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1

Tactical cities : negotiating violence in Karachi, Pakistan  

E-print Network

This thesis examines the relationship between violence and urbanity. Using Karachi, Pakistan, as a case study, it asks how violent cities are imagined and experienced by their residents. The thesis draws on a variety of ...

Yusuf, Huma

2008-01-01

2

THE EFFECT OF ANTIBACTERIAL SOAP ON IMPETIGO INCIDENCE, KARACHI, PAKISTAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a study to determine if soap containing 1.2% triclocarban would be effective in reducing the incidence of impetigo. We randomized 162 households in a low-income neighborhood of Karachi, Pakistan, to receive a regular supply of 1.2% triclocarban-containing soap (n 81) or an identically appearing placebo (n 81); 79 households in a nearby neighborhood were enrolled as standard practice

STEPHEN LUBY; MUBINA AGBOATWALLA; BEVERLY M. SCHNELL; ROBERT M. HOEKSTRA; MOHAMMAD H. RAHBAR; BRUCE H. KESWICK

3

PERCEPTIONS ON BIOETHICS AMONG PATIENTS PRESENTING TO FAMILY PHYSICIANS AT A TEACHING HOSPITAL IN KARACHI, PAKISTAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To study the perceptions on bioethics among patients presenting to family physicians at a teaching hospital in Karachi, Pakistan Study design: Questionnaire based cross sectional survey Settings: The study was carried out at the family practice center, the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi Main outcome measures: Perceptions on the broad principles of bioethics Results: Majority of the respondents were

Waris Qidwai; Hafeez Qureshi; Syed Sohail Ali; Mahboob Alam; Syed Iqbal Azam

4

"Shelter within my reach" : medium rise apartment housing for the middle income group in Karachi, Pakistan  

E-print Network

This thesis identifies the project development processes of medium rise (five storied or less) apartment housing built by the private formal sector, catering to the middle income groups in Karachi, Pakistan. Middle income ...

Mahmood, Saman, 1972-

1999-01-01

5

Prevalence of Depression Among Community Dwelling Elderly in Karachi, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Objective: The objectives of the study were to find out the prevalence of depression and to identify associated risk factors among community dwelling elderly in Karachi. Methods: It was a cross-sectional, descriptive study involving 284 community-dwelling elderly residing in Karachi, Pakistan. A non-probability convenience sampling was done. The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) was used to assess depression. Descriptive statistics was performed using SPSS version 12. Cross tabulation for different variables was done and Chi-square was used as test of significance. The level of significance was set as p < 0.05. An informal (verbal) consent was taken. Anonymity and confidentiality was assured. Results: Among 284 respondents, 74% were males while 26% were females. The mean age was 68.44 ±7.59 years. The study found that 16.5% respondents were depressed while 23.6% were suggestive of depression. Depression was more among men than in women. Depression was statistically significant among married respondents (p<0.05) and illiterate (p<0.001). Although a large proportion of the participants were satisfied with their income, this was statistically significant (p<0.001) for depression among those who were not satisfied with their income. Similarly, sleep was significantly disturbed (p<0.001) among the depressed respondents. Conclusion: A significant prevalence of geriatric depression was reported. In order to reduce its prevalence, general physicians and other health care professionals need to be sensitized about geriatric depression and its risk factors. PMID:24644487

Mubeen, Seyed Muhammed; Henry, Danish; Nazimuddin Qureshi, Sarah

2012-01-01

6

Drug resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Karachi, Pakistan.  

PubMed

We determined the primary and secondary resistance of isolates of M. tuberculosis to the standard antituberculous drugs in Karachi (Pakistan). Primary resistance to one or more anti-tuberculous drugs was found in 17% of 123 isolates of M. tuberculosis (obtained from patients with no history of previous treatment for tuberculosis). Secondary resistance was found in 36% of 33 isolates (obtained from individuals who had received anti-tuberculous treatment in the past). The drug to which organisms were most commonly resistant was isoniazid (11% primary resistance, 30% secondary resistance). Fifteen per cent of isolates obtained from previously-studied patients showed secondary resistance to rifampicin. We discuss the importance of these findings for tuberculosis treatment and control. PMID:8438507

Khan, J; Islam, N; Ajanee, N; Jafri, W

1993-01-01

7

The Main Reasons of Declining Educational Standards at Secondary Level in Karachi, Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The cause of this investigation was to identify the main reasons which decline the educational standards at secondary level in Karachi, Pakistan. It was carried out through survey. The population of the study was the both Government and Private schools students and teachers. The views of male and female students and teachers were sought out. One…

Lodhi, Farida Azeem; Faizi, Waqar Un Nisa

2009-01-01

8

Menstrual Knowledge and Practices of Female Adolescents in Urban Karachi, Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Menstruation is a normal physiological process that is managed differently according to various social and cultural understandings. Therefore, this cross-sectional study was conducted to explore the menstrual practices among 1275 female adolescents of urban Karachi, Pakistan from April to October 2006 by using interviews. Data was entered and…

Ali, Tazeen Saeed; Rizvi, Syeda Naghma

2010-01-01

9

Limited effectiveness of home drinking water purification efforts in Karachi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: In many developing-country urban areas, municipally supplied water is not microbiologically safe. This study evaluated drinking water quality and effect of home water purification efforts in Karachi, Pakistan.Methods: Members of 300 households, including 100 households who used the Aga Khan University Hospital Laboratory and 200 of their neighbors were interviewed. In 293 consenting households, structured observations were performed and

Stephen E. Luby; Amber H. Syed; Naureen Atiullah; Mohammad K. Faizan; Susan Fisher-Hoch

2000-01-01

10

Mixing ratios of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere of Karachi, Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mixing ratios of carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH 4), non-methane hydrocarbons, halocarbons and alkyl nitrates (a total of 72 species) were determined for 78 whole air samples collected during the winter of 1998-1999 in Karachi, Pakistan. This is the first time that volatile organic compound (VOC) levels in Karachi have been extensively characterized. The overall air quality of the urban environment was determined using air samples collected at six locations throughout Karachi. Methane (6.3 ppmv) and ethane (93 ppbv) levels in Karachi were found to be much higher than in other cities that have been studied. The very high CH 4 levels highlight the importance of natural gas leakage in Karachi. The leakage of liquefied petroleum gas contributes to elevated propane and butane levels in Karachi, although the propane and butane burdens were lower than in other cities (e.g., Mexico City, Santiago). High levels of benzene (0.3-19 ppbv) also appear to be of concern in the Karachi urban area. Vehicular emissions were characterized using air samples collected along the busiest thoroughfare of the city (M.A. Jinnah Road). Emissions from vehicular exhaust were found to be the main source of many of the hydrocarbons reported here. Significant levels of isoprene (1.2 ppbv) were detected at the roadside, and vehicular exhaust is estimated to account for about 20% of the isoprene observed in Karachi. 1,2-Dichloroethane, a lead scavenger added to leaded fuel, was also emitted by cars. The photochemical production of ozone (O 3) was calculated for CO and the various VOCs using the Maximum Incremental Reactivity (MIR) scale. Based on the MIR scale, the leading contributors to O 3 production in Karachi are ethene, CO, propene, m-xylene and toluene.

Barletta, Barbara; Meinardi, Simone; Simpson, Isobel J.; Khwaja, Haider A.; Blake, Donald R.; Rowland, F. Sherwood

11

Validity of neonatal jaundice evaluation by primary health-care workers and physicians in Karachi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:The purpose of this study was to validate primary health-care workers' and physicians' visual assessment of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in Karachi, Pakistan.Study Design:We compared primary health-care workers' and physicians' clinical identification of jaundice in infants <60 days old.Result:Primary health-care workers identified 1- to 20-day-old neonates with hyperbilirubinemia ?15 mg per 100 ml (260 ?mol l?1) with 83.3% sensitivity and 50.5% specificity;

L Hatzenbuehler; A K M Zaidi; S Sundar; S Sultana; F Abbasi; A Rizvi; G L Darmstadt

2010-01-01

12

Knowledge and Attitude of General Practitioners Regarding Autism in Karachi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

General practitioners (GPs) could have an important role in early diagnosis of autism. There have been no studies evaluating\\u000a the knowledge of GPs regarding autism in Pakistan. We aimed to fill that gap by assessing knowledge and attitude of GPs in\\u000a Karachi regarding autism. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 348 GPs; only 148 (44.6%) had heard of “autism.” Our

Mohammad Hossein Rahbar; Khalid Ibrahim; Parisa Assassi

2011-01-01

13

Specialty choices of medical students and house officers in Karachi, Pakistan.  

PubMed

Unerstanding patterns of career choices inmedicine is importnat for educators and policy-makers to plan the supply of specialists. This study analysed the career choices made by medical students and house officers in 2 private and 2 public medical schools in Karachi, Pakistan. An anonymous, self-administered and gynaecology were the 4 highest ranked specialties, with internal medicine ranked top as both the 1st and 2nd choice. Internal medicine was the 1st choice for significantly more students in public than private medical colleges (22.2% versus 1l4.9%). Students from private medical institutions chose a wider range of specialties than those from publicly-funded colleges. A high proportion of medical students and graduates in Karachi favour the same medical specialties, which may lead to saturation in those areas of specialization. PMID:21735806

Aslam, M; Ali, A; Taj, T; Badar, N; Mirza, W; Ammar, A; Muzaffar, S; Kauten, J R

2011-01-01

14

Rising Incidence of Gastric Malignancies in Karachi, 1995- 2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: South Asia is an enigma for gastric cancer, a low risk region with a contradictory high prevalence for Helicobacter pylori. Patients and Methods: To examine the demographics, pathology and trends of gastric cancer in Pakistan, epidemiological data of 335 gastric malignancies, registered at Karachi Cancer Registry (KCR) for Karachi South (KS), during 1st January 1995 to 31st December 2002

Yasmin Bhurgri; Shahid Pervez; Naila Kayani; Samran Haider; Rashida Ahmed; Ahmed Usman; Imtiaz Bashir; Asif Bhurgri; Sheema H Hasan; SMH Zaidi

2009-01-01

15

Fluoroquinolone resistance among Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains from Karachi, Pakistan: data from community-based field clinics.  

PubMed

A fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistance rate of 5.9% is reported in 205 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from patients presenting to field clinics in Karachi, Pakistan (2006 to 2009). FQ resistance among multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains was 11.1% (5/45), and it was 4.9% (5/103) in M. tuberculosis strains susceptible to all first-line agents. Spoligotyping of resistant strains did not show dominance of one strain type. Our data reflect considerable FQ-resistant M. tuberculosis isolates and the need to consider inclusion of FQ within first-line sensitivity testing in such settings. PMID:21135180

Rafiq, Yasraba; Jabeen, Kauser; Hasan, Rumina; Jafri, Sana; Laiq, Rabia; Malik, Faisal; Mangi, Rafique; Channa, Abid; Hasan, Zahra

2011-02-01

16

Growing up in Karachi, Pakistan, Ayesha Muhammad br '14 excelled in the science and math courses that were the focus of her studies, but it was the  

E-print Network

Growing up in Karachi, Pakistan, Ayesha Muhammad br '14 excelled in the science and math courses like Introduction to Art History and The Near East from Alexander to Muhammad," she said. "In Pakistan at an orphanage in Mexico. Looking ahead, Ayesha intends to earn her medical degree and work in rural Pakistan. "I

17

Benzodiazepine use among adults residing in the urban settlements of Karachi, Pakistan: A cross sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background There are hardly any studies carried out in Pakistan on the usage of benzodiazepines at the level of community. This research was aimed to determine the frequency of benzodiazepine use, along with its associations with socio-demographic and clinical characteristics among community dwelling adults, residing in two urban settlements of Karachi, Pakistan. Methods We performed a cross sectional study from August 2008 to December 2009, in 2 areas of Karachi, namely Garden and Sultanabad. We followed the systematic sampling strategy to randomly select the households, with an adult of either sex and of age 18 years or more. Data collection was carried out through interview, using a pre-tested questionnaire, with items on socio-demographic position, medical history and benzodiazepine use. Student's t-test and ?2 test was employed to determine the associations between socio-demographic and clinical characteristics, and their relationship with benzodiazepine use was determined using applied logistic regression. Results The overall percentage of benzodiazepine consumption was estimated to be 14%. There were significantly more benzodiazepine users in the peri-urban Sultanabad community to the urban community of Garden (p-value = 0.001). The mean age (± SD) for users was 51.3 (± 15.6) years compared to 37.1 (± 14.4) years among non-users. Bromazepam was the most widely used benzodiazepine (29%); followed by diazepam, with a median duration on primary use being 144 weeks (IQR = 48-240). The adjusted logistic regression model revealed that increasing age, location, female sex, unemployment and psychiatric consultation were associated with increased likelihood of benzodiazepine use. Conclusion We believe the unregulated over-the-counter sales of benzodiazepines and social conditions might be playing a role in this high consumption of benzodiazepines in the community. PMID:21801457

2011-01-01

18

Understanding the knowledge and perceptions about clubfoot in Karachi, Pakistan: a qualitative exploration.  

PubMed

This paper explores local knowledge and perceptions about clubfoot in the Indus Hospital's catchment population in Karachi, Pakistan. Data was collected through seven focus group discussions with community members and Lady Health Workers, nine in-depth interviews with parents of children with treated or untreated clubfoot, and one interview with an adult with untreated clubfoot. We found that participants were unable to distinguish clubfoot from other disabilities. Moreover, participants had a number of beliefs about the causes of clubfoot, which included lunar and solar eclipses, religious explanations, the health status and behaviours of parents, and genetics. While participants were aware of surgery and other allopathic treatments for clubfoot, many also believed in traditional and religious treatments or were unaware that clubfoot is a treatable condition. This study is the first of its kind in Pakistan and provides important insights that clubfoot programs need comprehensive strategies to raise awareness about clubfoot amongst community members, health providers, and religious leaders in order to be successful. PMID:24027475

Burfat, Aziza; Mohammed, Shama; Siddiqi, Osman; Samad, Lubna; Khan, Mansoor Ali; Chinoy, Mohammad Amin

2013-01-01

19

Understanding the Knowledge and Perceptions About Clubfoot in Karachi, Pakistan: A Qualitative Exploration  

PubMed Central

This paper explores local knowledge and perceptions about clubfoot in the Indus Hospital’s catchment population in Karachi, Pakistan. Data was collected through seven focus group discussions with community members and Lady Health Workers, nine in-depth interviews with parents of children with treated or untreated clubfoot, and one interview with an adult with untreated clubfoot. We found that participants were unable to distinguish clubfoot from other disabilities. Moreover, participants had a number of beliefs about the causes of clubfoot, which included lunar and solar eclipses, religious explanations, the health status and behaviours of parents, and genetics. While participants were aware of surgery and other allopathic treatments for clubfoot, many also believed in traditional and religious treatments or were unaware that clubfoot is a treatable condition. This study is the first of its kind in Pakistan and provides important insights that clubfoot programs need comprehensive strategies to raise awareness about clubfoot amongst community members, health providers, and religious leaders in order to be successful. PMID:24027475

Burfat, Aziza; Mohammed, Shama; Siddiqi, Osman; Samad, Lubna; Mansoor, Ali Khan; Mohammad Amin, Chinoy

2013-01-01

20

Objects of temporary contraception: an exploratory study of women's perspectives in Karachi, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Objectives To explore perspectives of three modern contraceptive objects, using an emic approach, among women in a low-income community in Karachi, Pakistan. Design A qualitative interview study design was employed, using qualitative content analysis with an inductive approach and manual thematic coding. Setting Shah Faisal Colony, Karachi. Participants 20 women, potential contraceptive users of reproductive age and living within a health centre catchment, were purposively selected to provide a similar number of non-users (n=5), contraceptive injection users (n=7), pill users (n=4), and intrauterine device users (n=4). One interview was excluded because it was not recorded. No other exclusion criteria were used. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcome was interpretation of potency and effects of selected family planning objects. Secondary outcome measures were knowledge of family planning and description of therapeutic approaches used and preferred. Results Awareness of family planning was high. Women described different therapeutic approaches, stating they generally preferred modern medicine for contraception as it was fastest and most powerful. They reported that fear of some contraceptive objects, particularly injections and intrauterine contraceptive devices, influenced their choices. Women explained their perceptions of how the heating effects of contraceptives could cause unwanted side effects including menstrual irregularities, weight gain and weakness, leading to disease. Conclusions Most women wanted family planning, but remained dissatisfied with the available contraceptives and their effects. While women reported that they relied on modern medicine for contraception, their descriptions of how contraceptives affected their health relied on the hot–cold explanatory idiom of traditional medicine. PMID:23906959

Marvi, Kamyla; Howard, Natasha

2013-01-01

21

A new calanoid Copepod, Centropages karachiensis, from the inshore waters of the Karachi coast, West Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION The new species Centropages karachiensis which is described below was found in small numbers in surface hauls made during September inside Karachi harbour and in the Korangi Creek area situated about 7 miles southeast of the Karachi harbour break water. The holotype is deposited in the Institute of Marine Biology, University of Karachi and the paratypes in the British

S. M. Haq; Rehman Ur Fazal

1973-01-01

22

Perception and attitude of general practitioners regarding generic medicines in Karachi, Pakistan: A questionnaire based study  

PubMed Central

Objectives: In developing countries out-of-pocket payments (OOP) are as high as 80% of healthcare spending. Generic medicines can be instrumental in reducing this expenditure. The current study is aimed to explore the knowledge, perception, and attitude of general practitioners towards generic medicines in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods: This exploratory, descriptive study was conducted on a sample of 289 randomly selected general practitioners who were dispensing at their private clinics in Karachi, Pakistan. The questionnaires were distributed and collected by hand. Data was entered to SPSS version 17. Fischer’s exact test was applied to see the association between variables. Results: A total of 206 questionnaires were included in the study. A response rate of 71.3% was achieved. Out of 206 respondents, 139 (67.5%) were male while 67 (32.5%) respondents were female. Close to three quaters of the respondents (n= 148; 71.8%) showed correct knowledge about generic medicines being a ‘copy of the brand name medicines’ and ‘interchangeable with brand name medicines’ (n= 148; 71.8%). In terms of safety, the majority of respondents (n=85; 41.26%) incorrectly understood that the generic medicines are less safe than brand name medicines. The total percentage of correct responses was seen in 53% of the respondents. More than half of the respondents agreed that locally manufactured medicines are of the same effectiveness as brand name medicines (n=114; 55.4%). Male practitioners with practice experience of 11-15 years showed positive perception towards the quality of multinational products. The Majority of respondents believed that their prescribing decision is influenced by medical representatives (n=117; 56.8%). More than three-quarters of the respondents expressed their wish to prescribe low cost medicines in their practice (n=157; 76.2%). More than one third of the respondents expressed their uneasiness to prescribe products from all local manufacturers (n=72; 35%). Conclusion: There were gaps identified in the knowledge of respondents. Although good perception and attitude were noted among the respondents, dissemination of information regarding generic medicines may perhaps strengthen generic prescribing. There is a need to introduce ‘Quality by Design’ concept in local manufacturing units. This, in turn, can inculcate confidence in prescribers towards locally manufactured generic medicines. PMID:23093896

Jamshed, Shazia Qasim; Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham Mohamed; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi Ahmad; Masood, Imran; Low, Bee Yean; Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Babar, Zaheer-ud-din

2012-01-01

23

The Burden of Non-Communicable Disease in Transition Communities in an Asian Megacity: Baseline Findings from a Cohort Study in Karachi, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background The demographic transition in South Asia coupled with unplanned urbanization and lifestyle changes are increasing the burden of non-communicable disease (NCD) where infectious diseases are still highly prevalent. The true magnitude and impact of this double burden of disease, although predicted to be immense, is largely unknown due to the absence of recent, population-based longitudinal data. The present study was designed as a unique ‘Framingham-like’ Pakistan cohort with the objective of measuring the prevalence and risk factors for hypertension, obesity, diabetes, coronary artery disease and hepatitis B and C infection in a multi-ethnic, middle to low income population of Karachi, Pakistan. Methods We selected two administrative areas from a private charitable hospital’s catchment population for enrolment of a random selection of cohort households in Karachi, Pakistan. A baseline survey measured the prevalence and risk factors for hypertension, obesity, diabetes, coronary artery disease and hepatitis B and C infection. Results Six hundred and sixty-seven households were enrolled between March 2010 and August 2011. A majority of households lived in permanent structures (85%) with access to basic utilities (77%) and sanitation facilities (98%) but limited access to clean drinking water (68%). Households had high ownership of communication technologies in the form of cable television (69%) and mobile phones (83%). Risk factors for NCD, such as tobacco use (45%), overweight (20%), abdominal obesity (53%), hypertension (18%), diabetes (8%) and pre-diabetes (40%) were high. At the same time, infectious diseases such as hepatitis B (24%) and hepatitis C (8%) were prevalent in this population. Conclusion Our findings highlight the need to monitor risk factors and disease trends through longitudinal research in high-burden transition communities in the context of rapid urbanization and changing lifestyles. They also demonstrate the urgency of public health intervention programs tailored for these transition communities. PMID:23418493

Khan, Faisal S.; Lotia-Farrukh, Ismat; Khan, Aamir J.; Siddiqui, Saad Tariq; Sajun, Sana Zehra; Malik, Amyn Abdul; Burfat, Aziza; Arshad, Mohammad Hussham; Codlin, Andrew J.; Reininger, Belinda M.; McCormick, Joseph B.; Afridi, Nadeem; Fisher-Hoch, Susan P.

2013-01-01

24

Home injury risks to young children in Karachi, Pakistan: a pilot study  

PubMed Central

Objective To pilot an in-home unintentional injury hazard assessment tool and to quantify potential injury risks for young children in a low-income urban setting. Methods Two low-income neighbourhoods in Karachi, Pakistan, were mapped, and families with at least one child between the ages of 12 and 59 months were identified. Using existing available home injury risk information, an in-home injury risk assessment tool was drafted and tailored to the local setting. Home injury assessments were done in June–July 2010 after obtaining informed consent. Results Approximately 75.4% of mothers were educated through at least grade 12. The main risks identified were stoves within the reach of the child (n=279, 55.5%), presence of open buckets in the bathroom (n=240, 47.7%) within the reach of the child, and pedestal fans accessible to the child (n=242, 48.1%). In terms of safety equipment, a first-aid box with any basic item was present in 70% of households, but only 4.8% of households had a fire extinguisher in the kitchen. Conclusions This was the first time that an in-home, all-unintentional injury risk assessment tool was tailored and applied in the context of a low-income community in Pakistan. There was a significant burden of hazards present in the homes in these communities, representing an important opportunity for injury prevention. This pilot may have future relevance to other LMICs where child injury prevention is a critical need. PMID:23995075

Khan, Uzma Rahim; Chandran, Aruna; Zia, Nukhba; Huang, Cheng-Ming; De Ramirez, Sarah Stewart; Feroze, Asher; Hyder, Adnan Ali; Razzak, Junaid Abdul

2015-01-01

25

Knowledge and Practice Gaps among Pediatric Nurses at a Tertiary Care Hospital Karachi Pakistan  

PubMed Central

The advancement in medical science has created health care environments that require nursing professionals who posses specialized clinical knowledge and skills to provide care and deal with critically and acutely ill children. This study explored gaps between knowledge and practice as perceived by the registered nurses of pediatric units by further recommending the changes suggested by them. A descriptive exploratory study design under the quantitative research methodology was utilized using universal sampling of all pediatric nurses working at a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. The gaps between knowledge and practice, as perceived by the participants, were categorized into five major categories: (1) medication (34%), (2) skills (28.3%), (3) knowledge (13.36%), (4) handling of code blue and intubations (12.6%), and (5) operating medical devices (11.58%). As a result, anxiety and incompetency were notably seen in the participants which had great amount of impact on the level of care provided to the patients. The implications of the findings for quality patient care were also analyzed. PMID:22389778

Roshan Essani, Rozina; Ali, Tazeen Saeed

2011-01-01

26

Knowledge and Practice Gaps among Pediatric Nurses at a Tertiary Care Hospital Karachi Pakistan.  

PubMed

The advancement in medical science has created health care environments that require nursing professionals who posses specialized clinical knowledge and skills to provide care and deal with critically and acutely ill children. This study explored gaps between knowledge and practice as perceived by the registered nurses of pediatric units by further recommending the changes suggested by them. A descriptive exploratory study design under the quantitative research methodology was utilized using universal sampling of all pediatric nurses working at a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. The gaps between knowledge and practice, as perceived by the participants, were categorized into five major categories: (1) medication (34%), (2) skills (28.3%), (3) knowledge (13.36%), (4) handling of code blue and intubations (12.6%), and (5) operating medical devices (11.58%). As a result, anxiety and incompetency were notably seen in the participants which had great amount of impact on the level of care provided to the patients. The implications of the findings for quality patient care were also analyzed. PMID:22389778

Roshan Essani, Rozina; Ali, Tazeen Saeed

2011-01-01

27

Geochemical assessment of metal concentrations in sediment core of Korangi Creek along Karachi Coast, Pakistan.  

PubMed

Sediment core from Korangi Creek, one of the polluted coastal locations along the Karachi Coast Pakistan, was collected to trace the history of marine pollution and to determine the impact of industrial activity in the area. Down core variation of metals such as Ca, K, Mg, Al, S, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu and Zn was studied in the 72.0 cm core. Nuclear analytical techniques, proton induced X-rays emission (PIXE), was employed to ascertain the chemical composition in sediment core. Grain size analysis and sediment composition of cored samples indicated that Korangi creek sediments are clayey in nature. Correlation matrix revealed a strong association of Ni, Cu, Cr and Zn with Fe and Mn. To infer anthropogenic input, enrichment factor (EF), degree of contamination and pollution load index were calculated. EF showed severe enrichment in surface sediment for Ni, Cu, Cr and Zn, indicating increased industrial effluents discharge in recent years. The study suggests that heavy metal discharge in the area should be regulated. If the present trend of enrichment is allowed to continue unabated, it is most likely that the local food web complexes in the creek might be at highest risk. PMID:23279880

Chaudhary, M Z; Ahmad, N; Mashiatullah, A; Ahmad, N; Ghaffar, A

2013-08-01

28

Menstrual knowledge and practices of female adolescents in urban Karachi, Pakistan.  

PubMed

Menstruation is a normal physiological process that is managed differently according to various social and cultural understandings. Therefore, this cross-sectional study was conducted to explore the menstrual practices among 1275 female adolescents of urban Karachi, Pakistan from April to October 2006 by using interviews. Data was entered and analyzed in Epi Info Version 9 and SPSS Version 10. Descriptive findings showed that 50% of the girls lacked an understanding of the origin of menstrual blood and those with a prior knowledge of menarche had gained it primarily through conversations with their mothers. Many reported having fear at the first experience of bleeding. Nearly 50% of the participants reported that they did not take baths during menstruation. In univariate analysis, factors of using unhygienic material, using washcloths, and not drying under sun were found to be significant in the Chi square test among those going and not going to schools. This study concludes that there are unhygienic practices and misconceptions among girls requiring action by health care professionals. PMID:19589587

Ali, Tazeen Saeed; Rizvi, Syeda Naghma

2010-08-01

29

Four years of experience with antiretroviral therapy in adult patients in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.  

PubMed

The Sindh AIDS Control Program (SACP) in Pakistan began dispensing combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) in May 2006 in Karachi. This study aimed to assess the management and outcomes of ART-treated patients. Data were extracted from medical records of adult patients registered with the SACP who received ART between May 2006 and May 2010. In total, 300 patients received ART, of whom 77.7% were men. The median CD4 cell count at the time of joining the SACP was 130 cells/mm(3). ART was nevirapine-based in 69.1% of cases and was correctly prescribed in 97.3%. Of 257 patients who received ?1 month of ART, >90% were regular with their medications and appointments. Of the 300 patients, 70 (23.3%) had HIV-related deaths and 4 (1.3%) had non-HIV-related deaths, whereas 32 (10.7%) transferred out and 16 (5.3%) stopped attending the clinic and could not be traced. Estimated survival in the first 6 months stratified by initial CD4 lymphocyte count ?50 cells/mm(3) and <50 cells/mm(3) was 85.8% (95% CI 80.8-90.0%) and 52.2% (95% CI 40.9-63.1%), respectively. Viral suppression was achieved in 95.4% of those who survived beyond 3 months of starting ART. ART can be managed adequately with excellent patient adherence and satisfactory clinical outcomes in a resource-limited setting. PMID:24029671

Baqi, Shehla; Abro, Azra G; Salahuddin, Naseem; Ashraf Memon, M; Qamar Abbas, S; Baig-Ansari, Naila

2012-12-01

30

Knowledge, attitude and practices of school teachers towards epileptic school children in Karachi, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Objective: To assess the knowledge and attitude of school teachers towards an epileptic child. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among teachers of primary, middle and high schools from different communities in Karachi, Pakistan. A total of 120 self-administered KAP questionnaires were distributed in schools selected through convenience sampling. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 19. Results: Out of the total sample size, 90.9% (n=100) had heard about epilepsy. Sixteen (14.5%) teachers considered epilepsy to be contagious while 72.7% (n=80) teachers were of the view that epileptics can succeed as other normal children and sixty nine (62.7%) teachers were willing to help a child experiencing a fit, though only 15.5% (n=17) received knowledge about epilepsy during their training years. Conclusion: The research was conclusive for assessing the knowledge and attitude of teachers towards epileptic children. It highlighted the lack of awareness and negative attitude still existing among teachers. However, many were in the favor of mass education through awareness programs. PMID:24639865

Homi Bhesania, Nasha; Rehman, Anaya; Saleh Savul, Ilma; Zehra, Nosheen

2014-01-01

31

Maternal nutritional status during pregnancy and surma use determine cord lead levels in Karachi, Pakistan  

SciTech Connect

Objectives: To estimate the umbilical cord blood lead levels (BLLs) of Pakistani neonates and to identify determinants for umbilical BLLs. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of mothers and infants at one of the two obstetric units of two tertiary care hospitals in Karachi during January-August 2005. Information from 540 mothers selected randomly from those registered for delivery was obtained about their pregnancy, diet, and current and past lead exposures. We collected umbilical cord blood for lead levels analyzed using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. We computed geometric and arithmetic means. We performed multiple linear regression analysis to identify factors associated with log-transformed umbilical cord BLLs. We also performed logistic regression analysis to identify determinants of high lead cord BLLs ({>=}10 {mu}g/dl). Results: The geometric mean cord BLL of the neonates was 9.6 {mu}g/dl; arithmetic mean (S.D.) was 10.8 {mu}g/dl (5.7) with a median of 9.7 {mu}g/dl and a range of 1.8-48.9 {mu}g/dl. Women who reported intake of less than 58.5 mg of elemental iron supplement per day during pregnancy had cord BLL of 10.0 {mu}g/dl; in comparison those women who had higher iron intake had lower cord BLL (8.4 {mu}g/dl). Those who used surma (an eye cosmetic) daily had higher cord BLL (11.5 {mu}g/dl) as compared to those who used it less frequently (9.4 {mu}g/dl). In multivariable linear regression model, higher iron intake, owning a car, and being in 2nd quartile of mid-arm circumference were associated with low lead levels while father's occupation in lead-based industry was associated with significantly higher umbilical cord BLLs. There was interaction of daily surma use and ethnicity. Geometric mean BLLs were varied among surma users by ethnicity. Conclusions: Umbilical cord BLLs are high in Karachi, Pakistan, in comparison to those in developed countries such as United States. Measures are needed to reduce fetal lead exposure to prevent adverse affect on neurocognitive development. Association of low iron (below RDA of 60 mg per day) with high umbilical cord has implications for strengthening iron supplement intake during pregnancy. Umbilical cord BLLs differed among surma users by ethnicity.

Janjua, Naveed Zafar [Department of Epidemiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1665 University Blvd, RPHB 430, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Department of Community Health Sciences, Aga Khan University, Karachi (Pakistan)], E-mail: naveed@uab.edu; Delzell, Elizabeth [Department of Epidemiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1665 University Blvd, RPHB 430, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Larson, Rodney R. [University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Meleth, Sreelatha [Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Kabagambe, Edmond K.; Kristensen, Sibylle; Sathiakumar, Nalini [Department of Epidemiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1665 University Blvd, RPHB 430, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States)

2008-09-15

32

Acute health effects of the Tasman Spirit oil spill on residents of Karachi, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background On July 27 2003, a ship carrying crude oil run aground near Karachi and after two weeks released 37,000 tons of its cargo into the sea. Oil on the coastal areas and fumes in air raised health concerns among people. We assessed the immediate health impact of oil spill from the tanker Tasman Spirit on residents of the affected coastline in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods We conducted a study consisting of an exposed group including adults living in houses on the affected shoreline and two control groups (A and B) who lived at the distance of 2 km and 20 km away from the sea, respectively. We selected households through systematic sampling and interviewed an adult male and female in each household about symptoms relating to eyes, respiratory tract, skin and nervous system, smoking, allergies, beliefs about the effect on their health and anxiety about the health effects. We used logistic regression procedures to model each symptom as an outcome and the exposure status as an independent variable while adjusting for confounders. We also used linear regression procedure to assess the relationship exposure status with symptoms score; calculated by summation of all symptoms. Results Overall 400 subjects were interviewed (exposed, n = 216; group A, n = 83; and group B, n = 101). The exposed group reported a higher occurrence of one or more symptoms compared to either of the control groups (exposed, 96% vs. group A, 70%, group B 85%; P < 0.001). Mean summary symptom scores were higher among the exposed group (14.5) than control group A (4.5) and control group B (3.8, P < 0.001). Logistic regression models indicated that there were statistically significant, moderate-to-strong associations (Prevalence ORs (POR) ranging from 2.3 to 37.0) between the exposed group and the symptoms. There was a trend of decreasing symptom-specific PORs with increase in distance from the spill site. Multiple linear regression model revealed strong relationship of exposure status with the symptoms score (? = 8.24, 95% CI: 6.37 – 10.12). Conclusion Results suggest that the occurrence of increased symptoms among the exposed group is more likely to be due to exposure to the crude oil spill. PMID:16584541

Janjua, Naveed Zafar; Kasi, Pashtoon Murtaza; Nawaz, Haq; Farooqui, Sadia Zohra; Khuwaja, Urooj Bakht; Najam-ul-Hassan; Jafri, Syed Nadim; Lutfi, Shahid Ali; Kadir, Muhammad Masood; Sathiakumar, Nalini

2006-01-01

33

Epidemiologic study of chronic hepatitis B virus infection in male volunteer blood donors in Karachi, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background The magnitude of chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) varies substantially between the countries. A better understanding of incidence and/ or prevalence of HBV infection and associated risk factors provides insight into the transmission of this infection in the community. The purpose of this investigation was to estimate the prevalence of and to identify the risk factors associated with chronic infection with HBV, as assessed by HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) positivity, in asymptomatic volunteer male blood donors in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods Consecutive blood donations made at the two large blood banks between January 1, 1998 and December 31, 2002 were assessed to estimate the prevalence of HBsAg positivity. To evaluate the potential risk factors, a case-control study design was implemented; cases (HBsAg positives) and controls (HBsAg negatives), were recruited between October 15, 2001 and March 15, 2002. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was administered through trained interviewers to collect the data on hypothesized risk factors for HBV infection. Sera were tested for HBsAg using commercially available kits for enzyme linked Immunosorbant assay-III. Results HBsAg prevalence in the male volunteer blood donors was 2.0 % (7048/351309). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that after adjusting for age and ethnicity, cases were significantly more likely than controls to have received dental treatment from un-qualified dental care provider (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 9.8; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.1, 46.1), have received 1–5 injections (adjusted OR = 3.3; 95% CI: 1.1, 9.6), more than 5 injections (adjusted OR = 1.4; 95% CI: 1.4, 12.7) during the last five years or have received injection through a glass syringe (adjusted OR = 9.4; 95% CI: 2.6, 34.3). Injury resulted in bleeding during shaving from barbers (adjusted OR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.1, 4.8) was also significant predictor of HBsAg positivity. Conclusion Prevalence of HBsAg positivity in the male volunteer blood donors in Karachi was 2%. Infection control measures in health-care settings including safe injection practices and proper sterilization techniques of medical instruments and education of barbers about the significance of sterilization of their instruments may reduce the burden of HBV infection in this and similar settings. There is also an urgent need of developing locally relevant guidelines for counseling and management of HBsAg positive blood donors. PMID:16086833

Akhtar, Saeed; Younus, Muhammad; Adil, Salman; Hassan, Farrukh; Jafri, Sarffraz Hussain

2005-01-01

34

Violence permeating daily life: a qualitative study investigating perspectives on violence among women in Karachi, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background: This study explored how married women perceive situations which create family conflicts and lead to different forms of violence in urban Pakistan. In addition, it examines perceptions of consequences of violence, their adverse health effects, and how women resist violence within marital life. Methods: Five focus group discussions were conducted with 28 women in Karachi. Purposive sampling, aiming for variety in age, employment status, education, and socioeconomic status, was employed. The focus group discussions were conducted in Urdu and translated into English. Manifest and latent content analysis were applied. Results: One major theme emerged during the analysis, ie, family violence through the eyes of females. This theme was subdivided into three main categories. The first category, ie, situations provoking violence and their manifestations, elaborates on circumstances that provoke violence and situations that sustain violence. The second category, ie, actions and reactions to exposure to violence, describes consequences of ongoing violence within the family, including those that result in suicidal thoughts and actions. The final category, ie, resisting violence, describes how violence is avoided through women’s awareness and actions. Conclusion: The current study highlights how female victims of abuse are trapped in a society where violence from a partner and family members is viewed as acceptable, where divorce is unavailable to the majority, and where societal support of women is limited. There is an urgent need to raise the subject of violence against women and tackle this human rights problem at all levels of society by targeting the individual, family, community, and societal levels concurrently. PMID:23152709

Ali, Tazeen S; Krantz, Gunilla; Mogren, Ingrid

2012-01-01

35

Social and educational risk factors for child mental health problems in Karachi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are limited studies examining risk factors associated with child mental health problems in developing countries. To explore the association between social and educational factors and child mental health problems among primary school age children in Karachi, children aged 5–11 years were randomly selected from 27 mainstream schools in Karachi. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and a socio-demographic checklist were

Sajida Abdul Hassan; Panos Vostanis; John Bankart

2012-01-01

36

Social and educational risk factors for child mental health problems in Karachi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are limited studies examining risk factors associated with child mental health problems in developing countries. To explore the association between social and educational factors and child mental health problems among primary school age children in Karachi, children aged 5–11 years were randomly selected from 27 mainstream schools in Karachi. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and a socio-demographic checklist were

Sajida Abdul Hassan; Panos Vostanis; John Bankart

2011-01-01

37

Developing young children's creative writing ability in English as a second language in a primary English medium school in Karachi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to improve teaching of creative writing for young children in English as a second language. For this purpose, action research was done in an English medium private primary school in Karachi, Pakistan. Five students were involved as research participants and their teacher acted as my critical friend during the study. The main question asked

Katherine Joy Akello

2005-01-01

38

Report: a study of morbidity of induced abortion data from women belonging to Karachi, Pakistan.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the morbidity of induced abortion in relation to facilities, service providers and social responses of general population of women, from Karachi, Pakistan. Cross-sectional survey, conducted from February to December 2010, through a researcher-administered questionnaire from 61 randomly selected women, who underwent for Induced Abortion, aged 18-50 years. The questionnaire included open and closed ended questions, regarding demography, facilities, service providers and various complications observed. Overall, 98 immediate health problems were reported by 40 (65.5%) of the respondents, 153 late adverse effects or chronic by 46 (75.4%); while 101 mental complications had been reported by 45 (73.8%) of the 61 aborting women; respectively. Private clinics surfaced as the most frequently adopted source as reported by 40.7% of the respondents. Two third majorities had the procedure in satisfactory, good hygienic conditions by skilled professionals. Around 59% of the aborting women were aware of the religious perspective of the subject. Marked incidence of complications had been registered, regardless of type of method adopted, hygienic condition of the procedure or skill of the provider. Although, awareness of religious perspective of the subject was there, still quite a lot opted for abortion. This suggests that strong socioeconomic factors influence women to take peril of such an attempt. It also reveals the existence of a big gap for the awareness services for educating the risks involved to the women's health. Study revealed that services are easily accessible; without any legal, religious or social barriers. Semi or un-educated women, mostly from low socioeconomic sector are opting the procedure in majority, being less aware and stalwartly influenced by environmental factors; hence excessive availability of abortion services should be revisited. Lack of deep awareness of the consequences also contributes for deteriorating future reproductive and mental health. Awareness and counseling services for aborting women, for their health risks, as well as about human perspective of the issue, needs to be initiated, for better management of their reproductive health and rights. PMID:25553703

Aslam, Farah; Aslam, Muhammad

2015-01-01

39

An Evaluation of Systematic Tuberculosis Screening at Private Facilities in Karachi, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background In Pakistan, like many Asian countries, a large proportion of healthcare is provided through the private sector. We evaluated a systematic screening strategy to identify people with tuberculosis in private facilities in Karachi and assessed the approaches' ability to diagnose patients earlier in their disease progression. Methods and Findings Lay workers at 89 private clinics and a large hospital outpatient department screened all attendees for tuberculosis using a mobile phone-based questionnaire during one year. The number needed to screen to detect a case of tuberculosis was calculated. To evaluate early diagnosis, we tested for differences in cough duration and smear grading by screening facility. 529,447 people were screened, 1,010 smear-positive tuberculosis cases were detected and 942 (93.3%) started treatment, representing 58.7% of all smear-positive cases notified in the intervention area. The number needed to screen to detect a smear-positive case was 124 (prevalence 806/100,000) at the hospital and 763 (prevalence 131/100,000) at the clinics; however, ten times the number of individuals were screened in clinics. People with smear-positive TB detected at the hospital were less likely to report cough lasting 2–3 weeks (RR 0.66 95%CI [0.49–0.90]) and more likely to report cough duration >3 weeks (RR 1.10 95%CI [1.03–1.18]). Smear-positive cases at the clinics were less likely to have a +3 grade (RR 0.76 95%CI [0.63–0.92]) and more likely to have +1 smear grade (RR 1.24 95%CI [1.02–1.51]). Conclusions Tuberculosis screening at private facilities is acceptable and can yield large numbers of previously undiagnosed cases. Screening at general practitioner clinics may find cases earlier than at hospitals although more people must be screened to identify a case of tuberculosis. Limitations include lack of culture testing, therefore underestimating true TB prevalence. Using more sensitive and specific screening and diagnostic tests such as chest x-ray and Xpert MTB/RIF may improve results. PMID:24705600

Creswell, Jacob; Khowaja, Saira; Codlin, Andrew; Hashmi, Rabia; Rasheed, Erum; Khan, Mubashir; Durab, Irfan; Mergenthaler, Christina; Hussain, Owais; Khan, Faisal; Khan, Aamir J.

2014-01-01

40

Undergraduate radiology education in private and public teaching hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan: teaching duties, methodologies, and rewards  

PubMed Central

Background In an integrated method of education, medical students are introduced to radiology in their preclinical years. However, no study has been conducted in Pakistan to demonstrate an academic framework of medical radiology education at an undergraduate level. Therefore, we aimed to document and compare the current level of teaching duties, teaching methodologies, and teaching rewards among radiologists and residents in private and public teaching hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods A survey was conducted among 121 radiologists and residents in two private and two public teaching hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan. Radiologists who were nationally registered with the Pakistan Medical and Dental Council either part-time or full-time were included. Radiology residents and fellows who were nationally registered with the Pakistan Medical and Dental Council were also included. Self-administered questionnaires addressing teaching duties, methods, and rewards were collected from 95 participants. Results The overall response rate was 78.51% (95/121). All of the radiologists were involved in teaching residents and medical students, but only 36% reported formal training in teaching skills. Although most of the respondents (76%) agreed that medical students appeared enthusiastic about learning radiology, the time spent on teaching medical students was less than five hours per week annually (82%). Only 37% of the respondents preferred dedicated clerkships over distributed clerkships (41%). The most common preferred teaching methodology overall was one-on-one interaction. Tutorials, teaching rounds, and problem-based learning sessions were less favored by radiologists than by residents. Teaching via radiology films (86%) was the most frequent mode of instruction. Salary (59%) was the most commonly cited teaching reward. The majority of respondents (88%) were not satisfied with their current level of teaching rewards. Conclusion All radiologists and residents working in an academic radiology department are involved in teaching undergraduate students at multiple levels. The most valued teaching methodology involves use of images, with one-on-one interaction between the trainer and trainee. The monetary reward for teaching is inbuilt into the salary. The methodology adopted for teaching purposes was significantly different between respondents from private hospitals and those from public teaching hospitals. Because of low satisfaction among the respondents, efforts should be made to provide satisfying teaching rewards. PMID:23745098

Nadeem, Naila; Khawaja, Ranish Deedar Ali; Beg, Madiha; Naeem, Muhammad; Majid, Zain

2013-01-01

41

Exploring teachers collaborative practices in teaching and learning a private school in Karachi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to explore the existing practices of teachers' collaboration in a private school in Karachi. To achieve this purpose, the study looked at the stakeholders' perceptions, the practices of teachers and the factors that facilitate or hinder the collaborative practices in teaching and learning. A qualitative case study approach was used to do an in-depth

Mehr Perwer

2007-01-01

42

Factors associated with elevated blood lead concentrations in children in Karachi, Pakistan.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To confirm whether blood lead concentrations in Karachi were as high as reported in 1989 and to identify which types of exposure to lead contribute most to elevated blood lead concentrations in children in Karachi. METHODS: A total of 430 children aged 36-60 months were selected through a geographically stratified design from the city centre, two suburbs, a rural community and an island situated within the harbour at Karachi. Blood samples were collected from children and a pretested questionnaire was administered to assess the effect of various types of exposure. Cooked food, drinking-water and house dust samples were collected from households. FINDINGS: About 80% of children had blood lead concentrations 10 g/dl, with an overall mean of 15.6 g/dl. At the 5% level of significance, houses nearer to the main intersection in the city centre, application of surma to children's eyes, father's exposure to lead at workplace, parents' illiteracy and child's habit of hand- to-mouth activity were among variables associated with elevated lead concentrations in blood. CONCLUSION: These findings are of public health concern, as most children in Karachi are likely to suffer some degree of intellectual impairment as a result of environmental lead exposure. We believe that there is enough evidence of the continuing problem of lead in petrol to prompt the petroleum industry to take action. The evidence also shows the need for appropriate interventions in reducing the burden due to other factors associated with this toxic element. PMID:12471396

Rahbar, Mohammad Hossein; White, Franklin; Agboatwalla, Mubina; Hozhabri, Siroos; Luby, Stephen

2002-01-01

43

Ethnic disparities in routine immunization coverage: a reason for persistent poliovirus circulation in Karachi, Pakistan?  

PubMed

Karachi is the only mega city in the world with persistent poliovirus transmission. We determined routine childhood immunization rates in Karachi and identified predictors of vaccine completion. A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in Karachi between August and September 2008. Data on demographics, socioeconomic, and DTP3 vaccination status in children 12 to 23 months old were collected. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of vaccination completion. Overall, 1401 participants were approached; 1391 consented to participate. Of these, 1038 (75%) were completely vaccinated. Punjabi families had the highest DTP3 coverage (82%), followed by Urdu-speaking families (79%). Pashtun (67%) and Bengali (48%) families had the lowest vaccine coverage. Children of mothers with ? 12 years of schooling (OR = 25.4; 95% CI = 5.7-113.1) were most likely to be vaccinated. A quarter of study participants were unvaccinated. Targeted strategies for boosting DTP3 rates in communities with low immunization coverage are essential for polio eradication in Karachi. PMID:23420055

Siddiqui, Nida Tariq; Owais, Aatekah; Agha, Ajmal; Karim, Mehtab S; Zaidi, Anita K M

2014-01-01

44

HEALTH CARE PERSONNEL AND WORKPLACE VIOLENCE IN THE EMERGENCY DEPARTMENTS OF A VOLATILE METROPOLIS: RESULTS FROM KARACHI, PAKISTAN  

PubMed Central

Background Workplace violence (WPV) is an important challenge faced by health care personnel in the emergency department (ED). Study Objectives To determine the prevalence and nature of WPV reported by physicians and nurses working in the EDs of four of the largest tertiary care hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan and to understand the mental health impact of experiencing WPV. Methods This cross-sectional survey was conducted between September and November 2008 using a widely used questionnaire developed by the World Health Organization. Overall, 266 (86% response rate) questionnaires were included in this study. Results A total of 44 (16.5%) physicians and nurses said they had been physically attacked, and 193 (72.5%) said that they had experienced verbal abuse in the last 12 months. Among those who reported physical attack, 29.6% reported that the last incident involved a weapon, and in 64% of cases the attacker was a patient’s relative. Eighty-six percent thought that the last attack could have been prevented, and 64% said that no action was taken against the attacker. After adjusting for covariates, physicians were less likely than nurses to report physical attack (odds ratio [OR] 0.46; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.2–1.0), and personnel with greater work experience (OR 4.8; 95% CI 2.0–11.7) and those who said that there were procedures to report WPV in their workplace (OR 3.2; 95% CI 1.6–6.5) were more likely to report verbal abuse. WPV was associated with mental health effects in the form of bothersome memories, super-alertness, and feelings of avoidance and futility. Conclusion WPV is an important challenge in the EDs of large hospitals in Karachi. A majority of respondents feel that WPV is preventable, but only a minority of attackers face consequences. PMID:24011477

Zafar, Waleed; Siddiqui, Emaduddin; Ejaz, Kiran; Shehzad, Muhammad Umer; Khan, Uzma Rahim; Jamali, Seemin; Razzak, Junaid A.

