transparent in multi-agent, multi-user environments because of automatically generated unique identifiers built into the CHI mechanism. In this paper we discuss design, language, implementation, and extension issues, and, by way of illustration, examine the use of the general CHI/HCHI mechanism in a specific international electronic commerce system. We conclude that the CHI mechanism is an effective, efficient, and extensible means of the agent/human communication.

  14. In Defense of Chi's Ontological Incompatibility Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slotta, James D.

    2011-01-01

    This article responds to an article by A. Gupta, D. Hammer, and E. F. Redish (2010) that asserts that M. T. H. Chi's (1992, 2005) hypothesis of an "ontological commitment" in conceptual development is fundamentally flawed. In this article, I argue that Chi's theoretical perspective is still very much intact and that the critique offered by Gupta…

  15. Chi-Nu Level 2 Review

    SciTech Connect

    Haight, Robert Cameron; Lee, Hye Young; Mosby, Shea Morgan; O'Donnell, John M.; Solomon, Clell Jeffrey Jr.; Taddeucci, Terry Nicholas; Fotiadis, Nikolaos; Devlin, Matthew James; Ullmann, John Leonard; Bredeweg, Todd Allen; Jandel, Marian; Nelson, Ronald Owen; Wender, Stephen Arthur; Neudecker, Denise; Rising, Michael Evan; White, Morgan Curtis; Wu, Ching-Yen; Bucher, Brian Michael; Buckner, Matthew Quinn; Henderson, Roger Alan

    2015-09-18

    This series of slides presents information on Chi-Nu measurements and analysis of prompt fission neutron spectra (PFNS) for neutron energy below 1 MeV for 235U. A key focus of the Chi-Nu measurement is to address the energy dependence of the low-energy emissions. The 235U PFNS evaluation is in progress. Chi-Nu delivered preliminary experimental data and input for part of the old experimental data base. The 239Pu PFNS evaluation is finalized and submitted for testing. Data from 252Cf spontaneous fission will also be obtained.

  16. Tai Chi: Rx for Arthritic Knees

    MedlinePlus

    ... Chi: Rx for Arthritic Knees As effective as physical therapy, study suggests, plus it might also improve depression ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Legions of arthritis sufferers try physical therapy and anti-inflammatory drugs to no avail. Now, ...

  17. Why the CHI Community Should be Involved in Standards: Stories from Three CHI Participants

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, Arnie; Scholtz, Jean; Bevan, Nigel

    2012-02-01

    In this article, the three authors tell their stories about involvement in standards that are relevant to the computer human interaction community(CHI). Their reasoning for being involved is given and readers are also given information about different organizations that develop standards relevant to CHI.

  18. The Chi-square test of independence

    PubMed Central

    McHugh, Mary L.

    2013-01-01

    The Chi-square statistic is a non-parametric (distribution free) tool designed to analyze group differences when the dependent variable is measured at a nominal level. Like all non-parametric statistics, the Chi-square is robust with respect to the distribution of the data. Specifically, it does not require equality of variances among the study groups or homoscedasticity in the data. It permits evaluation of both dichotomous independent variables, and of multiple group studies. Unlike many other non-parametric and some parametric statistics, the calculations needed to compute the Chi-square provide considerable information about how each of the groups performed in the study. This richness of detail allows the researcher to understand the results and thus to derive more detailed information from this statistic than from many others. The Chi-square is a significance statistic, and should be followed with a strength statistic. The Cramer’s V is the most common strength test used to test the data when a significant Chi-square result has been obtained. Advantages of the Chi-square include its robustness with respect to distribution of the data, its ease of computation, the detailed information that can be derived from the test, its use in studies for which parametric assumptions cannot be met, and its flexibility in handling data from both two group and multiple group studies. Limitations include its sample size requirements, difficulty of interpretation when there are large numbers of categories (20 or more) in the independent or dependent variables, and tendency of the Cramer’s V to produce relative low correlation measures, even for highly significant results. PMID:23894860

  19. Obituary: Chi Yuan (1937-2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Paul

    2011-12-01

    Chi Yuan graduated from the National Taiwan University in1959, and received his Masters of Science degree from the University of Florida in 1962, and his Doctor of Philosophy from the University of Michigan in 1966. He was a postdoctoral fellow with Professor C.C. Lin at MIT for three years, before taking his faculty post at the City College of New York in 1969. He attained full professorship at CCNY in 1981. From 1994-1996, Chi returned to Taiwan as Director of the newly found Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics (ASIAA). From 1997-2002, he was the recipient of an Outstanding Scholar Award, reserved for the most distinguished scientists employed in Taiwan. Chi retired from ASIAA in 2007, but continued to be active in his research during his two-year fight with brain cancer. Chi Yuan made his greatest impact with his work on the density-wave theory for spiral arm structures in galaxies, with C.C. Lin and Frank Shu. His early work elucidated the observational tests of density-wave theory, and the effects of magnetic fields in galactic shocks. In the 1980s, Chi Yuan worked on spiral density waves in Saturn's rings. In the past two decades, Chi Yuan concentrated on the problem of barred and spiral structures in the nuclei of galaxies, with their implications for fueling the central supermassive black holes. He also worked on the problem of the migration of giant extrasolar planets in their solar disks. These studies were made possible by his establishment of a program on computational fluid dynamics, which became one of the key initiatives in theory at the ASIAA. Among his academic records, two contributions are particularly notable. First, with Typhoon Lee, Fred Lo, and Frank Shu, Chi Yuan founded the ASIAA in order to stimulate the growth of astronomy in Taiwan. Second, and perhaps his greatest influence, has been his training and mentoring of a great number of students in astrophysics, especially for the last 20 years in Taiwan. Today, astronomy

  20. Tai Chi, Qi Gong and Reiki.

    PubMed

    Chu, Dennis A

    2004-11-01

    Tai Chi, Qi Gong, and Reiki are complementary therapies that are gaining popularity with patients. Although these therapies seem simple and attractive in their philosophy and are easy to apply,more objective, well-designed research is needed to prove their efficacy and to gain acceptance from the medical community. PMID:15458751

  1. Simplified Tai Chi Resistance Training versus Traditional Tai Chi in Slowing Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huiru; Yu, Bo; Chen, Wenhua; Lu, Yingzhi; Yu, Dinghai

    2015-01-01

    Background. This study examined whether simplified Tai Chi resistance training is superior to traditional Tai Chi in slowing bone loss in postmenopausal women. Methods. This prospective trial included 119 postmenopausal women (age: 52–65 years). Subjects were randomly assigned to participate in a traditional Tai Chi program (TTC, n = 40), a simplified Tai Chi resistance training program (TCRT, n = 40), or a blank control group (routine activity, n = 39). The TTC involved traditional Yang Style Tai Chi. The primary outcome was the change of lumbar bone mass density (L2–L4) at 12 months over the baseline. Femoral neck and Ward's triangle were also measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results. The L2–L4 density was significantly lower at 12 months in comparison to the baseline in the blank control group. In both the TCRT and TTC groups, the L2–L4 density was comparable to the baseline. There was a trend for less bone loss in the TCRT than in the TTC group. Similar findings were observed with femoral neck and Ward's triangle. Conclusion. Simplified Tai Chi resistance training could slow bone loss in menopausal women. The results also suggested, but did not confirm, superiority to traditional Tai Chi. PMID:26136808

  2. Slip distribution and tectonic implication of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ji, C.; Helmberger, D.V.; Song, T.-R.A.; Ma, K.-F.; Wald, D.J.

    2001-01-01

    We report on the fault complexity of the large (Mw = 7.6) Chi-Chi earthquake obtained by inverting densely and well-distributed static measurements consisting of 119 GPS and 23 doubly integrated strong motion records. We show that the slip of the Chi-Chi earthquake was concentrated on the surface of a "wedge shaped" block. The inferred geometric complexity explains the difference between the strike of the fault plane determined by long period seismic data and surface break observations. When combined with other geophysical and geological observations, the result provides a unique snapshot of tectonic deformation taking place in the form of very large (>10m) displacements of a massive wedge-shaped crustal block which may relate to the changeover from over-thrusting to subducting motion between the Philippine Sea and the Eurasian plates.

  3. ChiS histidine kinase negatively regulates the production of chitinase ChiC in Streptomyces peucetius.

    PubMed

    Rabbind Singh, Amrathlal; Senthamaraikannan, Paranthaman; Thangavel, Chitra; Danda, Ravikanth; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha; Dharmalingam, Kuppamuthu

    2014-01-01

    Computational analysis of sequence homology of the chiSRC gene cluster, encoding a chitinase in Streptomyces peucetius, showed that the gene cluster could be a two-component regulon comprising a sensor kinase (chiS) and a response regulator (chiR). To prove that the ChiSRC is an authentic two-component system, the chiS gene was cloned and expressed in E.coli and the purified protein was used for biochemical analysis. In this report, we provide biochemical evidence to show that the sensor kinase encoded by chiS gene indeed is a histidine kinase capable of autophosphorylation and the histidine 144 residue of the ChiS protein is the phosphate acceptor. An insertion mutation at the chiS locus led to overproduction chitinase protein in S. peucetius implying that the chiC gene is negatively regulated by the two-component system. PMID:23972296

  4. Tai Chi Could Be a Healthy Move for Your Heart

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157688.html Tai Chi Could Be a Healthy Move for Your Heart ... 2016 WEDNESDAY, March 9, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Tai chi and other traditional Chinese exercises may benefit people ...

  5. Epidemiologic psychiatric studies on post-disaster impact among Chi-Chi earthquake survivors in Yu-Chi, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chou, Frank Huang-Chih; Wu, Hung-Chi; Chou, Pesus; Su, Chao-Yueh; Tsai, Kuan-Yi; Chao, Shin-Shin; Chen, Ming-Chao; Su, Tom Tung-Ping; Sun, Wen-Jung; Ou-Yang, Wen-Chen

    2007-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to survey a cohort population for the risk factors of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression, and the prevalence of different psychiatric disorders at 6 months and 2 and 3 years after a major earthquake. The Disaster-Related Psychological Screening Test (DRPST), part I, and the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) were, respectively, administered by trained interviewers and psychiatrists in this community-interview program. The prevalence of PTSD decreased from 8.3% at 6 months to 4.2% at 3 years after the earthquake. Suicidality increased from 4.2% at 6 months and 5.6% at 2 years to 6.0% at 3 years after the earthquake; drug abuse/dependence increased from 2.3% at 6 months to 5.1% at 3 years after the disaster. The risk factors for PTSD and major depression in various post-disaster stages were determined. Earthquake survivors had a high percentage of psychiatric disorders in the first 2 years, and then the prevalence declined. Following the devastation caused by the Chi-Chi earthquake, it is important to focus on treating symptoms of major depression and PTSD and eliminating the risk factors for both of these disorders in survivors to avoid the increase in suicidality. PMID:17610661

  6. Ramp-up of CHI Initiated Plasmas on NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, D; Bell, R E; LeBlanc, B; Roquemore, A L; Raman, R; Jarboe, T R; Nelson, B A; Soukhanovskii, V

    2009-10-29

    Experiments on the National Spherical Torus (NSTX) have now demonstrated flux savings using transient coaxial helicity injection (CHI). In these discharges, the discharges initiated by CHI are ramped up with an inductive transformer and exhibit higher plasma current than discharges without the benefit of CHI initiation.

  7. A Retrospective Research for 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan Earthquake by 3-D PI Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H.; Chen, C.; Tiampo, K.; Rundle, J.; Klein, W.

    2007-12-01

    The PI (Pattern Informatics) method was proposed by Tiampo et al., 2002, for the identification of future seismicity in California after 1999. A plausible result was published in Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, suppl., 2002. Chen et al. modified the calculation of the original PI method to de-emphasize the effect of current events, and applied the modified PI method to make a retrospective analysis for the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake in Taiwan. In the case study of the Chi-Chi sequence, the main shock and most of the aftershocks were located in and around the ß¡±hot spot ßÆØ region produced by the modified PI method. Tiampo et al. (2007) applied the Thirumalai- Mountain metric to three earthquake catalogs, California, Spain and eastern Canada, which belong to different tectonic environments. Under specific spatial-temporal resolutions, effectively ergodic behaviors of seismic rate all exist in these regions. Ongoing research for Taiwan suggests that, once depth factor is considered in seismic event distribution, a similar effectively ergodicity also exists in the seismicity data. It motivates us to improve the original PI method to a 3-D version on order to consider the depth effect in a very condensed, high seismicity region. In this study, we used 3-D PI method to make a retrospective forecast of the 1999 M=7.3 Chi-Chi earthquake. The CWB (Central Weather Bureau) catalogue was used. An effectively ergodic period chosen from inverse TM metric-time plot was used as the forecast period. The main shock and several large aftershocks, which magnitudes are ß « 6.0, are well located in or near hotspots in this 3-D PI forecast. In a relative operating characteristic test (Jolliffe and Stephenson, 2003), the performance of PI forecast is also better than relative intensity (RI).

  8. The chi-Chi earthquake sequence: active, out-of-sequence thrust faulting in taiwan

    PubMed

    Kao; Chen

    2000-06-30

    We combined precise focal depths and fault plane solutions of more than 40 events from the 20 September 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake sequence with a synthesis of subsurface geology to show that the dominant structure for generating earthquakes in central Taiwan is a moderately dipping (20 degrees to 30 degrees ) thrust fault away from the deformation front. A second, subparallel seismic zone lies about 15 kilometers below the main thrust. These seismic zones differ from previous models, indicating that both the basal decollement and relic normal faults are aseismic. PMID:10875915

  9. Multi-resolution Analysis of the slip history of 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, C.; Helmberger, D. V.

    2001-05-01

    Studies of large earthquakes have revealed strong heterogeneity in faulting slip distributions at mid-crustal depths. These results are inferred from modeling l ocal GPS and strong motion records but are usually limited by the lack of data density. Here we report on the fault complexity of the large (Magnitude 7.6) Chi- Chi earthquake obtained by inverting densely and well distributed static measure ments consisting of 119 GPS and 23 doubly integrated strong motion records, whic h is the best static data set yet recorded for a large earthquake. We show that the slip of the Chi-Chi earthquake was concentrated on the surface of a "wedge shaped" block. Furthermore, similar to our previous study in 1999 Hector Mine ea rthquake (Ji et al., 2001), the static data, teleseismic body wave and local str ong motion data are used to constrain the rupture process. A simulated annealing method combined with wavelet transform approach is employed to solve for the sl ip histories on subfault elements with variable sizes. The sizes are adjusted it eratively based on data type and distribution to produce an optimal balance betw een resolution and reliability. Results indicate strong local variations in rupt ure characteristics with relatively rapid changes in the middle and southern por tion producing relatively strong accelerations.

  10. Aftershock Statistics of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan Earthquake and the Concept of Omori Times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ya-Ting; Turcotte, Donald L.; Rundle, John B.; Chen, Chien-Chih

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we consider the statistics of the aftershock sequence of the m = 7.65 20 September 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan earthquake. We first consider the frequency-magnitude statistics. We find good agreement with Gutenberg-Richter scaling but find that the aftershock level is anomalously high. This level is quantified using the difference in magnitude between the main shock and the largest inferred aftershock {{Updelta}}m^{ *}. Typically, {{Updelta}}m^{ *} is in the range 0.8-1.5, but for the Chi-Chi earthquake the value is {{Updelta}}m^{ *} = 0.03. We suggest that this may be due to an aseismic slow-earthquake component of rupture. We next consider the decay rate of aftershock activity following the earthquake. The rates are well approximated by the modified Omori's law. We show that the distribution of interoccurrence times between aftershocks follow a nonhomogeneous Poisson process. We introduce the concept of Omori times to study the merging of the aftershock activity with the background seismicity. The Omori time is defined to be the mean interoccurrence time over a fixed number of aftershocks.

  11. Coseismic growth of the Tungshih anticline during the 1999 Chi-Chi Earthquake, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graveleau, F.; Suppe, J.; Ustaszewski, M.; Chang, K.; Stephane, D.; Huang, M.

    2009-12-01

    kinematical prediction. Key-words : Chi-Chi Earthquake, coseismic fold growth, Chelungpu fault, Taiwan REFERENCES : Chen, Y.G., K.Y. Lai, Y.H. Lee, J. Suppe, W.S. Chen, Y.N. N. Lin, Y. Wang, J.H. Hung, and Y.T. Kuo, 2007. Coseismic fold scarps and their kinematic behavior in the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake Taiwan, J. Geophys. Res., 112, B03S02, doi:10.1029/2006JB004388. Lee, Y.S, Lu, S.T., Shih, T.S., Hsieh, M.L. and Wu, W.Y., 2005. Structures Associated with the Northern End of the 1999 Chi-Chi Earthquake Rupture, Central Taiwan: Implications for Seismic-Hazard Assessment. BSSA, 95(2) : 471-485. Yang, M., R.J. Rau, J.Y. Yu, and T.T. Yu, 2000. Geodetically observed surface displacements of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake, Earth Planets Space, 52 : 403-413. Yue, L.F., Suppe, J. and Hung, J.H., 2005. Structural geology of a classic thrust belt earthquake: the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake Taiwan (Mw7.6). J. Struct. Geol., 27(11) : 2058-2083.

  12. Trichoderma asperellum Chi42 Genes Encode Chitinase

    PubMed Central

    Quang, Hoang Tan; Hung, Nguyen Bao; Huy, Nguyen Duc; Phuong, Truong Thi Bich; Ha, Tran Thi Thu

    2011-01-01

    Four Trichoderma strains (CH2, SH16, PQ34, and TN42) were isolated from soil samples collected from Quang Tri and Thua Thien Hue provinces in Vietnam. The strains exhibited high chitinolytic secretion. Strain PQ34 formed the largest zone of chitinase-mediated clearance (> 4 cm in diameter) in agar containing 1% (w/v) colloidal chitin. Analysis of the internal transcribed spacer regions of these strains indicated that they were Trichoderma asperellum. The molecular weights of the chitinases were approximately 42 kDa. Chitinase genes (chi42) of T. asperellum strains TN42, CH2, SH16, and PQ34 were 98~99% homologous to the ech42 gene of T. harzianum CB-Pin-01 (accession No. DQ166036). The deduced amino acid sequences of both T. asperellum strains SH16 and TN42 shared 100% similarity. PMID:22783101

  13. A Study on Near-Fault Mortality from the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pai, C.; Tien, Y.; Teng, T.

    2004-12-01

    A new approach for estimating the relations between mortality and strong shaking from the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan earthquake is introduced. We have finished the database giving the attributes of victims through a compilation of various after-earthquake survey documents. This survey was a comprehensive filed visit confirming exact locations of victims and their possible cause of death. Among the total 2492 victims of the Chi-Chi earthquake, 2039 victims (81.8% of the total) were located by using GPS. Through the attributive database of victims, digital maps and Geographic Information Systems, we can easily map the spatial distribution and the cause of death data of victims with accuracy of the smallest administrative districts in Taiwan. Moreover, a regression analysis gives correlated equations for the mortality as functions of the distance to the Chelungpu fault. We find that the percentage of the mortality M can be expressed as:\\[M=\\frac{(1.626+0.0007\\timesd)} {(1+0.0125\\timesd)}\\] Here d is the closest distance to the fault in meter. As expected, the shorter distance to the Chelungpu fault causes the higher mortality. We device three disastrous levels and then suggest the orders and scopes of the earthquake disaster rescue according to the regression curve of the mortality and the closest distance to the fault. The difference in mortality between hanging-wall and footwall areas is also discussed and different regression curves of hanging-wall and footwall areas are suggested. In near-fault regions, the mortality for the residents lived in hanging-wall block (1348) is significantly higher than that in the footwall block (557). The death ratio of hanging-wall vs. footwall block is approximately 2.4:1. Finally, we gathered the data of the peak ground acceleration (PGA) data for the mainshock of Chi-Chi earthquake at the 63 seismic stations on both sides of the causal fault. The regression curve of the PGA and mortality as functions of the closest distance to the

  14. Observations of changes in waveform character induced by the 1999 M w7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, K.H.; Furumura, T.; Rubinstein, J.; Rau, R.-J.

    2011-01-01

    We observe changes in the waveforms of repeating earthquakes in eastern Taiwan following the 1999 Mw7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake, while their recurrence intervals appear to be unaffected. There is a clear reduction in waveform similarity and velocity changes indicated by delayed phases at the time of the Chi-Chi event. These changes are limited to stations in and paths that cross the 70 ?? 100 km region surrounding the Chi-Chi source area, the area where seismic intensity and co-seismic surface displacements were largest. This suggests that damage at the near-surface is responsible for the observed waveform changes. Delays are largest in the late S-wave coda, reaching approximately 120 ms. This corresponds to a path averaged S wave velocity reduction of approximately 1%. There is also evidence that damage in the fault-zone caused changes in waveform character at sites in the footwall, where source-receiver paths propagate either along or across the rupture. The reduction in waveform similarity persists through the most recent repeating event in our study (November 15, 2007), indicating that the subsurface damage induced by the Chi-Chi earthquake did not fully heal within the first 8 years following the Chi-Chi earthquake. ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  15. Observations of changes in waveform character induced by the 1999 Mw7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, K.H.; Furumura, T.; Rubinstein, J.; Rau, R.-J.

    2011-01-01

    We observe changes in the waveforms of repeating earthquakes in eastern Taiwan following the 1999 Mw7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake, while their recurrence intervals appear to be unaffected. There is a clear reduction in waveform similarity and velocity changes indicated by delayed phases at the time of the Chi-Chi event. These changes are limited to stations in and paths that cross the 70 × 100 km region surrounding the Chi-Chi source area, the area where seismic intensity and co-seismic surface displacements were largest. This suggests that damage at the near-surface is responsible for the observed waveform changes. Delays are largest in the late S-wave coda, reaching approximately 120 ms. This corresponds to a path averaged Swave velocity reduction of approximately 1%. There is also evidence that damage in the fault-zone caused changes in waveform character at sites in the footwall, where source-receiver paths propagate either along or across the rupture. The reduction in waveform similarity persists through the most recent repeating event in our study (November 15, 2007), indicating that the subsurface damage induced by the Chi-Chi earthquake did not fully heal within the first 8 years following the Chi-Chi earthquake.

  16. Groundwater-strain coupling before the 1999 Mw 7.6 Taiwan Chi-Chi earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chieh-Hung; Tang, Chi-Chia; Cheng, Kai-Chien; Wang, Chung-Ho; Wen, Strong; Lin, Cheng-Horng; Wen, Yi-Ying; Meng, Guojie; Yeh, Ta-Kang; Jan, Jyh Cherng; Yen, Horng-Yuan; Liu, Jann-Yenq

    2015-05-01

    The coupling of pre-earthquake anomalous phenomena between long-term groundwater levels recorded at 42 monitoring stations and time-varying surface strain derived from 16 GPS stations was found in the Choshuichi Alluvial Fan before the 1999 Mw 7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake in Taiwan. The noise-free groundwater-level anomalies consistently comprised by a sequence of decrease, rise and flat phases, which agree very well with changes in strain rates computed from the GPS stations. These coupling agreements show that in addition to compression, tension can be generated before a thrust earthquake occurrence as well. This case demonstrates that short-term surface deformation as signals against noise and accuracy of pre-earthquake anomalous phenomena can be simultaneously examined by using multiple-parameter crosscheck for significantly reducing the uncertainty of earthquake precursory evaluation.

  17. Building collapse and human deaths resulting from the Chi-Chi Earthquake in Taiwan, September 1999.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yen-Hsiung; Hwang, Long-Chih; Chang, Chih-Ching; Hong, Yu-Jue; Lee, I-Nong; Huang, Jen-Hsuan; Lin, Shu-Fang; Shen, Maurice; Lin, Chia-Hong; Gau, Yung-Yen; Yang, Chin-Tzo

    2003-09-01

    In this study, the authors attempted to determine factors associated with earthquake deaths in the great Chi-Chi Earthquake that occurred on September 21, 1999, in Taiwan. An isoseismal map was used to identify life-threatening hazards. The vertical peak ground acceleration of ground motion intensity was deemed the most appropriate index for the evaluation of building collapse and mortality. Mortality increased with the increase in earthquake intensity, and building collapse, approaching the epicenter. The greatest number of collapsed buildings and human deaths occurred between the Chelungpu Fault and the Shuantun Fault. Individuals 65 yr of age and older were the most vulnerable to the impact. The authors' findings suggest that improvements in earthquake-resistant building design and construction, as well as improved medical rescue for the elderly, could reduce the level of exposure to earthquake hazards. PMID:15369275

  18. Slip history and dynamic implications of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ji, C.; Helmberger, D.V.; Wald, D.J.; Ma, K.-F.

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the rupture process of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake using extensive near-source observations, including three-component velocity waveforms at 36 strong motion stations and 119 GPS measurements. A three-plane fault geometry derived from our previous inversion using only static data [Ji et al., 2001] is applied. The slip amplitude, rake angle, rupture initiation time, and risetime function are inverted simultaneously with a recently developed finite fault inverse method that combines a wavelet transform approach with a simulated annealing algorithm [Ji et al., 2002b]. The inversion results are validated by the forward prediction of an independent data set, the teleseismic P and SH ground velocities, with notable agreement. The results show that the total seismic moment release of this earthquake is 2.7 ?? 1020 N m and that most of the slip occured in a triangular-shaped asperity involving two fault segments, which is consistent with our previous static inversion. The rupture front propagates with an average rupture velocity of ???2.0 km s-1, and the average slip duration (risetime) is 7.2 s. Several interesting observations related to the temporal evolution of the Chi-Chi earthquake are also investigated, including (1) the strong effect of the sinuous fault plane of the Chelungpu fault on spatial and temporal variations in slip history, (2) the intersection of fault 1 and fault 2 not being a strong impediment to the rupture propagation, and (3 the observation that the peak slip velocity near the surface is, in general, higher than on the deeper portion of the fault plane, as predicted by dynamic modeling.

  19. Tai chi chuan in medicine and health promotion.

    PubMed

    Lan, Ching; Chen, Ssu-Yuan; Lai, Jin-Shin; Wong, Alice May-Kuen

    2013-01-01

    Tai Chi Chuan (Tai Chi) is a Chinese traditional mind-body exercise and recently, it becomes popular worldwide. During the practice of Tai Chi, deep diaphragmatic breathing is integrated into body motions to achieve a harmonious balance between body and mind and to facilitate the flow of internal energy (Qi). Participants can choose to perform a complete set of Tai Chi or selected movements according to their needs. Previous research substantiates that Tai Chi has significant benefits to health promotion, and regularly practicing Tai Chi improves aerobic capacity, muscular strength, balance, health-related quality of life, and psychological well-being. Recent studies also prove that Tai Chi is safe and effective for patients with neurological diseases (e.g., stroke, Parkinson's disease, traumatic brain injury, multiple sclerosis, cognitive dysfunction), rheumatological disease (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and fibromyalgia), orthopedic diseases (e.g., osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, low-back pain, and musculoskeletal disorder), cardiovascular diseases (e.g., acute myocardial infarction, coronary artery bypass grafting surgery, and heart failure), chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and breast cancers. Tai Chi is an aerobic exercise with mild-to-moderate intensity and is appropriate for implementation in the community. This paper reviews the existing literature on Tai Chi and introduces its health-promotion effect and the potential clinical applications. PMID:24159346

  20. Tai Chi Chuan in Medicine and Health Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Ching; Chen, Ssu-Yuan; Lai, Jin-Shin; Wong, Alice May-Kuen

    2013-01-01

    Tai Chi Chuan (Tai Chi) is a Chinese traditional mind-body exercise and recently, it becomes popular worldwide. During the practice of Tai Chi, deep diaphragmatic breathing is integrated into body motions to achieve a harmonious balance between body and mind and to facilitate the flow of internal energy (Qi). Participants can choose to perform a complete set of Tai Chi or selected movements according to their needs. Previous research substantiates that Tai Chi has significant benefits to health promotion, and regularly practicing Tai Chi improves aerobic capacity, muscular strength, balance, health-related quality of life, and psychological well-being. Recent studies also prove that Tai Chi is safe and effective for patients with neurological diseases (e.g., stroke, Parkinson's disease, traumatic brain injury, multiple sclerosis, cognitive dysfunction), rheumatological disease (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and fibromyalgia), orthopedic diseases (e.g., osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, low-back pain, and musculoskeletal disorder), cardiovascular diseases (e.g., acute myocardial infarction, coronary artery bypass grafting surgery, and heart failure), chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and breast cancers. Tai Chi is an aerobic exercise with mild-to-moderate intensity and is appropriate for implementation in the community. This paper reviews the existing literature on Tai Chi and introduces its health-promotion effect and the potential clinical applications. PMID:24159346

  1. Tai Chi for People with Visual Impairments: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miszko, Tanya A.; Ramsey, Vincent K.; Blasch, Bruce B.

    2004-01-01

    This pilot study assessed the physical and psychological outcomes of a tai chi exercise program for eight adults with visual impairments. It found that after eight weeks of orientation and mobility training and tai chi practice, the participants' single leg-stance time and total knee flexion work and power improved, as did their frequency of,…

  2. In Defense of the Chi-Square Continuity Correction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veldman, Donald J.; McNemar, Quinn

    Published studies of the sampling distribution of chi-square with and without Yates' correction for continuity have been interpreted as discrediting the correction. Yates' correction actually produces a biased chi-square value which in turn yields a better estimate of the exact probability of the discrete event concerned when used in conjunction…

  3. Your Chi-Square Test Is Statistically Significant: Now What?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpe, Donald

    2015-01-01

    Applied researchers have employed chi-square tests for more than one hundred years. This paper addresses the question of how one should follow a statistically significant chi-square test result in order to determine the source of that result. Four approaches were evaluated: calculating residuals, comparing cells, ransacking, and partitioning. Data…

  4. On the Correlation of Landslides and Sedimentation in Western Taiwan after the 1999 Chi-Chi Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shou, K.-J.; Fei, L. Y.; Chen, M. M.; Wei, C. Y.; Hong, C. Y.

    2012-04-01

    The hilly Western Foothill of Taiwan Island is highly prone to landslides, especially during typhoon season in the summer. The 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake (MW=7.6) resulted in tremendous amount of landslides in western Taiwan area. The impact of this earthquake not only makes the geomaterial more fractured but also changes the river morphology in the Western Foothill area. This study investigated the correlation of landslides and catchment sedimentation after the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake. As the major river in western Taiwan, the Wu-River and Ta-Chia River are adopted and studied. The study comprises two major parts, i.e., the investigation of landslides and catchment sedimentation, and the study of their correlation. The former part includes field, satellite image and DTM calculation results, and the later part includes analysis on the correlation between the landslides and catchment sedimentation. Following the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake, three typhoon events, i.e., Toraji (2001), Mindulle(2004), and Sinlaku (2008) were adopted for this study. Although the impact of Chi-Chi earthquake is significant, the impacts of Chi-Chi earthquake on different sub-catchments are different. The results show strong correlation between the catchment sedimentation and landslides. The landslides are more prone to reactivation during Toraji, especially in the upstreams and the area near the epicenter of Chi-Chi earthquake. Compared with Typhoon Toraji, fewer and fewer reactivated landslides were induced by subsequent typhoons. This finding reveals a self-healing effect after the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake. In other words, except for extremely high concentrations of rainfall, the landslides were more and more prone to new generation. Our findings indicate, comparing with typhoon Mindulle, more sediments were generated by typhoon Toraji in Wu-River and Ta-Chia River catchments. And those sediments were transported to the downstream by typhoon Mindulle. The results also reveal a sedimentation

  5. Determination of {chi}{sub c} and {chi}{sub b} polarizations from dilepton angular distributions in radiative decays

    SciTech Connect

    Faccioli, Pietro; Lourenco, Carlos; Seixas, Joao; Woehri, Hermine K.

    2011-05-01

    The angular distributions of the decay products in the successive decays {chi}{sub c}({chi}{sub b}){yields}J/{psi}({Upsilon}){gamma} and J/{psi}({Upsilon}){yields}l{sup +}l{sup -} are calculated as a function of the angular momentum composition of the decaying {chi} meson and of the multipole structure of the photon radiation, using a formalism independent of production mechanisms and polarization frames. The polarizations of the {chi} states produced in high-energy collisions can be derived from the dilepton decay distributions of the daughter J/{psi} or {Upsilon} mesons, with a reduced dependence on the details of the photon reconstruction or simulation. Moreover, this method eliminates the dependence of the polarization measurement on the actual details of the multipole structure of the radiative transition. Problematic points in previous calculations of the {chi}{sub c} decay angular distributions are identified and clarified.

  6. CD11chi Dendritic Cells Regulate Ly-6Chi Monocyte Differentiation to Preserve Immune-privileged CNS in Lethal Neuroinflammation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Hyoung; Choi, Jin Young; Kim, Seong Bum; Uyangaa, Erdenebelig; Patil, Ajit Mahadev; Han, Young Woo; Park, Sang-Youel; Lee, John Hwa; Kim, Koanhoi; Eo, Seong Kug

    2015-01-01

    Although the roles of dendritic cells (DCs) in adaptive defense have been defined well, the contribution of DCs to T cell-independent innate defense and subsequent neuroimmunopathology in immune-privileged CNS upon infection with neurotropic viruses has not been completely defined. Notably, DC roles in regulating innate CD11b+Ly-6Chi monocyte functions during neuroinflammation have not yet been addressed. Using selective ablation of CD11chiPDCA-1int/lo DCs without alteration in CD11cintPDCA-1hi plasmacytoid DC number, we found that CD11chi DCs are essential to control neuroinflammation caused by infection with neurotropic Japanese encephalitis virus, through early and increased infiltration of CD11b+Ly-6Chi monocytes and higher expression of CC chemokines. More interestingly, selective CD11chi DC ablation provided altered differentiation and function of infiltrated CD11b+Ly-6Chi monocytes in the CNS through Flt3-L and GM-CSF, which was closely associated with severely enhanced neuroinflammation. Furthermore, CD11b+Ly-6Chi monocytes generated in CD11chi DC-ablated environment had a deleterious rather than protective role during neuroinflammation, and were more quickly recruited into inflamed CNS, depending on CCR2, thereby exacerbating neuroinflammation via enhanced supply of virus from the periphery. Therefore, our data demonstrate that CD11chi DCs provide a critical and unexpected role to preserve the immune-privileged CNS in lethal neuroinflammation via regulating the differentiation, function, and trafficking of CD11b+Ly-6Chi monocytes. PMID:26626303

  7. Tai Chi Chuan Exercise for Patients with Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Ching; Chen, Ssu-Yuan; Wong, May-Kuen; Lai, Jin Shin

    2013-01-01

    Exercise training is the cornerstone of rehabilitation for patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although high-intensity exercise has significant cardiovascular benefits, light-to-moderate intensity aerobic exercise also offers health benefits. With lower-intensity workouts, patients may be able to exercise for longer periods of time and increase the acceptance of exercise, particularly in unfit and elderly patients. Tai Chi Chuan (Tai Chi) is a traditional Chinese mind-body exercise. The exercise intensity of Tai Chi is light to moderate, depending on its training style, posture, and duration. Previous research has shown that Tai Chi enhances aerobic capacity, muscular strength, balance, and psychological well-being. Additionally, Tai Chi training has significant benefits for common cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, poor exercise capacity, endothelial dysfunction, and depression. Tai Chi is safe and effective in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery, congestive heart failure (HF), and stroke. In conclusion, Tai Chi has significant benefits to patients with cardiovascular disease, and it may be prescribed as an alternative exercise program for selected patients with CVD. PMID:24348732

  8. Effectiveness of tai chi for Parkinson's disease: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myeong Soo; Lam, Paul; Ernst, Edzard

    2008-12-01

    The objective of this review is to assess the effectiveness of tai chi as a treatment option for Parkinson's disease (PD). We have searched the literature using 21 databases from their inceptions to January 2008, without language restrictions. We included all types of clinical studies regardless of their design. Their methodological quality was assessed using the modified Jadad score. Of the seven studies included, one randomised clinical trial (RCT) found tai chi to be superior to conventional exercise in terms of the Unified PD Rating Scale (UPDRS) and prevention of falls. Another RCT found no effects of tai chi on locomotor ability compared with qigong. The third RCT failed to show effects of tai chi on the UPDRS and the PD Questionnaires compared with wait list control. The remaining studies were either non-randomised (n=1) or uncontrolled clinical trials (n=3). Collectively these data show that RCTs of the tai chi for PD are feasible but scarce. Most investigations suffer from methodological flaws such as inadequate study design, poor reporting of results, small sample size, and publication without appropriate peer review process. In conclusion, the evidence is insufficient to suggest tai chi is an effective intervention for PD. Further research is required to investigate whether there are specific benefits of tai chi for people with PD, such as its potential effect on balance and on the frequency of falls. PMID:18374620

  9. Propagation dynamics of controlled cross-talk via interplay between {chi}{sup (1)} and {chi}{sup (3)} processes

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Paul S.; Welch, George R.; Gord, James R.; Patnaik, Anil K.

    2011-05-15

    We investigate theoretically and experimentally the propagation dynamics of a nonlinear cross-talk effect between two probe channels in a double-ladder system and show that an interplay between {chi}{sup (1)} and {chi}{sup (3)} processes leads to the control of cross-talk. We derive analytical solutions to describe the propagation dynamics of the probe fields with the cross-talk effect built in. From the analytical results we identify and examine the regimes of interest where contributions of either {chi}{sup (1)} or {chi}{sup (3)} or both are significant. The control of cross-talk is demonstrated experimentally, and good quantitative agreement is found between the analytical solutions and the experiment.

  10. Near-surface versus fault zone damage following the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake: Observation and simulation of repeating earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kate Huihsuan; Furumura, Takashi; Rubinstein, Justin

    2015-04-01

    We observe crustal damage and its subsequent recovery caused by the 1999 M7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake in central Taiwan. Analysis of repeating earthquakes in Hualien region, ~70 km east of the Chi-Chi earthquake, shows a remarkable change in wave propagation beginning in the year 2000, revealing damage within the fault zone and distributed across the near surface. We use moving window cross correlation to identify a dramatic decrease in the waveform similarity and delays in the S wave coda. The maximum delay is up to 59 ms, corresponding to a 7.6% velocity decrease averaged over the wave propagation path. The waveform changes on either side of the fault are distinct. They occur in different parts of the waveforms, affect different frequencies, and the size of the velocity reductions is different. Using a finite difference method, we simulate the effect of postseismic changes in the wavefield by introducing S wave velocity anomaly in the fault zone and near the surface. The models that best fit the observations point to pervasive damage in the near surface and deep, along-fault damage at the time of the Chi-Chi earthquake. The footwall stations show the combined effect of near-surface and the fault zone damage, where the velocity reduction (2-7%) is twofold to threefold greater than the fault zone damage observed in the hanging wall stations. The physical models obtained here allow us to monitor the temporal evolution and recovering process of the Chi-Chi fault zone damage.

  11. Estimation of slip parameters associated with frictional heating during the 1999 Taiwan Chi-Chi earthquake by vitrinite reflectance geothermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maekawa, Yuka; Hirono, Tetsuro; Yabuta, Hikaru; Mukoyoshi, Hideki; Kitamura, Manami; Ikehara, Minoru; Tanikawa, Wataru; Ishikawa, Tsuyoshi

    2014-12-01

    To estimate the slip parameters and understand the fault lubrication mechanism during the 1999 Taiwan Chi-Chi earthquake, we applied vitrinite reflectance geothermometry to samples retrieved from the Chelungpu fault. We found a marked reflectance anomaly of 1.30% ± 0.21% in the primary slip zone of the earthquake, whereas the reflectances in the surrounding deformed and host rocks were 0.45% to 0.77%. By applying a kinetic model of vitrinite thermal maturation together with a one-dimensional heat and thermal diffusion equation, we determined the shear stress and peak temperature in the slip zone during the earthquake to be 1.00 ± 0.04 MPa and 626°C ± 25°C, respectively. Taking into account the probable overestimation of the temperature owing to a mechanochemically enhanced reaction or flash heating at grain contacts, this temperature should be considered an upper limit. The lower limit was previously constrained to 400°C by studies of fluid-mobile trace-element concentrations and magnetic minerals. Therefore, we inferred that the peak temperature during the Chi-Chi earthquake was 400°C to 626°C, corresponding to an apparent friction coefficient of 0.01 to 0.06. Such low friction and the previous evidence of a high-temperature fluid suggest that thermal pressurization likely contributed to dynamic weakening during the Chi-Chi earthquake.

  12. Tai Chi training reduced coupling between respiration and postural control.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Matthew L; Manor, Brad; Hsieh, Wan-hsin; Hu, Kun; Lipsitz, Lewis A; Li, Li

    2016-01-01

    In order to maintain stable upright stance, the postural control system must account for the continuous perturbations to the body's center-of-mass including those caused by spontaneous respiration. Both aging and disease increase "posturo-respiratory synchronization;" which reflects the degree to which respiration affects postural sway fluctuations over time. Tai Chi training emphasizes the coordination of respiration and bodily movements and may therefore optimize the functional interaction between these two systems. The purpose of the project was to examine the effect of Tai Chi training on the interaction between respiration and postural control in older adults. We hypothesized that Tai Chi training would improve the ability of the postural control system to compensate for respiratory perturbations and thus, reduce posturo-respiratory synchronization. Participants were recruited from supportive housing facilities and randomized to a 12-week Tai Chi intervention (n=28; 86 ± 5 yrs) or educational-control program (n=34, 85 ± 6 yrs). Standing postural sway and respiration were simultaneously recorded with a force plate and respiratory belt under eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions. Posturo-respiratory synchronization was determined by quantifying the variation of the phase relationship between the dominant oscillatory mode of respiration and corresponding oscillations within postural sway. Groups were similar in age, gender distribution, height, body mass, and intervention compliance. Neither intervention altered average sway speed, sway magnitude or respiratory rate. As compared to the education-control group, however, Tai Chi training reduced posturo-respiratory synchronization when standing with eyes open or closed (p<0.001). Tai Chi training did not affect traditional parameters of standing postural control or respiration, yet reduced the coupling between respiration and postural control. The beneficial effects of Tai Chi training may therefore stem in part

  13. Physiological responses to Tai Chi in stable patients with COPD.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Zhi-Hui; Guo, Hong-Xi; Lu, Gan; Zhang, Ning; He, Bai-Ting; Zhou, Lian; Luo, Y M; Polkey, M I

    2016-01-15

    We compared the physiological work, judged by oxygen uptake, esophageal pressure swing and diaphragm electromyography, elicited by Tai Chi compared with that elicited by constant rate treadmill walking at 60% of maximal load in eleven patients with COPD (Mean FEV1 61% predicted, FEV1/FVC 47%). Dynamic hyperinflation was assessed by inspiratory capacity and twitch quadriceps tension (TwQ) elicited by supramaximal magnetic stimulation of the femoral nerve was also measured before and after both exercises. The EMGdi and esophageal pressure at the end of exercise were similar for both treadmill exercise and Tai Chi (0.109±0.047 mV vs 0.118±0.061 mV for EMGdi and 22.3±7.1 cmH2O vs 21.9±8.1 cmH2O for esophageal pressure). Moreover the mean values of oxygen uptake during Tai Chi and treadmill exercise did not differ significantly: 11.3 ml/kg/min (51.1% of maximal oxygen uptake derived from incremental exercise) and 13.4 ml/kg/min (52.5%) respectively, p>0.05. Respiratory rate during Tai Chi was significantly lower than that during treadmill exercise. Both Tai Chi and treadmill exercise elicited a fall in IC at end exercise, indicating dynamic hyperinflation, but this was statistically significant only after treadmill exercise. TwQ decreased significantly after Tai Chi but not after treadmill. We conclude that Tai Chi constitutes a physiologically similar stimulus to treadmill exercise and may therefore be an acceptable modality for pulmonary rehabilitation which may be culturally more acceptable in some parts of the world. PMID:26549554

  14. Cardiopulmonary exercise: a recently discovered secret of tai chi.

    PubMed

    Ng, R K

    1992-08-01

    Every piece of literature or book about tai chi claims it to be the supreme martial art (soft style) and a therapeutic exercise. Nevertheless, none of the authors can describe scientifically how and why it works. Many people did not gain any health benefit in practicing tai chi and only very few people were able to apply its legendary secret power. During the last 10 years, the author thought he had discovered the secret in Hong Kong and brought it to Los Angeles. The secret lies in the fundamental movements of the body, called tai chi basic exercise routines. The entry level of the exercise has many similarities with medical treatments for respiratory illness and with walking exercise--the most recommended aerobic exercise for coronary artery disease. PMID:1399544

  15. Confirmation of the chi Cygnids (CCY, IAU#757)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koukal, J.; Srba, J.; Tóth, J.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we present independent confirmation of the existence of the chi Cygnid (CCY, IAU#757) meteor shower. The chi Cygnids were discovered by Peter Jenniskens within the frame of CAMS project (Cameras for Allsky Meteor Surveillance). Thanks to the cooperation between European viDeo MeteOr Network (EDMONd), International Meteor Organization Video Meteor Network (IMO VMN) and the BRAzilian Meteor Observation Network (BRAMON) the current version of the EDMOND database (v5.02) contains 189 323 multi-station meteor orbits. This large data sample allowed confirmation of the increased activity from the chi Cygnid swarm during the night of 2015 September 14/15, and also made it possible to map the activity of this newly discovered swarm during the years 2001-2014.

  16. Earthquake mechanism studies by active-fault drilling: Chi-Chi Taiwan to Wenchuan earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Togo, T.; Shimamoto, T.; Ma, S.; Noda, H.; Hirose, T.; Tanikawa, W.

    2010-12-01

    Why drill into active faults? How can such big projects be justified to society? We believe that a very important task for such projects is to understand earthquake mechanisms, i.e., to reproduce big earthquakes just occurred based on measured fault-zone properties. Post-earthquake fault-zone drilling provides rare opportunities for seeing and analyzing fault zones with minimum changes as “RAPID” group summarized its merits. Shallow and deep drilling into Chelungpu fault, that caused the 1999 Chi-Chi Taiwan earthquake, has demonstrated that reproducing an earthquake based on measured properties is becoming possible (Tanikawa and Shimamoto, 2009, JGR; Noda and Lapusta, 2009, JpGU). Another important outcome from Chelungpu drilling is finding of numerous changes in a fault zone during seismic fault motion (e.g., decomposition due to frictional heating), as highlighted by “black gouge” (many papers). Those changes can be reproduced now by high-velocity friction experiments. No so long ago, a renown geologist expressed his feeling that faults will not preserve a record of seismic slip, except for pseudotachylite (Cowan, 1999, JSG). In other words, seismic slip is of such a short duration that important changes, other than shearing deformation, will not occur in fault zones. Nojima and Chelungpu drilling has shown that this is not the case. On the other hand, seismic fault motion has been reproduced in laboratory for the last twenty years, demonstrating dramatic weakening of many natural fault gouges. We report here a set of data using fault gouge from Hongkou outcrop of Longmenshan fault system, very close to the first drilling site, under a constant slip rate and variable slip histories. Slip and velocity weakening behavior depends on slip history and can be described by an empirical equation. Importance of such experiments can be justified only by confirmation that the same processes indeed occur in natural fault zones. Integrated field and laboratory studies

  17. Strong ground motion in the Taipei basin from the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fletcher, Joe B.; Wen, K.-L.

    2005-01-01

    The Taipei basin, located in northwest Taiwan about 160 km from the epicenter of the Chi-Chi earthquake, is a shallow, triangular-shaped basin filled with low-velocity fluvial deposits. There is a strong velocity contrast across the basement interface of about 600 m/sec at a depth of about 600-700 m in the deeper section of the basin, suggesting that ground motion should be amplified at sites in the basin. In this article, the ground-motion recordings are analyzed to determine the effect of the basin both in terms of amplifications expected from a 1D model of the sediments in the basin and in terms of the 3D structure of the basin. Residuals determined for peak acceleration from attenuation curves are more positive (amplified) in the basin (average of 5.3 cm/ sec2 compared to - 24.2 cm/sec2 for those stations outside the basin and between 75 and 110 km from the surface projection of the faulted area, a 40% increase in peak ground acceleration). Residuals for peak velocity are also significantly more positive at stations in the basin (31.8 cm/sec compared to 20.0 cm/sec out). The correlation of peak motion with depth to basement, while minor in peak acceleration, is stronger in the peak velocities. Record sections of ground motion from stations in and around the Taipei basin show that the largest long-period arrival, which is coherent across the region, is strongest on the vertical component and has a period of about 10-12 sec. This phase appears to be a Rayleigh wave, probably associated with rupture at the north end of the Chelungpu fault. Records of strong motion from stations in and near the basin have an additional, higher frequency signal: nearest the deepest point in the basin, the signal is characterized by frequencies of about 0.3 - 0.4 Hz. These frequencies are close to simple predictions using horizontal layers and the velocity structure of the basin. Polarizations of the S wave are mostly coherent across the array, although there are significant

  18. A CHI wiggler ubitron amplifier experiment: Wiggler characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Taccetti, J.M.; Jackson, R.H.; Freund, H.P.

    1995-12-31

    A 35 GHz CHI (Coaxial Hybrid Iron) wiggler ubitron amplifier experiment is under construction at the Naval Research Laboratory. The CHI wiggler configuration has the potential of generating high wiggler magnetic fields at short periods with excellent beam focusing and transport properties. This makes it a desirable configuration for the generation of high power coherent radiation in relatively compact systems. The CHI wiggler consists of alternating rings of magnetic and non-magnetic materials concentric with a central rod of similar alternating design but shifted along the axis by half a period. Once inserted in a solenoidal magnetic field, the CHI structure deforms the axial field to create a radial field oscillating with the same periodicity as the rings. An annular electron beam is propagated through the coaxial gap where the oscillating radial field imparts an azimuthal wiggle motion. The principal goals of the experiment are to investigate the performance tradeoffs involved in the CHI configuration for high frequency amplifiers operating at low voltages with small wiggler periods. The nominal design parameters are a center frequency of 35 GHz, wiggler period of 0.75 cm, and beam voltage of approximately 150 kV. Calculations have shown an intrinsic (untapered) efficiency of {approximately} 7% when operating at 6.3 kG axial field (wiggler field, B{sub w}{approximately}1270 G). The calculated gain was 36 dB, saturating at a distance of 46 cm. These parameters yield an instantaneous amplifier bandwidth of {approximately} 25%. There appears to be room for further improvement in efficiency, a matter which will be scrutinized more closely in the final design. A prototype CHI wiggler is presently being fabricated for use in conjunction with an existing 30 kG superconducting solenoid. The performance properties of the prototype will be characterized and compared with linear and non-linear calculations.

  19. Observation of B0 -> chi_c0 K*0 and Evidence of B+ -> chi_c0 K*+

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, : B.

    2008-08-13

    The authors present the observation of the decay B{sup 0} {yields} {chi}{sub c0}K*{sup 0} as well as evidence of B{sup +} {yields} {chi}{sub c0}K*{sup +}, with an 8.9 and a 3.6 standard deviation significance, respectively, using a data sample of 454 million {Upsilon}(4S) {yields} B{bar B} decays collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II B meson factory located at the Standard Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). The measured branching fractions are: {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {chi}{sub c0}K*{sup 0}) = (1.7 {+-} 0.3 {+-} 0.2) x 10{sup -4} and {Beta}(B{sup +} {yields} {chi}{sub c0}K*{sup +}) = (1.4 {+-} 0.5 {+-} 0.2) x 10{sup -4}, where the first quoted errors are statistical and the second are systematic. They obtain a branching fraction upper limit of {Beta}(B{sup +} {yields} {chi}{sub c0}K*{sup +}) < 2.1 x 10{sup -4} at the 90% confidence level.

  20. Functional benefits of Tai Chi training within senior housing facilities

    PubMed Central

    Manor, Brad; Lough, Matt; Gagnon, Margaret M; Cupples, Adrienne; Wayne, Peter M; Lipsitz, Lewis A

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine the effects of Tai Chi training on functional performance and walking with and without performance of a cognitive task, in adults of advanced age living within supportive housing facilities. Design Secondary data analysis of a single-blind, randomized controlled trial of Tai Chi training versus an attention-matched educational control intervention with cross-over to Tai Chi. Setting Two supportive housing facilities. Participants Sixty-six men and women living in supportive housing facilities entered the study. Fifty-seven participants aged 87±7 years completed all study procedures. Intervention Interventions consisted of two, one-hour, instructor-led group sessions/week for 12 weeks. Tai Chi training consisted of movements based upon the Yang-style short form. Educational sessions consisted of lectures and discussions of age-related health topics. Measurements Subjects were tested for physical function (Short Physical Performance Battery, SPPB), balance (Berg Balance Scale, BBS), mobility (timed up-and-go, TUG), and walking speed under normal and cognitive dual task conditions. Results The Tai Chi group exhibited greater (p=0.005) improvement in SPPB scores (baseline=8.1±2.9, follow-up=9.0±2.6) compared to controls (baseline=8.2±2.6, follow-up=8.2±2.6). Tai Chi also increased normal and dual task walking speeds (p<0.001), yet did not affect BBS (p=0.02) or TUG (p=0.02) after accounting for multiple comparisons. The dual task cost (i.e., percent change) to walking speed was unaffected. Following the cross-over Tai Chi intervention, the control group improved performance in the SPPB, BBS, and TUG, and increased walking speed under normal and dual task conditions (p<0.008). Conclusion Tai Chi training may be a safe and effective therapy to help improve physical function and dual task walking in very old adults living within supportive housing facilities. PMID:25116984

  1. The Fast Chi-Squared Period Search For Variable Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, D. M.

    2002-05-01

    I present the Fast Chi-Squared method for detecting periodicity in variable sources. This algorithm uses the full statistical power available in the data set to find the optimal fit to a periodic function with an arbitrary number of Fourier components. It automatically compensates for non-uniform errors, sampling periodicity, sampling aperiodicity, and windowing. The result is a statistically meaningful (chi-squared) periodicity detection strength as an arbitrarily dense function of frequency. The algorithm is FFT based, running in order O(N log N) time, and allows large data sets over long time intervals to be trawled with high frequency resolution in a practical amount of CPU time.

  2. Teaching Balance with Tai Chi: Strategies for College and Secondary School Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, David D.; Sherman, Clay P.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the benefits of incorporating Tai Chi into the secondary and college curriculum to teach balance, discussing: the history and philosophical underpinnings of Tai Chi, principles of Tai Chi movement, health benefits, and teaching Tai Chi in public schools. Tips for instructors include: follow the principles of progression, follow a…

  3. Static stress drop inferred from near-fault parameters for the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Win-Gee; Huang, Bor-Shouh; Lee, Chien-Ping

    2013-03-01

    In 2001, a special issue of the Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America (BSSA) featured seismological research for the 1999 Chi-Chi Taiwan earthquake. This study uses source parameters suggested by the first author in this special issue to estimate static stress drop associated with the Chi-Chi earthquake. The waveform simulation method was used to carefully examine these source parameters. The simulation results indicate that source parameters, inferred from near-fault observations, are well determined. According to the rupture area and slip, the static stress drops (Δσs) obtained were distributed between a small value of 47 bars near the epicentral region and a much larger value (>200 bars) to the north. Similar trends in dynamic stress drop (Δσd) were also recognized by the first author in his paper published in 2001 BSSA special issue. Comparing the Δσs with Δσd, satisfies the relation Δσs/Δσd ≈ 1. This relation suggests that fault motion is mostly spent releasing seismic wave energy during the rupture process of the Chi-Chi earthquake. The consistency between static and dynamic stress drops thus provides a measure of energy-moment (Es/M0) ratios, which range from 9.0 × 10-5 to 6.5 × 10-4. The average Es/M0 ratio estimated for the northern portions of the fault is 3.4 × 10-4, which is about 3 times that of the south. Such a high Es/M0 ratio can be interpreted as having low strength in the rupture for the northern portions of the fault, where the fault would release less energy per unit rupture surface to create the new rupture.

  4. Fault geometry and slip distribution of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan Earthquake imaged from inversion of GPS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Kaj M.; Hsu, Ya-Ju; Segall, Paul; Yu, Shui-Beih

    GPS measurements of coseismic displacements from the 1999, Chi-Chi, Taiwan earthquake are modeled using elastic dislocation theory. We find that a single fault plane cannot fit the data, but rather a curved fault surface consisting of multiple segments dipping 20-25° best fits the observations. The model fault exhibits reverse and left-lateral slip on a 75 km long N-S trending segment and reverse and right-lateral slip on a 25 km E-W trending segment at the northern end of the rupture. The 21° dipping E-W segment is inconsistent with previous interpretations of high angle tear faulting.

  5. Programme Note: Realities and Opportunities in Ho Chi Minh City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franchet, Chi Nguyen

    1996-01-01

    The current status of street children in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, is characterized by marginalization from society through street vending, begging, theft, and prostitution. Evaluation of a drop-in center serving children without family linkages indicates need for needs assessments, follow-up activities, measurement of individual child progress,…

  6. Contrasting Ohlsson's Resubsumption Theory with Chi's Categorical Shift Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chi, Michelene T. H.; Brem, Sarah K.

    2009-01-01

    Ohlsson's proposal of resubsumption as the dominant process in conceptual, or nonmonotonic, change presents a worthy challenge to more established theories, such as Chi's theory of ontological shift. The two approaches differ primarily in that Ohlsson's theory emphasizes a process of learning in which narrower, more specific concepts are subsumed…

  7. Principles and Practice of Scaled Difference Chi-Square Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Fred B.; Satorra, Albert

    2012-01-01

    We highlight critical conceptual and statistical issues and how to resolve them in conducting Satorra-Bentler (SB) scaled difference chi-square tests. Concerning the original (Satorra & Bentler, 2001) and new (Satorra & Bentler, 2010) scaled difference tests, a fundamental difference exists in how to compute properly a model's scaling correction…

  8. Tai Chi for stroke rehabilitation: protocol for a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shanshan; Chen, Pei; Zhu, Xiaoshu; Li, Zongheng

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Stroke is a major cause of death and disability, and imposes a huge burden and significant workload for patients, their families and society. As a special form of physical activity, Tai Chi is may be useful for stroke rehabilitation. The objective of this review is to systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of Tai Chi for rehabilitation in stroke patients. Methods and analysis We will conduct a systematic search of the following electronic databases from their inception to 31 October 2015: MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, the Chinese BioMedical Literature Database (CBM), the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), the Chinese Science and Technology Periodical Database (VIP), Wanfang and the Chinese Dissertation Database. All relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in English and Chinese will be included. The main outcomes will be changes in the neurological function of patients and in independence in activities of daily living. Adverse events, adherence, costs and the cost effectiveness of Tai Chi will also be assessed. Two independent reviewers will select studies, extract data and assess quality. Review Manager 5.3 will be used for assessment of risk of bias, data synthesis and subgroup analysis. Ethics and dissemination This systematic review does not require formal ethical approval because all data will be analysed anonymously. Results will provide a general overview and evidence concerning the efficacy and safety of Tai Chi for stroke rehabilitation. Findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications. Trial registration number CRD42015026999. PMID:27311906

  9. Normal versus Noncentral Chi-Square Asymptotics of Misspecified Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chun, So Yeon; Shapiro, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    The noncentral chi-square approximation of the distribution of the likelihood ratio (LR) test statistic is a critical part of the methodology in structural equation modeling. Recently, it was argued by some authors that in certain situations normal distributions may give a better approximation of the distribution of the LR test statistic. The main…

  10. Heterogeneous structures of 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake, thrust termination in and near Chushan excavation site, Central Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wen-Jeng; Chen, Wen-Shan; Lee, Yuan-Hsi; Yang, Chih-Cheng; Chiang, Cheng-Shing; Lee, Jian-Cheng

    2015-04-01

    We describe and analyze the surface and subsurface deformations of 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake, thrust termination in and near Chushan excavation site at Tanliwun village, Central Taiwan. The surface deformation zone of high strain induced by the earthquake faulting ranges in width from 60 to 100, and characterized by a 0.5 to 2-meter-high escarpment is highly asymmetrical relative to its base. Exposures in the Chushan trench, 40 m long and 10 m deep, excavated across the south part of the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake rupture, show on the one hand the heterogeneous structure of a steep, monoclinal-like fold, and on the other hand strikingly different surface profiles on either side of the 14 m wide trench that do not reflect in any obvious way the subsurface structure formed during several earthquake episodes and accommodated 7 m of throw during the last 3200 yrs. The results of our detailed mapping at scales of 1:10 to 1:20 help elucidate the mechanisms for the two essential types of surface profile of the escarpment, parabola-like and monoclinal-shaped, the difference of subsurface structure exposed on the walls of the trench and the connection between the surface and subsurface deformations.

  11. Correlation of Sedimentation and Landslides in Wu Hsi Catchment after the 1999 Chi-Chi Earthquake in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shou, K. J.; Fei, L. Y.; Lee, J. F.; Wei, C. Y.; Wu, C. C.; Hong, C. Y.

    2010-05-01

    The hilly Western Foothill of Taiwan Island is highly prone to landslides, especially during typhoon season in the summer. The 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake (MW=7.6) resulted in tremendous amount of landslides along the Wu Hsi catchment of central Taiwan. The impact of this earthquake not only makes the geomaterial more fractured but also changes the river morphology in the Western Foothill area. This study investigated the correlation of catchment sedimentation and landslides before and after the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake. The Wu Hsi is a major river in central Taiwan, with 119km in length, 2025km2 in drainage area, and elevation from 3144m to 20m. In order to consider the flow discharge and sediment discharge in different sub-watersheds, especially in the upstream, this study divides the Wu Hsi catchment to three sub-catchments, the Peikang sub-catchment (I), Nankang sub-catchment (II), and mid to lower stream of Wu Hsi (III). Analyses were performed for each sub-catchment with discussions. The study comprises two major parts, i.e., catchment sedimentation and correlation with landslides. The former part includes field, satellite image and DTM calculation results, and the later part includes analysis on the correlation between the landslides and catchment sedimentation. Following the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake, two typhoon events, i.e., Toraji (2001) and Mindulle(2004), were adopted for this study. Our findings indicate, comparing with typhoon Mindulle, about 5.25, 8.94, and 5.47 times more sediments were generated by typhoon Toraji in sub-catchment I, II, and III. Considering the transportation of sediment, sediments accumulated in sub-catchment I is about 2.78 times more than those in sub-catchment II. And Those sediments were transported down to sub-catchment III by typhoon Mindulle. The results reveal sedimentation trend in sub-catchment I and II during Toraji, and incision trend in sub-catchment II and sediment deposition trend in sub-catchment III during Mindulle

  12. Cloning of the Aegiceras corniculatum class I chitinase gene (AcCHI I) and the response of AcCHI I mRNA expression to cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Ying; Wang, You-Shao; Cheng, Hao; Zhang, Jing-Ping; Yeok, Foong Swee

    2015-10-01

    Chitinases in terrestrial plants have been reported these are involved in heavy metal tolerance/detoxification. This is the first attempt to reveal chitinase gene (AcCHI I) and its function on metal detoxification in mangroves Aegiceras corniculatum. RT-PCR and RACE techniques were used to clone AcCHI I, while real-time quantitative PCR was employed to assess AcCHI I mRNA expressions in response to Cadmium (Cd). The deduced AcCHI I protein consists of 316 amino acids, including a signal peptide region, a chitin-binding domain (CBD) and a catalytic domain. Protein homology modeling was performed to identify potential features in AcCHI I. The CBD structure of AcCHI I might be critical for metal tolerance/homeostasis of the plant. Clear tissue-specific differences in AcCHI I expression were detected, with higher transcript levels detected in leaves. Results demonstrated that a short duration of Cd exposure (e.g., 3 days) promoted AcCHI I expression in roots. Upregulated expression was also detected in leaves under 10 mg/kg Cd concentration stress. The present study demonstrates that AcCHI I may play an important role in Cd tolerance/homeostasis in the plant. Further studies of the AcCHI I protein, gene overexpression, the promoter and upstream regulation will be necessary for clarifying the functions of AcCHI I. PMID:26044931

  13. Investigation of the Temporal Change in Attenuation Within the Ruptured Fault Zone of the 1999 Mw7.3 Chi-Chi, Taiwan Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu-Ju; Ma, Kuo-Fong

    2015-05-01

    A decrease in Q s values within the hanging wall of the ruptured Chelungpu fault two years following the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake was revealed by Q s tomography images and an analysis of single-path Q s. The synthetic and sensitivity tests of the Q s determination were carried out accordingly to justify the temporal variation. A Q s value within the hanging wall above the hypocenter was determined to be 157 ± 18 two years following the Chi-Chi earthquake, which is significantly lower than the Q s tomography values of 238 ± 17 and 289 ± 13 prior to and two years after the main shock, respectively. Similar values using a signal-path Q s analysis from events within the ruptured fault zone to stations along the fault were obtained. The corresponding Q s values were 247 ± 85 prior to the Chi-Chi earthquake. After the earthquake we obtained Q s values of 158 ± 75 and 318 ± 80 for 2 years following and 2 years after the earthquake, respectively. Considering the two independent methods in determination of Q s, the reduction in Q s by 89 two years following the Chi-Chi earthquake in both methods is significant. Along with 1 % V s reduction revealed by the analysis of repeating earthquakes our studies suggested possible reduction both in V s and Q s values within the fault zone after the Chi-Chi earthquake. Temporal changes in Q s after the Chi-Chi earthquake imply variations of pore-fluid saturation in the ruptured fault zone. The reduction in Q s two years following the Chi-Chi earthquake indicates high pore-fluid saturation within the fractured fault zone due to the postseismic fluid redistribution.

  14. Chitinase Genes LbCHI31 and LbCHI32 from Limonium bicolor Were Successfully Expressed in Escherichia coli and Exhibit Recombinant Chitinase Activities

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhihua; Huang, Ying; Zhang, Rongshu; Diao, Guiping; Fan, Haijuan; Wang, Zhiying

    2013-01-01

    The two chitinase genes, LbCHI31 and LbCHI32 from Limonium bicolor, were, respectively, expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 strain. The intracellular recombinant chitinases, inrCHI31 and inrCHI32, and the extracellular exrCHI31 and exrCHI32 could be produced into E. coli. The exrCHI31 and exrCHI32 can be secreted into extracellular medium. The optimal reaction condition for inrCHI31 was 5 mmol/L of Mn2+ at 40°C and pH 5.0 with an activity of 0.772 U using Alternaria alternata cell wall as substrate. The optimal condition of inrCHI32 was 5 mmol/L of Ba2+ at 45°C and pH 5.0 with an activity of 0.792 U using Valsa sordida cell wall as substrate. The optimal reaction condition of exrCHI31 was 5 mmol/L of Zn2+ at 40°C and pH 5.0, and the activity was 0.921 U using the A. alternata cell wall as substrate. Simultaneously, the optimal condition of exrCHI32 was 5 mmol/L of K+ at 45°C and pH 5.0, with V. sordida cell wall as the substrate, and the activity was 0.897 U. Furthermore, the activities of extracellular recombinant enzymes on fungal cell walls and compounds were generally higher than those of the intracellular recombinant enzymes. Recombinant exrCHI31 and exrCHI32 have better hydrolytic ability on cell walls of different fungi than synthetic chitins and obviously showed activity against A. alternata. PMID:24385885

  15. Molecular cloning, expression, and evolution analysis of type II CHI gene from peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Zhao, Shuzhen; Wang, Jiangshan; Zhao, Chuanzhi; Guan, Hongshan; Hou, Lei; Li, Changsheng; Xia, Han; Wang, Xingjun

    2015-01-01

    Chalcone isomerase (CHI) plays critical roles in plant secondary metabolism, which is important for the interaction between plants and the environment. CHI genes are widely studied in various higher plants. However, little information about CHI genes is available in peanut. Based on conservation of CHI gene family, we cloned the peanut type II CHI gene (AhCHI II) cDNA and genome sequence. The amino acid sequence of peanut CHI II was highly homologous to type II CHI from other plant species. qRT-PCR results showed that peanut CHI II is mainly expressed in roots; however, peanut CHI I is mainly expressed in tissues with high content of anthocyanin. Gene duplication and gene cluster analysis indicated that CHI II was derived from CHI I 65 million years ago approximately. Our gene structure analysis results are not in agreement with the previous hypothesis that CHI II was derived from CHI I by the insertion of an intron into the first exon. Moreover, no positive selection pressure was found in CHIs, while, 32.1 % of sites were under neutral selection, which may lead to mutation accumulation and fixation during great changes of environment. PMID:25608978

  16. Two-color holography concept (T-CHI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vikram, C. S.; Caulfield, H. J.; Workman, G. L.; Trolinger, J. D.; Wood, C. P.; Clark, R. L.; Kathman, A. D.; Ruggiero, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    The Material Processing in the Space Program of NASA-MSFC was active in developing numerous optical techniques for the characterization of fluids in the vicinity of various materials during crystallization and/or solidification. Two-color holographic interferometry demonstrates that temperature and concentration separation in transparent (T-CHI) model systems is possible. The experiments were performed for particular (succinonitrile) systems. Several solutions are possible in Microgravity Sciences and Applications (MSA) experiments on future Shuttle missions. The theory of the T-CHI concept is evaluated. Although particular cases are used for explanations, the concepts developed will be universal. A breadboard system design is also presented for ultimate fabrication and testing of theoretical findings. New developments in holography involving optical fibers and diode lasers are also incorporated.

  17. Spatial solitons in chi(2) planar photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Katia; Assanto, Gaetano

    2007-11-01

    We analyze light self-confinement induced by multiple nonlinear resonances in a two-dimensional chi(2) photonic crystal. With reference to second-harmonic generation in a hexagonal lattice, we show that the system can not only support two-color (1+1)D solitary waves with enhanced confinement and steering capabilities but also enable novel features such as wavelength-dependent soliton routing. PMID:17975626

  18. Feynman rules of higher-order poles in CHY construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Rijun; Feng, Bo; Luo, Ming-xing; Zhu, Chuan-Jie

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we generalize the integration rules for scattering equations to situations where higher-order poles are present. We describe the strategy to deduce the Feynman rules of higher-order poles from known analytic results of simple CHY-integrands, and propose the Feynman rules for single double pole and triple pole as well as duplex-double pole and triplex-double pole structures. We demonstrate the validation and strength of these rules by ample non-trivial examples.

  19. Solenoid-free plasma startup in NSTX using transient CHI

    SciTech Connect

    Raman, R; Jarboe, T.; Mueller, D.; Maingi, R.

    2009-01-01

    Experiments in NSTX have now demonstrated the coupling of toroidal plasmas produced by the technique of coaxial helicity injection (CHI) to inductive sustainment and ramp-up of the toroidal plasma current. In these discharges, the central Ohmic transformer was used to apply an inductive loop voltage to discharges with a toroidal current of about 100 kA created by CHI. The coupled discharges have ramped up to > 700 kA and transitioned into an H-mode demonstrating compatibility of this startup method with conventional operation. The electron temperature in the coupled discharges reached over 800 eV and the resulting plasma had low inductance, which is preferred for long-pulse high-performance discharges. These results from NSTX in combination with the previously obtained record 160 kA non-inductively generated startup currents in an ST or tokamak in NSTX demonstrate that CHI is a viable solenoid-free plasma startup method for future STs and tokamaks.

  20. Comparisons of ground motions from the 1999 Chi-Chi, earthquake with empirical predictions largely based on data from California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boore, D.M.

    2001-01-01

    This article has the modest goal of comparing the ground motions recorded during the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, mainshock with predictions from four empirical-based equations commonly used for western North America; these empirical predictions are largely based on data from California. Comparisons are made for peak acceleration and 5%-damped response spectra at periods between 0.1 and 4 sec. The general finding is that the Chi-Chi ground motions are smaller than those predicted from the empirically based equations for periods less than about 1 sec by factors averaging about 0.4 but as small as 0.26 (depending on period, on which equation is used, and on whether the sites are assumed to be rock or soil). There is a trend for the observed motions to approach or even exceed the predicted motions for longer periods. Motions at similar distances (30-60 km) to the east and to the west of the fault differ dramatically at periods between about 2 and 20 sec: Long-duration wave trains are present on the motions to the west, and when normalized to similar amplitudes at short periods, the response spectra of the motions at the western stations are as much as five times larger than those of motions from eastern stations. The explanation for the difference is probably related to site and propagation effects; the western stations are on the Coastal Plain, whereas the eastern stations are at the foot of young and steep mountains, either in the relatively narrow Longitudinal Valley or along the eastern coast-the sediments underlying the eastern stations are probably shallower and have higher velocity than those under the western stations.

  1. Stress evolution following the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake: Consequences for afterslip, relaxation, aftershocks and departures from Omori decay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chan, C.-H.; Stein, R.S.

