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Sample records for kanosei chi kansuru

  1. Tai Chi and Qi Gong

    MedlinePlus

    ... results are mixed. Tai chi also may improve reasoning ability in older people. What do we know ... that tai chi may boost brain function and reasoning ability in older people. NCCIH-supported research suggests ...

  2. Tai chi and chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Peng, Philip W H

    2012-01-01

    In the last 2 decades, a growing body of research aimed at investigating the health benefits of Tai Chi in various chronic health conditions has been recognized in the literature. This article reviewed the history, the philosophy, and the evidence for the role of Tai Chi in a few selected chronic pain conditions. The ancient health art of Tai Chi contributes to chronic pain management in 3 major areas: adaptive exercise, mind-body interaction, and meditation. Trials examining the health benefit of Tai Chi in chronic pain conditions are mostly low quality. Only 5 pain conditions were reviewed: osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia, rheumatoid arthritis, low back pain, and headache. Of these, Tai Chi seems to be an effective intervention in osteoarthritis, low back pain, and fibromyalgia. The limitations of the Tai Chi study design and suggestions for the direction of future research are also discussed. PMID:22609642

  3. Tomo-chi-chi, The Story of an American Indian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrell, Sara Gordon

    Tomo-chi-chi was a Creek Indian leader who did much to insure peaceful relations between the first English colonists in Georgia and the native Americans. His wisdom and dedication to peace were known and respected by the Creek people and the English colonists. He developed a lifelong friendship with General James Oglethorpe, the English founder of…

  4. chi Cygnids observation in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiba, Yasuo

    2015-12-01

    The chi Cygnids (IAU MDC code: 00757 CCY) are a new meteor shower reported by Green (2015) green15 in 2015 September. I find members of the chi Cygnids in the 2015 data of the Japanese TV meteor observing network the `SonotaCo network'. Additionally a few meteors from this shower were observed in 2010.

  5. Does Chi Give or Take?

    PubMed Central

    Stahl, Franklin W.; Lieb, M.; Stahl, Mary M.

    1984-01-01

    In lytic cycle crosses with Red-Gam- λ phage, particles were examined that had undergone an Int-mediated exchange. It was assumed that this exchange dimerized the circular λ, making it packageable. Among these Int-mediated recombinants, particles were identified that had, in addition, enjoyed a close double exchange mediated by the RecBC pathway. Such close double exchanges indicate localized negative interference and are analogous to eukaryotic conversions that have retained parental configuration of flanking markers. These events are stimulated by Chi, a recombinator specific to the RecBC pathway. When Chi is present in only one parent in the cross, the complementary double exchange recombinants are Chi stimulated to the same degree. This behavior of Chi contrasts with that of characterized eukaryotic recombinators. PMID:6239810

  6. Postseismic deformation of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Chi-Hsien; Hsu, Ya-Ju; Barbot, Sylvain; Chang, Wu-Lung

    2015-04-01

    On September 21, 1999, the Mw 7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake broke the Chelungpu fault in Taiwan and generated large coseismic slip with more than 10 meters. Significant postseismic surface displacements of Chi-Chi earthquake are recorded by the GPS network in Taiwan after the first year. Previous studies suggest that afterslip is the dominant mechanism of the early and near-field postseismic deformation; while viscoelastic relaxation responds for the long-term and far-field deformation.In order to illustrate the postseismic deformation over the past 15 years or so, we analyzed GPS position time series from 1999 to 2013 after the Chi-Chi mainshock and 1993 to 1999 prior to the mainshock as the interseismic period. The interseismic velocities with respect to S01R located at the Penghu Island are about 15 ~ 20 mm/yr in the rupture area. In contrast, postseismic horizontal displacements in the first year after the mainshock are almost five times of the interseismic horizontal velocity. Postseismic displacements rapidly decrease and the amplitude of the secular horizontal velocity near the rupture area after a decade falls in a similar range of the interseismic velocity. On the other hand, the secular velocities at the far-field stations is still fast than the interseismic velocity and suggest that the postseismic relaxation time is much longer than a decade. We constructed a 3D semi-analytic model of postseismic deformation driven by coseismic stress perturbation that afterslip and viscoelastic flow are fully coupled. The model requires rheological properties changes beneath the Taiwan orogenic belt in order to obtain a satisfactory fit to postseismic GPS data. Our model shows the viscosity of lower crust is about 1019 Pa s, while the middle crust below the Central Range is about 1018 Pa s.

  7. Off-shell CHY amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, C. S.; Yao, York-Peng

    2016-06-01

    The Cachazo-He-Yuan (CHY) formula for on-shell scattering amplitudes is extended off-shell. The off-shell amplitudes (amputated Green's functions) are Möbius invariant, and have the same momentum poles as the on-shell amplitudes. The working principles which drive the modifications to the scattering equations are mainly Möbius covariance and energy momentum conservation in off-shell kinematics. The same technique is also used to obtain off-shell massive scalars. A simple off-shell extension of the CHY gauge formula which is Möbius invariant is proposed, but its true nature awaits further study.

  8. CHY formula and MHV amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Yi-Jian; Teng, Fei; Wu, Yong-Shi

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we study the relation between the Cachazo-He-Yuan (CHY) formula and the maximal-helicity-violating (MHV) amplitudes of Yang-Mills and gravity in four dimensions. We prove that only one special rational solution of the scattering equations found by Weinzierl supports the MHV amplitudes. Namely, localized at this solution, the integrated CHY formula produces the Parke-Taylor formula for MHV Yang-Mills amplitudes as well as the Hodges formula for MHV gravitational amplitudes, with an arbitrary number of external gluons/gravitons. This is achieved by developing techniques, in a manifestly Möbius covariant formalism, to explicitly compute relevant reduced Pfaffians/determinants. We observe and prove two interesting properties (or identities), which facilitate the computations. We also check that all the other ( n - 3)! - 1 solutions to the scattering equations do not support the MHV amplitudes, and prove analytically that this is indeed true for the other special rational solution proposed by Weinzierl, that actually supports the anti-MHV amplitudes. Our results reveal a mysterious feature of the CHY formalism that in Yang-Mills and gravity theory, solutions of scattering equations, involving only external momenta, somehow know about the configuration of external polarizations of the scattering amplitudes.

  9. Biomedical wellness by tai chi and sports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Daniel C.; Chin, Amita G.

    2011-06-01

    Tai-chi chuan is popular worldwide especially in China. People practice tai-chi chuan daily with faith believing that they will be rewarded with health and varieties of other rewords. The Tai Chi Chuan Theory by Master Chang and the Tai Chi Chuan Theory by Master Wang are translated to be the baseline of the tai-chi chuan. The theory described in these two papers clearly shows that the tai-chi power source is the combination of the two antigravity forces distinction by each foot. The ying, yang and hollowed, solid discussed in the papers are the properties and body relationship of the two antigravity forces. The antigravity forces presented inside of body are as air to the balloon termed chi. However chi could be generated by any muscle pressing; only the antigravity forces from feet are called nature chi that has the maximum strength of the person. When a person is soft, as an infant the nature chi will fulfill entire body with no time and effort. The sequence forms were designed for deploying the nature chi in speed and power. The combination of chi and tai-chi form make tai chi chuan supreme than other kinds of martial art. In the training process chi massages whole body many time for a sequence form practice that stimulate all organs and could lead to cure body diseases, lose weight, postpone aging process, and remove the aging symptoms. For the people practicing in the park daily with proper guidance they will fulfill their wishes. Tai chi exercise could also apply to other sports as in dancing and golfing they are discussed at the end of the paper.

  10. Disaster management following the Chi-Chi earthquake in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yu-Feng; Alagappan, Kumar; Gandhi, Arpita; Donovan, Colleen; Tewari, Malti; Zaets, Sergey B

    2006-01-01

    The earthquake that occurred in Taiwan on 21 September 1999 killed >2,000 people and severely injured many survivors. Despite the large scale and sizeable impact of the event, a complete overview of its consequences and the causes of the inadequate rescue and treatment efforts is limited in the literature. This review examines the way different groups coped with the tragedy and points out the major mistakes made during the process. The effectiveness of Taiwan's emergency preparedness and disaster response system after the earthquake was analyzed. Problems encountered included: (1) an ineffective command center; (2) poor communication; (3) lack of cooperation between the civil government and the military; (4) delayed prehospital care; (5) overloading of hospitals beyond capacity; (6) inadequate staffing; and (7) mismanaged public health measures. The Taiwan Chi-Chi Earthquake experience demonstrates that precise disaster planning, the establishment of one designated central command, improved cooperation between central and local authorities, modern rescue equipment used by trained disaster specialists, rapid prehospital care, and medical personnel availability, as well earthquake-resistant buildings and infrastructure, are all necessary in order to improve disaster responses. PMID:16892885

  11. Journal of the Chinese Institute of Engineers. Special Issue: Commemoration of Chi-Chi Earthquake (II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-09-01

    Contents include the following: Deep Electromagnetic Images of Seismogenic Zone of the Chi-Chi (Taiwan) Earthquake; New Techniques for Stress-Forecasting Earthquakes; Aspects of Characteristics of Near-Fault Ground Motions of the 1999 Chi-Chi (Taiwan) Earthquake; Liquefaction Damage and Related Remediation in Wufeng after the Chi-Chi Earthquake; Fines Content Effects on Liquefaction Potential Evaluation for Sites Liquefied during Chi-Chi Earthquake 1999; Damage Investigation and Liquefaction Potential Analysis of Gravelly Soil; Dynamic Characteristics of Soils in Yuan-Lin Liquefaction Area; A Preliminary Study of Earthquake Building Damage and Life Loss Due to the Chi-Chi Earthquake; Statistical Analyses of Relation between Mortality and Building Type in the 1999 Chi-Chi Earthquake; Development of an After Earthquake Disaster Shelter Evaluation Model; Posttraumatic Stress Reactions in Children and Adolescents One Year after the 1999 Taiwan Chi-Chi Earthquake; Changes or Not is the Question: the Meaning of Posttraumatic Stress Reactions One Year after the Taiwan Chi-Chi Earthquake.

  12. Tai Chi philosophy and nursing epistemology.

    PubMed

    Alperson, Sunny Yim

    2008-01-01

    This article analyzes the philosophy underpinning Tai Chi practice in light of nursing epistemology. The first half of the article reviews the general characteristics of major Chinese philosophical traditions that have been merged in Tai Chi: Confucianism, Daoism, and Buddhism. In the second half, themes of integration and praxis in Tai Chi are linked with Carper's fundamental patterns of knowing in nursing. Tai Chi is a practical fusion of humanistic philosophy with an experiential dimension of movement in a nondualistic foundation. The author argues that TC philosophy can be applied to integrated knowledge development and nursing praxis. PMID:20531257

  13. CHI: A General Agent Communication Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, S.Y.; Phillips, L.R.; Spires, S.V.

    1998-12-17

    We have completed and exercised a communication framework called CHI (CLOS to HTML Interface) by which agents can communicate with humans. CHI follows HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol) and produces HTML (HyperText Markup Language) for use by WWW (World-Wide Web) browsers. CHI enables the rapid and dynamic construction of interface mechanisms. The essence of CHI is automatic registration of dynamically generated interface elements to named objects in the agent's internal environment. The agent can access information in these objects at will. State is preserved, so an agent can pursue branching interaction sequences, activate failure recovery behaviors, and otherwise act opportunistically to maintain a conversation. The CHI mechanism remains transparent in multi-agent, multi-user environments because of automatically generated unique identifiers built into the CHI mechanism. In this paper we discuss design, language, implementation, and extension issues, and, by way of illustration, examine the use of the general CHI/HCHI mechanism in a specific international electronic commerce system. We conclude that the CHI mechanism is an effective, efficient, and extensible means of the agent/human communication.

  14. In Defense of Chi's Ontological Incompatibility Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slotta, James D.

    2011-01-01

    This article responds to an article by A. Gupta, D. Hammer, and E. F. Redish (2010) that asserts that M. T. H. Chi's (1992, 2005) hypothesis of an "ontological commitment" in conceptual development is fundamentally flawed. In this article, I argue that Chi's theoretical perspective is still very much intact and that the critique offered by Gupta…

  15. Chi-Nu Level 2 Review

    SciTech Connect

    Haight, Robert Cameron; Lee, Hye Young; Mosby, Shea Morgan; O'Donnell, John M.; Solomon, Clell Jeffrey Jr.; Taddeucci, Terry Nicholas; Fotiadis, Nikolaos; Devlin, Matthew James; Ullmann, John Leonard; Bredeweg, Todd Allen; Jandel, Marian; Nelson, Ronald Owen; Wender, Stephen Arthur; Neudecker, Denise; Rising, Michael Evan; White, Morgan Curtis; Wu, Ching-Yen; Bucher, Brian Michael; Buckner, Matthew Quinn; Henderson, Roger Alan

    2015-09-18

    This series of slides presents information on Chi-Nu measurements and analysis of prompt fission neutron spectra (PFNS) for neutron energy below 1 MeV for 235U. A key focus of the Chi-Nu measurement is to address the energy dependence of the low-energy emissions. The 235U PFNS evaluation is in progress. Chi-Nu delivered preliminary experimental data and input for part of the old experimental data base. The 239Pu PFNS evaluation is finalized and submitted for testing. Data from 252Cf spontaneous fission will also be obtained.

  16. Tai Chi: Rx for Arthritic Knees

    MedlinePlus

    ... Chi: Rx for Arthritic Knees As effective as physical therapy, study suggests, plus it might also improve depression ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Legions of arthritis sufferers try physical therapy and anti-inflammatory drugs to no avail. Now, ...

  17. Why the CHI Community Should be Involved in Standards: Stories from Three CHI Participants

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, Arnie; Scholtz, Jean; Bevan, Nigel

    2012-02-01

    In this article, the three authors tell their stories about involvement in standards that are relevant to the computer human interaction community(CHI). Their reasoning for being involved is given and readers are also given information about different organizations that develop standards relevant to CHI.

  18. The Chi-square test of independence

    PubMed Central

    McHugh, Mary L.

    2013-01-01

    The Chi-square statistic is a non-parametric (distribution free) tool designed to analyze group differences when the dependent variable is measured at a nominal level. Like all non-parametric statistics, the Chi-square is robust with respect to the distribution of the data. Specifically, it does not require equality of variances among the study groups or homoscedasticity in the data. It permits evaluation of both dichotomous independent variables, and of multiple group studies. Unlike many other non-parametric and some parametric statistics, the calculations needed to compute the Chi-square provide considerable information about how each of the groups performed in the study. This richness of detail allows the researcher to understand the results and thus to derive more detailed information from this statistic than from many others. The Chi-square is a significance statistic, and should be followed with a strength statistic. The Cramer’s V is the most common strength test used to test the data when a significant Chi-square result has been obtained. Advantages of the Chi-square include its robustness with respect to distribution of the data, its ease of computation, the detailed information that can be derived from the test, its use in studies for which parametric assumptions cannot be met, and its flexibility in handling data from both two group and multiple group studies. Limitations include its sample size requirements, difficulty of interpretation when there are large numbers of categories (20 or more) in the independent or dependent variables, and tendency of the Cramer’s V to produce relative low correlation measures, even for highly significant results. PMID:23894860

  19. Obituary: Chi Yuan (1937-2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Paul

    2011-12-01

    Chi Yuan graduated from the National Taiwan University in1959, and received his Masters of Science degree from the University of Florida in 1962, and his Doctor of Philosophy from the University of Michigan in 1966. He was a postdoctoral fellow with Professor C.C. Lin at MIT for three years, before taking his faculty post at the City College of New York in 1969. He attained full professorship at CCNY in 1981. From 1994-1996, Chi returned to Taiwan as Director of the newly found Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics (ASIAA). From 1997-2002, he was the recipient of an Outstanding Scholar Award, reserved for the most distinguished scientists employed in Taiwan. Chi retired from ASIAA in 2007, but continued to be active in his research during his two-year fight with brain cancer. Chi Yuan made his greatest impact with his work on the density-wave theory for spiral arm structures in galaxies, with C.C. Lin and Frank Shu. His early work elucidated the observational tests of density-wave theory, and the effects of magnetic fields in galactic shocks. In the 1980s, Chi Yuan worked on spiral density waves in Saturn's rings. In the past two decades, Chi Yuan concentrated on the problem of barred and spiral structures in the nuclei of galaxies, with their implications for fueling the central supermassive black holes. He also worked on the problem of the migration of giant extrasolar planets in their solar disks. These studies were made possible by his establishment of a program on computational fluid dynamics, which became one of the key initiatives in theory at the ASIAA. Among his academic records, two contributions are particularly notable. First, with Typhoon Lee, Fred Lo, and Frank Shu, Chi Yuan founded the ASIAA in order to stimulate the growth of astronomy in Taiwan. Second, and perhaps his greatest influence, has been his training and mentoring of a great number of students in astrophysics, especially for the last 20 years in Taiwan. Today, astronomy

  20. Tai Chi, Qi Gong and Reiki.

    PubMed

    Chu, Dennis A

    2004-11-01

    Tai Chi, Qi Gong, and Reiki are complementary therapies that are gaining popularity with patients. Although these therapies seem simple and attractive in their philosophy and are easy to apply,more objective, well-designed research is needed to prove their efficacy and to gain acceptance from the medical community. PMID:15458751

  1. Simplified Tai Chi Resistance Training versus Traditional Tai Chi in Slowing Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huiru; Yu, Bo; Chen, Wenhua; Lu, Yingzhi; Yu, Dinghai

    2015-01-01

    Background. This study examined whether simplified Tai Chi resistance training is superior to traditional Tai Chi in slowing bone loss in postmenopausal women. Methods. This prospective trial included 119 postmenopausal women (age: 52–65 years). Subjects were randomly assigned to participate in a traditional Tai Chi program (TTC, n = 40), a simplified Tai Chi resistance training program (TCRT, n = 40), or a blank control group (routine activity, n = 39). The TTC involved traditional Yang Style Tai Chi. The primary outcome was the change of lumbar bone mass density (L2–L4) at 12 months over the baseline. Femoral neck and Ward's triangle were also measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results. The L2–L4 density was significantly lower at 12 months in comparison to the baseline in the blank control group. In both the TCRT and TTC groups, the L2–L4 density was comparable to the baseline. There was a trend for less bone loss in the TCRT than in the TTC group. Similar findings were observed with femoral neck and Ward's triangle. Conclusion. Simplified Tai Chi resistance training could slow bone loss in menopausal women. The results also suggested, but did not confirm, superiority to traditional Tai Chi. PMID:26136808

  2. Slip distribution and tectonic implication of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ji, C.; Helmberger, D.V.; Song, T.-R.A.; Ma, K.-F.; Wald, D.J.

    2001-01-01

    We report on the fault complexity of the large (Mw = 7.6) Chi-Chi earthquake obtained by inverting densely and well-distributed static measurements consisting of 119 GPS and 23 doubly integrated strong motion records. We show that the slip of the Chi-Chi earthquake was concentrated on the surface of a "wedge shaped" block. The inferred geometric complexity explains the difference between the strike of the fault plane determined by long period seismic data and surface break observations. When combined with other geophysical and geological observations, the result provides a unique snapshot of tectonic deformation taking place in the form of very large (>10m) displacements of a massive wedge-shaped crustal block which may relate to the changeover from over-thrusting to subducting motion between the Philippine Sea and the Eurasian plates.

  3. ChiS histidine kinase negatively regulates the production of chitinase ChiC in Streptomyces peucetius.

    PubMed

    Rabbind Singh, Amrathlal; Senthamaraikannan, Paranthaman; Thangavel, Chitra; Danda, Ravikanth; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha; Dharmalingam, Kuppamuthu

    2014-01-01

    Computational analysis of sequence homology of the chiSRC gene cluster, encoding a chitinase in Streptomyces peucetius, showed that the gene cluster could be a two-component regulon comprising a sensor kinase (chiS) and a response regulator (chiR). To prove that the ChiSRC is an authentic two-component system, the chiS gene was cloned and expressed in E.coli and the purified protein was used for biochemical analysis. In this report, we provide biochemical evidence to show that the sensor kinase encoded by chiS gene indeed is a histidine kinase capable of autophosphorylation and the histidine 144 residue of the ChiS protein is the phosphate acceptor. An insertion mutation at the chiS locus led to overproduction chitinase protein in S. peucetius implying that the chiC gene is negatively regulated by the two-component system. PMID:23972296

  4. Tai Chi Could Be a Healthy Move for Your Heart

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157688.html Tai Chi Could Be a Healthy Move for Your Heart ... 2016 WEDNESDAY, March 9, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Tai chi and other traditional Chinese exercises may benefit people ...

  5. Epidemiologic psychiatric studies on post-disaster impact among Chi-Chi earthquake survivors in Yu-Chi, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chou, Frank Huang-Chih; Wu, Hung-Chi; Chou, Pesus; Su, Chao-Yueh; Tsai, Kuan-Yi; Chao, Shin-Shin; Chen, Ming-Chao; Su, Tom Tung-Ping; Sun, Wen-Jung; Ou-Yang, Wen-Chen

    2007-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to survey a cohort population for the risk factors of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression, and the prevalence of different psychiatric disorders at 6 months and 2 and 3 years after a major earthquake. The Disaster-Related Psychological Screening Test (DRPST), part I, and the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) were, respectively, administered by trained interviewers and psychiatrists in this community-interview program. The prevalence of PTSD decreased from 8.3% at 6 months to 4.2% at 3 years after the earthquake. Suicidality increased from 4.2% at 6 months and 5.6% at 2 years to 6.0% at 3 years after the earthquake; drug abuse/dependence increased from 2.3% at 6 months to 5.1% at 3 years after the disaster. The risk factors for PTSD and major depression in various post-disaster stages were determined. Earthquake survivors had a high percentage of psychiatric disorders in the first 2 years, and then the prevalence declined. Following the devastation caused by the Chi-Chi earthquake, it is important to focus on treating symptoms of major depression and PTSD and eliminating the risk factors for both of these disorders in survivors to avoid the increase in suicidality. PMID:17610661

  6. Ramp-up of CHI Initiated Plasmas on NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, D; Bell, R E; LeBlanc, B; Roquemore, A L; Raman, R; Jarboe, T R; Nelson, B A; Soukhanovskii, V

    2009-10-29

    Experiments on the National Spherical Torus (NSTX) have now demonstrated flux savings using transient coaxial helicity injection (CHI). In these discharges, the discharges initiated by CHI are ramped up with an inductive transformer and exhibit higher plasma current than discharges without the benefit of CHI initiation.

  7. A Retrospective Research for 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan Earthquake by 3-D PI Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H.; Chen, C.; Tiampo, K.; Rundle, J.; Klein, W.

    2007-12-01

    The PI (Pattern Informatics) method was proposed by Tiampo et al., 2002, for the identification of future seismicity in California after 1999. A plausible result was published in Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, suppl., 2002. Chen et al. modified the calculation of the original PI method to de-emphasize the effect of current events, and applied the modified PI method to make a retrospective analysis for the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake in Taiwan. In the case study of the Chi-Chi sequence, the main shock and most of the aftershocks were located in and around the ß¡±hot spot ßÆØ region produced by the modified PI method. Tiampo et al. (2007) applied the Thirumalai- Mountain metric to three earthquake catalogs, California, Spain and eastern Canada, which belong to different tectonic environments. Under specific spatial-temporal resolutions, effectively ergodic behaviors of seismic rate all exist in these regions. Ongoing research for Taiwan suggests that, once depth factor is considered in seismic event distribution, a similar effectively ergodicity also exists in the seismicity data. It motivates us to improve the original PI method to a 3-D version on order to consider the depth effect in a very condensed, high seismicity region. In this study, we used 3-D PI method to make a retrospective forecast of the 1999 M=7.3 Chi-Chi earthquake. The CWB (Central Weather Bureau) catalogue was used. An effectively ergodic period chosen from inverse TM metric-time plot was used as the forecast period. The main shock and several large aftershocks, which magnitudes are ß « 6.0, are well located in or near hotspots in this 3-D PI forecast. In a relative operating characteristic test (Jolliffe and Stephenson, 2003), the performance of PI forecast is also better than relative intensity (RI).

  8. The chi-Chi earthquake sequence: active, out-of-sequence thrust faulting in taiwan

    PubMed

    Kao; Chen

    2000-06-30

    We combined precise focal depths and fault plane solutions of more than 40 events from the 20 September 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake sequence with a synthesis of subsurface geology to show that the dominant structure for generating earthquakes in central Taiwan is a moderately dipping (20 degrees to 30 degrees ) thrust fault away from the deformation front. A second, subparallel seismic zone lies about 15 kilometers below the main thrust. These seismic zones differ from previous models, indicating that both the basal decollement and relic normal faults are aseismic. PMID:10875915

  9. Aftershock Statistics of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan Earthquake and the Concept of Omori Times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ya-Ting; Turcotte, Donald L.; Rundle, John B.; Chen, Chien-Chih

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we consider the statistics of the aftershock sequence of the m = 7.65 20 September 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan earthquake. We first consider the frequency-magnitude statistics. We find good agreement with Gutenberg-Richter scaling but find that the aftershock level is anomalously high. This level is quantified using the difference in magnitude between the main shock and the largest inferred aftershock {{Updelta}}m^{ *}. Typically, {{Updelta}}m^{ *} is in the range 0.8-1.5, but for the Chi-Chi earthquake the value is {{Updelta}}m^{ *} = 0.03. We suggest that this may be due to an aseismic slow-earthquake component of rupture. We next consider the decay rate of aftershock activity following the earthquake. The rates are well approximated by the modified Omori's law. We show that the distribution of interoccurrence times between aftershocks follow a nonhomogeneous Poisson process. We introduce the concept of Omori times to study the merging of the aftershock activity with the background seismicity. The Omori time is defined to be the mean interoccurrence time over a fixed number of aftershocks.

  10. Multi-resolution Analysis of the slip history of 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, C.; Helmberger, D. V.

    2001-05-01

    Studies of large earthquakes have revealed strong heterogeneity in faulting slip distributions at mid-crustal depths. These results are inferred from modeling l ocal GPS and strong motion records but are usually limited by the lack of data density. Here we report on the fault complexity of the large (Magnitude 7.6) Chi- Chi earthquake obtained by inverting densely and well distributed static measure ments consisting of 119 GPS and 23 doubly integrated strong motion records, whic h is the best static data set yet recorded for a large earthquake. We show that the slip of the Chi-Chi earthquake was concentrated on the surface of a "wedge shaped" block. Furthermore, similar to our previous study in 1999 Hector Mine ea rthquake (Ji et al., 2001), the static data, teleseismic body wave and local str ong motion data are used to constrain the rupture process. A simulated annealing method combined with wavelet transform approach is employed to solve for the sl ip histories on subfault elements with variable sizes. The sizes are adjusted it eratively based on data type and distribution to produce an optimal balance betw een resolution and reliability. Results indicate strong local variations in rupt ure characteristics with relatively rapid changes in the middle and southern por tion producing relatively strong accelerations.

  11. Coseismic growth of the Tungshih anticline during the 1999 Chi-Chi Earthquake, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graveleau, F.; Suppe, J.; Ustaszewski, M.; Chang, K.; Stephane, D.; Huang, M.

    2009-12-01

    kinematical prediction. Key-words : Chi-Chi Earthquake, coseismic fold growth, Chelungpu fault, Taiwan REFERENCES : Chen, Y.G., K.Y. Lai, Y.H. Lee, J. Suppe, W.S. Chen, Y.N. N. Lin, Y. Wang, J.H. Hung, and Y.T. Kuo, 2007. Coseismic fold scarps and their kinematic behavior in the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake Taiwan, J. Geophys. Res., 112, B03S02, doi:10.1029/2006JB004388. Lee, Y.S, Lu, S.T., Shih, T.S., Hsieh, M.L. and Wu, W.Y., 2005. Structures Associated with the Northern End of the 1999 Chi-Chi Earthquake Rupture, Central Taiwan: Implications for Seismic-Hazard Assessment. BSSA, 95(2) : 471-485. Yang, M., R.J. Rau, J.Y. Yu, and T.T. Yu, 2000. Geodetically observed surface displacements of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake, Earth Planets Space, 52 : 403-413. Yue, L.F., Suppe, J. and Hung, J.H., 2005. Structural geology of a classic thrust belt earthquake: the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake Taiwan (Mw7.6). J. Struct. Geol., 27(11) : 2058-2083.

  12. Trichoderma asperellum Chi42 Genes Encode Chitinase

    PubMed Central

    Quang, Hoang Tan; Hung, Nguyen Bao; Huy, Nguyen Duc; Phuong, Truong Thi Bich; Ha, Tran Thi Thu

    2011-01-01

    Four Trichoderma strains (CH2, SH16, PQ34, and TN42) were isolated from soil samples collected from Quang Tri and Thua Thien Hue provinces in Vietnam. The strains exhibited high chitinolytic secretion. Strain PQ34 formed the largest zone of chitinase-mediated clearance (> 4 cm in diameter) in agar containing 1% (w/v) colloidal chitin. Analysis of the internal transcribed spacer regions of these strains indicated that they were Trichoderma asperellum. The molecular weights of the chitinases were approximately 42 kDa. Chitinase genes (chi42) of T. asperellum strains TN42, CH2, SH16, and PQ34 were 98~99% homologous to the ech42 gene of T. harzianum CB-Pin-01 (accession No. DQ166036). The deduced amino acid sequences of both T. asperellum strains SH16 and TN42 shared 100% similarity. PMID:22783101

  13. A Study on Near-Fault Mortality from the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pai, C.; Tien, Y.; Teng, T.

    2004-12-01

    A new approach for estimating the relations between mortality and strong shaking from the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan earthquake is introduced. We have finished the database giving the attributes of victims through a compilation of various after-earthquake survey documents. This survey was a comprehensive filed visit confirming exact locations of victims and their possible cause of death. Among the total 2492 victims of the Chi-Chi earthquake, 2039 victims (81.8% of the total) were located by using GPS. Through the attributive database of victims, digital maps and Geographic Information Systems, we can easily map the spatial distribution and the cause of death data of victims with accuracy of the smallest administrative districts in Taiwan. Moreover, a regression analysis gives correlated equations for the mortality as functions of the distance to the Chelungpu fault. We find that the percentage of the mortality M can be expressed as:\\[M=\\frac{(1.626+0.0007\\timesd)} {(1+0.0125\\timesd)}\\] Here d is the closest distance to the fault in meter. As expected, the shorter distance to the Chelungpu fault causes the higher mortality. We device three disastrous levels and then suggest the orders and scopes of the earthquake disaster rescue according to the regression curve of the mortality and the closest distance to the fault. The difference in mortality between hanging-wall and footwall areas is also discussed and different regression curves of hanging-wall and footwall areas are suggested. In near-fault regions, the mortality for the residents lived in hanging-wall block (1348) is significantly higher than that in the footwall block (557). The death ratio of hanging-wall vs. footwall block is approximately 2.4:1. Finally, we gathered the data of the peak ground acceleration (PGA) data for the mainshock of Chi-Chi earthquake at the 63 seismic stations on both sides of the causal fault. The regression curve of the PGA and mortality as functions of the closest distance to the

  14. Observations of changes in waveform character induced by the 1999 M w7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, K.H.; Furumura, T.; Rubinstein, J.; Rau, R.-J.

    2011-01-01

    We observe changes in the waveforms of repeating earthquakes in eastern Taiwan following the 1999 Mw7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake, while their recurrence intervals appear to be unaffected. There is a clear reduction in waveform similarity and velocity changes indicated by delayed phases at the time of the Chi-Chi event. These changes are limited to stations in and paths that cross the 70 ?? 100 km region surrounding the Chi-Chi source area, the area where seismic intensity and co-seismic surface displacements were largest. This suggests that damage at the near-surface is responsible for the observed waveform changes. Delays are largest in the late S-wave coda, reaching approximately 120 ms. This corresponds to a path averaged S wave velocity reduction of approximately 1%. There is also evidence that damage in the fault-zone caused changes in waveform character at sites in the footwall, where source-receiver paths propagate either along or across the rupture. The reduction in waveform similarity persists through the most recent repeating event in our study (November 15, 2007), indicating that the subsurface damage induced by the Chi-Chi earthquake did not fully heal within the first 8 years following the Chi-Chi earthquake. ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  15. Observations of changes in waveform character induced by the 1999 Mw7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, K.H.; Furumura, T.; Rubinstein, J.; Rau, R.-J.

    2011-01-01

    We observe changes in the waveforms of repeating earthquakes in eastern Taiwan following the 1999 Mw7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake, while their recurrence intervals appear to be unaffected. There is a clear reduction in waveform similarity and velocity changes indicated by delayed phases at the time of the Chi-Chi event. These changes are limited to stations in and paths that cross the 70 × 100 km region surrounding the Chi-Chi source area, the area where seismic intensity and co-seismic surface displacements were largest. This suggests that damage at the near-surface is responsible for the observed waveform changes. Delays are largest in the late S-wave coda, reaching approximately 120 ms. This corresponds to a path averaged Swave velocity reduction of approximately 1%. There is also evidence that damage in the fault-zone caused changes in waveform character at sites in the footwall, where source-receiver paths propagate either along or across the rupture. The reduction in waveform similarity persists through the most recent repeating event in our study (November 15, 2007), indicating that the subsurface damage induced by the Chi-Chi earthquake did not fully heal within the first 8 years following the Chi-Chi earthquake.

  16. Groundwater-strain coupling before the 1999 Mw 7.6 Taiwan Chi-Chi earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chieh-Hung; Tang, Chi-Chia; Cheng, Kai-Chien; Wang, Chung-Ho; Wen, Strong; Lin, Cheng-Horng; Wen, Yi-Ying; Meng, Guojie; Yeh, Ta-Kang; Jan, Jyh Cherng; Yen, Horng-Yuan; Liu, Jann-Yenq

    2015-05-01

    The coupling of pre-earthquake anomalous phenomena between long-term groundwater levels recorded at 42 monitoring stations and time-varying surface strain derived from 16 GPS stations was found in the Choshuichi Alluvial Fan before the 1999 Mw 7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake in Taiwan. The noise-free groundwater-level anomalies consistently comprised by a sequence of decrease, rise and flat phases, which agree very well with changes in strain rates computed from the GPS stations. These coupling agreements show that in addition to compression, tension can be generated before a thrust earthquake occurrence as well. This case demonstrates that short-term surface deformation as signals against noise and accuracy of pre-earthquake anomalous phenomena can be simultaneously examined by using multiple-parameter crosscheck for significantly reducing the uncertainty of earthquake precursory evaluation.

