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1

Profile of drug users in Karachi City, Pakistan.  

PubMed

Drug use has been identified as a major public issue in Pakistan. A descriptive questionnaire survey in Karachi city was made to identify the socioeconomic profile and beliefs and practices of 500 drug users The most commonly used drugs were cocaine (19.0%) and crack-cocaine (15.0%), followed by amphetamine, (11.0%), alcohol, caffeine, barbiturates and benzodiazepines (10.0% each). Key psychological factors leading tc drug use were problems with parental or marital relations or break-up of a relationship (45.0%). Drugs were seer as an escape from stressful life events (28.0%) or feelings of failure (18.2%). Many drug users blamed the origin of their drug use on bad social influences (47.0%) or socioeconomic problems (23.4%). Preventive measures are needed to decrease the rate of drug addiction in Karachi. PMID:21735800

Ali, H; Bushra, R; Aslam, N

2011-01-01

2

Research fatigue among injecting drug users in Karachi, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Karachi is the largest metropolis of Pakistan and its economic hub attracting domestic migrants for economic opportunities. It is also the epicenter of HIV epidemic in the country. Since 2004, one pilot study and four behavioral and biological surveillance rounds have been conducted in Karachi. In addition many student research projects have also focused on key risk groups including injection drug users (IDUs). As a result of this extra ordinary exposure of same kind of questions, IDUs know how to respond to high value questions related to sharing of needles or unsafe sexual practices. The purpose of the study was to explore the element of research fatigue among IDUs in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods The study was conducted on 32 spots in Karachi, selected on the basis of estimate of IDUs at each spot. A trained field worker (recovered IDU) visited each spot; observed sharing behavior of IDUs and asked questions related to practices in January 2009. Verbal consent was obtained from each respondent before asking questions. Results On average 14 IDUs were present at each spot and out of 32 selected spots, 81% were active while more than two groups were present at 69% spots. In each group three to four IDUs were present and everyone in the group was sharing. One dose of injecting narcotics was observed. Sharing of syringes, needles and distilled water was observed at 63% spots while professional injector/street doctor was present at 60% spots. Conclusion There is a need to check internal consistency in surveillance research. It is highly likely that IDUs and other risk groups know how to respond to key questions but their responses do not match with the practices. PMID:23758666

2013-01-01

3

PERCEPTIONS ON BIOETHICS AMONG PATIENTS PRESENTING TO FAMILY PHYSICIANS AT A TEACHING HOSPITAL IN KARACHI, PAKISTAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To study the perceptions on bioethics among patients presenting to family physicians at a teaching hospital in Karachi, Pakistan Study design: Questionnaire based cross sectional survey Settings: The study was carried out at the family practice center, the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi Main outcome measures: Perceptions on the broad principles of bioethics Results: Majority of the respondents were

Waris Qidwai; Hafeez Qureshi; Syed Sohail Ali; Mahboob Alam; Syed Iqbal Azam

4

"Shelter within my reach" : medium rise apartment housing for the middle income group in Karachi, Pakistan  

E-print Network

This thesis identifies the project development processes of medium rise (five storied or less) apartment housing built by the private formal sector, catering to the middle income groups in Karachi, Pakistan. Middle income ...

Mahmood, Saman, 1972-

1999-01-01

5

Karachi Cancer Registry Data--implications for the National Cancer Control Program of Pakistan.  

PubMed

Cancer registries play a major role in providing the data to justify establishment, implementation and monitoring of cancer control programs, therefore stability in cancer registration is of pivotal importance. An erroneous assessment of the cancer burden can have long-term negative implications for the limited health resources of a country. Thus, registries starting simultaneously with cancer control programs clearly cannot be adequate for the purpose. The Karachi Cancer Registry (KCR) is the first population-based registry of Pakistan, with 9 years proven data stability (1995-2003) for Karachi South (KS), a location with a population distribution similar to that for the country in general as regards age, gender, and religion. It also has the distinction of being the only district in the country with representation of all ethnic and socio-economic groups of the country. The primary recommended strategy for the 'National Cancer Control Program' (NCCP), Pakistan based on the assessment of eight common cancers in Karachi and the WHO estimates would be identical. A curb on the epidemic levels of tobacco and areca nut use would reduce malignancies in males by 43.7% and in females by 17.8%. WHO estimates put these figures at 45% and 18.5% for males and females respectively. Primary prevention in the form of diet control, checks on preservatives, dyes, and pesticides; protection from occupational hazards, control of biological agents and solar UV protection would help control of another half of the malignancies. Resource restrictions put high technology methods beyond the scope of Pakistan today. Early detection of cancers of accessible sites, though not an urgent requirement, would be warranted for oral, cervical and breast cancer, after sufficient capacity building, initially in the high-risk groups. In females, this could help target 47.6% (approximately half) of the malignancies and in men 13% of the total. Establishment of equitable pain control and a palliative care network throughout the country is an urgent and essential measure as more than 70% of cancer patients report with very advanced stages of malignancy. The estimated annual incident cancer cases for Pakistan, year 2000 on the basis of KCR data were 138,343 for males and 135,054 for females; approximately twice the number cited by WHO for the same year. The argument that higher KCR estimates reflect an urban catchment population may be justified, the urban: rural ratio being 2:1 in Pakistan. Evidence-based strategies, however,support the counter argument, that the rising incidence of cancer in Pakistan is primarily attributable to risk factors equally prevalent in the rural and urban areas viz. increasing tobacco use, low socio-economic conditions, dietary deficiencies and prevalence of oncogenic viruses. Pakistan has a significant cancer burden and rising trends of risk factors - it is a country in dire need of a Cancer Control Program. KCR data along with WHO estimates can form the initial framework of a NCCP in Pakistan; the lack of a national cancer registration should not deter initiatives. Benefits of an immediate, prompt and targeted implementation established today will be realized after 20-30 years. Otherwise the country should be prepared to face epidemic proportions of the disease in the next decade or two. Prerequisite 'qualification criteria' or 'sincerity of intent test' for NCCP funding by international donors should be legislation against tobacco and areca nuts in Pakistan and stringent evaluative criteria. PMID:15075010

Bhurgri, Yasmin

2004-01-01

6

Epidemiology of adults hospitalized with burns in Karachi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Burns are a leading cause of adult death in Karachi slums, therefore we reviewed 1 year's logged experience (November 1992 to October 1993) at Karachi's two adult burn units for patient age, sex, burn severity and outcome. Also 47 inpatients were interviewed regarding their circumstances of injury. We grouped these using Haddon's Matrix. The log identified 832 patients. Females (57

D. Marsh; A. Sheikh; A. Khalil; S. Kamil; Jaffer-uz-Zaman; I. Qureshi; Y. Siraj; S. Luby; S. Effendi

1996-01-01

7

Menstrual Knowledge and Practices of Female Adolescents in Urban Karachi, Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Menstruation is a normal physiological process that is managed differently according to various social and cultural understandings. Therefore, this cross-sectional study was conducted to explore the menstrual practices among 1275 female adolescents of urban Karachi, Pakistan from April to October 2006 by using interviews. Data was entered and…

Ali, Tazeen Saeed; Rizvi, Syeda Naghma

2010-01-01

8

Exploring students leadership perceptions and practices in a private secondary school in Karachi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is about exploring student leadership perceptions and practices in a private secondary school in Karachi, Pakistan. The study focuses on student leaders with the purpose to understand their perceptions of leadership as well as to understand non student leaders, who are deprived leadership opportunities. The study is to validate the findings of the student leaders' perceptions and practices

Gulrukhsor Konunova

2006-01-01

9

A Palynological Survey of Aquatic Flora of Karachi-Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pollen morphology of 16 species of aquatic angiosperms, distributed in 14 families from Karachi was examined by light and scanning microscope. Pollen grains are usually free, rarely united, mostly radially symmetrical, isopolar-apolar, occasional- ly heteropolar. Simple aperturate (porate or colpate) pollen are more frequently found. Number of apertures varies from 1-3 or more than 30, rarely compound aperture as

Anjum PERVEEN

10

Occurrence of diclofenac and its metabolites in surface water and effluent samples from Karachi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diclofenac and five of its transformation products were identified in Malir River and Lyari River water as well as in effluent samples from Karachi, Pakistan. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the identification of 3?-hydroxydiclofenac and 8-chlorocarbazole-1-yl-ethanoic acid in environmental samples. Their estimated concentrations ranged between 0.08–0.3?gL?1 and 0.03–0.4?gL?1, respectively. In addition, 4?- and

M. Scheurell; S. Franke; R. M. Shah; H. Hühnerfuss

2009-01-01

11

SEROPOSITIVE HBsAg FREQUENCY IN KARACHI AND INTERIOR SINDH, PAKISTAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Viral hepatitis continues to be a major health problem in Pakistan which encourages appraisal of the current ferquency of HBV surface antigenemia. Methology: A total of 35,257 individuals of both sexes presenting at a private diagnostic lab and its branches in key areas of Karachi City were screened for HBsAg during an 8-year period ending June 30, 2006. Also

Essa M. Abdulla; Farhan E. Abdulla

12

Heavy Metals Contamination in Coastal Sediments of Karachi, Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Toxic compounds such as heavy metals exert chronic and lethal effects in animals, plants, and human health. With the rapid industrialization, urbanization, and economic development in Karachi, heavy metals are continuing to be introduced to estuarine and coastal environment through rivers, runoff and land-based point sources. Pollution in the Karachi coastal region (167 km long) is mainly attributed to Lyari and Malir Rivers flowing through the city of Karachi. Both rivers are served by various channels of domestic and industrial wastes carrying more than 300 million gallons per day untreated effluent of 6000 industries and ultimately drain into the beaches of Arabian Sea. Concentrations of selected heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in surface sediments from eighty-eight sites in Karachi coastal region were studied in order to understand metal contamination due to industrialization, urbanization, and economic development in Karachi. Sediment samples were collected in 2005 and 2006. We have found that heavy metal concentrations in surface sediments varied from 0.006 to 24.3 ug/g for Cd, 5.1 to 95 ug/g for Co, 2.9 to 571 ug/g for Cr, 6.9 to 272 ug/g for Cu, 0.55 to 6.5% for Fe, 1.2 to 318 ug/g for Mn, 7.5 to 75 ug/g for Ni, 6.3 to 121 ug/g for Pb, and 3.3 to 389 ug/g for Zn. Enrichment factors (EFs) were calculated to assess whether the concentrations observed represent background or contaminated levels. The highest levels of metals were found to be at the confluence of the Lyari and Malir River streams at the Arabian Sea, indicating the impact of the effluents of the highly urbanized and industrialized city of Karachi. Furthermore, this study assessed heavy metal toxicity risk with the application of Sediment Quality Guideline (SQG) indices (effect range low/effect range median values, ERL/ERM). Results indicated that the potential toxicity of marine environment can cause adverse biological effects to the biota directly and the human health indirectly through food web chain.

Siddique, A.; Mumtaz, M.; Zaigham, N. A.; Mallick, K. A.; Saied, S.; Khwaja, H. A.

2008-12-01

13

Epidemiology of adults hospitalized with burns in Karachi, Pakistan.  

PubMed

Burns are a leading cause of adult death in Karachi slums, therefore we reviewed 1 year's logged experience (November 1992 to October 1993) at Karachi's two adult burn units for patient age, sex, burn severity and outcome. Also 47 inpatients were interviewed regarding their circumstances of injury. We grouped these using Haddon's Matrix. The log identified 832 patients. Females (57 per cent) outnumbered males and were younger on average (25.1 vs 27.6 years, P = 0.002). Females had more severe burns than males (57 per cent vs 50 per cent total body surface area (TBSA) burn, P = 0.002). At the unit with outcome data (n = 556), the case fatality was 56 per cent. The estimated adult mortality due to burns in Karachi was 10.2/100 000, 6.8/100 000 and 14.1/100 000 for men and women, respectively. Burns of interviewed patients were most often associated with flames (33/47), but stove bursts caused the most severe injury (52 per cent TBSA). These patients were predominantly young uneducated female houseworkers, clothed in loose attire who were injured during daylight at home around a floor-level stove, unaware of fire safety, and who received no first aid. It was concluded that the high burn severity and case fatality rates demand: (1) preventive measures, such as kitchen sand buckets, safer stove design and placement and education on fire safety and first aid, and (2) risk factor analysis to refine interventions. PMID:8726263

Marsh, D; Sheikh, A; Khalil, A; Kamil, S; Jaffer-uz-Zaman; Qureshi, I; Siraj, Y; Luby, S; Effendi, S

1996-05-01

14

Understanding unintentional childhood home injuries: pilot surveillance data from Karachi, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Childhood injuries, an important public health issue, globally affects more than 95% of children living in low-and middle-income countries. The objective of this study is to describe the epidemiology of childhood unintentional injuries in Karachi, Pakistan with a specific focus on those occurring within the home environment. Methods This was a secondary analysis of a childhood unintentional injury surveillance database setup in the emergency department of the Aga Khan Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan for 3 months. The data was collected by interviewing caretakers of children under 12 years of age presenting with an unintentional injury to the emergency departments of the four major tertiary care hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan. Results The surveillance included 566 injured children of which 409 (72%) injuries had taken place at/around home. Of 409 children, 66% were males and mostly between 5 and 11 years of age. Injuries commonly occurred during play time (51%). Fall (59%), dog bites (11%) and burns (9%) were the commonest mechanisms of injury. The majority of the children (78%) were directly discharged from the emergency room with predicted short term disability (42%). There were 2 deaths in the emergency department both due to falls. Conclusion Childhood injury surveillance system provides valuable in-depth information on child injuries. The majority of these unintentional childhood injuries occur at home; with falls, dog bites and burns being the most common types of unintentional childhood home injuries. Specific surveillance systems for child injuries can provide new and valuable information for countries like Pakistan. PMID:22260430

2012-01-01

15

Predictors of Vaccination Card Retention in Children 12-59 months old in Karachi, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the factors associated with retaining the vaccination card among care takers of 12-59 months old children in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods This was an analytical cross-sectional study in Karachi. Households were randomly selected throughout a multistage cluster sampling technique. Data was collected for 504 children of 12- 59 months of age. Questionnaire was administered to caretakers to gather information regarding the children’s vaccination status, socio-demographic characteristics and reviewing their vaccination cards. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS 19 using logistic regression. Results: Among 462 vaccinated children, caretakers of 33% provided vaccination cards. Odds of card retention decrease if the caretaker has a large household i.e., >5 people sharing one room (AOR 0.277, 95% CI: 0.096, 0.797) and if the child is of four to five years of age (AOR 0.544, 95% CI: 0.305, 0.970). Gender of the child, and the caretaker’s education and access to electronic media were not significant predictors of vaccination card retention in our study. Conclusion Our study showed that vaccination card retention for children 12-59 months of age was low (33%) in Karachi. There is a need to educate caretakers of young children regarding the importance of keeping vaccination card and to disseminate this information through healthcare providers. Improving vaccination card retention is one of the key measures which will help towards accurately estimating coverage and to inform health policy decisions. PMID:24936268

Sheikh, Sana Sadiq; Ali, Syed Asad

2014-01-01

16

Monitoring polio supplementary immunization activities using an automated short text messaging system in Karachi, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Abstract Problem Polio remains endemic in many areas of Pakistan, including large urban centres such as Karachi. Approach During each of seven supplementary immunization activities against polio in Karachi, mobile phone numbers of the caregivers of a random sample of eligible children were obtained. A computer-based system was developed to send two questions – as short message service (SMS) texts – automatically to each number after the immunization activity: “Did the vaccinator visit your house?” and “Did the enrolled child in your household receive oral polio vaccine?” Persistent non-responders were phoned directly by an investigator. Local setting A cluster sampling technique was used to select representative samples of the caregivers of young children in Karachi in general and of such caregivers in three of the six “high-risk” districts of the city where polio cases were detected in 2011. Relevant changes In most of the supplementary immunization activities investigated, vaccine coverages estimated using the SMS system were very similar to those estimated by interviewing by phone those caregivers who never responded to the SMS messages. In the high-risk districts investigated, coverages estimated using the SMS system were also similar to those recorded – using lot quality assurance sampling – by the World Health Organization. Lessons learnt For the monitoring of coverage in supplementary immunization activities, automated SMS-based systems appear to be an attractive and relatively inexpensive option. Further research is needed to determine if coverage data collected by SMS-based systems provide estimates that are sufficiently accurate. Such systems may be useful in other large-scale immunization campaigns. PMID:24700982

Murtaza, A; Khoja, S; Zaidi, AK; Ali, SA

2014-01-01

17

Morphotaxonomy and seasonal distribution of planktonic and benthic Prorocentrales in Karachi waters, Pakistan Northern Arabian Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Morphotaxonomy and seasonal abundance of dinoflagellates of the genera Prorocentrum and Mesoporos (Prorocentrales) were studied from nutrient-rich waters, Karachi Harbor and the mouth of the Manora Channel, Pakistan during May 2002-July 2003. Using both light and scanning electron microscopy, 13 species of Prorocentrales were identified according to cell shape, size, ornamentation of thecal plates, and architecture of apical platelets, apical pore area, marginal pores, and intercalary bands. P. sigmoides, P. arcuatum, P. scutellum, P. donghaiense, P. balticum, P. minimum, P. emarginatum, P. lima, P. faustiae, and Mesoporos perforatus constitute new records for sindh coast of Pakistan. The most abundant species were P. minimum/P. balticum (4.5×103 cells/L), P. micans (1.1×103 cells/L), P. gracile / P. sigmoides (2.5×10 2 cells/L) and P. donghaiense (6.6×103 cells/L) at temperatures of 29-31°C and salinities of 35-40. Maximum abundance was observed in winter and lower abundance in summer. There was no significant change in the distribution of species between stations except for the benthic species which occurred close to Karachi Harbor waters. Significant positive correlations were observed between Prorocentrum spp. and temperature ( R 2 =0.27) and negative correlations with salinity ( R 2 =-0.32) except for P. minimum and P. emarginatum which has negative correlation with temperature ( R 2 =-0.24) and positive with salinity ( R 2 =0.08, 0.19). The finding of potential okadaic-acid producing species of benthic Prorocentrum call for monitoring for possible human health problems in this region.

Munir, Sonia; Burhan, Zaib-un-nisa; Naz, Tahira; Siddiqui, P. J. A.; Morton, Steve L.

2013-03-01

18

Benzodiazepine use among adults residing in the urban settlements of Karachi, Pakistan: A cross sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background There are hardly any studies carried out in Pakistan on the usage of benzodiazepines at the level of community. This research was aimed to determine the frequency of benzodiazepine use, along with its associations with socio-demographic and clinical characteristics among community dwelling adults, residing in two urban settlements of Karachi, Pakistan. Methods We performed a cross sectional study from August 2008 to December 2009, in 2 areas of Karachi, namely Garden and Sultanabad. We followed the systematic sampling strategy to randomly select the households, with an adult of either sex and of age 18 years or more. Data collection was carried out through interview, using a pre-tested questionnaire, with items on socio-demographic position, medical history and benzodiazepine use. Student's t-test and ?2 test was employed to determine the associations between socio-demographic and clinical characteristics, and their relationship with benzodiazepine use was determined using applied logistic regression. Results The overall percentage of benzodiazepine consumption was estimated to be 14%. There were significantly more benzodiazepine users in the peri-urban Sultanabad community to the urban community of Garden (p-value = 0.001). The mean age (± SD) for users was 51.3 (± 15.6) years compared to 37.1 (± 14.4) years among non-users. Bromazepam was the most widely used benzodiazepine (29%); followed by diazepam, with a median duration on primary use being 144 weeks (IQR = 48-240). The adjusted logistic regression model revealed that increasing age, location, female sex, unemployment and psychiatric consultation were associated with increased likelihood of benzodiazepine use. Conclusion We believe the unregulated over-the-counter sales of benzodiazepines and social conditions might be playing a role in this high consumption of benzodiazepines in the community. PMID:21801457

2011-01-01

19

Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) Measurements in Karachi, Pakistan (2006): a Comparison With Previous Urban Sampling Campaigns Worldwide.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mixing ratios of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and 47 nonmethane hydrocarbons - NMHCs - (19 alkanes, 13 alkenes, ethyne, and 14 aromatics) were determined for ground level whole air samples collected during the winter of 2006 in Karachi, Pakistan. Pakistan is among the fastest growing economies in Asia, and Karachi is one of the largest cities in the world with a rapidly expanding population of over 14 million in the whole metropolitan area, and a large industrial base. Samples were collected in January 2006 throughout the urban area to characterize the overall air composition of the city, and along the busiest road to determine the traffic signature of Karachi. This sampling campaign follows a previous study carried out in the winter of 1998-1999 in the same city, when elevated concentrations of many NMHCs were observed. Exceptionally high levels of methane were still observed in 2006 with an average mixing ratio of 5.0 ppmv (6.3 ppmv were observed in 1999). The overall air composition of the Karachi urban environment characterized during this 2006 sampling is compared to 1999 aiming to highlight any possible change in the main VOC sources present throughout the city. In particular, we want to evaluate the impact of the heavy usage of natural gas on the overall air quality of Karachi and the recently increased use of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as alternative source of energy. We also compare the composition of the urban troposphere of Karachi to other major urban centers worldwide such as Guangzhou (China), Mexico City (Mexico), and Milan (Italy).

Barletta, B.; Meinardi, S.; Khwaja, H. A.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Baker, A. K.; Zou, S.; Rowland, F.; Blake, D. R.

2008-12-01

20

Understanding the Knowledge and Perceptions About Clubfoot in Karachi, Pakistan: A Qualitative Exploration  

PubMed Central

This paper explores local knowledge and perceptions about clubfoot in the Indus Hospital’s catchment population in Karachi, Pakistan. Data was collected through seven focus group discussions with community members and Lady Health Workers, nine in-depth interviews with parents of children with treated or untreated clubfoot, and one interview with an adult with untreated clubfoot. We found that participants were unable to distinguish clubfoot from other disabilities. Moreover, participants had a number of beliefs about the causes of clubfoot, which included lunar and solar eclipses, religious explanations, the health status and behaviours of parents, and genetics. While participants were aware of surgery and other allopathic treatments for clubfoot, many also believed in traditional and religious treatments or were unaware that clubfoot is a treatable condition. This study is the first of its kind in Pakistan and provides important insights that clubfoot programs need comprehensive strategies to raise awareness about clubfoot amongst community members, health providers, and religious leaders in order to be successful. PMID:24027475

Burfat, Aziza; Mohammed, Shama; Siddiqi, Osman; Samad, Lubna; Mansoor, Ali Khan; Mohammad Amin, Chinoy

2013-01-01

21

Understanding the knowledge and perceptions about clubfoot in Karachi, Pakistan: a qualitative exploration.  

PubMed

This paper explores local knowledge and perceptions about clubfoot in the Indus Hospital's catchment population in Karachi, Pakistan. Data was collected through seven focus group discussions with community members and Lady Health Workers, nine in-depth interviews with parents of children with treated or untreated clubfoot, and one interview with an adult with untreated clubfoot. We found that participants were unable to distinguish clubfoot from other disabilities. Moreover, participants had a number of beliefs about the causes of clubfoot, which included lunar and solar eclipses, religious explanations, the health status and behaviours of parents, and genetics. While participants were aware of surgery and other allopathic treatments for clubfoot, many also believed in traditional and religious treatments or were unaware that clubfoot is a treatable condition. This study is the first of its kind in Pakistan and provides important insights that clubfoot programs need comprehensive strategies to raise awareness about clubfoot amongst community members, health providers, and religious leaders in order to be successful. PMID:24027475

Burfat, Aziza; Mohammed, Shama; Siddiqi, Osman; Samad, Lubna; Khan, Mansoor Ali; Chinoy, Mohammad Amin

2013-01-01

22

Cancer of the oral cavity - trends in Karachi South (1995-2002).  

PubMed

The objective was to study the time trends in site-specific oral cancer incidence and to determine the age-and socio-economic profile over time in Karachi South. Oral cancer ranks second in this population, in both genders. The incidence is the highest reported worldwide. Incident oral cancer cases received at the Karachi Cancer Registry during 1(st) January 1995 to 30(th) June 2004 were reviewed. To ensure maximally complete data, cases registered between 1(st) January 1995 and 31(st) December 2002 were considered for the present study. Cases of lymphoma, leukemia and melanoma were not included. Trends were studied by grouping cases into two periods, 1995-1997 and 1998-2002. A total of 2253 cases of oral cancer were registered in Karachi South for the 8 year study period accounting for 8.8% of all cancer cases. Overall, the most common site was the mucosa cheek (55.9%), followed by the tongue (28.4%), palate (6.8%), gum (4.4%), lip (3.1%) and floor of the mouth (1.4%). About 30% of cases occurred in patients 40 years and younger and 23% occurred in patients 65 years and older. Sub-categories of oral cancer showed variation in trends, but an earlier onset of disease in period two was evident for all categories. The incidence of lip cancer in men decreased, the rates remained level in females. An increased incidence was observed for tongue, but a more dramatic increase in the cheek was evident in both sexes, despite no improvement during the past decade in detection of early, localized lesions. A strong socio-economic factor with a poorer, low literacy profile of oral cancer was apparent in the entire study period. The evidence that the largest increase in incidence has occurred in this population may unfavorably affect the mortality rates. Oral cancer trends are an interplay of prevalent risk factors, the level of prevalence, preventive education and intervention. Cost effective and efficient cancer control focused around the target populations would be beneficial for Pakistan. Educational campaigns should include information on oral hygiene, awareness of risk factors and symptoms and the importance of seeking early professional help when any of these are recognized. Audio-visual media involvement is imperative in view of the literacy status of the target population. Capacity building is required by the Government to increase the availability and accessibility of professionals. Population screening would reduce the incidence of oral cancer, but requires careful planning, and extensive financial resources. Mobilization of general practitioners, health visitors, volunteer organizations and medical students for early detection of oral cancer is the essential need of today. PMID:15780026

Bhurgri, Yasmin

2005-01-01

23

The Burden of Non-Communicable Disease in Transition Communities in an Asian Megacity: Baseline Findings from a Cohort Study in Karachi, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background The demographic transition in South Asia coupled with unplanned urbanization and lifestyle changes are increasing the burden of non-communicable disease (NCD) where infectious diseases are still highly prevalent. The true magnitude and impact of this double burden of disease, although predicted to be immense, is largely unknown due to the absence of recent, population-based longitudinal data. The present study was designed as a unique ‘Framingham-like’ Pakistan cohort with the objective of measuring the prevalence and risk factors for hypertension, obesity, diabetes, coronary artery disease and hepatitis B and C infection in a multi-ethnic, middle to low income population of Karachi, Pakistan. Methods We selected two administrative areas from a private charitable hospital’s catchment population for enrolment of a random selection of cohort households in Karachi, Pakistan. A baseline survey measured the prevalence and risk factors for hypertension, obesity, diabetes, coronary artery disease and hepatitis B and C infection. Results Six hundred and sixty-seven households were enrolled between March 2010 and August 2011. A majority of households lived in permanent structures (85%) with access to basic utilities (77%) and sanitation facilities (98%) but limited access to clean drinking water (68%). Households had high ownership of communication technologies in the form of cable television (69%) and mobile phones (83%). Risk factors for NCD, such as tobacco use (45%), overweight (20%), abdominal obesity (53%), hypertension (18%), diabetes (8%) and pre-diabetes (40%) were high. At the same time, infectious diseases such as hepatitis B (24%) and hepatitis C (8%) were prevalent in this population. Conclusion Our findings highlight the need to monitor risk factors and disease trends through longitudinal research in high-burden transition communities in the context of rapid urbanization and changing lifestyles. They also demonstrate the urgency of public health intervention programs tailored for these transition communities. PMID:23418493

Khan, Faisal S.; Lotia-Farrukh, Ismat; Khan, Aamir J.; Siddiqui, Saad Tariq; Sajun, Sana Zehra; Malik, Amyn Abdul; Burfat, Aziza; Arshad, Mohammad Hussham; Codlin, Andrew J.; Reininger, Belinda M.; McCormick, Joseph B.; Afridi, Nadeem; Fisher-Hoch, Susan P.

2013-01-01

24

Human papillomavirus infection in women with and without cervical cancer in Karachi, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background: No data exist on the population prevalence of, or risk factors for, human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in predominantly Muslim countries in Asia. Methods: Cervical specimens were obtained from 899 married women aged 15–59 years from the general population of Karachi, Pakistan and from 91 locally diagnosed invasive cervical cancers (ICCs). HPV was detected using a GP5+/6+ PCR-based assay. Results: The prevalence of HPV in the general population was 2.8%, with no evidence of higher HPV prevalence in young women. The positivity of HPV was associated with women's lifetime number of sexual partners, but particularly with the age difference between spouses and other husbands' characteristics, such as extramarital sexual relationships and regular absence from home. The HPV16/18 accounted for 24 and 88% of HPV-positive women in the general population and ICC, respectively. Conclusion: Cervical cancer prevention policies should take into account the low HPV prevalence and low acceptability of gynaecological examination in this population. PMID:20407442

Raza, S A; Franceschi, S; Pallardy, S; Malik, F R; Avan, B I; Zafar, A; Ali, S H; Pervez, S; Serajuddaula, S; Snijders, P J F; van Kemenade, F J; Meijer, C J L M; Shershah, S; Clifford, G M

2010-01-01

25

Maternal nutritional status during pregnancy and surma use determine cord lead levels in Karachi Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Objectives To estimate the umbilical cord blood lead levels (BLLs) of Pakistani neonates and to identify determinants for umbilical BLLs. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of mothers and infants at one of the two obstetric units of two tertiary care hospitals in Karachi during January to August 2005. Information from 540 mothers selected randomly from those registered for delivery was obtained about their pregnancy, diet, and current and past lead exposures. We collected umbilical cord blood for lead levels analyzed using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. We computed geometric and arithmetic means. We performed multiple linear regression analysis to identify factors associated with log transformed umbilical cord BLLs. We also performed logistic regression analysis to identify determinants of high lead cord BLLs (?10?g/dl). Results The geometric mean cord BLLs of the neonates was 9.6?g/dl; arithmetic mean (SD) was 10.8 ?g/dl (5.7) with a median of 9.7?g/dl and a range of 1.8 ?g/dl–48.9?g/dl. Women who reported intake of less than 58.5 mg of elemental iron supplement per day during pregnancy had cord BLL of 10.0?g/dl; in comparison those women who had higher iron intake had lower cord BLL (8.4?g/dl). Those who used surma (an eye cosmetic) daily had higher cord BLL (11.5 ?g/dl) as compared to those who used it less frequently (9.4?g/dl). In multivariable linear regression model, higher iron intake, owning a car, and being in 2nd quartile of mid arm circumference were associated with low lead levels while father’s occupation in lead based industry were associated with significantly higher umbilical cord blood lead levels. There was interaction of daily surma use and ethnicity. Geometric mean BLLs were varied among surma users by ethnicity. Conclusions Umbilical cord BLLs are high in Karachi, Pakistan in comparison to those in developed countries such as United States. Measures are needed to reduce fetal lead exposure to prevent adverse affect on neurocognitive development. Association of low iron (below RDA of 60 mg per day) with high umbilical cord has implications for strengthening iron supplement intake during pregnancy. Umbilical cord BLLs of differed among surma users by ethnicity. PMID:18656859

Delzell, Elizabeth; Larson, Rodney R.; Meleth, Sreelatha; Kabagambe, Edmond; Kristensen, Sibylle; Sathiakumar, Nalini

2008-01-01

26

Maternal nutritional status during pregnancy and surma use determine cord lead levels in Karachi, Pakistan  

SciTech Connect

Objectives: To estimate the umbilical cord blood lead levels (BLLs) of Pakistani neonates and to identify determinants for umbilical BLLs. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of mothers and infants at one of the two obstetric units of two tertiary care hospitals in Karachi during January-August 2005. Information from 540 mothers selected randomly from those registered for delivery was obtained about their pregnancy, diet, and current and past lead exposures. We collected umbilical cord blood for lead levels analyzed using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. We computed geometric and arithmetic means. We performed multiple linear regression analysis to identify factors associated with log-transformed umbilical cord BLLs. We also performed logistic regression analysis to identify determinants of high lead cord BLLs ({>=}10 {mu}g/dl). Results: The geometric mean cord BLL of the neonates was 9.6 {mu}g/dl; arithmetic mean (S.D.) was 10.8 {mu}g/dl (5.7) with a median of 9.7 {mu}g/dl and a range of 1.8-48.9 {mu}g/dl. Women who reported intake of less than 58.5 mg of elemental iron supplement per day during pregnancy had cord BLL of 10.0 {mu}g/dl; in comparison those women who had higher iron intake had lower cord BLL (8.4 {mu}g/dl). Those who used surma (an eye cosmetic) daily had higher cord BLL (11.5 {mu}g/dl) as compared to those who used it less frequently (9.4 {mu}g/dl). In multivariable linear regression model, higher iron intake, owning a car, and being in 2nd quartile of mid-arm circumference were associated with low lead levels while father's occupation in lead-based industry was associated with significantly higher umbilical cord BLLs. There was interaction of daily surma use and ethnicity. Geometric mean BLLs were varied among surma users by ethnicity. Conclusions: Umbilical cord BLLs are high in Karachi, Pakistan, in comparison to those in developed countries such as United States. Measures are needed to reduce fetal lead exposure to prevent adverse affect on neurocognitive development. Association of low iron (below RDA of 60 mg per day) with high umbilical cord has implications for strengthening iron supplement intake during pregnancy. Umbilical cord BLLs differed among surma users by ethnicity.

Janjua, Naveed Zafar [Department of Epidemiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1665 University Blvd, RPHB 430, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Department of Community Health Sciences, Aga Khan University, Karachi (Pakistan)], E-mail: naveed@uab.edu; Delzell, Elizabeth [Department of Epidemiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1665 University Blvd, RPHB 430, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Larson, Rodney R. [University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Meleth, Sreelatha [Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Kabagambe, Edmond K.; Kristensen, Sibylle; Sathiakumar, Nalini [Department of Epidemiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1665 University Blvd, RPHB 430, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States)

2008-09-15

27

Acute health effects of the Tasman Spirit oil spill on residents of Karachi, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background On July 27 2003, a ship carrying crude oil run aground near Karachi and after two weeks released 37,000 tons of its cargo into the sea. Oil on the coastal areas and fumes in air raised health concerns among people. We assessed the immediate health impact of oil spill from the tanker Tasman Spirit on residents of the affected coastline in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods We conducted a study consisting of an exposed group including adults living in houses on the affected shoreline and two control groups (A and B) who lived at the distance of 2 km and 20 km away from the sea, respectively. We selected households through systematic sampling and interviewed an adult male and female in each household about symptoms relating to eyes, respiratory tract, skin and nervous system, smoking, allergies, beliefs about the effect on their health and anxiety about the health effects. We used logistic regression procedures to model each symptom as an outcome and the exposure status as an independent variable while adjusting for confounders. We also used linear regression procedure to assess the relationship exposure status with symptoms score; calculated by summation of all symptoms. Results Overall 400 subjects were interviewed (exposed, n = 216; group A, n = 83; and group B, n = 101). The exposed group reported a higher occurrence of one or more symptoms compared to either of the control groups (exposed, 96% vs. group A, 70%, group B 85%; P < 0.001). Mean summary symptom scores were higher among the exposed group (14.5) than control group A (4.5) and control group B (3.8, P < 0.001). Logistic regression models indicated that there were statistically significant, moderate-to-strong associations (Prevalence ORs (POR) ranging from 2.3 to 37.0) between the exposed group and the symptoms. There was a trend of decreasing symptom-specific PORs with increase in distance from the spill site. Multiple linear regression model revealed strong relationship of exposure status with the symptoms score (? = 8.24, 95% CI: 6.37 – 10.12). Conclusion Results suggest that the occurrence of increased symptoms among the exposed group is more likely to be due to exposure to the crude oil spill. PMID:16584541

Janjua, Naveed Zafar; Kasi, Pashtoon Murtaza; Nawaz, Haq; Farooqui, Sadia Zohra; Khuwaja, Urooj Bakht; Najam-ul-Hassan; Jafri, Syed Nadim; Lutfi, Shahid Ali; Kadir, Muhammad Masood; Sathiakumar, Nalini

2006-01-01

28

Screening for emotional and behavioural problems amongst 5–11-year-old school children in Karachi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  While a number of studies in the western countries have provided estimates of prevalence for child psychiatric morbidity and\\u000a associated risk factors, relatively little is known about child psychiatric problems and risk factors in developing countries\\u000a like Pakistan.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  A cross sectional survey of 5–11-year-old children attending main stream private and community schools in Karachi was conducted.\\u000a Seven private and eight

Ehsan Ullah Syed; Sajida Abdul Hussein; Sadia Mahmud

2007-01-01

29

Violence permeating daily life: a qualitative study investigating perspectives on violence among women in Karachi, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background: This study explored how married women perceive situations which create family conflicts and lead to different forms of violence in urban Pakistan. In addition, it examines perceptions of consequences of violence, their adverse health effects, and how women resist violence within marital life. Methods: Five focus group discussions were conducted with 28 women in Karachi. Purposive sampling, aiming for variety in age, employment status, education, and socioeconomic status, was employed. The focus group discussions were conducted in Urdu and translated into English. Manifest and latent content analysis were applied. Results: One major theme emerged during the analysis, ie, family violence through the eyes of females. This theme was subdivided into three main categories. The first category, ie, situations provoking violence and their manifestations, elaborates on circumstances that provoke violence and situations that sustain violence. The second category, ie, actions and reactions to exposure to violence, describes consequences of ongoing violence within the family, including those that result in suicidal thoughts and actions. The final category, ie, resisting violence, describes how violence is avoided through women’s awareness and actions. Conclusion: The current study highlights how female victims of abuse are trapped in a society where violence from a partner and family members is viewed as acceptable, where divorce is unavailable to the majority, and where societal support of women is limited. There is an urgent need to raise the subject of violence against women and tackle this human rights problem at all levels of society by targeting the individual, family, community, and societal levels concurrently. PMID:23152709

Ali, Tazeen S; Krantz, Gunilla; Mogren, Ingrid

2012-01-01

30

Fitting the Bill: Commissioned Theatre Projects on Human Rights in Pakistan--The Work of Karachi-Based Theatre Group "Tehrik e Niswan"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Theatre practitioners in Pakistan's southern city Karachi have seen a recent surge of interest in the past two decades by donor agencies from the Western world to fund theatre companies and employ various forms of theatre for development to service their agendas and areas of interest within their target communities. This trend may have lent a…

Mundrawala, Asma

2007-01-01

31

Effect of pesticide residues on health and different enzyme levels in the blood of farm workers from Gadap (rural area) Karachi—Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Persons from 14 different fruit and vegetable farm stations from Gadap (rural area), Karachi—Pakistan were examined for the presence of pesticide (cypermethrin, deltamethrin, polytrin-C, diazinon, monocrotophos, DDT and DDE) residues in their blood samples. The present study is concerned with effects of residue on the enzyme levels (GPT, GOT and ALP) as well as the health hazards of pesticide exposed

M. Ahmed Azmi; S. N. H. Naqvi; M. Arshad Azmi; M. Aslam

2006-01-01

32

Lessons and implications from a mass immunization campaign in squatter settlements of Karachi, Pakistan: an experience from a cluster-randomized double-blinded vaccine trial [NCT00125047  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To determine the safety and logistic feasibility of a mass immunization strategy outside the local immunization program in the pediatric population of urban squatter settlements in Karachi, Pakistan. METHODS: A cluster-randomized double blind preventive trial was launched in August 2003 in 60 geographic clusters covering 21,059 children ages 2 to 16 years. After consent was obtained from parents

Mohammad Imran Khan; Rion Leon Ochiai; Hasan Bin Hamza; Shah Muhammad Sahito; Muhammad Atif Habib; Sajid Bashir Soofi; Naveed Sarwar Bhutto; Shahid Rasool; Mahesh K Puri; Mohammad Ali; Shafi Mohammad Wasan; Mohammad Jawed Khan; Remon Abu-Elyazeed; Bernard Ivanoff; Claudia M Galindo; Tikki Pang; Allan Donner; Lorenz von Seidlein; Camilo J Acosta; John D Clemens; Shaikh Nizami; Zulfiqar A Bhutta

2006-01-01

33

Developing young children's creative writing ability in English as a second language in a primary English medium school in Karachi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to improve teaching of creative writing for young children in English as a second language. For this purpose, action research was done in an English medium private primary school in Karachi, Pakistan. Five students were involved as research participants and their teacher acted as my critical friend during the study. The main question asked

Katherine Joy Akello

2005-01-01

34

An Evaluation of Systematic Tuberculosis Screening at Private Facilities in Karachi, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background In Pakistan, like many Asian countries, a large proportion of healthcare is provided through the private sector. We evaluated a systematic screening strategy to identify people with tuberculosis in private facilities in Karachi and assessed the approaches' ability to diagnose patients earlier in their disease progression. Methods and Findings Lay workers at 89 private clinics and a large hospital outpatient department screened all attendees for tuberculosis using a mobile phone-based questionnaire during one year. The number needed to screen to detect a case of tuberculosis was calculated. To evaluate early diagnosis, we tested for differences in cough duration and smear grading by screening facility. 529,447 people were screened, 1,010 smear-positive tuberculosis cases were detected and 942 (93.3%) started treatment, representing 58.7% of all smear-positive cases notified in the intervention area. The number needed to screen to detect a smear-positive case was 124 (prevalence 806/100,000) at the hospital and 763 (prevalence 131/100,000) at the clinics; however, ten times the number of individuals were screened in clinics. People with smear-positive TB detected at the hospital were less likely to report cough lasting 2–3 weeks (RR 0.66 95%CI [0.49–0.90]) and more likely to report cough duration >3 weeks (RR 1.10 95%CI [1.03–1.18]). Smear-positive cases at the clinics were less likely to have a +3 grade (RR 0.76 95%CI [0.63–0.92]) and more likely to have +1 smear grade (RR 1.24 95%CI [1.02–1.51]). Conclusions Tuberculosis screening at private facilities is acceptable and can yield large numbers of previously undiagnosed cases. Screening at general practitioner clinics may find cases earlier than at hospitals although more people must be screened to identify a case of tuberculosis. Limitations include lack of culture testing, therefore underestimating true TB prevalence. Using more sensitive and specific screening and diagnostic tests such as chest x-ray and Xpert MTB/RIF may improve results. PMID:24705600

Creswell, Jacob; Khowaja, Saira; Codlin, Andrew; Hashmi, Rabia; Rasheed, Erum; Khan, Mubashir; Durab, Irfan; Mergenthaler, Christina; Hussain, Owais; Khan, Faisal; Khan, Aamir J.

2014-01-01

35

Factors associated with elevated blood lead concentrations in children in Karachi, Pakistan.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To confirm whether blood lead concentrations in Karachi were as high as reported in 1989 and to identify which types of exposure to lead contribute most to elevated blood lead concentrations in children in Karachi. METHODS: A total of 430 children aged 36-60 months were selected through a geographically stratified design from the city centre, two suburbs, a rural community and an island situated within the harbour at Karachi. Blood samples were collected from children and a pretested questionnaire was administered to assess the effect of various types of exposure. Cooked food, drinking-water and house dust samples were collected from households. FINDINGS: About 80% of children had blood lead concentrations 10 g/dl, with an overall mean of 15.6 g/dl. At the 5% level of significance, houses nearer to the main intersection in the city centre, application of surma to children's eyes, father's exposure to lead at workplace, parents' illiteracy and child's habit of hand- to-mouth activity were among variables associated with elevated lead concentrations in blood. CONCLUSION: These findings are of public health concern, as most children in Karachi are likely to suffer some degree of intellectual impairment as a result of environmental lead exposure. We believe that there is enough evidence of the continuing problem of lead in petrol to prompt the petroleum industry to take action. The evidence also shows the need for appropriate interventions in reducing the burden due to other factors associated with this toxic element. PMID:12471396

Rahbar, Mohammad Hossein; White, Franklin; Agboatwalla, Mubina; Hozhabri, Siroos; Luby, Stephen

2002-01-01

36

Influence of an Enforcement Campaign on Seat-Belt and Helmet Wearing, Karachi-Hala Highway, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

This study assessed to what extent an enforcement campaign influenced seat-belt and helmet wearing on a Pakistani highway. The study setting was the Karachi-Hala highway where a traffic enforcement campaign was conducted from Dec 2009 to Feb 2010. Seat-belt and helmet wearing were observed in Nov 2009 and Apr 2010 at Karachi toll plaza. Differences in wearing rates as a function of occupants’ age, sex, and vehicle type were compared between the two periods. On average, 9 119 (Standard deviation=1 896) traffic citations were issued per month from Aug 2009 to Feb 2010; 4.2% of which were for not wearing helmet. A 22.5% increase in citations was observed for Dec 2009 to Feb 2010 periods compared with Aug 2009 to Oct 2009 periods. Nearly six thousand four-wheeled and four hundred two-wheeled motorized vehicle occupants were observed in Nov 2009 and Apr 2010. Overall, two of the five drivers and one of the five front seat occupants wore seat belts. This proportion was significantly higher in drivers and front-seat occupants of cars than those of heavier vehicles. Similarly, one of two motorcyclists used a helmet but this proportion was 5.8% for pillion riders in Nov 2009. The increased enforcement had a limited influence on belt wearing in drivers (+4.0%; 95% Confidence Interval [95%CI]=1.8–6.1) and occupants (+6.2%; 95%CI=4.2–8.2). A higher increase was observed for motorcyclists (+9.8%; 95%CI=2.6–16.8) and pillion riders (+12.8%; 95%CI=5.4, 20.5). These results suggested that serious efforts are required to increase seat-belt and helmet use on Pakistani highways. Improving enforcement resources, increased fines, not allowing such vehicles on roads, and awareness campaigns targeting drivers of heavy vehicles might increase wearing rates in Pakistan. PMID:22105384

Bhatti, Junaid A.; Ejaz, Kiran; Razzak, Junaid A.; Tunio, Israr Ali; Sodhar, Irshad

2011-01-01

37

HEALTH CARE PERSONNEL AND WORKPLACE VIOLENCE IN THE EMERGENCY DEPARTMENTS OF A VOLATILE METROPOLIS: RESULTS FROM KARACHI, PAKISTAN  

PubMed Central

Background Workplace violence (WPV) is an important challenge faced by health care personnel in the emergency department (ED). Study Objectives To determine the prevalence and nature of WPV reported by physicians and nurses working in the EDs of four of the largest tertiary care hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan and to understand the mental health impact of experiencing WPV. Methods This cross-sectional survey was conducted between September and November 2008 using a widely used questionnaire developed by the World Health Organization. Overall, 266 (86% response rate) questionnaires were included in this study. Results A total of 44 (16.5%) physicians and nurses said they had been physically attacked, and 193 (72.5%) said that they had experienced verbal abuse in the last 12 months. Among those who reported physical attack, 29.6% reported that the last incident involved a weapon, and in 64% of cases the attacker was a patient’s relative. Eighty-six percent thought that the last attack could have been prevented, and 64% said that no action was taken against the attacker. After adjusting for covariates, physicians were less likely than nurses to report physical attack (odds ratio [OR] 0.46; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.2–1.0), and personnel with greater work experience (OR 4.8; 95% CI 2.0–11.7) and those who said that there were procedures to report WPV in their workplace (OR 3.2; 95% CI 1.6–6.5) were more likely to report verbal abuse. WPV was associated with mental health effects in the form of bothersome memories, super-alertness, and feelings of avoidance and futility. Conclusion WPV is an important challenge in the EDs of large hospitals in Karachi. A majority of respondents feel that WPV is preventable, but only a minority of attackers face consequences. PMID:24011477

Zafar, Waleed; Siddiqui, Emaduddin; Ejaz, Kiran; Shehzad, Muhammad Umer; Khan, Uzma Rahim; Jamali, Seemin; Razzak, Junaid A.

2015-01-01

38

Association of depression with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes among adults aged between 25 to 60 years in Karachi, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background The combination of depression with type 2 diabetes is a public health problem. If diabetes is managed in its initial phase, the morbidity and mortality due to this combination may be prevented at an early stage. Therefore, we aimed to determine the association of depression with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes among adults aged between 25 to 60 years in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods From July 2006 to September 2007, a matched case control study (n = 592) was conducted in Civil Hospital, Karachi. Incident cases of type 2 diabetes (n = 296) diagnosed within one month were recruited from diabetic Out Patient Department (OPD) of Civil Hospital, Karachi. They were matched on age and sex with controls (n = 296), who were attendants sitting in the medical out patient department of the same hospital, recruited on the basis of absence of classical symptoms of polyuria and polydispia along with random blood glucose level of <200 mg/dl measured by a glucometer. Depression was identified by the Siddiqui Shah Depression Scale. Conditional logistic regression was applied to examine the association of depression and other independent variables with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes at 95% C.I. and P < 0.05. Results The study comprised of 592 subjects with 432(73%) males and 160(27%) females. Depression was significantly associated with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes having mild level (mOR: 3.86; 95%CI: 2.22,6.71) and moderate to severe level (mOR: 3.41; 95%CI: 2.07,5.61). History of (h/o) gestational diabetes (mOR: 2.83; 95%CI: 1.05,7.64), family h/o diabetes (mOR: 1.59; 95%CI: 1.04,2.43), nuclear family (mOR: 1.75; 95%CI: 1.14,2.69), BMI (mOR: 1.62; 95%CI: 1.01,2.60 for obese and mOR: 2.12; 95%CI: 1.19,3.79 for overweight vs healthy to underweight) were also significantly associated with outcome, adjusting for age, sex, marital status, h/o smoking and h/o high BP. Conclusions Diabetics should be screened simultaneously for depression and concomitant preventive strategies for gestational diabetes, nuclear family and high BMI should also be used to prevent mortality/morbidity among patients between 25 to 60 years of age. PMID:20298616

2010-01-01

39

Impact and correlation of environmental conditions on pollen counts in karachi, pakistan.  

PubMed

A quantitative and qualitative survey of airborne pollen was performed in the city of Karachi, and the pollen counts were correlated with different climatic conditions. The aim of the study was to determine the possible effect of meteorological factors on airborne pollen distribution in the atmosphere of Karachi city. Pollen sampling was carried out by using Burkard spore Trap for the period of August 2009 to July 2010, and a total of 2,922 pollen grains/m3 were recorded. In this survey, 22 pollen types were recognized. The highest pollen count was contributed by Poaceae pollen type (1,242 pollen grains/m3) followed by Amaranthaceae/Chenopodiaceae (948 pollen grains/m3), Cyperus rotundus (195 pollen grains/m3) and Prosopis juliflora (169 pollen grains/m3). Peak pollen season was in August showing a total of 709 pollen grains/m3 and lowest pollen count was observed in January-2010. Pearson's chi-square test was performed for the possible correlation of pollen counts and climatic factors. The test revealed significant positive correlation of wind speed with pollen types of Amaranthaceae/Chenopodiaceae; Brassica campestris; Asteraceae; and Thuja orientalis. While the correlation of "average temperature" showed significant positive value with Asteraceae and Tamarix indica pollen types. Negative correlation was observed between humidity/ precipitation and pollen types of Brassica campestris; Daucus carota; Ephedra sp.; and Tamarix indica. In the light of above updated data one could identify various aeroallergens present in the air of Karachi city. PMID:25530143

Perveen, Anjum; Khan, Muneeba; Zeb, Shaista; Imam, Asif Ali

2015-02-01

40

Effect of pesticide residues on health and blood parameters of farm workers from rural Gadap, Karachi, Pakistan.  

PubMed

The samples were collected from 83 persons on 1 day (reading-I), 7 days (reading-II) and 30 days (reading-III) engaged in pesticide spraying in fourteen different fruit and vegetable farm stations located in the orchards of Gadap (rural area), Karachi-Pakistan. In the present study 26 workers out of 83 who were exposed to different pesticides (ie., cypermethrin, deltamethrin, polytrin-C, diazninon, monocrotophos, DDT and DDE) were compared with 25 healthy control persons. Different blood parameters were determined in comparison to control subjects. The results indicate some alterations in blood indices in allthe pesticide exposed persons, and only two persons from two different stations were affected severely and therefore their Hb, MCV MCHC, TLC, monocyte and neutrophil counts increased significantly. High lymphocyte count was noted in almost all the exposed persons. Platelets count was also found high in few persons but Hb, MCV, MCH, TLC, RBC and neutrophil counts significantly decreased in such persons. Exposure of multiple pesticides for prolong period has also affected the health of exposed persons and produced dermatological, hepatic, nephritic, respiratory and other clinical disorders reflecting the toxic effects of pesticides. Our findings indicate that indiscriminate use of pesticides in farming environments must be regularly assessed and farm workers must be trained for safe use of pesticides. PMID:20136060

Azmi, M Ahmed; Naqvi, S N H; Akhtar, Kehkashan; Moinuddin; Parveen, Shahida; Parveen, Rehana; Aslam, M

2009-09-01

41

Patients’ receptiveness for Medical students during consultation in Out patient department of a teaching hospital in Karachi Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Objective: Patients’ attitude towards medical students’ presence during treatment depends on the cultural values of the society. This study was conducted to find out the patients’ receptiveness in our society to be involved in teaching process for medical students during consultation in out patient department of a teaching hospital in Karachi Pakistan. Methodology: This cross sectional study was conducted in the surgical Out Patient Department (OPD) at Dow University Hospital from May 2012 to June 2012. Four hundred and eleven patients consented for participation through non probability purposive sampling, in which 279 patients were from morning clinics in the presence of students for clinical teaching, while 132 patients participated through evening clinics of surgery, when students were not present for comparison in specific dimensions of care for patients’ satisfaction. Results: Majority of patients 293 (71%) agreed with the teaching of students during consultation and they feel they are contributing in future doctor’s teaching, only 24% patients disagreed. Fifty two percent of patients who disagreed reported interference in privacy, 34% reported interference in consultation and 43% felt it resulted in prolong waiting time due to teaching. Conclusion: Majority of the patients agree to be part of teaching for medical students and this study can be used to assess the educational interventions designed to improve the patient based teaching. PMID:24353555

Laiq-uz-Zaman Khan, Muhammad; Jawaid, Masood; Hafeez, Kamran

2013-01-01

42

Effects of Mothers' Employment on Toddlers' Cognitive Development: A Study Conducted in Karachi, Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past several decades in Pakistan, an increasing number of women with young children are joining the workforce, which is one of the biggest social changes in the later half of the twentieth century. More children are being raised in households where mothers work for pay as compared with the scenario a generation ago. This change has…

Meherali, Salima Moez; Karmaliani, Rozina; Asad, Nargis

2011-01-01

43

The Effect of Clinical Clerkship on Students' Attitudes toward Psychiatry in Karachi, Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Attitudes of medical students toward a specialty is strongly related to their future choice of specialty. In developing countries like Pakistan, where there is a shortage of psychiatrists, there is a need to assess the effect of exposure to psychiatry on medical students. Methods: The authors conducted a survey of fourth-year medical…

Sajid, Ayesha; Khan, Murad M.; Shakir, Murtaza; Moazam-Zaman, Riffat; Ali, Asad

2009-01-01

44

Prevalence of Mistreatment or Belittlement among Medical Students – A Cross Sectional Survey at a Private Medical School in Karachi, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Mistreatment or belittlement of medical students either by faculty or fellow students has often been reported. Perception of mistreatment has also been associated with increased degree of psychological morbidity. There is a lack of such studies being conducted amongst the medical students of Pakistan. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and forms of perceived mistreatment and presence of mental health morbidity in a private medical school in Pakistan. Also, any association between mental health morbidity and mistreatment was to be identified. Methods A cross sectional study was carried out on medical students from Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan during the period of June–September 2007. A self administered questionnaire, adapted from Frank et al and Baldwin et al was distributed to a total of 350 students. The questionnaire consisted of three parts: the first dealing with the demographics of the population, the second concerning the various forms of mistreatment, while the third assessed the mental health of students using the General Health Questionnaire 12(GHQ12). Descriptive statistics were performed. The Chi-square test and Fisher's exact tests were applied. Results A total of 350 students were approached out of which 232 completed the questionnaire giving a response rate of 66.2%. Mistreatment was reported by 62.5% (145/232) of the respondents. Of these, 69.7% (83/145) were males and 54.9% (62/145) were females. There was a significant relationship between gender, year division, stress at medical school and possible use of drugs/alcohol and reported mistreatment but no statistical relationship was seen with psychiatric morbidity. The overall prevalence of psychological morbidity was 34.8% (77/221). Conclusion This study suggests high prevalence of perceived mistreatment and psychological morbidity among Pakistani medical students. However, no association was found between these two aspects of medical student education. There is a need to bring about changes to make the medical education environment conducive to learning. Increased student feedback, support systems and guidance about progress throughout the year and the provision of adequate learning resources may provide help with resolving both of these issues. PMID:20976173

Shoukat, Sana; Anis, Mariam; Kella, Danesh K.; Qazi, Fahad; Samad, Fatima; Mir, Faizia; Mansoor, Maryah; Parvez, Mohammad B.; Osmani, Bushra; Panju, Sukaina A.; Naqvi, Haider

2010-01-01

45

Attitudes of Pakistani and Pakistani heritage medical students regarding professionalism at a medical college in Karachi, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background An increased interest in professionalism has been reported in the field of medical education due to concerns regarding deterioration of humanism and professional values in the teaching and practice of medicine. The primary aim of this study was to assess attitudes of Pakistani and Pakistani heritage students at a medical college in Pakistan about important elements of professionalism that an ideal medical doctor should possess. A further objective of the study was to determine students’ preferred ways of learning professionalism. Methods A written survey was distributed to undergraduate medical students at a public sector medical college at Karachi, Pakistan in 2011. Using the Penn State College of Medicine (PSCOM) Professionalism Questionnaire, attitudes of medical students of semester 1, 5, and 8 regarding professionalism were assessed anonymously. Results The mean age of the students was 21.11?±?2.72 years. Forty-three percent of the respondents were male. Forty percent of the students held Pakistani citizenship. Thirty-five percent students were US citizens with Pakistani parents and twenty-five percent were Pakistani heritage students that had dual citizenships. No significant differences in the elements of professionalism (Accountability, Altruism, Duty, Excellence, Honesty & Integrity and Respect) mean scores or in the overall mean score of professionalism among the various classes were found. The total overall Cronbach alpha value for all elements of the professionalism in the selected classes was above 0.9. The most preferred methods for learning professionalism were role modeling by faculty, case based scenarios and role plays. Conclusion The students rated all the attributes of professionalism as important and there was no difference across the study years. The overall internal consistency of each element of professionalism was high in different classes. Faculty role models, case based scenarios and role plays may be used to teach professionalism. As a great majority of students were having a Pakistani heritage rather than complete Pakistani born and bred background, hence findings of the survey may not be taken as representative of typical Pakistani medical students. PMID:24628768

2014-01-01

46

Pakistan.  