    2009-01-01

    We explore how Coulomb stress transfer and viscoelastic relaxation control afterslip and aftershocks in a continental thrust fault system. The 1999 September 21 Mw = 7.6 Chi-Chi shock is typical of continental ramp-d??collement systems throughout the world, and so inferences drawn from this uniquely well-recorded event may be widely applicable. First, we find that the spatial and depth distribution of aftershocks and their focal mechanisms are consistent with the calculated Coulomb stress changes imparted by the coseismic rupture. Some 61 per cent of the M ??? 2 aftershocks and 83 per cent of the M ??? 4 aftershocks lie in regions for which the Coulomb stress increased by ???0.1 bars, and there is a 11-12 per cent gain in the percentage of aftershocks nodal planes on which the shear stress increased over the pre-Chi Chi control period. Second, we find that afterslip occurred where the calculated coseismic stress increased on the fault ramp and d??collement, subject to the condition that friction is high on the ramp and low on the d??collement. Third, viscoelastic relaxation is evident from the fit of the post-seismic GPS data on the footwall. Fourth, we find that the rate of seismicity began to increase during the post-seismic period in an annulus extending east of the main rupture. The spatial extent of the seismicity annulus resembles the calculated ???0.05-bar Coulomb stress increase caused by viscoelastic relaxation and afterslip, and we find a 9-12 per cent gain in the percentage of focal mechanisms with >0.01-bar shear stress increases imparted by the post-seismic afterslip and relaxation in comparison to the control period. Thus, we argue that post-seismic stress changes can for the first time be shown to alter the production of aftershocks, as judged by their rate, spatial distribution, and focal mechanisms. ?? Journal compilation ?? 2009 RAS.

  2. Instrumental intensity distribution for the Hector Mine, California, and the Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquakes: Comparison of two methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sokolov, V.; Wald, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    We compare two methods of seismic-intensity estimation from ground-motion records for the two recent strong earthquakes: the 1999 (M 7.1) Hector Mine, California, and the 1999 (M 7.6) Chi-Chi, Taiwan. The first technique utilizes the peak ground acceleration (PGA) and velocity (PGV), and it is used for rapid generation of the instrumental intensity map in California. The other method is based on the revised relationships between intensity and Fourier amplitude spectrum (FAS). The results of using the methods are compared with independently observed data and between the estimations from the records. For the case of the Hector Mine earthquake, the calculated intensities in general agree with the observed values. For the case of the Chi-Chi earthquake, the areas of maximum calculated intensity correspond to the areas of the greatest damage and highest number of fatalities. However, the FAS method producees higher-intensity values than those of the peak amplitude method. The specific features of ground-motion excitation during the large, shallow, thrust earthquake may be considered a reason for the discrepancy. The use of PGA and PGV is simple; however, the use of FAS provides a natural consideration of site amplification by means of generalized or site-specific spectral ratios. Because the calculation of seismic-intensity maps requires rapid processing of data from a large network, it is very practical to generate a "first-order" map from the recorded peak motions. Then, a "second-order" map may be compiled using an amplitude-spectra method on the basis of available records and numerical modeling of the site-dependent spectra for the regions of sparse station spacing.

  3. ChiNet uncovers rewired rewired transcription subnetworks in tolerant yeast for advanced biofuels conversion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conventional differential gene expression analysis is insufficient to dissect altered gene interactions for adapted transcription regulatory networks that impact downstream molecular responses. Here we present comparative chi-square network analysis (ChiNet), a computational method, to uncover rewir...

  4. Search for factorization-suppressed B-->chi(c)K(*) decays.

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Barate, R; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Grauges-Pous, E; Palano, A; Pompili, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Borgland, A W; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Wenzel, W A; Barrett, M; Ford, K E; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hawkes, C M; Morgan, S E; Watson, A T; Fritsch, M; Goetzen, K; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Schroeder, T; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Chevalier, N; Cottingham, W N; Kelly, M P; Latham, T E; Wilson, F F; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Hearty, C; Knecht, N S; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Thiessen, D; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, A E; Blinov, V E; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Ivanchenko, V N; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M; Mommsen, R K; Roethel, W; Stoker, D P; Buchanan, C; Hartfiel, B L; Weinstein, A J R; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Long, O; Shen, B C; Wang, K; Del Re, D; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; MacFarlane, D B; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, Sh; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Lu, A; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Nesom, G; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Yang, S; Jayatilleke, S; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Rankin, P; Ruddick, W O; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Chen, A; Eckhart, E A; Harton, J L; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Zeng, Q; Spaan, B; Altenburg, D; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Dickopp, M; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Lacker, H M; Nogowski, R; Otto, S; Petzold, A; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Grenier, P; Schrenk, S; Thiebaux, Ch; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Bard, D J; Clark, P J; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Azzolini, V; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Piemontese, L; Sarti, A; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Crosetti, G; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Bailey, S; Brandenburg, G; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Won, E; Dubitzky, R S; Langenegger, U; Marks, J; Uwer, U; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Gaillard, J R; Morton, G W; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Taylor, G P; Charles, M J; Grenier, G J; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Lamsa, J; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Yi, J; Arnaud, N; Davier, M; Giroux, X; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Le Diberder, F; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Petersen, T C; Plaszczynski, S; Schune, M H; Wormser, G; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Simani, M C; Wright, D M; Bevan, A J; Chavez, C A; Coleman, J P; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Hutchcroft, D E; Parry, R J; Payne, D J; Touramanis, C; Cormack, C M; Di Lodovico, F; Brown, C L; Cowan, G; Flack, R L; Flaecher, H U; Green, M G; Jackson, P S; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Winter, M A; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Hodgkinson, M C; Lafferty, G D; Williams, J C; Chen, C; Farbin, A; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Kovalskyi, D; Lae, C K; Lillard, V; Roberts, D A; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Koptchev, V B; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Staengle, H; Willocq, S; Cowan, R; Koeneke, K; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Taras, P; Nicholson, H; Cavallo, N; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M; Bulten, H; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Wilden, L; Jessop, C P; LoSecco, J M; Allmendinger, T; Benelli, G; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Pulliam, T; Rahimi, A M; Ter-Antonyan, R; Wong, Q K; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Lu, M; Potter, C T; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Colecchia, F; Dorigo, A; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; de la Vaissière, Ch; Del Buono, L; Hamon, O; John, M J J; Leruste, Ph; Malcles, J; Ocariz, J; Roos, L; Therin, G; Behera, P K; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Pioppi, M; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bondioli, M; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Simi, G; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Paick, K; Wagoner, D E; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lu, C; Miftakov, V; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; D'Orazio, A; Di Marco, E; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Pierini, M; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Safai Tehrani, F; Voena, C; Christ, S; Schröder, H; Wagner, G; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B; Gopal, G P; Olaiya, E O; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Giraud, P-F; de Monchenault, G Hamel; Kozanecki, W; Legendre, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Schott, G; Vasseur, G; Yèche, Ch; Zito, M; Purohit, M V; Weidemann, A W; Wilson, J R; Yumiceva, F X; Abe, T; Allen, M; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Buchmueller, O L; Claus, R; Convery, M R; Cristinziani, M; De Nardo, G; Dingfelder, J C; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W; Fan, S; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Hadig, T; Halyo, V; Hast, C; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Libby, J; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Soha, A; Stelzer, J; Strube, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Thompson, J; Va'vra, J; Wagner, S R; Weaver, M; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Ahmed, M; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Ernst, J A; Saeed, M A; Saleem, M; Wappler, F R; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Kim, H; Ritchie, J L; Satpathy, A; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Bona, M; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Grancagnolo, S; Lanceri, L; Poropat, P; Vitale, L; Vuagnin, G; Martinez-Vidal, F; Panvini, R S; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Jackson, P D; Kowalewski, R; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Mohanty, G B; Band, H R; Chen, X; Cheng, B; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Eichenbaum, A M; Flood, K T; Graham, M; Hollar, J J; Johnson, J R; Kutter, P E; Li, H; Liu, R; Mihalyi, A; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Tan, P; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J H; Wu, J; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Greene, M G; Neal, H

    2005-05-01

    We search for the factorization-suppressed decays B-->chi(c0)K(*) and B-->chi(c2)K(*), with chi(c0) and chi(c2) decaying into J/psi gamma, using a sample of 124 x 10(6) BB events collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II storage ring of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. We find no significant signal and set upper bounds for the branching fractions. PMID:15904279

  5. A Study on How to Breathe Properly When Practicing Tai Chi Chuan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Hanchun

    2011-01-01

    When practicing Tai Chi Chuan, proper breath plays an important role in shaping Tai Chi Chuan's style and its fitness value. The paper aims to analyse the postures of Tai Chi Chuan and its breath characteristics. The paper also presents some new insights on how to co-ordinate breath with postures by case studies.

  6. How do we extract the three chi's that describe a compressible blend from SANS ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gujrati, P. D.; Rane, Sagar

    2000-03-01

    We demonstrate that a lattice model of a compressible blend is characterized by three bare chi parameters; chi-01 (between void and polymer1), chi-02 (between void and polymer2) and chi-12 (between polymer1 and polymer2). We propose a methodology to extract the corresponding three effective chi's from the scattering intensity and additional information on the compressibility and partial molar volumes. We have also defined and obtained a single effective chi for the blend (without RPA) and compared this single effective chi with the other three effective chi's. In all calculations, the athermal part was removed exactly resulting in an interaction part which remains finite over the entire composition regime. From thermodynamics, we know that this single chi is not the same as chi-12, and we shall determine when the two are close or similar. We have also obtained the values of the three chi's at the critical point for different systems to display their utility. We have carried out the calculations in different ensembles and find that the value of chi's depend on the ensemble chosen.

  7. The use of Tai Chi to improve health in older adults.

    PubMed

    Adler, Patricia A; Roberts, Beverly L

    2006-01-01

    Tai Chi is a slow and gentle exercise that is suitable for older adults with chronic illness. This exercise offers the benefits of flexibility, muscle strengthening, and endurance training. Tai Chi has the capability of improving the health of elders without exacerbating existing impairments. Therefore, older adults may be more inclined to participate in and maintain an exercise program. The purpose of this article is to (1) compare Tai Chi to muscle-strengthening and aerobic exercise, (2) describe possible mechanisms for the effects of Tai Chi on factors that contribute to disability, and (3) identify nursing interventions to promote the use of Tai Chi. PMID:16572030

  8. Measurement of exclusive baryon-antibaryon decays of {chi}{sub cJ} mesons

    SciTech Connect

    Naik, P.; Rademacker, J.; Asner, D. M.; Edwards, K. W.; Reed, J.; Briere, R. A.; Ferguson, T.; Tatishvili, G.; Vogel, H.; Watkins, M. E.; Rosner, J. L.; Alexander, J. P.; Cassel, D. G.; Duboscq, J. E.; Ehrlich, R.; Fields, L.; Gibbons, L.; Gray, R.; Gray, S. W.; Hartill, D. L.

    2008-08-01

    Using a sample of 2.59x10{sup 7} {psi}(2S) decays collected by the CLEO-c detector, we present results of a study of {chi}{sub cJ} (J=0, 1, 2) decays into baryon-antibaryon final states. We present the world's most precise measurements of the {chi}{sub cJ}{yields}pp and {chi}{sub cJ}{yields}{lambda}{lambda} branching fractions, and the first measurements of {chi}{sub c0} decays to other hyperons. These results illuminate the decay mechanism of the {chi}{sub c} states.

  9. Two-dimensional Co-Seismic Surface Displacements Field of the Chi-Chi Earthquake Inferred from SAR Image Matching

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jun; Li, Zhi-Wei; Ding, Xiao-Li; Zhu, Jian-Jun

    2008-01-01

    The Mw=7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake in Taiwan occurred in 1999 over the Chelungpu fault and caused a great surface rupture and severe damage. Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) has been applied previously to study the co-seismic ground displacements. There have however been significant limitations in the studies. First, only one-dimensional displacements along the Line-of-Sight (LOS) direction have been measured. The large horizontal displacements along the Chelungpu fault are largely missing from the measurements as the fault is nearly perpendicular to the LOS direction. Second, due to severe signal decorrelation on the hangling wall of the fault, the displacements in that area are un-measurable by differential InSAR method. We estimate the co-seismic displacements in both the azimuth and range directions with the method of SAR amplitude image matching. GPS observations at the 10 GPS stations are used to correct for the orbital ramp in the amplitude matching and to create the two-dimensional (2D) co-seismic surface displacements field using the descending ERS-2 SAR image pair. The results show that the co-seismic displacements range from about -2.0 m to 0.7 m in the azimuth direction (with the positive direction pointing to the flight direction), with the footwall side of the fault moving mainly southwards and the hanging wall side northwards. The displacements in the LOS direction range from about -0.5 m to 1.0 m, with the largest displacement occuring in the northeastern part of the hanging wall (the positive direction points to the satellite from ground). Comparing the results from amplitude matching with those from DInSAR, we can see that while only a very small fraction of the LOS displacement has been recovered by the DInSAR mehtod, the azimuth displacements cannot be well detected with the DInSAR measurements as they are almost perpendicular to the LOS. Therefore, the amplitude matching method is obviously more advantageous than the DIn

  10. Synthesis and Characterization of α-ZrP@CHI Drug Deliver System.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shiyong; Gao, Xuechuan; Zhang, Renfei; Li, Zhao; Tan, Zhibing; Su, Haiquan

    2016-04-01

    This paper described the controlled synthesis and release properties of a new kind of multifunctional drug-release system which was prepared by encapsulation of zirconium bis-(monohydrogen orthophosphate) monohydrate (α-ZrP) with chitosan (CHI). As obtained the α-ZrP@CHI nanocomposites were found to possess the structural features of both α-ZrP and CHI. The release properties of the α-ZrP@CHI nanocomposites were evaluated using Gentamicin sulfate as the model drug. And α-ZrP@CHI composites showed a prolonged drug release time compared with α-ZrP, which can be attributed to the unique lamellar structure and the encapsulation with CHI. The controlled synthesis of α-ZrP@CHI nanocomposite thus provided a new opportunity for future development of delivery vehicles. PMID:27451678

  11. Tai Chi as a form of exercise training in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Leung, Regina W M; McKeough, Zoe J; Alison, Jennifer A

    2013-12-01

    Tai Chi is an ancient Chinese martial art which incorporates elements of strengthening, balance, postural alignment and concentration. The benefits of Tai Chi in the healthy population have been widely examined. In comparison, only three studies have evaluated the effects of Tai Chi in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Existing evidence suggests that the exercise intensity of Tai Chi reaches a moderate level in people with COPD. Furthermore, a short-term program of Tai Chi improves exercise capacity, health-related quality of life, balance and quadriceps strength in people with mild to moderate COPD. More studies are warranted to examine the effects of different styles of Tai Chi and the long-term benefits of Tai Chi as an exercise regimen for people with COPD. PMID:24224506

  12. How-To-Do-It: Snails, Pill Bugs, Mealworms, and Chi-Square? Using Invertebrate Behavior to Illustrate Hypothesis Testing with Chi-Square.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biermann, Carol

    1988-01-01

    Described is a study designed to introduce students to the behavior of common invertebrate animals, and to use of the chi-square statistical technique. Discusses activities with snails, pill bugs, and mealworms. Provides an abbreviated chi-square table and instructions for performing the experiments and statistical tests. (CW)

  13. Conductivity and mobility profiles at 300 and 77 K of epitaxial Cd/sub chi/Hg/sub 1-chi/Te layers

    SciTech Connect

    Sangha, S.P.S.; Thompson, J.; Nicholls, R.E.; Smith, L.M. )

    1989-05-01

    The authors report the results of conductivity and mobility profiles of expitaxial layers of Cd/sub chi/Hg/sub 1-chi/Te at 300 and 77 {Kappa} obtained using the step and etch technique. In this technique, layers are sequentially stripped through chemical etching and differential Hall measurements are performed in the van der Pauw configuration.

  14. mRNA Expression of EgCHI1, EgCHI2, and EgCHI3 in Oil Palm Leaves (Elaeis guineesis Jacq.) after Treatment with Ganoderma boninense Pat. and Trichoderma harzianum Rifai

    PubMed Central

    Naher, Laila; Tan, Soon Guan; Ho, Chai Ling; Yusuf, Umi Kalsom; Ahmad, Siti Hazar; Abdullah, Faridah

    2012-01-01

    Background. Basal stem rot (BSR) disease caused by the fungus Ganoderma boninense is the most serious disease affecting the oil palm; this is because the disease escapes the early disease detection. The biocontrol agent Trichoderma harzianum can protect the disease only at the early stage of the disease. In the present study, the expression levels of three oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) chitinases encoding EgCHI1, EgCHI2, and EgCHI3 at 2, 5, and 8 weeks inoculation were measured in oil palm leaves from plants treated with G. boninense or T. harzianum alone or both. Methods. The five-month-old oil palm seedlings were treated with Gano-wood blocks inoculum and trichomulch. Expression of EgCHI1, EgCHI2, and EgCHI3 in treated leaves tissue was determined by real-time PCR. Results. Oil palm chitinases were not strongly expressed in oil palm leaves of plants treated with G. boninense alone compared to other treatments. Throughout the 8-week experiment, expression of EgCHI1 increased more than 3-fold in leaves of plants treated with T. harzianum and G. boninense when compared to those of control and other treated plants. Conclusion. The data illustrated that chitinase cDNA expression varied depending on tissue and the type of treatment. PMID:22919345

  15. Effect of baseline corrections on response spectra for two recordings of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boore, David M.

    1999-01-01

    Displacements derived from the accelerogram recordings of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan earthquake at stations TCU078 and TCU129 show drifts when only a simple baseline derived from the pre-event portion of the record is removed from the records. The appearance of the velocity and displacement records suggests that changes in the zero-level of the acceleration are responsible for these drifts. The source of the shifts in zero-level are unknown, but might include tilts in the instruments or the response of the instruments to strong shaking. This note illustrates the effect on the velocity, displacement, and response spectra of several schemes for accounting for these baseline shifts. The most important conclusion for earthquake engineering purposes is that the response spectra for periods less than about 20 sec are unaffected by the baseline correction. The results suggest, however, that staticdisplac ements estimated from the instruments should be used with caution. Although limited to the analysis of only two recordings, the results may have more general significance both for the many other recordings of this earthquake and for data that will be obtained in the future from similar high-quality accelerograph networks now being installed or soon to be installed in many parts of the world.

  16. Effect of baseline corrections on displacements and response spectra for several recordings of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boore, D.M.

    2001-01-01

    Displacements derived from many of the accelerogram recordings of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake show drifts when only a simple baseline derived from the pre-event portion of the record is removed from the records. The appearance of the velocity and displacement records suggests that changes in the zero level of the acceleration are responsible for these drifts. The source of the shifts in zero level are unknown, but in at least one case it is almost certainly due to tilting of the ground. This article illustrates the effect on the ground velocity, ground displacement, and response spectra of several schemes for accounting for these baseline shifts. A wide range of final displacements can be obtained for various choices of baseline correction, and comparison with nearby GPS stations (none of which are colocated with the accelerograph stations) do not help in choosing the appropriate baseline correction. The results suggest that final displacements estimated from the records should be used with caution. The most important conclusion for earthquake engineering purposes, however, is that the response spectra for periods less than about 20 sec are usually unaffected by the baseline correction. Although limited to the analysis of only a small number of recordings, the results may have more general significance both for the many other recordings of this earthquake and for data that will be obtained in the future from similar high-quality accelerograph networks now being installed or soon to be installed in many parts of the world.

  17. Migration and employment in Ho Chi Minh City.

    PubMed

    Truong Si Anh; Gubry, P; Vu Thi Hong; Huguet, J W

    1996-06-01

    This article presents findings from a survey of migrants conducted during September 1994 in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The sample includes 19,019 households in 34 residence blocks selected from the 17 districts that comprise the most populated areas of the city. 704 migrants and 296 nonmigrant households completed the basic demographic and socioeconomic questionnaire. One migrant and one nonmigrant completed a detailed questionnaire. Migrants are identified as those who migrated to the city after April 1984. Migrants are divided into those moving during 1984-89 and during 1990-94. The average annual rate of growth in population during the census years 1979-89 was 1.87% and during 1989-94 was 3.5%. Growth during 1989-94 was 1.6% due to natural increase and 1.9% due to net migration. 43% of population growth was due to natural increase and 57% was from net migration. Migration to large cities, such as Ho Chi Minh City, was stimulated by employment opportunities in the private sector. There were more female migrants in both study periods, and the proportion of females increased in the more recent past. About 15% of female migrants aged over 13 years were students and 58% were in the labor force. Most migrants were aged 15-29 years (41% during 1984-89 and 53% during 1990-94). Only 31% of nonmigrants were aged 15-29 years. About 33% of migrants originated from the Mekong River Delta in the south; 20% originated from the Red River Delta and Hanoi region; and 20% came from the Central Coast. Over time, the proportion of migrants from the coast increased and that from the Red River Delta decreased. Migrants and nonmigrants shared similar unemployment and economic activity rates. However, twice the proportion of migrants aged over 13 years were attending school. The author presents the evidence for the influence of urban economic policies on migration, specifically female migration. PMID:12347640

  18. CHiCAGO: robust detection of DNA looping interactions in Capture Hi-C data.

    PubMed

    Cairns, Jonathan; Freire-Pritchett, Paula; Wingett, Steven W; Várnai, Csilla; Dimond, Andrew; Plagnol, Vincent; Zerbino, Daniel; Schoenfelder, Stefan; Javierre, Biola-Maria; Osborne, Cameron; Fraser, Peter; Spivakov, Mikhail

    2016-01-01

    Capture Hi-C (CHi-C) is a method for profiling chromosomal interactions involving targeted regions of interest, such as gene promoters, globally and at high resolution. Signal detection in CHi-C data involves a number of statistical challenges that are not observed when using other Hi-C-like techniques. We present a background model and algorithms for normalisation and multiple testing that are specifically adapted to CHi-C experiments. We implement these procedures in CHiCAGO ( http://regulatorygenomicsgroup.org/chicago ), an open-source package for robust interaction detection in CHi-C. We validate CHiCAGO by showing that promoter-interacting regions detected with this method are enriched for regulatory features and disease-associated SNPs. PMID:27306882

  19. Tai Chi/ Yoga Effects on Anxiety, Heartrate, EEG and Math Computations

    PubMed Central

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine the immediate effects of a combined form of tai chi/yoga. Design 38 adults participated in a 20-minute tai chi/yoga class. The session was comprised of standing tai chi movements, balancing poses and a short tai chi form and 10 minutes of standing, sitting and lying down yoga poses. Main outcome measures The pre- and post- tai chi/ yoga effects were assessed using the State Anxiety Inventory (STAI), EKG, EEG and math computations. Results Heartrate increased during the session, as would be expected for this moderate intensity exercise. Changes from pre to post session assessments suggested increased relaxation including decreased anxiety and a trend for increased EEG theta activity. Conclusions The increased relaxation may have contributed to the increased speed and accuracy noted on math computations following the tai chi/yoga class. PMID:20920810

  20. Water-based Tai Chi: theoretical benefits in musculoskeletal diseases. Current evidence.

    PubMed

    Macías-Hernández, Salvador Israel; Vázquez-Torres, Lucio; Morones-Alba, Juan Daniel; Coronado-Zarco, Roberto; de Los Angeles Soria-Bastida, María; Cruz-Medina, Eva; Nava-Bringas, Tania Inés

    2015-06-01

    Tai Chi is a low-impact and moderate intensity exercise that has shown positive effects in patients with musculoskeletal disorders. Recently have been developed clinical studies on the benefits of Tai Chi techniques combined with hydrotherapy. Both types of treatment include physical training of balance, mobility, strength, coordination and sensory input that could complement each other. This report aims to present the current evidence about the benefits of the combination of water based Tai Chi in musculoskeletal diseases in order to establish whether the combined intervention is better than Tai Chi or hydrotherapy alone. PMID:26171376

  1. New measurement of exclusive decays of the {chi}{sub c0} and {chi}{sub c2} to two-meson final states

    SciTech Connect

    Asner, D. M.; Edwards, K. W.; Reed, J.; Robichaud, A. N.; Tatishvili, G.; Briere, R. A.; Vogel, H.; Onyisi, P. U. E.; Rosner, J. L.; Alexander, J. P.; Cassel, D. G.; Duboscq, J. E.; Ehrlich, R.; Fields, L.; Galik, R. S.; Gibbons, L.; Gray, R.; Gray, S. W.; Hartill, D. L.; Heltsley, B. K.

    2009-04-01

    Using a sample of 2.59x10{sup 7} {psi}(2S) decays collected by the CLEO-c detector, we present results of a study of {chi}{sub c0} and {chi}{sub c2} decays into two-meson final states. We present the world's most precise measurements of the {chi}{sub cJ,(J=0,2)}{yields}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}, {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}, K{sup +}K{sup -}, K{sub S}{sup 0}K{sub S}{sup 0}, {eta}{eta}, and {eta}{sup '}{eta}{sup '} branching fractions, and a search for {chi}{sub c} decays into {eta}{eta}{sup '}. These results shed light on the mechanism of charmonium decays into pseudoscalar mesons.

  2. Response of seismicity to Coulomb stress triggers and shadows of the 1999 Mw=7.6 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ma, K.-F.; Chan, C.-H.; Stein, R.S.

    2005-01-01

    The correlation between static Coulomb stress increases and aftershocks has thus far provided the strongest evidence that stress changes promote seismicity, a correlation that the Chi-Chi earthquake well exhibits. Several studies have deepened the argument by resolving stress changes on aftershock focal mechanisms, which removes the assumption that the aftershocks are optimally oriented for failure. Here one compares the percentage of planes on which failure is promoted after the main shock relative to the percentage beforehand. For Chi-Chi we find a 28% increase for thrust and an 18% increase for strike-slip mechanisms, commensurate with increases reported for other large main shocks. However, perhaps the chief criticism of static stress triggering is the difficulty in observing predicted seismicity rate decreases in the stress shadows, or sites of Coulomb stress decrease. Detection of sustained drops in seismicity rate demands a long catalog with a low magnitude of completeness and a high seismicity rate, conditions that are met at Chi-Chi. We find four lobes with statistically significant seismicity rate declines of 40-90% for 50 months, and they coincide with the stress shadows calculated for strike-slip faults, the dominant faulting mechanism. The rate drops are evident in uniform cell calculations, 100-month time series, and by visual inspection of the M ??? 3 seismicity. An additional reason why detection of such declines has proven so rare emerges from this study: there is a widespread increase in seismicity rate during the first 3 months after Chi-Chi, and perhaps many other main shocks, that might be associated with a different mechanism. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  3. Improved line parameters for the Chi 2Pi-Chi 2Pi (1-0) bands of (35)ClO and (37)ClO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, Aaron; Gillis, James R.; Rinsland, Curtis P.; Burkholder, James B.

    1994-01-01

    Improved line parameters at 296 K for the Chi 2Pi-Chi 2Pi (1-0) bands of (35)ClO and (37)ClO have been calculated with J up to 43.5. The integrated intensity for the 2048 lines in the main and satellite bands has been normalized to 9.68-sq cm/atm at 296K.

  4. High chi polymer development for DSA applications using RAFT technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheehan, Michael T.; Farnham, William B.; Tran, Hoang V.; Londono, J. David; Brun, Yefim

    2013-03-01

    Directed self-assembly (DSA) of block copolymers is proving to be an interesting and innovative method to make three-dimensional periodic, uniform patterns useful in a variety of microelectronics applications. Attributes critical to acceptable DSA performance of block copolymers include molecular weight uniformity, final purity, and reproducibility in all the steps involved in producing the polymers. Reversible Addition Fragmentation Chain Transfer (RAFT) polymerization technology enables the production of such materials provided that careful process monitoring and compositional homogeneity measurement systems are employed. It is uniquely suited to construction of multiblocks with components of widely divergent surface energies and functionality. We describe a high chi diblock system comprising partially fluorinated methacrylates and substituted styrenics. While special new polymer separation strategies involving controlled polymer particle assembly in liquid media are required for some monomer systems and molecular weight regimes, we have been able to demonstrate high yield and compositionally homogeneous diblocks of lamellar and cylindrical morphology with polydispersities < 1.1. During purification processes, these diblock materials undergo assembly processes in liquid media, and with appropriate controls, this allows for removal of soluble homopolymer contaminants. SAXS analyses of solid polymer samples provide estimates of lamellar d-spacing, and a good correlation with molecular weight is shown. This system will be described.

  5. The challenges of water governance in Ho Chi Minh City.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, Cornelis J; Dan, Nguyen P; Dieperink, Carel

    2016-04-01

    Population growth, urbanization, pollution, and climate change pose urgent water challenges in cities. In this study, the sustainability of integrated water resources management in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) was evaluated using the City Blueprint approach. The City Blueprint is a set of 24 dedicated indicators divided over 8 categories (i.e., water security, water quality, drinking water, sanitation, infrastructure, climate robustness, biodiversity and attractiveness, and governance including public participation). The analysis showed that the rapid increase of water use for urban, industrial, and agricultural activities in HCMC has resulted in depletion of groundwater and severe pollution of both groundwater and surface water. Surface water quality, groundwater quality, biodiversity, and the sanitation of domestic and industrial wastewater are matters that need serious improvement. Current and future water supply in HCMC is at risk. HCMC can cope with it, but the 7 governance gaps as described by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) are major obstacles for HCMC. Rainwater harvesting, pollution reduction, as well as wastewater reuse are among the practical options. Wastewater reuse could lower the water stress index to 10%. The window to do this is narrow and rapidly closing as a result of the unprecedented urbanization and economic growth of this region. PMID:26009880

  6. Electromagnetic Currents and Magnetic Moments in $\\chi$EFT

    SciTech Connect

    Saori Pastore, Luca Girlanda, Rocco Schiavilla, Michele Viviani, Robert Wiringa

    2009-09-01

    A two-nucleon potential and consistent electromagnetic currents are derived in chiral effective field theory ($\\chi$EFT) at, respectively, $Q^{\\, 2}$ (or N$^2$LO) and $e\\, Q$ (or N$^3$LO), where $Q$ generically denotes the low-momentum scale and $e$ is the electric charge. Dimensional regularization is used to renormalize the pion-loop corrections. A simple expression is derived for the magnetic dipole ($M1$) operator associated with pion loops, consisting of two terms, one of which is determined, uniquely, by the isospin-dependent part of the two-pion-exchange potential. This decomposition is also carried out for the $M1$ operator arising from contact currents, in which the unique term is determined by the contact potential. Finally, the low-energy constants (LEC's) entering the N$^2$LO potential are fixed by fits to the $np$ S- and P-wave phase shifts up to 100 MeV lab energies. Three additional LEC's are needed to completely specify the $M1$ operator at N$^3$L

  7. Acute Cardiovascular Response to Sign Chi Do Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Carol E.; Carlson, John; Garver, Kayla

    2015-01-01

    Safe and gentle exercise may be important for older adults overcoming a sedentary lifestyle. Sign Chi Do (SCD), a novel form of low impact exercise, has shown improved balance and endurance in healthy older adults, and there have been no SCD-related injuries reported. Sedentary older adults are known to have a greater cardiovascular (CV) response to physical activity than those who regularly exercise. However their CV response to SCD is unknown. This study explored the acute CV response of older adults to SCD. Cross-sectional study of 34 sedentary and moderately active adults over age 55 with no previous experience practicing SCD. Participants completed a 10 min session of SCD. CV outcomes of heart rate, blood pressure, rate pressure product were recorded at 0, 5, 10 min of SCD performance, and after 10 min of rest. HR was recorded every minute. There was no difference in CV scores of sedentary and moderately active older adults after a session of SCD-related activity. All CV scores increased at 5 min, were maintained at 10 min, and returned to baseline within 10 min post SCD (p < 0.05). SCD may be a safe way to increase participation in regular exercise by sedentary older adults.

  8. Statistical analysis of earthquakes after the 1999 MW 7.7 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake based on a modified Reasenberg-Jones model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuh-Ing; Huang, Chi-Shen; Liu, Jann-Yenq

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the temporal-spatial hazard of the earthquakes after the 1999 September 21 MW = 7.7 Chi-Chi shock in a continental region of Taiwan. The Reasenberg-Jones (RJ) model (Reasenberg and Jones, 1989, 1994) that combines the frequency-magnitude distribution (Gutenberg and Richter, 1944) and time-decaying occurrence rate (Utsu et al., 1995) is conventionally employed for assessing the earthquake hazard after a large shock. However, it is found that the b values in the frequency-magnitude distribution of the earthquakes in the study region dramatically decreased from background values after the Chi-Chi shock, and then gradually increased up. The observation of a time-dependent frequency-magnitude distribution motivated us to propose a modified RJ model (MRJ) to assess the earthquake hazard. To see how the models perform on assessing short-term earthquake hazard, the RJ and MRJ models were separately used to sequentially forecast earthquakes in the study region. To depict the potential rupture area for future earthquakes, we further constructed relative hazard (RH) maps based on the two models. The Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curves (Swets, 1988) finally demonstrated that the RH map based on the MRJ model was, in general, superior to the one based on the original RJ model for exploring the spatial hazard of earthquakes in a short time after the Chi-Chi shock.

  9. Heterologous expression, purification and biochemical characterization of endochitinase ChiA74 from Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Casados-Vázquez, Luz Edith; Avila-Cabrera, Salvador; Bideshi, Dennis K; Barboza-Corona, J Eleazar

    2015-05-01

    ChiA74 is a secreted endochitinase produced by Bacillus thuringiensis. Previously we have partially characterized the physical parameters that affect enzymatic activity of ChiA74 in crude preparations of bacterial secretomes. In the present study, we cloned the chiA74 open reading frame (ORF) lacking the 5' sequence coding for its secretion signal peptide (chiA74Δsp) into a cold shock expression vector (pColdI) for production of the enzyme in Escherichia coli BL21-Rosetta 2. As a result, the N-terminal end of ChiA74Δsp ORF was fused to an artificial sequence of 28 amino acid, including a 6× histidine tag for purification of recombinant 6×His tagged-ChiA74Δsp (rChiA74, ∼74kDa). Along with a protein of ∼74kDa, we co-purified its ∼55kDa processed form which was confirmed by Western blot analysis. Optimal endochitinase activity of purified rChiA74 occurred at pH 7 and 40°C. Most divalent cations (e.g. Ba(+2), Ca(+2), Mn(+2), Mg(+2), Zn(+2) and Cu(+2)) at concentration of 10mM reduced chitinase activity by ∼30%, and Hg(+2) (10mM) drastically inhibited ChiA74 activity by ∼75-100%. The Vmax, Km and kcat for rChiA74 were 0.11±0.01nmol/min, 2.15μM±0.45 and 3.81s(-1), respectively, using 4-MU-GlcNAc3 as substrate. Using purified rChiA74 and colloidal chitin as substrate, chitin-derived oligosaccharides with degree of polymerization of 2 and 1 were detected. PMID:25478931

  10. Some observations on colocated and closely spaced strong ground-motion records of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, G.-Q.; Boore, D.M.; Igel, H.; Zhou, X.-Y.

    2003-01-01

    The digital accelerograph network installed in Taiwan produced a rich set of records from the 20 September 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan earthquake (Mw 7.6). Teledyne Geotech model A-800 and A-900A* digital accelerographs were colocated at 22 stations that recorded this event. Comparisons of the amplitudes, frequency content, and baseline offsets show that records from several of the A-800 accelerographs are considerably different than those from the colocated A-900A accelerographs. On this basis, and in view of the more thorough predeployment testing of the newer A-900A instruments, we recommend that the records from the A-800 instruments be used with caution in analyses of the mainshock and aftershocks. At the Hualien seismic station two A-900A and one A-800 instruments were colocated, along with a Global Positioning System instrument. Although the records from the two A-900A instruments are much more similar than those from a colocated A-800 instrument, both three-component records contain unpredictable baseline offsets, which produced completely unrealistic ground displacements derived from the accelerations by double integration, as do many of the strong-motion data from this event; the details of the baseline offsets differ considerably on the two three-component records. There are probably numerous sources of the baseline offsets, including sources external to the instruments, such as tilting or rotation of the ground, and sources internal to the instruments, such as electrical or mechanical hysteresis in the sensors. For the two colocated A-900A records at the Hualien seismic station, however, the differences in the baseline offsets suggest that the principal source is some transient disturbance within the instrument. The baseline offsets generally manifest themselves in the acceleration time series as pulses or steps, either singly or in combination. We find a 0.015-Hz low-cut filter can almost completely eliminate the effects of the baseline offsets, but then

  11. Incremental vs. geological growth of folds: Examples of Tungshih anticline and Neiwan syncline during Taiwan Mw7.6 1999 ChiChi earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graveleau, Fabien; Suppe, John; Chang, Kuo-Jen; Dominguez, Stéphane; Ustazewski, Michaela; Huang, Mong-Han

    2014-05-01

    The coseismic growth of folds during earthquakes is a fundamental process in the evolution of mountain range fronts. Linking this incremental growth to the observable finite geometry of the structure is challenging because extrapolating short-term deformation data to long-term geological times is problematic for many tectonic issues. We address this issue by using an exceptional example from the Taiwan Western foothills where two folded structures, the Tungshih anticline and Neiwan syncline, have been activated during 1999 Mw7.6 ChiChi earthquake. At an earthquake timescale, high-resolution topographic and kinematic data obtained from aerial photo processing allow for documenting the coseismic growth of the anticline-syncline couple. Field results indicate that about 9 ± 1 m of horizontal shortening has been consumed in the anticline, which grew vertically by as much as 10 ± 1 m at maximum. The adjacent syncline experienced a 1 m ± 1 m uplift and -1 m ± 1 m subsidence apart its limbs. Folding mechanisms activated during the earthquake were identified for both folds. It is limb rotation and kink-band migration for the anticline western and eastern limbs, respectively, and kink-band migration for the syncline. From the 3-D dataset of fold growth, we estimated that about 10 100 ± 1 000 m2 of rocks have been pushed into the fold core, accounting for the exceptional vertical uplift. At a geological timescale, we used a seismic line across Tungshih anticline to document the shortening history recorded in the subsurface geometry. Using the "thickness-relief method", we measured that the whole anticline records 538 m of total shortening. This quantity is divided into 243 m of shortening of the upper Cholan strata and an additional 295 m confined to the lower Chinshui shale strata. It implies that two detachments exist: a first at the base of the Chinshui shale, and a second 149 m above the first. To explain this deformation pattern, we interpret Tungshih anticline as

  12. 78 FR 19064 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel CHI; Invitation for Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel CHI; Invitation... of the vessel CHI is: Intended Commercial Use Of Vessel: ``6 passenger charters in San Francisco...

  13. Effect of Tai Chi versus Walking on Oxidative Stress in Mexican Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Rosado-Pérez, Juana; Ortiz, Rocío; Santiago-Osorio, Edelmiro; Mendoza-Núñez, Víctor Manuel

    2013-01-01

    It has recently been reported that the practice of Tai Chi reduces oxidative stress (OxS), but it is not clear whether walking or Tai Chi produces a greater antioxidant effect. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the practice of Tai Chi and walking on markers for OxS. We carried out a quasi-experimental study with 106 older adults between 60 and 74 years of age who were clinically healthy and divided into the following groups: (i) control group (n = 23), (ii) walking group (n = 43), and (iii) Tai Chi group (n = 31). We measured the levels of lipoperoxides (LPO), antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and total antioxidant status (TAS) pre- and post-intervention in all subjects. The data were subjected to a covariant analysis. We found lower levels of LPO in the Tai Chi group compared with the walking group (Tai Chi, 0.261 ± 0.02; walking, 0.331 ± 0.02; control, 0.304 ± 0.023 µmol/L; P = 0.05). Likewise, we observed significantly higher SOD activity and lower OxS-score in the Tai Chi group (P < 0.05). Our findings suggest that the practice of Tai Chi produces a more effective antioxidant effect than walking. PMID:23936607

  14. Tai chi improves cognitive and physical function in the elderly: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jiao; Kanagawa, Katsuko; Sasaki, Junko; Ooki, Syuichi; Xu, Huali; Wang, Li

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the effect of Tai Chi on cognitive and physical function in the elderly. [Subjects and Methods] A randomized trial design was used. A total 150 subjects were enrolled and were divided into Tai Chi and control groups. Subjects in the Tai Chi group participated Tai Chi for 6 months, and subjects in the control group participated in other non-athletic activities. [Results] There were no differences between the groups in the one leg standing time with eyes open, left grip strength, or the Frontal Assessment Battery at bedside after 3 and 6 months of intervention. The Mini-Mental State Examination scores after 3 and 6 months were higher in the Tai Chi group than in the control group. The right grip strength after 3 months increased more in the Tai Chi group than in the control group. Both the 5-m high walking speed and 10-m normal walking speed were significantly lower after 3 and 6 months of Tai Chi practice. [Conclusion] These results suggest that regular Tai Chi practice may improve cognitive and physical function in the elderly. PMID:26157242

  15. Biomechanical comparison of frontal plane knee joint moment arms during normal and Tai Chi walking

    PubMed Central

    Jagodinsky, Adam; Fox, John; Decoux, Brandi; Weimar, Wendi; Liu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Medial knee osteoarthritis, a degenerative joint disease, affects adults. The external knee adduction moment, a surrogate knee-loading measure, has clinical implications for knee osteoarthritis patients. Tai Chi is a promising intervention for pain alleviation in knee osteoarthritis; however, the characteristics of external knee adduction moment during Tai Chi have not been established. [Subjects and Methods] During normal and Tai Chi walking, a gait analysis was performed to compare the external knee adduction moment moment-arm characteristics and paired t-tests to compare moment-arm magnitudes. [Results] A significant difference was observed in the average lateral direction of moment-arm magnitude during Tai Chi walking (−0.0239 ± 0.011 m) compared to that during normal walking (−0.0057 ± 0.004 m). No significant difference was found between conditions in average medial direction of moment-arm magnitude (normal walking: 0.0143 ± 0.010 m; Tai Chi walking: 0.0098 ± 0.014 m). [Conclusion] Tai Chi walking produced a larger peak lateral moment-arm value than normal walking during the stance phase, whereas Tai Chi walking and normal walking peak medial moment-arm values were similar, suggesting that medial knee joint loading may be avoided during Tai Chi walking. PMID:26504334

  16. Measurement of sigma(chi(c2)B(chi(c2) ---> J / psi gamma) / sigma(chi(c1)B(chi(c1) ---> J / psi gamma) in p anti-p collisions at s**(1/2) = 1.96-TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Abulencia, A.; Adelman, J.; Affolder, T.; Akimoto, T.; Albrow, M.G.; Ambrose, D.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Anikeev, K.; Annovi, A.; /Frascati /Comenius U.

    2007-03-01

    The authors measure the ratio of cross section times branching fraction, {sigma}{sub {chi}c2}{beta}({chi}{sub c2} {yields} J/{psi}{gamma})/{sigma}{sub {chi}c1}{beta}({chi}{sub c1} {yields} J/{psi}{gamma}), in 1.1 fb{sup -1} of p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. This measurement covers the kinematic range p{sub T} (J/{psi}) > 4.0 GeV/c, |{eta}(J/{psi})| < 1.0, and p{sub T}({gamma}) > 1.0 GeV/c. For events due to prompt processes, they find R{sub p} = 0.395 {+-} 0.016(stat.) {+-} 0.015(sys.). This result represents a significant improvement in precision over previous measurements of prompt {chi}{sub c1,2} hadroproduction.

  17. Structural features of Chi recognition in AddAB with implications for RecBCD

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Martin; Wigley, Dale B

    2014-01-01

    AddAB and RecBCD-type helicase-nuclease complexes control the first stage of bacterial homologous recombination (HR) – the resection of double strand DNA breaks. A switch in the activities of the complexes to initiate repair by HR is regulated by a short, species-specific DNA sequence known as a Crossover Hotspot Instigator (Chi) site. It has been shown that, upon encountering Chi, AddAB and RecBCD pause translocation before resuming at a reduced rate. Recently, the structure of B.subtilis AddAB in complex with its regulatory Chi sequence revealed the nature of Chi binding and the paused translocation state. Here the structural features associated with Chi binding are described in greater detail and discussed in relation to the related E.coli RecBCD system. PMID:25486468

  18. Observation of {chi}{sub bJ}(1P,2P) decays to light hadrons

    SciTech Connect

    Asner, D. M.; Edwards, K. W.; Reed, J.; Briere, R. A.; Tatishvili, G.; Vogel, H.; Onyisi, P. U. E.; Rosner, J. L.; Alexander, J. P.; Cassel, D. G.; Duboscq, J. E.; Ehrlich, R.; Fields, L.; Galik, R. S.; Gibbons, L.; Gray, R.; Gray, S. W.; Hartill, D. L.; Heltsley, B. K.; Hertz, D.

    2008-11-01

    Analyzing {upsilon}(nS) decays acquired with the CLEO detector operating at the CESR e{sup +}e{sup -} collider, we measure for the first time the product branching fractions B[{upsilon}(nS){yields}{gamma}{chi}{sub bJ}((n-1)P)]B[{chi}{sub bJ}(n-1)P){yields}X{sub i}] for n=2 and 3, where X{sub i} denotes, for each i, one of the 14 exclusive light-hadron final states for which we observe significant signals in both {chi}{sub bJ}(1P) and {chi}{sub bJ}(2P) decays. We also determine upper limits for the electric dipole (E1) transitions {upsilon}(3S){yields}{gamma}{chi}{sub bJ}(1P)

  19. Decadal changes in fault-scarp knickpoints by bedrock erosion following 1999 Chi-Chi Earthquake in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayakawa, Yuichi S.; Matsuta, Nobuhisa; Maekado, Akira; Matsukura, Yukinori

    2010-05-01

    Surface ruptures along the Chelungpu thrust fault in west-central Taiwan caused formation of knickpoints (waterfalls) according with bedrock exposure in riverbeds when the 921 Chi-Chi Earthquake occurred on September 21, 1999. Since then the fault-scarp knickpoints have receded upstream at extremely rapid rates, causing bedrock incision for tens to hundreds of meters in length within a decade. The rapid erosion of the knickpoints provides us an opportunity to investigate actual changes of bedrock morphology of the rivers, and here we examine the changes in the knickpoint recession rates during the last decade from 1999 to 2009. Field measurements of the topography revealed that the mean rate of a knickpoint recession in the largest river (Ta-chia) was 3.3 m/y in the earlier 6 years (1999-2005) and 220 m/y in the last 4 years (2005-2009). This acceleration of the recession can be due to the increase in flood frequency and intensity, narrowing of the channel width, and/or anisotropy of rock strength (sandstones and mudstones) along the stream. The other knickpoints showed relatively similar recession rates throughout the decade on the order of 20-60 m/y. These rates are then compared to an empirical model of knickpoint recession, in which relevant physical parameters of erosive force of stream and bedrock resistance are involved as a dimensionless index. The actual recession rates of the knickpoints are considerably higher than those expected by the model, suggesting that abundant sediment particles supplied from upstream catchment enhance the knickpoint erosion. In fact, all the abundant gravels on the riverbed around the knickpoints that are supplied from further upstream areas with different lithology (mostly older sandstones) are quite harder than the bedrock therein. The model analysis for the two time periods for each knickpoint suggests that the changes in their recession rates can be commonly affected by severe flood occurrence in the study area. Also, some

  20. Surface waves in the western Taiwan coastal plain from an aftershock of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, G.-Q.; Tang, G.-Q.; Boore, D.M.; Van Ness, Burbach, G.; Jackson, C.R.; Zhou, X.-Y.; Lin, Q.-L.

    2006-01-01

    Significant surface waves were recorded in the western coastal plain (WCP) of Taiwan during the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake and its series of aftershocks. We study in detail the surface waves produced by one aftershock (20 September 1999, 18hr 03m 41.16sec, M 6.2) in this paper. We take the Chelungpu-Chukou fault to be the eastern edge of the WCP because it marks a distinct lateral contrast in seismic wave velocities in the upper few kilometers of the surface. For many records from stations within the WCP, body waves and surface waves separate well in both the time domain and the period domain. Long-period (e.g., >2 sec) ground motions in the plain are dominated by surface waves. Significant prograde Rayleigh wave particle motions were observed in the WCP. The observed peak ground velocities are about 3-5 times larger than standard predictions in the central and western part of the plain. Observed response spectra at 3 sec, 4 sec, and 5 sec at the center of the plain can be 15 times larger than standard predictions and 10 times larger than the predictions of Joyner (2000) based on surface wave data from the Los Angeles basin. The strong surface waves were probably generated at the boundary of the WCP and then propagated toward the west, largely along radial directions relative to the epicenter. The geometry of the boundary may have had a slight effect on propagation directions of surface waves. Group velocities of fundamental mode Rayleigh and Love waves are estimated using the multiple filter analysis (MFA) technique and are refined with phase matched filtering (PMF). Group velocities of fundamental mode surface waves range from about 0.7 km/sec to 1.5 km/sec for the phases at periods from 3 sec to 10 sec. One important observation from this study is that the strongest surface waves were recorded in the center of the plain. The specific location of the strongest motions depends largely on the period of surface waves rather than on specific site conditions or

  1. A comparative study of different PGA attenuation and error models: Case of 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mebarki, Ahmed

    2009-03-01

    In order to evaluate the horizontal peak ground acceleration (HPGA) during earthquakes, the author studies the respective efficiency of two existing attenuation models [Mébarki, A., 2003a, Risques sismiques: aléas, vulnérabilité et aide à la décision par cartes SIG. Proceedings of International Conference on "Risks, Vulnerability and Reliability in Construction. Towards a reduction of disasters". ISBN: 9961-891-01-5, pp. 82-97. Algiers, October 11-12, Mébarki, A., 2003b. Proposal of a parametric attenuation model and comparison with some worldwide earthquakes. VII o Congreso Venezolano de Sismologia y Ingenieria Sísmica, Barquisimeto, Venezuela. November 12-13, (CD-ROM), Mébarki A., 2004. Modèle d'atténuation sismique: prédiction probabiliste des pics d'accélération, RFGC — Revue Française de Génie Civil, Hermès Ed., 8 (9-10), 1071-1086]. A comparative study of their performances is done in the case of 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake (Taiwan). The reported PGA (Peak Ground Accelerations) values correspond to hypocentral distances ranging from 15 up to 180 km with observed acceleration peaks ranging from (0.04 g) up to (1.16 g). The author considers two kinds of probabilistic distributions for the error model in order to describe the uncertainty and the variability that affect the values of the PGA: a Gamma distribution and a Log-normal distribution. The adopted error models assume that the variability of the PGA is such that its coefficient of variation is equal to 55% [Mébarki, A., 2003a. Risques sismiques: aléas, vulnérabilité et aide à la décision par cartes SIG. Proceedings of International Conference on "Risks, Vulnerability and Reliability in Construction. Towards a reduction of disasters". ISBN: 9961-891-01-5, pp. 82-97. Algiers, October 11-12, Mébarki, A., 2003b. Proposal of a parametric attenuation model and comparison with some worldwide earthquakes. VII o Congreso Venezolano de Sismologia y Ingenieria Sísmica, Barquisimeto, Venezuela

  2. Tai chi training reduces self-report of inattention in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Converse, Alexander K; Ahlers, Elizabeth O; Travers, Brittany G; Davidson, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    It is important to identify effective non-pharmacological alternatives to stimulant medications that reduce symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this study of healthy young adults, we measured the effects of training in tai chi, which involves mindful attention to the body during movement. Using a non-randomized, controlled, parallel design, students in a 15-week introductory tai chi course (n = 28) and control participants (n = 44) were tested for ADHD indicators and cognitive function at three points over the course of the 15-weeks. The tai chi students' self-report of attention, but not hyperactivity-impulsivity, improved compared to controls. At baseline, inattention correlated positively with reaction time variability in an affective go/no-go task across all participants, and improvements in attention correlated with reductions in reaction time variability across the tai chi students. Affective bias changed in the tai chi students, as reaction times to positive- and negative-valenced words equalized over time. These results converge to suggest that tai chi training may help improve attention in healthy young adults. Further studies are needed to confirm these results and to evaluate tai chi as therapy for individuals with ADHD. PMID:24478679

  3. Comparisons of ground motions from five aftershocks of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake with empirical predictions largely based on data from California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, G.-Q.; Boore, D.M.; Igel, H.; Zhou, X.-Y.

    2004-01-01

    The observed ground motions from five large aftershocks of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake are compared with predictions from four equations based primarily on data from California. The four equations for active tectonic regions are those developed by Abrahamson and Silva (1997), Boore et al. (1997), Campbell (1997, 2001), and Sadigh et al. (1997). Comparisons are made for horizontal-component peak ground accelerations and 5%-damped pseudoacceleration response spectra at periods between 0.02 sec and 5 sec. The observed motions are in reasonable agreement with the predictions, particularly for distances from 10 to 30 km. This is in marked contrast to the motions from the Chi-Chi mainshock, which are much lower than the predicted motions for periods less than about 1 sec. The results indicate that the low motions in the mainshock are not due to unusual, localized absorption of seismic energy, because waves from the mainshock and the aftershocks generally traverse the same section of the crust and are recorded at the same stations. The aftershock motions at distances of 30-60 km are somewhat lower than the predictions (but not nearly by as small a factor as those for the mainshock), suggesting that the ground motion attenuates more rapidly in this region of Taiwan than it does in the areas we compare with it. We provide equations for the regional attenuation of response spectra, which show increasing decay of motion with distance for decreasing oscillator periods. This observational study also demonstrates that ground motions have large earthquake-location-dependent variability for a specific site. This variability reduces the accuracy with which an earthquake-specific prediction of site response can be predicted. Online Material: PGAs and PSAs from the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake and five aftershocks.

  4. Effects of fault dip and slip rake angles on near-source ground motions: Why rupture directivity was minimal in the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aagaard, B.T.; Hall, J.F.; Heaton, T.H.

    2004-01-01

    We study how the fault dip and slip rake angles affect near-source ground velocities and displacements as faulting transitions from strike-slip motion on a vertical fault to thrust motion on a shallow-dipping fault. Ground motions are computed for five fault geometries with different combinations of fault dip and rake angles and common values for the fault area and the average slip. The nature of the shear-wave directivity is the key factor in determining the size and distribution of the peak velocities and displacements. Strong shear-wave directivity requires that (1) the observer is located in the direction of rupture propagation and (2) the rupture propagates parallel to the direction of the fault slip vector. We show that predominantly along-strike rupture of a thrust fault (geometry similar in the Chi-Chi earthquake) minimizes the area subjected to large-amplitude velocity pulses associated with rupture directivity, because the rupture propagates perpendicular to the slip vector; that is, the rupture propagates in the direction of a node in the shear-wave radiation pattern. In our simulations with a shallow hypocenter, the maximum peak-to-peak horizontal velocities exceed 1.5 m/sec over an area of only 200 km2 for the 30??-dipping fault (geometry similar to the Chi-Chi earthquake), whereas for the 60??- and 75??-dipping faults this velocity is exceeded over an area of 2700 km2 . These simulations indicate that the area subjected to large-amplitude long-period ground motions would be larger for events of the same size as Chi-Chi that have different styles of faulting or a deeper hypocenter.

  5. Tai chi/yoga reduces prenatal depression, anxiety and sleep disturbances.

    PubMed

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Delgado, Jeannette; Medina, Lissette

    2013-02-01

    Ninety-two prenatally depressed pregnant women were randomly assigned to a tai chi/yoga or a waitlist control group at an average of 22 weeks gestation. The tai chi/yoga group participated in a 20-min group session per week for 12 weeks. At the end of the treatment period the tai chi/yoga group had lower summary depression (CES-D) scores, as well as lower negative affect and somatic/vegetative symptoms subscale scores on the CES-D, lower anxiety (STAI) scores and lower sleep disturbances scores. PMID:23337557

  6. Multichannel astrometric photometer-based parallaxes of evolved stars - Chi Cygni, 51 Andromedae, and OP Andromedae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, John W.

    1991-01-01

    Using data from Allegheny Observatory's Thaw/MAP astrometric system, absolute parallaxes are presented for Chi Cygni, 51 Andromedae, the newly discovered RS CVn variable OP Andromedae, and selected stars in these fields. Using existing angular diameter measures and the new parallaxes, linear diameters for Chi Cygni and 51 And are given. Chi Cygni has a perturbation in declination having a period of 0.75 yr and an amplitude of +/- 5 mas. Owing to the extreme variability of Chi Cygni, no further characterization of the system is possible at this time. Other results of spectral interest include the detection of a perturbation in the motion of BD +47 deg 466. This system was found to have a parallax of 14.4 +/- 1.2 mas.

  7. {chi}{sup 2} versus median statistics in supernova type Ia data analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Barreira, A.; Avelino, P. P.

    2011-10-15

    In this paper we compare the performances of the {chi}{sup 2} and median likelihood analysis in the determination of cosmological constraints using type Ia supernovae data. We perform a statistical analysis using the 307 supernovae of the Union 2 compilation of the Supernova Cosmology Project and find that the {chi}{sup 2} statistical analysis yields tighter cosmological constraints than the median statistic if only supernovae data is taken into account. We also show that when additional measurements from the cosmic microwave background and baryonic acoustic oscillations are considered, the combined cosmological constraints are not strongly dependent on whether one applies the {chi}{sup 2} statistic or the median statistic to the supernovae data. This indicates that, when complementary information from other cosmological probes is taken into account, the performances of the {chi}{sup 2} and median statistics are very similar, demonstrating the robustness of the statistical analysis.

  8. Distinguishing between chi and sigma phases in duplex stainless steels using potentiostatic etching

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, E.M.L.E.M.; Visser, P.E. de . Physical Metallurgy Div.); Cornish, L.A. )

    1993-12-01

    A color interference film etching technique based on the principle of potentiostatic etching has been developed to distinguish, by optical metallography, between Cr-rich sigma and Mo-rich chi phases as well as with simultaneous identification of the ferrite and austenite phases in duplex stainless steels. The optical metallography results are confirmed by semiquantitative energy dispersive spectrometry analysis and back-scattered electron imaging. The technique is relatively simple and rapid, and makes use of low voltages and a hot etchant. Results have shown distinctively the sigma, chi, ferrite, and austenite phases, and enable observation of the microstructural development, morphology, and kinetics of formation of the phases in duplex alloys. The method, by giving excellent color contrast between sigma and chi, also facilitates quantitative image analysis of the sigma and chi volume fractions.

  9. Chi hotspots trigger a conformational change in the helicase-like domain of AddAB to activate homologous recombination

    PubMed Central

    Gilhooly, Neville S.; Carrasco, Carolina; Gollnick, Benjamin; Wilkinson, Martin; Wigley, Dale B.; Moreno-Herrero, Fernando; Dillingham, Mark S.

    2016-01-01

    In bacteria, the repair of double-stranded DNA breaks is modulated by Chi sequences. These are recognised by helicase-nuclease complexes that process DNA ends for homologous recombination. Chi activates recombination by changing the biochemical properties of the helicase-nuclease, transforming it from a destructive exonuclease into a recombination-promoting repair enzyme. This transition is thought to be controlled by the Chi-dependent opening of a molecular latch, which enables part of the DNA substrate to evade degradation beyond Chi. Here, we show that disruption of the latch improves Chi recognition efficiency and stabilizes the interaction of AddAB with Chi, even in mutants that are impaired for Chi binding. Chi recognition elicits a structural change in AddAB that maps to a region of AddB which resembles a helicase domain, and which harbours both the Chi recognition locus and the latch. Mutation of the latch potentiates the change and moderately reduces the duration of a translocation pause at Chi. However, this mutant displays properties of Chi-modified AddAB even in the complete absence of bona fide hotspot sequences. The results are used to develop a model for AddAB regulation in which allosteric communication between Chi binding and latch opening ensures quality control during recombination hotspot recognition. PMID:26762979

  10. Comparative Effectiveness of Tai Chi Versus Physical Therapy for Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chenchen; Schmid, Christopher H.; Iversen, Maura D.; Harvey, William F.; Fielding, Roger A.; Driban, Jeffrey B.; Price, Lori Lyn; Wong, John B.; Reid, Kieran F.; Rones, Ramel; McAlindon, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Background Few remedies effectively treat long-term pain and disability from knee osteoarthritis. Studies suggest that Tai Chi alleviates symptoms, but no trials have directly compared Tai Chi with standard therapies for osteoarthritis. Objective To compare Tai Chi with standard physical therapy for patients with knee osteoarthritis. Design Randomized, 52-week, single-blind comparative effectiveness trial. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01258985) Setting An urban tertiary care academic hospital. Patients 204 participants with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (mean age, 60 years; 70% women; 53% white). Intervention Tai Chi (2 times per week for 12 weeks) or standard physical therapy (2 times per week for 6 weeks, followed by 6 weeks of monitored home exercise). Measurements The primary outcome was Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) score at 12 weeks. Secondary outcomes included physical function, depression, medication use, and quality of life. Results At 12 weeks, the WOMAC score was substantially reduced in both groups (Tai Chi, 167 points [95% CI, 145 to 190 points]; physical therapy, 143 points [CI, 119 to 167 points]). The between-group difference was not significant (24 points [CI, −10 to 58 points]). Both groups also showed similar clinically significant improvement in most secondary outcomes, and the benefits were maintained up to 52 weeks. Of note, the Tai Chi group had significantly greater improvements in depression and the physical component of quality of life. The benefit of Tai Chi was consistent across instructors. No serious adverse events occurred. Limitation Patients were aware of their treatment group assignment, and the generalizability of the findings to other settings remains undetermined. Conclusion Tai Chi produced beneficial effects similar to those of a standard course of physical therapy in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis. Primary Funding Source National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health of

  11. Electrical sensation during Tai-Chi practice as the first manifestation of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Achiron, A; Barak, Y; Stern, Y; Noy, S

    1997-12-01

    We report a patient with a 3-year history of brief episodes of electrical sensations over her back and upper limbs that occurred during Tai-Chi practicing. This appearance of Lhermitte's sign was later followed by additional neurologic symptoms, and the patient was diagnosed as suffering from multiple sclerosis. Though the patient related the Lhermitte's sign to her ability to achieve full relaxation in Tai-Chi exercise, we think it was the first manifestation of the disease. PMID:9491306

  12. A Comprehensive Review of Health Benefits of Qigong and Tai Chi

    PubMed Central

    Jahnke, Roger; Larkey, Linda; Rogers, Carol; Etnier, Jennifer; Lin, Fang

    2011-01-01

    Objective Research examining psychological and physiological benefits of Qigong and Tai Chi is growing rapidly. The many practices described as Qigong or Tai Chi have similar theoretical roots, proposed mechanisms of action and expected benefits. Research trials and reviews, however, treat them as separate targets of examination. This review examines the evidence for achieving outcomes from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of both. Data Sources The key words tai chi, taiji, and qigong were entered into electronic search engines for the Cumulative Index for Allied Health and Nursing (CINAHL), Psychological Literature (PsychInfo), PubMed, Cochrane database, and Google Scholar. Study Inclusion Criteria RCTs reporting on the results of Qigong or Tai Chi interventions and published in peer reviewed journals published from 1993–2007 Data Extraction Country, type and duration of activity, number/type of subjects, control conditions, and reported outcomes were recorded for each study. Synthesis Outcomes related to Qigong and Tai Chi practice were identified and evaluated. Results Seventy-seven articles met the inclusion criteria. The 9 outcome category groupings that emerged were: bone density (n=4), cardiopulmonary effects (n=19), physical function (n=16), falls and related risk factors (n=23), Quality of Life (n=17), self-efficacy (n=8), patient reported outcomes (n=13), psychological symptoms (n=27), and immune function (n=6). Conclusions Research has demonstrated consistent, significant results for a number of health benefits in RCTs, evidencing progress toward recognizing the similarity and equivalence of Qigong and Tai Chi. PMID:20594090

  13. Cloning, Sequencing, and Expression of the Chitinase Gene chiA74 from Bacillus thuringiensis

    PubMed Central

    Barboza-Corona, J. Eleazar; Nieto-Mazzocco, Elizabeth; Velázquez-Robledo, Rocio; Salcedo-Hernandez, Rubén; Bautista, Mayela; Jiménez, Beatriz; Ibarra, Jorge E.

    2003-01-01

    The endochitinase gene chiA74 from Bacillus thuringiensis serovar kenyae strain LBIT-82 was cloned in Escherichia coli DH5αF′. A sequence of 676 amino acids was deduced when the gene was completely sequenced. A molecular mass of 74 kDa was estimated for the preprotein, which includes a putative 4-kDa signal sequence located at the N terminus. The deduced amino acid sequence showed high degree of identity with other chitinases such as ChiB from Bacillus cereus (98%) and ChiA71 from Bacillus thuringiensis serovar pakistani (70%). Additionally, ChiA74 showed a modular structure comprised of three domains: a catalytic domain, a fibronectin-like domain, and a chitin-binding domain. All three domains showed conserved sequences when compared to other bacterial chitinase sequences. A ca. 70-kDa mature protein expressed by the cloned gene was detected in zymograms, comigrating with a chitinase produced by the LBIT-82 wild-type strain. ChiA74 is active within a wide pH range (4 to 9), although a bimodal activity was shown at pH 4.79 and 6.34. The optimal temperature was estimated at 57.2°C when tested at pH 6. The potential use of ChiA74 as a synergistic agent, along with the B. thuringiensis insecticidal Cry proteins, is discussed. PMID:12571025

  14. Measurement of the resonance parameters of the chi(1)(1**3P(1)) and chi(2)(1**3P(2)) states of charmonium formed in antiproton-proton annihilations

    SciTech Connect

    Andreotti, M.; Bagnasco, S.; Baldini, W.; Bettoni, D.; Borreani, G.; Buzzo, A.; Calabrese, R.; Cester, R.; Cibinetto, G.; Dalpiaz, P.; Garzoglio, G.; Gollwitzer, K.E.; Graham, M.; Hu, M.; Joffe, D.; Kasper, J.; Lasio, G.; Lo Vetere, M.; Luppi, E.; Macri, M.; Mandelkern, M.; /Fermilab /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /UC, Irvine /Northwestern U. /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /Minnesota U.

    2005-03-01

    The authors have studied the {sup 3}P{sub J} ({chi}{sub e}) states of charmonium in formation by antiproton-proton annihilations in experiment E835 at the Fermilab Antiproton Source. The authors report new measurements of the mass, width, and B({chi}{sub cJ} {yields} {bar p}p) x {Lambda}({chi}{sub eJ} {yields} J/{psi} + anything) for the {chi}{sub c1} and {chi}{sub c2} by means of the inclusive reaction {bar p}p {yields} {chi}{sub cJ} {yields} J/{psi} + anything {yields} (e{sup +}e{sup -}) + anything. Using the subsample of events where {chi}{sub cJ} {yields} {gamma} + J/{psi} {yields} {gamma} + (e{sup +}e{sup -}) is fully reconstructed, we derive B({chi}{sub cJ} {yields} {bar p}p) x {Lambda}({chi}{sub cJ} {yields} J/{psi} + {gamma}). They summarize the results of the E760 (updated) and E835 measurements of mass, width and B({chi}{sub cJ} {yields} {bar p}p){Lambda}({chi}{sub cJ} {yields} J/{psi} + {gamma}) (J = 0,1,2) and discuss the significance of these measurements.

  15. Parameter Estimation in Astronomy with Poisson-Distributed Data. 1; The (CHI)2(gamma) Statistic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mighell, Kenneth J.

    1999-01-01

    Applying the standard weighted mean formula, [Sigma (sub i)n(sub i)ssigma(sub i, sup -2)], to determine the weighted mean of data, n(sub i), drawn from a Poisson distribution, will, on average, underestimate the true mean by approx. 1 for all true mean values larger than approx.3 when the common assumption is made that the error of the i th observation is sigma(sub i) = max square root of n(sub i), 1).This small, but statistically significant offset, explains the long-known observation that chi-square minimization techniques which use the modified Neyman'chi(sub 2) statistic, chi(sup 2, sub N) equivalent Sigma(sub i)((n(sub i) - y(sub i)(exp 2)) / max(n(sub i), 1), to compare Poisson - distributed data with model values, y(sub i), will typically predict a total number of counts that underestimates the true total by about 1 count per bin. Based on my finding that weighted mean of data drawn from a Poisson distribution can be determined using the formula [Sigma(sub i)[n(sub i) + min(n(sub i), 1)](n(sub i) + 1)(exp -1)] / [Sigma(sub i)(n(sub i) + 1)(exp -1))], I propose that a new chi(sub 2) statistic, chi(sup 2, sub gamma) equivalent, should always be used to analyze Poisson- distributed data in preference to the modified Neyman's chi(exp 2) statistic. I demonstrated the power and usefulness of,chi(sub gamma, sup 2) minimization by using two statistical fitting techniques and five chi(exp 2) statistics to analyze simulated X-ray power - low 15 - channel spectra with large and small counts per bin. I show that chi(sub gamma, sup 2) minimization with the Levenberg - Marquardt or Powell's method can produce excellent results (mean slope errors approx. less than 3%) with spectra having as few as 25 total counts.

  16. Influence of surface-normal ground acceleration on the initiation of the Jih-Feng-Erh-Shan landslide during the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huang, C.-C.; Lee, Y.-H.; Liu, Huaibao P.; Keefer, D.K.; Jibson, R.W.

    2001-01-01

    The 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake triggered numerous landslides throughout a large area in the Central Range, to the east, southeast, and south of the fault rupture. Among them are two large rock avalanches, at Tsaoling and at Jih-Feng-Erh-Shan. At Jih-Feng-Erh-Shan, the entire thickness (30-50 m) of the Miocene Changhukeng Shale over an area of 1 km2 slid down its bedding plane for a distance of about 1 km. Initial movement of the landslide was nearly purely translational. We investigate the effect of surface-normal acceleration on the initiation of the Jih-Feng-Erh-Shan landslide using a block slide model. We show that this acceleration, currently not considered by dynamic slope-stability analysis methods, significantly influences the initiation of the landslide.

  17. Mineral assemblage anomalies in the slip zone of the 1999 Taiwan Chi-Chi earthquake: Ultrafine particles preserved only in the latest slip zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirono, Tetsuro; Kameda, Jun; Kanda, Hiroki; Tanikawa, Wataru; Ishikawa, Tsuyoshi

    2014-05-01

    We determined mineral assemblages of samples from the Taiwan Chelungpu fault and from milling and heating experiments by using X-ray diffraction and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The fault system contains three dominant fault zones, the shallowest of which slipped during the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake. The quartz and clay mineral contents of the primary slip zone were low, and it contained partly amorphous ultrafine particles (several tens of nanometers). Up to 30 weight percent of materials in that zone could not be fit to standard diffraction patterns, whereas nearly 100 weight percent of those in surrounding samples could be. The unfitted component could be attributed to the observed ultrafine particles produced by comminution during the earthquake, because weak diffraction intensities are caused from mineral lattice distortion, granulation, and amorphous coatings. Such particles are a potential proxy for identifying the slip zone of the most recent earthquake along a fault.