  17. Building collapse and human deaths resulting from the Chi-Chi Earthquake in Taiwan, September 1999.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yen-Hsiung; Hwang, Long-Chih; Chang, Chih-Ching; Hong, Yu-Jue; Lee, I-Nong; Huang, Jen-Hsuan; Lin, Shu-Fang; Shen, Maurice; Lin, Chia-Hong; Gau, Yung-Yen; Yang, Chin-Tzo

    2003-09-01

    In this study, the authors attempted to determine factors associated with earthquake deaths in the great Chi-Chi Earthquake that occurred on September 21, 1999, in Taiwan. An isoseismal map was used to identify life-threatening hazards. The vertical peak ground acceleration of ground motion intensity was deemed the most appropriate index for the evaluation of building collapse and mortality. Mortality increased with the increase in earthquake intensity, and building collapse, approaching the epicenter. The greatest number of collapsed buildings and human deaths occurred between the Chelungpu Fault and the Shuantun Fault. Individuals 65 yr of age and older were the most vulnerable to the impact. The authors' findings suggest that improvements in earthquake-resistant building design and construction, as well as improved medical rescue for the elderly, could reduce the level of exposure to earthquake hazards. PMID:15369275

  18. Slip history and dynamic implications of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ji, C.; Helmberger, D.V.; Wald, D.J.; Ma, K.-F.

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the rupture process of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake using extensive near-source observations, including three-component velocity waveforms at 36 strong motion stations and 119 GPS measurements. A three-plane fault geometry derived from our previous inversion using only static data [Ji et al., 2001] is applied. The slip amplitude, rake angle, rupture initiation time, and risetime function are inverted simultaneously with a recently developed finite fault inverse method that combines a wavelet transform approach with a simulated annealing algorithm [Ji et al., 2002b]. The inversion results are validated by the forward prediction of an independent data set, the teleseismic P and SH ground velocities, with notable agreement. The results show that the total seismic moment release of this earthquake is 2.7 ?? 1020 N m and that most of the slip occured in a triangular-shaped asperity involving two fault segments, which is consistent with our previous static inversion. The rupture front propagates with an average rupture velocity of ???2.0 km s-1, and the average slip duration (risetime) is 7.2 s. Several interesting observations related to the temporal evolution of the Chi-Chi earthquake are also investigated, including (1) the strong effect of the sinuous fault plane of the Chelungpu fault on spatial and temporal variations in slip history, (2) the intersection of fault 1 and fault 2 not being a strong impediment to the rupture propagation, and (3 the observation that the peak slip velocity near the surface is, in general, higher than on the deeper portion of the fault plane, as predicted by dynamic modeling.

  19. Tai chi chuan in medicine and health promotion.

    PubMed

    Lan, Ching; Chen, Ssu-Yuan; Lai, Jin-Shin; Wong, Alice May-Kuen

    2013-01-01

    Tai Chi Chuan (Tai Chi) is a Chinese traditional mind-body exercise and recently, it becomes popular worldwide. During the practice of Tai Chi, deep diaphragmatic breathing is integrated into body motions to achieve a harmonious balance between body and mind and to facilitate the flow of internal energy (Qi). Participants can choose to perform a complete set of Tai Chi or selected movements according to their needs. Previous research substantiates that Tai Chi has significant benefits to health promotion, and regularly practicing Tai Chi improves aerobic capacity, muscular strength, balance, health-related quality of life, and psychological well-being. Recent studies also prove that Tai Chi is safe and effective for patients with neurological diseases (e.g., stroke, Parkinson's disease, traumatic brain injury, multiple sclerosis, cognitive dysfunction), rheumatological disease (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and fibromyalgia), orthopedic diseases (e.g., osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, low-back pain, and musculoskeletal disorder), cardiovascular diseases (e.g., acute myocardial infarction, coronary artery bypass grafting surgery, and heart failure), chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and breast cancers. Tai Chi is an aerobic exercise with mild-to-moderate intensity and is appropriate for implementation in the community. This paper reviews the existing literature on Tai Chi and introduces its health-promotion effect and the potential clinical applications. PMID:24159346

  20. Tai Chi Chuan in Medicine and Health Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Ching; Chen, Ssu-Yuan; Lai, Jin-Shin; Wong, Alice May-Kuen

    2013-01-01

    Tai Chi Chuan (Tai Chi) is a Chinese traditional mind-body exercise and recently, it becomes popular worldwide. During the practice of Tai Chi, deep diaphragmatic breathing is integrated into body motions to achieve a harmonious balance between body and mind and to facilitate the flow of internal energy (Qi). Participants can choose to perform a complete set of Tai Chi or selected movements according to their needs. Previous research substantiates that Tai Chi has significant benefits to health promotion, and regularly practicing Tai Chi improves aerobic capacity, muscular strength, balance, health-related quality of life, and psychological well-being. Recent studies also prove that Tai Chi is safe and effective for patients with neurological diseases (e.g., stroke, Parkinson's disease, traumatic brain injury, multiple sclerosis, cognitive dysfunction), rheumatological disease (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and fibromyalgia), orthopedic diseases (e.g., osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, low-back pain, and musculoskeletal disorder), cardiovascular diseases (e.g., acute myocardial infarction, coronary artery bypass grafting surgery, and heart failure), chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and breast cancers. Tai Chi is an aerobic exercise with mild-to-moderate intensity and is appropriate for implementation in the community. This paper reviews the existing literature on Tai Chi and introduces its health-promotion effect and the potential clinical applications. PMID:24159346

  1. Tai Chi for People with Visual Impairments: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miszko, Tanya A.; Ramsey, Vincent K.; Blasch, Bruce B.

    2004-01-01

    This pilot study assessed the physical and psychological outcomes of a tai chi exercise program for eight adults with visual impairments. It found that after eight weeks of orientation and mobility training and tai chi practice, the participants' single leg-stance time and total knee flexion work and power improved, as did their frequency of,…

  2. Your Chi-Square Test Is Statistically Significant: Now What?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpe, Donald

    2015-01-01

    Applied researchers have employed chi-square tests for more than one hundred years. This paper addresses the question of how one should follow a statistically significant chi-square test result in order to determine the source of that result. Four approaches were evaluated: calculating residuals, comparing cells, ransacking, and partitioning. Data…

  3. In Defense of the Chi-Square Continuity Correction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veldman, Donald J.; McNemar, Quinn

    Published studies of the sampling distribution of chi-square with and without Yates' correction for continuity have been interpreted as discrediting the correction. Yates' correction actually produces a biased chi-square value which in turn yields a better estimate of the exact probability of the discrete event concerned when used in conjunction…

  4. On the Correlation of Landslides and Sedimentation in Western Taiwan after the 1999 Chi-Chi Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shou, K.-J.; Fei, L. Y.; Chen, M. M.; Wei, C. Y.; Hong, C. Y.

    2012-04-01

    The hilly Western Foothill of Taiwan Island is highly prone to landslides, especially during typhoon season in the summer. The 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake (MW=7.6) resulted in tremendous amount of landslides in western Taiwan area. The impact of this earthquake not only makes the geomaterial more fractured but also changes the river morphology in the Western Foothill area. This study investigated the correlation of landslides and catchment sedimentation after the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake. As the major river in western Taiwan, the Wu-River and Ta-Chia River are adopted and studied. The study comprises two major parts, i.e., the investigation of landslides and catchment sedimentation, and the study of their correlation. The former part includes field, satellite image and DTM calculation results, and the later part includes analysis on the correlation between the landslides and catchment sedimentation. Following the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake, three typhoon events, i.e., Toraji (2001), Mindulle(2004), and Sinlaku (2008) were adopted for this study. Although the impact of Chi-Chi earthquake is significant, the impacts of Chi-Chi earthquake on different sub-catchments are different. The results show strong correlation between the catchment sedimentation and landslides. The landslides are more prone to reactivation during Toraji, especially in the upstreams and the area near the epicenter of Chi-Chi earthquake. Compared with Typhoon Toraji, fewer and fewer reactivated landslides were induced by subsequent typhoons. This finding reveals a self-healing effect after the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake. In other words, except for extremely high concentrations of rainfall, the landslides were more and more prone to new generation. Our findings indicate, comparing with typhoon Mindulle, more sediments were generated by typhoon Toraji in Wu-River and Ta-Chia River catchments. And those sediments were transported to the downstream by typhoon Mindulle. The results also reveal a sedimentation

  5. Determination of {chi}{sub c} and {chi}{sub b} polarizations from dilepton angular distributions in radiative decays

    SciTech Connect

    Faccioli, Pietro; Lourenco, Carlos; Seixas, Joao; Woehri, Hermine K.

    2011-05-01

    The angular distributions of the decay products in the successive decays {chi}{sub c}({chi}{sub b}){yields}J/{psi}({Upsilon}){gamma} and J/{psi}({Upsilon}){yields}l{sup +}l{sup -} are calculated as a function of the angular momentum composition of the decaying {chi} meson and of the multipole structure of the photon radiation, using a formalism independent of production mechanisms and polarization frames. The polarizations of the {chi} states produced in high-energy collisions can be derived from the dilepton decay distributions of the daughter J/{psi} or {Upsilon} mesons, with a reduced dependence on the details of the photon reconstruction or simulation. Moreover, this method eliminates the dependence of the polarization measurement on the actual details of the multipole structure of the radiative transition. Problematic points in previous calculations of the {chi}{sub c} decay angular distributions are identified and clarified.

  6. CD11chi Dendritic Cells Regulate Ly-6Chi Monocyte Differentiation to Preserve Immune-privileged CNS in Lethal Neuroinflammation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Hyoung; Choi, Jin Young; Kim, Seong Bum; Uyangaa, Erdenebelig; Patil, Ajit Mahadev; Han, Young Woo; Park, Sang-Youel; Lee, John Hwa; Kim, Koanhoi; Eo, Seong Kug

    2015-01-01

    Although the roles of dendritic cells (DCs) in adaptive defense have been defined well, the contribution of DCs to T cell-independent innate defense and subsequent neuroimmunopathology in immune-privileged CNS upon infection with neurotropic viruses has not been completely defined. Notably, DC roles in regulating innate CD11b+Ly-6Chi monocyte functions during neuroinflammation have not yet been addressed. Using selective ablation of CD11chiPDCA-1int/lo DCs without alteration in CD11cintPDCA-1hi plasmacytoid DC number, we found that CD11chi DCs are essential to control neuroinflammation caused by infection with neurotropic Japanese encephalitis virus, through early and increased infiltration of CD11b+Ly-6Chi monocytes and higher expression of CC chemokines. More interestingly, selective CD11chi DC ablation provided altered differentiation and function of infiltrated CD11b+Ly-6Chi monocytes in the CNS through Flt3-L and GM-CSF, which was closely associated with severely enhanced neuroinflammation. Furthermore, CD11b+Ly-6Chi monocytes generated in CD11chi DC-ablated environment had a deleterious rather than protective role during neuroinflammation, and were more quickly recruited into inflamed CNS, depending on CCR2, thereby exacerbating neuroinflammation via enhanced supply of virus from the periphery. Therefore, our data demonstrate that CD11chi DCs provide a critical and unexpected role to preserve the immune-privileged CNS in lethal neuroinflammation via regulating the differentiation, function, and trafficking of CD11b+Ly-6Chi monocytes. PMID:26626303

  7. Tai Chi Chuan Exercise for Patients with Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Ching; Chen, Ssu-Yuan; Wong, May-Kuen; Lai, Jin Shin

    2013-01-01

    Exercise training is the cornerstone of rehabilitation for patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although high-intensity exercise has significant cardiovascular benefits, light-to-moderate intensity aerobic exercise also offers health benefits. With lower-intensity workouts, patients may be able to exercise for longer periods of time and increase the acceptance of exercise, particularly in unfit and elderly patients. Tai Chi Chuan (Tai Chi) is a traditional Chinese mind-body exercise. The exercise intensity of Tai Chi is light to moderate, depending on its training style, posture, and duration. Previous research has shown that Tai Chi enhances aerobic capacity, muscular strength, balance, and psychological well-being. Additionally, Tai Chi training has significant benefits for common cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, poor exercise capacity, endothelial dysfunction, and depression. Tai Chi is safe and effective in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery, congestive heart failure (HF), and stroke. In conclusion, Tai Chi has significant benefits to patients with cardiovascular disease, and it may be prescribed as an alternative exercise program for selected patients with CVD. PMID:24348732

  8. Effectiveness of tai chi for Parkinson's disease: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myeong Soo; Lam, Paul; Ernst, Edzard

    2008-12-01

    The objective of this review is to assess the effectiveness of tai chi as a treatment option for Parkinson's disease (PD). We have searched the literature using 21 databases from their inceptions to January 2008, without language restrictions. We included all types of clinical studies regardless of their design. Their methodological quality was assessed using the modified Jadad score. Of the seven studies included, one randomised clinical trial (RCT) found tai chi to be superior to conventional exercise in terms of the Unified PD Rating Scale (UPDRS) and prevention of falls. Another RCT found no effects of tai chi on locomotor ability compared with qigong. The third RCT failed to show effects of tai chi on the UPDRS and the PD Questionnaires compared with wait list control. The remaining studies were either non-randomised (n=1) or uncontrolled clinical trials (n=3). Collectively these data show that RCTs of the tai chi for PD are feasible but scarce. Most investigations suffer from methodological flaws such as inadequate study design, poor reporting of results, small sample size, and publication without appropriate peer review process. In conclusion, the evidence is insufficient to suggest tai chi is an effective intervention for PD. Further research is required to investigate whether there are specific benefits of tai chi for people with PD, such as its potential effect on balance and on the frequency of falls. PMID:18374620

  9. Propagation dynamics of controlled cross-talk via interplay between {chi}{sup (1)} and {chi}{sup (3)} processes

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Paul S.; Welch, George R.; Gord, James R.; Patnaik, Anil K.

    2011-05-15

    We investigate theoretically and experimentally the propagation dynamics of a nonlinear cross-talk effect between two probe channels in a double-ladder system and show that an interplay between {chi}{sup (1)} and {chi}{sup (3)} processes leads to the control of cross-talk. We derive analytical solutions to describe the propagation dynamics of the probe fields with the cross-talk effect built in. From the analytical results we identify and examine the regimes of interest where contributions of either {chi}{sup (1)} or {chi}{sup (3)} or both are significant. The control of cross-talk is demonstrated experimentally, and good quantitative agreement is found between the analytical solutions and the experiment.

  10. Near-surface versus fault zone damage following the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake: Observation and simulation of repeating earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kate Huihsuan; Furumura, Takashi; Rubinstein, Justin

    2015-04-01

    We observe crustal damage and its subsequent recovery caused by the 1999 M7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake in central Taiwan. Analysis of repeating earthquakes in Hualien region, ~70 km east of the Chi-Chi earthquake, shows a remarkable change in wave propagation beginning in the year 2000, revealing damage within the fault zone and distributed across the near surface. We use moving window cross correlation to identify a dramatic decrease in the waveform similarity and delays in the S wave coda. The maximum delay is up to 59 ms, corresponding to a 7.6% velocity decrease averaged over the wave propagation path. The waveform changes on either side of the fault are distinct. They occur in different parts of the waveforms, affect different frequencies, and the size of the velocity reductions is different. Using a finite difference method, we simulate the effect of postseismic changes in the wavefield by introducing S wave velocity anomaly in the fault zone and near the surface. The models that best fit the observations point to pervasive damage in the near surface and deep, along-fault damage at the time of the Chi-Chi earthquake. The footwall stations show the combined effect of near-surface and the fault zone damage, where the velocity reduction (2-7%) is twofold to threefold greater than the fault zone damage observed in the hanging wall stations. The physical models obtained here allow us to monitor the temporal evolution and recovering process of the Chi-Chi fault zone damage.

  11. Estimation of slip parameters associated with frictional heating during the 1999 Taiwan Chi-Chi earthquake by vitrinite reflectance geothermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maekawa, Yuka; Hirono, Tetsuro; Yabuta, Hikaru; Mukoyoshi, Hideki; Kitamura, Manami; Ikehara, Minoru; Tanikawa, Wataru; Ishikawa, Tsuyoshi

    2014-12-01

    To estimate the slip parameters and understand the fault lubrication mechanism during the 1999 Taiwan Chi-Chi earthquake, we applied vitrinite reflectance geothermometry to samples retrieved from the Chelungpu fault. We found a marked reflectance anomaly of 1.30% ± 0.21% in the primary slip zone of the earthquake, whereas the reflectances in the surrounding deformed and host rocks were 0.45% to 0.77%. By applying a kinetic model of vitrinite thermal maturation together with a one-dimensional heat and thermal diffusion equation, we determined the shear stress and peak temperature in the slip zone during the earthquake to be 1.00 ± 0.04 MPa and 626°C ± 25°C, respectively. Taking into account the probable overestimation of the temperature owing to a mechanochemically enhanced reaction or flash heating at grain contacts, this temperature should be considered an upper limit. The lower limit was previously constrained to 400°C by studies of fluid-mobile trace-element concentrations and magnetic minerals. Therefore, we inferred that the peak temperature during the Chi-Chi earthquake was 400°C to 626°C, corresponding to an apparent friction coefficient of 0.01 to 0.06. Such low friction and the previous evidence of a high-temperature fluid suggest that thermal pressurization likely contributed to dynamic weakening during the Chi-Chi earthquake.

  12. Tai Chi training reduced coupling between respiration and postural control.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Matthew L; Manor, Brad; Hsieh, Wan-hsin; Hu, Kun; Lipsitz, Lewis A; Li, Li

    2016-01-01

    In order to maintain stable upright stance, the postural control system must account for the continuous perturbations to the body's center-of-mass including those caused by spontaneous respiration. Both aging and disease increase "posturo-respiratory synchronization;" which reflects the degree to which respiration affects postural sway fluctuations over time. Tai Chi training emphasizes the coordination of respiration and bodily movements and may therefore optimize the functional interaction between these two systems. The purpose of the project was to examine the effect of Tai Chi training on the interaction between respiration and postural control in older adults. We hypothesized that Tai Chi training would improve the ability of the postural control system to compensate for respiratory perturbations and thus, reduce posturo-respiratory synchronization. Participants were recruited from supportive housing facilities and randomized to a 12-week Tai Chi intervention (n=28; 86 ± 5 yrs) or educational-control program (n=34, 85 ± 6 yrs). Standing postural sway and respiration were simultaneously recorded with a force plate and respiratory belt under eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions. Posturo-respiratory synchronization was determined by quantifying the variation of the phase relationship between the dominant oscillatory mode of respiration and corresponding oscillations within postural sway. Groups were similar in age, gender distribution, height, body mass, and intervention compliance. Neither intervention altered average sway speed, sway magnitude or respiratory rate. As compared to the education-control group, however, Tai Chi training reduced posturo-respiratory synchronization when standing with eyes open or closed (p<0.001). Tai Chi training did not affect traditional parameters of standing postural control or respiration, yet reduced the coupling between respiration and postural control. The beneficial effects of Tai Chi training may therefore stem in part

  13. Physiological responses to Tai Chi in stable patients with COPD.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Zhi-Hui; Guo, Hong-Xi; Lu, Gan; Zhang, Ning; He, Bai-Ting; Zhou, Lian; Luo, Y M; Polkey, M I

    2016-01-15

    We compared the physiological work, judged by oxygen uptake, esophageal pressure swing and diaphragm electromyography, elicited by Tai Chi compared with that elicited by constant rate treadmill walking at 60% of maximal load in eleven patients with COPD (Mean FEV1 61% predicted, FEV1/FVC 47%). Dynamic hyperinflation was assessed by inspiratory capacity and twitch quadriceps tension (TwQ) elicited by supramaximal magnetic stimulation of the femoral nerve was also measured before and after both exercises. The EMGdi and esophageal pressure at the end of exercise were similar for both treadmill exercise and Tai Chi (0.109±0.047 mV vs 0.118±0.061 mV for EMGdi and 22.3±7.1 cmH2O vs 21.9±8.1 cmH2O for esophageal pressure). Moreover the mean values of oxygen uptake during Tai Chi and treadmill exercise did not differ significantly: 11.3 ml/kg/min (51.1% of maximal oxygen uptake derived from incremental exercise) and 13.4 ml/kg/min (52.5%) respectively, p>0.05. Respiratory rate during Tai Chi was significantly lower than that during treadmill exercise. Both Tai Chi and treadmill exercise elicited a fall in IC at end exercise, indicating dynamic hyperinflation, but this was statistically significant only after treadmill exercise. TwQ decreased significantly after Tai Chi but not after treadmill. We conclude that Tai Chi constitutes a physiologically similar stimulus to treadmill exercise and may therefore be an acceptable modality for pulmonary rehabilitation which may be culturally more acceptable in some parts of the world. PMID:26549554

  14. Cardiopulmonary exercise: a recently discovered secret of tai chi.

    PubMed

    Ng, R K

    1992-08-01

    Every piece of literature or book about tai chi claims it to be the supreme martial art (soft style) and a therapeutic exercise. Nevertheless, none of the authors can describe scientifically how and why it works. Many people did not gain any health benefit in practicing tai chi and only very few people were able to apply its legendary secret power. During the last 10 years, the author thought he had discovered the secret in Hong Kong and brought it to Los Angeles. The secret lies in the fundamental movements of the body, called tai chi basic exercise routines. The entry level of the exercise has many similarities with medical treatments for respiratory illness and with walking exercise--the most recommended aerobic exercise for coronary artery disease. PMID:1399544

  15. Confirmation of the chi Cygnids (CCY, IAU#757)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koukal, J.; Srba, J.; Tóth, J.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we present independent confirmation of the existence of the chi Cygnid (CCY, IAU#757) meteor shower. The chi Cygnids were discovered by Peter Jenniskens within the frame of CAMS project (Cameras for Allsky Meteor Surveillance). Thanks to the cooperation between European viDeo MeteOr Network (EDMONd), International Meteor Organization Video Meteor Network (IMO VMN) and the BRAzilian Meteor Observation Network (BRAMON) the current version of the EDMOND database (v5.02) contains 189 323 multi-station meteor orbits. This large data sample allowed confirmation of the increased activity from the chi Cygnid swarm during the night of 2015 September 14/15, and also made it possible to map the activity of this newly discovered swarm during the years 2001-2014.

  16. Earthquake mechanism studies by active-fault drilling: Chi-Chi Taiwan to Wenchuan earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Togo, T.; Shimamoto, T.; Ma, S.; Noda, H.; Hirose, T.; Tanikawa, W.

    2010-12-01

    Why drill into active faults? How can such big projects be justified to society? We believe that a very important task for such projects is to understand earthquake mechanisms, i.e., to reproduce big earthquakes just occurred based on measured fault-zone properties. Post-earthquake fault-zone drilling provides rare opportunities for seeing and analyzing fault zones with minimum changes as “RAPID” group summarized its merits. Shallow and deep drilling into Chelungpu fault, that caused the 1999 Chi-Chi Taiwan earthquake, has demonstrated that reproducing an earthquake based on measured properties is becoming possible (Tanikawa and Shimamoto, 2009, JGR; Noda and Lapusta, 2009, JpGU). Another important outcome from Chelungpu drilling is finding of numerous changes in a fault zone during seismic fault motion (e.g., decomposition due to frictional heating), as highlighted by “black gouge” (many papers). Those changes can be reproduced now by high-velocity friction experiments. No so long ago, a renown geologist expressed his feeling that faults will not preserve a record of seismic slip, except for pseudotachylite (Cowan, 1999, JSG). In other words, seismic slip is of such a short duration that important changes, other than shearing deformation, will not occur in fault zones. Nojima and Chelungpu drilling has shown that this is not the case. On the other hand, seismic fault motion has been reproduced in laboratory for the last twenty years, demonstrating dramatic weakening of many natural fault gouges. We report here a set of data using fault gouge from Hongkou outcrop of Longmenshan fault system, very close to the first drilling site, under a constant slip rate and variable slip histories. Slip and velocity weakening behavior depends on slip history and can be described by an empirical equation. Importance of such experiments can be justified only by confirmation that the same processes indeed occur in natural fault zones. Integrated field and laboratory studies

  17. Strong ground motion in the Taipei basin from the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fletcher, Joe B.; Wen, K.-L.

    2005-01-01

    The Taipei basin, located in northwest Taiwan about 160 km from the epicenter of the Chi-Chi earthquake, is a shallow, triangular-shaped basin filled with low-velocity fluvial deposits. There is a strong velocity contrast across the basement interface of about 600 m/sec at a depth of about 600-700 m in the deeper section of the basin, suggesting that ground motion should be amplified at sites in the basin. In this article, the ground-motion recordings are analyzed to determine the effect of the basin both in terms of amplifications expected from a 1D model of the sediments in the basin and in terms of the 3D structure of the basin. Residuals determined for peak acceleration from attenuation curves are more positive (amplified) in the basin (average of 5.3 cm/ sec2 compared to - 24.2 cm/sec2 for those stations outside the basin and between 75 and 110 km from the surface projection of the faulted area, a 40% increase in peak ground acceleration). Residuals for peak velocity are also significantly more positive at stations in the basin (31.8 cm/sec compared to 20.0 cm/sec out). The correlation of peak motion with depth to basement, while minor in peak acceleration, is stronger in the peak velocities. Record sections of ground motion from stations in and around the Taipei basin show that the largest long-period arrival, which is coherent across the region, is strongest on the vertical component and has a period of about 10-12 sec. This phase appears to be a Rayleigh wave, probably associated with rupture at the north end of the Chelungpu fault. Records of strong motion from stations in and near the basin have an additional, higher frequency signal: nearest the deepest point in the basin, the signal is characterized by frequencies of about 0.3 - 0.4 Hz. These frequencies are close to simple predictions using horizontal layers and the velocity structure of the basin. Polarizations of the S wave are mostly coherent across the array, although there are significant

  18. A CHI wiggler ubitron amplifier experiment: Wiggler characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Taccetti, J.M.; Jackson, R.H.; Freund, H.P.

    1995-12-31

    A 35 GHz CHI (Coaxial Hybrid Iron) wiggler ubitron amplifier experiment is under construction at the Naval Research Laboratory. The CHI wiggler configuration has the potential of generating high wiggler magnetic fields at short periods with excellent beam focusing and transport properties. This makes it a desirable configuration for the generation of high power coherent radiation in relatively compact systems. The CHI wiggler consists of alternating rings of magnetic and non-magnetic materials concentric with a central rod of similar alternating design but shifted along the axis by half a period. Once inserted in a solenoidal magnetic field, the CHI structure deforms the axial field to create a radial field oscillating with the same periodicity as the rings. An annular electron beam is propagated through the coaxial gap where the oscillating radial field imparts an azimuthal wiggle motion. The principal goals of the experiment are to investigate the performance tradeoffs involved in the CHI configuration for high frequency amplifiers operating at low voltages with small wiggler periods. The nominal design parameters are a center frequency of 35 GHz, wiggler period of 0.75 cm, and beam voltage of approximately 150 kV. Calculations have shown an intrinsic (untapered) efficiency of {approximately} 7% when operating at 6.3 kG axial field (wiggler field, B{sub w}{approximately}1270 G). The calculated gain was 36 dB, saturating at a distance of 46 cm. These parameters yield an instantaneous amplifier bandwidth of {approximately} 25%. There appears to be room for further improvement in efficiency, a matter which will be scrutinized more closely in the final design. A prototype CHI wiggler is presently being fabricated for use in conjunction with an existing 30 kG superconducting solenoid. The performance properties of the prototype will be characterized and compared with linear and non-linear calculations.

  19. Observation of B0 -> chi_c0 K*0 and Evidence of B+ -> chi_c0 K*+

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, : B.

    2008-08-13

    The authors present the observation of the decay B{sup 0} {yields} {chi}{sub c0}K*{sup 0} as well as evidence of B{sup +} {yields} {chi}{sub c0}K*{sup +}, with an 8.9 and a 3.6 standard deviation significance, respectively, using a data sample of 454 million {Upsilon}(4S) {yields} B{bar B} decays collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II B meson factory located at the Standard Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). The measured branching fractions are: {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {chi}{sub c0}K*{sup 0}) = (1.7 {+-} 0.3 {+-} 0.2) x 10{sup -4} and {Beta}(B{sup +} {yields} {chi}{sub c0}K*{sup +}) = (1.4 {+-} 0.5 {+-} 0.2) x 10{sup -4}, where the first quoted errors are statistical and the second are systematic. They obtain a branching fraction upper limit of {Beta}(B{sup +} {yields} {chi}{sub c0}K*{sup +}) < 2.1 x 10{sup -4} at the 90% confidence level.

  20. Functional benefits of Tai Chi training within senior housing facilities

    PubMed Central

    Manor, Brad; Lough, Matt; Gagnon, Margaret M; Cupples, Adrienne; Wayne, Peter M; Lipsitz, Lewis A

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine the effects of Tai Chi training on functional performance and walking with and without performance of a cognitive task, in adults of advanced age living within supportive housing facilities. Design Secondary data analysis of a single-blind, randomized controlled trial of Tai Chi training versus an attention-matched educational control intervention with cross-over to Tai Chi. Setting Two supportive housing facilities. Participants Sixty-six men and women living in supportive housing facilities entered the study. Fifty-seven participants aged 87±7 years completed all study procedures. Intervention Interventions consisted of two, one-hour, instructor-led group sessions/week for 12 weeks. Tai Chi training consisted of movements based upon the Yang-style short form. Educational sessions consisted of lectures and discussions of age-related health topics. Measurements Subjects were tested for physical function (Short Physical Performance Battery, SPPB), balance (Berg Balance Scale, BBS), mobility (timed up-and-go, TUG), and walking speed under normal and cognitive dual task conditions. Results The Tai Chi group exhibited greater (p=0.005) improvement in SPPB scores (baseline=8.1±2.9, follow-up=9.0±2.6) compared to controls (baseline=8.2±2.6, follow-up=8.2±2.6). Tai Chi also increased normal and dual task walking speeds (p<0.001), yet did not affect BBS (p=0.02) or TUG (p=0.02) after accounting for multiple comparisons. The dual task cost (i.e., percent change) to walking speed was unaffected. Following the cross-over Tai Chi intervention, the control group improved performance in the SPPB, BBS, and TUG, and increased walking speed under normal and dual task conditions (p<0.008). Conclusion Tai Chi training may be a safe and effective therapy to help improve physical function and dual task walking in very old adults living within supportive housing facilities. PMID:25116984

  1. The Fast Chi-Squared Period Search For Variable Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, D. M.

    2002-05-01

    I present the Fast Chi-Squared method for detecting periodicity in variable sources. This algorithm uses the full statistical power available in the data set to find the optimal fit to a periodic function with an arbitrary number of Fourier components. It automatically compensates for non-uniform errors, sampling periodicity, sampling aperiodicity, and windowing. The result is a statistically meaningful (chi-squared) periodicity detection strength as an arbitrarily dense function of frequency. The algorithm is FFT based, running in order O(N log N) time, and allows large data sets over long time intervals to be trawled with high frequency resolution in a practical amount of CPU time.

  2. Teaching Balance with Tai Chi: Strategies for College and Secondary School Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, David D.; Sherman, Clay P.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the benefits of incorporating Tai Chi into the secondary and college curriculum to teach balance, discussing: the history and philosophical underpinnings of Tai Chi, principles of Tai Chi movement, health benefits, and teaching Tai Chi in public schools. Tips for instructors include: follow the principles of progression, follow a…

  3. Static stress drop inferred from near-fault parameters for the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Win-Gee; Huang, Bor-Shouh; Lee, Chien-Ping

    2013-03-01

    In 2001, a special issue of the Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America (BSSA) featured seismological research for the 1999 Chi-Chi Taiwan earthquake. This study uses source parameters suggested by the first author in this special issue to estimate static stress drop associated with the Chi-Chi earthquake. The waveform simulation method was used to carefully examine these source parameters. The simulation results indicate that source parameters, inferred from near-fault observations, are well determined. According to the rupture area and slip, the static stress drops (Δσs) obtained were distributed between a small value of 47 bars near the epicentral region and a much larger value (>200 bars) to the north. Similar trends in dynamic stress drop (Δσd) were also recognized by the first author in his paper published in 2001 BSSA special issue. Comparing the Δσs with Δσd, satisfies the relation Δσs/Δσd ≈ 1. This relation suggests that fault motion is mostly spent releasing seismic wave energy during the rupture process of the Chi-Chi earthquake. The consistency between static and dynamic stress drops thus provides a measure of energy-moment (Es/M0) ratios, which range from 9.0 × 10-5 to 6.5 × 10-4. The average Es/M0 ratio estimated for the northern portions of the fault is 3.4 × 10-4, which is about 3 times that of the south. Such a high Es/M0 ratio can be interpreted as having low strength in the rupture for the northern portions of the fault, where the fault would release less energy per unit rupture surface to create the new rupture.

  4. Fault geometry and slip distribution of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan Earthquake imaged from inversion of GPS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Kaj M.; Hsu, Ya-Ju; Segall, Paul; Yu, Shui-Beih

    GPS measurements of coseismic displacements from the 1999, Chi-Chi, Taiwan earthquake are modeled using elastic dislocation theory. We find that a single fault plane cannot fit the data, but rather a curved fault surface consisting of multiple segments dipping 20-25° best fits the observations. The model fault exhibits reverse and left-lateral slip on a 75 km long N-S trending segment and reverse and right-lateral slip on a 25 km E-W trending segment at the northern end of the rupture. The 21° dipping E-W segment is inconsistent with previous interpretations of high angle tear faulting.

  5. Programme Note: Realities and Opportunities in Ho Chi Minh City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franchet, Chi Nguyen

    1996-01-01

    The current status of street children in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, is characterized by marginalization from society through street vending, begging, theft, and prostitution. Evaluation of a drop-in center serving children without family linkages indicates need for needs assessments, follow-up activities, measurement of individual child progress,…

  6. Contrasting Ohlsson's Resubsumption Theory with Chi's Categorical Shift Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chi, Michelene T. H.; Brem, Sarah K.