PubMed

Pakistan's background notes which profile the population, geography, government, and the economy contain a capsule of selected country statistics and a descriptive text. Pakistan has 117 million people distributed at 134/sq km with a growth rate of 3%. The major cities are Islamabad, Rawalpindi, Karachi, Lahore, and Faisalabad. Ethnic groups include the Punjabi, Sindhi, Pathan, Baluch, and Huhajirs. 97% are Muslim. Urdu is the official language, but 65% speak Punjabi, 11% Sindhi, and 24% other languages. 26% are literate. Infant mortality is 109/1000. 54% are involved in agriculture, 33% services, and 13% in industry. A parliamentary democracy was established in 1947 with an executive, legislative, and judicial branch of government. The Islamic Democratic Alliance is the most important national party. Voting rights are for those 21 years. Seats are reserved for non-Muslims. There are 4 political subdivisions. Gross national product (GNP) was $43 billion in 1990. The economic growth rate is 5% and 2%/capita. The natural resources are arable land, natural gas, petroleum, coal, iron ore, and hydropower potential. Agricultural products include wheat, cotton, rice, and sugarcane. Industry includes textiles, fertilizer, steel products, food processing, and oil and gas products. Major trade partners are Japan, the US, the United Kingdom, and Saudi Arabia. Economic aid was $36 billion between 1947-85, of which the US contributed 3 billion between 1981-87. Major donors are id entified. The population concentration is around Karachi. Political unrest has prevailed for 26 years and includes the creation of Bangladesh in 1970 from East Pakistan. Pakistan is considered to have the resources and entrepreneurial skills to develop economically rapidly. Defense strength is characterized as the world's 11th largest. Pakistan is nonaligned, but a member of the Organization of the Islamic Conference and the UN. Relations with India have been difficult. There is a desire for a stable Afghanistan. There are close relations with China and security and economic interests in the Persian Gulf. Relations with the US are wide and bilateral. PMID:12178039

1992-06-01

47

Good knowledge about hypertension is linked to better control of hypertension; A multicentre cross sectional study in Karachi, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background According to the National Health survey only 3% of the population has controlled hypertension. This study was designed to elucidate the knowledge about hypertension in hypertensive patients at three tertiary care centers in Karachi. Secondly we sought to compare the knowledge of those with uncontrolled hypertension and controlled hypertension. Methods It was a cross-sectional study conducted at The Aga Khan University hospital (AKUH), Ziauddin Hospital (ZH) and Civil hospital, Karachi (CHK. All diagnosed Hypertensive patients (both inpatients and outpatients) coming to a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan aged > 18 years were included. Patients were categorized into 2 groups: controlled and uncontrolled hypertension based on their initial BP readings on presentation Uncontrolled Hypertension was defined as average BP ? 140/90 mm Hg in patients on treatment. Controlled Hypertension (HTN) was defined as average BP <140/90 mm Hg in patients on treatment. Standardized methods were used to record BP in the sitting position. Knowledge was recorded as a15 item question. Primary outcome was knowledge about hypertension. Results A total of 650 participants were approached and consented 447 were found eligible. 284(63.5%) were from Aga Khan University, 101(22.6) from Dow University of health sciences and 62(13.9) were from Ziauddin University. Mean (SD) age of participants was 57.7(12) years, 50.1(224) were men. Controlled hypertension was present in 323(72.3) and uncontrolled hypertension was present in 124(27.4). The total mean (SD) Knowledge score was 20.97(4.93) out of a maximum score of 38. On comparison of questions related to knowledge between uncontrolled and controlled hypertension, there was statistically significant different in; meaning of hypertension (p <0.001), target SBP(p0.001), target DBP(p 0.001), importance of SBP versus DBP, improvement of health with lowering of blood pressure (p 0.002), high blood pressure being asymptomatic (p <0.001), changing lifestyle improves blood pressure(p 0.003),hypertension being a lifelong disease (<0.001), lifelong treatment with antihypertensives(<0.001) and high blood pressure being part of aging(<0.001). On comparison of knowledge as a composite score between uncontrolled and controlled hypertensive; Mean (SD) score was 21.85(4.74) v18.67 (4.70) (p value: < 0.001). On multivariate analysis; gender ? (95% CI) 1.67(0.75, 2.59) p <0.001, uncontrolled blood pressure; -2.70(?3.76,-1.67) p <0.001, Sindhi ethnicity; -1.79(?3.25,-3.27) p 0.01 and pukhtoon ethnicity; -2.72(?4.13,-1.32) p <0.001 were significantly associated with knowledge score. Conclusion Knowledge about hypertension in hypertensive patients is not adequate and is alarmingly poor in patients with uncontrolled hypertension. More emphasis needs to be made on target blood pressure and need for taking antihypertensives for life to patients by physicians. PMID:23095492

2012-01-01

48

Post partum anxiety and depression in peri-urban communities of Karachi, Pakistan: a quasi-experimental study  

PubMed Central

Background Postpartum anxiety and depression is a major public health concern because of its adverse effects on the cognitive and social development of the infant. Globally postpartum depression has been widely investigated but as anxiety is a more prominent feature of postpartum depression we assessed the prevalence of anxiety and depression and their associated factors in post partum women. Methods A quasi-experimental study investigating the impact of postpartum anxiety and depression on child growth and development was conducted in two peri-urban, multiethnic, communities of Karachi, a mega city of Pakistan. A house to house questionnaire based survey was done by trained field workers; 420 consenting pregnant women were identified and data for socio-demographic, home environment and family relationship variables was collected between 36 weeks of pregnancy and within 10 days of childbirth. Mother's levels of anxiety and depression were assessed after one month, two months, six months and twelve months of childbirth; this was two step process: initially an indigenous, validated screening instrument Aga Khan University Anxiety and Depression Scale was used and diagnostic confirmation was done through a psychologist's interview based on DSM IV criteria. Women found to be anxious and depressed at least once out of four assessments were considered for the computation of overall prevalence of postpartum anxiety and depression as well as its risk factors. However, point prevalence's of postpartum anxiety and depression were also reported at each assessment time. Two sixty seven women could be followed for one year. Data was analyzed using SPSS. Chi-square test, simple and multiple logistic regression were used to see the association of different factors. Results The overall prevalence of postpartum anxiety and depression was found to be 28.8 percent. Domestic violence, difficulty in breast feeding at birth and unplanned current pregnancy were found to be significantly associated with postpartum anxiety and depression. Conclusion Domestic violence and not having the right to plan pregnancy are related to the patriarchal culture and lack of empowerment of women. The association with difficulties in breast feeding needs to be further explored in future studies PMID:19821971

Ali, Niloufer S; Ali, Badar S; Azam, Iqbal S

2009-01-01

49

Effect of pesticide residues on health and different enzyme levels in the blood of farm workers from Gadap (rural area) Karachi-Pakistan.  

PubMed

Persons from 14 different fruit and vegetable farm stations from Gadap (rural area), Karachi-Pakistan were examined for the presence of pesticide (cypermethrin, deltamethrin, polytrin-C, diazinon, monocrotophos, DDT and DDE) residues in their blood samples. The present study is concerned with effects of residue on the enzyme levels (GPT, GOT and ALP) as well as the health hazards of pesticide exposed persons. There is a significant increased in the enzyme levels at different stations. Exposed persons complained about liver and kidney dysfunctions and RTI. It may be concluded that exposure of multiple pesticides for prolonged period has affected the normal functioning of different organ systems and possibly produced characteristics clinical effects such as hepatitis, dyspnea and burning sensation in urine. PMID:16487989

Azmi, M Ahmed; Naqvi, S N H; Azmi, M Arshad; Aslam, M

2006-09-01

50

To Explore the Experiences of Women on Reasons in Initiating and Maintaining Breastfeeding in Urban Area of Karachi, Pakistan: An Exploratory Study  

PubMed Central

This is an exploratory study that explores the experiences of lactating women in initiating, continuing, or discontinuing breastfeeding in an urban area of Karachi, Pakistan. Objectives. To explore the experiences of lactating women and to understand their support and hindering mechanisms in initiating and maintaining breastfeeding. Methods. This is an exploratory design assisting in exploring the participant's experiences of initiating and maintaining breastfeeding to better understand their world. Purposive sampling was used, and data was analyzed through manual thematic analysis. Results. The data revealed that mother's knowledge, sociocultural environment, breastfeeding decision, and self- and professional support acted as driving forces for the participants. However, sociocultural environment, physiological changes, time management, and being a housewife to breastfeed their children were all challenges and barriers that the participants thought hindered their breastfeeding initiation and maintenance. Conclusion. Breastfeeding is a natural but taxing phenomenon, and breastfeeding mothers experience supporting and hindering factors in initiating and maintaining breastfeeding. PMID:22389780

Shaheen Premani, Zahra; Kurji, Zohra; Mithani, Yasmin

2011-01-01

51

An audit of the quality of care indicators for the management of diabetes in family practice clinics in Karachi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Management of diabetes is a painstaking and careful approach. This study was aimed to evaluate the quality of care for the management of diabetes provided by family practitioners to their patients having diabetes. This is a retrospective audit of medical records conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital of private sector in Karachi for one month.METHODS: For this study,

Raheem H Dhanani; Mohammad Mustafa Qureshi; Ali Khan Khuwaja; Badar Sabir Ali; Riaz Qureshi

2008-01-01

52

Sociocultural influences on newborn health in the first 6 weeks of life: qualitative study in a fishing village in Karachi, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Given regional variability and minimal improvement in infant mortality rates in Pakistan, this study aimed to explicate sociocultural influences impacting mothers’ efforts to maintain or improve newborn health. Methods We used a qualitative phenomenological approach. A total of 10 mothers and 8 fathers from a fishing village in Karachi, Pakistan were purposefully sampled and interviewed individually. A focus group was undertaken with four grandmothers (primary decision makers). Transcripts were independently reviewed using interpretive thematic analysis. Results A multigenerational approach was used in infant care, but mothers did not have a voice in decision-making. Parents connected breast milk to infant health, and crying was used as cue to initiate feeding. Participants perceived that newborns required early supplementation, given poor milk supply and to improve health. There were tensions between traditional (i.e., home) remedies and current medical practices. Equal importance was given to sons and daughters. Conclusion Findings suggest that social and cultural influences within families and the community must be considered in developing interventions to improve newborn health. Introducing non-breast milk substances into newborn diets may reduce the duration of exclusive or partial breastfeeding and increase risks to infant health. PMID:25030836

2014-01-01

53

Parental perceptions surrounding polio and self-reported non-participation in polio supplementary immunization activities in Karachi, Pakistan: a mixed methods study  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To assess parent’s knowledge and perceptions surrounding polio and polio vaccination, self-reported participation in polio supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) targeting children aged Karachi, Pakistan. A structured questionnaire was administered to assess parental knowledge of polio and participation in polio SIAs conducted in September and October 2011. Additionally, 30 parents of Pashtun ethnicity (a high-risk group) who refused to vaccinate their children were interviewed in depth to determine why. Descriptive and bivariate analyses by ethnic and socioeconomic group were performed for quantitative data; thematic analysis was conducted for qualitative interviews with Pashtun parents. Findings Of 1017 parents surveyed, 412 (41%) had never heard of polio; 132 (13%) did not participate in one SIA and 157 (15.4%) did not participate in either SIA. Among non-participants, 34 (21.6%) reported not having been contacted by a vaccinator; 116 (73.9%) reported having refused to participate, and 7 (4.5%) reported that the child was absent from home when the vaccinator visited. Refusals clustered in low-income Pashtun (43/441; 9.8%) and high-income families of any ethnic background (71/153; 46.4%). Low-income Pashtuns were more likely to not have participated in polio SIAs than low-income non-Pashtuns (odds ratio, OR: 7.1; 95% confidence interval, CI: 3.47–14.5). Reasons commonly cited among Pashtuns for refusing vaccination included fear of sterility; lack of faith in the polio vaccine; scepticism about the vaccination programme, and fear that the vaccine might contain religiously forbidden ingredients. Conclusion In Karachi, interruption of polio transmission requires integrated and participatory community interventions targeting high-risk populations. PMID:23226894

Khowaja, Asif Raza; Khan, Sher Ali; Nizam, Naveeda; Omer, Saad Bin

2012-01-01

54

Geographic Variation in Access to Dog-Bite Care in Pakistan and Risk of Dog-Bite Exposure in Karachi: Prospective Surveillance Using a Low-Cost Mobile Phone System  

PubMed Central

Background Dog-bites and rabies are under-reported in developing countries such as Pakistan and there is a poor understanding of the disease burden. We prospectively collected data utilizing mobile phones for dog-bite and rabies surveillance across nine emergency rooms (ER) in Pakistan, recording patient health-seeking behaviors, access to care and analyzed spatial distribution of cases from Karachi. Methodology and Principal Findings A total of 6212 dog-bite cases were identified over two years starting in February 2009 with largest number reported from Karachi (59.7%), followed by Peshawar (13.1%) and Hyderabad (11.4%). Severity of dog-bites was assessed using the WHO classification. Forty percent of patients had Category I (least severe) bites, 28.1% had Category II bites and 31.9% had Category III (most severe bites). Patients visiting a large public hospital ER in Karachi were least likely to seek immediate healthcare at non-medical facilities (Odds Ratio?=?0.20, 95% CI 0.17–0.23, p-value<0.01), and had shorter mean travel time to emergency rooms, adjusted for age and gender (32.78 min, 95% CI 31.82–33.78, p-value<0.01) than patients visiting hospitals in smaller cities. Spatial analysis of dog-bites in Karachi suggested clustering of cases (Moran's I?=?0.02, p value<0.01), and increased risk of exposure in particular around Korangi and Malir that are adjacent to the city's largest abattoir in Landhi. The direct cost of operating the mHealth surveillance system was USD 7.15 per dog-bite case reported, or approximately USD 44,408 over two years. Conclusions Our findings suggest significant differences in access to care and health-seeking behaviors in Pakistan following dog-bites. The distribution of cases in Karachi was suggestive of clustering of cases that could guide targeted disease-control efforts in the city. Mobile phone technologies for health (mHealth) allowed for the operation of a national-level disease reporting and surveillance system at a low cost. PMID:24349590

Zaidi, Syed Mohammad Asad; Labrique, Alain B.; Khowaja, Saira; Lotia-Farrukh, Ismat; Irani, Julia; Salahuddin, Naseem; Khan, Aamir Javed

2013-01-01

55

Prevalence and factors related to dental caries among pre-school children of Saddar town, Karachi, Pakistan: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Dental caries is highly prevalent and a significant public health problem among children throughout the world. Epidemiological data regarding prevalence of dental caries amongst Pakistani pre-school children is very limited. The objective of this study is to determine the frequency of dental caries among pre-school children of Saddar Town, Karachi, Pakistan and the factors related to caries. Methods A cross-sectional study of 1000 preschool children was conducted in Saddar town, Karachi. Two-stage cluster sampling was used to select the sample. At first stage, eight clusters were selected randomly from total 11 clusters. In second stage, from the eight selected clusters, preschools were identified and children between 3- to 6-years age group were assessed for dental caries. Results Caries prevalence was 51% with a mean dmft score being 2.08 (±2.97) of which decayed teeth constituted 1.95. The mean dmft of males was 2.3 (±3.08) and of females was 1.90 (±2.90). The mean dmft of 3, 4, 5 and 6-?year olds was 1.65, 2.11, 2.16 and 3.11 respectively. A significant association was found between dental caries and following variables: age group of 4-years (p-value?²?0.029, RR?=?1.248, 95% Bias corrected CI 0.029-0.437) and 5-years (p-value?²?0.009, RR?=?1.545, 95% Bias corrected CI 0.047-0.739), presence of dental plaque (p-value?²?0.003, RR?=?0.744, 95% Bias corrected CI (?0.433)-(?0.169)), poor oral hygiene (p-value?²?0.000, RR?=?0.661, 95% Bias corrected CI (?0.532)-(?0.284)), as well as consumption of non-sweetened milk (p-value?²?0.049, RR?=?1.232, 95% Bias corrected CI 0.061-0.367). Conclusion Half of the preschoolers had dental caries coupled with a high prevalence of unmet dental treatment needs. Association between caries experience and age of child, consumption of non-sweetened milk, dental plaque and poor oral hygiene had been established. PMID:23270546

2012-01-01

56

New record of Afrimenopon waar (Eichler) (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae) from budgerigar Melopsittacus undulatus (Psittaciformes: Psittacidae) from Karachi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chewing lice of the species Afrimenopon waar (Eichler) were collected from captive budgerigar Melopsittacus undulatus (Shaw) in Pakistan. This is the first record of amblyceran lice from this host. It is also the first record of the genus\\u000a Afrimenopon from Pakistani region. The primary host species of Afrimenopon waar is the rosy-faced lovebird Agapornis roseicollis (Vieillot). The finding of A.

Old?ich Sychra; Saima Naz; S. Anser Rizvi

2007-01-01

57

Reducing length of stay in hospital for very low birthweight infants by involving mothers in a stepdown unit: an experience from Karachi (Pakistan)  

PubMed Central

Problem Clinical care of infants with a very low birth weight (less than 1500 g) in developing countries can be labour intensive and is often associated with a prolonged stay in hospital. The Aga Khan University Medical Center in Karachi, Pakistan, established a neonatal intensive care unit in 1987. By 1993-4, very low birthweight infants remained in hospital for 18-21 days. Strategies for change A stepdown unit was established in September 1994, with mothers providing all basic nursing care for their infants before being discharged under supervision. Key measures for improvement We analysed neonatal outcomes for the time periods before and after the stepdown unit was created (1987-94 and 1995-2001). We compared these two time periods for survival after birth until discharge, morbidity patterns during hospitalisation, length of stay in hospital, and readmission rates to hospital in the four weeks after discharge. Effects of change Of 509 consecutive, very low birthweight infants, 494 (97%) preterm and 140 (28%) weighing < 1000 g at birth), 391 (76%) survived to discharge from the hospital. The length of hospitalisation fell significantly from 1987-90, when it was 34 (SD 18) days, to 16 (SD 14) days in 1999-2001 (P < 0.001). Readmission rates to hospital did not rise, nor did adverse outcomes at 12 months of age. Lessons learnt Our results indicate that it is possible to involve mothers in the active care of their very low birthweight infants before discharge. This may translate into earlier discharge from hospital to home settings without any increase in short term complications and readmissions. PMID:15539671

Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Khan, Iqtidar; Salat, Suhail; Raza, Farukh; Ara, Husan

2004-01-01

58

Gender roles and their influence on life prospects for women in urban Karachi, Pakistan: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Pakistan is a patriarchal society where men are the primary authority figures and women are subordinate. This has serious implications on women's and men's life prospects. Objective The aim was to explore current gender roles in urban Pakistan, how these are reproduced and maintained and influence men's and women's life circumstances. Design Five focus group discussions were conducted, including 28 women representing employed, unemployed, educated and uneducated women from different socio-economic strata. Manifest and latent content analyses were applied. Findings Two major themes emerged during analysis: ‘Reiteration of gender roles’ and ‘Agents of change’. The first theme included perceptions of traditional gender roles and how these preserve women's subordination. The power gradient, with men holding a superior position in relation to women, distinctive features in the culture and the role of the extended family were considered to interact to suppress women. The second theme included agents of change, where the role of education was prominent as well as the role of mass media. It was further emphasised that the younger generation was more positive to modernisation of gender roles than the elder generation. Conclusions This study reveals serious gender inequalities and human rights violations against women in the Pakistani society. The unequal gender roles were perceived as static and enforced by structures imbedded in society. Women routinely faced serious restrictions and limitations of autonomy. However, attainment of higher levels of education especially not only for women but also for men was viewed as an agent towards change. Furthermore, mass media was perceived as having a positive role to play in supporting women's empowerment. PMID:22065609

Ali, Tazeen S.; Krantz, Gunilla; Gul, Raisa; Asad, Nargis; Johansson, Eva; Mogren, Ingrid

2011-01-01

59

Drug resistance profile and biofilm forming potential of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from contact lenses in Karachi-Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background The contaminated contact lens provides Pseudomonas aeruginosa an ideal site for attachment and biofilm production. Continuous contact of the eye to the biofilm-infested lens can lead to serious ocular diseases, such as keratitis (corneal ulcers). The biofilms also prevent effective penetration of the antibiotics, which increase the chances of antibiotic resistance. Methods For this study, 22 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were obtained from 36 contact lenses and 14 contact lens protective fluid samples. These isolates were tested against eight commonly used antibiotics using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. The biofilm forming potential of these isolates was also evaluated using various qualitative and quantitative techniques. Finally, a relationship between biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance was also examined. Results The isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa tested were found resistant to most of the antibiotics tested. Qualitative and quantitative biofilm analysis revealed that most of the isolates exhibited strong biofilm production. The biofilm production was significantly higher in isolates that were multi-drug resistant (p?Pakistan, which analyzes both antibiotic resistance profile and biofilm forming potential of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from contact lens of the patients with contact lens associated infections. PMID:24134792

2013-01-01

60

Impact of postpartum anxiety and depression on child’s mental development from two peri-urban communities of Karachi, Pakistan: a quasi-experimental study  

PubMed Central

Background Postpartum anxiety and depression has detrimental effects on the overall mental development of children. This study aims to assess the impact of postpartum anxiety and depression on children’s mental development on all sub-scales in a Pakistani population. Methods A quasi-experimental study was conducted in two peri-urban communities of Karachi, a mega city of Pakistan, to assess the impact of postpartum anxiety and depression on children’s growth and mental development. A total of 420 women were enrolled, who had given consent out of 651 pregnant women identified, during February 2004 to December 2005. Data for socio-demographic, home environment and family relationship variables were collected between 36 weeks of pregnancy and within 10 days of childbirth. Mother’s levels of anxiety and depression were assessed at 1, 2, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 30 months of childbirth. An indigenous, validated screening instrument- Aga Khan University Anxiety and Depression scale was used and diagnostic confirmation was done through a psychologist’s interview, based on DSM IV criteria. Children’s growth and development was monitored in the same sequence using an Early Childhood Development tool that consists of five subscales; socio emotional, language, cognitive, gross motor and fine motor development. Physical growth was monitored by measuring height and weight of the child. Data was analyzed using SAS 9.2. Multivariable Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) logistic regression was conducted to identify association of postpartum anxiety and depression with each early childhood development indicator, adjusting for parental and child factors. Results A significant association of postpartum anxiety and depression with delayed development on all five subscales of children’s mental development was found in our study. Interestingly, our study found that higher maternal age had adverse effects on child’s emotional whereas positive impact on child’s cognitive development. Children’s stunting had an adverse impact on all five subscales of children’s development. Male children were at higher risk for delayed language and gross motor development relative to female children. Conclusions Our study found that postpartum anxiety and depression is associated with adverse outcomes regarding children’s mental development on all sub-scales. The impact was accentuated by low family income or child’s increasing age. PMID:24148567

2013-01-01

61

Pakistan.  

PubMed

This information sheet about Pakistan, by the U.S. State Dept., summarizes its geography, political history, government, economy and international relations. Pakistan, lying on the Arabian Sea between Iran and India, and neighboring Afghanistan and China, has been independent from British control since 1947. Her people, 98 million, come from several Indo-European ethnic groups, but are 97% Muslim. Most live in the fertile Indus river valley; 53% work in agriculture; 13% in industry; mean per capita income is $331. The infant mortality rate is about 119/1000; life expectancy around 51 years. The country is endowed with resources, besides farmland, of oil, gas, coal, iron and hydroelectric power. It produces cotton, rice, fruits and vegetables as well for export. Pakistan's history is filled with strife, armed or political, marked by the independence of East Pakistan, now Bangladesh, in 1970, and rivalry for power by military and democratic factions, ending with a real election of Benazir Bhutto in 1986. Despite basic resources and a net export of food and textiles, the country has a significant debt and runs a deficit, and supports a rapidly growing young population (3.1% growth rate). Pakistan partakes in a complicated net of international relations due to the alignment of countries on her borders. Religious and ethnic conflicts with India, ideological difficulties and millions of refugees flowing from Afghanistan, but good relations with Iran and China make up this pattern. PMID:12177945

1987-03-01

62

Prevalence of Obesity in School-Going Children of Karachi  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundObesity is an emerging problem in Pakistan. The authors sought to determine prevalence of obesity and malnutrition in school-going children, from grades 6th to 8th of different schools of Karachi and assess associations that affect the weight of the children.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsA cross sectional study design with children studying in grades 6th to 8th grade, in different schools of Karachi. We

Haider Javed Warraich; Faisal Javed; Mohammed Faraz-Ul-Haq; Fariha Batool Khawaja; Sarah Saleem; J. Jaime Miranda

2009-01-01

63

Behavioral problems among children living in orphanage facilities of Karachi, Pakistan: comparison of children in an SOS Village with those in conventional orphanages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  This study compared the behavioral problems of children living in an SOS Village, which attempts to provide a family setup\\u000a for its children, with those living in conventional orphanages.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 330 children, aged 4–16 years, living either in an SOS or other conventional orphanages\\u000a of Karachi, and assessed their behavioral problems using strengths and difficulty questionnaire

Zohra S. Lassi; Sadia Mahmud; Ehsan U. Syed; Naveed Z. Janjua

2011-01-01

64

Pakistan: Summary Report. Education Financing and People's Aspirations in Pakistan. Asia-South Pacific Education Watch  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted across the country in a total of 23 districts, 5 districts each in the four provinces of Pakistan, i.e. Balochistan, Punjab, Sindh, North Western Frontier Province (NWFP), and 2 districts in Azad Jammu & Kashmir (AJK). The main purpose of the paper was to unravel the intricate budgeting process in the education sector,…

Lozada, Rebecca, Ed.

2008-01-01

65

Prevalence and perceptions about consanguineous marriages among patients presenting to family physicians, in 2001 at a Teaching Hospital in Karachi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim : Consanguineous marriages are common in Pakistan despite their declining popularity in the developed world. In the present study, a questionnaire based survey was used to record the attitudes and perceptions of consanguineous marriages among the sample population. Methods : A questionnaire was developed to collect information on the acceptability of, and percep- tions about, consanguineous marriages among patients

Waris Qidwai; Iqbal Azam Syed; Faisal M Khan

2003-01-01

66

Seismological Research Letters Volume 78, Number 6 November/December 2007 601 The city of Karachi, Pakistan (population 14 million), sits close  

E-print Network

, Pakistan (population 14 million), sits close to a plate boundary and within reach of earthquakes on numer as demographic--with another megacity for which seismic hazard is known to be high: Los Angeles, California active structural zones have produced damaging earthquakes that have been felt in the city in the past

Bilham, Roger

67

MODELING AND SOCIOECONOMIC IMPACT ANALYSIS OF FLOODS IN COASTAL CITIES UNDER SEA LEVEL RISING SCENARIOS: A CASE STUDY OF KARACHI, PAKISTAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coastal zone of Pakistan is extended over a length of 1,046 km in between 62 oE to 68 oE longitudes with the average annual rainfall varying from 125-250mm. The urban population along the coast line varies from 10 to more than 7000 persons per Km2 which is vulnerable to tropical cyclones as well as resulting floods. Such natural hazards

Rabin Bhattarai

2005-01-01

68

The Karachi intracranial stenosis study (KISS) Protocol: An urban multicenter case-control investigation reporting the clinical, radiologic and biochemical associations of intracranial stenosis in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Intracranial stenosis is the most common cause of stroke among Asians. It has a poor prognosis with a high rate of recurrence. No effective medical or surgical treatment modality has been developed for the treatment of stroke due to intracranial stenosis. We aim to identify risk factors and biomarkers for intracranial stenosis and to develop techniques such as use of transcranial doppler to help diagnose intracranial stenosis in a cost-effective manner. Methods/Design The Karachi Intracranial Stenosis Study (KISS) is a prospective, observational, case-control study to describe the clinical features and determine the risk factors of patients with stroke due to intracranial stenosis and compare them to those with stroke due to other etiologies as well as to unaffected individuals. We plan to recruit 200 patients with stroke due to intracranial stenosis and two control groups each of 150 matched individuals. The first set of controls will include patients with ischemic stroke that is due to other atherosclerotic mechanisms specifically lacunar and cardioembolic strokes. The second group will consist of stroke free individuals. Standardized interviews will be conducted to determine demographic, medical, social, and behavioral variables along with baseline medications. Mandatory procedures for inclusion in the study are clinical confirmation of stroke by a healthcare professional within 72 hours of onset, 12 lead electrocardiogram, and neuroimaging. In addition, lipid profile, serum glucose, creatinine and HbA1C will be measured in all participants. Ancillary tests will include carotid ultrasound, transcranial doppler and magnetic resonance or computed tomography angiogram to rule out concurrent carotid disease. Echocardiogram and other additional investigations will be performed at these centers at the discretion of the regional physicians. Discussion The results of this study will help inform locally relevant clinical guidelines and effective public health and individual interventions. PMID:19604359

Kamal, Ayeesha Kamran; Taj, Fawad; Junaidi, Babar; Rasheed, Asif; Zaidi, Moazzam; Murtaza, Muhammed; Iqbal, Naved; Hashmat, Fahad; Alam, Syed Vaqas; Saleem, Uzma; Waheed, Shahan; Bansari, Lajpat; Shah, Nabi; Samuel, Maria; Yameen, Madiha; Naz, Sobia; Khan, Farrukh Shahab; Ahmed, Naveeduddin; Mahmood, Khalid; Sheikh, Niaz; Makki, Karim Ullah; Ahmed, Muhammad Masroor; Memon, Abdul Rauf; Wasay, Mohammad; Syed, Nadir Ali; Khealani, Bhojo; Frossard, Philippe M; Saleheen, Danish

2009-01-01

69

Formative research and development of an evidence-based communication strategy: the introduction of Vi typhoid fever vaccine among school-aged children in Karachi, Pakistan.  

PubMed

The authors conducted formative research (a) to identify stakeholders' concerns related to typhoid fever and the need for disease information and (b) to develop a communication strategy to inform stakeholders and address their concerns and motivate for support of a school-based vaccination program in Pakistan. Data were collected during interactive and semi-structured focus group discussions and interviews, followed by a qualitative analysis and multidisciplinary consultative process to identify an effective social mobilization strategy comprised of relevant media channels and messages. The authors conducted 14 focus group discussions with the parents of school-aged children and their teachers, and 13 individual interviews with school, religious, and political leaders. Parents thought that typhoid fever was a dangerous disease, but were unsure of their children's risk. They were interested in vaccination and were comfortable with a school-based vaccination if conducted under the supervision of trained and qualified staff. Teachers and leaders needed information on typhoid fever, the vaccine, procedures, and sponsors of the vaccination program. Meetings were considered the best form of information dissemination, followed by printed materials and mass media. This study shows how qualitative research findings can be translated into an effective social mobilization and communication approach. The findings of the research indicated the importance of increasing awareness of typhoid fever and the benefits of vaccination against the disease. Identification and dissemination of relevant, community-based disease and vaccination information will increase demand and use of vaccination. PMID:23330632

Pach, Alfred; Tabbusam, Ghurnata; Khan, M Imran; Suhag, Zamir; Hussain, Imtiaz; Hussain, Ejaz; Mumtaz, Uzma; Haq, Inam Ul; Tahir, Rehman; Mirani, Amjad; Yousafzai, Aisha; Sahastrabuddhe, Sushant; Ochiai, R Leon; Soofi, Sajid; Clemens, John D; Favorov, Michael O; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

2013-01-01

70

U.s. foreign policy in Islamic South Asia: Realism, culture, and policy toward Pakistan and Afghanistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States has a long-standing interest in the political events of South Asia. This research focuses specifically on U.S. foreign policy toward the Islamic nations of this region, Pakistan and Afghanistan (Referred to as Islamic South Asia). This research examines a variety of primary and secondary sources in an effort to understand the historical context and theoretical framework of

Mian Ahad Hayaud-Din

2003-01-01

71

Increased body fat percentage and physical inactivity are independent predictors of gestational diabetes mellitus in South Asian women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:This study aims to identify lifestyle predictors of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in South Asian women. Pre-gravid body mass index, body composition, rate of weight gain during pregnancy, physical activity (PA) and dietary intake were studied.Design:Prospective cohort study (n=611) of South Asian women at Aga Khan University Hospital antenatal clinic in Karachi, Pakistan. Weight, height and body fat % were

R Iqbal; G Rafique; S Badruddin; R Qureshi; R Cue; K Gray-Donald

2007-01-01

72

Childhood Unintentional Injuries: Need for a Community-Based Home Injury Risk Assessments in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background. A substantial proportion of the annual 875,000 childhood unintentional injury deaths occur in the home. Very few printed tools are available in South Asia for disseminating home injury prevention information. Methods. Three tools were planned: an injury hazard assessment tool appropriate for a developing country setting, an educational pamphlet highlighting strategies for reducing home injury hazards, and an in-home safety tutorial program to be delivered by a trained community health worker. Results. The three tools were successfully developed. Two intervention neighborhoods in Karachi, Pakistan, were mapped. The tools were pretested in this local setting and are now ready for pilot testing in an intervention study. Conclusion. Planning for an innovative, community-based pilot study takes considerable time and effort in a low-income setting like Pakistan. The primary outcome of the pre-testing phase of the study was the development of three important tools geared for low-income housing communities in Pakistan. PMID:22577399

Hyder, Adnan A.; Chandran, Aruna; Khan, Uzma Rahim; Zia, Nukhba; Huang, Cheng-Ming; de Ramirez, Sarah Stewart; Razzak, Junaid

2012-01-01

73

The Muslim Response to English in South Asia: With Special Reference to Inequality, Intolerance, and Militancy in Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article argues that since the British colonial era, Muslims in South Asia have responded to English in three ways: (a) rejection and resistance, (b) acceptance and assimilation, and (c) pragmatic utilization. These responses continue in Pakistan and are respectively associated with the traditionalist ulema, the Westernized middle and upper…

Rahman, Tariq

2005-01-01

74

Some aspects of South Asia's groundwater irrigation economy: analyses from a survey in India, Pakistan, Nepal Terai and Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1960, South Asia has emerged as the largest user of groundwater in irrigation in the world. Yet, little is known about this burgeoning economy, now the mainstay of the region's agriculture, food security and livelihoods. Results from the first socio-economic survey of its kind, involving 2,629 well-owners from 278 villages from India, Pakistan, Nepal Terai and Bangladesh, show that

Tushaar Shah; O. P. Singh; Aditi Mukherji

2006-01-01

75

Genetic characterization of the Makrani people of Pakistan from mitochondrial DNA control-region data.  

PubMed

To estimate genetic and forensic parameters, the entire mitochondrial DNA control region of 100 unrelated Makrani individuals (males, n=96; females, n=4) living in Pakistan (Turbat, Panjgur, Awaran, Kharan, Nasirabad, Gwadar, Buleda, Karachi and Burewala) was sequenced. We observed a total of 70 different haplotypes of which 54 were unique and 16 were shared by more than one individual. The Makrani population showed a high genetic diversity (0.9688) and, consequently, a high power of discrimination (0.9592). Our results revealed a strongly admixed mtDNA pool composed of African haplogroups (28%), West Eurasian haplogroups (26%), South Asian haplogroups (24%), and East Asian haplogroups (2%), while the origin of the remaining individuals (20%) could not be confidently assigned. The results of this study are a valuable contribution to build a database of mtDNA variation in Pakistan. PMID:25454536

Siddiqi, Muhammad Hassan; Akhtar, Tanveer; Rakha, Allah; Abbas, Ghazanfar; Ali, Akram; Haider, Naeem; Ali, Azam; Hayat, Sikandar; Masooma, Syeda; Ahmad, Jamil; Tariq, Muhammad Akram; van Oven, Mannis; Khan, Fazle Majid

2014-10-13

76

Comprehensive Bibliography of Pakistan Archaeology: Paleolithic to Historic Times. South Asia Series, Occasional Paper No. 24.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The comprehensive bibliography is a compilation of twentieth century documents about Pakistan prehistory from Paleolithic times to the arrival of the Greeks in approximately 330 B.C., also includes some of the major archaeological studies in adjacent countries which have a bearing on the interpretation and comparative analysis of Pakistan

King, Denise E.

77

Severity of acute hepatitis and its outcome in patients with dengue fever in a tertiary care hospital Karachi, Pakistan (South Asia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Liver injury due to dengue viral infection is not uncommon. Acute liver injury is a severe complicating factor in dengue, predisposing to life-threatening hemorrhage, Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC) and encephalopathy. Therefore we sought to determine the frequency of hepatitis in dengue infection and to compare the outcome (length of stay, in hospital mortality, complications) between patients of Dengue who

Om Parkash; Aysha Almas; SM Wasim Jafri; Saeed Hamid; Jaweed Akhtar; Hasnain Alishah

2010-01-01

78

Content audit of drug advertisements in Pakistan.  

PubMed

A sample of 120 drug advertisements was drawn by nonprobability convenience sampling from among the stalls of 50 pharmaceutical companies participating in an exhibition in Karachi, Pakistan. 23 belonging to the NSAID drug group were selected and evaluated on whether they met guidelines for ethical advertisements as laid down in the Drugs Act, 1976. Only 5 out of the 23 advertisements met at least 14 out of 16 criteria for ethical advertisements as given in the Drugs Act, 1976. PMID:22106645

Vakani, Farhan; Naqv, Kashif; Amin, Almas

2011-01-01

79

Implementing midwifery led care in Pakistan.  

PubMed

Pakistan's maternal and neonatal mortality rate compares unfavourably with the UK and much of the world (McIntyre 2010). The high rates of maternal and neonatal mortality in Pakistan are due to inadequate maternal, neonatal and child care, too few skilled birth attendants, insufficient competent midwives, ineffective and unaffordable basic and comprehensive emergency obstetric services. In this article, the introduction of the first midwifery led units in an urban hospital setting in Karachi, its rationale and projected future plans will be described. PMID:21739735

Jan, Rafat; Mohammed, Yasmeen Jan; McIntyre, Helen

2011-06-01

80

Antenatal Depression is Not Associated with Low-Birth Weight: A Study from Urban Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background: Low-birth weight (LBW) (<2500?g) is considered to be a leading cause of cognitive impairment and physical disabilities in children. Incidence of LBW in South Asia has been reported to be as high as 33%. We investigated the association between antenatal depression and LBW in an urban community, in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods: A total of 1357 pregnant women in their third trimester were recruited into the study. They were screened for antenatal depression with Edinburgh postnatal depression scale. Self-reporting questionnaire was also used to measure psychological distress. Birth weights of 763 newborns were obtained from the hospital records. Results: We did not find a significant association between antenatal depression and LBW (odds ratio 0.881, 95%CI 0.732–1.060) in mothers attending a charity run hospital in an urban setting in Pakistan. Conclusion: Antenatal depression is not associated with LBW in this urban population in Pakistan. However, the prevalence of depression is high during pregnancy. There is a need to develop culturally adapted psychosocial interventions to address the high rates of depression for this population group. PMID:25540627

Husain, Nusrat; Munshi, Tariq; Jafri, Farhat; Husain, Meher; Parveen, Asia; Saeed, Qamar; Tomenson, Barbara; Naeem, Farooq; Chaudhry, Nasim

2014-01-01

81

Pesticide susceptibility status of Anopheles mosquitoes in four flood-affected districts of South Punjab, Pakistan.  

PubMed

Recent floods drastically increased the burden of disease, in particular the incidence of malaria, in the southern districts of the Punjab province in Pakistan. Control of malaria vector mosquitoes in these districts requires the adoption of an appropriate evidence-based policy on the use of pesticides, and having the latest information on the insecticide resistance status of malaria vector mosquitoes is essential for designing effective disease prevention policy. Using World Health Organization (WHO) test kits, the present study utilized papers impregnated with DDT, malathion, deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, and permethrin, to determine the insecticide susceptibility/resistance status of malaria vector mosquitoes in four flood-affected districts. The test results showed that both Anopheles stephensi and Anopheles culicifacies remained resistant to DDT and malathion. Tests with three commonly used pyrethroids, permethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, and deltamethrin, detected resistance in the majority of cases, but in a number of localities mortalities with these three pyrethroids ranged from 80-97% and were therefore placed under verification-required status. This status indicates the presence of susceptible individuals in these populations. These results suggest that if appropriate resistance management strategies are applied in these areas, then the development of high levels of resistance can still be prevented or slowed. This study forms an important evidence base for the strategic planning of vector control in the four flood-affected districts. PMID:23199276

Rathor, Hamayun Rashid; Nadeem, Ghazala; Khan, Imtinan Akram

2013-01-01

82

Useful ethnophytomedicinal recipes of angiosperms used against diabetes in South East Asian Countries (India, Pakistan & Sri Lanka).  

PubMed

This paper is based on data recorded from various literatures pertaining to ethnophytomedicinal recipes used against diabetes in South East Asia (India, Pakistan and Srilanka). Traditional plant treatments have been used throughout the world for the therapy of diabetes mellitus. In total 419 useful phytorecipes of 270 plant species belonging to 74 Angiospermic families were collected. From the review it was revealed that plants showing hypoglycemic potential mainly belong to the families, Cucurbitaceae (16 spp.), Euphorbiaceae (15 spp.), Caesalpiniaceae and Papilionaceae (13 spp. each), Moraceae (11 spp.), Acanthaceae (10 spp.), Mimosaceae (09 spp.), Asteraceae, Malvaceae and Poaceae (08 spp. each), Hippocrateaceae, Rutaceae and Zingiberaceae (07 spp. each), Apocynaceae, Asclepiadaceae and Verbenaceae (06 spp. each), Apiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Lamiaceae, Myrtaceae, Solanaceae (05 spp.each). The most active plants are Syzigium cumini (14 recipes), Phyllanthus emblica (09 recipes), Centella asiatica and Momordica charantia (08 recipes each), Azadirachta indica (07 recipes), Aegle marmelos, Catharanthus roseus, Ficus benghalensis, Ficus racemosa, Gymnema sylvestre (06 recipes each), Allium cepa, A. sativum, Andrographis paniculata, Curcuma longa (05 recipes each), Citrullus colocynthis, Justicia adhatoda, Nelumbo nucifera, Tinospora cordifolia, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Ziziphus mauritiana and Wattakaka volubilis (4 recipes each). These traditional recipes include extracts, leaves, powders, flour, seeds, vegetables, fruits and herbal mixtures. Data inventory consists of botanical name, recipe, vernacular name, English name. Some of the plants of the above data with experimentally confirmed antidiabetic properties have also been recorded. More investigations must be carried out to evaluate the mechanism of action of diabetic medicinal plants. Toxicity of these plants should also be explained. Scientific validation of these recipes may help in discovering new drugs from these medicinal plants for diabetes. PMID:25176368

Marwat, Sarfaraz Khan; Rehman, Fazalur; Khan, Ejaz Ahmad; Khakwani, Abdul Aziz; Ullah, Imdad; Khan, Kaleem Ullah; Khan, Inam Ullah

2014-09-01

83

The burden of stroke and transient ischemic attack in Pakistan: a community-based prevalence study  

PubMed Central

Background The burden of cerebrovascular disease in developing countries is rising sharply. The prevalence of established risk factors of stroke is exceptionally high in Pakistan. However, there is limited data on the burden of stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) in South Asia. We report the first such study conducted in an urban slum of Karachi, Pakistan. Methods Individuals 35 years of age or older were invited for participation in this investigation through simple random sampling. A structured face-to-face interview was conducted using a pre-tested stroke symptom questionnaire in each participant to screen for past stroke or TIA followed by neurological examination of suspected cases. Anthropometric measurements and random blood glucose levels were recorded. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the association of vascular risk factors with prevalence of stroke. Results Five hundred and forty five individuals (49.4% females) participated in the study with a response rate of 90.8%. One hundred and four individuals (19.1%) were observed to have a prior stroke while TIA was found in 53 individuals (9.7%). Overall, 119 individuals (21.8% with 66.4% females) had stroke and/or TIA. Female gender, old age, raised random blood glucose level and use of chewable tobacco were significantly associated with the prevalence of cerebrovascular disease. Conclusion This is the first study demonstrating an alarmingly high life-time prevalence of cerebrovascular disease in Pakistan. Individual and public health interventions in Pakistan to increase awareness about stroke, its prevention and therapy are warranted. PMID:19948076

2009-01-01

84

Developing creative writing skills in early childhood: A case study from Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study explores how a teacher of Early Childhood teaches young children creative writing skills in a community-based school in Karachi, Pakistan. A qualitative case study method was used to examine the practices of the teacher and four early years’ learners (seven to eight years). Data was generated through semi-structured interviews; classroom observations and document analysis. Findings reveal that current

Nilofar Vazir; Shairoz Ismail

2009-01-01

85

Unsafe injections and the transmission of hepatitis B and C in a periurban community in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following reports of frequent deaths associated with jaundice and chronic liver disease among adults in a periurban community of Karachi, Pakistan, an investigation was conducted to evaluate the relationship between injections and viral hepatitis infections, to identify the reasons why patients received frequent injections, and to observe the injection practices employed in clinics. Two hundred and three adult patients were

Aamir J. Khan; Stephen P. Luby; Fariyal Fikree; Anita Karim; Saima Obaid; Salima Dellawala; Shaper Mirza; Tariq Malik; Sue Fisher-Hoch; Joseph B. McCormick

2000-01-01

86

Age and origin of post collision Baltoro granites, south Karakoram, north Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New in-situ U-Pb, Hf and oxygen data indicate that the Baltoro plutonic unit in the southern part of the Karakoram axial batholith was formed by partial melting of pre existing igneous sources with some input from supra-crustal rocks. This is consistent with the previous interpretations emphasizing partial melting of mafic lower crust beneath the Karakoram during the early Miocene 26-21Ma. The Baltoro batholith is mainly composed of biotite monzogranites and garnet two-mica leucogranites. Our zircon U-Pb ages corroborate the previous geochronology ranging from 26.3-17.3Ma., Cretaceous ages (97-72Ma) have also been observed in some zircons. Inherited ages are ranging from 553-2605Ma similar to those reported for the Lhasa block, confirming the westward continuation of south Tibet. The weighted mean ?Hf(0) for each sample varies from -8.7 to -4.0 and ranges from -17.1 to +4.4. These values are similar to the whole rock Hf data from the same rocks and are indistinguishable from those reported for the Cretaceous calc-alkaline magmatic rocks along the east-west transect of the Karakoram Terrane. Also, Miocene two-mica granites in the Darbuk area, eastern Karakoram show the comparable Hf composition. These values are significantly more evolved than the southward juvenile oceanic Cretaceous-Paleogene Kohistan-Ladakh Arc (+5to+16). The initial ?Hf(t) values of the Cretaceous zircons (+0.9 to +4.7) are more correlated to the Cretaceous calc-alkaline basement of Karakoram Batholith than the Kohistan-Ladakh Arc. The Hf composition of inherited cores is significantly different than the magmatic zircons with ?Hf(0) ranging from -58.6 to -14.3 comparable to the mid-crustal migmatitic gneisses southward in the Karakoram Metamorphic Complex. Both Miocene granites and Cretaceous zircons share similar and homogenous igneous type ?18O with mean ?18O range from 7.2 to 9.4‰ (2?). The mean ?18O of the core domain has a mixed signature ranging from 6.9 ‰ to 9.2 ‰. We suggest that the granites were formed by partial melting of pre existing igneous sources with some input from supracrustal rocks. The intermediate Hf composition of the magmatic zircons between highly evolved inherited core (similar to the mid- upper crustal Dassu migmatite) and calc-alkaline Cretaceous granodiorites suggests possible mixing between the two sources. Possible involvement of upper crust is also evident by the few more evolved Hf composition and slight increase in the observed oxygen composition than typical igneous zircons (> 8‰). This may have resulted by the interaction of the magma with the supracrustal material during the final ascent and emplacement at shallow depths beneath the Karakoram. Our zircon oxygen data did not show evidence of a juvenile (< 6‰) component. Moreover, the Hf compositions observed in Kohistan-Ladakh Arc are too radiogenic ((+6 to +16) than what we observe in the Baltoro granites. Therefore, mixing of such magma with the adjacent juvenile Kohistan-Ladakh batholiths or any direct contribution from juvenile mantle derived magma is unlikely. However this does not exclude the role of mantle melts in providing the additional heat to melt lower crust beneath the Karakoram. Our Hf data is significantly evolved than the Karakoram shear zone leucogranites (+1 to +9) where unlike to Baltoro region, magmas were strongly influenced by the juvenile Ladakh batholith.

Mahar, M.; Maheo, G.; Goodell, P.; Pavlis, T. L.

2013-12-01

87

Understanding the HIV/AIDS context in Pakistan.  

PubMed

The social context of sexual relations is important in understanding the AIDS epidemic. So far, HIV in Pakistan has spread by heterosexual contact and blood transfusions. The magnitude of the problem is difficult to assess but health authorities estimate between 10,000 to 12,000 HIV infected people. This paper outlines that rapid urbanization, together with single migrant workers, deported HIV infected expatriates, exploitation of women and easy availability of narcotic drugs, especially in the metropolis of Karachi, are some important factors that may be responsible for the spread of HIV in Pakistan (Venereology 1995;8 [3]:160-3). PMID:16689475

Ali, Shouket; Khanani, Rafiq; Tariq, Waheed-Uz-Zaman; Shah, Sharaf Ali

2006-01-01

88

How our practice of histopathology, especially tumour pathology has changed in the last two decades: reflections from a major referral center in Pakistan.  

PubMed

Continued advances in the field of histo-pathology (and cyto-pathology) over the past two decades have resulted in dramatic changes in the manner in which these disciplines are now practiced. This is especially true in the setting of a large university hospital where the role of pathologists as clinicians (diagnosticians), undergraduate and postgraduate educators, and researchers has evolved considerably. The world around us has changed significantly during this period bringing about a considerable change in our lifestyles and the way we live. This is the world of the internet and the world-wide web, the world of Google and Wikipedia, of Youtube and Facebook where anyone can obtain any information one desires at the push of a button. The practice of histo (and cyto) pathology has also evolved in line with these changes. For those practicing this discipline in a poor, developing country these changes have been breathtaking. This is an attempt to document these changes as experienced by histo (and cyto) pathologists practicing in the biggest center for Histopathology in Pakistan, a developing country in South Asia with a large (180 million) and ever growing population. The Section of Histopathology, Department of Pathology and Microbiology at the Aga Khan University Hospital (AKUH) in Karachi, Pakistan's largest city has since its inception in the mid-1980s transformed the way histopathology is practiced in Pakistan by incorporating modern methods and rescuing histopathology in Pakistan from the primitive and outdated groove in which it was stuck for decades. It set histopathology in Pakistan firmly on the path of modernity and change which are essential for better patient management and care through accurate and complete diagnosis and more recently prognostic and predictive information as well. PMID:24935563

Ahmad, Zubair; Idrees, Romana; Fatima, Saira; Arshad, Huma; Din, Nasir-ud; Memon, Aisha; Minhas, Khurram; Ahmed, Arsalan; Fatima, Syeda Samia; Arif, Muhammad; Ahmed, Rashida; Haroon, Saroona; Pervez, Shahid; Hassan, Sheema; Kayani, Naila

2014-01-01

89

India and Pakistan's geostrategic rivalry in Central Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pakistan has suffered a serious blow to its regional aspirations since the toppling of the Taliban in Afghanistan. In contrast, its South Asian rival India is finding Afghanistan and its northern neighbours welcoming a larger role. Despite its late entry into the region, India appears to be set to make significant gains at Pakistan's expense. The India-Pakistan rivalry in Central

Shahram Akbarzadeh

2003-01-01

90

Blood and hair lead in children with different extents of iron deficiency in Karachi  

SciTech Connect

Childhood iron deficiency has a high incidence in Pakistan. Some but not all studies have shown that dietary iron deficiency may cause increased absorption of lead as both compete for the same transporters in the small intestine. Therefore, children in Pakistan, residing in heavily polluted cities like Karachi may be prone to lead poisoning. This hypothesis was tested by investigating blood and hair lead concentrations in children from Karachi who were divided into four groups of iron status; normal, borderline iron deficiency, iron deficiency and iron deficiency anaemia. A prospective observational study was conducted where 269 children were categorized into four groups of iron status using the World Health Organization criteria and one based on soluble transferrin receptor measurements. Blood iron status was determined using a full blood count, serum iron, ferritin, transferrin saturation and soluble transferrin receptor measurements. Blood lead was determined by graphite atomic absorption spectroscopy, whereas hair lead was assessed using an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy technique. Blood lead concentrations were significantly higher in children with iron deficiency anaemia (mean [95% confidence intervals] were 24.9 [22.6-27.2] {mu}g/dL) compared to those with normal iron status (19.1 [16.8-21.4] {mu}g/dL) using WHO criteria. In contrast, hair lead content was not significantly different in children of different iron status. Our findings reinforce the importance of not only reducing environmental lead pollution but also the development of national health strategies to reduce childhood iron deficiency in Pakistan.