  18. Evaluation of Exercise Tolerance in Dialysis Patients Performing Tai Chi Training: Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Bulińska, Katarzyna; Kusztal, Mariusz; Kowalska, Joanna; Rogowski, Łukasz; Zembroń-Łacny, Agnieszka; Gołębiowski, Tomasz; Ochmann, Bartosz; Pawlaczyk, Weronika; Woźniewski, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have poor physical performance and exercise capacity due to frequent dialysis treatments. Tai Chi exercises can be very useful in the area of rehabilitation of people with ESRD. Objectives. The aim of the study was to assess exercise capacity in ESRD patients participating in 6-month Tai Chi training. Patients and Methods. Twenty dialysis patients from Wroclaw took part in the training; at the end of the project, 14 patients remained (age 69.2 ± 8.6 years). A 6-minute walk test (6MWT) and spiroergometry were performed at the beginning and after 6 months of training. Results. After 6 months of Tai Chi, significant improvements were recorded in mean distance in the 6MWT (387.89 versus 436.36 m), rate of perceived exertion (7.4 versus 4.7), and spiroergometry (8.71 versus 10.08 min). Conclusions. In the ESRD patients taking part in Tai Chi training, a definite improvement in exercise tolerance was recorded after the 6-month training. Tai Chi exercises conducted on days without dialysis can be an effective and interesting form of rehabilitation for patients, offering them a chance for a better quality of life and fewer falls and hospitalisations that are the result of it. PMID:27547228

  19. New chimeric advanced Drug Delivery nano Systems (chi-aDDnSs) as doxorubicin carriers.

    PubMed

    Gardikis, Konstantinos; Tsimplouli, Chrisiida; Dimas, Konstantinos; Micha-Screttas, Maria; Demetzos, Costas

    2010-12-15

    Since the late 1960s, the field of drug delivery has focused on the creation of new formulations with improved properties, taking much attention to drug release from the carrier. Liposomes and dendrimers represent two of the most studied drug carriers. A Modulatory Liposomal Controlled Release System (MLCRS) combining liposomal and dendrimeric technology has been recently published as well as Liposomal locked-in Dendrimers (LLDs) technology which was considered to be a class of MLCRSs. Chimeric advanced Drug Delivery nano Systems (chi-aDDnSs) can be defined as mixed nanosystems due to the combination of the bionanomaterials used and can offer advantages as drug carriers. This work deals with the production of two new chi-aDDnSs incorporating the newly synthesized dendrimer PG1. One of the two formulations bears the exact lipidic composition as the commercial liposomal drug "Myocet". Doxorubicin (Dox) was incorporated into conventional (free of dendrimer) liposomal formulations and into the corresponding chi-aDDnSs, and the physicochemical characteristics, the in vitro drug release and the in vitro cytotoxicity against human cancer cell lines were assessed. The results revealed a different modulation release effect of doxorubicin from the chi-aDDnS, compared to the Myocet replica. Pharmacological cytotoxicity concerning all the chi-aDDnSs was very close to that of the conventional liposomal systems. PMID:20934501

  20. The Effects of Tai Chi in Centrally Obese Adults with Depression Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin; Kostner, Karam; Crompton, David; Williams, Gail; Brown, Wendy J.; Lopez, Alan; Xue, Charlie C.; Oei, Tian P.; Byrne, Gerard; Martin, Jennifer H.; Whiteford, Harvey

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of Tai Chi, a low-impact mind-body movement therapy, on severity of depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms in centrally obese people with elevated depression symptoms. In total, 213 participants were randomized to a 24-week Tai Chi intervention program or a wait-list control group. Assessments were conducted at baseline and 12 and 24 weeks. Outcomes were severity of depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms, leg strength, central obesity, and other measures of metabolic symptom. There were statistically significant between-group differences in favor of the Tai Chi group in depression (mean difference = −5.6 units, P < 0.001), anxiety (−2.3 units, P < 0.01), and stress (−3.6 units, P < 0.001) symptom scores and leg strength (1.1 units, P < 0.001) at 12 weeks. These changes were further improved or maintained in the Tai Chi group relative to the control group during the second 12 weeks of follow-up. Tai Chi appears to be beneficial for reducing severity of depression, anxiety, and stress and leg strength in centrally obese people with depression symptoms. More studies with longer follow-up are needed to confirm the findings. This trial is registered with ACTRN12613000010796. PMID:25688280

  1. The effects of tai chi in centrally obese adults with depression symptoms.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Vitetta, Luis; Kostner, Karam; Crompton, David; Williams, Gail; Brown, Wendy J; Lopez, Alan; Xue, Charlie C; Oei, Tian P; Byrne, Gerard; Martin, Jennifer H; Whiteford, Harvey

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of Tai Chi, a low-impact mind-body movement therapy, on severity of depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms in centrally obese people with elevated depression symptoms. In total, 213 participants were randomized to a 24-week Tai Chi intervention program or a wait-list control group. Assessments were conducted at baseline and 12 and 24 weeks. Outcomes were severity of depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms, leg strength, central obesity, and other measures of metabolic symptom. There were statistically significant between-group differences in favor of the Tai Chi group in depression (mean difference = -5.6 units, P < 0.001), anxiety (-2.3 units, P < 0.01), and stress (-3.6 units, P < 0.001) symptom scores and leg strength (1.1 units, P < 0.001) at 12 weeks. These changes were further improved or maintained in the Tai Chi group relative to the control group during the second 12 weeks of follow-up. Tai Chi appears to be beneficial for reducing severity of depression, anxiety, and stress and leg strength in centrally obese people with depression symptoms. More studies with longer follow-up are needed to confirm the findings. This trial is registered with ACTRN12613000010796. PMID:25688280

  2. Statistical Analysis of Crossover Interference Using the Chi-Square Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, H.; Speed, T. P.; McPeek, M. S.

    1995-01-01

    The chi-square model (also known as the gamma model with integer shape parameter) for the occurrence of crossovers along a chromosome was first proposed in the 1940's as a description of interference that was mathematically tractable but without biological basis. Recently, the chi-square model has been reintroduced into the literature from a biological perspective. It arises as a result of certain hypothesized constraints on the resolution of randomly distributed crossover intermediates. In this paper under the assumption of no chromatid interference, the probability for any single spore or tetrad joint recombination pattern is derived under the chi-square model. The method of maximum likelihood is then used to estimate the chi-square parameter m and genetic distances among marker loci. We discuss how to interpret the goodness-of-fit statistics appropriately when there are some recombination classes that have only a small number of observations. Finally, comparisons are made between the chi-square model and some other tractable models in the literature. PMID:7713407

  3. ChiNet uncovers rewired transcription subnetworks in tolerant yeast for advanced biofuels conversion

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yang; Liu, Z. Lewis; Song, Mingzhou

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of rewired upstream subnetworks impacting downstream differential gene expression aids the delineation of evolving molecular mechanisms. Cumulative statistics based on conventional differential correlation are limited for subnetwork rewiring analysis since rewiring is not necessarily equivalent to change in correlation coefficients. Here we present a computational method ChiNet to quantify subnetwork rewiring by statistical heterogeneity that enables detection of potential genotype changes causing altered transcription regulation in evolving organisms. Given a differentially expressed downstream gene set, ChiNet backtracks a rewired upstream subnetwork from a super-network including gene interactions known to occur under various molecular contexts. We benchmarked ChiNet for its high accuracy in distinguishing rewired artificial subnetworks, in silico yeast transcription-metabolic subnetworks, and rewired transcription subnetworks for Candida albicans versus Saccharomyces cerevisiae, against two differential-correlation based subnetwork rewiring approaches. Then, using transcriptome data from tolerant S. cerevisiae strain NRRL Y-50049 and a wild-type intolerant strain, ChiNet identified 44 metabolic pathways affected by rewired transcription subnetworks anchored to major adaptively activated transcription factor genes YAP1, RPN4, SFP1 and ROX1, in response to toxic chemical challenges involved in lignocellulose-to-biofuels conversion. These findings support the use of ChiNet in rewiring analysis of subnetworks where differential interaction patterns resulting from divergent nonlinear dynamics abound. PMID:25897127

  4. Production of the charmonium states {chi}{sub c1} and {chi}{sub c2} in proton nucleus interactions at {radical}(s)=41.6 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Abt, I.; Kisel, I.; Adams, M.; Cruse, C.; Ehret, K.; Funcke, M.; Schwenninger, B.; Wegener, D.; Agari, M.; Bauer, C.; Braeuer, M.; Hofmann, W.; Jagla, T.; Knoepfle, K. T.; Pleier, M. A.; Reeves, K.; Sanchez, F.; Schmelling, M.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Sciacca, F.

    2009-01-01

    A measurement of the ratio R{sub {chi}{sub c}}=({chi}{sub c}{yields}J/{psi}+{gamma})/J/{psi} in pC, pTi, and pW interactions at 920 GeV/c ({radical}(s)=41.6 GeV) in the Feynman-x range -0.35chi}{sub c} events, which is by far the largest available sample in pA collisions. The result is R{sub {chi}{sub c}}=0.188{+-}0.013{sub st}(+0.024/-0.022){sub sys} averaged over the different materials, when no J/{psi} and {chi}{sub c} polarizations are considered. The {chi}{sub c1} to {chi}{sub c2} production ratio R{sub 12}=R{sub {chi}{sub c}}{sub 1}/R{sub {chi}{sub c}}{sub 2} is measured to be 1.02{+-}0.40, leading to a cross section ratio ({sigma}({chi}{sub c1})/{sigma}({chi}{sub c2}))=0.57{+-}0.23. The dependence of R{sub {chi}{sub c}} on the Feynman-x of the J/{psi}, x{sub F}{sup J/{psi}}, and its transverse momentum, p{sub T}{sup J/{psi}}, is studied, as well as its dependence on the atomic number, A, of the target. For the first time, an extensive study of possible biases on R{sub {chi}{sub c}} and R{sub 12} due to the dependence of acceptance on the polarization states of J/{psi} and {chi}{sub c} is performed. By varying the polarization parameter, {lambda}{sub obs}, of all produced J/{psi}'s by two sigma around the value measured by HERA-B, and considering the maximum variation due to the possible {chi}{sub c1} and {chi}{sub c2} polarizations, it is shown that R{sub {chi}{sub c}} could change by a factor between 1.02 and 1.21 and R{sub 12} by a factor between 0.89 and 1.16.

  5. Solenoid-Less Plasma Start-Up in NSTX Using Transient CHI

    SciTech Connect

    Raman, R.; Nelson, Brad E; Mueller, D.; Jarboe, T.; Bell, M.; Menard, J.; Ono, M.; Be, R.; Gates, D.; LaBlanc, B. P.; Maingi, Rajesh; Maqueda, R. J.; Nagata, M.; Roquemore, L.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Soukhanovskii, V.

    2009-07-01

    Experiments in NSTX have now unambiguously demonstrated the coupling of toroidal plasmas produced by the method of transient Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI) to inductive sustainment and ramp-up of the toroidal current. The coupled discharges have ramped up to 700 kA and transitioned into H-mode with low inductance typical of the type of discharges needed for long-pulse operation, demonstrating the compatibility of the CHI startup method to conventional inductive operation used since the start of tokamak research. The method was first demonstrated on the smaller concept exploration device HIT-H at the University of Washington. These new results that were obtained on a machine built with mainly conventional components and on a size scale closer to a Component Test Facility, demonstrate that CHI is a viable solenoid-free plasma startup method for future STs and Tokamaks.

  6. Design of a far-infrared CHI wiggler free-electron laser

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, R.H.; Blank, M.; Freund, H.P.

    1995-12-31

    The preliminary design of a far-infrared free-electron laser with a Coaxial Hybrid Iron (CHI) wiggler is presented. The CHI wiggler consists of a central rod and outer ring of alternating ferrite and dielectric spacers. A periodic wiggler field is produced when the CHI structure is immersed in an axial magnetic field. The design under investigation makes use of 1A, 1MV annular electron beam interacting with the TE{sub 01} coaxial waveguide mode at approximately 1 THz ({lambda} = 300 {mu}m). The nominal wiggler period is 0.5 cm and the inner and outer waveguide radii are 0.4 and 0.8 cm, respectively. An axial guide field of 5-10 kG is used. The device performance is modeled with slow-time-scale nonlinear code. Self fields and axial velocity spread are included in the model. Theoretical results will be presented.

  7. The story of the evolution of a unique tai chi form: origins, philosophy, and research.

    PubMed

    Robins, Jo Lynne W; Elswick, R K; McCain, Nancy L

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce a unique tai chi form that has been successfully implemented in two large randomized clinical trials. The intervention is composed of a series of tai chi movements chosen for their particular meanings, thus adding a cognitive component to the practice of a moving meditation. Over the last decade, the intervention has continued to evolve as it has been used in different populations. Most recently, medical qigong has been integrated to strengthen its potential impact on a variety of biobehavioral measures associated with cardiometabolic risk in women. Following an appraisal of the authors' process as well as the philosophy, practice, and research of tai chi and qigong, the authors share the story of their intervention to contribute to the evolving research of these safe, well-received, low-cost, and beneficial practices. PMID:22228833

  8. Solenoid-free Plasma Start-up in NSTX using Transient CHI

    SciTech Connect

    Raman, R.; Nelson, B. A.; Mueller, D.; Jarboe, T. R.; Bell, M. G.; LeBlanc, B.; Maqueda, R.; Menard, J.; Ono, M.; Nagata, M.; Roquemore, L.; Soukhanovskii, V.

    2008-11-03

    Experiments in NSTX have now unambiguously demonstrated the coupling of toroidal plasmas produced by the technique of CHI to inductive sustainment and ramp-up of the toroidal plasma current. This is an important step because an alternate method for plasma startup is essential for developing a fusion reactor based on the spherical torus concept. Elimination of the central solenoid would also allow greater flexibility in the choice of the aspect ratio in tokamak designs now being considered. The transient CHI method for spherical torus startup was originally developed on the HIT-II experiment at the University of Washington.

  9. Tai Chi for osteopenic women: design and rationale of a pragmatic randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Post-menopausal osteopenic women are at increased risk for skeletal fractures. Current osteopenia treatment guidelines include exercise, however, optimal exercise regimens for attenuating bone mineral density (BMD) loss, or for addressing other fracture-related risk factors (e.g. poor balance, decreased muscle strength) are not well-defined. Tai Chi is an increasingly popular weight bearing mind-body exercise that has been reported to positively impact BMD dynamics and improve postural control, however, current evidence is inconclusive. This study will determine the effectiveness of Tai Chi in reducing rates of bone turnover in post-menopausal osteopenic women, compared with standard care, and will preliminarily explore biomechanical processes that might inform how Tai Chi impacts BMD and associated fracture risks. Methods/Design A total of 86 post-menopausal women, aged 45-70y, T-score of the hip and/or spine -1.0 and -2.5, have been recruited from primary care clinics of a large healthcare system based in Boston. They have been randomized to a group-based 9-month Tai Chi program plus standard care or to standard care only. A unique aspect of this trial is its pragmatic design, which allows participants randomized to Tai Chi to choose from a pre-screened list of community-based Tai Chi programs. Interviewers masked to participants' treatment group assess outcomes at baseline and 3 and 9 months after randomization. Primary outcomes are serum markers of bone resorption (C-terminal cross linking telopeptide of type I collagen), bone formation (osteocalcin), and BMD of the lumbar spine and proximal femur (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry). Secondary outcomes include health-related quality-of-life, exercise behavior, and psychological well-being. In addition, kinetic and kinematic characterization of gait, standing, and rising from a chair are assessed in subset of participants (n = 16) to explore the feasibility of modeling skeletal mechanical loads and

  10. Tai Chi and Qigong for the treatment and prevention of mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Ryan; Lavretsky, Helen

    2013-03-01

    Tai Chi and Qigong are traditional Chinese exercises that are widely practiced for their health benefits and as martial arts. Evidence suggests that these practices may be effective at treating a range of physical health conditions, and at improving health-related quality of life. There is growing interest in the use of Tai Chi and Qigong to treat mental disorders, because they are noninvasive, exercise-based therapies, and because patients with mental disorders frequently use complementary and alternative medicine. Evidence is promising that these treatments may be effective in reducing depressive symptoms, stress, anxiety, and mood disturbances. PMID:23538081

  11. FITEST: A computer program for ``exact chi-square'' goodness-of-fit significance tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romesburg, H. Charles; Marshall, Kim; Mauk, Timothy P.

    FITEST, a FORTRAN IV computer program, performs what is termed an exact chi-square test (ECST) to assess the goodness-of-fit between an observed and a theoretical distribution. This test is an alternative to the chi-square and Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit tests. Because it is based on less restrictive assumptions, the ECST may be more appropriate. However, the test imposes a computational burden which, if not handled by an efficiently designed computer algorithm, makes it prohibitively expensive on all but trivial problems. FITEST, through an efficiently designed algorithm, makes an ECST possible for any problem at a reasonable cost.

  12. Connor H. G. Patros: Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    The Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award is given jointly by Psi Chi and APA. The award was established to recognize young researchers at the beginning of their professional lives and to commemorate both the 50th anniversary of Psi Chi and the 100th anniversary of psychology as a science (dating from the founding of Wundt's laboratory). The 2015 recipient is Connor H. G Patros. Patros was chosen for "an excellent research paper that examines the complex relationship between working memory, choice-impulsivity, and the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) phenotype." Patros's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. PMID:26618965

  13. Observation of {psi}(3770){yields}{gamma}{chi}{sub c0}

    SciTech Connect

    Briere, R. A.; Brock, I.; Chen, J.; Ferguson, T.; Tatishvili, G.; Vogel, H.; Watkins, M. E.; Rosner, J. L.; Adam, N. E.; Alexander, J. P.; Berkelman, K.; Cassel, D. G.; Duboscq, J. E.; Ecklund, K. M.; Ehrlich, R.; Fields, L.; Galik, R. S.; Gibbons, L.; Gray, R.; Gray, S. W.

    2006-08-01

    From e{sup +}e{sup -} collision data acquired with the CLEO-c detector at CESR, we search for the non-DD decays {psi}(3770){yields}{gamma}{chi}{sub cJ}, with {chi}{sub cJ} reconstructed in four exclusive decays modes containing charged pions and kaons. We report the first observation of such decays for J=0 with a branching ratio of (0.73{+-}0.07{+-}0.06)%. The rates for different J are consistent with the expectations assuming {psi}(3770) is predominantly a 1{sup 3}D{sub 1} state of charmonium, but only if relativistic corrections are applied.

  14. Robust Satellite Techniques (RST) for monitoring earthquake prone areas by satellite TIR observations: The case of 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake (Taiwan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genzano, N.; Filizzola, C.; Paciello, R.; Pergola, N.; Tramutoli, V.

    2015-12-01

    different years (from 1995 to 2002). In this dataset the Chi-Chi earthquake (MW = 7.6) which occurred on September 20, 1999 represents the major, but not unique, event. The analysis shows that all identified SSTAs occur in the pre-fixed space-time window around (in terms of time and location) earthquakes with M > 4. The false positive rate remains zero even if only earthquakes with M > 4.5 are considered. In the case of the Chi-Chi earthquake, 3 SSTAs were identified (all within the established space-time correlation window), one of them appearing about 2 weeks before and very close to the epicentre of the earthquake just along the associated tectonic lineaments. The wide considered space-time window, together with the high seismicity of the considered area, surely positively conditioned the achieved results, so that further analyses should be carried out by using longer datasets and different geographic areas. However, also considering the coincidence with other (possible) precursor phenomena, independently reported (particularly within the iSTEP project) at the time of the Chi Chi earthquake, achieved results seem already sufficient (at least) to qualify TIR anomalies (identified by RST) among the parameters to be considered in the framework of a multi-parametric approach to a time-Dependent Assessment of Seismic Hazard (t-DASH).

  15. Resilience of aging populations after devastating earthquake event and its determinants - A case study of the Chi-Chi earthquake in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Chih-Hsuan; Hung, Hung-Chih

    2016-04-01

    1.Background Major portions of urban areas in Asia are highly exposed and vulnerable to devastating earthquakes. Many studies identify ways to reduce earthquake risk by concentrating more on building resilience for the particularly vulnerable populations. By 2020, as the United Nations' warning, many Asian countries would become 'super-aged societies', such as Taiwan. However, local authorities rarely use resilience approach to frame earthquake disaster risk management and land use strategies. The empirically-based research about the resilience of aging populations has also received relatively little attention. Thus, a challenge arisen for decision-makers is how to enhance resilience of aging populations within the context of risk reduction. This study aims to improve the understanding of the resilience of aging populations and its changes over time in the aftermath of a destructive earthquake at the local level. A novel methodology is proposed to assess the resilience of aging populations and to characterize their changes of spatial distribution patterns, as well as to examine their determinants. 2.Methods and data An indicator-based assessment framework is constructed with the goal of identifying composite indicators (including before, during and after a disaster) that could serve as proxies for attributes of the resilience of aging populations. Using the recovery process of the Chi-Chi earthquake struck central Taiwan in 1999 as a case study, we applied a method combined a geographical information system (GIS)-based spatial statistics technique and cluster analysis to test the extent of which the resilience of aging populations is spatially autocorrelated throughout the central Taiwan, and to explain why clustering of resilient areas occurs in specific locations. Furthermore, to scrutinize the affecting factors of resilience, we develop an aging population resilience model (APRM) based on existing resilience theory. Using the APRM, we applied a multivariate

  16. Dance-Based Exercise and Tai Chi and Their Benefits for People with Arthritis: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Ray

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The first aim of this review article is to systematically summarise, synthesise, and critically evaluate the research base concerning the use of two art forms, namely, dance-based exercises and Tai Chi, as applied to people with arthritis (a chronic condition that results in considerable disability and, particularly in later life,…

  17. Telegram from Ho Chi Minh to Harry S. Truman. Teaching with Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Lee Ann; Schamel, Wynell

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on a telegram sent from Hanoi, Vietnam, by Ho Chi Minh through the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) station in Kunming, China, to President Truman in which Ho asked for support of Vietnam's independence from France. Provides background information, a reproduction of the telegram, and ideas for teaching activities. (CMK)

  18. Effect of Tai Chi exercise in combination with auricular plaster on patients with lumbar muscle strain

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Tao; Song, Qing-Hua; Xu, Rong-Mei; Zhang, Li-Yan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: observe the effect of Tai Chi exercise on the patients with the chronic lumbar muscle strain under the intervention treatment of auricular plaster. Methods: 74 middle-aged and elderly patients, suffering from the chronic lumbar muscle strain, are randomly and equally divided into an observation group and a control group, with 37 patients in each group. The patients in the control group do Tai Chi exercise, while those in the observation group are treated by the auricular plaster therapy in addition to Tai Chi exercise. Evaluate and compare the disease conditions of the patients in the two groups before the treatment and after 12 weeks’ treatment. Results: after 12 weeks’ treatment, the patients in the two groups have been improved differently in comparison with those before the treatment (P < 0.05). However, the cure rate, the excellence rate and total effective rate of the observation group are superior to those of the control group, respectively P < 0.05 or P < 0.01, thus their difference shows statistic significance. Conclusion: after 12 weeks’ Tai Chi exercise, it exercises an obvious curative effect on the patients with lumbar muscle strain but the curative effect is more remarkable if it is combined with auricular plaster therapy. PMID:25932261

  19. Psi Chi Alumni: A National Survey of Psychology Honor Society Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrari, Joseph R.; Appleby, Drew C.

    2006-01-01

    Although thousands of psychology majors are admitted and graduate as members of "Psi Chi", the national honor society for psychology, no assessment of the members who graduate and pursue graduate studies and/or employment has been performed. A randomly selected, national sample (n = 580, 85% women) from the graduating classes of 2000 and 2003…

  20. Calibration of Self-Efficacy for Conducting a Chi-Squared Test of Independence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Whitney Alicia; Goins, Deborah D.

    2015-01-01

    Self-efficacy and knowledge, both concerning the chi-squared test of independence, were examined in education graduate students. Participants rated statements concerning self-efficacy and completed a related knowledge assessment. After completing a demographic survey, participants completed the self-efficacy and knowledge scales a second time.…

  1. R by C Chi-Square Analysis with Small Expected Cell Frequencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Kenneth J.; Mielke, Paul W., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A nonasymptotic Chi-Square analysis algorithm is presented to investigate r by c contingency tables where small expected cell frequencies render the usual asymptotic analysis inappropriate. A FORTRAN subroutine is provided for analyzing the tables having highly disproportionate or small marginal totals. (Author/GDC)

  2. Performance of the S - [chi][squared] Statistic for Full-Information Bifactor Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Ying; Rupp, Andre A.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the Type I error rate and power of the multivariate extension of the S - [chi][squared] statistic using unidimensional and multidimensional item response theory (UIRT and MIRT, respectively) models as well as full-information bifactor (FI-bifactor) models through simulation. Manipulated factors included test length, sample…

  3. Diabetes Control among Vietnamese Patients in Ho Chi Minh City: An Observational Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yokokawa, Hirohide; Khue, Nguyen Thy; Goto, Aya; Nam, Tran Quang; Trung, Tran The; Khoa, Vo Tuan; Ngoc, Nguyen Thi Boi; Minh, Pham Nghiem; Vinh, Nguyen Quang; Okayama, Akira; Yasumura, Seiji

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the extent of diabetic control and its associated factors among Vietnamese patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). The study was conducted among 652 outpatients who were recruited at a public general hospital (People Hospital 115) and a private clinic (Medic Center) in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Median age…

  4. Letters to Silent Teachers in Tzu Chi Medical School: A Spiritual Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Guo-Ming; Chang, Chien; Yu, Tong

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the spiritual communication between medical students and the donated dead body they anatomized, referred to as the "silent teacher." Data were obtained from the medical school of Tzu Chi University in Taiwan, where students are required to write a letter to the silent teacher at the end of the semester after they have…

  5. More Misbehavior of Organisms: A Psi Chi Lecture by Marian and Robert Bailey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bihm, Elson M.; Gillaspy, J. Arthur, Jr.; Abbott, Hannah J.; Lammers, William J.

    2010-01-01

    In 1992, Dr. Marian Breland Bailey, assisted by her husband Robert E. Bailey, gave the following presentation at the Psi Chi Banquet of the University of Central Arkansas. She and her first husband, Keller Breland, were students of B. F. Skinner and established Animal Behavior Enterprises (ABE) in 1947 and the IQ Zoo in 1955. Unknown to many…

  6. Inclusive {chi}{sub bJ}(nP) decays to D{sup 0}X

    SciTech Connect

    Briere, R. A.; Ferguson, T.; Tatishvili, G.; Vogel, H.; Watkins, M. E.; Rosner, J. L.; Alexander, J. P.; Cassel, D. G.; Duboscq, J. E.; Ehrlich, R.; Fields, L.; Galik, R. S.; Gibbons, L.; Gray, R.; Gray, S. W.; Hartill, D. L.; Heltsley, B. K.; Hertz, D.; Kandaswamy, J.; Kreinick, D. L.

    2008-11-01

    Using {upsilon}(2S) and {upsilon}(3S) data collected with the CLEO III detector we have searched for decays of {chi}{sub bJ} to final states with open charm. We fully reconstruct D{sup 0} mesons with p{sub D{sup 0}}>2.5 GeV/c in three decay modes (K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}, K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0}, and K{sup -}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}) in coincidence with radiative transition photons that tag the production of one of the {chi}{sub bJ}(nP) states. Significant signals are obtained for the two J=1 states. Recent nonrelativistic QCD (NRQCD) calculations of {chi}{sub bJ}(nP){yields}ccX depend on one nonperturbative parameter per {chi}{sub bJ} triplet. The extrapolation from the observed D{sup 0}X rate over a limited momentum range to a full ccX rate also depends on these same parameters. Using our data to fit for these parameters, we extract results which agree well with NRQCD predictions, confirming the expectation that charm production is largest for the J=1 states. In particular, for J=1, our results are consistent with ccg accounting for about one-quarter of all hadronic decays.

  7. "Stretch Your Body and Your Mind" (Tai Chi as an Adaptive Activity).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crider, Duane A.; Klinger, William

    Tai Chi may be an ideal activity for accommodating a wide variety of individuals with varying interests and physical skills while providing substantial health benefits. Theory suggests that children, adolescents, and healthy adults, as well as senior citizens and people debilitated by illness or injury, may benefit from the practice of Tai Chi…

  8. Observation of Persistent Edge Current Driven by Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI)

    SciTech Connect

    D. Mueller; B.A. Nelson; W.T. Hamp; A.J. Redd; T.R. Jarboe; R.G. O'Neill; R.J. Smith

    2005-04-21

    Coaxial Helicity Injection, CHI, has been used on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40 (2000) 557], the Helicity Injected Torus (HIT) [B.A. Nelson et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 72 (1994) 3666] and HIT-II [T.R. Jarboe et al., Phys. Plasmas 5 (1998) 1807] to initiate plasma and to drive up to 400 kA of toroidal current. On HIT-II, CHI initiated discharges have been successfully coupled to ohmic sustainment [R. Raman et al., Phys. Plasmas 11 (2004) 2565]. This paper presents the first results on the use of CHI to demonstrate the persistence of edge current drive in a preestablished single-null diverted inductive discharge. Edge current drive has the potential to improve plasma stability limits [J.E. Menard et al., Nucl. Fusion 37 (1997) 595]. While most current drive methods drive current in the interior of the plasma, CHI is well suited for driving current in the edge plasma.

  9. On Insensitivity of the Chi-Square Model Test to Nonlinear Misspecification in Structural Equation Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooijaart, Ab; Satorra, Albert

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we show that for some structural equation models (SEM), the classical chi-square goodness-of-fit test is unable to detect the presence of nonlinear terms in the model. As an example, we consider a regression model with latent variables and interactions terms. Not only the model test has zero power against that type of…

  10. Effects of Tai Chi exercise on physical and psychological health of older people.

    PubMed

    Blake, Holly; Hawley, Helen

    2012-02-01

    Tai Chi is a traditional Chinese form of conditioning exercise derived from martial arts and rooted in eastern philosophy and Chinese Medicine. Based on the inter-relatedness of mind, body and spirit this form of exercise focuses on producing an inner calmness which is thought to have both physical and psychological therapeutic value. This article provides a brief overview of selected current evidence examining the relationship between Tai Chi and physical, neurocognitive and psychosocial outcomes in older people. This is an emerging and growing area of research and improvements have often been reported in health functioning, physical and emotional health, reducing falls, fear of falling and risk of falls, and possibly enhancing cardiovascular functioning in older adults although the effects on bone density, cognitive and immunological functioning are less clear. Results overall are inconsistent and health improvements have not been evident in all studies. Tai Chi is becoming increasingly popular in practice, and more recent evidence is emerging which is based on experimental and longitudinal designs, although many of the proposed benefits of Tai Chi are yet to be validated in large, randomised controlled trials. PMID:21762093

  11. Facilitators and Barriers to Tai Chi in an Older Adult Community: A Theory-Driven Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gryffin, Pete A.; Chen, William C.; Chaney, Beth H.; Dodd, Virginia J.; Roberts, Beverly

    2015-01-01

    Background: Prevention has been identified as a primary strategy for reducing health care costs, with potential Medicare savings up to $142.8 billion annually. Falls alone resulted in $28.2 billion in direct care costs. A growing body of research documents significant benefits of tai chi (TC) for balance and prevention and management of chronic…

  12. Effects of Aging and Tai Chi on a Finger-Pointing Task with a Choice Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, William W. N.; Kwok, Jasmine C. Y.; Hui-Chan, Christina W. Y.

    2013-01-01

    Background. This cross-sectional study examined the effect of aging on performing finger-pointing tasks involving choices and whether experienced older Tai Chi practitioners perform better than healthy older controls in such tasks. Methods. Thirty students and 30 healthy older controls were compared with 31 Tai Chi practitioners. All the subjects performed a rapid index finger-pointing task. The visual signal appeared randomly under 3 conditions: (1) to touch a black ball as quickly and as accurately as possible, (2) not to touch a white ball, (3) to touch only the white ball when a black and a white ball appeared simultaneously. Reaction time (RT) of anterior deltoid electromyogram, movement time (MT) from electromyogram onset to touching of the target, end-point accuracy from the center of the target, and the number of wrong movements were recorded. Results. Young students displayed significantly faster RT and MT, achieving significantly greater end-point accuracy and fewer wrong movements than older controls. Older Tai Chi practitioners had significantly faster MT than older controls. Conclusion. Finger-pointing tasks with a choice paradigm became slower and less accurate with age. Positive findings suggest that Tai Chi may slow down the aging effect on eye-hand coordination tasks involving choices that require more cognitive progressing. PMID:23476699

  13. Elemental abundances of the mercury-manganese stars HR 4817 and Chi Lupi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelman, S. J.; Davis Philip, A. G.

    1990-01-01

    Fine analyses of limited spectral regions of the mercury-manganese stars HR 4817 and Chi Lup confirm that these stars have abundances of typical class members. The best determined values of HR 4817 are similar to those of 53 Tau which is an anomalous class member.

  14. The Chi-Square Test: Often Used and More Often Misinterpreted

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franke, Todd Michael; Ho, Timothy; Christie, Christina A.

    2012-01-01

    The examination of cross-classified category data is common in evaluation and research, with Karl Pearson's family of chi-square tests representing one of the most utilized statistical analyses for answering questions about the association or difference between categorical variables. Unfortunately, these tests are also among the more commonly…

  15. Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation of ChiV gene to Trichoderma harzianum.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liming; Yang, Qian; Sun, Kening; Tian, Ye; Li, Hulun

    2011-04-01

    As a soil-borne filamentous fungus, Trichoderma harzianum exhibits biological control properties because it parasitizes a large variety of phytopathogenic fungi. In this study, the vectors pBI121 and pCAMBIA1301 and cloning vector pUC18 were used to successfully construct expression vector pCA-GChiV for filamentous fungi transformation mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens.The ChiV gene was successfully transferred into the biocontrol fungus T. harzianum with an efficiency of 90-110 transformants per 10(7) spores using A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Putative transformants were analyzed to test the transformation by the southern blot, and the expression of ChiV was detected by reverse transcription PCR. The transformants were co-cultured to assay antifungal activities with Rhizoctonia solani. The inhibition rates of the transformants and no ChiV gene transferred T. harzianum were 98.56% and 82.42%, respectively, on the fourth day.The results showed that the ChiV transformants had significantly higher inhibition activity. PMID:20936373

  16. A systematic review of the health benefits of Tai Chi for students in higher education

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Craig S.; Luo, Anna Y.; Krägeloh, Chris; Moir, Fiona; Henning, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    Background The poor health consequences of stress are well recognized, and students in higher education may be at particular risk. Tai Chi integrates physical exercise with mindfulness techniques and seems well suited to relieve stress and related conditions. Methods We conducted a systematic review of the health benefits of Tai Chi for students in higher education reported in the English and Chinese literature, using an evidence hierarchy approach, allowing the inclusion of studies additional to randomized controlled trials. Results Sixty eight reports in Chinese and 8 in English were included — a combined study sample of 9263 participants. Eighty one health outcomes were extracted from reports, and assigned evidence scores according to the evidence hierarchy. Four primary and eight secondary outcomes were found. Tai Chi is likely to benefit participants by increasing flexibility, reducing symptoms of depression, decreasing anxiety, and improving interpersonal sensitivity (primary outcomes). Secondary outcomes include improved lung capacity, balance, 800/1000m run time, quality of sleep, symptoms of compulsion, somatization and phobia, and decreased hostility. Conclusions Our results show Tai Chi yields psychological and physical benefits, and should be considered by higher education institutions as a possible means to promote the physical and psychological well-being of their students. PMID:26844196

  17. Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award: Joseph H. Hammer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Joseph H. Hammer, recipient of the Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award, is cited for an outstanding research paper whose findings provide important evidence regarding the promise of a male-sensitive approach to mental health marketing and empirically support the inclusion of theory-driven enhancements in group-targeted mental…

  18. Gregory Daniel Webster: Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award.

    PubMed

    2006-11-01

    Presents a citation for Gregory Daniel Webster, who received the Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award "for an outstanding research paper whose findings report that APA journal articles became shorter in length after the year 2000." A brief profile and a selected bibliography accompany the citation. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:17115835

  19. Cynthia J. Najdowski: Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of the winner of the American Psychological Association's Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award. The 2012 winner is Cynthia J. Najdowski for an outstanding research paper that examines how jurors' judgments are influenced by a juvenile defendant's confession and status as intellectually disabled. Through…

  20. Immunosuppressive CD11b+Ly6Chi monocytes in pristane-induced lupus mouse model.

    PubMed

    Ma, Huijuan; Wan, Suigui; Xia, Chang-Qing

    2016-06-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells with immunosuppressive functions have been described to be associated with one of the mechanisms by which malignant tumors escape immune surveillance. However, little is known about the role of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in autoimmunity. In the current study, when we attempted to characterize the peritoneal cells in pristane-induced lupus model, as reported previously, we observed that there were markedly increased CD11b(+)Ly6C(hi) monocytes. Surprisingly, this type of monocytes was almost phenotypically identical to the reported monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells. Further analysis on how these CD11b(+)Ly6C(hi) cells affected T cell response showed that they strongly suppressed T cell proliferation in vitro in a manner dependent on cell-cell contact, NO, and PGE2. In addition, we found that CD11b(+)Ly6C(hi) monocytes inhibited Th1 differentiation but enhanced development of forkhead box p3(+)CD4(+) regulatory T cells. Consistent with the in vitro experimental results, the in vivo adoptive cell transfer study showed that infusion of pristane-treated syngeneic CD11b(+)Ly6C(hi) monocytes significantly suppressed the production of anti-keyhole limpet hemocyanin antibodies induced by keyhole limpet hemocyanin immunization. In addition, we found that CD11b(+)Ly6C(hi) monocytes were also increased significantly in spleen and peripheral blood and showed immunosuppressive characteristics similar to their peritoneal counterparts. Our findings indicate that CD11b(+)Ly6C(hi) monocytes in a pristane-induced lupus mouse model are monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells instead of inflammatory monocytes, as demonstrated previously. To our knowledge, this is the first to describe myeloid-derived suppressor cells in a pristane-induced lupus mouse model, which may lead to a better understanding of the role of CD11b(+)Ly6C(hi) monocytes in this specific pristane-induced lupus model. PMID:26657791

  1. FEM Modeling of Lithospheric Rheology of Taiwan from GPS and PSInSAR Observations of Postseismic Deformation of the 1999 Chi-Chi Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, G.; Chang, W. L.; Chang, C. P.

    2015-12-01

    Postseismic deformation following large earthquakes can persist from years to decades. Since the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake (Mw=7.6), more than a decade of GPS records reveal postseismic deformation across Taiwan and have been used for afterslip and lithospheric rheology studies. Previous researches show that this earthquake has experienced rapid afterslip on deeper part of Chelungpu fault with slip rates decreased within years [Hsu et al., 2002 and 2007]. Other postseismic deformation signals were modeled by assumed Maxwell viscoelastic relaxation with heterogeneous lower crust and upper mantle [Rousset et al., 2012; Tang et al., 2015], which suggest that the pattern of vertical displacements is more sensitive to the geometry of heterogeneous viscoelastic lithospheric structure. To improve the spatial coverage of observation, this study processed both ERS and Envisat SAR images from 1999-2008 with PSInSAR techniques, and the result provide a better illustration of Line-Of-Sight (LOS) deformation field which is near to vertical. Both GPS and PSInSAR results reveal that the surface displacement rates (horizontal or vertical?) of eastern Taiwan are higher than interseismic rates after a decade, and this feature may reveal the importance of low viscosity zone beneath central range of Taiwan. With the benefits from GPS and PSInSAR data, we intend to test other posssible viscosity and the geometry of viscoelastic structure. We adopt coseismic fault geometry and slip distribution of the Chi-Chi earthquake based on previous studies, and build a set of 2D rheological models with an elastic upper-crust layer overlain a viscoelastic lower-crust layer and a viscoelastic upper mantle. The depths of the two layer boundaries are determined according to subsurface tectonic and velocity structures inferred by previous literatures. We employ the finite element method (FEM), Pylith, to estimate the postseismic surface deformation corresponding to different viscosities. Benefit from the

  2. Tai Chi on psychological well-being: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Physical activity and exercise appear to improve psychological health. However, the quantitative effects of Tai Chi on psychological well-being have rarely been examined. We systematically reviewed the effects of Tai Chi on stress, anxiety, depression and mood disturbance in eastern and western populations. Methods Eight English and 3 Chinese databases were searched through March 2009. Randomized controlled trials, non-randomized controlled studies and observational studies reporting at least 1 psychological health outcome were examined. Data were extracted and verified by 2 reviewers. The randomized trials in each subcategory of health outcomes were meta-analyzed using a random-effects model. The quality of each study was assessed. Results Forty studies totaling 3817 subjects were identified. Approximately 29 psychological measurements were assessed. Twenty-one of 33 randomized and nonrandomized trials reported that 1 hour to 1 year of regular Tai Chi significantly increased psychological well-being including reduction of stress (effect size [ES], 0.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.23 to 1.09), anxiety (ES, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.29 to 1.03), and depression (ES, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.31 to 0.80), and enhanced mood (ES, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.20 to 0.69) in community-dwelling healthy participants and in patients with chronic conditions. Seven observational studies with relatively large sample sizes reinforced the beneficial association between Tai Chi practice and psychological health. Conclusions Tai Chi appears to be associated with improvements in psychological well-being including reduced stress, anxiety, depression and mood disturbance, and increased self-esteem. Definitive conclusions were limited due to variation in designs, comparisons, heterogeneous outcomes and inadequate controls. High-quality, well-controlled, longer randomized trials are needed to better inform clinical decisions. PMID:20492638

  3. GammaCHI: A package for the inversion and computation of the gamma and chi-square cumulative distribution functions (central and noncentral)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, Amparo; Segura, Javier; Temme, Nico M.

    2015-06-01

    A Fortran 90 module GammaCHI for computing and inverting the gamma and chi-square cumulative distribution functions (central and noncentral) is presented. The main novelty of this package is the reliable and accurate inversion routines for the noncentral cumulative distribution functions. Additionally, the package also provides routines for computing the gamma function, the error function and other functions related to the gamma function. The module includes the routines cdfgamC, invcdfgamC, cdfgamNC, invcdfgamNC, errorfunction, inverfc, gamma, loggam, gamstar and quotgamm for the computation of the central gamma distribution function (and its complementary function), the inversion of the central gamma distribution function, the computation of the noncentral gamma distribution function (and its complementary function), the inversion of the noncentral gamma distribution function, the computation of the error function and its complementary function, the inversion of the complementary error function, the computation of: the gamma function, the logarithm of the gamma function, the regulated gamma function and the ratio of two gamma functions, respectively.

  4. Detecting changes in long-period site responses after the M w 7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake, Taiwan, using strong motion records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Teng-To; Wu, Chi-Shin; Cheng, Youg-Sin

    2015-06-01

    Temporal changes in site effects are obtained using the HVSR (horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio) method and strong motion records after the M w 7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake, Taiwan. Seismic data recorded between 1995 and 2010 are used, comprising 3,708 data from 15 stations adjacent to the Chelungpu fault. Temporal fluctuations are determined by analyzing the site effect variation using a time-frequency variation (TFV) diagram based on these seismic data. Stations adjacent to the fault show significant disturbances in the resonance frequency at 16-26 Hz. Station TCU129 shows a 40% drop in fundamental frequency after the main shock, and a gradual return to the original state over nine years. For stations located farther from the fault zone, sudden changes in tectonic stress play a dominant role in temporal changes to the HVSR. An impact analysis of the directional factor confirms our finding that the proximity of the fault to seismic stations has the most influence on data.

  5. Insights from heterogeneous structures of the 1999 Mw 7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake thrust termination in and near Chushan excavation site, Central Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wen-Jeng; Chen, Wen-Shan; Lee, Yuan-Hsi; Yang, Chih-Cheng; Lin, Ming-Lang; Chiang, Cheng-Shing; Lee, Jian-Cheng; Lu, Shih-Ting

    2016-01-01

    We describe and analyze the surface and subsurface deformation of the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake thrust termination of the Chelungpu fault in and near the Chushan excavation site, central Taiwan. In order to minimize damage to engineering structures within a deformation zone and formulate regulations for earthquake fault zones and fault setbacks, one needs to know the characteristics of the deformation zone and the connection between surface and subsurface deformation. The surface deformation zone of high strain induced by the earthquake faulting ranges from 15 to 70 m in width, and characterized by a 0.5 to 2 m high escarpment is much wider in the hanging wall. Exposures in the trench, 40 m long and 10 m deep, excavated across the earthquake ground rupture, show on the one hand the heterogeneous structure of a steep, monocline-like fold. On the other hand, strikingly different surface deformation profiles on either side of the 14 m wide trench, i.e., semiparabola-like and monoclinal, do not reflect in any obvious way the subsurface structure. The analysis of our detailed mapping results along with well logs suggests that the significant width variation of the surface deformation zone is attributed to secondary faults branching from the dominant fault at several tens of meters depth. The surface profile of the escarpment is controlled by the depth of the relevant fault tip, and the subsurface heterogeneous structure formed during at least four earthquakes.

  6. Enhancing the Psychological Well-Being of Elderly Individuals through Tai Chi Exercise: A Latent Growth Curve Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Fuzhong; Duncan, Terry E.; Duncan, Susan C.; McAuley, Edward; Chaumeton, Nigel R.; Harmer, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Examined whether a Tai Chi exercise program enhanced the psychological well-being of 98 elderly individuals. Analyzed repeated measures data about participants using latent growth curve analysis. Results indicate the beneficial effects of participation in the Tai Chi program. Discusses implications related to the exercise-psychological health…

  7. Interactive application of quadratic expansion of chi-square statistic to nonlinear curve fitting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badavi, F. F.; Everhart, Joel L.

    1987-01-01

    This report contains a detailed theoretical description of an all-purpose, interactive curve-fitting routine that is based on P. R. Bevington's description of the quadratic expansion of the Chi-Square statistic. The method is implemented in the associated interactive, graphics-based computer program. Taylor's expansion of Chi-Square is first introduced, and justifications for retaining only the first term are presented. From the expansion, a set of n simultaneous linear equations is derived, then solved by matrix algebra. A brief description of the code is presented along with a limited number of changes that are required to customize the program of a particular task. To evaluate the performance of the method and the goodness of nonlinear curve fitting, two typical engineering problems are examined and the graphical and tabular output of each is discussed. A complete listing of the entire package is included as an appendix.

  8. Non-inductive Solenoid-less Plasma Current Start-up in NSTX Using Transient CHI

    SciTech Connect

    Raman, R; Jarboe, T R; Nelson, B A; Bell, M G; Ono, M; Bigelow, T; Kaita, R; LeBlanc, B; Lee, K C; Maqueda, R; Menard, J; Paul, S

    2007-05-23

    Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI) has been successfully used in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) for a demonstration of closed flux current generation without the use of the central solenoid. The favorable properties of the Spherical Torus (ST) arise from its very small aspect ratio. However, small aspect ratio devices have very restricted space for a substantial central solenoid. Thus methods for initiating the plasma current without relying on induction from a central solenoid are essential for the viability of the ST concept. CHI is a promising candidate for solenoid-free plasma startup in a ST. The method has now produced closed flux current up to 160 kA verifying the high current capability of this method in a large ST built with conventional tokamak components.

  9. Cynthia J. Najdowski: Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award.

    PubMed

    2012-11-01

    Presents a short biography of the winner of the American Psychological Association's Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award. The 2012 winner is Cynthia J. Najdowski for an outstanding research paper that examines how jurors' judgments are influenced by a juvenile defendant's confession and status as intellectually disabled. Through the use of a mock trial experiment, the research revealed that jurors discounted a juvenile's coerced confession and sometimes used intellectual disability as a mitigating factor. Attribution theory and the discounting principle were used to identify the psychological mechanisms underlying this effect. The paper, titled 'Understanding Jurors' Judgments in Cases Involving Juvenile Defendants,' was published in Psychology, Public Policy, and Law in October 2011 and was the basis for Najdowski's selection as the recipient of the 2012 Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award. Bette L. Bottoms, PhD, served as faculty supervisor. Najdowski's Award citation and a selected bibliography are also presented. PMID:23163461

  10. Design, Installation and Performance of the New insulator for NSTX CHI Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, D; Chrzanowski, J; Gates, D; Menard, J; Raman, R; Jarboe, T R; Nelson, B A; Maqueda, R J; Schaffer, M J

    2008-03-05

    Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI), a non-inductive method to initiate plasma and generate toroidal plasma current, is being investigated in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The center stack and outer vacuum vessel are separated by insulating gaps at the top and bottom of the slim central column so that a high voltage (up to 2 kV) can be applied between them from a pulsed power supply or a capacitor bank to initiate an arc discharge. In the presence of a suitable poloidal magnetic field, the discharge is initiated at the lower gap (the injector gap) and because of the strong toroidal field develops a helical structure resulting in substantial toroidal plasma current being driven. In NSTX, up to 390 kA of toroidal current has been generated for an injected current of 25 kA. The early investigations of CHI however frequently developed arcs across the insulator at the top of the machine (the absorber gap), which terminated the desired discharge. This arcing greatly restricted the operational space available for CHI studies. During 2002, the absorber region was modified to suppress these arcs. The new design includes a new ceramic insulator on the high field side of the absorber region with a much longer tracking distance between conducting elements at the different potentials. Furthermore, two new coils were installed near the absorber to provide the ability to minimize the poloidal field connecting the center stack and outer vacuum vessel. During the subsequent experimental campaign, CHI operation was less prone to arcing in the absorber and those arcs that did occur did not terminate the main discharge.)

  11. Rising HIV infection rates in Ho Chi Minh City herald emerging AIDS epidemic in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Lindan, C P; Lieu, T X; Giang, L T; Lap, V D; Thuc, N V; Thinh, T; Lurie, P; Mandel, J S

    1997-09-01

    An analysis of annual sentinel surveillance data from Viet Nam indicates that Ho Chi Minh City is at the forefront of a new HIV epidemic. Since 1990, data on HIV cases have been collected from prenatal clinics, blood banks, centers for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and tuberculosis, and rehabilitation centers for injecting drug users and commercial sex workers. The first HIV case in Viet Nam was reported in 1990 in Ho Chi Minh City. By the end of 1996, a cumulative total of 4961 HIV cases had been documented in Viet Nam, 2774 of which were in Ho Chi Minh City. In Ho Chi Minh City, 86.5% of cumulative HIV infections involved men. The distribution of total HIV cases by group has been: injecting drug users, 86.0%; tuberculosis patients, 3.3%; sex workers, 2.5%; STD patients, 2.5%; and pregnant women, 0.6%. By 1996, 42 of Viet Nam's 53 provinces had reported HIV cases and infection rates are rising dramatically in border areas near China and Cambodia. The pattern documented in this analysis resembles that observed in Thailand a decade ago: rapidly rising HIV rates among injecting drug users and infection already established among sex workers, without dissemination to the general population. The necessary infrastructure and resources for control of the epidemic are far more limited in Viet Nam than Thailand, however. Recommended, to prevent the further spread of HIV in Viet Nam, are educational activities targeted at injecting drug users and sex workers outside of rehabilitation centers, the availability of condoms and sterile needles, establishment of anonymous testing sites, control of STDs, and the coordination of programs within southeast Asia. PMID:9376101

  12. Prevention of chi and sigma phases formation in aged 16-8-2 weld metal

    SciTech Connect

    Leitnaker, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Type 16-8-2 weld filler metal (16 wt-% Cr, 8 wt-% Ni, 2 wt-% Mo, nominally) is commonly used to weld Type 316 stainless steel base metal. Suitable control of composition can prevent formation of embrittling phases. The chi phase can be eliminated by adjusting the molybdenum content. The /delta/-ferrite-/sigma/ phase transformation can be prevented by suitably adjusting the carbon-plus-nitrogen content. The mechanism of this behavior is discussed. 14 refs.

  13. Solenoid-free Plasma Start-up in NSTX using Transient CHI

    SciTech Connect

    Raman, R; Jarboe, T; Nelson, B; Mueller, D; Soukhanovskii, V A

    2009-01-05

    Experiments in NSTX have now demonstrated the coupling of toroidal plasmas produced by the technique of Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI) to inductive sustainment and ramp-up of the toroidal plasma current. In these discharges, the central Ohmic transformer was used to apply an inductive loop voltage to discharges with a toroidal current of about 100 kA created by CHI. The coupled discharges have ramped up to >700 kA and transitioned into an H-mode demonstrating compatibility of this startup method with conventional operation. The electron temperature in the coupled discharges reached over 800 eV and the resulting plasma had low inductance, which is preferred for long-pulse high performance discharges. These results from NSTX in combination with the previously obtained record 160 kA non-inductively-generated startup currents in an ST or tokamak in NSTX demonstrate that CHI is a viable solenoid-free plasma startup method for future STs and tokamaks.

  14. Deletion of v-chiA from a Baculovirus Reduces Horizontal Transmission in the Field

    PubMed Central

    Slavicek, James; Podgwaite, John D.; Webb, Ralph; Fuester, Roger; Peiffer, Randall A.

    2013-01-01

    Nucleopolyhedroviruses (NPVs) can initiate devastating disease outbreaks in populations of defoliating Lepidoptera, a fact that has been exploited for the purposes of biological control of some pest insects. A key part of the horizontal transmission process of NPVs is the degradation of the larval integument by virus-coded proteins called chitinases, such as V-CHIA produced by the v-chiA genes. We used recombinant and naturally occurring strains of the Lymantria dispar NPV (LdMNPV) to test horizontal transmission in the field, release of virus from dead larvae under laboratory conditions, and cell lysis and virus release in cell culture. In the field, strains of LdMNPV lacking functional v-chiA genes showed reduced horizontal transmission compared to wild-type or repaired strains. These findings were mirrored by a marked reduction in released virus in laboratory tests and cell culture when the same strains were used to infect larvae or cells. Thus, this study tests the pivotal role of liquefaction and the v-chiA gene in field transmission for the first time and uses complementary laboratory data to provide a likely explanation for our findings. PMID:23624474

  15. Fall risk-relevant functional mobility outcomes in dementia following dyadic tai chi exercise.

    PubMed

    Yao, Lan; Giordani, Bruno J; Algase, Donna L; You, Mei; Alexander, Neil B

    2013-03-01

    Whether persons with dementia benefit from fall prevention exercise is unclear. Applying the Positive Emotion-Motivated Tai Chi protocol, preliminary findings concerning adherence and effects of a dyadic Tai Chi exercise program on persons with Alzheimer's disease (AD) are reported. Using pre/posttest design, 22 community-dwelling AD-caregiver dyads participated in the program. Fall-risk-relevant functional mobility was measured using Unipedal Stance Time (UST) and Timed Up and Go (TUG) tests. Results showed that 19/22 (86.4%) AD patients completed the 16-week program and final assessment; 16/19 dyads (84.2%) completed the prescribed home program as reported by caregivers. UST adjusted mean improved from 4.0 to 5.1 (Week 4, p < .05) and 5.6 (Week 16, p < .05); TUG improved from 13.2 to 11.6 (Week 4, p < .05) and 11.6 (Week 16, p > .05) post intervention. Retaining dementia patients in an exercise intervention remains challenging. The dyadic Tai Chi approach appears to succeed in keeping AD-caregiver dyads exercising and safe. PMID:22517441

  16. Tai Chi Chuan for Cardiac Rehabilitation in Patients with Coronary Arterial Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nery, Rosane Maria; Zanini, Maurice; Ferrari, Juliana Nery; Silva, César Augusto; Farias, Leonardo Fontanive; Comel, João Carlos; Belli, Karlyse Claudino; da Silveira, Anderson Donelli; Santos, Antonio Cardoso; Stein, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Background Several studies have shown that Tai Chi Chuan can improve cardiac function in patients with heart disease. Objective To conduct a systematic review of the literature to assess the effects of Tai Chi Chuan on cardiac rehabilitation for patients with coronary artery disease. Methods We performed a search for studies published in English, Portuguese and Spanish in the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS and Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials. Data were extracted in a standardized manner by three independent investigators, who were responsible for assessing the methodological quality of the manuscripts. Results The initial search found 201 studies that, after review of titles and abstracts, resulted in a selection of 12 manuscripts. They were fully analyzed and of these, nine were excluded. As a final result, three randomized controlled trials remained. The studies analyzed in this systematic review included patients with a confirmed diagnosis of coronary artery disease, all were clinically stable and able to exercise. The three experiments had a control group that practiced structured exercise training or received counseling for exercise. Follow-up ranged from 2 to 12 months. Conclusion Preliminary evidence suggests that Tai Chi Chuan can be an unconventional form of cardiac rehabilitation, being an adjunctive therapy in the treatment of patients with stable coronary artery disease. However, the methodological quality of the included articles and the small sample sizes clearly indicate that new randomized controlled trials are needed in this regard. PMID:24759952

  17. Deletion of v-chiA from a baculovirus reduces horizontal transmission in the field.

    PubMed

    D'Amico, Vincent; Slavicek, James; Podgwaite, John D; Webb, Ralph; Fuester, Roger; Peiffer, Randall A

    2013-07-01

    Nucleopolyhedroviruses (NPVs) can initiate devastating disease outbreaks in populations of defoliating Lepidoptera, a fact that has been exploited for the purposes of biological control of some pest insects. A key part of the horizontal transmission process of NPVs is the degradation of the larval integument by virus-coded proteins called chitinases, such as V-CHIA produced by the v-chiA genes. We used recombinant and naturally occurring strains of the Lymantria dispar NPV (LdMNPV) to test horizontal transmission in the field, release of virus from dead larvae under laboratory conditions, and cell lysis and virus release in cell culture. In the field, strains of LdMNPV lacking functional v-chiA genes showed reduced horizontal transmission compared to wild-type or repaired strains. These findings were mirrored by a marked reduction in released virus in laboratory tests and cell culture when the same strains were used to infect larvae or cells. Thus, this study tests the pivotal role of liquefaction and the v-chiA gene in field transmission for the first time and uses complementary laboratory data to provide a likely explanation for our findings. PMID:23624474

  18. Fast developed Da-An Gorge: Rapid fluvial incision and knickpoint retreat across a co-seismic popup zone of the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jian-Cheng; Chen, Ming-Chu; Frankel, Kurt; Chan, Yu-Chang; Hsieh, Meng-Long; Tseng, Chia-Han

    2014-05-01

    A 1-km-long segment in the lower Da-An River in fold-thrust belt of western Taiwan was uplifted ~10 m during the 1999 Mw 7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake, that was subsequently resulting in a 20- to 30-m-deep bedrock gorge within less than 10 years. The amount of coseismic uplift along the channel bed does not fully explain the resulting bedrock channel incision. Using a series of aerial photographs, high-resolution digital elevation models (DEM), and real-time kinematic global positioning system (RTK GPS) surveys, we characterized knickpoint retreat and fluvial incision in the Da-An River gorge. We also analyzed discharge and precipitation data and collected measurements of rock strength and joint plane orientations to better understand the climatic, lithological, and structural influence on the evolution of the actively incising gorge. Two stages of fluvial incision and knickpoint migration are identified in the gorge following the surface uplift during the Chi-Chi earthquake. From 1999 to 2004, 3 to 5 m of alluvium was removed from the channel bed, followed by 3 to 4 m of bedrock channel incision. The knickpoint generated immediately after the earthquake remained where the uplift occurred in 1999. Since 2005, the channel bed has lowered rapidly with local incision rates as high as 15 m/yr. The average upstream knickpoint migration rate over the period 2005 to 2009 was 238 m/yr; total upstream migration from the location of knickpoint formation was about 1190 m. While tectonic uplift formed the knickpoint and set the stage for channel incision, climate played a critical role in accelerating the fluvial response to coseismic displacement. More than 20 m of vertical bedrock channel incision and 1180 m of upstream knickpoint migration occurred primarily during the post-2005 typhoon seasons (May-October). Based on repeat surveys of the Da-An River longitudinal profile and analysis of precipitation and discharge data, we suggest that a discharge threshold of 1200 to 2600 m

  19. Assessing impacts of typhoons and the Chi-Chi earthquake on Chenyulan watershed landscape pattern in central Taiwan using landscape metrics.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Pin; Chang, Tsun-Kuo; Wu, Chen-Fa; Chiang, Te-Chih; Lin, Shin-Hwei

    2006-07-01

    The Chi-Chi earthquake (ML=7.3) occurred in the central part of Taiwan on September 21, 1999. After the earthquake, typhoons Xangsane and Toraji produced heavy rainfall that fell across the eastern and central parts of Taiwan on November 2000 and July 2001. This study uses remote sensing data, landscape metrics, multivariate statistical analysis, and spatial autocorrelation to assess how earthquake and typhoons affect landscape patterns. It addresses variations of the Chenyulan watershed in Nantou County, near the earthquake's epicenter and crossed by Typhoon Toraji. The subsequent disturbances have gradually changed landscape of the Chenyulan watershed. Disturbances of various types, sizes, and intensities, following various tracks, have various effects on the landscape patterns and variations of the Chenyulan watershed. The landscape metrics that are obtained by multivariate statistical analyses showed that the disturbances produced variously fragmented patches, interspersed with other patches and isolated from patches of the same type across the entire Chenyulan watershed. The disturbances also affected the isolation, size, and shape-complexity of patches at the landscape and class levels. The disturbances at the class level more strongly affected spatial variations in the landscape as well as patterns of grasslands and bare land, than variations in the watershed farmland and forest. Moreover, the earthquake with high magnitude was a starter to create these landscape variations in space in the Chenyulan watershed. The cumulative impacts of the disturbances on the watershed landscape pattern had existed, especially landslides and grassland in the study area, but were not always evident in space and time in landscape and other class levels. PMID:16738824

  20. Eleven Years of CHiPR [1991-2002] and Its Legacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidner, D. J.; Liebermann, R. C.; Navrotsky, A.; Prewitt, C. T.

    2002-12-01

    In 1991, with funding from the National Science Foundation Science and Technology Program, the Center for High Pressure Research [CHiPR] was organized by three academic institutions composed of the Mineral Physics Institute of Stony Brook University, the Geophysical Laboratory of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, and the Thermochemistry Facility at Princeton University (later at the University of California at Davis). In addition, collaborators from the University of Colorado and the University of California at San Diego joined CHiPR as it evolved. The past decade has seen a revolution in high-pressure geoscience, inspired by technical developments that allowed higher pressures to be attained simultaneously with higher temperatures for sustained periods of time, along with larger sample volumes and various kinds of in-situ measurements. In addition, CHiPR played a significant role in demonstrating the importance of national synchrotron facilities for critical high-pressure experiments. CHiPR personnel have been major contributors to this revolution. CHiPR's principal mission has been to advance the science of high-pressure research, with a specific focus on deep Earth questions. Examples of these research thrusts include the role of water in the Earth's interior, the thermophysical properties [elasticity, rheology, equations-of-state, thermochemistry] of minerals at high pressures and temperatures, and the behavior of matter in the giant planets.As a consequence of the technological and scientific progress in high-pressure geoscience in the past ten years, we are now poised to continue the high-pressure research initiative and to exploit fully the capabilities of the national synchrotron X-ray and neutron scattering facilities. For this, a new Consortium for Materials Properties Research in Earth Sciences [COMPRES], has been organized by the high pressure Earth science community. Themes of this consortium are to promote and develop the infrastructure that is

  1. Experimental and ab initio infrared study of chi-, kappa- and alpha-aluminas formed from gibbsite

    SciTech Connect

    Favaro, L.; Boumaza, A.; Roy, P.; Ledion, J.; Sattonnay, G.; Brubach, J.B.; Huntz, A.M.; Tetot, R.

    2010-04-15

    chi-, kappa- and alpha-alumina phases formed by dehydration of micro-grained gibbsite between 773 and 1573 K are studied using infrared spectroscopy (IR). The structural transitions evidenced by X-ray diffraction (XRD) were interpreted by comparing IR measurements with ab initio simulations (except for the chi form whose complexity does not allow a reliable simulation). For each phase, IR spectrum presents specific bands corresponding to transverse optical (TO) modes of Al-O stretching and bending under 900 cm{sup -1}. The very complex chi phase, obtained at 773 K, provides a distinctive XRD pattern in contrast with the IR absorbance appearing as a broad structure extending between 200 and 900 cm{sup -1} resembling the equivalent spectra for gamma-alumina phase. kappa-alumina is forming at 1173 K and its rich IR spectrum is in good qualitative agreement with ab initio simulations. This complexity reflects the large number of atoms in the kappa-alumina unit cell and the wide range of internuclear distances as well as the various coordinances of both Al and O atoms. Ab initio simulations suggest that this form of transition alumina demonstrates a strong departure from the simple pattern observed for other transition alumina. At 1573 K, the stable alpha-ALPHAl{sub 2}OMICRON{sub 3} develops. Its IR spectra extends in a narrower energy range as compared to transition alumina and presents characteristics features similar to model alpha-ALPHAl{sub 2}OMICRON{sub 3}. Ab initio calculations show again a very good general agreement with the observed IR spectra for this phase. In addition, for both kappa- and alpha-ALPHAl{sub 2}OMICRON{sub 3}, extra modes, measured at high energy (above 790 cm{sup -1} for kappa and above 650 cm{sup -1} for alpha), can originate from either remnant chi-alumina or from surface modes. - Graphical abstract: Infrared spectra of the sequence Gibbsite ->chi->kappa->alpha-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} obtained from 24 h calcinations of Gibbsite at 773 K, 1173 K

  2. The chitinase C gene PsChiC from Pseudomonas sp. and its synergistic effects on larvicidal activity

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Wanfang; Ding, Shaojun; Guo, Huifang

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas sp. strain TXG6-1, a chitinolytic gram-negative bacterium, was isolated from a vegetable field in Taixing city, Jiangsu Province, China. In this study, a Pseudomonas chitinase C gene (PsChiC) was isolated from the chromosomal DNA of this bacterium using a pair of specific primers. The PsChiC gene consisted of an open reading frame of 1443 nucleotides and encoded 480 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 51.66 kDa. The deduced PsChiC amino acid sequence lacked a signal sequence and consisted of a glycoside hydrolase family 18 catalytic domain responsible for chitinase activity, a fibronectin type III-like domain (FLD) and a C-terminal chitin-binding domain (ChBD). The amino acid sequence of PsChiCshowed high sequence homology (> 95%) with chitinase C from Serratia marcescens. SDS-PAGE showed that the molecular mass of chitinase PsChiC was 52 kDa. Chitinase assays revealed that the chitobiosidase and endochitinase activities of PsChiCwere 51.6- and 84.1-fold higher than those of pET30a, respectively. Although PsChiC showed little insecticidal activity towards Spodoptera litura larvae, an insecticidal assay indicated that PsChiC increased the insecticidal toxicity of SpltNPV by 1.78-fold at 192 h and hastened death. These results suggest that PsChiC from Pseudomonas sp. could be useful in improving the pathogenicity of baculoviruses. PMID:26500441

  3. The Effects of Tai Chi Chuan Combined with Vibration Training on Balance Control and Lower Extremity Muscle Power

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Pao-Hung; Lin, Guan-Lun; Liu, Chiang; Chuang, Long-Ren; Shiang, Tzyy-Yuang

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether performing Tai Chi Chuan on a customized vibration platform could enhance balance control and lower extremity muscle power more efficiently than Tai Chi Chuan alone in an untrained young population. Forty-eight healthy young adults were randomly assigned to the following three groups: a Tai Chi Chuan combined with vibration training group (TCV), a Tai Chi Chuan group (TCC) or a control group. The TCV group underwent 30 minutes of a reformed Tai Chi Chuan program on a customized vibration platform (32 Hz, 1 mm) three times a week for eight weeks, whereas the TCC group was trained without vibration stimuli. A force platform was used to measure the moving area of a static single leg stance and the heights of two consecutive countermovement jumps. The activation of the knee extensor and flexor was also measured synchronously by surface electromyography in all tests. The results showed that the moving area in the TCV group was significantly decreased by 15.3%. The second jump height in the TCV group was significantly increased by 8.14%, and the activation of the knee extensor/flexor was significantly decreased in the first jump. In conclusion, Tai Chi Chuan combined with vibration training can more efficiently improve balance control, and the positive training effect on the lower extremity muscle power induced by vibration stimuli still remains significant because there is no cross-interaction between the two different types of training methods. Key points Eight weeks of Tai Chi Chuan combined with vibration training can more efficiently improve balance control for an untrained young population. The positive training effect on the lower extremity muscle power induced by vibration stimuli during Tai Chi Chuan movements still remains significant because of SSC mechanism. Combining Tai Chi Chuan with vibration training is more efficient and does not decrease the overall training effects due to a cross-interaction of each other

  4. Validation of Chinese Version of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Health-Related Quality of Life Questionnaire (Chi-PCOSQ)

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chung-Ying; Ou, Huang-tz; Wu, Meng-Hsing; Chen, Pei-Chi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the responsiveness, longitudinal validity, and measurement invariance of the Chinese version of the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Health-related Quality of Life Questionnaire (Chi-PCOSQ). Research Design and Method This prospective study was conducted in a medical center in southern Taiwan. 102 women aged 18–45 years and diagnosed with PCOS were enrolled. Objective indicators for clinical changes of PCOS included assessing the 2-hour glucose and insulin levels before and after treatment. The responsiveness of Chi-PCOSQ and WHOQOL-BREF was analyzed using paired t-tests and the standard response mean. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed to assess the measurement invariance of Chi-PCOSQ. Results With improved 2-hour glucose and insulin levels, we also found significantly increased Chi-PCOSQ total and individual domain scores (total score: t (49) = 5.20; p < 0.001, domain scores: t (49) = 2.72 to 3.87; p < 0.01), except for hair growth. Half of the domains scores (3 of 6) and the total score of Chi-PCOSQ had a medium responsiveness, but WHOQOL-BREF was not sufficiently responsive to clinical changes of PCOS. Improved PCOS-specific health-related quality of life (HRQoL), as indicated by Chi-PCOSQ scores, was significantly associated with improved 2-hour glucose and insulin levels. All indices of the data-model fit of the Chi-PCOSQ structure were satisfactory, except for the slightly high standardized root mean square residual values (0.087 to 0.088). The measurement invariance of Chi-PCOSQ was supported across time. Conclusion Chi-PCOSQ is sufficiently sensitive in detecting clinical changes and its measurement structure is suitable for Chinese women with PCOS. It is thus a promising tool for assessing the HRQoL of ethnic Chinese women with PCOS. PMID:27124836

  5. Effective Lagrangian for Two-photon and Two-gluon Decays of P-wave Heavy Quarkonium chi_c(0,2) and chi_(b0,2) states

    SciTech Connect

    Lansberg, J.P.; Pham, T.N.; /Ecole Polytechnique, CPHT

    2009-06-03

    In the traditional non-relativistic bound state calculation, the two-photon decay amplitudes of the P-wave {chi}{sub c0,2} and {chi}{sub b0,2} states depend on the derivative of the wave function at the origin which can only be obtained from potential models. However by neglecting the relative quark momenta, the decay amplitude can be written as the matrix element of a local heavy quark field operator which could be obtained from other processes or computed with QCD sum rules technique or lattice simulation. Following the same line as in recent work for the two-photon decays of the S-wave {eta}{sub c} and {eta}{sub b} quarkonia, we show that the effective Lagrangian for the two-photon decays of the P-wave {chi}{sub c0,2} and {chi}{sub b0,2} is given by the heavy quark energy-momentum tensor local operator or its trace, the {anti Q}Q scalar density and that the expression for {chi}{sub c0} two-photon and two-gluon decay rate is given by the f{sub {chi}{sub c0}} decay constant and is similar to that of {eta}{sub c} which is given by f{sub {eta}{sub c}}. From the existing QCD sum rules value for f{sub {chi}{sub c0}}, we get 5 keV for the {chi}{sub c0} two-photon width, somewhat larger than measurement, but possibly with large uncertainties.

  6. Search for the Z_1(4050)^+ and Z_2(4250)^+ States in bar B^0 to chi_{c1} K^- pi^+ and B^+ to chi_{c1} K^0_S pi^+

    SciTech Connect

    Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; Martinelli, M.; Milanes, D.A.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Brown, D.N.; Kerth, L.T.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Lynch, G.; Koch, H.; Schroeder, T.; Asgeirsson, D.J.; Hearty, C.; Mattison, T.S.; McKenna, J.A.; /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UC, Riverside /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Indian Inst. Tech., Guwahati /Harvard U. /Harvey Mudd Coll. /Heidelberg U. /Humboldt U., Berlin /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa State U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Paris U., VI-VII /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Mainz U., Inst. Kernphys. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT /McGill U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Paris U., VI-VII /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Princeton U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /SLAC /South Carolina U. /Southern Methodist U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Albany /Tel Aviv U. /Tennessee U. /Texas Nuclear Corp., Austin /Texas U., Dallas /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /Valencia U. /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2012-04-10

    We search for the Z{sub 1}(4050){sup +} and Z{sub 2}(4250){sup +} states, reported by the Belle Collaboration, decaying to {chi}{sub c1}{pi}{sup +} in the decays {bar B}{sup 0} {yields} {chi}{sub c1}K{sup -}{pi}{sup +} and B{sup +} {yields} {chi}{sub c1}K{sub S}{sup 0}{pi}{sup +} where {chi}{sub c1} {yields} J/{psi}{gamma}. The data were collected with the BABAR detector at the SLAC PEP-II asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider operating at center-of-mass energy 10.58 GeV, and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 429 fb{sup -1}. In this analysis, we model the background-subtracted, efficiency-corrected {chi}{sub c1}{pi}{sup +} mass distribution using the K{pi} mass distribution and the corresponding normalized K{pi} Legendre polynomial moments, and then test the need for the inclusion of resonant structures in the description of the {chi}{sub c1}{pi}{sup +} mass distribution. No evidence is found for the Z{sub 1}(4050){sup +} and Z{sub 2}(4250){sup +} resonances, and 90% confidence level upper limits on the branching fractions are reported for the corresponding B-meson decay modes.