    2009-01-01

    Ohlsson's proposal of resubsumption as the dominant process in conceptual, or nonmonotonic, change presents a worthy challenge to more established theories, such as Chi's theory of ontological shift. The two approaches differ primarily in that Ohlsson's theory emphasizes a process of learning in which narrower, more specific concepts are subsumed…

  7. Normal versus Noncentral Chi-Square Asymptotics of Misspecified Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chun, So Yeon; Shapiro, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    The noncentral chi-square approximation of the distribution of the likelihood ratio (LR) test statistic is a critical part of the methodology in structural equation modeling. Recently, it was argued by some authors that in certain situations normal distributions may give a better approximation of the distribution of the LR test statistic. The main…

  8. Principles and Practice of Scaled Difference Chi-Square Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Fred B.; Satorra, Albert

    2012-01-01

    We highlight critical conceptual and statistical issues and how to resolve them in conducting Satorra-Bentler (SB) scaled difference chi-square tests. Concerning the original (Satorra & Bentler, 2001) and new (Satorra & Bentler, 2010) scaled difference tests, a fundamental difference exists in how to compute properly a model's scaling correction…

  9. Tai Chi for stroke rehabilitation: protocol for a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shanshan; Chen, Pei; Zhu, Xiaoshu; Li, Zongheng

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Stroke is a major cause of death and disability, and imposes a huge burden and significant workload for patients, their families and society. As a special form of physical activity, Tai Chi is may be useful for stroke rehabilitation. The objective of this review is to systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of Tai Chi for rehabilitation in stroke patients. Methods and analysis We will conduct a systematic search of the following electronic databases from their inception to 31 October 2015: MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, the Chinese BioMedical Literature Database (CBM), the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), the Chinese Science and Technology Periodical Database (VIP), Wanfang and the Chinese Dissertation Database. All relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in English and Chinese will be included. The main outcomes will be changes in the neurological function of patients and in independence in activities of daily living. Adverse events, adherence, costs and the cost effectiveness of Tai Chi will also be assessed. Two independent reviewers will select studies, extract data and assess quality. Review Manager 5.3 will be used for assessment of risk of bias, data synthesis and subgroup analysis. Ethics and dissemination This systematic review does not require formal ethical approval because all data will be analysed anonymously. Results will provide a general overview and evidence concerning the efficacy and safety of Tai Chi for stroke rehabilitation. Findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications. Trial registration number CRD42015026999. PMID:27311906

  10. Heterogeneous structures of 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake, thrust termination in and near Chushan excavation site, Central Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wen-Jeng; Chen, Wen-Shan; Lee, Yuan-Hsi; Yang, Chih-Cheng; Chiang, Cheng-Shing; Lee, Jian-Cheng

    2015-04-01

    We describe and analyze the surface and subsurface deformations of 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake, thrust termination in and near Chushan excavation site at Tanliwun village, Central Taiwan. The surface deformation zone of high strain induced by the earthquake faulting ranges in width from 60 to 100, and characterized by a 0.5 to 2-meter-high escarpment is highly asymmetrical relative to its base. Exposures in the Chushan trench, 40 m long and 10 m deep, excavated across the south part of the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake rupture, show on the one hand the heterogeneous structure of a steep, monoclinal-like fold, and on the other hand strikingly different surface profiles on either side of the 14 m wide trench that do not reflect in any obvious way the subsurface structure formed during several earthquake episodes and accommodated 7 m of throw during the last 3200 yrs. The results of our detailed mapping at scales of 1:10 to 1:20 help elucidate the mechanisms for the two essential types of surface profile of the escarpment, parabola-like and monoclinal-shaped, the difference of subsurface structure exposed on the walls of the trench and the connection between the surface and subsurface deformations.

  11. Correlation of Sedimentation and Landslides in Wu Hsi Catchment after the 1999 Chi-Chi Earthquake in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shou, K. J.; Fei, L. Y.; Lee, J. F.; Wei, C. Y.; Wu, C. C.; Hong, C. Y.

    2010-05-01

    The hilly Western Foothill of Taiwan Island is highly prone to landslides, especially during typhoon season in the summer. The 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake (MW=7.6) resulted in tremendous amount of landslides along the Wu Hsi catchment of central Taiwan. The impact of this earthquake not only makes the geomaterial more fractured but also changes the river morphology in the Western Foothill area. This study investigated the correlation of catchment sedimentation and landslides before and after the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake. The Wu Hsi is a major river in central Taiwan, with 119km in length, 2025km2 in drainage area, and elevation from 3144m to 20m. In order to consider the flow discharge and sediment discharge in different sub-watersheds, especially in the upstream, this study divides the Wu Hsi catchment to three sub-catchments, the Peikang sub-catchment (I), Nankang sub-catchment (II), and mid to lower stream of Wu Hsi (III). Analyses were performed for each sub-catchment with discussions. The study comprises two major parts, i.e., catchment sedimentation and correlation with landslides. The former part includes field, satellite image and DTM calculation results, and the later part includes analysis on the correlation between the landslides and catchment sedimentation. Following the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake, two typhoon events, i.e., Toraji (2001) and Mindulle(2004), were adopted for this study. Our findings indicate, comparing with typhoon Mindulle, about 5.25, 8.94, and 5.47 times more sediments were generated by typhoon Toraji in sub-catchment I, II, and III. Considering the transportation of sediment, sediments accumulated in sub-catchment I is about 2.78 times more than those in sub-catchment II. And Those sediments were transported down to sub-catchment III by typhoon Mindulle. The results reveal sedimentation trend in sub-catchment I and II during Toraji, and incision trend in sub-catchment II and sediment deposition trend in sub-catchment III during Mindulle

  12. Cloning of the Aegiceras corniculatum class I chitinase gene (AcCHI I) and the response of AcCHI I mRNA expression to cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Ying; Wang, You-Shao; Cheng, Hao; Zhang, Jing-Ping; Yeok, Foong Swee

    2015-10-01

    Chitinases in terrestrial plants have been reported these are involved in heavy metal tolerance/detoxification. This is the first attempt to reveal chitinase gene (AcCHI I) and its function on metal detoxification in mangroves Aegiceras corniculatum. RT-PCR and RACE techniques were used to clone AcCHI I, while real-time quantitative PCR was employed to assess AcCHI I mRNA expressions in response to Cadmium (Cd). The deduced AcCHI I protein consists of 316 amino acids, including a signal peptide region, a chitin-binding domain (CBD) and a catalytic domain. Protein homology modeling was performed to identify potential features in AcCHI I. The CBD structure of AcCHI I might be critical for metal tolerance/homeostasis of the plant. Clear tissue-specific differences in AcCHI I expression were detected, with higher transcript levels detected in leaves. Results demonstrated that a short duration of Cd exposure (e.g., 3 days) promoted AcCHI I expression in roots. Upregulated expression was also detected in leaves under 10 mg/kg Cd concentration stress. The present study demonstrates that AcCHI I may play an important role in Cd tolerance/homeostasis in the plant. Further studies of the AcCHI I protein, gene overexpression, the promoter and upstream regulation will be necessary for clarifying the functions of AcCHI I. PMID:26044931

  13. Investigation of the Temporal Change in Attenuation Within the Ruptured Fault Zone of the 1999 Mw7.3 Chi-Chi, Taiwan Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu-Ju; Ma, Kuo-Fong

    2015-05-01

    A decrease in Q s values within the hanging wall of the ruptured Chelungpu fault two years following the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake was revealed by Q s tomography images and an analysis of single-path Q s. The synthetic and sensitivity tests of the Q s determination were carried out accordingly to justify the temporal variation. A Q s value within the hanging wall above the hypocenter was determined to be 157 ± 18 two years following the Chi-Chi earthquake, which is significantly lower than the Q s tomography values of 238 ± 17 and 289 ± 13 prior to and two years after the main shock, respectively. Similar values using a signal-path Q s analysis from events within the ruptured fault zone to stations along the fault were obtained. The corresponding Q s values were 247 ± 85 prior to the Chi-Chi earthquake. After the earthquake we obtained Q s values of 158 ± 75 and 318 ± 80 for 2 years following and 2 years after the earthquake, respectively. Considering the two independent methods in determination of Q s, the reduction in Q s by 89 two years following the Chi-Chi earthquake in both methods is significant. Along with 1 % V s reduction revealed by the analysis of repeating earthquakes our studies suggested possible reduction both in V s and Q s values within the fault zone after the Chi-Chi earthquake. Temporal changes in Q s after the Chi-Chi earthquake imply variations of pore-fluid saturation in the ruptured fault zone. The reduction in Q s two years following the Chi-Chi earthquake indicates high pore-fluid saturation within the fractured fault zone due to the postseismic fluid redistribution.

  14. Chitinase Genes LbCHI31 and LbCHI32 from Limonium bicolor Were Successfully Expressed in Escherichia coli and Exhibit Recombinant Chitinase Activities

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhihua; Huang, Ying; Zhang, Rongshu; Diao, Guiping; Fan, Haijuan; Wang, Zhiying

    2013-01-01

    The two chitinase genes, LbCHI31 and LbCHI32 from Limonium bicolor, were, respectively, expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 strain. The intracellular recombinant chitinases, inrCHI31 and inrCHI32, and the extracellular exrCHI31 and exrCHI32 could be produced into E. coli. The exrCHI31 and exrCHI32 can be secreted into extracellular medium. The optimal reaction condition for inrCHI31 was 5 mmol/L of Mn2+ at 40°C and pH 5.0 with an activity of 0.772 U using Alternaria alternata cell wall as substrate. The optimal condition of inrCHI32 was 5 mmol/L of Ba2+ at 45°C and pH 5.0 with an activity of 0.792 U using Valsa sordida cell wall as substrate. The optimal reaction condition of exrCHI31 was 5 mmol/L of Zn2+ at 40°C and pH 5.0, and the activity was 0.921 U using the A. alternata cell wall as substrate. Simultaneously, the optimal condition of exrCHI32 was 5 mmol/L of K+ at 45°C and pH 5.0, with V. sordida cell wall as the substrate, and the activity was 0.897 U. Furthermore, the activities of extracellular recombinant enzymes on fungal cell walls and compounds were generally higher than those of the intracellular recombinant enzymes. Recombinant exrCHI31 and exrCHI32 have better hydrolytic ability on cell walls of different fungi than synthetic chitins and obviously showed activity against A. alternata. PMID:24385885

  15. Molecular cloning, expression, and evolution analysis of type II CHI gene from peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Zhao, Shuzhen; Wang, Jiangshan; Zhao, Chuanzhi; Guan, Hongshan; Hou, Lei; Li, Changsheng; Xia, Han; Wang, Xingjun

    2015-01-01

    Chalcone isomerase (CHI) plays critical roles in plant secondary metabolism, which is important for the interaction between plants and the environment. CHI genes are widely studied in various higher plants. However, little information about CHI genes is available in peanut. Based on conservation of CHI gene family, we cloned the peanut type II CHI gene (AhCHI II) cDNA and genome sequence. The amino acid sequence of peanut CHI II was highly homologous to type II CHI from other plant species. qRT-PCR results showed that peanut CHI II is mainly expressed in roots; however, peanut CHI I is mainly expressed in tissues with high content of anthocyanin. Gene duplication and gene cluster analysis indicated that CHI II was derived from CHI I 65 million years ago approximately. Our gene structure analysis results are not in agreement with the previous hypothesis that CHI II was derived from CHI I by the insertion of an intron into the first exon. Moreover, no positive selection pressure was found in CHIs, while, 32.1 % of sites were under neutral selection, which may lead to mutation accumulation and fixation during great changes of environment. PMID:25608978

  16. Two-color holography concept (T-CHI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vikram, C. S.; Caulfield, H. J.; Workman, G. L.; Trolinger, J. D.; Wood, C. P.; Clark, R. L.; Kathman, A. D.; Ruggiero, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    The Material Processing in the Space Program of NASA-MSFC was active in developing numerous optical techniques for the characterization of fluids in the vicinity of various materials during crystallization and/or solidification. Two-color holographic interferometry demonstrates that temperature and concentration separation in transparent (T-CHI) model systems is possible. The experiments were performed for particular (succinonitrile) systems. Several solutions are possible in Microgravity Sciences and Applications (MSA) experiments on future Shuttle missions. The theory of the T-CHI concept is evaluated. Although particular cases are used for explanations, the concepts developed will be universal. A breadboard system design is also presented for ultimate fabrication and testing of theoretical findings. New developments in holography involving optical fibers and diode lasers are also incorporated.

  17. Spatial solitons in chi(2) planar photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Katia; Assanto, Gaetano

    2007-11-01

    We analyze light self-confinement induced by multiple nonlinear resonances in a two-dimensional chi(2) photonic crystal. With reference to second-harmonic generation in a hexagonal lattice, we show that the system can not only support two-color (1+1)D solitary waves with enhanced confinement and steering capabilities but also enable novel features such as wavelength-dependent soliton routing. PMID:17975626

  18. Feynman rules of higher-order poles in CHY construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Rijun; Feng, Bo; Luo, Ming-xing; Zhu, Chuan-Jie

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we generalize the integration rules for scattering equations to situations where higher-order poles are present. We describe the strategy to deduce the Feynman rules of higher-order poles from known analytic results of simple CHY-integrands, and propose the Feynman rules for single double pole and triple pole as well as duplex-double pole and triplex-double pole structures. We demonstrate the validation and strength of these rules by ample non-trivial examples.

  19. Solenoid-free plasma startup in NSTX using transient CHI

    SciTech Connect

    Raman, R; Jarboe, T.; Mueller, D.; Maingi, R.

    2009-01-01

    Experiments in NSTX have now demonstrated the coupling of toroidal plasmas produced by the technique of coaxial helicity injection (CHI) to inductive sustainment and ramp-up of the toroidal plasma current. In these discharges, the central Ohmic transformer was used to apply an inductive loop voltage to discharges with a toroidal current of about 100 kA created by CHI. The coupled discharges have ramped up to > 700 kA and transitioned into an H-mode demonstrating compatibility of this startup method with conventional operation. The electron temperature in the coupled discharges reached over 800 eV and the resulting plasma had low inductance, which is preferred for long-pulse high-performance discharges. These results from NSTX in combination with the previously obtained record 160 kA non-inductively generated startup currents in an ST or tokamak in NSTX demonstrate that CHI is a viable solenoid-free plasma startup method for future STs and tokamaks.

  20. Stress evolution following the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake: Consequences for afterslip, relaxation, aftershocks and departures from Omori decay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chan, C.-H.; Stein, R.S.

    2009-01-01

    We explore how Coulomb stress transfer and viscoelastic relaxation control afterslip and aftershocks in a continental thrust fault system. The 1999 September 21 Mw = 7.6 Chi-Chi shock is typical of continental ramp-d??collement systems throughout the world, and so inferences drawn from this uniquely well-recorded event may be widely applicable. First, we find that the spatial and depth distribution of aftershocks and their focal mechanisms are consistent with the calculated Coulomb stress changes imparted by the coseismic rupture. Some 61 per cent of the M ??? 2 aftershocks and 83 per cent of the M ??? 4 aftershocks lie in regions for which the Coulomb stress increased by ???0.1 bars, and there is a 11-12 per cent gain in the percentage of aftershocks nodal planes on which the shear stress increased over the pre-Chi Chi control period. Second, we find that afterslip occurred where the calculated coseismic stress increased on the fault ramp and d??collement, subject to the condition that friction is high on the ramp and low on the d??collement. Third, viscoelastic relaxation is evident from the fit of the post-seismic GPS data on the footwall. Fourth, we find that the rate of seismicity began to increase during the post-seismic period in an annulus extending east of the main rupture. The spatial extent of the seismicity annulus resembles the calculated ???0.05-bar Coulomb stress increase caused by viscoelastic relaxation and afterslip, and we find a 9-12 per cent gain in the percentage of focal mechanisms with >0.01-bar shear stress increases imparted by the post-seismic afterslip and relaxation in comparison to the control period. Thus, we argue that post-seismic stress changes can for the first time be shown to alter the production of aftershocks, as judged by their rate, spatial distribution, and focal mechanisms. ?? Journal compilation ?? 2009 RAS.

  1. Instrumental intensity distribution for the Hector Mine, California, and the Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquakes: Comparison of two methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sokolov, V.; Wald, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    We compare two methods of seismic-intensity estimation from ground-motion records for the two recent strong earthquakes: the 1999 (M 7.1) Hector Mine, California, and the 1999 (M 7.6) Chi-Chi, Taiwan. The first technique utilizes the peak ground acceleration (PGA) and velocity (PGV), and it is used for rapid generation of the instrumental intensity map in California. The other method is based on the revised relationships between intensity and Fourier amplitude spectrum (FAS). The results of using the methods are compared with independently observed data and between the estimations from the records. For the case of the Hector Mine earthquake, the calculated intensities in general agree with the observed values. For the case of the Chi-Chi earthquake, the areas of maximum calculated intensity correspond to the areas of the greatest damage and highest number of fatalities. However, the FAS method producees higher-intensity values than those of the peak amplitude method. The specific features of ground-motion excitation during the large, shallow, thrust earthquake may be considered a reason for the discrepancy. The use of PGA and PGV is simple; however, the use of FAS provides a natural consideration of site amplification by means of generalized or site-specific spectral ratios. Because the calculation of seismic-intensity maps requires rapid processing of data from a large network, it is very practical to generate a "first-order" map from the recorded peak motions. Then, a "second-order" map may be compiled using an amplitude-spectra method on the basis of available records and numerical modeling of the site-dependent spectra for the regions of sparse station spacing.

  2. Comparisons of ground motions from the 1999 Chi-Chi, earthquake with empirical predictions largely based on data from California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boore, D.M.

    2001-01-01

    This article has the modest goal of comparing the ground motions recorded during the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, mainshock with predictions from four empirical-based equations commonly used for western North America; these empirical predictions are largely based on data from California. Comparisons are made for peak acceleration and 5%-damped response spectra at periods between 0.1 and 4 sec. The general finding is that the Chi-Chi ground motions are smaller than those predicted from the empirically based equations for periods less than about 1 sec by factors averaging about 0.4 but as small as 0.26 (depending on period, on which equation is used, and on whether the sites are assumed to be rock or soil). There is a trend for the observed motions to approach or even exceed the predicted motions for longer periods. Motions at similar distances (30-60 km) to the east and to the west of the fault differ dramatically at periods between about 2 and 20 sec: Long-duration wave trains are present on the motions to the west, and when normalized to similar amplitudes at short periods, the response spectra of the motions at the western stations are as much as five times larger than those of motions from eastern stations. The explanation for the difference is probably related to site and propagation effects; the western stations are on the Coastal Plain, whereas the eastern stations are at the foot of young and steep mountains, either in the relatively narrow Longitudinal Valley or along the eastern coast-the sediments underlying the eastern stations are probably shallower and have higher velocity than those under the western stations.

  3. ChiNet uncovers rewired rewired transcription subnetworks in tolerant yeast for advanced biofuels conversion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conventional differential gene expression analysis is insufficient to dissect altered gene interactions for adapted transcription regulatory networks that impact downstream molecular responses. Here we present comparative chi-square network analysis (ChiNet), a computational method, to uncover rewir...

  4. Search for factorization-suppressed B-->chi(c)K(*) decays.

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Barate, R; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Grauges-Pous, E; Palano, A; Pompili, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Borgland, A W; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Wenzel, W A; Barrett, M; Ford, K E; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hawkes, C M; Morgan, S E; Watson, A T; Fritsch, M; Goetzen, K; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Schroeder, T; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Chevalier, N; Cottingham, W N; Kelly, M P; Latham, T E; Wilson, F F; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Hearty, C; Knecht, N S; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Thiessen, D; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, A E; Blinov, V E; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Ivanchenko, V N; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M; Mommsen, R K; Roethel, W; Stoker, D P; Buchanan, C; Hartfiel, B L; Weinstein, A J R; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Long, O; Shen, B C; Wang, K; Del Re, D; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; MacFarlane, D B; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, Sh; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Lu, A; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Nesom, G; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Yang, S; Jayatilleke, S; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Rankin, P; Ruddick, W O; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Chen, A; Eckhart, E A; Harton, J L; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Zeng, Q; Spaan, B; Altenburg, D; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Dickopp, M; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Lacker, H M; Nogowski, R; Otto, S; Petzold, A; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Grenier, P; Schrenk, S; Thiebaux, Ch; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Bard, D J; Clark, P J; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Azzolini, V; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Piemontese, L; Sarti, A; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Crosetti, G; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Bailey, S; Brandenburg, G; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Won, E; Dubitzky, R S; Langenegger, U; Marks, J; Uwer, U; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Gaillard, J R; Morton, G W; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Taylor, G P; Charles, M J; Grenier, G J; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Lamsa, J; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Yi, J; Arnaud, N; Davier, M; Giroux, X; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Le Diberder, F; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Petersen, T C; Plaszczynski, S; Schune, M H; Wormser, G; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Simani, M C; Wright, D M; Bevan, A J; Chavez, C A; Coleman, J P; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Hutchcroft, D E; Parry, R J; Payne, D J; Touramanis, C; Cormack, C M; Di Lodovico, F; Brown, C L; Cowan, G; Flack, R L; Flaecher, H U; Green, M G; Jackson, P S; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Winter, M A; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Hodgkinson, M C; Lafferty, G D; Williams, J C; Chen, C; Farbin, A; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Kovalskyi, D; Lae, C K; Lillard, V; Roberts, D A; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Koptchev, V B; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Staengle, H; Willocq, S; Cowan, R; Koeneke, K; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Taras, P; Nicholson, H; Cavallo, N; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M; Bulten, H; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Wilden, L; Jessop, C P; LoSecco, J M; Allmendinger, T; Benelli, G; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Pulliam, T; Rahimi, A M; Ter-Antonyan, R; Wong, Q K; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Lu, M; Potter, C T; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Colecchia, F; Dorigo, A; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; de la Vaissière, Ch; Del Buono, L; Hamon, O; John, M J J; Leruste, Ph; Malcles, J; Ocariz, J; Roos, L; Therin, G; Behera, P K; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Pioppi, M; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bondioli, M; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Simi, G; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Paick, K; Wagoner, D E; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lu, C; Miftakov, V; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; D'Orazio, A; Di Marco, E; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Pierini, M; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Safai Tehrani, F; Voena, C; Christ, S; Schröder, H; Wagner, G; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B; Gopal, G P; Olaiya, E O; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Giraud, P-F; de Monchenault, G Hamel; Kozanecki, W; Legendre, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Schott, G; Vasseur, G; Yèche, Ch; Zito, M; Purohit, M V; Weidemann, A W; Wilson, J R; Yumiceva, F X; Abe, T; Allen, M; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Buchmueller, O L; Claus, R; Convery, M R; Cristinziani, M; De Nardo, G; Dingfelder, J C; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W; Fan, S; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Hadig, T; Halyo, V; Hast, C; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Libby, J; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Soha, A; Stelzer, J; Strube, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Thompson, J; Va'vra, J; Wagner, S R; Weaver, M; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Ahmed, M; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Ernst, J A; Saeed, M A; Saleem, M; Wappler, F R; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Kim, H; Ritchie, J L; Satpathy, A; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Bona, M; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Grancagnolo, S; Lanceri, L; Poropat, P; Vitale, L; Vuagnin, G; Martinez-Vidal, F; Panvini, R S; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Jackson, P D; Kowalewski, R; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Mohanty, G B; Band, H R; Chen, X; Cheng, B; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Eichenbaum, A M; Flood, K T; Graham, M; Hollar, J J; Johnson, J R; Kutter, P E; Li, H; Liu, R; Mihalyi, A; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Tan, P; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J H; Wu, J; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Greene, M G; Neal, H

    2005-05-01

    We search for the factorization-suppressed decays B-->chi(c0)K(*) and B-->chi(c2)K(*), with chi(c0) and chi(c2) decaying into J/psi gamma, using a sample of 124 x 10(6) BB events collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II storage ring of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. We find no significant signal and set upper bounds for the branching fractions. PMID:15904279

  5. A Study on How to Breathe Properly When Practicing Tai Chi Chuan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Hanchun

    2011-01-01

    When practicing Tai Chi Chuan, proper breath plays an important role in shaping Tai Chi Chuan's style and its fitness value. The paper aims to analyse the postures of Tai Chi Chuan and its breath characteristics. The paper also presents some new insights on how to co-ordinate breath with postures by case studies.

  6. How do we extract the three chi's that describe a compressible blend from SANS ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gujrati, P. D.; Rane, Sagar

    2000-03-01

    We demonstrate that a lattice model of a compressible blend is characterized by three bare chi parameters; chi-01 (between void and polymer1), chi-02 (between void and polymer2) and chi-12 (between polymer1 and polymer2). We propose a methodology to extract the corresponding three effective chi's from the scattering intensity and additional information on the compressibility and partial molar volumes. We have also defined and obtained a single effective chi for the blend (without RPA) and compared this single effective chi with the other three effective chi's. In all calculations, the athermal part was removed exactly resulting in an interaction part which remains finite over the entire composition regime. From thermodynamics, we know that this single chi is not the same as chi-12, and we shall determine when the two are close or similar. We have also obtained the values of the three chi's at the critical point for different systems to display their utility. We have carried out the calculations in different ensembles and find that the value of chi's depend on the ensemble chosen.

  7. The use of Tai Chi to improve health in older adults.

    PubMed

    Adler, Patricia A; Roberts, Beverly L

    2006-01-01

    Tai Chi is a slow and gentle exercise that is suitable for older adults with chronic illness. This exercise offers the benefits of flexibility, muscle strengthening, and endurance training. Tai Chi has the capability of improving the health of elders without exacerbating existing impairments. Therefore, older adults may be more inclined to participate in and maintain an exercise program. The purpose of this article is to (1) compare Tai Chi to muscle-strengthening and aerobic exercise, (2) describe possible mechanisms for the effects of Tai Chi on factors that contribute to disability, and (3) identify nursing interventions to promote the use of Tai Chi. PMID:16572030

  8. Measurement of exclusive baryon-antibaryon decays of {chi}{sub cJ} mesons

    SciTech Connect

    Naik, P.; Rademacker, J.; Asner, D. M.; Edwards, K. W.; Reed, J.; Briere, R. A.; Ferguson, T.; Tatishvili, G.; Vogel, H.; Watkins, M. E.; Rosner, J. L.; Alexander, J. P.; Cassel, D. G.; Duboscq, J. E.; Ehrlich, R.; Fields, L.; Gibbons, L.; Gray, R.; Gray, S. W.; Hartill, D. L.

    2008-08-01

    Using a sample of 2.59x10{sup 7} {psi}(2S) decays collected by the CLEO-c detector, we present results of a study of {chi}{sub cJ} (J=0, 1, 2) decays into baryon-antibaryon final states. We present the world's most precise measurements of the {chi}{sub cJ}{yields}pp and {chi}{sub cJ}{yields}{lambda}{lambda} branching fractions, and the first measurements of {chi}{sub c0} decays to other hyperons. These results illuminate the decay mechanism of the {chi}{sub c} states.

  9. Two-dimensional Co-Seismic Surface Displacements Field of the Chi-Chi Earthquake Inferred from SAR Image Matching

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jun; Li, Zhi-Wei; Ding, Xiao-Li; Zhu, Jian-Jun

    2008-01-01

    The Mw=7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake in Taiwan occurred in 1999 over the Chelungpu fault and caused a great surface rupture and severe damage. Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) has been applied previously to study the co-seismic ground displacements. There have however been significant limitations in the studies. First, only one-dimensional displacements along the Line-of-Sight (LOS) direction have been measured. The large horizontal displacements along the Chelungpu fault are largely missing from the measurements as the fault is nearly perpendicular to the LOS direction. Second, due to severe signal decorrelation on the hangling wall of the fault, the displacements in that area are un-measurable by differential InSAR method. We estimate the co-seismic displacements in both the azimuth and range directions with the method of SAR amplitude image matching. GPS observations at the 10 GPS stations are used to correct for the orbital ramp in the amplitude matching and to create the two-dimensional (2D) co-seismic surface displacements field using the descending ERS-2 SAR image pair. The results show that the co-seismic displacements range from about -2.0 m to 0.7 m in the azimuth direction (with the positive direction pointing to the flight direction), with the footwall side of the fault moving mainly southwards and the hanging wall side northwards. The displacements in the LOS direction range from about -0.5 m to 1.0 m, with the largest displacement occuring in the northeastern part of the hanging wall (the positive direction points to the satellite from ground). Comparing the results from amplitude matching with those from DInSAR, we can see that while only a very small fraction of the LOS displacement has been recovered by the DInSAR mehtod, the azimuth displacements cannot be well detected with the DInSAR measurements as they are almost perpendicular to the LOS. Therefore, the amplitude matching method is obviously more advantageous than the DIn

  10. Synthesis and Characterization of α-ZrP@CHI Drug Deliver System.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shiyong; Gao, Xuechuan; Zhang, Renfei; Li, Zhao; Tan, Zhibing; Su, Haiquan

    2016-04-01

    This paper described the controlled synthesis and release properties of a new kind of multifunctional drug-release system which was prepared by encapsulation of zirconium bis-(monohydrogen orthophosphate) monohydrate (α-ZrP) with chitosan (CHI). As obtained the α-ZrP@CHI nanocomposites were found to possess the structural features of both α-ZrP and CHI. The release properties of the α-ZrP@CHI nanocomposites were evaluated using Gentamicin sulfate as the model drug. And α-ZrP@CHI composites showed a prolonged drug release time compared with α-ZrP, which can be attributed to the unique lamellar structure and the encapsulation with CHI. The controlled synthesis of α-ZrP@CHI nanocomposite thus provided a new opportunity for future development of delivery vehicles. PMID:27451678

  11. Tai Chi as a form of exercise training in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Leung, Regina W M; McKeough, Zoe J; Alison, Jennifer A

    2013-12-01

    Tai Chi is an ancient Chinese martial art which incorporates elements of strengthening, balance, postural alignment and concentration. The benefits of Tai Chi in the healthy population have been widely examined. In comparison, only three studies have evaluated the effects of Tai Chi in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Existing evidence suggests that the exercise intensity of Tai Chi reaches a moderate level in people with COPD. Furthermore, a short-term program of Tai Chi improves exercise capacity, health-related quality of life, balance and quadriceps strength in people with mild to moderate COPD. More studies are warranted to examine the effects of different styles of Tai Chi and the long-term benefits of Tai Chi as an exercise regimen for people with COPD. PMID:24224506

  12. How-To-Do-It: Snails, Pill Bugs, Mealworms, and Chi-Square? Using Invertebrate Behavior to Illustrate Hypothesis Testing with Chi-Square.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biermann, Carol

    1988-01-01

    Described is a study designed to introduce students to the behavior of common invertebrate animals, and to use of the chi-square statistical technique. Discusses activities with snails, pill bugs, and mealworms. Provides an abbreviated chi-square table and instructions for performing the experiments and statistical tests. (CW)

  13. Conductivity and mobility profiles at 300 and 77 K of epitaxial Cd/sub chi/Hg/sub 1-chi/Te layers

    SciTech Connect

    Sangha, S.P.S.; Thompson, J.; Nicholls, R.E.; Smith, L.M. )

    1989-05-01

    The authors report the results of conductivity and mobility profiles of expitaxial layers of Cd/sub chi/Hg/sub 1-chi/Te at 300 and 77 {Kappa} obtained using the step and etch technique. In this technique, layers are sequentially stripped through chemical etching and differential Hall measurements are performed in the van der Pauw configuration.

  14. mRNA Expression of EgCHI1, EgCHI2, and EgCHI3 in Oil Palm Leaves (Elaeis guineesis Jacq.) after Treatment with Ganoderma boninense Pat. and Trichoderma harzianum Rifai

    PubMed Central

    Naher, Laila; Tan, Soon Guan; Ho, Chai Ling; Yusuf, Umi Kalsom; Ahmad, Siti Hazar; Abdullah, Faridah

    2012-01-01

    Background. Basal stem rot (BSR) disease caused by the fungus Ganoderma boninense is the most serious disease affecting the oil palm; this is because the disease escapes the early disease detection. The biocontrol agent Trichoderma harzianum can protect the disease only at the early stage of the disease. In the present study, the expression levels of three oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) chitinases encoding EgCHI1, EgCHI2, and EgCHI3 at 2, 5, and 8 weeks inoculation were measured in oil palm leaves from plants treated with G. boninense or T. harzianum alone or both. Methods. The five-month-old oil palm seedlings were treated with Gano-wood blocks inoculum and trichomulch. Expression of EgCHI1, EgCHI2, and EgCHI3 in treated leaves tissue was determined by real-time PCR. Results. Oil palm chitinases were not strongly expressed in oil palm leaves of plants treated with G. boninense alone compared to other treatments. Throughout the 8-week experiment, expression of EgCHI1 increased more than 3-fold in leaves of plants treated with T. harzianum and G. boninense when compared to those of control and other treated plants. Conclusion. The data illustrated that chitinase cDNA expression varied depending on tissue and the type of treatment. PMID:22919345

  15. Effect of baseline corrections on response spectra for two recordings of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boore, David M.

    1999-01-01

    Displacements derived from the accelerogram recordings of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan earthquake at stations TCU078 and TCU129 show drifts when only a simple baseline derived from the pre-event portion of the record is removed from the records. The appearance of the velocity and displacement records suggests that changes in the zero-level of the acceleration are responsible for these drifts. The source of the shifts in zero-level are unknown, but might include tilts in the instruments or the response of the instruments to strong shaking. This note illustrates the effect on the velocity, displacement, and response spectra of several schemes for accounting for these baseline shifts. The most important conclusion for earthquake engineering purposes is that the response spectra for periods less than about 20 sec are unaffected by the baseline correction. The results suggest, however, that staticdisplac ements estimated from the instruments should be used with caution. Although limited to the analysis of only two recordings, the results may have more general significance both for the many other recordings of this earthquake and for data that will be obtained in the future from similar high-quality accelerograph networks now being installed or soon to be installed in many parts of the world.

  16. Effect of baseline corrections on displacements and response spectra for several recordings of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boore, D.M.

    2001-01-01

    Displacements derived from many of the accelerogram recordings of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake show drifts when only a simple baseline derived from the pre-event portion of the record is removed from the records. The appearance of the velocity and displacement records suggests that changes in the zero level of the acceleration are responsible for these drifts. The source of the shifts in zero level are unknown, but in at least one case it is almost certainly due to tilting of the ground. This article illustrates the effect on the ground velocity, ground displacement, and response spectra of several schemes for accounting for these baseline shifts. A wide range of final displacements can be obtained for various choices of baseline correction, and comparison with nearby GPS stations (none of which are colocated with the accelerograph stations) do not help in choosing the appropriate baseline correction. The results suggest that final displacements estimated from the records should be used with caution. The most important conclusion for earthquake engineering purposes, however, is that the response spectra for periods less than about 20 sec are usually unaffected by the baseline correction. Although limited to the analysis of only a small number of recordings, the results may have more general significance both for the many other recordings of this earthquake and for data that will be obtained in the future from similar high-quality accelerograph networks now being installed or soon to be installed in many parts of the world.

