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1

Tactical cities : negotiating violence in Karachi, Pakistan  

E-print Network

This thesis examines the relationship between violence and urbanity. Using Karachi, Pakistan, as a case study, it asks how violent cities are imagined and experienced by their residents. The thesis draws on a variety of ...

Yusuf, Huma

2008-01-01

2

Investigating an outbreak of acute viral hepatitis caused by hepatitis E virus variants in Karachi, South Pakistan.  

PubMed

Hepatitis E is a classic water-borne disease in developing countries. Detection of anti-HEV IgM and IgG antibodies, in addition to HEV RNA are useful epidemiological markers in diagnosis of hepatitis E. This study was conducted to investigate an outbreak of acute viral hepatitis in South-Pakistan. Anti-HEV IgM and IgG were assessed comparatively with serological kits manufactured by Abbott, Cosmic, TGH, and Wantai, selecting HEV RNA as reference assay. Molecular evolutionary analysis was performed by phylogeny and HEV spread time analysis by Bayesian Coalescent Theory approach. Of the 89 patients, 24 (26.9%) did not have acute hepatitis viral marker. Of the remaining 65 cases, 4 (6.1%) were positive for anti-HAV IgM, one (1.5%) for anti-HBc IgM, 2 (3%) for HCV, 53 (81.5%) for anti-HEV IgM, and 5 (7.7%) were hepatitis-negative. The Wantai test was 100% sensitive and specific followed by Cosmic (98.1% and 100%), TGH (98.1% and 97.2%) and Abbott (79.2% and 83.3%). Two HEV variant strains were detected by phylogeny responsible for this acute hepatitis outbreak. Estimates on demographic history of HEV showed that HEV in Pakistan has remained at a steady nonexpanding phase from around 1970 to the year 2005, in which it expanded explosively with the emergence of new HEV variants. In conclusion, the limited sensitivity of available assay (Abbott anti-HEV EIA) may be a concern in HEV diagnosis in Pakistan. This study cautions that the dissemination of the variant strains to other areas of Pakistan may lead to explosive HEV outbreaks. PMID:21328376

Khan, Anis; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Kurbanov, Fuat; Elkady, Abeer; Abbas, Zaigham; Azam, Zahid; Subhan, Amna; Raza, Sajjad; Razza, Sajjad; Hamid, Saeed; Jafri, Wasim; Shih, James; Xia, Ningshao; Takahashi, Kazuaki; Mishiro, Shunji; Mizokami, Masashi

2011-04-01

3

Primary amebic meningoencephalitis caused by Naegleria fowleri, Karachi, Pakistan.  

PubMed

We report 13 cases of Naegleria fowleri primary amebic meningoencephalitis in persons in Karachi, Pakistan, who had no history of aquatic activities. Infection likely occurred through ablution with tap water. An increase in primary amebic meningoencephalitis cases may be attributed to rising temperatures, reduced levels of chlorine in potable water, or deteriorating water distribution systems. PMID:21291600

Shakoor, Sadia; Beg, Mohammad Asim; Mahmood, Syed Faisal; Bandea, Rebecca; Sriram, Rama; Noman, Fatima; Ali, Farheen; Visvesvara, Govinda S; Zafar, Afia

2011-02-01

4

Research fatigue among injecting drug users in Karachi, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Karachi is the largest metropolis of Pakistan and its economic hub attracting domestic migrants for economic opportunities. It is also the epicenter of HIV epidemic in the country. Since 2004, one pilot study and four behavioral and biological surveillance rounds have been conducted in Karachi. In addition many student research projects have also focused on key risk groups including injection drug users (IDUs). As a result of this extra ordinary exposure of same kind of questions, IDUs know how to respond to high value questions related to sharing of needles or unsafe sexual practices. The purpose of the study was to explore the element of research fatigue among IDUs in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods The study was conducted on 32 spots in Karachi, selected on the basis of estimate of IDUs at each spot. A trained field worker (recovered IDU) visited each spot; observed sharing behavior of IDUs and asked questions related to practices in January 2009. Verbal consent was obtained from each respondent before asking questions. Results On average 14 IDUs were present at each spot and out of 32 selected spots, 81% were active while more than two groups were present at 69% spots. In each group three to four IDUs were present and everyone in the group was sharing. One dose of injecting narcotics was observed. Sharing of syringes, needles and distilled water was observed at 63% spots while professional injector/street doctor was present at 60% spots. Conclusion There is a need to check internal consistency in surveillance research. It is highly likely that IDUs and other risk groups know how to respond to key questions but their responses do not match with the practices. PMID:23758666

2013-01-01

5

Spatio-temporal patterns of road traffic noise pollution in Karachi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the spatial and temporal patterns of noise exposure due to road traffic in Karachi City, Pakistan, and found that levels of noise were generally higher during mornings and evenings because of the commuting pattern of Karachi residents. This study found the average value of noise levels to be over 66dB, which could cause serious annoyance according to the

Mohammed Raza Mehdi; Minho Kim; Jeong Chang Seong; Mudassar Hassan Arsalan

2011-01-01

6

PERCEPTIONS ON BIOETHICS AMONG PATIENTS PRESENTING TO FAMILY PHYSICIANS AT A TEACHING HOSPITAL IN KARACHI, PAKISTAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To study the perceptions on bioethics among patients presenting to family physicians at a teaching hospital in Karachi, Pakistan Study design: Questionnaire based cross sectional survey Settings: The study was carried out at the family practice center, the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi Main outcome measures: Perceptions on the broad principles of bioethics Results: Majority of the respondents were

Waris Qidwai; Hafeez Qureshi; Syed Sohail Ali; Mahboob Alam; Syed Iqbal Azam

7

"Shelter within my reach" : medium rise apartment housing for the middle income group in Karachi, Pakistan  

E-print Network

This thesis identifies the project development processes of medium rise (five storied or less) apartment housing built by the private formal sector, catering to the middle income groups in Karachi, Pakistan. Middle income ...

Mahmood, Saman, 1972-

1999-01-01

8

Patients' perceptions of blood transfusion risks in Karachi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the understanding of and attitudes toward risks of blood transfusions among transfusion recipients in Karachi.Methods: One hundred forty-one transfusion recipients from 13 major Karachi hospitals were interviewed. Indications for transfusion were obtained by reviewing the patients' medical records.Results: The most common indications for transfusion were surgical complications (n = 77, 55%), anemia (n = 34, 24%), and

Stephen P. Luby; Qaiser Niazt; Sheeraz Siddiquit; Syed A. Mujeeb; Susan Fisher-Hoch

2001-01-01

9

Urban Transport and Sustainable Transport Strategies: A Case Study of Karachi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uncontrolled growth in urbanization and motorization generally contributes to an urban land use and transportation system that is socially, economically, and environmentally unsustainable. This paper uses Karachi as a case study, which is the largest urban and economic centre of Pakistan, passing through an uncontrolled phase of rapid urbanization and motorization. The paper first reviews research related to sustainable

Intikhab Ahmed Qureshi; Huapu Lu

2007-01-01

10

Use of satellite imagery in constructing a household GIS database for health studies in Karachi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Household-level geographic information systems (GIS) database are usually constructed using the geographic positioning system (GPS). In some research settings, GPS receivers may fail to capture accurate readings due to structural barriers such as tall buildings. We faced this problem when constructing a household GIS database for research sites in Karachi, Pakistan because the sites are comprised of congested groups

Mohammad Ali; Shahid Rasool; Jin-Kyung Park; Shamoon Saeed; Rion Leon Ochiai; Qamaruddin Nizami; Camilo J Acosta; Zulfiqar Bhutta

2004-01-01

11

Depression in the elderly in Karachi, Pakistan: a cross sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Depression in elderly is a major global public health concern. There has been no population-based study of depression in the elderly in Pakistan. The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of depression and its association with family support of elderly (age 60 years and above) in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods A population based cross-sectional study was carried out in Karachi from July-September 2008. Questionnaire based interviews were conducted with individuals (n?=?953) recruited through multi-stage cluster sampling technique, using the 15- item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). Results Prevalence of depression was found to be 40.6%, with a higher preponderance in women than men (50% vs. 32%). Elderly currently not living with their spouses were 60% more depressed than those living with their spouses (Adjusted OR?=?1.6, 95% CI?=?1.3-2.1). Elderly who did not consider their children as future support were twice as likely to be depressed as those considering their children to be old age security (Adjusted OR?=?2.1, 95% CI?=?1.4-3.1). An increase in one male adult child showed 10% decrease in depression after adjusting for other variables (Adjusted OR?=?0.9, 95% CI?=?0.8-0.9). Conclusion A relatively high prevalence of depression was found in the elderly in Karachi. There appeared to be a strong association between depression and family support variables such as living with spouse, considering children as future security and number of male adult children in the sample studied. Mental wellbeing of the elderly in Pakistan needs to be given consideration in the health policy of the country. In collectivistic societies like Pakistan family support plays an important part in mental health of the elderly that needs to be recognized and supported through various governmental and non-governmental initiatives. Keypoints Assessment of depression in elderly, Cross-sectional study in Karachi-Pakistan PMID:23819509

2013-01-01

12

Prevalence of byssinosis in spinning and textile workers of Karachi, Pakistan.  

PubMed

The authors measured prevalence of byssinosis in spinning and textile workers of Karachi, Pakistan, and examined association of the disease with demographic and environmental factors. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in 3 spinning and textile mills and 3 colonies inhabited by spinning and textile workers. A precoded questionnaire was administered to the workers and followed by physical and clinical examination. Among 362 textile workers, the authors found the prevalence of byssinosis to be 35.6%. Educational status of the workers and section of the mill were significantly associated with prevalence of the disease. The authors conclude that there is a high prevalence of byssinosis in spinning and textile workers of Karachi. Furthermore, low education level and work in the spinning section of the mill appear to contribute significantly to the high prevalence of the disease in Pakistan. PMID:18980877

Memon, Ismail; Panhwar, Amanullah; Rohra, Dileep K; Azam, Syed Iqbal; Khan, Nadir

2008-01-01

13

Heavy Metals Contamination in Coastal Sediments of Karachi, Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Toxic compounds such as heavy metals exert chronic and lethal effects in animals, plants, and human health. With the rapid industrialization, urbanization, and economic development in Karachi, heavy metals are continuing to be introduced to estuarine and coastal environment through rivers, runoff and land-based point sources. Pollution in the Karachi coastal region (167 km long) is mainly attributed to Lyari and Malir Rivers flowing through the city of Karachi. Both rivers are served by various channels of domestic and industrial wastes carrying more than 300 million gallons per day untreated effluent of 6000 industries and ultimately drain into the beaches of Arabian Sea. Concentrations of selected heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in surface sediments from eighty-eight sites in Karachi coastal region were studied in order to understand metal contamination due to industrialization, urbanization, and economic development in Karachi. Sediment samples were collected in 2005 and 2006. We have found that heavy metal concentrations in surface sediments varied from 0.006 to 24.3 ug/g for Cd, 5.1 to 95 ug/g for Co, 2.9 to 571 ug/g for Cr, 6.9 to 272 ug/g for Cu, 0.55 to 6.5% for Fe, 1.2 to 318 ug/g for Mn, 7.5 to 75 ug/g for Ni, 6.3 to 121 ug/g for Pb, and 3.3 to 389 ug/g for Zn. Enrichment factors (EFs) were calculated to assess whether the concentrations observed represent background or contaminated levels. The highest levels of metals were found to be at the confluence of the Lyari and Malir River streams at the Arabian Sea, indicating the impact of the effluents of the highly urbanized and industrialized city of Karachi. Furthermore, this study assessed heavy metal toxicity risk with the application of Sediment Quality Guideline (SQG) indices (effect range low/effect range median values, ERL/ERM). Results indicated that the potential toxicity of marine environment can cause adverse biological effects to the biota directly and the human health indirectly through food web chain.

Siddique, A.; Mumtaz, M.; Zaigham, N. A.; Mallick, K. A.; Saied, S.; Khwaja, H. A.

2008-12-01

14

High risk behaviors of injection drug users registered with harm reduction programme in Karachi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Surveillance data of Sindh AIDS Control Programme, Pakistan suggest that HIV infection is rapidly increasing among IDUs in Karachi and has reached 9% in 2004–5 indicating that the country has progressed from nascent to concentrated level of HIV epidemic. Findings of 2nd generation surveillance in 2004–5 also indicate 104\\/395 (26.3%) IDUs HIV positive in the city. METHODS: We conducted

Arshad Altaf; Sharaf Ali Shah; Najam A Zaidi; Ashraf Memon; Norman Wray

2007-01-01

15

Risk Factors for Neonatal Mortality in Low-Income Population Subgroups in Karachi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper assesses the risk factors for neonatal mortality (0–28 days of life) for full-term singleton live births. The study sample comprised 1,011 ever-married women who were residents of four multi-ethnic, multi-religious low-income areas of Karachi, Pakistan during 1995. The analysis sample was restricted to 4,488 live births to 912 women. Results showed that 4.8% (n = 217) of all

R. Hussain

2002-01-01

16

Prevalence and determinants of violence against emergency medical care providers in Karachi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundViolence against healthcare workers is a growing problem. About 9% to 49.5% violence has been reported from different parts of the world. Healthcare providers in emergency departments throughout the world are exposed to workplace violence.ObjectiveTo determine the prevalence and determinants of workplace violence against emergency care providers in tertiary care hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan.MethodsThe study was conducted in emergency departments

E U Siddiqui; K Ejaz; J A Razzak; M U Shehzad; S Jamali

2010-01-01

17

Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding sexually transmitted infections among general practitioners and medical specialists in Karachi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To determine the knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding diagnosis and treatment of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among specialists—that is, dermatologists, gynaecologists and urologists, and general practitioners (GPs) in Karachi, Pakistan.Methods: Interviewers administered structured questionnaires to doctors conducting outpatient clinics at tertiary hospitals and\\/or private clinics in Karachi. All private clinics within a 10 km radius of the Aga Khan