  7. Exact Chi-Square and Fisher's Exact Probability Test for 3 by 2 Cross-Classification Tables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Kenneth J.; Mielke, Paul W., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Subroutines to calculate exact chi square and Fisher's exact probability tests are presented for 3 by 2 cross-classification tables. A nondirectional probability value for each test is computed recursively. (Author/GDC)

  8. Developing a positive emotion-motivated Tai Chi (PEM-TC) exercise program for older adults with dementia.

    PubMed

    Yao, Lan; Giordani, Bruno; Alexander, Neil B

    2008-01-01

    Exercise, particularly Tai Chi, has many known benefits, especially in reducing fall risk. However, exercise studies have tended to exclude older adults with dementia (OAD), who may be at high fall risk but have difficulty participating in formal exercise programs. This paper describes development and feasibility testing of a Tai Chi fall risk reduction exercise protocol, the positive emotion-motivated Tai Chi (PEM-TC) program for OAD, and explores strategies that facilitate their participation in and adherence to exercise programs. Preliminary data indicates that difficulties in delivering exercise to OAD may be eased by using the Sticky Hands Tai Chi teaching technique. Family members may have the optimum advantage in using Sticky Hands because of established emotional connections with their OAD. PMID:19093662

  9. Consumer Health Informatics in the Context of Engaged Citizens and eHealth Services - A New CHI Meta Model.

    PubMed

    Wiesner, Martin; Griebel, Lena; Becker, Kurt; Pobiruchin, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Consumer Health Informatics (CHI) is a relatively new and interdisciplinary field in Medical Informatics. It focuses on consumer- rather than professional-centered services. However, the definitions and understanding of a) what is a "consumer"? or b) what is health technology in the context of CHI? and c) what factors and actors influence the usage of eHealth services? vary widely. The CHI special interest group (SIG) - associated with the German Association for Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology - conducted two workshops in 2015 to improve the common understanding on these topics. The workshop outcomes, the derived CHI-specific meta model and examples how to apply this model are presented in this paper. The model supports the definition of multi-actor contexts, as it not solely reflects the conventional patient-physician relationship but also allows for the description of second health market providers. PMID:27332268

  10. Feasibility and Acceptability of a Tai Chi Chih Randomized Controlled Trial in Senior Female Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Campo, Rebecca A.; O’Connor, Kathleen; Light, Kathleen C.; Nakamura, Yoshio; Lipschitz, David; LaStayo, Paul C.; Pappas, Lisa; Boucher, Kenneth; Irwin, Michael R.; Agarwal, Neeraj; Kinney, Anita Y.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Tai Chi Chih (TCC) is associated with improved physical functioning and psychological benefits in breast cancer survivors and healthy older adults; thus, may also be beneficial for senior cancer survivors with physical functioning declines. The purpose of this randomized controlled trial (RCT) was to examine the feasibility and acceptability of a Tai Chi Chih (TCC) intervention in senior female cancer survivors, with physical functioning limitations, as well as, its effects on QOL. Design This was a two-armed, parallel group, RCT with 12-weeks of Tai Chi Chih or Health Education Control. Methods Sixty-three senior (M age=67 years, SD=7.15) female cancer survivors (83% breast cancer, stages I–III) with physical functioning limitations (SF-12 Health Survey role physical & physical functioning subscales) were randomized to 12-weeks of TCC or Health Education control (HEC). Primary outcomes were feasibility and acceptability. Secondary outcomes included quality of life (SF-36 Health Survey), and participants’ qualitative feedback on intervention. Results Retention (TCC = 91%; HEC = 81%) and class attendance (TCC =79%; HEC = 83%) rates, and satisfaction levels for both study arms were high, but did not significantly differ from one another. At one-week post-intervention, none of the SF-36 scores differed between the TCC and HEC arms. Within-group analyses revealed significant improvements in the mental component summary score in TCC (p = 0.01), but not in HEC. Qualitative analyses indicated that the TCC group felt they received mental and physical benefits, whereas HEC group reported on social support benefits and information received. Conclusion A TCC intervention was found to be a feasible and acceptable modality for senior female cancer survivors. Future, larger definitive trials are needed to clarify TCC dosage effects on QOL in this vulnerable population. PMID:23620504

  11. Intersubunit signaling in RecBCD enzyme, a complex protein machine regulated by Chi hot spots

    PubMed Central

    Amundsen, Susan K.; Taylor, Andrew F.; Reddy, Manjula; Smith, Gerald R.

    2007-01-01

    The Escherichia coli RecBCD helicase–nuclease, a paradigm of complex protein machines, initiates homologous genetic recombination and the repair of broken DNA. Starting at a duplex end, RecBCD unwinds DNA with its fast RecD helicase and slower RecB helicase on complementary strands. Upon encountering a Chi hot spot (5′-GCTGGTGG-3′), the enzyme produces a new 3′ single-strand end and loads RecA protein onto it, but how Chi regulates RecBCD is unknown. We report a new class of mutant RecBCD enzymes that cut DNA at novel positions that depend on the DNA substrate length and that are strictly correlated with the RecB:RecD helicase rates. We conclude that in the mutant enzymes when RecD reaches the DNA end, it signals RecB’s nuclease domain to cut the DNA. As predicted by this interpretation, the mutant enzymes cut closer to the entry point on DNA when unwinding is blocked by another RecBCD molecule traveling in the opposite direction. Furthermore, when RecD is slowed by a mutation altering its ATPase site such that RecB reaches the DNA end before RecD does, the length-dependent cuts are abolished. These observations lead us to hypothesize that, in wild-type RecBCD enzyme, Chi is recognized by RecC, which then signals RecD to stop, which in turn signals RecB to cut the DNA and load RecA. We discuss support for this “signal cascade” hypothesis and tests of it. Intersubunit signaling may regulate other complex protein machines. PMID:18079176

  12. Tai Chi Exercise for Patients with Cardiovascular Conditions and Risk Factors: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Gloria Y.; Wang, Chenchen; Wayne, Peter M.; Phillips, Russell

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE To conduct a systematic review of the literature evaluating tai chi exercise as an intervention for patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) or with cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF). METHODS We searched: 1) Medline, CAB Alt Health Watch, BIOSIS previews, Science Citation Index, EMBASE, and Social Science Citation Index from inception through October 2007; 2) Chinese Medical Database, China Hospital Knowledge, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and China Traditional Chinese Medicine Database from inception through June 2005; and 3) performed hand searches at the medical libraries of Beijing and Nanjing Universities. Clinical studies published in English and Chinese including participants with established CVD or CVRF were included. Data were extracted in a standardized manner; 2 independent investigators assessed methodological quality, including the Jadad score for randomized controlled trials (RCT). RESULTS Twenty-nine studies met inclusion criteria: 9 RCT, 14 non-randomized studies (NRS), and 6 observational trials (OBS). Three studies examined subjects with coronary heart disease, 5 in heart failure, and 10 in heterogeneous populations that included those with CVD. Eleven studies examined subjects with CVRF (hypertension, dyslipidemia, impaired glucose metabolism). Study duration ranged from 8 weeks to 3 years. Most studies included <100 subjects (range 5–207). Six of nine RCTs were of adequate quality (Jadad ≥3). Most studies report improvements with tai chi, including blood pressure reductions and increases in exercise capacity. No adverse effects were reported. CONCLUSION Preliminary evidence suggests that tai chi exercise may be a beneficial adjunctive therapy for some patients with CVD and CVRF. Further research is needed. PMID:19471133

  13. Effect of Tai Chi on body balance: randomized controlled trial in elderly men with dizziness.

    PubMed

    Maciaszek, Janusz; Osinski, Wieslaw

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of 18-week Tai Chi training on body balance in a dynamic trial among elderly men with dizziness. The study covered subjects aged 60 to 80 years. We identified 40 men who reported a history of dizziness. The subjects were recruited using direct mailings and a community information campaign. The participants were randomly assigned to either the exercise intervention (n = 20) or control group (n = 20). The Tai Chi group participated in an 18-week exercise class held for 45 minutes twice a week. Body balance was studied in two ways: using the "8 foot up and go test" (Rikli and Jones 2001) and using a Computer Posturographic System PE 90 (manufactured by Military Institute of Aviation Medicine in Warsaw and outfitted with Pro-Med modified software). The ability to perform specific tasks (maximal deflections in four directions) was measured on the posturographic platform. The variation in results obtained on the first and second date of tests in the experimental and control groups was confirmed statistically using four parameters, i.e. "8 foot up to and go test (H = 8.21;p = 0.003), forward deflection (H = 3.70;p = 0.050), backward deflection (H = 5.04;p = 0.024) and maximum sway area (H = 8.86;p = 0.002). Consequently, we found that the 18-week period of Tai-Chi exercises, with a frequency of twice a week for 45 minutes, is beneficial for dynamic balance, which is important for the reduction of fall risk factors among elderly men with dizziness. PMID:22419420

  14. Effect of Tai Chi exercise on blood lipid profiles: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xiao-hong; Mahemuti, Amina; Zhang, Xue-hua; Wang, Ya-ping; Hu, Po; Jiang, Ju-bo; Xiang, Mei-xiang; Liu, Gang; Wang, Jian-an

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Studies have demonstrated that Tai Chi exercise improves blood lipid level with inconsistent results. A meta-analysis was conducted to quantify the effects of Tai Chi on blood lipid profiles in humans. Methods: We screened the databases of PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library (Central), Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang data, and Clinicaltrials.gov for randomized controlled trials with Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) score more than 3 points up to June 2015. Six studies involving 445 subjects were included. Most trials applied 12-week Tai Chi intervention courses. Results: In comparison with the control group, blood triglyceride (TG) level difference between follow-up and baseline was statistically significantly lower in the Tai Chi practicing group (weighted mean difference (WMD) −16.81 mg/dl; 95% confidence intervals (CI) −31.27 to −2.35 mg/dl; P=0.02). A trend to improving total cholesterol (TC) reduction was found with Tai Chi (WMD −7.96 mg/dl; 95% CI −17.30 to 1.39 mg/dl; P=0.10). However, no difference was found in blood low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Conclusions: Tai Chi exercise lowered blood TG level with a trend to decrease blood TC level. Our data suggest that Tai Chi has the potential to implement meaningful blood lipid modification and serve as an adjunctive exercise modality. The relationship between Tai Chi exercise regimen and lipid profile change might have a scientific priority for future investigation. PMID:27487809

  15. Tai Chi as an adjunct physical activity for adults aged 45 years and older enrolled in phase III cardiac rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Taylor-Piliae, Ruth E; Silva, Edna; Sheremeta, Sharon Peachey

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiac rehabilitation improves physical, cognitive and psychosocial functioning, yet services are greatly underutilized with increasing patterns of attrition over time. Tai Chi has been suggested as a possible adjunct to cardiac rehabilitation exercise training. Aim To describe differences in physical, cognitive and psychosocial functioning among adults ≥ 45 years old attending phase III cardiac rehabilitation, who have or have not self-selected Tai Chi exercise as an adjunct physical activity. Methods A cross-sectional design compared subjects attending group-based Wu style Tai Chi classes plus cardiac rehabilitation, with cardiac rehabilitation only. Subjects had a battery of physical and cognitive functioning tests administered to examine aerobic endurance, balance, strength, and flexibility, verbal retrieval/recall, attention, concentration and tracking. Subjects completed a health survey to ascertain cardiac event information, medical history, and psychosocial functioning (i.e. health-related quality of life, stress, depressive symptoms, social support, and Tai Chi self-efficacy). Results A total of 51 subjects (75% married, 84% college-educated, 96% White/European-American) participated. Subjects were on average 70 (± 8) years old and had attended cardiac rehabilitation for 45 (± 37) months. Approximately 45% (n = 23) attended Tai Chi classes plus cardiac rehabilitation, while 55% (n = 28) attended cardiac rehabilitation only. Subjects attending Tai Chi plus cardiac rehabilitation had better balance, perceived physical health, and Tai Chi self-efficacy compared to those attending cardiac rehabilitation only (p ≤ 0.03). Conclusion Tai Chi can be easily implemented in any community/cardiac rehabilitation facility, and may offer adults additional options after a cardiac event. PMID:21095159

  16. Group sequential large sample T2-like chi2 tests for multivariate observations.

    PubMed

    Lachin, John M; Greenhouse, Samuel W; Bautista, Oliver M

    2003-11-15

    In many studies, a K degree of freedom large sample chi2 test is used to assess the effect of treatment on a multivariate response, such as an omnibus T2-like test of a difference between two treatment groups in any of K repeated measures. Alternately, a K df chi2 test may be used to test the equality of K+1 groups in a single outcome measure. Jennison and Turnbull (Biometrika 1991; 78: 133-141) describe group sequential chi2 and F-tests for normal errors linear models, and Proschan, Follmann and Geller (Statist. Med. 1994; 13: 1441-1452) describe group sequential tests for K+1 group comparisons. These methods apply to sequences of statistics that can be characterized as having an independent increments variance-covariance structure, thus simplifying the computation of the sequential variance-covariance matrix and the resulting sequential test boundaries. However, many commonly used statistics do not share this structure, including a Liang-Zeger (Biometrika 1986; 73: 13-22) GEE longitudinal analysis with an independence working correlation structure and a Wei-Lachin (J. Amer. Statist. Assoc. 1984; 79: 653-661) multivariate Wilcoxon rank test, among others. For such analyses, this paper describes the computation of group sequential boundaries for the interim analysis of emerging results using K df tests that are expressed as quadratic forms in a statistics vector that is distributed as multivariate normal, at least asymptotically. We derive the elements of the covariance matrix of multiple successive K df chi2 statistics based on established theorems on the distribution of quadratic forms. This covariance matrix is estimated by augmenting the data from the successive interim analyses into a single analysis from which the component sequential tests and their variance-covariance matrix can then be extracted. Boundary values for the sequential statistics can then be computed using the method of Slud and Wei (J. Amer. Statist. Assoc. 1982; 77: 862-868) or using the

  17. FREQFIT: Computer program which performs numerical regression and statistical chi-squared goodness of fit analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hofland, G.S.; Barton, C.C.

    1990-10-01

    The computer program FREQFIT is designed to perform regression and statistical chi-squared goodness of fit analysis on one-dimensional or two-dimensional data. The program features an interactive user dialogue, numerous help messages, an option for screen or line printer output, and the flexibility to use practically any commercially available graphics package to create plots of the program`s results. FREQFIT is written in Microsoft QuickBASIC, for IBM-PC compatible computers. A listing of the QuickBASIC source code for the FREQFIT program, a user manual, and sample input data, output, and plots are included. 6 refs., 1 fig.

  18. Healing and the mind/body arts: massage, acupuncture, yoga, t'ai chi, and Feldenkrais.

    PubMed

    Wanning, T

    1993-07-01

    1. The health practitioner may encounter clients who are faced with problems that do not seem to respond to traditional health care. 2. One way that some choose to confront these systemic complaints is to employ some of the health traditions of other cultures and to view the body and mind as a balanced whole. 3. Massage, acupuncture and acupressure, t'ai chi, and Feldenkrais focus on the mind/body connection to facilitate healing through relaxation, pressure points, and movement. PMID:8338610

  19. CHY-construction of planar loop integrands of cubic scalar theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Bo

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, by treating massive loop momenta as massless momenta in higher dimensions, we are able to treat all-loop scattering equations as tree ones. As an application of the new perspective, we consider the CHY-construction of bi-adjoint ϕ 3 theory. We present the explicit formula for two-loop planar integrands. We discuss in details how to subtract various forward singularities in the construction. We count the number of terms obtained by our formula and by direct Feynman diagram calculation and find the perfect match, thus provide a strong support for our results.

  20. The refined shielding design for the cyclotron room of the Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital.

    PubMed

    Sheu, R D; Chen, C C; Sheu, R J; Kao, C H; Jiang, S H

    2005-01-01

    Full-scale Monte Carlo simulations of the cyclotron room of the Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital were carried out to improve the inadequate maze design. The double differential neutron source from the 18O(p,n)18F reaction was adopted for the calculation. The weight window variance reduction technique, where the weight window was set by applying the adjoint flux, has been implemented in the MCNP run to facilitate the calculation of the dose rates outside the cyclotron room. Dose rates including neutron and gamma-ray components were calculated for some maze shielding modifications. PMID:16381715

  1. Complementary and alternative treatment for neck pain: chiropractic, acupuncture, TENS, massage, yoga, Tai Chi, and Feldenkrais.

    PubMed

    Plastaras, Christopher T; Schran, Seth; Kim, Natasha; Sorosky, Susan; Darr, Deborah; Chen, Mary Susan; Lansky, Rebecca

    2011-08-01

    Of the multitude of treatment options for the management of neck pain, no obvious single treatment modality has been shown to be most efficacious. As such, the clinician should consider alternative treatment modalities if a modality is engaging, available, financially feasible, potentially efficacious, and is low risk for the patient. As evidence-based medicine for neck pain develops, the clinician is faced with the challenge of which treatments to encourage patients to pursue. Treatment modalities explored in this article, including chiropractic, acupuncture, TENS, massage, yoga, Tai Chi, and Feldenkrais, represent reasonable complementary and alternative medicine methods for patients with neck pain. PMID:21824591

  2. Research on psychoneuroimmunology: tai chi as a stress management approach for individuals with HIV disease.

    PubMed

    Robins, Jo Lynne W; McCain, Nancy L; Gray, D Patricia; Elswick, R K; Walter, Jeanne M; McDade, Elizabeth

    2006-02-01

    Psychoneuroimmunology is a framework for mind-body practice and research that combines cutting-edge scientific exploration with holistic philosophy to appreciate and understand stress responses. The rapidly growing research literature provides a foundation for building an integrative stress management model with the potential to positively influence the stress-disease relationship and, ultimately, health outcomes. This article introduces a novel tai chi intervention and provides quantitative and qualitative data from a randomized clinical trial indicating its effects on psychosocial variables in individuals living with various stages of HIV disease. PMID:16455435

  3. Translation of an Effective Tai Chi Intervention Into a Community-Based Falls-Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fuzhong; Harmer, Peter; Glasgow, Russell; Mack, Karin A.; Sleet, David; Fisher, K. John; Kohn, Melvin A.; Millet, Lisa M.; Mead, Jennifer; Xu, Junheng; Lin, Mei-Li; Yang, Tingzhong; Sutton, Beth; Tompkins, Yvaughn

    2008-01-01

    Tai Chi—Moving for Better Balance, a falls-prevention program developed from a randomized controlled trial for community-based use, was evaluated with the RE-AIM framework in 6 community centers. The program had a 100% adoption rate and 87% reach into the target older adult population. All centers implemented the intervention with good fidelity, and participants showed significant improvements in health-related outcome measures. This evidence-based tai chi program is practical to disseminate and can be effectively implemented and maintained in community settings. PMID:18511723

  4. Properties of the probability density function of the non-central chi-squared distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    András, Szilárd; Baricz, Árpád

    2008-10-01

    In this paper we consider the probability density function (pdf) of a non-central [chi]2 distribution with arbitrary number of degrees of freedom. For this function we prove that can be represented as a finite sum and we deduce a partial derivative formula. Moreover, we show that the pdf is log-concave when the degrees of freedom is greater or equal than 2. At the end of this paper we present some Turán-type inequalities for this function and an elegant application of the monotone form of l'Hospital's rule in probability theory is given.

  5. Tai Chi for Chronic Pain Conditions: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Ling Jun; Lauche, Romy; Klose, Petra; Bu, Jiang Hui; Yang, Xiao Cun; Guo, Chao Qing; Dobos, Gustav; Cheng, Ying Wu

    2016-01-01

    Several studies reported that Tai Chi showed potential effects for chronic pain, but its role remains controversial. This review assessed the evidence regarding the effects of Tai Chi for chronic pain conditions. 18 randomized controlled trials were included in our review. The aggregated results have indicated that Tai Chi showed positive evidence on immediate relief of chronic pain from osteoarthritis (standardized mean difference [SMD], −0.54; 95% confidence intervals [CI], −0.77 to −0.30; P < 0.05). The valid duration of Tai Chi practice for osteoarthritis may be more than 5 weeks. And there were some beneficial evidences regarding the effects of Tai Chi on immediate relief of chronic pain from low back pain (SMD, −0.81; 95% CI, −1.11 to −0.52; P < 0.05) and osteoporosis (SMD, −0.83; 95% CI, −1.37 to −0.28; P = 0.003). Therefore, clinicians may consider Tai Chi as a viable complementary and alternative medicine for chronic pain conditions. PMID:27125299

  6. Tai Chi for Chronic Pain Conditions: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Kong, Ling Jun; Lauche, Romy; Klose, Petra; Bu, Jiang Hui; Yang, Xiao Cun; Guo, Chao Qing; Dobos, Gustav; Cheng, Ying Wu

    2016-01-01

    Several studies reported that Tai Chi showed potential effects for chronic pain, but its role remains controversial. This review assessed the evidence regarding the effects of Tai Chi for chronic pain conditions. 18 randomized controlled trials were included in our review. The aggregated results have indicated that Tai Chi showed positive evidence on immediate relief of chronic pain from osteoarthritis (standardized mean difference [SMD], -0.54; 95% confidence intervals [CI], -0.77 to -0.30; P < 0.05). The valid duration of Tai Chi practice for osteoarthritis may be more than 5 weeks. And there were some beneficial evidences regarding the effects of Tai Chi on immediate relief of chronic pain from low back pain (SMD, -0.81; 95% CI, -1.11 to -0.52; P < 0.05) and osteoporosis (SMD, -0.83; 95% CI, -1.37 to -0.28; P = 0.003). Therefore, clinicians may consider Tai Chi as a viable complementary and alternative medicine for chronic pain conditions. PMID:27125299

  7. Performance test of RM CLEAN and its evaluation with chi-square value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyashita, Yoshimitsu; Ideguchi, Shinsuke; Takahashi, Keitaro

    2016-04-01

    RM CLEAN is a standard method to reconstruct the distribution of cosmic magnetic fields and polarized sources along the line of sight (LOS) from the observed polarization spectrum. This method is similar to the CLEAN algorithm for aperture synthesis of radio telescope images but it is rather unclear in what cases RM CLEAN works well. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of RM CLEAN by simulating spectro-polarimetric observations of two compact sources located in the same LOS, varying the relative initial polarization angle and Faraday depth systematically. In particular, we focus on whether the two polarized sources can be resolved in the Faraday depth space and how well the source parameters can be estimated. We confirm the previous studies that two sources cannot be resolved when they are closely located in the Faraday depth space for specific values of the relative initial polarization angle. Further, we calculate the chi-square value for the fit between the mock polarization spectrum data and the one from RM CLEAN. We find that the chi-square value is not always significantly large even when RM CLEAN gives wrong results.

  8. Mechanisms for alternative treatments in Parkinson's disease: acupuncture, tai chi, and other treatments.

    PubMed

    Ghaffari, Bijan D; Kluger, Benzi

    2014-06-01

    At least 40% of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) use one or more forms of alternative therapy (AT) to complement standard treatments. This article reviews the commonest forms of AT for PD, including acupuncture, tai chi, yoga, mindfulness, massage, herbal medicine, and cannabis. We discuss the current evidence for the clinical efficacy of each AT and discuss potential mechanisms, including those suggested by animal and human studies. With a few notable exceptions, none of the treatments examined were investigated rigorously enough to draw definitive conclusions about efficacy or mechanism. Tai chi, acupuncture, Mucuna pruriens, cannabinoids, and music therapy have all been proposed to work through specific mechanisms, although current evidence is insufficient to support or refute these claims, with the possible exception of Mucuna pruriens (which contains levodopa). It is likely that most ATs predominantly treat PD patients through general mechanisms, including placebo effects, stress reduction, and improved mood and sleep, and AT may provide patients with a greater locus of control regarding their illness. PMID:24760476

  9. One milliarcsecond precision studies in the regions of Delta Equulei and Chi(sup 1) Orionis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatewood, George

    1994-01-01

    Trigonometric parallaxes for stars in the regions of the binary stars Delta Equulei (HR 8123) and Chi(sup l) Orionis (HR 2047) are derived from data collected with the Multichannel Astrometric Photometer (MAP) and the Thaw Refractor of the University of Pittsburgh's Allegheny Observatory. The weighted mean parallax of all trigonometric studies of delta Equ is now +5.42 +/- 0.93 mas, corresponding to absolute magnitudes of 3.87 +/- 0.04 and 3.95 +/- 0.04 mag, respectively, for the primary and secondary. Using the Popper and Dworetsky orbit we find a photocentric semimajor axis of 2.9 +/- 0.8 mas and individual masses of 1.21 +/- 0.090 and 1.19 +/- 0.088 solar masses, respectively, for the primary and secondary components. The weighted mean trigonometric parallax of all studies of the binary star Chi(sup l) Ori is +111.0 +/- 0.92 mas, implying an absolute visual magnitude for the dominant GO V primary of 4.63 +/- 0.018 mag. The photocentric semimajor axis, derived from a fraction of the orbit, is 96.9 +/- 5.4 mas.

  10. Ho Chi Minh City adaptation to increasing risk of coastal and fluvial floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scussolini, Paolo; Lasage, Ralph

    2016-04-01

    Coastal megacities in southeast Asia are a hotspot of vulnerability to floods. In such contexts, the combination of fast socio-economic development and of climate change impacts on precipitation and sea level generates concerns about the flood damage to people and assets. This work focuses on Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, for which we estimate the present and future direct risk from river and coastal floods. A model cascade is used that comprises the Saigon river basin and the urban network, plus the land-use-dependent damaging process. Changes in discharge for five return periods are simulated, enabling the probabilistic calculation of the expected annual economic damage to assets, for differnt scenarios of global emissions, local socio-economic growth, and land subsidence, up to year 2100. The implementation of a range of adaptation strategies is simulated, including building dykes, elevating, creating reservoirs, managing water and sediment upstream, flood-proofing, halting groundwater abstraction. Results are presented on 1) the relative weight of each future driver in determining the flood risk of Ho Chi Minh, and 2) the efficiency and feasibility of each adaptation strategy.

  11. Performance test of RM CLEAN and its evaluation with chi-square value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyashita, Yoshimitsu; Ideguchi, Shinsuke; Takahashi, Keitaro

    2016-06-01

    RM CLEAN is a standard method to reconstruct the distribution of cosmic magnetic fields and polarized sources along the line of sight (LOS) from the observed polarization spectrum. This method is similar to the CLEAN algorithm for aperture synthesis of radio telescope images but it is rather unclear in what cases RM CLEAN works well. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of RM CLEAN by simulating spectro-polarimetric observations of two compact sources located in the same LOS, varying the relative initial polarization angle and Faraday depth systematically. In particular, we focus on whether the two polarized sources can be resolved in the Faraday depth space and how well the source parameters can be estimated. We confirm the previous studies that two sources cannot be resolved when they are closely located in the Faraday depth space for specific values of the relative initial polarization angle. Further, we calculate the chi-square value for the fit between the mock polarization spectrum data and the one from RM CLEAN. We find that the chi-square value is not always significantly large even when RM CLEAN gives wrong results.

  12. Precipitation of sigma and chi phases in δ-ferrite of Type 316FR weld metals

    SciTech Connect

    Chun, Eun Joon; Baba, Hayato; Nishimoto, Kazutoshi; Saida, Kazuyoshi

    2013-12-15

    The decomposition behavior and kinetics of δ-ferrite are examined using aging treatments between 873 and 1073 K for Type 316FR stainless steel weld metals with different solidification modes (316FR AF, 316FR FA). The dominant precipitates are sigma, chi, and secondary austenite nucleated at δ-ferrite/austenite interfaces or in the interior of the ferrite grains. These precipitates consume all the ferrite during isothermal aging in both 316FR AF and FA weld metals. Differences in the precipitation behavior (precipitation initiation time and precipitation speed) between weld metals can be explained by i) the degree of Cr and Mo microsegregation within δ-ferrite or austenite near ferrite and ii) the nucleation sites induced due to the solidification mode (AF or FA), such as the ferrite amount. For both weld materials, a Johnson–Mehl-type equation can express the precipitation behavior of the sigma + chi phases and quantitatively predict the behavior at the service-exposure temperatures of a fast breed reactor. - Highlights: • Precipitation of σ and χ phase in Type 316FR welds (two solidification modes) • Different precipitation behaviors: precipitation initiation time and growth speed • Johnson-Mehl–type equation is the most applicable to the precipitation behaviors • Precipitation behaviors are predicted under service conditions of FBRs.

  13. Sümeyra Tosun: Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award.

    PubMed

    2014-11-01

    The Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award is given jointly by Psi Chi and APA. The award was established to recognize young researchers at the beginning of their professional lives and to commemorate both the 50th anniversary of Psi Chi and the 100th anniversary of psychology as a science (dating from the founding of Wundt's laboratory). The 2014 recipient is Sümeyra Tosun. Tosun was chosen for "an outstanding research paper that examines the cognitive repercussions of obligatory versus optional marking of evidentiality, the linguistic coding of the source of information. In English, evidentiality is conveyed in the lexicon through the use of adverbs. In Turkish, evidentiality is coded in the grammar. In two experiments, it was found that English speakers were equally good at remembering and monitoring the source of firsthand information and the source of non-firsthand information. Turkish speakers were worse at remembering and monitoring non-firsthand information than firsthand information and were worse than English speakers at remembering and monitoring non-firsthand information." Tosun's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. PMID:25486159

  14. Initiation and runaway process of Tsaoling landslide, triggered by the 1999 Taiwan Chi-Chi earthquake, as studied by high-velocity friction experiments (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Togo, T.; Shimamoto, T.; Dong, J.; Lee, C.

    2013-12-01

    High-velocity friction experiments in the last two decades have demonstrated dramatic weakening of simulated faults at seismic slip rates on the order of 1 m/s (e.g., Di Toro et al., 2011, Nature). Similar experiments revealed very low friction of landslide materials (0.05-0.2 in friction coefficient) that can cause catastrophic landslides with velocity exceeding even 10 m/s (e.g., Miyamoto et al. (2009) on the 1999 Tsaoling landslide in Taiwan; Yano et al. (2009) on the 1999 Jiufengershan landslide in Taiwan,; Ferri et al. (2010, 2011) on the 1963 Vaiont landslide in Italy; Kuo et al. (2011) on the 2009 Hsiaolin landslide in Taiwan). Those studies strongly suggest that there are common processes operative in fault zones and along slip surfaces of catastrophic landslides along bedding planes, fractures or joints. As for catastrophic landslides triggered by an earthquake, an important issue to be addressed is how a landslide initiates during seismic ground motion. Thus we have studied the initiation and runaway process of the Tsaoling landslide by idealizing the initial landslide movement during seismic ground motion as an oscillating accelerating/decelerating motion. Tsaoling landslide is the largest landslide among those triggered by the Chi-Chi earthquake with its volume of about 130 Mm3. The landslide took place along very planar bedding planes of the porous Pliocene sedimentary rocks (mostly siltstone and sandstone), with a dip angle of 14 degree. A seismic record at a station about 500 m away from the landslide and a witness of a survivor who slid on top of the landslide mass indicate that the average speed of the landslide reached 20~40 m/s. A simple analysis of sliding block indicates that the kinetic friction has to be 0.05~0.15 to produce such a high-velocity. Moreover, Tang et al. (2009, Eng. Geol.) analyzed landslide motion with the discrete element method and showed that the landslide mass must have slid nearly as an intact mass, without much

  15. Control of RecBCD enzyme activity by DNA binding- and Chi hotspot-dependent conformational changes.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Andrew F; Amundsen, Susan K; Guttman, Miklos; Lee, Kelly K; Luo, Jie; Ranish, Jeffrey; Smith, Gerald R

    2014-10-23

    Faithful repair of DNA double-strand breaks by homologous recombination is crucial to maintain functional genomes. The major Escherichia coli pathway of DNA break repair requires RecBCD enzyme, a complex protein machine with multiple activities. Upon encountering a Chi recombination hotspot (5' GCTGGTGG 3') during DNA unwinding, RecBCD's unwinding, nuclease, and RecA-loading activities change dramatically, but the physical basis for these changes is unknown. Here, we identify, during RecBCD's DNA unwinding, two Chi-stimulated conformational changes involving RecC. One produced a marked, long-lasting, Chi-dependent increase in protease sensitivity of a small patch, near the Chi recognition domain, on the solvent-exposed RecC surface. The other change was identified by crosslinking of an artificial amino acid inserted in this RecC patch to RecB. Small-angle X-ray scattering analysis confirmed a major conformational change upon binding of DNA to the enzyme and is consistent with these two changes. We propose that, upon DNA binding, the RecB nuclease domain swings from one side of RecC to the other; when RecBCD encounters Chi, the nuclease domain returns to its initial position determined by crystallography, where it nicks DNA exiting from RecC and loads RecA onto the newly generated 3'-ended single-stranded DNA during continued unwinding; a crevice between RecB and RecC increasingly narrows during these steps. This model provides a physical basis for the intramolecular "signal transduction" from Chi to RecC to RecD to RecB inferred previously from genetic and enzymatic analyses, and it accounts for the enzymatic changes that accompany Chi's stimulation of recombination. PMID:25073102

  16. Curative effect of Tai Chi exercise in combination with auricular plaster therapy on improving obesity patient with secondary hyperlipidemia

    PubMed Central

    Song, Qinghua; Yuan, Yandong; Jiao, Chun; Zhu, Ximei

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Observe the effect of Tai Chi in combination with auricular plaster therapy on treating obesity patient with secondary hyperlipidemia. Method: Select 45 patients who suffer from simple obesity and secondary hyperlipidemia and then adopt random digital table to divide them into a Tai Chi group, an auricular plaster therapy group and a combination group. Each group consists of 15 patients. The patients in Tai Chi group are trained with Tai Chi twice a day, while those in auricular plaster therapy are treated with auricular plaster therapy 3-5 times a day and those in the combination group are trained with Tai Chi and auricular plaster therapy twice a day. BMI, body fat percentage and blood lipid indexes are respectively detected for the selected patients in the three groups before treatment and after 180 days’ treatment. Results: After 180 days’ treatment, BMI index and body fat percentage of Tai Chi group are significantly improved in comparison with those before treatment (P<0.05) and the blood lipid index also presents the improvement trend, but the overall effect is not obvious; body fat percentage and BMI index of the auricular plaster therapy group are not improved obviously in comparison with those before the treatment (P>0.05) but the blood lipid index is improved significantly (P<0.05); each index of the combination group is improved significantly compared with those before treatment (P<0.05). By comparing the improvement effect after treatment with that of the other two groups, P<0.05, the difference shows the statistical significance and the treatment effect is more obvious. Conclusion: As for the patient suffering from simple obesity and secondary hyperlipidemia, Tai Chi exercise in combination with auricular plaster therapy can show the obvious synergistic therapeutic effect and thus the combined curative effect is obviously superior to that of the single therapy method. PMID:26885081

  17. YvoA and CcpA Repress the Expression of chiB in Bacillus thuringiensis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Kun; Li, Li-na; Pan, Jin-hua; Wang, Ting-ting; Chen, Yue-hua

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis produces chitinases, which are involved in its antifungal activity and facilitate its insecticidal activity. In our recent work, we found that a 16-bp sequence, drechiB (AGACTTCGTGATGTCT), downstream of the minimal promoter region of the chitinase B gene (chiB) was a critical site for the inducible expression of chiB in B. thuringiensis Bti75. In this work, we show that a GntR family transcriptional regulator (named YvoABt), which is homologous to YvoA of Bacillus subtilis, can specifically bind to the drechiB oligonucleotide sequences in vitro by using electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) assays. The results of quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting indicated that deletion of yvoA caused an ∼7.5-fold increase in the expression level of chiB. Furthermore, binding of purified YvoABt to its target DNA could be abolished by glucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcN-6-P). We also confirmed, in the presence of the phosphoprotein Hpr-Ser45-P, that purified CcpABt bound specifically to the promoter of chiB, which contains the “crechiB” sequence (ATAAAGCGTTTACA). According to the results of qRT-PCR and Western blotting, deletion of ccpA resulted in a 39-fold increase in the chiB expression level, and glucose no longer influenced the expression of chiB. We confirm that chiB is negatively controlled by both CcpABt and YvoABt in Bti75. PMID:26162881

  18. Treating Survivors of Torture and Refugee Trauma: A Preliminary Case Series Using Qigong and T'ai Chi

    PubMed Central

    Piwowarczyk, Linda; Fulker, Derek; Bazazi, Alexander R.; Saper, Robert B.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Objectives This paper seeks to explore the potential value of qigong and t'ai chi practice as a therapeutic intervention to aid in the treatment of survivors of torture and refugee trauma. Design The common effects of torture and refugee trauma are surveyed with a focus on post-traumatic stress disorder. An alternative theoretical framework for conceptualizing and healing trauma is presented. Evidence is reviewed from the scientific literature that describes how qigong and t'ai chi have been used in studies of the general population to alleviate symptoms that are also expressed in torture survivors. Observations are presented from a combined, simplified qigong and t'ai chi intervention with a convenience sample of four refugee survivors of torture. Results Preliminary observations from four cases and a review of the literature support the potential efficacy of incorporating qigong and t'ai chi into the treatment of survivors of torture and refugee trauma. Conclusions The incorporation of qigong and t'ai chi into the treatment of torture survivors, within a new framework for healing trauma, merits further investigation. PMID:18803491

  19. Chemical dampening of Ly6C(hi) monocytes in the periphery produces anti-depressant effects in mice.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiao; Ma, Sijing; Kang, An; Wu, Mengqiu; Wang, Lin; Wang, Qiong; Wang, Guangji; Hao, Haiping

    2016-01-01

    The involvement of systemic immunity in depression pathogenesis promises a periphery-targeting paradigm in novel anti-depressant discovery. However, relatively little is known about druggable targets in the periphery for mental and behavioral control. Here we report that targeting Ly6C(hi) monocytes in blood can serve as a strategy for anti-depressant purpose. A natural compound, ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1), was firstly validated as a periphery-restricted chemical probe. Rg1 selectively suppressed Ly6C(hi) monocytes recruitment to the inflamed mice brain. The proinflammatory potential of Ly6C(hi) monocytes to activate astrocytes was abrogated by Rg1, which led to a blunted feedback release of CCL2 to recruit the peripheral monocytes. In vitro study demonstrated that Rg1 pretreatment on activated THP-1 monocytes retarded their ability to trigger CCL2 secretion from co-cultured U251 MG astrocytes. CCL2-triggered p38/MAPK and PI3K/Akt activation were involved in the action of Rg1. Importantly, in mice models, we found that dampening Ly6C(hi) monocytes at the periphery ameliorated depression-like behavior induced by neuroinflammation or chronic social defeat stress. Together, our work unravels that blood Ly6C(hi) monocytes may serve as the target to enable remote intervention on the depressed brain, and identifies Rg1 as a lead compound for designing drugs targeting peripheral CCL2 signals. PMID:26783261

  20. Mining of unexplored habitats for novel chitinases--chiA as a helper gene proxy in metagenomics.

    PubMed

    Cretoiu, Mariana Silvia; Kielak, Anna Maria; Abu Al-Soud, Waleed; Sørensen, Søren J; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2012-06-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the abundance and diversity of chitin-degrading microbial communities in ten terrestrial and aquatic habitats in order to provide guidance to the subsequent exploration of such environments for novel chitinolytic enzymes. A combined protocol which encompassed (1) classical overall enzymatic assays, (2) chiA gene abundance measurement by qPCR, (3) chiA gene pyrosequencing, and (4) chiA gene-based PCR-DGGE was used. The chiA gene pyrosequencing is unprecedented, as it is the first massive parallel sequencing of this gene. The data obtained showed the existence across habitats of core bacterial communities responsible for chitin assimilation irrespective of ecosystem origin. Conversely, there were habitat-specific differences. In addition, a suite of sequences were obtained that are as yet unregistered in the chitinase database. In terms of chiA gene abundance and diversity, typical low-abundance/diversity versus high-abundance/diversity habitats was distinguished. From the combined data, we selected chitin-amended agricultural soil, the rhizosphere of the Arctic plant Oxyria digyna and the freshwater sponge Ephydatia fluviatilis as the most promising habitats for subsequent bioexploration. Thus, the screening strategy used is proposed as a guide for further metagenomics-based exploration of the selected habitats. PMID:22526805

  1. Chemical dampening of Ly6Chi monocytes in the periphery produces anti-depressant effects in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xiao; Ma, Sijing; Kang, An; Wu, Mengqiu; Wang, Lin; Wang, Qiong; Wang, Guangji; Hao, Haiping

    2016-01-01

    The involvement of systemic immunity in depression pathogenesis promises a periphery-targeting paradigm in novel anti-depressant discovery. However, relatively little is known about druggable targets in the periphery for mental and behavioral control. Here we report that targeting Ly6Chi monocytes in blood can serve as a strategy for anti-depressant purpose. A natural compound, ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1), was firstly validated as a periphery-restricted chemical probe. Rg1 selectively suppressed Ly6Chi monocytes recruitment to the inflamed mice brain. The proinflammatory potential of Ly6Chi monocytes to activate astrocytes was abrogated by Rg1, which led to a blunted feedback release of CCL2 to recruit the peripheral monocytes. In vitro study demonstrated that Rg1 pretreatment on activated THP-1 monocytes retarded their ability to trigger CCL2 secretion from co-cultured U251 MG astrocytes. CCL2-triggered p38/MAPK and PI3K/Akt activation were involved in the action of Rg1. Importantly, in mice models, we found that dampening Ly6Chi monocytes at the periphery ameliorated depression-like behavior induced by neuroinflammation or chronic social defeat stress. Together, our work unravels that blood Ly6Chi monocytes may serve as the target to enable remote intervention on the depressed brain, and identifies Rg1 as a lead compound for designing drugs targeting peripheral CCL2 signals. PMID:26783261

  2. Chi-squared and Fisher-Irwin tests of two-by-two tables with small sample recommendations.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Ian

    2007-08-30

    Two-by-two tables commonly arise in comparative trials and cross-sectional studies. In medical studies, two-by-two tables may have a small sample size due to the rarity of a condition, or to limited resources. Current recommendations on the appropriate statistical test mostly specify the chi-squared test for tables where the minimum expected number is at least 5 (following Fisher and Cochran), and otherwise the Fisher-Irwin test; but there is disagreement on which versions of the chi-squared and Fisher-Irwin tests should be used. A further uncertainty is that, according to Cochran, the number 5 was chosen arbitrarily. Computer-intensive techniques were used in this study to compare seven two-sided tests of two-by-two tables in terms of their Type I errors. The tests were K. Pearson's and Yates's chi-squared tests and the 'N-1' chi-squared test (first proposed by E. Pearson), together with four versions of the Fisher-Irwin test (including two mid-P versions). The optimum test policy was found to be analysis by the 'N-1' chi-squared test when the minimum expected number is at least 1, and otherwise, by the Fisher-Irwin test by Irwin's rule (taking the total probability of tables in either tail that are as likely as, or less likely than the one observed). This policy was found to have increased power compared to Cochran's recommendations. PMID:17315184

  3. The Effect of Tai Chi on Reducing the Risk of Falling: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Del-Pino-Casado, Rafael; Obrero-Gaitán, Esteban; Lomas-Vega, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Tai Chi has frequently been used as a preventive measure against falling in at-risk populations. However, studies have yielded contradictory results, and literature reviews have considered only a small number of trials and have not addressed some key aspects, such as sources of heterogeneity and publication bias. This study includes 13 controlled trials published before June 2015 that analyzed the effectiveness of Tai Chi in fall prevention in populations of frail and at-risk adults. The effect measure used in this meta-analysis was absolute risk reduction (ARR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). According to our findings, practice of Tai Chi significantly prevents the risk of falling (ARR, [Formula: see text]; 95% CI: [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]). The heterogeneity of results across the trials was low, with a reduced risk of publication bias, and no significant effect differences were observed between studies comparing Tai Chi with other interventions or non-treatment. We therefore conclude that Tai Chi is more effective than other measures, or no intervention, for fall prevention in at-risk populations. Further research is warranted to analyze the consequences of falls and to study the episodes rather than the cases of falls. PMID:27430918

  4. {chi}{sup 2} DISCRIMINATORS FOR TRANSITING PLANET DETECTION IN KEPLER DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Seader, Shawn; Tenenbaum, Peter; Jenkins, Jon M.; Burke, Christopher J. E-mail: peter.tenenbaum@nasa.gov E-mail: christopher.j.burke@nasa.gov

    2013-06-01

    The Kepler spacecraft observes a host of target stars to detect transiting planets. Requiring a 7.1{sigma} detection in three years of data yields over 100,000 detections, many of which are false alarms. After a second cut is made on a robust detection statistic, some 50,000 or more targets still remain. These false alarms waste resources as they propagate through the remainder of the software pipeline and so a method to discriminate against them is crucial in maintaining the desired sensitivity to true events. This paper describes a {chi}{sup 2} test which represents a novel application of an existing formalism developed for false alarm mitigation in searches for gravitational waves. Using this technique, the false alarm rate can be lowered to {approx}5%.

  5. A Review Focused on the Psychological Effectiveness of Tai Chi on Different Populations

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Long; Layne, Charles; Lowder, Thomas; Liu, Jian

    2012-01-01

    As a popular exercise form, Tai Chi (TC) has been investigated to determine its contributions to an active and healthy lifestyle. There are an increasing number of researchers who focus on exploring the potential physiological and psychological benefits of TC but only a few systematic reviews of these benefits to a variety of populations. The purpose of this paper is to comprehensively evaluate the reported psychological benefits associated with practicing TC. Although many investigators have reported possible psychological benefits of TC for children, young adults, older healthy adults, and for a variety of patient populations, many of the reports suffer one or more methodological flaws. These flaws include inadequate study design, including lack of control groups, small sample sizes, unsophisticated statistical techniques, or publication without rigorous peer review. After reviewing the results of the existing literature regarding the potential psychological benefits of TC, we recommend that future investigations be conducted with additional adherence to the traditional scientific process. PMID:21792371

  6. Tai Chi Chuan exercises in enhancing bone mineral density in active seniors.

    PubMed

    Lui, Pauline Po Yee; Qin, Ling; Chan, Kai Ming

    2008-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a silent, systemic, chronic disease characterized by low bone mass and structural deterioration of bone tissue. Its clinical and public health implications are substantial because of the mortality, morbidity, and medical care cost associated with osteoporotic fractures. Although estrogen-replacement therapy or anti-bone resorptive drugs can prevent postmenopausal bone loss, they also show side effects. Physical activity is an nonpharmacological approach for prevention of osteoporosis. Among different types of physical activities, Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) is a low- to moderate-intensity exercise particularly suitable for the elderly, and has been practiced by Chinese for centuries. This article reviews the benefits of TCC for the prevention of osteoporosis and falls by retarding bone loss, improving neuromuscular coordination, and promoting general health. PMID:18206569

  7. High chi block copolymer DSA to improve pattern quality for FinFET device fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, HsinYu; Miyazoe, Hiroyuki; Vora, Ankit; Magbitang, Teddie; Arellano, Noel; Liu, Chi-Chun; Maher, Michael J.; Durand, William J.; Dawes, Simon J.; Bucchignano, James J.; Gignac, Lynne; Sanders, Daniel P.; Joseph, Eric A.; Colburn, Matthew E.; Willson, C. Grant; Ellison, Christopher J.; Guillorn, Michael A.

    2016-03-01

    Directed self-assembly (DSA) with block-copolymers (BCP) is a promising lithography extension technique to scale below 30nm pitch with 193i lithography. Continued scaling toward 20nm pitch or below will require material system improvements from PS-b-PMMA. Pattern quality for DSA features, such as line edge roughness (LER), line width roughness (LWR), size uniformity, and placement, is key to DSA manufacturability. In this work, we demonstrate finFET devices fabricated with DSA-patterned fins and compare several BCP systems for continued pitch scaling. Organic-organic high chi BCPs at 24nm and 21nm pitches show improved low to mid-frequency LER/LWR after pattern transfer.

  8. A review focused on the psychological effectiveness of tai chi on different populations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Long; Layne, Charles; Lowder, Thomas; Liu, Jian

    2012-01-01

    As a popular exercise form, Tai Chi (TC) has been investigated to determine its contributions to an active and healthy lifestyle. There are an increasing number of researchers who focus on exploring the potential physiological and psychological benefits of TC but only a few systematic reviews of these benefits to a variety of populations. The purpose of this paper is to comprehensively evaluate the reported psychological benefits associated with practicing TC. Although many investigators have reported possible psychological benefits of TC for children, young adults, older healthy adults, and for a variety of patient populations, many of the reports suffer one or more methodological flaws. These flaws include inadequate study design, including lack of control groups, small sample sizes, unsophisticated statistical techniques, or publication without rigorous peer review. After reviewing the results of the existing literature regarding the potential psychological benefits of TC, we recommend that future investigations be conducted with additional adherence to the traditional scientific process. PMID:21792371

  9. High prevalence of overweight among adolescents in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Two previous surveys conducted in Ho Chi Minh City revealed an increasing prevalence of overweight and obese adolescents, from 5.9% in 2002 to 11.7% in 2004. From 2004 to 2010, the government set up and implemented health promotion programs to promote physical activity and good nutritional habits in order to prevent overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. Our study aimed to estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents in urban areas of Ho Chi Minh City in 2010. Methods A representative sample of 1,989 students aged 11–14 years was selected using a multistage cluster sampling method. 23 schools were randomly selected from the full list of all public junior high schools. In each selected school, 2 classes were chosen at random and all students from the class were examined. Age- and sex-adjusted overweight and obesity were defined using International Obesity Taskforce cut-offs. Results The prevalences of overweight and obesity were 17.8% and 3.2%, respectively. Prevalences of overweight and obesity were significantly higher in boys (22%, 5.4% ) than in girls (13.3%, 1.3%, p<0.001) and higher in children from districts with a high economic level (20.5% , 3.8% ) than in those from districts with a low economic level (12.1%, 3.8%, p<0.001). Additionally, children living in wealthier families were more overweight and obese than those living in less wealthy families. When using WHO cutoffs, the overall prevalences of overweight and obesity reached 19.6% and 7.9%, respectively. Conclusion Our study’s findings suggest that the prevalence of overweight and obesity among secondary school students remains high, especially among boys living in wealthier families. Public health programs should therefore be developed or improved in order to promote good eating habits and physical activity among youth in HCMC. PMID:23414441

  10. Semileptonic B{sub c} to P-Wave Charmonia ({Chi}{sub c0},{Chi}{sub c1},h{sub c}) Transitions within QCD Sum Rules

    SciTech Connect

    Sundu, Hayriye; Bayar, Melahat; Azizi, Kazem

    2010-12-22

    The form factors of the semileptonic B{sub c{yields}}S(AV)l{nu} (l = {tau},{mu},e) transitions, where S and AV denote the scalar {Chi}{sub c0} and axial vector ({Chi}{sub c1},h{sub c}) mesons, are calculated within the framework of the three-point QCD sum rules. The results of form factors are used to estimate the total decay widths and branching ratios of these transitions. A comparison of our results on branching ratios with the predictions of other approaches is also presented.

  11. Molecular characterization of full-length MLV-related endogenous retrovirus ChiRV1 from the chicken, Gallus gallus.

    PubMed

    Borysenko, Leonid; Stepanets, Volodymir; Rynditch, Alla V

    2008-06-20

    We report the first full-length sequence of an endogenous retrovirus from the genome of domestic chicken, that is not related to the Avian leukemia viruses (ALV). This retrovirus, designated ChiRV1, clusters with Murine leukemia virus (MLV)-related retroviruses and hence is the first complete gammaretrovirus from the genome of a bird. Nevertheless it is not related to exogenous MLV-related retroviruses infecting chicken. The provirus is 9133 bp long and contains 90%-identical LTRs as well as reading frames for the gag, pol and env genes, interrupted by in-frame stop codons. Expression analysis showed that ChiRV1 is a transcribed provirus. Screening of the chicken genome database revealed 100 ChiRV1-related sequences that are grouped into three classes based upon LTR alignment and subsequent phylogenetic analysis. PMID:18440041

  12. Control of RecBCD Enzyme Activity by DNA Binding- and Chi Hotspot-Dependent Conformational Changes

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Andrew F.; Amundsen, Susan K.; Guttman, Miklos; Lee, Kelly K.; Luo, Jie; Ranish, Jeffrey; Smith, Gerald R.

    2014-01-01

    Faithful repair of DNA double-strand breaks by homologous recombination is crucial to maintain functional genomes. The major Escherichia coli pathway of DNA break repair requires RecBCD enzyme, a complex protein machine with multiple activities. Upon encountering a Chi recombination hotspot (5′ GCTGGTGG 3′) during DNA unwinding, RecBCD’s unwinding, nuclease, and RecA-loading activities change dramatically, but the physical basis for these changes is unknown. Here, we identify, during RecBCD’s DNA unwinding, two Chi-stimulated conformational changes involving RecC. One produced a marked, long-lasting, Chi-dependent increase in protease sensitivity of a small patch, near the Chi recognition domain, on the solvent-exposed RecC surface. The other change was identified by crosslinking of an artificial amino acid inserted in this RecC patch to RecB. Small-angle X-ray scattering analysis confirmed a major conformational change upon binding of DNA to the enzyme and is consistent with two changes. We propose that, upon DNA binding, the RecB nuclease domain swings from one side of RecC to the other; when RecBCD encounters Chi, the nuclease domain returns to its initial position determined by crystallography, where it nicks DNA exiting from RecC and loads RecA onto the newly generated 3′-ended single-stranded DNA during continued unwinding; a crevice between RecB and RecC increasingly narrows during these steps. This model provides a physical basis for the intramolecular “signal transduction” from Chi to RecC to RecD to RecB inferred previously from genetic and enzymatic analyses, and it accounts for the enzymatic changes that accompany Chi’s stimulation of recombination. PMID:25073102

  13. The Vibrio cholerae Extracellular Chitinase ChiA2 Is Important for Survival and Pathogenesis in the Host Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, Moumita; Nag, Dhrubajyoti; Koley, Hemanta; Saha, Dhira Rani; Chatterjee, Nabendu Sekhar

    2014-01-01

    In aquatic environments, Vibrio cholerae colonizes mainly on the chitinous surface of copepods and utilizes chitin as the sole carbon and nitrogen source. Of the two extracellular chitinases essential for chitin utilization, the expression of chiA2 is maximally up-regulated in host intestine. Recent studies indicate that several bacterial chitinases may be involved in host pathogenesis. However, the role of V. cholerae chitinases in host infection is not yet known. In this study, we provide evidence to show that ChiA2 is important for V. cholerae survival in intestine as well as in pathogenesis. We demonstrate that ChiA2 de-glycosylates mucin and releases reducing sugars like GlcNAc and its oligomers. Deglycosylation of mucin corroborated with reduced uptake of alcian blue stain by ChiA2 treated mucin. Next, we show that V. cholerae could utilize mucin as a nutrient source. In comparison to the wild type strain, ΔchiA2 mutant was 60-fold less efficient in growth in mucin supplemented minimal media and was also ∼6-fold less competent to survive when grown in the presence of mucin-secreting human intestinal HT29 epithelial cells. Similar results were also obtained when the strains were infected in mice intestine. Infection with the ΔchiA2 mutant caused ∼50-fold less fluid accumulation in infant mice as well as in rabbit ileal loop compared to the wild type strain. To see if the difference in survival of the ΔchiA2 mutant and wild type V. cholerae was due to reduced adhesion of the mutant, we monitored binding of the strains on HT29 cells. The initial binding of the wild type and mutant strain was similar. Collectively these data suggest that ChiA2 secreted by V. cholerae in the intestine hydrolyzed intestinal mucin to release GlcNAc, and the released sugar is successfully utilized by V. cholerae for growth and survival in the host intestine. PMID:25244128

  14. Pyrite alteration and neoformed magnetic minerals in the fault zone of the Chi-Chi earthquake (Mw7.6, 1999): Evidence for frictional heating and co-seismic fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Yu-Min; Song, Sheng-Rong; Aubourg, Charles; Song, Yen-Fang; Boullier, Anne-Marie; Lee, Teh-Quei; Evans, Mark; Yeh, En-Chao; Chen, Yi-Ming

    2012-08-01

    During an earthquake, physical and chemical transformations lead to alteration and formation of minerals in the gouge layer. Altered and neoformed minerals can be used as tracers of some earthquake processes. In this study, we investigate pyrite and magnetic minerals within the host Chinshui siltstone and the 16-cm-thick gouge. This gouge hosts the principal slip zone of Chi-Chi earthquake (Mw7.6, 1999). In the Chinshui siltstone, pyrite framboids of various sizes and euhedral pyrite are observed. The magnetic mineral assemblage comprises stoichiometric magnetite, greigite, and fine-grained pyrrhotite. The pyrite content is generally reduced in the gouge compared to the wall rock. The magnetic mineral assemblage in the gouge consists of goethite, pyrrhotite, and partially oxidized magnetite. The pyrrhotite, goethite and some magnetite are neoformed. Pyrrhotite likely formed from high temperature decomposition of pyrite (>500°C) generated during co-seismic slip of repeated earthquakes. Goethite is inferred to have formed from hot aqueous co-seismic fluid (>350°C) in association with the 1999 Chi-Chi event. Elevated fluid temperatures can also explain the partial alteration of magnetite and the retrograde alteration of some pyrrhotite to pyrite. We suggest that characterization of neoformed magnetic minerals can provide important information for studying earthquake slip zones in sediment-derived fault gouge.

  15. Evolution of coseismic fault-related folds induced by the Chi-Chi earthquake: A case study of the Wufeng site, Central Taiwan by using 2D distinct element modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yi-Rong; Hu, Jyr-Ching; Lin, Ming-Lang

    2014-01-01

    Coseismic fault-propagation folds are generally associated with blind faults, which are of considerable academic interest and have recently been recognized as critical for assessing seismic hazards. The Wufeng excavation site was characterized by a major east-dipping basal thrust exhibiting a dip angle of 34° and 2 opposing vergent thrusts generated a pop-up anticlinal fold in soil cover induced by the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake (Mw = 7.6). In order to represent the soft soil behavior, we set up a direct shear simulation test to obtain valid parameters for soil. A series of 2D distinct element models possessing different bonding types and strengths was conducted to determine the deformation pattern near the surface and the evolution of the fault tip propagation. The coseismic deformation features of soft and plastic soil cover like the mutative limb thickness, complex ruptures and the overturned forelimbs in small-scale caused by the propagation of the blind fault tip were accurately predicted by contact-bond model in which grains were allowed to rotate and slip without cements breaking. Our results show that the alternative thrusts and pop-up structure developed before the main basal thrust fault ruptured through the ground surface at the Wufeng excavation site. We evaluated the slipping distance of the main fault at approximately 6 m in Wufeng during the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake.

  16. CHI3L1 plays a role in cancer through enhanced production of pro-inflammatory/pro-tumorigenic and angiogenic factors.

    PubMed

    Libreros, Stephania; Garcia-Areas, Ramon; Iragavarapu-Charyulu, Vijaya

    2013-12-01

    Elevated serum levels of a glycoprotein known as chitinase-3-like protein 1 (CHI3L1) have been correlated with poor prognosis and shorter survival of patients with cancer and inflammatory diseases. The biological and physiological functions of CHI3L1 in cancer have not yet been completely elucidated. In this review, we describe the role of CHI3L1 in inducing pro-inflammatory/pro-tumorigenic and angiogenic factors that could promote tumor growth and metastasis. PMID:24222276

  17. What have we learned from HaChi (HAZE IN CHINA) project?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chunsheng; Wiedensohler, Alfred

    2016-04-01

    HaChi (Haze in China) project, a joint research between Chinese NSFC and German DFG, focuses on investigating the aerosol hygroscopic properties in the North China Plain and their relationships to aerosol optics, radiation, cloud physics and ozone photochemistry. As we know, Eastern China has suffered from severe pollution caused by large concentrations of aerosol particles resulting from emissions from fossil fuel and biomass burning, transportation and some other combustion sources. Low visibility events are frequently encountered and mainly accompanied with haze as a result of either high aerosol loading or the strong hygroscopic growth of the aerosol particles. Especially at relative humidities between 90 and 99%, the aerosol particles grow exponentially. The hygroscopic behaviors at relative humidities close to 100% are also strongly linked to the particles ability to grow into cloud droplets at supersaturation. In my talk, I will present an overview of the up to date results from a serial of intensive and comprehensive field campaigns conducted at the sites of Wuqing and Xianghe, China, between 2009 and 2014. The measurements of the ambient aerosol hygroscopic properties at high RH between 90 and 98.5% are reported first. These in situ field measurements of atmospheric aerosol are unique with respect to their high RH range and especially of importance to better understand the widespread anthropogenic haze over the North China Plain. Then I will introduce the methods for calculating of aerosol hygroscopicity and their parameterization schemes derived from size-segregated chemical composition and the light scattering enhancement factor measurements in the North China Plain. A new method was proposed to retrieve the ratio of the externally mixed light absorbing carbon mass to the total mass of light absorbing carbon. A new parameterization scheme of light extinction for low visibilities on hazy days is proposed based on visibility, relative humidity, aerosol

  18. Oxygen Isotope Records in Modern Oyster Shells from Chi Ku, Tainan and Their Implication of Seasonality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y. C.; Mii, H. S.; Li, K. T.

    2015-12-01

    To exam whether oxygen isotope records of Crassostrea gigasoysters can be used as proxies of environment, 133 cultivated oysters and 21 water samples were collected from Chi Ku area, Tainan City, southern Taiwan in December of 2012, and from March, 2013 to July, 2014. Instrumental air and water temperatures and precipitation records were obtained from a nearest Central Weather Bureau (CWB) station roughly 16 km north of Chi Ku. The oxygen and carbon isotope values of the ligamental area of the modern oyster shells are from -6.92‰ to -0.08‰ (-3.05 ± 1.17‰, N = 2280; 1σ; VPDB) and from -5.57‰ to 0.63‰ (-1.88 ± 0.81‰), respectively. Oxygen isotope values of the water samples are mainly between -0.28‰ and 0.74‰ (0.18 ± 0.29‰, N = 20; 1σ; VSMOW). However, water oxygen isotope value of -2.75‰ was observed for the water sample collected immediately after a typhoon heavy rainfall. Seasonal temperature fluctuation pattern of estimated oxygen isotope temperatures from modern shells is similar to that of CWB instrumental records. However, the oxygen isotope temperatures are respectively about 3 °C and 10°C higher than those of instrumental records for winter and summer. Higher estimated oxygen isotope temperatures are most likely caused by underestimated fraction of freshwater. We analyzed 5 archaeological oyster shells of Siraya culture (500~250B.P.) collected from Wu Chien Tuso North (WCTN) archaeological site of Tainan branch of Southern Taiwan Science Park to infer the harvest season of mollusks. Oxygen isotope values of the ligamental area of the archaeological oyster shells are between -5.98‰ and -1.26‰ (-3.34 ± 1.37‰, N = 60; 1σ), and carbon isotope values are between -3.21‰ and 0.60‰ (-2.04‰ ± 0.55‰). The oxygen isotope records of archaeological oyster shells also showed clear seasonality. Most of the oysters were collected in autumn and winter. Oxygen isotope values of archaeological oyster shells was 1‰ greater than that

  19. Transition form factors of P wave bottomonium {chi}{sub b0} (1P) into B{sub c} meson

    SciTech Connect

    Suengue, J. Y.; Azizi, K.; Sundu, H.

    2012-10-23

    Taking into account the two-gluon condensate contributions, the transition form factors enrolled to the low energy effective Hamiltonian describing the semileptonic {chi}{sub b0}{yields}B{sub c} Script-Small-L {nu},( Script-Small-L = (e,{mu},{tau})) decay channel are calculated within three-point QCD sum rules.

  20. RESEARCH NOTE FROM COLLABORATION: NNLC: non-negative least chi-square minimization and application to HPGe detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Désesquelles, P.; Ha, T. M. H.; Korichi, A.; LeBlanc, F.; Petrache, C. M.; AGATA Collaboration

    2009-03-01

    A new method is proposed for the problem of solving chi-square minimization with a positive solution. This method is embodied in an evolution of the popular NNLS algorithm. Its efficiency with respect to residue minimization is illustrated by the improvement it permits on the location of gamma-interactions inside an AGATA HPGe detector.

  1. Human Cytomegalovirus-Induced NKG2Chi CD57hi Natural Killer Cells Are Effectors Dependent on Humoral Antiviral Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zeguang; Sinzger, Christian; Frascaroli, Giada; Reichel, Johanna; Bayer, Carina; Wang, Li; Schirmbeck, Reinhold

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that expansion of NKG2C-positive natural killer (NK) cells is associated with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV); however, their activity in response to HCMV-infected cells remains unclear. We show that NKG2Chi CD57hi NK cells gated on CD3neg CD56dim cells can be phenotypically identified as HCMV-induced NK cells that can be activated by HCMV-infected cells. Using HCMV-infected autologous macrophages as targets, we were able to show that these NKG2Chi CD57hi NK cells are highly responsive to HCMV-infected macrophages only in the presence of HCMV-specific antibodies, whereas they are functionally poor effectors of natural cytotoxicity. We further demonstrate that NKG2Chi CD57hi NK cells are intrinsically responsive to signaling through CD16 cross-linking. Our findings show that the activity of pathogen-induced innate immune cells can be enhanced by adaptive humoral immunity. Understanding the activity of NKG2Chi CD57hi NK cells against HCMV-infected cells will be of relevance for the further development of adoptive immunotherapy. PMID:23637420

  2. Effectiveness of a Tai-Chi Training and Detraining on Functional Capacity, Symptomatology and Psychological Outcomes in Women with Fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Zurita, Alejandro; Carbonell-Baeza, Ana; Aparicio, Virginia A.; Ruiz, Jonatan R.; Tercedor, Pablo; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Background. The purpose was to analyze the effects of Tai-Chi training in women with fibromyalgia (FM). Methods. Thirty-two women with FM (mean age, 51.4 ± 6.8 years) attended to Tai-Chi intervention 3 sessions weekly for 28 weeks. The outcome measures were: tenderness, body composition, functional capacity and psychological outcomes (Fibromyalgia impact questionnaire (FIQ), Short Form Health Survey 36 (SF-36)). Results. Patients showed improvements on pain threshold, total number of tender points and algometer score (all P < 0.001). The intervention was effective on 6-min walk (P = 0.006), back scratch (P = 0.002), handgrip strength (P = 0.006), chair stand, chair sit & reach, 8 feet up & go and blind flamingo tests (all P < 0.001). Tai-Chi group improved the FIQ total score (P < 0.001) and six subscales: stiffness (P = 0.005), pain, fatigue, morning tiredness, anxiety, and depression (all P < 0.001). The intervention was also effective in six SF-36 subscales: bodily pain (P = 0.003), vitality (P = 0.018), physical functioning, physical role, general health, and mental health (all P < 0.001). Conclusions. A 28-week Tai-Chi intervention showed improvements on pain, functional capacity, symptomatology and psychological outcomes in female FM patients. PMID:22649476

  3. An Empirical Comparison of Four Chi-Square and Kolmogorov Models for Testing Goodness of Fit to Normal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kittleson, Howard M.; Roscoe, John T.

    This study compares the relative power and robustness of the chi-square and Kolmogorov statistics with both the linear score scale and equal areas models. It is limited to the situation in which the mean and standard deviation are fixed by the hypothesis (a necessary constraint with the Kolmogorov tests). Two tables are presented which report the…

  4. Feasibility and effectiveness of a Chen-style Tai Chi programme for stress reduction in junior secondary school students.

    PubMed

    Lee, Linda Y K; Chong, Yeuk Lan; Li, Ngai Yin; Li, Man Chung; Lin, Lai Na; Wong, Lee Yi; Wong, Brian Kit; Yip, Wing Ping; Hon, Cho Hang; Chung, Pui Kuen; Man, Shuk Yee

    2013-04-01

    Stress is common in junior secondary school students (JSSS). This study aimed to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of a Chen-style Tai Chi programme for stress reduction in JSSS. A non-equivalent pre-test/post-test control group design was adopted, and a convenience sample of 69 JSSS was recruited. The experimental group (n = 32) joined a Chen-style Tai Chi programme, which included 10 sessions of 80-minute Tai Chi training (one session per week). The control group (n = 37) proceeded with self-study. Participants' stress levels were assessed using the Perceived Stress Scale. Feasibility was determined as the percentage of participants completing and attending the programme. Effectiveness was measured as the significant difference in changes in stress levels before and after the intervention between the two groups. Results preliminarily supported that the programme was feasible for JSSS. Completion rate was 100%, and attendance rate was 90%. However, no significant difference was noted in changes in stress levels before and after the intervention between the two groups. The potential health benefits of Tai Chi could not be detected owing to the restrictions imposed by the research setting and study limitations. The present study represents initial efforts in this direction and serves as reference for future study. PMID:22674634

  5. Green Eyeshades vs. Chi Squares Revisited: Editors' and JMC Administrators' Perceptions of Major Issues in Journalism Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickson, Thomas V.; Sellmeyer, Ralph L.

    The question of whether there is a chasm between the newspaper profession and journalism education is not a new one. In a 1967 article titled "Green Eyeshades vs. Chi-Squares," Jake Highton indicated that journalists looked at journalism research as obscure and irrelevant. The study described in this paper investigated the extent of the gap…

  6. On the appropriateness of applying chi-square distribution based confidence intervals to spectral estimates of helicopter flyover data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutledge, Charles K.

    1988-01-01

    The validity of applying chi-square based confidence intervals to far-field acoustic flyover spectral estimates was investigated. Simulated data, using a Kendall series and experimental acoustic data from the NASA/McDonnell Douglas 500E acoustics test, were analyzed. Statistical significance tests to determine the equality of distributions of the simulated and experimental data relative to theoretical chi-square distributions were performed. Bias and uncertainty errors associated with the spectral estimates were easily identified from the data sets. A model relating the uncertainty and bias errors to the estimates resulted, which aided in determining the appropriateness of the chi-square distribution based confidence intervals. Such confidence intervals were appropriate for nontonally associated frequencies of the experimental data but were inappropriate for tonally associated estimate distributions. The appropriateness at the tonally associated frequencies was indicated by the presence of bias error and noncomformity of the distributions to the theoretical chi-square distribution. A technique for determining appropriate confidence intervals at the tonally associated frequencies was suggested.

  7. Measures of effect size for chi-squared and likelihood-ratio goodness-of-fit tests.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Janis E; Berry, Kenneth J; Mielke, Paul W

    2006-10-01

    A fundamental shift in editorial policy for psychological journals was initiated when the fourth edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (1994) placed emphasis on reporting measures of effect size. This paper presents measures of effect size for the chi-squared and the likelihood-ratio goodness-of-fit statistic tests. PMID:17165404

  8. Effects of Tai Chi on a Functional Arm Reaching Task in Older Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Rini; Hui-Chan, Christina W; Bhatt, Tanvi

    2015-07-01

    This study quantified the effect of aging and the long-term practice of Tai Chi on upper limb movement control, indicated by performance outcome (temporal) and performance production (amplitude) measures, on a multiplanar stand-reaching (i.e., functional) task. Twelve Tai Chi practitioners (TCPs), 11 age-matched older nonpractitioners (ONPs), and 12 young subjects performed cued, flexion-reaching, and abduction-reaching tasks using a custom set-up. Surface EMG and acceleration data sampled from wireless sensors rendered performance outcome (reaction time, burst duration, time to peak, and movement time) and performance production (normalized EMG amplitude and peak acceleration) measures. Young subjects and TCPs demonstrated better performance outcome and performance production than ONPs. Relative-effect computations (i.e., the effect of Tai Chi expressed as a percentage of the effect of aging) showed that TCPs exhibited approximately 20-60% (flexion) and 20-100% (abduction) improvement in reaching task performance compared with ONPs. Tai Chi practitioners displayed better arm movement control than ONPs on a relatively challenging and functional stand-reaching task. PMID:25007862

  9. Teachers' and Students' Attitudes towards the Implementation of Content-Based Instruction in Higher Education in Ho Chi Minh City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Bui Phu; Hai, Tran Thi

    2016-01-01

    Content-based instruction programs carried out in higher education in Ho Chi Minh City rests against national language-in-education policy and planning. However, in the first phase of implementation, this kind of courses proves problematic. This present study investigated teachers' and students' opinions on the implementation of content-based…

  10. Noncentral Chi-Square versus Normal Distributions in Describing the Likelihood Ratio Statistic: The Univariate Case and Its Multivariate Implication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Ke-Hai

    2008-01-01

    In the literature of mean and covariance structure analysis, noncentral chi-square distribution is commonly used to describe the behavior of the likelihood ratio (LR) statistic under alternative hypothesis. Due to the inaccessibility of the rather technical literature for the distribution of the LR statistic, it is widely believed that the…

  11. Tai Chi Chuan optimizes the functional organization of the intrinsic human brain architecture in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Gao-Xia; Dong, Hao-Ming; Yang, Zhi; Luo, Jing; Zuo, Xi-Nian

    2014-01-01

    Whether Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) can influence the intrinsic functional architecture of the human brain remains unclear. To examine TCC-associated changes in functional connectomes, resting-state functional magnetic resonance images were acquired from 40 older individuals including 22 experienced TCC practitioners (experts) and 18 demographically matched TCC-naïve healthy controls, and their local functional homogeneities across the cortical mantle were compared. Compared to the controls, the TCC experts had significantly greater and more experience-dependent functional homogeneity in the right post-central gyrus (PosCG) and less functional homogeneity in the left anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the right dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex. Increased functional homogeneity in the PosCG was correlated with TCC experience. Intriguingly, decreases in functional homogeneity (improved functional specialization) in the left ACC and increases in functional homogeneity (improved functional integration) in the right PosCG both predicted performance gains on attention network behavior tests. These findings provide evidence for the functional plasticity of the brain’s intrinsic architecture toward optimizing locally functional organization, with great implications for understanding the effects of TCC on cognition, behavior and health in aging population. PMID:24860494

  12. Numerical investigation and optimization of multi-pulse CHI spheromak performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Bryan, J. B.; Romero-Talamas, C. A.; Woodruff, S.

    2015-11-01

    Nonlinear extended-MHD computation with the NIMROD code is used to explore spheromak formation and sustainment with multi-pulse coaxial helicity injection (CHI). The goal of this research is to optimize spheromak performance in order to find candidate modes of operation for future experimental studies. We are modeling multiple specific shots from the Sustained Spheromak Physics eXperiment (SSPX) to both diagnose the parameters that affect efficiency--in particular, how the injector current and bias flux affect plasma confinement and magnetic helicity content relative to injected power--and to validate the numerical model. Preliminary results show quantitative agreement between several synthetic and experimental diagnostic measurements. The results also find--in addition to changing the magnetic topology and being the mechanism for poloidal flux amplification [E.B. Hooper et al. PPCF 2012]--the non-axisymmetric column mode decreases the decay rate of magnetic helicity relative to the injected current. Operational regimes will eventually be extended beyond those achieved in SSPX. We are also exploring the effect of the flux conserver and injector geometries on spheromak performance. This work is supported by DARPA under grant no. N66001-14-1-4044.