Ataur Rahman, Muhammad; Rahman, Bushra [Karachi Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270 (Pakistan)] [Karachi Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270 (Pakistan); Saeed Ahmad, Muhammad [School of Healthcare Science, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester M1 5GD (United Kingdom)] [School of Healthcare Science, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester M1 5GD (United Kingdom); Blann, Andrew [Department of Medicine, City Hospital, Birmingham B18 7QH, United Kingdom. (United Kingdom)] [Department of Medicine, City Hospital, Birmingham B18 7QH, United Kingdom. (United Kingdom); Ahmed, Nessar, E-mail: N.Ahmed@mmu.ac.uk [School of Healthcare Science, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester M1 5GD (United Kingdom)] [School of Healthcare Science, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester M1 5GD (United Kingdom)

2012-10-15

91

Description of Tylenchorhynchus qasimii sp. n with a new report of T. kegasawai Minagawa, 1995 from Pakistan  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A new stunt nematode, from soil around the roots of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.) from Karachi, Pakistan is described and illustrated as Tylenchorhynchus qasimii n. sp. This new species is characterized by having females with 3-4 head annules, anteriorly directed stylet knob...

92

The Pakistan Risk of Myocardial Infarction Study: a resource for the study of genetic, lifestyle and other determinants of myocardial infarction in South Asia  

PubMed Central

The burden of coronary heart disease (CHD) is increasing at a greater rate in South Asia than in any other region globally, but there is little direct evidence about its determinants. The Pakistan Risk of Myocardial Infarction Study (PROMIS) is an epidemiological resource to enable reliable study of genetic, lifestyle and other determinants of CHD in South Asia. By March 2009, PROMIS had recruited over 5,000 cases of first-ever confirmed acute myocardial infarction (MI) and over 5,000 matched controls aged 30–80 years. For each participant, information has been recorded on demographic factors, lifestyle, medical and family history, anthropometry, and a 12-lead electrocardiogram. A range of biological samples has been collected and stored, including DNA, plasma, serum and whole blood. During its next stage, the study aims to expand recruitment to achieve a total of about 20,000 cases and about 20,000 controls, and, in subsets of participants, to enrich the resource by collection of monocytes, establishment of lymphoblastoid cell lines, and by resurveying participants. Measurements in progress include profiling of candidate biochemical factors, assay of 45,000 variants in 2,100 candidate genes, and a genomewide association scan of over 650,000 genetic markers. We have established a large epidemiological resource for CHD in South Asia. In parallel with its further expansion and enrichment, the PROMIS resource will be systematically harvested to help identify and evaluate genetic and other determinants of MI in South Asia. Findings from this study should advance scientific understanding and inform regionally appropriate disease prevention and control strategies. PMID:19404752

2009-01-01

93

Myths and fallacies about epilepsy among residents of a Karachi slum area.  

PubMed

Misconceptions about epilepsy may explain the considerable stigma accompanying it. We aimed to identify such fallacies through questionnaire-based interviews of 487 adult residents of a slum area in Karachi, Pakistan. Of those interviewed, 25% believed that epilepsy was caused by evil spirits, black magic and envy by others - those without a school education were more likely to hold these views (P < 0.05). Perceived complications included impotence and cancer. Shoe-sniffing was considered a treatment modality by 13%. It appears that misconceptions abound regarding epilepsy's causes, complications and methods of treatment. However, those who had received a school education were less likely to link epilepsy with supernatural phenomena. PMID:18302862

Shafiq, Majid; Tanwir, Mansoor; Tariq, Asma; Saleem, Ayesha; Zafar, Monaa; Khuwaja, Ali Khan

2008-01-01

94

Strategies for prevention of road traffic injuries (RTIs) in Pakistan: situational analysis.  

PubMed

Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are one of the leading causes of death among productive age group. Using systems approach framework (SAF), current preventive strategies for RTI control were reviewed in Pakistan. A review of the literature was done using four international search engines. Only ten studies on preventive strategies for RTI stemming from Pakistan were found. The first Road Traffic Injuries Research Network (RTIRN) surveillance system for road traffic injuries was established in urban city (Karachi) in Pakistan has shown promise for injury control and should be scaled up to other cities. Enforcement of traffic laws on seat-belt and helmet wearing is poor. National Highway and Motorway Police Ordinance (2000) was one of the few legislative measure so far taken in Pakistan. Using SAF, efforts are required to implement interventions targeting human, vehicle design and also making environment safer for road users. PMID:24848396

Khan, Adeel Ahmed; Fatmi, Zafar

2014-05-01

95

Facies and cyclicity within the Oligocene-Early Miocene Panjgur Formation, Khojak-Panjgur Submarine Fan Complex, south-west Makran, Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Makran Accretionary Belt covers vast areas of the south-western Makran, Pakistan and extends westwards into coastal Iran. In Pakistan this belt is dominated by an overall regressive succession comprising the Siahan/Hoshab shale (a valley-forming claystone/siltstone-dominant facies) and the ridge-forming, sandstone-dominant facies of the Panjgur Formation, a very thick cyclic succession of Oligocene-Early Miocene turbidites. These formations form part of the "Khojak-Panjgur Submarine Fan Complex". The Panjgur Formation comprises nine distinct facies, which are organized into seven facies associations distinguished by their constituent facies, vertical organizations and lateral geometries. Facies associations include: (1) mid-fan channels, (2) overbank/levee, (3) crevasse-splays, (4) inter-channel, (5) outer-fan-lobes, (6) fan-fringe, and (7) trench floor/basin-plain. The formation displays a hierarchy of 1st, 2nd and 3rd order sedimentary cycles. The 1st order cycles range in thickness from 60 m to 450 m and conceptually correspond to "sequences" or "depositional sequences" formed mainly in response to sea-level fluctuations. Their boundaries are characterized by gradual or abrupt replacement of claystone/siltstone facies of the basin-plain by thin- to thick-bedded mid- to outer-fan turbidites, representing a basinward shift of the facies. The 1st order cycles generally start with thick- to very thick-bedded sandstones of channelized mid-fan facies, passing upwards into a middle part consisting of thin- to thick-bedded sandstone and claystone facies of the outer-fan-lobes and capped by claystone/siltstone-dominant facies of the basin-plain association. These three parts of the 1st order cycles correspond to the lowstand systems tracts (LST), transgressive systems tracts (TST) and highstand systems tract (HST) of the full depositional sequence. The 2nd order cycles, which are generally thinning-up and thickening-up cycles, range in thickness from 4 to 65 m, and occur both as isolated and composite packages, are characterized by mid-fan channelized and outer-fan-lobe associations, respectively. We interpret the 2nd order cycles as parasequences, which formed in response to marine flooding events of relatively short duration. The 3rd order cycles are very small-scale (1-4 m thick), mostly thickening-up cycles, which generally represent compensation cycles of the outer-fan-lobes. Sedimentary logs from the measured sections display significant differences in the character of facies, facies associations and cyclicity style but exhibit sufficient similarities to demonstrate that all these sequences formed parts of the same very large submarine fan complex. The succession has been strongly deformed, as attested by the prevalence of asymmetrical/overturned folding, thrusting and imbrication, resulting in great thickening due to tectonic duplication, as well as disruption of the cycles.

Kassi, Akhtar Muhammad; Khan, Abdul Salam; Kelling, Gilbert; Kasi, Aimal Khan

2011-06-01

96

An early South Asian dust storm during March 2012 and its impacts on Indian Himalayan foothills: a case study.  

PubMed

The impacts of an early South Asian dust storm that originated over the western part of the Middle East and engulfed northwest parts of India during the third week of March 2012 have been studied at four different stations covering India and Pakistan. The impacts of this dust storm on aerosol optical properties were studied in detail at Delhi, Jodhpur, Lahore and Karachi. The impact could also be traced up to central Himalayan foothills at Manora Peak. During dust events, the aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 500 nm reached a peak value of 0.96, 1.02, 2.17 and 0.49 with a corresponding drop in Ångström exponent (AE for 440-870 nm) to 0.01, -0.02, 0.00 and 0.12 at Delhi, Jodhpur, Lahore and Karachi, respectively. The single scattering albedo (SSA) at 675 nm was relatively lower at Delhi (0.87) and Jodhpur (0.86), with absorption Ångström exponent (AAE) less than 1.0, but a large value of SSA was observed at Lahore (0.98) and Karachi (0.93), with AAE value greater than 1.0 during the event. The study of radiative impact of dust aerosols revealed a significant cooling at the surface and warming in the atmosphere (with corresponding large heating rate) at all the stations during dust event. The effect of this dust storm was also seen at Manora Peak in central Himalayas which showed an enhancement of ~28% in the AOD at 500 nm. The transport of dust during such events can have severe climatic implications over the affected plains and the Himalayas. PMID:24973722

Srivastava, A K; Soni, V K; Singh, Sachchidanand; Kanawade, V P; Singh, N; Tiwari, S; Attri, S D

2014-09-15

97

Characterizing US Operations in Pakistan: Is the United States Engaged In An Armed Conflict?  

Microsoft Academic Search

On January 14, 2010, four Hellfire missiles fired from an unmanned aerial vehicle (“drone”) slammed into a compound in Pakistan’s South Waziristan region, killing ten people. Hakimullah Mehsud, leader of Tehrik-e-Taliban Pakistan (“TTP”), was the reported target of the strike. Already the eighth US drone attack in Pakistan in 2010, these strikes followed two consecutive years of dramatically increased drone

Laurie R. Blank; Benjamin R. Farley

2011-01-01

98

Knowledge, attitude and practices regarding HIV/AIDS among adult fishermen in coastal areas of Karachi  

PubMed Central

Background Migrant populations are at high risk of Human Immuno Deficiency Virus infection (HIV) and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Studies of HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes and practices among fishermen in developing countries have shown gaps in knowledge and fear of contagion with ambivalent attitudes towards HIV/AIDS and inconsistent universal precautions adherence. The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge, attitude and practices regarding HIV/AIDS among adult fishermen in a coastal area of Karachi, Pakistan. Methods Community based cross sectional study was conducted among fishermen in coastal area of Karachi from June to September 2012. A total of 297 adult fishermen were selected by using simple random sampling technique from different sectors of coastal village. Data were collected using a structured validated questionnaire. The frequency distribution of both dependent and independent variables were worked out. Comparisons of knowledge, attitude and practices regarding HIV/AIDS by socio-demographic characteristics were made using logistic regression. Results Out of 297 fishermen, majority had in-appropriate knowledge (93.6%), negative attitude (75.8%) and less adherent sexual practices (91.6%). In univariate analysis, lower education and higher income were significantly associated (OR 2.25, 95% CI, 1.11, 4.55), (OR = 3.04 CI 1.03-9.02, p value 0.04) with negative attitude and un-safe practices towards HIV/AIDS respectively, whereas no significant association of socio-economic characteristics with knowledge, attitude and practices were observed in multivariate analysis. Conclusions This study suggests that fishermen had very poor knowledge, negative attitudes towards HIV and AIDS and had unsafe sexual practices which suggest that they lack the basic understanding of HIV/AIDS infection. Extensive health education campaign should be provided to the vulnerable sections of the society for the control of HIV/AIDS. PMID:24886122

2014-01-01

99

Attitudes toward suicide bombing in Pakistan.  

PubMed

Although suicide bombing is a historical phenomenon, there has been a recent upsurge in such incidents. In Pakistan, over the last year, more than 1,000 people have been killed in suicide bombing incidents. Assessing the attitudes and perceptions of people toward suicide bombing can help understand some of the root causes of this phenomenon. In this pilot study, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of people (N = 215) in Karachi, Pakistan, to assess their attitudes and perceptions toward suicide bombing. The majority of the respondents condemned suicide bombing and disagreed with the notion that Islam or any other religion supports it. Belonging to the Sunni Muslim sect and strong adherence to religion predicted support for suicide bombing. The majority believed suicide bombing to be a result of religious fundamentalism. Opinion was divided as to whether suicide bombers have an underlying psychiatric illness. Further studies with larger sample sizes are needed to determine the attitudes and perceptions of the Pakistani population regarding this important issue. PMID:18664233

Kazim, Syed Faraz; Aly, Zarmeneh; Bangash, Haider Khan; Harchandani, Bhisham Pardeep; Irfan, Affan Bin; Javed, Syed Muhammad; Khalil-ur-Rehman, Rana; Naqvi, Haider; Khan, Murad Moosa

2008-01-01

100

Women's mental health in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

In Pakistan, societal attitudes and norms, as well as cultural practices (Karo Kari, exchange marriages, dowry, etc.), play a vital role in women's mental health. The religious and ethnic conflicts, along with the dehumanizing attitudes towards women, the extended family system, role of in-laws in daily lives of women, represent major issues and stressors. Such practices in Pakistan have created the extreme marginalisation of women in numerous spheres of life, which has had an adverse psychological impact. Violence against women has become one of the acceptable means whereby men exercise their culturally constructed right to control women. Still, compared to other South Asian countries, Pakistani women are relatively better off than their counterparts. PMID:16633458

Niaz, Unaiza

2004-01-01

101

Pakistan lags behind in technical textile  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper highlights and demonstrates the technical and economical impact of technical textiles in the industrially developed countries and their future contribution to the development of economics of newly developing countries, such as China, South East Asia, and North Africa etc. Pakistan still lags behind in technical textile products as neither the government nor the textile industry has made any

NOOR ZAMAN JANJHJI; NOOR AHMED MEMON

2007-01-01

102

The organisation, operational dynamics and structure of female sex work in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Pakistan is known to have large populations of female sex workers (FSWs) with considerable geographic heterogeneity in their characteristics. In this paper, we describe the social organisation and structural patterns of female sex work in different geographic regions of Pakistan. Methods We report geographic and network mapping data collected among FSWs in 15 cities across Pakistan in 2011 as part of the Canada-Pakistan HIV/AIDS Surveillance Project. Results A total number of 89?178 FSWs were estimated in the target cities for an average of 7.2 FSWs per 1000 adult males. 55% of the estimated number of FSWs concentrated in Karachi and Lahore. Based on the operations of female sex work, two major typologies of FSWs were identified: establishment-based and non-establishment-based. FSWs were further subtyped into those operating through brothels, homes, kothikhanas, streets and by cell phone. Cities varied considerably in terms of predominance of different FSW typologies. Conclusions There is considerable heterogeneity among FSWs in Pakistan, geographically and in terms of operational typology. Understanding the social organisation of sex work and the influence of social-cultural and legal factors in Pakistan is essential for the design of HIV prevention programmes and other services for FSWs. PMID:23771032

Emmanuel, Faran; Thompson, Laura H; Athar, Uzma; Salim, Momina; Sonia, Altaf; Akhtar, Naeem; Blanchard, James F

2013-01-01

103

Frequency of ABH secretors and non secretors: A cross sectional study in Karachi  

PubMed Central

Objective: ABO blood group and secretor status is valuable in relation to some diseases in clinical and forensic medicine. Across the globe there are geographic and racial differences in the frequency of secretors and non-secretors. Aim of this study was to evaluate the status of ABH blood group secretors and non-secretors in Karachi (Pakistan). Methods: Blood and saliva samples were randomly collected from one hundred and one (n=101) healthy adult students (76 male, 25 female) ranging in age from 15 to 40 years. Their ABO and Rhesus blood groups were determined by conventional methods, and their secretor status was studied by hemagglutination inhibition method of saliva. Results: Results showed that 64.4% of the study population were ABH blood group secretors while 35.6% were non-secretors. Frequencies of the secretor status among various ABO blood groups were 71.4% in group A, 79.5% in group B, 45.5% in group AB, and 61.5% in group O. Conclusion: Frequency of ABH secretor is high (64.4%). Blood group B has the highest secretor (79.5%) frequency while Blood group AB has the lowest (45.5%). PMID:24639859

Saboor, Muhammad; Ullah, Aman; Qamar, Khansa; Mir, Awal; Moinuddin

2014-01-01

104

FSWs Typology and Condoms Use Among HIV High Risk Groups in Sindh, Pakistan: A Developing Country Perspective  

PubMed Central

Objective We aimed to determine the association of FSWs typology with condom use among HIV high risk groups in Sindh, Pakistan Introduction HIV is growing rapidly worldwide resulting in estimated 34 million population [1]. Recently, its epidemic has spread in Africa, Latin America, and the Caribbean, and most parts of Asia [2]. According to Antenatal sero surveillance study conducted in 2011 by Agriteam canada, it’s prevalence in Pakistan is <0.1 [3].Focusing narrowly, its prevalence in Sindh, (one of the provinces of Pakistan) is similar in general population, but it is in the phase of concentrated epidemic (having more than 5% of prevalence in high risk groups)in vulnerable groups like IDUs and Male sex workers and transgender [4]. Sexual intercourse has been identified as major route especially in HIV high risk groups including male sex workers, female sex workers (FSWs), transgender (hijras) and IV drug users. Among them, FSWs are at high risk because of unprotected sex and illicit drug use. Their prevalence is found to be 30.7% in low and middle income countries [5]. South Asia contributed with 12.63 lakh FSW in India only [6]. On the basis of their station of work, they are categorized into facility based (kothikhana, brothel or home) and mobile (street, mobile or beggars). They use different preventive measures including condom for their protection from HIV [7]. It varies with availability and access [8] . FSWs typology have different cliental and mode of action, therefore, it important to explore the preventive methods. Methods Data was extracted from Second Generation Surveillance, Integrated behavioral and biological survey, Round IV for HIV infection conducted by Agriteam Canada in partnership with National AIDS Control Program, Pakistan in 2011. It was a cross sectional survey for high risk groups including FSWs from Pakistan. It was ethically approved by Review Board of the Public Health Agency of Canada and HOPE International’s Ethical Review Board, Pakistan. From Sindh province, FSWs based in Karachi, Sukkur and Larkana were recruited. Considering typology, they were categorized as mobile or facility based. After informed consent, socio-demographic and risk behavior were inquired. HIV was tested by ELISA/EIA and confirmed by Western Blot. Data was analyzed on SPSS 19. Continuous variables were expressed as mean±SD while categorical as frequency(%). Logistic regression assessed the association of FSWs typology with condoms use among HIV high risk groups. Results Out of 4567 high risk population, 1127 were identified as FSWs. Mean age was 26.9 years. Most of them were facility based (72.8%) and 81.3% used condoms. Typology, age, education, duration of involvement, number of client per day, number of paid oral sex per month, knowledge about STI and knowledge about drop in center were significantly associated with condom use among HIV high risk groups. Conclusions Majority of facility based FSWs use condoms to prevent HIV infection. Awareness and access to home based FSWs should be increased. It may help in targeting and designing preventive strategies for them at government and mass level.

Otho, Suleman M.; Perveen, Shazia; Abbas, Qamar

2013-01-01

105

Nuclear programs in India and Pakistan  

SciTech Connect

India and Pakistan launched their respective nuclear programs in the 1940s and 1950s with considerable foreign technical support, especially from the United States Atoms for Peace Program. The technology and training that was acquired served as the platform for later nuclear weapon development efforts that included nuclear weapon testing in 1974 and in 1998 by India, and also in 1998 by Pakistan - which had illicitly acquired uranium enrichment technology especially from Europe and received assistance from China. As of 2013, both India and Pakistan were continuing to produce fissile material for weapons, in the case of India also for nuclear naval fuel, and were developing a diverse array of ballistic and cruise missiles. International efforts to restrain the South Asian nuclear build-up have been largely set aside over the past decade as Pakistani support became central for the U.S. war in Afghanistan and as U.S. geopolitical and economic interests in supporting the rise of India, in part as a counter to China, led to India being exempted both from U.S non-proliferation laws and international nuclear trade guidelines. In the absence of determined international action and with Pakistan blocking the start of talks on a fissile material cutoff treaty, nuclear weapon programs in South Asia are likely to keep growing for the foreseeable future.

Mian, Zia [Program on Science and Global Security, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey (United States)

2014-05-09

106

Nuclear programs in India and Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

India and Pakistan launched their respective nuclear programs in the 1940s and 1950s with considerable foreign technical support, especially from the United States Atoms for Peace Program. The technology and training that was acquired served as the platform for later nuclear weapon development efforts that included nuclear weapon testing in 1974 and in 1998 by India, and also in 1998 by Pakistan - which had illicitly acquired uranium enrichment technology especially from Europe and received assistance from China. As of 2013, both India and Pakistan were continuing to produce fissile material for weapons, in the case of India also for nuclear naval fuel, and were developing a diverse array of ballistic and cruise missiles. International efforts to restrain the South Asian nuclear build-up have been largely set aside over the past decade as Pakistani support became central for the U.S. war in Afghanistan and as U.S. geopolitical and economic interests in supporting the rise of India, in part as a counter to China, led to India being exempted both from U.S non-proliferation laws and international nuclear trade guidelines. In the absence of determined international action and with Pakistan blocking the start of talks on a fissile material cutoff treaty, nuclear weapon programs in South Asia are likely to keep growing for the foreseeable future.

Mian, Zia

2014-05-01

107

Self-glucose monitoring and glycaemic control at a tertiary care university hospital, Karachi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To explore the association between Self Monitoring of Blood Glucose (SMBG) levels and improved glycemic control (HbA1c level) among type 2 diabetic patients, receiving oral hypoglycaemic agents and insulin, and to ascertain the factors influencing SMBG.METHOD: Using Comparative cross sectional study design five hundred Type 2 diabetes patients through convenient sampling between 30-70 years were interviewed through a structured

Khurshid Khowaja; Humaira Waheed

2010-01-01

108

Trends of Empiric Antibiotic Usage in a Secondary Care Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Objectives. (1) To determine the indications, frequency, and types of antibiotics used in hospitalized paediatric patients at tertiary care hospital and (2) to evaluate whether the prescribed antibiotics were based on the isolation of organism and their sensitivity. Study Design. Descriptive observational hospital based study. Results. A total of 131 patients were included over 6 months of study period, in whom antibiotics were prescribed at the time of admission. The majority were between 1 and 5 years of age. M?:?F ratio was 1?:?1. Fever was the commonest symptom (in 84% of cases) followed by gastroenteritis. Blood culture was done in 114 cases (87%) and was positive only in 10 (8.8%). The commonest organism isolated from blood was Salmonella Typhi. Ceftriaxone was found to be the most frequently prescribed antibiotic as an empirical therapy. 102 (77.86%) patients received Ceftriaxone, followed by ampicillin. The antibiotics were probably used on the basis of clinical condition rather than the result of blood culture, as yield of blood culture was quite low. Conclusion. Our study showed an unjustified use of antibiotics regardless of the admission and discharge diagnosis in acute febrile illnesses. Further on, inappropriate practice of using Ceftriaxone was noted in LRTI and pneumonia. Efforts are needed to educate physicians about the rational use of antibiotics. PMID:24454409

Ali, Syed Rehan; Ahmed, Shakeel; Lohana, Heeramani

2013-01-01

109

Learning from the Past, Looking to the Future: Modeling Social Unrest in Karachi, Pakistan  

SciTech Connect

Social unrest represents a major challenge for policy makers around the globe, as it can quickly escalate from small scale disturbances to highly public protests, riots and even civil war. This research was motivated by a need to understand social instability and to unpack the comments made during a spring 2013 conference hosted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s Center for Global Security and the U.S. Institute for Peace, where policymakers noted that models considering social instability are often not suitable for decision-making. This analysis shows that existing state level models of instability could be improved in spatial scale to the city level, even without significantly improved data access. Better data would make this analysis more complete and likely improve the quality of the model. Another challenge with incorporating modeling into decision-making is the need to understand uncertainty in a model. Policy makers are frequently tasked with making decisions without a clear outcome, so characterization of uncertainty is critical. This report describes the work and findings of the project. It took place in three phases: a literature review of social stability research, a “hindsight scan” that looked at historical data, and a “foresight scan” looking at future scenarios.

Olson, Jarrod; Kurzrok, Andrew J.; Hund, Gretchen; Fagley, Erik M.

2014-01-01

110

Hemodialysis patients profile at Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi. Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To determine the frequency of diseases contributing to End Stage Renal Failure (ESRF) and to determine the frequency of seropositivity for hepatitis B and hepatitis C in our patients. Methods: This is an observational study of two years duration from January 2012 till December 2013, done at Dow university of Health Sciences. Sample size is 189 by convenient method. Data collection is retrospective. Inclusion criteria includes all patients ever hemodialysed at DIMC with age 14 or above. Exclusion criteria is age below 14. Data maintained and analyzed on SPSS version 16. All categorical data in percentages and numeric data is given in frequencies and mean with Standard deviation. Result: Total number of patients included in study were 189, Males were 94/189 (49.7%), females were 95/189 (50.3%), Male to female ratio was 0.98: 1.0. Mean age was 51.88+15.2, range was14-86 years. Patients started on Hemodialysis were found to have hypertension in 40.2%, both diabetes and hypertension was present in 42.8%, diabetes alone in 3.1% of patients as likely etiology of renal failure. Seropositivity for HBV was found 4/189(2.1%) and HCV in 31/189(16.4%) at initiation of Hemodialysis. Conclusion: Hypertension alone is an important disease found in patients with renal failure as likely cause followed by diabetes. Hepatitis C positivity at start of hemodialysis is 16%.

Mahmud, Huma Mamun; Siddiqui, Muneer; Bashir, Babar; Ali, Syed Farman; Baloch, Akhter Ali; Masroor, Mohd

2014-01-01

111

Use of locally made off-loading techniques for diabetic plantar foot ulcer in Karachi, Pakistan.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of applying locally made pressure off-loading techniques on plantar foot ulcer in individuals with diabetes. This prospective study of 70 diabetic patients was conducted at the foot clinic of Baqai Institute of Diabetology & Endocrinology. Plantar foot ulcer, stages 1A and 2A according to the University of Texas classification, was treated by using three off-loading techniques: modified foot wear (sandal), modified plaster of Paris cast with plywood platform and Scotchcast boot. The outcome was assessed at either complete wound healing (defined as complete epithelialisation) or at 12 weeks, whichever came first. Of the 70 patients, 24 were in modified foot wear group, 23 in modified plaster of Paris cast and 23 in Scotchcast boot group. There was almost equal proportion of patients healed within 12 weeks period treated with these three off-loading techniques, i.e. 22 (95·7%) for modified foot wear group, 19 (95%) for modified plaster cast and 18 (94·7%) for Scotchcast boot group. No significant difference was observed in median healing time and cumulative wound survival at 12 weeks in the three off-loading techniques. Modified foot wear group was the most cost effective ($7) amongst the three off-loading techniques. It is concluded that in this cohort, no significant difference in healing time was observed in the three off-loading techniques, although modified foot wear (sandal) was found to be a more cost-effective treatment modality. PMID:23369009

Miyan, Zahid; Ahmed, Jameel; Zaidi, Syed I; Ahmedani, Muhammad Y; Fawwad, Asher; Basit, Abdul

2014-12-01

112

Evaluation and comparison of different brands of domperidone tablets available in Karachi, Pakistan.  

PubMed

Domperidone is an anti-dopaminergic drug used for the treatment of nausea, vomiting and dyspepsia. It has also been used in Parkinson's disease. In this study, five different brands of Domeperidone tablets were selected from the local market for evaluation of their quality as the local market is occupied of many competitors for a single generic. The evaluation of Domperidone tablets was done using various pharmacopoeial and non-pharmacopoeial tests. All the test results fell within BP specified limits for all the selected brands i.e. the results for Brands A to E for weight variation, thickness and diameter were satisfactory and within limits. For Brands A to E, the results for hardness and friability were also satisfactory i.e. 4-10kg/cm2and 0.1-0.6% respectively. The results for Brands A to E for disintegration were 2-6 minutes; for dissolution and assay, the results were 89-92% and 95-99% respectively. The results of similarity factor (f2) also showed that all brands of Domperidone have comparative dissolution profiles. PMID:25015463

Khan, Muhammad Qamar; Razvi, Nighat; Anjum, Fakhsheena; Ghazal, Lubna; Siddiqui, Saeed Ahmed; Shoaib, Muhammad Harris

2014-07-01

113

Prevalence of non-Helicobacter pylori duodenal ulcer in Karachi, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

AIM: To determine the prevalence of non-Helicobacter pylori (H pylori)-related duodenal ulcer in patients with acid-peptic diseases. METHODS: Medical records of patients who attended the Gastroenterology Department at Aga Khan University Hospital from 1999 to 2001 and had endoscopic diagnosis of duodenal ulcers were reviewed. Duodenal ulcer associated with H pylori was diagnosed on the basis of endoscopy, rapid urease test and histopathology whereas histories of aspirin or other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) related duodenal ulcers. Non-H pylori, non-NSAID duodenal ulcers were those without H pylori infection and history of NSAID intake. Co-morbid conditions associated were noted. RESULTS: Of 2260 patients, 10% (217/2 260) had duodenal ulcer. Duodenal ulcer related to H pylori infection accounted for 53% (116/217), NSAID-related 10% (22/217), non-H pylori non-NSAID 29% (62/217), and 8% (17/217) had both H pylori infection and histories of NSAID intake. Fifteen percent (18/116) patients had past histories of peptic ulcer disease in H pylori infection, while 8% (5/62) in non-H pylori non-NSAID ulcer. Co-morbid conditions in H pylori infection were seen in 23% (27/116) and 34% (21/62) in non-H pylori non-NSAID ulcer. CONCLUSION: Incidence of H pylori infection related with duodenal ulcer is common. In the presence of co-morbids, non-H pylori and non-NSAID duodenal ulcer is likely to be present. PMID:15962375

Yakoob, Javed; Jafri, Wasim; Jafri, Nadim; Islam, Muhammad; Abid, Shahab; Hamid, Saeed; AliShah, Hasnain; Shaikh, Hizbullah

2005-01-01

114

Correlates of cigarette smoking among male college students in Karachi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: About 1.3 billion people are regular smokers world wide and every day between 8,200 and 9,900 young people start to smoke, risking rapid addiction to nicotine. Transition from high school to college is a critical period to adopt healthy habits and life style. Therefore, it is important to understand the factors that might influence their smoking habit. Our study

Shafquat Rozi; Zahid A Butt; Saeed Akhtar

2007-01-01

115

Estimating the burden of head and neck cancers in the public health sector of Pakistan.  

PubMed

This study was designed to establish the burden of head and neck cancers (HNCA) in public sector based cancer centres of Pakistan. Data were obtained from the central body governing all the cancer centres in the country. The frequency of treated HNCAs out of the total body cancers treated across Pakistan was found to be 14.5%. Highest prevalence rates amongst all cancers were noted in Sind, notably in Karachi and Jamshoro, followed by Multan in Punjab and a much lower frequency in Peshawar in the North West Frontier Province. This variation presumably reflects levels of betel quid consumption but more data are needed to be gathered in a comprehensive way if the findings are to be applicable for improvement of the national cancer control program. PMID:18990033

Chaudhry, Saima; Khan, Ayyaz Ali; Mirza, Kamran Masood; Iqbal, Hafiz Aamer; Masood, Yasmeen; Khan, Nauman Rauf; Izhar, Faisal

2008-01-01

116

Comparison of exhaled carbon monoxide levels among commuters and roadside vendors in an urban and a suburban population in Pakistan.  

PubMed

Carbon monoxide (CO) is one of the six criteria air pollutants related to urbanization and has a wide range of health effects. The study measured and compared the exhaled CO levels among commuters and roadside vendors in potentially heavy and low traffic volume areas of Karachi, a megacity in Pakistan. Saddar town [areas of M. A. Jinnah Road (Tibet Center, Denso Hall) and Empress Market] was selected to represent an area of high traffic volume and the suburban town of Gadap (Gadap and Gulshan-e-Maymar) was selected to represent an area of no or low traffic volume. The study compared the CO exposure of commuters and roadside vendors in high and low traffic volume in Karachi. CO exposure was measured in expired air using the breath analyzer module of Bacharach Monoxor-II, USA. A total of 326 individuals (115 commuters and 211 stationary roadside vendors) from Saddar town (n?=?193) and Gadap town (n?=?133) were selected. In addition, CO levels in ambient air in the same areas, using portable CO analyzer (Bacharach, Monoxor-II, USA), were measured. The mean ambient CO level at Saddar town was 15.6 (SE ± 2.6) ppm compared to 3.3 (SE ± 0.3) ppm at Gadap town. The mean CO level in expired air was significantly higher among nonsmokers at Saddar town (12.8 ± 0.5 ppm) compared to the nonsmokers at Gadap town (7.8 ± 0.4 ppm). The mean CO level in expired air among smokers was twice that of nonsmokers (21.6 vs. 10.6 ppm). CO in expired air was greater among high traffic volume commuters and roadside stationary population in Karachi, Pakistan. The population in Karachi is exposed to high concentration of air pollutants. These pollutants need to be characterized for health effects and interventions needs to be developed. PMID:21120689

Sabzwari, Saniya R; Fatmi, Zafar

2011-09-01

117

Aerosol size distribution and mass concentration measurements in various cities of Pakistan.  

PubMed

During March and April 2010 aerosol inventories from four large cities in Pakistan were assessed in terms of particle size distributions (N), mass (M) concentrations, and particulate matter (PM) concentrations. These M and PM concentrations were obtained for Karachi, Lahore, Rawalpindi, and Peshawar from N concentrations using a native algorithm based on the Grimm model 1.109 dust monitor. The results have confirmed high N, M and PM concentrations in all four cities. They also revealed major contributions to the aerosol concentrations from the re-suspension of road dust, from sea salt aerosols, and from vehicular and industrial emissions. During the study period the 24 hour average PM(10) concentrations for three sites in Karachi were found to be 461 ?g m(-3), 270 ?g m(-3), and 88 ?g m(-3), while the average values for Lahore, Rawalpindi and Peshawar were 198 ?g m(-3), 448 ?g m(-3), and 540 ?g m(-3), respectively. The corresponding 24 hour average PM(2.5) concentrations were 185 ?g m(-3), 151 ?g m(-3), and 60 ?g m(-3) for the three sites in Karachi, and 91 ?g m(-3), 140 ?g m(-3), and 160 ?g m(-3) for Lahore, Rawalpindi and Peshawar, respectively. The low PM(2.5)/PM(10) ratios revealed a high proportion of coarser particles, which are likely to have originated from (a) traffic, (b) other combustion sources, and (c) the re-suspension of road dust. Our calculated 24 hour averaged PM(10) and PM(2.5) concentrations at all sampling points were between 2 and 10 times higher than the maximum PM concentrations recommended by the WHO guidelines. The aerosol samples collected were analyzed for crustal elements (Al, Fe, Si, Mg, Ca) and trace elements (B, Ba, Cr, Cu, K, Na, Mn, Ni, P, Pb, S, Sr, Cd, Ti, Zn and Zr). The averaged concentrations for crustal elements ranged from 1.02 ± 0.76 ?g m(-3) for Si at the Sea View location in Karachi to 74.96 ± 7.39 ?g m(-3) for Ca in Rawalpindi, and averaged concentrations for trace elements varied from 7.0 ± 0.75 ng m(-3) for B from the SUPARCO location in Karachi to 17.84 ± 0.30 ?g m(-3) for Na at the M. A. Jinnah Road location, also in Karachi. PMID:21677943

Alam, Khan; Blaschke, Thomas; Madl, Pierre; Mukhtar, Azam; Hussain, Majid; Trautmann, Thomas; Rahman, Said

2011-07-01

118

Incidence of medication error associated with the use of beta-blockers in Pakistan.  

PubMed

Medication errors (ME) are human errors, which are very frequent in cardiovascular patients and result in patient morbidity and mortality. This study was focused to evaluate the quality of prescriptions and to emphasize the placement of clinical pharmacist in health care team. This study was carried out in different outpatient settings of (in) Karachi, Pakistan. The study period was June 2011 till June 2012. Retrospective data was analyzed for the outpatients' prescription of beta blocker drugs. During the study, prescriptions (n=450) were collected from different outpatient settings of (in) Karachi, Pakistan. Prescription containing beta-blockers were analyzed for the essential elements to be mentioned in prescription. Drug-drug interactions were identified by the Micromedex.2.0 Drug-Reax database and severity of medication error was determined by NCCMERP Index. A total of 1627 medication errors were identified in 450 prescriptions. The most frequent error was not mentioning the patient's weight (95%), followed by missing diagnosis (79.4%) and drug-drug interactions (69.5%). Twenty-two prescriptions were placed in the most severe category I (4.88%). Average number of drugs per prescription was 4.76. Significant difference was observed (?(2)=52.418, p<0.05) using SPSS 19 for those prescription orders having more than 5 drugs with Beta-blockers. This indicates that the errors in prescription such as drug-drug interactions, wrong dose etc. was significantly increased with the number of drugs per prescription. Results showed that medication errors are very frequent in prescription written in outpatient setting of various hospitals and clinics in Karachi. This shows that the irrational prescribing is a common practice in developing countries. Placement of skilled pharmacist in the health care system is the only solution for avoidance of these medication related problems. PMID:24811813

Nesar, Shagufta; Shoaib, Muhammad Harris; Yousuf, Rabia Ismail; Rahim, Najia; Muhammad, Iyad Naeem

2014-05-01

119

Palynofacies analysis of the Permian-Triassic transition in the Amb section (Salt Range, Pakistan): Implications for the anoxia on the South Tethyan Margin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The uppermost Chhidru Formation and the lower part of the Mianwali Formation were sampled in the Amb Valley, Salt Range, Pakistan for the study of the particulate organic matter (POM) content in order to evaluate the depositional environment during the Permian-Triassic transition. The POM content was assigned to four distinct palynofacies (palynofacies A-D). Palynofacies A recovered from siltstone within the white sandstone unit of the Upper Permian Chhidru Formation indicates a shallow marine oxic shelf setting. Recorded from the siltstone intercalations in the Kathwai Member of the basal Mianwali Formation, the Griesbachian palynofacies B is characterised by abundant acritarchs indicating a transgressive event. Palynofacies C recovered from the siltstone of the lowest Ceratite Marls (middle Dienerian) is dominated by terrestrial organic particles and indicates shallowing of the depositional environment, whereas 40 cm above, palynofacies D represents transgressive oxygen depleted conditions. The comparison with sections from the Australian Tethyan margin shows that oxygen depleted conditions occurred during the Griesbachian in the Perth Basin, while in the Bonaparte Basin oxygenated conditions prevailed. Hence, oxygen depleted facies do not correspond to a single, synchronous Permian-Triassic oceanic anoxic event but depend on local geography and bathymetry.

Schneebeli-Hermann, Elke; Kürschner, Wolfram M.; Hochuli, Peter A.; Bucher, Hugo; Ware, David; Goudemand, Nicolas; Roohi, Ghazala

2012-10-01

120

Mumbai: A Battle in the War for Pakistan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Council on Foreign Relations publishes a wide variety of publications, and their "Expert Briefs" series is quite exceptional. Given the recent unrest in Mumbai, visitors with an interest in South Asian affairs and world affairs in general will find this brief particularly compelling. Authored by Daniel Markey, Senior Fellow for India, Pakistan, and South Asia, this expert brief was released in December 2008. The piece looks at the political economy and relationship between India and Pakistan, along with offering some commentary on combating terrorism in the region.

2008-01-01

121

Postabortion care in Pakistan.  

PubMed

The current law in Pakistan permits abortion only under narrow circumstances. As a result, women resort to clandestine and unsafe abortion procedures, which often lead to complications. This report summarizes findings from a study that examined the conditions under which women obtain abortion in Pakistan; the incidence, coverage and quality of facility-based postabortion care (PAC); and the extent to which recommended standards for PAC have been implemented in health facilities. PMID:24006560

Sathar, Zeba; Rashida, Gul; Shah, Zakir; Singh, Susheela; Woog, Vanessa

2013-08-01

122

POLLEN FLORA OF PAKISTAN-LI CARYOPHYLLACEAE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollen morphology of 74 species belonging to 23 genera of the family Caryophyllaceae from Pakistan has been examined by light and scanning electron microscope. Pollen grains are usually radially symmetrical, apolar rarely isopolar, pantoporate rarely 3-10 colpate, spheroidal to prolate-spheroidal to sub-prolate occasionally prolate. Sexine thicker or thinner than nexine. Tectum spinulose-punctuate or scabrate-punctate often reticulate or reticulate-scabrate. On the

ANJUM PERVEEN; MUHAMMAD QAISER

123

Suicides in the Developing World: Case Study from Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are no official data on suicide from Pakistan, a conservative South Asian Islamic country with traditionally low suicide rates. Both suicide and attempted suicide are illegal acts, as well as socially and religiously condemned, making research in this area difficult. Recent reports suggest an increase in suicide rates. In this study, police…

Khan, Murad Moosa; Hyder, Adnan Ali

2006-01-01

124

Age and origin of post collision Baltoro granites, south Karakoram, North Pakistan: Insights from in-situ U-Pb, Hf and oxygen isotopic record of zircons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Origin of post collision plutonism is critical to understand the tectonothermal evolution of the over thickened continental crust in collision zones. This has proven difficult to reconcile with the conventional whole rock geochemical and field based studies alone. We report in-situ study of zircon U-Pb, Hf and O isotopes from five samples of the Baltoro Plutonic Unit (BPU) in south Karakoram. The plutonic unit is the western part of the southern Asian margin of the India-Asia convergent zone. Baltoro granites and a biotite-rich enclave yielded similar and overlapping U-Pb ages ranging from 26 to 15 Ma. Hafnium isotopic composition (?Hf (0)) is very heterogeneous ranging from - 17.1 to + 4.4 while the oxygen isotopic composition of the granites is homogeneous with mean ?18O ranging from 7.2 to 9.4‰. Based on U-Pb geochronology and Hf-O isotopic composition, the involvement of two main sources is suggested (1) Cretaceous calc-alkaline Karakoram crust and (2) Karakoram gneisses. Moreover, possible involvement of metasomatized Asian lithospheric mantle is supported by elevated oxygen composition of granites and identical Hf composition of biotite-rich enclave to the mantle derived Baltoro lamprophyre. However, direct contribution from juvenile pristine mantle is unlikely as no juvenile mantle type Hf and oxygen values were obtained. This also precludes the involvement of southward juvenile arc related component of Kohistan-Ladakh batholith. Our new U-Pb and Hf data are comparable to the Mesozoic Karakoram batholith, Miocene two-mica leucogranites in the Pangong Range and magmatism from the Lhasa terrane in south Tibet, suggesting a genetic link between the Karakoram and the rocks to the east. This magmatic event is best explained by lower crust partial melting promoted by both thermal equilibration following crustal thickening and heat advection by ultrapotassic magmas associated with the breakoff of the Indian continental margin.

Mahar, Munazzam Ali; Mahéo, Gweltaz; Goodell, Philip C.; Pavlis, Terry L.

2014-09-01

125

Cretaceous source rocks in Pakistan  

SciTech Connect

Pakistan is located at the converging boundaries of the Indian, Arabian, and Eurasian plates. Evolution of this tectonic setting has provided an array of environmental habitats for deposition of petroleum source rocks and development of structural forms. The potential Cretaceous source rocks in Central and South Indus Basin are spread over an area of about 300,000 km[sup 2]. With 2% cutoff on Total Organic Carbon, the average source rock thickness is 30-50 m, which is estimated to have generated more than 200 billion bbl of oil equivalent. To date, production of more than 30,000 bbl of oil and about 1200 million ft[sup 3] of gas per day can be directly attributed to Cretaceous source. This basin was an area of extensional tectonics during the Lower to Middle Cretaceous associated with slightly restricted circulation of the sea waters at the north-western margin of Indian Plate. Lower Cretaceous source rocks (Sembar Formation) were deposited while the basin was opening up and anoxia was prevailing. Similarly Middle to Upper Cretaceous clastics were deposited in setting favorable for preservation of organic matter. The time and depth of burial of the Cretaceous source material and optimum thermal regime have provided the requisite maturation level for generation of hydrocarbons in the basin. Central Indus basin is characterized by Cretaceous source rocks mature for gas generation. However, in South Indus Basin Cretaceous source rocks lie within the oil window in some parts and have gone past it in others.

Kari, I.B. (Pakistan Petroleum Limited, Sindh (Pakistan))

1993-02-01

126

Pattern of emergency department visits by elderly patients: study from a tertiary care hospital, Karachi  

PubMed Central

Background Worldwide the proportion of elderly people in the population is increasing. Currently in Pakistan 7.3 million people (5.6% of total population) are more than 60 years old. This age shift has emerged as an important health issue and is associated with an increased utilization of emergency services by the elderly. We carried out this study to assess the pattern of elderly patients (>60 years) who visit emergency departments in comparison to young adults (18–60 years). Methods Data was collected retrospectively of patients aged 18 years or more who visited the Emergency Department (ED) of Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi (AKUH) during September, 2009 to September, 2011. The data collection sheet included patient’s demographic information, triage category, reason for visit, clinical presentation, ED length of stay, day and time of presentation and their disposition. Data was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 19.0. Descriptive statistics were used to describe patient’s demographics. Chi-square (?2) test was used as a test of significance to compare differences between groups for categorical data and t-test for continuous data. Multiple logistic regression analysis was done to find out the association between the patient characteristics and outcomes (admission and expiry). Results Almost 24% (n = 13014) of all adults (n = 54588) presenting to the ED were over the age of 60 years. More than 57% of elderly patients belonged to the high priority triage category compared to 35% in younger patients. Most of the elderly patients ( 27%) presented with nonspecific complaints followed by shortness of breath (13%) and fever (9%). The median length of stay (LOS) in the ED for elderly was 379 minutes (252 min in under-60 yrs patients) and they were more likely to get admitted to in-patient departments compared to younger patients (OR 1.7 95% CI 1.6-1.8). A high proportion of those admitted (20%) required intensive or special care. Mortality in elderly patients was 2.3% as compared to 0.7% in young adults. This was accompanied by a higher mortality risk in the elderly with an odds ratio of 2.3 (CI 2–2.5). Conclusion Elderly ED users differ significantly from younger adults in terms of criticality on presentation, ED LOS and final disposition. PMID:23937518

2013-01-01

127

National Level Assessment of Mangrove Forest Cover in Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mangroves ecosystems consist of inter tidal flora and fauna found in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Mangroves forest is a collection of halophytic trees, shrubs, and other plants receiving inputs from regular tidal flushing and from freshwater streams and rivers. A global reduction of 25 % mangroves' area has been observed since 1980 and it is categorized as one of to the most threatened and vulnerable ecosystems of the world. Forest resources in Pakistan are being deteriorating both quantitatively and qualitatively due to anthropogenic activities, climatic v and loose institutional management. According to the FAO (2007), extent of forest cover of Pakistan in 2005 is 1,902,000 ha, which is 2.5% of its total land area. Annual change rate during 2000-2005 was -2.1% which is highest among all the countries in Asia. The Indus delta region contains the world's fifth-largest mangrove forest which provides a range of important ecosystem services, including coastal stabilisation, primary production and provision of nursery habitat for marine fish. Given their ecological importance in coastal settings, mangroves receive special attention in the assessment of conservation efforts and sustainable coastal developments. Coastline of Pakistan is 1050km long shared by the provinces, Sind (350km) and Baluchistan (700 km). The coastline, with typical arid subtropical climate, possesses five significant sites that are blessed with mangroves. In the Sindh province, mangroves are found in the Indus Delta and Sandspit. The Indus Delta is host to the most extensive mangroves areas and extends from Korangi Creek in the West to Sir Creek in the East, whereas Sandspit is a small locality in the West of Karachi city. In the Balochistan province, mangroves are located at three sites, Miani Hor, Kalmat Khor and Jiwani. Contemporary methods of Earth observation sciences are being incorporated as an integral part of environmental assessment related studies in coastal areas. GIS and Remote Sensing based technologies and methods are in use to map forest cover since the last two decades in Pakistan. The national level forest cover studies based upon satellite images include, Forestry Sector Master Plan (FSMP) and National Forest & Range Resources Assessment Study (NFRRAS). In FSMP, the mangrove forest extent was visually determined from Landsat images of 1988 - 1991, and was estimated to be 155,369 ha; whereas, in NFRRAS, Landsat images of 1997 - 2001 were automated processed and the mangroves areas was estimated to be 158,000 ha. To our knowledge, a comprehensive assessment of current mangroves cover of Pakistan has not been made over the last decade, although the mangroves ecosystems have become the focus of intention in context of recent climate change scenarios. This study was conducted to support the informed decision making for sustainable development in coastal areas of Pakistan by providing up-todate mangroves forest cover assessment of Pakistan. Various types of Earth Observation satellite images and processing methods have been tested in relation to mangroves mapping. Most of the studies have applied classical pixel - based approached, there are a few studies which used object - based methods of image analysis to map the mangroves ecosystems. Object - based methods have the advantage of incorporating spatial neighbourhood properties and hierarchical structures into the classification process to produce more accurate surface patterns recognition compared with classical pixel - based approaches. In this research, we applied multi-scale hierarchical approach of object-based methods of image analysis to ALOS - AVNIR-2 images of the year 2008-09 to map the land cover in the mangroves ecosystems of Pakistan. Considering the tide height and phonological effects of vegetation, particularly the algal mats, these data sets were meticulously chosen. Incorporation of multi-scale hierarchical structures made it easy to effectively discriminate among the land cover classes, particularly the mudflats from sparse mangroves, at their r

Abbas, S.; Qamer, F. M.; Hussain, N.; Saleem, R.; Nitin, K. T.

2011-09-01

128

Country Profiles, Pakistan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A profile of Pakistan is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…

Hardee, J. Gilbert; Satterthwaite, Adaline P.

129

Nuclear Arms Control Challenges in South Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The idea of arms control has hardly taken root in South Asia. The existing nuclear arms control measures between India and Pakistan are patently inadequate for addressing the pressing nuclear concerns of the region. Although there are compelling reasons for nuclear arms control, India and Pakistan are reluctant to undertake worthwhile arms control initiatives. There are three key reasons for

Bhumitra Chakma

2010-01-01

130

Three Cups of Tea: Building Collaborations to Assess Earthquake Hazard in Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern Methods in Seismic Hazard Assessment; Nagarkot, Nepal, 8-12 June 2009; The M7.6 Muzaffarabad, Pakistan, earthquake struck the Pakistani Kashmir on 8 October 2005, claiming more than 80,000 lives. The earthquake underscored two points about earthquake hazard in Pakistan: first, that it is high, and, second, that it is poorly understood. In Karachi, for example, hazard is generally considered to be low, yet this rapidly growing megacity is as close to a major strike-slip fault system as Los Angeles is to the San Andreas fault. The Pakistani engineering community has sought guidance from seismologists on improved characterization of seismic hazard. This requires both improved hazard assessment methodology and improved constraints on the critical inputs to seismic hazard maps, for example, assessment of fault slip rates and geological site characterization. These inputs are currently unavailable. Efforts to map seismicity and attenuation and to estimate fault slip rates have been hampered by political instability. Yet there is no shortage of intellectual energy—Pakistan boasts an eager community of trained earthquake professionals.

Hough, Susan E.; Yong, Alan

2009-12-01

131

Dengue transmission based on urban environmental gradients in different cities of Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study focuses on the dengue transmission in different regions of Pakistan. For this purpose, the data of dengue cases for 2009-2012 from four different cities (Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Lahore, and Karachi) of the country is collected, evaluated, and compiled. To identify the reasons and regions of higher risk of Dengue transmission, land use classification, analysis of climate covariates and drainage patterns was done. Analysis involves processing of SPOT 5 10 m, Landsat TM 30 m data sets, and SRTM 90 m digital elevation models by using remote sensing and GIS techniques. The results are based on the change in urbanization and population density, analysis of temperature, rainfall, and wind speed; calculation of drainage patterns including stream features, flow accumulation, and drainage density of the study areas. Results suggest that the low elevation areas with calm winds and minimum temperatures higher than the normal, rapid increase in unplanned urbanization, low flow accumulation, and higher drainage density areas favor the dengue transmission.

Khalid, Bushra; Ghaffar, Abdul

2014-05-01

132

Mobilizing male opinion leaders’ support for family planning to improve maternal health: a theory-based qualitative study from Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Purpose Pakistan is a patriarchal society in which male opinion leaders play an important role in determining health-seeking behaviors pertaining to family planning (FP) among their respective communities. This research focuses on cataloguing the perceptions of opinion leaders (clergymen, health professionals, and social workers) about the barriers for using services and practical solutions for promoting FP in the slums of Karachi, Pakistan. Materials and methods A qualitative study using an open-ended, semistructured interview schedule with hypothetical scenarios and in-depth interviews with a purposive sample of 45 opinion leaders (25 mosque imams/clergymen, 12 nonallopathic health professionals, and eight social workers/activists) was conducted in 2006–2007 in Karachi, Pakistan. Transcripts were coded thematically utilizing NVivo by using an adapted constant comparison analysis process as described by Strauss and Corbin. Results Seven key themes were derived from the in-depth interviews. Five themes provide insight into the opinion leaders’ perceptions of barriers to FP and modern contraception methods. Among the barriers religious taboos and cultural pressures were particularly note-worthy. Two themes offered opportunities for more effective development and implementation of FP programs. Conclusion It is evident from the study that opinion leaders in the community and the clergy lack the understanding of the importance of birth spacing. However, because they have a great deal of influence on the community at large, it is imperative to interact with them to build their capacity in order to propagate the messages of FP and improve maternal health and reproductive health in general. PMID:22247617

Azmat, Syed Khurram

2011-01-01

133

Association of airborne Aspergillus with asthma exacerbation in Southern Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Exposure to airborne fungi has been related with exacerbation of asthma in adults and children leading to increased outpatient, emergency room visits, and hospitalizations. Hypersensitivity to these airborne fungi may be an important initial predisposing factor in the development and exacerbation of asthma. Objective This study was conducted to determine an association between fungal types and spore concentrations with the risk of asthma exacerbation in adults. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted from May 2008 to August 2009 at the Aga Khan University Hospital Karachi, Pakistan. All adult (age?16 years) patients presenting to the hospital with acute asthma exacerbation were enrolled after informed consent. A home survey was conducted for each patient to assess their environmental characteristics. Indoor air samples were also obtained from the patient's home to determine the type and spore concentration of fungi within the week of their enrollment in the study. Results Three hundred and ninety-one patients with an acute asthma exacerbation were enrolled during the study period. The mean age of participants was 46 years (standard deviation, ±18 years) and 247 (63.2%) were females. A trend of higher asthma enrollment associated with higher Aspergillus concentrations was found in two consecutive summers. A total of nineteen types of fungi were found in air samples. Aspergillus spp. was the most frequently isolated fungus with acute asthma exacerbation. Conclusion An association of higher concentration of indoor Aspergillus spp. with asthma exacerbation in adults was observed in this study. PMID:24809014

Zubairi, Ali Bin Sarwar; Azam, Iqbal; Awan, Safia; Zafar, Afia

2014-01-01

134

Prevalence and demographics of anxiety disorders: a snapshot from a community health centre in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background The developing world is faced with a high burden of anxiety disorders. The exact prevalence of anxiety disorders in Pakistan is not known. There is a need to develop an evidence base to aid policy development on tackling anxiety and depressive disorders in the country. This is the first pilot study to address the prevalence of anxiety disorders and their association with sociodemographic factors in Pakistan. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among people visiting Aga Khan University Hospital (AKUH), a tertiary care facility in Karachi, Pakistan. The point prevalence of anxiety amongst the sample population, which comprised of patients and their attendants, excluding all health care personnel, was assessed using the validated Urdu version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The questionnaire was administered to 423 people. Descriptive statistics were performed for mean scores and proportions. Results The mean anxiety score of the population was 5.7 ± 3.86. About 28.3% had borderline or pathological anxiety. The factors found to be independently predicted with anxiety were, female sex (odds ratio (OR) = 2.14, 95% CI 1.36–3.36, p = 0.01); physical illness (OR = 1.67, 95% CI 1.06–2.64, p = 0.026); and psychiatric illness (OR = 1.176, 95% CI 1.0–3.1, p = 0.048). In the final multivariate model, female sex (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2, 95% CI 1.28–3.22) and physical illness (AOR = 1.56, 95% CI 0.97–2.48) were found to be significant. Conclusion Further studies via nationally representative surveys need to be undertaken to fully grasp the scope of this emerging public health issue in Pakistan. PMID:17999756

Khan, Hassan; Kalia, Saira; Itrat, Ahmed; Khan, Abdullah; Kamal, Mahwash; Khan, Muhammad A; Khalid, Roha; Khalid, Salman; Javed, Sunniya; Javed, Sanniya; Umer, Affan; Naqvi, Haider

2007-01-01

135

Characteristics of very preterm infants delivered at a tertiary care center in Pakistan.  