  17. Migration and employment in Ho Chi Minh City.

    PubMed

    Truong Si Anh; Gubry, P; Vu Thi Hong; Huguet, J W

    1996-06-01

    This article presents findings from a survey of migrants conducted during September 1994 in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The sample includes 19,019 households in 34 residence blocks selected from the 17 districts that comprise the most populated areas of the city. 704 migrants and 296 nonmigrant households completed the basic demographic and socioeconomic questionnaire. One migrant and one nonmigrant completed a detailed questionnaire. Migrants are identified as those who migrated to the city after April 1984. Migrants are divided into those moving during 1984-89 and during 1990-94. The average annual rate of growth in population during the census years 1979-89 was 1.87% and during 1989-94 was 3.5%. Growth during 1989-94 was 1.6% due to natural increase and 1.9% due to net migration. 43% of population growth was due to natural increase and 57% was from net migration. Migration to large cities, such as Ho Chi Minh City, was stimulated by employment opportunities in the private sector. There were more female migrants in both study periods, and the proportion of females increased in the more recent past. About 15% of female migrants aged over 13 years were students and 58% were in the labor force. Most migrants were aged 15-29 years (41% during 1984-89 and 53% during 1990-94). Only 31% of nonmigrants were aged 15-29 years. About 33% of migrants originated from the Mekong River Delta in the south; 20% originated from the Red River Delta and Hanoi region; and 20% came from the Central Coast. Over time, the proportion of migrants from the coast increased and that from the Red River Delta decreased. Migrants and nonmigrants shared similar unemployment and economic activity rates. However, twice the proportion of migrants aged over 13 years were attending school. The author presents the evidence for the influence of urban economic policies on migration, specifically female migration. PMID:12347640

  18. CHiCAGO: robust detection of DNA looping interactions in Capture Hi-C data.

    PubMed

    Cairns, Jonathan; Freire-Pritchett, Paula; Wingett, Steven W; Várnai, Csilla; Dimond, Andrew; Plagnol, Vincent; Zerbino, Daniel; Schoenfelder, Stefan; Javierre, Biola-Maria; Osborne, Cameron; Fraser, Peter; Spivakov, Mikhail

    2016-01-01

    Capture Hi-C (CHi-C) is a method for profiling chromosomal interactions involving targeted regions of interest, such as gene promoters, globally and at high resolution. Signal detection in CHi-C data involves a number of statistical challenges that are not observed when using other Hi-C-like techniques. We present a background model and algorithms for normalisation and multiple testing that are specifically adapted to CHi-C experiments. We implement these procedures in CHiCAGO ( http://regulatorygenomicsgroup.org/chicago ), an open-source package for robust interaction detection in CHi-C. We validate CHiCAGO by showing that promoter-interacting regions detected with this method are enriched for regulatory features and disease-associated SNPs. PMID:27306882

  19. Tai Chi/ Yoga Effects on Anxiety, Heartrate, EEG and Math Computations

    PubMed Central

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine the immediate effects of a combined form of tai chi/yoga. Design 38 adults participated in a 20-minute tai chi/yoga class. The session was comprised of standing tai chi movements, balancing poses and a short tai chi form and 10 minutes of standing, sitting and lying down yoga poses. Main outcome measures The pre- and post- tai chi/ yoga effects were assessed using the State Anxiety Inventory (STAI), EKG, EEG and math computations. Results Heartrate increased during the session, as would be expected for this moderate intensity exercise. Changes from pre to post session assessments suggested increased relaxation including decreased anxiety and a trend for increased EEG theta activity. Conclusions The increased relaxation may have contributed to the increased speed and accuracy noted on math computations following the tai chi/yoga class. PMID:20920810

  20. Water-based Tai Chi: theoretical benefits in musculoskeletal diseases. Current evidence.

    PubMed

    Macías-Hernández, Salvador Israel; Vázquez-Torres, Lucio; Morones-Alba, Juan Daniel; Coronado-Zarco, Roberto; de Los Angeles Soria-Bastida, María; Cruz-Medina, Eva; Nava-Bringas, Tania Inés

    2015-06-01

    Tai Chi is a low-impact and moderate intensity exercise that has shown positive effects in patients with musculoskeletal disorders. Recently have been developed clinical studies on the benefits of Tai Chi techniques combined with hydrotherapy. Both types of treatment include physical training of balance, mobility, strength, coordination and sensory input that could complement each other. This report aims to present the current evidence about the benefits of the combination of water based Tai Chi in musculoskeletal diseases in order to establish whether the combined intervention is better than Tai Chi or hydrotherapy alone. PMID:26171376

  1. New measurement of exclusive decays of the {chi}{sub c0} and {chi}{sub c2} to two-meson final states

    SciTech Connect

    Asner, D. M.; Edwards, K. W.; Reed, J.; Robichaud, A. N.; Tatishvili, G.; Briere, R. A.; Vogel, H.; Onyisi, P. U. E.; Rosner, J. L.; Alexander, J. P.; Cassel, D. G.; Duboscq, J. E.; Ehrlich, R.; Fields, L.; Galik, R. S.; Gibbons, L.; Gray, R.; Gray, S. W.; Hartill, D. L.; Heltsley, B. K.

    2009-04-01

    Using a sample of 2.59x10{sup 7} {psi}(2S) decays collected by the CLEO-c detector, we present results of a study of {chi}{sub c0} and {chi}{sub c2} decays into two-meson final states. We present the world's most precise measurements of the {chi}{sub cJ,(J=0,2)}{yields}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}, {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}, K{sup +}K{sup -}, K{sub S}{sup 0}K{sub S}{sup 0}, {eta}{eta}, and {eta}{sup '}{eta}{sup '} branching fractions, and a search for {chi}{sub c} decays into {eta}{eta}{sup '}. These results shed light on the mechanism of charmonium decays into pseudoscalar mesons.

  2. Response of seismicity to Coulomb stress triggers and shadows of the 1999 Mw=7.6 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ma, K.-F.; Chan, C.-H.; Stein, R.S.

    2005-01-01

    The correlation between static Coulomb stress increases and aftershocks has thus far provided the strongest evidence that stress changes promote seismicity, a correlation that the Chi-Chi earthquake well exhibits. Several studies have deepened the argument by resolving stress changes on aftershock focal mechanisms, which removes the assumption that the aftershocks are optimally oriented for failure. Here one compares the percentage of planes on which failure is promoted after the main shock relative to the percentage beforehand. For Chi-Chi we find a 28% increase for thrust and an 18% increase for strike-slip mechanisms, commensurate with increases reported for other large main shocks. However, perhaps the chief criticism of static stress triggering is the difficulty in observing predicted seismicity rate decreases in the stress shadows, or sites of Coulomb stress decrease. Detection of sustained drops in seismicity rate demands a long catalog with a low magnitude of completeness and a high seismicity rate, conditions that are met at Chi-Chi. We find four lobes with statistically significant seismicity rate declines of 40-90% for 50 months, and they coincide with the stress shadows calculated for strike-slip faults, the dominant faulting mechanism. The rate drops are evident in uniform cell calculations, 100-month time series, and by visual inspection of the M ??? 3 seismicity. An additional reason why detection of such declines has proven so rare emerges from this study: there is a widespread increase in seismicity rate during the first 3 months after Chi-Chi, and perhaps many other main shocks, that might be associated with a different mechanism. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  3. Improved line parameters for the Chi 2Pi-Chi 2Pi (1-0) bands of (35)ClO and (37)ClO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, Aaron; Gillis, James R.; Rinsland, Curtis P.; Burkholder, James B.

    1994-01-01

    Improved line parameters at 296 K for the Chi 2Pi-Chi 2Pi (1-0) bands of (35)ClO and (37)ClO have been calculated with J up to 43.5. The integrated intensity for the 2048 lines in the main and satellite bands has been normalized to 9.68-sq cm/atm at 296K.

  4. The challenges of water governance in Ho Chi Minh City.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, Cornelis J; Dan, Nguyen P; Dieperink, Carel

    2016-04-01

    Population growth, urbanization, pollution, and climate change pose urgent water challenges in cities. In this study, the sustainability of integrated water resources management in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) was evaluated using the City Blueprint approach. The City Blueprint is a set of 24 dedicated indicators divided over 8 categories (i.e., water security, water quality, drinking water, sanitation, infrastructure, climate robustness, biodiversity and attractiveness, and governance including public participation). The analysis showed that the rapid increase of water use for urban, industrial, and agricultural activities in HCMC has resulted in depletion of groundwater and severe pollution of both groundwater and surface water. Surface water quality, groundwater quality, biodiversity, and the sanitation of domestic and industrial wastewater are matters that need serious improvement. Current and future water supply in HCMC is at risk. HCMC can cope with it, but the 7 governance gaps as described by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) are major obstacles for HCMC. Rainwater harvesting, pollution reduction, as well as wastewater reuse are among the practical options. Wastewater reuse could lower the water stress index to 10%. The window to do this is narrow and rapidly closing as a result of the unprecedented urbanization and economic growth of this region. PMID:26009880

  5. Electromagnetic Currents and Magnetic Moments in $\\chi$EFT

    SciTech Connect

    Saori Pastore, Luca Girlanda, Rocco Schiavilla, Michele Viviani, Robert Wiringa

    2009-09-01

    A two-nucleon potential and consistent electromagnetic currents are derived in chiral effective field theory ($\\chi$EFT) at, respectively, $Q^{\\, 2}$ (or N$^2$LO) and $e\\, Q$ (or N$^3$LO), where $Q$ generically denotes the low-momentum scale and $e$ is the electric charge. Dimensional regularization is used to renormalize the pion-loop corrections. A simple expression is derived for the magnetic dipole ($M1$) operator associated with pion loops, consisting of two terms, one of which is determined, uniquely, by the isospin-dependent part of the two-pion-exchange potential. This decomposition is also carried out for the $M1$ operator arising from contact currents, in which the unique term is determined by the contact potential. Finally, the low-energy constants (LEC's) entering the N$^2$LO potential are fixed by fits to the $np$ S- and P-wave phase shifts up to 100 MeV lab energies. Three additional LEC's are needed to completely specify the $M1$ operator at N$^3$L

  6. High chi polymer development for DSA applications using RAFT technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheehan, Michael T.; Farnham, William B.; Tran, Hoang V.; Londono, J. David; Brun, Yefim

    2013-03-01

    Directed self-assembly (DSA) of block copolymers is proving to be an interesting and innovative method to make three-dimensional periodic, uniform patterns useful in a variety of microelectronics applications. Attributes critical to acceptable DSA performance of block copolymers include molecular weight uniformity, final purity, and reproducibility in all the steps involved in producing the polymers. Reversible Addition Fragmentation Chain Transfer (RAFT) polymerization technology enables the production of such materials provided that careful process monitoring and compositional homogeneity measurement systems are employed. It is uniquely suited to construction of multiblocks with components of widely divergent surface energies and functionality. We describe a high chi diblock system comprising partially fluorinated methacrylates and substituted styrenics. While special new polymer separation strategies involving controlled polymer particle assembly in liquid media are required for some monomer systems and molecular weight regimes, we have been able to demonstrate high yield and compositionally homogeneous diblocks of lamellar and cylindrical morphology with polydispersities < 1.1. During purification processes, these diblock materials undergo assembly processes in liquid media, and with appropriate controls, this allows for removal of soluble homopolymer contaminants. SAXS analyses of solid polymer samples provide estimates of lamellar d-spacing, and a good correlation with molecular weight is shown. This system will be described.

  7. Acute Cardiovascular Response to Sign Chi Do Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Carol E.; Carlson, John; Garver, Kayla

    2015-01-01

    Safe and gentle exercise may be important for older adults overcoming a sedentary lifestyle. Sign Chi Do (SCD), a novel form of low impact exercise, has shown improved balance and endurance in healthy older adults, and there have been no SCD-related injuries reported. Sedentary older adults are known to have a greater cardiovascular (CV) response to physical activity than those who regularly exercise. However their CV response to SCD is unknown. This study explored the acute CV response of older adults to SCD. Cross-sectional study of 34 sedentary and moderately active adults over age 55 with no previous experience practicing SCD. Participants completed a 10 min session of SCD. CV outcomes of heart rate, blood pressure, rate pressure product were recorded at 0, 5, 10 min of SCD performance, and after 10 min of rest. HR was recorded every minute. There was no difference in CV scores of sedentary and moderately active older adults after a session of SCD-related activity. All CV scores increased at 5 min, were maintained at 10 min, and returned to baseline within 10 min post SCD (p < 0.05). SCD may be a safe way to increase participation in regular exercise by sedentary older adults.

  8. Statistical analysis of earthquakes after the 1999 MW 7.7 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake based on a modified Reasenberg-Jones model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuh-Ing; Huang, Chi-Shen; Liu, Jann-Yenq

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the temporal-spatial hazard of the earthquakes after the 1999 September 21 MW = 7.7 Chi-Chi shock in a continental region of Taiwan. The Reasenberg-Jones (RJ) model (Reasenberg and Jones, 1989, 1994) that combines the frequency-magnitude distribution (Gutenberg and Richter, 1944) and time-decaying occurrence rate (Utsu et al., 1995) is conventionally employed for assessing the earthquake hazard after a large shock. However, it is found that the b values in the frequency-magnitude distribution of the earthquakes in the study region dramatically decreased from background values after the Chi-Chi shock, and then gradually increased up. The observation of a time-dependent frequency-magnitude distribution motivated us to propose a modified RJ model (MRJ) to assess the earthquake hazard. To see how the models perform on assessing short-term earthquake hazard, the RJ and MRJ models were separately used to sequentially forecast earthquakes in the study region. To depict the potential rupture area for future earthquakes, we further constructed relative hazard (RH) maps based on the two models. The Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curves (Swets, 1988) finally demonstrated that the RH map based on the MRJ model was, in general, superior to the one based on the original RJ model for exploring the spatial hazard of earthquakes in a short time after the Chi-Chi shock.

  9. Heterologous expression, purification and biochemical characterization of endochitinase ChiA74 from Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Casados-Vázquez, Luz Edith; Avila-Cabrera, Salvador; Bideshi, Dennis K; Barboza-Corona, J Eleazar

    2015-05-01

    ChiA74 is a secreted endochitinase produced by Bacillus thuringiensis. Previously we have partially characterized the physical parameters that affect enzymatic activity of ChiA74 in crude preparations of bacterial secretomes. In the present study, we cloned the chiA74 open reading frame (ORF) lacking the 5' sequence coding for its secretion signal peptide (chiA74Δsp) into a cold shock expression vector (pColdI) for production of the enzyme in Escherichia coli BL21-Rosetta 2. As a result, the N-terminal end of ChiA74Δsp ORF was fused to an artificial sequence of 28 amino acid, including a 6× histidine tag for purification of recombinant 6×His tagged-ChiA74Δsp (rChiA74, ∼74kDa). Along with a protein of ∼74kDa, we co-purified its ∼55kDa processed form which was confirmed by Western blot analysis. Optimal endochitinase activity of purified rChiA74 occurred at pH 7 and 40°C. Most divalent cations (e.g. Ba(+2), Ca(+2), Mn(+2), Mg(+2), Zn(+2) and Cu(+2)) at concentration of 10mM reduced chitinase activity by ∼30%, and Hg(+2) (10mM) drastically inhibited ChiA74 activity by ∼75-100%. The Vmax, Km and kcat for rChiA74 were 0.11±0.01nmol/min, 2.15μM±0.45 and 3.81s(-1), respectively, using 4-MU-GlcNAc3 as substrate. Using purified rChiA74 and colloidal chitin as substrate, chitin-derived oligosaccharides with degree of polymerization of 2 and 1 were detected. PMID:25478931

  10. Some observations on colocated and closely spaced strong ground-motion records of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, G.-Q.; Boore, D.M.; Igel, H.; Zhou, X.-Y.

    2003-01-01

    The digital accelerograph network installed in Taiwan produced a rich set of records from the 20 September 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan earthquake (Mw 7.6). Teledyne Geotech model A-800 and A-900A* digital accelerographs were colocated at 22 stations that recorded this event. Comparisons of the amplitudes, frequency content, and baseline offsets show that records from several of the A-800 accelerographs are considerably different than those from the colocated A-900A accelerographs. On this basis, and in view of the more thorough predeployment testing of the newer A-900A instruments, we recommend that the records from the A-800 instruments be used with caution in analyses of the mainshock and aftershocks. At the Hualien seismic station two A-900A and one A-800 instruments were colocated, along with a Global Positioning System instrument. Although the records from the two A-900A instruments are much more similar than those from a colocated A-800 instrument, both three-component records contain unpredictable baseline offsets, which produced completely unrealistic ground displacements derived from the accelerations by double integration, as do many of the strong-motion data from this event; the details of the baseline offsets differ considerably on the two three-component records. There are probably numerous sources of the baseline offsets, including sources external to the instruments, such as tilting or rotation of the ground, and sources internal to the instruments, such as electrical or mechanical hysteresis in the sensors. For the two colocated A-900A records at the Hualien seismic station, however, the differences in the baseline offsets suggest that the principal source is some transient disturbance within the instrument. The baseline offsets generally manifest themselves in the acceleration time series as pulses or steps, either singly or in combination. We find a 0.015-Hz low-cut filter can almost completely eliminate the effects of the baseline offsets, but then

  11. Incremental vs. geological growth of folds: Examples of Tungshih anticline and Neiwan syncline during Taiwan Mw7.6 1999 ChiChi earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graveleau, Fabien; Suppe, John; Chang, Kuo-Jen; Dominguez, Stéphane; Ustazewski, Michaela; Huang, Mong-Han

    2014-05-01

    The coseismic growth of folds during earthquakes is a fundamental process in the evolution of mountain range fronts. Linking this incremental growth to the observable finite geometry of the structure is challenging because extrapolating short-term deformation data to long-term geological times is problematic for many tectonic issues. We address this issue by using an exceptional example from the Taiwan Western foothills where two folded structures, the Tungshih anticline and Neiwan syncline, have been activated during 1999 Mw7.6 ChiChi earthquake. At an earthquake timescale, high-resolution topographic and kinematic data obtained from aerial photo processing allow for documenting the coseismic growth of the anticline-syncline couple. Field results indicate that about 9 ± 1 m of horizontal shortening has been consumed in the anticline, which grew vertically by as much as 10 ± 1 m at maximum. The adjacent syncline experienced a 1 m ± 1 m uplift and -1 m ± 1 m subsidence apart its limbs. Folding mechanisms activated during the earthquake were identified for both folds. It is limb rotation and kink-band migration for the anticline western and eastern limbs, respectively, and kink-band migration for the syncline. From the 3-D dataset of fold growth, we estimated that about 10 100 ± 1 000 m2 of rocks have been pushed into the fold core, accounting for the exceptional vertical uplift. At a geological timescale, we used a seismic line across Tungshih anticline to document the shortening history recorded in the subsurface geometry. Using the "thickness-relief method", we measured that the whole anticline records 538 m of total shortening. This quantity is divided into 243 m of shortening of the upper Cholan strata and an additional 295 m confined to the lower Chinshui shale strata. It implies that two detachments exist: a first at the base of the Chinshui shale, and a second 149 m above the first. To explain this deformation pattern, we interpret Tungshih anticline as

  12. 78 FR 19064 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel CHI; Invitation for Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel CHI; Invitation... of the vessel CHI is: Intended Commercial Use Of Vessel: ``6 passenger charters in San Francisco...

  13. Effect of Tai Chi versus Walking on Oxidative Stress in Mexican Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Rosado-Pérez, Juana; Ortiz, Rocío; Santiago-Osorio, Edelmiro; Mendoza-Núñez, Víctor Manuel

    2013-01-01

    It has recently been reported that the practice of Tai Chi reduces oxidative stress (OxS), but it is not clear whether walking or Tai Chi produces a greater antioxidant effect. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the practice of Tai Chi and walking on markers for OxS. We carried out a quasi-experimental study with 106 older adults between 60 and 74 years of age who were clinically healthy and divided into the following groups: (i) control group (n = 23), (ii) walking group (n = 43), and (iii) Tai Chi group (n = 31). We measured the levels of lipoperoxides (LPO), antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and total antioxidant status (TAS) pre- and post-intervention in all subjects. The data were subjected to a covariant analysis. We found lower levels of LPO in the Tai Chi group compared with the walking group (Tai Chi, 0.261 ± 0.02; walking, 0.331 ± 0.02; control, 0.304 ± 0.023 µmol/L; P = 0.05). Likewise, we observed significantly higher SOD activity and lower OxS-score in the Tai Chi group (P < 0.05). Our findings suggest that the practice of Tai Chi produces a more effective antioxidant effect than walking. PMID:23936607

  14. Biomechanical comparison of frontal plane knee joint moment arms during normal and Tai Chi walking

    PubMed Central

    Jagodinsky, Adam; Fox, John; Decoux, Brandi; Weimar, Wendi; Liu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Medial knee osteoarthritis, a degenerative joint disease, affects adults. The external knee adduction moment, a surrogate knee-loading measure, has clinical implications for knee osteoarthritis patients. Tai Chi is a promising intervention for pain alleviation in knee osteoarthritis; however, the characteristics of external knee adduction moment during Tai Chi have not been established. [Subjects and Methods] During normal and Tai Chi walking, a gait analysis was performed to compare the external knee adduction moment moment-arm characteristics and paired t-tests to compare moment-arm magnitudes. [Results] A significant difference was observed in the average lateral direction of moment-arm magnitude during Tai Chi walking (−0.0239 ± 0.011 m) compared to that during normal walking (−0.0057 ± 0.004 m). No significant difference was found between conditions in average medial direction of moment-arm magnitude (normal walking: 0.0143 ± 0.010 m; Tai Chi walking: 0.0098 ± 0.014 m). [Conclusion] Tai Chi walking produced a larger peak lateral moment-arm value than normal walking during the stance phase, whereas Tai Chi walking and normal walking peak medial moment-arm values were similar, suggesting that medial knee joint loading may be avoided during Tai Chi walking. PMID:26504334

  15. Tai chi improves cognitive and physical function in the elderly: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jiao; Kanagawa, Katsuko; Sasaki, Junko; Ooki, Syuichi; Xu, Huali; Wang, Li

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the effect of Tai Chi on cognitive and physical function in the elderly. [Subjects and Methods] A randomized trial design was used. A total 150 subjects were enrolled and were divided into Tai Chi and control groups. Subjects in the Tai Chi group participated Tai Chi for 6 months, and subjects in the control group participated in other non-athletic activities. [Results] There were no differences between the groups in the one leg standing time with eyes open, left grip strength, or the Frontal Assessment Battery at bedside after 3 and 6 months of intervention. The Mini-Mental State Examination scores after 3 and 6 months were higher in the Tai Chi group than in the control group. The right grip strength after 3 months increased more in the Tai Chi group than in the control group. Both the 5-m high walking speed and 10-m normal walking speed were significantly lower after 3 and 6 months of Tai Chi practice. [Conclusion] These results suggest that regular Tai Chi practice may improve cognitive and physical function in the elderly. PMID:26157242

  16. Measurement of sigma(chi(c2)B(chi(c2) ---> J / psi gamma) / sigma(chi(c1)B(chi(c1) ---> J / psi gamma) in p anti-p collisions at s**(1/2) = 1.96-TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Abulencia, A.; Adelman, J.; Affolder, T.; Akimoto, T.; Albrow, M.G.; Ambrose, D.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Anikeev, K.; Annovi, A.; /Frascati /Comenius U.

    2007-03-01

    The authors measure the ratio of cross section times branching fraction, {sigma}{sub {chi}c2}{beta}({chi}{sub c2} {yields} J/{psi}{gamma})/{sigma}{sub {chi}c1}{beta}({chi}{sub c1} {yields} J/{psi}{gamma}), in 1.1 fb{sup -1} of p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. This measurement covers the kinematic range p{sub T} (J/{psi}) > 4.0 GeV/c, |{eta}(J/{psi})| < 1.0, and p{sub T}({gamma}) > 1.0 GeV/c. For events due to prompt processes, they find R{sub p} = 0.395 {+-} 0.016(stat.) {+-} 0.015(sys.). This result represents a significant improvement in precision over previous measurements of prompt {chi}{sub c1,2} hadroproduction.

  17. Observation of {chi}{sub bJ}(1P,2P) decays to light hadrons

    SciTech Connect

    Asner, D. M.; Edwards, K. W.; Reed, J.; Briere, R. A.; Tatishvili, G.; Vogel, H.; Onyisi, P. U. E.; Rosner, J. L.; Alexander, J. P.; Cassel, D. G.; Duboscq, J. E.; Ehrlich, R.; Fields, L.; Galik, R. S.; Gibbons, L.; Gray, R.; Gray, S. W.; Hartill, D. L.; Heltsley, B. K.; Hertz, D.

    2008-11-01

    Analyzing {upsilon}(nS) decays acquired with the CLEO detector operating at the CESR e{sup +}e{sup -} collider, we measure for the first time the product branching fractions B[{upsilon}(nS){yields}{gamma}{chi}{sub bJ}((n-1)P)]B[{chi}{sub bJ}(n-1)P){yields}X{sub i}] for n=2 and 3, where X{sub i} denotes, for each i, one of the 14 exclusive light-hadron final states for which we observe significant signals in both {chi}{sub bJ}(1P) and {chi}{sub bJ}(2P) decays. We also determine upper limits for the electric dipole (E1) transitions {upsilon}(3S){yields}{gamma}{chi}{sub bJ}(1P)

  18. Structural features of Chi recognition in AddAB with implications for RecBCD

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Martin; Wigley, Dale B

    2014-01-01

    AddAB and RecBCD-type helicase-nuclease complexes control the first stage of bacterial homologous recombination (HR) – the resection of double strand DNA breaks. A switch in the activities of the complexes to initiate repair by HR is regulated by a short, species-specific DNA sequence known as a Crossover Hotspot Instigator (Chi) site. It has been shown that, upon encountering Chi, AddAB and RecBCD pause translocation before resuming at a reduced rate. Recently, the structure of B.subtilis AddAB in complex with its regulatory Chi sequence revealed the nature of Chi binding and the paused translocation state. Here the structural features associated with Chi binding are described in greater detail and discussed in relation to the related E.coli RecBCD system. PMID:25486468

  19. Decadal changes in fault-scarp knickpoints by bedrock erosion following 1999 Chi-Chi Earthquake in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayakawa, Yuichi S.; Matsuta, Nobuhisa; Maekado, Akira; Matsukura, Yukinori

    2010-05-01

    Surface ruptures along the Chelungpu thrust fault in west-central Taiwan caused formation of knickpoints (waterfalls) according with bedrock exposure in riverbeds when the 921 Chi-Chi Earthquake occurred on September 21, 1999. Since then the fault-scarp knickpoints have receded upstream at extremely rapid rates, causing bedrock incision for tens to hundreds of meters in length within a decade. The rapid erosion of the knickpoints provides us an opportunity to investigate actual changes of bedrock morphology of the rivers, and here we examine the changes in the knickpoint recession rates during the last decade from 1999 to 2009. Field measurements of the topography revealed that the mean rate of a knickpoint recession in the largest river (Ta-chia) was 3.3 m/y in the earlier 6 years (1999-2005) and 220 m/y in the last 4 years (2005-2009). This acceleration of the recession can be due to the increase in flood frequency and intensity, narrowing of the channel width, and/or anisotropy of rock strength (sandstones and mudstones) along the stream. The other knickpoints showed relatively similar recession rates throughout the decade on the order of 20-60 m/y. These rates are then compared to an empirical model of knickpoint recession, in which relevant physical parameters of erosive force of stream and bedrock resistance are involved as a dimensionless index. The actual recession rates of the knickpoints are considerably higher than those expected by the model, suggesting that abundant sediment particles supplied from upstream catchment enhance the knickpoint erosion. In fact, all the abundant gravels on the riverbed around the knickpoints that are supplied from further upstream areas with different lithology (mostly older sandstones) are quite harder than the bedrock therein. The model analysis for the two time periods for each knickpoint suggests that the changes in their recession rates can be commonly affected by severe flood occurrence in the study area. Also, some

  20. A comparative study of different PGA attenuation and error models: Case of 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mebarki, Ahmed

    2009-03-01

    In order to evaluate the horizontal peak ground acceleration (HPGA) during earthquakes, the author studies the respective efficiency of two existing attenuation models [Mébarki, A., 2003a, Risques sismiques: aléas, vulnérabilité et aide à la décision par cartes SIG. Proceedings of International Conference on "Risks, Vulnerability and Reliability in Construction. Towards a reduction of disasters". ISBN: 9961-891-01-5, pp. 82-97. Algiers, October 11-12, Mébarki, A., 2003b. Proposal of a parametric attenuation model and comparison with some worldwide earthquakes. VII o Congreso Venezolano de Sismologia y Ingenieria Sísmica, Barquisimeto, Venezuela. November 12-13, (CD-ROM), Mébarki A., 2004. Modèle d'atténuation sismique: prédiction probabiliste des pics d'accélération, RFGC — Revue Française de Génie Civil, Hermès Ed., 8 (9-10), 1071-1086]. A comparative study of their performances is done in the case of 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake (Taiwan). The reported PGA (Peak Ground Accelerations) values correspond to hypocentral distances ranging from 15 up to 180 km with observed acceleration peaks ranging from (0.04 g) up to (1.16 g). The author considers two kinds of probabilistic distributions for the error model in order to describe the uncertainty and the variability that affect the values of the PGA: a Gamma distribution and a Log-normal distribution. The adopted error models assume that the variability of the PGA is such that its coefficient of variation is equal to 55% [Mébarki, A., 2003a. Risques sismiques: aléas, vulnérabilité et aide à la décision par cartes SIG. Proceedings of International Conference on "Risks, Vulnerability and Reliability in Construction. Towards a reduction of disasters". ISBN: 9961-891-01-5, pp. 82-97. Algiers, October 11-12, Mébarki, A., 2003b. Proposal of a parametric attenuation model and comparison with some worldwide earthquakes. VII o Congreso Venezolano de Sismologia y Ingenieria Sísmica, Barquisimeto, Venezuela

  1. Surface waves in the western Taiwan coastal plain from an aftershock of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, G.-Q.; Tang, G.-Q.; Boore, D.M.; Van Ness, Burbach, G.; Jackson, C.R.; Zhou, X.-Y.; Lin, Q.-L.

    2006-01-01

    Significant surface waves were recorded in the western coastal plain (WCP) of Taiwan during the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake and its series of aftershocks. We study in detail the surface waves produced by one aftershock (20 September 1999, 18hr 03m 41.16sec, M 6.2) in this paper. We take the Chelungpu-Chukou fault to be the eastern edge of the WCP because it marks a distinct lateral contrast in seismic wave velocities in the upper few kilometers of the surface. For many records from stations within the WCP, body waves and surface waves separate well in both the time domain and the period domain. Long-period (e.g., >2 sec) ground motions in the plain are dominated by surface waves. Significant prograde Rayleigh wave particle motions were observed in the WCP. The observed peak ground velocities are about 3-5 times larger than standard predictions in the central and western part of the plain. Observed response spectra at 3 sec, 4 sec, and 5 sec at the center of the plain can be 15 times larger than standard predictions and 10 times larger than the predictions of Joyner (2000) based on surface wave data from the Los Angeles basin. The strong surface waves were probably generated at the boundary of the WCP and then propagated toward the west, largely along radial directions relative to the epicenter. The geometry of the boundary may have had a slight effect on propagation directions of surface waves. Group velocities of fundamental mode Rayleigh and Love waves are estimated using the multiple filter analysis (MFA) technique and are refined with phase matched filtering (PMF). Group velocities of fundamental mode surface waves range from about 0.7 km/sec to 1.5 km/sec for the phases at periods from 3 sec to 10 sec. One important observation from this study is that the strongest surface waves were recorded in the center of the plain. The specific location of the strongest motions depends largely on the period of surface waves rather than on specific site conditions or

  2. Tai chi training reduces self-report of inattention in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Converse, Alexander K; Ahlers, Elizabeth O; Travers, Brittany G; Davidson, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    It is important to identify effective non-pharmacological alternatives to stimulant medications that reduce symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this study of healthy young adults, we measured the effects of training in tai chi, which involves mindful attention to the body during movement. Using a non-randomized, controlled, parallel design, students in a 15-week introductory tai chi course (n = 28) and control participants (n = 44) were tested for ADHD indicators and cognitive function at three points over the course of the 15-weeks. The tai chi students' self-report of attention, but not hyperactivity-impulsivity, improved compared to controls. At baseline, inattention correlated positively with reaction time variability in an affective go/no-go task across all participants, and improvements in attention correlated with reductions in reaction time variability across the tai chi students. Affective bias changed in the tai chi students, as reaction times to positive- and negative-valenced words equalized over time. These results converge to suggest that tai chi training may help improve attention in healthy young adults. Further studies are needed to confirm these results and to evaluate tai chi as therapy for individuals with ADHD. PMID:24478679

  3. Comparisons of ground motions from five aftershocks of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake with empirical predictions largely based on data from California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, G.-Q.; Boore, D.M.; Igel, H.; Zhou, X.-Y.

    2004-01-01

    The observed ground motions from five large aftershocks of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake are compared with predictions from four equations based primarily on data from California. The four equations for active tectonic regions are those developed by Abrahamson and Silva (1997), Boore et al. (1997), Campbell (1997, 2001), and Sadigh et al. (1997). Comparisons are made for horizontal-component peak ground accelerations and 5%-damped pseudoacceleration response spectra at periods between 0.02 sec and 5 sec. The observed motions are in reasonable agreement with the predictions, particularly for distances from 10 to 30 km. This is in marked contrast to the motions from the Chi-Chi mainshock, which are much lower than the predicted motions for periods less than about 1 sec. The results indicate that the low motions in the mainshock are not due to unusual, localized absorption of seismic energy, because waves from the mainshock and the aftershocks generally traverse the same section of the crust and are recorded at the same stations. The aftershock motions at distances of 30-60 km are somewhat lower than the predictions (but not nearly by as small a factor as those for the mainshock), suggesting that the ground motion attenuates more rapidly in this region of Taiwan than it does in the areas we compare with it. We provide equations for the regional attenuation of response spectra, which show increasing decay of motion with distance for decreasing oscillator periods. This observational study also demonstrates that ground motions have large earthquake-location-dependent variability for a specific site. This variability reduces the accuracy with which an earthquake-specific prediction of site response can be predicted. Online Material: PGAs and PSAs from the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake and five aftershocks.

  4. Effects of fault dip and slip rake angles on near-source ground motions: Why rupture directivity was minimal in the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aagaard, B.T.; Hall, J.F.; Heaton, T.H.

    2004-01-01

    We study how the fault dip and slip rake angles affect near-source ground velocities and displacements as faulting transitions from strike-slip motion on a vertical fault to thrust motion on a shallow-dipping fault. Ground motions are computed for five fault geometries with different combinations of fault dip and rake angles and common values for the fault area and the average slip. The nature of the shear-wave directivity is the key factor in determining the size and distribution of the peak velocities and displacements. Strong shear-wave directivity requires that (1) the observer is located in the direction of rupture propagation and (2) the rupture propagates parallel to the direction of the fault slip vector. We show that predominantly along-strike rupture of a thrust fault (geometry similar in the Chi-Chi earthquake) minimizes the area subjected to large-amplitude velocity pulses associated with rupture directivity, because the rupture propagates perpendicular to the slip vector; that is, the rupture propagates in the direction of a node in the shear-wave radiation pattern. In our simulations with a shallow hypocenter, the maximum peak-to-peak horizontal velocities exceed 1.5 m/sec over an area of only 200 km2 for the 30??-dipping fault (geometry similar to the Chi-Chi earthquake), whereas for the 60??- and 75??-dipping faults this velocity is exceeded over an area of 2700 km2 . These simulations indicate that the area subjected to large-amplitude long-period ground motions would be larger for events of the same size as Chi-Chi that have different styles of faulting or a deeper hypocenter.

  5. Tai chi/yoga reduces prenatal depression, anxiety and sleep disturbances.

    PubMed

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Delgado, Jeannette; Medina, Lissette

    2013-02-01

    Ninety-two prenatally depressed pregnant women were randomly assigned to a tai chi/yoga or a waitlist control group at an average of 22 weeks gestation. The tai chi/yoga group participated in a 20-min group session per week for 12 weeks. At the end of the treatment period the tai chi/yoga group had lower summary depression (CES-D) scores, as well as lower negative affect and somatic/vegetative symptoms subscale scores on the CES-D, lower anxiety (STAI) scores and lower sleep disturbances scores. PMID:23337557

  6. Distinguishing between chi and sigma phases in duplex stainless steels using potentiostatic etching

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, E.M.L.E.M.; Visser, P.E. de . Physical Metallurgy Div.); Cornish, L.A. )

    1993-12-01

    A color interference film etching technique based on the principle of potentiostatic etching has been developed to distinguish, by optical metallography, between Cr-rich sigma and Mo-rich chi phases as well as with simultaneous identification of the ferrite and austenite phases in duplex stainless steels. The optical metallography results are confirmed by semiquantitative energy dispersive spectrometry analysis and back-scattered electron imaging. The technique is relatively simple and rapid, and makes use of low voltages and a hot etchant. Results have shown distinctively the sigma, chi, ferrite, and austenite phases, and enable observation of the microstructural development, morphology, and kinetics of formation of the phases in duplex alloys. The method, by giving excellent color contrast between sigma and chi, also facilitates quantitative image analysis of the sigma and chi volume fractions.