  13. Changes in heart-rate variability of survivors of nasopharyngeal cancer during Tai Chi Qigong practice.

    PubMed

    Fong, Shirley S M; Wong, Janet Y H; Chung, Louisa M Y; Yam, Timothy T T; Chung, Joanne W Y; Lee, Y M; Chow, Lina P Y; Luk, W S; Ng, Shamay S M

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] To explore the changes in heart-rate variability (HRV) of survivors of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) before, during, and after a Tai Chi (TC) Qigong exercise. [Subjects and Methods] Eleven survivors of NPC participated voluntarily in the study. The heart rate of each participant was measured continuously for 1 minute before the TC Qigong intervention, during the 5-minute TC Qigong intervention, and for 1 minute after the intervention, using a Polar heart-rate monitor. Spectral HRV was expressed in terms of normalised low frequency (LF) power, normalised high frequency (HF) power, and the low frequency/high frequency (LF/HF) power ratio. [Results] Both the LF-power and the HF-power components had significant time effects. However, the time effect of the LF/HF power ratio was not significant. Post hoc contrast analysis revealed a significant decrease in LF power and a concomitant increase in HF power during the 4th minute and 5th minute of the TC Qigong exercise. [Conclusion] Five minutes of TC Qigong exercise was found to improve HRV by increasing HF power and decreasing LF power, but these effects were transient. TC Qigong might be an appropriate exercise for improving the ANS function and psychological and cardiac health of survivors of NPC. PMID:26157266

  14. High Resolution Rapid Response Observations of Compact Radio Sources with the Ceduna Hobart Interferometer (CHI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, Jay M.; Lovell, James E. J.; Ojha, Roopesh; Kadler, Matthias; Dickey, John M.; Edwards, Philip G.

    2011-01-01

    Context. Frequent, simultaneous observations across the electromagnetic spectrum are essential to the study of a range of astrophysical phenomena including Active Galactic Nuclei. A key tool of such studies is the ability to observe an object when it flares i.e. exhibits a rapid and significant increase in its flux density. Aims. We describe the specific observational procedures and the calibration techniques that have been developed and tested to create a single baseline radio interferometer. that can rapidly observe a flaring object. This is the only facility that is dedicated to rapid high resolution radio observations of an object south of -30 degrees declination. An immediate application is to provide rapid contemporaneous radio coverage of AGN flaring at y-ray frequencies detected by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. Methods. A single baseline interferometer was formed with radio telescopes in Hobart, Tasmania and Ceduna, South Australia. A software correlator was set up at the University of Tasmania to correlate these data. Results. Measurements of the flux densities of flaring objects can be made using our observing strategy within half an hour of a triggering event. These observations can be calibrated with amplitude errors better than 20%. Lower limits to the brightness temperatures of the sources can also be calculated using CHI. Key words. instrumentation:interferometers - galaxies:active - galaxies:jets - galaxies:nuclei quasars:general gamma rays:galaxies- 1.

  15. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF THE B AND Be STAR POPULATIONS OF h AND {chi} PERSEI

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh Boyer, Amber N.; Virginia McSwain, M.; Aragona, Christina; Ou-Yang, Benjamin E-mail: mcswain@lehigh.edu E-mail: ouyang@chara.gsu.edu

    2012-12-01

    We present a study of the B and Be star populations of the double cluster h and {chi} Persei. Blue optical spectroscopy is used to first measure projected rotational velocity, V sin i, effective surface temperature, T{sub eff}, and surface gravity, log g, for B-type sample stars, while available Stroemgren photometry is used to calculate T{sub eff} and log g for the Be stars showing emission. In our sample of 104 objects for which we measured these stellar parameters, 28 are known or proposed Be stars. Of these Be stars, 22 show evidence of emission at the times of our observations, and furthermore, we find evidence in our data and the literature for at least 8 transient Be stars in the clusters. We find that the Be stars are not rotating near their critical velocity, contrary to the results of studies of similar open clusters. We compare the results of our analysis with other previous studies and find that the cluster members are more evolved than found by Huang and Gies but still retain much of their initial rotational angular momentum.

  16. Effects of Tai Chi Training on Antioxidant Capacity in Pre- and Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Palasuwan, Attakorn; Suksom, Daroonwan; Margaritis, Irène; Soogarun, Suphan; Rousseau, Anne-Sophie

    2011-01-01

    The risk of oxidative stress-related metabolic diseases increases with menopause and physical inactivity. We hypothesized that an 8-week Tai Chi (TC) training program (2 sessions in class; 2 sessions at home; 1-1:15/session) would improve antioxidant capacity and reduce cardiovascular risks in both pre- (n = 8) and postmenopausal (n = 7) sedentary women. Selected measures of physical fitness and blood parameters were analyzed before and after the program. Besides the well-known effects of TC on balance, flexibility, and maximum leg extensor strength, TC (1) increased erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity—an aerobic training-responsive antioxidant enzyme—and plasma total antioxidant status and (2) decreased plasma total homocysteine, a cardiovascular risk marker. In addition to being a low-velocity, low-impact, and relatively safe, TC is a suitable physical activity design for pre- and postmenopausal women to increase antioxidant defenses. Investigating breathing effects during TC movements would be an interesting area for further research in diseases prevention. PMID:21584229

  17. [Laser fluorescence excited spectrum of NO via alpha2sigma<--chi2pi transition].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lian-shui; Zhang, Gui-yin; Zhao, Xiao-hui; Yang, Xiao-dong; Li, Yi

    2004-06-01

    Two-photon fluorescence excited spectrum of NO induced by Nd: YAG laser pumped optical parameter generator/amplifier as excitation source was obtained in the range of 420-472 nm. With this technique, the structure of the energy levels of NO molecule in alpha2sigma electronic state was investigated. The peaks of the spectrum were attributed to alpha2sigma(v' = 0,1)<--chi2pi(v" = 0) transition. The near square dependence of fluorescence signal on the laser intensity indicates a two-photon process. The ground-vibrational-state oscillation frequency and the force constant of alpha2sigma state were calculated. The fluorescence lifetime of alpha2sigma(v' = 0) state under the pressure of 266 Pa was also obtained by measuring fluorescence decay curve of alpha2sigma(v' = 0) states. It is about 53.76 ns. Fitting the curve of the fluorescence radiant lifetime versus pressure, the spontaneous radiant lifetimes and the rate coefficient of nonradiative transition relaxation of alpha2sigma(v' = 0,1) states were deduced. PMID:15766171

  18. Cancer incidence in Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam, 1995-1996.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Q M; Nguyen, M Q; Nguyen, H C; Nguyen, C H; Parkin, D M

    1998-05-18

    The results from the population-based cancer registry for the city of Ho Chi Minh in 1995-1996 represent the first information on the incidence of cancer in southern Viet Nam. A total of 4,080 cancer cases in males and 4,338 in females were registered, corresponding to age-standardized incidence rates (ASRs) of 130.9 per 100,000 in men and 100.7 per 100,000 in women. As elsewhere in South East Asia, the principal cancer of men was liver cancer (ASR 25.3), with moderately high rates of lung cancer (ASR 24.6) and stomach cancer (ASR 16.5); cancer of the penis, reportedly very common in early case series from Viet Nam, is now rarely seen. In women, cervical cancer was the dominant malignancy (ASR 26.0) followed by breast cancer (ASR 12.2) and stomach cancer (ASR 7.5). Although there may be some under-registration in these early years of operation, the recorded rates of cervical cancer and liver cancer are already high and suggest that southern Viet Nam would benefit from an effective cervical cancer screening programme, as well as efforts to interrupt the transmission of hepatitis B virus to reduce liver cancer incidence and effective anti-smoking programs. PMID:9590120

  19. A chi-squared-transformed subspace of LBP histogram for visual recognition.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jianfeng; Jiang, Xudong; Yuan, Junsong

    2015-06-01

    Local binary pattern (LBP) and its variants have been widely used in many recognition tasks. Subspace approaches are often applied to the LBP feature in order to remove unreliable dimensions, or to derive a compact feature representation. It is well-known that subspace approaches utilizing up to the second-order statistics are optimal only when the underlying distribution is Gaussian. However, due to its nonnegative and simplex constraints, the LBP feature deviates significantly from Gaussian distribution. To alleviate this problem, we propose a chi-squared transformation (CST) to transfer the LBP feature to a feature that fits better to Gaussian distribution. The proposed CST leads to the formulation of a two-class classification problem. Due to its asymmetric nature, we apply asymmetric principal component analysis (APCA) to better remove the unreliable dimensions in the CST feature space. The proposed CST-APCA is evaluated extensively on spatial LBP for face recognition, protein cellular classification, and spatial-temporal LBP for dynamic texture recognition. All experiments show that the proposed feature transformation significantly enhances the recognition accuracy. PMID:25769153

  20. An optical region elemental abundance analysis of the chemically peculiar HgMn star chi Lupi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wahlgren, Glenn M.; Adelman, Saul J.; Robinson, Richard D.

    1994-01-01

    The optical spectrum of the chemically peculiar HgMn type binary star chi Lupi has been analyzed to determine atmospheric parameters and elemental abundances. Echelle spectra were obtained with the 3.9 m Anglo-Australian telescope to exploit the extreme shape-lined nature of the spectrum. This study was undertaken in support of ultraviolet analyses currently underway that utilize echell spectra obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope. For the B9.5 V primary star we obtain T(sub eff) = 10650 K, log g = 3.9, and xi = 0 km/s, while for the A2 V secondary, T(sub eff) = 9200 K, log g = 4.0, and xi = 2 km/s. Most of the elemental abundances are typical of HgMn stars with similar T(sub eff) showing an overall iron-peak elemental abundance distribution that is basically solar in nature with enhancement of the light elements Si, P, and S, as well as all detected elements heavier than the iron group. Abundances for several elements have been determined for the first time in this star, including several of the rare-earths. The secondary star spectrum shows Am star characteristics. We also discuss the relative merits of the equivalent width and synthetic spectrum techniques in determining the elemental abundences, concluding that the synthetic spectrum technique is necessary for obtaining abundances with the utmost accuracy.

  1. Tai Chi Chuan modulates heart rate variability during abdominal breathing in elderly adults.

    PubMed

    Wei, Gao-Xia; Li, You-Fa; Yue, Xiao-Lin; Ma, Xiao; Chang, Yu-Kai; Yi, Long-Yan; Li, Jing-Cheng; Zuo, Xi-Nian

    2016-03-01

    Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) practice is currently intentionally applied in clinical populations, especially those with cardiovascular diseases because of its potential benefits on the autonomic nervous system. The long-term effect of TCC practice on heart rate variability (HRV) remains largely unknown. In this study, we recruited 23 TCC practitioners whose experience averaged approximately 21 years and 19 controls matched by age, sex and education to examine the effect of TCC practice on the autonomic nervous system during a resting state and during an abdominal breathing state. HRV was measured by traditional electrocardiogram (ECG) recording. The results showed that the low frequency, total power frequency, and normalized low frequency components and the low-frequency/high-frequency ratio were significantly higher, whereas the normalized high frequency was significantly lower in the TCC practitioners relative to controls during the abdominal breathing state. However, we did not detect any significant difference in the HRV measures during the resting state between the two groups. Additionally, TCC experience did not correlate with HRV components either in the abdominal state or the resting state in the TCC group. Considering all of these findings, we suggest that TCC improves vagal activity and the balance between sympathetic and parasympathetic activity during the relaxation state. This study also provides direct physiological evidence for the role of TCC practice in relaxation. PMID:26377754

  2. Tai chi chuan exercise for patients with breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yuanqing; Yang, Kehu; Shi, Xiue; Liang, Haiqian; Zhang, Fengwa; Lv, Qingfang

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) is a form of aerobic exercise that may be an effective therapy for improving psychosomatic capacity among breast cancer survivors. This meta-analysis analyzed the available randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the effects of TCC in relieving treatment-related side effects and quality of life in women with breast cancer. Methods. RCTs were searched in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library through April 2014. Data were analyzed on pathology (pain, interleukin-6, and insulin-like growth factor 1), physical capacity (handgrip, limb physical fitness, and BMI), and well-being (physical, social, emotional, and general quality of life). Results. Nine RCTs, including a total of 322 breast cancer patients, were examined. Compared with control therapies, the pooled results suggested that TCC showed significant effects in improving handgrip dynamometer strength, limb elbow flexion (elbow extension, abduction, and horizontal adduction). No significant differences were observed in pain, interleukin-6, insulin-like growth factor, BMI, physical well-being, social or emotional well-being, or general health-related quality of life. Conclusion. The short-term effects of TCC may have potential benefits in upper limb functional mobility in patients with breast cancer. Additional randomized controlled trials with longer follow-up are needed to provide more reliable evidence. PMID:25793000

  3. Impacts of Land Cover Changes on Hydrologic Responses: A Case Study of Chi River Basin, Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homdee, Tipaporn; Pongput, Kobkiat; Kanae, Shinjiro

    Land use and land cover (LULC) have been continuously changing, through human activities, leading to variations in hydrological cycle. In this study, we applied SWAT model to investigate potential impacts of LULC on water budget of the Chi river basin in Thailand. Five plausible scenarios of land use change were evaluated, including an conversion of forested area, expansion of farmland, switching of rice paddy fields to energy crops and two scenarios involving conversion of farmland to rice and sugarcane plantation. The results indicated that different land use scenarios contributed to various effects in annual and seasonal water yield and evapotranspiration (ET). Conversion of forested area and farmland showed slightly small changes on water flows and ET. Substitution of paddy fields by sugarcane plantation showed clearly reduced water flows and increased ET by almost 5.0% in dry season. Particularly, in case of expansion of rice paddy fields to farmland, small changes occur on annual flow and ET but more significant effect occur on seasonal flows. The results showed decrease in ET by nearly 12.0%, leading to increase of water yield by up to 5.1% during dry season. Finally, conversion of farmland to sugarcane plantation for biofuel production showed significant effect on seasonal ET, mainly decreasing in dry season by 4.5 % but small changes were detected on water yields.

  4. A survey of infective larvae of Gnathostoma in eels sold in Ho Chi Minh City.

    PubMed

    Le, T X; Rojekittikhun, W

    2000-03-01

    To investigate the distribution of Gnathostoma spp in Ho Chi Minh City (HCM city), 1,081 eels were purchased from a local market twice a month from March 1998 to February 1999. Infective larvae of Gnathostoma spp detected from the flesh and liver of eels by the press preparation technique were examined and identified. Three hundred and fifty advanced third-stage larvae were recovered from liver, none from the flesh. The average rate of infection was 0.11; a high rate of infection was found from August to November and a low rate of infection from February to May. The average number of larvae/eel was 2.9; the greatest number of larvae/eel was in January whereas the lowest was in March and April. There was a marked decrease in both prevalence and intensity of infection from February to May, followed by a rise from June. The finding suggests that in HCM city, the infection rate abruptly decreases soon after the end of the rainy season and starts to rise when the rain comes and reaches its peak at the end of the rainy season. All recovered larvae were identified as G. spinigerum. PMID:11023080

  5. SEX RATIO AT BIRTH AND THE IDEAL FAMILY IN CHI LINH DISTRICT, VIETNAM

    PubMed Central

    Thuy Duong, Doan Thi

    2016-01-01

    Chi Linh district, which locates in the Red Delta River region, has been recognized as the “hot pot” of high sex ratio at birth in Vietnam. This paper used community-based periodic Demographic-Epidemiologic Surveillance System (CHILILAB) to describe sex ratio at birth (SRB) and identify social - economic factors that related to the SRB. A total 5,940 births born from August 1, 2004 to August 31, 2011 was included in analysis. The SRB of 116.6 boys/100 girls (CI: 110.7 – 122.5) was significantly higher than normal. SRB were found high among second child having only older sister(s), among third child and higher birth order, among mothers who were 35 years and older, running small business or homemakers. Interestingly, a SRB of 91.4 boys/100 girls (CI: 81.8 – 102) was found among second children having an older brother, this is significantly lower than the normal level. Further research should be done to assert if abortion is practiced both to have a son and to have a daughter. PMID:27499813

  6. Improving the chi-squared approximation for bivariate normal tolerance regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feiveson, Alan H.

    1993-01-01

    Let X be a two-dimensional random variable distributed according to N2(mu,Sigma) and let bar-X and S be the respective sample mean and covariance matrix calculated from N observations of X. Given a containment probability beta and a level of confidence gamma, we seek a number c, depending only on N, beta, and gamma such that the ellipsoid R = (x: (x - bar-X)'S(exp -1) (x - bar-X) less than or = c) is a tolerance region of content beta and level gamma; i.e., R has probability gamma of containing at least 100 beta percent of the distribution of X. Various approximations for c exist in the literature, but one of the simplest to compute -- a multiple of the ratio of certain chi-squared percentage points -- is badly biased for small N. For the bivariate normal case, most of the bias can be removed by simple adjustment using a factor A which depends on beta and gamma. This paper provides values of A for various beta and gamma so that the simple approximation for c can be made viable for any reasonable sample size. The methodology provides an illustrative example of how a combination of Monte-Carlo simulation and simple regression modelling can be used to improve an existing approximation.

  7. The Impact of Tai Chi on Cognitive Performance in Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wayne, Peter M.; Walsh, Jacquelyn N.; Taylor-Piliae, Ruth E.; Wells, Rebecca E.; Papp, Kathryn V.; Donovan, Nancy J.; Yeh, Gloria Y.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Summarize and critically evaluate research on the effects of Tai Chi on cognitive function in older adults. DESIGN Systematic review with meta-analysis. SETTING Community and residential care. PARTICIPANTS Individuals aged 60 and over (with the exception of one study) with and without cognitive impairment. MEASUREMENTS Cognitive ability using a variety of neuropsychological testing. RESULTS Twenty eligible studies with a total of 2,553 participants were identified that met inclusion criteria for the systematic review: 11 of the 20 eligible studies were randomized controlled trials (RCTs), 1 was a prospective non-randomized controlled study, 4 were prospective non-controlled observational studies, and 4 were cross-sectional studies. Overall quality of RCTs was modest, with 3 of 11 trials categorized as high risk of bias. Meta-analyses of outcomes related to executive function in RCTs of cognitively healthy adults indicated a large effect size when Tai Chi was compared to non-intervention controls (Hedge’s g=0.90; p=0.043) and moderate effect size when compared to exercise controls (Hedge’s g=0.51; p=0.003). Meta-analyses of outcomes related to global cognitive function in RCTs of cognitively impaired adults, ranging from mild cognitive impairment to dementia, showed smaller but statistically significant effects when Tai Chi was compared to both non-intervention controls (Hedge’s g=0.35; p=0.004) and other active interventions (Hedge’s g=0.30; p=0.002). Findings from non-randomized studies add further evidence that Tai Chi may positively impact these and other domains of cognitive function. CONCLUSION Tai Chi shows potential to enhance cognitive function in older adults, particularly in the realm of executive functioning and in those individuals without significant impairment. Larger and methodologically sound trials with longer follow-up periods are needed before more definitive conclusions can be drawn. PMID:24383523

  8. Small-Scale Interstellar Structure Toward the Open Cluster CHI Persei-Fuse II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonneborn, George (Technical Monitor); Friedman, Scott

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the physical conditions of gas along sight lines toward 6 stars in the core Chi Persei open cluster. These sight lines traverse gas in both the Orion and Perseus spiral arms of the Galaxy, at distances of 500 and 2000 pc, respectively. The stars have angular separations ranging from 45 to 280 arcsec; 60 arcsec corresponds to linear distances of 0.15 and 0.6 pc in the two arms. Thus, abundance variations in these observations would constitute evidence for small-scale variations in the properties of the interstellar medium. Ground-based Na I observations at high resolution (approx. 15 km/sec) toward 172 stars (including the 6 in this study) in the double open cluster h and Chi Persei have revealed complex spatial variation. These variations are especially evident in the gas at velocities of -40 and -55 km/sec, corresponding to the Perseus spiral arm. 21 cm observations of HI emission using the Low Resolution DRAO Survey, with a 12-arcmin beam, also show variations. Averaging the Na I apparent optical depth profiles of neighboring sight lines in order to mimic such a beam size reduces the variation, as compared to the individual Na I measurements, but still show variations larger than seen in the 21 cm profiles. Na I is not the dominant ionization state of Na in the interstellar medium. Thus, it is possible that the variations seen really trace physical structures in the interstellar medium, or they may simply result from variations in the radiation field seen by the gas, or be due to some other environmental circumstance. To distinguish among these possibilities in the present study we obtained FUSE spectra toward the 6 targets in order to measure the molecular hydrogen absorption profiles along these sight lines. The higher J states of H2 are populated by the ambient W radiation field, and thus can provide insight into the environment affecting the gas. If both the high and low J states reveal absorption line profiles with

  9. Epidemiological urinalysis of children from kindergartens of Can Gio, Ho Chi Minh City - Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent studies on Vietnamese children have shown that kidney diseases are not detected early enough to prevent chronic renal failure. The dipstick test is a simple and useful tool for detecting urinary abnormalities, especially in isolated or remote areas of Vietnam, where children have limited access to health care. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2011 at seven kindergartens in Can Gio district, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Two thousand and twelve children, aged 3 to 5, were enrolled. Morning mid-stream urine samples were examined by dipstick. Children with abnormal findings were re-examined with a second dipstick and underwent further investigations. Results Urinalysis was available for 1,032 boys and 980 girls. Mean age was 4.4 ± 0.8 years. Urinary abnormalities were detected in 108 (5.5%) of the subjects. Among them, nitrituria and leucocyturia accounted for more than 50%. Positive fractions of proteinuria, hematuria, nitrituria, leucocyturia, and combined nitrituria and leucocyturia after two dipsticks were 0.1%, 0.1%, 2%, 1% and 0.3%, respectively. Abnormal findings were more common in girls than boys (p < 0.001), and higher in communes with very low (< 50 persons/km2) population density (14.3% vs 4.1%, p < 0.001). A renal ultrasound detected four cases of hydronephrosis and one case of duplication of ureter. Conclusions The prevalence of urinary abnormalities in asymptomatic children in South Vietnam demonstrates the need for hygiene education among parents. Training for dipstick usage for all medical staff at health stations, especially in remote areas and in places with very low population density, is also clearly necessary. Routine urinalysis can be set up if a close control is conducted at locations. PMID:24206763

  10. Plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis and shoot organogenesis from immature cotyledons of Camellia nitidissima Chi.

    PubMed

    Lü, Jinfeng; Chen, Rong; Zhang, Muhan; da Silva, Jaime A Teixeira; Ma, Guohua

    2013-09-01

    Camellia nitidissima Chi (Theaceae) is a world-famous economic and ornamental plant with golden-yellow flowers. It has been classified as one of the rarest and most endangered plants in China. Our objective was to induce somatic embryogenesis, shoot organogenesis and plant regeneration for C. nitidissima. Three types of callus (whitish, reddish and yellowish) were induced from immature cotyledons on improved woody plant medium (WPM) with different plant growth regulators (PGRs). Among the callus, whitish callus was induced by 4.5 μM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and reddish and yellowish callus were induced by strongly active cytokinins, thidiazuron (TDZ) or 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), singly or combined with weakly active auxin, α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). The embryogenic callus could differentiate into somatic embryos, nodular embryogenic structures (large embryo-like structures) or adventitious shoots depending on the PGR used in WPM. BAP was best for adventitious buds and zeatin was best for somatic embryogenesis while kinetin (Kt) was best for the formation of nodular embryogenic structures. The three regeneration pathways often occurred in the same embryogenic callus clumps. Most shoots (80.0%) developed roots in WPM supplemented with 24.6 μM IBA and 0.3 μM NAA while 47.5% of somatic embryos could germinate directly and develop into plantlets on induction medium supplemented with 0.9 μM BAP and 0.1 μM NAA. The nodular embryogenic structures could be sub-cultured and cyclically developed in one of two differentiation pathways: shoot organogenesis or somatic embryogenesis. Plantlets derived from shoot buds rooted and somatic embryos germinated when transplanted into soil in a greenhouse; 66.7% of plantlets from shoot culture and 78.6% of plantlets from somatic embryos survived after 8 weeks' acclimatization. PMID:23790533

  11. Effects of Tai Chi on adiponectin and glucose homeostasis in individuals with cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Chang, Rei-Yeuh; Koo, Malcolm; Ho, Meng-Ying; Lin, Zi-Zi; Yu, Zer-Ran; Lin, Yen-Fen; Wang, Be-Jen

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the acute effect of a single bout of Tai Chi (TC) exercise on adiponectin and glucose homeostasis in individuals with cardiovascular risk factors. Twenty-six individuals (mean age 60.2 years) with at least one cardiovascular risk factor who had been practicing Yang's style TC exercise for at least 3 months were recruited from a regional hospital in Taiwan. A one-group repeated measured quasi-experimental design was used. Participants completed a 60-min Yang's style TC exercise routine including warm up, stretching exercises, and TC followed by a 30-min resting period. After a 1-week washout period, the same group of participants underwent a control condition in which they were instructed to remain seated for 90 min at the study location. Blood samples were collected both before and after the TC intervention or the sitting condition. The difference between pre-post measurements for adiponectin was 0.58 ± 1.42 μg/ml in the TC trial and -0.46 ± 0.99 μg/ml in the sitting trial. The differences between the two trials were statistically significant (P = 0.004). The changes from pretrial to posttrial were significantly greater for glycerol (P < 0.001), cholesterol (P = 0.046), and LDL-C (P = 0.038) in the TC trial compared with those in the sitting trial. Conversely, the changes were significantly lesser for HOMA-IR (P = 0.004), log (HOMA-IR) (P = 0.001), and glucose (P = 0.003) in TC trial compared with those in the sitting trial. In conclusion, a single bout of TC exercise had a significant positive effect on blood adiponectin concentrations in individuals with cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:20809228

  12. Efficacy and Safety of Tai Chi for Parkinson's Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Xiaojia; Liu, Shaonan; Lu, Fuchang; Shi, Xiaogeng; Guo, Xinfeng

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective In Parkinson's disease (PD), wearing off and side effects of long-term medication and complications pose challenges for neurologists. Although Tai Chi is beneficial for many illnesses, its efficacy for PD remains uncertain. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Tai Chi for PD. Methods Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of Tai Chi for PD were electronically searched by the end of December 2013 and identified by two independent reviewers. The tool from the Cochrane Handbook 5.1 was used to assess the risk of bias. A standard meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 5.2 software. Results Ten trials with PD of mild-to-moderate severity were included in the review, and nine trials (n = 409) were included in the meta-analysis. The risk of bias was generally high in the blinding of participants and personnel. Improvements in the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Part III (mean difference (MD) −4.34, 95% confidence interval (CI) −6.67–−2.01), Berg Balance Scale (MD: 4.25, 95% CI: 2.83–5.66), functional reach test (MD: 3.89, 95% CI: 1.73–6.04), Timed Up and Go test (MD: −0.75, 95% CI: −1.30–−0.21), stride length (standardized MD: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.03–1.09), health-related quality of life (standardized MD: −1.10, 95% CI: −1.81–−0.39) and reduction of falls were greater after interventions with Tai Chi plus medication. Satisfaction and safety were high. Intervention with Tai Chi alone was more effective for only a few balance and mobility outcomes. Conclusions Tai Chi performed with medication resulted in promising gains in mobility and balance, and it was safe and popular among PD patients at an early stage of the disease. This provides a new evidence for PD management. More RCTs with larger sample size that carefully address blinding and prudently select outcomes are needed. PROSPERO registration number CRD42013004989. PMID:24927169

  13. Effect of Tai-chi exercise on lower limb muscle strength, bone mineral density and balance function of elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Song, Qing-Hua; Zhang, Quan-Hai; Xu, Rong-Mei; Ma, Ming; Zhao, Xin-Ping; Shen, Guo-Qing; Guo, Yan-Hua; Wang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: To study the effect of Tai-chi exercise on lower limb muscle strength, bone mineral density and balance function of elderly female, 105 urban elderly women, who do insufficient exercise in daily life, are selected as the subject and randomly divided into an observation group (Tai Chi Group), a control group I (Dance Group) and a control group II (Walking Group). Each group is consists of 35 women. Among them, the women in the observation group do Tai-chi exercise once a day, while the women in the control group I dance once a day and in the control group II stick to brisk walking once a day. All women in the three groups do the above said exercises for 40 minutes and the exercise intensity is controlled to be medium. At the time of selection and after 4, 8 and 12 months upon their exercises, respectively detect and compare the lower limb skeletal muscle mass, lower limb muscle strength, bone mineral density and balance function of the subject. Results: At the time of selection, the general information of the subjects in the three groups show no significant difference (P > 0.05); however, after 4 months’ exercise, most of the study indexes in the control group I and group II are improved significantly (P < 0.05), while most of the study indexes in the observation group show no significant difference (P > 0.05) in comparison with those at the time of selection and their general improvement effect is slightly lower than that in the control group; after 8 months, relevant study indexes of the subjects in the three groups are significantly improved (P < 0.05) in comparison with those at the time of selection, especially, the effect in the observation group is more obvious and is better than that of the control group II (P < 0.05). 12 months later, the effect of the observation group is improved significantly from day to day when comparing to theose in the control group I and group II (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). Conclusion: Compared with the senile dance and

  14. ScChi, Encoding an Acidic Class III Chitinase of Sugarcane, Confers Positive Responses to Biotic and Abiotic Stresses in Sugarcane

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yachun; Xu, Liping; Fu, Zhiwei; Yang, Yuting; Guo, Jinlong; Wang, Shanshan; Que, Youxiong

    2014-01-01

    Chitinases (EC 3.2.2.14), expressed during the plant-pathogen interaction, are associated with plant defense against pathogens. In the present study, a positive correlation between chitinase activity and sugarcane smut resistance was found. ScChi (GenBank accession no. KF664180), a Class III chitinase gene, encoded a 31.37 kDa polypeptide, was cloned and identified. Subcellular localization revealed ScChi targeting to the nucleus, cytoplasm and the plasma membrane. Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) results showed that ScChi was highly expressed in leaf and stem epidermal tissues. The ScChi transcript was both higher and maintained longer in the resistance cultivar during challenge with Sporisorium scitamineum. The ScChi also showed an obvious induction of transcription after treatment with SA (salicylic acid), H2O2, MeJA (methyl jasmonate), ABA (abscisic acid), NaCl, CuCl2, PEG (polyethylene glycol) and low temperature (4 °C). The expression levels of ScChi and six immunity associated marker genes were upregulated by the transient overexpression of ScChi. Besides, histochemical assay of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves overexpressing pCAMBIA 1301-ScChi exhibited deep DAB (3,3′-diaminobenzidinesolution) staining color and high conductivity, indicating the high level of H2O2 accumulation. These results suggest a close relationship between the expression of ScChi and plant immunity. In conclusion, the positive responses of ScChi to the biotic and abiotic stimuli reveal that this gene is a stress-related gene of sugarcane. PMID:24552874

  15. In vivo distribution of organophosphate antidotes: autoradiography of (/sup 14/C)HI-6 in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Ligtenstein, D.A.; Moes, G.W.; Kossen, S.P.

    1988-02-01

    In order to visualize the distribution of HI-6 in the rat after iv administration, autoradiographic experiments were carried out with (/sup 14/C)HI-6, labeled at the carbon of the carboxamide moiety. Autoradiography clearly confirms penetration of HI-6 into the central nervous system. Considerable radioactivity was found in the cerebrum, the cerebellum, and the choroid plexus. No significant activity was detected in the pontomedullary region or the spinal cord. Peripherally, (/sup 14/C)HI-6 is observed in large amounts in kidneys, heart, liver, nose, bladder, testes, and marrow-containing bone. The gastrointestinal tract was largely devoid of any radioactivity. The relative absence of HI-6 in the pontomedullary region renders centrally mediated influences of HI-6 on hemodynamic and respiratory parameters less likely.

  16. Personal exposure to benzene of selected population groups and impact of commuting modes in Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Lan, Tran Thi Ngoc; Liem, Ngo Quang; Binh, Nguyen Thi Thanh

    2013-04-01

    Personal exposure to benzene of selected population groups, and impacts of traffic on commuters in Ho Chi Minh City were investigated. The study was carried out in June, July and November 2010. The preliminary data showed that on average, personal exposure to benzene for non-occupational people in Ho Chi Minh is ~18 μg/m(3) and most of the exposure is due to commuting. Benzene exposure during travelling by bus, taxi and motorcycle is, respectively, 22-30, 22-39 and 185-240 μg/m(3). Motorcycle-taxi drivers, petrol filling employees and street vendors suffer high daily exposures at 116, 52, 32 μg/m(3), respectively. Further measurements are needed for a better risk assessment and finding effective measures to reduce exposure. PMID:23334286

  17. Higher-order multipole amplitude measurement in {psi}{sup '}{yields}{gamma}{chi}{sub c2}

    SciTech Connect

    Ablikim, M.; An, F. F.; An, Z. H.; Bai, J. Z.; Berger, N.; Bian, J. M.; Cai, X.; Cao, G. F.; Chang, J. F.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, Y.; Chen, Y. B.; Chu, Y. P.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Deng, Z. Y.; Dong, L. Y.

    2011-11-01

    Using 106x10{sup 6} {psi}{sup '} events collected with the BESIII detector at the BEPCII storage ring, the higher-order multipole amplitudes in the radiative transition {psi}{sup '}{yields}{gamma}{chi}{sub c2}{yields}{gamma}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}/{gamma}K{sup +}K{sup -} are measured. A fit to the {chi}{sub c2} production and decay angular distributions yields M2=0.046{+-}0.010{+-}0.013 and E3=0.015{+-}0.008{+-}0.018, where the first errors are statistical and the second systematic. Here M2 denotes the normalized magnetic quadrupole amplitude and E3 the normalized electric octupole amplitude. This measurement shows evidence for the existence of the M2 signal with 4.4{sigma} statistical significance and is consistent with the charm quark having no anomalous magnetic moment.

  18. The Impact of New Execution Venues on European Equity Markets' Liquidity - The Case of Chi-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chlistalla, Michael; Lutat, Marco

    With the Markets in Financial Instruments Directive in effect since November 2007, new trading venues have emerged in European equities trading, among them Chi-X. This paper analyzes the impact of this new market entrant on the home market as well as on consolidated liquidity of French blue chip equities, newly tradable on Chi-X. Our findings suggest that owing to this new competition the home market’s liquidity has enhanced. This is apparently due to the battle for order flow which results in narrower spreads and increased market depth. These results imply that overall liquidity in a virtually consolidated order book is in the French case higher than without the new competitor.

  19. Expression, purification, crystallization and X-ray diffraction analysis of ChiL, a chitinase from Chitiniphilus shinanonensis.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Miruku; Shimosaka, Makoto; Arai, Ryoichi

    2015-12-01

    Chitin, a linear polysaccharide consisting of β-1,4-linked N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc), is widely used because of its biochemical properties. GlcNAc oligomers prepared from chitin have useful biological activities, such as immunostimulation and the induction of plant defence responses. Microbial chitinolytic enzymes have been investigated extensively for their potential use in the eco-friendly enzymatic production of GlcNAc and its oligomers. Chitiniphilus shinanonensis SAY3(T) is a recently found bacterium with a strong chitinolytic activity. The chitinolytic enzymes from this strain are potentially useful for the efficient production of GlcNAc and its oligomers from chitin. ChiL from C. shinanonensis is an endo-type chitinase belonging to the family 18 glycoside hydrolases (GH18). To understand the enzymatic reaction mechanism of ChiL and utilize it for further enzyme engineering, the catalytic domain (41-406) of ChiL, the construct for which was carefully designed, was expressed, purified and crystallized by the vapour-diffusion method. The crystal belonged to the orthorhombic space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 69.19, b = 81.55, c = 130.01 Å, and diffracted to 1.25 Å resolution. The Matthews coefficient (VM = 2.2 Å(3) Da(-1)) suggested the presence of two monomers per asymmetric unit with a solvent content of 45%. PMID:26625294

  20. Promoting self-help activities for people living with HIV / AIDS in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Le Truong Giang; Nguyen Huu Luyen; Le Thuy Lan Thao; Narimani, P

    1999-01-01

    The rising epidemic of HIV/AIDS in Ho Chi Minh City presents new challenges for sexually transmitted disease/HIV prevention in Vietnam. Most HIV/AIDS cases are found south of the country and this puts a burden on the Ho Chi Minh City AIDS Committee. Building on experiences from other countries, the AIDS Committee successfully implemented measures such as needle-exchange programs, condom distribution, peer education, and outreach activities. It also established a meeting place, the Cafe Hy Vong, for female sex workers and intravenous drug users. From the beginning, the Committee regarded meeting the special needs of people living with HIV/AIDS (PHA) as important prevention activities, and encouraged PHA to discuss their concerns with the committee. The PHA formed the Friend-to-Friend group in October 1995, where the Ho Chi Minh AIDS Committee gave its full support. The group organizes meetings and social gatherings where they can share their feelings and experiences, as well as get information and counseling. PMID:12349769

  1. Application of groundwater sustainability indicators to the Upper Pliocene aquifer in Ho Chi Minh city, Viet Nam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngo, T. M.; Lee, J.; Lee, H.; Woo, N. C.

    2013-12-01

    Groundwater plays an importance role for domestic, industrial, and agricultural uses in Ho Chi Minh city, Viet Nam. This study is objected to evaluate the sustainability of groundwater by using groundwater sustainability indicators (GWSIs) defined by UNESCO/IAEA/IAH Working Group on Groundwater Indicators at aquifer scale (the Upper Pliocene aquifer). There are four main indicators selected and one new indicator designed for the particular characteristic of Ho Chi Minh city which is under influence of by saline-water intrusion. The results indicated groundwater of the Upper Pliocene aquifer, the main groundwater supply source, is generally in the unsustainable state. The abstraction of groundwater, which was much greater than its capability, is probably causing the serious state of annual groundwater depletion and saline-water intrusion. The GWSIs, which expressed in such a simple way but scientifically-based and policy-relevant, proved its usefulness in evaluating the sustainability of groundwater at the aquifer scale in Ho Chi Minh city, and subsequently should be incorporated in water resource management practices.

  2. A hybrid body technique: does the pulse diagnostic cun guan chi method have Chinese-Tibetan origins?

    PubMed

    Hsu, Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates the medieval origins of the main pulse diagnostic method in contemporary Chinese medicine, sometimes known as san bu (three sectors) method, which requires physicians to examine the mai (vessels, vessel movements or pulse) on the wrist at the three locations cun guan chi (inch, gate, foot). The article provides evidence to suggest that this body technique grew out of an earlier Chinese one, the cun chi (inch-foot) method, which appears to have aimed at investigating the qualities of yin and yang in order to determine the condition of a patient by means of exploring fairly large areas of the patient's body surface with the palms. The article furthermore posits that the cun chi method was decisively transformed in medieval times, presumably due to the impact of early Tibetan pulse diagnostic practices: it became framed in a numerology of three and started advocating the use of the fingertips for sensing the pulse beats. The article, which draws on detailed textual analyses of medieval manuscripts, on visual evidence and also on psychophysical research, furthermore highlights how misunderstandings can constructively contribute to cultural communication. PMID:18828567

  3. Correlation between center of pressure and functional balance in non-faller elderly practitioners of Tai Chi Chuan

    PubMed Central

    Gatica-Rojas, Valeska; Cartes-Velásquez, Ricardo; Salgado-Méndez, Rodrigo; Castro-Ramírez, Rodolfo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the correlation between center of pressure and functional balance in non-faller elderly practitioners of Tai Chi. [Subjects and Methods] For the study, nine non-faller elderly practitioners of Tai Chi who were able to maintain a standing posture and walk independently were recruited. Timed one-leg standing and timed up-and-go tests were used as functional balance tests and force platform to measure the center of pressure. The Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated for the timed up-and-go/timed one-leg standing test scores and center of pressure parameter values. [Results] None of the correlations was statistically significant, but moderate correlations were observed between the pairs timed one-leg standing/sway area of center of pressure, timed one-leg standing/standard deviation of center of pressure in the mediolateral direction, timed one-leg standing/mean velocity of center of pressure in the anteroposterior direction, and timed up-and-go test sway area of center of pressure. [Conclusion] Timed one-leg standing is more appropriate than timed up-and-go test for the measurement of functional balance in non-faller elderly practitioners of Tai Chi.

  4. The Effects of Tai Chi Practice on Intermuscular Beta Coherence and the Rubber Hand Illusion

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Catherine E.; Agrawal, Uday; Nayak, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    Tai Chi (TC) is a slow-motion contemplative exercise that is associated with improvements in sensorimotor measures, including decreased force variability, enhanced tactile acuity, and improved proprioception, especially in elderly populations. Here, we carried out two studies evaluating the effect of TC practice on measures associated with sensorimotor processing. In study 1, we evaluated TC’s effects on an oscillatory parameter associated with motor function, beta rhythm (15–30 Hz) coherence, focusing specifically on beta rhythm intermuscular coherence (IMC), which is tightly coupled to beta corticomuscular coherence (CMC). We utilized electromyography (EMG) to compare beta IMC in older TC practitioners with age-matched controls, as well as novices with advanced TC practitioners. Given previous findings of elevated, maladaptive beta coherence in older subjects, we hypothesized that increased TC practice would be associated with a monotonic decrease in beta IMC, but rather discovered that novice practitioners manifested higher beta IMC than both controls and advanced practitioners, forming an inverted U-shaped practice curve. This finding suggests that TC practice elicits complex changes in sensory and motor processes over the developmental lifespan of TC training. In study 2, we focused on somatosensory (e.g., tactile and proprioceptive) responses to the rubber hand illusion (RHI) in a middle-aged TC group, assessing whether responses to the illusion became dampened with greater cumulative practice. As hypothesized, TC practice was associated with decreased likelihood to misattribute tactile stimulation during the RHI to the rubber hand, although there was no effect of TC practice on measures of proprioception or on subjective reports of ownership. These studies provide preliminary evidence that TC practice both modulates beta network coherence in a non-linear fashion, perhaps as a result of the focus on not only efferent motor but also afferent sensory

  5. The Effects of Tai Chi Practice on Intermuscular Beta Coherence and the Rubber Hand Illusion.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Catherine E; Agrawal, Uday; Nayak, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    Tai Chi (TC) is a slow-motion contemplative exercise that is associated with improvements in sensorimotor measures, including decreased force variability, enhanced tactile acuity, and improved proprioception, especially in elderly populations. Here, we carried out two studies evaluating the effect of TC practice on measures associated with sensorimotor processing. In study 1, we evaluated TC's effects on an oscillatory parameter associated with motor function, beta rhythm (15-30 Hz) coherence, focusing specifically on beta rhythm intermuscular coherence (IMC), which is tightly coupled to beta corticomuscular coherence (CMC). We utilized electromyography (EMG) to compare beta IMC in older TC practitioners with age-matched controls, as well as novices with advanced TC practitioners. Given previous findings of elevated, maladaptive beta coherence in older subjects, we hypothesized that increased TC practice would be associated with a monotonic decrease in beta IMC, but rather discovered that novice practitioners manifested higher beta IMC than both controls and advanced practitioners, forming an inverted U-shaped practice curve. This finding suggests that TC practice elicits complex changes in sensory and motor processes over the developmental lifespan of TC training. In study 2, we focused on somatosensory (e.g., tactile and proprioceptive) responses to the rubber hand illusion (RHI) in a middle-aged TC group, assessing whether responses to the illusion became dampened with greater cumulative practice. As hypothesized, TC practice was associated with decreased likelihood to misattribute tactile stimulation during the RHI to the rubber hand, although there was no effect of TC practice on measures of proprioception or on subjective reports of ownership. These studies provide preliminary evidence that TC practice both modulates beta network coherence in a non-linear fashion, perhaps as a result of the focus on not only efferent motor but also afferent sensory activity

  6. Regulation of natural competence by the orphan two-component system sensor kinase ChiS involves a non-canonical transmembrane regulator in Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Shouji; Mitobe, Jiro; Ishikawa, Takahiko; Wai, Sun Nyunt; Ohnishi, Makoto; Watanabe, Haruo; Izumiya, Hidemasa

    2014-01-01

    In Vibrio cholerae, 41 chitin-inducible genes, including the genes involved in natural competence for DNA uptake, are governed by the orphan two-component system (TCS) sensor kinase ChiS. However, the mechanism by which ChiS controls the expression of these genes is currently unknown. Here, we report the involvement of a novel transcription factor termed 'TfoS' in this process. TfoS is a transmembrane protein that contains a large periplasmic domain and a cytoplasmic AraC-type DNA-binding domain, but lacks TCS signature domains. Inactivation of tfoS abolished natural competence as well as transcription of the tfoR gene encoding a chitin-induced small RNA essential for competence gene expression. A TfoS fragment containing the DNA-binding domain specifically bound to and activated transcription from the tfoR promoter. Intracellular TfoS levels were unaffected by disruption of chiS and coexpression of TfoS and ChiS in Escherichia coli recovered transcription of the chromosomally integrated tfoR::lacZ gene, suggesting that TfoS is post-translationally modulated by ChiS during transcriptional activation; however, this regulation persisted when the canonical phosphorelay residues of ChiS were mutated. The results presented here suggest that ChiS operates a chitin-induced non-canonical signal transduction cascade through TfoS, leading to transcriptional activation of tfoR. PMID:24236404

  7. Observation of {chi}{sub c1} Decays into Vector Meson Pairs {phi}{phi}, {omega}{omega}, and {omega}{phi}

    SciTech Connect

    Ablikim, M.; An, Z. H.; Bai, J. Z.; Berger, N.; Bian, J. M.; Cai, X.; Cao, G. F.; Cao, X. X.; Chang, J. F.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, Y.; Chen, Y. B.; Chu, Y. P.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Deng, Z. Y.; Dong, L. Y.

    2011-08-26

    Using (106{+-}4)x10{sup 6} {psi}(3686) events accumulated with the BESIII detector at the BEPCII e{sup +}e{sup -} collider, we present the first measurement of decays of {chi}{sub c1} to vector meson pairs {phi}{phi}, {omega}{omega}, and {omega}{phi}. The branching fractions are measured to be (4.4{+-}0.3{+-}0.5)x10{sup -4}, (6.0{+-}0.3{+-}0.7)x10{sup -4}, and (2.2{+-}0.6{+-}0.2)x10{sup -5}, for {chi}{sub c1}{yields}{phi}{phi}, {omega}{omega}, and {omega}{phi}, respectively, which indicates that the hadron helicity selection rule is significantly violated in {chi}{sub cJ} decays. In addition, the measurement of {chi}{sub cJ}{yields}{omega}{phi} provides the first indication of the rate of doubly OZI-suppressed {chi}{sub cJ} decay. Finally, we present improved measurements for the branching fractions of {chi}{sub c0} and {chi}{sub c2} to vector meson pairs.

  8. Effects of Tai Chi versus Proprioception Exercise Program on Neuromuscular Function of the Ankle in Elderly People: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing; Wang, Xue-Qiang; Zheng, Jie-Jiao; Pan, Yu-Jian; Hua, Ying-Hui; Zhao, Shang-Min; Shen, Li-Yan; Fan, Shuai; Zhong, Jiu-Gen

    2012-01-01

    Background. Tai Chi is a traditional Chinese medicine exercise used for improving neuromuscular function. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Tai Chi versus proprioception exercise program on neuromuscular function of the ankle in elderly people. Methods. Sixty elderly subjects were randomly allocated into three groups of 20 subjects per group. For 16 consecutive weeks, subjects participated in Tai Chi, proprioception exercise, or no structured exercise. Primary outcome measures included joint position sense and muscle strength of ankle. Subjects completed a satisfaction questionnaire upon study completion in Tai Chi and proprioception groups. Results. (1) Both Tai Chi group and proprioception exercise group were significantly better than control group in joint position sense of ankle, and there were no significant differences in joint position sense of ankle between TC group and PE group. (2) There were no significant differences in muscle strength of ankle among groups. (3) Subjects expressed more satisfaction with Tai Chi than with proprioception exercise program. Conclusions. None of the outcome measures on neuromuscular function at the ankle showed significant change posttraining in the two structured exercise groups. However, the subjects expressed more interest in and satisfaction with Tai Chi than proprioception exercise. PMID:23346195

  9. Development of Chinese Version of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Health-Related Quality of Life Questionnaire (Chi-PCOSQ)

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Huang-tz; Chen, Pei-Chi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To develop the Chinese version of the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Health-related Quality of Life Questionnaire (Chi-PCOSQ). Research Design and Method This cross-sectional study was conducted in a medical center in Taiwan. Eighty women who met the criteria were enrolled: female, age range of 18–45 years, competent in the Chinese language, had been diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and were regularly followed at outpatient clinics (defined as at least two outpatient visits before enrollment). The PCOSQ was translated and culturally adapted according to standard procedures. A semi-structured interview was applied to assess face validity. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was applied to determine scale constructs. Measurements of internal consistency via Cronbach’s α, test-retest reliability via intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), construct validity, and discriminative validity were performed. Results Five additional items, representing the issues of acne, hair loss, and fear of getting diabetes, were incorporated into the original scale. A six-factor structure emerged as a result of the EFA, explaining 71.9% of the variance observed. The reliability analyses demonstrated satisfactory results for Cronbach’s α ranging from 0.78–0.96, and for ICC ranging from 0.73–0.86. Construct validity was confirmed by significant correlation between the domains of the Chi-PCOSQ and generic health-related quality of life (HRQoL) measures (WHOQOL-BREF, EQ-5D) and clinical parameters (body mass index, waist-hip ratio, blood pressure). The known-group analysis indicated that the Chi-PCOSQ is a discriminative tool that differentiates patients according to their HRQoL. Conclusion The Chi-PCOSQ seems internally consistent, culturally acceptable, and our preliminary evidence suggests that it may be reliable and valid. The Chi-PCOSQ is a promising assessment tool to address the HRQoL of women affected by PCOS in Chinese-speaking countries and to

  10. Small-scale Interstellar Structure Toward the Open Cluster Chi Persei; Program ID: BO29 (Cycle 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, David M.

    2004-01-01

    The primary objective of this program was to obtain FUSE observations of the interstellar H2 absorption toward six early-type stars in the core of the open star cluster Chi Persei. High resolution optical observations of the interstellar Na I absorption toward these stars and others in the core of Chi Per have revealed a rich variety of small-scale diffuse ISM structure in both the distant Perseus and more local Orion spiral arms. At the 1 arc minute angular scales typically probed by the separations of these stars, this structure corresponds to respective physical length scales of 0.6 and 0.15 pc in the Perseus and Orion arm gas. The principal scientific goal of the FUSE observations was to determine if this small-scale Na I structure toward the core of Chi Per was reflected in the abundance and/or excitation of interstellar H2. In September 2001, we obtained FUSE observations of the Chi Per stars BD +56 563, BD +56 571, BD +56 573, BD +56 574, BD +56 575, and BD +56 578 for this program. The data reveal that the Perseus arm gas exhibits significant small-scale variations in the strength of its molecular hydrogen absorption while the Orion arm H2 absorption is relatively uniform. We presented these results at the January 2003 American Astronomical Society meeting in Seattle, WA (points, Meyer, Lauroesch, Nguyen, and Friedman 2002, Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, 34,1229). Since Na I is not a dominant ion in H I clouds, the variations detected in the Perseus arm Na I line profiles could be due to spatial differences in either the physical structure or the physical conditions in the gas. Although many of the H2 absorption profiles are too saturated or too weak to be definitive in this regard, it is clear that small-scale variations are present in H2 gas with excitation as high as the J=4 rotational level. In contrast, lower spatial resolution H I 21 cm studies of the Perseus arm gas across the face of the h and Chi Per double cluster have shown

  11. Branching fractions for {chi}{sub cJ{yields}}pp{pi}{sup 0}, pp{eta}, and pp{omega}

    SciTech Connect

    Onyisi, P. U. E.; Rosner, J. L.; Alexander, J. P.; Cassel, D. G.; Das, S.; Ehrlich, R.; Fields, L.; Gibbons, L.; Gray, S. W.; Hartill, D. L.; Heltsley, B. K.; Hunt, J. M.; Kreinick, D. L.; Kuznetsov, V. E.; Ledoux, J.; Patterson, J. R.; Peterson, D.; Riley, D.; Ryd, A.; Sadoff, A. J.

    2010-07-01

    Using a sample of 25.9x10{sup 6} {psi}(2S) decays acquired with the CLEO-c detector at the CESR e{sup +}e{sup -} collider, we report branching fractions for the decays {chi}{sub cJ{yields}}pp{pi}{sup 0}, pp{eta}, and pp{omega}, with J=0, 1, 2. Our results for B({chi}{sub cJ{yields}}pp{pi}{sup 0}) and B({chi}{sub cJ{yields}}pp{eta}) are consistent with, but more precise than, previous measurements. Furthermore, we include the first measurement of B({chi}{sub cJ{yields}}pp{omega}).

  12. Ly6C(hi) Monocytes Provide a Link between Antibiotic-Induced Changes in Gut Microbiota and Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Möhle, Luisa; Mattei, Daniele; Heimesaat, Markus M; Bereswill, Stefan; Fischer, André; Alutis, Marie; French, Timothy; Hambardzumyan, Dolores; Matzinger, Polly; Dunay, Ildiko R; Wolf, Susanne A

    2016-05-31

    Antibiotics, though remarkably useful, can also cause certain adverse effects. We detected that treatment of adult mice with antibiotics decreases hippocampal neurogenesis and memory retention. Reconstitution with normal gut flora (SPF) did not completely reverse the deficits in neurogenesis unless the mice also had access to a running wheel or received probiotics. In parallel to an increase in neurogenesis and memory retention, both SPF-reconstituted mice that ran and mice supplemented with probiotics exhibited higher numbers of Ly6C(hi) monocytes in the brain than antibiotic-treated mice. Elimination of Ly6C(hi) monocytes by antibody depletion or the use of knockout mice resulted in decreased neurogenesis, whereas adoptive transfer of Ly6C(hi) monocytes rescued neurogenesis after antibiotic treatment. We propose that the rescue of neurogenesis and behavior deficits in antibiotic-treated mice by exercise and probiotics is partially mediated by Ly6C(hi) monocytes. PMID:27210745

  13. Reversible inactivation of the Escherichia coli RecBCD enzyme by the recombination hotspot chi in vitro: evidence for functional inactivation or loss of the RecD subunit.

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, D A; Churchill, J J; Kowalczykowski, S C

    1994-01-01

    Genetic recombination in Escherichia coli is stimulated by a RecBCD enzyme-mediated event at DNA sequences known as Chi (chi) sites (5'-GCTGGTGG-3'). Previously, it was shown that chi acts to regulate the nuclease activity of RecBCD; here, we demonstrate that, under appropriate conditions, interaction with chi sites can also result in an inactivation of helicase activity of RecBCD. The unwinding of double-stranded DNA-containing chi sites, under conditions of limiting Mg2+ ion, results in the reversible inactivation of RecBCD; addition of excess Mg2+ to the reaction reactivates all activities of RecBCD. Inactivation is the consequence of a chi-dependent modification of RecBCD that appears to result from an inability of the chi-modified RecBCD to reinitiate unwinding of intact DNA molecules. This characteristic behavior of RecBCD and chi is displayed by the reconstituted RecBC (i.e., without the RecD subunit), except that it is not dependent on chi interaction. This biochemical similarity between the chi-modified RecBCD and RecBC enzymes implies that recognition of chi results in a dissociation or functional inactivation of RecD subunit and lends support to the hypothesis that interaction with chi results in ejection of the RecD subunit. Images PMID:8159691

  14. Expression of CHI3L1 and CHIT1 in Osteoarthritic Rat Cartilage Model. A Morphological Study

    PubMed Central

    Di Rosa, M.; Szychlinska, M.A.; Tibullo, D.; Malaguarnera, L.

    2014-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease, which affects millions of people around the world. It occurs when the protective cartilage at the end of bones wears over time, leading to loss of flexibility of the joint, pain and stiffness. The cause of osteoarthritis is unknown, but its development is associated with different factors, such as metabolic, genetic, mechanical and inflammatory ones. In recent years the biological role of chitinases has been studied in relation to different inflammatory diseases and more in particular the elevated levels of human cartilage glycoprotein 39 (CHI3L1) and chitotriosidase (CHIT1) have been reported in a variety of diseases including chronic inflammation and degenerative disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate, by immunohistochemistry, the distribution of CHI3L1 and CHIT1 in osteoarthritic and normal rat articular cartilage, to discover their potential role in the development of this disease. The hypothesis was that the expression of chitinases could increase in OA disease. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that CHI3L1 and CHIT1 staining was very strong in osteoarthritic cartilage, especially in the superficial areas of the cartilage most exposed to mechanical load, while it was weak or absent in normal cartilage. These findings suggest that these two chitinases could be functionally associated with the development of osteoarthritis and could be used as markers, so in the future they could have a role in the daily clinical practice to stage the severity of the disease. However, the longer-term in vivoand in vitro studies are needed to understand the exact mechanism of these molecules, their receptors and activities on cartilage tissue. PMID:25308850

  15. A randomized trial comparing Tai Chi with and without cognitive-behavioral intervention (CBI) to reduce fear of falling in community-dwelling elderly people.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yat Wa Justina; Tsui, Chi Man

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this randomized trial was to compare the effects of Tai Chi with and without CBI on a primary outcome of reducing the fear of falling, and on secondary outcomes including encouraging better social engagement, improving self-perceived personal wellbeing, and achieving better mobility among elderly people with fear of falling. One hundred and twenty-two community-dwelling elderly people aged ≥ 65 were randomly assigned to either a Tai Chi or a Tai Chi plus CBI group. Participants' level of fear of falling, physical mobility, self-perceived personal wellbeing and social participation were compared before and after completing the 8-week intervention and then at a 2-month follow-up. The findings showed that Tai Chi both with and without CBI had a similar effect on reducing elderly people's fear of falling, but only Tai Chi plus CBI had a positive effect on participants' self-perceived personal wellbeing. Tai Chi both with and without CBI had no effect on participants' self-perceived social participation and mobility. Apart from a slight improvement in participants' self-perceived personal wellbeing, other outcome effects were similar for Tai Chi with and without CBI. This finding raises a question about the additive effects of combined intervention over Tai Chi alone in reducing elderly people's fear of falling. In view of the higher demand for resources and manpower to implement a combined intervention, further study is still required to confirm the potential additional benefits of this combined intervention prior to recommending it to community services. PMID:24953768

  16. In situ phase transformation of Laves phase from Chi-phase in Mo-containing Fe–Cr–Ni alloys

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Tan, L.; Yang, Y.

    2015-11-01

    For an in situ phase transformation of the Chi (χ) phase to the Laves phase we observed in a Fe–Cr–Ni–Mo model alloy. The morphology, composition, and crystal structure of the χ and Laves phases, and their orientation relationship with the matrix austenite phase were investigated. The resulted Laves phase has larger lattice mismatch with the matrix phase than the χ phase, leading to the increase of local strain fields and the formation of dislocations. Moreover, this finding is helpful to understand the precipitation behavior of the intermetallic phases in the Mo-containing austenitic stainless steels.

  17. Factors affecting the transformation of Escherichia coli strain chi1776 by pBR322 plasmid DNA.

    PubMed

    Norgard, M V; Keem, K; Monahan, J J

    1978-07-01

    The susceptibility of E. coli strain chi1776 to transformation by pBR322 plasmid DNA was examined and optimized. Maximum transformation to tetracycline (Tc) resistance was achieved when cells were harvested from L broth at 5.0--6.0 . 10(7) cfu/ml, followed by washing twice in cold 0.1 M NaCl + 5 mM MgCl2 + 5 mM Tris, pH 7.6. Cells grown in the presence of D-cycloserine (Cyc) rather than nalidixic acid (Nx) transformed markedly better. The presence of 5 mM Mg2+ ions in washing and CaCl2 solutions stimulated transformation about 2-fold. Optimal conditions for transformation included a pH range of 7.25-7.75 and a cell-to-DNA ratio of about 1.6 . 10(8) cfu/ng plasmid DNA. The frequency of transformation was highest when cells were exposed to 100 mM CaCl2 in 250 mM KCl + 5 mM MgCl2 + 5 mM Tris, pH 7.6, before mixing with DNA. A 60 min incubation period for cell + DNA mixtures held on ice produced the maximum number of Tcr transformants. In our hands, heat shocks at 37 degrees C or 42 degrees C for various times all decreased transformation to about one-half of optimal levels. Furthermore, the recovery of transformants was best when cell + DNA mixtures were plated on precooled (4 degrees C) Tc agar plates. The efficiency of plating was optimum when only 5 microliter of cell + DNA mixture was spread per plate, suggesting that non-viable background chi1776 cells on selective medium inhibited the recovery of transformants. It was also found that the presence of linear DNA molecules in cell + DNA mixtures markedly inhibited the transformation of chi1776 by pBR322 plasmid DNA. On the basis of these findings, a new procedure for the plasmid-specific transformation of E. coli chi1776 by pBR322 plasmid DNA is proposed. The use of this technique has allowed us to attain transformation frequencies in excess of 10(7) transformants/microgram pBR322 plasmid DNA. PMID:365684

  18. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Tai Chi versus Brisk Walking in Reducing Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Aileen W. K.; Sit, Janet W. H.; Chair, Sek Ying; Leung, Doris Y. P.; Lee, Diana T. F.; Wong, Eliza M. L.; Fung, Lawrence C. W.

    2016-01-01

    Physical inactivity is one of the major modifiable lifestyle risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). This protocol aims to evaluate the effectiveness of Tai Chi versus brisk walking in reducing CVD risk factors. This is a randomized controlled trial with three arms, namely, Tai Chi group, walking group, and control group. The Tai Chi group will receive Tai Chi training, which consists of two 60-min sessions each week for three months, and self-practice for 30 min every day. The walking group will perform brisk walking for 30 min every day. The control group will receive their usual care. 246 subjects with CVD risk factors will be recruited from two outpatient clinics. The primary outcome is blood pressure. Secondary outcomes include fasting blood for lipid profile, sugar and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c); body mass index, waist circumference, body fat percentage; perceived stress level and quality of life. Data collections will be conducted at baseline, 3-month, 6-month and 9-month. Generalized estimating equations model will be used to compare the changes in outcomes across time between groups. It is expected that both the Tai Chi and walking groups could maintain better health and have improved quality of life, and that Tai Chi will be more effective than brisk walking in reducing CVD risk factors. PMID:27399735

  19. The role of the chi1 gene from the endophytic bacteria Serratia proteamaculans 336x in the biological control of wheat take-all.

    PubMed

    Wang, Miao; Xing, Yuwan; Wang, Junfang; Xu, Yubin; Wang, Gang

    2014-08-01

    Take-all, a disease caused by the fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, is the most important root disease of wheat and causes severe yield losses worldwide. Using microorganisms as biological agents to control the disease is important because no resistant cultivars or effective chemical fungicides are available. In this study, we tested the biological control capability of a chitinase produced by the endophytic bacterium Serratia proteamaculans 336x against wheat take-all. The chitinase gene chi1 of S. proteamaculans 336x was cloned and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein exhibited chitinase activity and in vitro antifungal activity against G. graminis var. tritici. With in-frame deletion of the chi1 gene by homologous recombination, the chi1-deleted mutant was devoid of chitinase activity and the biocontrol efficacy was reduced by 42.5%. The complementation of the Δchi1 mutant strain by the chi1 gene resulted in the partial restoration of the chitinase activity and biocontrol efficacy. These results support a role for the Chi1 protein in the biocontrol process of S. proteamaculans 336x against wheat take-all. PMID:25093749

  20. The effects of Tai Chi on body balance in elderly people--a review of studies from the early 21st century.

    PubMed

    Maciaszek, Janusz; Osiński, W

    2010-01-01

    We performed a systematic review of studies regarding the effects of Tai Chi on the body balance of people older than 60 years. The Medline, SPORTDiscus and Academic Search Complete databases were searched for relevant studies published after the year 2000. Original randomized controlled trials, non-randomized controlled studies and observational studies were included in this review if they evaluated Tai Chi for the treatment of body balance disorder or fall prevention, and if they contained at least one of the following key words: Tai Chi, body balance, stability, elderly, old, training or posturography. These studies suggest that participation in Tai Chi may improve the body balance of elderly people; however, more information is needed to determine the extent to which Tai Chi is more effective than other methods, especially different types of physical exercise. In addition, subgroup analyses should be performed to determine the effects of Tai Chi in people with different physical characteristics. Directions for future research are discussed. PMID:20387220

  1. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Tai Chi versus Brisk Walking in Reducing Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Protocol for a Ranomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Chan, Aileen W K; Sit, Janet W H; Chair, Sek Ying; Leung, Doris Y P; Lee, Diana T F; Wong, Eliza M L; Fung, Lawrence C W

    2016-01-01

    Physical inactivity is one of the major modifiable lifestyle risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). This protocol aims to evaluate the effectiveness of Tai Chi versus brisk walking in reducing CVD risk factors. This is a randomized controlled trial with three arms, namely, Tai Chi group, walking group, and control group. The Tai Chi group will receive Tai Chi training, which consists of two 60-min sessions each week for three months, and self-practice for 30 min every day. The walking group will perform brisk walking for 30 min every day. The control group will receive their usual care. 246 subjects with CVD risk factors will be recruited from two outpatient clinics. The primary outcome is blood pressure. Secondary outcomes include fasting blood for lipid profile, sugar and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c); body mass index, waist circumference, body fat percentage; perceived stress level and quality of life. Data collections will be conducted at baseline, 3-month, 6-month and 9-month. Generalized estimating equations model will be used to compare the changes in outcomes across time between groups. It is expected that both the Tai Chi and walking groups could maintain better health and have improved quality of life, and that Tai Chi will be more effective than brisk walking in reducing CVD risk factors. PMID:27399735

  2. Increased Hippocampus–Medial Prefrontal Cortex Resting-State Functional Connectivity and Memory Function after Tai Chi Chuan Practice in Elder Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Jing; Liu, Jiao; Egorova, Natalia; Chen, Xiangli; Sun, Sharon; Xue, Xiehua; Huang, Jia; Zheng, Guohua; Wang, Qin; Chen, Lidian; Kong, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies provide evidence that aging is associated with the decline of memory function and alterations in the hippocampal (HPC) function, including functional connectivity to the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). In this study, we investigated if longitudinal (12-week) Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin practice can improve memory function and modulate HPC resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC). Memory function measurements and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) were applied at the beginning and the end of the experiment. The results showed that (1) the memory quotient (MQ) measured by the Wechsler Memory Scale-Chinese Revision significantly increased after Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin practice as compared with the control group, and no significant difference was observed in MQ between the Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin groups; (2) rs-FC between the bilateral hippocampus and mPFC significantly increased in the Tai Chi Chuan group compared to the control group (also in the Baduanjin group compared to the control group, albeit at a lower threshold), and no significant difference between the Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin groups was observed; (3) rs-FC increases between the bilateral hippocampus and mPFC were significantly associated with corresponding memory function improvement across all subjects. Similar results were observed using the left or right hippocampus as seeds. Our results suggest that both Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin may be effective exercises to prevent memory decline during aging. PMID:26909038

  3. The Effects of Tai Chi Chuan on Improving Mind-Body Health for Knee Osteoarthritis Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hung-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To conduct a meta-analysis and systematic review examining whether Tai Chi Chuan could have mental and physical benefits for patients with knee osteoarthritis. Methods. MEDLINE, PUBMED, EMBASE, and CINAHL databases were searched for relevant studies. Data of the studies were collected, and outcomes were classified using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health model. Effect sizes of the mental and physical components were determined, along with the recommendation grades of Philadelphia Panel Classification System for Tai Chi Chuan on knee osteoarthritis. Results. Eleven studies were selected and retrieved from the databases. The results of meta-analysis revealed that the effects of Tai Chi Chuan were observed for physical components in the body functions and structures domain. The effects favoring Tai Chi Chuan were observed in the physical component in the activities and participation domain. Insufficient data was included in the meta-analysis of the mental component. Conclusions. The review revealed that Tai Chi Chuan had beneficial outcomes for patients with knee osteoarthritis. The evidence-based results represented that it had small-to-moderate effects on body functions and structures, activities, and participation of physical component. However, there was insufficient evidence to support that Tai Chi Chuan had beneficial mental effect.

  4. The Combined Effects of Tai Chi, Resistance Training, and Diet on Physical Function and Body Composition in Obese Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Maris, S. A.; Quintanilla, D.; Taetzsch, A.; Picard, A.; Letendre, J.; Mahler, L.; Lofgren, I.; Xu, F.; Delmonico, M. J.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a major health problem in the USA, especially in minority populations over the age of 60 years, and the aging process can cause adverse effects on physical function. Previous research has shown that Tai Chi, resistance training (RT), and diet result in overall health improvements. However, the combination of these specific interventions has yet to be translated to obese older women in an urban setting. The purpose of this study was to examine a combined intervention on the primary outcomes of physical function and body composition. Using a nonrandomized design, 26 obese women (65.2 ± 8.1 years) completed a 12-week intervention; participants were assigned to an intervention (EXD) group or a control (CON) group. The EXD group (n = 17) participated in Tai Chi, RT, and a dietary session. The CON group (n = 9) was asked to continue their normal lifestyle. Timed up and go (TUG) time was reduced by 0.64 ± 2.1 seconds (P = 0.04) in the EXD group while the CON group saw a borderline significant increase of 0.71 sec (P = 0.051). The combined intervention helped improve performance on TUG time, but there were no significant increases in other body composition or function measures. PMID:25614836

  5. Nanoparticles by spray drying using innovative new technology: the Büchi nano spray dryer B-90.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Anton, Nicolas; Arpagaus, Cordin; Belleteix, Fabrice; Vandamme, Thierry F

    2010-10-15

    Spray drying technology is widely known and used to transform liquids (solutions, emulsions, suspension, slurries, pastes or even melts) into solid powders. Its main applications are found in the food, chemical and materials industries to enhance ingredient conservation, particle properties, powder handling and storage etc. However, spray drying can also be used for specific applications in the formulation of pharmaceuticals for drug delivery (e.g. particles for pulmonary delivery). Büchi is a reference in the development of spray drying technology, notably for laboratory scale devices. This study presents the Nano Spray Dryer B-90, a revolutionary new sprayer developed by Büchi, use of which can lower the size of the produced dried particles by an order of magnitude attaining submicron sizes. In this paper, results are presented with a panel of five representative polymeric wall materials (arabic gum, whey protein, polyvinyl alcohol, modified starch, and maltodextrin) and the potentials to encapsulate nano-emulsions, or to formulate nano-crystals (e.g. from furosemide) are also shown. PMID:20659510

  6. ChiTaRS: a database of human, mouse and fruit fly chimeric transcripts and RNA-sequencing data.

    PubMed

    Frenkel-Morgenstern, Milana; Gorohovski, Alessandro; Lacroix, Vincent; Rogers, Mark; Ibanez, Kristina; Boullosa, Cesar; Andres Leon, Eduardo; Ben-Hur, Asa; Valencia, Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    Chimeric RNAs that comprise two or more different transcripts have been identified in many cancers and among the Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) isolated from different organisms; they might represent functional proteins and produce different disease phenotypes. The ChiTaRS database of Chimeric Transcripts and RNA-Sequencing data (http://chitars.bioinfo.cnio.es/) collects more than 16 000 chimeric RNAs from humans, mice and fruit flies, 233 chimeras confirmed by RNA-seq reads and ∼2000 cancer breakpoints. The database indicates the expression and tissue specificity of these chimeras, as confirmed by RNA-seq data, and it includes mass spectrometry results for some human entries at their junctions. Moreover, the database has advanced features to analyze junction consistency and to rank chimeras based on the evidence of repeated junction sites. Finally, 'Junction Search' screens through the RNA-seq reads found at the chimeras' junction sites to identify putative junctions in novel sequences entered by users. Thus, ChiTaRS is an extensive catalog of human, mouse and fruit fly chimeras that will extend our understanding of the evolution of chimeric transcripts in eukaryotes and can be advantageous in the analysis of human cancer breakpoints. PMID:23143107

  7. Reactivity of CHI3 with OH radicals: X-abstraction reaction pathways (X = H, I), atmospheric chemistry, and nuclear safety.