H E Khandwalla; S Luby; S Rahman

2000-01-01

18

How well can physicians manage Tuberculosis? A Public-Private sector comparison from Karachi, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Tuberculosis (TB) is endemic in Pakistan which ranks fifth amongst the twenty two countries designated to be highly burdened by TB according to the World Health Organization. However, there is paucity of data regarding the knowledge of diagnosis of TB and its management amongst public and private practitioners. In this study, we endeavor to identify this gap in knowledge regarding the diagnosis and management of TB between public and private doctors and the factors affecting these knowledge scores in urban Pakistan. Methods This cross sectional survey was conducted between June and December 2011. Doctors from public hospitals, private hospitals and private clinics scattered in all eighteen towns of Karachi were included in the study. Qualified MBBS doctors working in any specialty were eligible to participate whereas doctors working in both the public and private sectors were excluded from the study. Vignette based clinical scenarios were given to assess the knowledge score regarding the diagnosis and management of TB. Results A total of 196 doctors participated in the study. There was a significant difference between private and public physicians in terms of age and years of practice (p-value <0.05). Significant differences in the proportion of knowledge scores were observed between the public and private doctors and National TB Control Program trained and untrained doctors in Karachi. Factors associated with inadequate knowledge scores were being female gender [OR: 2.76 (95% CI: 1.418-5.384)], private employment status [OR: 1.50 (95% CI: 1.258-2.439)], and not trained by NTP [OR: 2.98 (95% CI: 1.286-3.225)] on multivariate logistic regression analysis. Conclusion It is concluded that a knowledge gap exists between the public and private doctors in Karachi. Strengthening of currently implemented public private mix model along with improvement in the trainings of public and private practitioners is highly recommended to control TB in Pakistan. PMID:24156568

2013-01-01

19

Predictors of Vaccination Card Retention in Children 12-59 months old in Karachi, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the factors associated with retaining the vaccination card among care takers of 12-59 months old children in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods This was an analytical cross-sectional study in Karachi. Households were randomly selected throughout a multistage cluster sampling technique. Data was collected for 504 children of 12- 59 months of age. Questionnaire was administered to caretakers to gather information regarding the children’s vaccination status, socio-demographic characteristics and reviewing their vaccination cards. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS 19 using logistic regression. Results: Among 462 vaccinated children, caretakers of 33% provided vaccination cards. Odds of card retention decrease if the caretaker has a large household i.e., >5 people sharing one room (AOR 0.277, 95% CI: 0.096, 0.797) and if the child is of four to five years of age (AOR 0.544, 95% CI: 0.305, 0.970). Gender of the child, and the caretaker’s education and access to electronic media were not significant predictors of vaccination card retention in our study. Conclusion Our study showed that vaccination card retention for children 12-59 months of age was low (33%) in Karachi. There is a need to educate caretakers of young children regarding the importance of keeping vaccination card and to disseminate this information through healthcare providers. Improving vaccination card retention is one of the key measures which will help towards accurately estimating coverage and to inform health policy decisions. PMID:24936268

Sheikh, Sana Sadiq; Ali, Syed Asad

2014-01-01

20

Improving students' english speaking skills through interactive approach in a private lower secondary school in Karachi Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Literature shows that interactive approach such as learning games is one of the interesting strategies to improve students' English speaking skills, but little attention is given to study it in the context of Pakistan. Thus, this study aimed at improving students' English speaking skills through the interactive approach of 'learning games' in a private lower secondary school in Karachi. It

Khan Bahdar

2009-01-01

21

Prevalence of syphilis among antenatal clinic attendees in Karachi: Imperative to begin universal screening in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Objectives Sexually transmitted infections are thought by some to be rare in socially conservative Muslim countries. Little is known about prevalence of syphilis in Pakistani women from the general population. We determined syphilis prevalence in a multi-center cross-sectional study of low risk pregnant women in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods We administered a structured questionnaire and obtained a blood sample for syphilis serology (rapid plasma reagin test with Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay confirmation) from all women giving informed consent over six weeks in 2007. Results The prevalence of confirmed syphilis was less than one percent (0.9%; 95%CI: 0.4, 1.8) in a sample size of 800 women recruited from three urban sites (?1% refusal rate). Women who lived in an area where male drug use is prevalent (Ibrahim Hyderi Hospital) had 1% (1.5%) higher prevalence rates than women from the other two sites 0.5%. Conclusions We documented higher-than-expected syphilis seroprevalence rates in a low risk population of antenatal clinic attendees in Pakistan. Bridge populations for syphilis may include drug users, who are usually married, and Hijras or their clients. Hijras are transgender and/or transvestite men who may provide sex for money to men. In accordance with our results, the national policy for syphilis control in Pakistan should be modified to include universal syphilis screening in antenatal clinics with subsequent partner notification. PMID:22356034

Shah, SA; Kristensen, S; Memon, MA; Usman, G; Ghazi, A; John, R; Sathiakumar, N; Vermund, SH

2013-01-01

22

Status of free-living amoebae (Acanthamoeba spp., Naegleria fowleri, Balamuthia mandrillaris) in drinking water supplies in Karachi, Pakistan.  

PubMed

The ability of pathogenic free-living amoebae to produce infections is a growing concern. In this study, we investigated the presence of free-living amoebae (Acanthamoeba spp., Naegleria fowleri, Balamuthia mandrillaris) in drinking water supplies in Karachi, Pakistan. Fifty-two domestic tap water samples were examined. Amoebae were identified by morphological characteristics and polymerase chain reaction. Thirty percent of the examined samples were positive for Acanthamoeba spp., 8% for N. fowleri while B. mandrillaris were not recovered. Additionally we examined secretory IgA antibody to Acanthamoeba and B. mandrillaris. Acanthamoeba antibody prevalence rate was 100% in both males and females, while B. mandrillaris antibody prevalence rate was 5.5% in males only (females were negative). Our findings suggest that free-living amoebae are a potential health hazard in domestic water supplies in Karachi, Pakistan. PMID:23708583

Yousuf, Farzana Abubakar; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Subhani, Faysal; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

2013-06-01

23

Why do families of sick newborns accept hospital care? a community-based cohort study in Karachi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:Sick young infants are at high risk of mortality in developing countries, but families often decline hospital referral. Our objective was to identify the predictors of acceptance of referral for hospital care among families of severely ill newborns and infants <59 days old in three low-income communities of Karachi, Pakistan.Study Design:A cohort of 541 newborns and infants referred from home

A Owais; S Sultana; A D Stein; N H Bashir; R Awaldad; A K M Zaidi

2011-01-01

24

Objects of temporary contraception: an exploratory study of women's perspectives in Karachi, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Objectives To explore perspectives of three modern contraceptive objects, using an emic approach, among women in a low-income community in Karachi, Pakistan. Design A qualitative interview study design was employed, using qualitative content analysis with an inductive approach and manual thematic coding. Setting Shah Faisal Colony, Karachi. Participants 20 women, potential contraceptive users of reproductive age and living within a health centre catchment, were purposively selected to provide a similar number of non-users (n=5), contraceptive injection users (n=7), pill users (n=4), and intrauterine device users (n=4). One interview was excluded because it was not recorded. No other exclusion criteria were used. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcome was interpretation of potency and effects of selected family planning objects. Secondary outcome measures were knowledge of family planning and description of therapeutic approaches used and preferred. Results Awareness of family planning was high. Women described different therapeutic approaches, stating they generally preferred modern medicine for contraception as it was fastest and most powerful. They reported that fear of some contraceptive objects, particularly injections and intrauterine contraceptive devices, influenced their choices. Women explained their perceptions of how the heating effects of contraceptives could cause unwanted side effects including menstrual irregularities, weight gain and weakness, leading to disease. Conclusions Most women wanted family planning, but remained dissatisfied with the available contraceptives and their effects. While women reported that they relied on modern medicine for contraception, their descriptions of how contraceptives affected their health relied on the hot–cold explanatory idiom of traditional medicine. PMID:23906959

Marvi, Kamyla; Howard, Natasha

2013-01-01

25

Attitudes towards child restrains and seat belts usage in the learned population of Karachi, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Motor vehicles crashes (MVCs) are the leading cause of injury related morbidity and mortality in developed countries. Recent evidence proves that properly used child seat belts can dramatically reduce the risk of severe and life-threatening injury from MVCs. There are rarities of thought and inspiration regarding the use of child seat belts in our society and region, therefore we lack of data regarding factors and paucity of usage of child seat belts in motor vehicles. This study aimed to assess the knowledge and attitudes of child seat belt usage among the educated population in Karachi, Pakistan. METHODS: Altogether 304 employees were investigated. They were employees of Aga Khan University who were using their cars and having children younger than 10 years old. A cross sectional observational study was designed, and a 36-item questionnaire in English was used to collect data on participants’ demographic details, designation, educational level, economic status, validity of driving license, number of children and cars, availability of adult seat belts and child seat belts along with their functionality, awareness, knowledge and attitude toward its use, and reason of not using these devices. SPSS version 20 for Windows was used to analyze the data and the Chi-square test was used. RESULTS: Totally 290 participants were recruited with a response rate of 72% (212). Of 212 participants, 126 (59%) were male. 154 (72.6%) participants had valid driver licenses, and 154 (72.6%) had adult seat belts in their vehicles. Only 32 (15%) reported regular use of adult seat belts. Although 168 (79.2%) participants had some knowledge about child restrains (CRs), only 65 (22%) had CRs in their cars. Eighty-two (38.7%) participants got the knowledge about CRs and seat belts from media. Mothers were more concerned about the use of CRs than fathers. Only 14 (6.6%) parents were found to use both adult and child seat belts all the time. Of the 157 parents who did not us use CRs, 42 considered unnecessary, 35 lacked relevant knowledge. But 15 parents used CR against their children’s wills. CONCLUSIONS: The pattern of CR usage among the employees at Aga Khan University, Karachi is dictated by the unavailability of CR, followed by ignorance, inconvenience, and non-acceptance by their children. The important issue of CR has consistently been ignored over the years and it has never gained enough popularity in Pakistan.

Siddiqui, Emaduddin; Ejaz, Kiran; Waheed, Shahan; Kazi, Ghazala Irfan; Khursheed, Munawar

2014-01-01

26

Perceptions and Experiences of Women in Karachi, Pakistan Regarding Secondary Infertility: Results from a Community-Based Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Background. The prevalence of infertility in Pakistan is 22% with primary infertility at 4% and secondary infertility at 18%. This study explored perceptions and experiences of women in Karachi, Pakistan regarding the causes, treatment-seeking behavior for and consequences of secondary infertility. Methods. Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with married women explored their perceptions and experiences for issues related to secondary infertility. Results. The knowledge of women about the causes and scientific treatment options for infertility was limited resulting in inclination for traditional unsafe health care. Infertility was stated to result in marital instability, stigmatization and abuse specially for women with no live child. Conclusions. Since infertility can have a serious effect on both the psychological well-being and the social status of women in Pakistan, effective interventions are the need of the day. There is a dire need for health education and counseling to be integrated into infertility management plans. PMID:22474450

Sami, Neelofar; Saeed Ali, Tazeen

2012-01-01

27

Knowledge, attitude and practices of school teachers towards epileptic school children in Karachi, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Objective: To assess the knowledge and attitude of school teachers towards an epileptic child. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among teachers of primary, middle and high schools from different communities in Karachi, Pakistan. A total of 120 self-administered KAP questionnaires were distributed in schools selected through convenience sampling. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 19. Results: Out of the total sample size, 90.9% (n=100) had heard about epilepsy. Sixteen (14.5%) teachers considered epilepsy to be contagious while 72.7% (n=80) teachers were of the view that epileptics can succeed as other normal children and sixty nine (62.7%) teachers were willing to help a child experiencing a fit, though only 15.5% (n=17) received knowledge about epilepsy during their training years. Conclusion: The research was conclusive for assessing the knowledge and attitude of teachers towards epileptic children. It highlighted the lack of awareness and negative attitude still existing among teachers. However, many were in the favor of mass education through awareness programs. PMID:24639865

Homi Bhesania, Nasha; Rehman, Anaya; Saleh Savul, Ilma; Zehra, Nosheen

2014-01-01

28

Geochemical assessment of metal concentrations in sediment core of Korangi Creek along Karachi Coast, Pakistan.  

PubMed

Sediment core from Korangi Creek, one of the polluted coastal locations along the Karachi Coast Pakistan, was collected to trace the history of marine pollution and to determine the impact of industrial activity in the area. Down core variation of metals such as Ca, K, Mg, Al, S, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu and Zn was studied in the 72.0 cm core. Nuclear analytical techniques, proton induced X-rays emission (PIXE), was employed to ascertain the chemical composition in sediment core. Grain size analysis and sediment composition of cored samples indicated that Korangi creek sediments are clayey in nature. Correlation matrix revealed a strong association of Ni, Cu, Cr and Zn with Fe and Mn. To infer anthropogenic input, enrichment factor (EF), degree of contamination and pollution load index were calculated. EF showed severe enrichment in surface sediment for Ni, Cu, Cr and Zn, indicating increased industrial effluents discharge in recent years. The study suggests that heavy metal discharge in the area should be regulated. If the present trend of enrichment is allowed to continue unabated, it is most likely that the local food web complexes in the creek might be at highest risk. PMID:23279880

Chaudhary, M Z; Ahmad, N; Mashiatullah, A; Ahmad, N; Ghaffar, A

2013-08-01

29

Constraints to adoption of appropriate breast feeding practices in a squatter settlement in Karachi, Pakistan.  