  7. Multichannel astrometric photometer-based parallaxes of evolved stars - Chi Cygni, 51 Andromedae, and OP Andromedae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, John W.

    1991-01-01

    Using data from Allegheny Observatory's Thaw/MAP astrometric system, absolute parallaxes are presented for Chi Cygni, 51 Andromedae, the newly discovered RS CVn variable OP Andromedae, and selected stars in these fields. Using existing angular diameter measures and the new parallaxes, linear diameters for Chi Cygni and 51 And are given. Chi Cygni has a perturbation in declination having a period of 0.75 yr and an amplitude of +/- 5 mas. Owing to the extreme variability of Chi Cygni, no further characterization of the system is possible at this time. Other results of spectral interest include the detection of a perturbation in the motion of BD +47 deg 466. This system was found to have a parallax of 14.4 +/- 1.2 mas.

  8. {chi}{sup 2} versus median statistics in supernova type Ia data analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Barreira, A.; Avelino, P. P.

    2011-10-15

    In this paper we compare the performances of the {chi}{sup 2} and median likelihood analysis in the determination of cosmological constraints using type Ia supernovae data. We perform a statistical analysis using the 307 supernovae of the Union 2 compilation of the Supernova Cosmology Project and find that the {chi}{sup 2} statistical analysis yields tighter cosmological constraints than the median statistic if only supernovae data is taken into account. We also show that when additional measurements from the cosmic microwave background and baryonic acoustic oscillations are considered, the combined cosmological constraints are not strongly dependent on whether one applies the {chi}{sup 2} statistic or the median statistic to the supernovae data. This indicates that, when complementary information from other cosmological probes is taken into account, the performances of the {chi}{sup 2} and median statistics are very similar, demonstrating the robustness of the statistical analysis.

  9. Chi hotspots trigger a conformational change in the helicase-like domain of AddAB to activate homologous recombination

    PubMed Central

    Gilhooly, Neville S.; Carrasco, Carolina; Gollnick, Benjamin; Wilkinson, Martin; Wigley, Dale B.; Moreno-Herrero, Fernando; Dillingham, Mark S.

    2016-01-01

    In bacteria, the repair of double-stranded DNA breaks is modulated by Chi sequences. These are recognised by helicase-nuclease complexes that process DNA ends for homologous recombination. Chi activates recombination by changing the biochemical properties of the helicase-nuclease, transforming it from a destructive exonuclease into a recombination-promoting repair enzyme. This transition is thought to be controlled by the Chi-dependent opening of a molecular latch, which enables part of the DNA substrate to evade degradation beyond Chi. Here, we show that disruption of the latch improves Chi recognition efficiency and stabilizes the interaction of AddAB with Chi, even in mutants that are impaired for Chi binding. Chi recognition elicits a structural change in AddAB that maps to a region of AddB which resembles a helicase domain, and which harbours both the Chi recognition locus and the latch. Mutation of the latch potentiates the change and moderately reduces the duration of a translocation pause at Chi. However, this mutant displays properties of Chi-modified AddAB even in the complete absence of bona fide hotspot sequences. The results are used to develop a model for AddAB regulation in which allosteric communication between Chi binding and latch opening ensures quality control during recombination hotspot recognition. PMID:26762979

  10. Comparative Effectiveness of Tai Chi Versus Physical Therapy for Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chenchen; Schmid, Christopher H.; Iversen, Maura D.; Harvey, William F.; Fielding, Roger A.; Driban, Jeffrey B.; Price, Lori Lyn; Wong, John B.; Reid, Kieran F.; Rones, Ramel; McAlindon, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Background Few remedies effectively treat long-term pain and disability from knee osteoarthritis. Studies suggest that Tai Chi alleviates symptoms, but no trials have directly compared Tai Chi with standard therapies for osteoarthritis. Objective To compare Tai Chi with standard physical therapy for patients with knee osteoarthritis. Design Randomized, 52-week, single-blind comparative effectiveness trial. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01258985) Setting An urban tertiary care academic hospital. Patients 204 participants with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (mean age, 60 years; 70% women; 53% white). Intervention Tai Chi (2 times per week for 12 weeks) or standard physical therapy (2 times per week for 6 weeks, followed by 6 weeks of monitored home exercise). Measurements The primary outcome was Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) score at 12 weeks. Secondary outcomes included physical function, depression, medication use, and quality of life. Results At 12 weeks, the WOMAC score was substantially reduced in both groups (Tai Chi, 167 points [95% CI, 145 to 190 points]; physical therapy, 143 points [CI, 119 to 167 points]). The between-group difference was not significant (24 points [CI, −10 to 58 points]). Both groups also showed similar clinically significant improvement in most secondary outcomes, and the benefits were maintained up to 52 weeks. Of note, the Tai Chi group had significantly greater improvements in depression and the physical component of quality of life. The benefit of Tai Chi was consistent across instructors. No serious adverse events occurred. Limitation Patients were aware of their treatment group assignment, and the generalizability of the findings to other settings remains undetermined. Conclusion Tai Chi produced beneficial effects similar to those of a standard course of physical therapy in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis. Primary Funding Source National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health of

  11. Electrical sensation during Tai-Chi practice as the first manifestation of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Achiron, A; Barak, Y; Stern, Y; Noy, S

    1997-12-01

    We report a patient with a 3-year history of brief episodes of electrical sensations over her back and upper limbs that occurred during Tai-Chi practicing. This appearance of Lhermitte's sign was later followed by additional neurologic symptoms, and the patient was diagnosed as suffering from multiple sclerosis. Though the patient related the Lhermitte's sign to her ability to achieve full relaxation in Tai-Chi exercise, we think it was the first manifestation of the disease. PMID:9491306

  12. A Comprehensive Review of Health Benefits of Qigong and Tai Chi

    PubMed Central

    Jahnke, Roger; Larkey, Linda; Rogers, Carol; Etnier, Jennifer; Lin, Fang

    2011-01-01

    Objective Research examining psychological and physiological benefits of Qigong and Tai Chi is growing rapidly. The many practices described as Qigong or Tai Chi have similar theoretical roots, proposed mechanisms of action and expected benefits. Research trials and reviews, however, treat them as separate targets of examination. This review examines the evidence for achieving outcomes from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of both. Data Sources The key words tai chi, taiji, and qigong were entered into electronic search engines for the Cumulative Index for Allied Health and Nursing (CINAHL), Psychological Literature (PsychInfo), PubMed, Cochrane database, and Google Scholar. Study Inclusion Criteria RCTs reporting on the results of Qigong or Tai Chi interventions and published in peer reviewed journals published from 1993–2007 Data Extraction Country, type and duration of activity, number/type of subjects, control conditions, and reported outcomes were recorded for each study. Synthesis Outcomes related to Qigong and Tai Chi practice were identified and evaluated. Results Seventy-seven articles met the inclusion criteria. The 9 outcome category groupings that emerged were: bone density (n=4), cardiopulmonary effects (n=19), physical function (n=16), falls and related risk factors (n=23), Quality of Life (n=17), self-efficacy (n=8), patient reported outcomes (n=13), psychological symptoms (n=27), and immune function (n=6). Conclusions Research has demonstrated consistent, significant results for a number of health benefits in RCTs, evidencing progress toward recognizing the similarity and equivalence of Qigong and Tai Chi. PMID:20594090

  13. Cloning, Sequencing, and Expression of the Chitinase Gene chiA74 from Bacillus thuringiensis

    PubMed Central

    Barboza-Corona, J. Eleazar; Nieto-Mazzocco, Elizabeth; Velázquez-Robledo, Rocio; Salcedo-Hernandez, Rubén; Bautista, Mayela; Jiménez, Beatriz; Ibarra, Jorge E.

    2003-01-01

    The endochitinase gene chiA74 from Bacillus thuringiensis serovar kenyae strain LBIT-82 was cloned in Escherichia coli DH5αF′. A sequence of 676 amino acids was deduced when the gene was completely sequenced. A molecular mass of 74 kDa was estimated for the preprotein, which includes a putative 4-kDa signal sequence located at the N terminus. The deduced amino acid sequence showed high degree of identity with other chitinases such as ChiB from Bacillus cereus (98%) and ChiA71 from Bacillus thuringiensis serovar pakistani (70%). Additionally, ChiA74 showed a modular structure comprised of three domains: a catalytic domain, a fibronectin-like domain, and a chitin-binding domain. All three domains showed conserved sequences when compared to other bacterial chitinase sequences. A ca. 70-kDa mature protein expressed by the cloned gene was detected in zymograms, comigrating with a chitinase produced by the LBIT-82 wild-type strain. ChiA74 is active within a wide pH range (4 to 9), although a bimodal activity was shown at pH 4.79 and 6.34. The optimal temperature was estimated at 57.2°C when tested at pH 6. The potential use of ChiA74 as a synergistic agent, along with the B. thuringiensis insecticidal Cry proteins, is discussed. PMID:12571025

  14. Measurement of the resonance parameters of the chi(1)(1**3P(1)) and chi(2)(1**3P(2)) states of charmonium formed in antiproton-proton annihilations

    SciTech Connect

    Andreotti, M.; Bagnasco, S.; Baldini, W.; Bettoni, D.; Borreani, G.; Buzzo, A.; Calabrese, R.; Cester, R.; Cibinetto, G.; Dalpiaz, P.; Garzoglio, G.; Gollwitzer, K.E.; Graham, M.; Hu, M.; Joffe, D.; Kasper, J.; Lasio, G.; Lo Vetere, M.; Luppi, E.; Macri, M.; Mandelkern, M.; /Fermilab /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /UC, Irvine /Northwestern U. /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /Minnesota U.

    2005-03-01

    The authors have studied the {sup 3}P{sub J} ({chi}{sub e}) states of charmonium in formation by antiproton-proton annihilations in experiment E835 at the Fermilab Antiproton Source. The authors report new measurements of the mass, width, and B({chi}{sub cJ} {yields} {bar p}p) x {Lambda}({chi}{sub eJ} {yields} J/{psi} + anything) for the {chi}{sub c1} and {chi}{sub c2} by means of the inclusive reaction {bar p}p {yields} {chi}{sub cJ} {yields} J/{psi} + anything {yields} (e{sup +}e{sup -}) + anything. Using the subsample of events where {chi}{sub cJ} {yields} {gamma} + J/{psi} {yields} {gamma} + (e{sup +}e{sup -}) is fully reconstructed, we derive B({chi}{sub cJ} {yields} {bar p}p) x {Lambda}({chi}{sub cJ} {yields} J/{psi} + {gamma}). They summarize the results of the E760 (updated) and E835 measurements of mass, width and B({chi}{sub cJ} {yields} {bar p}p){Lambda}({chi}{sub cJ} {yields} J/{psi} + {gamma}) (J = 0,1,2) and discuss the significance of these measurements.

  15. Parameter Estimation in Astronomy with Poisson-Distributed Data. 1; The (CHI)2(gamma) Statistic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mighell, Kenneth J.

    1999-01-01

    Applying the standard weighted mean formula, [Sigma (sub i)n(sub i)ssigma(sub i, sup -2)], to determine the weighted mean of data, n(sub i), drawn from a Poisson distribution, will, on average, underestimate the true mean by approx. 1 for all true mean values larger than approx.3 when the common assumption is made that the error of the i th observation is sigma(sub i) = max square root of n(sub i), 1).This small, but statistically significant offset, explains the long-known observation that chi-square minimization techniques which use the modified Neyman'chi(sub 2) statistic, chi(sup 2, sub N) equivalent Sigma(sub i)((n(sub i) - y(sub i)(exp 2)) / max(n(sub i), 1), to compare Poisson - distributed data with model values, y(sub i), will typically predict a total number of counts that underestimates the true total by about 1 count per bin. Based on my finding that weighted mean of data drawn from a Poisson distribution can be determined using the formula [Sigma(sub i)[n(sub i) + min(n(sub i), 1)](n(sub i) + 1)(exp -1)] / [Sigma(sub i)(n(sub i) + 1)(exp -1))], I propose that a new chi(sub 2) statistic, chi(sup 2, sub gamma) equivalent, should always be used to analyze Poisson- distributed data in preference to the modified Neyman's chi(exp 2) statistic. I demonstrated the power and usefulness of,chi(sub gamma, sup 2) minimization by using two statistical fitting techniques and five chi(exp 2) statistics to analyze simulated X-ray power - low 15 - channel spectra with large and small counts per bin. I show that chi(sub gamma, sup 2) minimization with the Levenberg - Marquardt or Powell's method can produce excellent results (mean slope errors approx. less than 3%) with spectra having as few as 25 total counts.

  16. Influence of surface-normal ground acceleration on the initiation of the Jih-Feng-Erh-Shan landslide during the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huang, C.-C.; Lee, Y.-H.; Liu, Huaibao P.; Keefer, D.K.; Jibson, R.W.

    2001-01-01

    The 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake triggered numerous landslides throughout a large area in the Central Range, to the east, southeast, and south of the fault rupture. Among them are two large rock avalanches, at Tsaoling and at Jih-Feng-Erh-Shan. At Jih-Feng-Erh-Shan, the entire thickness (30-50 m) of the Miocene Changhukeng Shale over an area of 1 km2 slid down its bedding plane for a distance of about 1 km. Initial movement of the landslide was nearly purely translational. We investigate the effect of surface-normal acceleration on the initiation of the Jih-Feng-Erh-Shan landslide using a block slide model. We show that this acceleration, currently not considered by dynamic slope-stability analysis methods, significantly influences the initiation of the landslide.

  17. Mineral assemblage anomalies in the slip zone of the 1999 Taiwan Chi-Chi earthquake: Ultrafine particles preserved only in the latest slip zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirono, Tetsuro; Kameda, Jun; Kanda, Hiroki; Tanikawa, Wataru; Ishikawa, Tsuyoshi

    2014-05-01

    We determined mineral assemblages of samples from the Taiwan Chelungpu fault and from milling and heating experiments by using X-ray diffraction and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The fault system contains three dominant fault zones, the shallowest of which slipped during the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake. The quartz and clay mineral contents of the primary slip zone were low, and it contained partly amorphous ultrafine particles (several tens of nanometers). Up to 30 weight percent of materials in that zone could not be fit to standard diffraction patterns, whereas nearly 100 weight percent of those in surrounding samples could be. The unfitted component could be attributed to the observed ultrafine particles produced by comminution during the earthquake, because weak diffraction intensities are caused from mineral lattice distortion, granulation, and amorphous coatings. Such particles are a potential proxy for identifying the slip zone of the most recent earthquake along a fault.

  18. Statistical Analysis of Crossover Interference Using the Chi-Square Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, H.; Speed, T. P.; McPeek, M. S.

    1995-01-01

    The chi-square model (also known as the gamma model with integer shape parameter) for the occurrence of crossovers along a chromosome was first proposed in the 1940's as a description of interference that was mathematically tractable but without biological basis. Recently, the chi-square model has been reintroduced into the literature from a biological perspective. It arises as a result of certain hypothesized constraints on the resolution of randomly distributed crossover intermediates. In this paper under the assumption of no chromatid interference, the probability for any single spore or tetrad joint recombination pattern is derived under the chi-square model. The method of maximum likelihood is then used to estimate the chi-square parameter m and genetic distances among marker loci. We discuss how to interpret the goodness-of-fit statistics appropriately when there are some recombination classes that have only a small number of observations. Finally, comparisons are made between the chi-square model and some other tractable models in the literature. PMID:7713407

  19. Evaluation of Exercise Tolerance in Dialysis Patients Performing Tai Chi Training: Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Bulińska, Katarzyna; Kusztal, Mariusz; Kowalska, Joanna; Rogowski, Łukasz; Zembroń-Łacny, Agnieszka; Gołębiowski, Tomasz; Ochmann, Bartosz; Pawlaczyk, Weronika; Woźniewski, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have poor physical performance and exercise capacity due to frequent dialysis treatments. Tai Chi exercises can be very useful in the area of rehabilitation of people with ESRD. Objectives. The aim of the study was to assess exercise capacity in ESRD patients participating in 6-month Tai Chi training. Patients and Methods. Twenty dialysis patients from Wroclaw took part in the training; at the end of the project, 14 patients remained (age 69.2 ± 8.6 years). A 6-minute walk test (6MWT) and spiroergometry were performed at the beginning and after 6 months of training. Results. After 6 months of Tai Chi, significant improvements were recorded in mean distance in the 6MWT (387.89 versus 436.36 m), rate of perceived exertion (7.4 versus 4.7), and spiroergometry (8.71 versus 10.08 min). Conclusions. In the ESRD patients taking part in Tai Chi training, a definite improvement in exercise tolerance was recorded after the 6-month training. Tai Chi exercises conducted on days without dialysis can be an effective and interesting form of rehabilitation for patients, offering them a chance for a better quality of life and fewer falls and hospitalisations that are the result of it. PMID:27547228

  20. New chimeric advanced Drug Delivery nano Systems (chi-aDDnSs) as doxorubicin carriers.

    PubMed

    Gardikis, Konstantinos; Tsimplouli, Chrisiida; Dimas, Konstantinos; Micha-Screttas, Maria; Demetzos, Costas

    2010-12-15

    Since the late 1960s, the field of drug delivery has focused on the creation of new formulations with improved properties, taking much attention to drug release from the carrier. Liposomes and dendrimers represent two of the most studied drug carriers. A Modulatory Liposomal Controlled Release System (MLCRS) combining liposomal and dendrimeric technology has been recently published as well as Liposomal locked-in Dendrimers (LLDs) technology which was considered to be a class of MLCRSs. Chimeric advanced Drug Delivery nano Systems (chi-aDDnSs) can be defined as mixed nanosystems due to the combination of the bionanomaterials used and can offer advantages as drug carriers. This work deals with the production of two new chi-aDDnSs incorporating the newly synthesized dendrimer PG1. One of the two formulations bears the exact lipidic composition as the commercial liposomal drug "Myocet". Doxorubicin (Dox) was incorporated into conventional (free of dendrimer) liposomal formulations and into the corresponding chi-aDDnSs, and the physicochemical characteristics, the in vitro drug release and the in vitro cytotoxicity against human cancer cell lines were assessed. The results revealed a different modulation release effect of doxorubicin from the chi-aDDnS, compared to the Myocet replica. Pharmacological cytotoxicity concerning all the chi-aDDnSs was very close to that of the conventional liposomal systems. PMID:20934501

  1. The Effects of Tai Chi in Centrally Obese Adults with Depression Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin; Kostner, Karam; Crompton, David; Williams, Gail; Brown, Wendy J.; Lopez, Alan; Xue, Charlie C.; Oei, Tian P.; Byrne, Gerard; Martin, Jennifer H.; Whiteford, Harvey

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of Tai Chi, a low-impact mind-body movement therapy, on severity of depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms in centrally obese people with elevated depression symptoms. In total, 213 participants were randomized to a 24-week Tai Chi intervention program or a wait-list control group. Assessments were conducted at baseline and 12 and 24 weeks. Outcomes were severity of depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms, leg strength, central obesity, and other measures of metabolic symptom. There were statistically significant between-group differences in favor of the Tai Chi group in depression (mean difference = −5.6 units, P < 0.001), anxiety (−2.3 units, P < 0.01), and stress (−3.6 units, P < 0.001) symptom scores and leg strength (1.1 units, P < 0.001) at 12 weeks. These changes were further improved or maintained in the Tai Chi group relative to the control group during the second 12 weeks of follow-up. Tai Chi appears to be beneficial for reducing severity of depression, anxiety, and stress and leg strength in centrally obese people with depression symptoms. More studies with longer follow-up are needed to confirm the findings. This trial is registered with ACTRN12613000010796. PMID:25688280

  2. The effects of tai chi in centrally obese adults with depression symptoms.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Vitetta, Luis; Kostner, Karam; Crompton, David; Williams, Gail; Brown, Wendy J; Lopez, Alan; Xue, Charlie C; Oei, Tian P; Byrne, Gerard; Martin, Jennifer H; Whiteford, Harvey

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of Tai Chi, a low-impact mind-body movement therapy, on severity of depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms in centrally obese people with elevated depression symptoms. In total, 213 participants were randomized to a 24-week Tai Chi intervention program or a wait-list control group. Assessments were conducted at baseline and 12 and 24 weeks. Outcomes were severity of depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms, leg strength, central obesity, and other measures of metabolic symptom. There were statistically significant between-group differences in favor of the Tai Chi group in depression (mean difference = -5.6 units, P < 0.001), anxiety (-2.3 units, P < 0.01), and stress (-3.6 units, P < 0.001) symptom scores and leg strength (1.1 units, P < 0.001) at 12 weeks. These changes were further improved or maintained in the Tai Chi group relative to the control group during the second 12 weeks of follow-up. Tai Chi appears to be beneficial for reducing severity of depression, anxiety, and stress and leg strength in centrally obese people with depression symptoms. More studies with longer follow-up are needed to confirm the findings. This trial is registered with ACTRN12613000010796. PMID:25688280

  3. ChiNet uncovers rewired transcription subnetworks in tolerant yeast for advanced biofuels conversion

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yang; Liu, Z. Lewis; Song, Mingzhou

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of rewired upstream subnetworks impacting downstream differential gene expression aids the delineation of evolving molecular mechanisms. Cumulative statistics based on conventional differential correlation are limited for subnetwork rewiring analysis since rewiring is not necessarily equivalent to change in correlation coefficients. Here we present a computational method ChiNet to quantify subnetwork rewiring by statistical heterogeneity that enables detection of potential genotype changes causing altered transcription regulation in evolving organisms. Given a differentially expressed downstream gene set, ChiNet backtracks a rewired upstream subnetwork from a super-network including gene interactions known to occur under various molecular contexts. We benchmarked ChiNet for its high accuracy in distinguishing rewired artificial subnetworks, in silico yeast transcription-metabolic subnetworks, and rewired transcription subnetworks for Candida albicans versus Saccharomyces cerevisiae, against two differential-correlation based subnetwork rewiring approaches. Then, using transcriptome data from tolerant S. cerevisiae strain NRRL Y-50049 and a wild-type intolerant strain, ChiNet identified 44 metabolic pathways affected by rewired transcription subnetworks anchored to major adaptively activated transcription factor genes YAP1, RPN4, SFP1 and ROX1, in response to toxic chemical challenges involved in lignocellulose-to-biofuels conversion. These findings support the use of ChiNet in rewiring analysis of subnetworks where differential interaction patterns resulting from divergent nonlinear dynamics abound. PMID:25897127

  4. Production of the charmonium states {chi}{sub c1} and {chi}{sub c2} in proton nucleus interactions at {radical}(s)=41.6 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Abt, I.; Kisel, I.; Adams, M.; Cruse, C.; Ehret, K.; Funcke, M.; Schwenninger, B.; Wegener, D.; Agari, M.; Bauer, C.; Braeuer, M.; Hofmann, W.; Jagla, T.; Knoepfle, K. T.; Pleier, M. A.; Reeves, K.; Sanchez, F.; Schmelling, M.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Sciacca, F.

    2009-01-01

    A measurement of the ratio R{sub {chi}{sub c}}=({chi}{sub c}{yields}J/{psi}+{gamma})/J/{psi} in pC, pTi, and pW interactions at 920 GeV/c ({radical}(s)=41.6 GeV) in the Feynman-x range -0.35chi}{sub c} events, which is by far the largest available sample in pA collisions. The result is R{sub {chi}{sub c}}=0.188{+-}0.013{sub st}(+0.024/-0.022){sub sys} averaged over the different materials, when no J/{psi} and {chi}{sub c} polarizations are considered. The {chi}{sub c1} to {chi}{sub c2} production ratio R{sub 12}=R{sub {chi}{sub c}}{sub 1}/R{sub {chi}{sub c}}{sub 2} is measured to be 1.02{+-}0.40, leading to a cross section ratio ({sigma}({chi}{sub c1})/{sigma}({chi}{sub c2}))=0.57{+-}0.23. The dependence of R{sub {chi}{sub c}} on the Feynman-x of the J/{psi}, x{sub F}{sup J/{psi}}, and its transverse momentum, p{sub T}{sup J/{psi}}, is studied, as well as its dependence on the atomic number, A, of the target. For the first time, an extensive study of possible biases on R{sub {chi}{sub c}} and R{sub 12} due to the dependence of acceptance on the polarization states of J/{psi} and {chi}{sub c} is performed. By varying the polarization parameter, {lambda}{sub obs}, of all produced J/{psi}'s by two sigma around the value measured by HERA-B, and considering the maximum variation due to the possible {chi}{sub c1} and {chi}{sub c2} polarizations, it is shown that R{sub {chi}{sub c}} could change by a factor between 1.02 and 1.21 and R{sub 12} by a factor between 0.89 and 1.16.

  5. Solenoid-Less Plasma Start-Up in NSTX Using Transient CHI

    SciTech Connect

    Raman, R.; Nelson, Brad E; Mueller, D.; Jarboe, T.; Bell, M.; Menard, J.; Ono, M.; Be, R.; Gates, D.; LaBlanc, B. P.; Maingi, Rajesh; Maqueda, R. J.; Nagata, M.; Roquemore, L.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Soukhanovskii, V.

    2009-07-01

    Experiments in NSTX have now unambiguously demonstrated the coupling of toroidal plasmas produced by the method of transient Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI) to inductive sustainment and ramp-up of the toroidal current. The coupled discharges have ramped up to 700 kA and transitioned into H-mode with low inductance typical of the type of discharges needed for long-pulse operation, demonstrating the compatibility of the CHI startup method to conventional inductive operation used since the start of tokamak research. The method was first demonstrated on the smaller concept exploration device HIT-H at the University of Washington. These new results that were obtained on a machine built with mainly conventional components and on a size scale closer to a Component Test Facility, demonstrate that CHI is a viable solenoid-free plasma startup method for future STs and Tokamaks.

  6. Design of a far-infrared CHI wiggler free-electron laser

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, R.H.; Blank, M.; Freund, H.P.

    1995-12-31

    The preliminary design of a far-infrared free-electron laser with a Coaxial Hybrid Iron (CHI) wiggler is presented. The CHI wiggler consists of a central rod and outer ring of alternating ferrite and dielectric spacers. A periodic wiggler field is produced when the CHI structure is immersed in an axial magnetic field. The design under investigation makes use of 1A, 1MV annular electron beam interacting with the TE{sub 01} coaxial waveguide mode at approximately 1 THz ({lambda} = 300 {mu}m). The nominal wiggler period is 0.5 cm and the inner and outer waveguide radii are 0.4 and 0.8 cm, respectively. An axial guide field of 5-10 kG is used. The device performance is modeled with slow-time-scale nonlinear code. Self fields and axial velocity spread are included in the model. Theoretical results will be presented.

  7. The story of the evolution of a unique tai chi form: origins, philosophy, and research.

    PubMed

    Robins, Jo Lynne W; Elswick, R K; McCain, Nancy L

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce a unique tai chi form that has been successfully implemented in two large randomized clinical trials. The intervention is composed of a series of tai chi movements chosen for their particular meanings, thus adding a cognitive component to the practice of a moving meditation. Over the last decade, the intervention has continued to evolve as it has been used in different populations. Most recently, medical qigong has been integrated to strengthen its potential impact on a variety of biobehavioral measures associated with cardiometabolic risk in women. Following an appraisal of the authors' process as well as the philosophy, practice, and research of tai chi and qigong, the authors share the story of their intervention to contribute to the evolving research of these safe, well-received, low-cost, and beneficial practices. PMID:22228833

  8. FITEST: A computer program for ``exact chi-square'' goodness-of-fit significance tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romesburg, H. Charles; Marshall, Kim; Mauk, Timothy P.

    FITEST, a FORTRAN IV computer program, performs what is termed an exact chi-square test (ECST) to assess the goodness-of-fit between an observed and a theoretical distribution. This test is an alternative to the chi-square and Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit tests. Because it is based on less restrictive assumptions, the ECST may be more appropriate. However, the test imposes a computational burden which, if not handled by an efficiently designed computer algorithm, makes it prohibitively expensive on all but trivial problems. FITEST, through an efficiently designed algorithm, makes an ECST possible for any problem at a reasonable cost.

  9. Solenoid-free Plasma Start-up in NSTX using Transient CHI

    SciTech Connect

    Raman, R.; Nelson, B. A.; Mueller, D.; Jarboe, T. R.; Bell, M. G.; LeBlanc, B.; Maqueda, R.; Menard, J.; Ono, M.; Nagata, M.; Roquemore, L.; Soukhanovskii, V.

    2008-11-03

    Experiments in NSTX have now unambiguously demonstrated the coupling of toroidal plasmas produced by the technique of CHI to inductive sustainment and ramp-up of the toroidal plasma current. This is an important step because an alternate method for plasma startup is essential for developing a fusion reactor based on the spherical torus concept. Elimination of the central solenoid would also allow greater flexibility in the choice of the aspect ratio in tokamak designs now being considered. The transient CHI method for spherical torus startup was originally developed on the HIT-II experiment at the University of Washington.

  10. Tai Chi for osteopenic women: design and rationale of a pragmatic randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Post-menopausal osteopenic women are at increased risk for skeletal fractures. Current osteopenia treatment guidelines include exercise, however, optimal exercise regimens for attenuating bone mineral density (BMD) loss, or for addressing other fracture-related risk factors (e.g. poor balance, decreased muscle strength) are not well-defined. Tai Chi is an increasingly popular weight bearing mind-body exercise that has been reported to positively impact BMD dynamics and improve postural control, however, current evidence is inconclusive. This study will determine the effectiveness of Tai Chi in reducing rates of bone turnover in post-menopausal osteopenic women, compared with standard care, and will preliminarily explore biomechanical processes that might inform how Tai Chi impacts BMD and associated fracture risks. Methods/Design A total of 86 post-menopausal women, aged 45-70y, T-score of the hip and/or spine -1.0 and -2.5, have been recruited from primary care clinics of a large healthcare system based in Boston. They have been randomized to a group-based 9-month Tai Chi program plus standard care or to standard care only. A unique aspect of this trial is its pragmatic design, which allows participants randomized to Tai Chi to choose from a pre-screened list of community-based Tai Chi programs. Interviewers masked to participants' treatment group assess outcomes at baseline and 3 and 9 months after randomization. Primary outcomes are serum markers of bone resorption (C-terminal cross linking telopeptide of type I collagen), bone formation (osteocalcin), and BMD of the lumbar spine and proximal femur (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry). Secondary outcomes include health-related quality-of-life, exercise behavior, and psychological well-being. In addition, kinetic and kinematic characterization of gait, standing, and rising from a chair are assessed in subset of participants (n = 16) to explore the feasibility of modeling skeletal mechanical loads and

  11. Tai Chi and Qigong for the treatment and prevention of mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Ryan; Lavretsky, Helen

    2013-03-01

    Tai Chi and Qigong are traditional Chinese exercises that are widely practiced for their health benefits and as martial arts. Evidence suggests that these practices may be effective at treating a range of physical health conditions, and at improving health-related quality of life. There is growing interest in the use of Tai Chi and Qigong to treat mental disorders, because they are noninvasive, exercise-based therapies, and because patients with mental disorders frequently use complementary and alternative medicine. Evidence is promising that these treatments may be effective in reducing depressive symptoms, stress, anxiety, and mood disturbances. PMID:23538081

  12. Observation of {psi}(3770){yields}{gamma}{chi}{sub c0}

    SciTech Connect

    Briere, R. A.; Brock, I.; Chen, J.; Ferguson, T.; Tatishvili, G.; Vogel, H.; Watkins, M. E.; Rosner, J. L.; Adam, N. E.; Alexander, J. P.; Berkelman, K.; Cassel, D. G.; Duboscq, J. E.; Ecklund, K. M.; Ehrlich, R.; Fields, L.; Galik, R. S.; Gibbons, L.; Gray, R.; Gray, S. W.

    2006-08-01

    From e{sup +}e{sup -} collision data acquired with the CLEO-c detector at CESR, we search for the non-DD decays {psi}(3770){yields}{gamma}{chi}{sub cJ}, with {chi}{sub cJ} reconstructed in four exclusive decays modes containing charged pions and kaons. We report the first observation of such decays for J=0 with a branching ratio of (0.73{+-}0.07{+-}0.06)%. The rates for different J are consistent with the expectations assuming {psi}(3770) is predominantly a 1{sup 3}D{sub 1} state of charmonium, but only if relativistic corrections are applied.

  13. Connor H. G. Patros: Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    The Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award is given jointly by Psi Chi and APA. The award was established to recognize young researchers at the beginning of their professional lives and to commemorate both the 50th anniversary of Psi Chi and the 100th anniversary of psychology as a science (dating from the founding of Wundt's laboratory). The 2015 recipient is Connor H. G Patros. Patros was chosen for "an excellent research paper that examines the complex relationship between working memory, choice-impulsivity, and the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) phenotype." Patros's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. PMID:26618965

  14. Resilience of aging populations after devastating earthquake event and its determinants - A case study of the Chi-Chi earthquake in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Chih-Hsuan; Hung, Hung-Chih

    2016-04-01

    1.Background Major portions of urban areas in Asia are highly exposed and vulnerable to devastating earthquakes. Many studies identify ways to reduce earthquake risk by concentrating more on building resilience for the particularly vulnerable populations. By 2020, as the United Nations' warning, many Asian countries would become 'super-aged societies', such as Taiwan. However, local authorities rarely use resilience approach to frame earthquake disaster risk management and land use strategies. The empirically-based research about the resilience of aging populations has also received relatively little attention. Thus, a challenge arisen for decision-makers is how to enhance resilience of aging populations within the context of risk reduction. This study aims to improve the understanding of the resilience of aging populations and its changes over time in the aftermath of a destructive earthquake at the local level. A novel methodology is proposed to assess the resilience of aging populations and to characterize their changes of spatial distribution patterns, as well as to examine their determinants. 2.Methods and data An indicator-based assessment framework is constructed with the goal of identifying composite indicators (including before, during and after a disaster) that could serve as proxies for attributes of the resilience of aging populations. Using the recovery process of the Chi-Chi earthquake struck central Taiwan in 1999 as a case study, we applied a method combined a geographical information system (GIS)-based spatial statistics technique and cluster analysis to test the extent of which the resilience of aging populations is spatially autocorrelated throughout the central Taiwan, and to explain why clustering of resilient areas occurs in specific locations. Furthermore, to scrutinize the affecting factors of resilience, we develop an aging population resilience model (APRM) based on existing resilience theory. Using the APRM, we applied a multivariate

  15. Robust Satellite Techniques (RST) for monitoring earthquake prone areas by satellite TIR observations: The case of 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake (Taiwan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genzano, N.; Filizzola, C.; Paciello, R.; Pergola, N.; Tramutoli, V.