    PubMed

    Sudolská, Mária; Louis, Florent; Cernušák, Ivan

    2014-10-01

    The X-abstraction (X = H, I) pathways in the reaction of CHI3 with OH radical, a possible iodoform removal process relevant to the Earth's atmosphere and conditions prevailing in the case of a nuclear accident, have been studied applying highly correlated ab initio quantum chemistry methods and canonical transition-state theory to obtain reaction energy profiles and rate constants. Geometry optimizations of reactants, products, molecular complexes, and transition states determined at the MP2/cc-pVTZ level of theory have been followed by DK-CCSD(T)/ANO-RCC single-point energy calculations. Further improvement of electronic energies has been achieved by applying spin-orbit coupling, corrections toward full configuration interaction, vibration contributions, and tunneling corrections. Calculated reaction enthalpies at 0 K are -108.2 and -5.1 kJ mol(-1) for the H- and I-abstraction pathways, respectively; the strongly exothermic H-abstraction pathway is energetically favored over the modestly exothermic I-abstraction one. The overall rate constant at 298 K based on our ab initio calculations is 4.90 × 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), with the I-abstraction pathway being the major channel over the temperature range of 250-2000 K. The CHI3 atmospheric lifetime with respect to the removal reaction with OH radical is predicted to be about 6 h, very short compared to that of other halomethanes. PMID:25207959

  8. What Do We Really Know About the Safety of Tai Chi?: A Systematic Review of Adverse Event Reports in Randomized Trials

    PubMed Central

    Wayne, Peter M.; Berkowitz, Danielle L.; Litrownik, Daniel E.; Buring, Julie E.; Yeh, Gloria Y.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Systematically review frequency and quality of adverse event (AE) reports in randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of Tai Chi (TC). Data Sources Electronic searches of PubMed/MEDLINE and additional databases from inception through March 2013 of English-language RCTs. Search terms were tai chi, taiji, tai chi chuan. Data were independently extracted by two investigators. Study Selection We included all available randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that were published in English and used Tai Chi as an intervention. Inclusion and exclusion of studies were reported in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Data Extraction Eligible RCTs were categorized with respect to AE reporting: 1) No mention of protocols for monitoring AEs or reports of AEs; 2) Reports of AEs either with or without explicit protocols for monitoring AEs. Data Synthesis 153 eligible RCTs were identified, most targeting older adults. Only 50 eligible trials (33%) included reporting of AEs, and of these, only 18 trials (12% overall) also reported an explicit AE monitoring protocol. Protocols varied with respect to rigor of systematic monitoring in both Tai Chi and comparison groups. Reported AEs were typically minor and expected, and primarily musculoskeletal related (e.g., knee and back pain); no intervention-related serious AEs were reported. Conclusions Tai Chi is unlikely to result in serious adverse events, but may be associated with minor musculoskeletal aches and pains. However, poor and inconsistent reporting of AEs greatly limits the conclusions that can be drawn regarding the safety of Tai Chi. PMID:24878398

  9. Study design for a randomised controlled trial to explore the modality and mechanism of Tai Chi in the pulmonary rehabilitation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Juan-Juan; Min, Jie; Yu, Peng-Ming; McDonald, Vanessa M; Mao, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Although pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) is associated with significant clinical benefits in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and has been recommended by guidelines, PR with conventional exercise training has not been widely applied in the clinic because of its inherent limitations. Alternative exercise such as Tai Chi has been investigated and the results are promising. However, the strengths and weaknesses of the exercise modality of Tai Chi, conventional PR and a combination of Tai Chi and conventional PR and the possible mechanisms underlying Tai Chi exercise remain unclear. This study aims to address the above research gaps in a well-designed clinical trial. Methods and analysis This study is a single-blind, randomised controlled trial. Participants with stable COPD will be recruited and randomly assigned to one of four groups receiving Tai Chi exercise, conventional PR using a total body recumbent stepper (TBRS), combined Tai Chi and TBRS, or usual care (control) in a 1:1:1:1 ratio. Participants will perform 30 min of supervised exercise three times a week for 8 weeks; they will receive sequential follow-ups until 12 months after recruitment. The primary outcome will be health-related quality of life as measured by the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire. Secondary outcomes will include 6 min walking distance, pulmonary function, the modified Medical Research Council Dyspnoea Scale, the COPD Assessment Test, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Berg Balance Scale, exacerbation frequency during the study period, and systemic inflammatory and immune markers. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval has been granted by the Clinical Trial and Biomedical Ethics Committee of West China Hospital of Sichuan University (No TCM-2015-82). Written informed consent will be obtained from each participant before any procedures are performed. The study findings will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at national

  10. Case study of ISWI in Vietnam: A comparison of ionospheric parameters observed over Ho Chi Minh with IRI predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Hoang Thai; Tam, Dao Ngoc Hanh

    2014-01-01

    For the contribution of Vietnam to ISWI activities, there are 3 GPS receivers, 3 Ionosondes, 1 AWESOME and 1 MAGDAS operating in Vietnam. With a special geographical position stretching from the north tropic to the magnetic equator, Vietnam is an interesting area to supplement the data for the Global Space Weather Model. The Ionosphere is an important indicator of Space Weather and the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model has become widely accepted. The first task of ionospheric science in a new location is often comparing the observed data with IRI. This paper presents the results of comparisons of the foF2 and TEC observed over Ho Chi Minh City (10.51 N, 106.33 E) with the values calculated according to the IRI-2007 in order to evaluate the applicability of the model in forecasting for the equatorial region of Vietnam. We compare the critical frequency of layer F (foF2) and Total Electron Content (TEC) values for two phases of solar activity. The results show very good diurnal correlations between the observed foF2 and TEC with IRI values in the decreasing solar activity period 2003 ± 2006 (the deviation < 15%). In the increasing period 2009 ± 2012, good correlation was in the morning time before the foF2 peak at about 10 LT, with a deviation about 10% (except 2012). However, after 10 LT, the IRI-foF2 values rose up and the deviations were about 25% to 30%, especially during evening. In the years with low solar activity (SSN < 40), the IRI-foF2 are almost always higher than the observed foF2 data and vice versa for the years with SSN > 40. This is a note for correction IRI model applying for Vietnam. The comparison of the TEC shows that the correlation between GPS-TEC and IRI-TEC generally was good with coefficients k > 0.8 and R > 0.9 for the period 2006 - 2010. The worst relationship were March, April, September, October, November and December 2011, corresponding to periods when the TEC gradients are highest. The phenomenon of decline in the TEC at

  11. Sitting Tai Chi Improves the Balance Control and Muscle Strength of Community-Dwelling Persons with Spinal Cord Injuries: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, William W. N.; Gao, Kelly L.; Chan, K. M.; Purves, Sheila; Macfarlane, Duncan J.; Fong, Shirley S. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the effects of sitting Tai Chi on muscle strength, balance control, and quality of life (QOL) among survivors with spinal cord injuries (SCI). Methods. Eleven SCI survivors participated in the sitting Tai Chi training (90 minutes/session, 2 times/week for 12 weeks) and eight SCI survivors acted as controls. Dynamic sitting balance was evaluated using limits of stability test and a sequential weight shifting test in sitting. Handgrip strength was also tested using a hand-held dynamometer. QOL was measured using the World Health Organization's Quality of Life Scale. Results. Tai Chi practitioners achieved significant improvements in their reaction time (P = 0.042); maximum excursion (P = 0.016); and directional control (P = 0.025) in the limits of stability test after training. In the sequential weight shifting test, they significantly improved their total time to sequentially hit the 12 targets (P = 0.035). Significant improvement in handgrip strength was also found among the Tai Chi practitioners (P = 0.049). However, no significant within and between-group differences were found in the QOL outcomes (P > 0.05). Conclusions. Twelve weeks of sitting Tai Chi training could improve the dynamic sitting balance and handgrip strength, but not QOL, of the SCI survivors. PMID:25688276

  12. Cross-Sectional Comparison of Executive Attention Function in Normally Aging Long-Term T'ai Chi, Meditation, and Aerobic Fitness Practitioners Versus Sedentary Adults

    PubMed Central

    Manselle, Wayne; Woollacott, Marjorie H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This cross-sectional field study documented the effect of long-term t'ai chi, meditation, or aerobic exercise training versus a sedentary lifestyle on executive function. It was predicted that long-term training in t'ai chi and meditation plus exercise would produce greater benefits to executive function than aerobic exercise. T'ai chi and meditation plus exercise include mental and physical training. Fifty-four volunteers were tested: t'ai chi (n=10); meditation+exercise (n=16); aerobic exercisers (n=16); and sedentary controls (n=12). A one-factor (group), one-covariate (age) multivariate analysis of covariance was performed. Significant main effects of group and age were found (group, 67.9%, p<0.001; age, 76.3%, p=0.001). T'ai chi and meditation practitioners but not aerobic exercisers outperformed sedentary controls on percent switch costs (p=0.001 and p=0.006, respectively), suggesting that there may be differential effects of training type on executive function. PMID:24286339

  13. The Effects of Tai Chi on Peripheral Somatosensation, Balance, and Fitness in Hispanic Older Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: A Pilot and Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Cavegn, Elisabeth I.; Riskowski, Jody L.

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathy and loss of somatosensation in older adults with type 2 diabetes can increase risk of falls and disability. In nondiabetic older adult population Tai Chi has been shown to enhance balance and fitness through improvements in somatosensation and neuromuscular control, and it is unclear if Tai Chi would elicit similar benefits in older adults with diabetes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week, three-hour-per-week Tai Chi intervention on peripheral somatosensation in older adults with type 2 diabetes. Participants were eight Hispanic older adults with type 2 diabetes who participated in the Tai Chi intervention and a convenience sample of Hispanic older adults as a referent group. Baseline and postintervention assessments included ankle proprioception, foot tactile sense, plantar pressure distribution, balance, and fitness. After intervention, older adults with type 2 diabetes showed significant improvements in ankle proprioception and fitness and decreased plantar pressure in the forefoot, with no statistical effect noted in balance or tactile sensation. Study results suggest that Tai Chi may be beneficial for older adults with diabetes as it improves ankle proprioception; however, study findings need to be confirmed in a larger sample size randomized controlled trial. PMID:26600865

  14. Sitting tai chi improves the balance control and muscle strength of community-dwelling persons with spinal cord injuries: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Tsang, William W N; Gao, Kelly L; Chan, K M; Purves, Sheila; Macfarlane, Duncan J; Fong, Shirley S M

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the effects of sitting Tai Chi on muscle strength, balance control, and quality of life (QOL) among survivors with spinal cord injuries (SCI). Methods. Eleven SCI survivors participated in the sitting Tai Chi training (90 minutes/session, 2 times/week for 12 weeks) and eight SCI survivors acted as controls. Dynamic sitting balance was evaluated using limits of stability test and a sequential weight shifting test in sitting. Handgrip strength was also tested using a hand-held dynamometer. QOL was measured using the World Health Organization's Quality of Life Scale. Results. Tai Chi practitioners achieved significant improvements in their reaction time (P = 0.042); maximum excursion (P = 0.016); and directional control (P = 0.025) in the limits of stability test after training. In the sequential weight shifting test, they significantly improved their total time to sequentially hit the 12 targets (P = 0.035). Significant improvement in handgrip strength was also found among the Tai Chi practitioners (P = 0.049). However, no significant within and between-group differences were found in the QOL outcomes (P > 0.05). Conclusions. Twelve weeks of sitting Tai Chi training could improve the dynamic sitting balance and handgrip strength, but not QOL, of the SCI survivors. PMID:25688276

  15. Molecular characterisation and functional analysis of LsChi2, a chitinase found in the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis salmonis, Krøyer 1838).

    PubMed

    Eichner, Christiane; Harasimczuk, Ewa; Nilsen, Frank; Grotmol, Sindre; Dalvin, Sussie

    2015-01-01

    The salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis spp.) is an economically important parasite on Atlantic salmon reared in aquaculture globally. Production and degradation of chitin, a major component of the exoskeleton, is the target of some pesticides (Di/Teflubenzuron) used in management of lice on farmed fish. These chemicals inhibit molting of the salmon louse leading to the death of the parasite. We found three chitinases (LsChi1, LsChi2 and LsChi4) in the salmon louse genome. Sequence analysis and phylogeny showed that they belong to the GH18 type of chitinase group and show high sequence similarity to chitinases found in other crustaceans and in insects. Expression patterns were different for all three chitinases suggesting different functions during louse development. Furthermore, the function of LsChi2 was further explored through the use of RNA interference and infection trials. Copepodids with knock down of LsChi2 transcripts were deformed and showed a highly reduced infection success. PMID:25643862

  16. Digital cultural heritage and its applications: case studies of Digital Mogao Grottos and Chi Lin Nunnery reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Deren; Du, Zhiqiang; Zhu, Yixuan; Wang, Tingsong

    2009-09-01

    Considerable damage has been done to the cultural heritage sites around the world ranging from natural erosion to artificial destruction. With the development of information sciences, frontier technologies are actively introduced to help protect cultural heritage sites. The new concept of a Digital Cultural Heritage has been presented for culture protection and is gradually becoming an efficient method to solve or to remit various difficult problems. This paper puts forward a digitalization method for cultural heritage sites which rationally integrates and utilizes multiform surveying measurements. These techniques have been successfully implemented into two projects, namely the Digital Mogao Grottos and the Chi Lin Nunnery reconstruction. Our results prove that the concept of and the techniques utilized in Digital Cultural Heritage can not only contribute to research, preservation, management, interpretation, and representation of cultural heritages but can also help resolve the conflicts between tourism and protection.

  17. Digital cultural heritage and its applications: case studies of Digital Mogao Grottos and Chi Lin Nunnery reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Deren; Du, Zhiqiang; Zhu, Yixuan; Wang, Tingsong

    2010-11-01

    Considerable damage has been done to the cultural heritage sites around the world ranging from natural erosion to artificial destruction. With the development of information sciences, frontier technologies are actively introduced to help protect cultural heritage sites. The new concept of a Digital Cultural Heritage has been presented for culture protection and is gradually becoming an efficient method to solve or to remit various difficult problems. This paper puts forward a digitalization method for cultural heritage sites which rationally integrates and utilizes multiform surveying measurements. These techniques have been successfully implemented into two projects, namely the Digital Mogao Grottos and the Chi Lin Nunnery reconstruction. Our results prove that the concept of and the techniques utilized in Digital Cultural Heritage can not only contribute to research, preservation, management, interpretation, and representation of cultural heritages but can also help resolve the conflicts between tourism and protection.

  18. The Tzu Chi Silent Mentor Program: Application of Buddhist Ethics to Teach Student Physicians Empathy, Compassion, and Self-Sacrifice.

    PubMed

    Santibañez, Scott; Boudreaux, Debra; Tseng, Guo-Fang; Konkel, Kimberly

    2016-10-01

    The Buddhist Tzu Chi Silent Mentor Program promotes the donation of one's body to science as a selfless act by appealing to the Buddhist ethics of compassion and self-sacrifice. Together, faculty, families, and donors help medical students to learn the technical, spiritual, emotional, and psychological aspects of medicine. Students assigned to each "Silent Mentor" visit the family to learn about the donor's life. They see photos and hear family members' stories. Afterwards, students write a brief biography of the donor which is posted on the program website, in the medical school, and on the dissection table. In this paper, we: (1) summarize the Silent Mentor Program; (2) describe findings from an assessment of medical students who recently completed a new version of the program in Malaysia; and (3) explore how healthcare settings could benefit from this innovative program. PMID:26311054

  19. A route for industry compatible directed self-assembly of high-chi PS-PDMS block copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhme, S.; Girardot, C.; Garnier, J.; Arias-Zapata, J.; Arnaud, S.; Tiron, R.; Marconot, O.; Buttard, D.; Zelsmann, M.

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we present completely industry adapted processes for high-chi PS-PDMS block copolymers. DSA was performed on trenches fabricated within standard photolithography stacks and pattern transfer was made by using etching processes similar to those used for gate etching in industry. We propose the alignment of two different PS-PDMS (45.5kg/mol, 16kg/mol) solely by thermal annealing. By adding plasticizer molecules in the high molecular weight BCP (45.5k), we have not only avoided solvent vapor annealing but also reduced significantly the processing time. The properties of the guiding lines and the quality of the final BCP hard mask (CD uniformity, LWR, LER) were investigated.

  20. The two-nucleon electromagnetic charge operator in chiral effective field theory ($\\chi$EFT) up to one loop

    SciTech Connect

    S. Pastore,L. Girlanda,R. Schiavilla,M. Viviani,S. Pastore,L. Girlanda,R. Schiavilla,M. Viviani

    2011-08-01

    The electromagnetic charge operator in a two-nucleon system is derived in chiral effective field theory ($\\chi$EFT) up to order $e\\, Q$ (or N4LO), where $Q$ denotes the low-momentum scale and $e$ is the electric charge. The specific form of the N3LO and N4LO corrections from, respectively, one-pion-exchange and two-pion-exchange depends on the off-the-energy-shell prescriptions adopted for the non-static terms in the corresponding potentials. We show that different prescriptions lead to unitarily equivalent potentials and accompanying charge operators. Thus, provided a consistent set is adopted, predictions for physical observables will remain unaffected by the non-uniqueness associated with these off-the-energy-shell effects.

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: VI photometry and spectroscopy in h+{chi} Per (Currie+, 2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, T.; Hernandez, J.; Irwin, J.; Kenyon, S. J.; Tokarz, S.; Balog, Z.; Bragg, A.; Berlind, P.; Calkins, M.

    2010-04-01

    Optical VI photometry of h and {chi} Persei were taken with the Mosaic Imager at the 4m Mayall telescope at the Kitt Peak National Observatory on 2006 October 13-16 and 27-30. We acquired low-resolution optical spectroscopy of Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS)-detected stars within 1deg2 of the cluster centers. For faint stars, we used the multiobject, fiber-fed spectrograph Hectospec on the 6.5m MMT. Brighter stars were observed with the fiber-fed spectrograph Hydra on the 3.5m WIYN telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory and single-slit FAST spectrograph on the 1.5m Tillinghast telescope at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory. (4 data files).

  2. Modelling and evaluating municipal solid waste management strategies in a mega-city: the case of Ho Chi Minh City.

    PubMed

    ThiKimOanh, Le; Bloemhof-Ruwaard, Jacqueline M; van Buuren, Joost Cl; van der Vorst, Jack Gaj; Rulkens, Wim H

    2015-04-01

    Ho Chi Minh City is a large city that will become a mega-city in the near future. The city struggles with a rapidly increasing flow of municipal solid waste and a foreseeable scarcity of land to continue landfilling, the main treatment of municipal solid waste up to now. Therefore, additional municipal solid waste treatment technologies are needed. The objective of this article is to support decision-making towards more sustainable and cost-effective municipal solid waste strategies in developing countries, in particular Vietnam. A quantitative decision support model is developed to optimise the distribution of municipal solid waste from population areas to treatment plants, the treatment technologies and their capacities for the near future given available infrastructure and cost factors. PMID:25739768

  3. Viral seroprevalence in northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina) derived from Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming-Xu; Zheng, Hong-Yi; Jiang, Jin; Pang, Wei; Zhang, Gao-Hong; Zheng, Yong-Tang

    2016-07-01

    Non-human primates are natural virus reservoirs, whether wild or domestic. In this study, we determined the seroprevalence of common viruses by ELISA in a northern pig-tailed macaque (Macaca leonina) colony derived from Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. A total of 20 types of virus which are commonly selected as target microorganisms for specific-pathogen-free colonies, or which have zoonotic potential were included in this study. The results showed only 2 in 90 northern pig-tailed macaques were seronegative for all the detected viruses, and at least 16 out of the total 20 types of virus tested were prevalent in this colony, so these macaques were commonly infected by various viruses. These macaques should be carefully assessed for viral seroprevalence in order to prevent zoonotic diseases from being transferred to human beings. PMID:26993123

  4. Knowledge and perceptions of HIV-infected patients regarding HIV transmission and treatment in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Don; Dinh, An T; Groce, Nora; Sullivan, Lynn E

    2015-03-01

    Patient education concerning HIV and antiretroviral (ARV) medications is important for optimal outcomes. The authors assessed the knowledge and perceptions of HIV-infected patients in an ARV education program in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Of 185 patients, 64 (35%) receiving ARV medications, nearly 80% correctly answered questions regarding HIV. Correct responses were associated with higher education (P < .05) and longer duration of HIV diagnosis (P < .05). A lack of knowledge was observed in 40% of respondents who believed HIV and AIDS were the same and 70% of respondents who believed ARV medications cured HIV. Greater embarrassment of living with HIV was associated with female gender (P < .05) and lower education (P < .05). Patients were concerned over ARV medication use (27%) and its side effects (38%). The study population's knowledge of HIV/AIDS and ARV medications, perceived stigmatization, and areas of knowledge deficits underscore the need for effective patient education programs addressing poorly understood issues around HIV/AIDS. PMID:22199151

  5. Seasonal change in the atmospheric concentration of particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Kishida, Masao; Mio, Chihiro; Fujimori, Keiichi; Imamura, Kiyoshi; Takenaka, Norimichi; Maeda, Yasuaki; Lan, Tran Thi Ngoc; Shibutani, Yasuhiko; Bandow, Hiroshi

    2009-11-01

    We analyzed atmospheric particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, for 19 months. The average concentrations of total PAHs at dry and rainy seasons were 4.28 +/- 2.83 and 15.71 +/- 8.21 ng m(-3), respectively. The use of motorcycles without catalytic converters, estimated to be main emission sources of PAHs, would be higher during the dry season. PAH concentrations show a negative correlation with sunshine duration (r = -0.51). Furthermore, the ratio of average PAH concentration in the dry season to that in the rainy season shows a positive correlation with photolytic half-life (r = 0.94). Thus, seasonal changes in PAH concentrations are attributable to their photolytic degradation. PMID:19471847

  6. Tai Chi, Cellular Inflammation, and Transcriptome Dynamics in Breast Cancer Survivors With Insomnia: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Olmstead, Richard; Breen, Elizabeth C.; Witarama, Tuff; Carrillo, Carmen; Sadeghi, Nina; Arevalo, Jesusa M. G.; Ma, Jeffrey; Nicassio, Perry; Ganz, Patricia A.; Bower, Julienne E.; Cole, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Background Mind–body therapies such as Tai Chi are widely used by breast cancer survivors, yet effects on inflammation are not known. This study hypothesized that Tai Chi Chih (TCC) would reduce systemic, cellular, and genomic markers of inflammation as compared with cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I). Methods In this randomized trial for the treatment of insomnia, 90 breast cancer survivors with insomnia were assigned to TCC or CBT-I for 2-hour sessions weekly for 3 months. At baseline and postintervention, blood samples were obtained for measurement of C-reactive protein and toll-like receptor-4–activated monocyte production of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF), with a random subsample (n = 48) analyzed by genome-wide transcriptional profiling. Results Levels of C-reactive protein did not change in the TCC and CBT-I groups. Levels of toll-like receptor-4–activated monocyte production of IL-6 and TNF combined showed an overall reduction in TCC versus CBT-I (P < .02), with similar effects for IL-6 (P = .07) and TNF (P < .05) alone. For genome-wide transcriptional profiling of circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells, expression of genes encoding proinflammatory mediators showed an overall reduction in TCC versus CBT-I (P = .001). TELiS promoter-based bioinformatics analyses implicated a reduction of activity of the proinflammatory transcription factor, nuclear factor-κB, in structuring these differences. Conclusions Among breast cancer survivors with insomnia, 3 months of TCC reduced cellular inflammatory responses, and reduced expression of genes encoding proinflammatory mediators. Given the link between inflammation and cancer, these findings provide an evidence-based molecular framework to understand the potential salutary effects of TCC on cancer survivorship. PMID:25749595

  7. Effect of poverty on the relationship between personal exposures and ambient concentrations of air pollutants in Ho Chi Minh City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Sumi; Sbihi, Hind; Dinh, Tuan Nguyen; Xuan, Dan Vu; Le Thi Thanh, Loan; Thanh, Canh Truong; Le Truong, Giang; Cohen, Aaron; Brauer, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Socioeconomic factors often affect the distribution of exposure to air pollution. The relationships between health, air pollution, and poverty potentially have important public health and policy implications, especially in areas of Asia where air pollution levels are high and income disparity is large. The objective of the study was to characterize the levels, determinants of exposure, and relationships between children personal exposures and ambient concentrations of multiple air pollutants amongst different socioeconomic segments of the population of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Using repeated (N = 9) measures personal exposure monitoring and determinants of exposure modeling, we compared daily average PM2.5, PM10, PM2.5 absorbance and NO2 concentrations measured at ambient monitoring sites to measures of personal exposures for (N = 64) caregivers of young children from high and low socioeconomic groups in two districts (urban and peri-urban), across two seasons. Personal exposures for both PM sizes were significantly higher among the poor compared to non-poor participants in each district. Absolute levels of personal exposures were under-represented by ambient monitors with median individual longitudinal correlations between personal exposures and ambient concentrations of 0.4 for NO2, 0.6 for PM2.5 and PM10 and 0.7 for absorbance. Exposures of the non-poor were more highly correlated with ambient concentrations for both PM size fractions and absorbance while those for NO2 were not significantly affected by socioeconomic position. Determinants of exposure modeling indicated the importance of ventilation quality, time spent in the kitchen, air conditioner use and season as important determinant of exposure that are not fully captured by the differences in socioeconomic position. Our results underscore the need to evaluate how socioeconomic position affects exposure to air pollution. Here, differential exposure to major sources of pollution, further influenced by

  8. Effectiveness of Tai Chi on Physical and Psychological Health of College Students: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Li, Moyi; Ling, Kun; Lin, Hui; Chen, Lidian; Tao, Jing; Li, Junzhe; Zheng, Xin; Chen, Bai; Fang, Qianying

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effectiveness and safety of Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) on physical and psychological health of college students. Methods Two hundred six college students were recruited and randomly allocated to a control group or a TCC exercise group in an equal ratio. Participants in the control group were instructed to maintain their original activity level and those in the TCC exercise group received 12 weeks of TCC exercise training based on their original activity level. Physical and psychological outcomes were evaluated at baseline, 13 weeks and 25 weeks. Intention-to-treat analysis was performed for the above outcomes. Results Compared with the control group, the TCC exercise group showed significant improvements at the end of the 12-week intervention period for flexibility (length of Sit and Reach (cm): TCC group 14.09±7.40 versus control 12.88±6.57, P = 0.039 adjusted for its baseline measures using a general linear model) and balance ability (open eyes perimeter: TCC group 235.6(191~314) versus control 261(216~300); closed eyes perimeter: TCC group 370.5 (284~454) versus control 367 (293~483); P = 0.0414, 0.008, respectively, adjusted for corresponding baseline measures using a general linear model). No significant changes in other physical and mental outcomes were found between the two groups. No adverse events were reported during the study period. Conclusion TCC exercise was beneficial in college students for improving flexibility and balance capability to some extent, compared with usual exercise. Trial Registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-TRC-13003328 PMID:26147842

  9. ChiMS: Open-source instrument control software platform on LabVIEW for imaging/depth profiling mass spectrometers

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yang; Hanley, Luke

    2015-01-01

    ChiMS is an open-source data acquisition and control software program written within LabVIEW for high speed imaging and depth profiling mass spectrometers. ChiMS can also transfer large datasets from a digitizer to computer memory at high repetition rate, save data to hard disk at high throughput, and perform high speed data processing. The data acquisition mode generally simulates a digital oscilloscope, but with peripheral devices integrated for control as well as advanced data sorting and processing capabilities. Customized user-designed experiments can be easily written based on several included templates. ChiMS is additionally well suited to non-laser based mass spectrometers imaging and various other experiments in laser physics, physical chemistry, and surface science. PMID:26133872

  10. ChiMS: Open-source instrument control software platform on LabVIEW for imaging/depth profiling mass spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yang; Hanley, Luke

    2015-06-01

    ChiMS is an open-source data acquisition and control software program written within LabVIEW for high speed imaging and depth profiling mass spectrometers. ChiMS can also transfer large datasets from a digitizer to computer memory at high repetition rate, save data to hard disk at high throughput, and perform high speed data processing. The data acquisition mode generally simulates a digital oscilloscope, but with peripheral devices integrated for control as well as advanced data sorting and processing capabilities. Customized user-designed experiments can be easily written based on several included templates. ChiMS is additionally well suited to non-laser based mass spectrometers imaging and various other experiments in laser physics, physical chemistry, and surface science.

  11. ChiMS: Open-source instrument control software platform on LabVIEW for imaging/depth profiling mass spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yang; Hanley, Luke

    2015-06-01

    ChiMS is an open-source data acquisition and control software program written within LabVIEW for high speed imaging and depth profiling mass spectrometers. ChiMS can also transfer large datasets from a digitizer to computer memory at high repetition rate, save data to hard disk at high throughput, and perform high speed data processing. The data acquisition mode generally simulates a digital oscilloscope, but with peripheral devices integrated for control as well as advanced data sorting and processing capabilities. Customized user-designed experiments can be easily written based on several included templates. ChiMS is additionally well suited to non-laser based mass spectrometers imaging and various other experiments in laser physics, physical chemistry, and surface science. PMID:26133872

  12. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy vs. Tai Chi for Late Life Insomnia and Inflammatory Risk: A Randomized Controlled Comparative Efficacy Trial

    PubMed Central

    Irwin, Michael R.; Olmstead, Richard; Carrillo, Carmen; Sadeghi, Nina; Breen, Elizabeth C.; Witarama, Tuff; Yokomizo, Megumi; Lavretsky, Helen; Carroll, Judith E.; Motivala, Sarosh J.; Bootzin, Richard; Nicassio, Perry

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate the comparative efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), Tai Chi Chih (TCC), and sleep seminar education control (SS) on the primary outcome of insomnia diagnosis, and secondary outcomes of sleep quality, fatigue, depressive symptoms, and inflammation in older adults with insomnia. Design: Randomized controlled, comparative efficacy trial. Setting: Los Angeles community. Patients: 123 older adults with chronic and primary insomnia. Interventions: Random assignment to CBT, TCC, or SS for 2-hour group sessions weekly over 4 months with follow-up at 7 and 16 months. Measurements: Insomnia diagnosis, patient-reported outcomes, polysomnography (PSG), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. Results: CBT performed better than TCC and SS in remission of clinical insomnia as ascertained by a clinician (P < 0.01), and also showed greater and more sustained improvement in sleep quality, sleep parameters, fatigue, and depressive symptoms than TCC and SS (all P values < 0.01). As compared to SS, CBT was associated with a reduced risk of high CRP levels (> 3.0 mg/L) at 16 months (odds ratio [OR], 0.26 [95% CI, 0.07–0.97] P < 0.05). Remission of insomnia was associated with lower levels of CRP (P < 0.05) at 16 months. TCC was associated with improvements in sleep quality, fatigue, and depressive symptoms as compared to SS (all P's < 0.05), but not insomnia remission. PSG measures did not change. Conclusions: Treatment of late-life insomnia is better achieved and sustained by cognitive behavioral therapies. Insomnia treatment and remission reduces a marker of inflammatory risk, which has implications for cardiovascular morbidity and diabetes observed with sleep disturbance in epidemiologic surveys. Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00280020 Citation: Irwin MR, Olmstead R, Carrillo C, Sadeghi N, Breen EC, Witarama T, Yokomizo M, Lavretsky H, Carroll JE, Motivala SJ, Bootzin R, Nicassio P. Cognitive behavioral

  13. Very High Resolution Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of a Chemically Peculiar Star: Results of the chi LUPI Pathfinder Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leckrone, David S.; Proffitt, Charles R.; Wahlgren, Glenn M.; Johansson, Sveneric G.; Brage, Tomas

    1999-03-01

    We summarize here the results of a major eight-year investigation of the extraordinarily detailed UV spectrum of the sharp-lined, nonmagnetic, main-sequence, chemically peculiar star chi Lupi (B9.5p HgMn + A2 Vm). The UV observations are composed of 345 Å of the spectrum acquired with the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) on board the Hubble Space Telescope at an average resolution of 0.023 Å. The complete set of echelle spectrograms is presented as an atlas in a companion paper. These data were supplemented by optical-wavelength spectra obtained at the Anglo-Australian Telescope. Quantitatively accurate analysis and theoretical interpretation of these data required major improvements in the accuracy and completeness of available atomic data-wavelengths, transition probabilities, hyperfine structure, and isotope shifts-for the lowest ionization states of many elements. A large, international group of theoretical and experimental atomic physicists has collaborated in this investigation, and their results are summarized or referenced in this paper. In turn, the GHRS observations of chi Lupi have become a useful source of data for atomic spectroscopy, displaying many transitions that are difficult to observe in a laboratory setting. Measured abundances or upper limits are presented for 72 ions of 51 chemical elements, spanning the periodic table. We have confirmed and refined previously identified isotopic abundance anomalies in mercury and platinum and have discovered similar isotopic anomalies in thallium and, tentatively, in lead. Large discrepancies among the LTE abundances derived, using a chemically homogeneous model atmosphere, from two or three ionization states of the same element are found to be common. In some cases these are due to departures from LTE in the ionization equilibria, but the largest such discrepancies probably result from chemical stratification within the photosphere. We find qualitative trends in the abundances of the elements

  14. Co-Expression and Co-Localization of Cartilage Glycoproteins CHI3L1 and Lubricin in Osteoarthritic Cartilage: Morphological, Immunohistochemical and Gene Expression Profiles.

    PubMed

    Szychlinska, Marta Anna; Trovato, Francesca Maria; Di Rosa, Michelino; Malaguarnera, Lucia; Puzzo, Lidia; Leonardi, Rosy; Castrogiovanni, Paola; Musumeci, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is the most common human arthritis characterized by degeneration of articular cartilage. Several studies reported that levels of human cartilage glycoprotein chitinase 3-like-1 (CHI3L1) are known as a potential marker for the activation of chondrocytes and the progression of Osteoarthritis (OA), whereas lubricin appears to be chondroprotective. The aim of this study was to investigate the co-expression and co-localization of CHI3L1 and lubricin in normal and osteoarthritic rat articular cartilage to correlate their modified expression to a specific grade of OA. Samples of normal and osteoarthritic rat articular cartilage were analyzed by the Kellgren-Lawrence OA severity scores, the Kraus' modified Mankin score and the Histopathology Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) system for histomorphometric evaluations, and through CHI3L1 and lubricin gene expression, immunohistochemistry and double immuno-staining analysis. The immunoexpression and the mRNA levels of lubricin increased in normal cartilage and decreased in OA cartilage (normal vs. OA, p < 0.01). By contrast, the immunoexpression and the mRNA levels of CHI3L1 increased in OA cartilage and decreased in normal cartilage (normal vs. OA, p < 0.01). Our findings are consistent with reports suggesting that these two glycoproteins are functionally associated with the development of OA and in particular with grade 2/3 of OA, suggesting that in the future they could be helpful to stage the severity and progression of the disease. PMID:26978347

  15. Effect of Unequal Variances in Proficiency Distributions on Type-I Error of the Mantel-Haenszel Chi-Square Test for Differential Item Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monahan, Patrick O.; Ankenmann, Robert D.

    2005-01-01

    Empirical studies demonstrated Type-I error (TIE) inflation (especially for highly discriminating easy items) of the Mantel-Haenszel chi-square test for differential item functioning (DIF), when data conformed to item response theory (IRT) models more complex than Rasch, and when IRT proficiency distributions differed only in means. However, no…

  16. Expansion of a unique CD57⁺NKG2Chi natural killer cell subset during acute human cytomegalovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Vergès, Sandra; Milush, Jeffrey M; Schwartz, Brian S; Pando, Marcelo J; Jarjoura, Jessica; York, Vanessa A; Houchins, Jeffrey P; Miller, Steve; Kang, Sang-Mo; Norris, Phillip J; Nixon, Douglas F; Lanier, Lewis L

    2011-09-01

    During human CMV infection, there is a preferential expansion of natural killer (NK) cells expressing the activating CD94-NKG2C receptor complex, implicating this receptor in the recognition of CMV-infected cells. We hypothesized that NK cells expanded in response to pathogens will be marked by expression of CD57, a carbohydrate antigen expressed on highly mature cells within the CD56(dim)CD16(+) NK cell compartment. Here we demonstrate the preferential expansion of a unique subset of NK cells coexpressing the activating CD94-NKG2C receptor and CD57 in CMV(+) donors. These CD57(+)NKG2C(hi) NK cells degranulated in response to stimulation through their NKG2C receptor. Furthermore, CD57(+)NKG2C(hi) NK cells preferentially lack expression of the inhibitory NKG2A receptor and the inhibitory KIR3DL1 receptor in individuals expressing its HLA-Bw4 ligand. Moreover, in solid-organ transplant recipients with active CMV infection, the percentage of CD57(+)NKG2C(hi) NK cells in the total NK cell population preferentially increased. During acute CMV infection, the NKG2C(+) NK cells proliferated, became NKG2C(hi), and finally acquired CD57. Thus, we propose that CD57 might provide a marker of "memory" NK cells that have been expanded in response to infection. PMID:21825173

  17. First observation of the decays {chi}{sub cJ}{yields}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}

    SciTech Connect

    Ablikim, M.; An, Z. H.; Bai, J. Z.; Berger, N.; Bian, J. M.; Cai, X.; Cao, G. F.; Cao, X. X.; Chang, J. F.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, Y.; Chen, Y. B.; Chu, Y. P.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Deng, Z. Y.; Dong, L. Y.

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of the P-wave spin-triplet charmonium {chi}{sub cJ} decays (J=0, 1, 2) into {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}. The analysis is based on 106x10{sup 6} {psi}{sup '} decays recorded with the BESIII detector at the BEPCII electron positron collider. The decay into the {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} hadronic final state is observed for the first time. We measure the branching fractions B({chi}{sub c0}{yields}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0})=(3.34{+-}0.06{+-}0.44)x10{sup -3}, B({chi}{sub c1}{yields}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0})=(0.57{+-}0.03{+-}0.08)x10{sup -3}, and B({chi}{sub c2}{yields}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0})=(1.21{+-}0.05{+-}0.16)x10{sup -3}, where the uncertainties are statistical and systematical, respectively.

  18. Co-Expression and Co-Localization of Cartilage Glycoproteins CHI3L1 and Lubricin in Osteoarthritic Cartilage: Morphological, Immunohistochemical and Gene Expression Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Szychlinska, Marta Anna; Trovato, Francesca Maria; Di Rosa, Michelino; Malaguarnera, Lucia; Puzzo, Lidia; Leonardi, Rosy; Castrogiovanni, Paola; Musumeci, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is the most common human arthritis characterized by degeneration of articular cartilage. Several studies reported that levels of human cartilage glycoprotein chitinase 3-like-1 (CHI3L1) are known as a potential marker for the activation of chondrocytes and the progression of Osteoarthritis (OA), whereas lubricin appears to be chondroprotective. The aim of this study was to investigate the co-expression and co-localization of CHI3L1 and lubricin in normal and osteoarthritic rat articular cartilage to correlate their modified expression to a specific grade of OA. Samples of normal and osteoarthritic rat articular cartilage were analyzed by the Kellgren–Lawrence OA severity scores, the Kraus’ modified Mankin score and the Histopathology Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) system for histomorphometric evaluations, and through CHI3L1 and lubricin gene expression, immunohistochemistry and double immuno-staining analysis. The immunoexpression and the mRNA levels of lubricin increased in normal cartilage and decreased in OA cartilage (normal vs. OA, p < 0.01). By contrast, the immunoexpression and the mRNA levels of CHI3L1 increased in OA cartilage and decreased in normal cartilage (normal vs. OA, p < 0.01). Our findings are consistent with reports suggesting that these two glycoproteins are functionally associated with the development of OA and in particular with grade 2/3 of OA, suggesting that in the future they could be helpful to stage the severity and progression of the disease. PMID:26978347

  19. Paterno`-Bu¨chi Reaction as a Demonstration of Chemical Kinetics and Synthetic Photochemistry Using a Light Emitting Diode Apparatus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Matthew P.; Agger, Jonathan; Wong, Lu Shin

    2015-01-01

    The Paterno`-Bu¨chi photocycloaddition reaction is used as the basis for physical-organic final-year undergraduate laboratory experiments designed to emphasize the multidisciplinary approach to modern-day chemical practice. These reactions are performed using commercially available LED-based light sources, which offer a convenient and safe tool…

  20. Comparison of numerical techniques for the evaluation of the Doppler broadening functions psi(x,theta) and chi(x,theta)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canright, R. B., Jr.; Semler, T. T.

    1972-01-01

    Several approximations to the Doppler broadening functions psi(x, theta) and chi(x, theta) are compared with respect to accuracy and speed of evaluation. A technique, due to A. M. Turning (1943), is shown to be at least as accurate as direct numerical quadrature and somewhat faster than Gaussian quadrature. FORTRAN 4 listings are included.

  1. Preliminary site-survey report on Frit Bagging Operation at Chi-Vit Corporation, Urbana, Ohio, June 16, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, T.C.

    1982-07-01

    A visit was made to the Frit Bagging Operation at the Chi-Vit Corporation located at Urbana, Ohio for the purpose of examining methods used at this facility to control worker exposure to hazardous materials during the production of various frits. Frit was the basic material for porcelain enamel used in major appliance finishes. The three major raw materials used to produce frit were soda-ash, borax, and silica-flour. In the manufacturing area batching, mixing, smelting, and bagging take place. All new employees were given a preemployment physical. An annual hearing evaluation was performed for all workers. Ventilation was provided throughout the operation. Each weight bin in the batching area was equipped with exhaust ventilation. The frit was moved by a vibration conveyor between smelter and bagger and passed under three exhaust hoods to remove airborne dust during this last portion of this transfer. A small capture hood at the packer unit removed airborne dust generated as material falls from the slide gate to the packer spout. The disposal of the bags was carried out in a very satisfactory manner. The author concludes that the controls used provided an exemplary work environment. The author recommends that an in-depth survey be conducted at this site.

  2. The EURO-URHIS 2 project in Ho Chi Min City: contextual adequacy in cross-cultural research.

    PubMed

    Steels, Stephanie Linawati

    2016-03-01

    The European Urban Health Indicators System Project Part 2 (EURO-URHIS 2) is a cross-national study that was implemented in Europe. It consists of four data collection tools that were specifically developed to collect health data at an urban level. This paper reviews some of the methodological constraints in adapting the EURO-URHIS 2 study in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. No attempt to extend the original study beyond Europe has been reported before. Cultural, political, economic and social differences create specific obstacles as well as challenges. This paper sets out how these challenges were addressed, examining key aspects of the methodology, including study design, translation of the questionnaire and data collection. It was found that the EURO-URHIS 2 adult data collection tool methodology could not be replicated in Vietnam. A lack of basic infrastructure and population registers led to significant changes being made to the sampling and survey administration. It was recommended that the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) was used as the replacement method. Despite the limitations in using the EPI method, the overall strengths and benefits were found to address methodological issues and the resource poor setting. PMID:25080468

  3. The balancing act: exploring stigma, economic need and disclosure among male sex workers in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Closson, Elizabeth F; Colby, Donn J; Nguyen, Thi; Cohen, Samuel S; Biello, Katie; Mimiaga, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    In Vietnam, there is an emerging HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM). Male sex workers engage in high-risk sexual behaviours that make them particularly vulnerable to HIV infection. In 2010, 23 MSM in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) who recently received payment for sex with another man completed in-depth qualitative interviews exploring motivations for sex work, patterns of sex work disclosure and experiences of social stigma. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and translated into English and analysed using a qualitative descriptive approach. Low wages, unstable employment and family remittances were motivating factors for MSM in HCMC to sell sex. Participants described experiences of enacted and felt social stigma related to their involvement in sex work. In response, they utilised stigma management techniques aimed at concealment of involvement in sex work. Such strategies restricted sexual communication with non-paying sex partners and potentially limited their ability to seek social support from family and friends. Departing from decontextualized depictions of sex work disclosure, our findings describe how decisions to reveal involvement in sex work are shaped by social and structural factors such as social stigma, techniques to minimise exposure to stigma, economic imperatives and familial responsibilities. PMID:25555192

  4. Optimization of the Büchi B-90 spray drying process using central composite design for preparation of solid dispersions.

    PubMed

    Gu, Bing; Linehan, Brian; Tseng, Yin-Chao

    2015-08-01

    A central composite design approach was applied to study the effect of polymer concentration, inlet temperature and air flow rate on the spray drying process of the Büchi B-90 nano spray dryer (B-90). Hypromellose acetate succinate-LF was used for the Design of Experiment (DoE) study. Statistically significant models to predict the yield, spray rate, and drying efficiency were generated from the study. The spray drying conditions were optimized according to the models to maximize the yield and efficiency of the process. The models were further validated using a poorly water-soluble investigational compound (BI064) from Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals. The polymer/drug ratio ranged from 1/1 to 3/1w/w. The spray dried formulations were amorphous determined by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray powder diffraction. The particle size of the spray dried formulations was 2-10 μm under polarized light microscopy. All the formulations were physically stable for at least 3h when suspended in an aqueous vehicle composed of 1% methyl cellulose. This study demonstrates that DoE is a useful tool to optimize the spray drying process, and the B-90 can be used to efficiently produce amorphous solid dispersions with a limited quantity of drug substance available during drug discovery stages. PMID:26070248

  5. The balancing act: Exploring stigma, economic need and disclosure among male sex workers in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Closson, Elizabeth F.; Colby, Donn J.; Nguyen, Thi; Cohen, Samuel S.; Biello, Katie; Mimiaga, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    In Vietnam, there is an emerging HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM). Male sex workers (MSWs) engage in high-risk sexual behaviours that make them particularly vulnerable to HIV infection. In 2010, 23 MSM in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) who recently received payment for sex with another man completed in-depth qualitative interviews exploring motivations for sex work, patterns of sex work disclosure and experiences of social stigma. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and translated into English and analysed using a qualitative descriptive approach. Low wages, unstable employment, and family remittances were motivating factors for MSM in HCMC to sell sex. Participants described experiences of enacted and felt social stigma related to their involvement in sex work. In response, they utilized stigma management techniques aimed at concealment of involvement in sex work. Such strategies restricted sexual communication with non-paying sex partners and potentially limited their ability to seek social support from family and friends. Departing from decontextualized depictions of sex work disclosure, our findings describe how decisions to reveal involvement in sex work are shaped by social and structural factors such as social stigma, techniques to minimize exposure to stigma, economic imperatives and familial responsibilities. PMID:25555192

  6. Randomized Controlled Trial of Qigong/Tai Chi Easy on Cancer-Related Fatigue in Breast Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Larkey, Linda K.; Roe, Denise J.; Weihs, Karen L.; Jahnke, Roger; Lopez, Ana Maria; Rogers, Carol E.; Oh, Byeongsang; Guillen-Rodriguez, Jose

    2014-01-01

    Background Many breast cancer survivors experience fatigue, mood, and sleep disturbances. Purpose To compare a Meditative Movement practice, Qigong/Tai Chi Easy (QG/TCE), with sham Qigong (SQG), testing effects of meditation/breath aspects of QG/TCE on breast cancer survivors' persistent fatigue and other symptoms. Methods A double-blind, randomized controlled trial tested 12-weeks of QG/TCE versus SQG on fatigue, depression and sleep among 87 post-menopausal, fatigued breast cancer survivors, Stage 0-III, age 40–75. Results Fatigue decreased significantly in the QG/TCE group compared to control at post-intervention (p = 0.005) and 3 month follow-up (p = 0.024), but not depression and sleep quality. Improvement occurred over time for both interventions in depression and sleep quality (all p < 0.05). Conclusions QG/TCE showed significant improvement over time compared to SQG for fatigue, but not depression or sleep. Both QG/TCE and SQG showed improvement for two prevalent symptoms among breast cancer survivors, depression and sleep dysfunction. PMID:25124456

  7. Phytochemicals from Camellia nitidissima Chi inhibited the formation of advanced glycation end-products by scavenging methylglyoxal.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weixin; Liu, Haiyan; Wang, Zhennan; Qi, Jing; Yuan, Shengtao; Zhang, Weijie; Chen, Hongjuan; Finley, John W; Gu, Liwei; Jia, Ai-Qun

    2016-08-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effects of Camellia nitidissima Chi (CNC) on the advanced glycation end-product (AGE) formation. CNC was extracted with ethanol and further separated into dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water soluble fractions. Ethyl acetate fraction had the highest total phenolic and quercetin content compared with other fractions. Sixteen phenolic compounds were identified using HPLC Triple TOF MS/MS. Bovine serum albumin (BSA)-glucose assay showed that dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fraction inhibited AGE formation by 88.1% and 87.5% at 2.5mg/mL. BSA-methylglyoxal assay showed that ethyl acetate fraction inhibited 54.1% AGE formation while dichloromethane fraction inhibited 28.1%. Over 96.0% of methylglyoxal was scavenged by different fractions within 12h. Both mono- and di-methylglyoxal quercetin adducts were identified after incubating quercetin with methylglyoxal using HPLC-ESI-MS(n). The results in this study suggest that CNC extracts inhibited AGEs formation in part through scavenging methylglyoxal by phenolic compounds. PMID:27006232

  8. Is Beauty in the Eyes of the Beholder? Aesthetic Quality versus Technical Skill in Movement Evaluation of Tai Chi

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare experts to naïve practitioners in rating the beauty and the technical quality of a Tai Chi sequence observed in video-clips (of high and middle level performances). Our hypothesis are: i) movement evaluation will correlate with the level of skill expressed in the kinematics of the observed action but ii) only experts will be able to unravel the technical component from the aesthetic component of the observed action. The judgments delivered indicate that both expert and non-expert observers are able to discern a good from a mediocre performance; however, as expected, only experts discriminate the technical from the aesthetic component of the action evaluated and do this independently of the level of skill shown by the model (high or middle level performances). Furthermore, the judgments delivered were strongly related to the kinematic variables measured in the observed model, indicating that observers rely on specific movement kinematics (e.g. movement amplitude, jerk and duration) for action evaluation. These results provide evidence of the complementary functional role of visual and motor action representation in movement evaluation and underline the role of expertise in judging the aesthetic quality of movements. PMID:26047473

  9. HIV, Hepatitis C, and Other Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Male Sex Workers in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Colby, Donn J; Oldenburg, Catherine E; Nguyen, Thi; Closson, Elizabeth F; Biello, Katie B; Mayer, Kenneth H; Mimiaga, Matthew J

    2016-04-01

    There is little data on the burden of HIV and other infections that affect male sex workers (MSW) in Vietnam. We conducted behavioral and biological sexual health surveys with 300 MSW in Ho Chi Minh City. Generalized estimating equation models were built to assess factors associated with HIV, hepatitis C, and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). Of 300 MSW, 19 (6.3 %) were diagnosed seropositive for HIV, 11 (3.7 %) had hepatitis C, and 26 (8.7 %) had at least one prevalent STI. In a multivariable model, opiate use was significantly associated with HIV infection (aOR 6.46, 95 % CI 1.28-32.7) and hepatitis C (aOR = 19.6, 95 % CI 2.35-163.6). Alcohol dependency was associated with increased odds of hepatitis C (aOR = 4.79, 95 % CI 1.02-22.5) and decreased odds of other STI (aOR = 0.30, 95 % CI 0.10-0.97). These findings suggest that MSW in Vietnam would benefit from regular HIV and STI testing, as well as linkage to care and substance use rehabilitation services. PMID:26563761

  10. Monitoring land subsidence process in the urban area of Ho Chi Minh city, Vietnam using multi-temporal SAR Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Xuan; Chang, Chung-Pai; Le, Tuan

    2016-04-01

    Land subsidence has become the most common hazard in urban area that could led to cracking buildings and infrastructures, extending the flooding area or even change the river path. Despite deriving precise information, conventional subsidence monitoring techniques are considered as costly, man-power consuming and lack of comprehensive information. Recently, SAR Interferometry (InSAR) has become a widely used geodetic technique for monitoring the deformation of the Earth's surface, especially methods based on the use of a multi-temporal dataset. In this study, we use a stack of 18 SAR images acquired from L-band PALSAR sensor onboard the ALOS satellite to derive the subsidence information of Ho Chi Minh city, Vietnam over the period of December 2006 to December 2010. The Stanford Method for Persistent Scatterers (StaMPS) Multi-Temporal Interferometry (MTI) approach is chosen to take advantages of both the persistent scatterers and the distributed scatterers, which could be used as monitoring points to measure the subsidence process. Assume the subsidence in this area mostly corresponds to vertical components, we found subsidence patterns along Saigon river and in the South of the city. Maximum subsidence rate reaches up to -66 mm/year in vertical direction. Finally, InSAR derived result and previous levelling data are taken into comparison to find the correlation between the two results.

  11. A qualitative study of stigma and discrimination against people living with HIV in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Thi, Mai Doan Anh; Brickley, Deborah Bain; Vinh, Dang Thi Nhat; Colby, Donn J; Sohn, Annette H; Trung, Nguyen Quang; Giang, Le Truong; Mandel, Jeffrey S

    2008-07-01

    Stigma and discrimination against people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) are a pressing problem in Vietnam, in particular because of propaganda associating HIV with the "social evils" of sex work and drug use. There is little understanding of the causes and sequelae of stigma and discrimination against PLHIV in Vietnam. Fifty-three PLHIV participated in focus group discussions in Ho Chi Minh City. Nearly all participants experienced some form of stigma and discrimination. Causes included exaggerated fears of HIV infection, misperceptions about HIV transmission, and negative representations of PLHIV in the media. Participants faced problems getting a job, perceived unfair treatment in the workplace and experienced discrimination in the healthcare setting. Both discrimination and support were reported in the family environment. There is a need to enforce laws against discrimination and provide education to decrease stigma against PLHIV in Vietnam. Recent public campaigns encouraging compassion toward PLHIV and less discrimination from healthcare providers who work with PLHIV have been encouraging. PMID:18360743

  12. A prospective multi-center observational study of children hospitalized with diarrhea in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Corinne N; Phan, My V T; Hoang, Nguyen Van Minh; Minh, Pham Van; Vinh, Nguyen Thanh; Thuy, Cao Thu; Nga, Tran Thi Thu; Rabaa, Maia A; Duy, Pham Thanh; Dung, Tran Thi Ngoc; Phat, Voong Vinh; Nga, Tran Vu Thieu; Tu, Le Thi Phuong; Tuyen, Ha Thanh; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Jenkins, Claire; Duong, Vu Thuy; Phuc, Hoang Le; Tuyet, Pham Thi Ngoc; Ngoc, Nguyen Minh; Vinh, Ha; Chinh, Nguyen Tran; Thuong, Tang Chi; Tuan, Ha Manh; Hien, Tran Tinh; Campbell, James I; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; Thwaites, Guy; Baker, Stephen

    2015-05-01

    We performed a prospective multicenter study to address the lack of data on the etiology, clinical and demographic features of hospitalized pediatric diarrhea in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam. Over 2,000 (1,419 symptomatic and 609 non-diarrheal control) children were enrolled in three hospitals over a 1-year period in 2009-2010. Aiming to detect a panel of pathogens, we identified a known diarrheal pathogen in stool samples from 1,067/1,419 (75.2%) children with diarrhea and from 81/609 (13.3%) children without diarrhea. Rotavirus predominated in the symptomatic children (664/1,419; 46.8%), followed by norovirus (293/1,419; 20.6%). The bacterial pathogens Salmonella, Campylobacter, and Shigella were cumulatively isolated from 204/1,419 (14.4%) diarrheal children and exhibited extensive antimicrobial resistance, most notably to fluoroquinolones and third-generation cephalosporins. We suggest renewed efforts in generation and implementation of policies to control the sale and prescription of antimicrobials to curb bacterial resistance and advise consideration of a subsidized rotavirus vaccination policy to limit the morbidity due to diarrheal disease in Vietnam. PMID:25802437

  13. Value of tissue harmonic imaging (THI) and contrast harmonic imaging (CHI) in detection and characterisation of breast tumours

    PubMed Central

    Jung, E. M.; Jungius, K.-P.; Ertan, K.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which tissue harmonic imaging (THI), speckle reduction imaging (SRI), spatial compounding (SC) and contrast can improve detection and differentiation of breast tumours. We examined 38 patients (14 benign, 24 malignant tumours) with different combinations of THI, SRI and SC. The effect on delineation, margin, tissue differentiation and posttumoral phenomena was evaluated with a three-point score. Additionally, 1oo not palpable tumours (diameters: 4–15 mm) were examined by contrast harmonic imaging (CHI) with power Doppler. After bolus injection (0.5 ml Optison), vascularisation and enhancement were observed for 20 min. The best combination for detection of margin, infiltration, echo pattern and posterior lesion boundary was the combination of SRI level 2 with SC low. THI was helpful for lesions OF more than 1 cm depth. In native Power Doppler, vessels were found in 54 of 100 lesions. Within 5 min after contrast medium (CM) injection, marginal and penetrating vessels increased in benign and malignant tumours and central vessels mostly in carcinomas (p<0.05). A diffuse CM accumulation was observed up to 20 min after injection in malignant tumours only (p<0.05). THI, SRI and SC improved delineation and tissue differentiation. Second-generation contrast agent allowed detection of tumour vascularisation with prolonged enhancement. PMID:16823568

  14. A Prospective Multi-Center Observational Study of Children Hospitalized with Diarrhea in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Corinne N.; Phan, My V. T.; Hoang, Nguyen Van Minh; Minh, Pham Van; Vinh, Nguyen Thanh; Thuy, Cao Thu; Nga, Tran Thi Thu; Rabaa, Maia A.; Duy, Pham Thanh; Dung, Tran Thi Ngoc; Phat, Voong Vinh; Nga, Tran Vu Thieu; Tu, Le Thi Phuong; Tuyen, Ha Thanh; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Jenkins, Claire; Duong, Vu Thuy; Phuc, Hoang Le; Tuyet, Pham Thi Ngoc; Ngoc, Nguyen Minh; Vinh, Ha; Chinh, Nguyen Tran; Thuong, Tang Chi; Tuan, Ha Manh; Hien, Tran Tinh; Campbell, James I.; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; Thwaites, Guy; Baker, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    We performed a prospective multicenter study to address the lack of data on the etiology, clinical and demographic features of hospitalized pediatric diarrhea in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam. Over 2,000 (1,419 symptomatic and 609 non-diarrheal control) children were enrolled in three hospitals over a 1-year period in 2009–2010. Aiming to detect a panel of pathogens, we identified a known diarrheal pathogen in stool samples from 1,067/1,419 (75.2%) children with diarrhea and from 81/609 (13.3%) children without diarrhea. Rotavirus predominated in the symptomatic children (664/1,419; 46.8%), followed by norovirus (293/1,419; 20.6%). The bacterial pathogens Salmonella, Campylobacter, and Shigella were cumulatively isolated from 204/1,419 (14.4%) diarrheal children and exhibited extensive antimicrobial resistance, most notably to fluoroquinolones and third-generation cephalosporins. We suggest renewed efforts in generation and implementation of policies to control the sale and prescription of antimicrobials to curb bacterial resistance and advise consideration of a subsidized rotavirus vaccination policy to limit the morbidity due to diarrheal disease in Vietnam. PMID:25802437

  15. Enhancement of sleep stability with Tai Chi exercise in chronic heart failure: Preliminary findings using an ECG-based spectrogram method

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Gloria Y.; Mietus, Joseph E.; Peng, Chung-Kang; Phillips, Russell S.; Davis, Roger B.; Wayne, Peter M.; Goldberger, Ary L.; Thomas, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the effects of a 12-week Tai Chi exercise program on sleep using the sleep spectrogram, a method based on a single channel electrocardiogram (ECG)-derived estimation of cardiopulmonary coupling, previously shown to identify stable and unstable sleep states. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 24-h continuous ECG data obtained in a clinical trial of Tai Chi exercise in patients with heart failure. Eighteen patients with chronic stable heart failure, left ventricular ejection fraction ≤40% (mean [±standard deviation] age, 59 ± 14 years, mean baseline ejection fraction 24% ± 8%, mean) were randomly assigned to receive usual care (N = 10), which included pharmacological therapy and dietary and exercise counseling, or 12 weeks of Tai Chi training (N = 8) in addition to usual care. Using the ECG-based sleep spectrogram, we compared intervention and control groups by evaluating baseline and 12-week high (stable) and low (unstable) frequency coupling (HFC & LFC, respectively) as a percentage of estimated total sleep time (ETST). Results At 12 weeks, those who participated in Tai Chi showed a significant increase in HFC (+0.05 ± 0.10 vs. 0.06 ± 0.09 % ETST, p = 0.04) and significant reduction in LFC (−0.09 ± 0.09 vs. +0.13 ± 0.13 % ETST, p < 0.01), compared to patients in the control group. Correlations were seen between improved sleep stability and better disease-specific quality of life. Conclusions Tai Chi exercise may enhance sleep stability in patients with chronic heart failure. This sleep effect may have a beneficial impact on blood pressure, arrhythmogenesis and quality of life. PMID:17689142

  16. Design and methods of the Gentle Cardiac Rehabilitation Study – A behavioral study of tai chi exercise for patients not attending cardiac rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Salmoirago-Blotcher, Elena; Wayne, Peter; Bock, Beth C; Dunsiger, Shira; Wu, Wen-Chih; Stabile, Loren; Yeh, Gloria

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programs reduce overall and cardiovascular mortality in patients with a history of acute coronary events or revascularization procedures, but only 30 % of patients enroll in CR and attrition rates reach up to 60 %. Tai chi, a mind-body practice based on light/moderate aerobic exercise accompanied by meditative components could be a possible exercise option for patients who do not attend CR. Methods/Design Sixty patients will be randomized to a “LITE ” condition (one tai chi session twice weekly for 12 weeks) or to a “PLUS” condition (one tai chi session 3 times weekly for 12 weeks, followed by maintenance classes 1–2 times weekly for an additional 12 weeks). Measurements will be conducted at baseline, 3-, 6-, and 9 months after enrollment. The primary outcome is to determine the feasibility, acceptability and safety of each dose. Secondary outcomes include estimates of effect size of each dose on accelerometry-assessed physical activity; the proportion of patients meeting current recommendations for physical activity; and measures of fitness, quality of life, body weight, and sleep. In addition, we will collect exploratory information on possible mediators (exercise self-efficacy, perceived social support, resilience, mindfulness, and depression). Conclusions Findings from this pilot study will provide preliminary indications about the usefulness of tai chi as an exercise option for patients not attending traditional CR programs. Results will also shed light on the possible mechanisms by which tai chi practice may improve overall physical activity among patients with atherosclerotic coronary heart disease. PMID:26115880

  17. T'ai Chi

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q&A School & Jobs Drugs & Alcohol Staying Safe Recipes En Español Making a Change – Your Personal Plan Hot Topics Meningitis Choosing Your Mood Prescription Drug Abuse Healthy School Lunch Planner How Can I ...

  18. Effect of 1-year regular Tai Chi on neuromuscular reaction in elderly women: a randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Zhang, Cui; Song, Qipeng; Li, Weiping; Cong, Yan; Chang, Shuwan; Mao, Dewei; Hong, Youlian

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of 1-year regular Tai Chi (TC) on neuromuscular reaction in elderly women. A total of 41 elderly women (55 years-68 years) completed the study. The TC group (n = 21) performed the 24-form TC, while the control group (C, n = 20) was instructed to read newspapers or watch television when the TC group practised. Electromyogram measurements were conducted before and after intervention. After a year-long intervention, the post-test results of between-group neuromuscular reaction time showed significant differences in the rectus femoris (t = 3.607, p = 0.001), semitendinosus (t = 2.678, p = 0.011), anterior tibialis (t = 3.455, p = 0.001), and gastrocnemius muscles (t = 4.061, p = 0.000). Within-group results showed that the TC group had significantly shorter neuromuscular reaction time compared to its baseline value in the rectus femoris (t = 3.066, p = 0.006), semitendinosus (t = 2.485, p = 0.022), anterior tibialis (t = 2.311, p = 0.032), and gastrocnemius muscles (t = 2.462, p = 0.023). Results suggested that year-long regular TC can improve neuromuscular reaction function in elderly women. PMID:27161956

  19. Clinical features of HIV/AIDS patients presenting to an inner city clinic in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Klotz, Stephen A; Nguyen, Hao Cong; Van Pham, Tam; Nguyen, Liem Thanh; Ngo, Dong Thi Anh; Vu, Son Nhoc

    2007-07-01

    An outpatient HIV clinic was opened in March 2005 in Binh Thanh District, a poor section of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Over 1500 patients were seen in the first year. The average age of patients was 27 years. Men represented 77% of the clinic population, women, 23% and children under the age of 16 years of age, 5% of the population. The most common risk factor among men was being an injecting drug user (IDU), 76%, and among women, being married to an IDU HIV-positive man, 35%. Physical signs of disease were uncommon: lymphadenopathy in 24% and hepatomegaly and splenomegaly in 4% and 3%, respectively. Men and women were anaemic at presentation, with a mean haemoglobin of 11.9 g/dL and 11.1 g/dL, respectively. An overwhelming majority of patients had profound immunodeficiency. The mean CD4+ cell count was 164 cells/mL and the median was 69 cells/mL. No correlation was found between the World Health Organization's stage of disease and the CD4+ cell count. Thus, the former is a poor predictor of immunity in this population. Data regarding opportunistic infections diagnosed at the first visit were studied. Candidiasis of the oral pharynx, oesophagus or vagina was found in 34.5% of the patients, and pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis was found in 32% of the patients. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) was diagnosed in only 3% of the patients. Cotrimoxazole prophylaxis is advocated for HIV-infected Vietnamese, but the incidence of PCP is negligible and resources could be spent elsewhere. The various opportunistic infections seen in this resource-poor clinic setting is likely to be a pattern of presentation of HIV-infected Vietnamese for some time to come. PMID:17623507

  20. Fall prevention in community settings: results from implementing tai chi: moving for better balance in three States.

    PubMed

    Ory, Marcia G; Smith, Matthew Lee; Parker, Erin M; Jiang, Luohua; Chen, Shuai; Wilson, Ashley D; Stevens, Judy A; Ehrenreich, Heidi; Lee, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Tai Chi: Moving for Better Balance (TCMBB) is an evidence-based fall prevention exercise program being disseminated in selected communities through state injury prevention programs. This study: (1) describes the personal characteristics of TCMBB participants; (2) quantifies participants' functional and self-reported health status at enrollment; and (3) measures changes in participants' functional and self-reported health status post-intervention. There were 421 participants enrolled in 36 TCMBB programs delivered in Colorado, New York, and Oregon. Of the 209 participants who completed both baseline enrollment and post-intervention surveys, the average age of participants was 75.3 (SD ± 8.2) years. Most participants were female (81.3%), non-Hispanic (96.1%), White (94.1%), and described themselves as in excellent or very good health (52.2%). Paired t-test and general estimating equation models assessed changes over the 3-month program period. Pre- and post-assessment self-reported surveys and objective functional data [Timed Up and Go (TUG) test] were collected. On average, TUG test scores decreased (p < 0.001) for all participants; however, the decrease was most noticeable among high-risk participants (mean decreased from 18.5 to 15.7 s). The adjusted odds ratio of reporting feeling confident that a participant could keep themselves from falling was five times greater after completing the program. TCMBB, which addresses gait and balance problems, can be an effective way to reduce falls among the older adult population. By helping older adults maintain their functional abilities, TCMBB can help community-dwelling older adults continue to live independently. PMID:25964934

  1. Effect of Tai Chi Exercise Combined with Mental Imagery Theory in Improving Balance in a Diabetic and Elderly Population

    PubMed Central

    Alsubiheen, Abdulrahman; Petrofsky, Jerrold; Daher, Noha; Lohman, Everett; Balbas, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Background One of the effects of diabetes mellitus (DM), peripheral neuropathy, affects the sensation in the feet and can increase the chance of falling. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of 8 weeks of Tai Chi (TC) training combined with mental imagery (MI) on improving balance in people with diabetes and an age matched control group. Material/Methods Seventeen healthy subjects and 12 diabetic sedentary subjects ranging from 40–80 years of age were recruited. All subjects in both groups attended a Yang style of TC class using MI strategies, 2 sessions a week for 8 weeks. Each session was one hour long. Measures were taken using a balance platform test, an Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) Scale, a one leg standing test (OLS), functional reach test (FRT) and hemoglobin A1C. These measures were taken twice, pre and post-study, for both groups. Results Both groups experienced significant improvements in ABC, OLS, FRT (P<0.01) after completing 8 weeks of TC exercise with no significant improvement between groups. Subjects using the balance platform test demonstrated improvement in balance in all different tasks with no significant change between groups. There was no significant change in HbA1C for the diabetic group. Conclusions All results showed an improvement in balance in the diabetic and the control groups; however, no significant difference between the groups was observed. Since the DM group had more problems with balance impairment at baseline than the control, the diabetic group showed the most benefit from the TC exercise. PMID:26454826

  2. Purification and characterization of a three-component salicylate 1-hydroxylase from Sphingomonas sp. strain CHY-1.

    PubMed

    Jouanneau, Yves; Micoud, Julien; Meyer, Christine

    2007-12-01

    In the bacterial degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), salicylate hydroxylases catalyze essential reactions at the junction between the so-called upper and lower catabolic pathways. Unlike the salicylate 1-hydroxylase from pseudomonads, which is a well-characterized flavoprotein, the enzyme found in sphingomonads appears to be a three-component Fe-S protein complex, which so far has not been characterized. Here, the salicylate 1-hydroxylase from Sphingomonas sp. strain CHY-1 was purified, and its biochemical and catalytic properties were characterized. The oxygenase component, designated PhnII, exhibited an alpha3beta3 heterohexameric structure and contained one Rieske-type [2Fe-2S] cluster and one mononuclear iron per alpha subunit. In the presence of purified reductase (PhnA4) and ferredoxin (PhnA3) components, PhnII catalyzed the hydroxylation of salicylate to catechol with a maximal specific activity of 0.89 U/mg and showed an apparent Km for salicylate of 1.1 +/- 0.2 microM. The hydroxylase exhibited similar activity levels with methylsalicylates and low activity with salicylate analogues bearing additional hydroxyl or electron-withdrawing substituents. PhnII converted anthranilate to 2-aminophenol and exhibited a relatively low affinity for this substrate (Km, 28 +/- 6 microM). 1-Hydroxy-2-naphthoate, which is an intermediate in phenanthrene degradation, was not hydroxylated by PhnII, but it induced a high rate of uncoupled oxidation of NADH. It also exerted strong competitive inhibition of salicylate hydroxylation, with a Ki of 0.68 microM. The properties of this three-component hydroxylase are compared with those of analogous bacterial hydroxylases and are discussed in light of our current knowledge of PAH degradation by sphingomonads. PMID:17905882

  3. Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detection Decision Tree Analysis of Risk Factors for Infant Anemia in Beijing, China

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Fang; Chen, Zhi-Hua; Chen, Jie; Liu, Fang; Zhang, Yong; Fan, Qin-Ying; Wang, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Background: In the past decades, studies on infant anemia have mainly focused on rural areas of China. With the increasing heterogeneity of population in recent years, available information on infant anemia is inconclusive in large cities of China, especially with comparison between native residents and floating population. This population-based cross-sectional study was implemented to determine the anemic status of infants as well as the risk factors in a representative downtown area of Beijing. Methods: As useful methods to build a predictive model, Chi-squared automatic interaction detection (CHAID) decision tree analysis and logistic regression analysis were introduced to explore risk factors of infant anemia. A total of 1091 infants aged 6–12 months together with their parents/caregivers living at Heping Avenue Subdistrict of Beijing were surveyed from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2014. Results: The prevalence of anemia was 12.60% with a range of 3.47%–40.00% in different subgroup characteristics. The CHAID decision tree model has demonstrated multilevel interaction among risk factors through stepwise pathways to detect anemia. Besides the three predictors identified by logistic regression model including maternal anemia during pregnancy, exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months, and floating population, CHAID decision tree analysis also identified the fourth risk factor, the maternal educational level, with higher overall classification accuracy and larger area below the receiver operating characteristic curve. Conclusions: The infant anemic status in metropolis is complex and should be carefully considered by the basic health care practitioners. CHAID decision tree analysis has demonstrated a better performance in hierarchical analysis of population with great heterogeneity. Risk factors identified by this study might be meaningful in the early detection and prompt treatment of infant anemia in large cities. PMID:27174328

  4. Spatial profile reconstruction of individual componentsof the nonlinear susceptibility tensors {chi}-circumflex {sup (3)}(z, {omega}', {omega}' -{omega}, {omega}) and {chi}-circumflex {sup (3)}(z, 2{omega}{+-}{omega}', {+-}{omega}', {omega}, {omega}) of a one-dimensionally inhomogeneous medium

    SciTech Connect

    Golubkov, A A; Makarov, Vladimir A

    2011-06-30

    We have proved for the first time and proposed an algorithm of unique spatial profile reconstruction of the components {chi}-circumflex {sup (3)}{sub yyyy} of complex tensors {chi}-circumflex {sup (3)}(z, {omega}', {omega}', -{omega}, {omega}) and {chi}-circumflex {sup (3)}(z, 2{omega}{+-}{omega}', {+-}{omega}', {omega}, {omega}), describing four-photon interaction of light waves in a one-dimensionally inhomogeneous plate, whose medium has a symmetry plane m{sub y} that is perpendicular to its surface. For the media with an additional symmetry axis 2{sub z}, 4{sub z}, 6{sub z} or {infinity}{sub z} that is perpendicular to the plate surface, the proposed method can be used to reconstruct about one-fifth of all independent components of the above tensors. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  5. Cloning, sequencing, and expression of the gene encoding Clostridium paraputrificum chitinase ChiB and analysis of the functions of novel cadherin-like domains and a chitin-binding domain.