2015-01-01

45

Effects of Mothers' Employment on Toddlers' Cognitive Development: A Study Conducted in Karachi, Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past several decades in Pakistan, an increasing number of women with young children are joining the workforce, which is one of the biggest social changes in the later half of the twentieth century. More children are being raised in households where mothers work for pay as compared with the scenario a generation ago. This change has…

Meherali, Salima Moez; Karmaliani, Rozina; Asad, Nargis

2011-01-01

46

The Effect of Clinical Clerkship on Students' Attitudes toward Psychiatry in Karachi, Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Attitudes of medical students toward a specialty is strongly related to their future choice of specialty. In developing countries like Pakistan, where there is a shortage of psychiatrists, there is a need to assess the effect of exposure to psychiatry on medical students. Methods: The authors conducted a survey of fourth-year medical…

Sajid, Ayesha; Khan, Murad M.; Shakir, Murtaza; Moazam-Zaman, Riffat; Ali, Asad

2009-01-01

47

Prevalence of Smoking and Associated Risk Factors Among Medical Professionals in Hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background: Cigarette smoking is the largest preventable risk factor for morbidity and mortality in developed countries where at least one in four adults smoke cigarettes. Healthcare providers who smoke are less likely to advise patients to quit smoking. The aim of this study is to find out the frequency of tobacco smoking among medical professionals in tertiary care hospitals of Karachi, and to identify the common factors responsible for the continuation of smoking among healthcare providers. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out at public and private tertiary Care Hospitals/Institutes at Karachi. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from 180 subjects. An informed consent was obtained from all the subjects. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Results: Prevalence of smoking was 29%. High prevalence of smoking was among male doctors as compared to female doctors. Sixty-eight per cent of smokers started smoking between 20 to 30 years of age. Age less than 35 years, male and public sectors hospitals were more likely OR 1.23, CI (0.98-2.41), 6.40 CI (4.48-10.52) and 2.61 CI (2.20-3.78) respectively. Conclusions: The Result of the study suggests that while healthcare smoking habits appear to be high, they are not uniformly low when compared from an international perspective. Health promotion programs focused on self-efficacy may be an effective tool for reducing the initiation, frequency, and amount of cigarette smoking among healthcare providers. PMID:24829733

Zafar, Mubashir

2014-01-01

48

Prevalence of Mistreatment or Belittlement among Medical Students – A Cross Sectional Survey at a Private Medical School in Karachi, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Mistreatment or belittlement of medical students either by faculty or fellow students has often been reported. Perception of mistreatment has also been associated with increased degree of psychological morbidity. There is a lack of such studies being conducted amongst the medical students of Pakistan. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and forms of perceived mistreatment and presence of mental health morbidity in a private medical school in Pakistan. Also, any association between mental health morbidity and mistreatment was to be identified. Methods A cross sectional study was carried out on medical students from Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan during the period of June–September 2007. A self administered questionnaire, adapted from Frank et al and Baldwin et al was distributed to a total of 350 students. The questionnaire consisted of three parts: the first dealing with the demographics of the population, the second concerning the various forms of mistreatment, while the third assessed the mental health of students using the General Health Questionnaire 12(GHQ12). Descriptive statistics were performed. The Chi-square test and Fisher's exact tests were applied. Results A total of 350 students were approached out of which 232 completed the questionnaire giving a response rate of 66.2%. Mistreatment was reported by 62.5% (145/232) of the respondents. Of these, 69.7% (83/145) were males and 54.9% (62/145) were females. There was a significant relationship between gender, year division, stress at medical school and possible use of drugs/alcohol and reported mistreatment but no statistical relationship was seen with psychiatric morbidity. The overall prevalence of psychological morbidity was 34.8% (77/221). Conclusion This study suggests high prevalence of perceived mistreatment and psychological morbidity among Pakistani medical students. However, no association was found between these two aspects of medical student education. There is a need to bring about changes to make the medical education environment conducive to learning. Increased student feedback, support systems and guidance about progress throughout the year and the provision of adequate learning resources may provide help with resolving both of these issues. PMID:20976173

Shoukat, Sana; Anis, Mariam; Kella, Danesh K.; Qazi, Fahad; Samad, Fatima; Mir, Faizia; Mansoor, Maryah; Parvez, Mohammad B.; Osmani, Bushra; Panju, Sukaina A.; Naqvi, Haider

2010-01-01

49

Prevalence, determinants, and management of chronic kidney disease in Karachi, Pakistan - a community based cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing being recognized as a global public health problem. However, there is dearth of information on the prevalence, determinants, and management of CKD from low- and middle-income countries. The objectives of the study were to determine the 1) prevalence of CKD; 2) socio-demographic and clinical factors associated with CKD; and 3) the existing management of these patients with regards to blood pressure control, and use of antihypertensive medications. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study on 2873 participants aged ?40 years in 12 representative communities in Karachi, Pakistan. The primary outcome was clinically significant CKD defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 estimated by CKD-EPI (CKD Epidemiology Collaboration) Pakistan equation (0.686?×?CKD-EPI1.059) or urinary albumin to creatinine ratio ?3 mg/mmol (i.e. KDOQI CKD stage G3, A2 or worse). Results The overall prevalence (95% CI) of CKD was 12.5% (11.4 – 13.8%). The factors independently associated with CKD were older age, hypertension, diabetes, elevated systolic blood pressure, raised fasting plasma glucose, raised triglycerides, and history of stroke (p?Pakistan, and possibly neighbouring countries. PMID:24927636

2014-01-01

50

Association of SNP rs9939609 in FTO gene with metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetic subjects, rectruited from a tertiary care unit of Karachi, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine the association of SNP in FTO gene, rs9939609, with Metabolic Syndrome (MS) in type 2 diabetic subjects at a tertiary care unit of Karachi, Pakistan. Methods: We genotyped FTO rs9939609 SNP in 296 patients with type 2 diabetes from the Out Patient Department (OPD) of Baqai Institute of Diabetology and Endocrinology (BIDE). MS was defined on the basis of International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and National Cholesterol Education program (NCEP) criterion. Association between the rs9939609 SNP and MS was tested through chi-square and Z-tests by using odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals. Results: The frequency of MS as defined by IDF criterion was significantly higher in female subjects as compared to male subjects (p= 0.006). Carriers of ? 1 copy of the rs9939609 A allele were significantly more likely to had MS (69.6%) than non-carriers (30.4%), corresponding to a carrier odds ratio (OR) of 0.52 (95% confidence interval [CI] (0.29-0.93), with a similar trend for the ATP III-defined MS.“A” allele carriers under dominant model, carry all the criterion of MS more significantly as compared to non-carriers. Conclusion: The FTO rs9939609 SNP was associated with an increased risk for Metabolic Syndrome in type 2 diabetic populations at a tertiary care unit of Karachi, Pakistan.

Fawwad, Asher; Siddiqui, Iftikhar Ahmed; Zeeshan, Nimra Fatima; Shahid, Syed Muhammad; Basit, Abdul

2015-01-01

51

An autoregressive integrated moving average model for short-term prediction of hepatitis C virus seropositivity among male volunteer blood donors in Karachi, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

AIM: To identify the stochastic autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model for short term forecasting of hepatitis C virus (HCV) seropositivity among volunteer blood donors in Karachi, Pakistan. METHODS: Ninety-six months (1998-2005) data on HCV seropositive cases (1000-1 × month-1) among male volunteer blood donors tested at four major blood banks in Karachi, Pakistan were subjected to ARIMA modeling. Subsequently, a fitted ARIMA model was used to forecast HCV seropositive donors for 91-96 mo to contrast with observed series of the same months. To assess the forecast accuracy, the mean absolute error rate (%) between the observed and predicted HCV seroprevalence was calculated. Finally, a fitted ARIMA model was used for short-term forecasts beyond the observed series. RESULTS: The goodness-of-fit test of the optimum ARIMA (2,1,7) model showed non-significant autocorrelations in the residuals of the model. The forecasts by ARIMA for 91-96 mo closely followed the pattern of observed series for the same months, with mean monthly absolute forecast errors (%) over 6 mo of 6.5%. The short-term forecasts beyond the observed series adequately captured the pattern in the data and showed increasing tendency of HCV seropositivity with a mean ± SD HCV seroprevalence (1000-1 × month-1) of 24.3 ± 1.4 over the forecast interval. CONCLUSION: To curtail HCV spread, public health authorities need to educate communities and health care providers about HCV transmission routes based on known HCV epidemiology in Pakistan and its neighboring countries. Future research may focus on factors associated with hyperendemic levels of HCV infection. PMID:19340903

Akhtar, Saeed; Rozi, Shafquat

2009-01-01

52

Pakistan.  

PubMed

Pakistan's background notes which profile the population, geography, government, and the economy contain a capsule of selected country statistics and a descriptive text. Pakistan has 117 million people distributed at 134/sq km with a growth rate of 3%. The major cities are Islamabad, Rawalpindi, Karachi, Lahore, and Faisalabad. Ethnic groups include the Punjabi, Sindhi, Pathan, Baluch, and Huhajirs. 97% are Muslim. Urdu is the official language, but 65% speak Punjabi, 11% Sindhi, and 24% other languages. 26% are literate. Infant mortality is 109/1000. 54% are involved in agriculture, 33% services, and 13% in industry. A parliamentary democracy was established in 1947 with an executive, legislative, and judicial branch of government. The Islamic Democratic Alliance is the most important national party. Voting rights are for those 21 years. Seats are reserved for non-Muslims. There are 4 political subdivisions. Gross national product (GNP) was $43 billion in 1990. The economic growth rate is 5% and 2%/capita. The natural resources are arable land, natural gas, petroleum, coal, iron ore, and hydropower potential. Agricultural products include wheat, cotton, rice, and sugarcane. Industry includes textiles, fertilizer, steel products, food processing, and oil and gas products. Major trade partners are Japan, the US, the United Kingdom, and Saudi Arabia. Economic aid was $36 billion between 1947-85, of which the US contributed 3 billion between 1981-87. Major donors are id entified. The population concentration is around Karachi. Political unrest has prevailed for 26 years and includes the creation of Bangladesh in 1970 from East Pakistan. Pakistan is considered to have the resources and entrepreneurial skills to develop economically rapidly. Defense strength is characterized as the world's 11th largest. Pakistan is nonaligned, but a member of the Organization of the Islamic Conference and the UN. Relations with India have been difficult. There is a desire for a stable Afghanistan. There are close relations with China and security and economic interests in the Persian Gulf. Relations with the US are wide and bilateral. PMID:12178039

1992-06-01

53

Parents' perspective on school strategies for parental involvement: an exploratory case study in a community based school in Karachi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis reports a research study which was conducted as a master thesis project. The study explored parents' perspectives about strategies school can use to meaningfully involve them. Twenty parents, through purposive sampling, were selected from a community based secondary school located in Karachi. A qualitative research design was used to explore the topic which used focused group discussion, interviews

Wali Mohammad Khan

2009-01-01

54

Sociocultural influences on newborn health in the first 6 weeks of life: qualitative study in a fishing village in Karachi, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Given regional variability and minimal improvement in infant mortality rates in Pakistan, this study aimed to explicate sociocultural influences impacting mothers’ efforts to maintain or improve newborn health. Methods We used a qualitative phenomenological approach. A total of 10 mothers and 8 fathers from a fishing village in Karachi, Pakistan were purposefully sampled and interviewed individually. A focus group was undertaken with four grandmothers (primary decision makers). Transcripts were independently reviewed using interpretive thematic analysis. Results A multigenerational approach was used in infant care, but mothers did not have a voice in decision-making. Parents connected breast milk to infant health, and crying was used as cue to initiate feeding. Participants perceived that newborns required early supplementation, given poor milk supply and to improve health. There were tensions between traditional (i.e., home) remedies and current medical practices. Equal importance was given to sons and daughters. Conclusion Findings suggest that social and cultural influences within families and the community must be considered in developing interventions to improve newborn health. Introducing non-breast milk substances into newborn diets may reduce the duration of exclusive or partial breastfeeding and increase risks to infant health. PMID:25030836

2014-01-01

55

Assessing estrogenic chemicals in anchovy and mussel samples from Karachi, Pakistan with the yeast estrogen screen bioassay.  

PubMed

Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are introduced into the aquatic environment through industrial and municipal effluents along with urban and agricultural runoffs. Exposure of aquatic organisms to EDCs may lead to hormonal disruption and adverse health effects. The goals of our study were: to collect anchovy and mussel samples from the coastal region of Karachi, to use the yeast estrogen screen (YES) bioassay in estimating xeno-estrogen content in these samples, and to investigate if the bioassay could be used to quantify known amounts of 17?-estradiol (E2) injected into cod and salmon fillets. Results of the studies showed that mussel estrogenic activity in Karachi decreased in the order of Buleji point 1 (8.91 ± 4.77, mean ± SD) > Paradise point 1 (1.72 ± 0.81) > Paradise point 2 (0.61 ± 0.84) ng E2 equivalents/g wet wt (p < 0.05). By comparison, anchovy estrogenic activity at Korangi/Phitti Creek was much higher than at Manora. Together, these results confirmed previous reports that both Buleji point 1 and Korangi/Phitti Creek were the most contaminated areas of Karachi. The YES bioassay was only a semi-quantitative method in determining the contents of xeno-estrogens in aquatic organisms; it consistently overestimated the amounts of E2 injected into cod and salmon fillets due to additive and/or non-additive interactions between E2 and endogenous estrogens. Nevertheless, the YES bioassay was able to identify the contaminated sites in the coastal region of Karachi. PMID:22983728

Hunter, Sarah; Khan, M Z; Shieh, Ben H H; Doerr, Barbara; Ali, Sara; Law, Francis C P

2012-11-01

56

Does improving maternal knowledge of vaccines impact infant immunization rates? A community-based randomized-controlled trial in Karachi, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background In Pakistan, only 59-73% of children 12-23 months of age are fully immunized. This randomized, controlled trial was conducted to assess the impact of a low-literacy immunization promotion educational intervention for mothers living in low-income communities of Karachi on infant immunization completion rates. Methods Three hundred and sixty-six mother-infant pairs, with infants aged ? 6 weeks, were enrolled and randomized into either the intervention or control arm between August - November 2008. The intervention, administered by trained community health workers, consisted of three targeted pictorial messages regarding vaccines. The control group received general health promotion messages based on Pakistan's Lady Health Worker program curriculum. Assessment of DPT/Hepatitis B vaccine completion (3 doses) was conducted 4-months after enrollment. A Poisson regression model was used to estimate effect of the intervention. The multivariable Poisson regression model included maternal education, paternal occupation, ownership of home, cooking fuel used at home, place of residence, the child's immunization status at enrollment, and mother's perception about the impact of immunization on child's health. Results Baseline characteristics among the two groups were similar. At 4 month assessment, among 179 mother-infant pairs in the intervention group, 129 (72.1%) had received all 3 doses of DPT/Hepatitis B vaccine, whereas in the control group 92/178 (51.7%) had received all 3 doses. Multivariable analysis revealed a significant improvement of 39% (adjusted RR = 1.39; 95% CI: 1.06-1.81) in DPT-3/Hepatitis B completion rates in the intervention group. Conclusion A simple educational intervention designed for low-literate populations, improved DPT-3/Hepatitis B vaccine completion rates by 39%. These findings have important implications for improving routine immunization rates in Pakistan. PMID:21496343

2011-01-01

57

Adherence of Healthcare Professionals to American Diabetes Association 2004 guidelines for the care of patients with type 2 diabetes at Peripheral Diabetes Clinics in Karachi, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Objective: To observe the adherence of Healthcare Professionals to American Diabetes Association (ADA) 2004 guidelines for the care of patients with type 2 diabetes at Peripheral Diabetes Clinics (PDCs) in Karachi, Pakistan. Methodology: The study was conducted using a retrospective medical chart review of patients with type 2 diabetes at four PDCs in four townships of Karachi district from January 2005 to December 2006. Entire medical records of patients were evaluated for the evidence of documentation of testing and treatment. Results: Medical records of 691 patients (332 males and 359 females) with type 2 diabetes were reviewed. Mean age of the patients was 50.79 ± 10.75 years. Deficiencies were observed in most areas of diabetes care. Blood pressure was documented in 85.81% patients, whereas, serum creatinine, HbA1c and lipid profile were noted in 56%, 44.57% and 40.08% of the patients respectively. Similarly, lower leg examination was registered in 44% patients, while in 30.53% of the patients fundoscopic examination was recorded. Co-morbid conditions like hypertension and hyperlipidemia were documented in 92.7% and 84.6% patients respectively. HbA1c < 7% was achieved by 59.04% patients, while 27.50% of the patients attained the recommended level of serum cholesterol. Likewise, ADA recommended goal for blood pressure and LDL was achieved by13.02% and 12.16% patients respectively. Conclusions: The study showed that adherence of healthcare professionals to ADA guidelines was suboptimal. Moreover, insufficient documentation of medical records reflected inadequate care of patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:24353559

Muzaffar, Farzana; Fatima, Nimra; Fawwad, Asher; Riaz, Mussarat

2013-01-01

58

Health of people working/living in the vicinity of an oil-polluted beach near Karachi, Pakistan.  

PubMed

A short-term study was conducted after the oil spillage from the tanker Tasman Spirit to analyse seawater and sand samples taken from Karachi beach for hydrocarbon/organic contents. Blood samples were collected from people who were working or living in the vicinity of the beach. Lymphocyte and eosinophil levels were slightly increased. About 11 people had raised serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, but this was not significant. Such steps are vital to ensure that there are no long-term hazardous effects of oil on human health. PMID:18557466

Khurshid, R; Sheikh, M A; Iqbal, S

2008-01-01

59

Assessment of asthma control using the asthma control test at a tertiary care centre in Karachi, Pakistan.  

PubMed

The aim of our study was to assess asthma control among asthmatics at a tertiary care setting in Karachi using ACT questionnaire. The ACT questionnaire was filled by known asthmatics in January 2007. A total of 150 questionnaires were filled of which, 61 (40%) were males and 89 (60%) females. Mean ACT score was 17.71 +/- 4.41. Association between sex and asthma control was not statistically significant. Significant association was seen with asthma control and Ipratropium bromide inhaler. Asthma control among patients at a tertiary care centre is moderate. ACT can be used to follow patients in the hospital. PMID:19288947

Shoukat, Sana; Gowani, Saqib Ali; Khowaja, Ameer Ali; Khan, Javaid Ahmad

2009-03-01

60

NOCTURNAL ASTHMA IN SCHOOL CHILDREN OF SOUTH PUNJAB, PAKISTAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: At the present time, the epidemiology of the childhood asthma is of considerable interest. There is an understandable concern that changes in the geographical area, lifestyle, and environment. This study was conducted to find the prevalence of nocturnal asthma, in school children of south Punjab, Pakistan. Methods: It was a cross sectional, questionnaire based, descriptive survey of the children

Ghulam Mustafa; Pervez Akber Khan; Imran Iqbal

61

Geographic Variation in Access to Dog-Bite Care in Pakistan and Risk of Dog-Bite Exposure in Karachi: Prospective Surveillance Using a Low-Cost Mobile Phone System  

PubMed Central

Background Dog-bites and rabies are under-reported in developing countries such as Pakistan and there is a poor understanding of the disease burden. We prospectively collected data utilizing mobile phones for dog-bite and rabies surveillance across nine emergency rooms (ER) in Pakistan, recording patient health-seeking behaviors, access to care and analyzed spatial distribution of cases from Karachi. Methodology and Principal Findings A total of 6212 dog-bite cases were identified over two years starting in February 2009 with largest number reported from Karachi (59.7%), followed by Peshawar (13.1%) and Hyderabad (11.4%). Severity of dog-bites was assessed using the WHO classification. Forty percent of patients had Category I (least severe) bites, 28.1% had Category II bites and 31.9% had Category III (most severe bites). Patients visiting a large public hospital ER in Karachi were least likely to seek immediate healthcare at non-medical facilities (Odds Ratio?=?0.20, 95% CI 0.17–0.23, p-value<0.01), and had shorter mean travel time to emergency rooms, adjusted for age and gender (32.78 min, 95% CI 31.82–33.78, p-value<0.01) than patients visiting hospitals in smaller cities. Spatial analysis of dog-bites in Karachi suggested clustering of cases (Moran's I?=?0.02, p value<0.01), and increased risk of exposure in particular around Korangi and Malir that are adjacent to the city's largest abattoir in Landhi. The direct cost of operating the mHealth surveillance system was USD 7.15 per dog-bite case reported, or approximately USD 44,408 over two years. Conclusions Our findings suggest significant differences in access to care and health-seeking behaviors in Pakistan following dog-bites. The distribution of cases in Karachi was suggestive of clustering of cases that could guide targeted disease-control efforts in the city. Mobile phone technologies for health (mHealth) allowed for the operation of a national-level disease reporting and surveillance system at a low cost. PMID:24349590

Zaidi, Syed Mohammad Asad; Labrique, Alain B.; Khowaja, Saira; Lotia-Farrukh, Ismat; Irani, Julia; Salahuddin, Naseem; Khan, Aamir Javed

2013-01-01

62

Immune Responses to Vi Capsular Polysaccharide Typhoid Vaccine in Children 2 to 16 Years Old in Karachi, Pakistan, and Kolkata, India  

PubMed Central

The geometric mean concentration (GMC) and the proportion maintaining a protective level (150 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) units [ELU]/ml) 2 years following a single dose of 25 ?g of injectable Vi capsular polysaccharide typhoid vaccine was measured against that of the control hepatitis A vaccine in children 2 to 16 years old in cluster randomized trials in Karachi and Kolkata. The GMC for the Vi group (1,428 ELU/ml) was statistically significantly different from the GMC of the control hepatitis A vaccine group (86 ELU/ml) after 6 weeks. A total of 117 children (95.1%) in the Vi group and 9 (7.5%) in the hepatitis A group showed a 4-fold rise in Vi IgG antibody concentrations at 6 weeks (P < 0.01). Protective antibody levels remained significantly different between the two groups at 2 years (38% in the Vi vaccine groups and 6% in the hepatitis A group [P < 0.01]). A very small proportion of younger children (2 to 5 years old) maintained protective Vi IgG antibody levels at 2 years, a result that was not statistically significantly different compared to that for the hepatitis A group (38.1% versus 10.5%). The GMCs of the Vi IgG antibody after 2 years were 133 ELU/ml for children 2 to <5 years old and 349 ELU/ml for children 5 to 16 years old. In conclusion, Vi capsular polysaccharide typhoid vaccine is immunogenic in children in settings of South Asia where typhoid is highly endemic. The antibody levels in children who received this vaccine remained higher than those in children who received the control vaccine but were significantly reduced at 2 years of follow-up. PMID:24599532

Khan, M. Imran; Soofi, Sajid B.; Sur, Dipika; Kanungo, Suman; You, Young Ae; Habib, M. Atif; Sahito, Shah Muhammad; Manna, Byomkesh; Dutta, Shanta; Acosta, Camilo J.; Ali, Mohammad; Bhattacharya, Sujit K.; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Clemens, John D.

2014-01-01

63

Immune responses to Vi capsular polysaccharide typhoid vaccine in children 2 to 16 years old in Karachi, Pakistan, and Kolkata, India.  

PubMed

The geometric mean concentration (GMC) and the proportion maintaining a protective level (150 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) units [ELU]/ml) 2 years following a single dose of 25 ?g of injectable Vi capsular polysaccharide typhoid vaccine was measured against that of the control hepatitis A vaccine in children 2 to 16 years old in cluster randomized trials in Karachi and Kolkata. The GMC for the Vi group (1,428 ELU/ml) was statistically significantly different from the GMC of the control hepatitis A vaccine group (86 ELU/ml) after 6 weeks. A total of 117 children (95.1%) in the Vi group and 9 (7.5%) in the hepatitis A group showed a 4-fold rise in Vi IgG antibody concentrations at 6 weeks (P < 0.01). Protective antibody levels remained significantly different between the two groups at 2 years (38% in the Vi vaccine groups and 6% in the hepatitis A group [P < 0.01]). A very small proportion of younger children (2 to 5 years old) maintained protective Vi IgG antibody levels at 2 years, a result that was not statistically significantly different compared to that for the hepatitis A group (38.1% versus 10.5%). The GMCs of the Vi IgG antibody after 2 years were 133 ELU/ml for children 2 to <5 years old and 349 ELU/ml for children 5 to 16 years old. In conclusion, Vi capsular polysaccharide typhoid vaccine is immunogenic in children in settings of South Asia where typhoid is highly endemic. The antibody levels in children who received this vaccine remained higher than those in children who received the control vaccine but were significantly reduced at 2 years of follow-up. PMID:24599532

Ochiai, R Leon; Khan, M Imran; Soofi, Sajid B; Sur, Dipika; Kanungo, Suman; You, Young A; Habib, M Atif; Sahito, Shah Muhammad; Manna, Byomkesh; Dutta, Shanta; Acosta, Camilo J; Ali, Mohammad; Bhattacharya, Sujit K; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Clemens, John D

2014-05-01

64

Seismological Research Letters Volume 78, Number 6 November/December 2007 601 The city of Karachi, Pakistan (population 14 million), sits close  

E-print Network

, Pakistan (population 14 million), sits close to a plate boundary and within reach of earthquakes on numer of Pakistan's four provinces), is indistinguishable from that of many fishing villages on the northern shores fromavillagetoatownwithapopulationoffewerthan140,000 people. The population grew to 500,000 by the time Pakistan became an independent nation

Bilham, Roger

65

Ethnic differences and determinants of proteinuria among South Asian subgroups in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethnic differences and determinants of proteinuria among South Asian subgroups in Pakistan.BackgroundHypertension, diabetes, increasing age, and smoking are known risk factors for proteinuria. Prevalence of proteinuria is high in South Asians. However, ethnic subgroup differences and determinants of proteinuria within the South Asian population have not been explored.MethodsThe National Health Survey of Pakistan conducted between 1990 and 1994 was used

Tazeen H. Jafar; Nish Chaturvedi; Asma Gul; Abdul Q. Khan; Christopher H. Schmid; Andrew S. Levey

2003-01-01

66

Need for multilevel strategies and enhanced acceptance of contraceptive use in order to combat the spread of HIV/AIDS in a Muslim society: a qualitative study of young adults in urban Karachi, Pakistan.  

PubMed

This qualitative study explored knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and perceptions of sexual and reproductive health, focusing specifically on contraceptive use and HIV prevention among young unmarried men and women, 17-21 years, in urban Karachi, Pakistan. The main theme, identified as underlying meaning in the focus group discussions was "Societal norms and perceptions create barriers to knowledge and awareness about sexual and reproductive health matters among young adults". A knowledge gap was revealed concerning HIV/AIDS and contraceptive use among young males and females, who have to rely on media and peers for information seeking. Study participants perceived that HIV/AIDS is incurable and carries a social stigma. It was further revealed, that there is an opposition towards contraceptive use from religious leaders. Young adults in Pakistan are in need of improved knowledge about HIV/AIDS and contraceptive use. Youth clinics and schools/colleges may play a significant role in this regard. The religious leaders need to be informed about the beneficial effects of contraceptives and they should be part of any family planning/contraceptive use program to ensure better community acceptance. At the structural level there is an urgent need for policies targeting the issue of sexual and reproductive health, particularly HIV/AIDS information and contraceptive use to target the young population. The health care services should be able to respond by offering relevant services. PMID:23985107

Farid-ul-Hasnain, Syed; Johansson, Eva; Gulzar, Saleema; Krantz, Gunilla

2013-09-01

67

Pakistan.  

PubMed

This information sheet about Pakistan, by the U.S. State Dept., summarizes its geography, political history, government, economy and international relations. Pakistan, lying on the Arabian Sea between Iran and India, and neighboring Afghanistan and China, has been independent from British control since 1947. Her people, 98 million, come from several Indo-European ethnic groups, but are 97% Muslim. Most live in the fertile Indus river valley; 53% work in agriculture; 13% in industry; mean per capita income is $331. The infant mortality rate is about 119/1000; life expectancy around 51 years. The country is endowed with resources, besides farmland, of oil, gas, coal, iron and hydroelectric power. It produces cotton, rice, fruits and vegetables as well for export. Pakistan's history is filled with strife, armed or political, marked by the independence of East Pakistan, now Bangladesh, in 1970, and rivalry for power by military and democratic factions, ending with a real election of Benazir Bhutto in 1986. Despite basic resources and a net export of food and textiles, the country has a significant debt and runs a deficit, and supports a rapidly growing young population (3.1% growth rate). Pakistan partakes in a complicated net of international relations due to the alignment of countries on her borders. Religious and ethnic conflicts with India, ideological difficulties and millions of refugees flowing from Afghanistan, but good relations with Iran and China make up this pattern. PMID:12177945

1987-03-01

68

Prevalence and perceptions about consanguineous marriages among patients presenting to family physicians, in 2001 at a Teaching Hospital in Karachi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim : Consanguineous marriages are common in Pakistan despite their declining popularity in the developed world. In the present study, a questionnaire based survey was used to record the attitudes and perceptions of consanguineous marriages among the sample population. Methods : A questionnaire was developed to collect information on the acceptability of, and percep- tions about, consanguineous marriages among patients

Waris Qidwai; Iqbal Azam Syed; Faisal M Khan

2003-01-01

69

Pakistan: Summary Report. Education Financing and People's Aspirations in Pakistan. Asia-South Pacific Education Watch  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted across the country in a total of 23 districts, 5 districts each in the four provinces of Pakistan, i.e. Balochistan, Punjab, Sindh, North Western Frontier Province (NWFP), and 2 districts in Azad Jammu & Kashmir (AJK). The main purpose of the paper was to unravel the intricate budgeting process in the education sector,…

Lozada, Rebecca, Ed.

2008-01-01

70

Enhancing and Sustaining Teacher Professionalism in Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a conceptual framework for fostering teacher professionalism in Government primary schools in Karachi, Pakistan. The framework identifies various stages for enhancing and sustaining teacher professionalism. These stages have been derived from in-depth multiple case studies of four Government primary schools in Karachi where…

Rizvi, Meher; Elliott, Bob

2007-01-01

71

PsychoSocial Consequences of Secondary Infertility in Karachi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To explore the experiences of social consequences among women suffering from secondary infertil- ity. Methods:Descriptive case series of 400 women with secondary infertility attending tertiary care hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan. Results: More than two thirds (67.7%) of women stated that their inability to give live births or give birth to sons had resulted in marital dissonance. The respondents had

Neelofar Sami; Tazeen Saeed Ali

72

Parental involvement in a private primary school in Karachi  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research is a case study on how parental involvement is enacted in a private primary school in Karachi, Pakistan. The study looked at the ways in which parents are involved in education in the school. Data was collected through interviews, observations and document analysis. Findings from the study indicate that all the stakeholders positively view the involvement of parents

Navbukhor Mamadyusufov

2005-01-01

73

The Karachi intracranial stenosis study (KISS) Protocol: An urban multicenter case-control investigation reporting the clinical, radiologic and biochemical associations of intracranial stenosis in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Intracranial stenosis is the most common cause of stroke among Asians. It has a poor prognosis with a high rate of recurrence. No effective medical or surgical treatment modality has been developed for the treatment of stroke due to intracranial stenosis. We aim to identify risk factors and biomarkers for intracranial stenosis and to develop techniques such as use of transcranial doppler to help diagnose intracranial stenosis in a cost-effective manner. Methods/Design The Karachi Intracranial Stenosis Study (KISS) is a prospective, observational, case-control study to describe the clinical features and determine the risk factors of patients with stroke due to intracranial stenosis and compare them to those with stroke due to other etiologies as well as to unaffected individuals. We plan to recruit 200 patients with stroke due to intracranial stenosis and two control groups each of 150 matched individuals. The first set of controls will include patients with ischemic stroke that is due to other atherosclerotic mechanisms specifically lacunar and cardioembolic strokes. The second group will consist of stroke free individuals. Standardized interviews will be conducted to determine demographic, medical, social, and behavioral variables along with baseline medications. Mandatory procedures for inclusion in the study are clinical confirmation of stroke by a healthcare professional within 72 hours of onset, 12 lead electrocardiogram, and neuroimaging. In addition, lipid profile, serum glucose, creatinine and HbA1C will be measured in all participants. Ancillary tests will include carotid ultrasound, transcranial doppler and magnetic resonance or computed tomography angiogram to rule out concurrent carotid disease. Echocardiogram and other additional investigations will be performed at these centers at the discretion of the regional physicians. Discussion The results of this study will help inform locally relevant clinical guidelines and effective public health and individual interventions. PMID:19604359

Kamal, Ayeesha Kamran; Taj, Fawad; Junaidi, Babar; Rasheed, Asif; Zaidi, Moazzam; Murtaza, Muhammed; Iqbal, Naved; Hashmat, Fahad; Alam, Syed Vaqas; Saleem, Uzma; Waheed, Shahan; Bansari, Lajpat; Shah, Nabi; Samuel, Maria; Yameen, Madiha; Naz, Sobia; Khan, Farrukh Shahab; Ahmed, Naveeduddin; Mahmood, Khalid; Sheikh, Niaz; Makki, Karim Ullah; Ahmed, Muhammad Masroor; Memon, Abdul Rauf; Wasay, Mohammad; Syed, Nadir Ali; Khealani, Bhojo; Frossard, Philippe M; Saleheen, Danish

2009-01-01

74

Marie Stopes Society, Pakistan: 1000 cases of quinacrine sterilization (QS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To evaluate the safety, efficacy and acceptability of QS in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods: 1000 women who had chosen sterilization during the 4-year period 1994 to 1997 inclusive were offered QS at both stationary clinics and in a mobile van at 23 sites in the outskirts of Karachi. The protocol involved transcervical insertion to the uterine fundus of 252 mg

M. Bilgrami; L. Shah

1998-01-01

75

Pakistan. Spotlight.  

PubMed

Focus in this discussion of Pakistan is on demographic factors, the issue of ethnic versus national solidarity, and economic and social development. The population was estimated at 99.2 million in 1985. The birthrate was 43/1000 in 1984 and the deaths were 15/1000. The infant mortality rate is 105 infant deaths/1000 live births, and life expectancy at birth is 51 years. In 1983 the gross national product per capita was US$390. The population of Pakistan is concentrated around Karachi on the Arabian Sea and in the crescent formed by Lahore, Rawalpindi, and Peshawar. Pakistan was a British colony, part of the Indian subcontinent until partition in 1947, when Britain gave Pakistan and India their freedom. Pakistan is not a theocracy, but the military government turns to traditional Islam for affirmation of its authority. Its martial law regime, established in 1977, is headed by President Ziaul Haq. The issue of ethnic versus national solidarity has been a problem since independence. Bengali-speaking East Pakistanis felt they did not have equal power in their country whose official language was Urdu and whose capital was in West Pakistan. East and West Pakistan ended up in armed conflict with the formation of Bangladesh in 1971 as the result. Regional and ethnic conflict is exacerbated by the low rate of literacy and the low status of certain ethnic groups in Pakistan. In addition, Pakistan suffers problems typical of many developing nations: a low per capita income, a large and growing population, and a highly stratified traditional society. In 1981 doctors, engineers, and craftsmen were in short supply, but there was a surplus of 300,000 agricultural workers. Agriculture makes up 30% of the GNP and employs 55% of the work force. In Pakistan's 6th Five Year Plan, initiated in July 1983, the government acknowledged for the 1st time the extremely poor conditions for women as indicated by literacy, health, and fertility. The total fertility rate is 6.4 average births/woman. Although the government is ostensibly trying to help women, funding for women's programs during the Five Year Plan was cut. Economic growth has been good in recent years, but agricultural growth is a result of increased acreage rather than yield per acre. PMID:12280214

Greene, M

1985-01-01

76

International trends in health science librarianship part 12: South Asia (India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka).  

PubMed

This is the 12th in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship. This issue describes developments in health science librarianship in the first decade of the 21st century in South Asia. The three contributors report on challenges facing health science librarians in India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. There is consensus as to the need for education, training and professional development. Starting in the next issue, the focus will turn to Africa, starting with countries in southern Africa. JM. PMID:25443029

Joshi, Medha; Ali Anwar, Mumtaz; Ullah, Midrar; Kuruppu, Chandrani

2014-12-01

77

The Muslim Response to English in South Asia: With Special Reference to Inequality, Intolerance, and Militancy in Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article argues that since the British colonial era, Muslims in South Asia have responded to English in three ways: (a) rejection and resistance, (b) acceptance and assimilation, and (c) pragmatic utilization. These responses continue in Pakistan and are respectively associated with the traditionalist ulema, the Westernized middle and upper…

Rahman, Tariq

2005-01-01

78

Adult anopheline ecology and malaria transmission in irrigated areas of South Punjab, Pakistan.  

PubMed

Surface irrigation in the Punjab province of Pakistan has been carried out on a large scale since the development of the Indus Basin Irrigation System in the late 19th century. The objective of our study was to understand how the population dynamics of adult anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) could be related to malaria transmission in rural areas with intensive irrigation and a history of malaria epidemics. In this paper we present our observations from three villages located along an irrigation canal in South Punjab. The study was carried out from 1 April 1999 to 31 March 2000. Mosquitoes were collected from bedrooms using the pyrethroid spraycatch method and from vegetation and animal sheds using backpack aspirators. Overall, Anopheles subpictus Grassi sensu lato predominated (55.6%), followed by An. stephensi Liston s.l. (41.4%), An. culicifacies Giles s.l. (2.0%), An. pulcherrimus Theobald (1.0%) and An. peditaeniatus Leicester (0.1%). Most mosquitoes (98.8%) were collected from indoor resting-sites whereas collections from potential resting-sites outdoors accounted for only 1.2% of total anopheline densities, confirming the endophilic behaviour of anophelines in Pakistan. Anopheles stephensi, An. culicifacies and An. subpictus populations peaked in August, September and October, respectively. High temperatures and low rainfall negatively affected seasonal abundance in our area. There were interesting differences in anopheline fauna between villages, with An. culicifacies occurring almost exclusively in the village at the head of the irrigation canal, where waterlogged and irrigated fields prevailed. Monthly house-to-house fever surveys showed that malaria transmission remained low with an overall slide positivity rate of 2.4% and all cases were due to infection with Plasmodium vivax. The most plausible explanation for low transmission in our study area seems to be the low density of Pakistan's primary malaria vector, An. culicifacies. The role of other species such as An. stephensi is not clear. Our observations indicate that, in South Punjab, irrigation-related sites support the breeding of anopheline mosquitoes, including the vectors of malaria. As our study was carried out during a year with exceptionally hot and dry climatic conditions, densities and longevity of mosquitoes would probably be higher in other years and could result in more significant malaria transmission than we observed. To assess the overall importance of irrigation-related sites in the epidemiology of malaria in the Punjab, more studies are needed to compare irrigated and non-irrigated areas. PMID:15189239

Herrel, N; Amerasinghe, F P; Ensink, J; Mukhtar, M; van der Hoek, W; Konradsen, F

2004-06-01

79

Genetic characterization of the Makrani people of Pakistan from mitochondrial DNA control-region data.  

PubMed

To estimate genetic and forensic parameters, the entire mitochondrial DNA control region of 100 unrelated Makrani individuals (males, n=96; females, n=4) living in Pakistan (Turbat, Panjgur, Awaran, Kharan, Nasirabad, Gwadar, Buleda, Karachi and Burewala) was sequenced. We observed a total of 70 different haplotypes of which 54 were unique and 16 were shared by more than one individual. The Makrani population showed a high genetic diversity (0.9688) and, consequently, a high power of discrimination (0.9592). Our results revealed a strongly admixed mtDNA pool composed of African haplogroups (28%), West Eurasian haplogroups (26%), South Asian haplogroups (24%), and East Asian haplogroups (2%), while the origin of the remaining individuals (20%) could not be confidently assigned. The results of this study are a valuable contribution to build a database of mtDNA variation in Pakistan. PMID:25454536

Siddiqi, Muhammad Hassan; Akhtar, Tanveer; Rakha, Allah; Abbas, Ghazanfar; Ali, Akram; Haider, Naeem; Ali, Azam; Hayat, Sikandar; Masooma, Syeda; Ahmad, Jamil; Tariq, Muhammad Akram; van Oven, Mannis; Khan, Fazle Majid

2015-03-01

80

War against Rape (WAR): The Experience of an Activist Group in Karachi in Raising Awareness of Sexual Crimes against Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the experiences of an activist group in Karachi (Pakistan) in raising awareness of sexual crimes against women, pursuant to a rape of a professional woman which occurred during an armed robbery. It describes how, since rape was regarded as rare or nonexistent in a conservative, Islamic society, the efforts of the Women's…

Zaman, Riffat Moazam

81

Front-line management of pulmonary tuberculosis: An analysis of tuberculosis and treatment practices in urban Sindh, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Setting: Karachi and Hyderabad, Pakistan.Objective: To describe the level and quality of tuberculosis (TB) case management by non-TB control program (TCP) physicians in urban Sindh, Pakistan.Design: We interviewed 152 adults with pulmonary TB confirmed by Karachi's TB control program regarding the initial management of their TB symptoms before entering the TCP. We also surveyed 65 general practitioners (GPs) attending continuing

D. Marsh; R. Hashim; F. Hassany; N. Hussain; Z. Iqbal; A. Irfanullah; N. Islam; F. Jalisi; J. Janoo; K. Kamal; A. Kara; A. Khan; R. Khan; O. Mirza; T. Mubin; F. Pirzada; N. Rizvi; A. Hussain; G. Ansari; A. Siddiqui; S. Luby

1996-01-01

82

Railway associated injuries in Pakistan.  

PubMed

Pakistan is ranked 12th worldwide for passenger kilometres (km) travelled by railway network. The objective of this study was to assess the railway network related morbidity and mortality in Pakistan. Reported deaths and injuries due to this network were extracted from two secondary datasets: (1) an international disaster database and (2) ambulance log registers for the city of Karachi. Over the period from 1997 to 2006, a total of 11 railway disasters resulted in 449 deaths and 840 injuries. An estimated 2.05 passengers died and another 3.84 passengers were injured per billion km travelled in Pakistan, a rate six times higher than Western European countries. The ambulance log showed that one person died every two weeks in Karachi over a period from September 2007 to Jun 2008 (N = 26). The male-to-female ratio of all injury victims (N = 50) was 9:1 with a mean age of 35.6 years. Surveillance of these injuries is essential to implement prevention and control measures in Pakistan. PMID:19787521

Bhatti, Junaid A; Razzak, Junaid A

2010-03-01

83

School Leadership in Pakistan: Exploring the Headteacher's Role.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the nature of school leadership in Pakistan by drawing on two studies describing experiences of headteachers in Karachi. Identifies three determinants of personal efficacy of headteachers: The powers and accountability of the school system, community expectations within the context of the national culture, and the individual's personality…

Simkins, Tim; Sisun, Charles; Memon, Muhammand

2003-01-01

84

Community mental health initiatives in Pakistan.  

PubMed

Aim To identify mental health needs in local communities, and provide and evaluate nurse-led services to promote community mental health in Karachi, Pakistan. Method Using an action research approach, mental health nurses implemented activities to promote mental health and psychiatric rehabilitation in 15 urban communities in Karachi. The activities were planned and implemented in collaboration with a community-based social welfare organisation. Findings Community mental health interventions were implemented by a multidisciplinary team including nursing educators and postgraduate nursing students. Positive transformation of the mental health of clients in the community was found. Conclusion The challenges in identifying, diagnosing and rehabilitating clients with mental health needs in the community in Pakistan is acknowledged, and the benefits of enhanced support for clients and their families provided by community mental health nurses are described. PMID:25627534

Ali, Gulnar; Lalani, Nasreen S; Charania, Nadia Ali Muhammad Ali

2015-01-28

85

Antenatal Depression is Not Associated with Low-Birth Weight: A Study from Urban Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background: Low-birth weight (LBW) (<2500?g) is considered to be a leading cause of cognitive impairment and physical disabilities in children. Incidence of LBW in South Asia has been reported to be as high as 33%. We investigated the association between antenatal depression and LBW in an urban community, in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods: A total of 1357 pregnant women in their third trimester were recruited into the study. They were screened for antenatal depression with Edinburgh postnatal depression scale. Self-reporting questionnaire was also used to measure psychological distress. Birth weights of 763 newborns were obtained from the hospital records. Results: We did not find a significant association between antenatal depression and LBW (odds ratio 0.881, 95%CI 0.732–1.060) in mothers attending a charity run hospital in an urban setting in Pakistan. Conclusion: Antenatal depression is not associated with LBW in this urban population in Pakistan. However, the prevalence of depression is high during pregnancy. There is a need to develop culturally adapted psychosocial interventions to address the high rates of depression for this population group. PMID:25540627

Husain, Nusrat; Munshi, Tariq; Jafri, Farhat; Husain, Meher; Parveen, Asia; Saeed, Qamar; Tomenson, Barbara; Naeem, Farooq; Chaudhry, Nasim

2014-01-01

86

India-Pakistan Relations after Mumbai Attacks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Paper makes a critical appraisal of India-Pakistan relations and explores their future trajector y in the aftermath of the Mumbai terrorist attack of November 2008. The rising tide of terrorism within Pakistan after 9\\/11 and the importance of South Asia to the United States made Pakistan selectively withdraw support to terrorist groups. This, in turn, helped India's efforts to

Wilson J; Kaustav Dhar

2009-01-01

87

Risk Factors for Deliberate Self-Harm in Patients Presenting to the Emergency Departments of Karachi  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the risk factors for Deliberate Self-Harm (DSH) in patients presenting to the Emergency Departments (EDs) of three tertiary care hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan. Study Design Multicentre matched case control study. Place and Duration of Study EDs of the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Civil Hospital, Karachi and Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, from March 2011 to February 2012. Methodology A total of 201 cases and 201 matched controls were taken from three hospitals situated in Karachi. All patients of 16 years and above presenting to the EDs of the hospitals with DSH attempt were invited to participate in the study. Controls were ED patients with complaints other than DSH. A control was matched with case for hospital, gender and age. Two questionnaires were used to collect information on the risk factors of DSH. Conditional Logistic Regression (CLR) was used to assess the association of various risk factors with DSH. Results Risk factors of DSH in Karachi included current history of mental disorder (OR = 4.53, 95% CI = 1.59 – 12.92), not sharing problems with someone (OR = 4.67, 95% CI = 2.4 – 9.0), living in rented houses (OR = 2.58, 95% CI = 1.37 – 4.84), Pathan ethnicity (OR = 5.05, 95% CI = 1.01–25.38) followed by others (OR = 3.88, 95% CI = 0.77 – 19.69) and Urdu speaking (OR = 2.71, 95% CI = 0.59 – 12.45). Absence of physical illness in the past month had an inverse association with DSH (OR = 0.17, 95% CI = 0.07 – 0.37). Conclusion Mental illnesses, low socio-economic status and loneliness were the risk factors of DSH patients presenting to the three EDs of Karachi. Physical illness in the last month was protective against DSH in these patients. Psychiatric evaluation of DSH patients in the ED is important for early diagnosis and management of mental disorders. PMID:25604370

Shahid, Muhammad; Iqbal, Romaina; Khan, Murad M.; Khan, Muhammad Zaman; Shamsi, Uzma Shoaib; Nakeer, Rooham

2015-01-01

88

Paleosols from Pakistan, Greece, and South Dakota: Strengths and pitfalls of the use of carbon isotopes in paleoecologic reconstruction  

SciTech Connect

The delta C-13 of soil carbonates in paleosols can be used to reconstruct the proportion of C[sub 3] and C[sub 4] plants that grew on the site during pedogenesis. This reconstruction is only possible where: (1) soil carbonate, not other secondary carbonates, is sampled, (2) carbon isotopes have not undergone post-burial replacement or exchange, and (3) there is no detrital contamination of soil nodules. Preservation of soil organic matter provides the simplest test of all these conditions. In modern soils coexisting soil carbonate and organic matter differ by 14--17%. This difference is preserved in Mio-Pliocene paleosols from the Siwalik Sequence in Pakistan, verifying a pedogenic origin, but not in coexisting carbonate and organic layers from Pikermi in Greece. Minor detrital contamination is present in some Siwalik soil carbonates, but this can be quantified by analyzing entire paleosol profiles. Other post-pedogenic carbonate cements are also present by they display very different delta C-13 and delta O-18 values from those in soil carbonates, aging suggesting that post-pedogenic exchange has not occurred. In the Badlands of South Dakota, preliminary results show that all sampled carbonate phases, including those in paleosols, display very homogeneous delta C-13 values of around [minus]7 to [minus]8%, indicating that (1) no pedogenic carbonate is present, (2) post-burial isotopic alteration may have occurred, or (3) Oligocene atmospheric pCO[sub 2] was substantially higher than today's.

Quade, J. (Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Geosciences); Cerling, T.E.; Wang, Yang (Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

1992-01-01

89

Some aspects of South Asia's groundwater irrigation economy: analyses from a survey in India, Pakistan, Nepal Terai and Bangladesh  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1960, South Asia has emerged as the largest user of groundwater in irrigation in the world. Yet, little is known about this burgeoning economy, now the mainstay of the region's agriculture, food security and livelihoods. Results from the first socio-economic survey of its kind, involving 2,629 well-owners from 278 villages from India, Pakistan, Nepal Terai and Bangladesh, show that groundwater is used in over 75% of the irrigated areas in the sample villages, far more than secondary estimates suggest. Thanks to the pervasive use of groundwater in irrigation, rain-fed farming regions are a rarity although rain-fed plots within villages abound. Groundwater irrigation is quintessentially supplemental and used mostly on water-economical inferior cereals and pulses, while a water-intensive wheat and rice system dominates canal areas. Subsidies on electricity and canal irrigation shape the sub-continental irrigation economy, but it is the diesel pump that drives it. Pervasive markets in tubewell irrigation services enhance irrigation access to the poor. Most farmers interviewed reported resource depletion and deterioration, but expressed more concern over the high cost and poor reliability of energy supply for groundwater irrigation, which has become the fulcrum of their survival strategy.

Shah, Tushaar; Singh, O. P.; Mukherji, Aditi

2006-03-01

90

Pesticide susceptibility status of Anopheles mosquitoes in four flood-affected districts of South Punjab, Pakistan.  

PubMed

Recent floods drastically increased the burden of disease, in particular the incidence of malaria, in the southern districts of the Punjab province in Pakistan. Control of malaria vector mosquitoes in these districts requires the adoption of an appropriate evidence-based policy on the use of pesticides, and having the latest information on the insecticide resistance status of malaria vector mosquitoes is essential for designing effective disease prevention policy. Using World Health Organization (WHO) test kits, the present study utilized papers impregnated with DDT, malathion, deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, and permethrin, to determine the insecticide susceptibility/resistance status of malaria vector mosquitoes in four flood-affected districts. The test results showed that both Anopheles stephensi and Anopheles culicifacies remained resistant to DDT and malathion. Tests with three commonly used pyrethroids, permethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, and deltamethrin, detected resistance in the majority of cases, but in a number of localities mortalities with these three pyrethroids ranged from 80-97% and were therefore placed under verification-required status. This status indicates the presence of susceptible individuals in these populations. These results suggest that if appropriate resistance management strategies are applied in these areas, then the development of high levels of resistance can still be prevented or slowed. This study forms an important evidence base for the strategic planning of vector control in the four flood-affected districts. PMID:23199276

Rathor, Hamayun Rashid; Nadeem, Ghazala; Khan, Imtinan Akram

2013-01-01

91

Frequency and Outcome of Carotid Atheromatous Disease in Patients With Stroke in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose—Limited data exist on the frequency and outcome of carotid artery disease in Pakistan. Such information would help guide the usefulness of screening for the condition in this low-middle income health care setting. Methods—A prospective, descriptive study was conducted among 3 large teaching hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan. Patients referred for carotid Doppler ultrasound examination were included if they

Mohammad Wasay; Muhammad Azeemuddin; Imrana Masroor; Zafar Sajjad; Rasheed Ahmed; Bhojo A. Khealani; Muhammad Ashar Malik; Maria Babar Afridi; Ayeesha Kamal

2010-01-01

92

Useful ethnophytomedicinal recipes of angiosperms used against diabetes in South East Asian Countries (India, Pakistan & Sri Lanka).  