PubMed

Appropriate breast feeding practices (ABFP) are important for successful lactation. Constraints to adoption of ABFP by mothers in a squatter settlement in Karachi, Pakistan are reported. One hundred and two mother-infant pairs were followed from birth to 16 weeks of age. Eighty-seven infants received prelacteal feeds of honey as a quasi-religious ritual, 16 received ghutti for "cleansing of stomach", other prelacteal feeds were given as substitutes for breast feeding. Twenty nine mothers initiated breast feeding within 4 hours of birth. Supplemental water was given to 53 infants; major reasons being mothers' perception of thirst and diarrhoea in the infant. Supplemental milk was given to 24 infants. Insufficient milk and work load of mothers were main reasons for supplementation. Home remedies were given in 36 instances for prevention/treatment of indigestion or colds. Quasi-religious ritual of giving honey, perception that child birth was a major stress and early initiation of breast feeding adds to that stress, fear of dehydration and perception of insufficient breast milk were the major constraints to adoption of appropriate breast feeding practices. PMID:9071864

Badruddin, S H; Inam, S N; Ramzanali, S; Hendricks, K

1997-02-01

30

Hyperendemic pulmonary tuberculosis in peri-urban areas of Karachi, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Currently there are very limited empirical data available on the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis among residents of marginalized settings in Pakistan. This study assessed the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis through active case detection and evaluated predictors of pulmonary tuberculosis among residents of two peri-urban neighbourhoods of Karachi, Pakistan. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in two peri-urban neighbourhoods from May 2002 to November 2002. Systematic sampling design was used to select households for inclusion in the study. Consenting subjects aged 15 years or more from selected households were interviewed and, whenever possible, sputum samples were obtained. Sputum samples were subjected to direct microscopy by Ziehl-Neelson method, bacterial culture and antibiotic sensitivity tests. Results The prevalence (per 100,000) of pulmonary tuberculosis among the subjects aged 15 years or more, who participated in the study was 329 (95% confidence interval (CI): 195 – 519). The prevalence (per 100,000) of pulmonary tuberculosis adjusted for non-sampling was 438 (95% CI: 282 – 651). Other than cough, none of the other clinical variables was significantly associated with pulmonary tuberculosis status. Analysis of drug sensitivity pattern of 15 strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis revealed that one strain was resistant to isoniazid alone, one to streptomycin alone and one was resistant to isoniazid and streptomycin. The remaining 12 strains were susceptible to all five drugs including streptomycin, isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide. Conclusion This study of previously undetected tuberculosis cases in an impoverished peri-urban setting reveals the poor operational performance of Pakistan's current approach to tuberculosis control; it also demonstrates a higher prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis than current national estimates. Public health authorities may wish to augment health education efforts aimed at prompting health-seeking behaviour to facilitate more complete and earlier case detection. Such efforts to improve passive case-finding, if combined with more accessible DOTS infra-structure for treatment of detected cases, may help to diminish the high tuberculosis-related morbidity and mortality in marginalized populations. The economics of implementing a more active approach to case finding in resource-constrained setting also deserve further study. PMID:17477870

Akhtar, Saeed; White, Franklin; Hasan, Rumina; Rozi, Shafquat; Younus, Mohammad; Ahmed, Faiza; Husain, Sara; Khan, Bilquis Sana

2007-01-01

31

Differences in police, ambulance, and emergency department reporting of traffic injuries on Karachi-Hala road, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Research undertaken in developing countries has assessed discrepancies in police reporting of Road Traffic Injury (RTI) for\\u000a urban settings only. The objective of this study was to assess differences in RTI reporting across police, ambulance, and\\u000a hospital Emergency Department (ED) datasets on an interurban road section in Pakistan.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The study setting was the 196-km long Karachi-Hala road section. RTIs reported

Junaid A Bhatti; Junaid A Razzak; Emmanuel Lagarde; Louis-Rachid Salmi

2011-01-01

32

Violence permeating daily life: a qualitative study investigating perspectives on violence among women in Karachi, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background: This study explored how married women perceive situations which create family conflicts and lead to different forms of violence in urban Pakistan. In addition, it examines perceptions of consequences of violence, their adverse health effects, and how women resist violence within marital life. Methods: Five focus group discussions were conducted with 28 women in Karachi. Purposive sampling, aiming for variety in age, employment status, education, and socioeconomic status, was employed. The focus group discussions were conducted in Urdu and translated into English. Manifest and latent content analysis were applied. Results: One major theme emerged during the analysis, ie, family violence through the eyes of females. This theme was subdivided into three main categories. The first category, ie, situations provoking violence and their manifestations, elaborates on circumstances that provoke violence and situations that sustain violence. The second category, ie, actions and reactions to exposure to violence, describes consequences of ongoing violence within the family, including those that result in suicidal thoughts and actions. The final category, ie, resisting violence, describes how violence is avoided through women’s awareness and actions. Conclusion: The current study highlights how female victims of abuse are trapped in a society where violence from a partner and family members is viewed as acceptable, where divorce is unavailable to the majority, and where societal support of women is limited. There is an urgent need to raise the subject of violence against women and tackle this human rights problem at all levels of society by targeting the individual, family, community, and societal levels concurrently. PMID:23152709

Ali, Tazeen S; Krantz, Gunilla; Mogren, Ingrid

2012-01-01

33

KNOWLEDGE ATTITUDE AND PRACTICES ABOUT LEPROSY IN A FISHING COMMUNITY IN KARACHI PAKISTAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the level of knowledge, attitude and practices regarding leprosy in a fishing community of Karachi. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted at Muach Goth Kemari Town Karachi, from June-August 2005. About 300 people who did not have leprosy were interviewed randomly using a structured pre tested questionnaire. The inclusion criteria were adult, non diseased and resident of

Nighat Nisar; Iftikhar Ahmed Khan; Majid Hafeez Qadri; Pir Ghulam Nabi Shah

34

Fitting the Bill: Commissioned Theatre Projects on Human Rights in Pakistan--The Work of Karachi-Based Theatre Group "Tehrik e Niswan"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Theatre practitioners in Pakistan's southern city Karachi have seen a recent surge of interest in the past two decades by donor agencies from the Western world to fund theatre companies and employ various forms of theatre for development to service their agendas and areas of interest within their target communities. This trend may have lent a…

Mundrawala, Asma

2007-01-01

35

OBSERVATIONS ON THE FOOD AND FEEDING HABITS AND RECOVERY OF A NEW NEMATODE SPECIES DUJARDINASCARIS MUJIBI (HETEROCHEILIDAE) FROM A MARINE EDIBLE FISH OF KARACHI COAST, PAKISTAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food is an important factor in the fish biology, to the extent of governing their growth, maturity and migratory movements. Therefore, this research was aimed to investigate the feeding habits of marine edible fish Sphyraena forsteri (Cuvier, 1829) collected during February 2006 to July 2007 from fresh landing at fish harbor, Karachi coast, Pakistan. The gut analysis of 120 fish

Y. AKHTAR; F. M. BILQEES

36

An Evaluation of Systematic Tuberculosis Screening at Private Facilities in Karachi, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background In Pakistan, like many Asian countries, a large proportion of healthcare is provided through the private sector. We evaluated a systematic screening strategy to identify people with tuberculosis in private facilities in Karachi and assessed the approaches' ability to diagnose patients earlier in their disease progression. Methods and Findings Lay workers at 89 private clinics and a large hospital outpatient department screened all attendees for tuberculosis using a mobile phone-based questionnaire during one year. The number needed to screen to detect a case of tuberculosis was calculated. To evaluate early diagnosis, we tested for differences in cough duration and smear grading by screening facility. 529,447 people were screened, 1,010 smear-positive tuberculosis cases were detected and 942 (93.3%) started treatment, representing 58.7% of all smear-positive cases notified in the intervention area. The number needed to screen to detect a smear-positive case was 124 (prevalence 806/100,000) at the hospital and 763 (prevalence 131/100,000) at the clinics; however, ten times the number of individuals were screened in clinics. People with smear-positive TB detected at the hospital were less likely to report cough lasting 2–3 weeks (RR 0.66 95%CI [0.49–0.90]) and more likely to report cough duration >3 weeks (RR 1.10 95%CI [1.03–1.18]). Smear-positive cases at the clinics were less likely to have a +3 grade (RR 0.76 95%CI [0.63–0.92]) and more likely to have +1 smear grade (RR 1.24 95%CI [1.02–1.51]). Conclusions Tuberculosis screening at private facilities is acceptable and can yield large numbers of previously undiagnosed cases. Screening at general practitioner clinics may find cases earlier than at hospitals although more people must be screened to identify a case of tuberculosis. Limitations include lack of culture testing, therefore underestimating true TB prevalence. Using more sensitive and specific screening and diagnostic tests such as chest x-ray and Xpert MTB/RIF may improve results. PMID:24705600

Creswell, Jacob; Khowaja, Saira; Codlin, Andrew; Hashmi, Rabia; Rasheed, Erum; Khan, Mubashir; Durab, Irfan; Mergenthaler, Christina; Hussain, Owais; Khan, Faisal; Khan, Aamir J.

2014-01-01

37

Physicians reading and writing practices: a cross-sectional study from Civil Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background To determine the behavior of physicians regarding medical literature reading and participation in research activities at one of the largest teaching hospitals in Pakistan. Method This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted by interviewing the house officers, residents and fellows of six major specialties (Medicine, Surgery, Pediatrics, Psychology, Obstetrics & Gynecology and Anesthesia) in Civil Hospital, Karachi between August and December, 2011. The questionnaire elicited responses regarding the reading habits of physicians, preferred sources of information, their participation in research activities (publication & supervision) and views regarding journal club. SPSS 17.0 was used for data entry and analysis. Result A total of 259 completely filled questionnaires were returned with a response rate of 85.19%. Mean age of the participants was 29.67?±?7.65?years. Books were selected by 71.4% doctors as their preferred source of information, regardless of their clinical specialties. (p?

2012-01-01

38

Undergraduate radiology education in private and public teaching hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan: teaching duties, methodologies, and rewards  

PubMed Central

Background In an integrated method of education, medical students are introduced to radiology in their preclinical years. However, no study has been conducted in Pakistan to demonstrate an academic framework of medical radiology education at an undergraduate level. Therefore, we aimed to document and compare the current level of teaching duties, teaching methodologies, and teaching rewards among radiologists and residents in private and public teaching hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods A survey was conducted among 121 radiologists and residents in two private and two public teaching hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan. Radiologists who were nationally registered with the Pakistan Medical and Dental Council either part-time or full-time were included. Radiology residents and fellows who were nationally registered with the Pakistan Medical and Dental Council were also included. Self-administered questionnaires addressing teaching duties, methods, and rewards were collected from 95 participants. Results The overall response rate was 78.51% (95/121). All of the radiologists were involved in teaching residents and medical students, but only 36% reported formal training in teaching skills. Although most of the respondents (76%) agreed that medical students appeared enthusiastic about learning radiology, the time spent on teaching medical students was less than five hours per week annually (82%). Only 37% of the respondents preferred dedicated clerkships over distributed clerkships (41%). The most common preferred teaching methodology overall was one-on-one interaction. Tutorials, teaching rounds, and problem-based learning sessions were less favored by radiologists than by residents. Teaching via radiology films (86%) was the most frequent mode of instruction. Salary (59%) was the most commonly cited teaching reward. The majority of respondents (88%) were not satisfied with their current level of teaching rewards. Conclusion All radiologists and residents working in an academic radiology department are involved in teaching undergraduate students at multiple levels. The most valued teaching methodology involves use of images, with one-on-one interaction between the trainer and trainee. The monetary reward for teaching is inbuilt into the salary. The methodology adopted for teaching purposes was significantly different between respondents from private hospitals and those from public teaching hospitals. Because of low satisfaction among the respondents, efforts should be made to provide satisfying teaching rewards. PMID:23745098

Nadeem, Naila; Khawaja, Ranish Deedar Ali; Beg, Madiha; Naeem, Muhammad; Majid, Zain

2013-01-01

39

Metal pollution and ecological risk assessment in marine sediments of Karachi Coast, Pakistan.  

PubMed

Concentrations of 12 metals (Fe, Mn, Cr, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, U, V, Zn, and Zr) in surface sediments of Karachi Coast, Pakistan were determined to evaluate their distribution and pollution assessment. The measured metals in the sediments were found to be in the range of Fe, 0.84-6.96 %; Mn, 300-1,300 ?g/g; Cr, 12.0-319.84 ?g/g; Mo, 0.49-2.03 ?g/g; Ni, 1.53-58.86 ?g/g; Pb, 9.0-49.46 ?g/g; Se, 0.25-.86 ?g/g; Sr, 192-1185 ?g/g; U, 0.19-1.66 ?g/g; V, 15.80-118.20 ?g/g; Zn, 15.60-666.28 ?g/g; and Zr, 44.02-175.26 ?g/g. The mean contents of the metal studied were: Fe, 3.07 %, Mn, 0.05 %; Cr, 96.75 ?g/g; Mo, 1.34 ?g/g; Ni, 31.39 ?g/g; Pb, 23.24 ?g/g; Se, 0.61 ?g/g; Sr, 374.83 ?g/g; U, 0.64 ?g/g; V, 61.75 ?g/g; Zn, 204.75 ?g/g; and Zr:76.27 ?g/g, and arrangement of the metals from higher to lower mean content in this area is: Fe > Zn > Mn > Sr > Zn > Cr > Zr > V > Ni > Pb > Mo > U > Se. There is no significant correlation among most of these metals, indicating different anthropogenic and natural sources. To assess ecotoxic potential of marine sediments, Numerical Sediment Quality Guidelines were also applied. The concentration of Pb in all the sediments except one was lower than the threshold effect concentration (TECs) showing that there are no harmful effects to marine life from Pb. On the other hand, the concentrations of Cr, Ni, and Zn exceeded TEC in three stations, indicating their potential risk. The degree of pollution in sediments for metals was assessed by calculating enrichment factor (EF) and pollution load index (PLI). The results indicated that sediments of Layari River Mouth Area, Fish Harbour, and KPT Boat Building Area are highly enriched with Cr and Zn (EF > 5). Sediments of Layari River Outfall Zone were moderately enriched with Ni and Pb (EF > 2). The pollution load index was found in the range of 0.98 to 1.34. Lower values of PLI (? 1) at most of sampling locations imply no appreciable input from anthropogenic sources. However, relatively higher PLI values (>1) at Layari River Mouth Area, Fish Harbour, and KPT Boat Building Area are attributed to increased human activity in the area. PMID:22580789

Mashiatullah, Azhar; Chaudhary, Muhammad Zaman; Ahmad, Nasir; Javed, Tariq; Ghaffar, Abdul