PubMed

Very preterm births (between 23 and 29 weeks' gestation) are a major perinatal health issue worldwide, particularly in developing countries, with limited resources. Limited data exists on survival of very preterm infants from Pakistan and antenatal predictors dictating survival have not been evaluated. This descriptive study was a case-series of all singleton very preterm infants born between January 01, 1998 to June 30, 2003 at Aga Khan University Hospital, a tertiary care center, in Karachi, Pakistan. The antenatal, perinatal and postnatal data were collected through medical records review of these infants and their mothers. The hospital course and complications in mothers and infants were studied. Antenatal predictors of survival based on univariate analyses (Fisher's exact test with p-value <0.05) were evaluated. Among 101 very preterm infants born during this period, the main complication seen was respiratory distress syndrome (75.2%), followed by intraventricular hemorrhage (33.7%) and necrotizing enterocolitis (26.7%). Majority of infants required intubation. The mean birth weight was 1042.1±304.8gm. Fifty-nine (58.4%) infants survived to hospital discharge. The survival incidence was less than 50% for gestational age at birth ?27 weeks. Gestational age, birth weight and mode of delivery were statistically significant predictors of survival. This study shows past survival incidences of very preterm infants born at this hospital. It will help local epidemiologists study trends, determine improvements in survival over time, and also identify factors leading to the greatest improvement. PMID:25178610

Yakoob, M Y

2014-07-01

136

At home in Karachi: quasi-domesticity as way to know the city  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cities are difficult to control. The moral panic that is part of much social scientific and military research on cities for more than a century is still manifest today. In Pentagon sources Karachi is mentioned as one of those `feral, failed cities' that are expected to become the sites of future conflicts that will take the form of asymmetric combat

O. Verkaaik

2009-01-01

137

At Home in KarachiQuasi-domesticity as a Way to Know the City  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cities are difficult to control. The moral panic that is part of much social scientific and military research on cities for more than a century is still manifest today. In Pentagon sources Karachi is mentioned as one of those `feral, failed cities' that are expected to become the sites of future conflicts that will take the form of asymmetric combat

Oskar Verkaaik

2009-01-01

138

Association of depression with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes among adults aged between 25 to 60 years in Karachi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The combination of depression with type 2 diabetes is a public health problem. If diabetes is managed in its initial phase,\\u000a the morbidity and mortality due to this combination may be prevented at an early stage. Therefore, we aimed to determine the\\u000a association of depression with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes among adults aged between 25 to 60 years in

Shazia Perveen; Muhammad S Otho; Muhammad N Siddiqi; Juanita Hatcher; Ghazala Rafique

2010-01-01

139

Anaphylaxis: incidence, presentation, causes and outcome in patients in a tertiary-care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background: Anaphylaxis is a potentially fatal condition requiring immediate resuscitation. Data regarding the epidemiology of anaphylaxis are limited and inconsistent. A reason for the variability was unavailability of a universally acceptable case definition till 2005. We reviewed cases using this new definition Aim: To review the incidence, clinical presentation, cause and outcome of anaphylaxis at a tertiary-care centre in a low-income country. Design: Retrospective, case series Methods: Chart review of all patients discharged from Aga Khan University Hospital between January 1988 and December 2012 (24 years) with anaphylaxis definition as per second National Institute of Allergy and Infection disease/Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network Symposium Results: Total of 129 cases were found with mean age of 41.6 years (SD 18.8). Majority of patients had cutaneous features (76.7%), followed by respiratory (68.9%), cardiac (64.3%) and gastrointestinal (20.9%) symptoms, respectively. About 22.4% of patients had positive history for allergens out of which 31% (n = 9) were exposed to the same allergens. The common causes identified for anaphylaxis were drugs (60.5%), food (16.3%) and intravenous contrast (10.9%), respectively. Only 22.5% of cases received epinephrine as a part of their initial management. In four patients (3.1%) the cause of death was attributed to anaphylaxis. Conclusion: Anaphylaxis is a rare but life-threatening condition. Though cutaneous features are most common, their absence does not exclude the diagnosis. Drugs were the most common cause and epinephrine was not commonly used as first-line agent for its management. PMID:24082151

Shakeel, N.; Makda, A.; Mallick, A.S.; Ali Memon, M.; Hashmi, S.H.; Khan, U.R.; Razzak, J.A.

2013-01-01

140

Islamabad: The Struggle for Pakistan's Identity  

E-print Network

Islamabad: The Struggle for Pakistan's Identity Eman Siddiqui ABSTRACT "The capital of a country is the focus and the center of the people's ambitions and desires, and it is wrong to put them in an existing city," Pakistan's President General...

Siddiqui, Eman

2012-04-01

141

Sentinel Hospital-Based Surveillance for Assessment of Burden of Rotavirus Gastroenteritis in Children in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine the burden and molecular epidemiology of rotavirus gastroenteritis in children hospitalized with severe acute watery diarrhea in Pakistan prior to introduction of rotavirus vaccine. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out over a period of two years from 2006 – 2008 at five sentinel hospitals in the cities of Karachi, Lahore, Rawalpindi, and Peshawar. Stool samples collected from children under five years of age hospitalized with severe acute watery diarrhea were tested for rotavirus antigen via enzyme immunoassay (EIA) (IDEA REF K6020 Oxoid Ltd (Ely), Cambridge, United Kingdom). A subset of EIA positive stool samples were further processed for genotyping. Results 6679 children were enrolled and stool specimens of 2039 (30.5%) were positive for rotavirus. Rotavirus positivity ranged from 16.3% to 39.4% in the 5 hospitals with highest positivity in Lahore. 1241 (61%) of all rotavirus cases were in infants under one year of age. Among the strains examined for G-serotypes, the occurrence of G1, G2, G9 and G4 strains was found to be 28%, 24%, 14% and 13%, respectively. Among P-types, the most commonly occurring strains were P6 (31.5%) followed by P8 (20%) and P4 (12%). Prevalent rotavirus genotype in hospitalized children of severe diarrhea were G1P[8] 11.6% (69/593), followed by G2P[4] 10.4% (62/593), and G4P[6] 10.1% (60/593). Conclusions Approximately one third of children hospitalized with severe gastroenteritis in urban centers in Pakistan have rotavirus. Introduction of rotavirus vaccine in Pakistan's national immunization program could prevent many severe episodes and diarrheal deaths. PMID:25295613

Kazi, Abdul Momin; Warraich, Gohar Javed; Qureshi, Shahida; Qureshi, Huma; Khan, Muhammad Mubashir Ahmad; Zaidi, Anita Kaniz Mehdi

2014-01-01

142

Military Takeover Complete in Pakistan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

General Pervez Musharraf assumed the position of chief executive of Pakistan early this morning, completing a very quick and bloodless coup that began on Tuesday night. General Musharraf declared a state of emergency, suspending the constitution and the national and provincial assemblies, dismissing the provincial governments and governors, and banning the Supreme Court from challenging his authority. Reaction to the coup has been rather muted within Pakistan and abroad. Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif, who is now in custody, was increasingly unpopular in Pakistan because of the country's dire economic situation, his handling of the conflict with India in Kashmir, and what some saw as his systematic efforts to undermine the authority of rival political parties and branches of government. Foreign officials and editorials have criticized the military and called for the restoration of civilian rule as soon as possible. However, many have also acknowledged Sharif's poor record and some have even called for a transitional "technocratic" government to revive the economy and fight corruption. While the crucial question of foreign aid and loans to Pakistan is still very much up in the air, it does appear that at least some nations, most notably arch-rival India, are prepared to do business with Pakistan's new leaders, at least for the short term.

De Nie, Michael W.

143

The Indus II and Siachen Peace Park: Pushing the India–Pakistan Peace Process Forward  

Microsoft Academic Search

The peace process between India and Pakistan, which started in 2000, moved very slowly before coming to a standstill following the terror attack on Mumbai in November 2008. This article argues that both these two South Asian neighbours need to focus on new areas of bilateral cooperation, which might help them to build mutual trust and provide much-needed impetus to

Ashok Swain

2009-01-01

144

Improvised Explosive Devices in Southern Afghanistan and Western Pakistan, 2002–2009  

Microsoft Academic Search

Homemade bombs or improvised explosive devices (IEDs) are staple weapons of conflicts in South Asia and especially Southern Afghanistan and Western Pakistan, where the Taliban, their affiliates, and other armed groups use them to undermine recognized governments and policies. This study establishes IED trends in the Afghanistan provinces of Helmand, Kandahar, and Nimroz and the Pakistani province of Balochistan between

Alec D. Barker

2011-01-01

145

Vulnerability of Internally Displaced Children in Disaster Relief Camps of Pakistan: Issues, Challenges, and Way Forward  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pakistan is a developing country with the second highest infant and child mortality rates in South Asia. During the past years this region has undergone several humanitarian emergencies that have negatively affected all the aspects of health and development of young children. During these emergencies relief camps are set up by governmental and…

Hirani, Shela Akbar Ali

2014-01-01

146

HIV/AIDS in Pakistan: the context and magnitude of an emerging threat  

PubMed Central

STUDY OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this review were to: (1) assess the nature and comprehensiveness of information regarding HIV/AIDS in Pakistan; (2) to evaluate the extent of HIV/AIDS in Pakistan by epidemiological estimates; (3) to indicate the implications of the results for health policy in Pakistan and other regions at a similar stage in the epidemic. DESIGN: A structured review of published, unpublished, and government literature was undertaken to collate all available information and present a descriptive epidemiological profile of HIV/AIDS in the country. SETTING: Pakistan, a developing country in the South Asian region. National and regional information and analysis are presented in so far as the data allowed. Sample sizes varied from 1.35 million people screened at the national level to smaller studies of fewer than 100 screened. RESULTS: Data pertaining to HIV/AIDS in Pakistan showed the best national estimates of HIV prevalence as 64 per 100,000 (0.064%). Within patients with sexually transmitted diseases the seroprevalence was as high as 6100 per 100,000 (6.1%); in men with extramarital contacts, 5400 per 100,000 (5.4%) and was as low as zero in some studied populations as well. The average age of onset was reported as 30 years. It is estimated that if all incident cases of AIDS were to die, there would be at least 5000 deaths annually attributable to HIV/AIDS. CONCLUSION: Coupled with the extremely low awareness of HIV/AIDS in Pakistan, as well as growing number of cases, the AIDS epidemic is poised to take a hold in Pakistan. The presence of additional risk factors such as unscreened blood, and low condom use rates make the situation fertile for AIDS to become a major public health issue. Pakistan's health policy must be proactive in tackling this emerging health threat.   PMID:10320859

Hyder, A. A.; Khan, O. A.

1998-01-01

147

Pakistan: focus on women's issues.  

PubMed

In April 1996 at the senior officials' segment of the 52nd Session of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP), a representative of Pakistan informed participants that population well-being efforts are part of the means used in implementing Pakistan's Social Action Programme. The Minister of State for Parliamentary Affairs noted that US$3 billion has been allocated to the Programme for implementation during the Eighth Five-Year Plan (1993-1998). The Programme aims to develop human resources and to improve the quality of life of the population, using life expectancy, access to primary health care, and literacy as indicators of quality of life. A key target group of the Programme is women. The Programme includes education, health, nutrition, training, and employment projects. In Pakistan, the mass media are contributing greatly in effecting the social change required to increase participation of women in economic activities. PMID:12291136

1996-01-01

148

Flood control in East Pakistan  

E-print Network

of the river. Ths Oovernmsnt of East Bengal (East pakistan) has recently secured a good number of dredgers of both bucket and suction type which could be profitably utilised in the operation of this project, Since sufficient hydrologic snd other data ars...&19RARv 6 A N CutiE&& OF ~ PLOOD CONTROL EAST PAKISTAN A Thesis By H. R. S, R. K, EUSVPZAI Submitted to the Craduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree...

Eusufzai, Mohammad Hossain Sekandar Hayat Khan

1956-01-01

149

Molecular Epidemiology of Glanders, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

We collected epidemiologic and molecular data from Burkholderia mallei isolates from equines in Punjab, Pakistan from 1999 through 2007. We show that recent outbreaks are genetically distinct from available whole genome sequences and that these genotypes are persistent and ubiquitous in Punjab, probably due to human-mediated movement of equines. PMID:19961695

Hornstra, Heidie; Pearson, Talima; Georgia, Shalamar; Liguori, Andrew; Dale, Julia; Price, Erin; O’Neill, Matthew; DeShazer, David; Muhammad, Ghulam; Saqib, Muhammad; Naureen, Abeera

2009-01-01

150

Solar energy applications in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energy deficit budget of Pakistan demands for an energy transition from limited fossil fuel reserves to abundant renewable energy sources. With a modest research and development programme for solar energy utilisation, PCSIR and DGNRER concentrated on both solar thermal and PV systems. The achievements as a result of research and development over the last decade has been discussed in

Iftikhar A. Raja; M. G. Dougar; R. S. Abro

1996-01-01

151

Sustainable energy options for Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the advent of the year 2008, Pakistan faces a gap of 4500MW between the demand and supply of electricity, registering a shortfall of 40%. The article provides an overview of the key dimensions of the crisis, i.e. growing gap between demand and supply, diminishing indigenous oil and gas reserves, rising energy cost and security concerns. It also explores hydropower,

M. Asif

2009-01-01

152

Motor vehicle crashes in Pakistan: the emerging epidemic  

PubMed Central

Setting—Motor vehicle injuries are increasingly being recognized as a growing public health issue in the developing world. Pakistan is a developing country in South Asia where motor vehicle use has increased since independence in 1947. Objective—This paper explores the magnitude and impact of injuries from motor vehicle crashes in Pakistan. Methods—An exhaustive review of published and gray literature, together with a detailed analysis of government data from 1956. Results—The data indicate a persistent increase in the numbers of motor vehicle crashes, injuries, and fatalities. Changes in the reporting of rates are important to note in evaluating the data. Commercial vehicles contribute disproportionately to these motor vehicle injuries. Conclusions—There is a need to further the recognition of injuries as a public health issue in this country. Specific exploration of the epidemiological data; intersectoral collaboration between health, law, police and transport; and the development of appropriate information systems, will contribute to an appropriate response by Pakistan. PMID:11003185

Hyder, A.; Ghaffar, A.; Masood, T.

2000-01-01

153

An FTO variant is associated with Type 2 diabetes in South Asian populations after accounting for body mass index and waist circumference  

PubMed Central

Aims A common variant, rs9939609, in the FTO (fat mass and obesity) gene is associated with adiposity in Europeans, explaining its relationship with diabetes. However, data are inconsistent in South Asians. Our aim was to investigate the association of the FTO rs9939609 variant with obesity, obesity-related traits and Type 2 diabetes in South Asian individuals, and to use meta-analyses to attempt to clarify to what extent BMI influences the association of FTO variants with diabetes in South Asians. Methods We analysed rs9939609 in two studies of Pakistani individuals: 1666 adults aged ? 40 years from the Karachi population-based Control of Blood Pressure and Risk Attenuation (COBRA) study and 2745 individuals of Punjabi ancestry who were part of a Type 2 diabetes case–control study (UK Asian Diabetes Study/Diabetes Genetics in Pakistan; UKADS/DGP). The main outcomes were BMI, waist circumference and diabetes. Regression analyses were performed to determine associations between FTO alleles and outcomes. Summary estimates were combined in a meta-analysis of 8091 South Asian individuals (3919 patients with Type 2 diabetes and 4172 control subjects), including those from two previous studies. Results In the 4411 Pakistani individuals from this study, the age-, sex- and diabetes-adjusted association of FTO variant rs9939609 with BMI was 0.45 (95% CI 0.24–0.67) kg/m2 per A-allele (P = 3.0× 10?5) and with waist circumference was 0.88 (95% CI 0.36–1.41) cm per A-allele (P = 0.001). The A-allele (30% frequency) was also significantly associated with Type 2 diabetes [per A-allele odds ratio (95% CI) 1.18 (1.07–1.30); P = 0.0009]. A meta-analysis of four South Asian studies with 8091 subjects showed that the FTO A-allele predisposes to Type 2 diabetes [1.22 (95% CI 1.14–1.31); P = 1.07× 10?8] even after adjusting for BMI [1.18 (95% CI 1.10–1.27); P = 1.02× 10?5] or waist circumference [1.18 (95% CI 1.10–1.27); P = 3.97× 10?5]. Conclusions The strong association between FTO genotype and BMI and waist circumference in South Asians is similar to that observed in Europeans. In contrast, the strong association of FTO genotype with diabetes is only partly accounted for by BMI. PMID:21294771

Rees, S. D.; Islam, M.; Hydrie, M. Z. I.; Chaudhary, B.; Bellary, S.; Hashmi, S.; O’Hare, J. P.; Kumar, S.; Sanghera, D. K.; Chaturvedi, N.; Barnett, A. H.; Shera, A. S.; Weedon, M. N.; Basit, A.; Frayling, T. M.; Kelly, M. A.; Jafar, T. H.

2011-01-01

154

Pattern of benzodiazepine use in psychiatric outpatients in Pakistan: a cross-sectional survey  

PubMed Central

Background Benzodiazepines (BDZ) are the largest-selling drug group in the world. The potential of dependence with BDZ has been known for almost three decades now. In countries like Pakistan where laws against unlicensed sale of BDZ are not implemented vigorously the risk of misuse of and dependence on these drugs is even higher. Previous studies have shown that BDZ prevalence among patients/visitors to general outpatient clinics in Pakistan may be as high as 30%. However, no research has been carried out on the prevalence of BDZ use in psychiatric patients in Pakistan. Methods We carried out a cross-sectional survey over 3 months in psychiatry outpatient clinics of two tertiary care hospitals in Karachi and Lahore. Besides basic socio-demographic data the participants were asked if they were taking a BDZ at present and if yes, the frequency, route and dosage of the drug, who had initiated the drug and why it had been prescribed. We used chi-square test and t-test to find out which socio-demographic or clinical factors were associated with an increased risk of BDZ use. We used Logistic Regression to find out which variable(s) best predicted the increased likelihood of BDZ use. Results Out of a total of 419 participants 187 (45%) of the participants had been currently using at least one BDZ. Seventy-three percent of the users had been using the drug for 4 weeks or longer and 87% were taking it every day. In 90% of cases the BDZ had been initiated by a doctor, who was a psychiatrist in 70% of the cases. Female gender, increasing age, living in Lahore, and having seen a psychiatrist before, were associated with an increased likelihood of using BDZ. Conclusion The study shows how high BDZ use is in psychiatric outpatients in Pakistan. Most of the users were taking it for a duration and with a frequency which puts them at risk of becoming dependent on BDZ. In most of the cases it had been initiated by a doctor. Both patients and doctors need to be made aware of the risk of dependence associated with the use of BDZ. PMID:19400933

2009-01-01

155

Panel Analyzes Pakistan's Internal Water Concerns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although transboundary water issues between Pakistan and neighboring countries may be exciting and interesting, Pakistan's real water and security nexus is at the local level, according to Daanish Mustafa, coauthor of a new report, "Understanding Pakistan's Water-Security Nexus." Mustafa, a reader in politics and environment at King's College, London, U.K., was a panelist at a 30 May forum in Washington, D. C., sponsored by the United States Institute of Peace, which published the report.

Showstack, Randy

2013-06-01

156

Women, islam, and the state in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, I outline the history of Pakistan’s experience with “Islamic” laws and their impact on women. I also trace\\u000a the links between the state, nationalism, religion, and women’s organizations, and demonstrate how they have shaped women's\\u000a lives in Pakistan. I focus mainly on General Zia ul-Haq’s influence in fostering and reinforcing certain detrimental ideologies\\u000a and policies regarding women.

Afshan Jafar

2005-01-01

157

Tackling Extremism, Radicalisation and Militancy in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

With global attention focused upon the ongoing conflict in Pakistan, it is timely to consider current strategies of the Pakistan government.\\u000aProfessor Samina Yasmeen, a Pakistani Muslim with decades of expertise in the field of political science, was well placed to address the subject of her recent talk: Tackling Extremism, Radicalization and Militancy in Pakistan: A Critical Appraisal of Current

Ben Clarke

2010-01-01

158

Pakistan combats hidden AIDS menace.  

PubMed

The conservative Islamic society in Pakistan associates human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) with prostitution, homosexuality, and drug abuse, activities which are prohibited in Pakistan. There are 1000 reported cases of HIV, 55 with advanced AIDS (53 have died) in Pakistan. Birjees Mazhar Kazi, head of the National AIDS Program, believes that, based on the computer model of the World Health Organization (WHO), the number of HIV cases in Pakistan can be 50,000 to 80,000. Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto's government has allocated $2 million for AIDS prevention. Although some officials argue that Islamic strictures and traditional social pressures discourage sexual license, the poor public health and education standards in Pakistan make it vulnerable to AIDS. Drug abuse has risen in the last 20 years; there are an estimated 1.5 million heroin users among an estimated 3 million addicts. According to Health Ministry Director General Naik Muhammad Shaikh, the government has established 30 HIV/AIDS screening centers and is sponsoring a law that would require all blood banks to provide only safe blood and blood products for transfusion. Marvi states that the reuse and poor disposal of needles, a common practice in Pakistan, could be responsible for most of the transmission there of AIDS and hepatitis C. Health experts acknowledge the obstacles placed in the way of AIDS awareness campaigns by sex taboos and religious sensitivities; condoms cannot be mentioned or displayed in shops, or used in electronic or print media campaigns. They can be mentioned in a recorded message on a 24-hr AIDS hotline. Community-based and nongovernmental organizations are being used to reach segments of society who cannot use the hotline. Eunuchs (hijras), who are much in demand as "female" entertainers at weddings, are particularly resistant to safe sex messages, according to Abid Atiq, head of the information and education section of the National AIDS Program. He says families conceal AIDS patients because of the stigma, and, although counseling services are provided, most are reluctant to contact the program. PMID:12320183

1996-05-20

159

Magnitude and Factors Associated with Child Abuse in a Mega City of Developing Country Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective Child abuse is one of the major challenges for health care providers. This study was conducted to determine the burden of child abuse (physical & emotional) and the factors associated with it in an urban city of Pakistan. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in primary care clinics affiliated with a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan between March to December 2010. Mothers with children aged between 6 and 12 years were included in the study. Those mothers’ suffering from any acute illness like high grade fever, were excluded. A total of 412 mothers were recruited through consecutive sampling and written informed consent was taken. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to seek information about child abuse. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 19 and multivariable logistic regression was used to identify the factors (age, gender of child, family structure, educational status of parents, and mother’s perception of her home environment) associated with child abuse. Findings Of the total 412 mothers, final analysis was conducted on 379 mothers. In all, 32.5% of children had been abused, 25.5% physically and 17.9% emotionally. Abuse was reported more among children whose mothers had minimal or no schooling (P=0.02), who were abused by their husbands (P<0.001), not satisfied with their marital life (P<0.001), and stressful home environment (P=0.02). In the multivariate analysis, the factors found to be independently associated with child abuse were mothers abused by their husbands (AOR=4.2; 95%CI: 2.2–7.9) and child being a girl (AOR=8.7; 95%CI: 4.5–16.8). Conclusion The prevention of child abuse can be achieved through comprehensive, multifaceted and integrated approaches requiring joint efforts by the government, policy makers, stake holders, social workers, educationists, and public health practitioners.

Ali, Niloufer Sultan; Ali, Farzana Nawaz; Khuwaja, Ali Khan; Nanji, Kashmira

2014-01-01

160

Knowledge, attitudes and practices survey on organ donation among a selected adult population of Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background To determine the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding organ donation in a selected adult population in Pakistan. Methods Convenience sampling was used to generate a sample of 440; 408 interviews were successfully completed and used for analysis. Data collection was carried out via a face to face interview based on a pre-tested questionnaire in selected public areas of Karachi, Pakistan. Data was analyzed using SPSS v.15 and associations were tested using the Pearson's Chi square test. Multiple logistic regression was used to find independent predictors of knowledge status and motivation of organ donation. Results Knowledge about organ donation was significantly associated with education (p = 0.000) and socioeconomic status (p = 0.038). 70/198 (35.3%) people expressed a high motivation to donate. Allowance of organ donation in religion was significantly associated with the motivation to donate (p = 0.000). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that higher level of education and higher socioeconomic status were significant (p < 0.05) independent predictors of knowledge status of organ donation. For motivation, multiple logistic regression revealed that higher socioeconomic status, adequate knowledge score and belief that organ donation is allowed in religion were significant (p < 0.05) independent predictors. Television emerged as the major source of information. Only 3.5% had themselves donated an organ; with only one person being an actual kidney donor. Conclusion Better knowledge may ultimately translate into the act of donation. Effective measures should be taken to educate people with relevant information with the involvement of media, doctors and religious scholars. PMID:19534793

Saleem, Taimur; Ishaque, Sidra; Habib, Nida; Hussain, Syedda Saadia; Jawed, Areeba; Khan, Aamir Ali; Ahmad, Muhammad Imran; Iftikhar, Mian Omer; Mughal, Hamza Pervez; Jehan, Imtiaz

2009-01-01

161

Effects of ozone on crops in north-west Pakistan.  

PubMed

Although ozone is well-documented to reduce crop yields in the densely populated Indo-Gangetic Plain, there is little knowledge of its effects in other parts of south Asia. We surveyed crops close to the city of Peshawar, in north-west Pakistan, for visible injury, linking this to passive measurements of ozone concentrations. Foliar injury was found on potato, onion and cotton when mean monthly ozone concentrations exceeded 45 ppb. The symptoms on onion were reproduced in ozone fumigation experiments, which also showed that daytime ozone concentrations of 60 ppb significantly reduce the growth of a major Pakistani onion variety. Aphid infestation on spinach was also reduced at these elevated ozone concentrations. The ozone concentrations measured in April-May in Peshawar, and used in the fumigation experiment, are comparable to those that have been modelled to occur over many parts of south Asia, where ozone may be a significant threat to sensitive crops. PMID:23279903

Ahmad, Muhammad Nauman; Büker, Patrick; Khalid, Sofia; Van Den Berg, Leon; Shah, Hamid Ullah; Wahid, Abdul; Emberson, Lisa; Power, Sally A; Ashmore, Mike

2013-03-01

162

Enabling Syndromic Surveillance in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Objective This work presents our first steps in developing a Global Real-time Infectious Disease Surveillance System (GRIDDS) employing robust and novel infectious disease epidemiology models with real-time inference and pre/exercise planning capabilities for Lahore, Pakistan. The objective of this work is to address the infectious disease surveillance challenges (specific to developing countries such as Pakistan) and develop a collaborative capability for monitoring and managing outbreaks of natural or manmade infectious diseases in Pakistan. Methods Utilizing our partner hospitals in the Lahore, Punjab area, we have begun developing a theoretical model of patient hospital visits with respect to diseases and syndromes within Pakistan. Our first thrust has focused on the collection, categorization and cleansing of data based on expert knowledge from our partnering institutions in Pakistan. Data consists of a patient’s home address and chief complaint which is then categorized into syndromes. Home addresses are geocoded utilizing the Google API with a resultant 72% accuracy. Unknown geolocations are aggregated only at the hospital level. Using this cleaned data, we employ methods similar to our previous work [1] on syndromic surveillance for early disease detection. Currently, we have collected over 600,000 patient records over 1.5 years. We employ the use of choropleth maps, isopleth maps utilizing kernel density estimation of patient addresses, traditional control chart methods such as exponentially weighted moving averages (EWMA), and a non-parametric time series analysis approach (seasonal trend decomposition using loess smoothing (STL) [2]) which requires only 90 days of historical data to be put into operation. The time series models are deployed as part of a real-time surveillance system in which temporal anomalies over regions can be analyzed and disease outbreaks reported. Results Figure 1 illustrates our visual analytics toolkit in operation. Here we see the location of our partner hospital in the Lahore region. The hospital coverage is in the most populous location of the city, providing data as a sentinel site for the overall health of the city. Currently, our system employs the use of interactive filters and linked isopleth or choropleth maps with time series analysis on mouse over. Conclusions Currently our research has focused on one partner location within the city of Lahore. Our ongoing work is focusing on the adoption of such a system to other regions of the country and the development of disease spread simulations (particularly Dengue Fever) utilizing baseline data collected by our partners. We plan to integrate these models into our visual analytics system for real-time planning and simulation.

Maciejewski, Ross; Afzal, Shehzad; Fairfield, Adam J.; Ghafoor, Arif; Ebert, David S.; Ayyaz, Naeem; Ahmed, Maaz

2013-01-01

163

Higher Education and Women's Empowerment in Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper summarises the findings of a 2005 doctoral study by Malik which explored to what extent participation in higher education offers empowerment to women in Pakistan. A survey instrument was used to question female faculty members and female students from 10 public universities in Pakistan; 1290 students and 290 faculty members responded.…

Malik, Samina; Courtney, Kathy

2011-01-01

164

Pesticides exposure in Pakistan: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the first systematic review of studies done since 1960, and to give an integrated picture of pesticides exposure to humans, animals, plants, waters, soils\\/sediments, atmosphere etc. in Pakistan. Authors have extracted data from different departments, published literature in research journals and National reports. Although the wide-spread usage of pesticides in Pakistan has controlled the pests, but like other

Muhammad Ilyas Tariq; Shahzad Afzal; Ishtiaq Hussain; Nargis Sultana

2007-01-01

165

Staff Development Needs in Pakistan Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Staff development is very significant for the achievement of overall goals of higher education in Pakistan. The success of innovations depends largely upon the skills of instructors; but in Pakistan, the people with a simple masters degree (without any pedagogical training) are inducted as teaching staff at the university level, so it is time to…

Ullah, Muhammad Hameed; Khan, Muhammad Naeem Ullah; Murtaza, Ali; Ud Din, Muhammad Naseer

2011-01-01

166

Anatomy Education Faces Challenges in Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anatomy education in Pakistan is facing many of the same challenges as in other parts of the world. Roughly, a decade ago, all medical and dental colleges in Pakistan emphasized anatomy as a core basic discipline within a traditional medical science curriculum. Now institutions are adopting problem based learning (PBL) teaching philosophies, and…

Memon, Ismail K.

2009-01-01

167

English-Teaching Institutions in Pakistan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses English medium teaching in Pakistan and suggests that at the moment it is an elitist preserve and a stumbling block for Pakistanis not taught through English. Indicates that exposing other students to English could counteract growing cultural and religious intolerance in Pakistan. (Author/VWL)

Rahman, Tariq

2001-01-01

168

Pakistan: Crisis of a Frontline State  

Microsoft Academic Search

For more than 50 years, Pakistan has functioned as imperialism's “frontline state.” The military has remained the country's dominant political player and the basic precepts of bourgeois democracy remain conspicuous by their absence. Since the military coup in October 1999, the configuration of power in Pakistan has become subject to serious internal contradictions, in large part because of the “war

Aasim Sajjad Akhtar

2010-01-01

169

Education, Employment and Earnings in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender gaps in educational access, schooling quality and labour market outcomes are pervasive in Pakistan. This brief discusses the findings of three recent studies in Pakistan that highlight the role of education in improving individual productivity, increasing earnings, bringing people out of poverty and providing a pathway to gender equality in the labour market. The papers note the policy implications

Monazza Aslam

170

Female Suicide Rates in Ghizer, Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suicide is an understudied subject in Pakistan. There are many social, legal, and religious sanctions against it. National rates of suicides are not known. We calculated suicide rates of women in the Ghizer District of the remote Northern Areas of Pakistan. During years 2000 to 2004, 49 women committed suicide. Taking average mean population for…

Khan, Murad M.; Ahmed, Aziz; Khan, Sultan R.

2009-01-01

171

Dengue transmission based on urban environmental gradients in different cities of Pakistan.  

PubMed

This study focuses on the dengue transmission in different regions of Pakistan. For this purpose, the data of dengue cases for 2009-2012 from four different cities (Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Lahore, and Karachi) of the country is collected, evaluated, and compiled. To identify the reasons and regions of higher risk of Dengue transmission, land use classification, analysis of climate covariates and drainage patterns was done. Analysis involves processing of SPOT 5 10 m, Landsat TM 30 m data sets, and SRTM 90 m digital elevation models by using remote sensing and GIS techniques. The results are based on the change in urbanization and population density, analysis of temperature, rainfall, and wind speed; calculation of drainage patterns including stream features, flow accumulation, and drainage density of the study areas. Results suggest that the low elevation areas with calm winds and minimum temperatures higher than the normal, rapid increase in unplanned urbanization, low flow accumulation, and higher drainage density areas favor the dengue transmission. PMID:24817491

Khalid, Bushra; Ghaffar, Abdul

2014-05-10

172

Genetic diversity among Plasmodium falciparum field isolates in Pakistan measured with PCR genotyping of the merozoite surface protein 1 and 2  

PubMed Central

Background The genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum has been extensively studied in various parts of the world. However, limited data are available from Pakistan. This study aimed to establish molecular characterization of P. falciparum field isolates in Pakistan measured with two highly polymorphic genetic markers, i.e. the merozoite surface protein 1 (msp-1)and 2 (msp-2). Methods Between October 2005 and October 2007, 244 blood samples from patients with symptomatic blood-slide confirmed P. falciparum mono-infections attending the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, or its collection units located in Sindh and Baluchistan provinces, Pakistan were collected. The genetic diversity of P. falciparum was analysed by length polymorphism following gel electrophoresis of DNA products from nested polymerase chain reactions (PCR) targeting block 2 of msp-1 and block 3 of msp-2, including their respective allelic families KI, MAD 20, RO33, and FC27, 3D7/IC. Results A total of 238/244 (98%) patients had a positive PCR outcome in at least one genetic marker; the remaining six were excluded from analysis. A majority of patients had monoclonal infections. Only 56/231 (24%) and 51/236 (22%) carried multiple P. falciparum genotypes in msp-1 and msp-2, respectively. The estimated total number of genotypes was 25 msp-1 (12 KI; 8 MAD20; 5 RO33) and 33 msp-2 (14 FC27; 19 3D7/IC). Conclusions This is the first report on molecular characterization of P. falciparum field isolates in Pakistan with regards to multiplicity of infection. The genetic diversity and allelic distribution found in this study is similar to previous reports from India and Southeast Asian countries with low malaria endemicity. PMID:20043863

2010-01-01

173

Dengue fever outbreak in Karachi 2006 - A study of profile and outcome of children under 15 years of age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate children with serologically confirmed Dengue fever in order to identify common clinical features, progress of disease, grades of severity and outcome of cases during the outbreak in 2006. Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted on serologically positive children with Dengue fever (DF) admitted in Civil Hospital Karachi and Liaquat National Hospital between October and November 2006.

Saba Ahmed; Fehmina Arif; Yousuf Yahya; Arshaloos Rehman; Kashif Abbas; Sohail Ashraf; Dure Samin Akram

174

Malpractice awareness among surgeons at a teaching hospital in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background The duty of a doctor to take care presumes the person who offers medical advice and treatment to unequivocally possess the skills and knowledge to do so. However, a sense of responsibility cannot be guaranteed in the absence of accountability, which in turn requires a comprehensive medical law system to be in place. Such a system is almost non-existent in Pakistan. Keeping the above in mind, we designed this study to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of surgeons regarding malpractice at a tertiary care center in Pakistan. Methods This was an observational, cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study conducted during a three month period from 31st March, 2012 to 30th June, 2012 at Civil Hospital, Karachi. Surgeons who were available during the period of our study and had been working in the hospital for at least 6 months were included. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed after seeking informed, written consent. The specialties included were general surgery, cardiothoracic surgery, neurosurgery, ophthalmology, otolaryngology, plastic surgery, pediatric surgery, orthopedic surgery, oral and maxillofacial surgery and gynecology and obstetrics. The study questionnaire comprised of four sections. The first section was concerned with the demographics of the surgeons. The second section analyzed the knowledge of the respondents regarding professional negligence and malpractice. The third section assessed the attitudes surgeons with regard to malpractice. The last section dealt with the general and specific practices and experiences of surgeons regarding malpractice. Results Of the 319 surgeons interviewed, 68.7% were oblivious of the complete definition of malpractice. Leaving foreign objects inside the patient (79.6%) was the most commonly agreed upon form of malpractice, whereas failure to break news in entirety (43.9%) was most frequently disagreed. In the event of a medical error, majority (67.7%) were ready to disclose their error to the patient. The most common perceived reason for not disclosing the error was threat of a claim or assault (90.9%). Majority (68.3%) believed that malpractice had a negative effect on reputation. Only 13(4.1%) had received at least one legal claim for damages. Only about three-fourths (75.5%) had the habit of frequently obtaining informed consent from the patients. 83(26.0%) expressed reluctance in accepting a case that was deemed to be difficult. Financial gains and liabilities were responsible for biased approach in 8.5% and 12.2% of the respondents respectively. Conclusion There is a dire need of programs aimed at increasing awareness among practicing surgeons in our setup. Proactive measures are required for the formulation of an efficient system of litigation. Physician accountability will not only arouse a greater sense of responsibility in them, but will also augment the confidence placed by patients on the healthcare system. PMID:23126456

2012-01-01

175

Weight misperception amongst youth of a developing country: Pakistan -a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Weight misperception is the discordance between an individual’s actual weight status and the perception of his/her weight. It is a common problem in the youth population as enumerated by many international studies. However data from Pakistan in this area is deficient. Methods A multi-center cross-sectional survey was carried out in undergraduate university students of Karachi between the ages of 15–24. Participants were questioned regarding their perception of being thin, normal or fat and it was compared with their Body Mass Index (BMI). Measurements of height and weight were taken for this purpose and BMI was categorized using Asian cut offs. Weight misperception was identified when the self-perceived weight (average, fat, thin) did not match the calculated BMI distribution. Chi square tests and logistic regression tests were applied to show associations of misperception and types of misperception (overestimation, underestimation) with independent variables like age, gender, type of university and faculties. P-value of <0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results 42.4% of the total participants i.e. 43.3% males and 41% females misperceived their weight. Amongst those who misperceived 38.2% had overestimated and 61.8% had underestimated their weight. Greatest misperception of was observed in the overweight category (91%), specifically amongst overweight males (95%). Females of the underweight category overestimated their weight and males of the overweight category underestimated their weight. Amongst the total participants, females overestimated 8 times more than males (OR 8.054, 95% CI 5.34-12.13). Misperception increased with the age of the participants (OR 1.114, 95% CI 1.041-1.191). Odds of misperception were greater in students of private sector universities as compared to public (OR 1.861, 95% CI: 1.29-2.67). Odds of misperception were less in students of medical sciences (OR 0.693, 95% CI 0.491-0.977), engineering (OR 0.586, 95% CI 0.364-0.941) and business administration (OR 0.439, 95% CI 0.290-0.662) as compared to general faculty universities. Conclusion There was marked discrepancy between the calculated BMI and the self-perceived weight in the youth of Karachi. Better awareness campaigns need to be implemented to reverse these trends. PMID:23915180

2013-01-01

176

Damselflies (Zygoptera: Odonata) of Pakistan: Part 1  

PubMed Central

The present study is an effort to document bio-geographical distribution for Zygoptera of Pakistan. Damselflies were collected throughout the country and territory of Azad Jammu and Kashmir during 2004–2009. A total of 2692 specimens were collected yielding 9 families, 21 genera, and 48 species and subspecies. Three of these species, Libellago lineata lineata (Burmeister), Elattoneura atkinsoni (Selys), and Elattoneura souteri (Fraser), are recorded for the first time from Pakistan. Distribution, habitats, previous records, and Zoogeographic affiliation for all collected taxa are discussed. Help was also taken from published literature on Zygoptera of Pakistan, and specimens housed at National Insect Museum were also studied. In total, 53 species are accounted for providing an updated record for all modern taxa of damselfly fauna of Pakistan. PMID:22221175

Zia, Ahmed; Naeem, Muhammad; Rafi, Muhammad Ather; Naz, Falak; Afsheen, Sumera; Ilyas, Muhammad

2011-01-01

177

Damselflies (Zygoptera: Odonata) of Pakistan: part 1.  

PubMed

The present study is an effort to document bio-geographical distribution for Zygoptera of Pakistan. Damselflies were collected throughout the country and territory of Azad Jammu and Kashmir during 2004-2009. A total of 2692 specimens were collected yielding 9 families, 21 genera, and 48 species and subspecies. Three of these species, Libellago lineata lineata (Burmeister), Elattoneura atkinsoni (Selys), and Elattoneura souteri (Fraser), are recorded for the first time from Pakistan. Distribution, habitats, previous records, and Zoogeographic affiliation for all collected taxa are discussed. Help was also taken from published literature on Zygoptera of Pakistan, and specimens housed at National Insect Museum were also studied. In total, 53 species are accounted for providing an updated record for all modern taxa of damselfly fauna of Pakistan. PMID:22221175

Zia, Ahmed; Naeem, Muhammad; Rafi, Muhammad Ather; Naz, Falak; Afsheen, Sumera; Ilyas, Muhammad

2011-01-01

178

Population and population policy in Pakistan.  

PubMed

Pakistan is a divided country with different religious groups represented. Since independence in 1941, the Muslim population has increased more rapidly than the Hindu population, the West Pakistan population more rapidly and steadily than the East Pakistan population. In the late 1950s the Pakistan government initiated a family planning program. The program has trained medical and paramedical personnel in family planning, added family planning services to existing medical centers, planned for a National Research Institute of Family Planning, employed mobile units to reach outlying areas, conducted limited clinical studies on some contraceptives, and used mass media advertising. Only India and Japan are doing more with government-sponsored family planning. A weak organizational structure and an inadequate number of trained personnel are the main weakness of the program. It is too early to assess the success of the program. A 10-point reduction in annual birth rates will be considered successful. PMID:12275622

Mauldin, W P

1963-02-01

179

Mohammed Ashraf, National Treasure of Pakistan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on Mohammed Ashraf's traditional Pakistani lacquerwork, describing his techniques and noting distinguished audiences of his craft. Indicates modernization is a threat to the future of traditional crafts in Pakistan. (AEM)

Rogers, Turner

1987-01-01

180

Blasphemy laws and mental illness in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

There is emerging evidence that individuals who are mentally ill are overrepresented in the group of defendants prosecuted under the blasphemy laws of Pakistan. This article discusses the background of blasphemy legislation in Pakistan, and proposes causal interactions between underlying mental illness in the defendant and prosecution for blasphemy. It sketches possible legal safeguards for such blasphemy defendants with mental illness in mental health legislation. PMID:25237489

Husain, Muzaffar

2014-01-01

181

Knowledge, perceptions and myths regarding infertility among selected adult population in Pakistan: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background The reported prevalence of infertility in Pakistan is approximately 22% with 4% primary and 18% secondary infertility. Infertility is not only a medical but also a social problem in our society as cultural customs and perceived religious dictums may equate infertility with failure on a personal, interpersonal, or social level. It is imperative that people have adequate knowledge about infertility so couples can seek timely medical care and misconceptions can be rectified. We aim to assess the knowledge, perception and myths regarding infertility and suggest ways to improve it. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out by interviewing a sample of 447 adults who were accompanying the patients at two tertiary care hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan. They were interviewed one-on-one with the help of a pretested questionnaire drafted by the team after a thorough literature review and in consultation with infertility specialists. Results The correct knowledge of infertility was found to be limited amongst the participants. Only 25% correctly identified when infertility is pathological and only 46% knew about the fertile period in women's cycle. People are misinformed that use of IUCD (53%) and OCPs (61%) may cause infertility. Beliefs in evil forces and supernatural powers as a cause of infertility are still prevalent especially amongst people with lower level of education. Seeking alternative treatment for infertility remains a popular option for 28% of the participant as a primary preference and 75% as a secondary preference. IVF remains an unfamiliar (78%) and an unacceptable option (55%). Conclusions Knowledge about infertility is limited in the population and a lot of misconceptions and myths are prevalent in the society. Alternative medicine is a popular option for seeking infertility treatment. The cultural and religious perspective about assisted reproductive technologies is unclear, which has resulted in its reduced acceptability. PMID:21970548

2011-01-01

182

In Pakistan, the Problems that Money Can Bring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past four years, Pakistan's higher-education budget has increased more than sevenfold, to about $449-million. While that amounts to only 0.5 percent of Pakistan's gross domestic product, it is a big improvement from the days of barely enough to pay "measly salaries and basic bills." But for students, along with many of Pakistan's most…

Neelakantan, Shailaja

2007-01-01

183

Physician migration at its roots: a study on the factors contributing towards a career choice abroad among students at a medical school in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Physician migration, also known as “brain drain,” results from a combination of a gap in the supply and demand in developed countries and a lack of job satisfaction in developing countries. Many push and pull factors are responsible for this effect, with media and internet playing their parts. Large-scale physician migration can pose problems for both the donor and the recipient countries, with a resulting reinforcement in the economic divide between developed and developing countries. The main objectives of our study were to determine the prevalence of migration intentions in medical undergraduates, to elucidate the factors responsible and to analyze the attitudes and practices related to these intentions. Methods This was a cross-sectional, observational, questionnaire-based study, conducted at Dow Medical College of Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, between January, 2012 and May, 2012. A total of 323 students responded completely. The questionnaire consisted of 3 sections, and was aimed at collecting demographic details, determining students’ migratory intentions, evaluating reasons for and against migration and assessing attitudes and practices of students related to these intentions. Results Out of 323 respondents, 195 wanted to pursue their careers abroad, giving a prevalence rate of 60.4% in our sample. United States was the most frequently reported recipient country. The most common reasons given by students who wished to migrate, in descending order, were: lucrative salary abroad followed by quality of training, job satisfaction, better way of life, relatives, more opportunities, better working environment, terrorism in Pakistan, harassment of doctors in Pakistan, desire to settle abroad, more competition in Pakistan, better management, peer pressure, longer working hours in Pakistan, religious reasons, parent pressure, political reasons and favoritism in Pakistan. A considerable number of respondents had already started studying for licensing examinations, and were also planning of gaining clinical experience in their desired country of interest. Conclusion Physician migration is a serious condition that requires timely intervention from the concerned authorities. If considerable measures are not taken, serious consequences may follow, which may pose a threat to the healthcare system of the country. PMID:23241435

2012-01-01

184

A case study of outsourced primary healthcare services in Sindh, Pakistan: is this a real reform?  

PubMed Central

Background Since a decade, low and middle income countries have a rising trend of contracting their primary healthcare services to NGOs. In Pakistan, public sector often lacks capacity to effectively & equitably manage the healthcare services. It led the government to outsource the administration of primary health care services to a semi-autonomous government entity i.e. Peoples’ Primary Healthcare Initiative (PPHI). This small scale study has assessed the quality of healthcare services at the contracted Basic Health Units (BHUs) with the PPHI and compared it with those managed by the local district government in the province of Sindh. Methods A cross-sectional mix methods survey was conducted in November 2011. Two BHUs of each type were selected from the districts Karachi and Thatta in Sindh province. BHUs were selected randomly and a purposive sampling technique was used to recruit the study participants at the two study sites. Focus group discussions were conducted with patients visiting the facility while in-depth interviews were conducted with service providers. An observation based resource availability checklist was also administered. Results There was a significant difference between the PPHI and the district government administered BHUs with regard to infrastructure, availability of essential medicines, basic medical appliances, mini-lab facilities and vehicles for referrals. These BHUs were found to have sufficient number of trained clinical staff and no punctuality and retention issues whatsoever. The district government administered BHUs presented a dismal picture in all the aspects. Conclusion Out-sourcing of primary healthcare facilities has resulted in significantly improved certain aspects quality and responsiveness of primary healthcare services. This strategy is likely to achieve an efficient and perhaps an equitable healthcare delivery in low and middle income countries where governments have limited capacity to manage healthcare services. PMID:24965769

2014-01-01

185

Source rock potential in Pakistan  

SciTech Connect

Pakistan contains two sedimentary basins: Indus in the east and Balochistan in the west. The Indus basin has received sediments from precambrian until Recent, albeit with breaks. It has been producing hydrocarbons since 1914 from three main producing regions, namely, the Potwar, Sulaisman, and Kirthar. In the Potwar, oil has been discovered in Cambrian, Permian, Jurassic, and Tertiary rocks. Potential source rocks are identified in Infra-Cambrian, Permian, Paleocene, and Eocene successions, but Paleocene/Eocene Patala Formation seems to be the main source of most of the oil. In the Sulaiman, gas has been found in Cretaceous and Tertiary; condensate in Cretaceous rocks. Potential source rocks are indicated in Cretaceous, Paleocene, and Eocene successions. The Sembar Formation of Early Cretaceous age appears to be the source of gas. In the Kirthar, oil and gas have been discovered in Cretaceous and gas has been discovered in paleocene and Eocene rocks. Potential source rocks are identified in Kirthar and Ghazij formations of Eocene age in the western part. However, in the easter oil- and gas-producing Badin platform area, Union Texas has recognized the Sembar Formation of Early Cretaceous age as the only source of Cretaceous oil and gas. The Balochistan basin is part of an Early Tertiary arc-trench system. The basin is inadequately explored, and there is no oil or gas discovery so far. However, potential source rocks have been identified in Eocene, Oligocene, Miocene, and Pliocene successions based on geochemical analysis of surface samples. Mud volcanoes are present.

Raza, H.A. (Hydrocarbon Development Institute of Pakistan, Islamabad (Pakistan))

1991-03-01

186

Effectiveness of counseling for anxiety and depression in mothers of children ages 0-30 months by community workers in Karachi, Pakistan: a quasi experimental study  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of anxiety/depression is quite high during the perinatal period but unfortunately its detection and treatment have been less than satisfactory. Moreover, many women are reluctant to take pharmacotherapy for fear of excretion of drugs into their breast milk. This study assesses the effectiveness of counseling from minimally trained community health workers in reducing anxiety/depression, the rate of recurrence and the interval preceding recurrence in women during first two and a half years after childbirth. Methods In a quasi-experimental study, community women from two under-privileged communities were trained in data gathering, teaching healthy child-rearing practices, basic counseling skills, and screening for anxiety/depression by using an indigenously developed questionnaire, the Aga Khan University Anxiety and Depression Scale (AKUADS). The diagnosis was further confirmed by a clinical psychologist using DSM IV criteria. After obtaining consent, 420 women were screened and 102 were identified as having anxiety/depression. Screening was carried out after 1, 2, 6, 12, 18, 24 and 30 months of a live birth. Only 62 out of 102 agreed to be counseled and received eight weekly sessions. AKUADS was re-administered at 4 weeks and 8 weeks after the beginning of counseling; this was followed by the clinical psychologist's interview for confirmation of response. After recovery, screening was continued every 3 months for detection of recurrence throughout the study period. Out of the women who had declined counseling 12 agreed to retake AKUADS after 4 and 8 weeks of diagnosis. Independent samples t-test, chi-square test, Repeated Measures ANOVA and Kaplan Meier technique were used for the analysis. Results A significant decline in level of anxiety/depression was found in both the counseled and the non-counseled groups at 4 and 8 weeks (p-value < 0.001) but the counseled group fared better than the non-counseled for recovery, reduction in the rate of recurrence and increase in the duration before relapse. Conclusions As our results cannot be generalized; further studies need to be carried out, to assess the benefit of incorporating minimal counseling skills in the training of community health workers. PMID:20642820

2010-01-01

187

Neonatal Mortality and Prevalence of Practices for Newborn Care in a Squatter Settlement of Karachi, Pakistan: A Cross-Sectional Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundDuring the past two decades there has been a sustained decline in child and infant mortality, however neonatal mortality has remained relatively unchanged. Almost all neonatal deaths (99%) occur in developing countries, where the majority are delivered at homes. Evidence suggests that these deaths could be prevented by simple, inexpensive practices and interventions during the pregnancy, delivery and postnatal period.

Afsheen Ayaz; Sarah Saleem; Abdisalan M. Noor

2010-01-01

188

Circumglobal wave train and the summer monsoon over northwestern India and Pakistan: the explicit role of the surface heat low  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines the influence of the mid-latitude circulation on the surface heat low (HL) and associated monsoon rainfall over northwestern India and Pakistan using the ERA40 data and high resolution (T106L31) climate model ECHAM5 simulation. Special emphasis is given to the surface HL which forms over Pakistan and adjoining areas of India, Iran and Afghanistan during the summer season. A heat low index (HLI) is defined to depict the surface HL. The HLI displays significant correlations with the upper level mid-latitude circulation over western central Asia and low level monsoon circulation over Arabian Sea and acts as a bridge connecting the mid-latitude wave train to the Indian summer monsoon. A time-lagged singular value decomposition analysis reveals that the eastward propagation of the mid-latitude circumglobal wave train (CGT) influences the surface pressure anomalies over the Indian domain. The largest low (negative) pressure anomalies over the western parts of the HL region (i.e., Iran and Afghanistan) occur in conjunction with the upper level anomalous high that develops over western-central Asia during the positive phase of the CGT. The composite analysis also reveals a significant increase in the low pressure anomalies over Iran and Afghanistan during the positive phase of CGT. The westward increasing low pressure anomalies with its north-south orientation provokes enormous north-south pressure gradient (lower pressure over land than over sea). This in turn enables the moist southerly flow from the Arabian Sea to penetrate farther northward over northwestern India and Pakistan. A monsoon trough like conditions develops over northwestern India and Pakistan where the moist southwesterly flow from the Arabian Sea and the Persian Gulf converge. The convergence in association with the orographic uplifting expedites convection and associated precipitation over northwestern India and Pakistan. The high resolution climate model ECHAM5 simulation also underlines the proposed findings and mechanism.

Saeed, Sajjad; Müller, Wolfgang A.; Hagemann, Stefan; Jacob, Daniela

2011-09-01

189

British South Asian communities and drug supply networks in the UK: A qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the spread of drug use within British South Asian communities, focusing on the role of family, friendship and ethnicity connections for members of drug dealing network. The paper draws on qualitative research conducted in England and Wales, but also in Pakistan. Interviews were conducted with 123 individuals, including: British South Asian drug offenders in custody for drug

Vincenzo Ruggiero; Kazim Khan

2006-01-01

190

Underestimation of weight and its associated factors among overweight and obese adults in Pakistan: a cross sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Weight loss is known to decrease the health risks associated with being overweight and obese. Awareness of overweight status is an important determinant of weight loss attempts and may have more of an impact on one's decision to lose weight than objective weight status. We therefore investigated the perception of weight among adults attending primary care clinics in Karachi, Pakistan, and compared it to their weight categories based on BMI (Body Mass Index), focusing on the underestimation of weight in overweight and obese individuals. We also explored the factors associated with underestimation of weight in these individuals. Methods This was a cross sectional study conducted on 493 adults presenting to the three primary care clinics affiliated with a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. We conducted face to face interviews to gather data on a pre-coded questionnaire. The questionnaire included detail on demographics, presence of comorbid conditions, and questions regarding weight assessment. We measured height and weight of the participants and calculated the BMI. The BMI was categorized into normal weight, overweight and obese based on the revised definitions for Asian populations. Perception about weight was determined by asking the study participants the following question: Do you consider yourself to be a) thin b) just right c) overweight d) obese. We compared the responses with the categorized BMI. To identify factors associated with underestimation of weight, we used simple and multiple logistic regression to calculate crude odds Ratios (OR) and adjusted Odds Ratios (AOR) with 95% Confidence Intervals. Results Overall 45.8% (n = 226) of the study participants were obese and 18% (n = 89) were overweight. There was poor agreement between self perception and actual BMI (Kappa = 0.24, SE = 0.027, p < 0.001). Among obese participants a large proportion (73%) did not perceive themselves as obese, although half (n = 102) of them thought they may be overweight. Among the overweight participants, half (n = 41) of them didn't recognize themselves as overweight. Factors associated with misperception of weight in overweight and obese participants were age ? 40 years (AOR = 3.4; 95% CI: 1.8-6.4), male gender (AOR = 2.97; 95% CI: 1.6-5.5), being happy with ones' weight (AOR = 6.4; 95% CI: 3.4-12.1), and not knowing one's ideal weight (AOR = 2.45, 95% CI: 1.10-5.47). Conclusion In this cross sectional survey, we observed marked discordance between the actual and perceived weight. Underestimation of individual weight was more common in older participants (? 40 years), men, participants happy with their weight and participants not aware of their ideal weight. Accurate perception of one's actual weight is critical for individuals to be receptive to public health messages about weight maintenance or weight loss goals. Therefore educating people about their correct weight, healthy weights and prevention of weight gain are important steps towards addressing the issue of obesity in Pakistan. PMID:21605350

2011-01-01

191

Asia Research Centre public lecture Pakistan and the challenges of a new decade  

E-print Network

are living in poverty. Repeated coups have marred Pakistans history, and a Pakistan Taliban has emerged activities in Pakistan as a critical threat. So although al Qaedas view of America gets a sympathetic hearing

192

The hawkmoth fauna of Pakistan (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae).  