PubMed

This paper is based on data recorded from various literatures pertaining to ethnophytomedicinal recipes used against diabetes in South East Asia (India, Pakistan and Srilanka). Traditional plant treatments have been used throughout the world for the therapy of diabetes mellitus. In total 419 useful phytorecipes of 270 plant species belonging to 74 Angiospermic families were collected. From the review it was revealed that plants showing hypoglycemic potential mainly belong to the families, Cucurbitaceae (16 spp.), Euphorbiaceae (15 spp.), Caesalpiniaceae and Papilionaceae (13 spp. each), Moraceae (11 spp.), Acanthaceae (10 spp.), Mimosaceae (09 spp.), Asteraceae, Malvaceae and Poaceae (08 spp. each), Hippocrateaceae, Rutaceae and Zingiberaceae (07 spp. each), Apocynaceae, Asclepiadaceae and Verbenaceae (06 spp. each), Apiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Lamiaceae, Myrtaceae, Solanaceae (05 spp.each). The most active plants are Syzigium cumini (14 recipes), Phyllanthus emblica (09 recipes), Centella asiatica and Momordica charantia (08 recipes each), Azadirachta indica (07 recipes), Aegle marmelos, Catharanthus roseus, Ficus benghalensis, Ficus racemosa, Gymnema sylvestre (06 recipes each), Allium cepa, A. sativum, Andrographis paniculata, Curcuma longa (05 recipes each), Citrullus colocynthis, Justicia adhatoda, Nelumbo nucifera, Tinospora cordifolia, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Ziziphus mauritiana and Wattakaka volubilis (4 recipes each). These traditional recipes include extracts, leaves, powders, flour, seeds, vegetables, fruits and herbal mixtures. Data inventory consists of botanical name, recipe, vernacular name, English name. Some of the plants of the above data with experimentally confirmed antidiabetic properties have also been recorded. More investigations must be carried out to evaluate the mechanism of action of diabetic medicinal plants. Toxicity of these plants should also be explained. Scientific validation of these recipes may help in discovering new drugs from these medicinal plants for diabetes. PMID:25176368

Marwat, Sarfaraz Khan; Rehman, Fazalur; Khan, Ejaz Ahmad; Khakwani, Abdul Aziz; Ullah, Imdad; Khan, Kaleem Ullah; Khan, Inam Ullah

2014-09-01

93

Unsafe injections and the transmission of hepatitis B and C in a periurban community in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following reports of frequent deaths associated with jaundice and chronic liver disease among adults in a periurban community of Karachi, Pakistan, an investigation was conducted to evaluate the relationship between injections and viral hepatitis infections, to identify the reasons why patients received frequent injections, and to observe the injection practices employed in clinics. Two hundred and three adult patients were

Aamir J. Khan; Stephen P. Luby; Fariyal Fikree; Anita Karim; Saima Obaid; Salima Dellawala; Shaper Mirza; Tariq Malik; Sue Fisher-Hoch; Joseph B. McCormick

2000-01-01

94

Knowledge, attitudes and practices survey on organ donation among a selected adult population of Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: To determine the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding organ donation in a selected adult population in Pakistan. METHODS: Convenience sampling was used to generate a sample of 440; 408 interviews were successfully completed and used for analysis. Data collection was carried out via a face to face interview based on a pre-tested questionnaire in selected public areas of Karachi,

Taimur Saleem; Sidra Ishaque; Nida Habib; Saadia Syedda Hussain; Areeba Jawed; Ali Aamir Khan; Muhammad Imran Ahmad; Mian Omer Iftikhar; Hamza Pervez Mughal; Imtiaz Jehan

2009-01-01

95

Prevalence of ST26 among untreated smear-positive tuberculosis patients from Karachi indicating ongoing transmission.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis (TB) control is a major healthcare priority for Pakistan. We have studied Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains from the sputa of 100 treatment-naïve, smear-positive pulmonary TB cases from Karachi, Pakistan, to identify strains most responsible for active transmission in this population. DNA extracted from M. tuberculosis isolates were subjected to spacer oligotyping (spoligotyping). Sixty-six (66%) clinical isolates were grouped into 9 different clusters. The largest cluster comprised the Central Asian Strain (CAS) 1 or ST26 (n=40). The remaining isolates (34%) had unique spoligotypes. We conclude that ST26 being the most prevalent strain in smear-positive cases contributes greatly towards ongoing transmission in Karachi. Our data further suggest that ST26 may have a selection advantage not afforded by other genotypes. This conclusion is further supported by DESTUS analysis (Detecting Emerging Strains of Tuberculosis Using Spoligotypes) identifying ST26 as the only emerging spoligotype. Reasons for the spread of ST26 require further study. PMID:19681020

Shakoor, Sadia; Tanveer, Mahnaz; Rafiq, Yasraba; Hasan, Zahra; Javed, Arshad; Rizvi, Nadeem; Rehman, Nadeem; Hasan, Rumina

2009-01-01

96

Weight patterns and perceptions among female university students of Karachi: a cross sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Body weight and its perception play an important role in the physical and mental well-being of a person. Weight perception is found to be a better predictor of weight management behaviour as compared to actual weight. In Pakistan, studies have been done on the prevalence of weight status but weight perception is still unexplored. The study was done to examine relationships between body weight perception, actual weight status, and weight control behaviour among the female university students of Karachi. Methods A cross sectional study was carried out during Sep-Nov 2009 on female students in four universities of Karachi, Pakistan. Our final sample size included 338 female university students. Height and weight were measured on calibrated scales. A modified BMI criterion for Asian populations was used. Results Based on measured BMI; the prevalence of underweight, normal weight and overweight females was 27.2%, 51.5% and 21.3% respectively. As a whole, just over one third (33.73%) of the sample misclassified their weight status. Among underweight (n=92), 45.70% thought they were of normal weight. No one who was truly underweight perceived them self as overweight. Among the normal weight (n= 174), 9.8% thought they were underweight and 23.6% considered themselves overweight. Among the overweight (n=72); 18.3% considered themselves normal. Only one female student thought she was underweight despite being truly overweight. Conclusions Our study shows that among female university students in Karachi, the prevalence of being underweight is comparatively high. There is a significant misperception of weight, with one third of students misclassifying themselves. Underweight females are likely to perceive themselves as normal and be most satisfied with their weight. Health policy makers should implement these findings in future development of health interventions and prevention of depression, social anxiety and eating disorders associated with incorrect weight perception among young females. Studies that employ a longitudinal approach are needed to validate our findings. PMID:23496854

2013-01-01

97

Blood and hair lead in children with different extents of iron deficiency in Karachi  

SciTech Connect

Childhood iron deficiency has a high incidence in Pakistan. Some but not all studies have shown that dietary iron deficiency may cause increased absorption of lead as both compete for the same transporters in the small intestine. Therefore, children in Pakistan, residing in heavily polluted cities like Karachi may be prone to lead poisoning. This hypothesis was tested by investigating blood and hair lead concentrations in children from Karachi who were divided into four groups of iron status; normal, borderline iron deficiency, iron deficiency and iron deficiency anaemia. A prospective observational study was conducted where 269 children were categorized into four groups of iron status using the World Health Organization criteria and one based on soluble transferrin receptor measurements. Blood iron status was determined using a full blood count, serum iron, ferritin, transferrin saturation and soluble transferrin receptor measurements. Blood lead was determined by graphite atomic absorption spectroscopy, whereas hair lead was assessed using an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy technique. Blood lead concentrations were significantly higher in children with iron deficiency anaemia (mean [95% confidence intervals] were 24.9 [22.6-27.2] {mu}g/dL) compared to those with normal iron status (19.1 [16.8-21.4] {mu}g/dL) using WHO criteria. In contrast, hair lead content was not significantly different in children of different iron status. Our findings reinforce the importance of not only reducing environmental lead pollution but also the development of national health strategies to reduce childhood iron deficiency in Pakistan.

Ataur Rahman, Muhammad; Rahman, Bushra [Karachi Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270 (Pakistan)] [Karachi Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270 (Pakistan); Saeed Ahmad, Muhammad [School of Healthcare Science, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester M1 5GD (United Kingdom)] [School of Healthcare Science, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester M1 5GD (United Kingdom); Blann, Andrew [Department of Medicine, City Hospital, Birmingham B18 7QH, United Kingdom. (United Kingdom)] [Department of Medicine, City Hospital, Birmingham B18 7QH, United Kingdom. (United Kingdom); Ahmed, Nessar, E-mail: N.Ahmed@mmu.ac.uk [School of Healthcare Science, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester M1 5GD (United Kingdom)] [School of Healthcare Science, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester M1 5GD (United Kingdom)

2012-10-15

98

How our practice of histopathology, especially tumour pathology has changed in the last two decades: reflections from a major referral center in Pakistan.  

PubMed

Continued advances in the field of histo-pathology (and cyto-pathology) over the past two decades have resulted in dramatic changes in the manner in which these disciplines are now practiced. This is especially true in the setting of a large university hospital where the role of pathologists as clinicians (diagnosticians), undergraduate and postgraduate educators, and researchers has evolved considerably. The world around us has changed significantly during this period bringing about a considerable change in our lifestyles and the way we live. This is the world of the internet and the world-wide web, the world of Google and Wikipedia, of Youtube and Facebook where anyone can obtain any information one desires at the push of a button. The practice of histo (and cyto) pathology has also evolved in line with these changes. For those practicing this discipline in a poor, developing country these changes have been breathtaking. This is an attempt to document these changes as experienced by histo (and cyto) pathologists practicing in the biggest center for Histopathology in Pakistan, a developing country in South Asia with a large (180 million) and ever growing population. The Section of Histopathology, Department of Pathology and Microbiology at the Aga Khan University Hospital (AKUH) in Karachi, Pakistan's largest city has since its inception in the mid-1980s transformed the way histopathology is practiced in Pakistan by incorporating modern methods and rescuing histopathology in Pakistan from the primitive and outdated groove in which it was stuck for decades. It set histopathology in Pakistan firmly on the path of modernity and change which are essential for better patient management and care through accurate and complete diagnosis and more recently prognostic and predictive information as well. PMID:24935563

Ahmad, Zubair; Idrees, Romana; Fatima, Saira; Arshad, Huma; Din, Nasir-ud; Memon, Aisha; Minhas, Khurram; Ahmed, Arsalan; Fatima, Syeda Samia; Arif, Muhammad; Ahmed, Rashida; Haroon, Saroona; Pervez, Shahid; Hassan, Sheema; Kayani, Naila

2014-01-01

99

Description of Tylenchorhynchus qasimii sp. n with a new report of T. kegasawai Minagawa, 1995 from Pakistan  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A new stunt nematode, from soil around the roots of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.) from Karachi, Pakistan is described and illustrated as Tylenchorhynchus qasimii n. sp. This new species is characterized by having females with 3-4 head annules, anteriorly directed stylet knob...

100

Characaterization of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses isolated from poultry in Pakistan 2006-2008  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nine avian influenza viruses (AIV), H5N1 subtype, were isolated from dead poultry in the Karachi region of Pakistan from 2006-2008. The intravenous pathogenicity indices and HA protein cleavage sites of all nine viruses were consistent with highly pathogenic AIV. Based on phylogenetic analysis of ...

101

Characterization and source apportionment of ambient air particulate matter (PM2.5) in Karachi.  

PubMed

Concentrations and source apportionment of PM(2.5) monitored at an urban residential site in Karachi Metropolitan, Pakistan have been reported in this paper. PM(2.5) aerosol samples were collected on alternative days (three times per week) for 24-hrs duration on Zefluor(TM) filter papers using Thermo-Electron Corporation Reference Ambient Air Sampler (RAAS). A total of 402 samples were collected from January 2006 to January 2008. According to results high PM(2.5) loads were observed in post monsoon months that is about 2 times than those observed in the summer and monsoon seasons in the yearlong measurements. The collected samples were analyzed using ICP-MS for trace metal concentration. Source apportionment was performed on PM samples using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) model. The results derived from PMF model indicated five (05) major contributors to PM(2.5) in Karachi which were: soil/road dust, industrial emissions, vehicular emissions, sea salt originated from Arabian Sea and secondary aerosols. PMID:22154210

Mansha, M; Ghauri, Badar; Rahman, Said; Amman, Arif

2012-05-15

102

Polyester projects for India, Pakistan  

SciTech Connect

India's Indo Rama Synthetics (Bombay) is planning a $186-million integrated polyester fiber and filament complex at Nagpur, Maharashtra. The complex will have annual capacities for 38,000 m.t. of polyester chips by polycondensation, 25,000 m.t. of polyester staple fiber, and 12,000 m.t. of polyester blended yarn. The company is negotiating with the main world suppliers of polycondensation technology. The first stage of the project is slated to begin production by the end of this year and be fully completed by 1994. In Pakistan, National Fibers Ltd. (PNF; Karachi) has signed a deal with Zimmer (Frankfurt) for technology, procurement, construction, and support work to expand polyester staple fiber capacity from 14,000 m.t./year to 52,000 m.t./year. The technology involves a continuous polymerization process. The project also calls for improvements to PNF's existing batch plant. It is scheduled for completion by the end of 1994. Total cost of the project is estimated at Rs1.745 billion ($70 million), out of which the foreign exchange component is Rs1.05 billion. The Islamic Development Bank (Jeddah; Saudi Arabia) has already approved a $27-million slice of the financing, while the balance of the foreign exchange loan is being arranged through suppliers credit. Local currency loans will be provided by other financial institutions in Pakistan.

Siddiqi, R.

1993-02-10

103

Pakistan programme thrives despite unrest.  

PubMed

In Pakistan, strikes and riots in the Korangi district of Karachi during 1995 prevented staff from finding a suitable location for the new Marie Stopes International family planning clinic. Once the clinic opened, field workers received violent threats and had to be escorted to and from work. A mobile clinic was hijacked at gun point. Nevertheless, the Pakistan program has expanded to five clinics with one more to open soon. It has established an extensive community-based distribution (CBD) network. Before the CBD project was implemented, less than 10% of couples within the target group used a modern contraceptive method. An effective information and education strategy along with high quality service provision has increased use of modern contraceptives three-fold in some areas. The program plans to expand into underserved areas of rural Sind Province and Balochistan. 4% of women in Balochistan and 9% in Sind have access to modern contraceptives. In fact, many women resort to illegal and unsafe abortion. The program aims to submit a proposal to UK's Overseas Development Administration for major funding. PMID:12291858

1996-01-01

104

A systematic review of air pollution as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in South Asia: limited evidence from India and Pakistan.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are major contributors to mortality and morbidity in South Asia. Chronic exposure to air pollution is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, although the majority of studies to date have been conducted in developed countries. Both indoor and outdoor air pollution are growing problems in developing countries in South Asia yet the impact on rising rates of CVD in these regions has largely been ignored. We aimed to assess the evidence available regarding air pollution effects on CVD and CVD risk factors in lower income countries in South Asia. A literature search was conducted in PubMed and Web of Science. Our inclusion criteria included peer-reviewed, original, empirical articles published in English between the years 1990 and 2012, conducted in the World Bank South Asia region (Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka). This resulted in 30 articles. Nine articles met our inclusion criteria and were assessed for this systematic review. Most of the studies were cross-sectional and examined measured particulate matter effects on CVD outcomes and indicators. We observed a bias as nearly all of the studies were from India. Hypertension and CVD deaths were positively associated with higher particulate matter levels. Biomarkers of oxidative stress such as increased levels of P-selection expressing platelets, depleted superoxide dismutase and reactive oxygen species generation as well as elevated levels of inflammatory-related C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 were also positively associated with biomass use or elevated particulate matter levels. An important outcome of this investigation was the evidence suggesting important air pollution effects regarding CVD risk in South Asia. However, too few studies have been conducted. There is as an urgent need for longer term investigations using robust measures of air pollution with different population groups that include a wider range of air pollutants and outcomes, including early indicators of CVD. These regions are facing burdens from increasing urbanization, air pollution and populations, generally weaker health infrastructure, aging populations and increased incidence of non-communicable diseases, included CVD. The extent to which the problem of air pollution and CVD will impact these countries will depend largely on the information available to inform policy and programs, which are still lacking, political will as well as social and economic development. PMID:24064368

Yamamoto, S S; Phalkey, R; Malik, A A

2014-03-01

105

Teaching Bioethics to Medical Technology Students in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Incorporating ethics education in curriculum of medical technology students and highlighting the importance of teaching the subject to this particular population in this part of world are our aims. At SIUT we have a school with name of “Zain ul Abidin” school of Biomedical Technology, which is supposed to award B.S. degree in 5 sub-specialties that is hemodialysis, radiology, laboratory sciences, operation theater technology and intensive care technology. This school is affiliated by Karachi University. The students entering in school have done fellow in science (F.Sc.)with pre-medical group, thus have background knowledge of biology, physics, chemistry, languages, religion and Pakistan studies. Here for B.S. included in their curriculum are the subjects of anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, microbiology, pharmacology, pathology, Islamiat and English for all and then related sub-specialty topics to each group for example student in hemodialysis group more exposed to nephrology topics etc. I planned to add ethics with subjects, which are common to all specialties and designed curriculum. Curriculum was approved (after minor changes), from Karachi University and I started teaching ethics to these students. This paper highlights methods and tools of teaching and evaluation and results observed. This will be the first examination in bioethics from medical technologists, at university level in the history of country. This is a great achievement in country to start teaching bioethics to medical technologists. Karachi University has implemented the same curriculum to other medical technology schools affiliated with University. PMID:23908722

Naqvi, Rubina

2009-01-01

106

An early South Asian dust storm during March 2012 and its impacts on Indian Himalayan foothills: a case study.  

PubMed

The impacts of an early South Asian dust storm that originated over the western part of the Middle East and engulfed northwest parts of India during the third week of March 2012 have been studied at four different stations covering India and Pakistan. The impacts of this dust storm on aerosol optical properties were studied in detail at Delhi, Jodhpur, Lahore and Karachi. The impact could also be traced up to central Himalayan foothills at Manora Peak. During dust events, the aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 500 nm reached a peak value of 0.96, 1.02, 2.17 and 0.49 with a corresponding drop in Ångström exponent (AE for 440-870 nm) to 0.01, -0.02, 0.00 and 0.12 at Delhi, Jodhpur, Lahore and Karachi, respectively. The single scattering albedo (SSA) at 675 nm was relatively lower at Delhi (0.87) and Jodhpur (0.86), with absorption Ångström exponent (AAE) less than 1.0, but a large value of SSA was observed at Lahore (0.98) and Karachi (0.93), with AAE value greater than 1.0 during the event. The study of radiative impact of dust aerosols revealed a significant cooling at the surface and warming in the atmosphere (with corresponding large heating rate) at all the stations during dust event. The effect of this dust storm was also seen at Manora Peak in central Himalayas which showed an enhancement of ~28% in the AOD at 500 nm. The transport of dust during such events can have severe climatic implications over the affected plains and the Himalayas. PMID:24973722

Srivastava, A K; Soni, V K; Singh, Sachchidanand; Kanawade, V P; Singh, N; Tiwari, S; Attri, S D

2014-09-15

107

A 5000-yr Record of Climate Change in Varved Sediments from the Oxygen Minimum Zone off Pakistan, Northeastern Arabian Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The upper Holocene marine section from a kasten core taken from the oxygen minimum zone off Karachi (Pakistan) at water depth 700 m contains continuously laminated sediments with a sedimentation rate of 1.2 mm\\/yr and a unique record of monsoonal climatic variability covering the past 5000 years. Our chronostratigraphy is based on varve counts verified by conventional and AMS14C dating.

Ulrich von Rad; Michael Schaaf; Klaus H. Michels; Hartmut Schulz; Wolfgang H. Berger; Frank Sirocko

1999-01-01

108

Epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease in Landhi Dairy Colony, Pakistan, the world largest Buffalo colony  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Pakistan and causes huge economic losses. This work focus on the Landhi Dairy Colony (LDC), located in the suburbs of Karachi. LDC is the largest Buffalo colony in the world, with more than 300,000 animals (around 95% buffaloes and 5% cattle, as well as an unknown number of sheep and goats). Each month

Joern Klein; Manzoor Hussain; Munir Ahmad; Muhammad Afzal; Soren Alexandersen

2008-01-01

109

Characterizing US Operations in Pakistan: Is the United States Engaged In An Armed Conflict?  

Microsoft Academic Search

On January 14, 2010, four Hellfire missiles fired from an unmanned aerial vehicle (“drone”) slammed into a compound in Pakistan’s South Waziristan region, killing ten people. Hakimullah Mehsud, leader of Tehrik-e-Taliban Pakistan (“TTP”), was the reported target of the strike. Already the eighth US drone attack in Pakistan in 2010, these strikes followed two consecutive years of dramatically increased drone

Laurie R. Blank; Benjamin R. Farley

2011-01-01

110

Attitudes toward suicide bombing in Pakistan.  

PubMed

Although suicide bombing is a historical phenomenon, there has been a recent upsurge in such incidents. In Pakistan, over the last year, more than 1,000 people have been killed in suicide bombing incidents. Assessing the attitudes and perceptions of people toward suicide bombing can help understand some of the root causes of this phenomenon. In this pilot study, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of people (N = 215) in Karachi, Pakistan, to assess their attitudes and perceptions toward suicide bombing. The majority of the respondents condemned suicide bombing and disagreed with the notion that Islam or any other religion supports it. Belonging to the Sunni Muslim sect and strong adherence to religion predicted support for suicide bombing. The majority believed suicide bombing to be a result of religious fundamentalism. Opinion was divided as to whether suicide bombers have an underlying psychiatric illness. Further studies with larger sample sizes are needed to determine the attitudes and perceptions of the Pakistani population regarding this important issue. PMID:18664233

Kazim, Syed Faraz; Aly, Zarmeneh; Bangash, Haider Khan; Harchandani, Bhisham Pardeep; Irfan, Affan Bin; Javed, Syed Muhammad; Khalil-ur-Rehman, Rana; Naqvi, Haider; Khan, Murad Moosa

2008-01-01

111

Effects of leather industry on health and recommendations for improving the situation in Pakistan.  

PubMed

The leather industry and its associated sectors contribute significantly to the Pakistani economy. There are around 600 tanneries in Pakistan that are concentrated in 3 major cities (Kasur, Karachi, Sialkot). Waste discharge from tanneries pollutes the air, soil, and water, causing serious health problems. Exposure to such contaminated environmental milieu has been seen to culminate in a multiple array of disease processes such as asthma, dermatitis, hepatic and neurological disorders, and various malignancies. An overall dearth of research on the occupational hazards of employment in the leather industry as well as its effects on pediatric population was observed during literature review with particular reference to Pakistan. It is recommended that research should be conducted about the health hazards in the leather industry in Pakistan as well as globally to gather data that can be translated into effective prevention programs for both adults as well as pediatric populations. PMID:20705577

Syed, Madiha; Saleem, Taimur; Shuja-ur-Rehman; Iqbal, Muhammed Asif; Javed, Faisal; Khan, Muhammed Bilal Salman; Sadiq, Kamran

2010-01-01

112

Frequency of thyroid incidentalomas in Karachi population  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine frequency of thyroid incidentalomas (TI) through ultrasound (US) and its association with age, gender and ethnicities. Methods: It was a cross-sectional study. Total 269 adults who were asymptomatic for thyroid disease aged 21 years and above underwent ultrasound examination of their thyroid. Results: Frequency of TI found was 21%. TI was detected in 25% of females and 16% males (P= 0.078). 61% had thyroid nodules (TNs) in one lobe (right, left or isthmus) and 39% had TNs in more than one location. About 55% had single TN and 45% had multiple TNs. 38% had TNs greater than 1cm while 57% had TNs smaller than 1 cm. 5% had TNs greater and smaller than 1 cm. TI was equally common in individuals of different ethinicities (P= 0.758). Conclusion: Frequency of thyroid incidentalomas found in our study was higher than most of the other iodine sufficient states. Unlike other studies, incidentalomas were equally common in both the genders of our study. This may be due to the previous iodine deficient status of Pakistan which was prevalent. However further studies on the same topic will help us in identifying the correct status of thyroid incidentalomas if Pakistan retains it’s status as an iodine sufficient state. PMID:25097519

Kamran, Mahrukh; Hassan, Nuzhat; Ali, Muhammad; Ahmad, Farah; Shahzad, Sikandar; Zehra, Nosheen

2014-01-01

113

Frequency of ABH secretors and non secretors: A cross sectional study in Karachi  

PubMed Central

Objective: ABO blood group and secretor status is valuable in relation to some diseases in clinical and forensic medicine. Across the globe there are geographic and racial differences in the frequency of secretors and non-secretors. Aim of this study was to evaluate the status of ABH blood group secretors and non-secretors in Karachi (Pakistan). Methods: Blood and saliva samples were randomly collected from one hundred and one (n=101) healthy adult students (76 male, 25 female) ranging in age from 15 to 40 years. Their ABO and Rhesus blood groups were determined by conventional methods, and their secretor status was studied by hemagglutination inhibition method of saliva. Results: Results showed that 64.4% of the study population were ABH blood group secretors while 35.6% were non-secretors. Frequencies of the secretor status among various ABO blood groups were 71.4% in group A, 79.5% in group B, 45.5% in group AB, and 61.5% in group O. Conclusion: Frequency of ABH secretor is high (64.4%). Blood group B has the highest secretor (79.5%) frequency while Blood group AB has the lowest (45.5%). PMID:24639859

Saboor, Muhammad; Ullah, Aman; Qamar, Khansa; Mir, Awal; Moinuddin

2014-01-01

114

The organisation, operational dynamics and structure of female sex work in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Pakistan is known to have large populations of female sex workers (FSWs) with considerable geographic heterogeneity in their characteristics. In this paper, we describe the social organisation and structural patterns of female sex work in different geographic regions of Pakistan. Methods We report geographic and network mapping data collected among FSWs in 15 cities across Pakistan in 2011 as part of the Canada-Pakistan HIV/AIDS Surveillance Project. Results A total number of 89?178 FSWs were estimated in the target cities for an average of 7.2 FSWs per 1000 adult males. 55% of the estimated number of FSWs concentrated in Karachi and Lahore. Based on the operations of female sex work, two major typologies of FSWs were identified: establishment-based and non-establishment-based. FSWs were further subtyped into those operating through brothels, homes, kothikhanas, streets and by cell phone. Cities varied considerably in terms of predominance of different FSW typologies. Conclusions There is considerable heterogeneity among FSWs in Pakistan, geographically and in terms of operational typology. Understanding the social organisation of sex work and the influence of social-cultural and legal factors in Pakistan is essential for the design of HIV prevention programmes and other services for FSWs. PMID:23771032

Emmanuel, Faran; Thompson, Laura H; Athar, Uzma; Salim, Momina; Sonia, Altaf; Akhtar, Naeem; Blanchard, James F

2013-01-01

115

Heterogeneity of characteristics, structure, and dynamics of male and hijra sex workers in selected cities of Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background We sought to describe the characteristics and operational dynamics of male sex workers (MSW) and hijra sex workers (HSWs) in 11 cities across Pakistan in 2011. Methods We report descriptive statistics of self-reported sexual behaviour data from cross-sectional mapping and biological and behavioural surveys conducted among 1431 MSWs and 1415 HSWs in four cities across Pakistan in 2011. Results While Karachi had the largest numbers of MSWs and HSWs, Quetta had the largest relative population sizes, with 3.6?MSWs per 1000 male adults and 3.3?HSWs per 1000 male adults. There was considerable variability in the proportion of HSWs who operate through deras, ranging from 2.2% in Peshawar to 62.7% in Karachi. The number of HSWs per guru varies by city, from 1.5 in Quetta to 16.5?HSWs per guru in Karachi. Among HSWs, the use of mobile phones for solicitation ranged from 37.6% in Quetta to 83% in Peshawar and among MSWs the use of mobile phones ranged from 27% in Karachi to 52% in Quetta. In Quetta, a large proportion of HSWs (41%) find clients through gurus. Client volume tended to be higher among HSWs and among both MSWs and HSWs in Quetta and Peshawar. Condom use with clients was most consistent in Quetta, with 31% of MSWs and 41% of HSWs reporting always using condoms with clients. Peshawar had the greatest proportion reporting never using condoms. Conclusions There is considerable geographic heterogeneity in the characteristics and operational dynamics of MSWs and HSWs across Pakistan. PMID:23605854

Thompson, Laura H; Salim, Momina; Baloch, Chaker Riaz; Musa, Nighat; Reza, Tahira; Dar, Nosheen; Arian, Shahzad; Blanchard, James F; Emmanuel, Faran

2013-01-01

116

Tone and song in Kalam Kohistani (Pakistan)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Like many other languages in the north-western corner of the South-Asian subcontinent, Kalam Kohistani, spoken in two mountain valleys in northern Pakistan, has contrastive lexical tone. This paper explores how the tonal distinctions of Kalam Kohistani are reconciled with the musical use of pitch in sung recitations of traditional poetry.

Joan L. G. Baart

117

Evaluation and comparison of different brands of domperidone tablets available in Karachi, Pakistan.  

PubMed

Domperidone is an anti-dopaminergic drug used for the treatment of nausea, vomiting and dyspepsia. It has also been used in Parkinson's disease. In this study, five different brands of Domeperidone tablets were selected from the local market for evaluation of their quality as the local market is occupied of many competitors for a single generic. The evaluation of Domperidone tablets was done using various pharmacopoeial and non-pharmacopoeial tests. All the test results fell within BP specified limits for all the selected brands i.e. the results for Brands A to E for weight variation, thickness and diameter were satisfactory and within limits. For Brands A to E, the results for hardness and friability were also satisfactory i.e. 4-10kg/cm2and 0.1-0.6% respectively. The results for Brands A to E for disintegration were 2-6 minutes; for dissolution and assay, the results were 89-92% and 95-99% respectively. The results of similarity factor (f2) also showed that all brands of Domperidone have comparative dissolution profiles. PMID:25015463

Khan, Muhammad Qamar; Razvi, Nighat; Anjum, Fakhsheena; Ghazal, Lubna; Siddiqui, Saeed Ahmed; Shoaib, Muhammad Harris

2014-07-01

118

The quest of infertile women in squatter settlements of Karachi, Pakistan: a qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: There is a dearth of knowledge regarding Pakistani women's perceptions and treatment seeking behavior for infertility. We conducted this study to explore the contextual factors that influence the health-seeking behavior of infertile women in the lower socio-economic group.Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with 17 women, identified from clinics and community using pre-tested interview guidelines covering issues as the chronological

Lubna Ishaq Bhatti; Fariyal F. Fikree; Amanullah Khan

1999-01-01

119

Learning from the Past, Looking to the Future: Modeling Social Unrest in Karachi, Pakistan  

SciTech Connect

Social unrest represents a major challenge for policy makers around the globe, as it can quickly escalate from small scale disturbances to highly public protests, riots and even civil war. This research was motivated by a need to understand social instability and to unpack the comments made during a spring 2013 conference hosted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s Center for Global Security and the U.S. Institute for Peace, where policymakers noted that models considering social instability are often not suitable for decision-making. This analysis shows that existing state level models of instability could be improved in spatial scale to the city level, even without significantly improved data access. Better data would make this analysis more complete and likely improve the quality of the model. Another challenge with incorporating modeling into decision-making is the need to understand uncertainty in a model. Policy makers are frequently tasked with making decisions without a clear outcome, so characterization of uncertainty is critical. This report describes the work and findings of the project. It took place in three phases: a literature review of social stability research, a “hindsight scan” that looked at historical data, and a “foresight scan” looking at future scenarios.

Olson, Jarrod; Kurzrok, Andrew J.; Hund, Gretchen; Fagley, Erik M.

2014-01-01

120

Geochemical assessment of metal pollution and ecotoxicology in sediment cores along Karachi Coast, Pakistan.  

PubMed

This paper is an attempt to compare the pollution status in two sediment cores, one from a polluted site (Ghizri Creek) and another from a relatively unpolluted site (Sandspit). Sediment cores (45 cm in length) from coastal locations were characterized in terms of grain size, sediment composition, pH, organic matter, calcium carbonate, and metal element contents. Metal elements, including Al, Ca, Cr, Co Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, Ti, and Zn, were determined using PIXE. Grain size analysis and sediment composition demonstrated a sandy nature of both cores. Acidic trend in sediment core I was predominant from bottom to top, whereas neutral pH was observed throughout core II. TOC values varied in the range of 1.23-2.68 and 1.14-2.60 % in core I and core II, respectively; however, there was an increasing trend in TOC level from bottom to top. The values of enrichment factor for Zn, Cu, Co, Ni, Pb, and Cr were slightly higher in core I than core II. The average geo-accumulation index values for core I and core II showed that sediments were moderately Co- and Pb-polluted but not polluted with Mg, Al, Ca, K, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Ti, V, and Zn. The degree of contamination was however considerably higher in core I relative to core II. The pollution load index values, although showing an increasing trend from bottom to top in both cores, overall rendered the marine sediment pollution free. The metal toxicology results demonstrated that heavy metal pollution, except Cr, may pose low to moderate risk to marine biota. The sum of toxic unit values however indicated that sediment core I was relatively more polluted than that of core II. PMID:25869090

Mashiatullah, Azhar; Chaudhary, Muhammad Zaman; Ahmad, Nasir; Ahmad, Nisar; Javed, Tariq; Ghaffar, Abdul

2015-05-01

121

USE OF PSYCHOACTIVE DRUGS AMONG PATIENTS VISITING OUTPATIENT CLINICS IN KARACHI, PAKISTAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

(1) This study is of particular relevance to us, as India also has similar problems regarding the control of sale of such drugs over-the-counter. The results are not surprising, but confirm what we encounter in every day practice. The study produced valuable information, however a major lacuna was the absence of data regarding the kind of drugs the study subjects

122

Correlates of cigarette smoking among male college students in Karachi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: About 1.3 billion people are regular smokers world wide and every day between 8,200 and 9,900 young people start to smoke, risking rapid addiction to nicotine. Transition from high school to college is a critical period to adopt healthy habits and life style. Therefore, it is important to understand the factors that might influence their smoking habit. Our study

Shafquat Rozi; Zahid A Butt; Saeed Akhtar

2007-01-01

123

Investing job satisfaction of teachers in Karachi, Pakistan: A survey study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Job satisfaction is an important but a very complex issue, as it is all about human behavior, which is difficult to measure (Saiti, 2007). Knowledge of an employees' level of satisfaction is important for both the organization and the employee because of its (job satisfaction) association with workplace productivity. Furthermore, the knowledge of employees' lack of satisfaction with certain facets

Fida Ali

2008-01-01

124

The need of paediatric dentistry specialists in Pakistan.  

PubMed

In the last decade, a rapid increase has been observed in the number of dentists due to establishment of a number of dental colleges in Pakistan. Very few of these institutions have Paediatric Dentistry Department. Similarly, no postgraduate Paediatric Dentistry training program exists in the two major provinces of the country. The objectives of this study were to map the pattern of paediatric dentistry services provided by the clinicians in teaching institutions and private practices. A cross-sectional study was conducted at dental departments of academic institutions and selected dental practices in Karachi. There was a statistically significant difference in preferences, selection of dental materials and pattern of paediatric dentistry services provided by the teaching dentists compared to the private practitioners. Both the teaching and non-teaching dentists need to update themselves in the provision of Paediatric Dentistry services such as fluoride application and fissure sealant placement. PMID:23552549

Khan, Farhan Raza; Mahmud, Sadia; Rahman, Munawar

2013-04-01

125

Nuclear programs in India and Pakistan  

SciTech Connect

India and Pakistan launched their respective nuclear programs in the 1940s and 1950s with considerable foreign technical support, especially from the United States Atoms for Peace Program. The technology and training that was acquired served as the platform for later nuclear weapon development efforts that included nuclear weapon testing in 1974 and in 1998 by India, and also in 1998 by Pakistan - which had illicitly acquired uranium enrichment technology especially from Europe and received assistance from China. As of 2013, both India and Pakistan were continuing to produce fissile material for weapons, in the case of India also for nuclear naval fuel, and were developing a diverse array of ballistic and cruise missiles. International efforts to restrain the South Asian nuclear build-up have been largely set aside over the past decade as Pakistani support became central for the U.S. war in Afghanistan and as U.S. geopolitical and economic interests in supporting the rise of India, in part as a counter to China, led to India being exempted both from U.S non-proliferation laws and international nuclear trade guidelines. In the absence of determined international action and with Pakistan blocking the start of talks on a fissile material cutoff treaty, nuclear weapon programs in South Asia are likely to keep growing for the foreseeable future.

Mian, Zia [Program on Science and Global Security, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey (United States)

2014-05-09

126

Nuclear programs in India and Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

India and Pakistan launched their respective nuclear programs in the 1940s and 1950s with considerable foreign technical support, especially from the United States Atoms for Peace Program. The technology and training that was acquired served as the platform for later nuclear weapon development efforts that included nuclear weapon testing in 1974 and in 1998 by India, and also in 1998 by Pakistan - which had illicitly acquired uranium enrichment technology especially from Europe and received assistance from China. As of 2013, both India and Pakistan were continuing to produce fissile material for weapons, in the case of India also for nuclear naval fuel, and were developing a diverse array of ballistic and cruise missiles. International efforts to restrain the South Asian nuclear build-up have been largely set aside over the past decade as Pakistani support became central for the U.S. war in Afghanistan and as U.S. geopolitical and economic interests in supporting the rise of India, in part as a counter to China, led to India being exempted both from U.S non-proliferation laws and international nuclear trade guidelines. In the absence of determined international action and with Pakistan blocking the start of talks on a fissile material cutoff treaty, nuclear weapon programs in South Asia are likely to keep growing for the foreseeable future.

Mian, Zia

2014-05-01

127

Pottery from Pakistan. A Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of three handbooks dealing with pottery traditions from around the world, this packet draws together information about historical, ethnographic, and pottery traditions of Pakistan. The handbook begins with a brief discussion of Pakistan's land and people, a short history of Pakistan, Islamic pottery traditions, and Pakistan potters and…

Rammage, Alix

128

Anti-Americanism in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pakistanis give three kinds of reasons for negative feelings about America. One involves U.S. policies toward Pakistan such as failure to come to Pakistan's aid during the Bangladesh crisis, using Pakistan for its own interests, and opposition to Pakistan's peaceful nuclear program. A second deals with American global policy, including support of Israel, opposition to Iran's present government, and use

Hamid H. Kizilbash

1988-01-01

129

Islamic Education in Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On March 21, 2006 Christine Fair spoke about her recent trip to Pakistan. Fair's fieldwork was conducted with her Pakistan-based colleague Syed Rashad Bukhari and in collaboration with the National Bureau of Asian Research. Fair and Bukhari spent nearly three weeks visiting administrators at ten of the most prominent post-secondary madaris…

Fair, C. Christine

2006-01-01

130

Moral Education in Pakistan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes formal and informal methods of moral education operative in Pakistan. The nation's Islamic environment is explained; school policy, objectives, and practices are outlined; and informal moral education efforts through the mass media are noted. Problems in moral education in Pakistan and proposals for the future are discussed.…

Haq, Shafiqua

1980-01-01

131

Status of heavy metal residues in fish species of Pakistan.  

PubMed

In this review, we evaluate and summarize the available data that addresses the levels of HM that exist in aquatic species, mainly fish, of Pakistan. Data on this topic were collected from the literature of the last two decades (1990-2012). Results revealed that the highest number (>50%) of studies addressing HM-contaminated fish have occurred in the Punjab province, followed by the Sindh and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa provinces. Our review disclosed that the HM concentrations in Pakistani fish species varied considerably with location. Generally, the level of HM residues detected in fish species had the following descending order: Fe>Zn>Pb>Cd>Hg>Ni>Cu>Ag>Cr>Mn>As. Fish samples collected from the Kabul River near the Nowshera district, Stretch of Ravi River, Indus River near Mainwali district, and Arabian Sea at Karachi revealed extremely high HM concentrations (range: 0.34-8,381.30 jlg/g), compared to other fresh water bodies, such as the Llyold Barrage, Guddu Barrage, Jinnah Barrage, and Chashma Barrage (0.01-2.13 jlg/g). As a reference point, we also reviewed selected data on HM fish residues that exist in countries that neighbor Pakistan. With the exception of fish collected in India, the majority of fish analyzed for HM residues in neighboring countries displayed lower residues than did fish from Pakistan. We concluded from reviewing the available published data that the most probable sources for the HM contaminants found in Pakistani water and fish were release of domestic sewage, agricultural runoff, and industrial effluents. We strongly recommend that action be taken to better control the discharges of unregulated waste that enters the Pakistani aquatic environment, with the intent to mitigate any continuing future damage to the aquatic ecosystem. We also recommend intensifying research programs that address the toxicity of HM to the aquatic environment, so that a better understanding of metal effects on fish can be achieved that will lead to a sustainable ecological harmony in Pakistan. PMID:24609520

Hussain, Majid; Muhammad, Said; Malik, Riffat N; Khan, Muhammad U; Farooq, Umar

2014-01-01

132

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Differences in police, ambulance, and emergency  

E-print Network

of traffic injuries on Karachi-Hala road, Pakistan Junaid A Bhatti1,2,3* , Junaid A Razzak 2 , Emmanuel Emergency Department (ED) datasets on an interurban road section in Pakistan. Methods: The study setting, should be improved in Pakistan. Background Pakistan, located at the junction of Middle-East, South- East

Boyer, Edmond

133

[The Karachi health resort: synthesis of science and practice].  

PubMed

This article is devoted to the history of one of the oldest Siberian health resorts known as "The Karachi Lake". It describes the stages of its development, the scientific component of the system of spa-and-resort therapy and medico-social rehabilitation of the patients. The detailed analysis of the mechanisms underlying the beneficial action of the natural therapeutic factors, cooperation with the leading research institutions, and the formation of the modern scientific and technical basis have strengthened the position of the resort on the market of the medical, health-promoting, and recreational services due to the development of the new activities in this field. PMID:25730938

Smirnova, I N; Levitski?, E F; Reshetova, G G; Evsiutina, T V; Churina, L M

2014-01-01

134

Mumbai: A Battle in the War for Pakistan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Council on Foreign Relations publishes a wide variety of publications, and their "Expert Briefs" series is quite exceptional. Given the recent unrest in Mumbai, visitors with an interest in South Asian affairs and world affairs in general will find this brief particularly compelling. Authored by Daniel Markey, Senior Fellow for India, Pakistan, and South Asia, this expert brief was released in December 2008. The piece looks at the political economy and relationship between India and Pakistan, along with offering some commentary on combating terrorism in the region.

2008-01-01

135

Acid Violence in Pakistan  

E-print Network

Pakistan by the Asian Human Rights Commission. 97 Anwary, Acid Violence and Medical Care; Sexual assaults and rapespakistan-urban-women-get-beaten- by-their-husbands_1663675 Abid, Zehra. “Journalistic ethics: How the media traumatises rape

Zia, Taiba

2013-01-01

136

Atmospheric Pollution and Emission Sources in South Asian Urban Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid urbanization, and lack of efficient monitoring and control of pollution, along with phenomena like Asian Brown Haze or prolonged episodes of winter fog, makes the South Asian atmospheric chemistry a very complex one. The anthropogenic aerosols released from this region are projected to become the dominant component of anthropogenic aerosols worldwide in the next 25 years (Nakicenovic and Swart, 2000). The region is one of the most densely populated in the world, with present population densities of 100-500 persons km-2. There are six big cities, namely, Delhi, Dhaka, Karachi, Kolkata, Lahore, and Mumbai, each housing a population around or above 10 million. There is now a real concern about the sustainability of the region's ability to support the population due to air pollution, loss of biodiversity and soil degradation. Therefore, we conducted several extensive campaigns over last 10 years in Lahore, Karachi, and Islamabad in Pakistan to (1) chemically characterize the aerosols (PM2.5 mass, concentrations of trace elements, ions, black and organic carbon), and gaseous pollutants (concentrations of NH3, SO2, HONO, HNO3, HCl and (COOH)2, and (2) identify the major emission sources in this region. Exceedingly high concentrations of all species, relative to major urban areas of US and Europe, were observed. Concentrations of PM2.5, BC, Pb, SO42-, NH4+, HONO, NH3 respectively, up to 476, 110, 12, 66, 60, 19.6 and 50 ?gm-3 were observed in these cities, which were far in excess of WHO and US EPA air quality standard (Biswas et al., 2008). We use air parcel back trajectories, intercomponent relationships and meteorological observations to explain chemistry and emission sources of aerosol constituents. Carbonaceous aerosols contributed up to 69% of the PM2.5 mass (Husain et al., 2007). Source apportionment was conducted using positive matrix factorization. The analysis has classified six emission sources of aerosol components, namely, industrial activities, wood burning, secondary aerosols, metal processing, vehicular emissions, and crustal and road dust. Findings of our study will play a vital role in adopting a strategy to regulate emissions, and to mitigate the long-term climate change in the region. References: Nakicenovic, N. and Swart, R., 2000. In: N. Nakicenovic and R. Swart, Eds, Emissions Scenarios 2000. Special Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Biswas, K.F., Ghauri, B.M., Husain, L., 2008. Gaseous and aerosol pollutants during fog and clear episodes in South Asian urban atmosphere. Atmospheric Environment, 42, 7775-7785. Husain, L., Dutkiewicz, V.A., Khan, A.J., Ghauri, B.M., 2007. Characterization of carbonaceous aerosols in urban air. Atmospheric Environment, 41, 6872-6883.

Biswas, K. F.; Husain, Liaquat

2009-04-01

137

Pattern of emergency department visits by elderly patients: study from a tertiary care hospital, Karachi  

PubMed Central

Background Worldwide the proportion of elderly people in the population is increasing. Currently in Pakistan 7.3 million people (5.6% of total population) are more than 60 years old. This age shift has emerged as an important health issue and is associated with an increased utilization of emergency services by the elderly. We carried out this study to assess the pattern of elderly patients (>60 years) who visit emergency departments in comparison to young adults (18–60 years). Methods Data was collected retrospectively of patients aged 18 years or more who visited the Emergency Department (ED) of Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi (AKUH) during September, 2009 to September, 2011. The data collection sheet included patient’s demographic information, triage category, reason for visit, clinical presentation, ED length of stay, day and time of presentation and their disposition. Data was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 19.0. Descriptive statistics were used to describe patient’s demographics. Chi-square (?2) test was used as a test of significance to compare differences between groups for categorical data and t-test for continuous data. Multiple logistic regression analysis was done to find out the association between the patient characteristics and outcomes (admission and expiry). Results Almost 24% (n = 13014) of all adults (n = 54588) presenting to the ED were over the age of 60 years. More than 57% of elderly patients belonged to the high priority triage category compared to 35% in younger patients. Most of the elderly patients ( 27%) presented with nonspecific complaints followed by shortness of breath (13%) and fever (9%). The median length of stay (LOS) in the ED for elderly was 379 minutes (252 min in under-60 yrs patients) and they were more likely to get admitted to in-patient departments compared to younger patients (OR 1.7 95% CI 1.6-1.8). A high proportion of those admitted (20%) required intensive or special care. Mortality in elderly patients was 2.3% as compared to 0.7% in young adults. This was accompanied by a higher mortality risk in the elderly with an odds ratio of 2.3 (CI 2–2.5). Conclusion Elderly ED users differ significantly from younger adults in terms of criticality on presentation, ED LOS and final disposition. PMID:23937518

2013-01-01

138

Women's Autonomy in India and Pakistan: The Influence of Religion and Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article compares the lives of women and explores dimensions of their autonomy in different regions of South Asia-Punjab in Pakistan, and Uttar Pradesh in north India and Tamil Nadu in south India. It explores the contextual factors underlying observed differences and assesses the extent to which these differences could be attributed to religion, nationality, or north-south cultural distinctions. Findings

Shireen J. Jejeebhoy; Zeba A. Sathar

2001-01-01

139

Suicides in the Developing World: Case Study from Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are no official data on suicide from Pakistan, a conservative South Asian Islamic country with traditionally low suicide rates. Both suicide and attempted suicide are illegal acts, as well as socially and religiously condemned, making research in this area difficult. Recent reports suggest an increase in suicide rates. In this study, police…

Khan, Murad Moosa; Hyder, Adnan Ali

2006-01-01

140

Pakistan Agricultural Research Council  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Pakistan Agricultural Research Council (PARC) works at the highest national level to coordinate and support research being conducted at universities, provincial institutions, and federal institutions. The four main PARC research divisions are: Crop Sciences, Natural Resources, Animal Sciences, and Social Sciences. The PARC website contains summary information about these main research areas, as well as information about a variety of crops, research staff, publications, and more. From the PARC site, visitors can also learn about regional research efforts by linking to one the seven major PARC centers including the Sugar Crops Research Institute in Thatta; the National Agricultural Research Centre in Islamabad; the Himalayan Agricultural Research Institute in Kaghan, and the Arid Zone Research Centre in Quetta. Various databases are also available including Plant Genetic Resources with over 15,000 records searchable by species and/or genus; and Pakistan Agriculture--a bibliographic database with more than 32,000 records regarding agriculture in Pakistan.

141

Students' Corner Obesity in Adolescents of Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To elucidate the knowledge, attitudes and practices of Karachi's school going teenagers regarding healthy eating and body weight and to determine the extent of obesity in these individuals by measuring their Body Mass Index (BMI). Setting: Tenth grade O' level students from six schools in Karachi. Method: A cross sectional study design with a convenience sample of students who

T. Rehman; Z. Rizvi; U. Siddiqui; S Ahmad; A. Sophie; M. Siddiqui; O. Saeed; Q. Kizilbash; A. Shaikh; A. Lakhani; A. Shakoor

142

National Level Assessment of Mangrove Forest Cover in Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mangroves ecosystems consist of inter tidal flora and fauna found in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Mangroves forest is a collection of halophytic trees, shrubs, and other plants receiving inputs from regular tidal flushing and from freshwater streams and rivers. A global reduction of 25 % mangroves' area has been observed since 1980 and it is categorized as one of to the most threatened and vulnerable ecosystems of the world. Forest resources in Pakistan are being deteriorating both quantitatively and qualitatively due to anthropogenic activities, climatic v and loose institutional management. According to the FAO (2007), extent of forest cover of Pakistan in 2005 is 1,902,000 ha, which is 2.5% of its total land area. Annual change rate during 2000-2005 was -2.1% which is highest among all the countries in Asia. The Indus delta region contains the world's fifth-largest mangrove forest which provides a range of important ecosystem services, including coastal stabilisation, primary production and provision of nursery habitat for marine fish. Given their ecological importance in coastal settings, mangroves receive special attention in the assessment of conservation efforts and sustainable coastal developments. Coastline of Pakistan is 1050km long shared by the provinces, Sind (350km) and Baluchistan (700 km). The coastline, with typical arid subtropical climate, possesses five significant sites that are blessed with mangroves. In the Sindh province, mangroves are found in the Indus Delta and Sandspit. The Indus Delta is host to the most extensive mangroves areas and extends from Korangi Creek in the West to Sir Creek in the East, whereas Sandspit is a small locality in the West of Karachi city. In the Balochistan province, mangroves are located at three sites, Miani Hor, Kalmat Khor and Jiwani. Contemporary methods of Earth observation sciences are being incorporated as an integral part of environmental assessment related studies in coastal areas. GIS and Remote Sensing based technologies and methods are in use to map forest cover since the last two decades in Pakistan. The national level forest cover studies based upon satellite images include, Forestry Sector Master Plan (FSMP) and National Forest & Range Resources Assessment Study (NFRRAS). In FSMP, the mangrove forest extent was visually determined from Landsat images of 1988 - 1991, and was estimated to be 155,369 ha; whereas, in NFRRAS, Landsat images of 1997 - 2001 were automated processed and the mangroves areas was estimated to be 158,000 ha. To our knowledge, a comprehensive assessment of current mangroves cover of Pakistan has not been made over the last decade, although the mangroves ecosystems have become the focus of intention in context of recent climate change scenarios. This study was conducted to support the informed decision making for sustainable development in coastal areas of Pakistan by providing up-todate mangroves forest cover assessment of Pakistan. Various types of Earth Observation satellite images and processing methods have been tested in relation to mangroves mapping. Most of the studies have applied classical pixel - based approached, there are a few studies which used object - based methods of image analysis to map the mangroves ecosystems. Object - based methods have the advantage of incorporating spatial neighbourhood properties and hierarchical structures into the classification process to produce more accurate surface patterns recognition compared with classical pixel - based approaches. In this research, we applied multi-scale hierarchical approach of object-based methods of image analysis to ALOS - AVNIR-2 images of the year 2008-09 to map the land cover in the mangroves ecosystems of Pakistan. Considering the tide height and phonological effects of vegetation, particularly the algal mats, these data sets were meticulously chosen. Incorporation of multi-scale hierarchical structures made it easy to effectively discriminate among the land cover classes, particularly the mudflats from sparse mangroves, at their r

Abbas, S.; Qamer, F. M.; Hussain, N.; Saleem, R.; Nitin, K. T.