    2015-12-01

    different years (from 1995 to 2002). In this dataset the Chi-Chi earthquake (MW = 7.6) which occurred on September 20, 1999 represents the major, but not unique, event. The analysis shows that all identified SSTAs occur in the pre-fixed space-time window around (in terms of time and location) earthquakes with M > 4. The false positive rate remains zero even if only earthquakes with M > 4.5 are considered. In the case of the Chi-Chi earthquake, 3 SSTAs were identified (all within the established space-time correlation window), one of them appearing about 2 weeks before and very close to the epicentre of the earthquake just along the associated tectonic lineaments. The wide considered space-time window, together with the high seismicity of the considered area, surely positively conditioned the achieved results, so that further analyses should be carried out by using longer datasets and different geographic areas. However, also considering the coincidence with other (possible) precursor phenomena, independently reported (particularly within the iSTEP project) at the time of the Chi Chi earthquake, achieved results seem already sufficient (at least) to qualify TIR anomalies (identified by RST) among the parameters to be considered in the framework of a multi-parametric approach to a time-Dependent Assessment of Seismic Hazard (t-DASH).

  16. A systematic review of the health benefits of Tai Chi for students in higher education

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Craig S.; Luo, Anna Y.; Krägeloh, Chris; Moir, Fiona; Henning, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    Background The poor health consequences of stress are well recognized, and students in higher education may be at particular risk. Tai Chi integrates physical exercise with mindfulness techniques and seems well suited to relieve stress and related conditions. Methods We conducted a systematic review of the health benefits of Tai Chi for students in higher education reported in the English and Chinese literature, using an evidence hierarchy approach, allowing the inclusion of studies additional to randomized controlled trials. Results Sixty eight reports in Chinese and 8 in English were included — a combined study sample of 9263 participants. Eighty one health outcomes were extracted from reports, and assigned evidence scores according to the evidence hierarchy. Four primary and eight secondary outcomes were found. Tai Chi is likely to benefit participants by increasing flexibility, reducing symptoms of depression, decreasing anxiety, and improving interpersonal sensitivity (primary outcomes). Secondary outcomes include improved lung capacity, balance, 800/1000m run time, quality of sleep, symptoms of compulsion, somatization and phobia, and decreased hostility. Conclusions Our results show Tai Chi yields psychological and physical benefits, and should be considered by higher education institutions as a possible means to promote the physical and psychological well-being of their students. PMID:26844196

  17. R by C Chi-Square Analysis with Small Expected Cell Frequencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Kenneth J.; Mielke, Paul W., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A nonasymptotic Chi-Square analysis algorithm is presented to investigate r by c contingency tables where small expected cell frequencies render the usual asymptotic analysis inappropriate. A FORTRAN subroutine is provided for analyzing the tables having highly disproportionate or small marginal totals. (Author/GDC)

  18. Performance of the S - [chi][squared] Statistic for Full-Information Bifactor Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Ying; Rupp, Andre A.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the Type I error rate and power of the multivariate extension of the S - [chi][squared] statistic using unidimensional and multidimensional item response theory (UIRT and MIRT, respectively) models as well as full-information bifactor (FI-bifactor) models through simulation. Manipulated factors included test length, sample…

  19. Diabetes Control among Vietnamese Patients in Ho Chi Minh City: An Observational Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yokokawa, Hirohide; Khue, Nguyen Thy; Goto, Aya; Nam, Tran Quang; Trung, Tran The; Khoa, Vo Tuan; Ngoc, Nguyen Thi Boi; Minh, Pham Nghiem; Vinh, Nguyen Quang; Okayama, Akira; Yasumura, Seiji

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the extent of diabetic control and its associated factors among Vietnamese patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). The study was conducted among 652 outpatients who were recruited at a public general hospital (People Hospital 115) and a private clinic (Medic Center) in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Median age…

  20. Letters to Silent Teachers in Tzu Chi Medical School: A Spiritual Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Guo-Ming; Chang, Chien; Yu, Tong

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the spiritual communication between medical students and the donated dead body they anatomized, referred to as the "silent teacher." Data were obtained from the medical school of Tzu Chi University in Taiwan, where students are required to write a letter to the silent teacher at the end of the semester after they have…

  1. More Misbehavior of Organisms: A Psi Chi Lecture by Marian and Robert Bailey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bihm, Elson M.; Gillaspy, J. Arthur, Jr.; Abbott, Hannah J.; Lammers, William J.

    2010-01-01

    In 1992, Dr. Marian Breland Bailey, assisted by her husband Robert E. Bailey, gave the following presentation at the Psi Chi Banquet of the University of Central Arkansas. She and her first husband, Keller Breland, were students of B. F. Skinner and established Animal Behavior Enterprises (ABE) in 1947 and the IQ Zoo in 1955. Unknown to many…

  2. Inclusive {chi}{sub bJ}(nP) decays to D{sup 0}X

    SciTech Connect

    Briere, R. A.; Ferguson, T.; Tatishvili, G.; Vogel, H.; Watkins, M. E.; Rosner, J. L.; Alexander, J. P.; Cassel, D. G.; Duboscq, J. E.; Ehrlich, R.; Fields, L.; Galik, R. S.; Gibbons, L.; Gray, R.; Gray, S. W.; Hartill, D. L.; Heltsley, B. K.; Hertz, D.; Kandaswamy, J.; Kreinick, D. L.

    2008-11-01

    Using {upsilon}(2S) and {upsilon}(3S) data collected with the CLEO III detector we have searched for decays of {chi}{sub bJ} to final states with open charm. We fully reconstruct D{sup 0} mesons with p{sub D{sup 0}}>2.5 GeV/c in three decay modes (K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}, K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0}, and K{sup -}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}) in coincidence with radiative transition photons that tag the production of one of the {chi}{sub bJ}(nP) states. Significant signals are obtained for the two J=1 states. Recent nonrelativistic QCD (NRQCD) calculations of {chi}{sub bJ}(nP){yields}ccX depend on one nonperturbative parameter per {chi}{sub bJ} triplet. The extrapolation from the observed D{sup 0}X rate over a limited momentum range to a full ccX rate also depends on these same parameters. Using our data to fit for these parameters, we extract results which agree well with NRQCD predictions, confirming the expectation that charm production is largest for the J=1 states. In particular, for J=1, our results are consistent with ccg accounting for about one-quarter of all hadronic decays.

  3. "Stretch Your Body and Your Mind" (Tai Chi as an Adaptive Activity).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crider, Duane A.; Klinger, William

    Tai Chi may be an ideal activity for accommodating a wide variety of individuals with varying interests and physical skills while providing substantial health benefits. Theory suggests that children, adolescents, and healthy adults, as well as senior citizens and people debilitated by illness or injury, may benefit from the practice of Tai Chi…

  4. Observation of Persistent Edge Current Driven by Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI)

    SciTech Connect

    D. Mueller; B.A. Nelson; W.T. Hamp; A.J. Redd; T.R. Jarboe; R.G. O'Neill; R.J. Smith

    2005-04-21

    Coaxial Helicity Injection, CHI, has been used on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40 (2000) 557], the Helicity Injected Torus (HIT) [B.A. Nelson et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 72 (1994) 3666] and HIT-II [T.R. Jarboe et al., Phys. Plasmas 5 (1998) 1807] to initiate plasma and to drive up to 400 kA of toroidal current. On HIT-II, CHI initiated discharges have been successfully coupled to ohmic sustainment [R. Raman et al., Phys. Plasmas 11 (2004) 2565]. This paper presents the first results on the use of CHI to demonstrate the persistence of edge current drive in a preestablished single-null diverted inductive discharge. Edge current drive has the potential to improve plasma stability limits [J.E. Menard et al., Nucl. Fusion 37 (1997) 595]. While most current drive methods drive current in the interior of the plasma, CHI is well suited for driving current in the edge plasma.

  5. On Insensitivity of the Chi-Square Model Test to Nonlinear Misspecification in Structural Equation Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooijaart, Ab; Satorra, Albert

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we show that for some structural equation models (SEM), the classical chi-square goodness-of-fit test is unable to detect the presence of nonlinear terms in the model. As an example, we consider a regression model with latent variables and interactions terms. Not only the model test has zero power against that type of…

  6. Dance-Based Exercise and Tai Chi and Their Benefits for People with Arthritis: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Ray

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The first aim of this review article is to systematically summarise, synthesise, and critically evaluate the research base concerning the use of two art forms, namely, dance-based exercises and Tai Chi, as applied to people with arthritis (a chronic condition that results in considerable disability and, particularly in later life,…

  7. Telegram from Ho Chi Minh to Harry S. Truman. Teaching with Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Lee Ann; Schamel, Wynell

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on a telegram sent from Hanoi, Vietnam, by Ho Chi Minh through the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) station in Kunming, China, to President Truman in which Ho asked for support of Vietnam's independence from France. Provides background information, a reproduction of the telegram, and ideas for teaching activities. (CMK)

  8. Effect of Tai Chi exercise in combination with auricular plaster on patients with lumbar muscle strain

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Tao; Song, Qing-Hua; Xu, Rong-Mei; Zhang, Li-Yan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: observe the effect of Tai Chi exercise on the patients with the chronic lumbar muscle strain under the intervention treatment of auricular plaster. Methods: 74 middle-aged and elderly patients, suffering from the chronic lumbar muscle strain, are randomly and equally divided into an observation group and a control group, with 37 patients in each group. The patients in the control group do Tai Chi exercise, while those in the observation group are treated by the auricular plaster therapy in addition to Tai Chi exercise. Evaluate and compare the disease conditions of the patients in the two groups before the treatment and after 12 weeks’ treatment. Results: after 12 weeks’ treatment, the patients in the two groups have been improved differently in comparison with those before the treatment (P < 0.05). However, the cure rate, the excellence rate and total effective rate of the observation group are superior to those of the control group, respectively P < 0.05 or P < 0.01, thus their difference shows statistic significance. Conclusion: after 12 weeks’ Tai Chi exercise, it exercises an obvious curative effect on the patients with lumbar muscle strain but the curative effect is more remarkable if it is combined with auricular plaster therapy. PMID:25932261

  9. Psi Chi Alumni: A National Survey of Psychology Honor Society Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrari, Joseph R.; Appleby, Drew C.

    2006-01-01

    Although thousands of psychology majors are admitted and graduate as members of "Psi Chi", the national honor society for psychology, no assessment of the members who graduate and pursue graduate studies and/or employment has been performed. A randomly selected, national sample (n = 580, 85% women) from the graduating classes of 2000 and 2003…

  10. Calibration of Self-Efficacy for Conducting a Chi-Squared Test of Independence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Whitney Alicia; Goins, Deborah D.

    2015-01-01

    Self-efficacy and knowledge, both concerning the chi-squared test of independence, were examined in education graduate students. Participants rated statements concerning self-efficacy and completed a related knowledge assessment. After completing a demographic survey, participants completed the self-efficacy and knowledge scales a second time.…

  11. Cynthia J. Najdowski: Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of the winner of the American Psychological Association's Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award. The 2012 winner is Cynthia J. Najdowski for an outstanding research paper that examines how jurors' judgments are influenced by a juvenile defendant's confession and status as intellectually disabled. Through…

  12. Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award: Joseph H. Hammer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Joseph H. Hammer, recipient of the Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award, is cited for an outstanding research paper whose findings provide important evidence regarding the promise of a male-sensitive approach to mental health marketing and empirically support the inclusion of theory-driven enhancements in group-targeted mental…

  13. Gregory Daniel Webster: Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award.

    PubMed

    2006-11-01

    Presents a citation for Gregory Daniel Webster, who received the Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award "for an outstanding research paper whose findings report that APA journal articles became shorter in length after the year 2000." A brief profile and a selected bibliography accompany the citation. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:17115835

  14. Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation of ChiV gene to Trichoderma harzianum.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liming; Yang, Qian; Sun, Kening; Tian, Ye; Li, Hulun

    2011-04-01

    As a soil-borne filamentous fungus, Trichoderma harzianum exhibits biological control properties because it parasitizes a large variety of phytopathogenic fungi. In this study, the vectors pBI121 and pCAMBIA1301 and cloning vector pUC18 were used to successfully construct expression vector pCA-GChiV for filamentous fungi transformation mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens.The ChiV gene was successfully transferred into the biocontrol fungus T. harzianum with an efficiency of 90-110 transformants per 10(7) spores using A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Putative transformants were analyzed to test the transformation by the southern blot, and the expression of ChiV was detected by reverse transcription PCR. The transformants were co-cultured to assay antifungal activities with Rhizoctonia solani. The inhibition rates of the transformants and no ChiV gene transferred T. harzianum were 98.56% and 82.42%, respectively, on the fourth day.The results showed that the ChiV transformants had significantly higher inhibition activity. PMID:20936373

  15. Facilitators and Barriers to Tai Chi in an Older Adult Community: A Theory-Driven Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gryffin, Pete A.; Chen, William C.; Chaney, Beth H.; Dodd, Virginia J.; Roberts, Beverly

    2015-01-01

    Background: Prevention has been identified as a primary strategy for reducing health care costs, with potential Medicare savings up to $142.8 billion annually. Falls alone resulted in $28.2 billion in direct care costs. A growing body of research documents significant benefits of tai chi (TC) for balance and prevention and management of chronic…

  16. The Chi-Square Test: Often Used and More Often Misinterpreted

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franke, Todd Michael; Ho, Timothy; Christie, Christina A.

    2012-01-01

    The examination of cross-classified category data is common in evaluation and research, with Karl Pearson's family of chi-square tests representing one of the most utilized statistical analyses for answering questions about the association or difference between categorical variables. Unfortunately, these tests are also among the more commonly…

  17. Effects of Tai Chi exercise on physical and psychological health of older people.

    PubMed

    Blake, Holly; Hawley, Helen

    2012-02-01

    Tai Chi is a traditional Chinese form of conditioning exercise derived from martial arts and rooted in eastern philosophy and Chinese Medicine. Based on the inter-relatedness of mind, body and spirit this form of exercise focuses on producing an inner calmness which is thought to have both physical and psychological therapeutic value. This article provides a brief overview of selected current evidence examining the relationship between Tai Chi and physical, neurocognitive and psychosocial outcomes in older people. This is an emerging and growing area of research and improvements have often been reported in health functioning, physical and emotional health, reducing falls, fear of falling and risk of falls, and possibly enhancing cardiovascular functioning in older adults although the effects on bone density, cognitive and immunological functioning are less clear. Results overall are inconsistent and health improvements have not been evident in all studies. Tai Chi is becoming increasingly popular in practice, and more recent evidence is emerging which is based on experimental and longitudinal designs, although many of the proposed benefits of Tai Chi are yet to be validated in large, randomised controlled trials. PMID:21762093

  18. Effects of Aging and Tai Chi on a Finger-Pointing Task with a Choice Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, William W. N.; Kwok, Jasmine C. Y.; Hui-Chan, Christina W. Y.

    2013-01-01

    Background. This cross-sectional study examined the effect of aging on performing finger-pointing tasks involving choices and whether experienced older Tai Chi practitioners perform better than healthy older controls in such tasks. Methods. Thirty students and 30 healthy older controls were compared with 31 Tai Chi practitioners. All the subjects performed a rapid index finger-pointing task. The visual signal appeared randomly under 3 conditions: (1) to touch a black ball as quickly and as accurately as possible, (2) not to touch a white ball, (3) to touch only the white ball when a black and a white ball appeared simultaneously. Reaction time (RT) of anterior deltoid electromyogram, movement time (MT) from electromyogram onset to touching of the target, end-point accuracy from the center of the target, and the number of wrong movements were recorded. Results. Young students displayed significantly faster RT and MT, achieving significantly greater end-point accuracy and fewer wrong movements than older controls. Older Tai Chi practitioners had significantly faster MT than older controls. Conclusion. Finger-pointing tasks with a choice paradigm became slower and less accurate with age. Positive findings suggest that Tai Chi may slow down the aging effect on eye-hand coordination tasks involving choices that require more cognitive progressing. PMID:23476699

  19. Elemental abundances of the mercury-manganese stars HR 4817 and Chi Lupi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelman, S. J.; Davis Philip, A. G.

    1990-01-01

    Fine analyses of limited spectral regions of the mercury-manganese stars HR 4817 and Chi Lup confirm that these stars have abundances of typical class members. The best determined values of HR 4817 are similar to those of 53 Tau which is an anomalous class member.

  20. Immunosuppressive CD11b+Ly6Chi monocytes in pristane-induced lupus mouse model.

    PubMed

    Ma, Huijuan; Wan, Suigui; Xia, Chang-Qing

    2016-06-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells with immunosuppressive functions have been described to be associated with one of the mechanisms by which malignant tumors escape immune surveillance. However, little is known about the role of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in autoimmunity. In the current study, when we attempted to characterize the peritoneal cells in pristane-induced lupus model, as reported previously, we observed that there were markedly increased CD11b(+)Ly6C(hi) monocytes. Surprisingly, this type of monocytes was almost phenotypically identical to the reported monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells. Further analysis on how these CD11b(+)Ly6C(hi) cells affected T cell response showed that they strongly suppressed T cell proliferation in vitro in a manner dependent on cell-cell contact, NO, and PGE2. In addition, we found that CD11b(+)Ly6C(hi) monocytes inhibited Th1 differentiation but enhanced development of forkhead box p3(+)CD4(+) regulatory T cells. Consistent with the in vitro experimental results, the in vivo adoptive cell transfer study showed that infusion of pristane-treated syngeneic CD11b(+)Ly6C(hi) monocytes significantly suppressed the production of anti-keyhole limpet hemocyanin antibodies induced by keyhole limpet hemocyanin immunization. In addition, we found that CD11b(+)Ly6C(hi) monocytes were also increased significantly in spleen and peripheral blood and showed immunosuppressive characteristics similar to their peritoneal counterparts. Our findings indicate that CD11b(+)Ly6C(hi) monocytes in a pristane-induced lupus mouse model are monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells instead of inflammatory monocytes, as demonstrated previously. To our knowledge, this is the first to describe myeloid-derived suppressor cells in a pristane-induced lupus mouse model, which may lead to a better understanding of the role of CD11b(+)Ly6C(hi) monocytes in this specific pristane-induced lupus model. PMID:26657791

  1. FEM Modeling of Lithospheric Rheology of Taiwan from GPS and PSInSAR Observations of Postseismic Deformation of the 1999 Chi-Chi Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, G.; Chang, W. L.; Chang, C. P.

    2015-12-01

    Postseismic deformation following large earthquakes can persist from years to decades. Since the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake (Mw=7.6), more than a decade of GPS records reveal postseismic deformation across Taiwan and have been used for afterslip and lithospheric rheology studies. Previous researches show that this earthquake has experienced rapid afterslip on deeper part of Chelungpu fault with slip rates decreased within years [Hsu et al., 2002 and 2007]. Other postseismic deformation signals were modeled by assumed Maxwell viscoelastic relaxation with heterogeneous lower crust and upper mantle [Rousset et al., 2012; Tang et al., 2015], which suggest that the pattern of vertical displacements is more sensitive to the geometry of heterogeneous viscoelastic lithospheric structure. To improve the spatial coverage of observation, this study processed both ERS and Envisat SAR images from 1999-2008 with PSInSAR techniques, and the result provide a better illustration of Line-Of-Sight (LOS) deformation field which is near to vertical. Both GPS and PSInSAR results reveal that the surface displacement rates (horizontal or vertical?) of eastern Taiwan are higher than interseismic rates after a decade, and this feature may reveal the importance of low viscosity zone beneath central range of Taiwan. With the benefits from GPS and PSInSAR data, we intend to test other posssible viscosity and the geometry of viscoelastic structure. We adopt coseismic fault geometry and slip distribution of the Chi-Chi earthquake based on previous studies, and build a set of 2D rheological models with an elastic upper-crust layer overlain a viscoelastic lower-crust layer and a viscoelastic upper mantle. The depths of the two layer boundaries are determined according to subsurface tectonic and velocity structures inferred by previous literatures. We employ the finite element method (FEM), Pylith, to estimate the postseismic surface deformation corresponding to different viscosities. Benefit from the

  2. Tai Chi on psychological well-being: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Physical activity and exercise appear to improve psychological health. However, the quantitative effects of Tai Chi on psychological well-being have rarely been examined. We systematically reviewed the effects of Tai Chi on stress, anxiety, depression and mood disturbance in eastern and western populations. Methods Eight English and 3 Chinese databases were searched through March 2009. Randomized controlled trials, non-randomized controlled studies and observational studies reporting at least 1 psychological health outcome were examined. Data were extracted and verified by 2 reviewers. The randomized trials in each subcategory of health outcomes were meta-analyzed using a random-effects model. The quality of each study was assessed. Results Forty studies totaling 3817 subjects were identified. Approximately 29 psychological measurements were assessed. Twenty-one of 33 randomized and nonrandomized trials reported that 1 hour to 1 year of regular Tai Chi significantly increased psychological well-being including reduction of stress (effect size [ES], 0.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.23 to 1.09), anxiety (ES, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.29 to 1.03), and depression (ES, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.31 to 0.80), and enhanced mood (ES, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.20 to 0.69) in community-dwelling healthy participants and in patients with chronic conditions. Seven observational studies with relatively large sample sizes reinforced the beneficial association between Tai Chi practice and psychological health. Conclusions Tai Chi appears to be associated with improvements in psychological well-being including reduced stress, anxiety, depression and mood disturbance, and increased self-esteem. Definitive conclusions were limited due to variation in designs, comparisons, heterogeneous outcomes and inadequate controls. High-quality, well-controlled, longer randomized trials are needed to better inform clinical decisions. PMID:20492638

  3. GammaCHI: A package for the inversion and computation of the gamma and chi-square cumulative distribution functions (central and noncentral)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, Amparo; Segura, Javier; Temme, Nico M.

    2015-06-01

    A Fortran 90 module GammaCHI for computing and inverting the gamma and chi-square cumulative distribution functions (central and noncentral) is presented. The main novelty of this package is the reliable and accurate inversion routines for the noncentral cumulative distribution functions. Additionally, the package also provides routines for computing the gamma function, the error function and other functions related to the gamma function. The module includes the routines cdfgamC, invcdfgamC, cdfgamNC, invcdfgamNC, errorfunction, inverfc, gamma, loggam, gamstar and quotgamm for the computation of the central gamma distribution function (and its complementary function), the inversion of the central gamma distribution function, the computation of the noncentral gamma distribution function (and its complementary function), the inversion of the noncentral gamma distribution function, the computation of the error function and its complementary function, the inversion of the complementary error function, the computation of: the gamma function, the logarithm of the gamma function, the regulated gamma function and the ratio of two gamma functions, respectively.

  4. Detecting changes in long-period site responses after the M w 7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake, Taiwan, using strong motion records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Teng-To; Wu, Chi-Shin; Cheng, Youg-Sin

    2015-06-01

    Temporal changes in site effects are obtained using the HVSR (horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio) method and strong motion records after the M w 7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake, Taiwan. Seismic data recorded between 1995 and 2010 are used, comprising 3,708 data from 15 stations adjacent to the Chelungpu fault. Temporal fluctuations are determined by analyzing the site effect variation using a time-frequency variation (TFV) diagram based on these seismic data. Stations adjacent to the fault show significant disturbances in the resonance frequency at 16-26 Hz. Station TCU129 shows a 40% drop in fundamental frequency after the main shock, and a gradual return to the original state over nine years. For stations located farther from the fault zone, sudden changes in tectonic stress play a dominant role in temporal changes to the HVSR. An impact analysis of the directional factor confirms our finding that the proximity of the fault to seismic stations has the most influence on data.

  5. Insights from heterogeneous structures of the 1999 Mw 7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake thrust termination in and near Chushan excavation site, Central Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wen-Jeng; Chen, Wen-Shan; Lee, Yuan-Hsi; Yang, Chih-Cheng; Lin, Ming-Lang; Chiang, Cheng-Shing; Lee, Jian-Cheng; Lu, Shih-Ting

    2016-01-01

    We describe and analyze the surface and subsurface deformation of the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake thrust termination of the Chelungpu fault in and near the Chushan excavation site, central Taiwan. In order to minimize damage to engineering structures within a deformation zone and formulate regulations for earthquake fault zones and fault setbacks, one needs to know the characteristics of the deformation zone and the connection between surface and subsurface deformation. The surface deformation zone of high strain induced by the earthquake faulting ranges from 15 to 70 m in width, and characterized by a 0.5 to 2 m high escarpment is much wider in the hanging wall. Exposures in the trench, 40 m long and 10 m deep, excavated across the earthquake ground rupture, show on the one hand the heterogeneous structure of a steep, monocline-like fold. On the other hand, strikingly different surface deformation profiles on either side of the 14 m wide trench, i.e., semiparabola-like and monoclinal, do not reflect in any obvious way the subsurface structure. The analysis of our detailed mapping results along with well logs suggests that the significant width variation of the surface deformation zone is attributed to secondary faults branching from the dominant fault at several tens of meters depth. The surface profile of the escarpment is controlled by the depth of the relevant fault tip, and the subsurface heterogeneous structure formed during at least four earthquakes.

  6. Enhancing the Psychological Well-Being of Elderly Individuals through Tai Chi Exercise: A Latent Growth Curve Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Fuzhong; Duncan, Terry E.; Duncan, Susan C.; McAuley, Edward; Chaumeton, Nigel R.; Harmer, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Examined whether a Tai Chi exercise program enhanced the psychological well-being of 98 elderly individuals. Analyzed repeated measures data about participants using latent growth curve analysis. Results indicate the beneficial effects of participation in the Tai Chi program. Discusses implications related to the exercise-psychological health…

  7. Interactive application of quadratic expansion of chi-square statistic to nonlinear curve fitting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badavi, F. F.; Everhart, Joel L.

    1987-01-01

    This report contains a detailed theoretical description of an all-purpose, interactive curve-fitting routine that is based on P. R. Bevington's description of the quadratic expansion of the Chi-Square statistic. The method is implemented in the associated interactive, graphics-based computer program. Taylor's expansion of Chi-Square is first introduced, and justifications for retaining only the first term are presented. From the expansion, a set of n simultaneous linear equations is derived, then solved by matrix algebra. A brief description of the code is presented along with a limited number of changes that are required to customize the program of a particular task. To evaluate the performance of the method and the goodness of nonlinear curve fitting, two typical engineering problems are examined and the graphical and tabular output of each is discussed. A complete listing of the entire package is included as an appendix.

  8. Non-inductive Solenoid-less Plasma Current Start-up in NSTX Using Transient CHI

    SciTech Connect

    Raman, R; Jarboe, T R; Nelson, B A; Bell, M G; Ono, M; Bigelow, T; Kaita, R; LeBlanc, B; Lee, K C; Maqueda, R; Menard, J; Paul, S

    2007-05-23

    Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI) has been successfully used in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) for a demonstration of closed flux current generation without the use of the central solenoid. The favorable properties of the Spherical Torus (ST) arise from its very small aspect ratio. However, small aspect ratio devices have very restricted space for a substantial central solenoid. Thus methods for initiating the plasma current without relying on induction from a central solenoid are essential for the viability of the ST concept. CHI is a promising candidate for solenoid-free plasma startup in a ST. The method has now produced closed flux current up to 160 kA verifying the high current capability of this method in a large ST built with conventional tokamak components.

  9. Cynthia J. Najdowski: Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award.

    PubMed

    2012-11-01

    Presents a short biography of the winner of the American Psychological Association's Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award. The 2012 winner is Cynthia J. Najdowski for an outstanding research paper that examines how jurors' judgments are influenced by a juvenile defendant's confession and status as intellectually disabled. Through the use of a mock trial experiment, the research revealed that jurors discounted a juvenile's coerced confession and sometimes used intellectual disability as a mitigating factor. Attribution theory and the discounting principle were used to identify the psychological mechanisms underlying this effect. The paper, titled 'Understanding Jurors' Judgments in Cases Involving Juvenile Defendants,' was published in Psychology, Public Policy, and Law in October 2011 and was the basis for Najdowski's selection as the recipient of the 2012 Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award. Bette L. Bottoms, PhD, served as faculty supervisor. Najdowski's Award citation and a selected bibliography are also presented. PMID:23163461

  10. Rising HIV infection rates in Ho Chi Minh City herald emerging AIDS epidemic in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Lindan, C P; Lieu, T X; Giang, L T; Lap, V D; Thuc, N V; Thinh, T; Lurie, P; Mandel, J S

    1997-09-01

    An analysis of annual sentinel surveillance data from Viet Nam indicates that Ho Chi Minh City is at the forefront of a new HIV epidemic. Since 1990, data on HIV cases have been collected from prenatal clinics, blood banks, centers for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and tuberculosis, and rehabilitation centers for injecting drug users and commercial sex workers. The first HIV case in Viet Nam was reported in 1990 in Ho Chi Minh City. By the end of 1996, a cumulative total of 4961 HIV cases had been documented in Viet Nam, 2774 of which were in Ho Chi Minh City. In Ho Chi Minh City, 86.5% of cumulative HIV infections involved men. The distribution of total HIV cases by group has been: injecting drug users, 86.0%; tuberculosis patients, 3.3%; sex workers, 2.5%; STD patients, 2.5%; and pregnant women, 0.6%. By 1996, 42 of Viet Nam's 53 provinces had reported HIV cases and infection rates are rising dramatically in border areas near China and Cambodia. The pattern documented in this analysis resembles that observed in Thailand a decade ago: rapidly rising HIV rates among injecting drug users and infection already established among sex workers, without dissemination to the general population. The necessary infrastructure and resources for control of the epidemic are far more limited in Viet Nam than Thailand, however. Recommended, to prevent the further spread of HIV in Viet Nam, are educational activities targeted at injecting drug users and sex workers outside of rehabilitation centers, the availability of condoms and sterile needles, establishment of anonymous testing sites, control of STDs, and the coordination of programs within southeast Asia. PMID:9376101

  11. Design, Installation and Performance of the New insulator for NSTX CHI Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, D; Chrzanowski, J; Gates, D; Menard, J; Raman, R; Jarboe, T R; Nelson, B A; Maqueda, R J; Schaffer, M J

    2008-03-05

    Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI), a non-inductive method to initiate plasma and generate toroidal plasma current, is being investigated in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The center stack and outer vacuum vessel are separated by insulating gaps at the top and bottom of the slim central column so that a high voltage (up to 2 kV) can be applied between them from a pulsed power supply or a capacitor bank to initiate an arc discharge. In the presence of a suitable poloidal magnetic field, the discharge is initiated at the lower gap (the injector gap) and because of the strong toroidal field develops a helical structure resulting in substantial toroidal plasma current being driven. In NSTX, up to 390 kA of toroidal current has been generated for an injected current of 25 kA. The early investigations of CHI however frequently developed arcs across the insulator at the top of the machine (the absorber gap), which terminated the desired discharge. This arcing greatly restricted the operational space available for CHI studies. During 2002, the absorber region was modified to suppress these arcs. The new design includes a new ceramic insulator on the high field side of the absorber region with a much longer tracking distance between conducting elements at the different potentials. Furthermore, two new coils were installed near the absorber to provide the ability to minimize the poloidal field connecting the center stack and outer vacuum vessel. During the subsequent experimental campaign, CHI operation was less prone to arcing in the absorber and those arcs that did occur did not terminate the main discharge.)

  12. Prevention of chi and sigma phases formation in aged 16-8-2 weld metal

    SciTech Connect

    Leitnaker, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Type 16-8-2 weld filler metal (16 wt-% Cr, 8 wt-% Ni, 2 wt-% Mo, nominally) is commonly used to weld Type 316 stainless steel base metal. Suitable control of composition can prevent formation of embrittling phases. The chi phase can be eliminated by adjusting the molybdenum content. The /delta/-ferrite-/sigma/ phase transformation can be prevented by suitably adjusting the carbon-plus-nitrogen content. The mechanism of this behavior is discussed. 14 refs.

  13. Deletion of v-chiA from a baculovirus reduces horizontal transmission in the field.

    PubMed

    D'Amico, Vincent; Slavicek, James; Podgwaite, John D; Webb, Ralph; Fuester, Roger; Peiffer, Randall A

    2013-07-01

    Nucleopolyhedroviruses (NPVs) can initiate devastating disease outbreaks in populations of defoliating Lepidoptera, a fact that has been exploited for the purposes of biological control of some pest insects. A key part of the horizontal transmission process of NPVs is the degradation of the larval integument by virus-coded proteins called chitinases, such as V-CHIA produced by the v-chiA genes. We used recombinant and naturally occurring strains of the Lymantria dispar NPV (LdMNPV) to test horizontal transmission in the field, release of virus from dead larvae under laboratory conditions, and cell lysis and virus release in cell culture. In the field, strains of LdMNPV lacking functional v-chiA genes showed reduced horizontal transmission compared to wild-type or repaired strains. These findings were mirrored by a marked reduction in released virus in laboratory tests and cell culture when the same strains were used to infect larvae or cells. Thus, this study tests the pivotal role of liquefaction and the v-chiA gene in field transmission for the first time and uses complementary laboratory data to provide a likely explanation for our findings. PMID:23624474

  14. Fall risk-relevant functional mobility outcomes in dementia following dyadic tai chi exercise.

    PubMed

    Yao, Lan; Giordani, Bruno J; Algase, Donna L; You, Mei; Alexander, Neil B

    2013-03-01

    Whether persons with dementia benefit from fall prevention exercise is unclear. Applying the Positive Emotion-Motivated Tai Chi protocol, preliminary findings concerning adherence and effects of a dyadic Tai Chi exercise program on persons with Alzheimer's disease (AD) are reported. Using pre/posttest design, 22 community-dwelling AD-caregiver dyads participated in the program. Fall-risk-relevant functional mobility was measured using Unipedal Stance Time (UST) and Timed Up and Go (TUG) tests. Results showed that 19/22 (86.4%) AD patients completed the 16-week program and final assessment; 16/19 dyads (84.2%) completed the prescribed home program as reported by caregivers. UST adjusted mean improved from 4.0 to 5.1 (Week 4, p < .05) and 5.6 (Week 16, p < .05); TUG improved from 13.2 to 11.6 (Week 4, p < .05) and 11.6 (Week 16, p > .05) post intervention. Retaining dementia patients in an exercise intervention remains challenging. The dyadic Tai Chi approach appears to succeed in keeping AD-caregiver dyads exercising and safe. PMID:22517441

  15. Solenoid-free Plasma Start-up in NSTX using Transient CHI

    SciTech Connect

    Raman, R; Jarboe, T; Nelson, B; Mueller, D; Soukhanovskii, V A

    2009-01-05

    Experiments in NSTX have now demonstrated the coupling of toroidal plasmas produced by the technique of Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI) to inductive sustainment and ramp-up of the toroidal plasma current. In these discharges, the central Ohmic transformer was used to apply an inductive loop voltage to discharges with a toroidal current of about 100 kA created by CHI. The coupled discharges have ramped up to >700 kA and transitioned into an H-mode demonstrating compatibility of this startup method with conventional operation. The electron temperature in the coupled discharges reached over 800 eV and the resulting plasma had low inductance, which is preferred for long-pulse high performance discharges. These results from NSTX in combination with the previously obtained record 160 kA non-inductively-generated startup currents in an ST or tokamak in NSTX demonstrate that CHI is a viable solenoid-free plasma startup method for future STs and tokamaks.