2013-02-01

40

Factors associated with elevated blood lead concentrations in children in Karachi, Pakistan.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To confirm whether blood lead concentrations in Karachi were as high as reported in 1989 and to identify which types of exposure to lead contribute most to elevated blood lead concentrations in children in Karachi. METHODS: A total of 430 children aged 36-60 months were selected through a geographically stratified design from the city centre, two suburbs, a rural community and an island situated within the harbour at Karachi. Blood samples were collected from children and a pretested questionnaire was administered to assess the effect of various types of exposure. Cooked food, drinking-water and house dust samples were collected from households. FINDINGS: About 80% of children had blood lead concentrations 10 g/dl, with an overall mean of 15.6 g/dl. At the 5% level of significance, houses nearer to the main intersection in the city centre, application of surma to children's eyes, father's exposure to lead at workplace, parents' illiteracy and child's habit of hand- to-mouth activity were among variables associated with elevated lead concentrations in blood. CONCLUSION: These findings are of public health concern, as most children in Karachi are likely to suffer some degree of intellectual impairment as a result of environmental lead exposure. We believe that there is enough evidence of the continuing problem of lead in petrol to prompt the petroleum industry to take action. The evidence also shows the need for appropriate interventions in reducing the burden due to other factors associated with this toxic element. PMID:12471396

Rahbar, Mohammad Hossein; White, Franklin; Agboatwalla, Mubina; Hozhabri, Siroos; Luby, Stephen

2002-01-01

41

Physico-Chemical Characterization of Carrageenan at Different Temperatures, Isolated from Hypnea musciformis from Karachi Coast Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study describe the basic tools like viscosity measurements and thermodynamic parameters of the polysaccharide isolated from Hypnea musciformis (red algae) of Karachi Coast (Pakistan) showed characteristics of κ-carrageenan. An IR spectrum showed a fairly sharp band at 1210, 1225 cm-1 corresponding to sulphate ester and is in accordance with the high sulphate content of κ-carrageenan. Viscosity measurements revealed a linear relationship with increase in concentration and decreased with the rise in temperature of aqueous solutions of κ-carrageenan. Thermodynamic parameters were determined by the change in viscosity data as a function of temperature and concentration. The free energy change of activation (Î'Gη) increased regularly as the concentration of aqueous κ-carrageenan increased, as well as rises in temperature. Higher values of free energy change of activation, (Î'Gη) showed the higher association of κ-carrageenan with water at given temperature. The values of entropy change of activation (Î'Sη) of viscous flow also increased with the increase in concentration and temperature of aqueous κ-carrageenan solution. The high negative values of entropy change of activation (Î'Sη) showed that the solution of κ-carrageenan was more ordered in initial state than the activated one.

Junaid Mahmood, Syed; Bi, Fatima; Taj, Noor; Seema; Farhan, M.; Shahid, M.; Azmat, Rafia; Uddin, Fahim

42

General practitioners' awareness and management of common psychiatric disorders: a community-based survey from Karachi, Pakistan.  

PubMed

This study assessed the knowledge and management of common psychiatric disorders by general practitioners (GPs) in Karachi, Pakistan. Structured interviews were carried out in 2009 with 360 GPs selected by cluster random sampling. Patients with psychiatric disorders were estimated to be up to 10% of the daily caseload according to 71.8% of doctors. Two-thirds of GPs were unaware of the ICD-10 diagnostic criteria for depression and anxiety disorders. Benzodiazepines were the most recognized category of medication (75.3%) and were the most commonly used medication for all mental health conditions. Fewer GPs were familiar with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (35.1%) or tricyclic antidepressants (20.2%). Lack of time and patients' financial constraints were reported to be barriers to care. Most GPs (69.2%) had not received any recent medical education about mental health problems. Gaps in GPs' knowledge about the management of mental disorders have implications for the rational use of psychotropic medications in primary care. PMID:22764430

Naqvi, H A; Sabzwari, S; Hussain, S; Islam, M; Zaman, M

2012-05-01

43

Patients' receptiveness for Medical students during consultation in Out patient department of a teaching hospital in Karachi Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Objective: Patients’ attitude towards medical students’ presence during treatment depends on the cultural values of the society. This study was conducted to find out the patients’ receptiveness in our society to be involved in teaching process for medical students during consultation in out patient department of a teaching hospital in Karachi Pakistan. Methodology: This cross sectional study was conducted in the surgical Out Patient Department (OPD) at Dow University Hospital from May 2012 to June 2012. Four hundred and eleven patients consented for participation through non probability purposive sampling, in which 279 patients were from morning clinics in the presence of students for clinical teaching, while 132 patients participated through evening clinics of surgery, when students were not present for comparison in specific dimensions of care for patients’ satisfaction. Results: Majority of patients 293 (71%) agreed with the teaching of students during consultation and they feel they are contributing in future doctor’s teaching, only 24% patients disagreed. Fifty two percent of patients who disagreed reported interference in privacy, 34% reported interference in consultation and 43% felt it resulted in prolong waiting time due to teaching. Conclusion: Majority of the patients agree to be part of teaching for medical students and this study can be used to assess the educational interventions designed to improve the patient based teaching. PMID:24353555

Laiq-uz-Zaman Khan, Muhammad; Jawaid, Masood; Hafeez, Kamran

2013-01-01

44

Effects of mothers’ employment on toddlers’ cognitive development: a study conducted in Karachi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past several decades in Pakistan, an increasing number of women with young children are joining the workforce, which is one of the biggest social changes in the later half of the twentieth century. More children are being raised in households where mothers work for pay as compared with the scenario a generation ago. This change has prompted concerns

Salima Moez Meherali; Rozina Karmaliani; Nargis Asad

2011-01-01

45

Effects of mothers’ employment on toddlers’ cognitive development: a study conducted in Karachi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past several decades in Pakistan, an increasing number of women with young children are joining the workforce, which is one of the biggest social changes in the later half of the twentieth century. More children are being raised in households where mothers work for pay as compared with the scenario a generation ago. This change has prompted concerns

Salima Moez Meherali; Rozina Karmaliani; Nargis Asad

2010-01-01

46

Monitoring of geomorphological changes for planning reclamation work in coastal area of Karachi, Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The coastal zones form an important segment and play a vital role in the economy of the country. The land-water interface comprising of coastal zone is modified all the time by oceanic currents, waves and tidal oscillations. The sediments are brought into the creeks from the erosion prone open coast beaches as well as through small rivers and inlets, and dispersed and deposited along the coast. Satellite Remote Sensing (SRS) due to its repetitive, multi-spectral and synoptic nature provides a unique view to recognize various features on land and sea. SRS techniques can be of great help in collection of continuous wave currents, wind, tides, suspended matter, shallow water area, wetlands, mangroves, mudflats and other coastal features and coastal changes, like land accretion or erosion. Therefore, a study has been undertaken to monitor geomorphological changes along the coast of Karachi using multi-temporal Landsat MSS and TM data from 1978 to 1998. SRS data were processed using interactive digital image processing/enhancement techniques like colour enhancement, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and by Colour draping techniques and different enhanced products of the area have been prepared. The multi-temporal PC analysis results were integrated with each other and with navigational map of the area by GIS technique. The geomorphological changes occurring at the middle part of the coast of Karachi along Bundal and Buddo Islands and in Korangi-Phitti Creek area were delineated. The integrated techniques applied on multi-temporal SRS data in this study were found very useful for monitoring and mapping the land accretion and erosion processes. The analyses provided the old as well as the most recent data base of coastal environmental conditions of the study area, which may led for better understanding of coastal processes and help for planning reclamation work in this area.

Siddiqui, M. N.; Maajid, S.

2004-01-01

47

Prevalence of Smoking and Associated Risk Factors Among Medical Professionals in Hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background: Cigarette smoking is the largest preventable risk factor for morbidity and mortality in developed countries where at least one in four adults smoke cigarettes. Healthcare providers who smoke are less likely to advise patients to quit smoking. The aim of this study is to find out the frequency of tobacco smoking among medical professionals in tertiary care hospitals of Karachi, and to identify the common factors responsible for the continuation of smoking among healthcare providers. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out at public and private tertiary Care Hospitals/Institutes at Karachi. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from 180 subjects. An informed consent was obtained from all the subjects. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Results: Prevalence of smoking was 29%. High prevalence of smoking was among male doctors as compared to female doctors. Sixty-eight per cent of smokers started smoking between 20 to 30 years of age. Age less than 35 years, male and public sectors hospitals were more likely OR 1.23, CI (0.98-2.41), 6.40 CI (4.48-10.52) and 2.61 CI (2.20-3.78) respectively. Conclusions: The Result of the study suggests that while healthcare smoking habits appear to be high, they are not uniformly low when compared from an international perspective. Health promotion programs focused on self-efficacy may be an effective tool for reducing the initiation, frequency, and amount of cigarette smoking among healthcare providers. PMID:24829733

Zafar, Mubashir

2014-01-01

48

Use of hair as an indicator of environmental lead pollution in women of child-bearing age in Karachi, Pakistan and Bangladesh  

SciTech Connect

The present study was prompted by an observation made during a visit to Karchi in 1986 when three blood samples from two women and a man, all between 30-35 years yielded blood Pb levels of 31.4, 21.9 and 41.7 ug Pb/dl blood. Karachi is a highly industrialized urban center with very large numbers of motor vehicles, all of which use leaded gasoline. Lead-based paint is also extensively used in the city. The present study was conducted to determine if hair metal analyses could be used to determine elevated exposures to lead in women of child-bearing age living in Karachi (Pakistan). Rural Bangladeshi women living in areas with little or no vehicular traffic and no factories in the vicinity were used as controls.

Jamall, I.S. (Univ. of California, Davis (USA)); Allen, P.V. (Department of Agriculture, Albany, CA (USA))

1990-03-01

49

Prevalence of Mistreatment or Belittlement among Medical Students - A Cross Sectional Survey at a Private Medical School in Karachi, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Mistreatment or belittlement of medical students either by faculty or fellow students has often been reported. Perception of mistreatment has also been associated with increased degree of psychological morbidity. There is a lack of such studies being conducted amongst the medical students of Pakistan. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and forms of perceived mistreatment and presence of mental health morbidity in a private medical school in Pakistan. Also, any association between mental health morbidity and mistreatment was to be identified. Methods A cross sectional study was carried out on medical students from Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan during the period of June–September 2007. A self administered questionnaire, adapted from Frank et al and Baldwin et al was distributed to a total of 350 students. The questionnaire consisted of three parts: the first dealing with the demographics of the population, the second concerning the various forms of mistreatment, while the third assessed the mental health of students using the General Health Questionnaire 12(GHQ12). Descriptive statistics were performed. The Chi-square test and Fisher's exact tests were applied. Results A total of 350 students were approached out of which 232 completed the questionnaire giving a response rate of 66.2%. Mistreatment was reported by 62.5% (145/232) of the respondents. Of these, 69.7% (83/145) were males and 54.9% (62/145) were females. There was a significant relationship between gender, year division, stress at medical school and possible use of drugs/alcohol and reported mistreatment but no statistical relationship was seen with psychiatric morbidity. The overall prevalence of psychological morbidity was 34.8% (77/221). Conclusion This study suggests high prevalence of perceived mistreatment and psychological morbidity among Pakistani medical students. However, no association was found between these two aspects of medical student education. There is a need to bring about changes to make the medical education environment conducive to learning. Increased student feedback, support systems and guidance about progress throughout the year and the provision of adequate learning resources may provide help with resolving both of these issues. PMID:20976173

Shoukat, Sana; Anis, Mariam; Kella, Danesh K.; Qazi, Fahad; Samad, Fatima; Mir, Faizia; Mansoor, Maryah; Parvez, Mohammad B.; Osmani, Bushra; Panju, Sukaina A.; Naqvi, Haider

2010-01-01

50

Newborn care knowledge and practices among mothers attending pediatric outpatient clinic of a hospital in Karachi, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Objectives To assess newborn care knowledge and practices among mothers. Methodology A cross-sectional study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. A total of 170 mothers accompanying their infants attending the Paediatric Out Patient Department were interviewed through a structured questionnaire. Areas of inquiry included Antenatal care seeking, delivery care, cord care, eye care, bathing and breastfeeding practices. Results Ninety-two percent mothers reported at least one antenatal care visit. Tetanus Toxoid coverage was 88%. Home deliveries were 18%. Seventy-four percent reported applying various substances like coconut oil, mustard oil, purified butter and turmeric to the cord stump. Kohl application to newborn’s eyes was 68%, while 86% reported first bath within 24 hrs of birth. 48% mothers initiated breastfeeding within 2 hours of delivery. Colostrum was discarded by 43% and prelacteal feeds given by 73%. Exclusive Breast Feeding rate was 26%. Family income of Rs. 10, 000 (USD120) or less/month and maternal education level of primary or less were significantly associated with home delivery, unhygienic cord care and kohl application to the newborn’s eyes. Home delivery was a risk factor for poor cord care (OR=4.07) and discarding colostrum (OR= 3.18). Conclusion Antenatal care coverage was good, but knowledge regarding newborn care was poor. Harmful practices regarding newborn care were prevalent among mothers. Institutional deliveries did not guarantee optimal practices. Tradition and culture played a significant role. Health education can improve the mothers’ knowledge regarding newborn care practices.