2011-09-01

143

Pediatric brain tumours at a tertiary care hospital in Karachi.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to determine the epidemiology of brain tumors during infancy and childhood and to define and segregate childhood brain tumors vis-a-vis their morphological characteristics. The present study includes pediatric brain tumors, ICD-10 category C71 encountered during 10 years (January 1989 through December 1998) at a tertiary care hospital in Karachi. Eighty one cases were included, 58 (71.6%) in males and 23 (28.4%) in females with a male to female ratio of 2.5:1. The cases were divided into 3 age groups each covering five years of life (0-4, 5-9, 10-14 years), with the greatest number in the second age group i.e. 5-9 years followed by the third age group and the 0-4 year age group. The mean age for all cases, both genders was 8.8 years (95% CI 7.9; 9.6) with a marginal variation for cases occurring in the cerebrum and cerebellum. The malignancies occurred at a younger age in the males for each subcategory by site and morphology. The morphological distribution of cases was astrocytoma (28 cases, 34.6%), primitive neuroectodermal tumor or PNET (40 cases; 49.4%), ependymoma (8 cases, 10%), mixed glioma (4 cases; 5%) and a case of oligodendroglioma. The 81 malignancies included in this study were further categorized by site into two groups, supratentorial (27 cases; 33.3%) and infratentorial (54 cases; 66.7%). The morphological categorization of supratentorial tumors was astrocytoma (17 cases; 63%), ependymoma (5 cases; 18.5%), mixed glioma (2 cases; 7.4%). PNET with rhabdoid differentiation, oligodendroglioma and pinealoblastoma comprised 1 case (3.7%) each. The 17 supratentorial astrocytoma were sub-categorized as follows - pilocytic astrocytoma (5 cases; 29.4%), grade II astrocytoma (6 cases; 35.3%); grade III astrocytoma (2 cases; 11.8%), anaplastic astrocytoma (1 case; 5.9%) and glioblastoma multiforme (3 cases; 17.7%). The morphological categorization of infratentorial tumors was astrocytoma (11 cases; 20.4%), medulloblastoma (38 cases; 70.4%), ependymoma (3 cases; 5.6%) and mixed glioma - astroependymoma (2 cases, 3.7%). The morphological sub-categorization of infratentorial astrocytoma was pilocytic astrocytoma (7 cases, 63.6%), with gemistocytic astrocytoma, grade II, grade III and anaplastic astrocytoma comprising 1 (9.1%) case each. The morphological categorization of medulloblastoma was classical medulloblastoma (15 cases; 39.5%), desmoplastic medulloblastoma (8 cases; 21.1%), medulloblastoma with astrocytic differentiation (12 cases; 31.5%), medulloblastoma with neural differentiation (2 cases; 5.3%), and neuroblastic medulloblastoma (1 case; 2.6%). The pediatric brain tumors in Karachi reflect a developing country scenario, with a strong male predisposition and a late presentation with a peak in the 5-9 year age group. There is a predominance of medulloblastoma and a paucity of astrocytomas. The current study is a single institution study and needs cautious interpretation. Population-based studies are required to determine the cancer burden due to pediatric malignancies of the brain in this population and for the morphological categorization of brain tumors in Karachi. PMID:18159977

Ahmed, Naseem; Bhurgri, Yasmin; Sadiq, Saleem; Shakoor, Kazi A

2007-01-01

144

Age and origin of post collision Baltoro granites, south Karakoram, North Pakistan: Insights from in-situ U-Pb, Hf and oxygen isotopic record of zircons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Origin of post collision plutonism is critical to understand the tectonothermal evolution of the over thickened continental crust in collision zones. This has proven difficult to reconcile with the conventional whole rock geochemical and field based studies alone. We report in-situ study of zircon U-Pb, Hf and O isotopes from five samples of the Baltoro Plutonic Unit (BPU) in south Karakoram. The plutonic unit is the western part of the southern Asian margin of the India-Asia convergent zone. Baltoro granites and a biotite-rich enclave yielded similar and overlapping U-Pb ages ranging from 26 to 15 Ma. Hafnium isotopic composition (?Hf (0)) is very heterogeneous ranging from - 17.1 to + 4.4 while the oxygen isotopic composition of the granites is homogeneous with mean ?18O ranging from 7.2 to 9.4‰. Based on U-Pb geochronology and Hf-O isotopic composition, the involvement of two main sources is suggested (1) Cretaceous calc-alkaline Karakoram crust and (2) Karakoram gneisses. Moreover, possible involvement of metasomatized Asian lithospheric mantle is supported by elevated oxygen composition of granites and identical Hf composition of biotite-rich enclave to the mantle derived Baltoro lamprophyre. However, direct contribution from juvenile pristine mantle is unlikely as no juvenile mantle type Hf and oxygen values were obtained. This also precludes the involvement of southward juvenile arc related component of Kohistan-Ladakh batholith. Our new U-Pb and Hf data are comparable to the Mesozoic Karakoram batholith, Miocene two-mica leucogranites in the Pangong Range and magmatism from the Lhasa terrane in south Tibet, suggesting a genetic link between the Karakoram and the rocks to the east. This magmatic event is best explained by lower crust partial melting promoted by both thermal equilibration following crustal thickening and heat advection by ultrapotassic magmas associated with the breakoff of the Indian continental margin.

Mahar, Munazzam Ali; Mahéo, Gweltaz; Goodell, Philip C.; Pavlis, Terry L.

2014-09-01

145

U-turns and road safety - perspective from Karachi.  

PubMed

U-turn is a complex driving manoeuvre entailing 180-degree turn to change the direction of travel towards the opposite direction. A cross-sectional survey based on convenience sampling was conducted at 120 U-turns in Karachi from February to October 2013. Shopkeepers operating in the close vicinity of U-turns were interviewed. Out of the 120 U-turns studied, 87(72.5%) were without median and 33(27.5%) were with median. Weekly average number of people getting injured or dying as a result of roadside traffic accidents was statistically significant (p<0.05) between the two types of U-turns; with U-turns having median having more injured and dead roadside traffic accident victims. Results from our preliminary study indicate that U-turns with medians are more likely to contribute towards road traffic accident morbidity and mortality and hence compromise road safety. Public health and transportation professionals in the country need to work in concert for ensuring that roads are safe for travelling. PMID:25831683

Zubair, Salman; Shaikh, Masood Ali

2015-01-01

146

Predictors of delayed culture conversion in patients treated for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Pakistan.  

PubMed

Culture conversion is an interim monitoring tool for treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). We evaluated the time to and predictors of culture conversion in pulmonary MDR-TB patients enrolled in the community-based MDR-TB management program at the Indus Hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. Despite strict daily directly observed therapy, monthly food incentives and patient counseling, the median time to culture conversion was 196 days (range 32-471). The cumulative probabilities of culture conversion by 2, 4, 6 and 12 months were respectively 6%, 33%, 47%, and 73%. Smoking, high smear grade at baseline and previous use of second-line drugs delayed culture conversion. PMID:22008773

Qazi, F; Khan, U; Khowaja, S; Javaid, M; Ahmed, A; Salahuddin, N; Hussain, H; Becerra, M C; Golub, J E; Khan, A J

2011-11-01

147

Dengue transmission based on urban environmental gradients in different cities of Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study focuses on the dengue transmission in different regions of Pakistan. For this purpose, the data of dengue cases for 2009-2012 from four different cities (Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Lahore, and Karachi) of the country is collected, evaluated, and compiled. To identify the reasons and regions of higher risk of Dengue transmission, land use classification, analysis of climate covariates and drainage patterns was done. Analysis involves processing of SPOT 5 10 m, Landsat TM 30 m data sets, and SRTM 90 m digital elevation models by using remote sensing and GIS techniques. The results are based on the change in urbanization and population density, analysis of temperature, rainfall, and wind speed; calculation of drainage patterns including stream features, flow accumulation, and drainage density of the study areas. Results suggest that the low elevation areas with calm winds and minimum temperatures higher than the normal, rapid increase in unplanned urbanization, low flow accumulation, and higher drainage density areas favor the dengue transmission.

Khalid, Bushra; Ghaffar, Abdul

2015-03-01

148

Pakistan Research Repository  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sponsored by Pakistan's Higher Education Commission, the Pakistan Research Repository was established to help promote the profile and visibility of research originating from various higher education institutions within the country. Currently the archive contains well over 1800 PhD theses, along with various research papers and other documents of potential interest. From the homepage, visitors can view the latest additions to this online repository, and they can also view items within the repository organized by subject, year, type, or originating institution. What is perhaps most impressive about the site is the topical variation throughout the collection, as visitors can view scholarly works on archaeology, chemistry, and various branches of the humanities. Additionally, visitors can sign up to receive RSS feeds.

149

Geothermal areas in Pakistan  

SciTech Connect

In this paper an attempt has been made to correlate the tectonic and geologic features with surface manifestations of geothermal activity in Pakistan to delineate prospective areas for exploration and development of geothermal energy. Underthrusting of the Arabian plate beneath the Eurasian plate has resulted in the formation of Chagai volcanic arc which extends into Iran. Quaternary volcanics in this environment, along with the presence of thermal springs, is an important geotectonic feature revealing the possible existence of geothermal fields. Geothermal activity in the northern areas of Pakistan, as evidenced by thermal springs, is the likely result of collision and underthrusting of the Indian plate beneath the Eurasian plate. Numerous hot springs are found along the Main Mantle thrust and the Main Karakorum thrust in Chilas and Hunza areas respectively. The concentration of hot springs in Sind Province is also indicative of geothermal activity. A string of thermal seepages and springs following the alignment of the Syntaxial Bend in Punjab Province is also noteworthy from the geothermal viewpoint. In Baluchistan Province (southwest Pakistan), Hamun-e-Mushkel, a graben structure, also shows geothermal prospects on the basis of aeromagnetic studies.

Shuja, T.A.

1986-01-01

150

Mobilizing male opinion leaders’ support for family planning to improve maternal health: a theory-based qualitative study from Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Purpose Pakistan is a patriarchal society in which male opinion leaders play an important role in determining health-seeking behaviors pertaining to family planning (FP) among their respective communities. This research focuses on cataloguing the perceptions of opinion leaders (clergymen, health professionals, and social workers) about the barriers for using services and practical solutions for promoting FP in the slums of Karachi, Pakistan. Materials and methods A qualitative study using an open-ended, semistructured interview schedule with hypothetical scenarios and in-depth interviews with a purposive sample of 45 opinion leaders (25 mosque imams/clergymen, 12 nonallopathic health professionals, and eight social workers/activists) was conducted in 2006–2007 in Karachi, Pakistan. Transcripts were coded thematically utilizing NVivo by using an adapted constant comparison analysis process as described by Strauss and Corbin. Results Seven key themes were derived from the in-depth interviews. Five themes provide insight into the opinion leaders’ perceptions of barriers to FP and modern contraception methods. Among the barriers religious taboos and cultural pressures were particularly note-worthy. Two themes offered opportunities for more effective development and implementation of FP programs. Conclusion It is evident from the study that opinion leaders in the community and the clergy lack the understanding of the importance of birth spacing. However, because they have a great deal of influence on the community at large, it is imperative to interact with them to build their capacity in order to propagate the messages of FP and improve maternal health and reproductive health in general. PMID:22247617

Azmat, Syed Khurram

2011-01-01

151

Association of airborne Aspergillus with asthma exacerbation in Southern Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Exposure to airborne fungi has been related with exacerbation of asthma in adults and children leading to increased outpatient, emergency room visits, and hospitalizations. Hypersensitivity to these airborne fungi may be an important initial predisposing factor in the development and exacerbation of asthma. Objective This study was conducted to determine an association between fungal types and spore concentrations with the risk of asthma exacerbation in adults. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted from May 2008 to August 2009 at the Aga Khan University Hospital Karachi, Pakistan. All adult (age?16 years) patients presenting to the hospital with acute asthma exacerbation were enrolled after informed consent. A home survey was conducted for each patient to assess their environmental characteristics. Indoor air samples were also obtained from the patient's home to determine the type and spore concentration of fungi within the week of their enrollment in the study. Results Three hundred and ninety-one patients with an acute asthma exacerbation were enrolled during the study period. The mean age of participants was 46 years (standard deviation, ±18 years) and 247 (63.2%) were females. A trend of higher asthma enrollment associated with higher Aspergillus concentrations was found in two consecutive summers. A total of nineteen types of fungi were found in air samples. Aspergillus spp. was the most frequently isolated fungus with acute asthma exacerbation. Conclusion An association of higher concentration of indoor Aspergillus spp. with asthma exacerbation in adults was observed in this study. PMID:24809014

Zubairi, Ali Bin Sarwar; Azam, Iqbal; Awan, Safia; Zafar, Afia

2014-01-01

152

SDPISustainable Development Policy Institute Pakistan Forest  

E-print Network

#12;SDPISustainable Development Policy Institute Quarterly Pakistan Forest Digest Vol. 01, No. 01 Development Policy Institute Pakistan Forest Digest iii Vol. 1, No. 1, April ­ June 2010 Quarterly Pakistan Forest Digest Vol. 01, No. 01 ISBN: 2218-8045 April ­ June 2010 Contents P. No Introductions: Pakistan

Richner, Heinz

153

SDPISustainable Development Policy Institute Pakistan Forest  

E-print Network

#12;SDPISustainable Development Policy Institute Quarterly Pakistan Forest Digest Vol. 01, No. 02 Development Policy Institute Pakistan Forest Digest ii Vol. 1, No. 2, July ­ September 2010 Quarterly Pakistan Board Dr. Urs Geiser Zurich University, Switzerland Dr. Mamoona Wali Muhammad Pakistan Forest Institute

Richner, Heinz

154

Indo-Pakistan Trade Cooperation and Saarc  

E-print Network

Bureau of Statistics, Islamabad (Pakistan). 2D.K. Madaan, “Pakistan and SAARC: Economic and Trade Development”, Varinder Grover et. al’s Encyclopedia of SAARC Nations-Pakistan, New Delhi, Deep & Deep Publications, 1997, p.646. 3M. Nazir Ali... from each other at much lower prices, involving substantially lower transport and transshipment costs. On December 3, 1971, second war started between India and Pakistan due to border violations by the latter in the civil war with East Pakistan...

Ghuman, Ranjit Singh; Madaan, Da Vinder Kumar

2006-01-01

155

The influences of performance appraisal on teachers' professional development: a case study of a private school in Karachi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development is implicit at every stage of appraisal irrespective of the approach; be it developmental (formative) or accountable (summative) (Bollington, Hopkins & West, 1993). If properly constructed and presented; the performance appraisal system can improve professional development of teachers, the management of the school, and students' learning outcomes. The focus of this study was to unpack the influences of performance

Mohammad Afzal Khan

2005-01-01

156

Association of depression with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes among adults aged between 25 to 60 years in Karachi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The combination of depression with type 2 diabetes is a public health problem. If diabetes is managed in its initial phase,\\u000a the morbidity and mortality due to this combination may be prevented at an early stage. Therefore, we aimed to determine the\\u000a association of depression with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes among adults aged between 25 to 60 years in

Shazia Perveen; Muhammad S Otho; Muhammad N Siddiqi; Juanita Hatcher; Ghazala Rafique

2010-01-01

157

Cancer profile of Hyderabad, Pakistan 1998-2002.  

PubMed

Hyderabad is the third largest city of Pakistan, the second largest city of Sindh Province and one of the oldest cities of the sub-continent. This administrative headquarter is located just east of the River Indus and is an important commercial and industrial center. Once a provincial capital, it is at a distance of approximately 200-km from Karachi. This present study was conducted with the objective of providing the cancer profile of Hyderabad, which has an urban population of 2,840,653 (52.2% M, 47.8% F) annual growth rate 1.13. The city is inhabited by all ethnicities of the country, however the predominant ethnicity is Sindhi, followed by Mohajirs (post-partition immigrants from India), and a lesser extent other ethnicities of Pakistan viz. Baluchs, Punjabis and Pathans. The study includes two sets of patients. First the incident cancer cases, residents of Hyderabad, who reached Karachi for diagnosis or treatment. Second the incident cancer cases registered at the Aga Khan University Pathology-based Cancer Registry (APCR) Pathology collection points at Hyderabad and subsequently registered at APCR, during 1st January 1998 to 31st December 2002. The pathology department of the AKU has 3 centers in Hyderabad, which provide diagnostic pathology especially oncopathology services to the city. The age-standardized rates (ASR) for cancer (all sites) 1998 to 2002 in Hyderabad were 91.6/100,000 in males and 96.0/100,000 in females. The most common malignancies (ASR per 100,000) in males were oral cavity (11.8), lymphoma (10.6), lung (8.0), urinary bladder (6.8), prostate (4.8), liver (4.4), pharynx (4.2), colo-rectum (3.6), larynx (3.2), and skin (3.2). The cancers in females (ASR per 100,000) were breast (22.4), oral cavity (11.5), gall bladder (4.8), esophagus (4.2), cervix (3.6), ovary (3.4), colo-rectum (3.4), lymphoma (3.4), uterus (3.4), and thyroid (2.4). Tobacco-associated cancers were responsible for approximately 40.0% of the tumors in males and 20.0% in females. Histological confirmation remained 96.3%, with 44.5% presenting in grade II or I, 55.5% presenting as stage III and IV. Information on grade and stage of malignancy was available in 70% and 50% of the cases respectively. Males comprised 53.1%, and females 46.9% of the cases. The mean age of cancer all sites, both genders was 45.2 years (95% CI 44.4; 45.9), males 45.4 years (95% CI 44.3; 46.5); females 44.9 years (95% CI 43.9; 45.9). Conclusions drawn from this database must be interpreted with care, as it may be identified as data from selected medical institutions. Chances of selective collection bias are minimized as the data of the AKU pathology is collected from multiple centers in the city of Hyderabad, dispersed at distances, which allows adequate sampling from the entire city. There is a slight preponderance of lymphomas in males which we feel is a true higher risk, yet it may indicate an over representation of easily accessible sites in pathology based-data. Nonetheless, this is the first attempt to determine the cancer incidence pattern of Hyderabad, and should serve as a guideline for estimation of the cancer burden and risk assessment statistics of Pakistan and the cancer control program of the country. PMID:16435995

Bhurgri, Yasmin; Bhurgri, Asif; Pervez, Shahid; Bhurgri, Mishaal; Kayani, Naila; Ahmed, Rashida; Usman, Ahmed; Hasan, Sheema H

2005-01-01

158

Arsenic and other drinking water quality issues, Muzaffargarh District, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 49 samples of groundwater, sampled in Muzaffargarh District of south-western Punjab, central Pakistan, concentrations of As exceeded the World Health Organisation provisional guideline value, and United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL), of 10 ?gL?1 in 58% of samples and reached up to 906 ?gL?1. In this semi-arid region canal irrigation has lead to widespread water-logging,

R. T. Nickson; J. M. McArthur; B. Shrestha; T. O. Kyaw-Myint; D. Lowry

2005-01-01

159

Establishment of a Comprehensive Epilepsy Center in Pakistan: Initial Experiences, Results, and Reflections  

PubMed Central

Background. Developing countries, home to 80% of epilepsy patients, do not have comprehensive epilepsy surgery programs. Considering these needs we set up first epilepsy surgery center in Pakistan. Methods. Seventeen teleconferences focused on setting up an epilepsy center at the Aga Khan University (AKU), Karachi, Pakistan were arranged with experts from the University of Alberta Hospital, Alberta, Canada and the University of West Virginia, USA over a two-year period. Subsequently, the experts visited the proposed center to provide hands on training. During this period several interactive teaching sessions, a nationwide workshop, and various public awareness events were organized. Results. Sixteen patients underwent surgery, functional hemispherectomy (HS) was done in six, anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) in six, and neuronavigation-guided selective amygdalohippocampectomy (SAH) using keyhole technique in four patients. Minimal morbidity was observed in ATL and, SAH groups. All patients in SAH group (100%) had Grade 1 control, while only 5 patients (83%) in ATL group, and 4 patients (66%) in HS group had Grade 1 control according to Engel's classification, in average followups of 12 months, 24 months and 48 months for SAH, ATL, and HS, respectively. Conclusion. As we share our experience we hope to set a practical example for economically constrained countries that successful epilepsy surgery centers can be managed with limited resources. PMID:22957232

Tahir, M. Zubair; Sobani, Zain A.; Quadri, S. A.; Ahmed, S. Nizam; Sheerani, Mughis; Siddiqui, Fowzia; Boling, Warren W.; Enam, Syed Ather

2012-01-01

160

Renal transplantation in Pakistan.  

PubMed

The economic indicators of Pakistan show that the GNP is dollar 70 billion and foreign exchange reserves stand at dollar 8.0 billion and foreign debt at more than dollar 36 billion. Against this backdrop, the government is unlikely to provide state-of-the-art facilities for management of end-stage organ failure. The unequal distribution of wealth leaves more than 40% below the poverty line. Economic solutions are based on temporary fixes where foreign aid and loans keeps the government machinery operational. Many of the basic health measures such as immunization are also foreign funded. Under such a scenario, local philanthropy has come to play a vital role. SIUT developed a model based on self-help--a model based on a community-government partnership, where the doctor plays the pivotal role and the beneficiary is the patient. SIUT acquired funds by developing a community-government partnership. The government fulfills about 40% of the total budget and the rest comes from the community as donations. The scheme has been extremely successful in providing free medical care and renal support to thousands of patients. It has been sustained over the past 15 years through complete transparency, public audit and accountability. These confidence-building means stimulate the community to come forward and donate money, equipment and medicines. The goal of transplantation is to provide organs to all with long-term survival of the graft. The emerging challenges to achieve this goal and efforts that can be made to increase and sustain transplant activity in Pakistan require a concerted effort on the part of the government, society and the medical profession. PMID:12971449

Rizvi, S A H; Naqvi, S A A; Zafar, M N

2002-01-01

161

Patient communication in radiology: current status of breaking bad news among radiologists and radiology trainees in Pakistan.  

PubMed

Breaking bad news can be an intimidating task for any physician. The aim of this study was to record the practices of breaking bad news to the patients by Pakistani radiologists and trainees. The radiologists and trainees attending the 26th National Radiological Conference in October 2010 in Karachi, Pakistan, were surveyed. The response rate was 76%. The respondents included residents (51%), private practicing radiologists (28%), academic radiologists (13%), and other trainees (8%). Most of the academic radiologists communicated with their patients. The daily frequency of breaking bad news by residents was noted, which was highest in the public teaching hospitals (71%). For severe abnormalities such as malignancy, 50% residents, 55% of the academic radiologists and 74% of the private practicing radiologists were very uncomfortable in disclosure of results. Differences in frequency of communication with patients were noticed with both different training levels, and different settings of practice in a developing country. PMID:24112271

Ali Khawaja, Ranish Deedar; Akhtar, Waseem; Khawaja, Ali; Irfan, Hira; Naeem, Mohammad; Memon, Mukhtiar

2013-10-01

162

Sentinel Hospital-Based Surveillance for Assessment of Burden of Rotavirus Gastroenteritis in Children in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine the burden and molecular epidemiology of rotavirus gastroenteritis in children hospitalized with severe acute watery diarrhea in Pakistan prior to introduction of rotavirus vaccine. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out over a period of two years from 2006 – 2008 at five sentinel hospitals in the cities of Karachi, Lahore, Rawalpindi, and Peshawar. Stool samples collected from children under five years of age hospitalized with severe acute watery diarrhea were tested for rotavirus antigen via enzyme immunoassay (EIA) (IDEA REF K6020 Oxoid Ltd (Ely), Cambridge, United Kingdom). A subset of EIA positive stool samples were further processed for genotyping. Results 6679 children were enrolled and stool specimens of 2039 (30.5%) were positive for rotavirus. Rotavirus positivity ranged from 16.3% to 39.4% in the 5 hospitals with highest positivity in Lahore. 1241 (61%) of all rotavirus cases were in infants under one year of age. Among the strains examined for G-serotypes, the occurrence of G1, G2, G9 and G4 strains was found to be 28%, 24%, 14% and 13%, respectively. Among P-types, the most commonly occurring strains were P6 (31.5%) followed by P8 (20%) and P4 (12%). Prevalent rotavirus genotype in hospitalized children of severe diarrhea were G1P[8] 11.6% (69/593), followed by G2P[4] 10.4% (62/593), and G4P[6] 10.1% (60/593). Conclusions Approximately one third of children hospitalized with severe gastroenteritis in urban centers in Pakistan have rotavirus. Introduction of rotavirus vaccine in Pakistan's national immunization program could prevent many severe episodes and diarrheal deaths. PMID:25295613

Kazi, Abdul Momin; Warraich, Gohar Javed; Qureshi, Shahida; Qureshi, Huma; Khan, Muhammad Mubashir Ahmad; Zaidi, Anita Kaniz Mehdi

2014-01-01

163

Prevalence of drug resistance associated mutations in Plasmodium vivax against sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine in southern Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background In Pakistan, Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum co-exist and usage of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) against P. falciparum exposes P. vivax to the drug leading to generation of resistant alleles. The main aim of this study was to investigate frequency distribution of drug resistance associated mutations in pvdhfr, pvdhps genes and provide baseline molecular epidemiological data on SP-associated resistance in P. vivax from southern Pakistan. Methods From January 2008 to May 2009, a total of 150 samples were collected from patients tested slide-positive for P. vivax, at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, or its collection units located in Baluchistan and Sindh Province. Nested PCR using pvdhfr and pvdhps specific primers was performed for all samples.91.3% (137/150) of the samples were tested PCR positive of which 87.3% (131/137) were successfully sequenced. Sample sequencing data was analysed and compared against wild type reference sequences. Results In dhfr, mutations were observed at codons F57L, S58R and S117N/T. Novel non-synonymous mutations were observed at codon positions N50I, G114R and E119K while a synonymous mutation was observed at codon position 69Y. In dhps, mutations were observed at codon position A383G and A553G while novel non-synonymous mutations were observed at codon positions S373T, E380K, P384L, N389T, V392D, T393P, D459A, M601I, A651D and A661V. Conclusion This is the first report from southern Pakistan on SP resistance in clinical isolates of P. vivax. Results from this study confirm that diverse drug resistant alleles are circulating within this region. PMID:23890361

2013-01-01

164

Vegetation and soil characteristics of the wasteland of Valika Chemical Industries near Manghopir, Karachi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vegetation of the wasteland of Valika chemical industries near Manghopir road, Karachi was studied. Nine plant communities were recognized based on dominant species. In these plant communities the vegetation was disturbed, mostly halophytic and dominated bySuaeda fruticosa,Tamarix indica,Salsola baryosma,Cressa cretica,Atriplex griffithii,Haloxylon recurvum,Indigofera hochstetteri,Prosopis julifloraandChenopodium album.The physico-chemical properties of the soils were also analysed. Soil texture was mostly sandy loam,

Tariq Mehmood; Zafar M. Iqbal

1995-01-01

165

SDPISustainable Development Policy Institute Pakistan Forest  

E-print Network

#12;SDPISustainable Development Policy Institute Quarterly Pakistan Forest Digest Vol. 01, No. 03 Development Policy Institute Pakistan Forest Digest ii Vol. 1, No. 3, October - December 2010 Quarterly Pakistan Forest Digest Vol. 01, No. 03 ISSN: 2218-8045 October - December 2010 Editor-in-Chief Dr. Abid

Richner, Heinz

166

Prevalence and Susceptibility Pattern of Multi Drug Resistant Clinical Isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Karachi  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine the frequency and susceptibility pattern of multi-drug resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from clinical specimens in Karachi. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in Microbiology Department, University of Karachi, from January 2012 to January 2013. Clinical specimens were collected from different hospitals of Karachi. Clinical isolates were identified by standard and specific microbiological methods. The antibiotic susceptibility pattern was determined by Kirby Bauer Disc diffusion method. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines were used to determine the results. Results: The frequency of MDR P. aeruginosa isolated from different clinical specimens was found to be 30%. Amikacin was found to be the most effective antibiotic, followed by Co-trimaxazole and Quinolones. Conclusion: Antibiotic resistant P. aeruginosa are emerging as a critical human health issue. There is an urgent need to resolve the issue by taking some preventive measures. Combined efforts of health care professionals and researchers are required to educate people about the proper use of antibiotics and other infection control measures. PMID:25225505

Khan, Fouzia; Khan, Adnan; Kazmi, Shahana Urooj

2014-01-01

167

Military Takeover Complete in Pakistan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

General Pervez Musharraf assumed the position of chief executive of Pakistan early this morning, completing a very quick and bloodless coup that began on Tuesday night. General Musharraf declared a state of emergency, suspending the constitution and the national and provincial assemblies, dismissing the provincial governments and governors, and banning the Supreme Court from challenging his authority. Reaction to the coup has been rather muted within Pakistan and abroad. Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif, who is now in custody, was increasingly unpopular in Pakistan because of the country's dire economic situation, his handling of the conflict with India in Kashmir, and what some saw as his systematic efforts to undermine the authority of rival political parties and branches of government. Foreign officials and editorials have criticized the military and called for the restoration of civilian rule as soon as possible. However, many have also acknowledged Sharif's poor record and some have even called for a transitional "technocratic" government to revive the economy and fight corruption. While the crucial question of foreign aid and loans to Pakistan is still very much up in the air, it does appear that at least some nations, most notably arch-rival India, are prepared to do business with Pakistan's new leaders, at least for the short term.

de Nie, Michael Willem.

168

The Indus II and Siachen Peace Park: Pushing the India–Pakistan Peace Process Forward  

Microsoft Academic Search

The peace process between India and Pakistan, which started in 2000, moved very slowly before coming to a standstill following the terror attack on Mumbai in November 2008. This article argues that both these two South Asian neighbours need to focus on new areas of bilateral cooperation, which might help them to build mutual trust and provide much-needed impetus to

Ashok Swain

2009-01-01

169

Vulnerability of Internally Displaced Children in Disaster Relief Camps of Pakistan: Issues, Challenges, and Way Forward  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pakistan is a developing country with the second highest infant and child mortality rates in South Asia. During the past years this region has undergone several humanitarian emergencies that have negatively affected all the aspects of health and development of young children. During these emergencies relief camps are set up by governmental and…

Hirani, Shela Akbar Ali

2014-01-01

170

Can Formal Disability-Related Services Be Developed with South Asian Historical and Conceptual Foundations? Constructions from Experience and Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper uses experiences in Pakistan to address issues in the application of European-based principles of disability-related concepts and services to cultures in South Asia, especially Pakistan and India. Emphasis is on understanding the South Asian conceptual world of disability so that "development" rather than "transfer" of knowledge and…

Miles, M.

171

75 FR 51615 - Establishment of Pakistan and Afghanistan Support Office  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of August 18, 2010 Establishment of Pakistan and Afghanistan Support Office By the...temporary organization to be known as the Pakistan and Afghanistan Support Office (PASO...strengthening the governments in Afghanistan and Pakistan, enhancing the capacity of those...

2010-08-23

172

Traditional perceptions of marasmus in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred and fifty mothers of under-5 children clinically identified as malnourished were interviewed in their homes in katchi abadis (squatter settlements) of Karachi. A variety of ethnic and religious groups were represented. Mothers were shown a photograph of a child with third-degree malnutrition (marasmus) and were asked what might be wrong with the child. Virtually all of the mothers

Dorothy S. Mull

1991-01-01

173

Democracy and Education in Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the potential for democratic change in educational practice in Pakistan. Using focus group discussions in urban and rural areas of Sindh and Balochistan, it builds up a picture of educational practices from policy-making to implementation level and identifies the barriers to democratic approaches in education. It suggests that…

Nazir, Muhammad

2010-01-01

174

Flood control in East Pakistan  

E-print Network

of levess has been tentatively assumed to confine a depth of (0 feet of water, The cross-sectional areas of the stream ars not known. Prom ~ msp of East Pakistan, scale one inch to 16 miles, the river widths ware measured end found to vary from 1 mile...

Eusufzai, Mohammad Hossain Sekandar Hayat Khan

1956-01-01

175

Pattern of benzodiazepine use in psychiatric outpatients in Pakistan: a cross-sectional survey  

PubMed Central

Background Benzodiazepines (BDZ) are the largest-selling drug group in the world. The potential of dependence with BDZ has been known for almost three decades now. In countries like Pakistan where laws against unlicensed sale of BDZ are not implemented vigorously the risk of misuse of and dependence on these drugs is even higher. Previous studies have shown that BDZ prevalence among patients/visitors to general outpatient clinics in Pakistan may be as high as 30%. However, no research has been carried out on the prevalence of BDZ use in psychiatric patients in Pakistan. Methods We carried out a cross-sectional survey over 3 months in psychiatry outpatient clinics of two tertiary care hospitals in Karachi and Lahore. Besides basic socio-demographic data the participants were asked if they were taking a BDZ at present and if yes, the frequency, route and dosage of the drug, who had initiated the drug and why it had been prescribed. We used chi-square test and t-test to find out which socio-demographic or clinical factors were associated with an increased risk of BDZ use. We used Logistic Regression to find out which variable(s) best predicted the increased likelihood of BDZ use. Results Out of a total of 419 participants 187 (45%) of the participants had been currently using at least one BDZ. Seventy-three percent of the users had been using the drug for 4 weeks or longer and 87% were taking it every day. In 90% of cases the BDZ had been initiated by a doctor, who was a psychiatrist in 70% of the cases. Female gender, increasing age, living in Lahore, and having seen a psychiatrist before, were associated with an increased likelihood of using BDZ. Conclusion The study shows how high BDZ use is in psychiatric outpatients in Pakistan. Most of the users were taking it for a duration and with a frequency which puts them at risk of becoming dependent on BDZ. In most of the cases it had been initiated by a doctor. Both patients and doctors need to be made aware of the risk of dependence associated with the use of BDZ. PMID:19400933

2009-01-01

176

Islamabad: The Struggle for Pakistan's Identity  

E-print Network

Islamabad: The Struggle for Pakistan's Identity Eman Siddiqui ABSTRACT "The capital of a country is the focus and the center of the people's ambitions and desires, and it is wrong to put them in an existing city," Pakistan's President General... Ayub Khan declared the need for a new capital for a young Pakistan in 1958. General Ayub's desire required bringing about greater national unity by rejecting a cultural baggage of the past for a new national identity. This premise disqualified...

Siddiqui, Eman

2012-04-01

177

An FTO variant is associated with Type 2 diabetes in South Asian populations after accounting for body mass index and waist circumference  

PubMed Central

Aims A common variant, rs9939609, in the FTO (fat mass and obesity) gene is associated with adiposity in Europeans, explaining its relationship with diabetes. However, data are inconsistent in South Asians. Our aim was to investigate the association of the FTO rs9939609 variant with obesity, obesity-related traits and Type 2 diabetes in South Asian individuals, and to use meta-analyses to attempt to clarify to what extent BMI influences the association of FTO variants with diabetes in South Asians. Methods We analysed rs9939609 in two studies of Pakistani individuals: 1666 adults aged ? 40 years from the Karachi population-based Control of Blood Pressure and Risk Attenuation (COBRA) study and 2745 individuals of Punjabi ancestry who were part of a Type 2 diabetes case–control study (UK Asian Diabetes Study/Diabetes Genetics in Pakistan; UKADS/DGP). The main outcomes were BMI, waist circumference and diabetes. Regression analyses were performed to determine associations between FTO alleles and outcomes. Summary estimates were combined in a meta-analysis of 8091 South Asian individuals (3919 patients with Type 2 diabetes and 4172 control subjects), including those from two previous studies. Results In the 4411 Pakistani individuals from this study, the age-, sex- and diabetes-adjusted association of FTO variant rs9939609 with BMI was 0.45 (95% CI 0.24–0.67) kg/m2 per A-allele (P = 3.0× 10?5) and with waist circumference was 0.88 (95% CI 0.36–1.41) cm per A-allele (P = 0.001). The A-allele (30% frequency) was also significantly associated with Type 2 diabetes [per A-allele odds ratio (95% CI) 1.18 (1.07–1.30); P = 0.0009]. A meta-analysis of four South Asian studies with 8091 subjects showed that the FTO A-allele predisposes to Type 2 diabetes [1.22 (95% CI 1.14–1.31); P = 1.07× 10?8] even after adjusting for BMI [1.18 (95% CI 1.10–1.27); P = 1.02× 10?5] or waist circumference [1.18 (95% CI 1.10–1.27); P = 3.97× 10?5]. Conclusions The strong association between FTO genotype and BMI and waist circumference in South Asians is similar to that observed in Europeans. In contrast, the strong association of FTO genotype with diabetes is only partly accounted for by BMI. PMID:21294771

Rees, S. D.; Islam, M.; Hydrie, M. Z. I.; Chaudhary, B.; Bellary, S.; Hashmi, S.; O’Hare, J. P.; Kumar, S.; Sanghera, D. K.; Chaturvedi, N.; Barnett, A. H.; Shera, A. S.; Weedon, M. N.; Basit, A.; Frayling, T. M.; Kelly, M. A.; Jafar, T. H.

2011-01-01

178

Pakistan foreign policy formulation, 1947-65: an analysis of institutional interaction between American policy making bodies and the Pakistan Army   

E-print Network

This thesis examines through the use of archives and oral evidence the role of the Pakistan Army in the context of Pakistan’s domestic politics and foreign policy. Its main purpose is to explore the autonomy of the Pakistan ...

Soherwordi, Syed Hussain Shaheed

2010-01-01

179

Current trends in treatment of obesity in Karachi and possibilities of cost minimization.  

PubMed

Our study finds out drug usage trends in over weight and obese patients without any compelling indications in Karachi, looks for deviations of current practices from evidence based antihypertensive therapeutic guidelines and identifies not only cost minimization opportunities but also communication strategies to improve patients' awareness and compliance to achieve therapeutic goal. In present study two sets were used. Randomized stratified independent surveys were conducted in hospital doctors and family physicians (general practitioners), using pretested questionnaires. Sample size was 100. Statistical analysis was conducted on Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). Opportunities of cost minimization were also analyzed. One the basis of doctors' feedback, preference is given to non-pharmacologic management of obesity. Mass media campaign and media usage were recommended to increase patients awareness and patients' education along with strengthening family support systems was recommended for better compliance of the patients to doctor's advice. Local therapeutic guidelines for weight reduction were not found. Feedbacks showed that global therapeutic guidelines were followed by the doctors practicing in the community and hospitals in Karachi. However, high price branded drugs were used instead of low priced generic therapeutic equivalents. Patient's education is required for better awareness and improving patients' compliance. The doctors found preferring brand leaders instead of low cost options. This trend increases cost of therapy by 0.59 to 4.17 times. Therefore, there are great opportunities for cost minimization by using evidence-based clinically effective and safe medicines. PMID:25796152

Hussain, Mirza Izhar; Naqvi, Baqir Shyum

2015-03-01

180

Magnitude and Factors Associated with Child Abuse in a Mega City of Developing Country Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective Child abuse is one of the major challenges for health care providers. This study was conducted to determine the burden of child abuse (physical & emotional) and the factors associated with it in an urban city of Pakistan. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in primary care clinics affiliated with a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan between March to December 2010. Mothers with children aged between 6 and 12 years were included in the study. Those mothers’ suffering from any acute illness like high grade fever, were excluded. A total of 412 mothers were recruited through consecutive sampling and written informed consent was taken. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to seek information about child abuse. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 19 and multivariable logistic regression was used to identify the factors (age, gender of child, family structure, educational status of parents, and mother’s perception of her home environment) associated with child abuse. Findings Of the total 412 mothers, final analysis was conducted on 379 mothers. In all, 32.5% of children had been abused, 25.5% physically and 17.9% emotionally. Abuse was reported more among children whose mothers had minimal or no schooling (P=0.02), who were abused by their husbands (P<0.001), not satisfied with their marital life (P<0.001), and stressful home environment (P=0.02). In the multivariate analysis, the factors found to be independently associated with child abuse were mothers abused by their husbands (AOR=4.2; 95%CI: 2.2–7.9) and child being a girl (AOR=8.7; 95%CI: 4.5–16.8). Conclusion The prevention of child abuse can be achieved through comprehensive, multifaceted and integrated approaches requiring joint efforts by the government, policy makers, stake holders, social workers, educationists, and public health practitioners. PMID:25535531

Ali, Niloufer Sultan; Ali, Farzana Nawaz; Khuwaja, Ali Khan; Nanji, Kashmira

2014-01-01

181

Protocol for a qualitative study on promoting dietary change and positive food choices for poor people with low income who experience cardiovascular disease in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Introduction There is a misconception that cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the burden of wealthy nations, but, in fact, it is the leading cause of death and disability-adjusted life worldwide. Healthy diets are an essential factor in the prevention of CVD. However, promoting healthy diet is challenging, particularly for people with low-socioeconomic status (SES), because poverty is linked with many risk behaviours such as smoking, unhealthy eating and obesity. Multiple factors, cultural values and beliefs interact and make healthy eating very challenging. The effects of these factors in the context of low-SES populations with CVD are largely unknown. To address this gap, this study will examine the factors that affect decisions about consuming healthy diet in Pakistanis with low SES who suffer from CVD. Methods and analysis A qualitative method of interpretive description will be used. 25 participants will be selected from two cardiac rehabilitation (CR) centres in Karachi, Pakistan. Face-to-face interviews using a critical realist framework will be used to understand individual and contextual factors in the food choices of people with low SES and CVD. ATLAS.ti qualitative data analysis software will be used to identify themes and patterns in the interview data. Ethics and discussion Ethical approvals were received from the Ethics Review board of University of Alberta, Canada and Aga Khan University, Karachi Pakistan. The findings will generate new knowledge about which and how factors influence the food choices of Pakistanis with CVD and low SES to provide an insight into the development of an operational framework for designing interventions for prevention of CVD. For knowledge-translation purposes, we will publish the findings in highly accessed, peer-reviewed scientific and health policy journals at the national and international level. This research protocol received IRDC (International Development Research Centre) doctoral award from International Development Research Centre, Ottawa, Canada. PMID:24309173

Barolia, Rubina Iqbal; Clark, Alexander M; Higginbottom, Gina M A

2013-01-01

182

Multi-drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex genetic diversity and clues on recent transmission in Punjab, Pakistan.  

PubMed

Multi-Drug Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB), i.e. bacilli resistant to rifampicin (RIF) and isoniazid (INH), is a major Public Health concern in Pakistan according to WHO estimates (3.5% and 32% of new and retreated cases, respectively). Previous Pakistanis reports identified a correlation between being MDR and belonging to Beijing or EAI lineages in one study, and belonging to "H4"-Ural Euro-American sublineage in another study. In addition, MDR-TB transmission was suspected in Karachi. We tested MDR characteristics on a Punjab sample of 278 clinical isolates (without selection for Multi-Drug Resistance) including new and retreated cases collected from 2008 to 2012. All samples were characterized by a new, microbead-based method named "TB-SPRINT" (molecular diagnostic including spoligotype identification, and genetic resistance determinants to first-line anti-TB drugs RIF and INH). Isolates from 2011 to 2012 (n=100) were further analyzed using 24-loci MIRU-VNTR. We detected 8.7% MDR isolates (CI95%=[5.0; 12.5]), mainly among CAS lineage that predominates in this central-East region of Pakistan. Out of 20 MDR-TB cases, 12 different TB-SPRINT profiles were identified, limiting the suspicion of MDR-TB transmission. 24 MIRU-VNTR confirmed the unrelatedness of isolates with different TB-SPRINT profiles and discriminated 3 isolates with identical TB-SPRINT profiles. In conclusion, our study did not confirm any of the correlations between Multi-Drug Resistance and lineage or sublineage in Punjab, Pakistan. MDR-TB isolates were diverse indicating that transmission is not pervasive. TB-SPRINT proved useful as a first step for detecting MDR-TB likely transmission events, before more extensive genotyping such as 15 or 24 MIRU-VNTR and thorough epidemiological investigation. PMID:24981519

Yasmin, Memona; Gomgnimbou, Michel K; Siddiqui, Rubina T; Refrégier, Guislaine; Sola, Christophe

2014-10-01

183

Contact lens use and its compliance for care among healthcare workers in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background: Poor care and hygiene of contact lens (CL) results in eye problems and infections. Healthcare workers have an important role in advocating correct lens care. Objectives: To determine the practices of CL care and the adverse consequences of poor CL care among healthcare workers. Setting and Design: A cross-sectional study in one public and three private sector hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan, in 2009–2010. Materials and Methods: We questioned 500 healthcare workers of all ages and both sexes, who wore CL, about compliance with advice on care and any complications due to improper hygiene practices. Ethical approval was obtained. Chi-square tests were used to determine significance and p-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Of the total CL users, 385 (77%) were females. Most (75%) respondents wore CL to correct myopia, whereas 54% wore CL only occasionally. Surprisingly, only 24% knew the CL cleaning protocol. Lens solution was changed daily by 33% of users and after more than 2 weeks by 42%. Although 412 (82%) participants practised reasonable hand hygiene before inserting CL, 88 (18%) did not. Infection and eye dryness were statistically significantly (P < 0.01) associated with sex, hand-washing, and frequency of CL use. Conclusion: Noncompliance with the CL protocol was common among healthcare workers in our society. This behavior calls for targeted health education and awareness programs for healthcare workers. PMID:23552347

Khan, Muhammed Hamza; Mubeen, Syed Muhammed; Chaudhry, Tanveer Anjum; Khan, Shaharyar Ahmed

2013-01-01

184

Dengue transmission based on urban environmental gradients in different cities of Pakistan.  

PubMed

This study focuses on the dengue transmission in different regions of Pakistan. For this purpose, the data of dengue cases for 2009-2012 from four different cities (Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Lahore, and Karachi) of the country is collected, evaluated, and compiled. To identify the reasons and regions of higher risk of Dengue transmission, land use classification, analysis of climate covariates and drainage patterns was done. Analysis involves processing of SPOT 5 10 m, Landsat TM 30 m data sets, and SRTM 90 m digital elevation models by using remote sensing and GIS techniques. The results are based on the change in urbanization and population density, analysis of temperature, rainfall, and wind speed; calculation of drainage patterns including stream features, flow accumulation, and drainage density of the study areas. Results suggest that the low elevation areas with calm winds and minimum temperatures higher than the normal, rapid increase in unplanned urbanization, low flow accumulation, and higher drainage density areas favor the dengue transmission. PMID:24817491

Khalid, Bushra; Ghaffar, Abdul

2015-03-01

185

Heterogeneity of BCR-ABL rearrangement in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background and Objective: Breakpoint cluster region-Abelson (BCR-ABL) rearrangement or Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) is derived from a reciprocal chromosomal translocation between ABL gene on chromosome 9 and BCR gene on chromosome 22. This chimeric protein has various sizes and therefore different clinical behaviour. The purpose of this study was to determine the heterogeneity of BCR-ABL rearrangement in patients with Ph+CML in Pakistan. Methods: The study was conducted at Civil Hospital and Baqai Institute of Hematology (BIH) Karachi. Blood samples from 25 patients with CML were collected. Multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to identify various BCR-ABL transcripts. Results: All 25 samples showed BCR-ABL rearrangements. Out of these, 24 (96%) patients expressed p210 BCR-ABL rearrangements i.e. 60% (n=15) had b3a2 and 32% (n=8) had b2a2 rearrangements. Co-expression of b3a2 /b2a2 rearrangement and p190 (e1a3) rearrangement was also identified in two patients. Conclusion: It is apparent that majority of the patients had p210 BCR-ABL rearrangements. Frequency of co-expression and rare fusion transcripts was very low. PMID:25097530

Tabassum, Najia; Saboor, Mohammad; Ghani, Rubina; Moinuddin, Moinuddin

2014-01-01

186

Variability of aerosol optical depth and their impact on cloud properties in Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study analyzes seasonal and temporal variations in aerosol optical depth (AOD), and the impact of these variations on the properties of clouds over five cities in Pakistan, using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, obtained from the Terra satellite during the period (2001-2011). The obtained results indicated seasonal variation in AOD, with a high value of 2.3, in summer and low values of 0.2, in winter for the costal part of the region. The relationship between AOD and other cloud parameters, namely water vapor (WV), cloud fraction (CF), cloud optical thickness (COT), cloud liquid water path (CLWP), cloud top temperature (CTT), and cloud top pressure (CTP) were analyzed. On a temporal scale, latitudinal variations of both WV and AOD produce high correlations (>0.6) in some regions, and moderate correlations (0.4-0.6) in the other regions. An increasing trend in CF with AOD was found over urban regions in the period of observations. The CF values were higher for Lahore than the other selected regions during the whole period. During autumn and winter seasons the correlation was found to be positive between AOD and CLWP, while negative correlation was observed during the other seasons for all the selected regions. COT showed negative correlation with AOD at all locations except Karachi during spring and summer seasons.

Alam, Khan; Khan, Rehana; Blaschke, Thomas; Mukhtiar, Azam

2014-01-01

187

The ten questions screen for childhood disabilities: its uses and limitations in Pakistan.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To assess the accuracy of the ten questions screen as a measure of childhood disability for epidemiologic studies in populations lacking resources for professional assessment of children's development and functioning. DESIGN--Household survey and screening of children in phase one followed by clinical assessments in phase two. SETTING--Karachi, Pakistan. PARTICIPANTS--A cluster sample of 6365 children, aged 2 to 9 years, screened using the ten questions and a subsample referred for clinical assessments. MAIN RESULTS--Although the sensitivity of the ten questions as a global screen for serious cognitive, motor, and seizure disabilities is high (84-100%), its sensitivity for identifying and distinguishing specific types of disability and for detecting vision, hearing, and mild disabilities, overall, is limited (generally < 80% and as low as 4% for mild vision disability). The predictive value of a positive screening result is also limited-using the ten questions in surveys without clinical confirmation results in overestimation of the prevalence of serious disability by more than 300%. CONCLUSIONS--The ten questions screen is not an assessment tool. Its utility lies in its ability to screen or select a fraction of the population at high risk for serious disability. As a screening tool, it allows scarce diagnostic and other professional resources to be efficiently directed toward those at high risk. Images PMID:7650469

Durkin, M S; Hasan, Z M; Hasan, K Z

1995-01-01

188

US-Pakistan Strategic Partnership: A Track II  

E-print Network

US-Pakistan Strategic Partnership: A Track II Dialogue By Feroz H. Khan and Nick M. Masellis #12;1U.S. Pakistan Strategic Dialogue (track II), Sixth Iteration US-Pakistan Strategic Partnership,974 PASCC Report 2012 002 #12;2U.S. Pakistan Strategic Dialogue (track II), Sixth Iteration The Naval

189

Pakistan's Challenges: The Problem of Militancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent crisis between India and Pakistan has been very narrowly defined as a problem that can be resolved if the United States places heavy pressure on Pakistan, or more specifically, Pakistani based militant groups and their infiltration into Kashmir. This viewpoint tends to undermine the complexity of the situation at hand while also reflecting the agenda of New Delhi.(1)

Brigadier Feroz; Hassan Khan

190

Staff Development Needs in Pakistan Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Staff development is very significant for the achievement of overall goals of higher education in Pakistan. The success of innovations depends largely upon the skills of instructors; but in Pakistan, the people with a simple masters degree (without any pedagogical training) are inducted as teaching staff at the university level, so it is time to…

Ullah, Muhammad Hameed; Khan, Muhammad Naeem Ullah; Murtaza, Ali; Ud Din, Muhammad Naseer

2011-01-01

191

Female Suicide Rates in Ghizer, Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suicide is an understudied subject in Pakistan. There are many social, legal, and religious sanctions against it. National rates of suicides are not known. We calculated suicide rates of women in the Ghizer District of the remote Northern Areas of Pakistan. During years 2000 to 2004, 49 women committed suicide. Taking average mean population for…

Khan, Murad M.; Ahmed, Aziz; Khan, Sultan R.