PubMed

This study represents the first complete modern account of the Sphingidae of Pakistan and takes the form of an annotated checklist, based on several national collections and those of a number of individuals. Of the 60 species and subspecies found, 14 are new records to the fauna of Pakistan, namely Agnosia orneus, Langia zenzeroides subsp. zenzeroides, Polyptychus trilineatus subsp. trilineatus, Dolbina inexacta, Ambulyx sericeipennis subsp. sericeipennis, Thamnoecha uniformis, Macroglossum belis, Macroglossum stellatarum, Cechetra scotti, Hippotion boerhaviae, Hyles euphorbiae subsp. euphorbiae, Rhagastis olivacea, Rethera brandti subsp. euteles and Theretra latreillii subsp. lucasii. Anambulyx elwesi subsp. kitchingi and Clanis deucalion subsp. thomaswitti are not recognised as valid subspecies and are synonymized with their respective nominotypical subspecies. An additional list is given of 30 taxa which may yet be found in Pakistan as they are present in neighbouring countries close to the border. Of the species/subspecies found, 24 are part of the Palaearctic fauna, 27 are part of the Oriental fauna and nine are Palaeo-Oriental/Palaeotropical. This reconfirms the transitional biogeographical position of the Pakistan fauna. PMID:24870331

Rafi, Muhammad Ather; Sultan, Amir; Kitching, Ian J; Pittaway, Anthony R; Markhasiov, Maxim; Khan, Muhammad Rafique; Naz, Falak

2014-01-01

193

Anatomy Education Faces Challenges in Pakistan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article explains the difficulties anatomy education in Pakistan is facing. The article highlights the concern about how the changes to the traditional curriculum decreases the quality of education medical students are receiving. Issues discussed are the advantages/disadvantages of PBL learning, lack of trained faculty, lack of cadaver access among others.

2009-07-27

194

BOUNDARY WATER CONFLICT BETWEEN INDIA AND PAKISTAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Indo-Pak sub-continent was partitioned in August 1947, resulting in the appearance of two independent sovereign countries, Pakistan and India, on the world map. The Indus Basin Irrigation System that irrigated some 37 million acres of land was conceived originally as a unified system and considered one of the most extensive and highly developed irrigation systems of the world. It

M. Yunus Khan

1990-01-01

195

CONSUMER PANACEA OVER INTERNET USAGE IN PAKISTAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present age is the era of information technology and everywhere microwaves are scattered. Everybody wants to explore itself with this information technology and happenings taking place of Internet for the purpose of education, awareness, entertainment and especially interaction with strangers. In Pakistan, the awareness of internet usage is increasing and people are gaining knowledge about online buying and selling.

Bilal AFSAR; Jawaria Andleeb QURESHI; Asim REHMAN; Rehmat Ullah BANGASH

2011-01-01

196

Landlessness and Rural Poverty in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although reducing rural poverty has been the key agenda of economic reforms in Pakistan, the rural poverty continued to rise during the 1990s. The causes of rural poverty are complex and multidimensional. The rural poor are quite diverse both in the problems they face, and the possible solutions to these problems are also different. The paper uses the most recent

Talat Anwar; Sarfraz K. Qureshi; Hammad Ali

2004-01-01

197

The Medium of Instruction Controversy in Pakistan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traces the controversy about the medium of instruction in Pakistan, beginning with the use of English for elitist education in pre-partition days. Notes that the official policy is opposed by the indigenously educated proto-elite, who would find entry into positions of power easier if Urdu was used and nobody was educated in English. (63…

Rahman, Tariq

1997-01-01

198

Food safety challenges--a Pakistan's perspective.  

PubMed

Biological, chemical, and physical contamination of foods is a terrifying threat for the health and economic growth in developing societies. Rampantly available literature on foodborne illnesses especially diarrhea among children exclusively depicts the intensified disease burden associated with foodborne illness in the underdeveloped economies. Prevalence of many pathogens in several foods is commonplace in Pakistan. Precise estimates for foodborne illnesses in Pakistan are hard to make because of the absence of any monitoring, surveillance, and infection control. Poor processing and storage of milk, cereal grains, and nuts are a major cause of aflatoxin contamination and mold proliferation. Numerous studies manifest a multitude of foods to be contaminated with heavy metals. Escalating population growth limits the economic potential of the individual and the state through a tendency among the traders and manufacturers to intentionally debase food commodities offered for sale to make profit at the cost of their quality and safety. Therefore, a growing trend of adulteration in foods during the recent past, particularly adulteration of milk, poses a pressing challenge for the government. This review is a concerted attempt to elucidate the prevailing food safety scenario in Pakistan. Information derived from local and related international studies will be presented to clearly depict a picture of food safety in Pakistan. It is proposed that an extensive food safety infrastructure leading to a safer supply of foods needs to be devised, designed, and implemented. PMID:24915401

Akhtar, Saeed

2015-01-01

199

The Military and Politics in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The assumption of power by Ms. Benazir Bhutto after the November 1988 general elec tions marked the rehabilitation of civilian rule after a long spell of the military's direct and indirect rule in Pakistan. The top brass who assumed the command of the Army after the death of General Zia-ul-Haq have expressed their support for the Constitution and the elected

Hasan-Askari Rizvi

1991-01-01

200

Employment situation of women in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper is an attempt to analyze the study of low female work participation rate in Pakistan due to the religious, traditional, cultural values, the colonial ideology and the evolution of social institution that restrain women entry into the labour market. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – In order to explore the objectives, the paper develops the classification of male and female

Mahpara Begum Sadaquat; Qurra-tul-ain Ali Sheikh

2011-01-01

201

DEMOCRACY AND GOVERNANCE IN PAKISTAN'S FRAGMENTED SOCIETY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines Pakistan's recent democratic experiment in the framework of governance defined as the process of exercising power in the pursuit of common goals. Legitimacy, institutions and performance constitute the process of governance. Legitimacy refers to the consent of the governed and the rule of law. Institutions include deliberately created legal frameworks, laws, legislatures, executives and judiciary as well

Nasir Islam

2001-01-01

202

Genetic backgrounds of the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistant transporter (pfcrt) alleles in Pakistan.  

PubMed

Chloroquine (CQ) resistance in Plasmodium falciparum has been associated with point mutations in the P. falciparum CQ resistance transporter gene (pfcrt). Previous studies have shown 4-5 independent origins for CQ resistant pfcrt alleles globally, two in South America, one each in Southeast Asia, Papua New Guinea (PNG) and Philippines. In Asia, at least two different alleles corresponding to amino acids 72-76 (CVIET and SVMNT) have been found. The CVIET allele originated in Southeast Asia and then spread to Asia and Africa as well. The SVMNT allele, originating from PNG, has been found in India. This study was undertaken to investigate the genetic background of the CQ resistant pfcrt haplotypes in Pakistan. We genotyped microsatellite markers surrounding the pfcrt gene (six different markers at -12.3, -4.8, -1, 1.5, 3.9, 18.8 kb) in 114 clinical isolates of P. falciparum collected from different regions in Pakistan. Microsatellite analysis showed a significant reduction in genetic variation among the mutant SVMNT pfcrt alleles when compared to wild type alleles. The predominant SVMNT haplotype found in this study shared the same microsatellite haplotype found in both PNG and India. Two isolates with CVIET haplotypes showed similar microsatellite background to those found in Africa and Asia. In conclusion, this study suggests that CQ resistant SVMNT haplotypes in India and Pakistan have a common ancestral origin similar to that of Papua New Guinean isolates. PMID:22138496

Rawasia, Wasiq Faraz; Sridaran, Sankar; Patel, Jaymin C; Abdallah, Joseph; Ghanchi, Najia Karim; Barnwell, John W; Escalante, Ananias A; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam; Beg, Mohammad Asim

2012-03-01

203

Crop Residue Burning: A Threat to South Asian Air Quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For more than 2 decades, crop residues in Punjab, a region spanning northwestern India and eastern Pakistan, have been burned during October and November to ready fields for the next year's planting. This practice poses a serious threat to air quality in South Asia.

Singh, Ramesh P.; Kaskaoutis, Dimitris G.

2014-09-01

204

Hunza Landslide and Monsoon Flooding in Pakistan Call for International Attention to Transboundary Natural Hazards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two major disasters in Pakistan and innumerable lesser disasters throughout the Himalaya-Karakoram region in 2010 highlight geologic events and extreme weather (perhaps climate change) in affecting the well being of whole nations and commerce and relations between nations. Two chief events in Pakistan include the Jan. 4 rockslide into the Hunza River and the subsequent formation of a natural dam lake (Lake Gojal); and the monsoon precipitation-fed flooding across the Indus Basin. The first event severed Pakistan’s major land link with China. The second event devastated Pakistan’s national land-based transportation infrastructure and agriculture and displaced millions of people. In a country plagued by monsoon-driven floods, the lack of catastrophic breakout of Lake Gojal is welcome. Satellite-based monitoring shows the spillway to be eroding more rapidly (but not alarmingly) under August’s monsoon peak flow. Similar events have occurred before in the region and will occur again. These mega-events in Pakistan should be an alert for all of South Asia, as climate change increases or shifts the hazard environment, encroaching development and urbanization increases the vulnerabilities, and as improved capacity for trans-national commerce breaks down the Himalayan barrier and both promotes new opportunities and possible conflicts. 2010's natural mega-calamities in Pakistan and widespread landsliding and flooding elsewhere in South Asia underscores the subcontinent’s need for a thorough field-, remote sensing-, and modeling-based assessment of the disaster potential related to landslides, glacier surges, extreme monsoon precipitation events, natural glacier and landslide dam lake outbursts, and unseasonal snow melting. The Himalayan-Karakoram region is remarkable for its heterogeneous responses to climate change. For instance, some areas are undergoing rapid glacier recession and stagnation; others are undergoing glacier growth. We take the instance of the rockslide-formed Lake Gojal and of the region’s glacier dynamics seen by satellite to show the promise of remote sensing to address disaster management and hazard identification. However, the biggest role of remote sensing should be in the identification of hazard-prone situations, such as areas where landslides or the development of dangerous glacier lakes is likely. Increased satellite surveillance and deployment of air- and land surface-borne sensor platforms, and in some cases surface or subsurface watercraft, may aid the characterization of the landscape, identify geologic and climatic instabilities, and identify vulnerabilities among the people and infrastructure. A broad-based remote sensing program should fit within a coherent regional/international approach to the key related issues of natural hazards, water resources, urban planning, food security, hydropower, and environmental conservation. Notably, these issues all are interlinked to transboundary hydrology and climate change.

Kargel, J. S.; Fink, W.; Furfaro, R.; Leonard, G. J.; Patterson, M.; Glims, Gaphaz

2010-12-01

205

Blastocystis spp., Cryptosporidium spp., and Entamoeba histolytica exhibit similar symptomatic and epidemiological patterns in healthcare-seeking patients in Karachi.  

PubMed

In this study, we collected data on the incidence of enteric parasites in healthcare-seeking individuals along with their symptoms to quantify the potential roles of factors such as age, sex, and seasonality in infection. We performed analysis to identify factors which could help differentiate parasitic infection from other causes of gastrointestinal illness in a community. The size of the patient population (n = 339), patient selection methodology, collection methods, and statistical analysis followed approaches from similar studies in core clinical journals. Ethical approval was obtained from the University of Karachi's Ethical Review Board. Fecal specimens (n = 339) submitted by symptomatic patients were collected from two clinical laboratories, along with information about the patients' age, sex, and symptoms. We found that symptoms of fever, vomiting, and constipation were 100 % predictive of finding a parasitic infection, while diarrhea was 88 % predictive of a parasitic infection. Gastrointestinal parasite-positive patients reported diarrhea (~60 %), vomiting (~30 %), fever (~25 %) and constipation (~25 %), while parasite-negative patients exhibited a symptomatic profile without fever, vomiting, and constipation. The distribution of symptoms in parasite-positive patients remained relatively invariant regardless of the parasite identified. Blastocystis spp.-mono-infected patients reported a similar profile to patients positive for Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar and Cryptosporidium spp. Most parasitic infections exhibited a strong seasonal pattern, with a peak incidence in summer months. Infection by Blastocystis spp. was the most prevalent, and it was the only infection mathematically correlated to rainfall by Pearson's method. We observed no increase in healthcare-seeking behavior following a stressful community event, namely, the attempted assassination of Benazir Bhutto in Karachi. The data suggest that parasitological testing would produce a high yield of positive results when performed on healthcare-seeking patients in Karachi in 2007 with symptoms of fever, vomiting, or constipation and a low yield when performed on patients noting only abdominal pain. Parasitological testing also produces a higher yield on patients seen in summer months. PMID:22763702

Haider, Syeda Sadaf; Baqai, Rakhshanda; Qureshi, Fouad M; Boorom, Kenneth

2012-09-01

206

Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/11: Cooperative Environmental Monitoring in the Coastal Regions of India and Pakistan  

SciTech Connect

The cessation of hostilities between India and Pakistan is an immediate need and of global concern, as these countries have tested nuclear devices, and have the capability to deploy nuclear weapons and long-range ballistic missiles. Cooperative monitoring projects among neighboring countries in South Asia could build regional confidence, and, through gradual improvements in relations, reduce the threat of war and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. This paper discusses monitoring the trans-border movement of flow and sediment in the Indian and Pakistani coastal areas. Through such a project, India and Pakistan could initiate greater cooperation, and engender movement towards the resolution of the Sir Creek territorial dispute in their coastal region. The Joint Working Groups dialogue being conducted by India and Pakistan provides a mechanism for promoting such a project. The proposed project also falls within a regional framework of cooperation agreed to by several South Asian countries. This framework has been codified in the South Asian Seas Action Plan, developed by Bangladesh, India, Maldives, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. This framework provides a useful starting point for Indian and Pakistani cooperative monitoring in their trans-border coastal area. The project discussed in this paper involves computer modeling, the placement of in situ sensors for remote data acquisition, and the development of joint reports. Preliminary computer modeling studies are presented in the paper. These results illustrate the cross-flow connections between Indian and Pakistani coastal regions and strengthen the argument for cooperation. Technologies and actions similar to those suggested for the coastal project are likely to be applied in future arms control and treaty verification agreements. The project, therefore, serves as a demonstration of cooperative monitoring technologies. The project will also increase people-to-people contacts among Indian and Pakistani policy makers and scientists. In the perceptions of the general public, the project will crystallize the idea that the two countries share ecosystems and natural resources, and have a vested interest in increased collaboration.

Rajen, Gauray

1999-06-01

207

Characteristics and outcome of dengue infection; clinical perspective from a secondary care hospital of Karachi  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine the frequency and characteristics of dengue fever (DF) in patients of acute febrile illness presenting at a secondary care hospital. Methodology: The observational cross sectional study was carried out from May to October 2010 in Remedial Centre Karachi and included patients above the age of 12 years who presented with acute febrile illness. The WHO classification and case definitions were used to classify the disease as Dengue Fever (DF), dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Clinical, hematological and biochemical findings were recorded serially until discharge. Results: During the study period, 90 (34.75%) presented with typical features of DF, 28 (31.11%) were dengue proven, seven (7.7%) proved to be of malaria in which malarial parasites were found positive in the peripheral blood, while the remaining 55 (61.11%) patients were dengue probable. Age of the patients ranged from 13 to 76 years. Fever was the most common clinical presentation (100%) followed by vomiting 50 (55.56%), body ache 31 (34.44%) abdominal pain 17 (18.89%) and headache 9 (10%). Maculopapular rash was seen in 4(4.44%) patients. Laboratory findings included thrombocytopenia, leucopenia and raised alanine aminotransferase levels. Eighty one patients (90%) improved clinically and hematologically and were discharged in stable condition. Conclusion: Fever and thrombocytopenia were the most common presentation of dengue fever (DF). The overall mortality of DF is low, if treated appropriately. Awareness of health care professionals and public regarding preventive strategies is essential to fight against this disease. PMID:24353520

Hasan, Syed Riazul; Riaz, Musarrat; Jafri, Farhat Ali

2013-01-01

208

Nutrition in Pakistan: Estimating the Economic Demand for Calories  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last four decades, per capita calorie intake in Pakistan has grown from 1750-2450 (kilo)calories with an average annual growth rate of 0.90%. Nevertheless, 20% of Pakistan's population is still undernourished.This paper has examined the long-run relationship between daily per capita calorie intake and per capita income for Pakistan using cointegration analysis. Using annual data for 1961-1998, there is

2002-01-01

209

Contending Identities of Pakistan and The Issue of Democratic Governance  

E-print Network

considered Islamic forces as good allies during the cold war against atheist Soviet Union and the centrist post colonial Pakistani State, dominated by the military has always considered secular, nationalist and democratic forces a challenge to its hold... and not the specific identity challenges faced by the State of Pakistan. Pakistan’s early leaders sought to patch over domestic differences and tried to forge national identity on the basis of religious symbolism and centralization of authority. Pakistani...

Khan, Ijaz

2006-01-01

210

Pakistan/USAID to start CSM project.  

PubMed

Pakistan, with the assistance of funds for the US Agency for International Development (USAID), is about to start its novel approach to contraceptive social marketing (CSM). This new effort suggests a marked policy shift on the part of the Pakistan government toward intensifying its family planning activities. The program will be government-operated and supported by AID over the next 5 years with $20 million, more than double the cost of similar CSM projects elswhere. Distribution of a condom on a pilot project basis is expected to begin by December 1984. Sales of a low-dose oral contraceptive (OC) could begin in test market areas by mid-1985, with national launching of both products tentatively scheduled for January 1986. The Pakistan/USAID agreement represents the 1st time since the formation of India's Nirodh project in the late 1960s that a CSM program is being established without the involvement of either an international social marketing contractor or a country's family planning association. The Pakistan CSM program will be managed by a policy board composed of representatives from the government's Ministries of Planning, Health and Education; a resident advisor from USAID; and a local company responsible for product marketing and distribution. The approach has received a skeptical response among international social marketing experts about the program's chances for success. Their doubts extend to 2 other aspects of the proposed design: an official of the Ministry of Planning's Population and Welfare Division expects the CSM program to generate sufficient revenues to cover all operating costs following the 5-year subsidy period, while also providing attractive profit margins for the marketing/distribution company; and the government prohibits mass media advertising of contraceptives. According to AID, the issue of mass media contraceptive advertising has not yet been resolved, and a national survey will be conducted to determine what communication needs are required for product promotion. In addition, AID's agreement requires a yearly review by the Pakistan government of its marketing strategies. The Pakistan government hopes that its new emphasis on family planning can slow the country's annual rate of population growth from 1983's 2.9% figure to 2.6% by 1988. PMID:12266332

1984-01-01

211

Hydrocarbon prospects of southern Indus basin, Pakistan  

SciTech Connect

The Southern Indus basin extends approximately between lat. 23/sup 0/ and 28/sup 0/31'N, and from long. 66/sup 0/E to the eastern boundary of Pakistan. Of the 55 exploratory wells drilled (1955-1984), 27 were based on results of multifold seismic surveys. Five commercial oil discoveries and one gas discovery in Cretaceous sands, three gas discoveries in Paleocene limestone or sandstone, and one gas-condensate discovery from lower Eocene limestone prove that hydrocarbons are present. The main hydrocarbon fairways are Mesozoic tilted fault blocks. Tertiary reefal banks, and drape and compressional anticlines. Older reservoirs are accessible toward the east and northeast, and younger mature source rocks are to the west, including offshore, of the Badin block oil field area. The Indus offshore basin reflects sedimentation associated with Mesozoic rifting of the Pakistan-Indian margin, superimposed by a terrigenous clastic depositional system comprised of deltas, shelves, and deep-sea fans of the Indus River.

Quadri, V.U.N.; Shuaib, S.M.

1986-06-01

212

Essential medicines management during emergencies in Pakistan.  

PubMed

This paper illustrates the experiences of essential medicine management in providing cure and care to victims of Pakistan's 2005 earthquake in a safe, rational and effective mode. The health interventions assured access to essential medicine, sustained supply, inventory control through a computerized logistic support system and rational use of medicines. World Health Organization Pakistan outlined modalities for acceptance of donated medicines, assisted in speedy procurement of medicines and designed customized kits. Proper storage of medicines at controlled temperature was ensured in warehousing facilities in 12 locations. A steady supply of medicines and their consumption without stock-outs in the 56 first-level care facilities of calamity-hit areas helped to ascertain the average consumption and cost of essential medicines and supplies for the catchment population. Tools for quantification and forecasting of medicines and supplies were developed and shared. Medicines and medical supplies were efficiently used resulting in minimum wastage. PMID:21495596

Bukhari, S K S; Qureshi, J A R H; Jooma, R; Bile, K M; Kazi, G N; Zaibi, W A; Zafar, A

2010-01-01

213

CNS neoplasms in Pakistan, a pathological perspective.  

PubMed

The Section of Histopathology, Aga Khan University is the largest center for histopathology in Pakistan and is the major reporting and referral center for CNS neoplasms in the country. Over the years, a significant increase has been noted in the number of CNS neoplasms reported annually. This increase most likely represents increased number of neurosurgical procedures being performed. A major problem that we face as histopathologists is absence of clinical history or radiological films in a large number of cases. PMID:21517279

Ahmad, Zubair; Arshad, Huma; Hasan, Sheema H; Fatima, Saira; Idrees, Romana; Aftab, Kanwal; Barakzai, M Abrar; Ahmed, Arsalan; Ahmed, Rashida; Pervez, Shahid; Kayani, Naila

2011-01-01

214

Makran Mountain Range, Iran and Pakistan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The long folded mountain ridges and valleys of the coastal Makran Ranges of Iran and Pakistan (26.0N, 63.0E) illustrate the classical Trellis type of drainage pattern, common in this region. The Dasht River and its tributaries is the principal drainage network for this area. To the left, the continental drift of the northward bound Indian sub-continent has caused the east/west parallel ranges to bend in a great northward arc.

1983-01-01

215

The Status of Women Physicists in Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A significant number of women physicists work in high-ranking positions in the universities and research institutes of Pakistan; however, the number of women is much lower compared with men. We surveyed these women about the challenges they faced in the workplace and the pace of their progress and scientific work in a male-dominant society. We also surveyed girls' attitudes toward studying physics at the graduate and undergraduate levels.

Hasnain, Aziz Fatima; Islam, Jabeen

2009-04-01

216

Risk factors and prevalence of tuberculosis, human immunodeficiency virus, syphilis, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus among prisoners in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background We evaluated the burden of sexual- or injection drug use (IDU)-related infections in male prisoners in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods We administered a structured questionnaire in a cross-sectional survey of 365 randomly selected imprisoned men. We analyzed blood for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Hepatitis B and C by ELISA, and for syphilis by rapid plasma reagin and Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay confirmation. Subjects with possible tuberculosis (WHO criteria) provided sputum samples for an acid fast bacillus smear and culture. Results Prevalence of tuberculosis was 2.2% (95%CI: 0.71, 3.8). HIV infected 2.0% (95%CI: 0.55, 3.4) of 357 randomly selected prisoners (8 refused to give blood), with confirmed syphilis in 8.9% (95%CI: 6.0, 11.8), hepatitis B virus in 5.9% (95%CI: 3.5, 8.3), and hepatitis C virus in 15.2% (95%CI: 11.7, 18.8). By self-report, 59.0% had used any illicit drugs, among whom 11.8% (95%CI: 8.5, 15.0) had injected drugs. The median length of stay in the prison had been 3.2 (range 1-72) months. Conclusions All four infections were prevalent among the prisoners in Pakistan. Prisons are excellent venues for infectious disease screening and intervention given conditions of poverty and drug addiction. Collaboration with community-based health providers is vital for post-discharge planning. PMID:20189863

Kazi, Abdul M.; Shah, Sharaf A.; Jenkins, Cathy A.; Shepherd, Bryan E.; Vermund, Sten H.

2010-01-01

217

Mapping vulnerability to climate change and its repercussions on human health in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Pakistan is highly vulnerable to climate change due to its geographic location, high dependence on agriculture and water resources, low adaptive capacity of its people, and weak system of emergency preparedness. This paper is the first ever attempt to rank the agro-ecological zones in Pakistan according to their vulnerability to climate change and to identify the potential health repercussions of each manifestation of climate change in the context of Pakistan. Methods A climate change vulnerability index is constructed as an un-weighted average of three sub-indices measuring (a) the ecological exposure of each region to climate change, (b) sensitivity of the population to climate change and (c) the adaptive capacity of the population inhabiting a particular region. The regions are ranked according to the value of this index and its components. Since health is one of the most important dimensions of human wellbeing, this paper also identifies the potential health repercussions of each manifestations of climate change and links it with the key manifestations of climate change in the context of Pakistan. Results The results indicate that Balochistan is the most vulnerable region with high sensitivity and low adaptive capacity followed by low-intensity Punjab (mostly consisting of South Punjab) and Cotton/Wheat Sindh. The health risks that each of these regions face depend upon the type of threat that they face from climate change. Greater incidence of flooding, which may occur due to climate variability, poses the risk of diarrhoea and gastroenteritis; skin and eye Infections; acute respiratory infections; and malaria. Exposure to drought poses the potential health risks in the form of food insecurity and malnutrition; anaemia; night blindness; and scurvy. Increases in temperature pose health risks of heat stroke; malaria; dengue; respiratory diseases; and cardiovascular diseases. Conclusion The study concludes that geographical zones that are more exposed to climate change in ecological and geographic terms- such as Balochistan, Low-Intensity Punjab, and Cotton-Wheat Sindh -also happen to be the most deprived regions in Pakistan in terms of socio-economic indicators, suggesting that the government needs to direct its efforts to the socio-economic uplift of these lagging regions to reduce their vulnerability to the adverse effects of climate change. PMID:22938568

2012-01-01

218

Faunistics of Tiger Beetles (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae) from Pakistan  

PubMed Central

The present biogeographic distribution of tiger beetle fauna is an attempt to register all modern taxa from Pakistan. It includes 55 taxa under 14 genera and 11 subgenera. Three species, Cylindera (Eriodera) albopunctata (Chaudoir 1852), Cicindela viridilabris (Chaudoir 1852) and Neocollyris (Neocollyris) redtenbacheri (Horn 1894) are recorded from Pakistan for the first time. PMID:20874597

Rafi, Muhammad Ather; Jürgen, Wiesner; Matin, Muhammad Abdul; Zia, Ahmed; Sultan, Amir; Naz, Falak

2010-01-01

219

Al Qaeda in the Tribal Areas of Pakistan and Beyond  

Microsoft Academic Search

After the U.S. led coalition forces attacked Al Qaeda and Taliban infrastructure in Afghanistan beginning in October 2001, the epicenter of global terrorism moved from Afghanistan to tribal Pakistan. Known as the Federally Administered Tribal Area (FATA) in Pakistan, this region has emerged as the premier hunting ground for the Al Qaeda leadership. With the co-option of new groups in

Rohan Gunaratna; Anders Nielsen

2008-01-01

220

Education and Gendered Citizenship in Pakistan. Postcolonial Studies in Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Education and Gendered Citizenship in Pakistan" challenges the uncritical use of the long held dictum of the development discourse that education empowers women. Situated in the post-structuralist feminist position, it argues that in its current state the educational discourse in Pakistan actually disempowers women. Through a systematic…

Naseem, M. Ayaz

2010-01-01

221

Natural balance of graminicolous aphids in Pakistan. Survey of populations  

E-print Network

Natural balance of graminicolous aphids in Pakistan. Survey of populations Sulaiman HAMID Sind Sugar Industry Research Institute, 14-A, Latifabad III, Hyderabad Sind, Pakistan SUMMARY Aphids maydis Pass. attacked economic grain crops. In turn these aphids were parasitized by Aphelinus spp

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

222

India, Pakistan and cooperation along the Indus River system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite receiving accolades for being the example of cooperation, India and Pakistan's peaceful management of their Indus River system remains largely unexamined. Scholars that do consider this case classify it as passive cooperation. To support their classification, they point to the Indus Waters Treaty's allocation of the river system between India and Pakistan and suggest that it severed the interdependent

Neda A. Zawahri

2009-01-01

223

Ownership Concentration, Corporate Governance and Firm Performance: Evidence from Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study investigates the determinants of ownership concentration, the effect of ownership concentration on the firm’s performance with the sample of sixty representativ e firms from different manufacturing sectors of the Pakistan’s economy during 2003 to 2008. The results suggest that firms where ownership is concentrated they do not adopt better governance practices and disclose less, however board composition has

Attiya Y. Javid; Robina Iqbal

2008-01-01

224

Trends, Issues and Challenges in English Language Education in Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper aims to critically examine the trends, issues and challenges in policy and practice of English language education in Pakistan. This is done first by historically reviewing the English language education policies since Pakistan's independence in 1947, looking particularly at policy objectives, implementation strategies and outcomes, and…

Shamim, Fauzia

2008-01-01

225

The Challenges to Political Stability in Pakistan (1947-2012)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Political stability is a valve of any government. If the valve is closed, a government is blocked. Pakistan came into existence on the bases of two-nation theory. Quiad -i- Azam wanted Pakistan to be a democratic state whereas all citizens enjoyed equal rights with out any discrimination. After the death of Quaid -i- Azam and the assassination of Liaquat Ali

Zafar Iqbal Javed

2012-01-01

226

Education Reform in Pakistan: Building for the Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Washington seems to be in a season of worrying--some might say "obsessing"--about the education system in Pakistan. The 9/11 Commission, whose final report has become a fixture on the bestseller lists, has highlighted the links between international terrorism and Pakistan's religious seminaries, or "madaris", and recommended that the United States…

Hathaway, Robert M., Ed.

2005-01-01

227

A Study of Students' Attitude Towards Virtual Education in Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Virtual education paradigm has been developing as a form of distance education to provide education across the boundaries of a nation and/or country. It imparts education through information and communication technologies. In Pakistan the Virtual University of Pakistan imparts it. The main objective of the study was to evaluate the students'…

Hussain, Irshad

2007-01-01

228

Enabling Syndromic Surveillance in Pakistan Ross Maciejewski1*  

E-print Network

Enabling Syndromic Surveillance in Pakistan Ross Maciejewski1* , Shehzad Afzal2 , Adam J. Fairfield University 3 King Edwards Medical University 4 University of Engineering and Technology OBJECTIVE This work model of patient hospital visits with respect to diseases and syndromes within Pakistan. Our first

Maciejewski, Ross

229

New innovations in healthcare delivery and laparoscopic surgery in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. Pakistan is a densely populated country with major rural urban disparity in healthcare delivery. Use of Information Technology to improve the efficiency of existing healthcare services of Pakistan in the form of Telemedicine has proved its role beyond any doubts. Its advantages include better utilization of healthcare resources, early intervention, provision of expert advice at remote

A. Zafar

2009-01-01

230

Cabbage : a new host of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum for Pakistan  

E-print Network

NOTE Cabbage : a new host of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum for Pakistan M. Siddique MIRZA Yasmin AHMAD National Agricultural Research Centre PARC, Islamabad, Pakistan. SUMMARY Sclerotinia rot of cabbage 1983. Heads of the affected cabbage plants were covered with white mycelial growth associated

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

231

Islamic logics, reproductive rationalities: family planning in northern Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the use of Islamic doctrine and jurisprudence by family planning organizations in the Gilgit-Baltistan region of northern Pakistan. It examines how particular interpretations of Islam are promoted in order to encourage fertility reductions, and the ways Muslim clerics, women and their families react to this process. The paper first discusses how Pakistan's demographic crisis, as the world's

Emma Varley

2012-01-01

232

Economic Sanctions and the Arms Race in India & Pakistan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In the News explores the United States' response to nuclear tests in India and Pakistan through economic sanctions. The eight resources discussed provide background economic pictures of India and Pakistan as well as recent press releases from the United States, India, Pakistan, and beyond. On May 11, 1998 India declared itself a nuclear state and conducted the first of five underground nuclear tests in defiance of international law. Neighboring Pakistan responded with a similar test on May 28 causing President Clinton to enact economic sanctions against both nations. Although India's Minister of Finance, Yashwant Sinha, is confident that a financially strong "new India," will not be affected by US action, Pakistan's fragile economy is highly dependent on US support and may lead to an end to this dangerous arms race.

Waters, Megan.

1998-01-01

233

Evidence for the recurrence of large-magnitude earthquakes along the Makran coast of Iran and Pakistan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The presence of raised beaches and marine terraces along the Makran coast indicates episodic uplift of the continental margin resulting from large-magnitude earthquakes. The uplift occurs as incremental steps similar in height to the 1-3 m of measured uplift resulting from the November 28, 1945 (M 8.3) earthquake at Pasni and Ormara, Pakistan. The data support an E-W-trending, active subduction zone off the Makran coast. The raised beaches and wave-cut terraces along the Makran coast are extensive with some terraces 1-2 km wide, 10-15 m long and up to 500 m in elevation. The terraces are generally capped with shelly sandstones 0.5-5 m thick. Wave-cut cliffs, notches, and associated boulder breccia and swash troughs are locally preserved. Raised Holocene accretion beaches, lagoonal deposits, and tombolos are found up to 10 m in elevation. The number and elevation of raised wave-cut terraces along the Makran coast increase eastward from one at Jask, the entrance to the Persian Gulf, at a few meters elevation, to nine at Konarak, 250 km to the east. Multiple terraces are found on the prominent headlands as far east as Karachi. The wave-cut terraces are locally tilted and cut by faults with a few meters of displacement. Long-term, average rates of uplift were calculated from present elevation, estimated elevation at time of deposition, and 14C and U-Th dates obtained on shells. Uplift rates in centimeters per year at various locations from west to east are as follows: Jask, 0 (post-Sangamon); Konarak, 0.031-0.2 (Holocene), 0.01 (post-Sangamon); Ormara 0.2 (Holocene). ?? 1979.

Page, W.D.; Alt, J.N.; Cluff, L.S.; Plafker, G.

1979-01-01

234

The burden of headache disorders in Pakistan: methodology of a population-based nationwide study, and questionnaire validation  

PubMed Central

Background Large geographical gaps in our knowledge of the prevalence and burden of headache disorders include Pakistan, a country with major problems of poverty, illiteracy and security. We report implementation in this country of standard methods developed by Lifting The Burden (LTB) for population-based burden-of-headache studies. Methods We surveyed six locations from the four provinces: Lahore and Multan (Punjab), Karachi and Sukkur (Sindh), Abbottabad (Khyber Pakhtunkhwa) and Gwadar (Baluchistan). We randomly selected rural and urban households in each, which were visited by trained non-medical interviewers from the same locations. One randomly selected adult member (18–65 years) of each household was interviewed using LTB’s structured questionnaire translated into Urdu, the national language. Validation was performed among patients and accompanying attendants in three (urban and rural) medical facilities. After responding to the questionnaire, these participants were re-interviewed and diagnosed by a neurologist (gold standard). Results The survey was completed by 4,223 respondents (1,957 [46.3%] male, 2,266 [53.7%] female, 1,443 [34.2%] urban, 2,780 [65.8%] rural, mean age 34.4?±?11.0 years). The participation rate was 89.5%. There were 180 participants (46.1% male, 53.9% female, 41.7% urban, 58.3% rural, mean age 39.4?±?14.2 years) in the validation sample, of whom 147 (81.7%) reported headache in the last year. The questionnaire was 100% sensitive in screening for headache and for headache on ?15 days/month, and showed good agreement with the gold-standard diagnoses (kappa?=?0.77). It was relatively insensitive for TTH. The questionnaire’s default diagnosis of probable MOH when medication overuse accompanied headache on ?15 days/month was not supported by evidence of causation in most cases seen by the neurologist. In public-health terms, precise diagnosis in these cases matters less than reliably detecting the coexistence of these disorders. Conclusion In conclusion, the methods developed by LTB were applied successfully in Pakistan, despite problems unique to this country. PMID:23967900

2013-01-01

235

Shyok Suture Zone, N Pakistan: late Mesozoic–Tertiary evolution of a critical suture separating the oceanic Ladakh Arc from the Asian continental margin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Shyok Suture Zone (Northern Suture) of North Pakistan is an important Cretaceous-Tertiary suture separating the Asian continent (Karakoram) from the Cretaceous Kohistan–Ladakh oceanic arc to the south. In previously published interpretations, the Shyok Suture Zone marks either the site of subduction of a wide Tethyan ocean, or represents an Early Cretaceous intra-continental marginal basin along the southern margin of

Alastair H. F. Robertson; Alan S. Collins

2002-01-01

236

Liberating the shackled half. Family planning in Pakistan.  

PubMed

Pakistan's national family planning program dates back to 1965. Despite these many years of family planning campaigns, Pakistan still has one of the highest population growth rates in the world. Only 12% of Pakistani couples currently use contraceptives, approximately the same percentage as in 1972, and the average total fertility rate per woman is 5.5 children, only 1 less than two decades ago. Average annual per capita income in Pakistan is less than US$400. Were each Pakistani woman to limit her family to just two children, effective immediately, Pakistan's population would still exceed 150 million by 2000. If fertility rates remain at current levels, however, Pakistan's population will surpass 280 million by 2020. The manner in which Islam is interpreted by some religious leaders, a broad preference for sons over daughters, early and almost universal marriage, the low status of women, traditional support for natural fertility, and poor health status are principle reasons why population growth remains high in Pakistan. Poor health and the low status of women play particularly important roles. Health conditions therefore need to be improved and women educated so that birth spacing and birth limiting at lower levels may become realities. The actions of Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto and that a woman holds her position should go far to help improve women's status in Pakistan. Well-trained health professionals are also needed to become more aware about family planning and to take the lead for change. PMID:12319515

Geary, J

1995-01-01

237

Evaluation of three high-resolution satellite precipitation estimates: Potential for monsoon monitoring over Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multi-sensor precipitation datasets including two products from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) and estimates from Climate Prediction Center Morphing Technique (CMORPH) product were quantitatively evaluated to study the monsoon variability over Pakistan. Several statistical and graphical techniques are applied to illustrate the nonconformity of the three satellite products from the gauge observations. During the monsoon season (JAS), the three satellite precipitation products captures the intense precipitation well, all showing high correlation for high rain rates (>30 mm/day). The spatial and temporal satellite rainfall error variability shows a significant geo-topography dependent distribution, as all the three products overestimate over mountain ranges in the north and coastal region in the south parts of Indus basin. The TMPA-RT product tends to overestimate light rain rates (approximately 100%) and the bias is low for high rain rates (about ±20%). In general, daily comparisons from 2005 to 2010 show the best agreement between the TMPA-V7 research product and gauge observations with correlation coefficient values ranging from moderate (0.4) to high (0.8) over the spatial domain of Pakistan. The seasonal variation of rainfall frequency has large biases (100-140%) over high latitudes (36N) with complex terrain for daily, monsoon, and pre-monsoon comparisons. Relatively low uncertainties and errors (Bias ±25% and MAE 1-10 mm) were associated with the TMPA-RT product during the monsoon-dominated region (32-35N), thus demonstrating their potential use for developing an operational hydrological application of the satellite-based near real-time products in Pakistan for flood monitoring.

Khan, Sadiq Ibrahim; Hong, Yang; Gourley, Jonathan J.; Khattak, Muhammad Umar Khan; Yong, Bin; Vergara, Humberto J.

2014-08-01

238

Indian psychiatry and research in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

In Asian culture, there is much stigmatization attached on having mental health problems and seeking help from a mental health expert. It is therefore, not surprising, that this stigmatization results in the refutation of the subsistence of a psychiatric problem in an individual and his family but also produces obstruction to help-seeking desires. To get a clear picture of the existence of psychiatric issues in the population, various research projects addressing psychiatric issues in children, women, and elderly are conducted both in Pakistan and India. A significant input has been taken from research conducted in India combating disaster management. In addition, public awareness programs are organized to provide information about common psychiatric disorders in children, adults, women, and the elderly.-Furthermore, psychiatric patients and their families are educated for the management of mental heath problems related to marriage, pregnancy, birth and hazards of smoking & substance abuse in young adults. Keeping in view the similarity in cultural background, treatment models, family structure, and psychosocial factors, collaborative research studies should be encouraged leading to improvement in psychiatric care of the patients both in India and Pakistan. PMID:21836720

Chaudhry, Haroon Rashid

2010-01-01

239

Influencing factors on vaccination uptake in Pakistan.  

PubMed

This article describes immunisation of children under 5 years among different regional and socio-economic population groups in Pakistan. It also gives insights on the health facilities used for immunisation and the reasons for not vaccinating the children. Furthermore, it discusses other factors that influence vaccination rates. The analyses are based on household economic survey data for 1998-89, 2001-02 and 2005-06. In these years, Pakistan Standard of Living Measurement (PSLM) survey has been carried out along with the Household Integrated Economic Survey (HIES) which included social as well as economic indicators related to households. The HIES was conducted as sub-sample of PSLM and provided data on household income, consumption expenditure and consumption pattern at national and provincial level with urban/rural breakdown. The empirical findings showed that mobile immunisation teams (MIT) are of major importance for the vaccination rate in three aspects; Firstly, MIT increase the awareness of diseases and the need and ability to protect against them. Secondly, MIT inform parents about possibilities and positive impacts of vaccination and reduce the fear of negative impacts through detailed information. Thirdly, MIT establish the lack of availability of health care providers especially in rural areas. PMID:22352105

Lorenz, Christian; Khalid, Muhammad

2012-01-01

240

PHYTOPHAGOUS INSECTS ASSOCIATED TO REPRODUCTIVE STRUCTURES OF MESQUITE (PROSOPIS SPP) IN ARGENTINA THEIR POTENTIAL USE IN BIOLOGICAL CONTROL IN SOUTH AFRICA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mesquites (Prosopis spp.) are thorny leguminous shrubs or trees native to Southwest Asia, Africa, and, predominantly, North and South America. Introduced as beneficial plants in India, Pakistan, South Africa, Egypt, Kuwait, Australia, USA (Hawaii) and Brazil, some Prosopis species have become weeds ...

241

Changes in the diet of a South Asian transmigratory population may be associated with an increase in incidence of childhood diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emigrants from Pakistan to Bradford, UK, have moved from an area of low to one of higher incidence of type 1 diabetes. South Asian children in this population have shown a marked rise in diabetes incidence. Changes in diet over the last 40 years were investigated as a potential explanatory factor. Dietary information were collected on (1) South Asian children

Sian Edwards; Catherine Murphy; Richard G. Feltbower; Carolyn R. Stephenson; Janet E. Cade; Patricia A. McKinney; H. Jonathan Bodansky

2006-01-01

242

Predicting impacts of climate change on medicinal asclepiads of Pakistan using Maxent modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Maximum entropy (Maxent) modeling was used to predict the potential climatic niches of three medicinally important Asclepiad species: Pentatropis spiralis, Tylophora hirsuta, and Vincetoxicum arnottianum. All three species are members of the Asclepiad plant family, yet they differ in ecological requirements, biogeographic importance, and conservation value. Occurrence data were collected from herbarium specimens held in major herbaria of Pakistan and two years (2010 and 2011) of field surveys. The Maxent model performed better than random for the three species with an average test AUC value of 0.74 for P. spiralis, 0.84 for V. arnottianum, and 0.59 for T. hirsuta. Under the future climate change scenario, the Maxent model predicted habitat gains for P. spiralis in southern Punjab and Balochistan, and loss of habitat in south-eastern Sindh. Vincetoxicum arnottianum as well as T. hirsuta would gain habitat in upper Peaks of northern parts of Pakistan. T. hirsuta is predicted to lose most of the habitats in northern Punjab and in parches from lower peaks of Galliat, Zhob, Qalat etc. The predictive modeling approach presented here may be applied to other rare Asclepiad species, especially those under constant extinction threat.

Khanum, Rizwana; Mumtaz, A. S.; Kumar, Sunil

2013-05-01

243

The challenges of injuries and trauma in Pakistan: An opportunity for concerted action  

PubMed Central

Injuries and trauma are a major cause of mortality and morbidity in low and middle income countries (LMICs). In Pakistan, a low income South Asian developing country, they are among the top ten contributors to disease burden and causes of disabilities, with the majority of the burden falling on younger people in the population. This burden of injuries comes with a high social and economic cost. Several distal and proximal determinants, such as poverty, political instability, frequent natural disasters, and the lack of legislation and enforcement of preventive measures, make the Pakistani population susceptible to injuries. Historically, there has been a low level of investment in the prevention of injuries in Pakistan. Data is limited and while a public sector surveillance project has been initiated in one major urban centre, the major sources of information on injuries have been police and hospital records. Given the cost-effectiveness of injury prevention programs and their success in other LMICs, it is essential that the public sector invest in injury prevention through improving national policies and creating a strong evidence-based strategy while collaborating with the private sector to promote injury prevention and mobilizing people to engage in these programs. PMID:23489711

Hyder, A.A.; Razzak, J.A.

2015-01-01

244

The Politics of Water in South Asia: The Case of the Indus Waters Treaty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because water could be a major source of future conflicts among states (what some have called the coming of the “water wars”), it is extremely important that steps be taken to resolve these issues and ensure greater access to water. Such efforts are especially needed in South Asia. The Indus Waters Treaty (IWT) is an agreement between India and Pakistan

Hamir K. Sahni

2006-01-01

245

Monitoring spatio-temporal aerosol patterns over Pakistan based on MODIS, TOMS and MISR satellite data and a HYSPLIT model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three different satellite-borne sensors, namely the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and the Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR), were used to investigate the spatial and temporal variations of aerosols over several cities in Pakistan. A Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model was used for trajectory analysis in order to reconstruct the origins of air masses and understand the spatio-temporal variability of aerosol concentrations. Recent MODIS aerosol data (2002-2008) and earlier TOMS data (1979-2001) revealed increasing concentrations of aerosols over Pakistan and adjacent areas. Validation of MODIS and MISR derived aerosol optical depths (AODs) with Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data for 2007 demonstrated that the MISR data was more accurate when close to the ocean, while the MODIS was more accurate over vegetated areas. The relationship between MODIS and MISR AOD data from 2002 to 2008 was analyzed, revealing a strong correlation between the two datasets. An assessment of seasonal variability in AOD for industrial, urban, semi-urban, rural, and semi-arid areas revealed maximum AOD values during the summer over all the areas investigated. Back trajectory analyses indicated that while winter air masses reaching Pakistan had travelled long distances, summer air masses had travelled only short distances. The higher aerosol concentrations during the summer are interpreted to be a result of the air masses spending more time over land during the summer than they do during the winter. While monsoonal rainfall tends to reduce aerosol concentrations by washing aerosols out of the atmosphere, this effect is mainly restricted to the eastern and south-eastern parts of Pakistan.

Alam, Khan; Qureshi, Salman; Blaschke, Thomas

2011-09-01

246

Structural engineering for northern Pakistan : indigenous architecture and earthquake resistance  

E-print Network

In the Fall of 1993, a joint project began between architectural designers and engineers, for the design of houses in Karimabad, located in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. This thesis records the author's involvement as ...

Su, Jimmy Chi-yi

1995-01-01

247

Educating the power: HIV/AIDS and parliamentarians of Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Increasing rates of HIV have been recorded amongst the Injection Drug User community from all parts of Pakistan. This has mobilized the health authorities into definitive action before there is a general spread of the epidemic into the Pakistani populace. Lacking any formal research as pertains to HIV policy development in Pakistan, international collaborating agencies, including the United Nations, are aiding in the formulation of a national policy to tackle HIV/AIDS. This article discusses the progress and importance of interventions being conducted amongst the Parliamentarians of Pakistan, relatively unchartered waters. The series of Seminars help to appraise the Parliamentarians of the ground situation as pertains to HIV in their constituencies, aiming to ultimately generate federal and provincial governmental policies, and a solid strategy to combat the spread of HIV/AIDS in Pakistan. PMID:19758449

Rai, Mohammad A; Rajabali, Alefiyah; Khan, Muhammad N; Khan, Mohammad A; Ali, Syed H

2009-01-01

248

Genetic history of hepatitis C virus in Pakistan.  

PubMed

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 3a accounts for ?80% of HCV infections in Pakistan, where ?10 million people are HCV-infected. Here, we report analysis of the genetic heterogeneity of HCV NS3 and NS5b subgenomic regions from genotype 3a variants obtained from Pakistan. Phylogenetic analyses showed that Pakistani genotype 3a variants were as genetically diverse as global variants, with extensive intermixing. Bayesian estimates showed that the most recent ancestor for genotype 3a in Pakistan was last extant in ?1896-1914 C.E. (range: 1851-1932). This genotype experienced a population expansion starting from ?1905 to ?1970 after which the effective population leveled. Death/birth models suggest that HCV 3a has reached saturating diversity with decreasing turnover rate and positive extinction. Taken together, these observations are consistent with a long and complex history of HCV 3a infection in Pakistan. PMID:25131452

ur Rehman, Irshad; Vaughan, Gilberto; Purdy, Michael A; Xia, Guo-liang; Forbi, Joseph C; Rossi, Livia Maria Gonçalves; Butt, Sadia; Idrees, Muhammad; Khudyakov, Yury E

2014-10-01

249

Energy conservation and thermal comfort in buildings in northern Pakistan  

E-print Network

The Hunza Valley, a remote area of mountainous northern Pakistan, is undergoing rapid change culturally, socially, and architecturally. Many of these changes are linked to the exchange of information and commerce facilitated ...

Sullivan, Gregory Patrick

1995-01-01

250

Progress in the Gondwanan Carboniferous-Permian palynology and correlation of the Nilawahan Group of the Salt Range, Pakistan: A brief review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper comprises of two sections. The first section describes challenges in the Carboniferous-Permian Gondwanan stratigraphic palynology, and progress in techniques such as presence of the `rare-marine intervals', and `radiometric dating' in some Gondwanan successions, e.g., South Africa, Australia and South America, as tools to confidently calibrate these palynozones. The second section describes developments in the palynological work on the Carboniferous-Permian Nilawahan Group of the Salt Range, Pakistan, and summarises their correlation with the coeval succession of the Gondwana continents and with the Russian/International stages.

Jan, Irfan U.

2014-02-01

251

Growth of Livestock Production in Pakistan: An Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agriculture is the backbone and single largest sector of Pakistan’s economy as its contribution to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) exceeded 25.3 percent during 1997-98. Crops, livestock, fishing and forestry sub-sectors being its main components, only crop and livestock sub-sectors are of critical importance. They accounted for 59.6 and 36.2 percent of the sector’s output respectively. Because of the ongoing process

M. Ghaffar Chaudhry; Munir Ahmad; Ghulam Mustafa Chaudhry

1999-01-01

252

Energy geopolitics and Iran–Pakistan–India gas pipeline  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the growing energy demands in India and its neighboring countries, Iran–Pakistan–India (IPI) gas pipeline assumes special significance. Energy-deficient countries such as India, China, and Pakistan are vying to acquire gas fields in different parts of the world. This has led to two conspicuous developments: first, they are competing against each other and secondly, a situation is emerging where they

Shiv Kumar Verma

2007-01-01

253

United States Internal Security Assistance to Pakistan1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pakistan confronts numerous domestic security challenges including jihadist extremism, Sunni-Shi'a sectarian violence, drug trafficking, illegal commodity smuggling, endemic corruption, and systemic problems with the provision of justice and law enforcement. While much has been written about US military assistance to the Government of Pakistan (GOP) and the ever-evolving political relations between the two countries, basic questions of highest policy significance

C. Christine Fair; Peter Chalk

2006-01-01

254

Reviving the United States' Commitment to Pakistan and Afghanistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

As President Obama is in the midst of deciding whether additional U.S.combat forces are needed in Afghanistan in addition to the 21,000 troops recently committed, he must realize that additional armed forces are only a stopgap measure in Afghanistan's downward spiral into an 'undergoverned' failed state. Similarly, as Pakistan's fragile and fractured civilian government continues to appease the Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan

Steve A. Young; Imdad Hussain Sahito

2009-01-01

255

Probabilistic seismic hazard analysis of Islamabad, Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pakistan is prone to seismic activity, and its capital, Islamabad, is located close to the Main Boundary Thrust (MBT) fault. On October 8th, 2005 the disastrous Muzaffarabad earthquake shook Islamabad and damaged many high-rise buildings. A probabilistic seismic hazard analysis technique was used to estimate strong ground motion parameters for a closely spaced 1 km grid. Traditionally, PGA is calculated, which is then used in structural earthquake resistant design or seismic safety assessment. However, Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) is not sufficient to design for seismic load or to account for the modern building code's emphasis on the use of spectral acceleration values. Therefore, a seismic hazard analysis was performed for Islamabad, and the design parameters that are required by codes to account for seismic loading were derived.

Bhatti, Abdul Qadir; Hassan, Syed Zamir Ul; Rafi, Zahid; Khatoon, Zubeda; Ali, Qurban

2011-08-01

256

Anthracobunids from the Middle Eocene of India and Pakistan Are Stem Perissodactyls  

PubMed Central

Anthracobunidae is an Eocene family of large mammals from south Asia that is commonly considered to be part of the radiation that gave rise to elephants (proboscideans) and sea cows (sirenians). We describe a new collection of anthracobunid fossils from Middle Eocene rocks of Indo-Pakistan that more than doubles the number of known anthracobunid fossils and challenges their putative relationships, instead implying that they are stem perissodactyls. Cranial, dental, and postcranial elements allow a revision of species and the recognition of a new anthracobunid genus. Analyses of stable isotopes and long bone geometry together suggest that most anthracobunids fed on land, but spent a considerable amount of time near water. This new evidence expands our understanding of stem perissodactyl diversity and sheds new light on perissodactyl origins. PMID:25295875

Cooper, Lisa Noelle; Seiffert, Erik R.; Clementz, Mark; Madar, Sandra I.; Bajpai, Sunil; Hussain, S. Taseer; Thewissen, J. G. M.

2014-01-01

257

Linking population to conservation. Special report: Pakistan.  

PubMed

The National Conservation Strategy of Pakistan took 5 years to prepare and it was produced in close consultation with the World Conservation Union (IUCN), on whose World Conservation Strategy it is modeled. The environment has been under grave stress for the past 30 years, the ecosystem has been greatly damaged, and natural resources are being depleted at an alarming rate. Deforestation is occurring at a rate of 1'%/year in a country where forest cover is down to 5%. Desertification has affected 60% of Pakistan's land. Soil erosion threatens over 11 million hectares and waterlogging and salinity 1/2 as much. Many species of plants, animals, and fish face extinction, as river and mangrove systems are almost destroyed. Over 25% of hospital patients are ill from waterborne diseases, and 60% of infant deaths are caused by infectious and parasitic diseases. The neglect of women's development is responsible for the average family size of 6.7 children. The population is projected to double in 22 years, from 100 million to 200 million, and at the present rate it could reach 400 million by the year 2033. Although the crude death rate has dropped from over 25/1000 in 1984-86, and the infant mortality rate has fallen from 180/1000 to 106, the birth rate has hardly changed, falling only from 45 to 43/1000. In the 40 years since independence government family planning efforts have been feeble without success in reducing birth rates. Water resources are also scarce: only a 25-30% expansion in the volume of water is available in the Indus Basin. Biological solutions, farm forestry, increased water efficiency, demand-based irrigation, less wasteful and more decentralized use of energy are recommended rather than cost-intensive use of the soil. Community-based management systems, strengthened nongovernmental organization action, and a new role for women in development is emphasized. PMID:12285667

Rowley, J

1990-01-01

258

A contemporary architectural quest and synthesis : Kamil Khan Mumtaz in Pakistan  

E-print Network

This thesis looks at an important Pakistani architect's work and philosophy as a possible direction or approach for contemporary architecture in Pakistan. Although there are more prolific builders in Pakistan, Kamil Khan ...