Gul, Saadia; Khalil, Rehana; Yousafzai, M. Tahir; Shoukat, Faiza

2014-01-01

51

Attitudes of Pakistani and Pakistani heritage medical students regarding professionalism at a medical college in Karachi, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background An increased interest in professionalism has been reported in the field of medical education due to concerns regarding deterioration of humanism and professional values in the teaching and practice of medicine. The primary aim of this study was to assess attitudes of Pakistani and Pakistani heritage students at a medical college in Pakistan about important elements of professionalism that an ideal medical doctor should possess. A further objective of the study was to determine students’ preferred ways of learning professionalism. Methods A written survey was distributed to undergraduate medical students at a public sector medical college at Karachi, Pakistan in 2011. Using the Penn State College of Medicine (PSCOM) Professionalism Questionnaire, attitudes of medical students of semester 1, 5, and 8 regarding professionalism were assessed anonymously. Results The mean age of the students was 21.11?±?2.72 years. Forty-three percent of the respondents were male. Forty percent of the students held Pakistani citizenship. Thirty-five percent students were US citizens with Pakistani parents and twenty-five percent were Pakistani heritage students that had dual citizenships. No significant differences in the elements of professionalism (Accountability, Altruism, Duty, Excellence, Honesty & Integrity and Respect) mean scores or in the overall mean score of professionalism among the various classes were found. The total overall Cronbach alpha value for all elements of the professionalism in the selected classes was above 0.9. The most preferred methods for learning professionalism were role modeling by faculty, case based scenarios and role plays. Conclusion The students rated all the attributes of professionalism as important and there was no difference across the study years. The overall internal consistency of each element of professionalism was high in different classes. Faculty role models, case based scenarios and role plays may be used to teach professionalism. As a great majority of students were having a Pakistani heritage rather than complete Pakistani born and bred background, hence findings of the survey may not be taken as representative of typical Pakistani medical students. PMID:24628768

2014-01-01

52

Clinical profile, outcomes and improvement in symptoms and productivity in rhinitic patients in Karachi, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Rhinitis can cause a heavy toll on patients because of its bothersome effects on productivity. This retrospective study was conducted to explore the clinical profile, outcomes and improvement in the symptoms and productivity resulting from treatment of allergic rhinitis in Pakistan. Methods We carried out a retrospective file review of all allergic rhinitis patients who presented to the Ear, Nose, Throat Consulting Clinic from January, 2006 to June, 2008 using a structured proforma especially designed for this purpose. Data was entered and analyzed using SPSS v. 16.0. Results The charts of 169 patients were reviewed. The mean age of the patients was 35.2 ± 9.1 years. Sixty percent patients were male. Ninety eight patients (58%) reported allergy symptoms to be present at both home and work. One hundred and two patients (60.4%) had symptoms severe enough to cause absence from work or academic activities. Up to seventy one percent patients were spending between 1000 - 3000 Pakistani Rupees (1 US$= 83.3 Pakistani rupees) on the treatment of allergic rhinitis per year. One hundred and fifty one patients (89.3%) reported an improvement in rhinitic symptoms and productivity while 18 patients (10.7%) didn't. This improvement was significantly associated with satisfaction with treatment (p < 0.001). Conclusion Allergic rhinitis, a ubiquitous disease, was seen to cause a strain on patients in the form of recurrent treatment-related expenses as well as absenteeism from work or other daily activities. Symptoms and productivity improved significantly after treatment. PMID:20003368

2009-01-01

53

Post partum anxiety and depression in peri-urban communities of Karachi, Pakistan: a quasi-experimental study  

PubMed Central

Background Postpartum anxiety and depression is a major public health concern because of its adverse effects on the cognitive and social development of the infant. Globally postpartum depression has been widely investigated but as anxiety is a more prominent feature of postpartum depression we assessed the prevalence of anxiety and depression and their associated factors in post partum women. Methods A quasi-experimental study investigating the impact of postpartum anxiety and depression on child growth and development was conducted in two peri-urban, multiethnic, communities of Karachi, a mega city of Pakistan. A house to house questionnaire based survey was done by trained field workers; 420 consenting pregnant women were identified and data for socio-demographic, home environment and family relationship variables was collected between 36 weeks of pregnancy and within 10 days of childbirth. Mother's levels of anxiety and depression were assessed after one month, two months, six months and twelve months of childbirth; this was two step process: initially an indigenous, validated screening instrument Aga Khan University Anxiety and Depression Scale was used and diagnostic confirmation was done through a psychologist's interview based on DSM IV criteria. Women found to be anxious and depressed at least once out of four assessments were considered for the computation of overall prevalence of postpartum anxiety and depression as well as its risk factors. However, point prevalence's of postpartum anxiety and depression were also reported at each assessment time. Two sixty seven women could be followed for one year. Data was analyzed using SPSS. Chi-square test, simple and multiple logistic regression were used to see the association of different factors. Results The overall prevalence of postpartum anxiety and depression was found to be 28.8 percent. Domestic violence, difficulty in breast feeding at birth and unplanned current pregnancy were found to be significantly associated with postpartum anxiety and depression. Conclusion Domestic violence and not having the right to plan pregnancy are related to the patriarchal culture and lack of empowerment of women. The association with difficulties in breast feeding needs to be further explored in future studies PMID:19821971

Ali, Niloufer S; Ali, Badar S; Azam, Iqbal S

2009-01-01

54

An autoregressive integrated moving average model for short-term prediction of hepatitis C virus seropositivity among male volunteer blood donors in Karachi, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

AIM: To identify the stochastic autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model for short term forecasting of hepatitis C virus (HCV) seropositivity among volunteer blood donors in Karachi, Pakistan. METHODS: Ninety-six months (1998-2005) data on HCV seropositive cases (1000-1 × month-1) among male volunteer blood donors tested at four major blood banks in Karachi, Pakistan were subjected to ARIMA modeling. Subsequently, a fitted ARIMA model was used to forecast HCV seropositive donors for 91-96 mo to contrast with observed series of the same months. To assess the forecast accuracy, the mean absolute error rate (%) between the observed and predicted HCV seroprevalence was calculated. Finally, a fitted ARIMA model was used for short-term forecasts beyond the observed series. RESULTS: The goodness-of-fit test of the optimum ARIMA (2,1,7) model showed non-significant autocorrelations in the residuals of the model. The forecasts by ARIMA for 91-96 mo closely followed the pattern of observed series for the same months, with mean monthly absolute forecast errors (%) over 6 mo of 6.5%. The short-term forecasts beyond the observed series adequately captured the pattern in the data and showed increasing tendency of HCV seropositivity with a mean ± SD HCV seroprevalence (1000-1 × month-1) of 24.3 ± 1.4 over the forecast interval. CONCLUSION: To curtail HCV spread, public health authorities need to educate communities and health care providers about HCV transmission routes based on known HCV epidemiology in Pakistan and its neighboring countries. Future research may focus on factors associated with hyperendemic levels of HCV infection. PMID:19340903

Akhtar, Saeed; Rozi, Shafquat

2009-01-01

55

Young adults' perceptions on life prospects and gender roles as important factors to influence health behaviour: a qualitative study from Karachi, Pakistan.  

PubMed

The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore perceptions and expectations of young males and females, in Karachi, Pakistan, regarding their life prospects and gender roles, with resulting implications for health behaviour. The main theme emerging was "Young adults' prospects in life are hampered by psychosocial and gender equality constraints". Gender inequality and the low status of women in society were described as major obstacles to the overall development. Persistent withholding of information to the younger generation on sexual and reproductive health issues was perceived to increase exposure to health risks, particularly sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The present study reveals new discourses on equality among young adults, pointing towards an increasing, sound interaction between the sexes and aspirations for more gender equal relationships. Such views and awareness among the younger generation constitutes a strong force towards change of traditional norms, including reproductive health behaviour, and calls for policy change. PMID:22980235

Hasnain, Syed Farid-ul; Johansson, Eva; Mogren, Ingrid; Krantz, Gunilla

2012-05-01

56

Exploring the perceptions of parents and girls about girls' education in a Kachi Abadi of Karachi Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

he study explores perceptions of parents and girls about girls' education. The participants belong to a slum area, Gareeb Abad of Karachi. The only source of earning in the community is burning the dumped garbage to find valuables which they sell to earn some income. This study was conducted under qualitative research paradigm. Focus group discussions and individual interviews were

Sakhi Ahmed Jan

2007-01-01

57

Knowledge and Awareness about Cervical Cancer and Its Prevention amongst Interns and Nursing Staff in Tertiary Care Hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan  

E-print Network

Background and Objective: Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality amongst the gynecological cancers worldwide, especially in developing countries. It is imperative for at least health professionals in developing countries like Pakistan to have a sound knowledge about the disease. This study was carried out to assess the knowledge and awareness about cervical cancer and its prevention amongst health professionals in tertiary care hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods and Design: A cross-sectional, interview based survey was conducted in June, 2009. Sample of 400 was divided between the three tertiary care centers. Convenience sampling was applied as no definitive data was available regarding the number of registered interns and nurses at each center. Results: Of all the interviews conducted, 1.8 % did not know cervical cancer as a disease. Only 23.3 % of the respondents were aware that cervical cancer is the most common cause of gynecological cancers and 26 % knew it is second in rank in mortality. Seventy-eight percent were aware that infection is the most common cause of cervical cancer, of these 62 % said that virus is the cause and 61 % of the respondents knew that the virus is Human Papilloma Virus (HPV). Majority recognized that it is sexually transmitted but only a minority (41%) knew that it can be detected by PCR. Only 26 % of the study population was aware of one or more risk factors. Thirty seven percent recognized Pap smear as a screening test. In total

Syed Faizan Ali; Samia Ayub; Nauman Fazal Manzoor; Sidra Azim; Muneeza Afif; Nida Akhtar; Wassi Ali Jafery; Imran Tahir; Syed Farid-ul-hasnian; Najam Uddin

58

Sociocultural influences on newborn health in the first 6 weeks of life: qualitative study in a fishing village in Karachi, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Given regional variability and minimal improvement in infant mortality rates in Pakistan, this study aimed to explicate sociocultural influences impacting mothers’ efforts to maintain or improve newborn health. Methods We used a qualitative phenomenological approach. A total of 10 mothers and 8 fathers from a fishing village in Karachi, Pakistan were purposefully sampled and interviewed individually. A focus group was undertaken with four grandmothers (primary decision makers). Transcripts were independently reviewed using interpretive thematic analysis. Results A multigenerational approach was used in infant care, but mothers did not have a voice in decision-making. Parents connected breast milk to infant health, and crying was used as cue to initiate feeding. Participants perceived that newborns required early supplementation, given poor milk supply and to improve health. There were tensions between traditional (i.e., home) remedies and current medical practices. Equal importance was given to sons and daughters. Conclusion Findings suggest that social and cultural influences within families and the community must be considered in developing interventions to improve newborn health. Introducing non-breast milk substances into newborn diets may reduce the duration of exclusive or partial breastfeeding and increase risks to infant health. PMID:25030836

2014-01-01

59

Parental perceptions surrounding polio and self-reported non-participation in polio supplementary immunization activities in Karachi, Pakistan: a mixed methods study  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To assess parent’s knowledge and perceptions surrounding polio and polio vaccination, self-reported participation in polio supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) targeting children aged Karachi, Pakistan. A structured questionnaire was administered to assess parental knowledge of polio and participation in polio SIAs conducted in September and October 2011. Additionally, 30 parents of Pashtun ethnicity (a high-risk group) who refused to vaccinate their children were interviewed in depth to determine why. Descriptive and bivariate analyses by ethnic and socioeconomic group were performed for quantitative data; thematic analysis was conducted for qualitative interviews with Pashtun parents. Findings Of 1017 parents surveyed, 412 (41%) had never heard of polio; 132 (13%) did not participate in one SIA and 157 (15.4%) did not participate in either SIA. Among non-participants, 34 (21.6%) reported not having been contacted by a vaccinator; 116 (73.9%) reported having refused to participate, and 7 (4.5%) reported that the child was absent from home when the vaccinator visited. Refusals clustered in low-income Pashtun (43/441; 9.8%) and high-income families of any ethnic background (71/153; 46.4%). Low-income Pashtuns were more likely to not have participated in polio SIAs than low-income non-Pashtuns (odds ratio, OR: 7.1; 95% confidence interval, CI: 3.47–14.5). Reasons commonly cited among Pashtuns for refusing vaccination included fear of sterility; lack of faith in the polio vaccine; scepticism about the vaccination programme, and fear that the vaccine might contain religiously forbidden ingredients. Conclusion In Karachi, interruption of polio transmission requires integrated and participatory community interventions targeting high-risk populations. PMID:23226894

Khowaja, Asif Raza; Khan, Sher Ali; Nizam, Naveeda; Omer, Saad Bin

2012-01-01

60

The applicability of the Greulich & Pyle Atlas for bone age assessment in primary school-going children of Karachi, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Objective: To assess the degree of applicability of bone age calculated by Greulich & Pyle Atlas in estimation of chronological age for therapeutic and medico legal purposes. Methods: Two Hundred and Twenty children (139 males, 81 females) between ages of 56 and 113 months (4.5 to 9.5 years) were randomly selected from 4 primary schools of Shireen Jinnah & Clifton, Karachi. Digital images of hand and wrist radiographs were obtained by a computed radiography at Ziauddin Hospital Clifton. Bone ages were computed using Greulich & Pyle Atlas by radiologists at Ziauddin Hospital, North Nazimabad, Karachi. Results: On average, the Greulich & Pyle Atlas underestimates chronological age by 6.65 ± 13.47 months in females and 15.78 ± 12.83 months in males (p-values < 0.001). High correlation was found between chronological age and bone age in both genders (Females r=0.778; p-value< 0.001, Males r=0.816; p-value < 0.001). Conclusion: Bone age calculated by Greulich & Pyle Atlas should not be used for estimating chronological age in children of ages 56-113 months in situations where high accuracy is required (e.g. medicolegal cases). However, serial measurements of bone age by this atlas can be used in management of growth related endocrine disorders in these children. PMID:24772153

Manzoor Mughal, Arsalan; Hassan, Nuzhat; Ahmed, Anwar

2014-01-01

61

Neonatal Mortality and Prevalence of Practices for Newborn Care in a Squatter Settlement of Karachi, Pakistan: A Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Background During the past two decades there has been a sustained decline in child and infant mortality, however neonatal mortality has remained relatively unchanged. Almost all neonatal deaths (99%) occur in developing countries, where the majority are delivered at homes. Evidence suggests that these deaths could be prevented by simple, inexpensive practices and interventions during the pregnancy, delivery and postnatal period. In Pakistan over the last decade extensive efforts have been made by the international donors and government to implement these practices. However, limited attempts have been made to explore if these efforts have made a difference at the grass root level. This study assessed the burden of neonatal mortality and prevalence of practices for newborn care in a squatter settlement of Karachi, Pakistan. Methodology/Principal Findings A community based cross-sectional study was performed. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was administered to 565 women who had recently delivered. Information was collected on neonatal morbidity, mortality and practices of women regarding care during pregnancy, child birth and for newborn, till 28th day of birth. Although 70% of women mentioned receiving antenatal care by a skilled provider, only 54.5% had four or more visits. Tetanus toxoid was received by 79% of women while only 56% delivered at a health care facility by a skilled attendant. Newborn care practices like bathing the baby immediately after birth (56%), giving pre-lacteals (79.5%), late initiation of breast feeding (80.3%), application of substances on umbilical cord (58%) and body massage (89%) were common. Most neonates (81.1%) received BCG injection and polio drops after birth. Neonatal mortality rate was 27/1000 live births with the majority of deaths occurring during the first three days of life. Conclusion Even after years of efforts by government and nongovernmental sector to reduce newborn morbidity and mortality, inadequate antenatal care, home deliveries and unhealthy newborn care practices are highly prevalent. This leads us to important questions of why practices and behaviors have not changed. Who is responsible and what strategies are needed to bring this change? PMID:21072175