2009-01-01

192

Higher Education and Women's Empowerment in Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper summarises the findings of a 2005 doctoral study by Malik which explored to what extent participation in higher education offers empowerment to women in Pakistan. A survey instrument was used to question female faculty members and female students from 10 public universities in Pakistan; 1290 students and 290 faculty members responded.…

Malik, Samina; Courtney, Kathy

2011-01-01

193

Modelling the Demand for Money in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study estimates the dynamic demand for money (M2) function in Pakistan by employing cointegration analysis and error correction mechanism. The parameters of preferred model are found to be super-exogenous for the relevant class of interventions. It is found that the rate of inflation is an important determinant of money demand in Pakistan. The analysis reveals that the rates of

Abdul Qayyum

2005-01-01

194

Undergraduate Applicants from Pakistan These notes are intended for applicants from Pakistan who are considering applying to the  

E-print Network

Undergraduate Applicants from Pakistan These notes are intended for applicants from Pakistan who are on the website) or email: pakistan@cao.cam.ac.uk Information on entry for postgraduate courses may be obtained Scholarship or would like to be considered for interview in Pakistan in November, your completed COPA and UCAS

Talbot, James P.

195

Development and validation of sunlight exposure measurement questionnaire (SEM-Q) for use in adult population residing in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Vitamin D deficiency has been identified as a major public health problem worldwide. Sunlight is the main source of vitamin D and its measurement using dosimeters is expensive and difficult for use in population-based studies. Hence, the aim of this study was to develop and validate questionnaires to assess sunlight exposure in healthy individuals residing in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods Two questionnaires with seven important items for sunlight exposure assessment were developed. Fifty four healthy adults were enrolled based on their reported sunlight exposure (high?=?17, moderate?=?18, low?=?19) from Aga Khan University, Karachi. Over four days, study participants were asked to wear a dosimeter between sunrise and sunset and report time spent and activities undertaken in the sun for questionnaire validation. Algorithm for item weightage was created as an average score based on ultraviolet B percentage received. Blood samples were obtained for serum vitamin D. Results The mean time (minutes) spent in sun over 4?days (±SD) was 69.5 (±32) for low, 83.5 (±29.7) for moderate and 329 (±115) for high exposure group. The correlation between average time (minutes) spent in sun over 4?days and mean change in absorbance of UV dosimeters for 4?days was 0.60 (p?

2012-01-01

196

Empowering women : the effect of women's decision-making power on reproductive health services uptake -- evidence from Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large body of research has attempted to explore the links between women's autonomy and their uptake of reproductive health services in the South Asia region, but the evidence so far is inconclusive. This study uses the Pakistan Social and Living Standards Measurement Survey to examine the influence of household decision making on women's uptake of reproductive health services. The

Xiaohui Hou; Ning Ma

2011-01-01

197

Culture and 'compliance' among leprosy patients in Pakistan.  

PubMed

In Pakistan approx. 30% of the 18,000 known leprosy patients have dropped out of their treatment programs. To investigate reasons for such widespread noncompliance, 128 diagnosed leprosy patients--59 outpatients and 69 inpatients--were interviewed in Karachi. More than half of the 'noncompliant' outpatients denied having the disease. Denial was found to be an understandable coping mechanism in view of the severe stigma associated with leprosy. The presence of close-knit extended families, in which joint decision-making was the norm and in which such a dread diagnosis could spell the end of job and marriage prospects for even distant relatives, contributed to the likelihood of denial. In such a setting, the very term 'noncompliant' appeared to be an oversimplification since it covered so many different types of culturally-constrained behavior. In addition, many of the patients who initially seemed most 'compliant' by virtue of being long-term hospital inpatients in fact owed their hospitalization to the fact that they had been markedly noncompliant in the past. Thus the usual view that adherence to a biomedical treatment regimen constitutes 'compliance' and that nonadherence to such a regimen constitutes 'noncompliance' proved inadequate for understanding the health behavior of these Third World leprosy victims. The study also showed that many patients had initially consulted traditional healers, inadequately-trained physicians, and/or untrained medical practitioners for treatment of their symptoms, which resulted in lengthy delays before they were correctly diagnosed. Further, even after the diagnosis was made and appropriate medications were prescribed by trained personnel, most patients were not told what had caused their leprosy and how the drug regimen worked to combat it: when questioned, only 4% of the 128 respondents attributed the disease to infectious organisms. In addition, patients were usually not warned in advance of the possibility of undesirable side effects from their leprosy medications, which led to further 'compliance' problems. The findings of this study emphasize the need for better training of physicians and other health care providers in early diagnosis of leprosy and better health education of diagnosed patients. To be truly effective, the treatment of leprosy must include counseling of extended families and education of the public at large as well as enhanced communication with the patients themselves. PMID:2799423

Mull, J D; Wood, C S; Gans, L P; Mull, D S

1989-01-01

198

Impact of today's media on university student's body image in Pakistan: a conservative, developing country's perspective  

PubMed Central

Background Living in a world greatly controlled by mass media makes it impossible to escape its pervading influence. As media in Pakistan has been free in the true sense of the word for only a few years, its impact on individuals is yet to be assessed. Our study aims to be the first to look at the effect media has on the body image of university students in a conservative, developing country like Pakistan. Also, we introduced the novel concept of body image dissatisfaction as being both negative and positive. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 7 private universities over a period of two weeks in the city of Karachi, Pakistan's largest and most populous city. Convenience sampling was used to select both male and female undergraduate students aged between 18 and 25 and a sample size of 783 was calculated. Results Of the 784 final respondents, 376 (48%) were males and 408 (52%) females. The mean age of males was 20.77 (+/- 1.85) years and females was 20.38 (+/- 1.63) years. Out of these, 358 (45.6%) respondents had a positive BID (body image dissatisfaction) score while 426 (54.4%) had a negative BID score. Of the respondents who had positive BID scores, 93 (24.7%) were male and 265 (65.0%) were female. Of the respondents with a negative BID score, 283 (75.3%) were male and 143 (35.0%) were female. The results for BID vs. media exposure were similar in both high and low peer pressure groups. Low media exposure meant positive BID scores and vice versa in both groups (p < 0.0001) showing a statistically significant association between high media exposure and negative body image dissatisfaction. Finally, we looked at the association between gender and image dissatisfaction. Again a statistically significant association was found between positive body image dissatisfaction and female gender and negative body image dissatisfaction and male gender (p < 0.0001). Conclusions Our study confirmed the tendency of the media to have an overall negative effect on individuals' body image. A striking feature of our study, however, was the finding that negative body image dissatisfaction was found to be more prevalent in males as compared to females. Likewise, positive BID scores were more prevalent amongst females. PMID:21609460

2011-01-01

199

A descriptive profile of ?-thalassaemia mutations in India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thalassaemia is a common and debilitating autosomal recessive disorder affecting many populations in South Asia. To date,\\u000a efforts to create a regional profile of ?-thalassaemia mutations have largely concentrated on the populations of India. The\\u000a present study updates and expands an earlier profile of ?-thalassaemia mutations in India, and incorporates comparable data\\u000a from Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Despite limited data

M. L. Black; S. Sinha; S. Agarwal; R. Colah; R. Das; M. Bellgard; A. H. Bittles

2010-01-01

200

SAWNET: South Asian Women's Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

SAWNET, the South Asian Women's Network, provides a forum for disseminating information about women's issues in the nations of Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. Organized into seventeen topical sections, SAWNET includes articles and books by and for South Asian women, background material on South Asian women's organizations, the latest news about women in the region, and a myriad of other resources relevant to women's rights and health. SAWNET also hosts an electronic mailing list to discuss issues covered by the Website. Please note that the moderated list is restricted to women only. Detailed subscription information and mailing list policies are available at the site.

201

Weight misperception amongst youth of a developing country: Pakistan -a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Weight misperception is the discordance between an individual’s actual weight status and the perception of his/her weight. It is a common problem in the youth population as enumerated by many international studies. However data from Pakistan in this area is deficient. Methods A multi-center cross-sectional survey was carried out in undergraduate university students of Karachi between the ages of 15–24. Participants were questioned regarding their perception of being thin, normal or fat and it was compared with their Body Mass Index (BMI). Measurements of height and weight were taken for this purpose and BMI was categorized using Asian cut offs. Weight misperception was identified when the self-perceived weight (average, fat, thin) did not match the calculated BMI distribution. Chi square tests and logistic regression tests were applied to show associations of misperception and types of misperception (overestimation, underestimation) with independent variables like age, gender, type of university and faculties. P-value of <0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results 42.4% of the total participants i.e. 43.3% males and 41% females misperceived their weight. Amongst those who misperceived 38.2% had overestimated and 61.8% had underestimated their weight. Greatest misperception of was observed in the overweight category (91%), specifically amongst overweight males (95%). Females of the underweight category overestimated their weight and males of the overweight category underestimated their weight. Amongst the total participants, females overestimated 8 times more than males (OR 8.054, 95% CI 5.34-12.13). Misperception increased with the age of the participants (OR 1.114, 95% CI 1.041-1.191). Odds of misperception were greater in students of private sector universities as compared to public (OR 1.861, 95% CI: 1.29-2.67). Odds of misperception were less in students of medical sciences (OR 0.693, 95% CI 0.491-0.977), engineering (OR 0.586, 95% CI 0.364-0.941) and business administration (OR 0.439, 95% CI 0.290-0.662) as compared to general faculty universities. Conclusion There was marked discrepancy between the calculated BMI and the self-perceived weight in the youth of Karachi. Better awareness campaigns need to be implemented to reverse these trends. PMID:23915180

2013-01-01

202

Spirituality of South Asian Women: Implications for Adult Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The implications of the spirituality of South Asian women for adult learning were examined through semistructured interviews of five South Asian women who resided in Canada. The women, who included students, working professionals, mothers, and single women, originated from Nepal, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka and were from Hindu, Moslem, and…

Marshall, Jody L.

203

Blasphemy laws and mental illness in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

There is emerging evidence that individuals who are mentally ill are overrepresented in the group of defendants prosecuted under the blasphemy laws of Pakistan. This article discusses the background of blasphemy legislation in Pakistan, and proposes causal interactions between underlying mental illness in the defendant and prosecution for blasphemy. It sketches possible legal safeguards for such blasphemy defendants with mental illness in mental health legislation. PMID:25237489

Husain, Muzaffar

2014-01-01

204

INSTITUTIONAL TRANSFORMATION OF SMALL-SCALE IRRIGATION FARMING IN SOUTH AFRICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper outlines recent developments in small-scale irrigation farming in South Africa, particularly in terms of various institutional changes. In an attempt to put the South African situation in a broader context, institutional arrangements related to credit provision to small-scale farmers in Ghana, Tanzania and Pakistan are described. For two case studies from South Africa, regression models are used to

B. Hedden-Dunkhorst; T. M. Mathonzi; E. R. Mphahlele

2001-01-01

205

The meanings of cancer and perceptions of cancer services among South Asians in Luton, UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research has suggested that there is limited awareness of and information about cancer and cancer services among South Asian communities. This study explores the meanings of cancer and perceptions of cancer services among South Asians living in Luton. Six single-sex focus groups were conducted among the three main South Asian groups in Luton: (1) Punjabi-speaking Muslims originating from Pakistan

G Randhawa; A Owens

2004-01-01

206

Introduction to the Special Issue on Domestic Violence and the South Asian Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

The South Asian community in the United States is composed of immigrants from the Indian subcontinent (primarily, India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh) and immigrants from the lands of the South Asian diaspora, including the Caribbean nations and South American countries. In themselves, these countries represent complex and diverse histories. Individuals coming from these countries are therefore influenced by a variety of

Helen E. Sheehan; Rafael Art. Javier; Theresa Thanjan

2000-01-01

207

Major earthquake shakes northern Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A magnitude 7.6 earthquake that shook the western Himalayas on 8 October killed at least 23,000 in Pakistan and 1,400 in India, injured more than 50,000 people, and left more 2.5 million people homeless across the Kashmir region. The official death toll could exceed 30,000, placing this among most deadly earthquakes to have ever occurred on the Indian subcontinent.Scientists warn that, given the lack of development and poor construction in the area, future earthquakes in more densely populated areas could be devastating. David Simpson, president of the Incorporated Research Institutes for Seismology, said the 8 October quake ‘was a terrible disaster, but not to the level of what could happen in the future. This is yet again another warning message of things to come.”

Kumar, Mohi

208

The Islamic Republic of Pakistan: country profile.  

PubMed

This discussion of Pakistan covers the following: regions and cities; the dominant Islamic sect; ethnicity and language; population growth; housing; households and families; the labor force; and information sources. Currently, Pakistan is in a period of transition. In 1985 Pakistan was ruled under martial law. On December 30, 1985, martial law was lifted, and a modified version of the 1973 constitution was adopted, restoring fundamental rights of Pakistanis and powers of the judiciary. Pakistan is divided into 4 provinces. The last census recorded the 1981 population at 84.3 million, nearly double the 1961 figure of 42.9 million. By 1983, the population had tripled to nearly 93 million, making Pakistan the world's 9th most populous country, although in area it ranked 34th. Its 3% annual growth rate placed it among the world's fastest growing countries. Although created as a sanctuary for followers of Islam, Pakistan suffers from periodic disputes between the members of Islam's various sects. Generally, ethnic groups and the use of their native languages divide along provincial boundaries. Punjabi, the native tongue of Pakistan's predominant group, is spoken in 48% of all Pakistani households and in about 80% of Punjab and Islamabad Federal Territory households. Pakistan's sixth 5-year plan recognizes the need for an additional 1.4 million dwellings to adequately house the current population. In 1980, Pakistan's 12.6 million housing units averaged nearly 7 people per unit. The ideal Pakistani household is an extended family consisting of a married couple, their sons, and their sons' wives and children. At the death of the patriarch, each son establishes a separate household. Marriage solidifes all social relationships. Single adults have little place in society. Women, although protected by law, often are deprived of their legal rights where marriage is concerned. Only 23% of the population aged 10 or older has completed primary school. Fewer than 1% hold university degree. Little hard data are available about Pakistan's labor force. In 1985, the economically active population was estimated at 28.6 million compared with 10.4 million in 1951. Unemployment rose from an estimated 3.1% in 1981 to 3.5% in 1983. The Pakistani economy is currently on the upswing. PMID:12314371

Newcomb, L

1986-07-01

209

Were the 2010 Pakistan floods predictable? P. J. Webster,1  

E-print Network

Were the 2010 Pakistan floods predictable? P. J. Webster,1 V. E. Toma,1 and H.M. Kim1 Received 30 July 2010, a series of monsoonal deluges over northern Pakistan resulted in catastrophic flooding, loss, especially in North Pakistan was exceptionally rare as deduced from limited data. The location of the deluges

Webster, Peter J.

210

Livelihood Assets Atlas Mountainous Districts of NWFP (Pakistan)  

E-print Network

Livelihood Assets Atlas Mountainous Districts of NWFP (Pakistan) April 2009 SDPISustainable Mountainous Districts of NWFP (Pakistan) Abid Qaiyum Suleri, Babar Shahbaz, Sahab Haq Rana Nazir Mehmood and Gulbaz Ali Khan Sustainable Development Policy Institute 20 Hill Road, F-6/3, Islamabad - Pakistan www

Richner, Heinz

211

Enabling Syndromic Surveillance in Pakistan Ross Maciejewski1*  

E-print Network

Enabling Syndromic Surveillance in Pakistan Ross Maciejewski1* , Shehzad Afzal2 , Adam J. Fairfield/exercise planning capabilities for Lahore, Pakistan. The objective of this work is to address the infectious disease surveillance challenges (specific to developing countries such as Pakistan) and develop a collaborative

Maciejewski, Ross

212

Cabbage : a new host of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum for Pakistan  

E-print Network

NOTE Cabbage : a new host of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum for Pakistan M. Siddique MIRZA Yasmin AHMAD National Agricultural Research Centre PARC, Islamabad, Pakistan. SUMMARY Sclerotinia rot of cabbage, Sclerotinia, identification, pathogenicity, Pakistan. R�SUM� Le chou, un nouvel hôte de Sclerotinia

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

213

In Pakistan, the Problems that Money Can Bring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past four years, Pakistan's higher-education budget has increased more than sevenfold, to about $449-million. While that amounts to only 0.5 percent of Pakistan's gross domestic product, it is a big improvement from the days of barely enough to pay "measly salaries and basic bills." But for students, along with many of Pakistan's most…

Neelakantan, Shailaja

2007-01-01

214

Popularity of Tracking Device as an Anti-theft Measure and Impact of its sales on Sales of Auto Insurance Policies: Evidence from Karachi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper attempt has been made to examine the popularity of tracking devices and its impact on the sales of automobiles insurance policies. Literature review revealed that people insure their vehicles to protect them from theft as well as from other perils such as fire, SRCC, accidental losses and third party liability. The coverage is mainly obtained to prevent

Syed Karamat Ullah Hussainy; Salman Bashir; Syed Luqman Hakim

2009-01-01

215

Determination of gamma-emitting radionuclides in the inter-tidal sediments off Balochistan (Pakistan) Coast, Arabian Sea.  

PubMed

Natural radionuclide contents of 226Ra, 228Ra and (40)K were studied for inter-tidal sediments collected from selected locations off the745 km long Balochistan Coast using HPGe detector based gamma-spectrometry system. The sampling zone extends from the beaches of Sonmiani (near Karachi metropolis) through Jiwani (close to the border of Iran). The natural radioactivity levels detected in various sediment samples range from 14.4 +/- 2.5 to 36.6 +/- 3.8 Bq kg(-1) for 226Ra, 9.8 +/- 1.2 to 35.2 +/- 2.0 Bq kg(-1) for (228)Ra and 144.6 +/- 9.4 to 610.5 +/- 23.9 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K. No artificial radionuclide was detected in any of the marine coastal sediment samples. 137Cs, (60)Co, 106Ru and 144Ce contents in sediment samples were below the limit of detection. The measured radioactivity levels are compared with those reported in the literature for coastal sediments in other parts of the world. The information presented in this paper will serve as the first ever local radioactivity database for the Balochistan/Makran Coastal belt of Pakistan. The presented data will also contribute to the IAEA's, Asia-Pacific Marine Radioactivity Database (ASPAMARD) and the Global Marine Radioactivity Database (GLOMARD). PMID:16899470

Akram, M; Qureshi, Riffat M; Ahmad, Nasir; Solaija, Tariq Jamal

2007-01-01

216

Frequency of JAK2 V617F mutation in patients with Philadelphia positive Chronic Myeloid Leukemia in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background and Objective: Co-existence of myeloproliferative disorders (MPD) and Janus associated kinase 2 mutation (JAK2 V617F) is a well-established fact. Only few case reports are available showing presence of JAK2 V617F mutation in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of JAK2 V617F mutation in Philadelphia Chromosome positive (Ph +) CML patients in Pakistan. Methods: The study was conducted from August 2009 to July 2010 at Civil Hospital and Baqai Institute of Hematology (BIH) Karachi. Blood samples from 25 patients with CML were collected. Multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed for Breakpoint Cluster Region – Abelson (BCR-ABL) rearrangement. Conventional PCR was performed for JAK2 V617F mutation on BCR-ABL positive samples. Results: All 25 samples showed BCR-ABL rearrangement. Out of these 11 samples (44%) had JAK2 V617F mutation; the remaining 14 (56%) cases showed JAK2 617V wild type. Conclusion: It is concluded that the co-existence of Ph +CML and JAK2 V617F mutation is possible. PMID:24639858

Tabassum, Najia; Saboor, Mohammed; Ghani, Rubina; Moinuddin, Moinuddin

2014-01-01

217

Physician migration at its roots: a study on the factors contributing towards a career choice abroad among students at a medical school in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Physician migration, also known as “brain drain,” results from a combination of a gap in the supply and demand in developed countries and a lack of job satisfaction in developing countries. Many push and pull factors are responsible for this effect, with media and internet playing their parts. Large-scale physician migration can pose problems for both the donor and the recipient countries, with a resulting reinforcement in the economic divide between developed and developing countries. The main objectives of our study were to determine the prevalence of migration intentions in medical undergraduates, to elucidate the factors responsible and to analyze the attitudes and practices related to these intentions. Methods This was a cross-sectional, observational, questionnaire-based study, conducted at Dow Medical College of Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, between January, 2012 and May, 2012. A total of 323 students responded completely. The questionnaire consisted of 3 sections, and was aimed at collecting demographic details, determining students’ migratory intentions, evaluating reasons for and against migration and assessing attitudes and practices of students related to these intentions. Results Out of 323 respondents, 195 wanted to pursue their careers abroad, giving a prevalence rate of 60.4% in our sample. United States was the most frequently reported recipient country. The most common reasons given by students who wished to migrate, in descending order, were: lucrative salary abroad followed by quality of training, job satisfaction, better way of life, relatives, more opportunities, better working environment, terrorism in Pakistan, harassment of doctors in Pakistan, desire to settle abroad, more competition in Pakistan, better management, peer pressure, longer working hours in Pakistan, religious reasons, parent pressure, political reasons and favoritism in Pakistan. A considerable number of respondents had already started studying for licensing examinations, and were also planning of gaining clinical experience in their desired country of interest. Conclusion Physician migration is a serious condition that requires timely intervention from the concerned authorities. If considerable measures are not taken, serious consequences may follow, which may pose a threat to the healthcare system of the country. PMID:23241435

2012-01-01

218

Pakistan (country/area statements).  

PubMed

According to this statement presented to the Committee on Population of the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Pakistan's crude birth rate at present is 40/1000. The Pakistan Fertility Survey (PFS) of 1974-75 showed a marital total fertility rate of 8 and marital gross reproduction rate of 3.9. The total fertility rate is estimated at around 6. Evaluation of past family planning activities indicates that the impact of the program on the birth rate has been minimal. Although a large majority of married women know about family planning methods, few fertile couples use a method. Of the 90% of respondents in the PFS who had never used a method, 57% indicated they intended to use a method at some point and 23% said they did not. The average age of all current users was 34 in 1975. Preliminary results of a contraceptive prevalence survey indicate that current use is 10%. The crude birth rate was 46 or 47/1000 in 1965 when an official population program was initiated. The gains from the reduction of the total fertility rate have been partly offset by change in the age structure. Pakistan's population policy was formulated in light of the recommendations of the 1974 World Population Plan of Action. The program approach is multidisciplinary and due consideration is given to the interrelationships between population, resources, environment, and development stratgey. The program relies primarily on community participation and involvement of local leadership to promote acceptability. At the federal level, the major focus of the program is on development of national policy, planning and coordination, funding, training, procurement of contraceptives and equipment, research and evaluation, monitoring, and statistics. The population welfare departments at the provincial level are responsible for the administration and supervision of all field activities relating to service delivery, motivation, training, coordination, monitoring, evaluation, and feedback. The primary objectives are to raise the level of family planning practice from 9.5% in 1982-83 to 18.6% by 1987-88, to raise the level of continuous practice from an estimated 6.8% to 13.0% by the end of the 6th Population Welfare Plan period, and to provide reproductive health services to mothers and child health services for children under 5. The demographic objectives are to reduce the crude birth rate from 40.3 to 36.2 and to prevent approximately 2 million births during the plan period from 1983-88. Private and public sector agencies are cooperating in an immunization program, a diarrheal disease control program based on oral rehydration therapy, training of traditional midwives, provision of family planning services, and encouragement of local women to participate in development activities. PMID:12267452

1985-09-01

219

Potential Risk of Cross-Infection by Tourniquets: A Need for Effective Control Practices in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background: Tourniquets used repeatedly on patients for blood sampling are a potential source of nosocomial infections. They harbor numerous microorganisms, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The aim of this study was to investigate tourniquets for the presence of microorganisms and to ascertain the infection control practices of health care workers. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2012 on 100 samples of tourniquets collected from public and private sector hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan. The samples were cultured, and pathogenic microorganisms were identified and tested for methicillin resistance. A questionnaire was administered simultaneously to 100 health care workers who had used the tourniquets. Descriptive data are represented as frequencies and percentages. Ethical considerations were taken into account. Results: The total colonization rate was 51%, with no bacterial growth in 17/40 and 32/60 samples from public and private sector hospitals, respectively. S. aureus was isolated from 12 (42%) private sector hospital samples and 10 (43%) public sector hospital samples. Although MRSA was found in more samples from public than private sector hospitals, the difference was not statistically significant. Nevertheless, 90% of all elastic and 41% of all rubber tourniquets harbored microorganisms (P < 0.001). Although 96% of health care workers agreed that hospital staff and fomites can transmit infection, none identified tourniquets as a potential source. When asked whether tourniquets appeared clean before use, 66% agreed, and only 25% considered that tourniquets should be washed or cleaned before use. Conclusions: Tourniquets are a potential reservoir and vehicle for the spread of nosocomial infections, including MRSA. Health care workers have inadequate knowledge about infection control procedures and personal hygiene for disinfecting reusable items. PMID:25317294

Mehmood, Zara; Mubeen, Syed Muhammad; Afzal, Muhammad Shehzad; Hussain, Zainab

2014-01-01

220

High HIV Incidence among Persons Who Inject Drugs in Pakistan: Greater Risk with Needle Sharing and Injecting Frequently among the Homeless  

PubMed Central

Background The incidence of HIV among persons who inject drugs (PWIDU) has fallen in many nations, likely due to successes of clean needle/syringe exchange and substance abuse treatment and service programs. However in Pakistan, prevalence rates for PWID have risen dramatically. In several cities, prevalence exceeded 20% by 2009 compared to a 2003 baseline of just 0.5%. However, no cohort study of PWID has ever been conducted. Methods We enrolled a cohort of 636 HIV seronegative PWID registered with three drop-in centers that focus on risk reduction and basic social services in Karachi. Recruitment began in 2009 (March to June) and PWID were followed for two years. We measured incidence rates and risk factors associated with HIV seroconversion. Results Incidence of HIV was 12.4 per 100 person-years (95% exact Poisson confidence interval [CI]: 10.3–14.9). We followed 474 of 636 HIV seronegative persons (74.5%) for two years, an annual loss to follow-up of <13 per 100 person years. In multivariable Cox regression analysis, HIV seroconversion was associated with non-Muslim religion (Adjusted risk ratio [ARR]?=?1.7, 95%CI:1.4, 2.7, p?=?0.03), sharing of syringes (ARR?=?2.3, 95%CI:1.5, 3.3, p<0.0001), being homeless (ARR?=?1.7, 95%CI:1.1, 2.5, p?=?0.009), and daily injection of drugs (ARR?=?1.1, 95%CI:1.0, 1.3, p?=?0.04). Conclusions Even though all members of the cohort of PWID were attending risk reduction programs, the HIV incidence rate was very high in Karachi from 2009–2011. The project budget was low, yet we were able to retain three-quarters of the population over two years. Absence of opiate substitution therapy and incomplete needle/syringe exchange coverage undermines success in HIV risk reduction. PMID:24358123

Samo, Rab Nawaz; Altaf, Arshad; Agha, Ajmal; Pasha, Omrana; Rozi, Shafquat; Memon, Ashraf; Azam, Saleem; Blevins, Meridith; Vermund, Sten H.; Shah, Sharaf Ali

2013-01-01

221

Nuclear weapons issues in South Asia  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses how the US can play a productive mediating role in South Asia by engaging India and Pakistan in an international forum to manage nuclear weapons, as Edward Teller advocated. India and Pakistan have developed their nuclear capabilities because they fear their neighbors, not because they want to threaten fear their neighbors, not because they want to threaten the US. The appropriate response for the US, therefore, is diplomatic engagement and negotiations. In addition to the international approach, encouragement and facilitation of regional and bilateral interactions will also be important. Formal arms control agreements have been reached, but less formal confidence-building measures, and unilateral security pledges may well be combined to form a more secure strategic environment in South Asia than a nuclear armed confrontation across the porous South Asian border.

Joeck, N.

1993-07-02

222

Development of agriculture biotechnology in Pakistan.  

PubMed

Agriculture plays an important role in the national economy of Pakistan, where most of the rapidly increasing population resides in rural areas and depends on agriculture for subsistence. Biotechnology has considerable potential for promoting the efficiency of crop improvement, food production, and poverty reduction. Use of modern biotechnology started in Pakistan since 1985. Currently, there are 29 biotech centers/institutes in the country. However, few centers have appropriate physical facilities and trained manpower to develop genetically modified (GM) crops. Most of the activities have been on rice and cotton, which are among the top 5 crops of Pakistan. Biotic (virus/bacterial/insect) and abiotic (salt) resistant and quality (male sterility) genes have already been incorporated in some crop plants. Despite acquiring capacity to produce transgenic plants, no GM crops, either produced locally or imported, have been released in the country. Pakistan is signatory to the World Trade Organization, Convention on Biological Diversity, and Cartagena protocols. Several legislations under the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights have been promulgated in the country. National Biosafety Guidelines have been promulgated in April 2005. The Plant Breeders Rights Act, Amendment in Seed Act-1976, and Geographical Indication for Goods are still passing through discussion, evaluation, and analysis phases. Meanwhile, an illegal GM crop (cotton) has already sneaked into farmer's field. Concerted and coordinated efforts are needed among various ministries for implementation of regulation and capacity building for import/export and local handling of GM crops. Pakistan could easily benefit from the experience of Asian countries, especially China and India, where conditions are similar and the agriculture sector is almost like that of Pakistan. Thus, the exchange of information and experiences is important among these nations. PMID:17955999

Zafar, Yusuf

2007-01-01

223

Lithosphere, crust and basement ridges across Ganga and Indus basins and seismicity along the Himalayan front, India and Western Fold Belt, Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectral analysis of the digital data of the Bouguer anomaly of North India including Ganga basin suggest a four layer model with approximate depths of 140, 38, 16 and 7 km. They apparently represent lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB), Moho, lower crust, and maximum depth to the basement in foredeeps, respectively. The Airy's root model of Moho from the topographic data and modeling of Bouguer anomaly constrained from the available seismic information suggest changes in the lithospheric and crustal thicknesses from ˜126-134 and ˜32-35 km under the Central Ganga basin to ˜132 and ˜38 km towards the south and 163 and ˜40 km towards the north, respectively. It has clearly brought out the lithospheric flexure and related crustal bulge under the Ganga basin due to the Himalaya. Airy's root model and modeling along a profile (SE-NW) across the Indus basin and the Western Fold Belt (WFB), (Sibi Syntaxis, Pakistan) also suggest similar crustal bulge related to lithospheric flexure due to the WFB with crustal thickness of 33 km in the central part and 38 and 56 km towards the SE and the NW, respectively. It has also shown the high density lower crust and Bela ophiolite along the Chamman fault. The two flexures interact along the Western Syntaxis and Hazara seismic zone where several large/great earthquakes including 2005 Kashmir earthquake was reported. The residual Bouguer anomaly maps of the Indus and the Ganga basins have delineated several basement ridges whose interaction with the Himalaya and the WFB, respectively have caused seismic activity including some large/great earthquakes. Some significant ridges across the Indus basin are (i) Delhi-Lahore-Sargodha, (ii) Jaisalmer-Sibi Syntaxis which is highly seismogenic. and (iii) Kachchh-Karachi arc-Kirthar thrust leading to Sibi Syntaxis. Most of the basement ridges of the Ganga basin are oriented NE-SW that are as follows (i) Jaisalmer-Ganganagar and Jodhpur-Chandigarh ridges across the Ganga basin intersect Himalaya in the Kangra reentrant where the great Kangra earthquake of 1905 was located. (ii) The Aravalli Delhi Mobile Belt (ADMB) and its margin faults extend to the Western Himalayan front via Delhi where it interacts with the Delhi-Lahore ridge and further north with the Himalayan front causing seismic activity. (iii) The Shahjahanpur and Faizabad ridges strike the Himalayan front in Central Nepal that do not show any enhanced seismicity which may be due to their being parts of the Bundelkhand craton as simple basement highs. (iv) The west and the east Patna faults are parts of transcontinental lineaments, such as Narmada-Son lineament. (v) The Munghyr-Saharsa ridge is fault controlled and interacts with the Himalayan front in the Eastern Nepal where Bihar-Nepal earthquakes of 1934 has been reported. Some of these faults/lineaments of the Indian continent find reflection in seismogenic lineaments of Himalaya like Everest, Arun, Kanchenjunga lineaments. A set of NW-SE oriented gravity highs along the Himalayan front and the Ganga and the Indus basins represents the folding of the basement due to compression as anticlines caused by collision of the Indian and the Asian plates. This study has also delineated several depressions like Saharanpur, Patna, and Purnia depressions.

Ravi Kumar, M.; Mishra, D. C.; Singh, B.

2013-10-01

224

Schools as potential vaccination venue for vaccines outside regular EPI schedule: results from a school census in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Vaccines are the most effective public health intervention. Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) provides routine vaccination in developing countries. However, vaccines that cannot be given in EPI schedule such as typhoid fever vaccine need alternative venues. In areas where school enrolment is high, schools provide a cost effective opportunity for vaccination. Prior to start of a school-based typhoid vaccination program, interviews were conducted with staff of educational institutions in two townships of Karachi, Pakistan to collect baseline information about the school system and to plan a typhoid vaccination program. Data collection teams administered a structured questionnaire to all schools in the two townships. The administrative staff was requested information on school fee, class enrolment, past history of involvement and willingness of parents to participate in a vaccination campaign. Results A total of 304,836 students were enrolled in 1,096 public, private, and religious schools (Madrasahs) of the two towns. Five percent of schools refused to participate in the school census. Twenty-five percent of schools had a total enrolment of less than 100 students whereas 3% had more than 1,000 students. Health education programs were available in less than 8% of public schools, 17% of private schools, and 14% of Madrasahs. One-quarter of public schools, 41% of private schools, and 43% of Madrasahs had previously participated in a school-based vaccination campaign. The most common vaccination campaign in which schools participated was Polio eradication program. Cost of the vaccine, side effects, and parents' lack of information were highlighted as important limiting factors by school administration for school-based immunization programs. Permission from parents, appropriateness of vaccine-related information, and involvement of teachers were considered as important factors to improve participation. Conclusions Health education programs are not part of the regular school curriculum in developing countries including Pakistan. Many schools in the targeted townships participated in immunization activities but they were not carried out regularly. In the wake of low immunization coverage in Pakistan, schools can be used as a potential venue not only for non-EPI vaccines, but for a catch up vaccination of routine vaccines. PMID:22221404

2012-01-01

225

3 CFR - Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Resulting from Flooding in Pakistan  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Migration Needs Resulting from Flooding in Pakistan Presidential Documents Other Presidential...Migration Needs Resulting from Flooding in Pakistan Memorandum for the Secretary of State...resulting from recent devastating flooding in Pakistan. You are authorized and directed...

2011-01-01

226

The Onset of Fertility Transition in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Recent trends in fertility and contraceptive prevalence indicate that the marital fertility transition in Pakistan, which has been anticipated for three de- cades, has begun in the 1990s. Before that decade, the total fertility rate had exceeded six births per woman for at least three decades, and fewer than 10 per- cent of married women practiced contraception. The most

Zeba A. Sathar; John B. Casterline

1998-01-01

227

Library Web OPACs in Pakistan: An Overview  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This paper aims to analyse features and functions of indigenously developed web-based catalogues of academic, special and national libraries of Pakistan. Design/methodology/approach: The assessment of 16 OPACs is based on a 91-item checklist developed with the help of previous studies conducted in other countries. Findings: The paper…

Mahmood, Khalid

2008-01-01

228

Saving and economic shocks in rural Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper adapts the recent methodology of Paxson to study saving rates in rural Pakistan. Particular attention is paid to differences in marginal rates of financial and physical saving and how these vary across income groups and by direction of income shocks. Households exhibit more difficulty in smoothing consumption after successive shocks than with a single shock. The study also

Harold Alderman

1996-01-01

229

Anatomy Education Faces Challenges in Pakistan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article explains the difficulties anatomy education in Pakistan is facing. The article highlights the concern about how the changes to the traditional curriculum decreases the quality of education medical students are receiving. Issues discussed are the advantages/disadvantages of PBL learning, lack of trained faculty, lack of cadaver access among others.

2009-07-27

230

Food safety challenges--a Pakistan's perspective.  

PubMed

Biological, chemical, and physical contamination of foods is a terrifying threat for the health and economic growth in developing societies. Rampantly available literature on foodborne illnesses especially diarrhea among children exclusively depicts the intensified disease burden associated with foodborne illness in the underdeveloped economies. Prevalence of many pathogens in several foods is commonplace in Pakistan. Precise estimates for foodborne illnesses in Pakistan are hard to make because of the absence of any monitoring, surveillance, and infection control. Poor processing and storage of milk, cereal grains, and nuts are a major cause of aflatoxin contamination and mold proliferation. Numerous studies manifest a multitude of foods to be contaminated with heavy metals. Escalating population growth limits the economic potential of the individual and the state through a tendency among the traders and manufacturers to intentionally debase food commodities offered for sale to make profit at the cost of their quality and safety. Therefore, a growing trend of adulteration in foods during the recent past, particularly adulteration of milk, poses a pressing challenge for the government. This review is a concerted attempt to elucidate the prevailing food safety scenario in Pakistan. Information derived from local and related international studies will be presented to clearly depict a picture of food safety in Pakistan. It is proposed that an extensive food safety infrastructure leading to a safer supply of foods needs to be devised, designed, and implemented. PMID:24915401

Akhtar, Saeed

2015-01-01

231

Polarisation of Social Studies Textbooks in Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article looks at the evolution of the social studies curricula in Pakistan, which are of critical importance in shaping the outlook of many young Pakistanis, who are affected by this polarised discourse. The author argues that this trend of polarisation springing from dynamics of education also effectively contributes to a widening social…

Zaidi, Syed Manzar Abbas

2011-01-01

232

Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis, Pakistan.  

PubMed

Frequency of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis in Pakistan increased from 1.5% in 2006 to 4.5% in 2009 (p<0.01). To understand the epidemiology, we genotyped selected strains by using spoligotyping, mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats, and IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. PMID:20735937

Hasan, Rumina; Jabeen, Kauser; Ali, Asho; Rafiq, Yasraba; Laiq, Rabia; Malik, Babar; Tanveer, Mahnaz; Groenheit, Ramona; Ghebremichael, Solomon; Hoffner, Sven; Hasan, Zahra

2010-09-01

233

Employment situation of women in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper is an attempt to analyze the study of low female work participation rate in Pakistan due to the religious, traditional, cultural values, the colonial ideology and the evolution of social institution that restrain women entry into the labour market. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – In order to explore the objectives, the paper develops the classification of male and female

Mahpara Begum Sadaquat; Qurra-tul-ain Ali Sheikh

2011-01-01

234

Pakistan: The Political Economy of Lawlessness  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is a unique multi-disciplinary work encompassing the disciplines of economics, criminology, sociology, public administration, and policing. It shows in concrete quantitative terms the connection between lawlessness and the economy of Pakistan. It presents a sound strategy for good governance and macro-economic stability and provides, a cost effective model for indigenous policing conducive to sustainable economic develpoment.

Azhar Hassan Nadeem

235

Pakistan's National Emigration Policy Maqsood Ahmad Jan  

E-print Network

Pakistan's National Emigration Policy A Review! Maqsood Ahmad Jan Policy Paper Series # 35 December-Pierre Cassarino, European University Institute, Italy for their valuable time for discussions on policy issues possible without the financial assistance of the National Center of Competence in Research (NCCR) North

Richner, Heinz

236

Education, Ethnicity, and Political Socialization in Pakistan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper addresses the correlation between educational policies and political conditions as an indicator of socialization in the nation and state building process in Pakistan. Because of the discrepancies between official statements and the level of ethnic conflict, this study seeks to analyze the standard national social studies curriculum for…

Kazi, Aftab A.

1986-01-01

237

Status of Project Management Education in Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emerging contractual delivery systems, collaborative partnerships, new management initiatives, and global product markets require professionals and students to have a broader awareness of construction methods and project management issues. This paper presents the state of the project management education in Pakistan. The analysis is based on…

Arain, Faisal Manzoor; Tipu, Syed Awais Ahmad

2009-01-01

238

The hawkmoth fauna of Pakistan (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae).  

PubMed

This study represents the first complete modern account of the Sphingidae of Pakistan and takes the form of an annotated checklist, based on several national collections and those of a number of individuals. Of the 60 species and subspecies found, 14 are new records to the fauna of Pakistan, namely Agnosia orneus, Langia zenzeroides subsp. zenzeroides, Polyptychus trilineatus subsp. trilineatus, Dolbina inexacta, Ambulyx sericeipennis subsp. sericeipennis, Thamnoecha uniformis, Macroglossum belis, Macroglossum stellatarum, Cechetra scotti, Hippotion boerhaviae, Hyles euphorbiae subsp. euphorbiae, Rhagastis olivacea, Rethera brandti subsp. euteles and Theretra latreillii subsp. lucasii. Anambulyx elwesi subsp. kitchingi and Clanis deucalion subsp. thomaswitti are not recognised as valid subspecies and are synonymized with their respective nominotypical subspecies. An additional list is given of 30 taxa which may yet be found in Pakistan as they are present in neighbouring countries close to the border. Of the species/subspecies found, 24 are part of the Palaearctic fauna, 27 are part of the Oriental fauna and nine are Palaeo-Oriental/Palaeotropical. This reconfirms the transitional biogeographical position of the Pakistan fauna. PMID:24870331

Rafi, Muhammad Ather; Sultan, Amir; Kitching, Ian J; Pittaway, Anthony R; Markhasiov, Maxim; Khan, Muhammad Rafique; Naz, Falak

2014-01-01

239

BOUNDARY WATER CONFLICT BETWEEN INDIA AND PAKISTAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Indo-Pak sub-continent was partitioned in August 1947, resulting in the appearance of two independent sovereign countries, Pakistan and India, on the world map. The Indus Basin Irrigation System that irrigated some 37 million acres of land was conceived originally as a unified system and considered one of the most extensive and highly developed irrigation systems of the world. It

M. Yunus Khan

1990-01-01

240

Attitudes Toward Suicide Bombing In Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although suicide bombing is a historical phenomenon, there has been a recent upsurge in such incidents. In Pakistan, over the last year, more than 1,000 people have been killed in suicide bombing incidents. Assessing the attitudes and perceptions of people toward suicide bombing can help understand some of the root causes of this phenomenon. In this pilot study, we conducted

Syed Faraz Kazim; Zarmeneh Aly; Haider Khan Bangash; Bhisham Pardeep Harchandani; Affan Bin Irfan; Syed Muhammad Javed; Rana Khalil-ur-Rehman; Haider Naqvi; Murad Moosa Khan

2008-01-01

241

Muslim Cosmopolitans? Transnational Life in Northern Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the importance of transnational forms of Muslim cultural identity in northern Pakistan. By documenting the dynamism of a transnational form of Muslim identity that encompasses people belonging to a wide range of ethnic communities and Islamic doctrinal traditions, as well as extending across countries whose Muslim peoples have experienced the differential effects of their incorporation into both

Magnus Marsden

2008-01-01

242

Exploring environmental literacy in low-literate communities of Pakistan: A descriptive study to recommend strategies for planning environmental education programs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The widely accepted definition of environmental education as stated by The Tbilisi Declaration of 1978 focuses on developing an environmentally literate citizenry which is capable of working "...individually and collectively toward solutions of current [environmental] problems and the prevention of new ones". The two basic tenets of environmental literacy are further defined in this study as the ability to understand environmental problems and the ability to address those environmental problems in a responsible manner. Acquisition of knowledge has also been considered an important element when developing environmental literacy programs. However, a large sector of the world population is non- or low-literate and communication is through channels other than the written word. The challenge for environmental educators is to reach the low-literate learners who have not had many opportunities to participate in formal education activities through established institutions. The purpose of this study was to describe levels of environmental literacy in communities with varying levels of formal literacy in two cities, Karachi and Islamabad, Pakistan to determine the role formal literacy plays in enhancing environmental literacy and decision making in relation to age, sex, location, number of years spent in formal education, and the socio-economic status (SES) of adult learners. Based on the outcomes, recommendations were made for designing effective programs to ensure involvement of low-literate communities in established decision-making processes through relevant program planning. This study suggested strategies to program planners and environmental educators for designing programs that reach low-literate communities, highlight local environmental concerns, and empower these communities in addressing local environmental issues. A purposive sample was identified from the constituencies of five non-governmental organizations in Karachi and Islamabad, Pakistan. Two instruments, one to measure levels of formal literacy, and the other to assess environmental literacy of the participants at the nominal, functional, and operational levels, were developed for this study. Negligible correlations were found between environmental literacy and the demographic or "external" variables of age, sex, location, number of years participants had spent in formal education institutions, socio-economic status, and formal literacy. However, some low and moderate positive correlations were found between formal literacy and age, sex, location, number of years participants had spent in formal education institutions, and socio-economic status of the participants. No correlations were found between environmental literacy and formal literacy indicating that the ability to read and write did not relate to environmental literacy or awareness in the participants.

Daudi, Sabiha Shafique

2000-10-01

243

76 FR 61776 - Designation of Five Individuals Pursuant to Executive Order 13224  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Village, Chaman, Baluchistan Province, Pakistan; DOB 1966; alt. DOB 1961; alt. DOB 1968...a. ``ABDULLAH SINDHI''), Karachi, Pakistan; DOB 3 Oct 1965; POB Mirpur Khas, Pakistan; nationality Pakistan; National ID...

2011-10-05

244

Depression among hospitalized and non-hospitalized gonadal cancer patients in tertiary care public hospitals in karachi.  

PubMed

The study aimed at determining the differences in the levels of depression between hospitalized and non-hospitalized Gonadal cancer patients in tertiary care public hospitals in Karachi. The present study was conducted at the Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre and Civil Hospital, Karachi, from July to October 2009. One hundred adult patients diagnosed with Gonadal cancer volunteered for the study. Cases with any other co-morbidity were excluded. Urdu version of Siddiqui Shah Depression Scale (SSDS) was administered. Purposive and snowball sampling methods were used for data collection. The ages of participants in the sample ranged from 20 to 27 years with the mean age of 23.85 years. The participants belonged to the lower and middle classes. Out of the 30 hospitalized gonadal cancer patients 40% were moderately depressed and 60% were severely depressed, whereas out of 70 non-hospitalized gonadal cancer patients 74.3% were mildly depressed, 24.3% were moderately depressed and only 1.4% were severely depressed, which clearly indicated that the depression level of hospitalized gonadal cancer patients was high as compared to non-hospitalized gonadal cancer patients. PMID:25772968

Yousaf, Tahira; Zadeh, Zainab Fotowwat

2015-03-01

245

On the Dynamics of Extreme Meteorological Droughts during Pakistan Summer Monsoon by Focusing the Anomalous States of Upper Troposphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lack of summer monsoon sometimes brings severe droughts in many parts of the world including South Asian countries like Pakistan. Human life and economy in Pakistan considerably depends on the summer monsoon. So, an essential question arises "how can we contribute better to manage the water resources during drought conditions for the societal needs". To address the concern as a hydrologist, we need to develop a basis of the scientific understanding of the different contrast of the climatology during extremely dry rainfall events over Pakistan region. However, compared to other regional studies i.e. Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) and South-East Asian Monsoon (SEAM), the basis of the thermodynamical structure and the processes associated with upper tropospheric conditions during the climatological mean Pakistan Summer Monsoon (PSM) and its extreme events have not been addressed deeply yet and need to be investigated, because it is immensely vital for the hydrologist as a first step to develop the basis of scientific understanding. By data analysis, an attempt has been made to accomplish this objective. Firstly, the climatological tropospheric conditions and the associated processes from pre-monsoon phase to the PSM mature phase are investigated. During the PSM mature phase (mid July), the climatological-mean structure of the atmosphere favors convective activity compared to the pre-monsoon phase (late June) with weakening of the subsidence in the upper troposphere and also with increasing of incoming moisture flux in the lower troposphere from Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal around Pakistan. Specifically, in the upper troposphere, the upper-level subsidence and convergence observed over Pakistan during pre-monsoon phase shifts and reallocates to the northwest of Pakistan during mature phase, which results in weakening of the subsidence just over Pakistan, and then the PSM mature phase initiated. Secondly, comparing the PSM mature phase climatological mean characteristics, the characteristics of the extremely dry PSM events are investigated by focusing their common anomalous tropospheric conditions observed during the period 1979-2008. We found that the extremely dry PSM events were closely related with the anomalous state of upper tropospheric cyclonic circulation northwest of Pakistan and the associated cold temperature anomaly around Pakistan. This anomalous state of upper tropospheric cyclonic circulation is accompanied with the anomalous upper level convergence around Pakistan, which anomalously weakens the climatological mean PSM trough to suppress the PSM activities. We found two possibilities i.e. Matsuno-Gill type atmospheric response from the tropics and/or the Rossby wave train along the Asian Jet to trigger, reinforce, and maintain the upper-tropospheric cyclonic circulation. In summary, the strong convection anomalies resulting in severe drought events over the PSM region are suggested to be induced by both the tropical and extratropical processes. However what (i.e. source) triggers the circulation anomaly from the tropics and/or extratropics is unknown at the moment, which needs further investigations to reach a definite conclusion. Further, if hydrologist gets a prediction signal in advance, the integrated water resources management (IWRM) will be much more effective for the region.

Ahmad, S.; Koike, T.; Nishii, K.

2012-12-01

246

Forensic and genetic characterization of mtDNA from Pathans of Pakistan.  

PubMed

Complete mitochondrial control region data were generated for 230 unrelated Pathans from North West Frontier Province and Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan. To confirm data quality and to explore the genetic structure of Pathans, mitochondrial DNA haplogroup affiliation was determined by shared haplogroup-specific polymorphisms in the control region and by the analysis of diagnostic coding region single-nucleotide polymorphisms using a multiplex system for the assignment of eight haplogroups: M, N1'5, W, R, R0, T, J, and U. Sequence comparison revealed that 193 haplotypes were defined by 215 variable sites when major insertions were ignored at nucleotide positions 16193, 309, and 573. From a phylogenetic perspective, Pathans have a heterogeneous origin, displaying a high percentage of West Eurasian haplogroups followed by haplogroups native to South Asia and a small fraction from East Asian lineages. In population comparisons, this ethnic group differed significantly from several other ethnic groups from Pakistan and surrounding countries. These results suggest that frequency estimates for mtDNA haplotypes should be determined for endogamous ethnic groups individually instead of pooling data for these subpopulations into a single dataset for the Pakistani population. Data presented here may contribute to the accuracy of forensic mtDNA comparisons in the Pathans of Pakistan. PMID:21184092

Rakha, Allah; Shin, Kyoung-Jin; Yoon, Jung Ah; Kim, Na Young; Siddique, Muhammad Hassan; Yang, In Seok; Yang, Woo Ick; Lee, Hwan Young

2011-11-01

247

Aid cutoff threatens condom program in Pakistan.  