Ansari, Zarminae

1997-01-01

259

Hydrology of Himalayas Mountains through gauging of flood and Glaciers Melt historic data hydrographs over selected watersheds under changing climate, Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mountainous areas of higher altitudes in the northern Pakistan have numerous rivers of great surface runoff during the rainy months and glaciers melt seasons that play a significant role in water resources and hydro-power production. Many of these rivers are unexploited for their water resource potential. If the potential of these rivers are explored, hydro-power production and water supplies in these areas may be improved. The Indus is the mighty river in the Asian countries originating from mountainous area of the Himalayas of Baltistan, Pakistan in which most of the smaller streams and four main rivers drain. Under the larger interest of the economic development of the country, hydrology of these mountainous in northern Pakistan is studied in the perspective of climate change, which includes eight watersheds namely Gilgit, Hunza, Shigar, Shyok, Astore, Jhelum, Swat and Chitral. Available historic data from1960-2005 have been precisely utilized to study the hydrological changes with respect to variability in precipitation, temperature and mean monthly flows, trend of snow melt runoff, daily hydrographs of selected periods (1990 to 1999), water yield and runoff relationship, and flow duration curves. Precipitation from ten meteorological stations in mountainous area of northern Pakistan has not shown uniform distribution of rains but variability in the winter and summer rains is noticed. Review of mean monthly temperature of ten stations suggested that the Upper Indus Basin can be categorized into three hydrological regimes i.e., high altitude catchments with large glacierized parts, middle altitude catchments south of Karakoram, and foothill catchments. A 3-D finite element model (Feflow) has also been used for regional groundwater flow modeling of the Upper Chaj Doab in Indus Basin, Pakistan.

Ahmad, Z.

2013-12-01

260

Interprovenance variation in the composition of Moringa oleifera oilseeds from Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interprovenance variation was examined in the composition of Moringa oleifera oilseeds from Pakistan. The hexane-extracted oil content of M. oleifera seeds harvested in the vicinity of the University of Agriculture, Faisalabad (Punjab, Pakistan), Bahauddin Zakariya University\\u000a (Multan, Pakistan), and the University of Sindh, Jamshoro (Sindh, Pakistan), ranged from 33.23 to 40.90%. Protein, fiber,\\u000a moisture, and ash contents were found to

Farooq Anwar; Muhammad Ashraf; Muhammad Iqbal Bhanger

2005-01-01

261

Potential for Expatriate Involvement with Handicapped Children in the N.W.F.P. of Pakistan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The North West Frontier Province of Pakistan plans to improve services and facilities for handicapped children and is encouraging expatriates to bring their skills to Pakistan. Staff of current institutions are either untrained or have received short courses of training within Pakistan. There are currently about five expatriates working in the…

Miles, M.

262

Teacher Education in Pakistan: Analysis of Planning Issues in Early Childhood Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on the status of teacher education and early childhood education in Pakistan. The paper analyzes planning issues in early childhood teacher education by examining education policies and existing practices in early childhood teacher education in Pakistan. Initiatives taken at public and private levels in Pakistan are also…

Hunzai, Zohra Nisar

2009-01-01

263

Non-communicable diseases and injuries in Pakistan: strategic priorities.  

PubMed

Non-communicable diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, cancers, respiratory diseases, diabetes, and mental disorders, and injuries have become the major causes of morbidity and mortality in Pakistan. Tobacco use and hypertension are the leading attributable risk factors for deaths due to cardiovascular diseases, cancers, and respiratory diseases. Pakistan has the sixth highest number of people in the world with diabetes; every fourth adult is overweight or obese; cigarettes are cheap; antismoking and road safety laws are poorly enforced; and a mixed public-private health-care system provides suboptimum care. Furthermore, almost three decades of exposure to sociopolitical instability, economic uncertainty, violence, regional conflict, and dislocation have contributed to a high prevalence of mental health disorders. Projection models based on the Global Burden of Disease 2010 data suggest that there will be about 3·87 million premature deaths by 2025 from cardiovascular diseases, cancers, and chronic respiratory diseases in people aged 30-69 years in Pakistan, with serious economic consequences. Modelling of risk factor reductions also indicate that Pakistan could achieve at least a 20% reduction in the number of these deaths by 2025 by targeting of the major risk factors. We call for policy and legislative changes, and health-system interventions to target readily preventable non-communicable diseases in Pakistan. PMID:23684257

Jafar, Tazeen H; Haaland, Benjamin A; Rahman, Atif; Razzak, Junaid A; Bilger, Marcel; Naghavi, Mohsen; Mokdad, Ali H; Hyder, Adnan A

2013-06-29

264

Violence against Children: A Challenge for Public Health in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

World Health Organization has identified violence against children as a growing public-health issue with a global magnitude. This paper explored violence against children as a challenge in the developing world using Pakistan as a case study. A systematic review of existing research and literature on violence against children was followed by assessing the magnitude of this challenge and its impact on policy. Most research done in Pakistan is observational, descriptive, and anecdotal with data collected through survey methods and interviews with small sample sizes. The findings suggest that the confluence of macro risk factors, such as poverty, poor legal protections, illiteracy, large family size, and unemployment, create an enabling environment for violence against children. Lack of empirical data makes it difficult to assess the magnitude of this issue. The health problems reported and the extent of human potential destroyed are unknown. Conclusion calls for focused research to examine the prevalence, potential interventions, and policies in Pakistan. PMID:17985818

Hyder, Adnan Ali; Malik, Fauzia Aman

2007-01-01

265

Beliefs about euthanasia among university students: perspectives from Pakistan.  

PubMed

Opinions of university students about euthanasia were studied in 4 cities in Pakistan using convenience sampling. A total of 836 students (316 males and 520 females) completed a questionnaire in which euthanasia was defined as deliberate administration of an overdose of a drug by a doctor to relieve pain and suffering of a dying patient at his/her explicit request to end his/her life. Only 25.6% of students agreed that euthanasia should be legalized in Pakistan. The most common reason cited for legalization of euthanasia was to relieve patient's suffering but only when a committee of physicians agreed to recommend it. Students who opposed legalization (74.4%) cited impediments to future medical research as the most common reason, followed by the risk of misuse by physicians or family members. Only 8.9% of students cited religious beliefs as a reason against legalization. There is a need in Pakistan for more debate about euthanasia. PMID:22256415

Shaikh, M A; Kamal, A

2011-10-01

266

Physicochemical characteristics of various milk samples available in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

We report physicochemical characteristics of various kinds of liquid milk commercially available in Pakistan in comparison with those of fresh natural milk from animals. Milk samples were collected from local markets at Peshawar, Pakistan, and analyzed for their physical features, including moisture, total solids, specific gravity, conductivity, viscosity and titratable acidity (lactic acid equivalent), and chemical components and macro-minerals, including total protein, casein, lactose, ash and minerals (Na, K and Mg). These items were compared with the physicochemical characteristics of the fresh natural milk samples from buffalo, cow and goat. The results were also compared with reported nutritional quality of milk from various countries and World Health Organization (WHO) standards. We found that all the physical features and chemical components of commercially available milk in Pakistan markets meet WHO’s requirements, except for Na, K, Ca and Mg, which are below the standards. PMID:18600784

Imran, Mohammad; Khan, Hamayun; Hassan, Syed Shah; Khan, Rasool

2008-01-01

267

Satellite Monitoring of Pakistan's Rockslide-Dammed Lake Gojal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 4 January 2010, a rockslide 1200 meters long, 350 meters wide, and 125 meters high dammed the Hunza River in Attabad, northern Pakistan, and formed Lake Gojal. The initial mass movement of rock killed 20 people and submerged several villages and 22 kilometers of the strategic Karakoram Highway linking Pakistan and China. Tens of thousands of people were displaced or cut off from overland connection with the rest of the country. On 29 May, the lake overflow began to pour through a spillway excavated by Pakistani authorities. On approximately 20 July, the lake attained a maximum depth of 119 meters and a torrent at least 9 meters deep issued over the spillway, according to Pakistan's National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA). To date, the natural dam is holding and eroding slowly. However, the threat of a catastrophic outburst flood remains.

Kargel, Jeffrey S.; Leonard, Gregory; Crippen, Robert E.; Delaney, Keith B.; Evans, Stephen G.; Schneider, Jean

2010-10-01

268

Abnormally high formation pressures, Potwar Plateau, Pakistan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Abnormally high formation pressures in the Potwar Plateau of north-central Pakistan are major obstacles to oil and gas exploration. Severe drilling problems associated with high pressures have, in some cases, prevented adequate evaluation of reservoirs and significantly increased drilling costs. Previous investigations of abnormal pressure in the Potwar Plateau have only identified abnormal pressures in Neogene rocks. We have identified two distinct pressure regimes in this Himalayan foreland fold and thrust belt basin: one in Neogene rocks and another in pre-Neogene rocks. Pore pressures in Neogene rocks are as high as lithostatic and are interpreted to be due to tectonic compression and compaction disequilibrium associated with high rates of sedimentation. Pore pressure gradients in pre-Neogene rocks are generally less than those in Neogene rocks, commonly ranging from 0.5 to 0.7 psi/ft (11.3 to 15.8 kPa/m) and are most likely due to a combination of tectonic compression and hydrocarbon generation. The top of abnormally high pressure is highly variable and doesn't appear to be related to any specific lithologic seal. Consequently, attempts to predict the depth to the top of overpressure prior to drilling are precluded.

Law, B.E.; Shah, S.H.A.; Malik, M.A.

1998-01-01

269

Women and health care in rural Pakistan.  

PubMed

The provision of medical facilities to rural areas is a major objective of development in Pakistan and the government has undertaken several programs to train and deploy auxiliary health workers on a large scale. Programs to train lady health visitors, dispensers and sanitary inspectors, have been in operation for decades and their graduates have a place in the workforce. Currently the Government is developing a Basic Health Program to train auxiliary health workers and to establish a network of rural health facilities throughout the country. The research here reported was meant to help plan this program. The 4 week study was conducted in four districts of the Punjab and North West Frontier Provinces. We first interviewed women patients of rural dispensaries in the four districts to determine their views of their needs and of the constraints of the purdah system when seeking health care. We then interviewed principals of medical colleges and training institutes, who were in a position to assess the availability of women to enter the medical workforce and female mid-level health workers who were currently serving in their posts. Finally, since allopathic medical institutions compete with indigenous medical specialists, we interviewed two hakims and a homeopathic physician to obtain their view of rural health needs, as well as their potential for contributing to a broad based rural health care system. PMID:6867786

Schmidt, R L

1983-01-01

270

Evaluation of compliance and outcomes of a management protocol for massive postpartum hemorrhage at a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Massive postpartum hemorrhage is a life threatening obstetric emergency. In order to prevent the complications associated with this condition, an organized and step-wise management protocol should be immediately initiated. Methods An evidence based management protocol for massive postpartum hemorrhage was implemented at Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan after an audit in 2005. We sought to evaluate the compliance and outcomes associated with this management protocol 3 years after its implementation. A review of all deliveries with massive primary postpartum hemorrhage (blood loss ? 1500 ml) between January, 2008 to December, 2008 was carried out. Information regarding mortality, mode of delivery, possible cause of postpartum hemorrhage and medical or surgical intervention was collected. The estimation of blood loss was made via subjective and objective assessment. Results During 2008, massive postpartum hemorrhage occurred in 0.64% cases (26/4,052). No deaths were reported. The mean blood loss was 2431 ± 1817 ml (range: 1500 - 9000 ml). Emergency cesarean section was the most common mode of delivery (13/26; 50%) while uterine atony was the most common cause of massive postpartum hemorrhage (14/26; 54%). B-lynch suture (24%) and balloon tamponade (60%) were used more commonly as compared to our previously reported experience. Cesarean hysterectomy was performed in 3 cases (12%) for control of massive postpartum hemorrhage. More than 80% compliance was observed in 8 out of 10 steps of the management protocol. Initiation of blood transfusion at 1500 ml blood loss (89%) and overall documentation of management (92%) were favorably observed in most cases. Conclusion This report details our experience with the practical implementation of a management protocol for massive postpartum hemorrhage at a tertiary care hospital in a developing country. With the exception of arterial embolization, relatively newer, simpler and potentially safer techniques are now being employed for the management of massive postpartum hemorrhage at our institution. Particular attention should be paid to the documentation of the management steps while ensuring a stricter adherence to the formulated protocols and guidelines in order to further ameliorate patient outcomes in emergency obstetrical practice. More audits like the one we performed are important to recognize and rectify any deficiencies in obstetrical practice in developing countries. Dissemination of the same is pivotal to enable an open discourse on the improvement of existing obstetrical strategies. PMID:21489279

2011-01-01

271

Phytoecological evaluation with detail floristic appraisal of the vegetation arround Malam Jabba, Swat, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the present status of plant communities and their possible association with the habitat in Malam Jabba, Swat, Pakistan. Methods A study on the phytoecology was conducted in various ecologically important sites of Malam Jabba, Swat, Pakistan from 2002 to 2004. The altitude of these sites ranged from 1?200 m to 3?200 m. Quadrat method was used for evaluation of plants communities and the data on these attributes was converted to relative values. The plant communities were named after 3 leading species with highest importance values. Biological spectrum of the flora based on the life form was prepared by following Raunkiar's life form classes. Results The floristic composition and structure of the study area were found to be 200 species belonging to 75 families. Asteraceae, Lamiaceae and Poaceae were important families in the study area. The biological spectrum showed that therophytic and hemicrytophytic life form and micro-nonophyllous leaf sizes were dominant in the area. The air and soil temperatures were decreasing with increasing elevation. Both the air and soil temperatures were relatively higher in south slopes than on the northeast slopes. The vegetation analysis of the area indicated eleven plant communities around the area. The present vegetation is the relics of moist temperate coniferous forest in the area. The communities reflect highly deteriorated conditions. Both the structure and composition of the surrounding vegetation were associated with the types of habitats. Conclusions The conservation of the remaining populations of the reported communities will be best achieved by proper time of sustainable harvesting. It is only possible with the participation of local communities. PMID:23569814

Rashid, Abdur; Swati, Mohammad Farooq; Sher, Hassan; Al-Yemeni, Mohammad N

2011-01-01

272

View looking south from pavilion, showing south entrance house, south ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View looking south from pavilion, showing south entrance house, south wing, and engine house - Fairmount Waterworks, East bank of Schuylkill River, Aquarium Drive, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

273

Burn Wound Infections and Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns at Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

BACKGROND Burn wound infections carry considerable mortality and morbidity amongst burn injury victims who have been successfully rescued through the initial resuscitation. This study assessed the prevalent microrganisms causing burn wound infections among hospitalized patients; their susceptibility pattern to commonly used antibiotics; and the frequency of infections with respect to the duration of the burn wounds. METHODS This study was carried out at Burn Care Centre, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS), Islamabad, Pakistan over a period of two years (i.e. from June 2010 to May 2012). The study included all wound-culture-positive patients of either gender and all ages, who had sustained deep burns and underwent definitive management with wound excisions and skin auto-grafting. Patients with negative cultures of the wounds were excluded. Tissue specimens for culture and sensitivity were collected from burn wounds using standard collection techniques and analyzed at microbiological laboratory. RESULTS Out of a total of 95 positive microbial growths, 36 were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (35.29%) as the most frequent isolate found, followed by 21 Klebsiella pneumoniae (20.58%), 19 Staphylococcus aureaus (18.62%), 10 Proteus (9.80%), 7 E. coli (6.86%), 7 Acinetobacter (6.86%), and 4 Candida (3.92%). A variable antibiotic susceptibility pattern was observed among the grown microbes. Positive cultures were significantly more frequent among patients with over two weeks duration of burn wounds. CONCLUSION P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae and S. aureus constituted the most common bacterial microbes of burn wounds in our in-patients cases. Positive cultures were more frequent among patients with over two weeks duration of burn wounds. Early excision and skin grafting of deep burns and adherence to infection control measures can help to effectively reduce the burden of these infections. PMID:25606471

Saaiq, Muhammad; Ahmad, Shehzad; Zaib, Muhammad Salman

2015-01-01

274

The Gateway Paper--preventive and promotive programs in Pakistan and health reforms in Pakistan.  

PubMed

Pakistan's public health interventions include a range of programs lead by the federal government with implementation arms at the provincial and district levels. Some of the programs are disease specific such as the respective programs on HIV/AIDS, Malaria, Tuberculosis, non-communicable diseases and Hepatitis; others are specific to life cycle domains such as in the case of maternal and child health whereas still others such as the National Program for Family Planning and Primary Healthcare and the National Expanded Program for Immunization are cross-cutting. Although these programs have contributed to improving health outcomes at intermediate outcomes level, a number of critical impediments to maximizing their impact have been noted. These include lack of integration, institutional impediments to the implementation of programs with particular reference to problems at the federal/provincial level and unrealized implications of federal programs at the provincial level are amongst the foremost. These have been further compounded by the addition of another service delivery tier in Pakistan's health system through the introduction of the devolution initiative. Furthermore, the unsustainable and under-utilized BHUs which serve as the service delivery base of these programs add to the problems. The Gateway Paper makes a number of recommendations to obviate these issues such as recommendations to integrate programs, strengthen surveillance systems, and with reference to obviating issues to implementation, emphasis is laid on decentralizing decision-making and central control, institutionalizing managerial audit, and prioritizing specific governance and management reforms. The Paper also stresses on the need for establishing a national coordination mechanism for fostering federal/provincial harmony and ensuring the creation of appropriate counterpart institutional arrangements in the provinces and districts. Recommendations on restructuring BHUs at a management, oversight, quality related and community participation level will play a vital role in determining the manner in which the efficiency of these public health programs can be enhanced. PMID:17595833

Nishtar, Sania

2006-12-01

275

The Determinants of Child Health in Pakistan: An Economic Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper estimates linear structural models using LISREL and employs MIMIC models to find out factors determining child health in Pakistan. A distinction has been made in permanent and transitory health states that lend support to Grossman's (1972) stock and flow concepts of health. The paper addresses the issue of health unobservability and…

Shehzad, Shafqat

2006-01-01

276

Consanguineous Marriages in the Sikh Community of Swat, NWFP, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marriages among the Sikh minority of the Districts of Swat, Bunair and Shangla (NWFP, Pakistan) were studied where the frequency of consanguineous marriages was found to be 21%. Marriages with distant relatives were 29.4% in the population. The inbreeding coefficient for the population was calculated to be 0.0127. Only three types of first cousin marriages (MSD, MBD and FSD) were

Abdul Wahab; Mahmud Ahmad

2005-01-01

277

Amino Acids Availability of Poultry Feedstuffs in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quick bioassay technique of Sibbald (1986) involving adult cockerels was used to determine the amino acids availability of commonly used feedstuffs in Pakistan. Feedstuffs evaluated for amino acid availability were cereal grains (corn, rice, sorghum and wheat), cereal by-products (corn gluten feed, rice polishings and wheat bran), vegetable meals {corn gluten meal 30 and 60%, cottonseed meal expeller extracted (ee)

M. A. NADEEM; A. H. GILANI; A. G. KHAN

278

Library Web Sites in Pakistan: An Analysis of Content  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate library web sites in Pakistan, to analyse their content and navigational strengths and weaknesses and to give recommendations for developing better web sites and quality assessment studies. Design/methodology/approach: Survey of web sites of 52 academic, special, public and national libraries in…

Qutab, Saima; Mahmood, Khalid

2009-01-01

279

Effective Use of Action-Oriented Studies in Pakistan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article summarizes results from action-oriented studies carried out at the Mental Heath Centre in Peshawar, Pakistan, dealing with such topics as attitudes toward disability, casual integration, and trends in polio paralysis. The article also considers problems associated with the dissemination of special education and rehabilitation research…

Miles, M.

1991-01-01

280

Gender Representation in the Public Sector Schools Textbooks of Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines gender biases in school textbooks after a decade long effort by the ministry of education (MoE) Pakistan and international organisation (IOs) to eliminate all forms of gender inequality in education. The intention underpinning these initiatives was to nurture a view of gender equality based consciousness through the…

Ullah, Hazir; Skelton, Christine

2013-01-01

281

Macro Determinants of Total Factor Productivity in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

By utilizing the conventional growth accounting framework, this study first estimates the Total Factor Productivity (TFP) in Pakistan and then establishes its macro determinants. Covering the sample from 1960 to 2003, the results confirm that macroeconomic stability, foreign direct investment, and financial sector development play an important role in the increase of TFP. Interestingly, education expenditures turn out to be

Safdar Ullah Khan

2006-01-01

282

Perspectives of academic activities in universities in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article explores perspectives on academic activities in public sector universities in Pakistan. Seven Pakistani universities yielded 290 teachers and 568 students in the sample. Factor analysis indicated five main factors in both teacher and student data sets. Both teachers and students were dissatisfied with the performance of the universities on quality of curriculum, teaching and leadership development opportunities for

Akhtar Ali; Riaz H. Tariq; Keith J. Topping

2012-01-01

283

Simulating the Afghanistan-Pakistan opium supply chain  

SciTech Connect

This paper outlines an opium supply chain using the Hilmand province of Afghanistan as exemplar. The opium supply chain model follows the transformation of opium poppy seed through cultivation and chemical alteration to brown heroin base. The purpose of modeling and simulating the Afghanistan-Pakistan opium supply chain is to discover and test strategies that will disrupt this criminal enterprise.

Watkins, Jennifer H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mac Kerrow, Edward P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Merritt, Terence [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01

284

Attitudes to School Science Held by Primary Children in Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attitudes to science scales developed earlier in England have been used in and around a Pakistan city with children in Primary/Elementary Grades 4-8. The limitations of a "transferred scale" in a culturally different context are apparent in a failure to reproduce the English factor patterns, but items are identified to serve as a base for future…

Iqbal, Hafiz Muhammad; Nageen, Tabassum; Pell, Anthony William

2008-01-01

285

A sustainable model for use of ICTs in rural Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major part of Pakistan is comprised of rural areas, which are underdeveloped and lack of facilities as compared to their urban counterparts. The main reasons for this underdevelopment are; low priority assigned by the government in developing the infrastructure, lack of interest of private sector to exploit the potential of rural areas and inability of private sector to invest

Kashif Sattar

286

Hydrology research in the upper Indus basin, Karakoram Himalaya, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the hydrological, meteoro­ logical and glaciological characteristics of the Upper Indus Basin, Pakistan as they influence water supply. In the past, apart from some long-term discharge records for the Indus and some of its major tributaries, hydrological measurements were very scarce. Meteorological measurements were almost wholly confined to valley bottom locations thus missing the hydrologically most active

G. J. YOUNG; K. HEWITT

1990-01-01

287

A Long-Term Investment in Pakistan: Early Childhood Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the enormous demand for early childhood education care and education, it remains a privilege for young children in most of the world's nine high population countries, known as the E-9 group (Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Nigeria and Pakistan), according to a report published by UNESCO (2003). The World…

Hunzai, Zohra Nisar

2006-01-01

288

Chemical constituents of Citrus sinensis var. Shukri from Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variety ‘Shukri’ is a new hybrid of Citrus sinensis and is frequently grown for its sweet edible fruits in the southern part of Pakistan. The leaves of this hybrid variety have been investigated in search of secondary metabolites for the first time. As a result of chromatographic analysis of the methanolic extract, a new ceramide along with a flavonone

Muhammad Saleem; Ariba Farooq; Shabir Ahmad; Nusrat Shafiq; Naheed Riaz; Abdul Jabbar; Muhammad Arshad; Abdul Malik

2010-01-01

289

Perspectives of Aacademic Activities in Universities in Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article explores perspectives on academic activities in public sector universities in Pakistan. Seven Pakistani universities yielded 290 teachers and 568 students in the sample. Factor analysis indicated five main factors in both teacher and student data sets. Both teachers and students were dissatisfied with the performance of the…

Ali, Akhtar; Tariq, Riaz H.; Topping, Keith J.

2013-01-01

290

Strategic Framework for Teacher Education and Professional Development: Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is common to find well-crafted and coherent policy designs failing to attain desired results in developing counties. Pakistan is no exception. Despite having taken a significant number of initiatives in a quest to further its Teacher Professional Development (TPD) objectives, progress remains less than satisfactory. While a number of studies…

US Agency for International Development, 2006

2006-01-01

291

Pakistan and Terror: The Eye of the Storm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pakistan almost uniquely is both a major victim of terrorism and a major sponsor of terrorism. It has been the scene of horrific acts of terrorist violence, including the murder of Benazir Bhutto, and it has been one of the most prolific state sponsors of terror aimed at advancing its national security interests. Over the course of the past three

Bruce Riedel

2008-01-01

292

Primary Education in Pakistan. Part II. The Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, the second part of a four-part analysis and assessment of Pakistan's system of primary education, presents the report's susbstantive analysis. Seven chapters are included: (1) Introduction; (2) Educational Policy and Planning; (3) The Financing of Primary Education; (4) Organization, Management, and Administration; (5) The Formal…

Development Associates, Inc., Arlington, VA.

293

Supply, Demand, and Policy Environment for Pulses in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper fills an information gap regarding factors affecting the supply and demand of pulses in Pakistan. The short- and long-term supply elasticities were estimated using the Nerlovian partial adjustment process, while demand elasticities were estimated by applying the Deaton and Muellbauer Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS). Generally lack of technological innovation in pulses, except in mungbean, has reduced their

Mubarik Ali; Abedullah

1998-01-01

294

Kiran Libraries for Children in Prison in Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Pakistan, there are 7,000 children in 70 jails. From observations on why children commit crime, the author offers that the core cause is poverty; 99 per cent of young prisoners belong to deprived sections of society. They do not have access to education; living in prison is difficult; the degrading and harsh treatment adversely affects the…

Shinji, Tajima

2009-01-01

295

Early Childhood Teacher Education in Pakistan: Time for Action  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a critical account of early childhood education (ECE) in Pakistan. It moves from a general review of the benefits of ECE to focus on the issues and challenges connected to the professional development of early childhood teachers. It highlights problems encountered in developing practitioners who are highly skilled in the…

Zada, Khan

2014-01-01

296

Pakistan embarks on new campaign to reduce fertility.  

PubMed

There was both international and domestic significance in a plea for population stabilization issued by Pakistan's Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif in his address at the recent Earth Summit conference in Rio de Janeiro. Speaking as both a national leader and chairman of the Group of 77, a coalition of developing countries, Sharif said that to eradicate the abject poverty under which more than a billion people in the world live today "developing countries must assume their full responsibility in limiting population growth to manageable levels." Those words may seem odd coming from the leader of a country that has been indifferent about population problems for the past 2 decades. Until Prime Minister Sharif made a public commitment to a population program last July, the last leader of Pakistan to take such action was the late President Ayub Khan in 1969. With an annual 3.1% growth rate, Pakistan's population of 122 million is projected to double in only 23 years. The average Pakistani woman has 6.1 children in her reproductive lifetime. Reduction of population growth was an issue in the October 1990 election campaign. After his Islamic Democratic Alliance won, the government named Syeda Abida Hussain, a prominent and popular politician, to the cabinet post of Minister of Family Welfare. Hussain, who is now Pakistan's Ambassador to the US, recalls that many experts felt that starting a population program would be "an impossible undertaking, "that" attitudes were not conducive to family planning and government would never support it." In a speech on World Population Day in Rio, organized by the Population Institute, she said she soon found that "the problems were managerial, not attitudinal." She maintained that the relatively low acceptance of contraception among the people of Pakistan, Bangladesh and India is not because of religion or ideology "but because they are too poor to have access to birth control." Shortly after Hussain was names Minister of Family Welfare, she travelled throughout Pakistan to promote a small family norm. Under the new government program, family planning services would be provided along with maternal and child health services. Meanwhile, in an address before a national population conference, Prime Minister Sharif made a strong emotional appeal for a slowdown in population growth. He directed all government ministries and departments to provide all possible support. A recent study in Pakistan showed that the lack of service delivery outlets, rather than lack of awareness of family planning, was the reason behind the weak response to earlier programs. The study further indicated that 60% of married women either do not want more children or want to delay their next birth, but only 20% have access to family planning services. 90% said their desired family size was 4 children, yet they were having 7. The shortage of family planning services is especially acute in rural areas. While 54% of the country's 35 million urban residents have access to services, only 5% of rural people do. In the past, population programs in Pakistan have been handicapped by bureaucratic red tape, inefficiency and corruption. But with the Prime Minister solidly supporting lower population growth as a key to the success of his economic initiatives, top managers of the program are optimistic that this time it will work. "Bringing down the population growth rate in Pakistan is not the world's responsibility, "says Ambassador Syeda Abida Hussain. "It is Pakistan's." PMID:12317621

1992-01-01

297

Girl child marriage and its effect on fertility in Pakistan: findings from Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, 2006-2007.  

PubMed

Child marriage (before 18 years) is prevalent in Pakistan, which disproportionately affects young girls in rural, low income and low education households. Our study aims to determine the association between early marriage and high fertility and poor fertility health indicators among young women in Pakistan beyond those attributed to social vulnerabilities. Nationally representative data from Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, 2006-2007, a cross-sectional observational survey, were limited to ever-married women aged 20-24 years (n = 1,560; 15% of 10,023) to identify differences in poor fertility outcomes [high fertility (three or more childbirths); rapid repeat childbirth (<24 months between births); unwanted pregnancy (any ever); pregnancy termination (any stillbirth, miscarriage or abortion ever)] by early (<18) versus adult (?18) age at marriage. Associations between child marriage and fertility outcomes were assessed by calculating adjusted odds ratios (AORs) using logistic regression models after controlling for demographics, social equity indicators (education, wealth index, rural residence), contraception use, marriage duration and culture-specific factors (husband's desire for more children, son preference). Overall, 50% of ever-married women aged 20-24 years in Pakistan were married before the age of 18 years. Girl child marriage was significantly (p < 0.001) associated with low social equity indicators (poverty, rural residence, and no formal education). Adjusted logistic regression models showed that girl child marriage was significantly associated with high fertility (AOR 6.62; 95% CI 3.53-12.43), rapid repeat childbirth (AOR 2.88; 95% CI 1.83-4.54), unwanted pregnancy (AOR 2.90; 95% CI 1.75-4.79), and pregnancy termination (AOR 1.75; 95% CI 1.10-2.78). Girl child marriage affects half of all ever-married women aged 20-24 years in Pakistan, and increases their risk for high fertility and poor fertility health indicators, highlighting the need of increasing the age of marriage among women in Pakistan. Efforts to eliminate girl child marriage by strict law enforcement, promoting civil, sexual and reproductive health rights for women can help eliminate girl child marriage in Pakistan. PMID:23580067

Nasrullah, Muazzam; Muazzam, Sana; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Raj, Anita

2014-04-01

298

Motivational determinants among physicians in Lahore, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Introduction Human resource crises in developing countries have been identified as a critical aspect of poor quality and low accessibility in health care. Worker motivation is an important facet of this issue. Specifically, motivation among physicians, who are an important bridge between health systems and patients, should be considered. This study aimed to identify the determinants of job motivation among physicians, a neglected perspective, especially in developing countries. Methods A stratified random sample of 360 physicians was selected from public primary, public secondary and public and private tertiary health facilities in the Lahore district, Pakistan. Pretested, semi-structured, self-administered questionnaires were used. For the descriptive part of this study, physicians were asked to report their 5 most important work motivators and demotivators within the context of their current jobs and in general. Responses were coded according to emergent themes and frequencies calculated. Of the 30 factors identified, 10 were classified as intrinsic, 16 as organizational and 4 as socio-cultural. Results Intrinsic and socio-cultural factors like serving people, respect and career growth were important motivators. Conversely, demotivators across setups were mostly organizational, especially in current jobs. Among these, less pay was reported the most frequently. Fewer opportunities for higher qualifications was a demotivator among primary and secondary physicians. Less personal safety and poor working conditions were important in the public sector, particularly among female physicians. Among private tertiary physicians financial incentives other than pay and good working conditions were motivators in current jobs. Socio-cultural and intrinsic factors like less personal and social time and the inability to financially support oneself and family were more important among male physicians. Conclusion Motivational determinants differed across different levels of care, sectors and genders. Nonetheless, the important motivators across setups in this study were mostly intrinsic and socio-cultural, which are difficult to affect while the demotivators were largely organizational. Many can be addressed even at the facility level such as less personal safety and poor working conditions. Thus, in resource limited settings a good strategic starting point could be small scale changes that may markedly improve physicians' motivation and subsequently the quality of health care. PMID:20618962

2010-01-01

299

Suicide bombing as an unusual cause of spinal cord injury: a case series from Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study design:Descriptive case series.Objectives:Describe the unusual etiology and pattern of spinal cord injury due to terrorist suicide bombings in Pakistan.Settings:Spinal Rehabilitation Unit, Armed Forces Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine, Rawalpindi, Pakistan.Methods:Hundreds of suicide attacks on civil and military forces have occurred over the last 6 years in Pakistan. These have resulted in thousands of death and many more injured. Six victims

F A Rathore; A Ayub; S Farooq; P W New

2011-01-01

300

The Eyes and Ears of an Explorer: Database for Audiovisual Archives of a Norwegian Linguist from his Journeys to Afghanistan and South Asia, 1923–1975  

Microsoft Academic Search

Georg Morgenstierne (1892–1978), Professor of Indo-Iranian Languages at the University of Oslo, Norway, travelled in South Asia documenting scenery, traditions and everyday life from Sri Lanka, through India, Pakistan, Afghanistan to Iran. The inaccessible mountains of Hindu Kush, with the remote valleys of Nuristan and Chitral, became fields of many years of linguistic study and visual documentation. Especially valuable are

Wlodek Witek

2005-01-01

301

Geochemistry of the Bela Ophiolite, Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Bela ophiolite complex of Balochistan, Pakistan has been the subject of several geochemical and tectonic studies in the past. However until now there has never been a combined structural, geochemical and tectonic assimilation study which adequately explains the observed geochemistry and structural geology in a global tectonic framework. Here we present the geochemical findings of our work. The Bela ophiolite complex consists of two major units: the basal section or Lower Unit, and the Upper Unit, between the two is a mélange zone. The Lower Unit is relatively homogeneous and consists almost entirely of flow basalts and pillow basalts. The base of the Upper Unit is the metamorphic sole which is overlain by a sequence of massive basalts flows and intrusions of gabbro and granites. The entire Upper Unit is cut by doleritic dykes and sills. Geochemically the Lower Unit is comprised of basaltic lavas with E-MORB affinities. These lavas are tholeiitic, low-K series lavas with trace element signatures of E-type MORB. For example ratios such as V/Ti, Zr/Y, Nb/Th, Th/La and Nb/U all suggest these lavas are E-MORB. Previous workers have suggested these lavas are back-arc basin (BAB) however the samples lack the characteristic signatures of subduction modified MORB. This conclusion is supported by chondrite and N-MORB normalized spider diagrams where the Lower Unit lavas are enriched in the LILE with respect to the HFSE. The Upper Unit of the Bela Ophiolite sequence has a slightly more complex history. The older lavas sequences, the massive basalt flows, gabbros and granites, all formed in an oceanic arc environment. These lavas exhibit classic arc signatures such as a negative Nb and Ti anomalies, are enriched in LILE and LREE relative to HSFE, and plot in the volcanic arc and island arc fields in classic ternary plots such as 2Nb- Zr/4-Y and Y/15-La/10-Nb/8. The younger sequence of intrusions found in the Bela ophiolite appear to have BAB signatures. These lavas have relatively flat MORB normalized plots, are slightly depleted in the LILE relative the HFSE, and have a very small negative Nb anomaly. Source characteristics for both units have been determined using trace element data. This work suggests that the E-MORB lavas are derived from partial melting of enriched mantle. The lavas found in the Upper Unit have all been sourced from depleted or N-MORB mantle which has been modified by subducting fluids. It is possible that the younger BAB samples have a slightly more enriched source than the corresponding arc lavas which might indicate movement of the subduction zone allowing the influx of new mantle material below the wedge. In conclusion, our new geochemical work shows that the Bela ophiolite contains three distinct magmatic sequences: a lower E-MORB sequence over lain by a series of volcanic arc lavas which are cut by BAB-type sills and dykes.

Khan, M.; Nicholson, K. N.; Mahmood, K.

2008-12-01

302

Forecasting Extreme Flooding in South Asia (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In most years there is extensive flooding across India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. On average, 40 million people are displaced by floods in India and half that many again in Bangladesh. Occasionally, even more extensive and severe flooding occurs across South Asia. In 2007 and 2008 the Brahmaputra flooded three times causing severe disruption of commerce, agriculture and life in general. Systems set up by an international collaboration predicted these Bangladesh floods with an operational system at the 10 and 15-day horizon. These forecasts determined the risk of flooding and allowed the Bangladeshis in peril to prepare, harvesting crops and storing of household and agricultural assets. Savings in increments of annual income resulted form the forecasts. In July and August 2010, severe flooding occurred in Pakistan causing horrendous damage and loss of life. But these floods were also predictable at the 10-day time scale if the same forecasting system developed for Bangladesh had been implemented. Similar systems could be implemented in India but would require local cooperation. We describe the manner in which quantified probabilistic precipitation forecasts, coupled with hydrological models can provide useful and timely extended warnings of flooding.

Webster, P. J.

2010-12-01

303

Second generation HIV surveillance in Pakistan: policy challenges and opportunities  

PubMed Central

From 2004 to 2011, the Canada-Pakistan HIV/AIDS Surveillance Project (HASP) worked with government and non-government partners in Pakistan to design and implement an HIV second generation surveillance (SGS) system. Insights into the development of scalable cost effective surveillance methodologies, implementation, use of data for HIV prevention and human rights were gained over the course of HASP. An ideal SGS system would be affordable, able to be implemented independently by local partners and produce data that could be readily applied in policy and programmes. Flexibility in design and implementation is important to ensure that any SGS system is responsive to information needs, political changes and changes in key population dynamics and HIV epidemics. HASP's mapping methodology is innovative and widely accepted as best practice, but sustainability of the SGS system it developed is a challenge. PMID:23220785

Munro, Michelle; Holte-McKenzie, Merydth; Ahmed, Sadia; Archibald, Chris P; Blanchard, James F; Thompson, Laura H

2013-01-01

304

The United States and Pakistan's Quest for the Bomb  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Security Archive at The George Washington University is dedicated to providing key diplomatic documents that describe the world of political relationships and other key areas of government relations between the United States and other nations. This electronic briefing book released in December 2010 takes a look at the attempts by the Carter administration to roll back Pakistan's nuclear program in the late 1970s. These recently declassified U.S. government documents shed light on the "critical period when Washington discovered that Pakistan, a Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty hold-out, had acquired key elements of a nuclear weapons capability." This collection contains 40 documents that highlight some of the behind-the-scenes negotiating that went on from 1978 to 1980. There's a brief synopsis of each document, and a fine introduction that provides some good context on this series of communiques and related exchanges.

305

Community participation eludes Pakistan's maternal, newborn and child health programme.  

PubMed

This study looked at the comprehensiveness of the primary health care approach being applied in Pakistan's National Maternal, Newborn and Child Health (MNCH) Programme launched in 2005. The methods included a review of the programme's guideline documents, in-depth interviews with managers/advisors and focus group discussions with community groups and service providers. The MNCH Programme is applying a selective primary care model. Programme advisors and managers were concerned about the quality of training, political interference and incomplete implementation. Service providers were not working together as envisioned. Community midwives complained about the community's perceptions of them. Community members were unaware of MNCH Programme implementation in their areas. Pakistan's primary health care programme needs to be reviewed and revised according current thinking on community participation and inter-sectoral collaboration to accelerate progress towards achievement of Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5. PMID:24932928

Akhtar, T; Khan, Z; Raoof, S

2014-01-01

306

Diagnostic testing for hemorrhagic fevers in pakistan: 2007-2013.  

PubMed

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) and dengue virus (DENV) are endemic to Pakistan. Patients presenting with symptoms of fever, bleeding, and rash cannot be distinguished without appropriate testing. We report data on 354 samples tested for CCHFV at The Aga Khan University Hospital in Pakistan between 2007 and 2013. All samples were tested for the presence of CCHFV RNA. Some samples were also tested for DENV RNA, NS-1 antigen, and/or reactive immunoglobulin M antibodies. Of 354 clinical specimens screened for CCHFV, 52 specimens were positive, with 24 cases in 2013 alone. Most cases were from Sindh and Baluchistan, which border other CCHFV-endemic regions: Iran and Afghanistan. Among CCHFV-negative samples, 168 samples were tested for DENV, and 36% of these samples were found to be DENV-positive. Rapid differentiation of CCHFV and DENV can prevent nosocomial transmission and result in time and cost savings for patients and healthcare workers. PMID:25311694

Hasan, Zahra; Atkinson, Barry; Jamil, Bushra; Samreen, Azra; Altaf, Lamia; Hewson, Roger

2014-12-01

307

Suicide and attempted suicide trends in Mianwali, Pakistan: social perspective.  

PubMed

This study aimed to examine the epidemiology and potential causes of suicides and attempted suicide cases that were reported to Rescue 1122 Mianwali in Pakistan. The data were collected prospectively for 2011. One hundred and eight suicides were reported during the study period. Four (4%) victims were found dead at the scene and 104 (96%) were taken to hospital. There were 84(78%) men and 24(22%) women and 98 (90%) were aged 11-30 years. Toxic substances (36%), pesticides (31%) and drug overdose (11%) were the most common materials/methods used. Depression/mental illness (33%), socioeconomic conditions (24%) and unemployment (21%) were the major reasons for attempting suicide. Suicide is a sensitive and multifaceted problem that needs to be addressed in Pakistan. PMID:24995732

Tahir, M N; Akbar, A H; Naseer, R; Khan, Q O; Khan, F; Yaqub, I

2014-01-01

308

Distributional Impacts of Agricultural Growth in Pakistan: A Multiplier Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spite of substantial growth in agricultural GDP in the 1990s, rural poverty rates in Pakistan did not decline. This paper explores the reasons for this lack of correlation between increases in agricultural production and poverty reduction through an analysis of growth linkages using a 2001-02 Social Accounting Matrix (SAM)-based semi-inputoutput model. Model simulations indicate that expansion of traditional crop

Paul Dorosh; Muhammad Khan Niazi; Hina Nazli

2003-01-01

309

Drinking water quality assessment in Southern Sindh (Pakistan)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The southern Sindh province of Pakistan adjoins the Arabian Sea coast where drinking water quality is deteriorating due to\\u000a dumping of industrial and urban waste and use of agrochemicals and yet has limited fresh water resources. The study assessed\\u000a the drinking water quality of canal, shallow pumps, dug wells, and water supply schemes from the administrative districts\\u000a of Thatta, Badin,

Mehrunisa Memon; Mohammed Saleh Soomro; Mohammad Saleem Akhtar; Kazi Suleman Memon

2011-01-01

310

Makran Mountain Range, Indus River Valley, Pakistan, India  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The enormous geologic pressures exerted by continental drift can be very well illustrated by the long northward curving parallel folded mountain ridges and valleys of the coastal Makran Range of Pakistan (27.0N, 66.0E). As a result of the collision of the northward bound Indian sub-continent into the Asian Continent, the east/west parallel range has been bent in a great northward arc and forming the Indus River valley at the interface of the collision.

1984-01-01

311

Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication - Pakistan, January 2012-September 2013.  

PubMed

Pakistan is one of three countries where transmission of indigenous wild poliovirus (WPV) has never been interrupted. This report describes polio eradication activities and progress in Pakistan during January 2012-September 2013 and updates previous reports. During 2012, 58 WPV cases were reported in selected areas, compared with 198 cases throughout the country in 2011; 52 WPV cases were reported during January-September 2013, compared with 54 cases during the same period in 2012. Of the 110 WPV cases reported since January 2012, 92 cases (84%) occurred in the conflict-affected Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) and in security-compromised Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) Province. WPV type 3 (WPV3) was isolated from only three persons with polio in a single district in 2012; the most recent case occurred in April 2012. During August 2012-September 2013, 52 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) cases were detected, including 30 cases (58%) identified in FATA during January-September 2013. Approximately 350,000 children in certain districts of FATA have not received polio vaccine during supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) conducted since mid-2012 because local authorities have banned polio vaccination. In some other areas of Pakistan, SIAs have been compromised by attacks targeting polio workers that started in mid-2012. Further efforts to reach children in conflict-affected and security-compromised areas, including vaccinating at transit points and conducting additional short-interval-additional-dose (SIAD) SIAs as areas become accessible, will be necessary to prevent reintroduction of WPV into other areas of Pakistan and other parts of the world. PMID:24257203

2013-11-22

312

Assessment of water quality of Manchar Lake in Sindh (Pakistan)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manchar Lake is the largest natural freshwater lake in Pakistan. The Lake has received less fresh water in past few years.\\u000a In addition, drainage water is being discharged in the Lake through Main Nara Valley Drain (MNVD) since many years. Consequently,\\u000a concern has grown regarding the water quality of the Lake. The aim of this study was to assess the

Ghulam Murtaza Mastoi; Syed Ghulam Sarwar Shah; Mohammad Yar Khuhawar

2008-01-01

313

Geographical and temporal variation of injection drug users in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Objectives We describe the characteristics of injecting drug users (IDU) in Pakistan in 2006 and 2011, and assess the heterogeneity of IDU characteristics across different cities and years as well as factors associated with HIV infection. Methods Cross-sectional, integrated behavioural-biological surveys of IDU were conducted in 10 cities across Pakistan in 2006 and 2011. Univariate and multivariable analyses were used to describe the differences in HIV prevalence and risk behaviours between cities and over time. Results Large increases in HIV prevalence among injection drug users in Pakistan were observed, with overall HIV prevalence increasing from 16.2% in 2006 to 31.0% in 2011; an increase in HIV prevalence was also seen in all geographic areas except one. There was an increase in risk behaviours between 2006 and 2011, anecdotally related to a reduction in the availability of services for IDU. In 2011, larger proportions of IDU reported injecting several times a day and using professional injectors, and fewer reported always using clean syringes. An increase in the proportion living on the street was also observed and this was associated with HIV infection. Cities differ in terms of HIV prevalence, risk profiles, and healthcare seeking behaviours. Conclusions There is a high prevalence of HIV among injection drug users in Pakistan and considerable potential for further transmission through risk behaviours. HIV prevention programs may be improved through geographic targeting of services within a city and for involving groups that interact with IDU (such as pharmacy staff and professional injectors) in harm reduction initiatives. PMID:23314301

Archibald, Chris P; Shaw, Souradet Y; Emmanuel, Faran; Otho, Suleman; Reza, Tahira; Altaf, Arshad; Musa, Nighat; Thompson, Laura H; Blanchard, James F

2013-01-01

314

Violence against women in Pakistan: contributing factors and new interventions.  

PubMed

Pakistan ranks 125th out of 169 countries on the Gender Development Index and has high prevalence rates of Violence against Women (VAW). Contributing factors toward gender based violence at the micro, meso and macro levels include the acceptability of violence amongst both men and women, internalization of deservability, economic disempowerment, lack of formal education, joint family systems, entrenched patriarchal norms and values, and a lack of awareness of legal and other support systems. These factors have a long-lasting impact on the health of women and children. The gender disparities in the experience of women seeking health care in Pakistan are well-recognized and documented. In the past, common government policy responses to these disparities have included developing the role of community health workers (CHWs) and lady health visitors (LHVs). Despite being commendable initiatives, these too have been unsuccessful in addressing these multi-faceted disparities. Within this complex scenario, new interventions to address VAW and its impact on health in Pakistan include Group Counselling, Economic Skills Building, Health-Based Microfinance, and Family-Based models that increase male involvement, especially at the primary health care level. The purpose of this article is to outline key contributing factors to VAW, explore tested and new interventions, and highlight the opportunities that exist in implementing them. PMID:23215983

Karmaliani, Rozina; Pasha, Aneeta; Hirani, Saima; Somani, Rozina; Hirani, Shela; Asad, Nargis; Cassum, Laila; McFarlane, Judith

2012-12-01

315

Genetic analysis of peste des petits ruminants virus from Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an endemic and highly contagious disease in small ruminants of Pakistan. Despite the fact that an effective vaccine is available, outbreaks are regularly occurring in the country. Thus so far, the diagnosis has primarily been made based on clinical outcome or serology. This study was carried out to characterize PPRV from an emerging wave of outbreaks from Punjab, Pakistan. Results A total of 32 blood samples from five different flocks were tested with real-time PCR for the presence of PPRV genome. The samples detected positive in real-time PCR (n?=?17) were subjected to conventional PCR for the amplification of the nucleoprotein (N) gene. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequenced N genes (n?=?8) indicated the grouping of all the sequences in lineage IV along with PPRV strains from Asian and Middle East. However, interestingly sequences were divided into two groups. One group of viruses (n?=?7) clustered with previously characterized Pakistani isolates whereas one strain of PPRV was distinct and clustered with Saudi Arabian and Iranian strains of PPRV. Conclusions Results demonstrated in this study expanded the information on the genetic nature of different PPRV population circulating in small ruminants. Such information is essential to understand genetic nature of PPRV strains throughout the country. Proper understanding of these viruses will help to devise control strategies in PPRV endemic countries such as Pakistan. PMID:23537146

2013-01-01

316

Intimate Partner Violence in Pakistan: A Systematic Review.  

PubMed

Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major social and public health problem affecting people in various cultures and societies. Though the issue of IPV in Pakistan has been researched since the 1990s, no attempt has been made systematically to review the available evidence on IPV in Pakistan. This article presents findings of a systematic review of available empirical literature related to IPV in Pakistan. Using various key words, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO were searched to identify relevant studies. This resulted in the identification of 55 potential studies for inclusion. After application of exclusion criteria 23 studies were identified, 20 of which used quantitative research designs, two used qualitative designs and one adopted a mixed method case study approach. All studies reported men as the perpetrators of IPV and women as its victims. Findings are presented and discussed for IPV for its forms, predictors, effects and victims' responses. Pakistani peoples' perceived reasons for and their attitudes towards IPV are also presented and discussed. PMID:24626459

Ali, Parveen Azam; Naylor, Paul B; Croot, Elizabeth; O'Cathain, Alicia

2014-03-12

317

Initiated by the south. South - South Cooperation.  

PubMed

The UNFPA Deputy Chief of the Asia and Pacific Division explains how relations between representatives of developing countries to the South have often been less than congenial and how efforts have been made to smooth the way for greater cooperation between neighbors in the region. President Soeharto of Indonesia at a G-15 submeeting of Non-Aligned Countries in Malaysia in 1990 made the first overtures to his peers. He offered to work more closely with other interested countries economically and in terms of technical assistance. Prime Minister Von Van Kiet of Vietnam took him up on his offer and visited the President in Indonesia in January 1992 to discuss family planning issues. The subsequent assistance rendered by Indonesia to Vietnam in developing its family planning program was unique in bilateral relations in the region in that it was initiated by the nonaligned countries without outside interference. The author thinks that the UNFPA should play a facilitating role financially and organizationally in what may be the beginning of a trend toward greater South-South cooperation. Any help which developing countries could render to other developing nations will certainly be appreciated in this period of waning resources from developed countries for international population programs. The author also argues that service quality in donor countries is likely to improve. PMID:12345389

Parsons, J S

1993-12-01

318

Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/18: Maritime Cooperation Between India and Pakistan: Building Confidence at Sea  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses ways in which the navies of both India and Pakistan can cooperate on issues of maritime and naval significance. Although the militaries and navies of the two countries have traditionally seen each other as rivals, international economic developments make cooperation imperative. South Asia requires an approach that can alter the existing hostile images and perceptions. This can be achieved through developing an incremental approach towards confidence building that would allow consistency and help build confidence gradually. The aim is to make confidence building a sustainable activity that would help transform hostile images and build cooperative and nonhostile relationships. This paper proposes a five-step model to suggest what the two navies can do jointly to build confidence, with the ultimate goal of naval arms control. The steps include (1) the Signaling Stage to initiate communication between the two navies, (2) the Warming-Up Stage to build confidence through nonmilitary joint ventures, (3) the Handshake Stage to build confidence between the two navies through military joint ventures, (4) the Problem-Solving Stage to resolve outstanding disputes, and (5) the Final Nod Stage to initiate naval arms control. This model would employ communication, navigation, and remote sensing technologies to achieve success.

SIDDIQA-AGHA,AYESHA

2000-11-01

319

The human resource information system: a rapid appraisal of Pakistan’s capacity to employ the tool  

PubMed Central

Background Human resources are an important building block of the health system. During the last decade, enormous investment has gone into the information systems to manage human resources, but due to the lack of a clear vision, policy, and strategy, the results of these efforts have not been very visible. No reliable information portal captures the actual state of human resources in Pakistan’s health sector. The World Health Organization (WHO) has provided technical support for the assessment of the existing system and development of a comprehensive Human Resource Information System (HRIS) in Pakistan. Methods The questions in the WHO-HRIS Assessment tool were distributed into five thematic groups. Purposively selected (n=65) representatives from the government, private sector, and development partners participated in this cross sectional study, based on their programmatic affiliations. Results Fifty-five percent of organizations and departments have an independent Human Resources (HR) section managed by an establishment branch and are fully equipped with functional computers. Forty-five organizations (70%) had HR rules, regulations and coordination mechanisms, yet these are not implemented. Data reporting is mainly in paper form, on prescribed forms (51%), registers (3%) or even plain papers (20%). Data analysis does not give inputs to the decision making process and dissemination of information is quite erratic. Most of the organizations had no feedback mechanism for cross checking the HR data, rendering it unreliable. Conclusion Pakistan is lacking appropriate HRIS management. The current HRIS indeed has a multitude of problems. In the wake of 2011 reforms within the health sector, provinces are even in a greater need for planning their respective health department services and must work on the deficiencies and inefficiencies of their HRIS so that the gaps and HR needs are better aligned for reaching the 2015 UN Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) targets. PMID:24016066

2013-01-01

320

Climate change and managing water crisis: Pakistan's perspective.  