Ayaz, Afsheen; Saleem, Sarah

2010-01-01

62

Gender roles and their influence on life prospects for women in urban Karachi, Pakistan: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Pakistan is a patriarchal society where men are the primary authority figures and women are subordinate. This has serious implications on women's and men's life prospects. Objective The aim was to explore current gender roles in urban Pakistan, how these are reproduced and maintained and influence men's and women's life circumstances. Design Five focus group discussions were conducted, including 28 women representing employed, unemployed, educated and uneducated women from different socio-economic strata. Manifest and latent content analyses were applied. Findings Two major themes emerged during analysis: ‘Reiteration of gender roles’ and ‘Agents of change’. The first theme included perceptions of traditional gender roles and how these preserve women's subordination. The power gradient, with men holding a superior position in relation to women, distinctive features in the culture and the role of the extended family were considered to interact to suppress women. The second theme included agents of change, where the role of education was prominent as well as the role of mass media. It was further emphasised that the younger generation was more positive to modernisation of gender roles than the elder generation. Conclusions This study reveals serious gender inequalities and human rights violations against women in the Pakistani society. The unequal gender roles were perceived as static and enforced by structures imbedded in society. Women routinely faced serious restrictions and limitations of autonomy. However, attainment of higher levels of education especially not only for women but also for men was viewed as an agent towards change. Furthermore, mass media was perceived as having a positive role to play in supporting women's empowerment. PMID:22065609

Ali, Tazeen S.; Krantz, Gunilla; Gul, Raisa; Asad, Nargis; Johansson, Eva; Mogren, Ingrid

2011-01-01

63

Impact of postpartum anxiety and depression on child's mental development from two peri-urban communities of Karachi, Pakistan: a quasi-experimental study  

PubMed Central

Background Postpartum anxiety and depression has detrimental effects on the overall mental development of children. This study aims to assess the impact of postpartum anxiety and depression on children’s mental development on all sub-scales in a Pakistani population. Methods A quasi-experimental study was conducted in two peri-urban communities of Karachi, a mega city of Pakistan, to assess the impact of postpartum anxiety and depression on children’s growth and mental development. A total of 420 women were enrolled, who had given consent out of 651 pregnant women identified, during February 2004 to December 2005. Data for socio-demographic, home environment and family relationship variables were collected between 36 weeks of pregnancy and within 10 days of childbirth. Mother’s levels of anxiety and depression were assessed at 1, 2, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 30 months of childbirth. An indigenous, validated screening instrument- Aga Khan University Anxiety and Depression scale was used and diagnostic confirmation was done through a psychologist’s interview, based on DSM IV criteria. Children’s growth and development was monitored in the same sequence using an Early Childhood Development tool that consists of five subscales; socio emotional, language, cognitive, gross motor and fine motor development. Physical growth was monitored by measuring height and weight of the child. Data was analyzed using SAS 9.2. Multivariable Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) logistic regression was conducted to identify association of postpartum anxiety and depression with each early childhood development indicator, adjusting for parental and child factors. Results A significant association of postpartum anxiety and depression with delayed development on all five subscales of children’s mental development was found in our study. Interestingly, our study found that higher maternal age had adverse effects on child’s emotional whereas positive impact on child’s cognitive development. Children’s stunting had an adverse impact on all five subscales of children’s development. Male children were at higher risk for delayed language and gross motor development relative to female children. Conclusions Our study found that postpartum anxiety and depression is associated with adverse outcomes regarding children’s mental development on all sub-scales. The impact was accentuated by low family income or child’s increasing age. PMID:24148567

2013-01-01

64

The utilization of LANDSAT imagery in nuclear power plant siting. [in Pakistan, South Carolina, and Spain  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

LANDSAT imagery was used primarily to map geologic features such as lineaments, linears, faults, and other major geologic structures which affect site selection for a nuclear power plant. Areas studied include Pakistan, the South Carolina Piedmont, and Huelva, Spain.

Eggenberger, A. J.; Rowlands, D.; Rizzo, P. C.

1975-01-01

65

Need for multilevel strategies and enhanced acceptance of contraceptive use in order to combat the spread of HIV/AIDS in a Muslim society: a qualitative study of young adults in urban Karachi, Pakistan.  

PubMed

This qualitative study explored knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and perceptions of sexual and reproductive health, focusing specifically on contraceptive use and HIV prevention among young unmarried men and women, 17-21 years, in urban Karachi, Pakistan. The main theme, identified as underlying meaning in the focus group discussions was "Societal norms and perceptions create barriers to knowledge and awareness about sexual and reproductive health matters among young adults". A knowledge gap was revealed concerning HIV/AIDS and contraceptive use among young males and females, who have to rely on media and peers for information seeking. Study participants perceived that HIV/AIDS is incurable and carries a social stigma. It was further revealed, that there is an opposition towards contraceptive use from religious leaders. Young adults in Pakistan are in need of improved knowledge about HIV/AIDS and contraceptive use. Youth clinics and schools/colleges may play a significant role in this regard. The religious leaders need to be informed about the beneficial effects of contraceptives and they should be part of any family planning/contraceptive use program to ensure better community acceptance. At the structural level there is an urgent need for policies targeting the issue of sexual and reproductive health, particularly HIV/AIDS information and contraceptive use to target the young population. The health care services should be able to respond by offering relevant services. PMID:23985107

Farid-ul-Hasnain, Syed; Johansson, Eva; Gulzar, Saleema; Krantz, Gunilla

2013-09-01

66

Socio-demographic correlates of betel, areca and smokeless tobacco use as a high risk behavior for head and neck cancers in a squatter settlement of Karachi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Head and neck cancers are a major cancer burden in Pakistan. They share a common risk factor profile including regular consumption of products of betel, areca and tobacco. Use of paan, chaalia, gutka, niswar and tumbaku is acceptable in Pakistan and is considered a normal cultural practice. This cross-sectional study was carried out to understand the relation of socio-demographic

Samia Mazahir; Rabia Malik; Maria Maqsood; Kanwal AliRaza Merchant; Farida Malik; Atif Majeed; Zafar Fatmi; Muhammad Rizwanulhaq Khawaja; Shehzad Ghaffar

2006-01-01

67

Adiposity and Blood Pressure in South Asian Children and Adolescents in Karachi  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe association of adiposity during childhood with future risk of elevated blood pressure (BP) in South Asian children is not known. We aimed to investigate the relationship between waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI) with BP over a 2-year period, independent of the baseline BP.MethodsWe analyzed data on children aged 5–14 years who participated in the Control of

Aysha Almas; Tazeen H. Jafar

2011-01-01

68

Behavioral problems among children living in orphanage facilities of Karachi, Pakistan: comparison of children in an SOS Village with those in conventional orphanages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  This study compared the behavioral problems of children living in an SOS Village, which attempts to provide a family setup\\u000a for its children, with those living in conventional orphanages.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 330 children, aged 4–16 years, living either in an SOS or other conventional orphanages\\u000a of Karachi, and assessed their behavioral problems using strengths and difficulty questionnaire

Zohra S. Lassi; Sadia Mahmud; Ehsan U. Syed; Naveed Z. Janjua

2011-01-01

69

Seismological Research Letters Volume 78, Number 6 November/December 2007 601 The city of Karachi, Pakistan (population 14 million), sits close  

E-print Network

of Pakistan's four provinces), is indistinguishable from that of many fishing villages on the northern shores of the Arabian Sea. It was known to Arab and Portuguese traders who sometimes stopped at the village on the way in 1947, at which time the city grew dramatically with the influx of a million refugees from India

Bilham, Roger

70

Prevalence and perceptions about consanguineous marriages among patients presenting to family physicians, in 2001 at a Teaching Hospital in Karachi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim : Consanguineous marriages are common in Pakistan despite their declining popularity in the developed world. In the present study, a questionnaire based survey was used to record the attitudes and perceptions of consanguineous marriages among the sample population. Methods : A questionnaire was developed to collect information on the acceptability of, and percep- tions about, consanguineous marriages among patients

Waris Qidwai; Iqbal Azam Syed; Faisal M Khan

2003-01-01

71

Pakistan: Summary Report. Education Financing and People's Aspirations in Pakistan. Asia-South Pacific Education Watch  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted across the country in a total of 23 districts, 5 districts each in the four provinces of Pakistan, i.e. Balochistan, Punjab, Sindh, North Western Frontier Province (NWFP), and 2 districts in Azad Jammu & Kashmir (AJK). The main purpose of the paper was to unravel the intricate budgeting process in the education sector,…

Lozada, Rebecca, Ed.

2008-01-01

72

PsychoSocial Consequences of Secondary Infertility in Karachi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To explore the experiences of social consequences among women suffering from secondary infertil- ity. Methods:Descriptive case series of 400 women with secondary infertility attending tertiary care hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan. Results: More than two thirds (67.7%) of women stated that their inability to give live births or give birth to sons had resulted in marital dissonance. The respondents had

Neelofar Sami; Tazeen Saeed Ali

73

Formative research and development of an evidence-based communication strategy: the introduction of Vi typhoid fever vaccine among school-aged children in Karachi, Pakistan.  

PubMed

The authors conducted formative research (a) to identify stakeholders' concerns related to typhoid fever and the need for disease information and (b) to develop a communication strategy to inform stakeholders and address their concerns and motivate for support of a school-based vaccination program in Pakistan. Data were collected during interactive and semi-structured focus group discussions and interviews, followed by a qualitative analysis and multidisciplinary consultative process to identify an effective social mobilization strategy comprised of relevant media channels and messages. The authors conducted 14 focus group discussions with the parents of school-aged children and their teachers, and 13 individual interviews with school, religious, and political leaders. Parents thought that typhoid fever was a dangerous disease, but were unsure of their children's risk. They were interested in vaccination and were comfortable with a school-based vaccination if conducted under the supervision of trained and qualified staff. Teachers and leaders needed information on typhoid fever, the vaccine, procedures, and sponsors of the vaccination program. Meetings were considered the best form of information dissemination, followed by printed materials and mass media. This study shows how qualitative research findings can be translated into an effective social mobilization and communication approach. The findings of the research indicated the importance of increasing awareness of typhoid fever and the benefits of vaccination against the disease. Identification and dissemination of relevant, community-based disease and vaccination information will increase demand and use of vaccination. PMID:23330632

Pach, Alfred; Tabbusam, Ghurnata; Khan, M Imran; Suhag, Zamir; Hussain, Imtiaz; Hussain, Ejaz; Mumtaz, Uzma; Haq, Inam Ul; Tahir, Rehman; Mirani, Amjad; Yousafzai, Aisha; Sahastrabuddhe, Sushant; Ochiai, R Leon; Soofi, Sajid; Clemens, John D; Favorov, Michael O; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

2013-01-01

74

Economic Developments in South Asia Eight states (India, Pakistan, Afghanistan,  

E-print Network

, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, Sri Lanka and the Maldives) belong to the geopolitical region of South Asia, which accommodates 20 % of the social structures, political ways and religion, these states have retained a number

Hamburg,.Universität

75

The role of son preference in reproductive behaviour in Pakistan.  

PubMed Central

The sex of surviving children is an important determinant of reproductive behaviour in South Asia in general and Pakistan in particular. This cohort study evaluates the role of the sex of children on reproductive intentions and subsequent behaviour of women in urban slums of Karachi, Pakistan. The analysis is based on two rounds of surveys conducted in 1990-91 and 1995 of a cohort of married women aged 15-49 years. The results show that pregnancies became increasingly unwanted as the number of surviving sons increased. The sex of surviving children was strongly correlated with subsequent fertility and contraceptive behaviour. However, rather than an exclusive son preference, couples strove for one or more sons and at least one surviving daughter. The policy implications of the link between overt son preference and low status of women are discussed. PMID:10812738

Hussain, R.; Fikree, F. F.; Berendes, H. W.

2000-01-01

76

Trace metals in fish, sediment and water from the south west coast of the Arabian sea, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of ten metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn and Hg) in the edible muscle of Arius maculatus captured from eight different near?shore and off?shore sites off the south west coast of the Arabian Sea, Pakistan, were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Relevant water and sediment samples from the sites were also analysed for the metals.

M. Ashraf; Jaleel Tariq; M. Jaffar

1992-01-01

77

The Muslim Response to English in South Asia: With Special Reference to Inequality, Intolerance, and Militancy in Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article argues that since the British colonial era, Muslims in South Asia have responded to English in three ways: (a) rejection and resistance, (b) acceptance and assimilation, and (c) pragmatic utilization. These responses continue in Pakistan and are respectively associated with the traditionalist ulema, the Westernized middle and upper…

Rahman, Tariq

2005-01-01

78

War against Rape (WAR): The Experience of an Activist Group in Karachi in Raising Awareness of Sexual Crimes against Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the experiences of an activist group in Karachi (Pakistan) in raising awareness of sexual crimes against women, pursuant to a rape of a professional woman which occurred during an armed robbery. It describes how, since rape was regarded as rare or nonexistent in a conservative, Islamic society, the efforts of the Women's…

Zaman, Riffat Moazam

79

Railway associated injuries in Pakistan.  