PubMed

The Pressler Amendment, a law prohibiting US assistance to any country that does not sign the UN Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty, is forcing USAID to shut down its highly successful Social Marketing of Contraceptives (SMC) program in Pakistan. Adopted in 1985, the amendment calls for an end of funding for projects in Pakistan as of fiscal year 1991, since the country has refused to sign the treaty. Only previously committed funds have kept SMC running, but it may soon have a close shop. The cutoff comes at an especially inopportune time--just when SMC had begun to make an impact. Introduced 5 years ago, Sathi condoms (the project's main product) account for 2/3 of all condoms used in Pakistan. Sales jumped from 30 million in 1978 to 74 million last year. SMC administrators explain that the country has a vast potential for social marketing. But because of the cutoff in aid, the program will exhaust its supply of condoms by March 1992. The end of the SMC program will mean a serious setback for Pakistan, which already has the 2nd largest population in southern Asia, and which has double the fertility of the most populous country in the region, India. Only 7% of the women in Pakistan rely on a modern method of contraception, compared to 42% in India and 26% in Bangladesh. USAID officials explain that the organization is working with the Pakistani government to find ways to continue funding the program after US funds run out. They add that this development will provide Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif an opportunity to demonstrate his stated commitment to curb population growth. PMID:12284521

Barron, T

1991-01-01

248

Hunza Landslide and Monsoon Flooding in Pakistan Call for International Attention to Transboundary Natural Hazards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two major disasters in Pakistan and innumerable lesser disasters throughout the Himalaya-Karakoram region in 2010 highlight geologic events and extreme weather (perhaps climate change) in affecting the well being of whole nations and commerce and relations between nations. Two chief events in Pakistan include the Jan. 4 rockslide into the Hunza River and the subsequent formation of a natural dam lake (Lake Gojal); and the monsoon precipitation-fed flooding across the Indus Basin. The first event severed Pakistan’s major land link with China. The second event devastated Pakistan’s national land-based transportation infrastructure and agriculture and displaced millions of people. In a country plagued by monsoon-driven floods, the lack of catastrophic breakout of Lake Gojal is welcome. Satellite-based monitoring shows the spillway to be eroding more rapidly (but not alarmingly) under August’s monsoon peak flow. Similar events have occurred before in the region and will occur again. These mega-events in Pakistan should be an alert for all of South Asia, as climate change increases or shifts the hazard environment, encroaching development and urbanization increases the vulnerabilities, and as improved capacity for trans-national commerce breaks down the Himalayan barrier and both promotes new opportunities and possible conflicts. 2010's natural mega-calamities in Pakistan and widespread landsliding and flooding elsewhere in South Asia underscores the subcontinent’s need for a thorough field-, remote sensing-, and modeling-based assessment of the disaster potential related to landslides, glacier surges, extreme monsoon precipitation events, natural glacier and landslide dam lake outbursts, and unseasonal snow melting. The Himalayan-Karakoram region is remarkable for its heterogeneous responses to climate change. For instance, some areas are undergoing rapid glacier recession and stagnation; others are undergoing glacier growth. We take the instance of the rockslide-formed Lake Gojal and of the region’s glacier dynamics seen by satellite to show the promise of remote sensing to address disaster management and hazard identification. However, the biggest role of remote sensing should be in the identification of hazard-prone situations, such as areas where landslides or the development of dangerous glacier lakes is likely. Increased satellite surveillance and deployment of air- and land surface-borne sensor platforms, and in some cases surface or subsurface watercraft, may aid the characterization of the landscape, identify geologic and climatic instabilities, and identify vulnerabilities among the people and infrastructure. A broad-based remote sensing program should fit within a coherent regional/international approach to the key related issues of natural hazards, water resources, urban planning, food security, hydropower, and environmental conservation. Notably, these issues all are interlinked to transboundary hydrology and climate change.

Kargel, J. S.; Fink, W.; Furfaro, R.; Leonard, G. J.; Patterson, M.; Glims, Gaphaz

2010-12-01

249

TRENDS IN LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE EDUCATION IN SOUTH ASIA: ISSUES AND CHALLENGES  

Microsoft Academic Search

……. Abstract: The work studies the scenario of library and information science education in South Asia. South Asia countries consist of seven countries, out of these seven India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh has provision for LIS- education. Changing social priorities and development in IT are driving the emergence of new library education. Dedicated, technical and well qualified professionals can

BOBBY PHURITSABAM

250

octobre 2005 : le nord du Pakistan subit un violent  

E-print Network

Editoria octobre 2005 : le nord du Pakistan subit un violent séisme suivi de cen- taines de'une vingtaine de ces hélico- ptères indispensables pour sauver les populations civiles. Mais le Pakistan, par Turquie ou au Pakistan1 . > Dans d'autres pays, l'importance donnée aux « canons » est davantage à usage

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

251

Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/11: Cooperative Environmental Monitoring in the Coastal Regions of India and Pakistan  

SciTech Connect

The cessation of hostilities between India and Pakistan is an immediate need and of global concern, as these countries have tested nuclear devices, and have the capability to deploy nuclear weapons and long-range ballistic missiles. Cooperative monitoring projects among neighboring countries in South Asia could build regional confidence, and, through gradual improvements in relations, reduce the threat of war and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. This paper discusses monitoring the trans-border movement of flow and sediment in the Indian and Pakistani coastal areas. Through such a project, India and Pakistan could initiate greater cooperation, and engender movement towards the resolution of the Sir Creek territorial dispute in their coastal region. The Joint Working Groups dialogue being conducted by India and Pakistan provides a mechanism for promoting such a project. The proposed project also falls within a regional framework of cooperation agreed to by several South Asian countries. This framework has been codified in the South Asian Seas Action Plan, developed by Bangladesh, India, Maldives, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. This framework provides a useful starting point for Indian and Pakistani cooperative monitoring in their trans-border coastal area. The project discussed in this paper involves computer modeling, the placement of in situ sensors for remote data acquisition, and the development of joint reports. Preliminary computer modeling studies are presented in the paper. These results illustrate the cross-flow connections between Indian and Pakistani coastal regions and strengthen the argument for cooperation. Technologies and actions similar to those suggested for the coastal project are likely to be applied in future arms control and treaty verification agreements. The project, therefore, serves as a demonstration of cooperative monitoring technologies. The project will also increase people-to-people contacts among Indian and Pakistani policy makers and scientists. In the perceptions of the general public, the project will crystallize the idea that the two countries share ecosystems and natural resources, and have a vested interest in increased collaboration.

Rajen, Gauray

1999-06-01

252

Drifting continents and endemic goitre in northern Pakistan.  

PubMed Central

Although Baltistan, north east Pakistan, is in a region of iodine deficiency disorders, the distribution of goitre within the district, according to age and sex, has not been clearly defined. To establish the prevalence of the condition and to measure the reported difference in prevalence in the north and south of the district thyroid size was assessed in new patients attending the Aman clinic, Khapalu, and outlying areas between April and September from 1981 to 1986. Samples of potable water collected from villages were analysed for iodine (as iodide) concentrations in Britain. Population weighted prevalences were: in the north in males 20.4%, in females 28.1% and in the south in males 13.9%, in females 21.2%. There was an overall deficiency of iodine in the water (mean iodine (as iodide) concentrations (north) 11.0 nmol/l (1.4 micrograms/l), (south) 11.8 nmol/l (1.5 micrograms/l) (95% confidence interval -0.7 to 0.9). The differences followed the Main Karakoram Thrust, suggesting a geological goitrogen in the north, which might be minerals containing ions such as BF4- and SO3F-, and molybdenite and calcium, which are present in rocks in Baltistan. A new hypothesis for the genesis of endemic goitre is proposed--that is, that continents on crustal plates drift across the earth and collide, one plate sliding under the other and melting, giving rise to characteristic mineral assemblages in the overlying rocks. As the minerals weather out they enter the diet of the local population, where in the presence of iodine deficiency they produce or enhance iodine deficiency disorders. Despite the current iodised oil campaign by the Pakistani government with Unicef a long term working iodisation programme is still urgently needed. PMID:2372605

Stewart, A G

1990-01-01

253

Community Based Rehabilitation: Information Accumulation & Exchange. South Asian Research Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews research and evaluates information gathered on disabilities and service development in South Asia, especially India and Pakistan. The concept of "community-based rehabilitation" (CBR), which stresses the need for rehabilitation efforts rooted in the context of local cultural concepts, is discussed. The paper emphasizes the…

Miles, M.

254

Crop Residue Burning: A Threat to South Asian Air Quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For more than 2 decades, crop residues in Punjab, a region spanning northwestern India and eastern Pakistan, have been burned during October and November to ready fields for the next year's planting. This practice poses a serious threat to air quality in South Asia.

Singh, Ramesh P.; Kaskaoutis, Dimitris G.

2014-09-01

255

Pakistan/USAID to start CSM project.  

PubMed

Pakistan, with the assistance of funds for the US Agency for International Development (USAID), is about to start its novel approach to contraceptive social marketing (CSM). This new effort suggests a marked policy shift on the part of the Pakistan government toward intensifying its family planning activities. The program will be government-operated and supported by AID over the next 5 years with $20 million, more than double the cost of similar CSM projects elswhere. Distribution of a condom on a pilot project basis is expected to begin by December 1984. Sales of a low-dose oral contraceptive (OC) could begin in test market areas by mid-1985, with national launching of both products tentatively scheduled for January 1986. The Pakistan/USAID agreement represents the 1st time since the formation of India's Nirodh project in the late 1960s that a CSM program is being established without the involvement of either an international social marketing contractor or a country's family planning association. The Pakistan CSM program will be managed by a policy board composed of representatives from the government's Ministries of Planning, Health and Education; a resident advisor from USAID; and a local company responsible for product marketing and distribution. The approach has received a skeptical response among international social marketing experts about the program's chances for success. Their doubts extend to 2 other aspects of the proposed design: an official of the Ministry of Planning's Population and Welfare Division expects the CSM program to generate sufficient revenues to cover all operating costs following the 5-year subsidy period, while also providing attractive profit margins for the marketing/distribution company; and the government prohibits mass media advertising of contraceptives. According to AID, the issue of mass media contraceptive advertising has not yet been resolved, and a national survey will be conducted to determine what communication needs are required for product promotion. In addition, AID's agreement requires a yearly review by the Pakistan government of its marketing strategies. The Pakistan government hopes that its new emphasis on family planning can slow the country's annual rate of population growth from 1983's 2.9% figure to 2.6% by 1988. PMID:12266332

1984-01-01

256

Health planning in Pakistan: a case study.  

PubMed

Health planning is an essential function of the state. For it to be successful, a number of conditions need to be satisfied. In particular it needs to be flexible, participative and integrated with other decision processes. Despite some strengths, the health planning system in Pakistan has generally failed to provide the framework to allow such an approach. Links between strategic and operational planning have been weak; decision-making has been very centralized; there has been a lack of functional clarity; the respective roles of bureaucrats and politicians have been unclear; and, links between capital and recurrent budgets and between planning and implementation have been weak. As a result, there is a number of imbalances in the allocation of resources. The introduction of a revised health planning system for Pakistan is discussed. The constraints on such a system and an initial assessment of its success are presented. PMID:10175303

Green, A; Rana, M; Ross, D; Thunhurst, C

1997-01-01

257

Risk factors and prevalence of tuberculosis, human immunodeficiency virus, syphilis, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus among prisoners in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background We evaluated the burden of sexual- or injection drug use (IDU)-related infections in male prisoners in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods We administered a structured questionnaire in a cross-sectional survey of 365 randomly selected imprisoned men. We analyzed blood for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Hepatitis B and C by ELISA, and for syphilis by rapid plasma reagin and Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay confirmation. Subjects with possible tuberculosis (WHO criteria) provided sputum samples for an acid fast bacillus smear and culture. Results Prevalence of tuberculosis was 2.2% (95%CI: 0.71, 3.8). HIV infected 2.0% (95%CI: 0.55, 3.4) of 357 randomly selected prisoners (8 refused to give blood), with confirmed syphilis in 8.9% (95%CI: 6.0, 11.8), hepatitis B virus in 5.9% (95%CI: 3.5, 8.3), and hepatitis C virus in 15.2% (95%CI: 11.7, 18.8). By self-report, 59.0% had used any illicit drugs, among whom 11.8% (95%CI: 8.5, 15.0) had injected drugs. The median length of stay in the prison had been 3.2 (range 1-72) months. Conclusions All four infections were prevalent among the prisoners in Pakistan. Prisons are excellent venues for infectious disease screening and intervention given conditions of poverty and drug addiction. Collaboration with community-based health providers is vital for post-discharge planning. PMID:20189863

Kazi, Abdul M.; Shah, Sharaf A.; Jenkins, Cathy A.; Shepherd, Bryan E.; Vermund, Sten H.

2010-01-01

258

Radio and distance learning in Pakistan.  

PubMed

Radio is a powerful communication vehicle in Pakistan able to reach 3/4 of urban and 2/3 of rural households. Until 1974, most radio broadcasts of the Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation, a state monopoly, were in the categories of music, drama, and features; news and current affairs; and religious broadcasts. The Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU), a distance learning educational institution, was established through an act of the Pakistan Parliament in 1974 and is the only institution in the country to use radio broadcasts for its curriculum. Also established in 1974 within the AIOU was the Institute of Educational Technology (IET). The IET channels the transmission and flow of well-designed educational messages and lessons from the teachers to the students by employing distance teaching methodology that seeks to reinforce students' weekly lessons. IET closely integrates its activities within the University's academic departments. IET staff members not only participate in the development of course curriculum and syllabi, but also help to identify course content needing reinforcement through radio. While the teachers at AIOU convert the course curricula into distance-learning self-study activity-oriented correspondence texts, IET producers transcribe these scripts into actual production scripts. Feedback from students and findings of the University's Research and Statistical Cell are used to make revisions in the scripts. The AIOU enrolls an average of 100,000 students each year. Expansion is being limited only by the costs of purchasing time from the Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation (Rs 2000 for a 15-minute lesson) and the availability of appropriate time slots. PMID:12281001

Abbas, R

1987-01-01

259

Makran Mountain Range, Iran and Pakistan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The long folded mountain ridges and valleys of the coastal Makran Ranges of Iran and Pakistan (26.0N, 63.0E) illustrate the classical Trellis type of drainage pattern, common in this region. The Dasht River and its tributaries is the principal drainage network for this area. To the left, the continental drift of the northward bound Indian sub-continent has caused the east/west parallel ranges to bend in a great northward arc.

1983-01-01

260

The Status of Women Physicists in Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A significant number of women physicists work in high-ranking positions in the universities and research institutes of Pakistan; however, the number of women is much lower compared with men. We surveyed these women about the challenges they faced in the workplace and the pace of their progress and scientific work in a male-dominant society. We also surveyed girls' attitudes toward studying physics at the graduate and undergraduate levels.

Hasnain, Aziz Fatima; Islam, Jabeen

2009-04-01

261

South Asian Oral History Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Oral histories are an important way of telling a community's history, and this intriguing project from the University of Washington Libraries sheds new light on a very interesting aspect of history in the Pacific Northwest. The goal of the South Asian Oral History Project (SAOHP) is "to record pan-South Asian immigrant experiences in the Pacific Northwest using the medium of oral history." The project began in 2005, and the interviews here include immigrants who moved to the area from Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka from the 1950s to the present. Visitors can view transcripts of the interviews at their leisure, and good background material can be found in the section titled "A librarian's gift: Oral history project preserves memories of South Asian immigrants". The interviews are quite fascinating, and they include memories of studying at the University of Washington, attending the1962 Seattle World's Fair, and the challenges immigrants faced when they arrived.

262

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Pakistan.  

PubMed

Crimean-Congo virus, the causative agent of Crimean-Congo Virus Fever (CCVF) is endemic in Pakistan. Cases are documented sporadically ever year, mostly at and around the time of Eid-ul-Adha, an Islamic festival, celebrated on day 10 through 13 of the 12th month of each lunar calendar year. At this time of the year in Pakistan, livestock are brought down to the urban areas from the rural parts of the country. Animals are housed in open spaces and private houses until they are slaughtered during the 3 days of Eid-ul-Adha. This allows the CCHF virus, which is carried by a tick that inhabits the animal hide, to be transmitted through unprotected contact with live animals as well as through contact with animal blood subsequent to its slaughter. In this report, a typical case of CCVF is described that was encountered in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. A number of issues pertaining to the management of recurrent outbreaks of CCVF in the country are discussed. PMID:18428123

Rai, Mohammad A; Khanani, Mohammad R; Warraich, Haider J; Hayat, Abbas; Ali, Syed H

2008-06-01

263

Factors affecting the process of obtaining informed consent to surgery among patients and relatives in a developing country: results from Pakistan.  

PubMed

Efforts have been made in Pakistan to create ethical guidelines for research and medical practice. This study explored the perceptions of and factors affecting the process of obtaining informed consent to surgery among inpatients and families at a tertiary-care hospital in Karachi. A random sample of 400 post-surgery adult patients answered a pre-tested, structured questionnaire. Overall, 233 patients (58.3%) had signed the surgery consent form themselves, while 167 relatives (41.7%) had signed on behalf of the patient. Perceived factors significantly associated with patients not signing the consent form themselves were: language used (adjusted OR = 4.6), medical terminology used (aOR = 2.7), insufficient time allocation (aOR = 3.8), cultural/traditional reasons (aOR = 1.5) and low education (aOR = 2.4). Inappropriate timing for taking consent and not being informed/asked about consent were not statistically significant factors. Health-care practitioners should encourage patients to sign the consent form themselves. PMID:25343470

Jahan, F; Roshan, R; Nanji, K; Sajwani, U; Warsani, S; Jaffer, S

2014-09-01

264

Simon Thoma Implementation and Impact of the Millennium Development Goals on Development Policies in Pakistan  

E-print Network

in Pakistan Implementation and Impact of the Millennium Development Goals on Development Policies in Pakistan are asked to make special efforts to move towards the Goals. Pakistan as a developing country faces many in Pakistan. The first research hypothesis states that the Goals do not have a direct impact on development

Richner, Heinz

265

Muhamad Tayyab Analysis of forest related development interventions in highland district of NWFP, Pakistan  

E-print Network

, Pakistan Analysis of forest related development interventions in highland district of NWFP, Pakistan Summary Forests and rangelands in Pakistan provide important economic resources for the country as well as for the people living in the adjacent areas. Most of the natural forests of Pakistan are located

Richner, Heinz

266

Delinking Destiny from GeographyThe Changing Balance of India–Pakistan Relations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The November 2008 terrorist attacks in Mumbai are analysed through six changing equations in India–Pakistan relations. The balance between military response and inaction is shifting towards the former. India has a vested but no longer critical interest in a strong and stable Pakistan. Pakistan’s deniability has been based on separation between the government, army, ISI and terrorists whose plausibility is

Ramesh Thakur

2011-01-01

267

Empowerment of Women through Distance Education in Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study was undertaken to highlight the gender disparities of Pakistan as well as at regional and international level. The study, measured the comparative outcome of formal and non-formal system of education in Pakistan. To achieve the desired goal, documentary analysis was considered appropriate. The number of schools and enrollment…

Bukhsh, Qadir

2007-01-01

268

Education and Gendered Citizenship in Pakistan. Postcolonial Studies in Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Education and Gendered Citizenship in Pakistan" challenges the uncritical use of the long held dictum of the development discourse that education empowers women. Situated in the post-structuralist feminist position, it argues that in its current state the educational discourse in Pakistan actually disempowers women. Through a systematic…

Naseem, M. Ayaz

2010-01-01

269

A Study of Students' Attitude Towards Virtual Education in Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Virtual education paradigm has been developing as a form of distance education to provide education across the boundaries of a nation and/or country. It imparts education through information and communication technologies. In Pakistan the Virtual University of Pakistan imparts it. The main objective of the study was to evaluate the students'…

Hussain, Irshad

2007-01-01

270

Trends, Issues and Challenges in English Language Education in Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper aims to critically examine the trends, issues and challenges in policy and practice of English language education in Pakistan. This is done first by historically reviewing the English language education policies since Pakistan's independence in 1947, looking particularly at policy objectives, implementation strategies and outcomes, and…

Shamim, Fauzia

2008-01-01

271

Returns to Schooling, Ability and Cognitive Skills in Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the economic outcomes of education for wage earners in Pakistan. This is done by analysing the relationship between schooling, cognitive skills and ability, on the one hand, and economic activity, occupation, sectoral choice and earnings, on the other. In Pakistan, an important question remains largely unaddressed: what…

Aslam, Monazza; Bari, Faisal; Kingdon, Geeta

2012-01-01

272

Problematizing High School Certificate Exam in Pakistan: A Washback Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes and evaluates the Higher-Secondary School Certificate (HSC) exam in Pakistan that has been in place in its present form for more than thirty years. The author recounts her experience as a teacher of English in a representative high school in Pakistan and, reflecting on the impact of high school public exam, she argues that the…

Jilani, Raana

2009-01-01

273

Political cohesion in Pakistan: Jinnah and the ideological state  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even as the Pakistan resolution was passed, questions were being raised with regard to the genuine commitment of Muslim leaders to the idea of the new state. Today, those questions are phrased both with regard to the traditional minority province heartland of the Muslim League, and the relatively late converts to Pakistan of the majority provinces. This paper uses contemporary

Alan Whaites

1998-01-01

274

From Islamisation to Shariatisation: cultural transnationalism in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pakistan features an exceptional and complex form of the transition from developmental to cultural nationalism. This paper traces the emergence of an Islamist cultural nationalism beginning in the 1970s that eventually surrendered to a trans-national ‘Shariatisation’ of Pakistani nationalism under pressure from Pakistan's involvement in geopolitical processes beyond its control. However, the roots of these varied discourses also lie in

Farzana Shaikh

2008-01-01

275

Education Reform in Pakistan: Building for the Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Washington seems to be in a season of worrying--some might say "obsessing"--about the education system in Pakistan. The 9/11 Commission, whose final report has become a fixture on the bestseller lists, has highlighted the links between international terrorism and Pakistan's religious seminaries, or "madaris", and recommended that the United States…

Hathaway, Robert M., Ed.

2005-01-01

276

The retention of girls in school in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

While many problems have besieged the education of girls over the years, one problem has plagued the various governments of Pakistan: getting girls to finish secondary school. Although in Pakistan all governments stipulate policies and envisage plans to provide schooling to all young people, the problem of dropping out appears to be increasing among girls. The focus of this study

Farah Imam

1995-01-01

277

Status and outlook of solar energy use in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pakistan is an energy deficient country, where a large fraction of the population still does not have access to modern day energy services such as electricity. This is due to very limited fossil fuel resources and poor economy, which restrains the import of fossil fuels on a large scale. To overcome energy shortage, Pakistan needs to develop its indigenous energy

Umar K. Mirza; M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer; Nasir Ahmad

2003-01-01

278

Combining Education and Work; Experiences in Asia and Oceania: Pakistan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Pakistan, academic education is a luxury. Instead, education must be geared to production, solving practical problems, and promoting national development. Since 1951, Pakistan has attempted to bring work and education together and to throw off the structural and attitudinal restrictions of a foreign educational system which strangled tradition,…

Federal Ministry of Education, Islamabad (Pakistan).

279

New innovations in healthcare delivery and laparoscopic surgery in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. Pakistan is a densely populated country with major rural urban disparity in healthcare delivery. Use of Information Technology to improve the efficiency of existing healthcare services of Pakistan in the form of Telemedicine has proved its role beyond any doubts. Its advantages include better utilization of healthcare resources, early intervention, provision of expert advice at remote

A. Zafar

2009-01-01

280

Natural balance of graminicolous aphids in Pakistan. Survey of populations  

E-print Network

Natural balance of graminicolous aphids in Pakistan. Survey of populations Sulaiman HAMID Sind Sugar Industry Research Institute, 14-A, Latifabad III, Hyderabad Sind, Pakistan SUMMARY Aphids maydis Pass. attacked economic grain crops. In turn these aphids were parasitized by Aphelinus spp

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

281

Mapping vulnerability to climate change and its repercussions on human health in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Pakistan is highly vulnerable to climate change due to its geographic location, high dependence on agriculture and water resources, low adaptive capacity of its people, and weak system of emergency preparedness. This paper is the first ever attempt to rank the agro-ecological zones in Pakistan according to their vulnerability to climate change and to identify the potential health repercussions of each manifestation of climate change in the context of Pakistan. Methods A climate change vulnerability index is constructed as an un-weighted average of three sub-indices measuring (a) the ecological exposure of each region to climate change, (b) sensitivity of the population to climate change and (c) the adaptive capacity of the population inhabiting a particular region. The regions are ranked according to the value of this index and its components. Since health is one of the most important dimensions of human wellbeing, this paper also identifies the potential health repercussions of each manifestations of climate change and links it with the key manifestations of climate change in the context of Pakistan. Results The results indicate that Balochistan is the most vulnerable region with high sensitivity and low adaptive capacity followed by low-intensity Punjab (mostly consisting of South Punjab) and Cotton/Wheat Sindh. The health risks that each of these regions face depend upon the type of threat that they face from climate change. Greater incidence of flooding, which may occur due to climate variability, poses the risk of diarrhoea and gastroenteritis; skin and eye Infections; acute respiratory infections; and malaria. Exposure to drought poses the potential health risks in the form of food insecurity and malnutrition; anaemia; night blindness; and scurvy. Increases in temperature pose health risks of heat stroke; malaria; dengue; respiratory diseases; and cardiovascular diseases. Conclusion The study concludes that geographical zones that are more exposed to climate change in ecological and geographic terms- such as Balochistan, Low-Intensity Punjab, and Cotton-Wheat Sindh -also happen to be the most deprived regions in Pakistan in terms of socio-economic indicators, suggesting that the government needs to direct its efforts to the socio-economic uplift of these lagging regions to reduce their vulnerability to the adverse effects of climate change. PMID:22938568

2012-01-01

282

Economic Sanctions and the Arms Race in India & Pakistan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In the News explores the United States' response to nuclear tests in India and Pakistan through economic sanctions. The eight resources discussed provide background economic pictures of India and Pakistan as well as recent press releases from the United States, India, Pakistan, and beyond. On May 11, 1998 India declared itself a nuclear state and conducted the first of five underground nuclear tests in defiance of international law. Neighboring Pakistan responded with a similar test on May 28 causing President Clinton to enact economic sanctions against both nations. Although India's Minister of Finance, Yashwant Sinha, is confident that a financially strong "new India," will not be affected by US action, Pakistan's fragile economy is highly dependent on US support and may lead to an end to this dangerous arms race.

Waters, Megan.

1998-01-01

283

Evidence for the recurrence of large-magnitude earthquakes along the Makran coast of Iran and Pakistan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The presence of raised beaches and marine terraces along the Makran coast indicates episodic uplift of the continental margin resulting from large-magnitude earthquakes. The uplift occurs as incremental steps similar in height to the 1-3 m of measured uplift resulting from the November 28, 1945 (M 8.3) earthquake at Pasni and Ormara, Pakistan. The data support an E-W-trending, active subduction zone off the Makran coast. The raised beaches and wave-cut terraces along the Makran coast are extensive with some terraces 1-2 km wide, 10-15 m long and up to 500 m in elevation. The terraces are generally capped with shelly sandstones 0.5-5 m thick. Wave-cut cliffs, notches, and associated boulder breccia and swash troughs are locally preserved. Raised Holocene accretion beaches, lagoonal deposits, and tombolos are found up to 10 m in elevation. The number and elevation of raised wave-cut terraces along the Makran coast increase eastward from one at Jask, the entrance to the Persian Gulf, at a few meters elevation, to nine at Konarak, 250 km to the east. Multiple terraces are found on the prominent headlands as far east as Karachi. The wave-cut terraces are locally tilted and cut by faults with a few meters of displacement. Long-term, average rates of uplift were calculated from present elevation, estimated elevation at time of deposition, and 14C and U-Th dates obtained on shells. Uplift rates in centimeters per year at various locations from west to east are as follows: Jask, 0 (post-Sangamon); Konarak, 0.031-0.2 (Holocene), 0.01 (post-Sangamon); Ormara 0.2 (Holocene). ?? 1979.

Page, W.D.; Alt, J.N.; Cluff, L.S.; Plafker, G.

1979-01-01

284

Vertical and lateral flux on the continental slope off Pakistan: correlation of sediment core and trap results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the lack of bioturbation, the varve-laminated muds from the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) off Pakistan provide a unique opportunity to precisely determine the vertical and lateral sediment fluxes in the nearshore part of the northeastern Arabian Sea. West of Karachi (Hab area), the results of two sediment trap stations (EPT and WPT) were correlated with 16 short sediment cores on a depth transect crossing the OMZ. The top of a distinct, either reddish- or light-gray silt layer, 210Pb-dated as AD 1905 ± 10, was used as an isochronous stratigraphic marker bed to calculate sediment accumulation rates. In one core, the red and gray layer were separated by a few (5-10) thin laminae. According to our varve model, this contributes < 10 years to the dating uncertainty, assuming that the different layers are almost synchronous. We directly compared the accumulation rates with the flux rates from the sediment traps that collected the settling material within the water column above. All traps on the steep Makran continental slope show exceptionally high, pulsed winter fluxes of up to 5000 mg m-2 d-1. Based on core results, the flux at the seafloor amounts to 4000 mg m-2 d-1 and agrees remarkably well with the bulk winter flux of material, as well as with the flux of the individual bulk components of organic carbon, calcium carbonate and opal. However, due to the extreme mass of remobilized matter, the high winter flux events exceeded the capacity of the shallow traps. Based on our comparisons, we argue that high-flux events must occur regularly during winter within the upper OMZ off Pakistan to explain the high accumulations rates. These show distribution patterns that are a negative function of water depth and distance from the shelf. Some of the sediment fractions show marked shifts in accumulation rates near the lower boundary of the OMZ. For instance, the flux of benthic foraminifera is lowered but stable below ~1200-1300 m. However, flux and sedimentation in the upper eastern Makran area are dominated by the large amount of laterally advected fine-grained material and by the pulsed nature of the resuspension events at the upper margin during winter.

Schulz, H.; von Rad, U.

2014-06-01

285

Age, growth, maturity and the overfishing of the iconic sciaenid, Argyrosomus japonicus, in south-eastern, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mulloway (Argyrosomus japonicus) occur in estuarine and coastal waters surrounding Australia, Africa, India, Pakistan, China, Korea and Japan, where they are important in fisheries. This study identified that mulloway in south-eastern Australia had similar growth rates, but matured at smaller lengths and younger ages, to those in South Africa and Western Australia. Growth of both sexes was similar to about

V. Silberschneider; C. A. Gray; J. Stewart

2009-01-01

286

Study of maximum electron density N mF 2 at Karachi and Islamabad during solar minimum (1996) and solar maximum (2000) and its comparison with IRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

The monthly hourly medians of maximum electron density, NmF2, at two Pakistani ionospheric stations, Karachi and Islamabad, have been determined for solar minimum (1996) and solar maximum (2000) and compared with IRI predictions using the URSI coefficients. At night and pre-noon period the NmF2 values at both stations are almost equal during the 2years. However, at post-noon the values at

M. Ayub; S. Iqbal; M. A. Ameen; B. W. Reinisch

2009-01-01

287

Evaluation of three high-resolution satellite precipitation estimates: Potential for monsoon monitoring over Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multi-sensor precipitation datasets including two products from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) and estimates from Climate Prediction Center Morphing Technique (CMORPH) product were quantitatively evaluated to study the monsoon variability over Pakistan. Several statistical and graphical techniques are applied to illustrate the nonconformity of the three satellite products from the gauge observations. During the monsoon season (JAS), the three satellite precipitation products captures the intense precipitation well, all showing high correlation for high rain rates (>30 mm/day). The spatial and temporal satellite rainfall error variability shows a significant geo-topography dependent distribution, as all the three products overestimate over mountain ranges in the north and coastal region in the south parts of Indus basin. The TMPA-RT product tends to overestimate light rain rates (approximately 100%) and the bias is low for high rain rates (about ±20%). In general, daily comparisons from 2005 to 2010 show the best agreement between the TMPA-V7 research product and gauge observations with correlation coefficient values ranging from moderate (0.4) to high (0.8) over the spatial domain of Pakistan. The seasonal variation of rainfall frequency has large biases (100-140%) over high latitudes (36N) with complex terrain for daily, monsoon, and pre-monsoon comparisons. Relatively low uncertainties and errors (Bias ±25% and MAE 1-10 mm) were associated with the TMPA-RT product during the monsoon-dominated region (32-35N), thus demonstrating their potential use for developing an operational hydrological application of the satellite-based near real-time products in Pakistan for flood monitoring.

Khan, Sadiq Ibrahim; Hong, Yang; Gourley, Jonathan J.; Khattak, Muhammad Umar Khan; Yong, Bin; Vergara, Humberto J.

2014-08-01

288

3 CFR 13550 - Executive Order 13550 of August 18, 2010. Establishment of Pakistan and Afghanistan Support Office  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...of August 18, 2010. Establishment of Pakistan and Afghanistan Support Office 13550...2010 EO 13550 Establishment of Pakistan and Afghanistan Support Office ...temporary organization to be known as the Pakistan and Afghanistan Support Office...

2011-01-01

289

Terrorism in Pakistan: a behavioral sciences perspective.  

PubMed

This article reviews the behavioral science perspectives of terrorism in Pakistan. It can be argued that Pakistan has gained worldwide attention for "terrorism" and its role in the "war against terrorism". The region is well placed geopolitically for economic successes but has been plagued by terrorism in various shapes and forms. A behavioral sciences perspective of terrorism is an attempt to explain it in this part of the world as a complex interplay of historical, geopolitical, anthropological and psychosocial factors and forces. Drawing from theories by Western scholars to explain the behavioral and cognitive underpinnings of a terrorist mind, the authors highlight the peculiarities of similar operatives at individual and group levels. Thorny issues related to the ethical and human right dimensions of the topic are visited from the unique perspective of a society challenged by schisms and divergence of opinions at individual, family, and community levels. The authors have attempted to minimize the political descriptions, although this cannot be avoided entirely, because of the nature of terrorism. PMID:24777397

Nizami, Asad Tamizuddin; Rana, Mowadat Hussain; Hassan, Tariq Mahmood; Minhas, Fareed Aslam

2014-01-01

290

Sociopolitical adjustment among Afghan refugees in Pakistan.  

PubMed

Although international organizations and Pakistanis expect Afghans to act like true refugees--dependent, obedient, and grateful--Afghans consider themselves as temporary exiles who, in protest against an anti-Islamic government, found temporary refuge in Pakistan; or as soldiers in the holy wars who temporarily use their Islamic neighbor as a base before returning to fight in Afghanistan. Conforming to this concept and to these objectives, the refugees seek to preserve a certain autonomy and to lean towards forms of organization which are derived either from their traditional social structure, or as is more common now, from the ideology of the Islamic movements. One can understand that this situation may cause many misunderstandings, especially with international organizations which finance and supervise aid to the Afghan refugees in Pakistan. As for anthropologists, it is necessary to go beyond known concepts, to relativize familiar models and to act on changes which have come about in the structures and ideology of the Afghan people. PMID:12315316

Centlivres, P; Centlivres-demont, M

1987-01-01

291

Induced abortions and unintended pregnancies in pakistan.  

PubMed

During the past decade, unmet need for family planning has remained high in Pakistan and gains in contraceptive prevalence have been small. Drawing upon data from a 2012 national study on postabortion-care complications and a methodology developed by the Guttmacher Institute for estimating abortion incidence, we estimate that there were 2.2 million abortions in Pakistan in 2012, an annual abortion rate of 50 per 1,000 women. A previous study estimated an abortion rate of 27 per 1,000 women in 2002. After taking into consideration the earlier study's underestimation of abortion incidence, we conclude that the abortion rate has likely increased substantially between 2002 and 2012. Varying contraceptive-use patterns and abortion rates are found among the provinces, with higher abortion rates in Baluchistan and Sindh than in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Punjab. This suggests that strategies for coping with the other wise uniformly high unintended pregnancy rates will differ among provinces. The need for an accelerated and fortified family planning program is greater than ever, as is the need to implement strategies to improve the quality and coverage of postabortion services. PMID:25469930

Sathar, Zeba; Singh, Susheela; Rashida, Gul; Shah, Zakir; Niazi, Rehan

2014-12-01

292

Indian psychiatry and research in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

In Asian culture, there is much stigmatization attached on having mental health problems and seeking help from a mental health expert. It is therefore, not surprising, that this stigmatization results in the refutation of the subsistence of a psychiatric problem in an individual and his family but also produces obstruction to help-seeking desires. To get a clear picture of the existence of psychiatric issues in the population, various research projects addressing psychiatric issues in children, women, and elderly are conducted both in Pakistan and India. A significant input has been taken from research conducted in India combating disaster management. In addition, public awareness programs are organized to provide information about common psychiatric disorders in children, adults, women, and the elderly.-Furthermore, psychiatric patients and their families are educated for the management of mental heath problems related to marriage, pregnancy, birth and hazards of smoking & substance abuse in young adults. Keeping in view the similarity in cultural background, treatment models, family structure, and psychosocial factors, collaborative research studies should be encouraged leading to improvement in psychiatric care of the patients both in India and Pakistan. PMID:21836720

Chaudhry, Haroon Rashid

2010-01-01

293

Economic Liberalisation and Employment in South Asia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new 93-page report from the Center for Development Research analyses the impact of liberalization on a variety of aspects of employment and labor incomes, and compares this impact to conditions in Sub-Saharan Africa and Latin American countries. The main findings include that real wage growth for agricultural workers fell after liberalization; unemployment rates rose in Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Nepal, but declined in India and Sri Lanka; and for the most part, GDP growth, with the exception of that in Pakistan, seemed to be only slightly higher after liberalization. The paper concludes that "a lot more effort is needed for South Asian countries in order to have more productive employment and higher labour incomes."

294

Causes of blindness and visual impairment in Pakistan. The Pakistan national blindness and visual impairment survey  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the causes of blindness and visual impairment in adults (?30 years old) in Pakistan, and to explore socio?demographic variations in cause. Methods A multi?stage, stratified, cluster random sampling survey was used to select a nationally representative sample of adults. Each subject was interviewed, had their visual acuity measured and underwent autorefraction and fundus/optic disc examination. Those with a visual acuity of <6/12 in either eye underwent a more detailed ophthalmic examination. Causes of visual impairment were classified according to the accepted World Health Organization (WHO) methodology. An exploration of demographic variables was conducted using regression modeling. Results A sample of 16?507 adults (95.5% of those enumerated) was examined. Cataract was the most common cause of blindness (51.5%; defined as <3/60 in the better eye on presentation) followed by corneal opacity (11.8%), uncorrected aphakia (8.6%) and glaucoma (7.1%). Posterior capsular opacification accounted for 3.6% of blindness. Among the moderately visually impaired (<6/18 to ?6/60), refractive error was the most common cause (43%), followed by cataract (42%). Refractive error as a cause of severe visual impairment/blindness was significantly higher in rural dwellers than in urban dwellers (odds ratio (OR) 3.5, 95% CI 1.1 to 11.7). Significant provincial differences were also identified. Overall we estimate that 85.5% of causes were avoidable and that 904?000 adults in Pakistan have cataract (<6/60) requiring surgical intervention. Conclusions This comprehensive survey provides reliable estimates of the causes of blindness and visual impairment in Pakistan. Despite expanded surgical services, cataract still accounts for over half of the cases of blindness in Pakistan. One in eight blind adults has visual loss from sequelae of cataract surgery. Services for refractive errors need to be further expanded and integrated into eye care services, particularly those serving rural populations. PMID:17229806

Dineen, B; Bourne, R R A; Jadoon, Z; Shah, S P; Khan, M A; Foster, A; Gilbert, C E; Khan, M D

2007-01-01

295

Genetic history of hepatitis C virus in Pakistan.  

PubMed

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 3a accounts for ?80% of HCV infections in Pakistan, where ?10 million people are HCV-infected. Here, we report analysis of the genetic heterogeneity of HCV NS3 and NS5b subgenomic regions from genotype 3a variants obtained from Pakistan. Phylogenetic analyses showed that Pakistani genotype 3a variants were as genetically diverse as global variants, with extensive intermixing. Bayesian estimates showed that the most recent ancestor for genotype 3a in Pakistan was last extant in ?1896-1914 C.E. (range: 1851-1932). This genotype experienced a population expansion starting from ?1905 to ?1970 after which the effective population leveled. Death/birth models suggest that HCV 3a has reached saturating diversity with decreasing turnover rate and positive extinction. Taken together, these observations are consistent with a long and complex history of HCV 3a infection in Pakistan. PMID:25131452

ur Rehman, Irshad; Vaughan, Gilberto; Purdy, Michael A; Xia, Guo-liang; Forbi, Joseph C; Rossi, Livia Maria Gonçalves; Butt, Sadia; Idrees, Muhammad; Khudyakov, Yury E

2014-10-01

296

Structural engineering for northern Pakistan : indigenous architecture and earthquake resistance  

E-print Network

In the Fall of 1993, a joint project began between architectural designers and engineers, for the design of houses in Karimabad, located in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. This thesis records the author's involvement as ...

Su, Jimmy Chi-yi

1995-01-01

297

Marketing problems of farmers in Punjab, Pakistan : a case study   

E-print Network

The incentives which encouraged the author to undertake this research work stem from the need for such work. First of all, comparatively little information is available within or outside Pakistan concerning the origins and evolution of planning...

Islam, Qamar-ul

1987-01-01

298

67 FR 36244 - Combating Child Labor in Pakistan Through Education  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...children's education needs Children...Irrelevant curriculum A recent study in Pakistan...irrelevant curriculum and harsh...rate and a high drop out rate...because the education they are receiving...productive future. The...

2002-05-23

299

Energy conservation and thermal comfort in buildings in northern Pakistan  

E-print Network

The Hunza Valley, a remote area of mountainous northern Pakistan, is undergoing rapid change culturally, socially, and architecturally. Many of these changes are linked to the exchange of information and commerce facilitated ...

Sullivan, Gregory Patrick

1995-01-01

300

Gift of the Indus: The Arts and Culture of Pakistan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Gift of the Indus: The Arts and Culture of Pakistan, presented by ARTSEDGE, the Kennedy Center's arts education network, introduces the arts and culture of Pakistan to young people and teenagers in the US, Pakistan, and all over the world, in the hope of fostering greater understanding. The site has three broad sections: The Nation, with information about the people and the land; Culture & Daily Life; and Arts of Pakistan, the most extensive section, encompassing music, theater, dance, and the visual arts. Video is used extensively on the site; allowing visitors to watch both folk and classical dance, see masters and students creating Arabic calligraphy, or sculptors working with wood, glass, and metal. There is also a weblog called Mehfil: A Gathering Place, a "one-year experiment in cultural conversation" constructed to allow teens to communicate while protecting their privacy.

301

Improving diabetes care in developing countries: the example of Pakistan.  

PubMed

Pakistan is a developing country with limited recourses and diverse economic social patterns. Pakistan has high prevalence of diabetes and its complication, which is a huge challenge to the existing health care system. The major contributing risk factors are urbanization and change in lifestyle, maternal and fetal malnutrition and genetic factors. National action plans for control of diabetes have been made since 1995 but actions in this regard were not perfect. Training of primary care physicians and development of multidisciplinary diabetes care teams was initiated. Prioritization strategies were defined according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) guidance, mainly focusing on diabetic foot, diabetes education and children with diabetes. Researches for better understanding and management of diabetes in Pakistan were undertaken. Collaboration between various stakeholders was promoted at national and international level. In summary, public private relationships and development of multifaceted approaches is expected to improve the lives of millions of diabetics of Pakistan. PMID:25467615

Basit, Abdul; Riaz, Musarrat; Fawwad, Asher

2015-02-01

302

Beggarization: Beggary as an Organized Crime in Pakistan  

E-print Network

Abstract This research analyzes beggary as an organized crime, or beggarization, in Pakistan, focusing on economic, religious, and political trends enabling the growth of this lucrative industry. Economic factors include ...

Azam, Nadia

2011-12-12

303

Daughters of Eve : violence against women in Pakistan  

E-print Network

The purpose of this study was to conduct extensive research on domestic violence against women in Pakistan and to present the results in a comprehensive document. Some of the issues investigated through fieldwork and covered ...

Noor, Muhammad Jehanzeb, 1982-

2004-01-01

304

Predicting impacts of climate change on medicinal asclepiads of Pakistan using Maxent modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Maximum entropy (Maxent) modeling was used to predict the potential climatic niches of three medicinally important Asclepiad species: Pentatropis spiralis, Tylophora hirsuta, and Vincetoxicum arnottianum. All three species are members of the Asclepiad plant family, yet they differ in ecological requirements, biogeographic importance, and conservation value. Occurrence data were collected from herbarium specimens held in major herbaria of Pakistan and two years (2010 and 2011) of field surveys. The Maxent model performed better than random for the three species with an average test AUC value of 0.74 for P. spiralis, 0.84 for V. arnottianum, and 0.59 for T. hirsuta. Under the future climate change scenario, the Maxent model predicted habitat gains for P. spiralis in southern Punjab and Balochistan, and loss of habitat in south-eastern Sindh. Vincetoxicum arnottianum as well as T. hirsuta would gain habitat in upper Peaks of northern parts of Pakistan. T. hirsuta is predicted to lose most of the habitats in northern Punjab and in parches from lower peaks of Galliat, Zhob, Qalat etc. The predictive modeling approach presented here may be applied to other rare Asclepiad species, especially those under constant extinction threat.

Khanum, Rizwana; Mumtaz, A. S.; Kumar, Sunil

2013-05-01

305

A descriptive profile of ?-thalassaemia mutations in India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka.  

PubMed

Thalassaemia is a common and debilitating autosomal recessive disorder affecting many populations in South Asia. To date, efforts to create a regional profile of ?-thalassaemia mutations have largely concentrated on the populations of India. The present study updates and expands an earlier profile of ?-thalassaemia mutations in India, and incorporates comparable data from Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Despite limited data availability, clear patterns of historical and cultural population movements were observed relating to major ?-thalassaemia mutations. The current regional mutation profiles of ?-thalassaemia have been influenced by historical migrations into and from the Indian sub-continent, by the development and effects of Hindu, Buddhist, Muslim and Sikh religious traditions, and by the major mid-twentieth century population translocations that followed the Partition of India in 1947. Given the resultant genetic complexity revealed by the populations of India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka, to ensure optimum diagnostic efficiency and the delivery of appropriate care, it is important that screening and counselling programmes for ?-thalassaemia mutations recognise the underlying patterns of population sub-division throughout the region. PMID:22460247

Black, M L; Sinha, S; Agarwal, S; Colah, R; Das, R; Bellgard, M; Bittles, A H

2010-09-01

306

"Social marketing" for early neonatal care: saving newborn lives in Pakistan.  

PubMed

According to the World Health Organization and the United Nations Children's Fund, developing countries carry a large share of neonatal mortality in the world. According to UNICEF, almost 450 newborn children die every hour, mostly from preventable causes. Restricted access to quality and hygienic delivery services and limited knowledge about handling the newborn aggravate the situation. South Asia, and Pakistan in particular, have reduced their child and infant mortality during the last decade; however, neonatal mortality still remains unacceptably high. There are multiple reasons, mainly related to practices and behaviours of communities and traditional birth attendants. Rural and poor populations suffer most in Pakistan, where three out of five deliveries still occur at home. Traditional community practices and conservative norms drastically affect neonatal health outcomes. Preventing sepsis at the umbilical cord, keeping the baby at the correct temperature after birth and early initiation of exclusive breastfeeding are three simple strategies or messages that need to be disseminated widely to prevent many neonatal mortalities and morbidities. Since inappropriate practices in handling newborns are directly linked with persistent and unremitting behaviours among health providers and the community at large, we suggest doing robust "social marketing" for saving newborn lives. The objective of the paper is to present a social-marketing strategy and a marketing mix that will help address and surmount actual barriers and promote alternative behaviours in early neonatal care. PMID:20357556

Ejaz, Iram; Shaikh, Babar Tasneem

2010-01-01

307

Assessment of hydrocarbons concentration in marine fauna due to Tasman Spirit oil spill along the Clifton beach at Karachi coast.  

PubMed

On 27 July 2003, Tasman Spirit spilled 31,000 tonnes of crude oil into the sea at the Karachi coast. This disaster badly affected the marine life (Flora and Fauna.) Present research has been proposed to ascertain the level of Polycyclic Aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contamination in different fisheries including Fishes, Crustaceans; Crabs and Shrimps, Mollusks and Echinoderms along with passing time. Heavier components of crude oil such as Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) appear to cause most damages as these are relatively unreactive and persist in water. High concentrations of toxic PAHs were observed in all the fisheries and shellfishes caught form oil-impacted area. In this study fishes were found most contaminated than shellfishes i.e. summation operator 16 PAH = 1821.24 microg/g and summation operator 1164.34 microg/g, respectively. Naphthalene was found in the range of 0.042-602.23 microg/g. Acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene and anthracene were detected in the range 0.008-80.03 microg/g, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo(a)anthracene and chrysene 0.0008-221.32 microg/g, benzo(b) fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene and benzo(a) pyrene 0.0005-7.71 microg/g, benzo(g,h,i)perylene and indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene 0.02-503.7 microg/g. Dibenzo(a,h)anthracenre was not detected in any specie. PMID:18302003

Siddiqi, Hina A; Ansari, Fayyaz A; Munshi, Alia B

2009-01-01

308

Diseases caused by Ganoderma spp. on perennial crops in Pakistan.  

PubMed

Ganoderma applanatum (Pres. Wallr) Pat. and G. lucidum (Leyss. ex Fr.) Karst attack species of Pinus, Dalbergia, Artocarpus, Morus, Cedrus, Melia, Quercus, Populus and other trees in Pakistan causing stem, butt and root rot diseases. A research institution to manage the diseases of perennial crops in general and of trees yielding edible oil in particular such as coconut and oil palm needs to be established in Pakistan. PMID:15750743

Nasir, Nasreen

2005-01-01

309

Heavy metal pollution assessment in various industries of Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water pollution is a source of danger to the health of people living in developing countries such as Pakistan. The main industries\\u000a located at various industrial zones of Pakistan cause water pollution, which ultimately result in various diseases. The aim\\u000a of the present study was to study the concentrations of essential and toxic metals (Na, K, Cu, Zn, Fe, Ca,

Wajid Rehman; Akif Zeb; Nayyara Noor; Mohsan Nawaz

2008-01-01

310

United States Internal Security Assistance to Pakistan1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pakistan confronts numerous domestic security challenges including jihadist extremism, Sunni-Shi'a sectarian violence, drug trafficking, illegal commodity smuggling, endemic corruption, and systemic problems with the provision of justice and law enforcement. While much has been written about US military assistance to the Government of Pakistan (GOP) and the ever-evolving political relations between the two countries, basic questions of highest policy significance

C. Christine Fair; Peter Chalk

2006-01-01

311

An Examination of Calorie Demand Relationship in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

3 Abstract: This paper has examined the long-run relationship between daily per capita calorie intake, per capita income and food prices for Pakistan using aggregate data 1960-2001. Cointegration analysis yields the income-calorie elasticity of 0.21, while food-price elasticity is insignificant. Thus, economic growth, as measured by increasing per capita income, has significantly improved calorie intake in Pakistan; future economic growth

2007-01-01

312

Emigration dynamics from and within South Asia.  