PubMed

Climate change is a global phenomenon manifested mainly through global warming. The International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has reported its negative consequences on natural resources, anthropogenic activities, and natural disasters. The El Nino and La Nina have affected hydrologic regimes and ecosystems. It has been observed that the average temperature in 1995 was 0.4°C higher than that in 1895. By the end of the 21st century, 10% of the area of Bangladesh is likely to be submerged by the sea. Most of the islands of Pacific Ocean will disappear. A major part of Maldives will be submerged. The sea level is expected to rise by 30-150 cm. Extreme events such as floods, cyclones, tsunamis, and droughts have become regular phenomena in many parts of the world. Other adverse impacts are proliferation of water-borne diseases, sea water intrusion, salinization of coastal areas, loss of biodiversity, eco-degradation of watersheds and global glacial decline, and haphazard snow melts/thaws. In turn, these factors have serious effect on water resources. Pakistan is confronting similar climate change. Meteorological data reveal that winter temperatures are rising and summers are getting cooler. Temperature is expected to increase by 0.9°C and 1.5°C by years 2020 and 2050, respectively. Water resources in Pakistan are affected by climate change as it impacts the behavior of glaciers, rainfall patterns, greenhouse gas emissions, recurrence of extreme events such as floods and droughts. Severe floods have occurred in the years 1950, 1956, 1957, 1973, 1976, 1978, 1988, 1992, 2010, 2011, and 2012. Pakistan has faced the worst-ever droughts during the period from 1998 to 2004. Pakistan has surface water potential of 140 million acre feet (MAF) and underground water reserve of 56 MAF. It is one of the most water-stressed countries in the world. The per capita annual availability of water has reduced from 5140 m3 in 1950 to 1000 m3 now. It is fast approaching towards water scarcity. To minimize adverse impacts of climate change on the water crisis in Pakistan, the preparation of integrated national, provincial, and local level master plans encompassing technical, social, environmental, administrative, and financial considerations is necessary. It is imperative to implement two simultaneous approaches of adaptation (living with climate change) and mitigation (addressing negativities of climate change). Salient features are integrated management of watersheds/catchments/water bodies, optimum exploitation of present sources, development of new sources, water conservation, adequate drainage, efficient design of water storage, conveyance, distribution and supply systems, utilization of waste water, and regulation of water quality. PMID:24695031

Hussain, Mumtaz; Mumtaz, Saniea

2014-01-01

321

A Dime a Day: The Possibilities and Limits of Private Schooling in Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors of this article state that Pakistan is severely offtrack in its progress toward the Millennium Development Goals relating to education for all. Its educational performance is poor, both in absolute terms and relative to the average income of the country. Pakistan has received global attention because of the widespread perception that…

Andrabi, Tahir; Das, Jishnu; Khwaja, Asim Ijaz

2008-01-01

322

Topographical, Geological and Geophysical Measurements in the Diamer Basha Dam Area (Gilgit-Balistan, Pakistan)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agriculture and electricity are the backbone of Pakistan's economy. Pakistan today is one of the World's fastest growing countries with a population estimated to be around 170 million at the beginning of 2009. Due to the inability to regulate large rivers by means of sizeable storages, the country is already facing frequent power deficits in electricity and serious shortages in

Giorgio Poretti; Chiara Calligaris; Gino de Min; Shahina Tariq; Hawas Kahn; Faqhia Zubair

2010-01-01

323

Monitoring Environmental Impacts on Mangrove Ecosystem in the Indus Delta of Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring Environmental Impacts on Mangrove Ecosystem in the Indus Delta of Pakistan The mangrove forests growing in intertidal region along the tropical coastlines form a unique ecosystem with rich floral species and marine resources. In Pakistan, large mangrove forests are found all along the muddy coast of Sindh province at Indus Deltaic region. These mangroves are threatened by a variety

Mehrun-Nisa Siddiqui

2008-01-01

324

Pakistan-Specific Cases for the Advanced Management Course in Public Administration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A compilation of management case studies concerning public administration in Pakistan and accompanying teaching notes, this document is intended to foster discussion in classes such as the advanced management course in public administration at the National Institute of Public Administration in Lahore, Pakistan. Included are case studies entitled…

McLean, Gary N., Ed.

325

Exploring English-Language Teachers' Professional Development in Developing Countries: Cases from Syria and Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper attempts to present the findings of a study carried out in Pakistan that explored English-language teachers' professional development in developing countries. The main guiding question for the study was: How do English-language teachers at secondary schools learn to teach and develop professionally in Syria and Pakistan? Two cases were…

Dayoub, Ruba; Bashiruddin, Ayesha

2012-01-01

326

Responding to HIV service needs of injecting drug users in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drug abuse is increasingly becoming a major social and public health problem in Pakistan, specially injecting drug use. Poverty and geographical location of Pakistan also makes the country most vulnerable. However, it is often overshadowed by other issues the country is facing. Until the mid-1990s popular mode of taking drugs was inhalation. Due to the heroin supply disruptions and many

T. Hussain

2008-01-01

327

Natural balance of graminicolous aphids in Pakistan II. — Aphids populations on maize  

E-print Network

Natural balance of graminicolous aphids in Pakistan II. — Aphids populations on maize.) and Chrysopa carnea Stephens was the impor- tant mortality factor. In addition to these predators, aphids, predator. RÃ?SUMÃ? Equilibre naturel chez les pucerons des graminées au Pakistan. II. - Populations d'aphides

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

328

Comparison of Seroepidemiology and Transmission Modes of Viral Hepatitis B in Iran and Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is endemic in the Middle East region and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Strict strategies are needed for prevention, diagnosis and management of HBV infection. Reviewing literature about seroepidemilogy and modes of infection transmission in Iran and Pakistan performed. Iran is in low endemicity and Pakistan in intermediate endemicity of HBV infection, now.

Seyed-M Moayed Alavian; Farahnaz Fallahian; Kamran Bagheri Lankarani

329

The Mosque Schools in Pakistan: An Experiment in Integrating Nonformal and Formal Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A wide-ranging study of the centrality of the mosque to Islamic education in Pakistan emphasizes Islamic educational traditions, the historical background of such education, the obstacles to educational improvement in Pakistan, and the attempt to provide universal primary education. Traditionally, the Prophet Mohammad and the Holy Quran have been…

Khan, K. A.

330

Professional Activities, Needed Competencies and Training Needs of Medical Librarians in Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study aims to explore the professional activities, needed competencies and education/training needs of medical librarians in Pakistan. The following questions guided the study: what are the current professional activities of medical librarians in Pakistan? What is their perception of the competencies needed of medical librarians? And what are…

Ullah, Midrar; Ameen, Kanwal; Bakhtar, Salman

2011-01-01

331

Water sharing between India and Pakistan: a critical evaluation of the Indus Water Treaty  

Microsoft Academic Search

For nearly 50 years a relatively stable Indus Water Treaty (IWT) moderated competition for the Indus water between Pakistan and India. Rising demand for water in each nation could unsettle this stable relationship, as foreshadowed by the involvement of a third party during 2005–2007 for the first time in the treaty's history. This paper discusses Pakistan and India's experience in

Mary Miner; Gauri Patankar; Shama Gamkhar; David J. Eaton

2009-01-01

332

Age, Gender and Job Satisfaction among Elementary School Head Teachers in Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore general job satisfaction of elementary school head teachers in Pakistan with respect to their age and gender. One hundred and eighty head teachers were sampled from government elementary schools of Toba Tek Singh, Punjab, Pakistan, to collect the relevant data using a modified version of the Minnesota…

Ghazi, Safdar Rehman; Maringe, Felix

2011-01-01

333

An approach to digitize analog form of accelerograms recorded at Tarbela—Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pakistan has a long history of seismological activity. The devastation caused by Kashmir earthquake has been administered all over the world. In Pakistan first seismological network, consisting of analog accelerograms and seismographs, was setup in early 1969 at Tarbela, where the largest water reservoir of the country is located. An approach to convert analog ground motion records into digital form

M. Rizwan; M. Ilyas; A. Masood; I. Towhata

2008-01-01

334

Cointegration and Causality: An Application to Major Mango Markets in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mangoes are one of Pakistan’s mostimportant fruits; the country is the world’s fourth largest producer and exporter of mangoes. Integrated markets are those where price signals are transferred from one to another, allowing physical arbitrage to adjust any disturbances in these markets; integrated markets are thus a sign of efficiency. From this viewpoint, we investigate domestic integration amongten major mango

Abdul Ghafoor; Khalid Mustafa; Khalid Mushtaq; Abedullah

2009-01-01

335

Unethical Marketing Practices of Pharmaceutical Companies in Pakistan: A Case Study of Sukkur Division  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pakistani pharmaceutical industry is synchronized by various legal perspectives to make certain the health of people of Pakistan but unfortunately rising population, inflation and people's wish to have money to burn leads to unethical practices so as in Pharmaceutical companies of Pakistan. Keeping in view the rising trend of unethical drug promotional activities in Pharmaceutical industry, a prior study was

Saeed Abbas Shah; Hyder Ali Khawaja

2013-01-01

336

Can Education Be a Path to Gender Equality in the Labour Market? An Update on Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates some of the economic outcomes of education in Pakistan with a view to understanding if education can act as a vehicle for labour market success. Data from a purpose-designed survey of more than 1000 households in Pakistan are utilised. Earnings functions are estimated for agricultural workers, the self-employed and wage…

Aslam, Monazza; Kingdon, Geeta

2012-01-01

337

NEW WINE IN OLD BOTTLES: An Analysis of Pakistan's Conflict in the Pashtun Tribal Areas  

E-print Network

The Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) of Pakistan have regained prominence in recent years because of the U.S.' "war on terror" against Al-Qaeda. The Government of Pakistan, backed by the U.S. and NATO, is involved ...

Khan, Huma

2008-08-25

338

The Role of Educational Technology in Upgrading Teacher Education in Pakistan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper outlines a joint Asian Bank/Pakistan Ministry of Education project designed to upgrade the state of teacher education and to improve the quality, status, and professional self-esteem of Pakistan's teachers. The main strategies identified by the Project for priority attention include: structural changes through the creation of four new…

Abbasi, M. Hashim; Millar, Alex C.

339

A question mark on zinc deficiency in 185 million people in Pakistan--possible way out.  

PubMed

This paper reviews research published in recent years concerning the effects of zinc deficiency, its consequences, and possible solutions. Zinc is an essential trace element necessary for over 300 zinc metalloenzymes and required for normal nucleic acid, protein, and membrane metabolism. Zinc deficiency is one of the ten biggest factors contributing to burden of disease in developing countries. Populations in South Asia, South East Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa are at greatest risk of zinc deficiency. Zinc intakes are inadequate for about a third of the population and stunting affects 40% of preschool children. In Pakistan, zinc deficiency is an emerging health problem as about 20.6% children are found in the levels of zinc, below 60 ?g/dL. Signs and symptoms caused by zinc deficiency are poor appetite, weight loss, and poor growth in childhood, delayed healing of wounds, taste abnormalities, and mental lethargy. As body stores of zinc decline, these symptoms worsen and are accompanied by diarrhea, recurrent infection, and dermatitis. Daily zinc requirements for an adult are 12-16 mg/day. Iron, calcium and phytates inhibit the absorption of zinc therefore simultaneous administration should not be prescribed. Zinc deficiency and its effects are well known but the ways it can help in treatment of different diseases is yet to be discovered. Improving zinc intakes through dietary improvements is a complex task that requires considerable time and effort. The use of zinc supplements, dietary modification, and fortifying foods with zinc are the best techniques to combat its deficiency. PMID:24499152

Khalid, Nauman; Ahmed, Anwaar; Bhatti, Muhammad Shahbaz; Randhawa, Muhammad Atif; Ahmad, Asif; Rafaqat, Rabab

2014-01-01

340

Aid and stability in Pakistan: lessons from the 2005 earthquake response.  

PubMed

United States foreign assistance to Pakistan has always been driven by security considerations. By 2010, US counter-terrorism and stabilisation objectives resulted in Pakistan becoming the second largest recipient of US foreign aid globally. Given the policy impact of the assumption that aid promotes US security objectives in Pakistan, there is surprisingly little analysis or evidence of its effectiveness in this regard. This paper helps to address this gap by first reviewing the history and assumptions underpinning current US aid and stabilisation policies. It then uses field research on the 2005 earthquake relief efforts in northern Pakistan to assess the impact of the 'War on Terror' on the humanitarian response. In particular, it examines the assumption of influential US policymakers that humanitarian aid following the earthquake was an effective way to promote US security objectives by 'winning hearts and minds'-an assumption that has been used to justify all subsequent major US foreign aid commitments to Pakistan. PMID:20846352

Wilder, Andrew

2010-10-01

341

The association of complex liver disorders with HBV genotypes prevalent in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Genotyping of HBV is generally used for determining the epidemiological relationship between various virus strains and origin of infection mostly in research studies. The utility of genotyping for clinical applications is only beginning to gain importance. Whether HBV genotyping will constitute part of the clinical evaluation of Hepatitis B patients depends largely on the availability of the relevance of the evidence based information. Since Pakistan has a HBV genotype distribution which has been considered less virulent as investigated by earlier studies from south East Asian countries, a study on correlation between HBV genotypes and risk of progression to further complex hepatic infection was much needed Methods A total of 295 patients with HBsAg positive were selected from the Pakistan Medical Research Council's (PMRC) out patient clinics. Two hundred and twenty six (77%) were males, sixty nine (23%) were females (M to F ratio 3.3:1). Results Out of 295 patients, 156 (53.2%) had Acute(CAH), 71 (24.2%) were HBV Carriers, 54 (18.4%) had Chronic liver disease (CLD) Hepatitis. 14 (4.7%) were Cirrhosis and HCC patients. Genotype D was the most prevalent genotype in all categories of HBV patients, Acute (108), Chronic (39), and Carrier (53). Cirrhosis/HCC (7) were HBV/D positive. Genotype A was the second most prevalent with 28 (13%) in acute cases, 12 (22.2%) in chronics, 14 (19.7%) in carriers and 5 (41.7) in Cirrhosis/HCC patients. Mixed genotype (A/D) was found in 20 (12.8%) of Acute patients, 3 (5.6%) of Chronic and 4 (5.6%) of carriers, none in case of severe liver conditions. Conclusion Mixed HBV genotypes A, D and A/D combination were present in all categories of patients except that no A/D combination was detected in severe conditions. Genotype D was the dominant genotype. However, genotype A was found to be more strongly associated with severe liver disease. Mixed genotype (A/D) did not significantly appear to influence the clinical outcome. PMID:18042293

Baig, Saeeda; Siddiqui, Anwar Ali; Ahmed, Waqaruddin; Qureshi, Huma; Arif, Ambreen

2007-01-01

342

South Africa  

Atmospheric Science Data Center

article title:  Red Tide Strands South African Rock Lobsters     ... in search of oxygen, but were stranded by the retreating tide. The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) nadir camera ... northeast of the jutting Cape Columbine. The term "red tide" is used to refer to a number of different types of phytoplankton blooms ...

2013-04-16

343

South Africa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This true-color image of South Africa was acquired on May 14, 2000, by NASA's Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, or MODIS. The image was produced using a combination of the sensor's 250-m and 500-m resolution visible wavelength bands. As part of the opening ceremony to begin the joint U.S.-South Africa SAFARI Field Experiment, NASA presented print copies of this image as GIFts to Dr. Ben Ngubane, Minister of Arts, Science and Technology, and Honorable Advocate Ngoaka Ramathlodi, Premier of the Northern Province, South Africa. The area shown in this image encompasses seven capital cities and a number of the region's distinctive geological features can be seen clearly. Toward the northern (top) central part of the image, the browns and tans comprise the Kalahari Desert of southern Botswana. The Tropic of Capricorn runs right through the heart of the Kalahari and the Botswanan capital city of Gaborone sits on the Limpopo River, southeast of the Kalahari. Along the western coastline of the continent is the country of Namibia, where the Namib Desert is framed against the sea by the Kaokoveld Mountains. The Namibian capital of Windhoek is obscured by clouds. Looking closely in the center of the image, the Orange River can be seen running from east to west, demarcating the boundary between Namibia and South Africa. On the southwestern corner of the continent is the hook-like Cape of Good Hope peninsula and Cape Town, the parliamentary capital of South Africa. Running west to east away from Cape Town are the Great Karroo Mountains. The shadow in this image conveys a sense of the very steep grade of the cliffs along the southern coast of South Africa. Port Elizabeth sits on the southeasternmost point of South Africa, and a large phytoplankton bloom can be seen in the water about 100 miles east of there. Moving northward along the east coast, the Drakensberg Mountains are visible. The two small nations of Lesotho and Swaziland are in this region, completely contained within South Africa's boundaries. In the upper righthand corner of the image is the Bay of Maputo, where sits Maputo, the capital of Mozambique. Fires are visible in the northeast corner of the image, near Maputo. Just north of Maputo is where the Limpopo River empties into the Indian Ocean. Tracing the Limpopo inland back toward the west, this river defines the northern boundary of South Africa with both Zimbabwe and Botswana. Johannesburg, the commercial capital of South Africa, can be seen as the greyish pixels in the northeastern region of the country. The country's legislative capital, Pretoria, is about 50 miles north of Johannesburg and 250 miles west of Maputo, in the heart of the Northern Province (formerly known as Transvaal). (Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Group, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center)

2002-01-01

344

Seroprevalence of Pediatric Malaria in Quetta, Balochistan, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria is one of the most devastating protozoal diseases in under developing countries like Pakistan where health facilities are scarce. It is the second most frequently reported disease with 4.5 million suspected cases in Pakistan. The current study was designed to determine the incidence of pediatric malaria in Quetta, Balochistan. Methods The study was conducted at Children Hospital Quetta (CHQ) during July 2011march 2012. Blood samples were collected from 3418 clinically suspected and were evaluated using thin and thick blood films stained with Giemsa stain. Results Out of 3418 total of 230 (6.72%) children were found positive for any of the malarial parasitic infestation. Plasmodium vivax was observed to be more common 54.34% (n= 125/230) than P. falciparum 44.78% (n = 103/230). Male children were 65.21% (150/230) i.e. two times more commonly affected than female 34.78% (80/230) children. The prevalence among age groups was 7.41% (n = 89/1200) in preschool-aged children aged 1-5 years, 7.11% (n = 75/1054) in school-aged children aged 6—10 years while 6.78% (n = 46/678) in 11-15 years-old children, and 6.66% (n = 20/300) in >15 year-olds children. Peak prevalence was noted in summer and mild in winter. Mixed infection of (0.86%: 2/230) P. vivax and P. falciparum was also observed in two cases although no case of P. malariae or P. ovale infection was seen during entire study. Conclusion The results reflect the higher prevalence of malaria in Quetta, Pakistan that poses a significant health threat and requires urgent attention of high-ups to launch programme to control the disease in the area. PMID:23914251

Hussain, K; Shafee, M; Khan, N; Jan, S; Tareen, AM; Khan, MA

2013-01-01

345

Analyzing Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Diversity in Pakistan by DNA Barcoding  

PubMed Central

Background Although they are important disease vectors mosquito biodiversity in Pakistan is poorly known. Recent epidemics of dengue fever have revealed the need for more detailed understanding of the diversity and distributions of mosquito species in this region. DNA barcoding improves the accuracy of mosquito inventories because morphological differences between many species are subtle, leading to misidentifications. Methodology/Principal Findings Sequence variation in the barcode region of the mitochondrial COI gene was used to identify mosquito species, reveal genetic diversity, and map the distribution of the dengue-vector species in Pakistan. Analysis of 1684 mosquitoes from 491 sites in Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa during 2010–2013 revealed 32 species with the assemblage dominated by Culex quinquefasciatus (61% of the collection). The genus Aedes (Stegomyia) comprised 15% of the specimens, and was represented by six taxa with the two dengue vector species, Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti, dominant and broadly distributed. Anopheles made up another 6% of the catch with An. subpictus dominating. Barcode sequence divergence in conspecific specimens ranged from 0–2.4%, while congeneric species showed from 2.3–17.8% divergence. A global haplotype analysis of disease-vectors showed the presence of multiple haplotypes, although a single haplotype of each dengue-vector species was dominant in most countries. Geographic distribution of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus showed the later species was dominant and found in both rural and urban environments. Conclusions As the first DNA-based analysis of mosquitoes in Pakistan, this study has begun the construction of a barcode reference library for the mosquitoes of this region. Levels of genetic diversity varied among species. Because of its capacity to differentiate species, even those with subtle morphological differences, DNA barcoding aids accurate tracking of vector populations. PMID:24827460

Ashfaq, Muhammad; Hebert, Paul D. N.; Mirza, Jawwad H.; Khan, Arif M.; Zafar, Yusuf; Mirza, M. Sajjad

2014-01-01

346

Microbial contamination of drinking water in Pakistan--a review.  

PubMed

Water pollution with pathogenic microorganisms is one of the serious threats to human health, particularly in developing countries. The main objective of this article is to highlight microbial contamination of drinking water, the major factors responsible for microbial contamination, and the resulting health problems in Pakistan. Furthermore, this study will be helpful for researchers and administrative agencies to initiate relevant studies and develop new policies to protect further deterioration of water supply with pathogenic microbes and ensure clean and safe drinking water to the public in Pakistan. In Pakistan, water at the source, in the distribution network, and at the consumer tap is heavily polluted with coliforms and fecal coliforms all over the country. An overview of more than 7,000 water samples reviewed here reveals that an average of over 71 and 58 % samples in the country was contaminated with total coliforms and fecal coliforms, respectively. Drinking water contamination accounts for 20 to 40 % of all diseases in the country, which causes national income losses of Rs 25-58 billion annually (US$0.25-0.58 billion, approximately 0.6-1.44 % of the country's GDP). Improper disposal of industrial and municipal wastes is the most important factor responsible for water pollution in the country followed by cross-contamination due to old and leaking pipes and lack of water filtration and disinfection facilities. There is an urgent need for emergency steps to stop further deterioration of water quality and improve the existing water quality so as to protect the public from widespread waterborne diseases. PMID:25056753

Nabeela, Farhat; Azizullah, Azizullah; Bibi, Roqaia; Uzma, Syeda; Murad, Waheed; Shakir, Shakirullah Khan; Ullah, Waheed; Qasim, Muhammad; Häder, Donat-Peter

2014-12-01

347

Migration and development in Pakistan: some selected issues.  

PubMed

Various sources of cross-sectional data were used as a basis for considering some of the interrelationships between migration and development in Pakistan, particularly the effects on the labor-exporting rural areas. The available data yield a range of estimates as to the level of mobility. During the 1970s, around 7-10% of Pakistan's population changed residence. The incidence of migration was higher among females than males. Women's greater propensity to migrate can be attributed primarily to patrilocal marriage customs wherein a significant proportion of females migrate, particularly in the rural areas. According to the 1979 Population, Labor Force and Migration Survey, the share of migrants in the total female population fell from 11.8% to 4.8% when migration for marriage is excluded. In Pakistan, mobility is predominantly local or involves short distances only. Only 19% of the internal migrants crossed provincial boundaries. 29.8% of the flow was from rural to urban areas. The remainder of the volume of internal migration was shared equally by inter-city and urban-to-rural migrants. The coincidence of the timing of marriage and entry into the labor market in individuals' life cycles generated a peak for the 15-24 age group in the age-mobility curve. A positive association exists between education and the propensity to migrate. In terms of origin, the propensity to move exhibited by the higher educational group was higher (33%) in rural areas than in urban areas (10%). 83% of this group from rural areas moved to urban centers; 80% of the same educational background chose another urban center as destination. The data on remittances may suffer both from reporting areas and being unrepresentative. The remittances estimated due to internal migration, on the basis of the PLM survey, amounted to 3 billion rupees in 1978. On average, remittances accounted for 35% of the earnings of the migrants. Average remittances were substantially less than the earnings of nonmigrants of comparable skill and education in the supplying areas. Migration may lead to an improvement in income distribution because labor exodus may generate tight labor market conditions in supplying areas, resulting in increased wages of rural workers. The evidence of Pakistan tended to support this. According to the findings of the PLM Survey, a higher level of outmigration is recorded for owner-operators, followed by share croppers, with landless labor ranking the lowest. Some of the multivariate regressions for urban married females suggest a negative relationship between children ever born and premarital residence in rural areas. This disruptive effect was marginally significant and but also specific to parity and age of the female. PMID:12341747

Irfan, M

1986-01-01

348

Vitamin D state of Asians living in Pakistan.  

PubMed Central

Asians living in Pakistan have serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol concentrations which are well within the normal range and significantly higher than in Asians resident in Britain. Clearly, Asians can maintain an adequate vitamin D state given an abundant supply of ultraviolet light, and the expression of vitamin D deficiency is an environmental and not a genetically determined characteristic. The risk of an Asian developing vitamin D deficiency increases after migration to Britain. The most efficient way to treat this is by supplementation with vitamin D. PMID:6401520

Rashid, A; Mohammed, T; Stephens, W P; Warrington, S; Berry, J L; Mawer, E B

1983-01-01

349

Blood Selenium Status in Normal Punjabi Population of Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selenium concentrations in the blood of 112 (56 females and 56 males) normal subjects, from different regions of the Punjab\\u000a (Pakistan), have been determined using the technique of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The whole blood selenium\\u000a concentrations were found to be 452?±?12 ppb (parts per billion or nano-gram of Se per gram freeze-dried blood or 96?±?3 ?g\\/L\\u000a ), with 470?±?16 ppb (or 100?±?4 ?g\\/L)

Farrakh M. Alvi; Mohammad Anwar Chaudhri; John Watling; Shahida Hasnain

350

Health burden of skin lesions at low arsenic exposure through groundwater in Pakistan. Is river the source?  

SciTech Connect

A significant proportion of groundwater in south Asia is contaminated with arsenic. Pakistan has low levels of arsenic in groundwater compared with China, Bangladesh and India. A representative multi-stage cluster survey conducted among 3874 persons {>=}15 years of age to determine the prevalence of arsenic skin lesions, its relation with arsenic levels and cumulative arsenic dose in drinking water in a rural district (population: 1.82 million) in Pakistan. Spot-urine arsenic levels were compared among individuals with and without arsenic skin lesions. In addition, the relation of age, body mass index, smoking status with arsenic skin lesions was determined. The geographical distribution of the skin lesions and arsenic-contaminated wells in the district were ascertained using global positioning system. The total arsenic, inorganic and organic forms, in water and spot-urine samples were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The prevalence of skin lesions of arsenic was estimated for complex survey design, using surveyfreq and surveylogistic options of SAS 9.1 software.The prevalence of definitive cases i.e. hyperkeratosis of both palms and soles, was 3.4 per 1000 and suspected cases i.e. any sign of arsenic skin lesions (melanosis and/or keratosis), were 13.0 per 1000 among {>=}15-year-old persons in the district. Cumulative arsenic exposure (dose) was calculated from levels of arsenic in water and duration of use of current drinking water source. Prevalence of skin lesions increases with cumulative arsenic exposure (dose) in drinking water and arsenic levels in urine. Skin lesions were 2.5-fold among individuals with BMI <18.5 kg/m{sup 2}. Geographically, more arsenic-contaminated wells and skin lesions were alongside Indus River, suggests a strong link between arsenic contamination of groundwater with proximity to river.This is the first reported epidemiological and clinical evidence of arsenic skin lesions due to groundwater in Pakistan. Further investigations and focal mitigation measures for arsenic may be carried out alongside Indus River.

Fatmi, Zafar, E-mail: zafar.fatmi@aku.edu [Department of Community Health Sciences, Aga Khan University, Stadium Road, P.O. Box 3500, Karachi (Pakistan)] [Department of Community Health Sciences, Aga Khan University, Stadium Road, P.O. Box 3500, Karachi (Pakistan); Azam, Iqbal; Ahmed, Faiza; Kazi, Ambreen; Gill, Albert Bruce; Kadir, Muhmmad Masood; Ahmed, Mubashir; Ara, Naseem; Janjua, Naveed Zafar [Department of Community Health Sciences, Aga Khan University, Stadium Road, P.O. Box 3500, Karachi (Pakistan)] [Department of Community Health Sciences, Aga Khan University, Stadium Road, P.O. Box 3500, Karachi (Pakistan)

2009-07-15

351

Epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease in Landhi Dairy Colony, Pakistan, the world largest Buffalo colony  

PubMed Central

Background Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Pakistan and causes huge economic losses. This work focus on the Landhi Dairy Colony (LDC), located in the suburbs of Karachi. LDC is the largest Buffalo colony in the world, with more than 300,000 animals (around 95% buffaloes and 5% cattle, as well as an unknown number of sheep and goats). Each month from April 2006 to April 2007 we collected mouth-swabs from apparently healthy buffaloes and cattle, applying a convenient sampling based on a two-stage random sampling scheme, in conjunction with participatory information from each selected farm. Furthermore, we also collected epithelium samples from animals with clinical disease, as well as mouth-swabs samples from those farms. In addition, we analysed a total of 180 serum samples randomly collecting 30 samples each month at the local slaughterhouse, from October 2006 to March 2007. Samples have been screened for FMDV by real-time RT-PCR and the partial or full 1D coding region of selected isolates has been sequenced. Serum samples have been analysed by applying serotype-specific antibody ELISA and non-structural proteins (NSP) antibody ELISA. Results FMDV infection prevalence at aggregate level shows an endemic occurrence of FMDV in the colony, with peaks in August 2006, December 2006 and February 2007 to March 2007. A significant association of prevalence peaks to the rainy seasons, which includes the coldest time of the year and the muslimic Eid-festival, has been demonstrated. Participatory information indicated that 88% of all questioned farmers vaccinate their animals. Analysis of the serum samples showed high levels of antibodies for serotypes O, A, Asia 1 and C. The median endpoint-titre for all tested serotypes, except serotype C, in VNT titration is at a serum dilution of equal or above 1/100. All 180 serum samples collected have been tested for antibodies against the non-structural proteins and all but four have been found positive. Out of the 106 swab-samples from apparently healthy and affected animals positive in real-time RT-PCR, we sequenced the partial or full 1D coding region from 58 samples. In addition we sequenced the full 1D coding region of 17 epithelium samples from animals with clinical signs of FMD. From all sequenced samples, swabs and epithelium, 19 belong to the regional PanAsia II lineage of serotype O and 56 to the A/Iran/2005 lineage of serotype A. Conclusion For an effective and realisable FMD control program in LDC, we suggest to introduce a twice annually mass vaccination of all buffaloes and cattle in the colony. These mass vaccinations should optimally take place shortly before the beginning of the two rainy periods, e.g. in June and September. Those vaccinations should, in our opinion, be in addition to the already individually performed vaccinations of single animals, as the latter usually targets only newly introduced animals. This suggested combination of mass vaccination of all large ruminants with the already performed individually vaccination should provide a continuous high level of herd immunity in the entire colony. Vaccines used for this purpose should contain the matching vaccine strains, i.e. as our results indicate antigens for A/Iran/2005 and the regional type of serotype O (PanAsia II), but also antigens of the, in this world region endemic, Asia 1 lineage should be included. In the long term it will be important to control the vaccine use, so that subclinical FMD will be avoided. PMID:18445264

Klein, Joern; Hussain, Manzoor; Ahmad, Munir; Afzal, Muhammad; Alexandersen, Soren

2008-01-01

352

Defining Plasmodium falciparum Treatment in South West Asia: A Randomized Trial Comparing Artesunate or Primaquine Combined with Chloroquine or SP  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionAntimalarial resistance has led to a global policy of artemisinin-based combination therapy. Despite growing resistance chloroquine (CQ) remained until recently the official first-line treatment for falciparum malaria in Pakistan, with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) second-line. Co-treatment with the gametocytocidal primaquine (PQ) is recommended for transmission control in South Asia. The relative effect of artesunate (AS) or primaquine, as partner drugs, on clinical

Kate Kolaczinski; Toby Leslie; Iftikhar Ali; Naeem Durrani; Sue Lee; Marion Barends; Khalid Beshir; Rosalynn Ord; Rachel Hallett; Mark Rowland

2012-01-01

353

Legal aspects of sharing and management of transboundary waters in South Asia: preventing conflicts and promoting cooperation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically, the development of cooperation among Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Pakistan with respect to the Indus and the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna river basins, South Asia's major transboundary rivers, has been a cause of tension, apprehension and ongoing disputes. This paper draws attention to the hydro-politics on transference and allocation, along with the diverging positions and unique concerns of the riparians on bilateral,

Kishor Uprety; Salman M. A. Salman

2011-01-01

354

Market or government: lessons from a comparative analysis of the experience of Pakistan and India.  

PubMed

A comparison of India and Pakistan (and Bangladesh) in the last 40 years is made in view of the consensus emerging in the 1980s about the supremacy of market-oriented strategy to overcome and alleviate poverty even in less developed countries (LDC). For 4 decades India consistently intervened in the economy, while Pakistan had periods of deregulation and more reliance on market forces. The period from 1947 to 1969-1970, the 1970's, and the 1980s were examined. Dirigiste strategy produced similar or lower production in Pakistan and Bangladesh as in India (1% growth), however, market strategy production in the former countries (3%). Foreign aid (over 10% of gross domestic product in Pakistan and less than one-half of that in India) also stimulated growth. In the late 1970s and late 1980s the import surplus of Pakistan and Bangladesh was 11% vs. 25% of that in India. In the 1950s Pakistan's exports grew rapidly, and in the 1960s the rate of growth in manufactured goods was double that of India due to the Export Bonus Voucher System. The reverse was true during 1969-70 and 1976-77 when India's total manufactured exports grew at twice the rate of Pakistan as the abolition of the voucher scheme occurred, inflation climbed and export duties were imposed. In the late 1970s to mid 1980s military governments in Pakistan and Bangladesh relied heavily on the market devaluing by 100%, deregulating imported inputs, and introducing incentives for exports. Dirigism produced a 50% higher grown in India vs. 200% in the other countries by market efforts. Government intervention tended to aggravate market distortions, although it produced positive results in nontraditional exports in Pakistan and in agricultural infrastructure building, primary school attendance and health services, electrification, and road building in India. Market-induced rapid growth used more unskilled labor and alleviated poverty. PMID:12285367

Papanek, G F

1991-01-01

355

A qualitative exploration of Pakistan’s street children, as a consequence of the poverty-disease cycle  

PubMed Central

Background Street children are a global phenomenon, with an estimated population of around 150 million across the world. These children include those who work on the streets but retain their family contacts, and also those who practically live on the streets and have no or limited family contacts. In Pakistan, many children are forced to work on the streets due to health-related events occurring at home which require children to play a financially productive role from an early stage. An explanatory framework adapted from the poverty-disease cycle has been used to elaborate these findings. Methods This study is a qualitative study, and involved 19 in-depth interviews and two key informant interviews, conducted in Rawalpindi, Pakistan, from February to May 2013. The data was audio taped and transcribed. Key themes were identified and built upon. The respondents were contacted through a gatekeeper ex-street child who was a member of the street children community. Results We asked the children to describe their life stories. These stories led us to the finding that street children are always forced to attain altered social roles because health-related problems, poverty, and large family sizes leave them no choice but to enter the workforce and earn their way. We also gathered information regarding high-risk practices and increased risks of sexual and substance abuse, based on the street children’s increased exposure. These children face the issue of social exclusion because diseases and poverty push them into a life full of risks and hazards; a life which also confines their social role in the future. Conclusion The street child community in Pakistan is on the rise. These children are excluded from mainstream society, and the absence of access to education and vocational skills reduces their future opportunities. Keeping in mind the implications of health-related events on these children, robust inter-sectoral interventions are required. PMID:24661542

2014-01-01

356

Searching for South Asian intelligence: psychometry in British India, 1919-1940.  

PubMed

This paper describes the introduction and development of intelligence testing in British India. Between 1919 and 1940 experimenters such as C. Herbert Rice, Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis, and Venkatrao Vithal Kamat imported a number of intelligence tests, adapting them to suit a variety of South Asian languages and contexts. Charting South Asian psychometry's gradual move from American missionary efforts toward the state, this paper argues that political reforms in the 1920s and 1930s affected how psychometry was "indigenized" in South Asia. Describing how approaches to race and caste shifted across instruments and over time, this paper charts the gradual recession, within South Asian psychometry, of a "race" theory of caste. Describing some of the ways in which this "late colonial" period affected the postcolonial landscape, the paper concludes by suggesting potential lines for further inquiry into the later career of intelligence testing in India and Pakistan. PMID:25183435

Setlur, Shivrang

2014-01-01

357

Stratigraphic boundary problems: Permian and Triassic of West Pakistan. Edited by Bernhard Kummel and Curt Teichert  

E-print Network

-Indus Ranges, West Pakistan 207 W. C. Sweet Acritarchs and Tasmanitids from the Chhidru Formation, Uppermost Permian of West Pakistan 277 W. A. S. Sarjeant Palynology of Permian and Triassic Strata in the Salt Range and Surghar Range, West Pakistan 305 B. E... which is as much as 17 feet thick and in the Khisor Range has yielded brachiopods indicating a Late Permian age. It also contains conodonts, a rich palynological assemblage, and acritarchs. The white sandstone unit is conformably overlain by a dolomite...

1970-01-01

358

Resistance of polio to its eradication in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background This study is based on EPI (Expanded Program on Immunization) immunization surveys and surveillance of polio, its challenges in immunization and the way forward to overcome these challenges. Methods Several Government documents, survey reports and unpublished program documents were studied and online search was made to find information on EPI Pakistan. SPSS 16 and Microsoft Excel 2007 were used for the statistical analysis. Results Immunization against polio is higher in urban areas as compared to rural areas. Marked variation in vaccination has been observed in different provinces of Pakistan in the last decade. Secondly 10-20% of the children who have received their first dose of trivalent polio vaccine were deprived of their 2nd and 3rd dose because of poor performance of EPI and Lack of information about immunization. Conclusion In spite of numerous successes, such as the addition of new vaccines and raising immunization to over 100% in some areas, EPI is still struggling to reach its polio eradication goals. Inadequate service delivery, lack of information about immunization and limited number of vaccinators were found to be the key reason for poor performance of immunization and for large number of cases reported each year due to the deficiency of second and third booster dose. PMID:21962145

2011-01-01

359

Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Pakistan: Prospects and Limitations  

PubMed Central

Despite all the marvelous advancements in modern medicine, traditional medicine has always been practiced. More than 70% of the developing world's population still depends on the complementary and alternative systems of medicine (CAM). Cultural beliefs and practices often lead to self-care or home remedies in rural areas and consultation with traditional healers. Evidence-based CAM therapies have shown remarkable success in healing acute as well as chronic diseases. Alternative therapies have been utilized by people in Pakistan who have faith in spiritual healers, clergymen, hakeems, homeopaths or even many quacks. These are the first choice for problems such as infertility, epilepsy, psychosomatic troubles, depression and many other ailments. The traditional medicine sector has become an important source of health care, especially in rural and tribal areas of the country. The main reasons for consulting a CAM healer is the proximity, affordable fee, availability, family pressure and the strong opinion of the community. Pakistan has a very rich tradition in the use of medicinal plants for the treatment of various ailments. It necessitates the integration of the modern and CAM systems in terms of evidence-based information sharing. The health-seeking behavior of the people especially in developing countries calls for bringing all CAM healers into the mainstream by providing them with proper training, facilities and back-up for referral. A positive interaction between the two systems has to be harnessed to work for the common goal of improving health of the people. PMID:15937553

2005-01-01

360

The position of AIDS in Pakistan, UAE and Jordan.  

PubMed

AIDS is a term used for Acquired Immuno-Deficiency Syndrome. It is, by definition, the end-stage disease manifestation of an infection with a virus called human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The virus infects mainly two system of the body i.e. the immune system and central nervous system (CNS) and the occurrence of disease is due to the damage of these two systems. The statistics on AIDS are alarming, especially for Sub-Saharan Africa India. Some scientific studies indicated that upto one-third of all sexually active adults living in this region are already infected, up to 40% of all women and one in 10 to one in 5 children born in this part are actively infected with HIV and will be dead before having reached their fifth birthday. The information on HIV infected young adults were collected both from official and non-official sources of the following countries, Jordan, UAE, Pakistan. A big difference in number of patients was found between official and non-official data. Anyhow, both data (official & non-official) are alarming due to the increase in number of HIV cases. 21st century is especially dangerous to the next generation of Pakistan and Arab World because of increase in percentage of HIV cases during the last 5 years. PMID:16414795

Ahmad, M; Abu-Hijleh, L A

1997-01-01

361

Karo-kari: a form of honour killing in pakistan.  

PubMed

Karo-Kari is a type of premeditated honour killing, which originated in rural and tribal areas of Sindh, Pakistan. The homicidal acts are primarily committed against women who are thought to have brought dishonour to their family by engaging in illicit pre-marital or extra-marital relations. In order to restore this honour, a male family member must kill the female in question. We conducted a systematic review of the published literature other sources on karo-kari and related forms of honour killing or violence against women. Media and non-governmental organization reports were utilized for case studies and analysis. Although legally proscribed, socio-cultural factors and gender role expectations have given legitimacy to karo-kari within some tribal communities. In addition to its persistence in areas of Pakistan, there is evidence that karo-kari may be increasing in incidence in other parts of the world in association with migration. Moreover, perpetrators of ;honour killings' often have motives outside of female adultery. Analysis of the socio-cultural and psycho-pathological factors associated with the practice of karo-kari can guide the development of prevention strategies. PMID:19091732

Patel, Sujay; Gadit, Amin Muhammad

2008-12-01

362

Population planning in Pakistan: issues in implementation and its impact.  

PubMed

Despite population planning programs for about 30 years, population growth in Pakistan has continued to increase. Many factors are cited that contribute to the increasing rate: 1) absence of a coherent approach to overcome the social and cultural constraints to the use of family planning; 2) ineffective information, education and communication campaign; 3) frequent changes in the organizational set up of the program; 4) inefficient management; and 5) lack of political commitment to family planning. However, rising trend in contraceptive use to nearly 18% in 1994-95 and to about 24% in 1996-97 indicated positive response of Pakistani partners to the adoption of family planning. Still, the impact of the program is low since only one-fifth of women in Pakistan use contraceptives. In view of all these, the government set strategies that focus more on quality of service and accessibility of family planning centers. There is a need to improve the population planning efforts and reduce the fertility rate in order to cut down population pressures on the country's physical and capital resources. PMID:12322276

Mahmood, N; Ali, S M

1997-01-01

363

Cross-Sectional Time Series Analysis of Associations between Education and Girl Child Marriage in Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Pakistan, 1991-2011  

PubMed Central

Background Girl education is believed to be the best means of reducing girl child marriage (marriage <18 years) globally. However, in South Asia, where the majority of girl child marriages occur, substantial improvements in girl education have not corresponded to equivalent reductions in child marriage. This study examines the levels of education associated with female age at marriage over the previous 20 years across four South Asian nations with high rates (>20%) of girl child marriage- Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Pakistan. Methods Cross-sectional time series analyses were conducted on Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) from 1991 to 2011 in the four focal nations. Analyses were restricted to ever-married women aged 20–24 years. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to assess the effect of highest level of education received (none, primary, secondary or higher) on age at marriage (<14, 14–15, 16–17, 18 and older). Results In Bangladesh and Pakistan, primary education was not protective against girl child marriage; in Nepal, it was protective against marriage at <14 years (AOR?=?0.42) but not for older adolescents. Secondary education was protective across minor age at marriage categories in Bangladesh (<14 years AOR?=?0.10; 14–15 years AOR?=?.25; 16–17 years AOR?=?0.64) and Nepal (<14 years AOR?=?0.21; 14–15 years AOR?=?0.25; 16–17 years AOR?=?0.57), but protective against marriage of only younger adolescents in Pakistan (<14 years AOR?=?0.19; 14–15 years AOR?=?0.23). In India, primary and secondary education were respectively protective across all age at marriage categories (<14 years AOR?=?0.34, AOR?=?0.05; 14–15 years AOR?=?0.52, AOR?=?0.20; 16–17 years AOR?=?0.71, AOR?=?0.48). Conclusion Primary education is likely insufficient to reduce girl child marriage in South Asia, outside of India. Secondary education may be a better protective strategy against this practice for the region, but may be less effective for prevention of marriage among older relative to younger adolescents. PMID:25203635

Raj, Anita; McDougal, Lotus; Silverman, Jay G.; Rusch, Melanie L. A.

2014-01-01

364

Psychosocial Factors of Antenatal Anxiety and Depression in Pakistan: Is Social Support a Mediator?  

PubMed Central

Introduction Pregnancy is generally viewed as a time of fulfillment and joy; however, for many women it can be a stressful event. In South Asia it is associated with cultural stigmas revolving around gender discrimination, abnormal births and genetic abnormalities. Methodology This cross-sectional study was done at four teaching hospitals in Lahore from February, 2014 to June, 2014. A total of 500 pregnant women seen at hospital obstetrics and gynecology departments were interviewed with a questionnaire consisting of three sections: demographics, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Social Provisions Scale (SPS). Pearson’s chi-squared test, bivariate correlations and multiple linear regression were used to analyze associations between the independent variables and scores on the HADS and SPS. Results Mean age among the 500 respondents was 27.41 years (5.65). Anxiety levels in participants were categorized as normal (145 women, 29%), borderline (110, 22%) or anxious (245, 49%). Depression levels were categorized as normal (218 women, 43.6%), borderline (123, 24.6%) or depressed (159, 31.8%). Inferential analysis revealed that higher HADS scores were significantly associated with lower scores on the SPS, rural background, history of harassment, abortion, cesarean delivery and unplanned pregnancies (P < .05). Social support (SPS score) mediated the relationship between the total number of children, gender of previous children and HADS score. Women with more daughters were significantly more likely to score higher on the HADS and lower on the SPS, whereas higher numbers of sons were associated with the opposite trends in the scores (P < .05). Conclusion Because of the predominantly patriarchal sociocultural context in Pakistan, the predictors of antenatal anxiety and depression may differ from those in developed countries. We therefore suggest that interventions designed and implemented to reduce antenatal anxiety and depression should take into account these unique factors. PMID:25629925

Waqas, Ahmed; Raza, Nahal; Lodhi, Haneen Wajid; Muhammad, Zerwah; Jamal, Mehak; Rehman, Abdul

2015-01-01

365

Incentive and coordination issues in the mobile banking industry of Pakistan  

E-print Network

With the introduction of Branch less Banking regulations in 2008 by the State Bank of Pakistan a new opportunity for banks and telecoms was created to service the needs of the 85% of Pakistanis who lacked any formal or ...

Ali, Tughral Turab

2014-01-01

366

SURVEY OF STYLET BEARING NEMATODES ASSOCIATED WITH DATE PALM IN KHUZDAR DISTRICT, BALOCHISTAN, PAKISTAN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Surveys were conducted during September and October 2002 to identify the stylet-bearing nematodes associated with date palm in Khuzdar district, Balochistan, Pakistan. The nematodes recorded were Tylenchus sp., Merlinius sp., Helicotylenchus indicus, Psilenchus hilarulus, Aphelenchoides sp., Meloido...

367

Pakistan and water: new pressures on global security and human health.  

PubMed

The Indus River is the major source of water for the more than 180 million people of Pakistan. A rapidly increasing population over the past 60 years has created new pressures on water that was once a plentiful resource for the health and development of the country. Rising tensions between India and Pakistan, which share the Indus flow, may lead to violent confrontation in an already volatile part of the globe. The recent flooding, which affected more than 20 million people, drew attention to poor management of the rivers of Pakistan. Public health has the scientific knowledge and professional capacity to help develop water management practices that could improve population health in Pakistan. PMID:21421956

Pappas, Gregory

2011-05-01

368

Pakistan and Water: New Pressures on Global Security and Human Health  

PubMed Central

The Indus River is the major source of water for the more than 180 million people of Pakistan. A rapidly increasing population over the past 60 years has created new pressures on water that was once a plentiful resource for the health and development of the country. Rising tensions between India and Pakistan, which share the Indus flow, may lead to violent confrontation in an already volatile part of the globe. The recent flooding, which affected more than 20 million people, drew attention to poor management of the rivers of Pakistan. Public health has the scientific knowledge and professional capacity to help develop water management practices that could improve population health in Pakistan. PMID:21421956

2011-01-01

369

A Woman and an Election: Benazir Bhutto, Islam & Parliamentary Democracy in Pakistan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a teaching unit about Benazir Bhutto, Prime Minister of Pakistan, and her role in her nation's current history. Encourages students to understand the complexity of race, class, and gender in an Islamic society. (DB)

Gross, Susan Hill

1989-01-01

370

Pakistan oil, gas reforms tied to bid for energy self-sufficiency by 2000  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on oil and gas exploration and development which is accelerating in Pakistan as it seeks to achieve energy self-sufficiency by 2000. In addition to backing out some domestic oil use with burgeoning natural gas supplies and cutting refined products imports by boosting refining capacity, Pakistan is targeting a sharp increase in oil production. Ultimately, industry officials in Pakistan would like to see it become a significant net exporter of oil, perhaps qualifying it for eventual membership in the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. And foreign investment will play a key role in that effort as the government takes steps to sweeten incentives for foreign oil and gas companies. Consequently, drilling activity and the number of foreign operated concessions are at record levels in Pakistan. Meantime, state owned Oil and Gas Development Corp. has embarked on an ambitious program of exploration in underexplored basins while seeking foreign assistance in hiking oil recovery rates in existing fields.

Not Available

1991-12-09

371

Dorcatherium majus, a Study of Upper Dentition from the Lower and Middle Siwaliks of Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dorcatherium majus, comparatively a large tragulid is studied from the Lower and Middle Siwaliks of Pakistan. D. majus is only found from the fresh water deposits along the foot hills of Himalayas. A number of localities are thoroughly visited from the Potwar Plateau of northern Pakistan and collected worth describing specimens of D. majus. Eight specimens are described in this study and all belong to the upper dentition of D. majus.

Farooq, Umar; Akbar Khan, Muhammad; Akhtar, Muhammad; Majid Khan, Abdul

372

One size does not fit all: local determinants of measles vaccination in four districts of Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Rates of childhood vaccination in Pakistan remain low.There is continuing debate about the role of consumer and service factors in determining levels of vaccination in developing countries. METHODS: In a stratified random cluster sample of census enumeration areas across four districts in Pakistan, household interviews about vaccination of children and potentially related factors with 10,423 mothers of 14,542 children

Anne Cockcroft; Neil Andersson; Khalid Omer; Noor M Ansari; Amir Khan; Ubaid Ullah Chaudhry; Umaira Ansari

2009-01-01

373

Geographic Trajectories of Al-Qaida and Taliban Terrorist Groups in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though Western analysts tend to mention al-Qaida and Taliban in Pakistan in the same context, the dynamics of their relationship are far more complex than a cursory examination would reveal. The context of this relationship is best understood within the overarching paradigm of militant activities of post 9\\/11 Taliban and al-Qaida remnants in Pakistan's tribal areas, where these groups flourish.

Syed Manzar Abbas Zaidi

2010-01-01

374

Exploring urban male non-marital sexual behaviours in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background In Pakistan, sexual practices outside marriage are proscribed by law. We aimed to assess the range and magnitude of non-marital sexual behaviours of urban men, focusing on men having sex with men. Methods In this cross sectional survey undertaken in six cities of Pakistan, we interviewed 2400 men aged 16–45 years selected through a multistage systematic sampling design. Sexual behaviours were assessed through a structured questionnaire. Multivariable analysis was used to identify association between various individual level characteristics and probability of engaging in sexual activities involving men. Results Nearly one-third (29 percent) reported having had non-marital sex in their lifetime. Of these men 16 percent reported premarital sex, while 11 percent reported engaging in both pre- and extramarital sex. Only two percent reported exclusive extramarital sex. In total 211 respondents, 9 percent reported ever having had sexual relations with men. While 62 respondents, 2.6 percent reported exclusive sex with males. Factors that were significantly associated with MSM behaviours were being less than 27 years (adjusted OR 5.4, 95% CI 3.8–7.7, p?Pakistan, preventive interventions should focus on reaching out to young uneducated men offering them with appropriate counselling and skills to adopt “safe sex practices” through workplace orientation sessions; while for youth in schools, life skills education be included in the curriculum. Through public-private partnership stigmatised groups should be reached through established community networks and provided with information on accessing voluntary counseling and treatment centres. PMID:23577856

2013-01-01

375

Consanguinity and its sociodemographic differentials in Bhimber District, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan.  

PubMed

Kashmiri population in the northeast of Pakistan has strong historical, cultural and linguistic affinities with the neighbouring populations of upper Punjab and Potohar region of Pakistan. However, the study of consanguineous unions, which are customarily practised in many populations of Pakistan, revealed marked differences between the Kashmiris and other populations of northern Pakistan with respect to the distribution of marriage types and inbreeding coefficient (F). The current descriptive epidemiological study carried out in Bhimber district of Mirpur division, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan, demonstrated that consanguineous marriages were 62% of the total marriages (F=0.0348). First-cousin unions were the predominant type of marriages and constituted 50.13% of total marital unions. The estimates of inbreeding coefficient were higher in the literate subjects, and consanguinity was witnessed to be rising with increasing literacy level. Additionally, consanguinity was observed to be associated with ethnicity, family structure, language, and marriage arrangements. Based upon these data, a distinct sociobiological structure, with increased stratification and higher genomic homozygosity, is expected for this Kashmiri population. In this communication, we present detailed distribution of the types of marital unions and the incidences of consanguinity and inbreeding coefficient (F) across various sociodemographic strata of Bhimber/Mirpuri population. The results of this study would have implication not only for other endogamous populations of Pakistan but also for the sizeable Kashmiri community immigrated to Europe. PMID:25076667

Jabeen, Nazish; Malik, Sajid

2014-06-01

376

Consanguinity and Its Sociodemographic Differentials in Bhimber District, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Kashmiri population in the northeast of Pakistan has strong historical, cultural and linguistic affinities with the neighbouring populations of upper Punjab and Potohar region of Pakistan. However, the study of consanguineous unions, which are customarily practised in many populations of Pakistan, revealed marked differences between the Kashmiris and other populations of northern Pakistan with respect to the distribution of marriage types and inbreeding coefficient (F). The current descriptive epidemiological study carried out in Bhimber district of Mirpur division, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan, demonstrated that consanguineous marriages were 62% of the total marriages (F=0.0348). First-cousin unions were the predominant type of marriages and constituted 50.13% of total marital unions. The estimates of inbreeding coefficient were higher in the literate subjects, and consanguinity was witnessed to be rising with increasing literacy level. Additionally, consanguinity was observed to be associated with ethnicity, family structure, language, and marriage arrangements. Based upon these data, a distinct sociobiological structure, with increased stratification and higher genomic homozygosity, is expected for this Kashmiri population. In this communication, we present detailed distribution of the types of marital unions and the incidences of consanguinity and inbreeding coefficient (F) across various sociodemographic strata of Bhimber/Mirpuri population. The results of this study would have implication not only for other endogamous populations of Pakistan but also for the sizeable Kashmiri community immigrated to Europe. PMID:25076667

Jabeen, Nazish

2014-01-01

377

Identification of novel silent HIV propagation routes in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is rapidly increasing in both high risk groups and the general population. In this study, silent routes of propagation in teenaged Pakistanis are discussed. In order to promote sexual activity in youths, regular clients write contact details of sex workers on the doors of public washrooms. HIV prevalence is much higher among Hijra sex workers. Hijra sex workers have apparently stepped into the profession of begging at public places, where they earn money by both begging and distributing visiting cards offering unsafe sex. In many educational institutes, sex education is lacking or absent; if delivered via teachers, government agencies and nongovernmental organizations this could prevent a future epidemic of sexually transmitted infections in Pakistan. PMID:24255884

Saeed, Umar; Waheed, Yasir; Manzoor, Sobia; Ashraf, Muhammad

2013-01-01

378

Copper, lead, zinc, antimony, and arsenic in Pakistan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Copper localities that merit geological investigation are found in the western Chasai District, in North Waziristan Agency, and in the Salt Range in Mianwali and Sargodha Districts. No high-grade deposits have been .reported from these ,areas and if deposits are developed they will likely be low-grade, high-tonnage, disseminated deposits. Those localities reported from Chitral State are too remote and inaccessible to be of interest now. All lead localities found to date are of minor importance; there has been small production at one .locality in Chasai District and in the southern part of the Hazara District. Zinc, antimony, and arsenic are sparse in Pakistan and no important localities of these metals are reported.

White, Max Gregg

1975-01-01

379

A model hospital standards and accreditation system for Pakistan.  

PubMed

This article treats the use of a system of hospital standards and accreditation as a means to improve the quality of health care services in Pakistan. In it the author stresses the importance of nationwide standards for accreditation as an educational measure and an incentive to improve, as opposed to a punitive measure. The author outlines a series of recommendations, which followed from the Workshop on Hospital Standards and Accreditation, on the implementation of an accreditation system. These recommendations include the establishment of a National Council, composed of representatives from the government, the private sector and professional organizations, with the authority to oversee the system. The recommendations also stress that the accreditation system should be voluntary, in keeping with the system's educational rather than punitive goal. Finally, the author details a methodology for developing standards in specialized areas through corresponding standards committees. PMID:10151175

Becker, G C

1995-01-01

380

Measurements and analysis of air quality in Islamabad, Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ambient air quality of Islamabad, Pakistan, reveals that annual average mass concentration of particulate matter (PM2.5) (˜45 to ˜95 µg m-3) and nitric oxide (NO) (˜41 to ˜120 µg m-3) exceeds the Pakistan's National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS). The annual ozone (O3) concentration is within the permissible limits; however, some of the hourly concentration exceeds the NEQS mostly during the summer months. Correlation studies suggest that carbon monoxide (CO) has a significant (p-value ? 0.01) positive correlation with NO and NOy'; whereas, with O3, a significant (p-value ? 0.01) negative correlation is observed. The regression analysis estimates the background CO concentration to be ˜300 to ˜600 ppbv in Islamabad. The higher ratio of CO/NO (˜10) suggests that mobile sources are the major contributor to NO concentration. On the other hand, the ratio analysis of sulfur dioxide (SO2)/NO for Islamabad (˜0.011) indicates that the point sources are contributing to SO2 in the city. NO and SO2 correlation indicates contribution of direct sulfur emission sources. Ratios of [CO] to [NO] and [SO2] to [NO], based on ambient air quality measurements, provide a test for emission inventories. The ratios of these pollutants in the available Islamabad emission inventories are consistent with ambient values for these pollutants. The correlation of PM2.5 and NO suggests that a fraction of secondary PM2.5 is produced by chemical conversion of NO into nitrates. The regional background O3 concentration for Islamabad has been determined to be ˜31 ppbv. This study suggests that there is an increase in O3 concentration with increases in photochemical conversion of NO to reservoir NOy' species.