  16. Deletion of v-chiA from a Baculovirus Reduces Horizontal Transmission in the Field

    PubMed Central

    Slavicek, James; Podgwaite, John D.; Webb, Ralph; Fuester, Roger; Peiffer, Randall A.

    2013-01-01

    Nucleopolyhedroviruses (NPVs) can initiate devastating disease outbreaks in populations of defoliating Lepidoptera, a fact that has been exploited for the purposes of biological control of some pest insects. A key part of the horizontal transmission process of NPVs is the degradation of the larval integument by virus-coded proteins called chitinases, such as V-CHIA produced by the v-chiA genes. We used recombinant and naturally occurring strains of the Lymantria dispar NPV (LdMNPV) to test horizontal transmission in the field, release of virus from dead larvae under laboratory conditions, and cell lysis and virus release in cell culture. In the field, strains of LdMNPV lacking functional v-chiA genes showed reduced horizontal transmission compared to wild-type or repaired strains. These findings were mirrored by a marked reduction in released virus in laboratory tests and cell culture when the same strains were used to infect larvae or cells. Thus, this study tests the pivotal role of liquefaction and the v-chiA gene in field transmission for the first time and uses complementary laboratory data to provide a likely explanation for our findings. PMID:23624474

  17. Tai Chi Chuan for Cardiac Rehabilitation in Patients with Coronary Arterial Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nery, Rosane Maria; Zanini, Maurice; Ferrari, Juliana Nery; Silva, César Augusto; Farias, Leonardo Fontanive; Comel, João Carlos; Belli, Karlyse Claudino; da Silveira, Anderson Donelli; Santos, Antonio Cardoso; Stein, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Background Several studies have shown that Tai Chi Chuan can improve cardiac function in patients with heart disease. Objective To conduct a systematic review of the literature to assess the effects of Tai Chi Chuan on cardiac rehabilitation for patients with coronary artery disease. Methods We performed a search for studies published in English, Portuguese and Spanish in the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS and Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials. Data were extracted in a standardized manner by three independent investigators, who were responsible for assessing the methodological quality of the manuscripts. Results The initial search found 201 studies that, after review of titles and abstracts, resulted in a selection of 12 manuscripts. They were fully analyzed and of these, nine were excluded. As a final result, three randomized controlled trials remained. The studies analyzed in this systematic review included patients with a confirmed diagnosis of coronary artery disease, all were clinically stable and able to exercise. The three experiments had a control group that practiced structured exercise training or received counseling for exercise. Follow-up ranged from 2 to 12 months. Conclusion Preliminary evidence suggests that Tai Chi Chuan can be an unconventional form of cardiac rehabilitation, being an adjunctive therapy in the treatment of patients with stable coronary artery disease. However, the methodological quality of the included articles and the small sample sizes clearly indicate that new randomized controlled trials are needed in this regard. PMID:24759952

  18. Fast developed Da-An Gorge: Rapid fluvial incision and knickpoint retreat across a co-seismic popup zone of the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jian-Cheng; Chen, Ming-Chu; Frankel, Kurt; Chan, Yu-Chang; Hsieh, Meng-Long; Tseng, Chia-Han

    2014-05-01

    A 1-km-long segment in the lower Da-An River in fold-thrust belt of western Taiwan was uplifted ~10 m during the 1999 Mw 7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake, that was subsequently resulting in a 20- to 30-m-deep bedrock gorge within less than 10 years. The amount of coseismic uplift along the channel bed does not fully explain the resulting bedrock channel incision. Using a series of aerial photographs, high-resolution digital elevation models (DEM), and real-time kinematic global positioning system (RTK GPS) surveys, we characterized knickpoint retreat and fluvial incision in the Da-An River gorge. We also analyzed discharge and precipitation data and collected measurements of rock strength and joint plane orientations to better understand the climatic, lithological, and structural influence on the evolution of the actively incising gorge. Two stages of fluvial incision and knickpoint migration are identified in the gorge following the surface uplift during the Chi-Chi earthquake. From 1999 to 2004, 3 to 5 m of alluvium was removed from the channel bed, followed by 3 to 4 m of bedrock channel incision. The knickpoint generated immediately after the earthquake remained where the uplift occurred in 1999. Since 2005, the channel bed has lowered rapidly with local incision rates as high as 15 m/yr. The average upstream knickpoint migration rate over the period 2005 to 2009 was 238 m/yr; total upstream migration from the location of knickpoint formation was about 1190 m. While tectonic uplift formed the knickpoint and set the stage for channel incision, climate played a critical role in accelerating the fluvial response to coseismic displacement. More than 20 m of vertical bedrock channel incision and 1180 m of upstream knickpoint migration occurred primarily during the post-2005 typhoon seasons (May-October). Based on repeat surveys of the Da-An River longitudinal profile and analysis of precipitation and discharge data, we suggest that a discharge threshold of 1200 to 2600 m

  19. Assessing impacts of typhoons and the Chi-Chi earthquake on Chenyulan watershed landscape pattern in central Taiwan using landscape metrics.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Pin; Chang, Tsun-Kuo; Wu, Chen-Fa; Chiang, Te-Chih; Lin, Shin-Hwei

    2006-07-01

    The Chi-Chi earthquake (ML=7.3) occurred in the central part of Taiwan on September 21, 1999. After the earthquake, typhoons Xangsane and Toraji produced heavy rainfall that fell across the eastern and central parts of Taiwan on November 2000 and July 2001. This study uses remote sensing data, landscape metrics, multivariate statistical analysis, and spatial autocorrelation to assess how earthquake and typhoons affect landscape patterns. It addresses variations of the Chenyulan watershed in Nantou County, near the earthquake's epicenter and crossed by Typhoon Toraji. The subsequent disturbances have gradually changed landscape of the Chenyulan watershed. Disturbances of various types, sizes, and intensities, following various tracks, have various effects on the landscape patterns and variations of the Chenyulan watershed. The landscape metrics that are obtained by multivariate statistical analyses showed that the disturbances produced variously fragmented patches, interspersed with other patches and isolated from patches of the same type across the entire Chenyulan watershed. The disturbances also affected the isolation, size, and shape-complexity of patches at the landscape and class levels. The disturbances at the class level more strongly affected spatial variations in the landscape as well as patterns of grasslands and bare land, than variations in the watershed farmland and forest. Moreover, the earthquake with high magnitude was a starter to create these landscape variations in space in the Chenyulan watershed. The cumulative impacts of the disturbances on the watershed landscape pattern had existed, especially landslides and grassland in the study area, but were not always evident in space and time in landscape and other class levels. PMID:16738824

  20. Eleven Years of CHiPR [1991-2002] and Its Legacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidner, D. J.; Liebermann, R. C.; Navrotsky, A.; Prewitt, C. T.

    2002-12-01

    In 1991, with funding from the National Science Foundation Science and Technology Program, the Center for High Pressure Research [CHiPR] was organized by three academic institutions composed of the Mineral Physics Institute of Stony Brook University, the Geophysical Laboratory of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, and the Thermochemistry Facility at Princeton University (later at the University of California at Davis). In addition, collaborators from the University of Colorado and the University of California at San Diego joined CHiPR as it evolved. The past decade has seen a revolution in high-pressure geoscience, inspired by technical developments that allowed higher pressures to be attained simultaneously with higher temperatures for sustained periods of time, along with larger sample volumes and various kinds of in-situ measurements. In addition, CHiPR played a significant role in demonstrating the importance of national synchrotron facilities for critical high-pressure experiments. CHiPR personnel have been major contributors to this revolution. CHiPR's principal mission has been to advance the science of high-pressure research, with a specific focus on deep Earth questions. Examples of these research thrusts include the role of water in the Earth's interior, the thermophysical properties [elasticity, rheology, equations-of-state, thermochemistry] of minerals at high pressures and temperatures, and the behavior of matter in the giant planets.As a consequence of the technological and scientific progress in high-pressure geoscience in the past ten years, we are now poised to continue the high-pressure research initiative and to exploit fully the capabilities of the national synchrotron X-ray and neutron scattering facilities. For this, a new Consortium for Materials Properties Research in Earth Sciences [COMPRES], has been organized by the high pressure Earth science community. Themes of this consortium are to promote and develop the infrastructure that is

  1. Experimental and ab initio infrared study of chi-, kappa- and alpha-aluminas formed from gibbsite

    SciTech Connect

    Favaro, L.; Boumaza, A.; Roy, P.; Ledion, J.; Sattonnay, G.; Brubach, J.B.; Huntz, A.M.; Tetot, R.

    2010-04-15

    chi-, kappa- and alpha-alumina phases formed by dehydration of micro-grained gibbsite between 773 and 1573 K are studied using infrared spectroscopy (IR). The structural transitions evidenced by X-ray diffraction (XRD) were interpreted by comparing IR measurements with ab initio simulations (except for the chi form whose complexity does not allow a reliable simulation). For each phase, IR spectrum presents specific bands corresponding to transverse optical (TO) modes of Al-O stretching and bending under 900 cm{sup -1}. The very complex chi phase, obtained at 773 K, provides a distinctive XRD pattern in contrast with the IR absorbance appearing as a broad structure extending between 200 and 900 cm{sup -1} resembling the equivalent spectra for gamma-alumina phase. kappa-alumina is forming at 1173 K and its rich IR spectrum is in good qualitative agreement with ab initio simulations. This complexity reflects the large number of atoms in the kappa-alumina unit cell and the wide range of internuclear distances as well as the various coordinances of both Al and O atoms. Ab initio simulations suggest that this form of transition alumina demonstrates a strong departure from the simple pattern observed for other transition alumina. At 1573 K, the stable alpha-ALPHAl{sub 2}OMICRON{sub 3} develops. Its IR spectra extends in a narrower energy range as compared to transition alumina and presents characteristics features similar to model alpha-ALPHAl{sub 2}OMICRON{sub 3}. Ab initio calculations show again a very good general agreement with the observed IR spectra for this phase. In addition, for both kappa- and alpha-ALPHAl{sub 2}OMICRON{sub 3}, extra modes, measured at high energy (above 790 cm{sup -1} for kappa and above 650 cm{sup -1} for alpha), can originate from either remnant chi-alumina or from surface modes. - Graphical abstract: Infrared spectra of the sequence Gibbsite ->chi->kappa->alpha-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} obtained from 24 h calcinations of Gibbsite at 773 K, 1173 K

  2. The chitinase C gene PsChiC from Pseudomonas sp. and its synergistic effects on larvicidal activity

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Wanfang; Ding, Shaojun; Guo, Huifang

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas sp. strain TXG6-1, a chitinolytic gram-negative bacterium, was isolated from a vegetable field in Taixing city, Jiangsu Province, China. In this study, a Pseudomonas chitinase C gene (PsChiC) was isolated from the chromosomal DNA of this bacterium using a pair of specific primers. The PsChiC gene consisted of an open reading frame of 1443 nucleotides and encoded 480 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 51.66 kDa. The deduced PsChiC amino acid sequence lacked a signal sequence and consisted of a glycoside hydrolase family 18 catalytic domain responsible for chitinase activity, a fibronectin type III-like domain (FLD) and a C-terminal chitin-binding domain (ChBD). The amino acid sequence of PsChiCshowed high sequence homology (> 95%) with chitinase C from Serratia marcescens. SDS-PAGE showed that the molecular mass of chitinase PsChiC was 52 kDa. Chitinase assays revealed that the chitobiosidase and endochitinase activities of PsChiCwere 51.6- and 84.1-fold higher than those of pET30a, respectively. Although PsChiC showed little insecticidal activity towards Spodoptera litura larvae, an insecticidal assay indicated that PsChiC increased the insecticidal toxicity of SpltNPV by 1.78-fold at 192 h and hastened death. These results suggest that PsChiC from Pseudomonas sp. could be useful in improving the pathogenicity of baculoviruses. PMID:26500441

  3. The Effects of Tai Chi Chuan Combined with Vibration Training on Balance Control and Lower Extremity Muscle Power

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Pao-Hung; Lin, Guan-Lun; Liu, Chiang; Chuang, Long-Ren; Shiang, Tzyy-Yuang

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether performing Tai Chi Chuan on a customized vibration platform could enhance balance control and lower extremity muscle power more efficiently than Tai Chi Chuan alone in an untrained young population. Forty-eight healthy young adults were randomly assigned to the following three groups: a Tai Chi Chuan combined with vibration training group (TCV), a Tai Chi Chuan group (TCC) or a control group. The TCV group underwent 30 minutes of a reformed Tai Chi Chuan program on a customized vibration platform (32 Hz, 1 mm) three times a week for eight weeks, whereas the TCC group was trained without vibration stimuli. A force platform was used to measure the moving area of a static single leg stance and the heights of two consecutive countermovement jumps. The activation of the knee extensor and flexor was also measured synchronously by surface electromyography in all tests. The results showed that the moving area in the TCV group was significantly decreased by 15.3%. The second jump height in the TCV group was significantly increased by 8.14%, and the activation of the knee extensor/flexor was significantly decreased in the first jump. In conclusion, Tai Chi Chuan combined with vibration training can more efficiently improve balance control, and the positive training effect on the lower extremity muscle power induced by vibration stimuli still remains significant because there is no cross-interaction between the two different types of training methods. Key points Eight weeks of Tai Chi Chuan combined with vibration training can more efficiently improve balance control for an untrained young population. The positive training effect on the lower extremity muscle power induced by vibration stimuli during Tai Chi Chuan movements still remains significant because of SSC mechanism. Combining Tai Chi Chuan with vibration training is more efficient and does not decrease the overall training effects due to a cross-interaction of each other

  4. Validation of Chinese Version of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Health-Related Quality of Life Questionnaire (Chi-PCOSQ)

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chung-Ying; Ou, Huang-tz; Wu, Meng-Hsing; Chen, Pei-Chi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the responsiveness, longitudinal validity, and measurement invariance of the Chinese version of the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Health-related Quality of Life Questionnaire (Chi-PCOSQ). Research Design and Method This prospective study was conducted in a medical center in southern Taiwan. 102 women aged 18–45 years and diagnosed with PCOS were enrolled. Objective indicators for clinical changes of PCOS included assessing the 2-hour glucose and insulin levels before and after treatment. The responsiveness of Chi-PCOSQ and WHOQOL-BREF was analyzed using paired t-tests and the standard response mean. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed to assess the measurement invariance of Chi-PCOSQ. Results With improved 2-hour glucose and insulin levels, we also found significantly increased Chi-PCOSQ total and individual domain scores (total score: t (49) = 5.20; p < 0.001, domain scores: t (49) = 2.72 to 3.87; p < 0.01), except for hair growth. Half of the domains scores (3 of 6) and the total score of Chi-PCOSQ had a medium responsiveness, but WHOQOL-BREF was not sufficiently responsive to clinical changes of PCOS. Improved PCOS-specific health-related quality of life (HRQoL), as indicated by Chi-PCOSQ scores, was significantly associated with improved 2-hour glucose and insulin levels. All indices of the data-model fit of the Chi-PCOSQ structure were satisfactory, except for the slightly high standardized root mean square residual values (0.087 to 0.088). The measurement invariance of Chi-PCOSQ was supported across time. Conclusion Chi-PCOSQ is sufficiently sensitive in detecting clinical changes and its measurement structure is suitable for Chinese women with PCOS. It is thus a promising tool for assessing the HRQoL of ethnic Chinese women with PCOS. PMID:27124836

  5. Effective Lagrangian for Two-photon and Two-gluon Decays of P-wave Heavy Quarkonium chi_c(0,2) and chi_(b0,2) states

    SciTech Connect

    Lansberg, J.P.; Pham, T.N.; /Ecole Polytechnique, CPHT

    2009-06-03

    In the traditional non-relativistic bound state calculation, the two-photon decay amplitudes of the P-wave {chi}{sub c0,2} and {chi}{sub b0,2} states depend on the derivative of the wave function at the origin which can only be obtained from potential models. However by neglecting the relative quark momenta, the decay amplitude can be written as the matrix element of a local heavy quark field operator which could be obtained from other processes or computed with QCD sum rules technique or lattice simulation. Following the same line as in recent work for the two-photon decays of the S-wave {eta}{sub c} and {eta}{sub b} quarkonia, we show that the effective Lagrangian for the two-photon decays of the P-wave {chi}{sub c0,2} and {chi}{sub b0,2} is given by the heavy quark energy-momentum tensor local operator or its trace, the {anti Q}Q scalar density and that the expression for {chi}{sub c0} two-photon and two-gluon decay rate is given by the f{sub {chi}{sub c0}} decay constant and is similar to that of {eta}{sub c} which is given by f{sub {eta}{sub c}}. From the existing QCD sum rules value for f{sub {chi}{sub c0}}, we get 5 keV for the {chi}{sub c0} two-photon width, somewhat larger than measurement, but possibly with large uncertainties.

  6. Search for the Z_1(4050)^+ and Z_2(4250)^+ States in bar B^0 to chi_{c1} K^- pi^+ and B^+ to chi_{c1} K^0_S pi^+

    SciTech Connect

    Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; Martinelli, M.; Milanes, D.A.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Brown, D.N.; Kerth, L.T.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Lynch, G.; Koch, H.; Schroeder, T.; Asgeirsson, D.J.; Hearty, C.; Mattison, T.S.; McKenna, J.A.; /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UC, Riverside /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Indian Inst. Tech., Guwahati /Harvard U. /Harvey Mudd Coll. /Heidelberg U. /Humboldt U., Berlin /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa State U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Paris U., VI-VII /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Mainz U., Inst. Kernphys. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT /McGill U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Paris U., VI-VII /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Princeton U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /SLAC /South Carolina U. /Southern Methodist U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Albany /Tel Aviv U. /Tennessee U. /Texas Nuclear Corp., Austin /Texas U., Dallas /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /Valencia U. /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2012-04-10

    We search for the Z{sub 1}(4050){sup +} and Z{sub 2}(4250){sup +} states, reported by the Belle Collaboration, decaying to {chi}{sub c1}{pi}{sup +} in the decays {bar B}{sup 0} {yields} {chi}{sub c1}K{sup -}{pi}{sup +} and B{sup +} {yields} {chi}{sub c1}K{sub S}{sup 0}{pi}{sup +} where {chi}{sub c1} {yields} J/{psi}{gamma}. The data were collected with the BABAR detector at the SLAC PEP-II asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider operating at center-of-mass energy 10.58 GeV, and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 429 fb{sup -1}. In this analysis, we model the background-subtracted, efficiency-corrected {chi}{sub c1}{pi}{sup +} mass distribution using the K{pi} mass distribution and the corresponding normalized K{pi} Legendre polynomial moments, and then test the need for the inclusion of resonant structures in the description of the {chi}{sub c1}{pi}{sup +} mass distribution. No evidence is found for the Z{sub 1}(4050){sup +} and Z{sub 2}(4250){sup +} resonances, and 90% confidence level upper limits on the branching fractions are reported for the corresponding B-meson decay modes.

  7. Consumer Health Informatics in the Context of Engaged Citizens and eHealth Services - A New CHI Meta Model.

    PubMed

    Wiesner, Martin; Griebel, Lena; Becker, Kurt; Pobiruchin, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Consumer Health Informatics (CHI) is a relatively new and interdisciplinary field in Medical Informatics. It focuses on consumer- rather than professional-centered services. However, the definitions and understanding of a) what is a "consumer"? or b) what is health technology in the context of CHI? and c) what factors and actors influence the usage of eHealth services? vary widely. The CHI special interest group (SIG) - associated with the German Association for Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology - conducted two workshops in 2015 to improve the common understanding on these topics. The workshop outcomes, the derived CHI-specific meta model and examples how to apply this model are presented in this paper. The model supports the definition of multi-actor contexts, as it not solely reflects the conventional patient-physician relationship but also allows for the description of second health market providers. PMID:27332268

  8. Exact Chi-Square and Fisher's Exact Probability Test for 3 by 2 Cross-Classification Tables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Kenneth J.; Mielke, Paul W., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Subroutines to calculate exact chi square and Fisher's exact probability tests are presented for 3 by 2 cross-classification tables. A nondirectional probability value for each test is computed recursively. (Author/GDC)

  9. Developing a positive emotion-motivated Tai Chi (PEM-TC) exercise program for older adults with dementia.

    PubMed

    Yao, Lan; Giordani, Bruno; Alexander, Neil B

    2008-01-01

    Exercise, particularly Tai Chi, has many known benefits, especially in reducing fall risk. However, exercise studies have tended to exclude older adults with dementia (OAD), who may be at high fall risk but have difficulty participating in formal exercise programs. This paper describes development and feasibility testing of a Tai Chi fall risk reduction exercise protocol, the positive emotion-motivated Tai Chi (PEM-TC) program for OAD, and explores strategies that facilitate their participation in and adherence to exercise programs. Preliminary data indicates that difficulties in delivering exercise to OAD may be eased by using the Sticky Hands Tai Chi teaching technique. Family members may have the optimum advantage in using Sticky Hands because of established emotional connections with their OAD. PMID:19093662

  10. Tai Chi Exercise for Patients with Cardiovascular Conditions and Risk Factors: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Gloria Y.; Wang, Chenchen; Wayne, Peter M.; Phillips, Russell

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE To conduct a systematic review of the literature evaluating tai chi exercise as an intervention for patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) or with cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF). METHODS We searched: 1) Medline, CAB Alt Health Watch, BIOSIS previews, Science Citation Index, EMBASE, and Social Science Citation Index from inception through October 2007; 2) Chinese Medical Database, China Hospital Knowledge, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and China Traditional Chinese Medicine Database from inception through June 2005; and 3) performed hand searches at the medical libraries of Beijing and Nanjing Universities. Clinical studies published in English and Chinese including participants with established CVD or CVRF were included. Data were extracted in a standardized manner; 2 independent investigators assessed methodological quality, including the Jadad score for randomized controlled trials (RCT). RESULTS Twenty-nine studies met inclusion criteria: 9 RCT, 14 non-randomized studies (NRS), and 6 observational trials (OBS). Three studies examined subjects with coronary heart disease, 5 in heart failure, and 10 in heterogeneous populations that included those with CVD. Eleven studies examined subjects with CVRF (hypertension, dyslipidemia, impaired glucose metabolism). Study duration ranged from 8 weeks to 3 years. Most studies included <100 subjects (range 5–207). Six of nine RCTs were of adequate quality (Jadad ≥3). Most studies report improvements with tai chi, including blood pressure reductions and increases in exercise capacity. No adverse effects were reported. CONCLUSION Preliminary evidence suggests that tai chi exercise may be a beneficial adjunctive therapy for some patients with CVD and CVRF. Further research is needed. PMID:19471133

  11. Feasibility and Acceptability of a Tai Chi Chih Randomized Controlled Trial in Senior Female Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Campo, Rebecca A.; O’Connor, Kathleen; Light, Kathleen C.; Nakamura, Yoshio; Lipschitz, David; LaStayo, Paul C.; Pappas, Lisa; Boucher, Kenneth; Irwin, Michael R.; Agarwal, Neeraj; Kinney, Anita Y.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Tai Chi Chih (TCC) is associated with improved physical functioning and psychological benefits in breast cancer survivors and healthy older adults; thus, may also be beneficial for senior cancer survivors with physical functioning declines. The purpose of this randomized controlled trial (RCT) was to examine the feasibility and acceptability of a Tai Chi Chih (TCC) intervention in senior female cancer survivors, with physical functioning limitations, as well as, its effects on QOL. Design This was a two-armed, parallel group, RCT with 12-weeks of Tai Chi Chih or Health Education Control. Methods Sixty-three senior (M age=67 years, SD=7.15) female cancer survivors (83% breast cancer, stages I–III) with physical functioning limitations (SF-12 Health Survey role physical & physical functioning subscales) were randomized to 12-weeks of TCC or Health Education control (HEC). Primary outcomes were feasibility and acceptability. Secondary outcomes included quality of life (SF-36 Health Survey), and participants’ qualitative feedback on intervention. Results Retention (TCC = 91%; HEC = 81%) and class attendance (TCC =79%; HEC = 83%) rates, and satisfaction levels for both study arms were high, but did not significantly differ from one another. At one-week post-intervention, none of the SF-36 scores differed between the TCC and HEC arms. Within-group analyses revealed significant improvements in the mental component summary score in TCC (p = 0.01), but not in HEC. Qualitative analyses indicated that the TCC group felt they received mental and physical benefits, whereas HEC group reported on social support benefits and information received. Conclusion A TCC intervention was found to be a feasible and acceptable modality for senior female cancer survivors. Future, larger definitive trials are needed to clarify TCC dosage effects on QOL in this vulnerable population. PMID:23620504

  12. Intersubunit signaling in RecBCD enzyme, a complex protein machine regulated by Chi hot spots

    PubMed Central

    Amundsen, Susan K.; Taylor, Andrew F.; Reddy, Manjula; Smith, Gerald R.

    2007-01-01

    The Escherichia coli RecBCD helicase–nuclease, a paradigm of complex protein machines, initiates homologous genetic recombination and the repair of broken DNA. Starting at a duplex end, RecBCD unwinds DNA with its fast RecD helicase and slower RecB helicase on complementary strands. Upon encountering a Chi hot spot (5′-GCTGGTGG-3′), the enzyme produces a new 3′ single-strand end and loads RecA protein onto it, but how Chi regulates RecBCD is unknown. We report a new class of mutant RecBCD enzymes that cut DNA at novel positions that depend on the DNA substrate length and that are strictly correlated with the RecB:RecD helicase rates. We conclude that in the mutant enzymes when RecD reaches the DNA end, it signals RecB’s nuclease domain to cut the DNA. As predicted by this interpretation, the mutant enzymes cut closer to the entry point on DNA when unwinding is blocked by another RecBCD molecule traveling in the opposite direction. Furthermore, when RecD is slowed by a mutation altering its ATPase site such that RecB reaches the DNA end before RecD does, the length-dependent cuts are abolished. These observations lead us to hypothesize that, in wild-type RecBCD enzyme, Chi is recognized by RecC, which then signals RecD to stop, which in turn signals RecB to cut the DNA and load RecA. We discuss support for this “signal cascade” hypothesis and tests of it. Intersubunit signaling may regulate other complex protein machines. PMID:18079176

  13. Effect of Tai Chi on body balance: randomized controlled trial in elderly men with dizziness.

    PubMed

    Maciaszek, Janusz; Osinski, Wieslaw

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of 18-week Tai Chi training on body balance in a dynamic trial among elderly men with dizziness. The study covered subjects aged 60 to 80 years. We identified 40 men who reported a history of dizziness. The subjects were recruited using direct mailings and a community information campaign. The participants were randomly assigned to either the exercise intervention (n = 20) or control group (n = 20). The Tai Chi group participated in an 18-week exercise class held for 45 minutes twice a week. Body balance was studied in two ways: using the "8 foot up and go test" (Rikli and Jones 2001) and using a Computer Posturographic System PE 90 (manufactured by Military Institute of Aviation Medicine in Warsaw and outfitted with Pro-Med modified software). The ability to perform specific tasks (maximal deflections in four directions) was measured on the posturographic platform. The variation in results obtained on the first and second date of tests in the experimental and control groups was confirmed statistically using four parameters, i.e. "8 foot up to and go test (H = 8.21;p = 0.003), forward deflection (H = 3.70;p = 0.050), backward deflection (H = 5.04;p = 0.024) and maximum sway area (H = 8.86;p = 0.002). Consequently, we found that the 18-week period of Tai-Chi exercises, with a frequency of twice a week for 45 minutes, is beneficial for dynamic balance, which is important for the reduction of fall risk factors among elderly men with dizziness. PMID:22419420

  14. Effect of Tai Chi exercise on blood lipid profiles: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xiao-hong; Mahemuti, Amina; Zhang, Xue-hua; Wang, Ya-ping; Hu, Po; Jiang, Ju-bo; Xiang, Mei-xiang; Liu, Gang; Wang, Jian-an

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Studies have demonstrated that Tai Chi exercise improves blood lipid level with inconsistent results. A meta-analysis was conducted to quantify the effects of Tai Chi on blood lipid profiles in humans. Methods: We screened the databases of PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library (Central), Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang data, and Clinicaltrials.gov for randomized controlled trials with Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) score more than 3 points up to June 2015. Six studies involving 445 subjects were included. Most trials applied 12-week Tai Chi intervention courses. Results: In comparison with the control group, blood triglyceride (TG) level difference between follow-up and baseline was statistically significantly lower in the Tai Chi practicing group (weighted mean difference (WMD) −16.81 mg/dl; 95% confidence intervals (CI) −31.27 to −2.35 mg/dl; P=0.02). A trend to improving total cholesterol (TC) reduction was found with Tai Chi (WMD −7.96 mg/dl; 95% CI −17.30 to 1.39 mg/dl; P=0.10). However, no difference was found in blood low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Conclusions: Tai Chi exercise lowered blood TG level with a trend to decrease blood TC level. Our data suggest that Tai Chi has the potential to implement meaningful blood lipid modification and serve as an adjunctive exercise modality. The relationship between Tai Chi exercise regimen and lipid profile change might have a scientific priority for future investigation. PMID:27487809

  15. Tai Chi as an adjunct physical activity for adults aged 45 years and older enrolled in phase III cardiac rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Taylor-Piliae, Ruth E; Silva, Edna; Sheremeta, Sharon Peachey

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiac rehabilitation improves physical, cognitive and psychosocial functioning, yet services are greatly underutilized with increasing patterns of attrition over time. Tai Chi has been suggested as a possible adjunct to cardiac rehabilitation exercise training. Aim To describe differences in physical, cognitive and psychosocial functioning among adults ≥ 45 years old attending phase III cardiac rehabilitation, who have or have not self-selected Tai Chi exercise as an adjunct physical activity. Methods A cross-sectional design compared subjects attending group-based Wu style Tai Chi classes plus cardiac rehabilitation, with cardiac rehabilitation only. Subjects had a battery of physical and cognitive functioning tests administered to examine aerobic endurance, balance, strength, and flexibility, verbal retrieval/recall, attention, concentration and tracking. Subjects completed a health survey to ascertain cardiac event information, medical history, and psychosocial functioning (i.e. health-related quality of life, stress, depressive symptoms, social support, and Tai Chi self-efficacy). Results A total of 51 subjects (75% married, 84% college-educated, 96% White/European-American) participated. Subjects were on average 70 (± 8) years old and had attended cardiac rehabilitation for 45 (± 37) months. Approximately 45% (n = 23) attended Tai Chi classes plus cardiac rehabilitation, while 55% (n = 28) attended cardiac rehabilitation only. Subjects attending Tai Chi plus cardiac rehabilitation had better balance, perceived physical health, and Tai Chi self-efficacy compared to those attending cardiac rehabilitation only (p ≤ 0.03). Conclusion Tai Chi can be easily implemented in any community/cardiac rehabilitation facility, and may offer adults additional options after a cardiac event. PMID:21095159

  16. Properties of the probability density function of the non-central chi-squared distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    András, Szilárd; Baricz, Árpád

    2008-10-01

    In this paper we consider the probability density function (pdf) of a non-central [chi]2 distribution with arbitrary number of degrees of freedom. For this function we prove that can be represented as a finite sum and we deduce a partial derivative formula. Moreover, we show that the pdf is log-concave when the degrees of freedom is greater or equal than 2. At the end of this paper we present some Turán-type inequalities for this function and an elegant application of the monotone form of l'Hospital's rule in probability theory is given.

  17. Complementary and alternative treatment for neck pain: chiropractic, acupuncture, TENS, massage, yoga, Tai Chi, and Feldenkrais.

    PubMed

    Plastaras, Christopher T; Schran, Seth; Kim, Natasha; Sorosky, Susan; Darr, Deborah; Chen, Mary Susan; Lansky, Rebecca

    2011-08-01

    Of the multitude of treatment options for the management of neck pain, no obvious single treatment modality has been shown to be most efficacious. As such, the clinician should consider alternative treatment modalities if a modality is engaging, available, financially feasible, potentially efficacious, and is low risk for the patient. As evidence-based medicine for neck pain develops, the clinician is faced with the challenge of which treatments to encourage patients to pursue. Treatment modalities explored in this article, including chiropractic, acupuncture, TENS, massage, yoga, Tai Chi, and Feldenkrais, represent reasonable complementary and alternative medicine methods for patients with neck pain. PMID:21824591

  18. Group sequential large sample T2-like chi2 tests for multivariate observations.

    PubMed

    Lachin, John M; Greenhouse, Samuel W; Bautista, Oliver M

    2003-11-15

    In many studies, a K degree of freedom large sample chi2 test is used to assess the effect of treatment on a multivariate response, such as an omnibus T2-like test of a difference between two treatment groups in any of K repeated measures. Alternately, a K df chi2 test may be used to test the equality of K+1 groups in a single outcome measure. Jennison and Turnbull (Biometrika 1991; 78: 133-141) describe group sequential chi2 and F-tests for normal errors linear models, and Proschan, Follmann and Geller (Statist. Med. 1994; 13: 1441-1452) describe group sequential tests for K+1 group comparisons. These methods apply to sequences of statistics that can be characterized as having an independent increments variance-covariance structure, thus simplifying the computation of the sequential variance-covariance matrix and the resulting sequential test boundaries. However, many commonly used statistics do not share this structure, including a Liang-Zeger (Biometrika 1986; 73: 13-22) GEE longitudinal analysis with an independence working correlation structure and a Wei-Lachin (J. Amer. Statist. Assoc. 1984; 79: 653-661) multivariate Wilcoxon rank test, among others. For such analyses, this paper describes the computation of group sequential boundaries for the interim analysis of emerging results using K df tests that are expressed as quadratic forms in a statistics vector that is distributed as multivariate normal, at least asymptotically. We derive the elements of the covariance matrix of multiple successive K df chi2 statistics based on established theorems on the distribution of quadratic forms. This covariance matrix is estimated by augmenting the data from the successive interim analyses into a single analysis from which the component sequential tests and their variance-covariance matrix can then be extracted. Boundary values for the sequential statistics can then be computed using the method of Slud and Wei (J. Amer. Statist. Assoc. 1982; 77: 862-868) or using the

  19. FREQFIT: Computer program which performs numerical regression and statistical chi-squared goodness of fit analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hofland, G.S.; Barton, C.C.

    1990-10-01

    The computer program FREQFIT is designed to perform regression and statistical chi-squared goodness of fit analysis on one-dimensional or two-dimensional data. The program features an interactive user dialogue, numerous help messages, an option for screen or line printer output, and the flexibility to use practically any commercially available graphics package to create plots of the program`s results. FREQFIT is written in Microsoft QuickBASIC, for IBM-PC compatible computers. A listing of the QuickBASIC source code for the FREQFIT program, a user manual, and sample input data, output, and plots are included. 6 refs., 1 fig.