PubMed

This review of current knowledge about emigration dynamics from and within South Asia (Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka) opens with a brief history of the three phases of emigration from the area since the 1830s (plantation labor; postindependence to the UK, US, Canada, and Australia; and labor migration to the oil-exporting countries). The influence of the creation of Pakistan and Bangladesh is also covered as are British colonial and commonwealth policies. It is noted that migration data are incomplete and that India exhibits an ambivalence about collecting such information. The discussion then turns to emigration since 1970 and considers permanent migration from South Asia to the traditional receivers; South Asian asylum seekers in Europe; South Asian refugees, illegal migrants, migrant workers (flows and destinations), the stock of contract migrant workers (and their characteristics); returnee migrant workers; and skill levels. Analysis is provided of macro level determinants of emigrations such as gross national product (level and growth), the general demographic and social situation, labor force growth and structure, poverty and inequality, and internal and international migration. Environmental factors causing displacement in Southern Asia include floods, cyclones, river bank erosion, drought, and desertification. Global warming could displace millions of people in the region, and development projects have contributed to displacement. The remainder of the report covers political and ethnic factors, micro-factors influencing migration decision-making, the policies of sending and receiving countries, the consequences of emigration, and the potential for migration in the future. PMID:12347011

Shah, N M

1995-01-01

313

Progress in the Gondwanan Carboniferous-Permian palynology and correlation of the Nilawahan Group of the Salt Range, Pakistan: A brief review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper comprises of two sections. The first section describes challenges in the Carboniferous-Permian Gondwanan stratigraphic palynology, and progress in techniques such as presence of the `rare-marine intervals', and `radiometric dating' in some Gondwanan successions, e.g., South Africa, Australia and South America, as tools to confidently calibrate these palynozones. The second section describes developments in the palynological work on the Carboniferous-Permian Nilawahan Group of the Salt Range, Pakistan, and summarises their correlation with the coeval succession of the Gondwana continents and with the Russian/International stages.

Jan, Irfan U.

2014-02-01

314

PHYTOPHAGOUS INSECTS ASSOCIATED TO REPRODUCTIVE STRUCTURES OF MESQUITE (PROSOPIS SPP) IN ARGENTINA THEIR POTENTIAL USE IN BIOLOGICAL CONTROL IN SOUTH AFRICA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mesquites (Prosopis spp.) are thorny leguminous shrubs or trees native to Southwest Asia, Africa, and, predominantly, North and South America. Introduced as beneficial plants in India, Pakistan, South Africa, Egypt, Kuwait, Australia, USA (Hawaii) and Brazil, some Prosopis species have become weeds ...

315

Aetiology of shigellosis in northern Pakistan.  

PubMed

People of northern Pakistan face health hazards because of poor sanitation practices. Bacterial gastrointestinal infections are very common, and sometimes outbreaks occur. The present study was aimed at evaluating and analyzing infestation of Shigella spp. in patients with suspected gastroenteritis and ascertaining the status of antibiotic therapy. Five hundred and eighty-five faecal samples of patients with suspected gastroenteritis, referred to the District Headquarter Hospital Gilgit, were investigated for common enteropathogenic bacteria from July 1997 to September 1999. Seventy-seven (13.2%) of the faecal specimens were infected with different strains of Shigella spp., 61% of which were Shigella dysenteriae, 15.6% were S. flexneri, and 23.4% were Shigella sp. All Shigella strains were sensitive to ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, and enoxacin. Sixty-one percent of the strains were resistant to both ampicillin and chloramphenicol, and 3.9% to ampicillin and nalidixic acid, while 10.4% were resistant to ampicillin alone and 14.3% to chloramphenicol only. Only 10.4% of the strains were sensitive to all the antibiotics tested. Sixty strains of Shigella spp. were processed for isolation of plasmids, and 58 (97%) of these antibiotic-resistant bacteria harboured at least one plasmid. The number of plasmids varied from 1 to 9. Escherichia coli C600 were transformed with the isolated plasmids. Transformants, containing 23-kb plasmid, resisted growth in media containing antibiotics, thereby indicating that antibiotic resistance is plasmid-borne. Based on the findings of the study, it is concluded that the infestation of Shigella spp. is high in northern Pakistan, the aetiological agents are highly resistant to chloramphenicol and ampicillin, and the antibiotic resistance is mediated by the 23-kb plasmid. PMID:12751672

Ahmed, Khalil; Shakoori, Farah R; Shakoori, A R

2003-03-01

316

Anthracobunids from the Middle Eocene of India and Pakistan Are Stem Perissodactyls  

PubMed Central

Anthracobunidae is an Eocene family of large mammals from south Asia that is commonly considered to be part of the radiation that gave rise to elephants (proboscideans) and sea cows (sirenians). We describe a new collection of anthracobunid fossils from Middle Eocene rocks of Indo-Pakistan that more than doubles the number of known anthracobunid fossils and challenges their putative relationships, instead implying that they are stem perissodactyls. Cranial, dental, and postcranial elements allow a revision of species and the recognition of a new anthracobunid genus. Analyses of stable isotopes and long bone geometry together suggest that most anthracobunids fed on land, but spent a considerable amount of time near water. This new evidence expands our understanding of stem perissodactyl diversity and sheds new light on perissodactyl origins. PMID:25295875

Cooper, Lisa Noelle; Seiffert, Erik R.; Clementz, Mark; Madar, Sandra I.; Bajpai, Sunil; Hussain, S. Taseer; Thewissen, J. G. M.

2014-01-01

317

Cancer incidence in the south Asian population of California, 1988–2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Although South Asians (SA) form a large majority of the Asian population of U.S., very little is known about cancer in this immigrant population. SAs comprise people having origins mainly in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. We calculated age-adjusted incidence and time trends of cancer in the SA population of California (state with the largest concentration of SAs)

Ratnali V Jain; Paul K Mills; Arti Parikh-Patel

2005-01-01

318

Asian American Identity Development: A Culture Specific Model for South Asian Americans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes a framework for understanding the ethnic identity development of South Asian Americans, primarily Indian and Pakistan Americans. Cultural identity is placed in the context of the social, psychological, political, and historical background of the Indian subcontinent and the United States. Culture, gender, and worldview are examined. (RJM)

Ibrahim, Farah; Ohnishi, Hifumi; Sandhu, Daya Singh

1997-01-01

319

Disabled Learners in South Asia: Lessons from the Past for Educational Exporters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the cultural traditions of South Asia, especially India and Pakistan, regarding the education of children with special needs. This valuable cultural heritage has been largely ignored in the inflow of western educational ideas and the professionalization of special education, especially in the late 19th century. Improved…

Miles, M.

1997-01-01

320

3 CFR - Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to the Continuing Conflict in Pakistan  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Refugee and Migration Needs Related to the Continuing Conflict in Pakistan Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents ...Refugee and Migration Needs Related to the Continuing Conflict in Pakistan Memorandum for the Secretary of State By the...

2010-01-01

321

75 FR 71079 - Determination on Use of Cooperative Threat Reduction Funds in Pakistan and Afghanistan Under...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Determination on Use of Cooperative Threat Reduction Funds in Pakistan and Afghanistan Under Section 1308 of the National Defense...Reduction (CTR) funds for the implementation of CTR programs in Pakistan and Afghanistan will permit the United States to take...

2010-11-22

322

A contemporary architectural quest and synthesis : Kamil Khan Mumtaz in Pakistan  

E-print Network

This thesis looks at an important Pakistani architect's work and philosophy as a possible direction or approach for contemporary architecture in Pakistan. Although there are more prolific builders in Pakistan, Kamil Khan ...

Ansari, Zarminae

1997-01-01

323

K-means cluster analysis and seismicity partitioning for Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pakistan and the western Himalaya is a region of high seismic activity located at the triple junction between the Arabian, Eurasian and Indian plates. Four devastating earthquakes have resulted in significant numbers of fatalities in Pakistan and the surrounding region in the past century (Quetta, 1935; Makran, 1945; Pattan, 1974 and the recent 2005 Kashmir earthquake). It is therefore necessary to develop an understanding of the spatial distribution of seismicity and the potential seismogenic sources across the region. This forms an important basis for the calculation of seismic hazard; a crucial input in seismic design codes needed to begin to effectively mitigate the high earthquake risk in Pakistan. The development of seismogenic source zones for seismic hazard analysis is driven by both geological and seismotectonic inputs. Despite the many developments in seismic hazard in recent decades, the manner in which seismotectonic information feeds the definition of the seismic source can, in many parts of the world including Pakistan and the surrounding regions, remain a subjective process driven primarily by expert judgment. Whilst much research is ongoing to map and characterise active faults in Pakistan, knowledge of the seismogenic properties of the active faults is still incomplete in much of the region. Consequently, seismicity, both historical and instrumental, remains a primary guide to the seismogenic sources of Pakistan. This study utilises a cluster analysis approach for the purposes of identifying spatial differences in seismicity, which can be utilised to form a basis for delineating seismogenic source regions. An effort is made to examine seismicity partitioning for Pakistan with respect to earthquake database, seismic cluster analysis and seismic partitions in a seismic hazard context. A magnitude homogenous earthquake catalogue has been compiled using various available earthquake data. The earthquake catalogue covers a time span from 1930 to 2007 and an area from 23.00° to 39.00°N and 59.00° to 80.00°E. A threshold magnitude of 5.2 is considered for K-means cluster analysis. The current study uses the traditional metrics of cluster quality, in addition to a seismic hazard contextual metric to attempt to constrain the preferred number of clusters found in the data. The spatial distribution of earthquakes from the catalogue was used to define the seismic clusters for Pakistan, which can be used further in the process of defining seismogenic sources and corresponding earthquake recurrence models for estimates of seismic hazard and risk in Pakistan. Consideration of the different approaches to cluster validation in a seismic hazard context suggests that Pakistan may be divided into K = 19 seismic clusters, including some portions of the neighbouring countries of Afghanistan, Tajikistan and India.

Rehman, Khaista; Burton, Paul W.; Weatherill, Graeme A.

2014-07-01

324

Dimensions of urban growth in Pakistan.  

PubMed

The nature and patterns of Pakistani urban growth and implications for the future are discussed. Specific attention is given to the effects of natural increase, in migration, and reclassification or city extension or urban growth. Development expenditures on urban population are also provided. The effects of population pressure on housing, education, health, and employment are also presented. Future growth is anticipated at 55.5 million by 2000 with a constant fertility rate; 36% are expected to live in cities. The maximum increase is expected in Karachi and the urban areas in the provinces of the Punjab and Sindh. The contribution of natural increase to urban growth is estimated at 3.36%, while internal migration is .83% and reclassification or city extension is .11%. The rural-to-urban flow contributes the highest volume to migration flows over urban-to-urban migration. Urban fertility has been stable, and other urban fertility continues to be higher than rural fertility and major urban fertility. Urban infrastructure costs 27% or by 2000 4.7% of the projected gross national products (GNP). Housing growth rates of 3.71% between 1960-80 have not kept pace with population growth of 4.4%, but the shortage of housing has declined faster in urban areas than rural areas where the shortages of housing are greater. Housing conditions in urban areas have not improved. 45% live in pucca kutcha and kutcha housing. 1.3 million housing units are needed in urban areas during 1988-93. There is overcrowding in schools and literacy remains low in rural and urban areas. 2% of the GNP during 1971-85 went to educational funding. 80% of hospital beds and physicians are located in urban areas. There is 1 doctor/1801 persons, 1 bed/610 persons, and 1 hospital/50,000 persons. Only 7% of the 19.4 million urban residents in 1983 had access to potable water, and 48% of 12.12 million people had sewerage and drainage facilities. Agricultural employment is being replaced in urban areas by employment in the informal sector. Out-migration to the Middle East has contributed to a strong economic performance, but recent trends are for return migration. Also affected but not discussed are the effects on urban transportation, water supply, the environment, and town planning. PMID:12285307

Kiani, M F; Siyal, H B

1991-01-01

325

Interprovenance variation in the composition of Moringa oleifera oilseeds from Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interprovenance variation was examined in the composition of Moringa oleifera oilseeds from Pakistan. The hexane-extracted oil content of M. oleifera seeds harvested in the vicinity of the University of Agriculture, Faisalabad (Punjab, Pakistan), Bahauddin Zakariya University\\u000a (Multan, Pakistan), and the University of Sindh, Jamshoro (Sindh, Pakistan), ranged from 33.23 to 40.90%. Protein, fiber,\\u000a moisture, and ash contents were found to

Farooq Anwar; Muhammad Ashraf; Muhammad Iqbal Bhanger

2005-01-01

326

Hydrology of Himalayas Mountains through gauging of flood and Glaciers Melt historic data hydrographs over selected watersheds under changing climate, Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mountainous areas of higher altitudes in the northern Pakistan have numerous rivers of great surface runoff during the rainy months and glaciers melt seasons that play a significant role in water resources and hydro-power production. Many of these rivers are unexploited for their water resource potential. If the potential of these rivers are explored, hydro-power production and water supplies in these areas may be improved. The Indus is the mighty river in the Asian countries originating from mountainous area of the Himalayas of Baltistan, Pakistan in which most of the smaller streams and four main rivers drain. Under the larger interest of the economic development of the country, hydrology of these mountainous in northern Pakistan is studied in the perspective of climate change, which includes eight watersheds namely Gilgit, Hunza, Shigar, Shyok, Astore, Jhelum, Swat and Chitral. Available historic data from1960-2005 have been precisely utilized to study the hydrological changes with respect to variability in precipitation, temperature and mean monthly flows, trend of snow melt runoff, daily hydrographs of selected periods (1990 to 1999), water yield and runoff relationship, and flow duration curves. Precipitation from ten meteorological stations in mountainous area of northern Pakistan has not shown uniform distribution of rains but variability in the winter and summer rains is noticed. Review of mean monthly temperature of ten stations suggested that the Upper Indus Basin can be categorized into three hydrological regimes i.e., high altitude catchments with large glacierized parts, middle altitude catchments south of Karakoram, and foothill catchments. A 3-D finite element model (Feflow) has also been used for regional groundwater flow modeling of the Upper Chaj Doab in Indus Basin, Pakistan.

Ahmad, Z.

2013-12-01

327

Multiscale analysis of three consecutive years of anomalous flooding in Pakistan  

E-print Network

Multiscale analysis of three consecutive years of anomalous flooding in Pakistan By K. L. Rasmussen investigation into three years of anomalous floods in Pakistan provides insight into their formation, unifying for the formation of anomalous easterly midlevel flow across central India into Pakistan that advected deep

Houze Jr., Robert A.

328

Multistage evolution of the Jijal ultramaficmafic complex (Kohistan, N Pakistan): Implications for building the  

E-print Network

Multistage evolution of the Jijal ultramafic­mafic complex (Kohistan, N Pakistan): Implications, Cc 57, 34095 Montpellier cedex 05, France d Pakistan Museum of Natural History, Garden Avenue, Shakarparian, 44000 Islamabad, Pakistan Received 12 February 2007; received in revised form 15 June 2007

Demouchy, Sylvie

329

Using meteorological data to forecast seasonal runoff on the River Jhelum, Pakistan  

E-print Network

Using meteorological data to forecast seasonal runoff on the River Jhelum, Pakistan D.R. Archer a of Pakistan. Seasonal forecasts of spring and summer flow provide the opportunity for planning and would of Control between In- dia and Pakistan. The Jhelum then flows through the plains of the Punjab, where

Fowler, Hayley

330

School of Electrical Engineering & Computer Science National University of Sciences & Technology (NUST), Pakistan  

E-print Network

(NUST), Pakistan Copyright © Syed Ali Khayam Intelligent Multimedia Coding over Oblivious Networking Universities of the World 6 No. 20 in ASIA NUST Declared as No. 1 in PAKISTAN (Source: Asia Week, Issue June 30-Asia-France, Korean Research Foundation, Pakistan National ICT R&D Fund 8 #12;Copyright © Syed Ali Khayam About

Huisman, Johannes

331

* Not for sale in Pakistan ** For sale only in the United States and Canada  

E-print Network

* Not for sale in Pakistan ** For sale only in the United States and Canada *** Not for sale & Best-Selling Titles * Not for sale in Pakistan ** For sale only in the United States and Canada-Selling Titles 115 * Not for sale in Pakistan ** For sale only in the United States and Canada *** Not for sale

Landweber, Laura

332

Drainage, sediment transport, and denudation rates on the Nanga Parbat Himalaya, Pakistan  

E-print Network

Drainage, sediment transport, and denudation rates on the Nanga Parbat Himalaya, Pakistan Kevin: Sediment transport; Pakistan; Mountain denudation 1. Introduction The Nanga Parbat massif is one of the largest topographic features in the western Himalaya of northern Pakistan with its main summit rising

Marston, Richard A.

333

Pakistan Vet. J., 24(3): 2004 EFFECTS OF ASCORBIC ACID AND ACETYLSALICYLIC ACID  

E-print Network

Pakistan Vet. J., 24(3): 2004 109 EFFECTS OF ASCORBIC ACID AND ACETYLSALICYLIC ACID SUPPLEMENTATION Sciences, Lahore-54000, Pakistan ABSTRACT A total of 100, day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided production in the tropics. In Pakistan, temperature remains well beyond the higher side of thermoneutral zone

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

334

Faunal responses to oxygen gradients on the Pakistan margin: A comparison of foraminiferans, macrofauna and megafauna  

E-print Network

Faunal responses to oxygen gradients on the Pakistan margin: A comparison of foraminiferans Oxygen minimum zone Benthos Arabian Sea Biodiversity Deep sea a b s t r a c t The Pakistan Margin where oxygen levels were lowest. The rarity of larger animals between 300 and 700 m on the Pakistan

Levin, Lisa

335

Business Intelligence Modeling: A Case Study of Disaster Management Organization in Pakistan  

E-print Network

Business Intelligence Modeling: A Case Study of Disaster Management Organization in Pakistan Sohail Asghar Department of Computer Science Mohammad Ali Jinnah University, Islamabad, Pakistan e-mail: sohail@umac.mo Touqeer Hussain Shaheed Zulfikar Ali Bhutto Institute of Science and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan e

Fong, Chi Chiu "Simon"

336

A reinterpretation of the Balakot Formation: Implications for the tectonics of the NW Himalaya, Pakistan  

E-print Network

, Pakistan Yani Najman,1,2 Malcolm Pringle,3 Laurent Godin,4 and Grahame Oliver5 Received 2 April 2001 of the Himalayan foreland basin in Pakistan was originally described as a >8 km thick clastic red bed succession; 9320 Information Related to Geographic Region: Asia; KEYWORDS: Himalaya, Pakistan, Balakot Formation

Najman, Yani

337

Irfan Ullah Chaudhary Address: 47-D New Muslim Town, Lahore 54600, Pakistan.  

E-print Network

Irfan Ullah Chaudhary Address: 47-D New Muslim Town, Lahore 54600, Pakistan. Phone: (9242) 586-Present Dept. of Computer Science & Engineering University of Engineering & Technology Lahore, Pakistan Visiting Faculty 2008-Present Dept. of Physics Lahore University of Management Sciences Lahore, Pakistan

338

Organizational Barriers to Technology Adoption: Evidence from Soccer-Ball Producers in Pakistan  

E-print Network

Organizational Barriers to Technology Adoption: Evidence from Soccer-Ball Producers in Pakistan of soccer-ball producers in Sialkot, Pakistan. Our research team invented a new cutting technology Hamid, who first suggested we study the soccer ball sector in Sialkot, Pakistan. All errors are ours

Qian, Ning

339

Research Output from Pakistan This analysis takes into account the Publications from Pakistani Universities,  

E-print Network

Research Output from Pakistan This analysis takes into account the Publications from Pakistani NONE 01 68. University of Management & Technology NONE 01 Other Institutions 1. Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science & Technology 106 171 2. Pakistan Council for Scientific & Industrial Research 38 110 3

Siddiqi, Sajjad Ahmed

340

University of Cambridge scholarships awarded to learners in Pakistan and India  

E-print Network

University of Cambridge scholarships awarded to learners in Pakistan and India 24 April 2012 We in India and Pakistan who have received an offer of a place at the University. The scholarships were to afford to go to Cambridge. University of Cambridge 800th Anniversary Scholarship for students in Pakistan

Travis, Adrian

341

Perspectives on types of schools from Ghana and Pakistan: revisiting the relationship between  

E-print Network

Perspectives on types of schools from Ghana and Pakistan: revisiting the relationship between in both Ghana and Pakistan. While parents focus more on the economic opportunities that are becoming providers in the field of education in both Ghana and Pakistan. This has created a discernable rise

Steiner, Ullrich

342

Teacher Education in Pakistan: Analysis of Planning Issues in Early Childhood Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on the status of teacher education and early childhood education in Pakistan. The paper analyzes planning issues in early childhood teacher education by examining education policies and existing practices in early childhood teacher education in Pakistan. Initiatives taken at public and private levels in Pakistan are also…

Hunzai, Zohra Nisar

2009-01-01

343

Islam through the History and Culture of Pakistan. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad Project, 1994.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study of Pakistan provides students and teachers an opportunity to understand the political, religious, and literary accomplishments of the Pakistanis. This project is uses slides to show the beauty of Pakistan and its people. A map indicating the distance between Miami, Florida and Pakistan is provided along with a 5-item reference list of…

Youngblood, Janis D.

344

Use, exploitation and prospects for conservation: people and plant biodiversity of Naltar Valley, northwestern Karakorums, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Very little research has been conducted in the Himalayan and Karakorum Highlands of northern Pakistan on the aspects of biodiversity and conservation. The present research was carried out within the scope of the Pakistan–German Research Project, ‘Culture Area Karakorum’ which aims to highlight the ‘Problems and Prospects of High-Mountain Research’ in northern Pakistan. Naltar Valley, IUCN Management Category no. 4,

Kashif Sheikh; Tahira Ahmad; Mir Ajab Khan

2002-01-01

345

Potential for Expatriate Involvement with Handicapped Children in the N.W.F.P. of Pakistan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The North West Frontier Province of Pakistan plans to improve services and facilities for handicapped children and is encouraging expatriates to bring their skills to Pakistan. Staff of current institutions are either untrained or have received short courses of training within Pakistan. There are currently about five expatriates working in the…

Miles, M.

346

Climate change, flooding in South Asia and implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

South Asia is one of the most flood vulnerable regions in the world. Floods occur often in the region triggered by heavy monsoon\\u000a precipitation and can cause enormous damages to lives, property, crops and infrastructure. The frequency of extreme floods\\u000a is on the rise in Bangladesh, India and Pakistan. Past extreme floods fall within the range of climate variability but

M. Monirul Qader Mirza; Qader Mirza

2011-01-01

347

An assessment of knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) towards diabetes and diabetic retinopathy in a suburban town of Karachi  

PubMed Central

Objective: To assess the Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP) towards diabetes and diabetic retinopathy in the general population of Bin Qasim Town (BQ), Karachi. Methods: An observational, cross-sectional study was approved by Research Ethical Committee of Al-Ibrahim Eye Hospital. It included every third household by stratified sampling in each Union Council of (BQ) Town, in the months of May to July 2013. The interview Questionnaire included 43 questions, of qualitative and quantitative aspects, which were awarded 56 scoring points. SPSS version 20.0 was used to analyze the data. Results: Six hundred ninety two adults one from each household were interviewed. Of the total respondents, 271 (39.2%) had diabetes. Lowest mean knowledge score (5.28 ± 6.09) was seen in illiterate respondents. Male’s Mean Knowledge score (7.61 ± 6.600) was better than female’s (5.46 ± 6.21) with P <0.001. Over all mean score of Attitudes towards diabetes was 5.43 ± 2.57. It was higher (6.62 ± 2.03) in diabetic respondents as compared with non-diabetic respondents (4.70 ± 2.59) with p < 0.000. In Practice module majority of the respondents (69.9%) did not exercise, 49% took high caloric snacks between meals and 87% ate outside home once a month, 56.8% diabetics visited ophthalmologist for routine eye examination; but only 9.2% asked for retinal examination. Conclusion: Lack of knowledge of diabetes was found in the surveyed community, more marked in females, illiterate and the individuals not having diabetes.

Memon, Muhammad Saleh; Shaikh, Sikander Ali; Shaikh, Abdul Rashid; Fahim, Muhammad Faisal; N. Mumtaz, Seema; Ahmed, Nadeem

2015-01-01

348

Poverty and blindness in Pakistan: results from the Pakistan national blindness and visual impairment survey  

PubMed Central

Objective To explore the association between blindness and deprivation in a nationally representative sample of adults in Pakistan. Design Cross sectional population based survey. Setting 221 rural and urban clusters selected randomly throughout Pakistan. Participants Nationally representative sample of 16?507 adults aged 30 or above (95.3% response rate). Main outcome measures Associations between visual impairment and poverty assessed by a cluster level deprivation index and a household level poverty indicator; prevalence and causes of blindness; measures of the rate of uptake and quality of eye care services. Results 561 blind participants (<3/60 in the better eye) were identified during the survey. Clusters in urban Sindh province were the most affluent, whereas rural areas in Balochistan were the poorest. The prevalence of blindness in adults living in affluent clusters was 2.2%, compared with 3.7% in medium clusters and 3.9% in poor clusters (P<0.001 for affluent v poor). The highest prevalence of blindness was found in rural Balochistan (5.2%). The prevalence of total blindness (bilateral no light perception) was more than three times higher in poor clusters than in affluent clusters (0.24% v 0.07%, P<0.001). The prevalences of blindness caused by cataract, glaucoma, and corneal opacity were lower in affluent clusters and households. Reflecting access to eye care services, cataract surgical coverage was higher in affluent clusters (80.6%) than in medium (76.8%) and poor areas (75.1%). Intraocular lens implantation rates were significantly lower in participants from poorer households. 10.2% of adults living in affluent clusters presented to the examination station wearing spectacles, compared with 6.7% in medium clusters and 4.4% in poor cluster areas. Spectacle coverage in affluent areas was more than double that in poor clusters (23.5% v 11.1%, P<0.001). Conclusion Blindness is associated with poverty in Pakistan; lower access to eye care services was one contributory factor. To reduce blindness, strategies targeting poor people will be needed. These interventions may have an impact on deprivation in Pakistan. PMID:18087076

2008-01-01

349

journals, especially in mathematics and engineering, as well as boosting the impact of their research outside Pakistan.  

E-print Network

of their research outside Pakistan. Second, human capital matters. One concern raised by the report published in this issue is that the 3,500 candidates for Pakistan's new domestic PhD programmes have had lower as Pakistan's schools improve. For the time being, the more important point is that Pakistan has opened up

Lin, Juhn-Jong

350

A Comparison of Wireless Local Loop Technologies with Reference to their Application in Rural Areas of Pakistan  

E-print Network

Areas of Pakistan Muhammad Usman Ilyas Department of Computer Science, School of Arts & Sciences, Lahore University of Management Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan. muilyas@lums.edu.pk Abstract: In this paper LMDS in rural areas of Pakistan. The low population density and great distances in Pakistan's rural areas make

Radha, Hayder

351

Regional Studies of the Potwar Plateau Area, Northern Pakistan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The papers in this volume are products of a cooperative program between the Geological Survey of Pakistan (GSP) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), sponsored by the Government of Pakistan and the U.S. Agency for International Development. The focus of the program, the Coal Resources Exploration and Assessment Program (COALREAP), was to explore and assess Pakistan?s indigenous coal resources. As part of COALREAP, GSP and USGS geologists conducted regional geologic studies from 1988 to 1991 of the coal-bearing areas in the Potwar region of northern Pakistan. A reference section was selected from which to obtain faunal and floral analyses. The composite sections at Nammal Pass and Nammal Dam served as the basis for this regional reference. Although this Bulletin 2078 is being released in 2007, the writing and technical reviews were completed in 1993, and the chapters reflect the work done until that time. During the long production process for the Bulletin, which ultimately resulted in the oversize plates being digitized, the scientific content of the chapters was not changed, and most reports published since 1993 were not cited. A change in the age of the Patala Formation is discussed below [in the full preface], but the age discussions and illustrations in the chapters were not updated.

Warwick, Peter D.; Wardlaw, Bruce R.

2007-01-01

352

A Study on Extremely Dry and Wet Summer Monsoon in Pakistan by Focusing on the Anomalous States of the Upper Troposphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seasonally-changes in wind pattern, monsoon, sometimes results in severe droughts and intense flooding in many parts of the world including South Asian countries like Pakistan. The livelihood of a vast population in Pakistan depends on agriculture and land use is strongly influenced by water-based ecosystems that depend on the monsoon rains. Furthermore, climate change studies undertaken so far reveal that action is essential in order to prevent long term damage to water cycle and thus of great concern to the community and stakeholders. Pakistan Summer Monsoon (PSM) is generally affected by both the disturbances from the tropical and the extratropical regions; however there is lack of understanding of physical mechanisms of PSM compared to other regional studies i.e. Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) and South-East Asian Monsoon (SEAM). In our study, we applied heat and vorticity budgets and wave train analysis to reveal the mechanisms of the extremely dry and wet PSM events associated with the anomalous upper tropospheric circulation. We found that the extremely dry (wet) PSM events are closely related with the strengthening(weakening) of the upper-tropospheric central Asian high. We also found that in addition to Rossby-wave (Matsuno-Gill) type atmospheric response, the Rossby wave train along the Asian Jet originating from northwestern Europe or North Atlantic Ocean strengthened(weakened) the upper-tropospheric central Asian high. Therefore strong convection anomalies resulting in severe flooding (drought) events over the PSM region are induced by both the tropical and extratropical processes. Key Words: Pakistan, Extremes Monsoon Events, Physical Processes, Heat Budget, Vorticity, Wave Train

Ahmad, S.; Koike, T.; Nishii, K.

2012-04-01

353

Corporate derivatives and foreign exchange risk management : A case study of non-financial firms of Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to identify the factors affecting firms' decision to use foreign exchange (FX) derivative instruments by using the data of 86 non-financial firms listed on Karachi Stock Exchange for the period 2004-2007. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Required data were collected from annual reports of listed firms of Karachi Stock Exchange. Non-parametric test was used to

Talat Afza; Atia Alam

2011-01-01

354

Flux and accumulation of sedimentary particles off the continental slope of Pakistan: a comparison of water column and seafloor estimates from the oxygen minimum zone, NE Arabian Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the lack of bioturbation, the laminated muds from the oxygen-minimum zone (OMZ) off Pakistan provide a unique opportunity to precisely determine the vertical and lateral sediment fluxes in the near shore part of the northeastern Arabian Sea, and to explore the effects of the margin topography and the low oxygen conditions on the accumulation of organic matter and other particles. West of Karachi, in the Hab river area of EPT and WPT (Eastern and Western PAKOMIN Traps), 16 short sediment profiles from water depths between 250 m and 1970 m on a depth transect crossing the OMZ (~ 120 to ~ 1200 m water depth) were investigated, and correlated on the basis of a thick, light-gray- to reddish-colored turbidite layer. Varve counting yielded a date for this layer of AD 1905 to 1888. We adopted the young age which agrees with 210Pb- dating, and used this isochronous stratigraphic marker bed to calculate sediment accumulation rates, that we could directly compare with the flux rates from the sediment traps installed within the water column above. All traps in the area show exceptionally high, pulsed winter fluxes of up to 5000 mg m-2 d-1 in this margin environment. The lithic flux at the sea floor is as high as 4000 mg m-2 d-1 , and agrees remarkably well with the bulk winter flux of material. This holds as well for the individual bulk components (organic carbon, calcium carbonate, opal, lithic fraction). However, the high winter flux events (HFE) by their extreme mass of remobilized matter terminated the recording in the shallow traps by clogging the funnels. Based on our comparisons, we argue that HFE for the past 5000 yr most likely occurred as regular events within the upper OMZ off Pakistan. Coarse fraction and foraminiferal accumulation rates from sediment surface samples along the Hab transect show distribution patterns that seem to be a function of water depth and distance from the shelf. Some of these sediment fractions show sudden shifts at the lower boundary of the OMZ. However, the potential effect of the OMZ on carbon preservation in the area would by masked by high mass of fine-grained matter laterally advected, and by the pulsed nature of the resuspension events.

Schulz, H.; von Rad, U.

2013-07-01

355

Beliefs about euthanasia among university students: perspectives from Pakistan.  

PubMed

Opinions of university students about euthanasia were studied in 4 cities in Pakistan using convenience sampling. A total of 836 students (316 males and 520 females) completed a questionnaire in which euthanasia was defined as deliberate administration of an overdose of a drug by a doctor to relieve pain and suffering of a dying patient at his/her explicit request to end his/her life. Only 25.6% of students agreed that euthanasia should be legalized in Pakistan. The most common reason cited for legalization of euthanasia was to relieve patient's suffering but only when a committee of physicians agreed to recommend it. Students who opposed legalization (74.4%) cited impediments to future medical research as the most common reason, followed by the risk of misuse by physicians or family members. Only 8.9% of students cited religious beliefs as a reason against legalization. There is a need in Pakistan for more debate about euthanasia. PMID:22256415

Shaikh, M A; Kamal, A

2011-10-01

356

Health reform in Pakistan: a call to action.  

PubMed

Pakistan's enormous macroeconomic, internal, and human security challenges coexist alongside the opportunity created by a huge desire for change. With democracy taking root and a new constitutionally ushered era in state governance, The Lancet Series about Pakistan and health focuses on health as a nation-building and social-welfare agenda at a time of unprecedented social upheaval and economic hardships in the country. We call for a unified vision for the goal of universal and equitable health access. We provide recommendations for six objectives for policy and action. Higher political priority for health, increased investments, a combination of targeted and universal approaches, action in terms of the social determinants, institutionalisation of the right organisational network, and frameworks for accountability are crucial for the attainment of the health goals in Pakistan. PMID:23684259

Nishtar, Sania; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Jafar, Tazeen H; Ghaffar, Abdul; Akhtar, Tasleem; Bengali, Kaiser; Isa, Qazi Asmat; Rahim, Ejaz

2013-06-29

357

Cholera vaccine field trials in East Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Double-blind controlled cholera-vaccine trials were carried out in rural East Pakistan in 1963 and 1964. Pretrial studies indicated that a whole-cell cholera vaccine of high mouse protective potency, at a dose of 0.5 ml, produced an antibody response and reaction pattern consistent with use in such trials. A purified Ogawa antigen, given at a dose of 100 ?g, elicited no adverse reactions and evoked both agglutinating and vibriocidal antibodies against both Inaba and Ogawa test suspensions. In the field, adverse reactions to the cholera vaccines occurred primarily among adults and were observed with both the whole-cell preparation and the purified Ogawa antigen. At the dose used in the field trials (0.4 ml), the reactions elicited by the whole-cell vaccine were acceptable to the population and no more marked than those following the locally prepared typhoid-paratyphoid vaccine. Delayed reactions to the whole-cell cholera vaccine were observed beginning 4 to 7 days after the vaccine was administered; the bulk of them (60%) did not interfere with work at any time; all resolved promptly; and none developed fluctuation or was associated with abscess formation. PMID:5302328

Benenson, A. S.; Joseph, P. R.; Oseasohn, R. O.

1968-01-01

358

Foraminiferal stratigraphy of Ranikot (Paleocene) of Pakistan  

SciTech Connect

The sedimentary deposits of Pakistan are divided into three distinct basins: the Lower Indus basin, the Upper Indus basin, and the Baluchistan basin. The Lower Indus basin is further divided into two parts; the northern part is the Sulaiman Province, and the southern part is known as Kirthar Province. The tertiary stratigraphy of Kirthar Province is conspicuous for its characteristic lithostratigraphic units. The Paleocene deposits of Kirthar Province are designated as Ranikot Group. The Ranikot Group was divided by Cheema et al in 1977 into three distinct lithostratigraphic units: the Khadro formation (Cardita beaumonti beds), Bara formation (Lower Ranikot), and Lakhra formation (Upper Ranikot). The Khadro and Lakhra formations are marine, characterized by foraminiferal assemblages. The characteristic planktonic forms are: Globigerina triloculinoides Plummer, Globorotalia pseudobulloids (Plummer), G. compressa (Plummer), G. valascoensis (Cushman), and G. pseudomenardii Bolli. The diagnostic forms of larger foraminifera are: Nummulites nuttalli Davies, Miscellanea (d'Archiac and Haime), Kathina major Smout, and Lockartia conditii (Nuttall). The planktonic foraminifera were assigned to Globorotali trinidadensis, G. pseudomenardii, and G. velasoensis zones of Kureshy in 1977, and larger foraminifera were assigned to Nummulities nuttalli zones of Kureshy in 1978.

Kureshy, A.A.

1983-03-01

359

Abnormally high formation pressures, Potwar Plateau, Pakistan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Abnormally high formation pressures in the Potwar Plateau of north-central Pakistan are major obstacles to oil and gas exploration. Severe drilling problems associated with high pressures have, in some cases, prevented adequate evaluation of reservoirs and significantly increased drilling costs. Previous investigations of abnormal pressure in the Potwar Plateau have only identified abnormal pressures in Neogene rocks. We have identified two distinct pressure regimes in this Himalayan foreland fold and thrust belt basin: one in Neogene rocks and another in pre-Neogene rocks. Pore pressures in Neogene rocks are as high as lithostatic and are interpreted to be due to tectonic compression and compaction disequilibrium associated with high rates of sedimentation. Pore pressure gradients in pre-Neogene rocks are generally less than those in Neogene rocks, commonly ranging from 0.5 to 0.7 psi/ft (11.3 to 15.8 kPa/m) and are most likely due to a combination of tectonic compression and hydrocarbon generation. The top of abnormally high pressure is highly variable and doesn't appear to be related to any specific lithologic seal. Consequently, attempts to predict the depth to the top of overpressure prior to drilling are precluded.

Law, B.E.; Shah, S.H.A.; Malik, M.A.

1998-01-01

360

Fourth-generation spinal instrumentation: experience with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis at a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the radiological and functional outcome of surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis using fourth-generation posterior spinal instrumentation at The Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan. Design Case series. Place and duration of study The Aga Khan University Hospital after a minimum of 2 years postoperatively. Patients and methods A total of 20 patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis were recruited into the study and evaluated for radiological and functional outcome. The study period was from 2000 to 2005. Radiological outcome was assessed using Cobb angle measurement pre and postoperatively, hence assessing percentage correction. The lower instrumented vertebra was taken as the neutral vertebra and the level was recorded. Functional outcome was determined using the Scoliosis Research Society patient administered questionnaire. All patients were called to the clinic and asked to fill in the form. Those patients who were out of the city were mailed the forms and requested via telephone to complete and return. Results Of the 20 patients operated on, twelve were female and eight were male. The average age at operation was 12.7 years. The mean Cobb angle was 69° preoperatively and 20° postoperatively, representing a percentage correction of 71%. The average duration of follow-up was 3.6 years. There was one major complication involving neurological injury post-op and two minor complications involving wound infection. The average Scoliosis Research Society score (on a scale of 1–5, with 5 being best) for pain was 4.5, self-image was 4.2, functional status was 4.1, mental status was 3.8, and satisfaction was 4.4. There was no relationship between the percentage correction of scoliosis and the functional outcome. Those patients with a high preoperative Cobb angle tended to have a better outcome for functional and mental status postoperatively. There was no relation between the lower instrumented vertebra and functional outcome. Conclusion In the correct indications, fourth-generation posterior instrumentation and fusion is a reliable and satisfactory technique to treat adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. PMID:22393301

Fazal, Akil; Lakdawala, Riaz H

2012-01-01

361

US security policy towards South Asia after September 11 and its implications for China: A Chinese perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

American security policy towards South Asia can basically be divided into three stages: balance of power in the Cold War era, beyond balance of power after the end of Cold War, and new balance of power after September 11.The Cold War saw an allied US and?Pakistan rival the close relations between the Soviet Union and India in the subcontinent. Yet,

Zhang Guihong

2003-01-01

362

Creating Instability in Dangerous Global Regions: North Korean Proliferation and Support to Terrorism in the Middle East and South Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

North Korea contributes to instability in the Middle East and South Asia through its proliferation of missiles and other weapons systems used as delivery platforms for chemical (and the production of chemical munitions) or biological weapons, including long-range artillery. Evidence also shows that North Korea has collaborated in the nuclear programs of Syria, Iran, Libya, and Pakistan and has provided

Bruce E. Bechtol Jr

2009-01-01

363

Phytoecological evaluation with detail floristic appraisal of the vegetation arround Malam Jabba, Swat, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the present status of plant communities and their possible association with the habitat in Malam Jabba, Swat, Pakistan. Methods A study on the phytoecology was conducted in various ecologically important sites of Malam Jabba, Swat, Pakistan from 2002 to 2004. The altitude of these sites ranged from 1?200 m to 3?200 m. Quadrat method was used for evaluation of plants communities and the data on these attributes was converted to relative values. The plant communities were named after 3 leading species with highest importance values. Biological spectrum of the flora based on the life form was prepared by following Raunkiar's life form classes. Results The floristic composition and structure of the study area were found to be 200 species belonging to 75 families. Asteraceae, Lamiaceae and Poaceae were important families in the study area. The biological spectrum showed that therophytic and hemicrytophytic life form and micro-nonophyllous leaf sizes were dominant in the area. The air and soil temperatures were decreasing with increasing elevation. Both the air and soil temperatures were relatively higher in south slopes than on the northeast slopes. The vegetation analysis of the area indicated eleven plant communities around the area. The present vegetation is the relics of moist temperate coniferous forest in the area. The communities reflect highly deteriorated conditions. Both the structure and composition of the surrounding vegetation were associated with the types of habitats. Conclusions The conservation of the remaining populations of the reported communities will be best achieved by proper time of sustainable harvesting. It is only possible with the participation of local communities. PMID:23569814

Rashid, Abdur; Swati, Mohammad Farooq; Sher, Hassan; Al-Yemeni, Mohammad N

2011-01-01

364

75 FR 53732 - In the Matter of the Designation of Tehrik-e Taliban Pakistan (TTP) also known as Tehrik-I...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of the Designation of Tehrik-e Taliban Pakistan (TTP) also known as Tehrik-I-Taliban Pakistan also known as Tehrik-e- Taliban also...exist with respect to Tehrik-e Taliban Pakistan (TTP), also known as...

2010-09-01

365

75 FR 53732 - In the Matter of the Designation of Tehrik-e Taliban Pakistan (TTP) Also Known as Tehrik-I...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of the Designation of Tehrik-e Taliban Pakistan (TTP) Also Known as Tehrik-I-Taliban Pakistan Also Known as Tehrik-e- Taliban Also...organization known as Tehrik-e Taliban Pakistan (TTP), also known as...

2010-09-01

366

Reaction of Stock Prices to Dividend Announcements and Market Efficiency in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tests the semi-strong form of market efficiency by investigating the reaction of stock prices to dividend announcements. It analyzes cash, stock, and simultaneous cash and stock dividend announcements of 79 companies listed on the Karachi Stock Exchange from July 2004 to June 2007. Abnormal returns from the market model are evaluated for statistical significance using the t-test and

Muhammad Akbar; Humayun Habib Baig

2010-01-01

367

Burn Wound Infections and Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns at Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

BACKGROND Burn wound infections carry considerable mortality and morbidity amongst burn injury victims who have been successfully rescued through the initial resuscitation. This study assessed the prevalent microrganisms causing burn wound infections among hospitalized patients; their susceptibility pattern to commonly used antibiotics; and the frequency of infections with respect to the duration of the burn wounds. METHODS This study was carried out at Burn Care Centre, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS), Islamabad, Pakistan over a period of two years (i.e. from June 2010 to May 2012). The study included all wound-culture-positive patients of either gender and all ages, who had sustained deep burns and underwent definitive management with wound excisions and skin auto-grafting. Patients with negative cultures of the wounds were excluded. Tissue specimens for culture and sensitivity were collected from burn wounds using standard collection techniques and analyzed at microbiological laboratory. RESULTS Out of a total of 95 positive microbial growths, 36 were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (35.29%) as the most frequent isolate found, followed by 21 Klebsiella pneumoniae (20.58%), 19 Staphylococcus aureaus (18.62%), 10 Proteus (9.80%), 7 E. coli (6.86%), 7 Acinetobacter (6.86%), and 4 Candida (3.92%). A variable antibiotic susceptibility pattern was observed among the grown microbes. Positive cultures were significantly more frequent among patients with over two weeks duration of burn wounds. CONCLUSION P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae and S. aureus constituted the most common bacterial microbes of burn wounds in our in-patients cases. Positive cultures were more frequent among patients with over two weeks duration of burn wounds. Early excision and skin grafting of deep burns and adherence to infection control measures can help to effectively reduce the burden of these infections. PMID:25606471

Saaiq, Muhammad; Ahmad, Shehzad; Zaib, Muhammad Salman

2015-01-01

368

The Gateway Paper--preventive and promotive programs in Pakistan and health reforms in Pakistan.  

PubMed

Pakistan's public health interventions include a range of programs lead by the federal government with implementation arms at the provincial and district levels. Some of the programs are disease specific such as the respective programs on HIV/AIDS, Malaria, Tuberculosis, non-communicable diseases and Hepatitis; others are specific to life cycle domains such as in the case of maternal and child health whereas still others such as the National Program for Family Planning and Primary Healthcare and the National Expanded Program for Immunization are cross-cutting. Although these programs have contributed to improving health outcomes at intermediate outcomes level, a number of critical impediments to maximizing their impact have been noted. These include lack of integration, institutional impediments to the implementation of programs with particular reference to problems at the federal/provincial level and unrealized implications of federal programs at the provincial level are amongst the foremost. These have been further compounded by the addition of another service delivery tier in Pakistan's health system through the introduction of the devolution initiative. Furthermore, the unsustainable and under-utilized BHUs which serve as the service delivery base of these programs add to the problems. The Gateway Paper makes a number of recommendations to obviate these issues such as recommendations to integrate programs, strengthen surveillance systems, and with reference to obviating issues to implementation, emphasis is laid on decentralizing decision-making and central control, institutionalizing managerial audit, and prioritizing specific governance and management reforms. The Paper also stresses on the need for establishing a national coordination mechanism for fostering federal/provincial harmony and ensuring the creation of appropriate counterpart institutional arrangements in the provinces and districts. Recommendations on restructuring BHUs at a management, oversight, quality related and community participation level will play a vital role in determining the manner in which the efficiency of these public health programs can be enhanced. PMID:17595833

Nishtar, Sania

2006-12-01

369

Conflict, Development and Community Participation in Education: Pakistan and Yemen  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In development policy, community participation has increasingly come to be seen as a way to encourage community interest, involvement, ownership and ultimately, sustainability of projects. Education has also been affected by this discourse. The following paper examines two countries affected by conflict (Pakistan and Yemen), asking what type of…

Jones, Adele

2005-01-01

370

Home Economics Curricula in Pakistan: Time for Reform?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most home economics in Pakistan focuses on women's homemaking skills (food preparation, clothing, interior design), not career orientation; it caters to upper/middle class needs and traditional roles. Rural/lower class women's needs (agricultural production, nutrition, hygiene, family planning) are not generally served. (SK)

Saeed, Fouzia; McClelland, Jerry

1991-01-01

371

Family planning in Pakistan: applying what we have learned.  

PubMed

Despite six decades of government and private sector programs, CPR in Pakistan is among the lowest in the region. This article reviews published and grey literature to understand why despite sufficient time and usually sufficient funding, CPR remains low in Pakistan. This paper looks beyond the usual factors of quality of services, coverage and supplies and management issues to examine how family planning may be improved in Pakistan. Based on analysis of the Pakistan Demographic Health Survey 2006-7, the public sector provides around a third of FP services, while NGOs and private providers another 15%. More than half of all family planning users buy their methods directly from stores. Within the government, the services cost 5-8 fold more than the private sector. Nearly a fifth of pregnancies end in an abortion suggesting the role of abortions as a key FP method. This together with a high unmet need pose the question: why is there such low uptake of FP services in the country. To explain this lack of uptake, we explore the limitations of the public sector in providing services, the lack of effect of religious beliefs, of abundant, yet misdirected funding and gaps in demand creation. The increasing role of NGOs and donors in filling the void left by the public sector is discussed. Suggestions are provided about improving public and private sector services including better information gathering and use in defining needs, measuring results and creating demand for FP. PMID:24386723

Khan, Adnan Ahmad; Khan, Ayesha; Javed, Wajiha; Hamza, Hasan Bin; Orakzai, Mejzgaan; Ansari, Aliya; Abbas, Khadija

2013-04-01

372

The Determinants of Child Health in Pakistan: An Economic Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper estimates linear structural models using LISREL and employs MIMIC models to find out factors determining child health in Pakistan. A distinction has been made in permanent and transitory health states that lend support to Grossman's (1972) stock and flow concepts of health. The paper addresses the issue of health unobservability and…

Shehzad, Shafqat

2006-01-01

373

Consanguineous Marriages in the Sikh Community of Swat, NWFP, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marriages among the Sikh minority of the Districts of Swat, Bunair and Shangla (NWFP, Pakistan) were studied where the frequency of consanguineous marriages was found to be 21%. Marriages with distant relatives were 29.4% in the population. The inbreeding coefficient for the population was calculated to be 0.0127. Only three types of first cousin marriages (MSD, MBD and FSD) were

Abdul Wahab; Mahmud Ahmad

2005-01-01

374

PAKISTAN AND SIKH NATIONALISM: STATE POLICY AND PRIVATE PERCEPTIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper will examine Pakistan policies and perceptions of Sikh nationalism in the period from 1947 until the present day. The policies, it will be argued, have been opportunistic rather than strategic and have embraced both covert support for militancy against the Indian state in the 1980s and the attempt to use Sikhs and East Punjab as a bridge between

Ian Talbot

2010-01-01

375

Human capital, productivity, and labor allocation in rural Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates whether human capital affects the productivity and labor allocation of rural households in four districts of Pakistan. The investigation shows that households with better-educated males earn higher off-farm income and divert labor resources away from farm activities toward nonfarm work. Education has no significant effect on productivity in crop and livestock production. The effect of human capital

Marcel Fafchamps; Agnes R. Quisumbing

1998-01-01

376

Library Web Sites in Pakistan: An Analysis of Content  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate library web sites in Pakistan, to analyse their content and navigational strengths and weaknesses and to give recommendations for developing better web sites and quality assessment studies. Design/methodology/approach: Survey of web sites of 52 academic, special, public and national libraries in…

Qutab, Saima; Mahmood, Khalid

2009-01-01

377

Climatic variations in comfortable temperatures: the Pakistan projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two thermal comfort surveys in Pakistan are described. One was longitudinal conducted in summer and winter, the other was transverse with monthly surveys over a whole year. The surveys were conducted in five cities each representing a particular climatic region. The use of building controls and clothing is analysed. There is close agreement between the findings of the two surveys

J. Fergus Nicol; Iftikhar A Raja; Arif Allaudin; Gul Najam Jamy

1999-01-01

378

Obstacles to Contraceptive Use in Pakistan: A Study in Punjab  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principal aim of this study is to assess the strength in Pakistan of a set of hypothesized obstacles to practicing contraception. Survey data are analyzed that were collected in Punjab province in 1996 and that contain unusually detailed measurement of various perceived costs of practicing contraception, as well as focused measurement of fertility motivation. The framework guiding the research

John B. Casterline; Zeba A. Sathar; Minhaj Haque

2001-01-01

379

Improving Public School Teachers in Pakistan: Challenges and Opportunities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article tries to respond to a basic question: "can in-service teachers of public sectors in Pakistan be reformed?" The authors' response to this question is: "yes, public teachers can be reformed, if contextual possibilities are exploited efficiently". Although a straightforward and simplistic response to the question, this was felt necessary…

Hussain, Rana; Ali, Sajid

2010-01-01

380

Veil and four walls: a state of terror in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The understanding of terrorism should be expanded to encompass the types of violence most often experienced by women, such as rape. Pakistani men, soldiers and civilians have used rape as a strategy of terrorism against Pakistan's women, particularly those who dare to transgress existing social hierarchies or who belong to stigmatized social groups. Moreover, the complex and sometimes contradictory set

Lisa Sharlach

2008-01-01

381

Contested Identities: gendered politics, gendered religion in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Pakistan, the self-serving use of Islam by more secular elements alongside politico-religious ones facilitated the latter's increasing influence and the conflation and intricate interweaving of Islam and Pakistani nationhood. A paradigm shift under Zia's martial law revamped society as much as state laws, producing both religiously defined militias and aligned civil society groups. Examining the impact on women of

Farida Shaheed

2010-01-01

382

Simulating the Afghanistan-Pakistan opium supply chain  

SciTech Connect

This paper outlines an opium supply chain using the Hilmand province of Afghanistan as exemplar. The opium supply chain model follows the transformation of opium poppy seed through cultivation and chemical alteration to brown heroin base. The purpose of modeling and simulating the Afghanistan-Pakistan opium supply chain is to discover and test strategies that will disrupt this criminal enterprise.