Rasheed, Anjum; Aneja, Viney P.; Aiyyer, Anantha; Rafique, Uzaira

2014-06-01

381

Persistent organic pollutants in little egret eggs from selected wetlands in Pakistan.  

PubMed

The main goal of the present work has been to study the use of egret eggs to assess environmental pollution by POPs (HCB, HCHs, cyclodienes, DDTs and PCBs) in three Pakistani wetlands that are presumed to be affected by different types of pollution. Taunsa Barrage, affected mainly by agricultural pollutants; Karachi Harbor because of the supposed exposure to industrial activity-related POPs; and Haleji Lake as a relatively pristine area because of its location in a stony desert. Taunsa Barrage and Haleji Lake are wetlands of international importance according to the Ramsar Convention, while the Karachi Harbor is of interest because of the large human population living there. Eggs of the white ( Egretta garzetta garzetta) and dark ( Egretta garzetta gularis) morphs of Little Egrets were used as monitoring tools. Concentrations were also determined in several prey in this species' diet and in the sediments collected in their foraging areas. Differences in egg pollutant content among the three localities were significant for all the compounds. Overall, the eggs from Haleji Lake and Karachi showed, respectively, the lowest and highest percentages of detection and organochlorine concentrations. Biomagnification from sediments to prey and then to eggs has been documented in the three areas studied and is accompanied by higher percentages of detection of different compounds through the compartments. Differences in the biomagnification factor among the areas were small, even when differences in pollutant concentrations were high, suggesting that eggs are reliable indicators of POPs in the environment. The values found were generally lower than those reported for the eggs of large herons from North America or the Mediterranean basin, and are about the same order of magnitude that those of other medium-sized egrets from other parts of the world. PMID:12712296

Sanpera, C; Ruiz, X; Jover, L; Llorente, G; Jabeen, R; Muhammad, A; Boncompagni, E; Fasola, M

2003-04-01

382

Gender, region, religion and reproductive behaviour in India and Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The demographic profile of South Asia is one of high levels of fertility, low ages at marriage and relatively low contraceptive prevalence. This generalisation, however, obscures considerable variations in reproductive behaviour and there exist such notable exceptions from this standard pattern as Sri Lanka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu, which pioneered the fertility transition in South Asia (Dyson and Crook 1984).

Zeba Sathar; Christine Callum; Shireen Jejeebhoy

383

Evaluation of Pakistan wheat germplasms for stripe rust resistance using molecular markers.  

PubMed

Wheat production in Pakistan is seriously constrained due to rust diseases and stripe rust (yellow) caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, which could limit yields. Thus development and cultivation of genetically diverse and resistant varieties is the most sustainable solution to overcome these diseases. The first objective of the present study was to evaluate 100 Pakistan wheat cultivars that have been grown over the past 60 years. These cultivars were inoculated at the seedling stage with two virulent stripe rust isolates from the United States and two from Pakistan. None of the wheat cultivars were resistant to all tested stripe rust isolates, and 16% of cultivars were susceptible to the four isolates at the seedling stage. The data indicated that none of the Pakistan wheat cultivars contained either Yr5 or Yr15 genes that were considered to be effective against most P. striiformis f. sp. tritici isolates from around the world. Several Pakistan wheat cultivars may have gene Yr10, which is effective against isolate PST-127 but ineffective against PST-116. It is also possible that these cultivars may have other previously unidentified genes or gene combinations. The second objective was to evaluate the 100 Pakistan wheat cultivars for stripe rust resistance during natural epidemics in Pakistan and Washington State, USA. It was found that a higher frequency of resistance was present under field conditions compared with greenhouse conditions. Thirty genotypes (30% of germplasms) were found to have a potentially high temperature adult plant (HTAP) resistance. The third objective was to determine the genetic diversity in Pakistan wheat germplasms using molecular markers. This study was based on DNA fingerprinting using resistance gene analog polymorphism (RGAP) marker analysis. The highest polymorphism detected with RGAP primer pairs was 40%, 50% and 57% with a mean polymorphism of 36%. A total of 22 RGAP markers were obtained in this study. RGAP, simple sequence repeat (SSR) and sequence tagged site (STS) markers were used to determine the presence and absence of some important stripe rust resistance genes, such as Yr5, Yr8, Yr9, Yr15 and Yr18. Of the 60 cultivars analyzed, 17% of cultivars showed a RGAP marker band for Yr9 and 12% of cultivars exhibited the Yr18 marker band. No marker band was detected for Yr5, Yr8 and Yr15, indicating a likely absence of these genes in the tested Pakistan wheat cultivars. Cluster analysis based on molecular and stripe rust reaction data is useful in identifying considerable genetic diversity among Pakistan wheat cultivars. The resistant germplasms identified with 22 RGAP markers and from the resistance evaluations should be useful in developing new wheat cultivars with stripe rust resistance. PMID:21104373

Sobia, Tabassum; Muhammad, Ashraf; Chen, XianMing

2010-09-01

384

Unroofing history of a suture zone in the Himalaya of Pakistan by means of fission-track annealing ages  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The uplift history of the Swat Valley and Hazara region of northwestern Pakistan has been established using 22 fission-track dates on apatite, zircon and sphene. A major fault, the Main Mantle Thrust (MMT) strikes east-west across the Swat Valley, separates regions of markedly differing fission-track age regimesm, and may be a suture zone separating an extinct island arc terrane on the north from the Indian plate to the south. Fission-track ages ranging from about 55 to 58 m.y. for sphene, 18 to 53 m.y. for zircon, and 9 to 17 m.y. for apatite were obtained from the region north of the MMT. To the south the fission-track age ranges are 20 to 25 m.y. for sphene, 17 to 26 m.y. for zircon, and 16 to 23 m.y. for apatite. Disparate zircon and sphene ages on each side of the MMT imply different cooling histories for each side of the fault prior to 15 m.y. Similar apatite ages on both sides of the fault imply similar cooling histories during the past 15 m.y. This may indicate that faulting ceased by 15 m.y. Mean uplift rates have been derived from the fission-track data using mainly the mineral-pair method. Uplift rates in the region north of the MMT increased from 0.07 to 0.20 mm/yr during the period 55 to 15 m.y. South of the fault, uplift rates averaged in excess of 0.70 mm/yr for the period 25 to 15 m.y. During the past 15 m.y. uplift across the MMT in the Swat Valley showsno discontinuities, ranging from 0.16 mm/yr in the south to 0.39 mm/yr in the north. A plausible interpretation for the fission-track uplift data has the MMT verging to the south with overthrusting taking place at a depth between 3.5 and 6.0 km, juxtaposing two terranes that were originally separated by a substantial, but unknown distance. In this model, regional uplift followed cessation of faulting just prior to 15 m.y. ?? 1982.

Zeitler, P.K.; Tahirkheli, R.A.K.; Naeser, C.W.; Johnson, N.M.

1982-01-01

385

Prospects of gold mineralization in the Gilgit-Baltistan Province of Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gilgit-Baltistan province is the northern most province of Pakistan having its eastern, northern and western boarders with India, China and Afghanistan respectively. The geology of this province is unique as it has the spectacular tectonic entities of Asiatic plate (AP), Indian plate (IP) and the Kohistan-Ladakh arc (KLA). The Northern Suture Zone (NSZ) or Main Karakoram Thrust (MKT) separate the KLA from AP in the north while the Maim Mantle Thrust (MMT) separate the KLA from IP in the south. These different tectonic events have generated various types of igneous and metamorphic rocks in the form of gigantic mountain chains in the region. Considering the metallogenic provinces related to such types of tectonic environments world over, it can be suggested that the Gigit-Baltistan province may have the potential for the occurrence of economic mineral deposits. The present study is the follow-up of the previous studies for exploration of gold and base metals conducted by the Austrominerals and the Pakistan Mineral Development Corporation (PMDC) in the region. On the basis of PMDC extensive stream sediments geochemical survey of the province and delineated number of anomalous catchment areas for gold mineralization. In order to find the source bed-rock of gold, we have identified various alteration zones in these catchment areas by applying Remote sensing techniques by using both multispectral (LANDSAT, ASTER and Geoeye) and hyperspectral (Hyperion) data. Most of the alteration zones were found in steep high altitude inaccessible terrains. During this study, few of the accessible alteration zones in Golo Das, Bagrot valley, Shigri Bala, Machulu and Ranthak areas were selected for geological filed work and collection of proper samples from the alteration zones and host rocks for the identification of possible gold mineralization. In all these localities, the alteration zones are present along shear zones where the sulfide mineralization commonly occurs in the form of mainly pyrite and chalcopyrite with subordinate amount of bornite and tetrahedrite. Surface leaching of these phases to malachite, azurite and limonite is common. Quartz veining, silicification, carbonization and at places brecciation are the common features of these alteration zones. The concentrations of gold were found in the range of 3ppb to 112ppb, <5- 95ppb, 1ppb to 545ppb, 1ppb to 385 and 1ppb to 318ppb in the alteration zones of Golo Das, Bagrot valley, Shigri Bala, Machulu and Ranthak areas respectively. The barren rock samples have generally <5ppb gold. This is indicative of the multi-times enrichment of gold in the alteration zones. The sulfide mineralization along with gold in the alteration zones could be attributed to the hydrothermal/epithermal activity involving meteoric, igneous and or metamorphic fluid individually or mixture of these. The occurrence of dioritic intrusions (igneous fluid source) and the transitional dilated zones (metamorphic fluid source) on the major reactivated thrust fault (i.e., NSZ) in the vicinity of these alteration zones strengthen these observations. However, isotopic studies are underway to solve this problem. This study suggests that the alteration zones in the studied areas have the potential to be explored in detail for possible economical gold mineralization.

Shah, M. T.; Khan, S. D.; Tahirkheli, T.; Ahmad, L.; Miandad, S.; Rehman, A. U.; Ali, L.

2012-12-01

386

Concordance between Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL-10) and Pakistan Anxiety and Depression Questionnaire (PADQ), in a rural self-motivated population in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background There have been no previous studies conducted in Pakistan comparing the concordance of any well established Western anxiety/depression screening instrument with an indigenous scale, in a community based setting. Methods Participants (n = 1040) in the present study were recruited from the six villages of our interest from the district Gujarat of Pakistan, using a convenient sampling technique. Interview versions of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist 10-item version (HSCL-10) and the Pakistani Anxiety and Depression Questionnaire (PADQ) were used to observe the pattern of anxiety and depression among the participants. Results The internal consistency of HSCL-10 and PADQ were 0.86 and 0.84 respectively. Exploratory factor analysis found evidence for both a one-dimensional (distress) and a two-dimensional (anxiety and depression) solution for the HSCL-10, but only a one-dimensional (distress) solution for the PADQ. The HSCL-10 and PADQ found to be moderately to highly correlated (r = 0.62, p < 0.0001, 0.73 after correction for attenuation). Conclusion HSCL-10 has shown good screening abilities in a rural setting in Pakistan, and moderate to good concordance with an indigenous instrument measuring psychological distress. The HSCL-10 can therefore be used as a screening instrument, both in clinical and epidemiological settings in Pakistan, and for Pakistani immigrants living in Western societies. PMID:18647394

Syed, Hammad Raza; Zachrisson, Henrik Daae; Dalgard, Odd Steffen; Dalen, Ingvild; Ahlberg, Nora

2008-01-01

387

Priorities in Educational Development in Pakistan: Projects and Training Programs. Report of an International Seminar (Islamabad, Pakistan, September 7-9, 1983).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Center for International Education and Development (CIED) of the University of Alberta, in its commitment to share--through publication--information about new projects and policies being tried in developing countries, published the proceedings of an international seminar focusing on education in Pakistan. The meeting was the result of…

Mellor, Warren L., Ed.; Khan, M. Athar, Ed.

388

Petrographic composition, sedimentary structures and palaeocurrent analysis in Northern Gondwana: The Lower Permian Warchha Sandstone of the Salt Range, Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Warchha Sandstone is a Lower Permian fluvial succession present in both outcrop and subsurface throughout the Salt Range and the Potwar Basin of Pakistan that originally accumulated in a palaeogeographic setting adjacent to the northern margin of Gondwana. Sandstone beds are feldspatho-quartzose, including dominantly monocrystalline quartz, more K-feldspar than plagioclase, and mainly plutonic and low-grade metamorphic rock fragments. Twenty-eight fining-upward cycles, composed of conglomerate, sandstone, siltstone and claystone are identified. A varied range of sedimentary structures is recognised, including different forms of cross-bedding, ripple marks, flute casts, load casts, desiccation cracks, rain prints, cone-in-cone structures, and a variety of types of concretions and bioturbation. The occurrence and abundance of these structures varies in a systematic manner throughout the vertical thickness of the succession. Sedimentary structures, palaeocurrent data and lithofacies arrangement indicate deposition in a high-sinuosity meandering river system. Detailed palaeocurrent analysis reveals a broad unimodal palaeoflow within each cycle with dominant flow direction having been towards the north-northwest, but with significant changes in local bedform migration direction between each cycle. The northward flowing river transported sediments from the Aravalli and Malani Ranges that lay to the south to the Salt Range, northwards to the Tethyan proto-ocean in the north.

Ghazi, Shahid; Mountney, Nigel P.

2012-10-01

389

New Zealand South Atlantic  

E-print Network

New Zealand South Atlantic European coast North Atlantic European coast South Africa South America Eastern North America Western North America, Madrean Western North America, Rocky Mountain Central Europe according to continental affiliation: North America (red), South America (blue), Europe (green), Africa

Schierup, Mikkel Heide

390

The tectonic development of south-central Asia and the paleogeographic setting of its hydrocarbon resources  

SciTech Connect

The countries of south-central Asia (Afghanistan to Thailand) are made up of fragments of Gondwana that collided with the southern margin of Eurasia during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic. The Cimmerian terranes (Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan, Qiang Tang, and Burma-Malaya) rifted away from Gondwana beginning in the Late Carboniferous and were accreted to Asia during the Late Triassic-Jurassic. The Lhasa terrane, presumably also derived from Gondwana, was accreted during the Late Jurassic. By the Early Cretaceous, India-Madagascar had separated from Africa and from Australia-Antarctica. In the middle Cretaceous, India rapidly rifted away from Madagascar, and during the early Eocene collided with Asia giving rise to the Tibetam Plateau and the mountain belts from Afghanistan through Burma. The sedimentary basins and petroleum provinces adjacent to and south of these collision zones are best understood when viewed in the context of their tectonic history and paleogeographic setting. About 7 billion bbl of oil and 50 tcf of gas have been discovered in south-central Asia, mostly in Cenozoic deltaic sandstones or marine carbonate reservoirs in rift (Cambay), passive margin (Bombay shelf), and foreland basins (Assam, Indux, Potwar, Bengal) in India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, and in a fore-arc setting in Burma. Source rocks are mostly Paleogene shale, but some Paleozoic and Mesozoic sources be present in Pakistan. New exploration is underway or will begin soon in India, Bangladesh, Nepal, and Burma.

Scotese, C.R. (Shell Development Co., Houston, TX (USA)); Tyrell, W.W. Jr. (Amoco Production Co., Houston, TX (USA)); Maher, K.A. (Shell Development Co., Houston, TX (USA))

1990-05-01

391

Promoting Space Education and Awareness in Pakistan- Initiatives, Achievements, Challenges and Issues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With about 180 million inhabitants, Pakistan is the sixth most populous and the 34th largest country in the world in terms of area. Pakistan's economy, which is pre-dominantly based on agriculture, is the 26th largest in the world in terms of purchasing power parity and 45th largest in terms of nominal GDP. Pakistan is counted among the Next Eleven (N11) countries that have the potential to become the world's largest economies in the 21st century. Despite considerable potential to develop into a stable, moderate and democratic state, major challenges of internal security, poor agricultural productivity, inadequate infrastructure, food insecurity, insufficient health and educational facilities, depletion of natural resources, rapid environmental degradation and recurring natural disasters have burdened the country and have hampered sustainable development of Pakistan. Space technology applications offer a cost-effective means of addressing many of the above mentioned issues and have made impressive advances in the last few years in different countries in the region. Unfortunately, for various reasons, Pakistan has not been able to fully exploit the benefits of space technology and its applications to meet the challenges she faces. One of the reasons is lack of awareness and understanding by planners, decision-makers and users about the potential benefits of space technology in planning and implementation of developmental plans as well as good governance. Similarly, Pakistan's space program enjoys little public support due, primarily, to lack of awareness of the benefits space offers and the ubiquitousness of space applications in modern life. There is thus an acute need to create awareness and educate all segments of the society and stakeholders in Pakistan about the potential benefits of space technology and its applications. In the past ten years, many initiatives have been taken to promote space education and awareness for students as well as decision-makers in Pakistan. These include establishment of space science departments in universities, developing space-specific educational institutes, cooperation and collaboration between universities and SUPARCO, outreach to schools, and holding of short courses, seminars and symposia. To create awareness among the general public, efforts are being made to air programs on the electronic media. This paper covers achievements of Pakistan in promoting space education and awareness in the country and the related issues and impediments to pursue these programs.

Jagirani, Aisha

392

South Asia Water Resources Workshop: An effort to promote water quality data sharing in South Asia  

SciTech Connect

To promote cooperation in South Asia on environmental research, an international working group comprised of participants from Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and the US convened at the Soaltee Hotel in Kathmandu, Nepal, September 12 to 14, 1999. The workshop was sponsored in part by the Cooperative Monitoring Center (CMC) at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, through funding provided by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nonproliferation and National Security. The CMC promotes collaborations among scientists and researchers in regions throughout the world as a means of achieving common regional security objectives. In the long term, the workshop organizers and participants are interested in the significance of regional information sharing as a means to build confidence and reduce conflict. The intermediate interests of the group focus on activities that might eventually foster regional management of some aspects of water resources utilization. The immediate purpose of the workshop was to begin the implementation phase of a project to collect and share water quality information at a number of river and coastal estuary locations throughout the region. The workshop participants achieved four objectives: (1) gaining a better understanding of the partner organizations involved; (2) garnering the support of existing regional organizations promoting environmental cooperation in South Asia; (3) identifying sites within the region at which data is to be collected; and (4) instituting a data and information collection and sharing process.

RAJEN,GAURAV; BIRINGER,KENT L.; BETSILL,J. DAVID

2000-04-01

393

Are we doing enough? Evaluation of the Polio Eradication Initiative in a district of Pakistan's Punjab province: a LQAS study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The success of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative was remarkable, but four countries - Afghanistan, Pakistan, India and Nigeria - never interrupted polio transmission. Pakistan reportedly achieved all milestones except interrupting virus transmission. The aim of the study was to establish valid and reliable estimate for: routine oral polio vaccine (OPV) coverage, logistics management and the quality of monitoring

Muhammad Umair Mushtaq; Muhammad Ashraf Majrooh; Mohsin Zia Sana Ullah; Javed Akram; Arif Mahmood Siddiqui; Mushtaq Ahmad Shad; Muhammad Waqas; Hussain Muhammad Abdullah; Waqar Ahmad; Ubeera Shahid; Usman Khurshid

2010-01-01

394

Achievements of the FIGO Initiative for the Prevention of Unsafe Abortion and its Consequences in South-Southeast Asia.  

PubMed

Since 2008, the FIGO Initiative for the Prevention of Unsafe Abortion and its Consequences has contributed to ensuring the substitution of sharp curettage by manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) and medical abortion in selected hospitals in participating countries of South-Southeast Asia. This initiative facilitated the registration of misoprostol in Pakistan and Bangladesh, and the approval of mifepristone for "menstrual regulation" in Bangladesh. The Pakistan Nursing Council agreed to include MVA and medical abortion in the midwifery curriculum. The Bangladesh Government has approved the training of nurses and paramedics in the use of MVA to treat incomplete abortion in selected cases. The Sri Lanka College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, in collaboration with partners, has presented a draft petition to the relevant authorities appealing for them to liberalize the abortion law in cases of rape and incest or when lethal congenital abnormalities are present. Significantly, the initiative has introduced or strengthened the provision of postabortion contraception. PMID:24743025

Zaidi, Shahida; Begum, Ferdousi; Tank, Jaydeep; Chaudhury, Pushpa; Yasmin, Haleema; Dissanayake, Mangala

2014-07-01

395

Rock magnetic properties and structural development in the core of the Hazara-Kashmir Syntaxis, NE Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paleomagnetic and structural analyses have been conducted on three well-exposed sections through a 6-8 km thick pile of molassic red beds (Murree formation) in the lowermost tectonic unit of the Hazara-Kashmir Syntaxis. Micropaleontological age determinations of the lowermost Murree sediments indicate Late Paleocene deposition (55 m.y.). From south to north, the sections are situated in the Jhelum, Neelum (both in Azad Kashmir), and Kaghan (northeastern Pakistan) valleys. Thermal demagnetization experiments suggest that haematite with high unblocking temperatures carries stable characteristic remanence directions. The relationship between finite strain and magnetic fabric was established by mapping deformed reduction spot strain markers and by measuring the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS). For the Jhelum valley the weakly tectonized Murree beds are characterized by flattened AMS ellipsoids resulting from diagenetic compaction. Inclination values suggest that the Murree foreland basin started to develop at about 8°N during the early suturing of India and the development of island arcs to the north. India has moved northward by at least 2600 km since collision with Eurasia in the Paleocene. Declination values suggest 45° of clockwise rotation of the block supporting the Murree formation relative to the Indian craton. For the Neelum and Kaghan valleys, quantitative strain mapping shows a progressive increase of deformation northward. NRM directions rotate passively toward the cleavage plane which parallels the foliation of the AMS ellipsoids. NRM directions and AMS ellipsoids are deformed because of superposition of tectonic strain on a primary compactional strain. The AMS pattern is interpreted in light of this superposition, and a regional deformation path from south to north is suggested. A tectonic rotation model is proposed which is consistent with the transport directions around the Hazara-Kashmir Syntaxis and the rotation of thrust sheets indicated by the NRM data. This model relates the convergent transport directions with the mean indentation direction of India into Asia.

Bossart, Paul; Ottiger, Robert; Heller, Friedrich

1990-02-01

396

Benthic nitrogen loss in the arabian sea off pakistan.  

PubMed

A pronounced deficit of nitrogen (N) in the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the Arabian Sea suggests the occurrence of heavy N-loss that is commonly attributed to pelagic processes. However, the OMZ water is in direct contact with sediments on three sides of the basin. Contribution from benthic N-loss to the total N-loss in the Arabian Sea remains largely unassessed. In October 2007, we sampled the water column and surface sediments along a transect cross-cutting the Arabian Sea OMZ at the Pakistan continental margin, covering a range of station depths from 360 to 1430?m. Benthic denitrification and anammox rates were determined by using (15)N-stable isotope pairing experiments. Intact core incubations showed declining rates of total benthic N-loss with water depth from 0.55 to 0.18?mmol?N?m(-2)?day(-1). While denitrification rates measured in slurry incubations decreased from 2.73 to 1.46?mmol?N?m(-2)?day(-1) with water depth, anammox rates increased from 0.21 to 0.89?mmol?N?m(-2)?day(-1). Hence, the contribution from anammox to total benthic N-loss increased from 7% at 360?m to 40% at 1430?m. This trend is further supported by the quantification of cd(1)-containing nitrite reductase (nirS), the biomarker functional gene encoding for cytochrome cd(1)-Nir of microorganisms involved in both N-loss processes. Anammox-like nirS genes within the sediments increased in proportion to total nirS gene copies with water depth. Moreover, phylogenetic analyses of NirS revealed different communities of both denitrifying and anammox bacteria between shallow and deep stations. Together, rate measurement and nirS analyses showed that anammox, determined for the first time in the Arabian Sea sediments, is an important benthic N-loss process at the continental margin off Pakistan, especially in the sediments at deeper water depths. Extrapolation from the measured benthic N-loss to all shelf sediments within the basin suggests that benthic N-loss may be responsible for about half of the overall N-loss in the Arabian Sea. PMID:23226143

Sokoll, Sarah; Holtappels, Moritz; Lam, Phyllis; Collins, Gavin; Schlüter, Michael; Lavik, Gaute; Kuypers, Marcel M M

2012-01-01

397

Benthic Nitrogen Loss in the Arabian Sea Off Pakistan  

PubMed Central

A pronounced deficit of nitrogen (N) in the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the Arabian Sea suggests the occurrence of heavy N-loss that is commonly attributed to pelagic processes. However, the OMZ water is in direct contact with sediments on three sides of the basin. Contribution from benthic N-loss to the total N-loss in the Arabian Sea remains largely unassessed. In October 2007, we sampled the water column and surface sediments along a transect cross-cutting the Arabian Sea OMZ at the Pakistan continental margin, covering a range of station depths from 360 to 1430?m. Benthic denitrification and anammox rates were determined by using 15N-stable isotope pairing experiments. Intact core incubations showed declining rates of total benthic N-loss with water depth from 0.55 to 0.18?mmol?N?m?2?day?1. While denitrification rates measured in slurry incubations decreased from 2.73 to 1.46?mmol?N?m?2?day?1 with water depth, anammox rates increased from 0.21 to 0.89?mmol?N?m?2?day?1. Hence, the contribution from anammox to total benthic N-loss increased from 7% at 360?m to 40% at 1430?m. This trend is further supported by the quantification of cd1-containing nitrite reductase (nirS), the biomarker functional gene encoding for cytochrome cd1-Nir of microorganisms involved in both N-loss processes. Anammox-like nirS genes within the sediments increased in proportion to total nirS gene copies with water depth. Moreover, phylogenetic analyses of NirS revealed different communities of both denitrifying and anammox bacteria between shallow and deep stations. Together, rate measurement and nirS analyses showed that anammox, determined for the first time in the Arabian Sea sediments, is an important benthic N-loss process at the continental margin off Pakistan, especially in the sediments at deeper water depths. Extrapolation from the measured benthic N-loss to all shelf sediments within the basin suggests that benthic N-loss may be responsible for about half of the overall N-loss in the Arabian Sea. PMID:23226143

Sokoll, Sarah; Holtappels, Moritz; Lam, Phyllis; Collins, Gavin; Schlüter, Michael; Lavik, Gaute; Kuypers, Marcel M. M.

2012-01-01

398

Pharmaceuticals--strategic considerations in health reforms in Pakistan.  

PubMed

Pharmaceuticals are critical to the functioning of healthcare systems which require a sustainable supply of quality, efficacious, and safe essential medicines. With this as a context, the Gateway Paper in its capacity as a suggested roadmap for health reforms within Pakistan stressed on the need for a pharmaceutical policy to be directed towards improving people's access to medicines; within this framework a number of issues have been highlighted. Weaknesses in the current legislation on drugs, in particular gaps, which have emerged contemporaneously with reference to the post WTO situation and the technology boom, have been discussed and the incongruity between the drug policies and policies in the other sectors addressed. The Gateway Paper makes a strong case to establish a statutory semi-autonomous drug regulatory authority in order to ensure stricter implementation of the Drug Law, which needs to be amended to bridge the current gaps. The paper lays emphasis on a formal quality assurance mechanism and the need to build capacity to implement regulation in this regard. Lack of clarity in the current pricing formula has been flagged as a key issue and the need highlighted to develop a pricing formula that is predictable, transparent and acceptable to the stakeholders, yet one that does not create access and affordability issues for the poor and disadvantaged. The paper addresses gaps in the process of drug registration in Pakistan and stresses on the need to redefine its scope and ensure its stricter enforcement. Unethical market practices and irrational use of drugs have been discussed and the need for transparently implementing standard operating procedures for drug selecting, procurement, storage, dispensing and rational prescribing and the introduction of appropriate evidence based education, managerial and regulatory interventions in this regard, highlighted. The myriad of reasons which lead to the shortage of drugs and to the mushrooming of spurious, counterfeit and sub-standard drugs in the market have also been the subject of discussion as have been issues relating to the present size and utilization of the National Essential Drug List. PMID:17595837

Nishtar, Sania

2006-12-01

399

Cancer incidence in the south Asian population of England (1990–92)  

PubMed Central

Cancer incidence among English south Asians (residents in England with ethnic origins in India, Pakistan or Bangladesh) is described and compared with non-south Asian and Indian subcontinent rates. The setting for the study was areas covered by Thames, Trent, West Midlands and Yorkshire cancer registries. The study identified 356 555 cases of incident cancer (ICD9:140–208) registered between 1990 and 1992, including 3845 classified as English south Asian. The main outcome measures were age specific and directly standardized incidence rates for all cancer sites (ICD9:140–208). English south Asian incidence rates for all sites combined were significantly lower than non-south Asian rates but higher than Indian subcontinent rates. English south Asian rates were substantially higher than Indian subcontinent rates for a number of common sites including lung cancer in males, breast cancer in females and lymphoma in both sexes. English south Asian rates for childhood and early adult cancer (0–29 years) were similar or higher than non-south Asian rates. English south Asian rates were significantly higher than non-south Asian rates for Hodgkin's disease in males, cancer of the tongue, mouth, oesophagus, thyroid gland and myeloid leukaemia in females, and cancer of the hypopharynx, liver and gall bladder in both sexes. The results are consistent with a transition from the lower cancer risk of the country of ethnic origin to that of the country of residence. They suggest that detrimental changes in lifestyle and other exposures have occurred in the migrant south Asian population. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10027344

Winter, H; Cheng, K K; Cummins, C; Maric, R; Silcocks, P; Varghese, C

1999-01-01

400

12. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH FROM PAVILION, SHOWING SOUTH ENTRANCE HOUSE, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH FROM PAVILION, SHOWING SOUTH ENTRANCE HOUSE, SOUTH WING, AND ENGINE HOUSE - Fairmount Waterworks, East bank of Schuylkill River, Aquarium Drive, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

401

Distribution and dynamics of mangrove forests of South Asia.  

PubMed

Mangrove forests in South Asia occur along the tidal sea edge of Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. These forests provide important ecosystem goods and services to the region's dense coastal populations and support important functions of the biosphere. Mangroves are under threat from both natural and anthropogenic stressors; however the current status and dynamics of the region's mangroves are poorly understood. We mapped the current extent of mangrove forests in South Asia and identified mangrove forest cover change (gain and loss) from 2000 to 2012 using Landsat satellite data. We also conducted three case studies in Indus Delta (Pakistan), Goa (India), and Sundarbans (Bangladesh and India) to identify rates, patterns, and causes of change in greater spatial and thematic details compared to regional assessment of mangrove forests. Our findings revealed that the areal extent of mangrove forests in South Asia is approximately 1,187,476 ha representing ?7% of the global total. Our results showed that from 2000 to 2012, 92,135 ha of mangroves were deforested and 80,461 ha were reforested with a net loss of 11,673 ha. In all three case studies, mangrove areas have remained the same or increased slightly, however, the turnover was greater than the net change. Both, natural and anthropogenic factors are responsible for the change and turnover. The major causes of forest cover change are similar throughout the region; however, specific factors may be dominant in specific areas. Major causes of deforestation in South Asia include (i) conversion to other land use (e.g. conversion to agriculture, shrimp farms, development, and human settlement), (ii) over-harvesting (e.g. grazing, browsing and lopping, and fishing), (iii) pollution, (iv) decline in freshwater availability, (v) floodings, (vi) reduction of silt deposition, (vii) coastal erosion, and (viii) disturbances from tropical cyclones and tsunamis. Our analysis in the region's diverse socio-economic and environmental conditions highlights complex patterns of mangrove distribution and change. Results from this study provide important insight to the conservation and management of the important and threatened South Asian mangrove ecosystem. PMID:24735705

Giri, Chandra; Long, Jordan; Abbas, Sawaid; Murali, R Mani; Qamer, Faisal M; Pengra, Bruce; Thau, David

2015-01-15

402

Seroprevalence of hepatitis B and C infections among young adult males in Pakistan.  

PubMed

This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted at 2 military hospitals in Pakistan from January 2004 to December 2005. Young adult males with age range 17-22 years from different districts of Pakistan were screened for hepatitis B surface antigens (HBsAg) and anti-hepatitis C antibodies (anti-HCV). Out of 5707 young men tested, 95 (1.70%) were positive for anti-HCV and 167 (2.93%) for HBsAg. Although both viruses were distributed evenly through-for anti-HCV and 167 (2.93%) for HBsAg. Although both viruses were distributed evenly throughout Pakistan, seroprevalence was higher in the provinces of Punjab and Sindh than in North-West Frontier province and Baluchistan and Azad Kashmir provinces. Health education to the general public, including barbers, would be an important tool for control/preventive measures. PMID:19166161

Butt, T; Amin, M S

2008-01-01

403

Prevalence, risk factors and disease knowledge of breast cancer in Pakistan.  

PubMed

Breast cancer is the most common cancer in females all over the world with approximately one million new cases each year as well as one of second leading causes of death among females. In Pakistan, the most frequently diagnosed cancer among females is also breast cancer, accounting for nearly one in nine female patients. Its incidence in Pakistan is 2.5 times higher than that in neighboring countries like Iran and India. The risk factors associated with breast cancer are age, family history, early menarche, intake of combined estrogen and progestin menopausal hormones, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, low socioeconomic status and lack of awareness regarding the disease. This mini-review article aims to provide awareness about breast cancer as well as an updated knowledge about the prevalence, risk factors and disease knowledge of breast cancer in Pakistan. PMID:24969861

Asif, Hafiz Muhammad; Sultana, Sabira; Akhtar, Naveed; Rehman, Jalil Ur; Rehman, Riaz Ur

2014-01-01

404

New South Wales New South Wales  

E-print Network

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Rossi, Francesca

405

Clinical Manifestations and Distribution of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a rising epidemic in Pakistan. It is a major public health problem in the country especially alongside regions bordering the neighboring Afghanistan and cities that have had the maximum influx of refugees. The purpose of our paper is to highlight the diverse clinical manifestations of the disease seen along with the geographic areas affected, where the hosts are particularly susceptible. This would also be helpful in presenting the broad spectrum of the disease for training of health care workers and help in surveillance of CL in the region. The increased clinical diversity and the spectrum of phenotypic manifestations noted underscore the fact that the diagnosis of CL should be not only considered when dealing with common skin lesions, but also highly suspected by dermatologists and even primary care physicians even when encountering uncommon pathologies. Hence, we would strongly advocate that since most of these patients present to local health care centers and hospitals, primary care practitioners and even lady health workers (LHWs) should be trained in identification of at least the common presentations of CL. PMID:22174721

Afghan, Abaseen Khan; Kassi, Masoom; Kasi, Pashtoon Murtaza; Ayub, Adil; Kakar, Niamatullah; Marri, Shah Muhammad

2011-01-01

406

Rural poverty in Bangladesh, India and Pakistan: profiles and policies.  

PubMed

The problem of rural poverty in Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan remains intractable mainly because it has not been confronted by policies with the biggest impact on the target groups, and because they have relied on "soft" policy options. The agricultural sectors in these countries have not been dynamic enough to sustain the growth process. What is even more disturbing is that agricultural growth has not provided new jobs and incomes to the landless poor. This sorry state of affairs is partly a reflection of the institutional impediments and partly a result of policies that have been contradictory. Industrial growth has not touched many of the rural communities, and the relative abundance of labor in these countries has not been used to advantage in selecting the industries which have the greatest impact on growth in both rural and urban areas. A direct attack on poverty requires that income earning opportunities are provided to the rural poor, by making available assets like land and human capital and through providing productive employment in and out of agriculture. The efforts made so far in the 3 countries do not represent an effective strategy to alleviate rural poverty. PMID:12315243

Khan, M H

1987-01-01

407

Epidote from the Zard Mountains, Kharan, Balochistan, Pakistan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The authors received two unusual crystals of epidote from Rock Currier, Jewel Tunnel Imports, in 2012. The mineral specimens were collected at Zard Mountain (Zard Koh), in the central part of the Ruskoh Mountains (Rusk Koh), west of Kharan, Balochistan, Pakistan (written communication, Rock Currier, 2013). The epidote locality was most likely discovered in 2010. These epidote crystals were unusual in both form and composition. The large crystals were flat tabular and pseudohexagonal in shape which is an uncommon crystal form for a monoclinic mineral (fig. 1). Other specimens from the same locality have been described as pseudo-octahedral in shape. The two crystals range in size from 5.5 to 6.5 centimeters (2.2 to 2.6 inches) and are slightly magnetic. The epidote crystals have a core matrix that resembles a weathered igneous rock. Some micro brown- to reddish-titanite crystals were observed under a binocular microscope on the surface and core areas of the crystals (figs. 2 and 3). Other minerals observed in the core areas include feldspar, biotite, and quartz. The crystals display evidence of cluster-growth with points of attachment to other crystals. The epidotes were most likely collected in pockets of a weathered igneous-skarn deposit.

Brownfield, Michael E.; Lowers, Heather A.; Betterton, William K.

2013-01-01

408

Probabilistic seismic hazard analysis for the city of Quetta, Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic hazard assessment for Quetta is carried out using probabilistic seismic hazard analysis technique based on area sources and augmented by line source used for the first time in Pakistan. Seismic data has been collected and analyzed in spatial and temporal domains. Five Seismic Zones have been modeled in line with tectonics of the region with b-value of 1.14 using regression. The b-value is slightly higher, which is attributed to the fact that aftershocks were not removed as it distorted the dataset. Five fault sources are modeled, with three as reverse and two as strike-slip with 7.8 as maximum magnitude. Mach Structure is included in the tectonics for the first time. The attenuation relation used in the present study is recommended by various researchers. The expected Peak Ground Acceleration for 500-year return period is 4.79 m/s2 for rock outcrop and characterized as very high. Furthermore, variation in spectral acceleration within Quetta city is observed, for which spectral curves are developed for four different places.

Rehman, Shafiq Ur; Lindholm, Conrad; Ahmed, Najeeb; Rafi, Zahid

2014-08-01

409

Infectious diseases in the aftermath of monsoon flooding in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Pakistan is ranked 9th in terms of flood-affected countries worldwide. In the summer of 2010, the northern province of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa received more than 312 mm of rain in a 56 hour period. This resulted in over 1 600 deaths across the region. In addition, over 14 million people were directly affected by this record-breaking deluge. Flood affected regions serve as ideal breeding grounds for pathogens, leading to the spread of diseases. The poor standards of hygiene in camps set up for individuals displaced by the floods also contribute to this. It is essential that those involved in relief efforts are aware of the epidemiology of diseases that have historically seen a sudden upsurge after natural disasters. Keeping this in mind, we conducted a simple review of literature. An extensive literature search was conducted using the PubMed data base and online search engines. Articles published in the last 20 years were considered along with some historical articles where a background was required. Seven major diseases were identified to increase substantially in the aftermath of natural disasters. They were then classified into acute and sub-acute settings. Diarrhea, skin & eye infections and leptospirosis were identified in the acute setting while malaria, leishmaniasis, respiratory infections and hepatitis were identified in the sub-acute setting. PMID:23569839

Baqir, Maryam; Sobani, Zain A; Bhamani, Amyn; Bham, Nida Shahab; Abid, Sidra; Farook, Javeria; Beg, M Asim

2012-01-01

410

Interwell tracing by environmental isotopes at Fimkassar Oilfield, Pakistan.  

PubMed

Water flooding is an important operation to enhance oil recovery. Movement of injected water is traced to test the performance of the water flood and verify suspected geological barriers or flow channels, etc. This paper describes the application of environmental isotopes as interwell tracers at Fimkassar Oilfield in Chakwal District, Pakistan. Water flooding was started in March 1996 in the Sakessar formation (Eocene). When water appeared in the production well in June 1998, isotopes (18O, 2H and 3H) were used to determine the breakthrough/transit time of the water flood and the contribution of fresh injected water. Water samples were collected during June 1998-August 1999 from the injection well, the production well, and some other fields for reference indices of the Sakessar formation and analyzed for the 18O, 2H and 3H, and chloride contents. The isotopic results confirmed the breakthrough of injected water and indicated that the water in the production well was a mixture of the injected water and the formation water. The initial breakthrough time was 27 months. The contribution of injected water varied from 67% to 80%. This percentage did not change significantly from the time of breakthrough until the last sampling indicating good mixing in the reservoir and the absence of any high permeability channel. Chloride content did not give any information about the hydraulic connection between the injection well and the production well. The study proved the potential of environmental isotopes for interwell tracing. PMID:12735980

Ahmad, M; Tasneem, M A; Rafiq, Muhammad; Khan, I H; Farooq, M; Sajjad, M I

2003-05-01

411

Acceptability of prenatal testing and termination of pregnancy in Pakistan.  

PubMed

This study aimed to assess acceptability of prenatal testing (PNT) and termination of pregnancy (TOP) for a range of conditions in Pakistani parents with and without a child with a genetic condition. A structured questionnaire assessing acceptability of PNT and TOP for 30 conditions was completed by 400 Pakistani participants: 200 parents with a child with a genetic condition (100 fathers and 100 mothers) and 200 parents without an affected child (100 fathers and 100 mothers). There was a high level of interest in PNT, where over 80 % of parents in all four study groups would want PNT for the majority of the conditions. There was comparatively less interest in TOP for the same conditions (ranging from 5 to 70 % of parents, with mothers of an affected child being most interested). Parents were most likely to be interested in TOP for conditions at the serious end of the continuum. More than half of the participants in each group would consider TOP for anencephaly and quadriplegia. The interest in PNT and TOP for a range of conditions suggests that rapidly developing PNT technologies are likely to be acceptable in Pakistan, a low-middle income level and Muslim country. The comparatively lower level of interest in TOP for the same conditions highlights ethical dilemmas that such technologies are likely to raise. PMID:25081227

Jafri, H; Hewison, J; Sheridan, E; Ahmed, S

2015-01-01

412

Household Costs for Treatment of Severe Pneumonia in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Current World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for severe pneumonia treatment of under-5 children recommend hospital referral. However, high treatment cost is a major barrier for communities. We compared household costs for referred cases with management by lady health workers (LHWs) using oral antibiotics. This study was nested within a cluster randomized trial in Haripur, Pakistan. Data on direct and indirect costs were collected through interviews and record reviews in the 14 intervention and 14 control clusters. The average household cost/case for a LHW managed case was $1.46 compared with $7.60 for referred cases. When the cost of antibiotics provided by the LHW program was excluded from the estimates, the cost/case came to $0.25 and $7.51 for the community managed and referred cases, respectively, a 30-fold difference. Expanding severe pneumonia treatment with oral amoxicillin to community level could significantly reduce household costs and improve access to the underprivileged population, preventing many child deaths. PMID:23136289

Sadruddin, Salim; Shehzad, Shafqat; Bari, Abdul; Khan, Attaullah; Ibad-ul-Haque; Khan, Amanullah; Qazi, Shamim

2012-01-01

413

Aflatoxins in corn and rice sold in Lahore, Pakistan.  

PubMed

A survey was conducted to evaluate aflatoxin contamination of commonly used food in Lahore, Pakistan. In this context, 1125 samples of various food commodities were collected from various areas of Lahore city. In corn-based products AFB1 was detected in 52% (range 2.0-1405.3 µg kg(-1)) and AFB2 in 25% (range 1.0-55.2 µg kg(-1)) of the samples. In super kernel basmati rice, 13.3% of the samples (range 1.1-32.9 µg kg(-1)) showed the presence of AFB1, 1.9% was contaminated with AFB2 (range 1.0-8.1 µg kg(-1)) and only one sample exhibited the presence of AFG1. As far as the status of basmati rice is concerned, 18.3% was contaminated with AFB1 (range 1.0-15.4 µg kg(-1)) and 2% was contaminated with AFG1. In 42.9% of parboiled rice (range 1.1-9.2 µg kg(-1)) and 36.4% of broken rice (range 2.1-25.3 µg kg(-1)), samples were contaminated with AFB1. PMID:24914592

Firdous, Shamma; Ashfaq, Ayisha; Khan, Shaista Jabeen; Khan, Nikhat

2014-01-01

414

Pakistan: Asia-Pacific energy series, country report  

SciTech Connect

As part of our continuing assessment of Asia-Pacific energy markets, the Energy Program has embarked on a series of country studies that discuss in detail the structure of the energy sector in each major country in the region. The country studies also provide the reader with an overview of the economic and political situation in the various countries. We have particularly highlighted petroleum and gas issues in the country studies and have attempted to show the foreign trade implications of oil and gas trade. Finally, to the greatest extent possible, we have provided the latest available statistics -- often from unpublished and disparate sources that are unavailable to most readers. Staff members have traveled extensively in -- and at times have lived in -- the countries under review and have held discussions with senior policymakers in government and industry. Thus, these reports provide not only information but also the latest thinking on energy issues in the various countries. This report summarizes the energy and economic situation in Pakistan.

Gazdar, M.N.

1992-03-01

415

The magnetostratigraphy of the Chitarwata and lower Vihowa formations of the Dera Ghazi Khan area, Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three sections of the Chitarwata and lower Vihowa formations were sampled along the Dalana River on the southeastern flank of the Zinda Pir Dome in the southern Sulaiman Range near Dera Ghazi Khan, Pakistan. Together they provide nearly 800 m of a continuous sedimentary record of the Miocene derived from the uplifted Himalayan highlands. Previous studies have examined the Middle and Upper Miocene sediments, the Siwalik Group, of the Potwar Plateau to the north. However, detailed investigations of earlier periods are impossible in that area due to the absence of Oligocene and Lower Miocene sediments caused by continued overthrusting associated with the Himalayan orogeny. Fortunately, the Sulaiman basin to the south, which was further removed from the tectonic activity, provides a record of the Early Miocene in the form of the Chitarwata Formation. The Dalana A, B, and C sections (DGA, DGB, and DGC) were examined and sampled for this study. A magnetostratigraphic analysis was carried out to correlate and date the Chitarwata and Vihowa formations exposed in this area. The samples were subjected to step-wise demagnetization to resolve the primary and secondary remanent magnetization components. Thermal demagnetization trajectories indicate that the majority of samples have sufficient internal consistency that their calculated polarities are reliable. Likewise, the majority of the 126 measured sites showed statistically significant agreement between the three measured samples per site. However, the bimodal data set does not pass the reversal test and so is deemed unsuitable for tectonic interpretations. The individual sections were initially correlated using lithologic and stratigraphic methods, and the relationship was reinforced by the magnetostratigraphy. The composite DG section was tentatively correlated with the standard magnetic polarity time scale placing the disconformable base of the Chitarwata in the DGA section at just older than 22 Ma, the Chitarwata/Vihowa contact at 18.6 Ma, and the top of the Vihowa in the DGC section at about 16 Ma. The assignment of these dates to the Chitarwata will aid in future biostratigraphic and lithostratigraphic correlation of Early Miocene sediments, effectively extending the well-established Siwalik faunal sequence back by four million years.

Friedman, Rachel; Gee, Jeff; Tauxe, Lisa; Downing, Kevin; Lindsay, Everett

1992-12-01

416

Emerald mineralization and metasomatism of amphibolite, khaltaro granitic pegmatite - Hydrothermal vein system, Haramosh Mountains, Northern Pakistan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Emerald mineralization is found within 0.1- to 1-m-thick hydrothermal veins and granitic pegmatites cutting amphibolite within the Nanga Parbat - Haramosh massif, in northern Pakistan. The amphibolite forms a sill-like body within garnet-mica schist, and both are part of a regional layered gneiss unit of Proterozoic (?) age. The 40Ar/39Ar data for muscovite from a pegmatite yield a plateau age of 9.13 ?? 0.04 Ma. Muscovite from mica schist and hornblende from amphibolite yield disturbed spectra with interpreted ages of 9 to 10 Ma and more than 225 Ma, respectively, which indicate that peak Tertiary metamorphism reached 325 to 550??C prior to 10 Ma. Pegmatites were emplaced after peak metamorphism during this interval and are older than pegmatites farther south in the massif. At Khaltaro, simply zoned albite-rich miarolitic pegmatites and hydrothermal veins containing various proportions of quartz, albite, tourmaline, muscovite, and beryl are associated with a 1- to 3-m-thick heterogeneous leucogranite sill, that is locally albitized. The pegmatites likely crystallized at 650 to 600??C at pressures of less than 2 kbar. Crystals of emerald form within thin (0.20, 0.54-0.89 wt%), to pale blue beryl (<0.07, 0.10-0.63%), to colorless beryl (<0.07, 0.07-0.28%). The amphibolite is metasomatized in less than 20-cm-wide selvages that are symmetrically zoned around veins or pegmatites. A sporadic inner zone containing F-rich biotite, tourmaline, and fluorite, with local albite, muscovite, quartz, and rare beryl, gives way to an intermediate zone containing biotite and fluorite with local plagioclase and quartz, and to an outer zone of amphibolite containing sparse biotite and local quartz. The inner and intermediate zones experienced gains of K, H, F, B, Li, Rb, Cs, Be, Ta, Nb, As, Y and Sr, and losses of Si, Mg, Ca, Fe, Cr, V and Sc. The outer alteration zone has gained F, Li, Rb, Cs, and As. Oxygen isotope analyses of igneous and hydrothermal minerals indicate that a single fluid of magmatic origin with ??18OH2O = 8??? produced the pegmatite-vein system and hydrothermal alteration at temperatures between 550 and 400??C. The formation of emerald results from introduction of HF-rich magmatic-hydrothermal fluids into the amphibolite, which caused hydrogen ion metasomatism and released Cr and Fe into the pegmatite-vein system.

Laurs, B.M.; Dilles, J.H.; Snee, L.W.

1996-01-01

417

Petrography and provenance of the Early Permian Fluvial Warchha Sandstone, Salt Range, Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Warchha Sandstone of the Salt Range of Pakistan is a continental succession that accumulated as part of a meandering, fluvial system during Early Permian times. Several fining-upward depositional cycles are developed, each of which is composed of conglomerate, cross-bedded sandstone and, in their upper parts, bioturbated siltstone and claystone units with distinctive desiccation cracks and carbonate concretions. Clast lithologies are mainly of plutonic and low-grade metamorphic origin, with an additional minor sedimentary component. Textural properties of the sandstone are fine- to coarse-grained, poorly to moderately sorted, sub-angular to sub-rounded, and with generally loose packing. Based on modal analyses, the sandstone is dominantly a feldspathoquartzose (arkose to sub-arkose). Detrital constituents are mainly composed of monocrystalline quartz, feldspars (more K-feldspar than plagioclase) and various types of lithic clasts. XRD and SEM studies indicate that kaolinite is the dominant clay mineral and that it occurs as both allogenic and authigenic forms. However, illite, illite-smectite mixed layer, smectite and chlorite are also recognised in both pores and fractures. Much of the kaolinite was likely derived by the severe chemical weathering of previously deposited basement rocks under the influence of a hot and humid climate. Transported residual clays deposited as part of the matrix of the Warchha Sandstone show coherent links with the sandstone petrofacies, thereby indicating the same likely origin. Illite, smectite and chlorite mainly occur as detrital minerals and as alteration products of weathered acidic igneous and metamorphic rocks. Based primarily on fabric relationship, the sequence of cement formation in the Warchha Sandstone is clay (generally kaolinite), iron oxide, calcareous and siliceous material, before iron-rich illite and occasional mixed layer smectite-illite and rare chlorite. Both petrographic analysis and field characteristics of the sandstone indicate that the source areas were characterised by uplift of a moderate to high relief continental block that was weathered under the influence of hot and humid climatic conditions. The rocks weathered from the source areas included primary granites and gneisses, together with metamorphic basement rocks and minor amounts of sedimentary rocks. Regional palaeogeographic reconstructions indicate that much of the Warchha Sandstone detritus was derived from the Aravalli and Malani ranges and surrounding areas of the Indian Craton to the south and southeast, before being transported to and deposited within the Salt Range region under the influence of a semi-arid to arid climatic regime.

Ghazi, Shahid; Mountney, Nigel P.

418

Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication - Afghanistan and Pakistan, January 2011-August 2012.  

PubMed

In 1988, the World Health Assembly resolved to eradicate polio, which led to the establishment of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI). In 2012, however, the transmission of indigenous wild poliovirus (WPV) continued uninterrupted in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Nigeria, leading the World Health Assembly to declare completion of polio eradication a programmatic emergency for global public health. This report updates previous reports and describes polio eradication activities and progress in Afghanistan and Pakistan during January 2011-August 2012, as of September 9, 2012. During 2011, 80 WPV cases were confirmed in Afghanistan, compared with 25 WPV cases in 2010; 17 WPV cases were confirmed during January-August 2012, compared with 34 WPV cases for the same period in 2011. In Pakistan, 198 WPV cases were confirmed in 2011, compared with 144 WPV cases in 2010; 30 WPV cases were confirmed during January-August 2012, compared with 88 WPV cases during the same period in 2011. During January 2011-August 2012, no WPV type 3 (WPV3) cases were confirmed in Afghanistan, and four confirmed WPV3 cases and one case with coinfection of WPV3 and WPV type 1 (WPV1) were reported in Pakistan. Violence targeting vaccinators has occurred previously in Afghanistan and recently in Pakistan. To progress further toward interruption of WPV transmission within their countries and across their shared border, the governments of Afghanistan and Pakistan might consider reviewing the implementation of their national emergency action plans and determine how to enhance the safety of vaccination teams within conflict-affected areas of both countries. PMID:23034587

2012-10-01

419

Physical activity patterns among South-Asian adults: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Physical activity (PA) has many beneficial physical and mental health effects. Physical inactivity is considered the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality. At present there are no systematic reviews on PA patterns among South Asian adults residing in the region. The present study aims to systematically evaluate studies on PA patterns in South Asian countries. A five-staged comprehensive search of the literature was conducted in Medline, Web of Science and SciVerse Scopus using keywords 'Exercise', 'Walking', 'Physical activity', 'Inactivity', 'Physical Activity Questionnaire', 'International Physical Activity Questionnaire', 'IPAQ', 'Global Physical Activity Questionnaire' and 'GPAQ', combined with individual country names. The search was restricted to English language articles conducted in humans and published before 31st December 2012. To obtain additional data a manual search of the reference lists of articles was performed. Data were also retrieved from the search of relevant web sites and online resources. The total number of hits obtained from the initial search was 1,771. The total number of research articles included in the present review is eleven (India-8, Sri Lanka-2, Pakistan-1). In addition, eleven country reports (Nepal-3, Bangladesh-2, India-2, Sri Lanka-2, Bhutan-1, Maldives-1) of World Health Organization STEPS survey from the South-Asian countries were retrieved online. In the research articles the overall prevalence of inactivity was as follows; India (18.5%-88.4%), Pakistan (60.1%) and Sri Lanka (11.0%-31.8%). STEPS survey reports were available from all countries except Pakistan. Overall in majority of STEPS surveys females were more inactive compared to males. Furthermore, leisure related inactivity was >75% in studies reporting inactivity in this domain and people were more active in transport domain when compared with the other domains. In conclusion, our results show that there is a wide variation in the prevalence of physical inactivity among South-Asian adults within and between countries. Furthermore, physical inactivity in South Asian adults was associated with several socio-demographic characteristics. Majority of South Asian adults were inactive during their leisure time. These Factors need to be considered when planning future interventions and research aimed at improving PA in the region. PMID:24119682

Ranasinghe, Chathuranga D; Ranasinghe, Priyanga; Jayawardena, Ranil; Misra, Anoop

2013-01-01

420