PubMed

Pakistan is ranked 12th worldwide for passenger kilometres (km) travelled by railway network. The objective of this study was to assess the railway network related morbidity and mortality in Pakistan. Reported deaths and injuries due to this network were extracted from two secondary datasets: (1) an international disaster database and (2) ambulance log registers for the city of Karachi. Over the period from 1997 to 2006, a total of 11 railway disasters resulted in 449 deaths and 840 injuries. An estimated 2.05 passengers died and another 3.84 passengers were injured per billion km travelled in Pakistan, a rate six times higher than Western European countries. The ambulance log showed that one person died every two weeks in Karachi over a period from September 2007 to Jun 2008 (N = 26). The male-to-female ratio of all injury victims (N = 50) was 9:1 with a mean age of 35.6 years. Surveillance of these injuries is essential to implement prevention and control measures in Pakistan. PMID:19787521

Bhatti, Junaid A; Razzak, Junaid A

2010-03-01

80

School Leadership in Pakistan: Exploring the Headteacher's Role.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the nature of school leadership in Pakistan by drawing on two studies describing experiences of headteachers in Karachi. Identifies three determinants of personal efficacy of headteachers: The powers and accountability of the school system, community expectations within the context of the national culture, and the individual's personality…

Simkins, Tim; Sisun, Charles; Memon, Muhammand

2003-01-01

81

Pesticide susceptibility status of Anopheles mosquitoes in four flood-affected districts of South Punjab, Pakistan.  

PubMed

Recent floods drastically increased the burden of disease, in particular the incidence of malaria, in the southern districts of the Punjab province in Pakistan. Control of malaria vector mosquitoes in these districts requires the adoption of an appropriate evidence-based policy on the use of pesticides, and having the latest information on the insecticide resistance status of malaria vector mosquitoes is essential for designing effective disease prevention policy. Using World Health Organization (WHO) test kits, the present study utilized papers impregnated with DDT, malathion, deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, and permethrin, to determine the insecticide susceptibility/resistance status of malaria vector mosquitoes in four flood-affected districts. The test results showed that both Anopheles stephensi and Anopheles culicifacies remained resistant to DDT and malathion. Tests with three commonly used pyrethroids, permethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, and deltamethrin, detected resistance in the majority of cases, but in a number of localities mortalities with these three pyrethroids ranged from 80-97% and were therefore placed under verification-required status. This status indicates the presence of susceptible individuals in these populations. These results suggest that if appropriate resistance management strategies are applied in these areas, then the development of high levels of resistance can still be prevented or slowed. This study forms an important evidence base for the strategic planning of vector control in the four flood-affected districts. PMID:23199276

Rathor, Hamayun Rashid; Nadeem, Ghazala; Khan, Imtinan Akram

2013-01-01

82

Prevalence of Obesity in School-Going Children of Karachi  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity is an emerging problem in Pakistan. The authors sought to determine prevalence of obesity and malnutrition in school-going children, from grades 6th to 8th of different schools of Karachi and assess associations that affect the weight of the children. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross sectional study design with children studying in grades 6th to 8th grade, in different schools of Karachi. We visited 10 schools of which 4 consented; two subsidized government schools and two private schools. A questionnaire was developed in consultation with a qualified nutritionist. Height and weight were measured on calibrated scales. A modified BMI criterion for Asian populations was used. Data was collected from 284 students. Of our sample, 52% were found to be underweight whereas 34% of all the children were normal. Of the population, 6% was obese and 8% overweight. Of all obese children, 70% belonged to the higher socio-economic status (SES) group, while of the underweight children, 63.3% were in the lower SES. Amongst obese children in our study, 65% ate meat every day, compared to 33% of normal kids. Conclusion Obesity and undernutrition co-exist in Pakistani school-children. Our study shows that socio-economic factors are important since obesity and overweight increase with SES. Higher SES groups should be targeted for overweight while underweight is a problem of lower SES. Meat intake and lack of physical activity are some of the other factors that have been highlighted in our study. PMID:19308262

Warraich, Haider Javed; Javed, Faisal; Faraz-ul-Haq, Mohammed; Khawaja, Fariha Batool; Saleem, Sarah

2009-01-01

83

Surgical wound infection surveillance in general surgery procedures at a teaching hospital in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: A surveillance system was established at the Aga Khan University Hospital in Karachi, Pakistan, to determine surgical wound infection (SWI) rates, trends, and risk factors; and to compare rates with those reported by the National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance (NNIS) system of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Methods: Surveillance was performed from January 1997 to December 1999. Risk

Turab Pishori; Amna Rehana Siddiqui; Mushtaq Ahmed

2003-01-01

84

The Role of School Principals in Enhancing Teacher Professionalism: Lessons from Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Following the initiation of educational reforms, this article reports on the different models of leadership that have emerged as being important for developing teacher professionalism in government primary schools in Karachi, Pakistan. The evidence from the case studies, reported in this article, illustrates that even within formalized government…

Rizvi, Meher

2008-01-01

85

Culture and 'compliance' among leprosy patients in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Pakistan approx. 30% of the 18,000 known leprosy patients have dropped out of their treatment programs. To investigate reasons for such widespread noncompliance, 128 diagnosed leprosy patients--59 outpatients and 69 inpatients--were interviewed in Karachi. More than half of the 'noncompliant' outpatients denied having the disease. Denial was found to be an understandable coping mechanism in view of the severe

J. Dennis Mull; Corinne Shear Wood; Lydia P. Gans; Dorothy S. Mull

1989-01-01

86

Age and origin of post collision Baltoro granites, south Karakoram, north Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New in-situ U-Pb, Hf and oxygen data indicate that the Baltoro plutonic unit in the southern part of the Karakoram axial batholith was formed by partial melting of pre existing igneous sources with some input from supra-crustal rocks. This is consistent with the previous interpretations emphasizing partial melting of mafic lower crust beneath the Karakoram during the early Miocene 26-21Ma. The Baltoro batholith is mainly composed of biotite monzogranites and garnet two-mica leucogranites. Our zircon U-Pb ages corroborate the previous geochronology ranging from 26.3-17.3Ma., Cretaceous ages (97-72Ma) have also been observed in some zircons. Inherited ages are ranging from 553-2605Ma similar to those reported for the Lhasa block, confirming the westward continuation of south Tibet. The weighted mean ?Hf(0) for each sample varies from -8.7 to -4.0 and ranges from -17.1 to +4.4. These values are similar to the whole rock Hf data from the same rocks and are indistinguishable from those reported for the Cretaceous calc-alkaline magmatic rocks along the east-west transect of the Karakoram Terrane. Also, Miocene two-mica granites in the Darbuk area, eastern Karakoram show the comparable Hf composition. These values are significantly more evolved than the southward juvenile oceanic Cretaceous-Paleogene Kohistan-Ladakh Arc (+5to+16). The initial ?Hf(t) values of the Cretaceous zircons (+0.9 to +4.7) are more correlated to the Cretaceous calc-alkaline basement of Karakoram Batholith than the Kohistan-Ladakh Arc. The Hf composition of inherited cores is significantly different than the magmatic zircons with ?Hf(0) ranging from -58.6 to -14.3 comparable to the mid-crustal migmatitic gneisses southward in the Karakoram Metamorphic Complex. Both Miocene granites and Cretaceous zircons share similar and homogenous igneous type ?18O with mean ?18O range from 7.2 to 9.4‰ (2?). The mean ?18O of the core domain has a mixed signature ranging from 6.9 ‰ to 9.2 ‰. We suggest that the granites were formed by partial melting of pre existing igneous sources with some input from supracrustal rocks. The intermediate Hf composition of the magmatic zircons between highly evolved inherited core (similar to the mid- upper crustal Dassu migmatite) and calc-alkaline Cretaceous granodiorites suggests possible mixing between the two sources. Possible involvement of upper crust is also evident by the few more evolved Hf composition and slight increase in the observed oxygen composition than typical igneous zircons (> 8‰). This may have resulted by the interaction of the magma with the supracrustal material during the final ascent and emplacement at shallow depths beneath the Karakoram. Our zircon oxygen data did not show evidence of a juvenile (< 6‰) component. Moreover, the Hf compositions observed in Kohistan-Ladakh Arc are too radiogenic ((+6 to +16) than what we observe in the Baltoro granites. Therefore, mixing of such magma with the adjacent juvenile Kohistan-Ladakh batholiths or any direct contribution from juvenile mantle derived magma is unlikely. However this does not exclude the role of mantle melts in providing the additional heat to melt lower crust beneath the Karakoram. Our Hf data is significantly evolved than the Karakoram shear zone leucogranites (+1 to +9) where unlike to Baltoro region, magmas were strongly influenced by the juvenile Ladakh batholith.

Mahar, M.; Maheo, G.; Goodell, P.; Pavlis, T. L.

2013-12-01

87

Water Supply in Karachi: Issues and Prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water supply services in cities in the developing world have been pressurized due to rising demands and shrinking supply capacities. Karachi experiences this syndrome to a large extent and consumers face the consequences of a flatering water supply for a sizeable period of time. People have resorted to various kinds of alternative arrangements and though these ensure a basic type

Noman Ahmed

88

Battle against poliovirus in Pakistan.  

PubMed

On 22 Feb 2013, the Polio Monitoring Cell of Pakistan announced that the 2012-2013 polio campaign ended, and that 1.6 million children could not be vaccinated due to security concerns in several regions where polio workers had been killed. Those who could not be vaccinated included 50,000 children from the Federally Administrated Tribal Area (FATA), 150,000 form Khyber Pakhtoon Khao, 400,000 from a Quetta, 400,000 from Karachi, and a small number from the Rawalpindi District. These statistics are worrying, as several districts in the large metropolitan cities of Karachi and Quetta were also excluded. The fear of advanced medicine, ideas, or complex devices is a new phenomenon in many conservative and poor countries such as Pakistan, Afghanistan, Sudan, and Somalia. To safeguard the safety of the rest of the world, the failure in the implementation of WHO guidelines for vaccination must be regulated by the UN. There are a number of reasons for the phobias surrounding vaccination, but as technology continues to evolve at such a rapid rate, those with self-determined ideologies cannot cope with such advances. They become vocal to gain popularity and prevent the use of these technologies and medicine by creating and spreading rumors and propaganda of expediency. The struggle to vaccinate children is not easily understood by anyone living in the developed world. The irrational fear of vaccines and the lack of vaccination pose a serious global health risk and must be curbed through a wide variety of pro-vaccination media and religious campaigns. PMID:24240051

Fatima, Kaneez; Qadri, Ishtiaq

2013-11-01

89

Blood and hair lead in children with different extents of iron deficiency in Karachi.  

PubMed

Childhood iron deficiency has a high incidence in Pakistan. Some but not all studies have shown that dietary iron deficiency may cause increased absorption of lead as both compete for the same transporters in the small intestine. Therefore, children in Pakistan, residing in heavily polluted cities like Karachi may be prone to lead poisoning. This hypothesis was tested by investigating blood and hair lead concentrations in children from Karachi who were divided into four groups of iron status; normal, borderline iron deficiency, iron deficiency and iron deficiency anaemia. A prospective observational study was conducted where 269 children were categorized into four groups of iron status using the World Health Organization criteria and one based on soluble transferrin receptor measurements. Blood iron status was determined using a full blood count, serum iron, ferritin, transferrin saturation and soluble transferrin receptor measurements. Blood lead was determined by graphite atomic absorption spectroscopy, whereas hair lead was assessed using an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy technique. Blood lead concentrations were significantly higher in children with iron deficiency anaemia (mean [95% confidence intervals] were 24.9 [22.6-27.2] ?g/dL) compared to those with normal iron status (19.1 [16.8-21.4] ?g/dL) using WHO criteria. In contrast, hair lead content was not significantly different in children of different iron status. Our findings reinforce the importance of not only reducing environmental lead pollution but also the development of national health strategies to reduce childhood iron deficiency in Pakistan. PMID:22917764

Rahman, Muhammad Ataur; Rahman, Bushra; Ahmad, Muhammad Saeed; Blann, Andrew; Ahmed, Nessar

2012-10-01

90

Blood and hair lead in children with different extents of iron deficiency in Karachi  

SciTech Connect

Childhood iron deficiency has a high incidence in Pakistan. Some but not all studies have shown that dietary iron deficiency may cause increased absorption of lead as both compete for the same transporters in the small intestine. Therefore, children in Pakistan, residing in heavily polluted cities like Karachi may be prone to lead poisoning. This hypothesis was tested by investigating blood and hair lead concentrations in children from Karachi who were divided into four groups of iron status; normal, borderline iron deficiency, iron deficiency and iron deficiency anaemia. A prospective observational study was conducted where 269 children were categorized into four groups of iron status using the World Health Organization criteria and one based on soluble transferrin receptor measurements. Blood iron status was determined using a full blood count, serum iron, ferritin, transferrin saturation and soluble transferrin receptor measurements. Blood lead was determined by graphite atomic absorption spectroscopy, whereas hair lead was assessed using an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy technique. Blood lead concentrations were significantly higher in children with iron deficiency anaemia (mean [95% confidence intervals] were 24.9 [22.6-27.2] {mu}g/dL) compared to those with normal iron status (19.1 [16.8-21.4] {mu}g/dL) using WHO criteria. In contrast, hair lead content was not significantly different in children of different iron status. Our findings reinforce the importance of not only reducing environmental lead pollution but also the development of national health strategies to reduce childhood iron deficiency in Pakistan.

Ataur Rahman, Muhammad; Rahman, Bushra [Karachi Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270 (Pakistan)] [Karachi Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270 (Pakistan); Saeed Ahmad, Muhammad [School of Healthcare Science, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester M1 5GD (United Kingdom)] [School of Healthcare Science, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester M1 5GD (United Kingdom); Blann, Andrew [Department of Medicine, City Hospital, Birmingham B18 7QH, United Kingdom. (United Kingdom)] [Department of Medicine, City Hospital, Birmingham B18 7QH, United Kingdom. (United Kingdom); Ahmed, Nessar, E-mail: N.Ahmed@mmu.ac.uk [School of Healthcare Science, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester M1 5GD (United Kingdom)] [School of Healthcare Science, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester M1 5GD (United Kingdom)

2012-10-15

91

Strategies for prevention of road traffic injuries (RTIs) in Pakistan: situational analysis.  