Watkins, Jennifer H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mac Kerrow, Edward P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Merritt, Terence [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01

383

Watta satta : bride exchange and women's welfare in rural Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a setting where husbands wield considerable coercive power, forms of marriage should adapt to protect the interests of women and their families. The authors study the pervasive marriage custom of watta satta in rural Pakistan, a bride exchange between families coupled with a mutual threat of retaliation. They show that watta satta may be a mechanism to coordinate the

Hanan G. Jacoby; Ghazala Mansuri

2007-01-01

384

Watta Satta: Exchange Marriage and Women's Welfare in Rural Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper attempts to understand the pervasive marriage custom of watta satta in rural Pakistan, a bride exchange between families coupled with a mutual threat of reciprocity. In a setting where husbands wield considerable coercive power, forms of marriage should adapt to protect the interests of women and their families. We show that watta satta may be a mechanism to

Hanan G. Jacoby; Ghazala Mansuri

385

Temperament Styles of Children from Pakistan and the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Age, gender, and cross-national differences of children ages 9 through 16 in Pakistan (n = 463) and the United States (n = 500) are examined on four bipolar temperament styles: Extroversion-introversion, practical-imaginative, thinking-feeling, and organized-flexible. In general, Pakistani children prefer extroverted over introverted, practical…

Oakland, Thomas; Callueng, Carmelo; Rizwan, Muhammad; Aftab, Sobia

2012-01-01

386

Stitching Footballs: Voices of Children in Sailkot, Pakistan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report details a situation analysis of children working in football stitching around Sialkot, Pakistan. The analysis (1) examined the reasons that children work and the probable impact of eradicating children's involvement and phasing out home-based production and (2) determined a baseline for monitoring changes in children's and families'…

Marcus, Rachel; Husselbee, David; Shah, Faiz; Harper, Annie; Ali, Bahar

387

The Molecular Basis of Retinal Dystrophies in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

The customary consanguineous nuptials in Pakistan underlie the frequent occurrence of autosomal recessive inherited disorders, including retinal dystrophy (RD). In many studies, homozygosity mapping has been shown to be successful in mapping susceptibility loci for autosomal recessive inherited disease. RDs are the most frequent cause of inherited blindness worldwide. To date there is no comprehensive genetic overview of different RDs in Pakistan. In this review, genetic data of syndromic and non-syndromic RD families from Pakistan has been collected. Out of the 132 genes known to be involved in non-syndromic RD, 35 different genes have been reported to be mutated in families of Pakistani origin. In the Pakistani RD families 90% of the mutations causing non-syndromic RD and all mutations causing syndromic forms of the disease have not been reported in other populations. Based on the current inventory of all Pakistani RD-associated gene defects, a cost-efficient allele-specific analysis of 11 RD-associated variants is proposed, which may capture up to 35% of the genetic causes of retinal dystrophy in Pakistan. PMID:24705292

Khan, Muhammad Imran; Azam, Maleeha; Ajmal, Muhammad; Collin, Rob W. J.; den Hollander, Anneke I.; Cremers, Frans P. M.; Qamar, Raheel

2014-01-01

388

Mother's milk and pseudoscientific breastmilk testing in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In urban squatter settlements and rural villages of Pakistan, human breastmilk is regarded as a potential source of destruction as well as of nurturance. Though it is highly valued as crucial for infant survival, it is also thought susceptible to becoming tainted in many ways: by a 'shadow' from the spirit world; by 'evil eye' or black magic due to

Dorothy S. Mull

1992-01-01

389

Psychiatry in Pakistan: 1947-2006: A new balance sheet  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review deals with the evolution of psychiatry in Pakistan since its inception in 1947. It describes the situation of psychiatric services, education and research through the years 1947-2006, presenting a picture of existing mental health scenario, suggesting the ways for improvement and comment on possible future developments. It concludes with the prediction of a revolutionary change in the current

Amin A. Muhammad Gadit

2006-01-01

390

Standards and export performance in developing countries: Evidence from Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies have analyzed the exporting pattern and performance of firms located in a developing country. However, there is limited work on the impact of standards on the performance of developing country exporting firms. This paper uses data from Pakistan to assess the effects of ISO 9000 certification on export sales and share of exports (relative to domestic and export

Oliver Masakure; Spencer Henson; John Cranfield

2009-01-01

391

Strategic Framework for Teacher Education and Professional Development: Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is common to find well-crafted and coherent policy designs failing to attain desired results in developing counties. Pakistan is no exception. Despite having taken a significant number of initiatives in a quest to further its Teacher Professional Development (TPD) objectives, progress remains less than satisfactory. While a number of studies…

US Agency for International Development, 2006

2006-01-01

392

DILEMMAS OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION IN PAKISTAN: FOOD FOR THOUGHT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since their inception, agricultural extension services in Pakistan have been organised as a part of the Ministry of Agriculture. A number of extension models and styles have been tried and rejected. Currently, the Government is looking for an extension service that is cost effective, responsive to farmers' needs, and environmentally sustainable. To this end, the government is inclined towards the

Andrew P. Davidson; Munir Ahmad; Tanvir Ali

393

Biologically active traditional medicinal herbs from Balochistan, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biological activities of the following four important medicinal plants of Balochistan, Pakistan were checked; Grewia erythraea Schwein f. (Tiliaceae), Hymenocrater sessilifolius Fisch. and C.A. Mey (Lamiaceae), Vincetoxicum stocksii Ali and Khatoon (Asclepiadaceae) and Zygophyllum fabago L. (Zygophyllaceae). The methanolic extracts were fractionated into hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, butanol and water. The antifungal and antibacterial activities of these plants were

Mudassir A. Zaidi; Sidney A. Crow

2005-01-01

394

Early Childhood Teacher Education in Pakistan: Time for Action  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a critical account of early childhood education (ECE) in Pakistan. It moves from a general review of the benefits of ECE to focus on the issues and challenges connected to the professional development of early childhood teachers. It highlights problems encountered in developing practitioners who are highly skilled in the…

Zada, Khan

2014-01-01

395

Error Correction Model of the Demand for Money in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper estimated dynamic demand for money (Currency) function for Pakistan. it is concluded that in the long run money demand depends on income, rate of inflation and bond rate. The rate of Inflation and rate of interst on deposits emerged as important determinant of money demand in the short run. Moreover dynamic model remans stable througtout the study period.

Abdul Qayyum

1998-01-01

396

The changing structure of distribution channels in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to consider the impact of the entry of international wholesalers upon existing fast moving consumer goods (FMCG) channel structures and the relationships between channel members in Pakistan. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper draws on primary and secondary data. Industrial and published sources are used to describe the retail industry and traditional channel structures

Asad Aman; Gillian Hopkinson

2010-01-01

397

Psychological Problems and Dream Content of Nightmare Sufferers in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an urbanized setting in Pakistan, 14 nightmare sufferers (NS) were compared with 14 control dreamers (CD) on the standard scales of the MMPI (Urdu) as well as on self-reported ratings of dream content and sleep problems. These subjects were selected on a volunteer basis. Although the average MMPI profile of both groups was within the normal range (between T

Najma Najam; Imrana Malik

2003-01-01

398

Primary Education in Pakistan. Part IV. Annexes to the Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The fourth part of a four-part analysis and assessment of Pakistan's system of primary education presents annexes to the analysis that was reported in the second part of the overall report. Five annexes are included: (A) Acronyms; (B) Scope of Work; (C) Persons Interviewed; (D) Chapter Annexes; and (E) Bibliography. A number of charts and diagrams…

Development Associates, Inc., Arlington, VA.

399

Primary Education in Pakistan. Part II. The Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, the second part of a four-part analysis and assessment of Pakistan's system of primary education, presents the report's susbstantive analysis. Seven chapters are included: (1) Introduction; (2) Educational Policy and Planning; (3) The Financing of Primary Education; (4) Organization, Management, and Administration; (5) The Formal…

Development Associates, Inc., Arlington, VA.

400

Schools for Change: A Perspective on School Improvement in Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on the deeply unsatisfactory state of public and private schooling in a developing country, Pakistan, and the half-hearted measures employed at improving these schools. In the process, the author explores the negative aspects of the ways in which change has been effected in the country's education system and why these reasons…

Riaz, Ismat

2008-01-01

401

The Changing Perspective of Art Education in Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of art education in Pakistan over the last five decades is explored through three major phases: Arts as traditional crafts together with proficiency in painting and calligraphy. Such skills; somewhat existed in academies but, were then transferred through apprenticeship system. Arts in the academies; the first turning point, that…

Khan, Muhammad Sher Ali

2014-01-01

402

Gender Representation in the Public Sector Schools Textbooks of Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines gender biases in school textbooks after a decade long effort by the ministry of education (MoE) Pakistan and international organisation (IOs) to eliminate all forms of gender inequality in education. The intention underpinning these initiatives was to nurture a view of gender equality based consciousness through the…

Ullah, Hazir; Skelton, Christine

2013-01-01

403

Taxonomy of Cyber Crimes and Legislation in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

We inhabit a rapidly developing world of shifting trends. Information Technology that was considered as a key contributor in progress of any country has evolved into a nightmare in form of Cyber Crimes. Despite proper legislation, most of such offences of less severe nature remain veiled in Pakistan. Deficient law enforcement and absence of an international treaty against Cyber Crimes

M. Adeel; A. A. Chaudhry; R. A. Shaikh; S. I. Shah

2005-01-01

404

Multipurpose community telecenters for rural development in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The paper aims to: assess the situation of rural population in Pakistan and information facilities available to them including telecommunications, computers and public libraries; document the community information initiatives in terms of objectives, institutional framework, staff, services, use, finance, technology and lessons learned; understand challenges and opportunities regarding the establishment of multipurpose community telecenters (MCTs) in rural areas

Khalid Mahmood

2005-01-01

405

Natural Resource Abundance and Economic Growth in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural capital can play an important role to boost the economic growth and to accelerate the pace of development. Evidence is found that the countries having vast natural resources could not perform significantly compared with the countries deficient of natural capital. This paper empirically explores the contribution of natural resources to economic growth for Pakistan for the period of 1975-2006

Shahzad Hussain; Imran Sharif Chaudhry; Shahnawaz Malik

406

Pakistan [Population education in countries of the region].  

PubMed

The scope of formal population education in Pakistan covers the entire academic system, beginning from the primary level to the university and professional colleges. The government initiated action in 1980 to integrate population education in the formal and nonformal education sectors. General as well as specific behavioral objectives for population education were developed by the National Committee on Population Education. These objectives were further broken down for primary, middle, and lower and higher secondary school levels. The National Committee on Population Education prepared a curriculum for the training of primary, middle, and lower secondary school teachers which was used in training the master trainers. Textbooks in Pakistan were written in 1975 following the concepts and guidelines provided in the new curricula. Curriculum development specialists prepared model lessons on the integration of population education with social studies, Pakistan studies, Urdu, health and physical education, and nursing and general science for the guidance of textbook writers and teachers. The Allama Iqbal Open University has developed a 24-unit course to orientate primary school teachers in the philosophy and content of new curricula provided for in the new education policy of Pakistan. The Population Planning Division of Pakistan and the Family Planning Association of Pakistan periodically develop materials which serve as supplementary readers; an orientation program for teachers began on a limited scale following the inception of population education in Pakistan. Some research and evaluation projects have been undertaken periodically to study the effectiveness of some of the family planning programs. To ensure systematic and comprehensive coverage of population education through the existing formal and nonformal education programs the government is planning to undertake in collaboration with the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) and other bilateral and multilateral funding agencies. The broad strategies for implementation cover the following areas: identification of the target group; instructional strategies; and federal and provincial implementation strategies. Problems have included perception as another name for family planning, lack of systematic and consistent planning for integrating population education, and a lack of funds. PMID:12265645

1982-06-01

407

Cooperative Development of the Pakistan Seismic Network System (PSNS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose to cooperate with the Pakistan Meteorological Department for the design and construction of the new Pakistan Seismic Network System (PSNS) that has been funded by the government of Pakistan. The PSNS will consist of 12-15 broadband stations, 50 short-period stations, and 50 accelerometers. Our role will be to provide technical assistance in site selection, to prepare the Request for Proposals (RFP) from industry, and to evaluate performance. The relative importance of tsunami warnings, national earthquake and landslide hazards, and whether a largely urban or truly national network is envisioned will be determined early in the program. Final placement of stations will take many factors into consideration including proximity to faults and seismic activity, geographic accessibility, the consistency of bedrock, and various cultural or social effects. This cooperation has the potential to lead to the development of a desperately needed tsunami early warning network that could protect the Pakistani coastal population in the event of a natural disaster such as the Dec. 26, 2004 Sumatra earthquake and tsunami. The seismic hazard off the coast of Pakistan is high due to the proximity of the Makran and Sumatra subduction zones, the former of which could trigger tsunamis in Pakistan with heights of 12m within minutes. In addition to monitoring earthquake activity, the PSNS will provide seismic data of interest to the world-wide scientific community for a region in which there is little understanding of the upper crust and mantle. It will furthermore address educational outreach and diplomacy issues by providing training to Pakistani scientists in routine network operation and data processing.

Detweiler, S.; Mooney, W.; McDonald, S.

2005-12-01

408

Primary Education in Pakistan. An Analysis and Assessment of Pakistan's Present Primary Education System with Recommendations for its Further Development. Part I: Summary Conclusions and Recommendations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first part of a four-part analysis and assessment of Pakistan's system of primary education, this document presents summary conclusions and recommendations. Despite gains in primary school attendance and recent good economic performance, Pakistan's educational base remains so weak as to constitute a serious threat to continued economic growth.…

Development Associates, Inc., Arlington, VA.

409

South Centre  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based in Switzerland, South Centre is a multi-national organization which promotes the global organization of its 46 member nations in order to become "effective in mobilizing its considerable combined expertise and experience or its bargaining power." The site contains a large number of current working papers, South Centre's quarterly newsletter South Letter, and relevant links.

410

Determinants of neonatal mortality in Pakistan: secondary analysis of Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey 2006–07  

PubMed Central

Background Globally 7.6 million children died in 2010 before reaching their fifth birthday and 40% of these deaths occur in the neonatal period. Pakistan has the third highest rate of neonatal mortality globally. To implement evidence-based interventions for the reduction of neonatal mortality, it is important to investigate factors associated with neonatal mortality. The aim of the current study was to identify determinants of neonatal mortality in Pakistan. Methods Data was derived from the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey 2006–07. All singleton live births between 2002 and 2006 were selected for the current analyses. Data was analysed by using STATA 13 and adjusted for the cluster sampling design. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard models were performed using step-wise backward elimination procedures to identify the determinants of neonatal mortality. Results A total of 5,702 singleton live births in the last five years preceding the survey were selected. Multivariate analyses showed that living in Punjab province (Adj HR?=?2.10, p?=?0.015), belonging to the poorest household wealth index quintile (Adj HR?=?1.95, p?=?0.035), male infants (Adj HR?=?1.57, p?=?0.014), first rank baby (Adj HR?=?1.59, p?=?0.049), smaller than average birth size (Adj HR?=?1.61, p?=?0.023) and mothers with delivery complications (Adj HR?=?1.93, p?=?0.001) had significantly higher hazards of neonatal death in Pakistan. Conclusions To reduce neonatal mortality, there is a need to implement interventions focusing on antenatal care, effective referral system and retraining of healthcare providers to manage delivery complications and smaller than average birth size babies in resource poor communities of Pakistan. PMID:24972633

2014-01-01

411

Land surface hydrological investigation in Upper Indus River Basin (UIB), North Pakistan under the Framework of TPE Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Upper Indus Basin (UIB) is home to three of the world's mightiest mountain ranges. The Karakoram in north and the Himalaya in northeast while the Hindukush in the northwest of Pakistan. The Indus River emerges from the Tibetan Plateau and flows toward northern areas of Pakistan where it changes its direction toward the south and flows into the Arabian Sea. The catchment area of Indus River is located in Pakistan, China and India, but most part covered in Pakistan. The Upper Indus Basin lies within the variable influence of three major weather systems: the sub-Mediterranean regime of mainly winter, westerly storms; the summer monsoon; and the Tibetan anticyclone. The Upper Indus River Basin has a total catchment area of approx. 206,000 km2. The UIB includes the Hunza, Gilgit, Astore, Shigar and Shyok sub-basins. Nearly 11.5% (22,000 km2) of the total area of the UIB is covered by perennial glacial ice (including most of the largest valley glaciers) making it the largest area outside the polar and Greenland regions (Hewitt, 2007). UIB has a mean elevation of 4750 m with almost 60% of its total area above an elevation of 4500 m and 12% of its area (almost the same area is glacier covered) above 5500 m. Glacial melt is one of the major sources of inflow in the Upper Indus Basin, 44.8% of its river flow depends upon glacial melting. Its mean discharge at Tarbela dam is 5533 m3/s (IUCN, IWMI). Most of the annual precipitation in the UIB falls in the winter and spring and originates from the west (Young and Hewitt, 1990). Several researchers reported that 80% of the flow of the Upper Indus River is contributed by less than 20% of its area, essentially from the zones of heavy snowfall and glaciated basins above 3500m in elevation. Under the Framework of TPE Program, observational researches have been lunched since last year. The project aim to the objective of hydrological consequence of snow cover in UIB; impact of glacier dynamic to basin drainage and response of discharge to climatic changes during past 50 years. The presentation will highlight the research including field expedition in 2011, objective and strategies, and request to cooperation as well.

Zhang, Y.

2012-12-01

412

mise jour: 09/12/2009 Rapport de ma mission au Pakistan  

E-print Network

1 mise à jour: 09/12/2009 Rapport de ma mission au Pakistan �cole de recherche CIMPA du 22 au 28://www.lums.edu.pk/> pour y donner une conférence dans le cadre de French Science Tour in Pakistan Science Tour in Pakistan. · Samedi 28 février, 8 exposés organisés par Juergen Herzog permettant à des

Waldschmidt, Michel

413

Louvain-la-Neuve, le 27 janvier 2011 Hunza ! : images du Pakistan, par Benoit Sneessens  

E-print Network

Louvain-la-Neuve, le 27 janvier 2011 « Hunza ! » : images du Pakistan, par Benoit Sneessens Du 1er trois ans, l'artiste a parcouru à pieds les sentiers escarpés de la vallée de Hunza, au Nord du Pakistan reportages à l'étranger, s'envole pour le Pakistan. Le but de son expédition : confronter l'image du pays

Nesterov, Yurii

414

mise jour: 30/03/2009 Rapport de ma mission au Pakistan  

E-print Network

1 mise à jour: 30/03/2009 Rapport de ma mission au Pakistan �cole de recherche CIMPA du 22 au 28://www.lums.edu.pk/> pour y donner une conférence dans le cadre de French Science Tour in Pakistan Science Tour in Pakistan. · Samedi 28 février, 8 exposés organisés par Juergen Herzog permettant à des

Waldschmidt, Michel

415

Stratigraphic boundary problems: Permian and Triassic of West Pakistan. Edited by Bernhard Kummel and Curt Teichert  

E-print Network

.C. Bernhard Kummel Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts Albert J. Rowell Department of Geology, The University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas William A. S. Sarjeant Department of Geology, The University, Nottingham, England...-Indus Ranges, West Pakistan 207 W. C. Sweet Acritarchs and Tasmanitids from the Chhidru Formation, Uppermost Permian of West Pakistan 277 W. A. S. Sarjeant Palynology of Permian and Triassic Strata in the Salt Range and Surghar Range, West Pakistan 305 B. E...

1970-01-01

416

Consequences of Political Instability, Governance and Bureaucratic Corruption on Inflation and Growth: The Case of Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a theoretical model with micro-foundations that captures some important features of Pakistan's economy which have emerged in sixty-four years of its history. A comparison of Pakistan’s economic performance during different regimes shows that macroeconomic fundamentals tend to show an improvement during the autocratic regimes as compared with those prevailing during democratic regimes. In particular, periods of autocratic

Adnan Haider; Musleh ud Din; Ejaz Ghani

2011-01-01

417

Benthic biological and biogeochemical patterns and processes across an oxygen minimum zone (Pakistan margin, NE Arabian Sea)  

E-print Network

(Pakistan margin, NE Arabian Sea) Gregory L. Cowie a,Ã?, Lisa A. Levin b a The Sir John Murray Laboratories), and organic matter (OM) availability on benthic communities and processes across the Pakistan Margin

Levin, Lisa

418

PUBLISHED ONLINE: 15 JANUARY 2012 | DOI: 10.1038/NGEO1373 Stickslip advance of the Kohat Plateau in Pakistan  

E-print Network

Plateau in Pakistan S. P. Satyabala1 , Zhaohui Yang2 and Roger Bilham2 * Throughout most of the Himalaya of rock to slide aseismically on a décollement, as has clearly occurred in the Potwar Plateau of Pakistan

Bilham, Roger

419

Second generation HIV surveillance in Pakistan: policy challenges and opportunities  

PubMed Central

From 2004 to 2011, the Canada-Pakistan HIV/AIDS Surveillance Project (HASP) worked with government and non-government partners in Pakistan to design and implement an HIV second generation surveillance (SGS) system. Insights into the development of scalable cost effective surveillance methodologies, implementation, use of data for HIV prevention and human rights were gained over the course of HASP. An ideal SGS system would be affordable, able to be implemented independently by local partners and produce data that could be readily applied in policy and programmes. Flexibility in design and implementation is important to ensure that any SGS system is responsive to information needs, political changes and changes in key population dynamics and HIV epidemics. HASP's mapping methodology is innovative and widely accepted as best practice, but sustainability of the SGS system it developed is a challenge. PMID:23220785

Munro, Michelle; Holte-McKenzie, Merydth; Ahmed, Sadia; Archibald, Chris P; Blanchard, James F; Thompson, Laura H

2013-01-01

420

Community participation eludes Pakistan's maternal, newborn and child health programme.  

PubMed

This study looked at the comprehensiveness of the primary health care approach being applied in Pakistan's National Maternal, Newborn and Child Health (MNCH) Programme launched in 2005. The methods included a review of the programme's guideline documents, in-depth interviews with managers/advisors and focus group discussions with community groups and service providers. The MNCH Programme is applying a selective primary care model. Programme advisors and managers were concerned about the quality of training, political interference and incomplete implementation. Service providers were not working together as envisioned. Community midwives complained about the community's perceptions of them. Community members were unaware of MNCH Programme implementation in their areas. Pakistan's primary health care programme needs to be reviewed and revised according current thinking on community participation and inter-sectoral collaboration to accelerate progress towards achievement of Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5. PMID:24932928

Akhtar, T; Khan, Z; Raoof, S

2014-01-01

421

The United States and Pakistan's Quest for the Bomb  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Security Archive at The George Washington University is dedicated to providing key diplomatic documents that describe the world of political relationships and other key areas of government relations between the United States and other nations. This electronic briefing book released in December 2010 takes a look at the attempts by the Carter administration to roll back Pakistan's nuclear program in the late 1970s. These recently declassified U.S. government documents shed light on the "critical period when Washington discovered that Pakistan, a Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty hold-out, had acquired key elements of a nuclear weapons capability." This collection contains 40 documents that highlight some of the behind-the-scenes negotiating that went on from 1978 to 1980. There's a brief synopsis of each document, and a fine introduction that provides some good context on this series of communiques and related exchanges.

422

Makran Mountain Range, Indus River Valley, Pakistan, India  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The enormous geologic pressures exerted by continental drift can be very well illustrated by the long northward curving parallel folded mountain ridges and valleys of the coastal Makran Range of Pakistan (27.0N, 66.0E). As a result of the collision of the northward bound Indian sub-continent into the Asian Continent, the east/west parallel range has been bent in a great northward arc and forming the Indus River valley at the interface of the collision.

1984-01-01

423

Evaluation of integrated weed management practices for chilies in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weed management studies in transplanted chilies were conducted during 2004 and 2005 at the National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan. Pendimethalin and oxadiazon at 0.825 and 0.240l a.i.ha?1, respectively were applied 1 week before and 2 days after transplanting and their efficacy alone and in combination with one manual weeding was evaluated to reduce weed competition and its effects on

Khalid Mahmood Khokhar; Tariq Mehmood; Muhammad Shakeel

2007-01-01

424

Active wrench faults of Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung  Auf einer beigegebenen Karte wird der Verlauf von aktiven und von vermutlichen Hauptverwerfungen in Afghanistan, Pakistan und im Iran gezeigt, wie er anhand von Luftbild-Mosaikkarten und Luftaufnahmen bestimmt wurde. Die fünf wichtigsten aktiven Dislokationen sind die Herat-, Chaman-, Sharud-, Doruneh- und die Zagros-Verwerfung.Die deutlich sichtbare Herat-Verwerfung erstreckt sich in ENE-Richtung über 800 km durch den Nordteil Afghanistans zur chinesischen Grenze.

H. W. Wellman

1966-01-01

425

Epidemiology of spinal cord injuries in the 2005 Pakistan earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study design:Prospective observational study.Objectives:To identify the epidemiological features specific to spinal injuries as a result of an earthquake.Settings:Rawalpindi, Pakistan in the months after the 8 October 2005 earthquake.Methods:In the month after the earthquake, the one established rehabilitation center was augmented with two makeshift spinal cord centers. Information on mechanism of injury, mode of evacuation, associated injuries was gathered, and a

M F A Rathore; P Rashid; A W Butt; A A Malik; Z A Gill; A J Haig; MFA Rathore

2007-01-01

426

PASSPORTS TO PRIVILEGE: THE ENGLISH-MEDIUM SCHOOLS IN PAKISTAN  

E-print Network

and aspirations of their countrymen they are generally believers in liberal-humanist and democratic values. Thus they are less susceptible to sectarian prejudices or the persecution of non-Muslims in Pakistan. Being less exposed to nationalistic... and The Muslim, 13 November 1987). THE PRESENT SITUATION At the moment the federal government has its own English-medium schools. Some of them teach some subjects in English and others in Urdu. The 19 model colleges of the federal government are English...

Rahman, Tariq

2005-01-01

427

Contending Identities of Pakistan and The Issue of Democratic Governance  

E-print Network

demanded that the new nation should assume its role as the leader of the Muslim world and run its affairs according to the theologians’ interpretation of God’s word. These Islamists have become so assertive over time, especially after the Zia interlude... and regional diversity and socio-economic disparities. Pakistan's track record in accommodating these identities and discontinuities in the national mainstream has been rather disappointing. A monolithic notion of national identity and an authoritarian...

Khan, Ijaz

2006-01-01

428

GENETIC RESOURCES AND DIVERSITY IN DAIRY BUFFALOES OF PAKISTAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Buffalo is the main dairy animal in Pakistan. There are five known buffalo breeds in the country namely: Nili, Ravi, Nili-Ravi, Kundhi and Azi Kheli (or Azakhale). Population trend is available for Nili- Ravi and Kundhi breeds and is positive. Azi-Kheli breed was included in 2006 livestock census for the first time. General production system is low-input extensive system but

M. SAJJAD KHAN; NAZIR AHMAD

429

Quality of pharmacies in Pakistan: a cross-sectional survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To estimate the proportion of pharmacies meeting licensing requirements and to identify factors associated with these pharmacies in urban Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Design. Cross-sectional questionnaire survey conducted during July-September 2001, of 311 pharmacies selected from a drug company list of 506. Setting. Free-standing licensed and unlicensed pharmacies in urban Rawalpindi. Study participants. A pharmacist or (if unavailable) the most experienced

ZAHID A. BUTT; ANWAR H. GILANI; DEBRA NANAN; ABDUL L. SHEIKH; FRANK WHITE

2005-01-01

430

Evaluation of environmental impact assessment system in Pakistan  

SciTech Connect

Environmental impact assessment (EIA) was first introduced in Pakistan based on the Environmental Protection Ordinance 1983. The EIA process was further strengthened under the Pakistan Environmental Protection Act 1997, which became operational under EIA Regulations 2000. Despite a sound legal basis and comprehensive guidelines, evidence suggests that EIA has not yet evolved satisfactorily in Pakistan. An evaluation of the EIA system against systematic evaluation criteria, based on interviews with EIA approval authorities, consulting firms and experts, reveals various shortcomings of the EIA system. These mainly include; inadequate capacity of EIA approval authorities, deficiencies in screening and scoping, poor EIA quality, inadequate public participation and weak monitoring. Overall, EIA is used presently as a project justification tool rather than as a project planning tool to contribute to achieving sustainable development. Whilst shortcomings are challenging, central government has recently shown a high degree of commitment to the environmental protection by making EIA compulsory for all the public sector projects likely to have adverse environmental impacts. The paper identifies opportunities for taking advantage of the current environment for strengthening the EIA process.

Nadeem, Obaidullah [Department of City and Regional Planning, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore (Pakistan)], E-mail: obaidnadeem@yahoo.com; Hameed, Rizwan [Department of City and Regional Planning, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore (Pakistan)], E-mail: d_rizwan@hotmail.com

2008-11-15

431

Genetic analysis of peste des petits ruminants virus from Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an endemic and highly contagious disease in small ruminants of Pakistan. Despite the fact that an effective vaccine is available, outbreaks are regularly occurring in the country. Thus so far, the diagnosis has primarily been made based on clinical outcome or serology. This study was carried out to characterize PPRV from an emerging wave of outbreaks from Punjab, Pakistan. Results A total of 32 blood samples from five different flocks were tested with real-time PCR for the presence of PPRV genome. The samples detected positive in real-time PCR (n?=?17) were subjected to conventional PCR for the amplification of the nucleoprotein (N) gene. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequenced N genes (n?=?8) indicated the grouping of all the sequences in lineage IV along with PPRV strains from Asian and Middle East. However, interestingly sequences were divided into two groups. One group of viruses (n?=?7) clustered with previously characterized Pakistani isolates whereas one strain of PPRV was distinct and clustered with Saudi Arabian and Iranian strains of PPRV. Conclusions Results demonstrated in this study expanded the information on the genetic nature of different PPRV population circulating in small ruminants. Such information is essential to understand genetic nature of PPRV strains throughout the country. Proper understanding of these viruses will help to devise control strategies in PPRV endemic countries such as Pakistan. PMID:23537146

2013-01-01

432

Nuclear proliferation and national security in India and Pakistan  

SciTech Connect

This study develops an inventory of propositions from secondary literature about nuclear proliferation incentives and constraints. From this comprehensive inventory are derived eight dimensions of proliferation. Once a state has acquired the necessary technology and material to develop weapons, the critical factors that motivate proliferation are insecurity, alliance protection, and a threat of national extinction. The eight dimensions are then evaluated with respect to two critical states, India and Pakistan, both of which are on the brink of developing nuclear weapons. Extensive interviews were conducted in the United States, India, and Pakistan of senior Indian, Pakistani, and American military official, diplomats, politicians, scholars, and journalists. Based on these interviews, it is clear that Indians and Pakistanis feel themselves caught in a dilemma. Although the initial motivation for developing weapons was indeed found to be insecurity, as expected, it is generally assumed that the effect of proliferation will in fact be to render both states even less secure than they were before beginning their nuclear programs. India and Pakistan are a critical pair of states as they are in a position to assess the probable consequences of nuclear proliferation and back away from it. In so doing, they could set an example to other states of why nuclear proliferation is not in the security interest of nations.

Joeck, N.H.A.

1986-01-01

433

Heavy metal pollution assessment in various industries of Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water pollution is a source of danger to the health of people living in developing countries such as Pakistan. The main industries located at various industrial zones of Pakistan cause water pollution, which ultimately result in various diseases. The aim of the present study was to study the concentrations of essential and toxic metals (Na, K, Cu, Zn, Fe, Ca, Pb and As) in the drained water of three main industrial estates of Pakistan, i.e., Industrial Estate No. 1 Peshawar, Small Industrial Estate No. 2 Gujranwala, Industrial Estate Hattar Haripur, and in Warsak Canal (industrially pure water) with the help of atomic absorption spectroscopy and flame emission spectroscopy. The study showed high Pb and As levels originating from industries. The concentrations of Pb and As ranged from 0.04 to 0.942 mg/L in all the samples. These have been extensively used for irrigation since the last five decades. The elevated concentrations of heavy metals are continuously entering into the food chain through agriculture leading to serious health hazards and a threat to the sustainability of local ecosystem.

Rehman, Wajid; Zeb, Akif; Noor, Nayyara; Nawaz, Mohsan

2008-07-01

434

Undergraduate medical education in underdeveloped countries: the case of Pakistan.  

PubMed

The type of medical education of a country is closely linked with its system of health care. Any health care system, with its own peculiarities, requires a certain type of doctor who can function effectively in the given environment. The same is the case with underdeveloped capitalist countries, such as Pakistan, where a skewed, elitist, curative model of health care exists. In Pakistan, where the literacy levels in the native tongue are very low, medicine is taught in English, and nearly all prescribed textbooks are written in and for the West. Conditions specific to Pakistan, such as the degree of cheating in exams, the time lost due to closure, and the level of debate concerning the medical system may find their parallels in other UDCs. Since it is the social and economic forces, which, in the final analysis, determine the system of health care and medical education, one cannot expect any significant improvement within the existing class structure. Only in a country where the masses have control over the production and distribution of resources, can the systems of health care and medical education be brought in line with the real needs of the community and of the country. PMID:3317891

Zaidi, S A

1987-01-01

435

Polyendocrine syndrome type 3C in a family from Pakistan.  

PubMed

In type 3 polyendocrine syndrome (PAS3), autoimmune thyroiditis occurs with other organ-specific autoimmune disease, but not with autoimmune adrenalitis. In this report we described a family from Pakistan in which mother and three daughters were affected by a PAS3. We studied a family from Pakistan: Father MMu age 44, mother KN aged 44, three daughters MM age 20, MH age 16 and MA age 14 and a son MU age 18. These subjects were tested for thyroids function, metabolic function, adrenal function, autoimmune disease. In this family the four females were shown hypothyroidism with presence of anti thyroid autoantibodies (AA) and high TSH serum concentration in association with the presence of anti transglutaminase AA. Moreover KN, MM and MH were positive for anti nuclear AA (granular pattern) and for antibodies against Saccaromyces cerevisiae. MM was positive for AA against nuclear extractable antigens (SSA and SSB) too. No diabetes or pernicious anemia were observed. Adrenal and Pituitary function were normal. PAS 3C is an uncommon disease. In this family from Pakistan we observed a PAS3C in the four female members: mother and three daughters while father and son were unaffected. PMID:24126553

Gessoni, G; Antico, F; Caroli, D; Nogara, A; Valverde, S; Fezzi, M; Zucchelli, M; Boscolo-Bariga, A

2013-09-01

436

Prevalence and distribution of human Plasmodium infection in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Both Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum are prevalent in Pakistan, yet up-to-date data on the epidemiology of malaria in Pakistan are not available. This study was undertaken to determine the current prevalence and distribution of Plasmodium species across the country. Methods A malariometric population survey was conducted in 2011 using blood samples collected from 801 febrile patients of all ages in four provinces and the capital city of Islamabad. Microscopically confirmed Plasmodium-positive blood samples were reconfirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Confirmed parasite-positive samples were subjected to species-specific PCR capable of detecting four species of human malaria. Results Of the 707 PCR-positive samples, 128 (18%) were P. falciparum, 536 (76%) were P. vivax, and 43 (6%) were mixed P. falciparum and P. vivax. Ninety-four microscopy-positive samples were PCR-negative, and Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium ovale were not detected. Prevalence of P. vivax ranged from 2.4% in Punjab Province to 10.8% in Sindh Province and prevalence of P. falciparum ranged from 0.1% in Islamabad to 3.8% in Balochistan. Conclusions Plasmodium infections in Pakistan are largely attributed to P. vivax but P. falciparum and mixed species infections are also prevalent. In addition, regional variation in the prevalence and species composition of malaria is high. PMID:23984968

2013-01-01

437

75 FR 52712 - Notice of Decision To Issue Permits for the Importation of Fresh Mango Fruit From Pakistan Into...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Permits for the Importation of Fresh Mango Fruit From Pakistan Into the Continental United...continental United States of fresh mango fruit from Pakistan. Based on the findings of...weeds via the importation of fresh mango fruit from Pakistan. DATES: Effective...

2010-08-27

438

GEOLOGY | February 2013 | www.gsapubs.org 111 The Stak massif, northern Pakistan, is a newly recognized occur-  

E-print Network

GEOLOGY | February 2013 | www.gsapubs.org 111 ABSTRACT The Stak massif, northern Pakistan in northern Pakistan (Fig. 1) is a retro- gressed eclogitic massif, but the pervasive retrogression made northwest of Skardu, Pakistan (Fig. 1). High-pressure rocks are exposed on the northern edge of the Indian

439

Were the 2010 Pakistan floods predictable?2 P. J. Webster*, V.E. Toma and H-M Kim5  

E-print Network

1 1 Were the 2010 Pakistan floods predictable?2 3 4 P. J. Webster*, V.E. Toma and H-M Kim5 School During July 2010, a series of monsoonal deluges over northern Pakistan resulted in25 catastrophic31 July deluges, especially in North Pakistan was exceptionally rare as deduced from limited32 data

Webster, Peter J.

440

Measuring the Determinants of School Completion in Pakistan: Analysis of Censoring and Selection Bias. Center Discussion Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the demand for child schooling in Pakistan, using the "Pakistan Integrated Household Survey" (1991). There have been few such studies for Pakistan, a country with relatively low enrollment rates and education levels, high illiteracy, and a large disparity between male and female education. This study focuses on two potential…

Holmes, Jessica

441

India and Pakistan`s nuclear arms race: Out of the closet but not in the street  

SciTech Connect

CIA Director James Woolsey testified before the Senate on February 24, 1993, {open_quotes}The arms race between India and Pakistan poses perhaps the most probable prospect for future use of weapons of mass destruction, including nuclear weapons.{close_quotes} Currently, both countries are dependent on relatively crude nuclear bombs that do not appear to have been deployed. According to US officials, because of fears of accidental nuclear detonation, both sides would only assemble their nuclear weapons when absolutely necessary. Nevertheless, according to Woolsey, both nations {open_quotes}could, on short notice, assemble nuclear weapons.{close_quotes} Each has combat aircraft that could deliver these bombs in a crisis. India and Pakistan continue to improve their nuclear weapons. Unless their programs are stopped, they might succeed in moving from large, cumbersome bombs to miniaturized, easily armed and fuzed weapons able to be permanently deployed on attack aircraft or ballistic missiles, which are being developed or sought by both countries.

Albright, D.

1993-06-01

442

The human resource information system: a rapid appraisal of Pakistan’s capacity to employ the tool  

PubMed Central

Background Human resources are an important building block of the health system. During the last decade, enormous investment has gone into the information systems to manage human resources, but due to the lack of a clear vision, policy, and strategy, the results of these efforts have not been very visible. No reliable information portal captures the actual state of human resources in Pakistan’s health sector. The World Health Organization (WHO) has provided technical support for the assessment of the existing system and development of a comprehensive Human Resource Information System (HRIS) in Pakistan. Methods The questions in the WHO-HRIS Assessment tool were distributed into five thematic groups. Purposively selected (n=65) representatives from the government, private sector, and development partners participated in this cross sectional study, based on their programmatic affiliations. Results Fifty-five percent of organizations and departments have an independent Human Resources (HR) section managed by an establishment branch and are fully equipped with functional computers. Forty-five organizations (70%) had HR rules, regulations and coordination mechanisms, yet these are not implemented. Data reporting is mainly in paper form, on prescribed forms (51%), registers (3%) or even plain papers (20%). Data analysis does not give inputs to the decision making process and dissemination of information is quite erratic. Most of the organizations had no feedback mechanism for cross checking the HR data, rendering it unreliable. Conclusion Pakistan is lacking appropriate HRIS management. The current HRIS indeed has a multitude of problems. In the wake of 2011 reforms within the health sector, provinces are even in a greater need for planning their respective health department services and must work on the deficiencies and inefficiencies of their HRIS so that the gaps and HR needs are better aligned for reaching the 2015 UN Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) targets. PMID:24016066

2013-01-01

443

Climate change and managing water crisis: Pakistan's perspective.  

PubMed

Climate change is a global phenomenon manifested mainly through global warming. The International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has reported its negative consequences on natural resources, anthropogenic activities, and natural disasters. The El Nino and La Nina have affected hydrologic regimes and ecosystems. It has been observed that the average temperature in 1995 was 0.4°C higher than that in 1895. By the end of the 21st century, 10% of the area of Bangladesh is likely to be submerged by the sea. Most of the islands of Pacific Ocean will disappear. A major part of Maldives will be submerged. The sea level is expected to rise by 30-150 cm. Extreme events such as floods, cyclones, tsunamis, and droughts have become regular phenomena in many parts of the world. Other adverse impacts are proliferation of water-borne diseases, sea water intrusion, salinization of coastal areas, loss of biodiversity, eco-degradation of watersheds and global glacial decline, and haphazard snow melts/thaws. In turn, these factors have serious effect on water resources. Pakistan is confronting similar climate change. Meteorological data reveal that winter temperatures are rising and summers are getting cooler. Temperature is expected to increase by 0.9°C and 1.5°C by years 2020 and 2050, respectively. Water resources in Pakistan are affected by climate change as it impacts the behavior of glaciers, rainfall patterns, greenhouse gas emissions, recurrence of extreme events such as floods and droughts. Severe floods have occurred in the years 1950, 1956, 1957, 1973, 1976, 1978, 1988, 1992, 2010, 2011, and 2012. Pakistan has faced the worst-ever droughts during the period from 1998 to 2004. Pakistan has surface water potential of 140 million acre feet (MAF) and underground water reserve of 56 MAF. It is one of the most water-stressed countries in the world. The per capita annual availability of water has reduced from 5140 m3 in 1950 to 1000 m3 now. It is fast approaching towards water scarcity. To minimize adverse impacts of climate change on the water crisis in Pakistan, the preparation of integrated national, provincial, and local level master plans encompassing technical, social, environmental, administrative, and financial considerations is necessary. It is imperative to implement two simultaneous approaches of adaptation (living with climate change) and mitigation (addressing negativities of climate change). Salient features are integrated management of watersheds/catchments/water bodies, optimum exploitation of present sources, development of new sources, water conservation, adequate drainage, efficient design of water storage, conveyance, distribution and supply systems, utilization of waste water, and regulation of water quality. PMID:24695031

Hussain, Mumtaz; Mumtaz, Saniea

2014-01-01

444

Changes in precipitation extremes over arid to semiarid and subhumid Punjab, Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Asymmetrical monsoons during the recent past have resulted into spatially variable and devastating floods in South Asia. Analysis of historic precipitation extremes record may help in formulating mitigation strategies at local level. Eleven indices of precipitation extremes were evaluated using RClimDex and daily time series data for analysis period of 1981-2010 from five representative cities across Punjab province of Pakistan. The indices include consecutive dry days, consecutive wet days, number of days above daily average precipitation, number of days with precipitation ?10 mm, number of days with precipitation ?20 mm, very wet days, extremely wet days, simple daily intensity index, maximum 1-day precipitation quantity, maximum 5 consecutive day precipitation quantity, and annual total wet-day precipitation. Mann-Kendall test and Sen's slope extremes were used to detect trends in indices. Droughts and excessive precipitation were dictated by elevation from mean sea level with prolonged dry spells in southern Punjab and vice versa confirming spatial trends for precipitation extremes. However, no temporal trend was observed for any of the indices. Summer in the region is the wettest season depicting contribution of monsoons during June through August toward devastating floods in the region.

Abbas, Farhat; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Safeeq, Mohammad; Ali, Shafaqat; Saleem, Farhan; Hammad, Hafiz Mohkum; Farhad, Wajid

2014-05-01

445

Smokeless tobacco consumption in a multi-ethnic community in Pakistan: a cross-sectional study.  

PubMed

Smokeless tobacco is commonly used in south Asia. In addition to causing oral and pharyngeal cancers, its harmful effects are comparable to smoking tobacco. A cross-sectional survey with systematic sampling was conducted in 2010-2011 to investigate smokeless tobacco use in a multi-ethnic, semi-urban population in Islamabad, Pakistan (n = 2030). The prevalence of smokeless tobacco use was 16.0% (21.6% among males and 8.8% among females); 51.7% of smokeless tobacco users were also cigarette smokers. The rate of smokeless tobacco use was comparatively high among Pakhtun males (38.2%) and Sindhi females (22.4%). The associations between smokeless tobacco use and ethnicity, age group, income level and cigarette smoking were statistically significant among male smokeless tobacco users. Of the sample 41.4% (840/2030) had inadequate knowledge about the health problems associated with smokeless tobacco. Appropriate interventions are needed to raise awareness of the health risks and to prevent smokeless tobacco use. PMID:24960515

Abbas, S M; Alam, A Y; Usman, M; Siddiqi, K

2014-06-01

446

Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/18: Maritime Cooperation Between India and Pakistan: Building Confidence at Sea  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses ways in which the navies of both India and Pakistan can cooperate on issues of maritime and naval significance. Although the militaries and navies of the two countries have traditionally seen each other as rivals, international economic developments make cooperation imperative. South Asia requires an approach that can alter the existing hostile images and perceptions. This can be achieved through developing an incremental approach towards confidence building that would allow consistency and help build confidence gradually. The aim is to make confidence building a sustainable activity that would help transform hostile images and build cooperative and nonhostile relationships. This paper proposes a five-step model to suggest what the two navies can do jointly to build confidence, with the ultimate goal of naval arms control. The steps include (1) the Signaling Stage to initiate communication between the two navies, (2) the Warming-Up Stage to build confidence through nonmilitary joint ventures, (3) the Handshake Stage to build confidence between the two navies through military joint ventures, (4) the Problem-Solving Stage to resolve outstanding disputes, and (5) the Final Nod Stage to initiate naval arms control. This model would employ communication, navigation, and remote sensing technologies to achieve success.

SIDDIQA-AGHA,AYESHA

2000-11-01

447

The Role of Educational Technology in Upgrading Teacher Education in Pakistan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper outlines a joint Asian Bank/Pakistan Ministry of Education project designed to upgrade the state of teacher education and to improve the quality, status, and professional self-esteem of Pakistan's teachers. The main strategies identified by the Project for priority attention include: structural changes through the creation of four new…

Abbasi, M. Hashim; Millar, Alex C.

448

Hunza Landslide and Monsoon Flooding in Pakistan Call for International Attention to Transboundary Natural Hazards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two major disasters in Pakistan and innumerable lesser disasters throughout the Himalaya-Karakoram region in 2010 highlight geologic events and extreme weather (perhaps climate change) in affecting the well being of whole nations and commerce and relations between nations. Two chief events in Pakistan include the Jan. 4 rockslide into the Hunza River and the subsequent formation of a natural dam

J. S. Kargel; W. Fink; R. Furfaro; G. J. Leonard; M. Patterson; Gaphaz Glims

2010-01-01

449

A time framework based on magnetostratigraphy for the siwalik sediments of the Khaur area, Northern Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tauxe, L. and Opdyke, N. D., 1982. A time framework based on magnetostratigraphy for the Siwalik sediments of the Khaur area, northern Pakistan. Palaeogeogr., Palaeo- c|imatol., Palaeoecol., 37: 43--61. The magnetostratigraphy of eleven new sections in the Khaur area of northern Pakistan is presented. All specimens have been subjected to thermal demagnetization. The sections, taken in adjacent ravines incising the

LISA TAUXE; NEIL D. OPDYKE

1982-01-01

450

Women's Perspectives of Peace: Unheard Voices from Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pakistan is currently impacted by rampant terrorism and is simultaneously grappling with intrastate ethnic and sectarian violence. The focus of this dissertation was on examining grassroots Pakistani women's perspectives on peace and women's contributions to peace in Pakistan. The study was centered on grassroots women because their…

Habib, Zehra

2013-01-01

451

Equality or Equity: Gender Awareness Issues in Secondary Schools in Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on gender awareness issues as a dimension of addressing the wider issue of the quality of education in Pakistan from the perspective of social justice. In Pakistan classrooms, boys and girls learn separately and therefore teachers and others tend to think that there are no gender issues once access is achieved and the learners…

Halai, Anjum

2011-01-01

452

Can Education Be a Path to Gender Equality in the Labour Market? An Update on Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates some of the economic outcomes of education in Pakistan with a view to understanding if education can act as a vehicle for labour market success. Data from a purpose-designed survey of more than 1000 households in Pakistan are utilised. Earnings functions are estimated for agricultural workers, the self-employed and wage…

Aslam, Monazza; Kingdon, Geeta

2012-01-01

453

Contextualising "Education in Pakistan, a White Paper": Global/National Articulations in Education Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article contextualises "Education in Pakistan, a White Paper" (2007), an influential education policy paper in Pakistan. The focus is on the ways the White Paper constructs its own contexts as a complement to the policy solutions proffered. Here we recognise Seddon's point about the discursive work of policy in constructing context. We focus…

Lingard, Bob; Ali, Sajid

2009-01-01

454

A Dime a Day: The Possibilities and Limits of Private Schooling in Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors of this article state that Pakistan is severely offtrack in its progress toward the Millennium Development Goals relating to education for all. Its educational performance is poor, both in absolute terms and relative to the average income of the country. Pakistan has received global attention because of the widespread perception that…

Andrabi, Tahir; Das, Jishnu; Khwaja, Asim Ijaz

2008-01-01

455

Study on Instructional Paradigms of Virtual Education in Pakistan: A Learners' Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study is aimed at examining instructional paradigms of virtual education in Pakistan. The population of the study consisted of learners from Master of Business Administration (MBA) Program at Virtual University (VU) of Pakistan. The researcher adopted convenient sampling technique and collected data from 600 learners through five-point…

Hussain, Irshad

2012-01-01

456

Reflections on Partition Literature - A Comparative Analysis of Ice Candy Man and Train to Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subcontinent was turned into a diabolical region in August 1947 when the British announced the division of the subcontinent into India and Pakistan. Wickedness, violence, and pure evil erupted into powerful mass that soared out of control and consumed everyone that came in its path. Khushwant Singh's Train to Pakistan and Bapsi Sidhwa's Ice Candy Man describe the monstrosity

M. Kamal Khan; Shahzad Mahmood

2010-01-01