  20. Healing and the mind/body arts: massage, acupuncture, yoga, t'ai chi, and Feldenkrais.

    PubMed

    Wanning, T

    1993-07-01

    1. The health practitioner may encounter clients who are faced with problems that do not seem to respond to traditional health care. 2. One way that some choose to confront these systemic complaints is to employ some of the health traditions of other cultures and to view the body and mind as a balanced whole. 3. Massage, acupuncture and acupressure, t'ai chi, and Feldenkrais focus on the mind/body connection to facilitate healing through relaxation, pressure points, and movement. PMID:8338610

  1. CHY-construction of planar loop integrands of cubic scalar theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Bo

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, by treating massive loop momenta as massless momenta in higher dimensions, we are able to treat all-loop scattering equations as tree ones. As an application of the new perspective, we consider the CHY-construction of bi-adjoint ϕ 3 theory. We present the explicit formula for two-loop planar integrands. We discuss in details how to subtract various forward singularities in the construction. We count the number of terms obtained by our formula and by direct Feynman diagram calculation and find the perfect match, thus provide a strong support for our results.

  2. The refined shielding design for the cyclotron room of the Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital.

    PubMed

    Sheu, R D; Chen, C C; Sheu, R J; Kao, C H; Jiang, S H

    2005-01-01

    Full-scale Monte Carlo simulations of the cyclotron room of the Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital were carried out to improve the inadequate maze design. The double differential neutron source from the 18O(p,n)18F reaction was adopted for the calculation. The weight window variance reduction technique, where the weight window was set by applying the adjoint flux, has been implemented in the MCNP run to facilitate the calculation of the dose rates outside the cyclotron room. Dose rates including neutron and gamma-ray components were calculated for some maze shielding modifications. PMID:16381715

  3. Translation of an Effective Tai Chi Intervention Into a Community-Based Falls-Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fuzhong; Harmer, Peter; Glasgow, Russell; Mack, Karin A.; Sleet, David; Fisher, K. John; Kohn, Melvin A.; Millet, Lisa M.; Mead, Jennifer; Xu, Junheng; Lin, Mei-Li; Yang, Tingzhong; Sutton, Beth; Tompkins, Yvaughn

    2008-01-01

    Tai Chi—Moving for Better Balance, a falls-prevention program developed from a randomized controlled trial for community-based use, was evaluated with the RE-AIM framework in 6 community centers. The program had a 100% adoption rate and 87% reach into the target older adult population. All centers implemented the intervention with good fidelity, and participants showed significant improvements in health-related outcome measures. This evidence-based tai chi program is practical to disseminate and can be effectively implemented and maintained in community settings. PMID:18511723

  4. Research on psychoneuroimmunology: tai chi as a stress management approach for individuals with HIV disease.

    PubMed

    Robins, Jo Lynne W; McCain, Nancy L; Gray, D Patricia; Elswick, R K; Walter, Jeanne M; McDade, Elizabeth

    2006-02-01

    Psychoneuroimmunology is a framework for mind-body practice and research that combines cutting-edge scientific exploration with holistic philosophy to appreciate and understand stress responses. The rapidly growing research literature provides a foundation for building an integrative stress management model with the potential to positively influence the stress-disease relationship and, ultimately, health outcomes. This article introduces a novel tai chi intervention and provides quantitative and qualitative data from a randomized clinical trial indicating its effects on psychosocial variables in individuals living with various stages of HIV disease. PMID:16455435

  5. Tai Chi for Chronic Pain Conditions: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Kong, Ling Jun; Lauche, Romy; Klose, Petra; Bu, Jiang Hui; Yang, Xiao Cun; Guo, Chao Qing; Dobos, Gustav; Cheng, Ying Wu

    2016-01-01

    Several studies reported that Tai Chi showed potential effects for chronic pain, but its role remains controversial. This review assessed the evidence regarding the effects of Tai Chi for chronic pain conditions. 18 randomized controlled trials were included in our review. The aggregated results have indicated that Tai Chi showed positive evidence on immediate relief of chronic pain from osteoarthritis (standardized mean difference [SMD], -0.54; 95% confidence intervals [CI], -0.77 to -0.30; P < 0.05). The valid duration of Tai Chi practice for osteoarthritis may be more than 5 weeks. And there were some beneficial evidences regarding the effects of Tai Chi on immediate relief of chronic pain from low back pain (SMD, -0.81; 95% CI, -1.11 to -0.52; P < 0.05) and osteoporosis (SMD, -0.83; 95% CI, -1.37 to -0.28; P = 0.003). Therefore, clinicians may consider Tai Chi as a viable complementary and alternative medicine for chronic pain conditions. PMID:27125299

  6. Tai Chi for Chronic Pain Conditions: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Ling Jun; Lauche, Romy; Klose, Petra; Bu, Jiang Hui; Yang, Xiao Cun; Guo, Chao Qing; Dobos, Gustav; Cheng, Ying Wu

    2016-01-01

    Several studies reported that Tai Chi showed potential effects for chronic pain, but its role remains controversial. This review assessed the evidence regarding the effects of Tai Chi for chronic pain conditions. 18 randomized controlled trials were included in our review. The aggregated results have indicated that Tai Chi showed positive evidence on immediate relief of chronic pain from osteoarthritis (standardized mean difference [SMD], −0.54; 95% confidence intervals [CI], −0.77 to −0.30; P < 0.05). The valid duration of Tai Chi practice for osteoarthritis may be more than 5 weeks. And there were some beneficial evidences regarding the effects of Tai Chi on immediate relief of chronic pain from low back pain (SMD, −0.81; 95% CI, −1.11 to −0.52; P < 0.05) and osteoporosis (SMD, −0.83; 95% CI, −1.37 to −0.28; P = 0.003). Therefore, clinicians may consider Tai Chi as a viable complementary and alternative medicine for chronic pain conditions. PMID:27125299

  7. Performance test of RM CLEAN and its evaluation with chi-square value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyashita, Yoshimitsu; Ideguchi, Shinsuke; Takahashi, Keitaro

    2016-06-01

    RM CLEAN is a standard method to reconstruct the distribution of cosmic magnetic fields and polarized sources along the line of sight (LOS) from the observed polarization spectrum. This method is similar to the CLEAN algorithm for aperture synthesis of radio telescope images but it is rather unclear in what cases RM CLEAN works well. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of RM CLEAN by simulating spectro-polarimetric observations of two compact sources located in the same LOS, varying the relative initial polarization angle and Faraday depth systematically. In particular, we focus on whether the two polarized sources can be resolved in the Faraday depth space and how well the source parameters can be estimated. We confirm the previous studies that two sources cannot be resolved when they are closely located in the Faraday depth space for specific values of the relative initial polarization angle. Further, we calculate the chi-square value for the fit between the mock polarization spectrum data and the one from RM CLEAN. We find that the chi-square value is not always significantly large even when RM CLEAN gives wrong results.

  8. One milliarcsecond precision studies in the regions of Delta Equulei and Chi(sup 1) Orionis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatewood, George

    1994-01-01

    Trigonometric parallaxes for stars in the regions of the binary stars Delta Equulei (HR 8123) and Chi(sup l) Orionis (HR 2047) are derived from data collected with the Multichannel Astrometric Photometer (MAP) and the Thaw Refractor of the University of Pittsburgh's Allegheny Observatory. The weighted mean parallax of all trigonometric studies of delta Equ is now +5.42 +/- 0.93 mas, corresponding to absolute magnitudes of 3.87 +/- 0.04 and 3.95 +/- 0.04 mag, respectively, for the primary and secondary. Using the Popper and Dworetsky orbit we find a photocentric semimajor axis of 2.9 +/- 0.8 mas and individual masses of 1.21 +/- 0.090 and 1.19 +/- 0.088 solar masses, respectively, for the primary and secondary components. The weighted mean trigonometric parallax of all studies of the binary star Chi(sup l) Ori is +111.0 +/- 0.92 mas, implying an absolute visual magnitude for the dominant GO V primary of 4.63 +/- 0.018 mag. The photocentric semimajor axis, derived from a fraction of the orbit, is 96.9 +/- 5.4 mas.

  9. Performance test of RM CLEAN and its evaluation with chi-square value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyashita, Yoshimitsu; Ideguchi, Shinsuke; Takahashi, Keitaro

    2016-04-01

    RM CLEAN is a standard method to reconstruct the distribution of cosmic magnetic fields and polarized sources along the line of sight (LOS) from the observed polarization spectrum. This method is similar to the CLEAN algorithm for aperture synthesis of radio telescope images but it is rather unclear in what cases RM CLEAN works well. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of RM CLEAN by simulating spectro-polarimetric observations of two compact sources located in the same LOS, varying the relative initial polarization angle and Faraday depth systematically. In particular, we focus on whether the two polarized sources can be resolved in the Faraday depth space and how well the source parameters can be estimated. We confirm the previous studies that two sources cannot be resolved when they are closely located in the Faraday depth space for specific values of the relative initial polarization angle. Further, we calculate the chi-square value for the fit between the mock polarization spectrum data and the one from RM CLEAN. We find that the chi-square value is not always significantly large even when RM CLEAN gives wrong results.

  10. Mechanisms for alternative treatments in Parkinson's disease: acupuncture, tai chi, and other treatments.

    PubMed

    Ghaffari, Bijan D; Kluger, Benzi

    2014-06-01

    At least 40% of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) use one or more forms of alternative therapy (AT) to complement standard treatments. This article reviews the commonest forms of AT for PD, including acupuncture, tai chi, yoga, mindfulness, massage, herbal medicine, and cannabis. We discuss the current evidence for the clinical efficacy of each AT and discuss potential mechanisms, including those suggested by animal and human studies. With a few notable exceptions, none of the treatments examined were investigated rigorously enough to draw definitive conclusions about efficacy or mechanism. Tai chi, acupuncture, Mucuna pruriens, cannabinoids, and music therapy have all been proposed to work through specific mechanisms, although current evidence is insufficient to support or refute these claims, with the possible exception of Mucuna pruriens (which contains levodopa). It is likely that most ATs predominantly treat PD patients through general mechanisms, including placebo effects, stress reduction, and improved mood and sleep, and AT may provide patients with a greater locus of control regarding their illness. PMID:24760476

  11. Ho Chi Minh City adaptation to increasing risk of coastal and fluvial floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scussolini, Paolo; Lasage, Ralph

    2016-04-01

    Coastal megacities in southeast Asia are a hotspot of vulnerability to floods. In such contexts, the combination of fast socio-economic development and of climate change impacts on precipitation and sea level generates concerns about the flood damage to people and assets. This work focuses on Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, for which we estimate the present and future direct risk from river and coastal floods. A model cascade is used that comprises the Saigon river basin and the urban network, plus the land-use-dependent damaging process. Changes in discharge for five return periods are simulated, enabling the probabilistic calculation of the expected annual economic damage to assets, for differnt scenarios of global emissions, local socio-economic growth, and land subsidence, up to year 2100. The implementation of a range of adaptation strategies is simulated, including building dykes, elevating, creating reservoirs, managing water and sediment upstream, flood-proofing, halting groundwater abstraction. Results are presented on 1) the relative weight of each future driver in determining the flood risk of Ho Chi Minh, and 2) the efficiency and feasibility of each adaptation strategy.

  12. Sümeyra Tosun: Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award.

    PubMed

    2014-11-01

    The Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award is given jointly by Psi Chi and APA. The award was established to recognize young researchers at the beginning of their professional lives and to commemorate both the 50th anniversary of Psi Chi and the 100th anniversary of psychology as a science (dating from the founding of Wundt's laboratory). The 2014 recipient is Sümeyra Tosun. Tosun was chosen for "an outstanding research paper that examines the cognitive repercussions of obligatory versus optional marking of evidentiality, the linguistic coding of the source of information. In English, evidentiality is conveyed in the lexicon through the use of adverbs. In Turkish, evidentiality is coded in the grammar. In two experiments, it was found that English speakers were equally good at remembering and monitoring the source of firsthand information and the source of non-firsthand information. Turkish speakers were worse at remembering and monitoring non-firsthand information than firsthand information and were worse than English speakers at remembering and monitoring non-firsthand information." Tosun's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. PMID:25486159

  13. Precipitation of sigma and chi phases in δ-ferrite of Type 316FR weld metals

    SciTech Connect

    Chun, Eun Joon; Baba, Hayato; Nishimoto, Kazutoshi; Saida, Kazuyoshi

    2013-12-15

    The decomposition behavior and kinetics of δ-ferrite are examined using aging treatments between 873 and 1073 K for Type 316FR stainless steel weld metals with different solidification modes (316FR AF, 316FR FA). The dominant precipitates are sigma, chi, and secondary austenite nucleated at δ-ferrite/austenite interfaces or in the interior of the ferrite grains. These precipitates consume all the ferrite during isothermal aging in both 316FR AF and FA weld metals. Differences in the precipitation behavior (precipitation initiation time and precipitation speed) between weld metals can be explained by i) the degree of Cr and Mo microsegregation within δ-ferrite or austenite near ferrite and ii) the nucleation sites induced due to the solidification mode (AF or FA), such as the ferrite amount. For both weld materials, a Johnson–Mehl-type equation can express the precipitation behavior of the sigma + chi phases and quantitatively predict the behavior at the service-exposure temperatures of a fast breed reactor. - Highlights: • Precipitation of σ and χ phase in Type 316FR welds (two solidification modes) • Different precipitation behaviors: precipitation initiation time and growth speed • Johnson-Mehl–type equation is the most applicable to the precipitation behaviors • Precipitation behaviors are predicted under service conditions of FBRs.

  14. Initiation and runaway process of Tsaoling landslide, triggered by the 1999 Taiwan Chi-Chi earthquake, as studied by high-velocity friction experiments (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Togo, T.; Shimamoto, T.; Dong, J.; Lee, C.

    2013-12-01

    High-velocity friction experiments in the last two decades have demonstrated dramatic weakening of simulated faults at seismic slip rates on the order of 1 m/s (e.g., Di Toro et al., 2011, Nature). Similar experiments revealed very low friction of landslide materials (0.05-0.2 in friction coefficient) that can cause catastrophic landslides with velocity exceeding even 10 m/s (e.g., Miyamoto et al. (2009) on the 1999 Tsaoling landslide in Taiwan; Yano et al. (2009) on the 1999 Jiufengershan landslide in Taiwan,; Ferri et al. (2010, 2011) on the 1963 Vaiont landslide in Italy; Kuo et al. (2011) on the 2009 Hsiaolin landslide in Taiwan). Those studies strongly suggest that there are common processes operative in fault zones and along slip surfaces of catastrophic landslides along bedding planes, fractures or joints. As for catastrophic landslides triggered by an earthquake, an important issue to be addressed is how a landslide initiates during seismic ground motion. Thus we have studied the initiation and runaway process of the Tsaoling landslide by idealizing the initial landslide movement during seismic ground motion as an oscillating accelerating/decelerating motion. Tsaoling landslide is the largest landslide among those triggered by the Chi-Chi earthquake with its volume of about 130 Mm3. The landslide took place along very planar bedding planes of the porous Pliocene sedimentary rocks (mostly siltstone and sandstone), with a dip angle of 14 degree. A seismic record at a station about 500 m away from the landslide and a witness of a survivor who slid on top of the landslide mass indicate that the average speed of the landslide reached 20~40 m/s. A simple analysis of sliding block indicates that the kinetic friction has to be 0.05~0.15 to produce such a high-velocity. Moreover, Tang et al. (2009, Eng. Geol.) analyzed landslide motion with the discrete element method and showed that the landslide mass must have slid nearly as an intact mass, without much

  15. YvoA and CcpA Repress the Expression of chiB in Bacillus thuringiensis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Kun; Li, Li-na; Pan, Jin-hua; Wang, Ting-ting; Chen, Yue-hua

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis produces chitinases, which are involved in its antifungal activity and facilitate its insecticidal activity. In our recent work, we found that a 16-bp sequence, drechiB (AGACTTCGTGATGTCT), downstream of the minimal promoter region of the chitinase B gene (chiB) was a critical site for the inducible expression of chiB in B. thuringiensis Bti75. In this work, we show that a GntR family transcriptional regulator (named YvoABt), which is homologous to YvoA of Bacillus subtilis, can specifically bind to the drechiB oligonucleotide sequences in vitro by using electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) assays. The results of quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting indicated that deletion of yvoA caused an ∼7.5-fold increase in the expression level of chiB. Furthermore, binding of purified YvoABt to its target DNA could be abolished by glucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcN-6-P). We also confirmed, in the presence of the phosphoprotein Hpr-Ser45-P, that purified CcpABt bound specifically to the promoter of chiB, which contains the “crechiB” sequence (ATAAAGCGTTTACA). According to the results of qRT-PCR and Western blotting, deletion of ccpA resulted in a 39-fold increase in the chiB expression level, and glucose no longer influenced the expression of chiB. We confirm that chiB is negatively controlled by both CcpABt and YvoABt in Bti75. PMID:26162881

  16. Control of RecBCD enzyme activity by DNA binding- and Chi hotspot-dependent conformational changes.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Andrew F; Amundsen, Susan K; Guttman, Miklos; Lee, Kelly K; Luo, Jie; Ranish, Jeffrey; Smith, Gerald R

    2014-10-23

    Faithful repair of DNA double-strand breaks by homologous recombination is crucial to maintain functional genomes. The major Escherichia coli pathway of DNA break repair requires RecBCD enzyme, a complex protein machine with multiple activities. Upon encountering a Chi recombination hotspot (5' GCTGGTGG 3') during DNA unwinding, RecBCD's unwinding, nuclease, and RecA-loading activities change dramatically, but the physical basis for these changes is unknown. Here, we identify, during RecBCD's DNA unwinding, two Chi-stimulated conformational changes involving RecC. One produced a marked, long-lasting, Chi-dependent increase in protease sensitivity of a small patch, near the Chi recognition domain, on the solvent-exposed RecC surface. The other change was identified by crosslinking of an artificial amino acid inserted in this RecC patch to RecB. Small-angle X-ray scattering analysis confirmed a major conformational change upon binding of DNA to the enzyme and is consistent with these two changes. We propose that, upon DNA binding, the RecB nuclease domain swings from one side of RecC to the other; when RecBCD encounters Chi, the nuclease domain returns to its initial position determined by crystallography, where it nicks DNA exiting from RecC and loads RecA onto the newly generated 3'-ended single-stranded DNA during continued unwinding; a crevice between RecB and RecC increasingly narrows during these steps. This model provides a physical basis for the intramolecular "signal transduction" from Chi to RecC to RecD to RecB inferred previously from genetic and enzymatic analyses, and it accounts for the enzymatic changes that accompany Chi's stimulation of recombination. PMID:25073102

  17. Curative effect of Tai Chi exercise in combination with auricular plaster therapy on improving obesity patient with secondary hyperlipidemia

    PubMed Central

    Song, Qinghua; Yuan, Yandong; Jiao, Chun; Zhu, Ximei

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Observe the effect of Tai Chi in combination with auricular plaster therapy on treating obesity patient with secondary hyperlipidemia. Method: Select 45 patients who suffer from simple obesity and secondary hyperlipidemia and then adopt random digital table to divide them into a Tai Chi group, an auricular plaster therapy group and a combination group. Each group consists of 15 patients. The patients in Tai Chi group are trained with Tai Chi twice a day, while those in auricular plaster therapy are treated with auricular plaster therapy 3-5 times a day and those in the combination group are trained with Tai Chi and auricular plaster therapy twice a day. BMI, body fat percentage and blood lipid indexes are respectively detected for the selected patients in the three groups before treatment and after 180 days’ treatment. Results: After 180 days’ treatment, BMI index and body fat percentage of Tai Chi group are significantly improved in comparison with those before treatment (P<0.05) and the blood lipid index also presents the improvement trend, but the overall effect is not obvious; body fat percentage and BMI index of the auricular plaster therapy group are not improved obviously in comparison with those before the treatment (P>0.05) but the blood lipid index is improved significantly (P<0.05); each index of the combination group is improved significantly compared with those before treatment (P<0.05). By comparing the improvement effect after treatment with that of the other two groups, P<0.05, the difference shows the statistical significance and the treatment effect is more obvious. Conclusion: As for the patient suffering from simple obesity and secondary hyperlipidemia, Tai Chi exercise in combination with auricular plaster therapy can show the obvious synergistic therapeutic effect and thus the combined curative effect is obviously superior to that of the single therapy method. PMID:26885081

  18. Treating Survivors of Torture and Refugee Trauma: A Preliminary Case Series Using Qigong and T'ai Chi

    PubMed Central

    Piwowarczyk, Linda; Fulker, Derek; Bazazi, Alexander R.; Saper, Robert B.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Objectives This paper seeks to explore the potential value of qigong and t'ai chi practice as a therapeutic intervention to aid in the treatment of survivors of torture and refugee trauma. Design The common effects of torture and refugee trauma are surveyed with a focus on post-traumatic stress disorder. An alternative theoretical framework for conceptualizing and healing trauma is presented. Evidence is reviewed from the scientific literature that describes how qigong and t'ai chi have been used in studies of the general population to alleviate symptoms that are also expressed in torture survivors. Observations are presented from a combined, simplified qigong and t'ai chi intervention with a convenience sample of four refugee survivors of torture. Results Preliminary observations from four cases and a review of the literature support the potential efficacy of incorporating qigong and t'ai chi into the treatment of survivors of torture and refugee trauma. Conclusions The incorporation of qigong and t'ai chi into the treatment of torture survivors, within a new framework for healing trauma, merits further investigation. PMID:18803491

  19. The Effect of Tai Chi on Reducing the Risk of Falling: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Del-Pino-Casado, Rafael; Obrero-Gaitán, Esteban; Lomas-Vega, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Tai Chi has frequently been used as a preventive measure against falling in at-risk populations. However, studies have yielded contradictory results, and literature reviews have considered only a small number of trials and have not addressed some key aspects, such as sources of heterogeneity and publication bias. This study includes 13 controlled trials published before June 2015 that analyzed the effectiveness of Tai Chi in fall prevention in populations of frail and at-risk adults. The effect measure used in this meta-analysis was absolute risk reduction (ARR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). According to our findings, practice of Tai Chi significantly prevents the risk of falling (ARR, [Formula: see text]; 95% CI: [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]). The heterogeneity of results across the trials was low, with a reduced risk of publication bias, and no significant effect differences were observed between studies comparing Tai Chi with other interventions or non-treatment. We therefore conclude that Tai Chi is more effective than other measures, or no intervention, for fall prevention in at-risk populations. Further research is warranted to analyze the consequences of falls and to study the episodes rather than the cases of falls. PMID:27430918

  20. Chemical dampening of Ly6C(hi) monocytes in the periphery produces anti-depressant effects in mice.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiao; Ma, Sijing; Kang, An; Wu, Mengqiu; Wang, Lin; Wang, Qiong; Wang, Guangji; Hao, Haiping

    2016-01-01

    The involvement of systemic immunity in depression pathogenesis promises a periphery-targeting paradigm in novel anti-depressant discovery. However, relatively little is known about druggable targets in the periphery for mental and behavioral control. Here we report that targeting Ly6C(hi) monocytes in blood can serve as a strategy for anti-depressant purpose. A natural compound, ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1), was firstly validated as a periphery-restricted chemical probe. Rg1 selectively suppressed Ly6C(hi) monocytes recruitment to the inflamed mice brain. The proinflammatory potential of Ly6C(hi) monocytes to activate astrocytes was abrogated by Rg1, which led to a blunted feedback release of CCL2 to recruit the peripheral monocytes. In vitro study demonstrated that Rg1 pretreatment on activated THP-1 monocytes retarded their ability to trigger CCL2 secretion from co-cultured U251 MG astrocytes. CCL2-triggered p38/MAPK and PI3K/Akt activation were involved in the action of Rg1. Importantly, in mice models, we found that dampening Ly6C(hi) monocytes at the periphery ameliorated depression-like behavior induced by neuroinflammation or chronic social defeat stress. Together, our work unravels that blood Ly6C(hi) monocytes may serve as the target to enable remote intervention on the depressed brain, and identifies Rg1 as a lead compound for designing drugs targeting peripheral CCL2 signals. PMID:26783261

  1. Mining of unexplored habitats for novel chitinases--chiA as a helper gene proxy in metagenomics.

    PubMed

    Cretoiu, Mariana Silvia; Kielak, Anna Maria; Abu Al-Soud, Waleed; Sørensen, Søren J; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2012-06-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the abundance and diversity of chitin-degrading microbial communities in ten terrestrial and aquatic habitats in order to provide guidance to the subsequent exploration of such environments for novel chitinolytic enzymes. A combined protocol which encompassed (1) classical overall enzymatic assays, (2) chiA gene abundance measurement by qPCR, (3) chiA gene pyrosequencing, and (4) chiA gene-based PCR-DGGE was used. The chiA gene pyrosequencing is unprecedented, as it is the first massive parallel sequencing of this gene. The data obtained showed the existence across habitats of core bacterial communities responsible for chitin assimilation irrespective of ecosystem origin. Conversely, there were habitat-specific differences. In addition, a suite of sequences were obtained that are as yet unregistered in the chitinase database. In terms of chiA gene abundance and diversity, typical low-abundance/diversity versus high-abundance/diversity habitats was distinguished. From the combined data, we selected chitin-amended agricultural soil, the rhizosphere of the Arctic plant Oxyria digyna and the freshwater sponge Ephydatia fluviatilis as the most promising habitats for subsequent bioexploration. Thus, the screening strategy used is proposed as a guide for further metagenomics-based exploration of the selected habitats. PMID:22526805

  2. Chemical dampening of Ly6Chi monocytes in the periphery produces anti-depressant effects in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xiao; Ma, Sijing; Kang, An; Wu, Mengqiu; Wang, Lin; Wang, Qiong; Wang, Guangji; Hao, Haiping

    2016-01-01

    The involvement of systemic immunity in depression pathogenesis promises a periphery-targeting paradigm in novel anti-depressant discovery. However, relatively little is known about druggable targets in the periphery for mental and behavioral control. Here we report that targeting Ly6Chi monocytes in blood can serve as a strategy for anti-depressant purpose. A natural compound, ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1), was firstly validated as a periphery-restricted chemical probe. Rg1 selectively suppressed Ly6Chi monocytes recruitment to the inflamed mice brain. The proinflammatory potential of Ly6Chi monocytes to activate astrocytes was abrogated by Rg1, which led to a blunted feedback release of CCL2 to recruit the peripheral monocytes. In vitro study demonstrated that Rg1 pretreatment on activated THP-1 monocytes retarded their ability to trigger CCL2 secretion from co-cultured U251 MG astrocytes. CCL2-triggered p38/MAPK and PI3K/Akt activation were involved in the action of Rg1. Importantly, in mice models, we found that dampening Ly6Chi monocytes at the periphery ameliorated depression-like behavior induced by neuroinflammation or chronic social defeat stress. Together, our work unravels that blood Ly6Chi monocytes may serve as the target to enable remote intervention on the depressed brain, and identifies Rg1 as a lead compound for designing drugs targeting peripheral CCL2 signals. PMID:26783261

  3. Chi-squared and Fisher-Irwin tests of two-by-two tables with small sample recommendations.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Ian

    2007-08-30

    Two-by-two tables commonly arise in comparative trials and cross-sectional studies. In medical studies, two-by-two tables may have a small sample size due to the rarity of a condition, or to limited resources. Current recommendations on the appropriate statistical test mostly specify the chi-squared test for tables where the minimum expected number is at least 5 (following Fisher and Cochran), and otherwise the Fisher-Irwin test; but there is disagreement on which versions of the chi-squared and Fisher-Irwin tests should be used. A further uncertainty is that, according to Cochran, the number 5 was chosen arbitrarily. Computer-intensive techniques were used in this study to compare seven two-sided tests of two-by-two tables in terms of their Type I errors. The tests were K. Pearson's and Yates's chi-squared tests and the 'N-1' chi-squared test (first proposed by E. Pearson), together with four versions of the Fisher-Irwin test (including two mid-P versions). The optimum test policy was found to be analysis by the 'N-1' chi-squared test when the minimum expected number is at least 1, and otherwise, by the Fisher-Irwin test by Irwin's rule (taking the total probability of tables in either tail that are as likely as, or less likely than the one observed). This policy was found to have increased power compared to Cochran's recommendations. PMID:17315184

  4. High chi block copolymer DSA to improve pattern quality for FinFET device fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, HsinYu; Miyazoe, Hiroyuki; Vora, Ankit; Magbitang, Teddie; Arellano, Noel; Liu, Chi-Chun; Maher, Michael J.; Durand, William J.; Dawes, Simon J.; Bucchignano, James J.; Gignac, Lynne; Sanders, Daniel P.; Joseph, Eric A.; Colburn, Matthew E.; Willson, C. Grant; Ellison, Christopher J.; Guillorn, Michael A.

    2016-03-01

    Directed self-assembly (DSA) with block-copolymers (BCP) is a promising lithography extension technique to scale below 30nm pitch with 193i lithography. Continued scaling toward 20nm pitch or below will require material system improvements from PS-b-PMMA. Pattern quality for DSA features, such as line edge roughness (LER), line width roughness (LWR), size uniformity, and placement, is key to DSA manufacturability. In this work, we demonstrate finFET devices fabricated with DSA-patterned fins and compare several BCP systems for continued pitch scaling. Organic-organic high chi BCPs at 24nm and 21nm pitches show improved low to mid-frequency LER/LWR after pattern transfer.

  5. A review focused on the psychological effectiveness of tai chi on different populations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Long; Layne, Charles; Lowder, Thomas; Liu, Jian

    2012-01-01

    As a popular exercise form, Tai Chi (TC) has been investigated to determine its contributions to an active and healthy lifestyle. There are an increasing number of researchers who focus on exploring the potential physiological and psychological benefits of TC but only a few systematic reviews of these benefits to a variety of populations. The purpose of this paper is to comprehensively evaluate the reported psychological benefits associated with practicing TC. Although many investigators have reported possible psychological benefits of TC for children, young adults, older healthy adults, and for a variety of patient populations, many of the reports suffer one or more methodological flaws. These flaws include inadequate study design, including lack of control groups, small sample sizes, unsophisticated statistical techniques, or publication without rigorous peer review. After reviewing the results of the existing literature regarding the potential psychological benefits of TC, we recommend that future investigations be conducted with additional adherence to the traditional scientific process. PMID:21792371

  6. {chi}{sup 2} DISCRIMINATORS FOR TRANSITING PLANET DETECTION IN KEPLER DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Seader, Shawn; Tenenbaum, Peter; Jenkins, Jon M.; Burke, Christopher J. E-mail: peter.tenenbaum@nasa.gov E-mail: christopher.j.burke@nasa.gov

    2013-06-01

    The Kepler spacecraft observes a host of target stars to detect transiting planets. Requiring a 7.1{sigma} detection in three years of data yields over 100,000 detections, many of which are false alarms. After a second cut is made on a robust detection statistic, some 50,000 or more targets still remain. These false alarms waste resources as they propagate through the remainder of the software pipeline and so a method to discriminate against them is crucial in maintaining the desired sensitivity to true events. This paper describes a {chi}{sup 2} test which represents a novel application of an existing formalism developed for false alarm mitigation in searches for gravitational waves. Using this technique, the false alarm rate can be lowered to {approx}5%.

  7. A Review Focused on the Psychological Effectiveness of Tai Chi on Different Populations

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Long; Layne, Charles; Lowder, Thomas; Liu, Jian

    2012-01-01

    As a popular exercise form, Tai Chi (TC) has been investigated to determine its contributions to an active and healthy lifestyle. There are an increasing number of researchers who focus on exploring the potential physiological and psychological benefits of TC but only a few systematic reviews of these benefits to a variety of populations. The purpose of this paper is to comprehensively evaluate the reported psychological benefits associated with practicing TC. Although many investigators have reported possible psychological benefits of TC for children, young adults, older healthy adults, and for a variety of patient populations, many of the reports suffer one or more methodological flaws. These flaws include inadequate study design, including lack of control groups, small sample sizes, unsophisticated statistical techniques, or publication without rigorous peer review. After reviewing the results of the existing literature regarding the potential psychological benefits of TC, we recommend that future investigations be conducted with additional adherence to the traditional scientific process. PMID:21792371

  8. Tai Chi Chuan exercises in enhancing bone mineral density in active seniors.

    PubMed

    Lui, Pauline Po Yee; Qin, Ling; Chan, Kai Ming

    2008-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a silent, systemic, chronic disease characterized by low bone mass and structural deterioration of bone tissue. Its clinical and public health implications are substantial because of the mortality, morbidity, and medical care cost associated with osteoporotic fractures. Although estrogen-replacement therapy or anti-bone resorptive drugs can prevent postmenopausal bone loss, they also show side effects. Physical activity is an nonpharmacological approach for prevention of osteoporosis. Among different types of physical activities, Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) is a low- to moderate-intensity exercise particularly suitable for the elderly, and has been practiced by Chinese for centuries. This article reviews the benefits of TCC for the prevention of osteoporosis and falls by retarding bone loss, improving neuromuscular coordination, and promoting general health. PMID:18206569

  9. High prevalence of overweight among adolescents in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Two previous surveys conducted in Ho Chi Minh City revealed an increasing prevalence of overweight and obese adolescents, from 5.9% in 2002 to 11.7% in 2004. From 2004 to 2010, the government set up and implemented health promotion programs to promote physical activity and good nutritional habits in order to prevent overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. Our study aimed to estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents in urban areas of Ho Chi Minh City in 2010. Methods A representative sample of 1,989 students aged 11–14 years was selected using a multistage cluster sampling method. 23 schools were randomly selected from the full list of all public junior high schools. In each selected school, 2 classes were chosen at random and all students from the class were examined. Age- and sex-adjusted overweight and obesity were defined using International Obesity Taskforce cut-offs. Results The prevalences of overweight and obesity were 17.8% and 3.2%, respectively. Prevalences of overweight and obesity were significantly higher in boys (22%, 5.4% ) than in girls (13.3%, 1.3%, p<0.001) and higher in children from districts with a high economic level (20.5% , 3.8% ) than in those from districts with a low economic level (12.1%, 3.8%, p<0.001). Additionally, children living in wealthier families were more overweight and obese than those living in less wealthy families. When using WHO cutoffs, the overall prevalences of overweight and obesity reached 19.6% and 7.9%, respectively. Conclusion Our study’s findings suggest that the prevalence of overweight and obesity among secondary school students remains high, especially among boys living in wealthier families. Public health programs should therefore be developed or improved in order to promote good eating habits and physical activity among youth in HCMC. PMID:23414441

  10. Semileptonic B{sub c} to P-Wave Charmonia ({Chi}{sub c0},{Chi}{sub c1},h{sub c}) Transitions within QCD Sum Rules

    SciTech Connect

    Sundu, Hayriye; Bayar, Melahat; Azizi, Kazem

    2010-12-22

    The form factors of the semileptonic B{sub c{yields}}S(AV)l{nu} (l = {tau},{mu},e) transitions, where S and AV denote the scalar {Chi}{sub c0} and axial vector ({Chi}{sub c1},h{sub c}) mesons, are calculated within the framework of the three-point QCD sum rules. The results of form factors are used to estimate the total decay widths and branching ratios of these transitions. A comparison of our results on branching ratios with the predictions of other approaches is also presented.