    PubMed Central

    Morimoto, K; Karita, S; Kimura, T; Sakka, K; Ohmiya, K

    1997-01-01

    The Clostridium paraputrificum chiB gene, encoding chitinase B (ChiB), consists of an open reading frame of 2,493 nucleotides and encodes 831 amino acids with a deduced molecular weight of 90,020. The deduced ChiB is a modular enzyme composed of a family 18 catalytic domain responsible for chitinase activity, two reiterated domains of unknown function, and a chitin-binding domain (CBD). The reiterated domains are similar to the repeating units of cadherin proteins but not to fibronectin type III domains, and therefore they are referred to as cadherin-like domains. ChiB was purified from the periplasm fraction of Escherichia coli harboring the chiB gene. The molecular weight of the purified ChiB (87,000) by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis, was in good agreement with the value (86,578) calculated from the deduced amino acid sequence excluding the signal peptide. ChiB was active toward chitin from crab shells, colloidal chitin, glycol chitin, and 4-methylumbelliferyl beta-D-N,N'-diacetylchitobioside [4-MU-(GlcNAc)2]. The pH and temperature optima of the enzyme were 6.0 and 45 degrees C, respectively. The Km and Vmax values for 4-MU-(GlcNAc)2 were estimated to be 6.3 microM and 46 micromol/min/mg, respectively. SDS-PAGE, zymogram, and Western blot analyses using antiserum raised against purified ChiB suggested that ChiB was one of the major chitinase species in the culture supernatant of C. paraputrificum. Deletion analysis showed clearly that the CBD of ChiB plays an important role in hydrolysis of native chitin but not processed chitin such as colloidal chitin. PMID:9393694

  6. Chi(1) rotamer populations and angles of mobile surface side chains are accurately predicted by a torsion angle database potential of mean force.

    PubMed

    Clore, G Marius; Kuszewski, John

    2002-03-27

    The equilibrium angles and distributions of chi(1) rotamers for mobile surface side chains of the small, 63-residue, B1 domain of protein L have been calculated from the static crystal structure by rigid body/torsion angle simulated annealing using a torsion angle database potential of mean force and compared to those deduced by Monte Carlo analysis of side chain residual dipolar couplings measured in solution. Good agreement between theory and experiment is observed, indicating that for side chains undergoing rotamer averaging that is fast on the chemical shift time scale, the equilibrium angles and distribution of chi(1) rotamers are largely determined by the backbone phi/psi torsion angles. PMID:11902865

  7. CHiCP: a web-based tool for the integrative and interactive visualization of promoter capture Hi-C datasets

    PubMed Central

    Schofield, E. C.; Carver, T.; Achuthan, P.; Freire-Pritchett, P.; Spivakov, M.; Todd, J. A.; Burren, O. S.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Promoter capture Hi-C (PCHi-C) allows the genome-wide interrogation of physical interactions between distal DNA regulatory elements and gene promoters in multiple tissue contexts. Visual integration of the resultant chromosome interaction maps with other sources of genomic annotations can provide insight into underlying regulatory mechanisms. We have developed Capture HiC Plotter (CHiCP), a web-based tool that allows interactive exploration of PCHi-C interaction maps and integration with both public and user-defined genomic datasets. Availability and Implementation: CHiCP is freely accessible from www.chicp.org and supports most major HTML5 compliant web browsers. Full source code and installation instructions are available from http://github.com/D-I-L/django-chicp. Contact: ob219@cam.ac.uk PMID:27153610

  8. The abundances of Pt, Au, and Hg in the chemically peculiar HgMn-type stars kappa Cancri and chi Lupi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wahlgren, Glenn M.; Leckrone, David S.; Johansson, Sveneric G.; Rosberg, Maria; Brage, Tomas

    1995-01-01

    Echelle mode spectra obtained with the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) onboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) have been used to determine the abundances of the heavy elements Pt, Au, and Hg in the chemically peculiar HgMn-type stars kappa Cancri and chi Lupi. The abundances were determined by fitting observed line profiles with synthetically generated spectra and are found to be enhanced relative to solar system values by between three and five orders of magnitude in both stars. The Hg isotope mixture in kappa Cancri is found to resemble the terrestrial mixture while that of chi Lupi is dominated by the heaviest isotope. As determined from multiple ionization states, the abundances place constraints upon theories attempting to explain the large superficial abundances of heavy elements.

  9. Measurement of Decay Amplitudes of B to (ccbar) K^* withan Angular Analysis, for (ccbar)=J/Psi,Psi(2S) and Chi_c1

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.; Bona, M.; Boutigny, D.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; Lopez, L.; Palano, A.; Eigen, G.; Ofte, I.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Abrams, G.S.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D.N.; Button-Shafer, J.; /LBL, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /Bristol U. /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UCLA /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Munich, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /Ferrara U. /Frascati /Genoa U. /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Karlsruhe U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT, LNS /McGill U. /Milan U. /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Mt. Holyoke Coll. /Naples U. /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /Padua U. /Paris U., VI-VII /Pennsylvania U. /Perugia U. /Pisa U. /Prairie View A-M /Princeton U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DSM, DAPNIA, Saclay /South Carolina U. /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Albany /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /Turin U. /Trieste U. /Valencia U., IFIC /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison /Yale U.

    2007-04-25

    The authors perform the first three-dimensional measurement of the amplitudes of B {yields} {psi}(2S)K* and B {yields} {chi}{sub c1}K* decays and update the previous measurement B {yields} J/{psi}K*. They use a data sample collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II storage ring, corresponding to 232 million B{bar B} pairs. The longitudinal polarization of decays involving a J{sup PC} = 1{sup ++} {chi}{sub c1} meson is found to be larger than that with a 1{sup --} J/{psi} or {psi}(2S) meson. No direct CP-violating charge asymmetry is observed.

  10. Effects of Tai Chi and Walking Exercises on Weight Loss, Metabolic Syndrome Parameters, and Bone Mineral Density: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Stanley Sai-Chuen; Xie, Yao Jie; Woo, Jean; Kwok, Timothy Chi-Yui

    2015-01-01

    Tai Chi and walking are both moderate-intensity physical activity (PA) that can be easily practiced in daily life. The objective of the study was to determine the effects of these two PAs on weight loss, metabolic syndrome parameters, and bone mineral density (BMD) in Chinese adults. We randomized 374 middle-aged subjects (45.8 ± 5.3 years) into 12-week training (45 minutes per day, 5 days per week) of Tai Chi (n = 124) or self-paced walking (n = 121) or control group (n = 129). On average, Tai Chi and walking groups lost 0.50 and 0.76 kg of body weight and 0.47 and 0.59 kg of fat mass after intervention, respectively. The between-group difference of waist circumference (WC) and fasting blood glucose (FBG) was −3.7 cm and −0.18 mmol/L for Tai Chi versus control and −4.1 cm and −0.22 mmol/L for walking versus control. No significant differences were observed regarding lean mass, blood pressure, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and BMD compared to control. Change in lean mass, not fat mass or total weight loss, was significantly correlated to the change in BMD. Our results suggest that both of these two PAs can produce moderate weight loss and significantly improve the WC and FBG in Hong Kong Chinese adults, with no additional effects on BMD. PMID:26543489

  11. Connecting Replication and Repair: YoaA, a Helicase-Related Protein, Promotes Azidothymidine Tolerance through Association with Chi, an Accessory Clamp Loader Protein

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Laura T.; Sutera, Vincent A.; Zhou, Shen; Weitzel, Christopher S.; Cheng, Yisha; Lovett, Susan T.

    2015-01-01

    Elongating DNA polymerases frequently encounter lesions or structures that impede progress and require repair before DNA replication can be completed. Therefore, directing repair factors to a blocked fork, without interfering with normal replication, is important for proper cell function, and it is a process that is not well understood. To study this process, we have employed the chain-terminating nucleoside analog, 3’ azidothymidine (AZT) and the E. coli genetic system, for which replication and repair factors have been well-defined. By using high-expression suppressor screens, we identified yoaA, encoding a putative helicase, and holC, encoding the Chi component of the replication clamp loader, as genes that promoted tolerance to AZT. YoaA is a putative Fe-S helicase in the XPD/RAD3 family for which orthologs can be found in most bacterial genomes; E. coli has a paralog to YoaA, DinG, which possesses 5’ to 3’ helicase activity and an Fe-S cluster essential to its activity. Mutants in yoaA are sensitive to AZT exposure; dinG mutations cause mild sensitivity to AZT and exacerbate the sensitivity of yoaA mutant strains. Suppression of AZT sensitivity by holC or yoaA was mutually codependent and we provide evidence here that YoaA and Chi physically interact. Interactions of Chi with single-strand DNA binding protein (SSB) and with Psi were required to aid AZT tolerance, as was the proofreading 3’ exonuclease, DnaQ. Our studies suggest that repair is coupled to blocked replication through these interactions. We hypothesize that SSB, through Chi, recruits the YoaA helicase to replication gaps and that unwinding of the nascent strand promotes repair and AZT excision. This recruitment prevents the toxicity of helicase activity and aids the handoff of repair with replication factors, ensuring timely repair and resumption of replication. PMID:26544712

  12. Differences in the Properties of the Radial Artery between Cun, Guan, Chi, and Nearby Segments Using Ultrasonographic Imaging: A Pilot Study on Arterial Depth, Diameter, and Blood Flow

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jaeuk U.; Lee, Yu Jung; Kim, Jong Yeol

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the Study. The three conventional pulse-diagnostic palpation locations (PLs) on both wrists are Cun, Guan, and Chi, and each location reveals different clinical information. To identify anatomical or hemodynamic specificity, we used ultrasonographic imaging to determine the arterial diameter, radial artery depth, and arterial blood flow velocity at the three PLs and at nearby non-PL segments. Methods. We applied an ultrasound scanner to 44 subjects and studied the changes in the arterial diameter and depth as well as in the average/maximum blood flow velocities along the radial artery at three PLs and three non-PLs located more proximally than Chi. Results. All of the measurements at all of the PLs were significantly different (P < 0.01). Artery depth was significantly different among the non-PLs; however, this difference became insignificant after normalization to the arm circumference. Conclusions. Substantial changes in the hemodynamic and anatomical properties of the radial artery around the three PLs were insignificant at the nearby non-PLs segments. This finding may provide a partial explanation for the diagnostic use of “Cun, Guan, and Chi.” PMID:25763090

  13. ChiTaRS 2.1--an improved database of the chimeric transcripts and RNA-seq data with novel sense-antisense chimeric RNA transcripts.

    PubMed

    Frenkel-Morgenstern, Milana; Gorohovski, Alessandro; Vucenovic, Dunja; Maestre, Lorena; Valencia, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    Chimeric RNAs that comprise two or more different transcripts have been identified in many cancers and among the Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) isolated from different organisms; they might represent functional proteins and produce different disease phenotypes. The ChiTaRS 2.1 database of chimeric transcripts and RNA-Seq data (http://chitars.bioinfo.cnio.es/) is the second version of the ChiTaRS database and includes improvements in content and functionality. Chimeras from eight organisms have been collated including novel sense-antisense (SAS) chimeras resulting from the slippage of the sense and anti-sense intragenic regions. The new database version collects more than 29,000 chimeric transcripts and indicates the expression and tissue specificity for 333 entries confirmed by RNA-seq reads mapping the chimeric junction sites. User interface allows for rapid and easy analysis of evolutionary conservation of fusions, literature references and experimental data supporting fusions in different organisms. More than 1428 cancer breakpoints have been automatically collected from public databases and manually verified to identify their correct cross-references, genomic sequences and junction sites. As a result, the ChiTaRS 2.1 collection of chimeras from eight organisms and human cancer breakpoints extends our understanding of the evolution of chimeric transcripts in eukaryotes as well as their functional role in carcinogenic processes. PMID:25414346

  14. Side-chain chi(1) conformations in urea-denatured ubiquitin and protein G from (3)J coupling constants and residual dipolar couplings.

    PubMed

    Vajpai, Navratna; Gentner, Martin; Huang, Jie-Rong; Blackledge, Martin; Grzesiek, Stephan

    2010-03-10

    Current NMR information on side-chain conformations of unfolded protein states is sparse due to the poor dispersion particularly of side-chain proton resonances. We present here optimized schemes for the detection of (3)J(HalphaHbeta), (3)J(NHbeta), and (3)J(C'Hbeta) scalar and (1)D(CbetaHbeta) residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) in unfolded proteins. For urea-denatured ubiquitin and protein G, up to six (3)J-couplings to (1)H(beta) are detected, which define the chi(1) angle at very high precision. Interpretation of the (3)J couplings by a model of mixed staggered chi(1) rotamers yields excellent agreement and also provides stereoassignments for (1)H(beta) methylene protons. For all observed amino acids with the exception of leucine, the chemical shift of (1)H(beta3) protons was found downfield from (1)H(beta2). For most residues, the precision of individual chi(1) rotamer populations is better than 2%. The experimental chi(1) rotamer populations are in the vicinity of averages obtained from coil regions in folded protein structures. However, individual variations from these averages of up to 40% are highly significant and indicate sequence- and residue-specific interactions. Particularly strong deviations from the coil average are found for serine and threonine residues, an effect that may be explained by a weakening of side-chain to backbone hydrogen bonds in the urea-denatured state. The measured (1)D(CbetaHbeta) RDCs correlate well with predicted RDCs that were calculated from a sterically aligned coil model ensemble and the (3)J-derived chi(1) rotamer populations. This agreement supports the coil model as a good first approximation of the unfolded state. Deviations between measured and predicted values at certain sequence locations indicate that the description of the local backbone conformations can be improved by incorporation of the RDC information. The ease of detection of a large number of highly precise side-chain RDCs opens the possibility for a more

  15. HaChi - Size- and time-resolved measurements of submicron winter and summer haze particles from the Beijing area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nekat, B.; van Pinxteren, D.; Iinuma, Y.; Gnauk, T.; Müller, K.; Herrmann, H.

    2010-12-01

    Satellite observations of the Beijing clearly show that this area is frequently plagued with heavy air pollution caused by significantly increased particle emissions. The aerosol affects the regional air quality and impairs the visibility by the formation of haze. This process strongly depends on the chemical, optical, and microphysical properties of particles governing the ability to take up water. Furthermore, these particles play an important role for cloud formation processes, precipitation, and the radiative balance of the atmosphere by subsequently acting as Cloud Condensation Nuclei. The HaChi project (Haze in China) targets to study chemical parameters of submicron aerosol in order to associate the chemical composition with the ability to act as condensation nuclei during the formation of haze. For this purpose, two measurement campaigns were performed at a background site located between Beijing and Tianjin on different meteorological conditions, respectively. The winter campaign was carried out in March 2009 and the summer campaign took place from mid July 2009 to mid August 2009. PM1 samples were continuously sampled every 24 hours using a DIGITEL high volume sampler and size- and time-resolved aerosol samples were collected using a 10-stage Berner impactor in a 6 hours day/night regime. This study presents the results of the chemical characterization of submicron particles from winter haze and summer haze measurements in comparison to clear and dusty day measurements. All samples were analyzed for the mass concentration, inorganic ions and carbon sum parameters such as elemental (EC), organic (OC) and water soluble organic carbon (WSOC). The WSOC fraction of filter samples was analyzed for polar substances such as dicarboxylic acids and saccharides. Fatty acids were determined to investigate surface-active substances and metals from the impactor measurements for crust material. Usually, highest PM1 concentrations are observed during haze periods, while

  16. BjMYB1, a transcription factor implicated in plant defence through activating BjCHI1 chitinase expression by binding to a W-box-like element.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ying; Jia, Shuangwei; Wang, Chunlian; Wang, Fujun; Wang, Fajun; Zhao, Kaijun

    2016-08-01

    We previously identified the W-box-like-4 (Wbl-4) element (GTAGTGACTCAT), one of six Wbl elements in the BjC-P promoter of the unusual chitinase gene BjCHI1 from Brassica juncea, as the core element responsive to fungal infection. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of the cognate transcription factor interacting with the Wbl-4 element. Using Wbl-4 as a target, we performed yeast one-hybrid screening of a B. juncea cDNA library and isolated an R2R3-MYB transcription factor designated as BjMYB1. BjMYB1 was localized in the nucleus of plant cells. EMSA assays confirmed that BjMYB1 binds to the Wbl-4 element. Transiently expressed BjMYB1 up-regulated the activity of the BjC-P promoter through its binding to the Wbl-4 element in tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) leaves. In B. juncea, BjMYB1 displayed a similar induced expression pattern as that of BjCHI1 upon infection by the fungus Botrytis cinerea Moreover, heterogeneous overexpression of BjMYB1 significantly elevated the resistance of transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana to the fungus B. cinerea These results suggest that BjMYB1 is potentially involved in host defence against fungal attack through activating the expression of BjCHI1 by binding to the Wbl-4 element in the BjC-P promoter. This finding demonstrates a novel DNA target of plant MYB transcription factors. PMID:27353280

  17. BjMYB1, a transcription factor implicated in plant defence through activating BjCHI1 chitinase expression by binding to a W-box-like element

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ying; Jia, Shuangwei; Wang, Chunlian; Wang, Fujun; Wang, Fajun; Zhao, Kaijun

    2016-01-01

    We previously identified the W-box-like-4 (Wbl-4) element (GTAGTGACTCAT), one of six Wbl elements in the BjC-P promoter of the unusual chitinase gene BjCHI1 from Brassica juncea, as the core element responsive to fungal infection. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of the cognate transcription factor interacting with the Wbl-4 element. Using Wbl-4 as a target, we performed yeast one-hybrid screening of a B. juncea cDNA library and isolated an R2R3-MYB transcription factor designated as BjMYB1. BjMYB1 was localized in the nucleus of plant cells. EMSA assays confirmed that BjMYB1 binds to the Wbl-4 element. Transiently expressed BjMYB1 up-regulated the activity of the BjC-P promoter through its binding to the Wbl-4 element in tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) leaves. In B. juncea, BjMYB1 displayed a similar induced expression pattern as that of BjCHI1 upon infection by the fungus Botrytis cinerea. Moreover, heterogeneous overexpression of BjMYB1 significantly elevated the resistance of transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana to the fungus B. cinerea. These results suggest that BjMYB1 is potentially involved in host defence against fungal attack through activating the expression of BjCHI1 by binding to the Wbl-4 element in the BjC-P promoter. This finding demonstrates a novel DNA target of plant MYB transcription factors. PMID:27353280

  18. Comparison of new experimental and atrophysical f-values for some Ru II lines, observed in HST spectra of chi Lupi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johansson, Sveneric G.; Joueizadeh, Ali; Litzen, Ulf; Larsson, Jorgen; Persson, Anders; Wahlstrom, Claes-Goran; Svanberg, Sune; Leckrone, David S.; Wahlgren, Glenn M.

    1994-01-01

    We report an experimental absolute oscillator strengths for 18 UV lines of Ru II, obtained by combining laser-induced flourescence measurements of radiative lifetimes and branching fractions from line intensities in a calibrated Fourier-transform spectrum Hubble Space Telescope/Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (HST/GHRS) observations of the spectrum of the sharp-lined B star chi Lupi contain six of these lines, for which 'astrophysical' relative f-values have been determined. The agreement is within 0.10 dex for a Ru abundance of log N(Ru)/N(H) = -7.90, which is 2.3 dex above the solar abundance.

  19. The effectiveness of Tai Chi, yoga, meditation, and Reiki healing sessions in promoting health and enhancing problem solving abilities of registered nurses.

    PubMed

    Raingruber, Bonnie; Robinson, Carol

    2007-10-01

    Given the current necessity of retaining qualified nurses, a self-care program consisting of Yoga, Tai Chi, Meditation classes, and Reiki healing sessions was designed for a university-based hospital. The effectiveness of these interventions was evaluated using self-care journals and analyzed using a Heideggerian phenomenological approach. Outcomes of the self-care classes described by nurses included: (a) noticing sensations of warmth, tingling, and pulsation which were relaxing, (b) becoming aware of an enhanced problem solving ability, and (c) noticing an increased ability to focus on patient needs. Hospitals willing to invest in self-care options for nurses can anticipate patient and work related benefits. PMID:17957554

  20. Chi sites in combination with RecA protein increase the survival of linear DNA in Escherichia coli by inactivating exoV activity of RecBCD nuclease.

    PubMed Central

    Kuzminov, A; Schabtach, E; Stahl, F W

    1994-01-01

    In Escherichia coli, unprotected linear DNA is degraded by exoV activity of the RecBCD nuclease, a protein that plays a central role in the repair of double-strand breaks. Specific short asymmetric sequences, called chi sites, are hotspots for RecBCD-promoted recombination and are shown in vitro to attenuate exoV activity. To study RecBCD-chi site interactions in vivo we used phage lambda's terminase to introduce a site-specific double-strand break at lambda's cos site inserted into a plasmid. We show that after terminase has cut cos in vivo, nucleases degrade linearized DNA only from the end that does not have a strong terminase binding site. Linearized cosmid DNA containing chi sites in the proper orientation to the unprotected end is degraded more slowly in rec+ E. coli than is chi-less DNA. Increased survival of chi-containing DNA is a result of partial inactivation of exoV activity and is dependent on RecA and SSB proteins. The linearization of chi-containing DNA molecules leads to RecA-dependent formation of branched structures which have been proposed as intermediates in the RecBCD pathway of double-strand break repair. Images PMID:8026461

  1. SiO MASERS IN ASYMMETRIC MIRAS. IV. {chi} CYGNI, R AQUILAE, R LEO MINORIS, RU HERCULIS, U HERCULIS, AND U ORIONIS

    SciTech Connect

    Cotton, W. D.; Ragland, S.; Pluzhnik, E. A.; Danchi, W. C.; Traub, W. A.; Lacasse, M. G.

    2010-06-15

    This is the fourth paper in a series of multi-epoch observations at 7 mm wavelength of the SiO masers in several asymptotic giant branch stars from a sample of Mira variable stars showing evidence of asymmetric structure in the infrared. These stars have been observed interferometrically in the infrared by IOTA and with VLBA measurements of the SiO masers. In this paper, we present the observations of {chi} Cygni ({chi} Cyg), R Aquilae (R Aql), R Leo Minoris (R LMi), RU Herculis (RU Her), U Herculis (U Her), and U Orionis (U Ori). Several radial features with velocity gradients were observed, all with velocities close to systemic furthest from the star and redshifted closer to the stellar surface. Systemic velocities are estimated for several of the stars. No compelling evidence of asymmetry is seen in the maser distributions. All maser rings are approximately twice the near-IR uniform disk diameter and are comparable in size to the extended molecular envelope when such measurements are available.

  2. The management of behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia in residential homes: does Tai Chi have any role for people with dementia?

    PubMed

    Tadros, George; Ormerod, Sara; Dobson-Smyth, Penny; Gallon, Mark; Doherty, Donna; Carryer, Angela; Oyebode, Jan; Kingston, Paul

    2013-03-01

    Dementia is a common illness that is increasing in frequency and set to challenge the resources and expertise of health and social care services over the coming years. Increasingly, there has been interest in the management of behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), as they are both common and associated with a range of negative outcomes. BPSD are associated with the admission of people with dementia to care homes. Limited resources and lack of knowledge in permanent care settings often lead to BPSD being managed with antipsychotic medications, which are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. There is evidence for the benefits of exercise within care home settings, although only a few studies include those with cognitive impairment. Tai Chi is a mind-body exercise combining relaxed physical movement and meditation, and has been suggested to have many health benefits. This article discusses the rationale and available options for treating BPSD and the current practice and reviews the literature regarding the benefits of exercise and, in particular, Tai Chi in the management of BPSD. PMID:24336773

  3. A Search for WIMP Dark Matter Using an Optimized Chi-square Technique on the Final Data from the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search Experiment (CDMS II)

    SciTech Connect

    Manungu Kiveni, Joseph

    2012-12-01

    This dissertation describes the results of a WIMP search using CDMS II data sets accumulated at the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota. Results from the original analysis of these data were published in 2009; two events were observed in the signal region with an expected leakage of 0.9 events. Further investigation revealed an issue with the ionization-pulse reconstruction algorithm leading to a software upgrade and a subsequent reanalysis of the data. As part of the reanalysis, I performed an advanced discrimination technique to better distinguish (potential) signal events from backgrounds using a 5-dimensional chi-square method. This dataanalysis technique combines the event information recorded for each WIMP-search event to derive a backgrounddiscrimination parameter capable of reducing the expected background to less than one event, while maintaining high efficiency for signal events. Furthermore, optimizing the cut positions of this 5-dimensional chi-square parameter for the 14 viable germanium detectors yields an improved expected sensitivity to WIMP interactions relative to previous CDMS results. This dissertation describes my improved (and optimized) discrimination technique and the results obtained from a blind application to the reanalyzed CDMS II WIMP-search data.

  4. Capacity Building Toward Evidence-Based Medicine Among Healthcare Professionals at the University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Ho Chi Minh City, and Its Related Institutes

    PubMed Central

    Nga, LE Thi Quynh; GOTO, Aya; Trung, TRAN The; Vinh, NGUYEN Quang; Khue, NGUYEN Thy

    2014-01-01

    Research capacity development enhances a country’s ownership of activities aimed at strengthening its health system. In Vietnam, continuing medical education (CME) is attracting increasing attention with the establishment of legal and policy frameworks. During 2010-2013, the Japan International Cooperation Agency funded a research capacity building project targeting physicians in Ho Chi Minh City. The project had been developed in four previous courses that were conducted in collaboration with Fukushima Medical University and Ho Chi Minh City University of Medicine and Pharmacy (UMP). The project succeeded in obtaining accreditation as the city’s CME course. A total of 262 physicians attended three courses that have a divided set of research competencies. Following the Kirkpatrick Model for evaluating the effectiveness of training programs, we confirmed the participants’ positive reaction to the courses (Level 1 evaluation), their perceived increase in knowledge and confidence in research skills (Level 2 evaluation), and application of learned knowledge in their practice (Level 3 evaluation). Presented here is a step-by-step scaling-up model of health research capacity building. Strategies for the further expansion include: further capacity building of instructors; responding to clinicians’ specific needs; building a recruiting system with authorization; and improving the Level 3 training evaluation. PMID:25237279

  5. Capacity building toward evidence-based medicine among healthcare professionals at the university of medicine and pharmacy, ho chi minh city, and its related institutes.

    PubMed

    Nga, LE Thi Quynh; Goto, Aya; Trung, Tran The; Vinh, Nguyen Quang; Khue, Nguyen Thy

    2014-02-01

    Research capacity development enhances a country's ownership of activities aimed at strengthening its health system. In Vietnam, continuing medical education (CME) is attracting increasing attention with the establishment of legal and policy frameworks. During 2010-2013, the Japan International Cooperation Agency funded a research capacity building project targeting physicians in Ho Chi Minh City. The project had been developed in four previous courses that were conducted in collaboration with Fukushima Medical University and Ho Chi Minh City University of Medicine and Pharmacy (UMP). The project succeeded in obtaining accreditation as the city's CME course. A total of 262 physicians attended three courses that have a divided set of research competencies. Following the Kirkpatrick Model for evaluating the effectiveness of training programs, we confirmed the participants' positive reaction to the courses (Level 1 evaluation), their perceived increase in knowledge and confidence in research skills (Level 2 evaluation), and application of learned knowledge in their practice (Level 3 evaluation). Presented here is a step-by-step scaling-up model of health research capacity building. Strategies for the further expansion include: further capacity building of instructors; responding to clinicians' specific needs; building a recruiting system with authorization; and improving the Level 3 training evaluation. PMID:25237279

  6. The benefits of endurance exercise and Tai Chi Chuan for the task-switching aspect of executive function in older adults: an ERP study

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Dong-Yang; Chi, Li-Kang; Li, Fuzhong; Chang, Yu-Kai

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the relationship between physical activity and the task-switching aspect of executive function by investigating the modulating roles of age, modality of physical activity, and type of cognitive function using behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) assessments. Sixty-four participants were assigned to one of four groups based on age and history of physical activity: older adults performing endurance exercise (OEE), older adults practicing Tai Chi Chuan (OTC), older adults with a sedentary lifestyle (OSL), and young adults (YA). Study participants completed a task-switching task under homogeneous and heterogeneous conditions while ERPs were recorded. The results revealed that YA had shortest reaction times compared with the three older adults groups, with OSL exhibiting the longest reaction time. YA also exhibited shorter P3 latency than OSL. No differences were observed in P3 amplitude between YA, OEE, and OTC; however, all three groups had significantly larger P3 amplitude compared with OSL in both task conditions. In conclusion, age and participation in physical activity influence the relationship between physical activity and task-switching, and a positive relationship was observed regardless of the modality of physical activity and type of cognitive function. Our ERP findings support the model of the scaffolding theory of aging and cognition (STAC) and suggest that regular participation in endurance exercise and Tai Chi Chuan may have equivalent beneficial effects on cognition at the behavioral and neuroelectric levels. PMID:25389403

  7. The benefits of endurance exercise and Tai Chi Chuan for the task-switching aspect of executive function in older adults: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Fong, Dong-Yang; Chi, Li-Kang; Li, Fuzhong; Chang, Yu-Kai

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the relationship between physical activity and the task-switching aspect of executive function by investigating the modulating roles of age, modality of physical activity, and type of cognitive function using behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) assessments. Sixty-four participants were assigned to one of four groups based on age and history of physical activity: older adults performing endurance exercise (OEE), older adults practicing Tai Chi Chuan (OTC), older adults with a sedentary lifestyle (OSL), and young adults (YA). Study participants completed a task-switching task under homogeneous and heterogeneous conditions while ERPs were recorded. The results revealed that YA had shortest reaction times compared with the three older adults groups, with OSL exhibiting the longest reaction time. YA also exhibited shorter P3 latency than OSL. No differences were observed in P3 amplitude between YA, OEE, and OTC; however, all three groups had significantly larger P3 amplitude compared with OSL in both task conditions. In conclusion, age and participation in physical activity influence the relationship between physical activity and task-switching, and a positive relationship was observed regardless of the modality of physical activity and type of cognitive function. Our ERP findings support the model of the scaffolding theory of aging and cognition (STAC) and suggest that regular participation in endurance exercise and Tai Chi Chuan may have equivalent beneficial effects on cognition at the behavioral and neuroelectric levels. PMID:25389403

  8. Signal-to-noise ratio requirements for detection of multiple pulses subject to partially correlated fading with chi-squared statistics of various degrees of freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuttall, Albert H.; Eby, Edward S.

    1986-06-01

    The transmitted signal in a fading medium is composed of several pulses separated in time so as to achieve diversity and thereby combat deep fades and loss of signal. Receiver processing consists of matched filtering of each of the pulses, followed by summation of the squared envelopes of all the filter outputs. In addition to additive Gaussian background noise, the signal is subject to slow medium fading which has a chi-squared first-order distribution and which may be correlated from pulse to pulse to an arbitrary degree. The false alarm and detection probabilities of this system are derived in various series expansions which are amenable to efficient computer evaluation. Programs are presented and exercised for various combinations of signal-to-noise ratio, number of pulses, degree of correlated fading, and (noninteger) number of degrees of freedom of the chi-squared fading. Required input signal-to-noise ratios for several false alarm and detection probabilities are computed and plotted for cases of the fading normalized correlation coefficient ranging from 0 to 1; results for a nonfading medium are superposed for easy comparison. Special cases are dependent and independent Rayleigh amplitude fading.

  9. Cellular uptake, antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of entrapped α-tocopherol and γ-tocotrienol in poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) and chitosan covered PLGA nanoparticles (PLGA-Chi).

    PubMed

    Alqahtani, Saeed; Simon, Lacey; Astete, Carlos E; Alayoubi, Alaadin; Sylvester, Paul W; Nazzal, Sami; Shen, Yixiao; Xu, Zhimin; Kaddoumi, Amal; Sabliov, Cristina M

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to formulate and characterize α-tocopherol (α-T) and tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) entrapped in poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and chitosan covered PLGA (PLGA-Chi) based nanoparticles. The resultant nanoparticles were characterized and the effect of nanoparticles entrapment on the cellular uptake, antioxidant, and antiproliferative activity of α-T and TRF were tested. In vitro uptake studies in Caco2 cells showed that PLGA and PLGA-Chi nanoparticles displayed a greater enhancement in the cellular uptake of α-T and TRF when compared with the control without causing toxicity to the cells (p<0.0001). Furthermore, the cellular internalization of both PLGA and PLGA-Chi nanoparticles labeled with FITC was investigated by fluorescence microscopy; both types of nanoparticles were able to get internalized into the cells with reasonable amounts. However, PLGA-Chi nanoparticles showed significantly higher (3.5-fold) cellular uptake compared to PLGA nanoparticles. The antioxidant activity studies demonstrated that entrapment of α-T and TRF in PLGA and PLGA-Chi nanoparticles exhibited greater ability in inhibiting cholesterol oxidation at 48 h compared to the control. In vitro antiproliferative studies confirmed marked cytotoxicity of TRF on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines when delivered by PLGA and PLGA-Chi nanoparticles after 48 h incubation compared to control. In summary, PLGA and PLGA-Chi nanoparticles may be considered as an attractive and promising approach to enhance the bioavailability and activity of poorly water soluble compounds such as α-tocopherol and tocotrienols. PMID:25622049

  10. Design, methodology and baseline characteristics of Tai Chi and its protective effect against ischaemic stroke risk in an elderly community population with risk factors for ischaemic stroke: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Guohua; Zheng, Xin; Li, Junzhe; Duan, Tingjin; Qi, Dalu; Ling, Kun; He, Jian; Chen, Lidian

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Controlling risk factors with regular exercise is effective and cost-effective for the primary prevention of ischaemic stroke. As a traditional Chinese form of exercise, Tai Chi might be beneficial in decreasing ischaemic stroke, but the evidence remains insufficient. We hypothesise that elderly community adults with risk factors for ischaemic stroke will decrease their ischaemic stroke risk by improving cerebral haemodynamic parameters, cardiopulmonary function, motor function, plasma risk indices, physical parameters or psychological outcomes after receiving 12 weeks of regular Tai Chi training compared with those who maintained their original physical activities. Therefore, we designed a randomised controlled trial that will systematically evaluate the protective effects of Tai Chi exercise on ischaemic stroke risk in an elderly community population with risk factors for ischaemic stroke. Methods and analysis A total of 170 eligible participants were randomly allocated into either the Tai Chi training group or the usual physical activity group. This paper reports on the design, intervention development and baseline characteristics of the participants. There were no significant differences between comparison groups in demographic characteristics or the baseline data of primary or secondary outcomes. Participants in the Tai Chi training group will receive 12 weeks of Tai Chi training with a frequency of 5 days/week and 60 min/day, while those in the usual physical activities group will maintain their original activities. Primary and secondary outcomes will be measured at the 12-week and 24-week follow-ups. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval has been obtained from the Medical Ethics Committee of The Affiliated People's Hospital of Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine (number 2013-020-02). The findings of this study will be communicated to healthcare professionals, participants and the public through peer

  11. The pursuit of heavy elements in the HgMn-type star Chi Lupi: Observations with the GHRS in the COSTAR era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wahlgren, Glenn M.; Brage, Tomas; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Johansson, Sveneric G.; Leckrone, David S.; Lindler, Don J.; Litzen, Ulf

    1994-01-01

    Observations of the ultra-sharp-lined HgMn star Chi Lupi made with the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) after the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) First Servicing Mission display the effect of the Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement instrument (COSTAR) upon the spectral resolution of several observing modes. The resolution is restored to levels expected in the absence of the telescope spherical aberration for all observations made through the GHRS Large Science Aperture (LSA). The Small Science Aperture (SSA) spectra are nearly identical in resolution to the pre-COSTAR values while benefiting from higher throughput. The line spread function for the LSA relative to the SSA shows little wavelength dependence and reflects a Gaussian profile approximately 20%-30% broader than for SSA spectra. Absorption features containing components of As II and Bi II represent upper limit enhancements of 2.9 and 2.1 dex for As II and Bi II, respectively, relative to meteoritic abundance determinations.

  12. Community, family, and partner-related stigma experienced by pregnant and postpartum women with HIV in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Brickley, Deborah Bain; Le Dung Hanh, Dang; Nguyet, Luu Thi; Mandel, Jeffrey S; Giang, Le Truong; Sohn, Annette H

    2009-12-01

    Pregnant and postpartum women with HIV often face stigma and discrimination at home and in the community. In Vietnam, associations between HIV and the "social evils" of drug use and sex work contribute to stigmatization of people with HIV. We conducted a qualitative study to explore discrimination experienced by HIV-positive pregnant and postpartum women in Ho Chi Minh City at home and in the community. We conducted 20 in-depth interviews and two focus group discussions. Participants described managing disclosure of their HIV infection because of fear of stigma and discrimination, particularly to the wider community. In cases where their HIV status was disclosed, women experienced both discrimination and support. The findings highlight the need for targeted interventions to support pregnant and postpartum women with HIV, particularly during this period when they are connected to the healthcare system and more readily available for counseling. PMID:19085100

  13. SEPARATED FRINGE PACKET OBSERVATIONS WITH THE CHARA ARRAY. I. METHODS AND NEW ORBITS FOR {chi} DRACONIS, HD 184467, AND HD 198084

    SciTech Connect

    Farrington, C. D.; Ten Brummelaar, T. A.; Turner, N. H.; Sturmann, L.; Sturmann, J.; Mason, B. D.; Hartkopf, W. I.; McAlister, H. A.; Raghavan, D.; Ridgway, S. T. E-mail: theo@chara-array.or E-mail: sturmann@chara-array.or E-mail: bdm@usno.navy.mi E-mail: hal@chara.gsu.ed E-mail: sridgway@noao.ed

    2010-06-15

    We present the modification of the orbits of {chi} Draconis and HD 184467, and a completely new orbit for HD 198084, including data taken at the Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy (CHARA) Array. These data were obtained using a modification of the technique of separated fringe packets (SFPs). The accuracy of the SFP data surpasses that of data taken by speckle, but the technique is much more time and labor intensive. Additionally, using SFPs with the CHARA Array, it is possible to obtain separations below the detection range of speckle interferometry ({>=}30 mas) above the range in 'classic' long-baseline interferometry where fringes from a binary overlap are no longer separated ({<=}10 mas). Using spectroscopic binary systems with published speckle orbits, we are able to test our new measurements against their ephemerides to calibrate the method as well as produce entirely new orbits for systems with no current astrometric observations.

  14. Culture-centered engagement with delivery of health services: co-constructing meanings of health in the Tzu Chi Foundation through Buddhist philosophy.

    PubMed

    Dillard, Sydney J; Dutta, Mohan; Sun, Wei-San

    2014-01-01

    The shift in health communication scholarship from the narrow focus on curing to the complexly intertwined spaces of health, illness, healing, and curing attends to the dynamic cultural contexts within which meanings and practices are negotiated, directing scholarship toward alternative spaces of health care delivery. This study utilized the culture-centered approach as a theoretical lens for providing a discursive space for understanding meanings of health constituted in the practices of the Tzu Chi Foundation, an organization that offers biomedical services within the larger philosophical understandings of Buddhism with 10 million members in over 50 different countries. The emerging perspective promotes non-biomedical meanings of health through selfless giving and assistance founded in Buddhist principles, simultaneously seeking purity of the mind, body, and soul holistically. Through the negotiation of the principles driving Buddhist philosophy and the principles that shape biomedical health care delivery, this study seeks to understand the interpretive frames that circulate among foundation staff and care recipients. PMID:23484486

  15. A Study of anti-p p ---> two neutral pseudoscalar mesons at the chi(c0)(1**3 P0) formation energy

    SciTech Connect

    Andreotti, M.; Bagnasco, S.; Baldini, W.; Bettoni, D.; Borreani, G.; Buzzo, A.; Calabrese, R.; Cester, R.; Cibinetto, G.; Dalpiaz, P.; Garzoglio, G.; Gollwitzer, K.; Graham, M.; Hu, M.; Joffe, D.; Kasper, J.; Lasio, G.; Lo Vetere, M.; Luppi, E.; Macri, M.; Mandelkern, M.; /Fermilab /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /UC, Irvine /Minnesota U. /Northwestern U. /INFN, Turin /Turin U.

    2005-09-01

    Fermilab experiment E835 has studied reactions {bar p}p {yields} {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}, {pi}{sup 0}{eta}, {eta}{eta}, {pi}{sup 0}{eta}' and {eta}{eta}' in the energy region of the {chi}{sub c0}(1{sup 3} P{sub 0}) from 3340 MeV to 3470 MeV. Interference between resonant and continuum production is observed in the {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} and {eta}{eta} channels, and the product of the input and output branching fractions is measured. Limits on resonant production are set for the {pi}{sup 0}{eta} and {pi}{sup 0}{eta}' channels. An indication of interference is observed in the {eta}{eta}' channel. The technique for extracting resonance parameters in an environment dominated by continuum production is described.

  16. Willingness to Use the Internet to Seek Information on HIV Prevention and Care among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Justumus, Pauline; Colby, Donn; Mai Doan Anh, Thi; Balestre, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Background In Vietnam, men who have sex with men (MSM) are highly affected by HIV and need new targeted HIV prevention strategies. Objectives To assess the willingness to use the Internet to seek information on HIV prevention and care and associated factors among MSM in Ho Chi Minh City. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012. Participants were recruited using a convenience sampling method in venues most frequented by MSM and completed a self-administered questionnaire. Logistic regression models were performed to estimate factors associated with the willingness to use the Internet to seek information on HIV prevention and care. Results A total of 358 MSM were approached for the survey and 222 questionnaires (62.0%) were eligible for analyses. Overall, 76.1% of the respondents reported that they were willing to use the Internet to seek information on HIV prevention and care. A number of male partners in last year less than or equal to 3 (Adjusted Odds Ratio: 3.07, 95% Confidence interval: 1.40–6.73), a history of STI screening (4.10, 1.02–16.48) and HIV testing (3.23, 1.20–8.64) and having ever sought a male sexual partner through the Internet (3.56, 1.55–8.18) were significantly positively associated with the willingness to use the Internet to seek information on HIV prevention and care. Conclusion The MSM interviewed in Ho Chi Minh City reported a high willingness to use the Internet to seek information on HIV prevention and care. In a context where new media are increasingly considered as promising options for reaching this HIV risk group, further research should be conducted on developing and testing tailored online tools adapted to the needs of Vietnamese MSM. PMID:23977048

  17. Using multiple-criteria decision-making techniques for eco-environmental vulnerability assessment: a case study on the Chi-Jia-Wan Stream watershed, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Huang, Pi-Hui; Tsai, Jing-Shyan; Lin, Wen-Tzu

    2010-09-01

    The Chi-Jia-Wan Stream watershed, located in the area of the upstream Da-Chia River in central Taiwan, is famous for slopeland agriculture and the land-locked salmon. Improper agricultural activities have caused apparent ecosystem vulnerability and sensitivity. In this study, a system that combined three watershed-based environmental indicators with multiple-criteria decision-making techniques, the Analytical Hierarchy Process, and the Preference Ranking Organization METHod for Enrichment Evaluations was developed to assess eco-environmental vulnerability. The composite evaluation index system was set up including sediment, runoff, and nutrient factors. Supported by geographic information system and K-means clustering and taking the subwatershed as the evaluation unit, the vulnerability is classified into four levels: potential, low, moderate, and high. The evaluated results show that 8.82% of subwatersheds (six subwatersheds) are in the moderately and highly vulnerable zones. These subwatersheds represent vertical-belt distribution, mainly concentrated in the right side of the studied area and near the riparian zone along the Chi-Jia-Wan Stream. The exploited farmland in the moderately and highly vulnerable zones is about 142.21 ha, occupying 75.38% of the total farmland in the studied watershed. These seriously vulnerable zones that have caused degradation in the quality of the eco-environment should be treated with more best management practices for eco-environmental rehabilitation. Additionally, the proposed model can effectively evaluate the eco-environmental vulnerability grade for reference in policy planning and ecological restoration in this area. PMID:19629735

  18. Geomorphosite inventories for the promotion of tourism by geoheritage. The case of the Hérens and Réchy valleys (Switzerland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grangier, L.; Reynard, E.

    2012-04-01

    As for many Alpine valleys, the Hérens and Réchy valleys (Valais, Switzerland) have a very rich geological and geomorphological heritage, especially in terms of tectonic structure and glacial history. Despite this, very little has been done in the area to promote the geoheritage. At the moment, there is no official inventory of geoheritage in terms of Earth history or tourism promotion. This poster presents the results of a geomorphosite inventory conducted in the summer of 2011 in the Hérens and Réchy valleys. It is part of a larger project aiming at the development of geotourist products in the study area. The assessment of geomorphosites followed the method of Reynard et al. (2007), designed to evaluate both the scientific and the so-called additional values of each site, what we could consider the "intrinsic value" of the sites. 38 sites were identified and evaluated. Furthermore, this work tested the assessment of the "use value" - in terms of conservation, tourist promotion and education - of each site. A set of new assessment criteria was developed, concerning the conditions of visit (access (type, time of walking, difficulty), safety, visibility, environmental context, links with other sites), the educational value (readability, presence of educative/interpretation means), and the potential economic products. After this test, the assessment method (Reynard et al., 2007) will be improved by adding a category "use values" to the existing "scientific" and "additional values". Reference Reynard E., Fontana G., Kozlik L., Scapozza C. (2007). A method for assessing the scientific and additional values of geomorphosites, Geographica Helvetica, 62(3), 148-158.

  19. Structural Investigation of a Novel N-Acetyl Glucosamine Binding Chi-Lectin Which Reveals Evolutionary Relationship with Class III Chitinases

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Dipak N.; Datta, Manali; Dev, Aditya; Dhindwal, Sonali; Singh, Nirpendra; Dasauni, Pushpanjali; Kundu, Suman; Sharma, Ashwani K.; Tomar, Shailly; Kumar, Pravindra

    2013-01-01

    The glycosyl hydrolase 18 (GH18) family consists of active chitinases as well as chitinase like lectins/proteins (CLPs). The CLPs share significant sequence and structural similarities with active chitinases, however, do not display chitinase activity. Some of these proteins are reported to have specific functions and carbohydrate binding property. In the present study, we report a novel chitinase like lectin (TCLL) from Tamarindus indica. The crystal structures of native TCLL and its complex with N-acetyl glucosamine were determined. Similar to the other CLPs of the GH18 members, TCLL lacks chitinase activity due to mutations of key active site residues. Comparison of TCLL with chitinases and other chitin binding CLPs shows that TCLL has substitution of some chitin binding site residues and more open binding cleft due to major differences in the loop region. Interestingly, the biochemical studies suggest that TCLL is an N-acetyl glucosamine specific chi-lectin, which is further confirmed by the complex structure of TCLL with N-acetyl glucosamine complex. TCLL has two distinct N-acetyl glucosamine binding sites S1 and S2 that contain similar polar residues, although interaction pattern with N-acetyl glucosamine varies extensively among them. Moreover, TCLL structure depicts that how plants utilize existing structural scaffolds ingenuously to attain new functions. To date, this is the first structural investigation of a chi-lectin from plants that explore novel carbohydrate binding sites other than chitin binding groove observed in GH18 family members. Consequently, TCLL structure confers evidence for evolutionary link of lectins with chitinases. PMID:23717482

  20. Use of pragmatic community-based interventions to enhance recruitment and adherence in a randomized trial of Tai Chi for osteopenic women: Insights from a qualitative sub-study

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Mary; Fugate-Woods, Nancy; Wayne, Peter M

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To qualitatively evaluate the feasibility of utilizing a pragmatic network of community-based Tai Chi schools to deliver 9-month exercise interventions to osteopenic women and to explore the impact of this design feature on facilitators and barriers to trial recruitment and participant adherence during and following the trial. Methods Within a randomized trial comparing 9 months of Tai Chi plus usual care to usual care alone for post-menopausal women with moderately low bone mass, exit interviews were conducted with 43 participants randomized to the pragmatically-delivered Tai Chi intervention. Transcripts were digitially recorded, transcribed and imported into NVivo, a computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software. Qualitative content analysis was used to code the data. Patterns emerging from among the codes were further examined and clustered into themes. Results Analyses revealed features of pragmatically-delivered Tai Chi programs that both facilitated and impeded study participation and/or post trial adherence. Direct facilitators included: convenience of class locations and times, alternative learning modalities, quality of teaching, community and social support and perceived health benefits. Barriers consisted primarily of time-related issues. A possible causal mechanism--self-efficacy--was also identified. Conclusions Factors related to using pragmatically-delivered intervention were beneficial in fostering both study participation and post-trial adherence to the Tai Chi programs. The qualitative sub-study was valuable for identifying these factors and a possible causal mechanism. These findings will assist in the design and conduct of future studies exploring the use of Tai Chi in fracture prevention and health-related quality of life in post-menopausal women. PMID:24845395

  1. Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki HD1 as a factory to synthesize alkali-labile ChiA74∆sp chitinase inclusions, Cry crystals and spores for applied use

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The endochitinase ChiA74 is a soluble secreted enzyme produced by Bacillus thuringiensis that synergizes the entomotoxigenecity of Cry proteins that accumulate as intracellular crystalline inclusion during sporulation. The purpose of this study was to produce alkaline-soluble ChiA74∆sp inclusions in B. thuringiensis, and to determine its effect on Cry crystal production, sporulation and toxicity to an important agronomical insect, Manduca sexta. To this end we deleted the secretion signal peptide-coding sequence of chiA74 (i.e. chiA74∆sp) and expressed it under its native promoter (pEHchiA74∆sp) or strong chimeric sporulation-dependent cytA-p/STAB-SD promoter (pEBchiA74∆sp) in Escherichia coli, acrystalliferous B. thuringiensis (4Q7) and B. thuringiensis HD1. Results Based on mRNA analyses, up to ~9-fold increase in expression of chiA74∆sp was observed using the cytA-p/STAB-SD promoter. ChiA74∆sp (~70 kDa) formed intracellular inclusions that frequently accumulated at the poles of cells. ChiA74∆sp inclusions were dissolved in alkali and reducing conditions, similar to Cry crystals, and retained its activity in a wide range of pH (5 to 9), but showed a drastic reduction (~70%) at pH 10. Chitinase activity of E. coli-pEHchiA74∆sp was ~150 mU/mL, and in E. coli-pEBchiA74∆sp, 250 mU/mL. 4Q7-pEBchiA74∆sp and 4Q7-pEHchiA74∆sp had activities of ~127 mU/mL and ~41 mU/mL, respectively. The endochitinase activity in HD1-pEBchiA74∆sp increased 42x when compared to parental HD1 strain. HD1-pEBchiA74∆sp and HD1 harbored typical bipyramidal Cry inclusions, but crystals in the recombinant were ~30% smaller. Additionally, a 3x increase in the number of viable spores was observed in cultures of the recombinant strain when compared to HD1. Bioassays against first instar larvae of M. sexta with spore-crystals of HD1 or spore-crystal-ChiA74∆sp inclusions of HD1-pEBchiA74∆sp showed LC50s of 67.30 ng/cm2 and 41.45 ng/cm2, respectively

  2. The production cross-sections for the process e{sup -} (p{sub 1})e{sup +} (p{sub 2}) {yields} {chi}-tilde{sub i}{sup 0} (p{sub 3}){chi}{sub j}{sup 0} (p{sub 4})H{sub l}{sup 0} (p{sub 5})

    SciTech Connect

    Kamel, M. A.; Nous, M. H.; Doaa, M. H.; Ahmed, M. M.

    2007-02-14

    The cross-sections for the process: e{sup -} (p{sub 1})e{sup +} (p{sub 2}) {yields} {chi}-tilde{sub i}{sup 0} (p{sub 3}){chi}{sub j}{sup 0} (p{sub 4})H{sub l}{sup 0} (p{sub 5}) Have been calculated for all different situations, which are (1520) situations. Three different groups of Feynman diagrams are taken into account a- Production of H{sub l}{sup 0} from different propagators (from 1-752 Feynman diagrams), b- Production of H{sub l}{sup 0} from different legs when Z0 is the propagator (from 753-944 Feynman diagrams), c- Production of H{sub l}{sup 0} from different legs when H0 is the propagator (from 945-1520 Feynman diagrams). The values of the cross-sections have been calculated for different incident energy (S) which ranges from 500 to 2000 GeV and for different Higgs' masses. The most probable mechanisms for such reaction are determined.

  3. Large {ital CP} asymmetries in {ital B}{sup {plus_minus}}{r_arrow}{eta}{sub {ital c}}({chi}{sub {ital c}0}){pi}{sup {plus_minus}} from the {eta}{sub {ital c}}({chi}{sub {ital c}0}) width

    SciTech Connect

    Eilam, G.; Gronau, M.; Mendel, R.R.

    1995-06-19

    We study {ital CP} asymmetries in {ital B}{sup {plus_minus}}{r_arrow}{ital h}{pi}{sup {plus_minus}} decays, where the hadronic states {ital h}={rho}{rho}, {ital K{bar K}}{pi}, {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup {minus}}{ital K}{sup +}{ital K}{sup {minus}}, etc., and {ital h}={pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup {minus}}, {ital K}{sup +}{ital K}{sup {minus}}, 2({pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup {minus}}), etc., are taken on the resonances {eta}{sub {ital c}} and {chi}{sub {ital c}0}, respectively. The relatively large {eta}{sub {ital c}} and {chi}{sub {ital c}0} decay widths, of about 10--15 MeV, provide the necessary absorptive phase in the interference between the resonance (going through {ital b}{r_arrow}{ital c{bar c}d}) and the background (through {ital b}{r_arrow}{ital u{bar u}d}) contributions to the amplitude. Large asymmetries of order 10% or more are likely in some modes.

  4. Community-Based Mind-Body Meditative Tai Chi Program and Its Effects on Improvement of Blood Pressure, Weight, Renal Function, Serum Lipoprotein, and Quality of Life in Chinese Adults With Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Buys, Nicholas

    2015-10-01

    Obesity, metabolic syndrome, dyslipidemia, and poor quality of life are common conditions associated with hypertension, and incidence of hypertension is age dependent. However, an effective program to prevent hypertension and to improve biomedical factors and quality of life has not been adequately examined or evaluated in Chinese older adults. This study aims to examine the effectiveness of a Tai Chi program to improve health status in participants with hypertension and its related risk factors such as dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and quality of life in older adults in China. A randomized study design was used. At the conclusion of the intervention, 266 patients remained in the study. Blood pressure and biomedical factors were measured according to the World Diabetes Association standard 2002. A standardized quality-of-life measure was used to measure health-related quality of life. It was found that a Tai Chi program to improve hypertension in older adults is effective in reducing blood pressure and body mass index, maintaining normal renal function, and improving physical health of health-related quality of life. It did not improve existing metabolic syndrome levels, lipid level (dyslipidemia) or fasting glucose level (hyperglycemia), to prevent further deterioration of the biomedical risk factors. In conclusion, Tai Chi is effective in managing a number of risk factors associated with hypertension in Chinese older adults. Future research should examine a combination of Tai Chi and nutritional intervention to further reduce the level of biomedical risks. PMID:26251005

  5. [Tetanus in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam: epidemiological, clinical and outcome features of 389 cases at the Hospital for Tropical Diseases].

    PubMed

    An, V T; Khue, P M; Yen, L M; Phong, N D; Strobel, M

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the different aspects of tetanus during the past recent years in southern Vietnam: epidemiology, clinical picture, management, and death risk factors. It is a retrospective study concerning 389 cases admitted in 2007 and 2008 at the reference Hospital for Tropical Diseases in Ho Chi Minh City. 93% of all cases were generalized tetanus, and 50% were severe cases. A majority of patients were adult males (medium age 43, M/ F sex-ratio 2.9). Half of them underwent tracheotomy and 39% assisted ventilation. Case fatality rate was 6.4%, the lowest reported rate worldwide in the last ten years. Fatalities resulted mainly from neuro-vegetative disorders, essentially cardiogenic shock (28% of all deaths) [OR = 16.95; p < 0.001], sepsis (24%) [OR = 3.25; (p < 0,114], and acute renal failure (16%) [OR = 7,22; p < 0.004]. Age over 60-year [OR = 4.53; p < 0.0001] and a leukocyte count>12.000/mm(3) [OR = 2.32; p < 0.020] were significantly associated with fatal outcome, contrarily to incubation and extension phase durations, or delayed serum administration. Systematic extension of vaccination to all adult males, and improved access to post exposure sero-immunization at all levels of health centres throughout the country may further reduce tetanus burden in Vietnam. PMID:26608271

  6. Changes in Co-Occurrence of Smoking and Harmful Drinking among Youth: a Study from the Chi Linh Demographic - Epidemiological Surveillance System in Vietnam, 2006-2013.

    PubMed

    Duc, Duong Minh; Vui, Le Thi; Quynh, Nguyen Thuy; Minh, Hoang Van

    2016-01-01

    Smoking and harmful drinking dramatically increase health risks but little is known about their cooccurrence and factors that influence this co-habit, limiting development and implementation of appropriately targeted prevention interventions. This study was conducted among youth aged 10-24 years old in the Chi Linh Demographic - Epidemiological Surveillance System (CHILILAB DESS). The total numbers in the first, second and third rounds in 2006, 2009 and 2013 were 12,406, 10,211, and 7,654, respectively. A random-effects logit model controlling for both time-variant and time-invariant variables was applied to explore factors associated with current smoking, harmful drinking, and occurrence of smoking and harmful drinking together. We found dramatically increasing trends in current smoking, harmful drinking and co-occurrence among youth. Our results indicate similar health problems among youth in peri-urban areas in Vietnam. Demographic characteristics (older age, being male, being unmarried, and having informal work) appeared to be predictors for smoking and drinking behaviour. Besides, peer and family members had significant influence on smoking, whereas having a close-friend who was smoking was the most important variable. The results suggested that smoking and harmful drinking should not be solved with separate, stand-alone interventions but rather with integrated efforts. PMID:27087184

  7. The Role of CHI3L1 (Chitinase-3-Like-1) in the Pathogenesis of Infections in Burns in a Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Bohr, Stefan; Patel, Suraj J.; Vasko, Radovan; Shen, Keyue; Golberg, Alexander; Berthiaume, Francois; Yarmush, Martin L.

    2015-01-01

    In severe burn injury the unique setting of a depleted, dysfunctional immune system along with a loss of barrier function commonly results in opportunistic infections that eventually proof fatal. Unfortunately, the dynamic sequence of bacterial contamination, colonization and eventually septic invasion with bacteria such as Pseudomonas species is still poorly understood although a limiting factor in clinical decision making. Increasing evidence supports the notion that inhibition of bacterial translocation into the wound site may be an effective alternative to prevent infection. In this context we investigated the role of the mammalian Chitinase-3-Like-1 (CHI3L1) non-enyzmatic protein predominately expressed on epithelial as well as innate immune cells as a potential bacterial-translocation-mediating factor. We show a strong trend that a modulation of chitinase expression is likely to be effective in reducing mortality rates in a mouse model of burn injury with superinfection with the opportunistic PA14 Pseudomonas strain, thus demonstrating possible clinical leverage. PMID:26528713

  8. Observation of the {chi}{sub c2}(2P) meson in the reaction {gamma}{gamma}{yields}DD at BABAR

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V.; Martinelli, M.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D. N.; Hooberman, B.; Kerth, L. T.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.

    2010-05-01

    A search for the Z(3930) resonance in {gamma}{gamma} production of the DD system has been performed using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 384 fb{sup -1} recorded by the BABAR experiment at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy electron-positron collider. The DD invariant mass distribution shows clear evidence of the Z(3930) state with a significance of 5.8{sigma}. We determine mass and width values of (3926.7{+-}2.7{+-}1.1) MeV/c{sup 2} and (21.3{+-}6.8{+-}3.6) MeV, respectively. A decay angular analysis provides evidence that the Z(3930) is a tensor state with positive parity and C parity (J{sup PC}=2{sup ++}); therefore we identify the Z(3930) state as the {chi}{sub c2}(2P) meson. The value of the partial width {Gamma}{sub {gamma}{gamma}x}B(Z(3930){yields}DD) is found to be (0.24{+-}0.05{+-}0.04) keV.

  9. Conformations of peptide fragments comprising the complete sequence of component III of Chi t I and their relationship to T-cell stimulation.

    PubMed

    Czisch, M; Liebers, V; Bernstein, R; Chen, Z; Baur, X; Holak, T A

    1994-08-16

    Conformational preferences of synthetic peptides that span the complete sequence of Chironomus thummi hemoglobin (Chi t I) component III were studied by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and CD spectroscopies. The peptides, 19-21 amino acids in length, were studied in water, except for the C-terminal peptide, which was investigated in DMSO-d6. NMR showed that all investigated peptides lacked uniquely folded conformations in water at 4 degrees C and pH 3.0 or at 10 degrees C and pD 6.6 in DMSO. However, some preferential helix-like conformations for the peptides corresponding to the helices of the folded protein could be seen in solution. These peptides showed characteristic interactions for conformations in both the beta- and alpha-regions of phi-psi space, based on strong C alpha H(i)-NH(i + 1) interactions, and on NH-NH, C alpha H(i)-NH-(i + 2), C alpha H(i)-NH(i + 3), and C alpha H(i)-C beta H(i + 3) interactions, respectively. Helical motifs seem not to be the most important factors in determining MHC-binding and/or T-cell recognition. However, there is a tendency that more stabilized secondary structures show higher T-cell stimulation. PMID:8068617

  10. A chi-square goodness-of-fit test for non-identically distributed random variables: with application to empirical Bayes

    SciTech Connect

    Conover, W.J.; Cox, D.D.; Martz, H.F.

    1997-12-01

    When using parametric empirical Bayes estimation methods for estimating the binomial or Poisson parameter, the validity of the assumed beta or gamma conjugate prior distribution is an important diagnostic consideration. Chi-square goodness-of-fit tests of the beta or gamma prior hypothesis are developed for use when the binomial sample sizes or Poisson exposure times vary. Nine examples illustrate the application of the methods, using real data from such diverse applications as the loss of feedwater flow rates in nuclear power plants, the probability of failure to run on demand and the failure rates of the high pressure coolant injection systems at US commercial boiling water reactors, the probability of failure to run on demand of emergency diesel generators in US commercial nuclear power plants, the rate of failure of aircraft air conditioners, baseball batting averages, the probability of testing positive for toxoplasmosis, and the probability of tumors in rats. The tests are easily applied in practice by means of corresponding Mathematica{reg_sign} computer programs which are provided.

  11. Flood risk analysis and adaptive strategy in context of uncertainties: a case study of Nhieu Loc Thi Nghe Basin, Ho Chi Minh City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Long-Phi; Chau, Nguyen-Xuan-Quang; Nguyen, Hong-Quan

    2013-04-01

    The Nhieu Loc - Thi Nghe basin is the most important administrative and business area of Ho Chi Minh City. Due to system complexity of the basin such as the increasing trend of rainfall intensity, (tidal) water level and land subsidence, the simulation of hydrological, hydraulic variables for flooding prediction seems rather not adequate in practical projects. The basin is still highly vulnerable despite of multi-million USD investment for urban drainage improvement projects since the last decade. In this paper, an integrated system analysis in both spatial and temporal aspects based on statistical, GIS and modelling approaches has been conducted in order to: (1) Analyse risks before and after projects, (2) Foresee water-related risk under uncertainties of unfavourable driving factors and (3) Develop a sustainable flood risk management strategy for the basin. The results show that given the framework of risk analysis and adaptive strategy, certain urban developing plans in the basin must be carefully revised and/or checked in order to reduce the highly unexpected loss in the future

  12. A Group-Based Sexual Risk Reduction Intervention for Men Who Have Sex With Men in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam: Feasibility, Acceptability, and Preliminary Efficacy.

    PubMed

    Mimiaga, Matthew J; Closson, Elizabeth F; Biello, Katie B; Nguyen, Huyen; Nguyen, Quan Hoang; Oldenburg, Catherine E; Lan, Hang Thi Xuan; Safren, Steven A; Mayer, Kenneth H; Colby, Donn J

    2016-08-01

    An emerging HIV epidemic can be seen among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Vietnam. There are currently no evidence-based behavioral sexual risk reduction interventions for MSM in this setting. Between October 2012 and June 2013, 100 high-risk MSM from Ho Chi Minh City were enrolled in an open pilot trial to assess feasibility and acceptability of a group-based, manualized sexual risk reduction intervention, and to preliminarily examine changes in primary and secondary outcomes. Participants completed a behavioral assessment battery and HIV testing at baseline, 3, and 6 months post-baseline. Over 80.0 % of the sample was <25 years old and 77.0 % identified as Bong kin ("hidden," masculine-appearing). Feasibility and acceptability of the program was evidenced by 87.0 % retention for the intervention sessions, 78.0 % completion of the 6 month assessment, and positive responses on evaluation forms and qualitative exit interviews. There was a decline in the number of condomless anal sex acts from baseline (6.32) to 3 month (2.06) and 6 month (2.49) follow-up (p < .0001). These data support the need for further testing of this group-based, behavioral HIV prevention intervention to reduce sexual risk behavior among MSM in Vietnam in a randomized controlled efficacy trial. PMID:26721662

  13. Observation of the chi_c2(2P) meson in the reaction gamma gamma -> D Dbar at BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V.; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; Martinelli, M.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D.N.; Hooberman, B.; Kerth, L.T.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Lynch, G. /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /Frascati /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Humboldt U., Berlin /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa State U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Paris U., VI-VII /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Mainz U., Inst. Kernphys. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT /McGill U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Mt. Holyoke Coll. /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Paris U., VI-VII /Pennsylvania U. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Princeton U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /SLAC /South Carolina U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Albany /Tel Aviv U. /Tennessee U. /Texas Nuclear Corp., Austin /Texas U., Dallas /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /Valencia U. /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2010-05-26

    A search for the Z(3930) resonance in {gamma}{gamma} production of the D{bar D} system has been performed using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 384 fb{sup -1} recorded by the BABAR experiment at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy electron-positron collider. The D{bar D} invariant mass distribution shows clear evidence of the Z(3930) state with a significance of 5.8{sigma}. We determine mass and width values of (3926.7 {+-} 2.7 {+-} 1.1)MeV/c{sup 2} and (21.3 {+-} 6.8 {+-} 3.6)MeV, respectively. A decay angular analysis provides evidence that the Z(3930) is a tensor state with positive parity and C-parity (J{sup PC} = 2{sup ++}); therefore we identify the Z(3930) state as the {chi}{sub c2}(2P) meson. The value of the partial width {Lambda}{sub {gamma}{gamma}} x {Beta}(Z(3930) {yields} D{bar D}) is found to be (0.24 {+-} 0.05 {+-} 0.04) keV.

  14. Interactive effect of two candidate genes in a disease: Extension of the marker-association-segregation {chi}{sup 2} method

    SciTech Connect

    Dizier, M.H.; Babron, M.C.; Clerget-Darpoux, F.

    1994-11-01

    For elucidating the genetic component of multifactorial diseases, it is important to investigate the effect of several factors and the possible interaction between them. In particular, for many diseases it is interesting to study the interactive effect of two genes. In this context, the marker-association-segregation {chi}{sup 2} method (MASC), initially proposed to detect the involvement of a candidate gene in multifactorial diseases, is developed here to investigate the involvement of two candidate genes and to model the joint effect of these two genes. In particular, it is possible to precisely determine whether the joint effect of both genes is multiplicative. This extension simultaneously uses information on two markers, one for each candidate gene, at both the population and the familial segregation level. We show here that there can be an important gain of power to detect the effect of a second gene in a disease when information is used simultaneously on two markers instead of studying each marker separately. This extension of MASC is then applied on a sample of insulin-dependent diabetes (IDD) families typed for the markers of two candidate regions: HLA and that of the insulin gene (INS). This analysis allows us to confirm the involvement of INS in IDD, and the best-fitting model is a multiplicative (noninteractive) effect of HLA and INS, with a biallelic locus for INS and a complementation model for HLA. 21 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  15. High HIV Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors Among Female Sexual Partners of Male Injection Drug Users (MWID) in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nadol, Patrick; Tran, Hoang; Hammett, Theodore; Phan, Son; Nguyen, Duong; Kaldor, John; Law, Matthew

    2016-02-01

    Injection drug use is a major factor in acquiring and transmitting HIV in Vietnam. This analysis aims to present estimates of HIV infection and factors associated with HIV infection among female sex partners (FSP) of MWID in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 2011 and 2013 among males who inject drugs (MWID) who then referred their FSP for a behavioral and biologic survey. In total, 445 MWID and FSPs were enrolled. HIV prevalence among MWID was 50 and 35 % among FSPs. Among FSPs, 60.3 % reported ever using illegal drugs and among those, 72.7 % reported ever injecting illicit drugs. Among FSP, injection drug for >1 year [adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR), 95 % CI 2.94, 1.19-7.26), p value = <0.001] and having a male partner infected with HIV [(aOR 3.35: 1.97-5.69), p value = <0.001] were associated with HIV infection. The prevalence of HIV infection is high among FSP of MWID in HCMC and is highly associated with the injection drug use behavior of the FSP. Harm-reduction intervention programs that focus on the MWID-FSP couple or directly on the FSPs are required. PMID:26271814

  16. The impact of environmental and climatic variation on the spatiotemporal trends of hospitalized pediatric diarrhea in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Corinne N.; Zelner, Jonathan L.; Nhu, Tran Do Hoang; Phan, My VT; Hoang Le, Phuc; Nguyen Thanh, Hung; Vu Thuy, Duong; Minh Nguyen, Ngoc; Ha Manh, Tuan; Van Hoang Minh, Tu; Lu Lan, Vi; Nguyen Van Vinh, Chau; Tran Tinh, Hien; von Clemm, Emmiliese; Storch, Harry; Thwaites, Guy; Grenfell, Bryan T.; Baker, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    It is predicted that the integration of climate-based early warning systems into existing action plans will facilitate the timely provision of interventions to diarrheal disease epidemics in resource-poor settings. Diarrhea remains a considerable public health problem in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam and we aimed to quantify variation in the impact of environmental conditions on diarrheal disease risk across the city. Using all inpatient diarrheal admissions data from three large hospitals within HCMC, we developed a mixed effects regression model to differentiate district-level variation in risk due to environmental conditions from the overarching seasonality of diarrheal disease hospitalization in HCMC. We identified considerable spatial heterogeneity in the risk of all-cause diarrhea across districts of HCMC with low elevation and differential responses to flooding, air temperature, and humidity driving further spatial heterogeneity in diarrheal disease risk. The incorporation of these results into predictive forecasting algorithms will provide a powerful resource to aid diarrheal disease prevention and control practices in HCMC and other similar settings. PMID:26402922

  17. Suan zao ren tang in combination with zhi zi chi tang as a treatment protocol for insomniacs with anxiety: a randomized parallel-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hu, Lin-Lin; Zhang, Xin; Liu, Wen-Juan; Li, Mei; Zhang, Yong-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Insomnia is a serious worldwide health problem that is often comorbid with anxiety. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of a Chinese formula containing Suan Zao Ren Tang (SZRT) and Zhi Zi Chi Tang (ZZCT; SZR-ZZC) for improving sleep quality and anxiety states with four indices of Polysomnography (PSG), the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the Self Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS). Methods. A randomized, parallel-controlled trial compared SZR-ZZC to lorazepam tablet in insomniacs with anxiety. Patients were randomized to the SZR-ZZC treatment group (n = 60) and the lorazepam tablet treatment group (n = 59). Results. SZR-ZZC significantly improved scores on all four treatment indices. Compared with lorazepam, treatment with SZR-ZZC resulted in a significant reduction in the ISI (P = 0.029), the PSQI (P = 0.017), and wake after sleep onset (WASO; P = 0.008) scores and improved sleep architecture (P = 0.000-0.003) after a 4-week treatment period. Only one subject in the SZR-ZZC group experienced adverse side effects. Conclusion. Treatment with SZR-ZZC for 4 weeks appears to be a relatively safe and effective complementary therapeutic option when aiming to improve sleep quality and anxiety in insomniacs with anxiety. PMID:25793006

  18. Suan Zao Ren Tang in Combination with Zhi Zi Chi Tang as a Treatment Protocol for Insomniacs with Anxiety: A Randomized Parallel-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Lin-lin; Zhang, Xin; Liu, Wen-juan; Li, Mei; Zhang, Yong-hua

    2015-01-01

    Insomnia is a serious worldwide health problem that is often comorbid with anxiety. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of a Chinese formula containing Suan Zao Ren Tang (SZRT) and Zhi Zi Chi Tang (ZZCT; SZR-ZZC) for improving sleep quality and anxiety states with four indices of Polysomnography (PSG), the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the Self Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS). Methods. A randomized, parallel-controlled trial compared SZR-ZZC to lorazepam tablet in insomniacs with anxiety. Patients were randomized to the SZR-ZZC treatment group (n = 60) and the lorazepam tablet treatment group (n = 59). Results. SZR-ZZC significantly improved scores on all four treatment indices. Compared with lorazepam, treatment with SZR-ZZC resulted in a significant reduction in the ISI (P = 0.029), the PSQI (P = 0.017), and wake after sleep onset (WASO; P = 0.008) scores and improved sleep architecture (P = 0.000–0.003) after a 4-week treatment period. Only one subject in the SZR-ZZC group experienced adverse side effects. Conclusion. Treatment with SZR-ZZC for 4 weeks appears to be a relatively safe and effective complementary therapeutic option when aiming to improve sleep quality and anxiety in insomniacs with anxiety. PMID:25793006

  19. The impact of environmental and climatic variation on the spatiotemporal trends of hospitalized pediatric diarrhea in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Corinne N; Zelner, Jonathan L; Nhu, Tran Do Hoang; Phan, My Vt; Hoang Le, Phuc; Nguyen Thanh, Hung; Vu Thuy, Duong; Minh Nguyen, Ngoc; Ha Manh, Tuan; Van Hoang Minh, Tu; Lu Lan, Vi; Nguyen Van Vinh, Chau; Tran Tinh, Hien; von Clemm, Emmiliese; Storch, Harry; Thwaites, Guy; Grenfell, Bryan T; Baker, Stephen

    2015-09-01

    It is predicted that the integration of climate-based early warning systems into existing action plans will facilitate the timely provision of interventions to diarrheal disease epidemics in resource-poor settings. Diarrhea remains a considerable public health problem in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam and we aimed to quantify variation in the impact of environmental conditions on diarrheal disease risk across the city. Using all inpatient diarrheal admissions data from three large hospitals within HCMC, we developed a mixed effects regression model to differentiate district-level variation in risk due to environmental conditions from the overarching seasonality of diarrheal disease hospitalization in HCMC. We identified considerable spatial heterogeneity in the risk of all-cause diarrhea across districts of HCMC with low elevation and differential responses to flooding, air temperature, and humidity driving further spatial heterogeneity in diarrheal disease risk. The incorporation of these results into predictive forecasting algorithms will provide a powerful resource to aid diarrheal disease prevention and control practices in HCMC and other similar settings. PMID:26402922

  20. Self-reported Oral Health, Oral Hygiene, and Oral HPV Infection in At-Risk Women in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Bui, Thanh Cong; Tran, Ly Thi-Hai; Markham, Christine M.; Huynh, Thuy Thi-Thu; Tran, Loi Thi; Pham, Vy Thi-Tuong; Tran, Quan Minh; Hoang, Ngoc Hieu; Hwang, Lu-Yu; Sturgis, Erich Madison

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to examine the relationship between self-reported oral health, oral hygiene practices, and oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among women at risk for sexually transmitted infections in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Study design Convenience and referral sampling methods were used in a clinic-based setting to recruit 126 women aged 18–45 years between August–October 2013. Behavioral factors were self-reported. Oral-rinse samples were tested for HPV DNA of two low-risk and 13 high-risk genotypes. Results A higher unadjusted prevalence of oral HPV infection was associated with poorer self-rated overall oral health (p=.001), reporting oral lesions/problems in the past year (p=.001), and reporting a tooth loss not because of injury (p=.001). Higher unadjusted prevalence of oral HPV infection was also associated with two measures of oral hygiene: lower frequencies of toothbrush per day (p=.047) and gargling without toothbrush (p=.037). After adjusting for other factors in multivariable logistic regression models, poorer self-rated overall oral health remained statistically associated with oral HPV infection (p=.042); yet, the frequency of toothbrush per day did not (p=.704). Conclusion Results corroborate the association between self-reported poor oral health and oral HPV infection. The effect of oral hygiene on oral HPV infection remains inconclusive. PMID:26093681

  1. Investigation of internal magnetic structures and comparison with two-fluid equilibrium configurations in the multi-pulsing CHI on HIST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, T.; Hanao, T.; Hirono, H.; Hyobu, T.; Ito, K.; Matsumoto, K.; Kikuchi, Y.; Fukumoto, N.; Nagata, M.; Kanki, T.

    2012-10-01

    Spherical torus (ST) plasmas have been successfully maintained by Muti-pulsing Coaxial Helicity Injection (M-CHI) on HIST. This research object is to clarify relations between plasma characteristics and magnetic flux amplifications, and to compare magnetic field structures measured in the plasma interior to a flowing equilibrium calculation. Two-dimensional magnetic probe array has been newly introduced nearby the gun muzzle. The initial result shows that the diverter configuration with a single X-point can be formed after a bubble burst process of the plasma. The closed magnetic flux is surrounded by the open magnetic field lines intersecting with the gun electrodes. To evaluate the sustained configurations, we use the two-fluid equilibrium code containing generalized Bernoulli and Grad-Shafranov equations which was developed by L.C. Steinhauer. The radial profiles of plasma flow, density and magnetic fields measured on the midplane of the FC are consistent to the calculation. We also found that the poloidal shear flow generation is attributed to ExB drift and ion diamagnetic drift. In addition, we will study temporal behaviors of impurity lines such as OV and OVI during the flux amplification by VUV spectroscopic measurements.

  2. Novel porcine-like human G26P[19] rotavirus identified in hospitalized paediatric diarrhoea patients in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    My, Phan Vu Tra; Rabaa, Maia A.; Donato, Celeste; Cowley, Daniel; Phat, Voong Vinh; Dung, Tran Thi Ngoc; Anh, Pham Hong; Vinh, Ha; Bryant, Juliet E.; Kellam, Paul; Thwaites, Guy; Woolhouse, Mark E. J.; Kirkwood, Carl D.

    2014-01-01

    During a hospital-based diarrhoeal disease study conducted in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam from 2009 to 2010, we identified four symptomatic children infected with G26P[19] rotavirus (RV) – an atypical variant that has not previously been reported in human gastroenteritis. To determine the genetic structure and investigate the origin of this G26P[19] strain, the whole genome of a representative example was characterized, revealing a novel genome constellation: G26–P[19]–I5–R1–C1–M1–A8–N1–T1–E1–H1. The genome segments were most closely related to porcine (VP7, VP4, VP6 and NSP1) and Wa-like porcine RVs (VP1–3 and NSP2–5). We proposed that this G26P[19] strain was the product of zoonotic transmission coupled with one or more reassortment events occurring in human and/or animal reservoirs. The identification of such strains has potential implications for vaccine efficacy in south-east Asia, and outlines the utility of whole-genome sequencing for studying RV diversity and zoonotic potential during disease surveillance. PMID:25121549

  3. Study of Controlling Factors of Extremely Low Visibility Events in the North China Plain during the 2009 HaChi Summer Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Zhao, C.; Ma, N.; Liu, P.; Deng, Z.; Ran, L.; Xu, W.; Yan, P.

    2011-12-01

    Visibility (VIS) degradation is a pervasive and urgent environmental problem in China. The occurrence of low visibility events were rather frequent in the North China Plain (NCP), due to the concurrence of high levels of aerosol number concentration (N), relative humidity (RH) and oxidation ability there. Since extremely low visibility would lay harmful effects both on human health and traffic safety, it is of great importance to study the controlling factors of low visibility events. In order to study the sensitivity of visibility to various factors, specifically, RH and aerosol particle number size distribution (PNSD), in-situ measurements of visibility, RH, aerosol PNSD of PM10 and hygroscopic growth factors (G(RH)) during the HaChi (Haze in China) summer campaign from 13 July to 14 August 2009 at Wuqing Meteorological Station (39°23'N, 117°01'E, 7.4 m a.s.l.) were analyzed. Observational results showed that high volume concentration (V) played the primary role in dry conditions, while in the condition of RH > 90%, RH became the key factor leading to low visibility. In addition, extremely low visibility (VIS < 1km) under current pollution conditions only occurred under high RH. Sensitivity studies were also conducted using the Mie Model, where the hygroscopic growth of aerosols was taken into consideration. Model simulations have further confirmed the observational analysis.

  4. Distribution water quality anomaly detection from UV optical sensor monitoring data by integrating principal component analysis with chi-square distribution.

    PubMed

    Hou, Dibo; Zhang, Jian; Yang, Zheling; Liu, Shu; Huang, Pingjie; Zhang, Guangxin

    2015-06-29

    The issue of distribution water quality security ensuring is recently attracting global attention due to the potential threat from harmful contaminants. The real-time monitoring based on ultraviolet optical sensors is a promising technique. This method is of reagent-free, low maintenance cost, rapid analysis and wide cover range. However, the ultraviolet absorption spectra are of large size and easily interfered. While within the on-site application, there is almost no prior knowledge like spectral characteristics of potential contaminants before determined. Meanwhile, the concept of normal water quality is also varying due to the operating condition. In this paper, a procedure based on multivariate statistical analysis is proposed to detect distribution water quality anomaly based on ultraviolet optical sensors. Firstly, the principal component analysis is employed to capture the main variety features from the spectral matrix and reduce the dimensionality. A new statistical variable is then constructed and used for evaluating the local outlying degree according to the chi-square distribution in the principal component subspace. The possibility of anomaly of the latest observation is calculated by the accumulation of the outlying degrees from the adjacent previous observations. To develop a more reliable anomaly detection procedure, several key parameters are discussed. By utilizing the proposed methods, the distribution water quality anomalies and the optical abnormal changes can be detected. The contaminants intrusion experiment is conducted in a pilot-scale distribution system by injecting phenol solution. The effectiveness of the proposed procedure is finally testified using the experimental spectral data. PMID:26191757

  5. Improving Balance with Tai Chi

    MedlinePlus

    ... It emphasizes the intercon- nected nature of the body and mind (Figure 1), combining “physical movement, breathing techniques, and ... and focus. Figure 1. The interconnected nature of body and mind and concept of balance is symbolized by the ...

  6. Ambient air particulate concentrations and metallic elements principal component analysis at Taichung Harbor (TH) and WuChi Traffic (WT) near Taiwan Strait during 2004-2005.

    PubMed

    Fang, Guor-Cheng; Wu, Yuh-Shen; Wen, Chih-Chung; Huang, Shih-Han; Rau, Jui-Yeh

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to characterize metallic elements associated with atmospheric particulate matter of total suspended particulate (TSP), fine particle (particle matter with aerodynamical diameter <2.5 microm, PM(2.5)), coarse particle (particle matter with aerodynamical diameter 2.5-10 microm, PM (2.5-10)) at the Taichung Harbor (TH) and WuChi Traffic (WT) sampling site of central Taiwan during March 2004 to February 2005. The result indicated the average total suspended particulate concentration in 1 year was 157.31 and 112.58 microg m(-3) at TH and WT sampling site, respectively. Fine particle (PM(2.5)) size was the dominant species at TH and WT sampling site. In TH sampling site, higher correlation coefficient was observed on total suspended particulates of metallic elements Fe and Zn. And in WT sampling site, higher correlation coefficients displayed on total suspended particulates of metallic elements Fe and Zn, Fe and Mn. Ambient airborne particle principal component analysis of metallic metals was used to identify the possible pollutant sources in this study. At the TH sampling site, 50.81% of the total variance of the data was observed in factor 1. Higher loading of Fe (0.86), Zn (0.79), Pb (0.76), and Mn (0.68) were contributed by traffic emission and the soil source. At the WT sampling site, factor 1 explained 53.74% of the total variance of the data and had high loading for Zn (0.86) and Cu (0.85), which were identified as industrial/traffic emission sources. PMID:16616415

  7. Introduction of apple ANR genes into tobacco inhibits expression of both CHI and DFR genes in flowers, leading to loss of anthocyanin

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yuepeng; Vimolmangkang, Sornkanok; Soria-Guerra, Ruth Elena; Korban, Schuyler S.

    2012-01-01

    Three genes encoding anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) in apple (Malus×domestica Borkh.), designated MdANR1, MdANR2a, and MdANR2b, have been cloned and characterized. MdANR1 shows 91% identity in coding DNA sequences with MdANR2a and MdANR2b, while MdANR2a and MdANR2b are allelic and share 99% nucleotide sequence identity in the coding region. MdANR1 and MdANR2 genes are located on linkage groups 10 and 5, respectively. Expression levels of both MdANR1 and MdANR2 genes are generally higher in yellow-skinned cv. Golden Delicious than in red-skinned cv. Red Delicious. Transcript accumulation of MdANR1 and MdANR2 genes in fruits gradually decreased throughout fruit development. Ectopic expression of apple MdANR genes in tobacco positively and negatively regulates the biosynthesis of proanthocyanidins (PAs) and anthocyanin, respectively, resulting in white, pale pink-coloured, and white/red variegated flowers. The accumulation of anthocyanin is significantly reduced in all tobacco transgenic flowers, while catechin and epicatechin contents in transgenic flowers are significantly higher than those in flowers of wild-type plants. The inhibition of anthocyanin synthesis in tobacco transgenic flowers overexpressing MdANR genes is probably attributed to down-regulation of CHALCONE ISOMERASE (CHI) and DIHYDROFLAVONOL-4-REDUCTASE (DFR) genes involved in the anthocyanin pathway. Interestingly, several transgenic lines show no detectable transcripts of the gene encoding leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR) in flowers, but accumulate higher levels of catechin in flowers of transgenic plants than those of wild-type plants. This finding suggests that the ANR gene may be capable of generating catechin via an alternative route, although this mechanism is yet to be further elucidated. PMID:22238451

  8. Genetic characterization of three qnrS1-harbouring multidrug-resistance plasmids and qnrS1-containing transposons circulating in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Le, Vien; Nhu, Nguyen Thi Khanh; Cerdeno-Tarraga, Ana; Campbell, James I.; Tuyen, Ha Thanh; Nhu, Tran Do Hoang; Tam, Pham Thi Thanh; Schultsz, Constance; Thwaites, Guy; Thomson, Nicholas R.

    2015-01-01

    Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) refers to a family of closely related genes that confer decreased susceptibility to fluoroquinolones. PMQR genes are generally associated with integrons and/or plasmids that carry additional antimicrobial resistance genes active against a range of antimicrobials. In Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam, we have previously shown a high frequency of PMQR genes within commensal Enterobacteriaceae. However, there are limited available sequence data detailing the genetic context in which the PMQR genes reside, and a lack of understanding of how these genes spread across the Enterobacteriaceae. Here, we aimed to determine the genetic background facilitating the spread and maintenance of qnrS1, the dominant PMQR gene circulating in HCMC. We sequenced three qnrS1-carrying plasmids in their entirety to understand the genetic context of these qnrS1-embedded plasmids and also the association of qnrS1-mediated quinolone resistance with other antimicrobial resistance phenotypes. Annotation of the three qnrS1-containing plasmids revealed a qnrS1-containing transposon with a closely related structure. We screened 112 qnrS1-positive commensal Enterobacteriaceae isolated in the community and in a hospital in HCMC to detect the common transposon structure. We found the same transposon structure to be present in 71.4 % (45/63) of qnrS1-positive hospital isolates and in 36.7 % (18/49) of qnrS1-positive isolates from the community. The resulting sequence analysis of the qnrS1 environment suggested that qnrS1 genes are widely distributed and are mobilized on elements with a common genetic background. Our data add additional insight into mechanisms that facilitate resistance to multiple antimicrobials in Gram-negative bacteria in Vietnam. PMID:26272054

  9. Self-perceived HIV risk and the use of risk reduction strategies among men who engage in transactional sex with other men in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Mimiaga, Matthew J; Reisner, Sari L; Closson, Elizabeth F; Perry, Nicholas; Perkovich, Brandon; Nguyen, Thi; Trang, Nguyen N N; Lan, Hang X; Thien, Dinh Duc; Mayer, Kenneth H; Colby, Donn

    2013-08-01

    An emerging HIV epidemic can be seen among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Vietnam, with prevalence as high as 18%. Transactional sex represents a risk factor for HIV transmission/acquisition among MSM globally, particularly in urban contexts, but remains largely underinvestigated in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam. In 2010, 23 MSM who reported exchanging sex for money in the last month completed a brief survey and semistructured qualitative interview at The Life Centre, a non-governmental organization in HCMC, to assess sociodemographics, individual- and structural-level HIV risk factors and explore acceptable future prevention interventions. Participants' mean age was 24 years. Equal proportions of respondents self-identified as heterosexual/straight, homosexual/gay, and bisexual. Participants had a mean of 158 male clients in the past year, with a median of 60 male clients in the past year (interquartile range [IQR]=70) and reported inconsistent condom use and inaccurate perceptions of HIV risk. Nearly half of the sample reported engaging in unprotected anal sex with a male partner in the past 12 months and one-third with a male client. Major themes that emerged for HIV prevention interventions with male sex workers were those that: (1) focused on individual factors (drug and alcohol use, barriers to condom use, knowledge of asymptomatic STIs, enhancement of behavioral risk-reduction skills, and addressing concomitant mental health issues); (2) incorporated interpersonal and relational contexts (led by peer educators, built interpersonal skills, attended to partner type and intimacy dynamics); and (3) considered the exogenous environments in which individual choices/relationships operate (stigma of being MSM in Vietnam, availability of alternative economic opportunities, and varied sexual venues). HIV prevention efforts are needed that address the specific needs of MSM who engage in transactional sex in HCMC. Universally, MSM endorsed HIV prevention

  10. Characterization of hospital and community-acquired respiratory syncytial virus in children with severe lower respiratory tract infections in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Tuan, Tran Anh; Thanh, Tran Tan; Hai, Nguyen thi Thanh; Tinh, Le Binh Bao; Kim, Le thi Ngoc; Do, Lien Anh Ha; Chinh B'Krong, Nguyen thi Thuy; Tham, Nguyen thi; Hang, Vu thi Ty; Merson, Laura; Farrar, Jeremy; Thuong, Tang Chi; de Jong, Menno D; Schultsz, Constance; van Doorn, H Rogier

    2015-01-01

    Background Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important community and nosocomial pathogen in developed countries but data regarding the importance of RSV in developing countries are relatively scarce. Methods During a 1-year surveillance study in 2010, we took serial samples from children admitted to the Emergency Unit of the Respiratory Ward of Children's Hospital 1 in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. RSV was detected within 72 hours of admission to the ward in 26% (376/1439; RSV A: n = 320; RSV B: n = 54; and RSV A and B: n = 2). Among those negative in the first 72 hours after admission, 6·6% (25/377) acquired nosocomial RSV infection during hospitalization (RSV A: n = 22; and RSV B: n = 3). Results Children with nosocomial RSV infection were younger (P = 0·001) and had a longer duration of hospitalization (P < 0·001). The rate of incomplete recovery among children with nosocomial RSV infection was significantly higher than among those without (P < 0·001). Phylogenetic analysis of partial G gene sequences obtained from 79% (316/401) of positive specimens revealed the co-circulation of multiple genotypes with RSV A NA1 being predominant (A NA1: n = 275; A GA5: n = 5; B BA3: n = 3; B BA9: n = 26; and B BA10: n = 7). The RSV A GA5 and RSV B BA3 genotypes have not been reported from Vietnam, previously. Conclusion Besides emphasizing the importance of RSV as a cause of respiratory infection leading to hospitalization in young children and as a nosocomial pathogen, data from this study extend our knowledge on the genetic diversity of RSV circulating in Vietnam. PMID:25702707

  11. Stratospheric Assimilation of Chemical Tracer Observations Using a Kalman Filter. Pt. 2; Chi-Square Validated Results and Analysis of Variance and Correlation Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menard, Richard; Chang, Lang-Ping

    1998-01-01

    A Kalman filter system designed for the assimilation of limb-sounding observations of stratospheric chemical tracers, which has four tunable covariance parameters, was developed in Part I (Menard et al. 1998) The assimilation results of CH4 observations from the Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Sounder instrument (CLAES) and the Halogen Observation Experiment instrument (HALOE) on board of the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite are described in this paper. A robust (chi)(sup 2) criterion, which provides a statistical validation of the forecast and observational error covariances, was used to estimate the tunable variance parameters of the system. In particular, an estimate of the model error variance was obtained. The effect of model error on the forecast error variance became critical after only three days of assimilation of CLAES observations, although it took 14 days of forecast to double the initial error variance. We further found that the model error due to numerical discretization as arising in the standard Kalman filter algorithm, is comparable in size to the physical model error due to wind and transport modeling errors together. Separate assimilations of CLAES and HALOE observations were compared to validate the state estimate away from the observed locations. A wave-breaking event that took place several thousands of kilometers away from the HALOE observation locations was well captured by the Kalman filter due to highly anisotropic forecast error correlations. The forecast error correlation in the assimilation of the CLAES observations was found to have a structure similar to that in pure forecast mode except for smaller length scales. Finally, we have conducted an analysis of the variance and correlation dynamics to determine their relative importance in chemical tracer assimilation problems. Results show that the optimality of a tracer assimilation system depends, for the most part, on having flow-dependent error correlation rather than on evolving the

  12. Adoption of a Tai Chi Intervention, Tai Ji Quan: Moving for Better Balance, for Fall Prevention by Rural Faith-Based Organizations, 2013–2014

    PubMed Central

    Starcher, Rachael W.; Eicher, Jennifer L.; Wilcox, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Background Translating evidence-based, community-delivered, fall-prevention exercise programs into new settings is a public health priority. Community Context Older adults (aged ≥65 y) are at high risk for falls. We conducted a community engagement project in West Virginia to evaluate the adoption of a tai chi exercise program, Tai Ji Quan: Moving for Better Balance, by rural faith-based organizations (FBOs) and exercise instructors by recruiting 20 FBOs and 20 or more exercise instructors and by obtaining input from key stakeholders (representatives of FBOs, community representatives, exercise instructors) regarding potential barriers and facilitators to program adoption. Methods We used both multistage, purposeful random sampling and snowball sampling to recruit FBOs and exercise instructors in 7 West Virginia counties. Two forums were held with stakeholders to identify barriers and facilitators to program adoption. We calculated separate adoption rates for organizations and exercise instructors. Outcome It took up to 3 months to recruit each FBO with an adoption rate of 94%. We made 289 telephone calls, sent 193 emails and 215 letters, distributed brochures and flyers to 69 FBOs, held 118 meetings, and made 20 trips over a period of 31 days (8,933 miles traveled). Nineteen of 22 trained exercise instructors started classes, an instructor adoption rate of 86%. Key issues regarding adoption were the age requirement for participants, trust, education, and competing priorities. Interpretation Although we had recruitment challenges, our adoption rates were similar to or higher than those reported in other studies, and the objectives of the community engagement project were met. Clustering the FBOs and having them located closer geographically to our location may have reduced our resource use, and using a recruitment coordinator from the local community may have enabled us to gain the trust of congregants and clergy support. PMID:27418214

  13. Distinct Upstream Role of Type I IFN Signaling in Hematopoietic Stem Cell-Derived and Epithelial Resident Cells for Concerted Recruitment of Ly-6Chi Monocytes and NK Cells via CCL2-CCL3 Cascade

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jin Young; Kim, Seong Bum; Eo, Seong Kug

    2015-01-01

    Type I interferon (IFN-I)-dependent orchestrated mobilization of innate cells in inflamed tissues is believed to play a critical role in controlling replication and CNS-invasion of herpes simplex virus (HSV). However, the crucial regulators and cell populations that are affected by IFN-I to establish the early environment of innate cells in HSV-infected mucosal tissues are largely unknown. Here, we found that IFN-I signaling promoted the differentiation of CCL2-producing Ly-6Chi monocytes and IFN-γ/granzyme B-producing NK cells, whereas deficiency of IFN-I signaling induced Ly-6Clo monocytes producing CXCL1 and CXCL2. More interestingly, recruitment of Ly-6Chi monocytes preceded that of NK cells with the levels peaked at 24 h post-infection in IFN-I–dependent manner, which was kinetically associated with the CCL2-CCL3 cascade response. Early Ly-6Chi monocyte recruitment was governed by CCL2 produced from hematopoietic stem cell (HSC)-derived leukocytes, whereas NK cell recruitment predominantly depended on CC chemokines produced by resident epithelial cells. Also, IFN-I signaling in HSC-derived leukocytes appeared to suppress Ly-6Ghi neutrophil recruitment to ameliorate immunopathology. Finally, tissue resident CD11bhiF4/80hi macrophages and CD11chiEpCAM+ dendritic cells appeared to produce initial CCL2 for migration-based self-amplification of early infiltrated Ly-6Chi monocytes upon stimulation by IFN-I produced from infected epithelial cells. Ultimately, these results decipher a detailed IFN-I–dependent pathway that establishes orchestrated mobilization of Ly-6Chi monocytes and NK cells through CCL2-CCL3 cascade response of HSC-derived leukocytes and epithelium-resident cells. Therefore, this cascade response of resident–to-hematopoietic–to-resident cells that drives cytokine–to-chemokine–to-cytokine production to recruit orchestrated innate cells is critical for attenuation of HSV replication in inflamed tissues. PMID:26618488

  14. First results from the Goddard High-Resolution spectrograph - High-resolution observations of the 1942 A resonance line of HG II in the chemically peculiar B star, Chi Lupi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leckrone, David S.; Wahlgren, Glenn M.; Johansson, Sveneric G.

    1991-01-01

    The Goddard High-Resolution Spectrograph on the HST has been used to obtain high S/N observations of the sharp-lined, Hg- and Pt-rich B-type star, Chi Lupi, with a resolving power of 87,000. The observations reveal a level of spectroscopic detail never before observed at ultraviolet wavelengths for any star other than the sun. Concentrating on the region around the resonance line of Hg II at 1942 A, the profile and central position of this line confirm beyond doubt that the Hg isotope anomaly in Chi Lupi is real and extreme, with Hg being heavily concentrated in the form of Hg-204. The problems in atomic physics which impair the accurate analysis of spectra of this quality are emphasized.

  15. Determining the coordinate dependence of some components of the cubic susceptibility tensor {chi}-hat{sub yyyy}{sup (3)}(z, {omega}, -{omega}, {omega}, {omega}) of a one-dimensionally inhomogeneous absorbing plate at an arbitrary frequency dispersion

    SciTech Connect

    Golubkov, A A; Makarov, Vladimir A

    2010-12-29

    The possibility of unique reconstruction of the spatial profile of the cubic nonlinear susceptibility tensor component {chi}-hat{sub yyyy}{sup (3)}(z, {omega}, -{omega}, {omega}, {omega}) of a one-dimensionally inhomogeneous plate whose medium has a symmetry plane m{sub y} perpendicular to its surface is proved for the first time and the unique reconstruction algorithm is proposed. The amplitude complex coefficients of reflection and transmission (measured in some range of angles of incidence) as well as of conversion of an s-polarised plane signal monochromatic wave into two waves propagating on both sides of the plate make it possible to reconstruct the profile. These two waves result from nonlinear interaction of a signal wave with an intense plane wave incident normally on the plate. All the waves under consideration have the same frequency {omega}, and so its variation helps study the frequency dispersion of the cubic nonlinear susceptibility tensor component {chi}-hat{sub yyyy}{sup (3)}(z, {omega}, -{omega}, {omega}, {omega}). For media with additional symmetry axes 2{sub z}, 4{sub z}, 6{sub z}, or {infinity}{sub z} that are perpendicular to the plate surface, the proposed method can be used to reconstruct the profile and to examine the frequency dispersion of about one third of all independent complex components of the tensor {chi}-hat{sup (3)}. (nonlinear-optics phenomena)

  16. Complexity-Based Measures Inform Effects of Tai Chi Training on Standing Postural Control: Cross-Sectional and Randomized Trial Studies

    PubMed Central

    Wayne, Peter M.; Gow, Brian J.; Costa, Madalena D.; Peng, C.-K.; Lipsitz, Lewis A.; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M.; Davis, Roger B.; Walsh, Jacquelyn N.; Lough, Matthew; Novak, Vera; Yeh, Gloria Y.; Ahn, Andrew C.; Macklin, Eric A.; Manor, Brad

    2014-01-01

    Background Diminished control of standing balance, traditionally indicated by greater postural sway magnitude and speed, is associated with falls in older adults. Tai Chi (TC) is a multisystem intervention that reduces fall risk, yet its impact on sway measures vary considerably. We hypothesized that TC improves the integrated function of multiple control systems influencing balance, quantifiable by the multi-scale “complexity” of postural sway fluctuations. Objectives To evaluate both traditional and complexity-based measures of sway to characterize the short- and potential long-term effects of TC training on postural control and the relationships between sway measures and physical function in healthy older adults. Methods A cross-sectional comparison of standing postural sway in healthy TC-naïve and TC-expert (24.5±12 yrs experience) adults. TC-naïve participants then completed a 6-month, two-arm, wait-list randomized clinical trial of TC training. Postural sway was assessed before and after the training during standing on a force-plate with eyes-open (EO) and eyes-closed (EC). Anterior-posterior (AP) and medio-lateral (ML) sway speed, magnitude, and complexity (quantified by multiscale entropy) were calculated. Single-legged standing time and Timed-Up–and-Go tests characterized physical function. Results At baseline, compared to TC-naïve adults (n = 60, age 64.5±7.5 yrs), TC-experts (n = 27, age 62.8±7.5 yrs) exhibited greater complexity of sway in the AP EC (P = 0.023), ML EO (P<0.001), and ML EC (P<0.001) conditions. Traditional measures of sway speed and magnitude were not significantly lower among TC-experts. Intention-to-treat analyses indicated no significant effects of short-term TC training; however, increases in AP EC and ML EC complexity amongst those randomized to TC were positively correlated with practice hours (P = 0.044, P = 0.018). Long- and short-term TC training were positively associated with physical function

  17. A Search for WIMP Dark Matter using an Optimized Chi-square Technique on the Final Data from the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search Experiment (CDMS II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manungu Kiveni, Joseph

    2012-06-01

    accumulated at the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota. Results from the original analysis of these data were published in 2009; two events were observed in the signal region with an expected leakage of 0.9 events. Further investigation revealed an issue with the ionization-pulse reconstruction algorithm leading to a software upgrade and a subsequent reanalysis of the data. As part of the reanalysis, I performed an advanced discrimination technique to better distinguish (potential) signal events from backgrounds using a 5-dimensional chi-square method. This data-analysis technique combines the event information recorded for each WIMP-search event to derive a background-discrimination parameter capable of reducing the expected background to less than one event, while maintaining high efficiency for signal events. Furthermore, optimizing the cut positions of this 5-dimensional chi-square parameter for the 14 viable germanium detectors yields an improved expected sensitivity to WIMP interactions relative to previous CDMS results. This dissertation describes my improved (and optimized) discrimination technique and the results obtained from a blind application to the reanalyzed CDMS II WIMP-search data. This analysis achieved the best expected sensitivity of the three techniques developed for the reanalysis and so was chosen as the primary timing analysis whose limit will be quoted in a on-going publication paper which is currently in preparation. For this analysis, a total raw exposure of 612.17 kg-days are analyzed for this work. No candidate events was observed, and a corresponding upper limit on the WIMP-nucleon scattering cross section as a function of WIMP mass is defined. These data set a 90% upper limit on spin-independent WIMP-nucleon elastic-scattering cross section of 3.19 × 10-44 cm2 for a WIMP mass of 60 GeV c 2. Combining this result with all previous CDMS II data gives an upper limit of 1.96 ×10-44 cm2 for a WIMP of mass 60 GeV/c2 (a factor of 2 better than

  18. Surveillance of Transmitted HIV Drug Resistance Using Matched Plasma and Dried Blood Spot Specimens From Voluntary Counseling and Testing Sites in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, 2007–2008

    PubMed Central

    Hien, Bui Thu; Wagar, Nick; Tram, Tran Hong; Giang, Le Truong; Yang, Chunfu; Wolfe, Mitchell I.; Hien, Nguyen Tran; Tuan, Nguyen Anh

    2012-01-01

    During 2007–2008, surveillance of transmitted human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance (TDR) was performed following World Health Organization guidance among clients with newly diagnosed HIV infection attending voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) sites in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam. Moderate (5%–15%) TDR to nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) was observed among VCT clients aged 18–21 years. Follow-up surveillance of TDR in HCMC and other geographic regions of Vietnam is warranted. Data generated will guide the national HIV drug resistance surveillance strategy and support selection of current and future first-line antiretroviral therapy and HIV prevention programs. PMID:22544201

  19. Effects of short-term exposure to air pollution on hospital admissions of young children for acute lower respiratory infections in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Le, Truong Giang; Ngo, Long; Mehta, Sumi; Do, Van Dzung; Thach, T Q; Vu, Xuan Dan; Nguyen, Dinh Tuan; Cohen, Aaron

    2012-06-01

    There is emerging evidence, largely from studies in Europe and North America, that economic deprivation increases the magnitude of morbidity and mortality related to air pollution. Two major reasons why this may be true are that the poor experience higher levels of exposure to air pollution, and they are more vulnerable to its effects--in other words, due to poorer nutrition, less access to medical care, and other factors, they experience more health impact per unit of exposure. The relations among health, air pollution, and poverty are likely to have important implications for public health and social policy, especially in areas such as the developing countries of Asia where air pollution levels are high and many live in poverty. The aims of this study were to estimate the effect of exposure to air pollution on hospital admissions of young children for acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI*) and to explore whether such effects differed between poor children and other children. ALRI, which comprises pneumonia and bronchiolitis, is the largest single cause of mortality among young children worldwide and is responsible for a substantial burden of disease among young children in developing countries. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of the health effects of air pollution in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam. For these reasons, the results of this study have the potential to make an important contribution to the growing literature on the health effects of air pollution in Asia. The study focused on the short-term effects of daily average exposure to air pollutants on hospital admissions of children less than 5 years of age for ALRI, defined as pneumonia or bronchiolitis, in HCMC during 2003, 2004, and 2005. Admissions data were obtained from computerized records of Children's Hospital 1 and Children's Hospital 2 (CH1 and CH2) in HCMC. Nearly all children hospitalized for respiratory illnesses in the city are admitted to one of these two pediatric

  20. The Impact of Tai Chi Exercise on Self-Efficacy, Social Support, and Empowerment in Heart Failure: Insights from a Qualitative Sub-Study from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Gloria Y.; Chan, Caroline W.; Wayne, Peter M.; Conboy, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Objective To qualitatively explore perceived physical and psychosocial effects and overall patient experience associated with a 12-week tai chi (TC) intervention and an education group in a clinical trial of patients with chronic heart failure (HF). Subjects and Methods We randomized 100 patients with chronic systolic HF (NYHA Class 1–3, ejection fraction≤40%) to a 12-week group TC program or an education control. At 12-weeks, semi-structured interviews were conducted on a random subset (n = 32; n = 17 in TC, n = 15 in control), audiorecorded and transcribed verbatim. Two independent reviewers extracted information using grounded-theory methods for emergent themes. We explored similarities and differences in themes/sub-themes between the groups, and examined qualitative association with changes from baseline to post-intervention in previously reported quantitative measures (e.g., Minnesota Living with HF, Cardiac Exercise Self Efficacy and Profile of Mood States). Results The mean age (±SD) of participants was 68±9 years, baseline ejection fraction 29±7%, and median New York Heart Association class 2 HF. We idenitifed themes related to the patient’s experience of illness, perceptions of self, and relationship to others. Specific psychosocial and physical benefits were described. Common themes emerged from both groups including: social support and self-efficacy related to activity/exercise and diet. The tai chi group, however, also exhibited a more global empowerment and perceived control. Additional themes in TC included mindfulness/self-awareness, decreased stress reactivity, and renewed social role. These themes mirrored improvements in previously reported quantitative measures (quality-of-life, self-efficacy, and mood) in TC compared to control. Patients in TC also reported physical benefits (e.g., decreased pain, improved energy, endurance, flexibility). Conclusion Positive themes emerged from both groups, although there were qualitative differences in

  1. Investigation of the HLA component involved in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by using the marker association-segregation [chi][sup 2] (MASC) method: Rejection of the unifying-shared-epitope hypothesis

    SciTech Connect

    Dizier, M.H.; Eliaou, J.F.; Babron, M.C.; Combe, B.; Sany, J.; Clot, J.; Clerget-Darpoux, F.

    1993-09-01

    In order to investigate the HLA component involved in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the authors tested genetic models by the marker association-segregation [chi][sup 2] (MASC) method, using the HLA genotypic distribution observed in a sample of 97 RA patients. First they tested models assuming the involvement of a susceptibility gene linked to the DR locus. They showed that the present data are compatible with a simple model assuming the effect of a recessive allele of a biallelic locus linked to the DR locus and without any assumption of synergistic effect. Then they considered models assuming the direct involvement of the DR allele products, and tested the unifying-shared-epitope hypothesis, which has been proposed. Under this hypothesis the DR alleles are assumed to be directly involved in the susceptibility to the disease because of the presence of similar or identical amino acid sequences in position 70-74 of the third hypervariable region of the DRBI molecules, shared by the RA-associated DR alleles DR4Dw4, DR4Dw14, and DR1. This hypothesis was strongly rejected with the present data. In the case of the direct involvement of the DR alleles, hypotheses more complex that the unifying-shared-epitope hypothesis would have to be considered. 28 refs., 2 tabs.

  2. Determination of the spatial profiles of all components of the quadratic susceptibility tensor {Chi}{sup 2} (z, 2{omega}; {omega}, {omega}) of a one-dimensionally inhomogeneous absorbing medium

    SciTech Connect

    Golubkov, A. A. Makarov, V. A.

    2012-04-15

    For a one-dimensionally inhomogeneous plate whose linear dielectric properties are also inhomogeneous and are characterized by a diagonal permittivity tensor, it is proved that the spatial profiles of all components of the complex quadratic susceptibility tensor {Chi}{sup 2} (z, 2{omega}; {omega}, {omega}) responsible for the second harmonic generation can be uniquely determined, and an appropriate method is proposed. To implement this method, one should measure the complex coefficient of transformation of a fundamental plane wave incident on the plate into a reflected second-harmonic wave in a certain range of angles of incidence. By varying the plane of incidence of the wave and (or) its polarization and measuring the coefficients of transformation into s- and p-polarized waves of double frequency, one can uniquely determine the spatial profiles of all components of the quadratic susceptibility tensor. The method involves the measurement of the intensities of the second-harmonic waves generated under special conditions with the use of two auxiliary reference plates and thus allows one to avoid complicated phase measurements.

  3. Tai Chi: Rx for Arthritic Knees

    MedlinePlus

    ... said. She is director of the Center for Complementary and Integrative Medicine in the division of rheumatology at Tufts Medical ... SOURCES: Chenchen Wang, M.D., director, Center for Complementary and Integrative Medicine, division of rheumatology, Tufts Medical Center, Boston; Matthew ...

  4. The policy of free healthcare for children under the age of 6 years in Vietnam: assessment of the uptake for children hospitalised with acute diarrhoea in Ho Chi Minh City

    PubMed Central

    Shieh, Mae; Thompson, Corinne; Tra, My Phan Vu; Linh, Van Thi Thuy; Tediosi, Fabrizio; Merson, Laura; Farrar, Jeremy J; Tuan, Ha Manh; Viet, Ho Lu; Tuyet, Pham Thi Ngoc; Baker, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the proportion of, and reasons for, households not utilising the policy of free healthcare for children under 6 years of age (FCCU6) for hospitalisation with diarrhoea, and assess the risk of catastrophic expenditure for households that forgo FCCU6 and pay out of pocket. Methods Invoices detailing insurance information and charges incurred from 472 hospitalised diarrhoeal cases in one paediatric hospital in Ho Chi Minh City were retrieved. Hospital charges and the utilisation of elective services were analysed for patients utilising and not utilising FCCU6. Associations between socio-economic factors with non-utilisation of FCCU6 were evaluated. Results Overall, 29% of patients were FCCU6 non-users. The FCCU6 non-users paid a median hospital charge of $29.13 (interquartile range, IQR: $18.57–46.24), consuming no more than 1.4% of a medium-income household's annual income. Seventy per cent of low-income FCCU6 non-users utilised less-expensive elective services, whereas only 43% of medium income patients and 21% of high-income patients did (P = 0.036). Patients from larger households and those with a parent working in government were more likely to use FCCU6. Conclusions The rate of FCCU6 non-usage in this study population was 29%. A significant proportion of those that did not use FCCU6 was from lower income households and may perceive a justifiable cost–benefit ratio when forgoing FCCU6. Although a single diarrhoeal hospitalisation is unlikely to induce a catastrophic expenditure, FCCU6 non-usage may disproportionately increase the risk of catastrophic expenditure for lower income households over multiple illnesses. PMID:24134427

  5. A method of coupling the Paternò-Büchi reaction with direct infusion ESI-MS/MS for locating the C[double bond, length as m-dash]C bond in glycerophospholipids.

    PubMed

    Stinson, Craig A; Xia, Yu

    2016-06-21

    Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) coupled with soft ionization is established as an essential platform for lipid analysis; however, determining high order structural information, such as the carbon-carbon double bond (C[double bond, length as m-dash]C) location, remains challenging. Recently, our group demonstrated a method for sensitive and confident lipid C[double bond, length as m-dash]C location determination by coupling online the Paternò-Büchi (PB) reaction with nanoelectrospray ionization (nanoESI) and MS/MS. Herein, we aimed to expand the scope of the PB reaction for lipid analysis by enabling the reaction with infusion ESI-MS/MS at much higher flow rates than demonstrated in the nanoESI setup (∼20 nL min(-1)). In the new design, the PB reaction was effected in a fused silica capillary solution transfer line, which also served as a microflow UV reactor, prior to ESI. This setup allowed PB reaction optimization and kinetics studies. Under optimized conditions, a maximum of 50% PB reaction yield could be achieved for a standard glycerophosphocholine (PC) within 6 s of UV exposure over a wide flow rate range (0.1-10 μL min(-1)). A solvent composition of 7 : 3 acetone : H2O (with 1% acid or base modifier) allowed the highest PB yields and good lipid ionization, while lower yields were obtained with an addition of a variety of organic solvents. Radical induced lipid peroxidation was identified to induce undesirable side reactions, which could be effectively suppressed by eliminating trace oxygen in the solution via N2 purge. Finally, the utility of coupling the PB reaction with infusion ESI-MS/MS was demonstrated by analyzing a yeast polar lipid extract where C[double bond, length as m-dash]C bond locations were revealed for 35 glycerophospholipids (GPs). PMID:26892746

  6. Dissemination of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase- and AmpC β-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli within the Food Distribution System of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Do Phuc; Nguyen, Thi Anh Dao; Le, Thi Hien; Tran, Nguyen Minh Doan; Ngo, Thanh Phong; Dang, Van Chinh; Kawai, Takao; Kanki, Masashi; Kawahara, Ryuji; Jinnai, Michio; Yonogi, Shinya; Hirai, Yuji; Yamamoto, Yoshimasa; Kumeda, Yuko

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the dissemination of ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli within the food distribution system of Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam, the prevalence of ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli strains in chicken meat, pork, beef, and fish/shrimp samples obtained from slaughterhouses, a wholesale market, and supermarkets was examined. Among the total of 330 collected food samples, ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli was detected in 150 samples (45.5%). The highest prevalence of these isolates was in chicken meat (76/82, 92.7%), followed by pork (32/92, 34.8%), beef (18/74, 34.3%), and fish/shrimp (24/82, 29.3%). A total of 342 strains of ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli were isolated from 150 positive food samples. The most prevalent genes responsible for ESBL or pAmpC activity belonged to the CTX-M-9 (110/342, 31.2%), CTX-M-1 (102/342, 29.8%), and CIT (118/342, 34.5%) groups. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the high occurrence of pAmpC (37.1%) in animal-based food in Vietnam. Among the 342 total ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli isolates, 276 (80.7%) were resistant to at least 6 antibiotic agents. Notably, high percentages of resistance to ciprofloxacin and fosfomycin were found in isolates from chicken (80.5% and 50.8%, resp.). These findings demonstrate that animal-based food products in HCMC represent a major reservoir of ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli. PMID:26989692

  7. Dissemination of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase- and AmpC β-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli within the Food Distribution System of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Do Phuc; Nguyen, Thi Anh Dao; Le, Thi Hien; Tran, Nguyen Minh Doan; Ngo, Thanh Phong; Dang, Van Chinh; Kawai, Takao; Kanki, Masashi; Kawahara, Ryuji; Jinnai, Michio; Yonogi, Shinya; Hirai, Yuji; Yamamoto, Yoshimasa; Kumeda, Yuko

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the dissemination of ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli within the food distribution system of Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam, the prevalence of ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli strains in chicken meat, pork, beef, and fish/shrimp samples obtained from slaughterhouses, a wholesale market, and supermarkets was examined. Among the total of 330 collected food samples, ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli was detected in 150 samples (45.5%). The highest prevalence of these isolates was in chicken meat (76/82, 92.7%), followed by pork (32/92, 34.8%), beef (18/74, 34.3%), and fish/shrimp (24/82, 29.3%). A total of 342 strains of ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli were isolated from 150 positive food samples. The most prevalent genes responsible for ESBL or pAmpC activity belonged to the CTX-M-9 (110/342, 31.2%), CTX-M-1 (102/342, 29.8%), and CIT (118/342, 34.5%) groups. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the high occurrence of pAmpC (37.1%) in animal-based food in Vietnam. Among the 342 total ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli isolates, 276 (80.7%) were resistant to at least 6 antibiotic agents. Notably, high percentages of resistance to ciprofloxacin and fosfomycin were found in isolates from chicken (80.5% and 50.8%, resp.). These findings demonstrate that animal-based food products in HCMC represent a major reservoir of ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli. PMID:26989692

  8. Impact of Short- and Long-term Tai Chi Mind-Body Exercise Training on Cognitive Function in Healthy Adults: Results From a Hybrid Observational Study and Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Jacquelyn N.; Manor, Brad; Hausdorff, Jeffrey; Novak, Vera; Lipsitz, Lewis; Gow, Brian; Macklin, Eric A.; Peng, Chung-Kang

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cognitive decline amongst older adults is a significant public health concern. There is growing interest in behavioral interventions, including exercise, for improving cognition. Studies to date suggest tai chi (TC) may be a safe and potentially effective exercise for preserving cognitive function with aging; however, its short-term and potential long-term impact on physically active, healthy adults is unclear. Objective: To compare differences in cognitive function among long-term TC expert practitioners and age-matched and gender-matched TC-naïve adults and to determine the effects of short-term TC training on measures of cognitive function in healthy, nonsedentary adults. Design: A hybrid design including an observational comparison and a 2-arm randomized clinical trial (RCT) Participants: Healthy, nonsedentary, TC-naive adults (50 y-79 y) and age-matched and gender-matched long-term TC experts Methods: A cross-sectional comparison of cognitive function in healthy TC-naïve (n=60) and TC expert (24.5 y ÷ 12 y experience; n=27) adults: TC-naïve adults then completed a 6-month, 2-arm, wait-list randomized clinical trial of TC training. Six measures of cognitive function were assessed for both cross-sectional and longitudinal comparisons. Results: TC experts exhibited trends towards better scores on all cognitive measures, significantly so for category fluency (P=.01), as well as a composite z score summarizing all 6 cognitive assessments (P=.03). In contrast, random assignment to 6 months of TC training in TC-naïve adults did not significantly improve any measures of cognitive function. Conclusions: In healthy nonsedentary adults, long-term TC training may help preserve cognitive function; however, the effect of short-term TC training in healthy adults remains unclear. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01340365 PMID:26331103

  9. SEARCH AT LEP FOR ˜ \\chi 1^ ± MASS-DEGENERATE WITH THE ˜ \\chi 10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenier, G.

    2001-04-01

    This article describes the key points of the chargino search at LEP, when the mass difference between the chargino and the LSP is between a few hundred Me and a few GeV. DELPHI results for √ {s} up to 189 GeV and preliminary L3 results for √ {s} up to 202 GeV are given.

  10. Rho Chi lecture. Pharmaceutical sciences in the next millennium.

    PubMed

    Triggle, D J

    1999-02-01

    Even a cursory survey of this article suggests that the pharmaceutical sciences are being rapidly transformed under the influence of both the new technologies and sciences and the economic imperatives. Of particular importance are scientific and technological advances that may greatly accelerate the critical process of discovery. The possibility of a drug discovery process built around the principles of directed diversity, self-reproduction, evolution, and self-targeting suggests a new paradigm of lead discovery, one based quite directly on the paradigms of molecular biology. Coupled with the principles of nanotechnology, we may contemplate miniature molecular machines containing directed drug factories, circulating the body and capable of self-targeting against defective cells and pathways -- the ultimate "drug delivery machine." However, science and technology are not the only factors that will transform the pharmaceutical sciences in the next century. The necessary reductions in the costs of drug discovery brought about by the rapidly increasing costs of the current drug discovery paradigms means that efforts to decrease the discovery phase and to make drug development part of drug discovery will become increasingly important. This is likely to involve increasing numbers of "alliances," as well as the creation of pharmaceutical research cells -- highly mobile and entrepreneurial groups within or outside of a pharmaceutical company that are formed to carry out specific discovery processes. Some of these will be in the biotechnology industry, but an increasing number will be in universities. The linear process from basic science to applied technology that has been the Western model since Vannevar Bush's Science: The Endless Frontier has probably never been particularly linear and, in any event, is likely to be rapidly supplanted by models where science, scientific development, and technology are more intimately linked. The pharmaceutical sciences have always been an example of use-directed basic research, but the relationships between the pharmaceutical industry, small and large, and the universities seems likely to become increasingly developed in the next century. This may serve as a significant catalyst for the continued transformation of universities into the "knowledge factories" of the 21st century. Regardless, we may expect to see major changes in the research organizational structure in the pharmaceutical sciences even as pharmaceutical companies enjoy record prosperity. And this is in anticipation of tough times to come. PMID:10084422

  11. Quantum chi-squared and goodness of fit testing

    SciTech Connect

    Temme, Kristan; Verstraete, Frank

    2015-01-15

    A quantum mechanical hypothesis test is presented for the hypothesis that a certain setup produces a given quantum state. Although the classical and the quantum problems are very much related to each other, the quantum problem is much richer due to the additional optimization over the measurement basis. A goodness of fit test for i.i.d quantum states is developed and a max-min characterization for the optimal measurement is introduced. We find the quantum measurement which leads both to the maximal Pitman and Bahadur efficiencies, and determine the associated divergence rates. We discuss the relationship of the quantum goodness of fit test to the problem of estimating multiple parameters from a density matrix. These problems are found to be closely related and we show that the largest error of an optimal strategy, determined by the smallest eigenvalue of the Fisher information matrix, is given by the divergence rate of the goodness of fit test.

  12. Chi Square or K-S?--That is the Question.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanner, Richard L.

    Two types of statistical analyses of rating scale data are discussed. An example, with its accompanying mathematical calculations for each type, is presented; and the advantages and disadvantages of each method are compared. It is judged that the little-known and seldom-used Kolmogorov-Smirnov one-sample test should be reexamined because of its…

  13. Electric dipole moments of light nuclei from {chi}EFT

    SciTech Connect

    Higa, Renato

    2013-03-25

    I present recent calculations of EDMs of light nuclei using chiral effective field theory techniques. At leading-order, we argue that they can be expressed in terms of six CP-violating low-energy constants. With our expressions, eventual non-zero measurements of EDMs of deuteron, helion, and triton can be combined to disentangle the different sources of CP-violation.

  14. Rho Chi lecture. Pharmacy in a smaller world.

    PubMed

    Weaver, L C

    1986-09-01

    Health care is a business. Pharmacy is in the health business. The health care delivery system in the U.S. is rapidly becoming a managed system by corporations. Further, these corporations are moving toward international markets where some already have considerable experience. There are many parts of the world not participating in these developments in health care. Some are just off our shores in the Caribbean Basin. A review of activities occurring in recent years by various groups suggests that more could be done. Two modest approaches are presented. Support of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy's "Pharmacy School Twinning Project" through which U.S. pharmacy schools would work with pharmacy schools in Central and South America is recommended. Also, national pharmacy associations jointly with pharmaceutical companies would work together using their expertise in continuing pharmacy education to develop new education models for the needy areas of the world. PMID:3757790

  15. Plasma injection and evolution in CHI simulations of NSTX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooper, E. B.; Sovinec, C. R.; Raman, R.

    2014-10-01

    Simulations of co-injection of helicity and plasma into a low density plasma in NSTX are compared with experiment, extending previous simulations that assumed helicity injection into a constant density plasma. The background plasma response is minimized by density-dependent artificial radiation. Helicity and plasma flow from the slot at the ExB velocity due to the applied voltage. A simple model of impurity radiation from the injected plasma improves agreement with the temperature during experimental plasma buildup and following flux closure after injection. The simulations also explore the effect of impurity concentration near the bottom plate where impurities are generated at the footprints of the currents associated with the injection. As in previous simulations, non-axisymmetric flows and currents are generated during injection but have little impact on the final closed-flux configuration. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 at LLNL.

  16. Aesthetic Practice and Spirituality: Chi in Traditional East Asian Brushwork

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Sheng Kuan

    2006-01-01

    The importance of multicultural art education has been addressed by art educators over the past 15 years. Art educators maintain that art is capable of empowering mutual respect and appreciation for people, objects, and ideas among diverse groups. Although many educators/teachers use non-Western artworks or artifacts to enrich their art programs,…

  17. "Miracolo dell'arte" Chi ha inventato il telescopio?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sodi, Francesca

    2006-02-01

    Who did invent the telescope? It seems a simple-answering question but this is untrue. The article recall the fundamental steps of the first phase in the telescope history between 16th and 17th century, from the first experiences with the lenses made by the Italian opticians to the Della Porta's theories, from the vicissitudes of the Dutch spectacle-makers to the spreading of the new instrument through the European squares. At last we meet the work of Galileo Galilei, the first man to use the telescope for scientific purposes, understanding all its potentialities.

  18. Chi-Square Statistics, Tests of Hypothesis and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochowicz, John A.

    The use of technology such as computers and programmable calculators enables students to find p-values and conduct tests of hypotheses in many different ways. Comprehension and interpretation of a research problem become the focus for statistical analysis. This paper describes how to calculate chisquare statistics and p-values for statistical…

  19. Locality-Sensitive Hashing for Chi2 distance.

    PubMed

    Gorisse, David; Cord, Matthieu; Precioso, Frederic

    2012-02-01

    In the past 10 years, new powerful algorithms based on efficient data structures have been proposed to solve the problem of Nearest Neighbors search (or Approximate Nearest Neighbors search). If the Euclidean Locality Sensitive Hashing algorithm, which provides approximate nearest neighbors in a euclidean space with sublinear complexity, is probably the most popular, the euclidean metric does not always provide as accurate and as relevant results when considering similarity measure as the Earth-Mover Distance and 2 distances. In this paper, we present a new LSH scheme adapted to 2 distance for approximate nearest neighbors search in high-dimensional spaces. We define the specific hashing functions, we prove their local-sensitivity, and compare, through experiments, our method with the Euclidean Locality Sensitive Hashing algorithm in the context of image retrieval on real image databases. The results prove the relevance of such a new LSH scheme either providing far better accuracy in the context of image retrieval than euclidean scheme for an equivalent speed, or providing an equivalent accuracy but with a high gain in terms of processing speed. PMID:21968915

  20. QCD with chiral 4-fermion interactions ({chi}QCD)

    SciTech Connect

    Kogut, J.B.; Sinclair, D.K.

    1996-10-01

    Lattice QCD with staggered quarks is augmented by the addition of a chiral 4-fermion interaction. The Dirac operator is now non-singular at m{sub q}=0, decreasing the computing requirements for light quark simulations by at least an order of magnitude. We present preliminary results from simulations at finite and zero temperatures for m{sub q}=0, with and without gauge fields. Chiral QCD enables simulations at physical u and d quark masses with at least an order of magnitude saving in CPU time. It also enables simulations with zero quark masses which is important for determining the equation of state. A renormalization group analysis will be needed to continue to the continuum limit. 7 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Transport simulations of TFTR experiments to test theoretical models for. chi. sub e and. chi. sub i

    SciTech Connect

    Redi, M.H.; Bateman, G.

    1990-08-01

    1-{1/2}-d BALDUR transport code predictions using recent theoretically-based models for thermal and particle transport are compared to measured profiles of electron plasma density and electron and ion temperatures for TFTR ohmic, L-mode and supershot discharges. The profile consistent drift wave model is found to overestimate ion temperatures at high heating powers, so that a third mode or loss process is needed in addition to drift wave transport (TEM, {eta}{sub i}) and an edge loss model. None of several versions of local multiple mode models, using the 1989 Carreras-Diamond resistive ballooning model, gives T{sub e}, T{sub i} within 20% for all three TFTR regimes studied. 36 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. The impact of the Chi-Chi earthquake on the incidence of hospitalizations for schizophrenia and on concomitant hospital choice.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Kuan-Chiao; Hemenway, David; Kawachi, Ichiro; Subramanian, S V; Chen, Wei J

    2010-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of a catastrophic earthquake on the incidence of hospitalizations for schizophrenia, and on the choice of hospitals for patients thus hospitalized, using a quasi-experimental design. Results demonstrated post-catastrophe increases in the incidence of hospitalizations for schizophrenia by 11.0 and 21.6% in the first and second year after the disaster, respectively. Among index hospitalizations for schizophrenia, the earthquake was associated with decreases in the use of teaching and public hospitals. For patients with schizophrenia, aggravation of symptoms and the likelihood of being crowded out of the use of health care services by those with other physical or mental illnesses after a catastrophe warrant our attention. PMID:19898984

  3. Before and after the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake: traumatic events and depressive symptoms in an older population.

    PubMed

    Seplaki, Christopher L; Goldman, Noreen; Weinstein, Maxine; Lin, Yu-Hsuan

    2006-06-01

    Natural disasters, such as earthquakes, can have deleterious consequences for physical and psychological health. In this study, we investigate variability in resilience to depressive symptoms in the aftermath of a massive earthquake that struck Taiwan in 1999. We analyze data on 1160 older individuals from a national, longitudinal survey with interviews before and after the earthquake. This survey contains extensive information on physical and cognitive function, depressive symptoms, socio-demographic characteristics and earthquake-related exposure and experiences. We estimate regression models to identify risk factors associated with the presence of depressive symptoms after the disaster, controlling for health status and the presence of depressive symptoms beforehand. We pay special attention to how socio-demographic factors moderate the psychological impact of the earthquake. Results indicate that persons of low socioeconomic status (SES), socially isolated individuals, and women reported higher levels of depressive symptoms than their respective counterparts, as did persons who experienced damage to their homes. The psychological effects of damage were strongest among those aged 54-70. The findings suggest that people who experience damage to their home during a disaster are at risk of experiencing depressive symptoms, with the elderly being more resilient than the near-elderly. PMID:16423437

  4. A Measurement of {chi}F{nu over 3}-{chi}F{nubar over 3} and R with the CCFR Detector

    SciTech Connect

    U.K. Yang et al.

    1999-07-12

    We report on a measurement of the neutrino-nucleon and antineutrino-nucleon differential cross sections in the CCFR detector. The measurement of the differential cross sections over a wide range of energies allows {Delta}xF3 = xF{nu}3 -xF{anti {nu}}3 and R to be extracted. {Delta}xF3 is related to the difference between the contributions of the strange and charm seas in the nucleon to production of massive charm quark. The results for {Delta}xF3 are compared to various massive charm NLO QCD models. The Q² dependence of R for x < 0.1 has been measured for the first time.

  5. Housing reconstruction after two major earthquakes: the 1994 Northridge earthquake in the United States and the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jie Ying; Lindell, Michael K

    2004-03-01

    The idea of pre-impact recovery planning has recently been promoted by researchers and practitioners, but very little research has been done to evaluate its effects on disaster recovery. This study compared two jurisdictions--the city of Los Angeles, California and Taichung county in Taiwan--in their recovery from earthquakes. Although the two cases also differ with respect to variables other than the presence of pre-impact recovery plans, the available data suggest that having a pre-impact recovery plan facilitates housing reconstruction and allows local officials to make more effective use of the window of opportunity after disaster to integrate hazard mitigation into the recovery process. PMID:15016106

  6. Report of the Fifth AREB Meeting Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, 17-20 November 2008.

    PubMed

    Dodet, B

    2009-04-21

    The fifth annual Asian Rabies Expert Bureau (AREB) meeting, held in Vietnam, addressed how to increase rabies awareness and to improve rabies prevention and control. Active participation of Ministries of Health and Education was identified as crucial for the success of rabies programs, and World Rabies Day was considered as one of the best opportunities to increase rabies awareness. AREB strongly recommend implementation of pre-exposure prophylaxis for children living in rabies endemic areas. A review of national and international guidelines concerning rabies prophylaxis and their application in the Asian situation showed that some issues require further evaluation or clarification. PMID:19368779

  7. The End Of Chi-Shan Fault:Tectonic of Transtensional Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, H.; Song, G.

    2011-12-01

    Chishan fault is an active strike-slip fault that located at the Southwestern Taiwan and extend to the offshore area of SouShan in Kaohsiung. The strike and dip of the fault is N80E,50N. It's believed that the Wushan Formation of Chishan fault, which is composed of sandstone, thrusts upon the Northwestern Kutingkeng Formation, which is composed of mudstone. Chishan fault is acting as a reversal fault with sinistral motion. (Tsan and Keng,1968; Hsieh, 1970; Wen-Pu Geng, 1981). This left-lateral strike-slip fault extend to shelf break and stop, with a transtensional basin at the termination. The transtensional basin has stopped extending to open sea, whereas it is spreading toward the inshore area. Therefore, we can know that a young extensional activity is developing at the offshore seabed of Tsoying Naval Port and the activity is relative to the transtension of left-lateral fault. ( Gwo-Shyh Song, 2010). Tectonic of transtensional basin deformed in strike-slip settings overland have been described by many authors, but the field outcrop could be distoryed by Weathering and made the tectonic features incomplete. Hence, this research use multibeam bathymetry and 3.5-kHz sub-bottom profiler data data collected from the offshore extended part of Chishan fault in Kaohsiung to define the transtensional characteristics of Chishan fault. At first, we use the multibeam bathymetry data to make a Geomorphological map of our research area and we can see a triangulate depressed area near shelf break. Then, we use Fledermaus to print 3D diagram for understanding the distribution of the major normal faults(fig.1). Furthermore, we find that there are amount of listric normal fault and the area between the listric faults is curving. After that, we use the 3.5-kHz sub-bottom profiler data to understand the subsurface structure of the normal faults and the curved area between the listric normal fault, which seems to be En e'chelon folds. As the amount of displacement on the wrench zone increases, the initial En e'chelon folds are broken first by fractures and then faults.( WILCOX, 1973). Therefore, we infer that the seabed is deformed by shear strain of Chishan fault. Finally, we illustrate a diagram for the incremental strain associated with simple-shear deformation and conjecture the mode of motion in the research area. This triangulate depressed area seems to be a flower structure developing in a pull-apart basin made by Chishan fault.

  8. LiCHI - Liquid Crystal Hyperspectral Imager for simultaneous multispectral imaging in aeronomy.

    PubMed

    Goenka, Chhavi; Semeter, Joshua; Noto, John; Baumgardner, Jeffrey; Riccobono, Juanita; Migliozzi, Michael; Dahlgren, Hanna; Marshall, Robert; Kapali, Sudha; Hirsch, Michael; Hampton, Donald; Akbari, Hassanali

    2015-07-13

    A four channel hyperspectral imager using Liquid Crystal Fabry-Perot (LCFP) etalons has been built and tested. This imager is capable of making measurements simultaneously in four wavelength ranges in the visible spectrum. The instrument was designed to make measurements of natural airglow and auroral emissions in the upper atmosphere of the Earth and was installed and tested at the Poker Flat Research Range in Fairbanks, Alaska from February to April 2014. The results demonstrate the capabilities and challenges this instrument presents as a sensor for aeronomical studies. PMID:26191839

  9. A note on multiloop calculus in chi-adic string theory

    SciTech Connect

    Cheknov, L. )

    1989-01-01

    The technique for finding correlation functions on homogeneous spaces of PGL groups (factorized Bruhat-Tits trees T/sub rho//{Gamma}/sub N/ with finite number of cycles) is presented. It was shown that the homogeneous spaces T/sub rho//{Gamma}/sub N/ are in fact the multiloop world sheets in rho-adic string theory.

  10. Optimisation des structures métalliques fléchies dans un calcul plastique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geara, F.; Raphael, W.; Kaddah, F.

    2005-05-01

    The steel structure is a type of construction that is very developed in civil engineering. In the phase of survey and then of execution and installation of a metal work, the phase of conception is often the place of discontinuities that prevents the global optimization of material steel. In our survey, we used the traditional approach of optimization that is essentially based on the minimization of the weight of the structure, while taking advantages of plastic properties of steel in the case of a bending structure. It has been permitted because of to the relation found between the areas of the sections of the steel elements and the plastic moment of these sections. These relations have been drawn for different types of steel. In order to take advantages of the linear programming, a simplification has been introduced in transforming these relation to linear relations, which permits us to use simple methods as the simplex theorem. This procedure proves to be very interesting in the first phases of the survey and give very interesting results.

  11. One milliarcsecond precision studies in the regions of Delta Equulei and Chi1 Orionis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatewood, George

    1994-02-01

    Trigonometric parallaxes for stars in the regions of the binary stars Delta Equulei (HR 8123) and Chil Orionis (HR 2047) are derived from data collected with the Multichannel Astrometric Photometer (MAP) and the Thaw Refractor of the University of Pittsburgh's Allegheny Observatory. The weighted mean parallax of all trigonometric studies of delta Equ is now +5.42 +/- 0.93 mas, corresponding to absolute magnitudes of 3.87 +/- 0.04 and 3.95 +/- 0.04 mag, respectively, for the primary and secondary. Using the Popper and Dworetsky orbit we find a photocentric semimajor axis of 2.9 +/- 0.8 mas and individual masses of 1.21 +/- 0.090 and 1.19 +/- 0.088 solar masses, respectively, for the primary and secondary components. The weighted mean trigonometric parallax of all studies of the binary star Chil Ori is +111.0 +/- 0.92 mas, implying an absolute visual magnitude for the dominant GO V primary of 4.63 +/- 0.018 mag. The photocentric semimajor axis, derived from a fraction of the orbit, is 96.9 +/- 5.4 mas.

  12. Innate Lymphocyte/Ly6C(hi) Monocyte Crosstalk Promotes Klebsiella Pneumoniae Clearance.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Huizhong; Keith, James W; Samilo, Dane W; Carter, Rebecca A; Leiner, Ingrid M; Pamer, Eric G

    2016-04-21

    Increasing antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens has rendered some infections untreatable with available antibiotics. Klebsiella pneumoniae, a bacterial pathogen that has acquired high-level antibiotic resistance, is a common cause of pulmonary infections. Optimal clearance of K. pneumoniae from the host lung requires TNF and IL-17A. Herein, we demonstrate that inflammatory monocytes are rapidly recruited to the lungs of K. pneumoniae-infected mice and produce TNF, which markedly increases the frequency of IL-17-producing innate lymphoid cells. While pulmonary clearance of K. pneumoniae is preserved in neutrophil-depleted mice, monocyte depletion or TNF deficiency impairs IL-17A-dependent resolution of pneumonia. Monocyte-mediated bacterial uptake and killing is enhanced by ILC production of IL-17A, indicating that innate lymphocytes engage in a positive-feedback loop with monocytes that promotes clearance of pneumonia. Innate immune defense against a highly antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogen depends on crosstalk between inflammatory monocytes and innate lymphocytes that is mediated by TNF and IL-17A. PMID:27040495

  13. Tai Chi and Qi Gong for Health and Well-Being

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Health? Safety Information Know the Science For Health Care Professionals Clinical Practice Guidelines Literature Reviews All Health ... These exercise therapies are generally considered safe, self-care approaches used to promote a healthy lifestyle. As ...

  14. Young Sex-Workers in Ho Chi Minh City Telling Their Life Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubenson, Birgitta; Hanh, Le Thi; Hojer, Bengt; Johansson, Eva

    2005-01-01

    In this study the life stories of 22 sex-workers (age 15-18 years) in Vietnam are organized into three thematic narratives depicting how the girls presented their lives. Poverty, lack of job alternatives and the responsibility to share in the support of their families led the girls into prostitution. Strong family ties gave many girls…

  15. YKL-40/CHI3L1 drives inflammation on the road of tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Libreros, Stephania; Iragavarapu-Charyulu, Vijaya

    2015-12-01

    Inflammation plays a vital role at different stages of tumor progression. The development of tumors is affected by inflammatory mediators produced by the tumor and the host. YKL-40/chitinase-3-like-1 protein is often up-regulated in inflammation-associated diseases. With the use of chronic inflammatory disease systems, we describe the role of YKL-40/chitinase-3-like-1 protein in enhancing the inflammatory response and its implications in tumorigenesis. We also discuss how pre-existing inflammation enhances tumor growth and metastasis. In this mini-review, we highlight the effect of YKL-40/chitinase-3-like-1 protein-associated inflammation in promoting tumor progression. PMID:26310833

  16. Camp Hope: Integrating Tai Chi and Humanbecoming in a Camp for Children.

    PubMed

    Delis, Pamela Coombs; Leger, Robin R; Longton, Fran; Chandler, David Lynn

    2015-10-01

    This article is about Camp Hope, a two-week summer day program for children age 6-12 from low income families and violent neighborhoods and for children who are struggling academically or identified as having behavioral health issues. The camp is operated by House of Peace and Education (HOPE) a 501(c)(3) nonprofit company that began in 1996. The program is designed to offer enrichment activities in a caring community for young children. The theoretical framework behind the vision and policies is Parse's humanbecoming paradigm. In particular, the camp administrators and staff try to see all persons as co-creating of their everchanging humanuniverse process. PMID:26396217

  17. Nanoparticle formulation by Büchi B-90 Nano Spray Dryer for oral mucoadhesion.

    PubMed

    Harsha, Sree N; Aldhubiab, Bander E; Nair, Anroop B; Alhaider, Ibrahim Abdulrahman; Attimarad, Mahesh; Venugopala, Katharigatta N; Srinivasan, Saminathan; Gangadhar, Nagesh; Asif, Afzal Haq

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is considered one of the main threats to global public health in this era. It is increasing rapidly in every part of the world; the prevalence of the disease will grow to the point where 366 million people will be affected by 2030. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in the Saudi population is high, and the majority of patients suffer from type 2 DM. Marketed oral antidiabetic drugs have indicated poor tolerability during chronic treatments, and this contributes to the moderately large proportion of type 2 DM patients that remain inadequately managed. Vildagliptin nanospheres were prepared with aminated gelatin using a spray-drying method; narrow particle-size distribution was seen at 445 nm. The angle of repose was found to be θ <33.5°. The nanospheres appeared to be spherical with a smooth surface. The drug content and percentage yield of the nanospheres were found to be 76.2%±4.6% and 83%±2%, respectively. The nanosphere-swell profile was found to be 165%±7%. The pure drug was 100% dissolved in 30 minutes, and the nanosphere formulation took 12 hours to dissolve (97.5%±2%), and followed a Korsmeyer-Peppas kinetic model with an R (2) of 0.9838. The wash-off test of nanospheres found that they exhibited an excellent mucoadhesive property at 86.7% for 8 hours. The stability-study data showed no changes in the physicochemical properties of the nanospheres, and suggested that the nanospheres be stored below room temperature. The amount of vildagliptin retained was 1.6% within 3 hours, and in comparison with the gelatin vildagliptin nanoparticles formulation, the percentage that was retained was much higher (98.2% in 12 hours). PMID:25670882

  18. Ne-i-yahw Ah-chi-mo-wi-nah. "Cree Stories".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chief Stick, Grant

    Chief Stick was born in Butte, Montana, in 1895. In 1914 he arrived in the Bear Paw Mountains with his step-father, Little Bear, two years before Rocky Boy's Reservation was officially established. Chief Stick has lived most of his life on the Reservation where he is a respected elder and is known as a good singer and story teller. In this book,…

  19. Conceptual Model on Application of Chi-Square Test in Education and Social Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onchiri, Sureiman

    2013-01-01

    Whenever you think you have an idea of how something works, you have a mental model. That is, in effect, a layman's way of talking about having an hypothesis. The hypothesis needs to be tested for how closely it fits reality--and reality is the data collected from an experiment. So the data is collected on the few and compared with a few…

  20. Balance Performance in Irradiated Survivors of Nasopharyngeal Cancer with and without Tai Chi Qigong Training.

    PubMed

    Fong, Shirley S M; Chung, Louisa M Y; Tsang, William W N; Leung, Joyce C Y; Charm, Caroline Y C; Luk, W S; Chow, Lina P Y; Ng, Shamay S M

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional exploratory study aimed to compare the one-leg-stance time and the six-minute walk distance among TC Qigong-trained NPC survivors, untrained NPC survivors, and healthy individuals. Twenty-five survivors of NPC with TC Qigong experience, 27 survivors of NPC without TC Qigong experience, and 68 healthy individuals formed the NPC-TC Qigong group, NPC-control group, and healthy-control group, respectively. The one-leg-stance (OLS) timed test was conducted to assess the single-leg standing balance performance of the participants in four conditions: (1) standing on a stable surface with eyes open, (2) standing on a compliant surface with eyes open, (3) standing on a stable surface with eyes closed, and (4) standing on a compliant surface with eyes closed. The six-minute walk test (6MWT) was used to determine the functional balance performance of the participants. Results showed that the NPC-control group had a shorter OLS time in all of the visual and supporting surface conditions than the healthy control group (P < 0.05). The OLS time of the TC Qigong-NPC group was comparable to that of the healthy control group in the somatosensory-challenging condition (condition 3) (P = 0.168) only. Additionally, there was no significant difference in the 6MWT distance among the three groups (P > 0.05). TC Qigong may be a rehabilitation exercise that improves somatosensory function and OLS balance performance among survivors of NPC. PMID:25295068