PubMed

Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are one of the leading causes of death among productive age group. Using systems approach framework (SAF), current preventive strategies for RTI control were reviewed in Pakistan. A review of the literature was done using four international search engines. Only ten studies on preventive strategies for RTI stemming from Pakistan were found. The first Road Traffic Injuries Research Network (RTIRN) surveillance system for road traffic injuries was established in urban city (Karachi) in Pakistan has shown promise for injury control and should be scaled up to other cities. Enforcement of traffic laws on seat-belt and helmet wearing is poor. National Highway and Motorway Police Ordinance (2000) was one of the few legislative measure so far taken in Pakistan. Using SAF, efforts are required to implement interventions targeting human, vehicle design and also making environment safer for road users. PMID:24848396

Khan, Adeel Ahmed; Fatmi, Zafar

2014-05-01

92

Knowledge, attitude and practices regarding HIV/AIDS among adult fishermen in coastal areas of Karachi  

PubMed Central

Background Migrant populations are at high risk of Human Immuno Deficiency Virus infection (HIV) and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Studies of HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes and practices among fishermen in developing countries have shown gaps in knowledge and fear of contagion with ambivalent attitudes towards HIV/AIDS and inconsistent universal precautions adherence. The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge, attitude and practices regarding HIV/AIDS among adult fishermen in a coastal area of Karachi, Pakistan. Methods Community based cross sectional study was conducted among fishermen in coastal area of Karachi from June to September 2012. A total of 297 adult fishermen were selected by using simple random sampling technique from different sectors of coastal village. Data were collected using a structured validated questionnaire. The frequency distribution of both dependent and independent variables were worked out. Comparisons of knowledge, attitude and practices regarding HIV/AIDS by socio-demographic characteristics were made using logistic regression. Results Out of 297 fishermen, majority had in-appropriate knowledge (93.6%), negative attitude (75.8%) and less adherent sexual practices (91.6%). In univariate analysis, lower education and higher income were significantly associated (OR 2.25, 95% CI, 1.11, 4.55), (OR = 3.04 CI 1.03-9.02, p value 0.04) with negative attitude and un-safe practices towards HIV/AIDS respectively, whereas no significant association of socio-economic characteristics with knowledge, attitude and practices were observed in multivariate analysis. Conclusions This study suggests that fishermen had very poor knowledge, negative attitudes towards HIV and AIDS and had unsafe sexual practices which suggest that they lack the basic understanding of HIV/AIDS infection. Extensive health education campaign should be provided to the vulnerable sections of the society for the control of HIV/AIDS. PMID:24886122

2014-01-01

93

Distance Education in South Asia. Proceedings of the Round Table Conference on Distance Education for South Asian Countries (Islamabad, Pakistan, November 6-8, 1989).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document begins with an introduction followed by a list of recommendations that were an outcome of the conference. The core papers included are "Liberation of the Learner: A Self-Reliance Strategy for Education" (Sharma); "Distance Education in South Asia: Problems and Strategies for Cooperation" (Taylor); "Cooperation in Distance Education…

Asian Development Bank, Manila (Philippines).

94

A 5000-yr Record of Climate Change in Varved Sediments from the Oxygen Minimum Zone off Pakistan, Northeastern Arabian Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The upper Holocene marine section from a kasten core taken from the oxygen minimum zone off Karachi (Pakistan) at water depth 700 m contains continuously laminated sediments with a sedimentation rate of 1.2 mm\\/yr and a unique record of monsoonal climatic variability covering the past 5000 years. Our chronostratigraphy is based on varve counts verified by conventional and AMS14C dating.

Ulrich von Rad; Michael Schaaf; Klaus H. Michels; Hartmut Schulz; Wolfgang H. Berger; Frank Sirocko

1999-01-01

95

Characterizing US Operations in Pakistan: Is the United States Engaged In An Armed Conflict?  

Microsoft Academic Search

On January 14, 2010, four Hellfire missiles fired from an unmanned aerial vehicle (“drone”) slammed into a compound in Pakistan’s South Waziristan region, killing ten people. Hakimullah Mehsud, leader of Tehrik-e-Taliban Pakistan (“TTP”), was the reported target of the strike. Already the eighth US drone attack in Pakistan in 2010, these strikes followed two consecutive years of dramatically increased drone

Laurie R. Blank; Benjamin R. Farley

2011-01-01

96

Attitudes toward suicide bombing in Pakistan.  

PubMed

Although suicide bombing is a historical phenomenon, there has been a recent upsurge in such incidents. In Pakistan, over the last year, more than 1,000 people have been killed in suicide bombing incidents. Assessing the attitudes and perceptions of people toward suicide bombing can help understand some of the root causes of this phenomenon. In this pilot study, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of people (N = 215) in Karachi, Pakistan, to assess their attitudes and perceptions toward suicide bombing. The majority of the respondents condemned suicide bombing and disagreed with the notion that Islam or any other religion supports it. Belonging to the Sunni Muslim sect and strong adherence to religion predicted support for suicide bombing. The majority believed suicide bombing to be a result of religious fundamentalism. Opinion was divided as to whether suicide bombers have an underlying psychiatric illness. Further studies with larger sample sizes are needed to determine the attitudes and perceptions of the Pakistani population regarding this important issue. PMID:18664233

Kazim, Syed Faraz; Aly, Zarmeneh; Bangash, Haider Khan; Harchandani, Bhisham Pardeep; Irfan, Affan Bin; Javed, Syed Muhammad; Khalil-ur-Rehman, Rana; Naqvi, Haider; Khan, Murad Moosa

2008-01-01

97

Pakistan's Impact on Afghanistan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

These briefing charts discuss the causes of the Afghan War, what Pakistan wants, political leaders, religious and ethnic groups in Pakistan and Afghanistan and their influence, the Soviet Union in Afghanistan, and engaging Islamic ideas in Afghanistan.

J. Schofield

2009-01-01

98

Frequency of thyroid incidentalomas in Karachi population  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine frequency of thyroid incidentalomas (TI) through ultrasound (US) and its association with age, gender and ethnicities. Methods: It was a cross-sectional study. Total 269 adults who were asymptomatic for thyroid disease aged 21 years and above underwent ultrasound examination of their thyroid. Results: Frequency of TI found was 21%. TI was detected in 25% of females and 16% males (P= 0.078). 61% had thyroid nodules (TNs) in one lobe (right, left or isthmus) and 39% had TNs in more than one location. About 55% had single TN and 45% had multiple TNs. 38% had TNs greater than 1cm while 57% had TNs smaller than 1 cm. 5% had TNs greater and smaller than 1 cm. TI was equally common in individuals of different ethinicities (P= 0.758). Conclusion: Frequency of thyroid incidentalomas found in our study was higher than most of the other iodine sufficient states. Unlike other studies, incidentalomas were equally common in both the genders of our study. This may be due to the previous iodine deficient status of Pakistan which was prevalent. However further studies on the same topic will help us in identifying the correct status of thyroid incidentalomas if Pakistan retains it’s status as an iodine sufficient state. PMID:25097519

Kamran, Mahrukh; Hassan, Nuzhat; Ali, Muhammad; Ahmad, Farah; Shahzad, Sikandar; Zehra, Nosheen

2014-01-01

99

Women's mental health in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

In Pakistan, societal attitudes and norms, as well as cultural practices (Karo Kari, exchange marriages, dowry, etc.), play a vital role in women's mental health. The religious and ethnic conflicts, along with the dehumanizing attitudes towards women, the extended family system, role of in-laws in daily lives of women, represent major issues and stressors. Such practices in Pakistan have created the extreme marginalisation of women in numerous spheres of life, which has had an adverse psychological impact. Violence against women has become one of the acceptable means whereby men exercise their culturally constructed right to control women. Still, compared to other South Asian countries, Pakistani women are relatively better off than their counterparts. PMID:16633458

Niaz, Unaiza

2004-01-01

100

Spatial patterns monitoring of road traffic injuries in Karachi metropolis.  

PubMed

This article aims to assess the pattern of road traffic injuries (RTIs) and fatalities in Karachi metropolis. Assessing the pattern of RTIs in Karachi at this juncture is important for many reasons. The rapid motorisation in the recent years due to the availability of credit has significantly increased the traffic volume of the city. Since then, the roads of Karachi have continuously developed at a rapid pace. This development has come with a high human loss, because the construction of multilevel flyovers, signal-free corridors and the resulting high-speed traffic ultimately increase the severity of injuries. The reasons for this high proportion are inadequate infrastructure, poor enforcement of safety regulations, high crash severity index and greater population of vulnerable road user groups (riders and pedestrians). This research is the first of its kind in the country to have a geocoded database of fatalities and injuries in a geographical information system for the entire city of Karachi. In fact, road crashes are both predictable and preventable. Developing countries should learn from the experience of highly motorised nations to avoid the high burden of RTIs by adopting road safety and prevention measures. PMID:20589551

Lateef, Muhammad U

2011-06-01

101

Heterogeneity of characteristics, structure, and dynamics of male and hijra sex workers in selected cities of Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background We sought to describe the characteristics and operational dynamics of male sex workers (MSW) and hijra sex workers (HSWs) in 11 cities across Pakistan in 2011. Methods We report descriptive statistics of self-reported sexual behaviour data from cross-sectional mapping and biological and behavioural surveys conducted among 1431 MSWs and 1415 HSWs in four cities across Pakistan in 2011. Results While Karachi had the largest numbers of MSWs and HSWs, Quetta had the largest relative population sizes, with 3.6?MSWs per 1000 male adults and 3.3?HSWs per 1000 male adults. There was considerable variability in the proportion of HSWs who operate through deras, ranging from 2.2% in Peshawar to 62.7% in Karachi. The number of HSWs per guru varies by city, from 1.5 in Quetta to 16.5?HSWs per guru in Karachi. Among HSWs, the use of mobile phones for solicitation ranged from 37.6% in Quetta to 83% in Peshawar and among MSWs the use of mobile phones ranged from 27% in Karachi to 52% in Quetta. In Quetta, a large proportion of HSWs (41%) find clients through gurus. Client volume tended to be higher among HSWs and among both MSWs and HSWs in Quetta and Peshawar. Condom use with clients was most consistent in Quetta, with 31% of MSWs and 41% of HSWs reporting always using condoms with clients. Peshawar had the greatest proportion reporting never using condoms. Conclusions There is considerable geographic heterogeneity in the characteristics and operational dynamics of MSWs and HSWs across Pakistan. PMID:23605854

Thompson, Laura H; Salim, Momina; Baloch, Chaker Riaz; Musa, Nighat; Reza, Tahira; Dar, Nosheen; Arian, Shahzad; Blanchard, James F; Emmanuel, Faran

2013-01-01

102

Assessment of Wind Power Potential for Coastal Areas of Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Selected coastal areas of Pakistan (Karachi, Ormara, Jivani and Pasni) were studied for the possibility of wind energy generation, using available meteorological data. Wind speed pattern, Extractable Wind power, Wind Energy and associated Weibull parameter for these coastal areas have been examined. The analysis also includes seasonal changes in wind speed values. The power output using fast and slow wind machines using different blade diameters have been estimated to explore the possible use for irrigation deep well pumping and small scale power generation. Along with this, 4 KW and 20 KW aero generators were also examined. It was found that, considering maximum location wind speed, Pasni is the best location; and Jivani is the next best location with stable wind throughout the year. The other two locations were found to have similar same properties.

Akhlaque Ahmed, M.; Ahmad, Firoz; Wasim Akhtar, M.

2006-03-01

103

Learning from the Past, Looking to the Future: Modeling Social Unrest in Karachi, Pakistan  

SciTech Connect

Social unrest represents a major challenge for policy makers around the globe, as it can quickly escalate from small scale disturbances to highly public protests, riots and even civil war. This research was motivated by a need to understand social instability and to unpack the comments made during a spring 2013 conference hosted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s Center for Global Security and the U.S. Institute for Peace, where policymakers noted that models considering social instability are often not suitable for decision-making. This analysis shows that existing state level models of instability could be improved in spatial scale to the city level, even without significantly improved data access. Better data would make this analysis more complete and likely improve the quality of the model. Another challenge with incorporating modeling into decision-making is the need to understand uncertainty in a model. Policy makers are frequently tasked with making decisions without a clear outcome, so characterization of uncertainty is critical. This report describes the work and findings of the project. It took place in three phases: a literature review of social stability research, a “hindsight scan” that looked at historical data, and a “foresight scan” looking at future scenarios.

Olson, Jarrod; Kurzrok, Andrew J.; Hund, Gretchen; Fagley, Erik M.

2014-01-01

104

Use of locally made off-loading techniques for diabetic plantar foot ulcer in Karachi, Pakistan.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of applying locally made pressure off-loading techniques on plantar foot ulcer in individuals with diabetes. This prospective study of 70 diabetic patients was conducted at the foot clinic of Baqai Institute of Diabetology & Endocrinology. Plantar foot ulcer, stages 1A and 2A according to the University of Texas classification, was treated by using three off-loading techniques: modified foot wear (sandal), modified plaster of Paris cast with plywood platform and Scotchcast boot. The outcome was assessed at either complete wound healing (defined as complete epithelialisation) or at 12 weeks, whichever came first. Of the 70 patients, 24 were in modified foot wear group, 23 in modified plaster of Paris cast and 23 in Scotchcast boot group. There was almost equal proportion of patients healed within 12 weeks period treated with these three off-loading techniques, i.e. 22 (95·7%) for modified foot wear group, 19 (95%) for modified plaster cast and 18 (94·7%) for Scotchcast boot group. No significant difference was observed in median healing time and cumulative wound survival at 12 weeks in the three off-loading techniques. Modified foot wear group was the most cost effective ($7) amongst the three off-loading techniques. It is concluded that in this cohort, no significant difference in healing time was observed in the three off-loading techniques, although modified foot wear (sandal) was found to be a more cost-effective treatment modality. PMID:23369009

Miyan, Zahid; Ahmed, Jameel; Zaidi, Syed I; Ahmedani, Muhammad Y; Fawwad, Asher; Basit, Abdul

2014-12-01

105

Bibliographical Control in Pakistan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the main aspects of national bibliographical control in Pakistan--legal deposit, national bibliographical agency, and retrospective and current national bibliographies. Highlights include registration of publications, copyright, the National Bibliographic Unit, National Book Council of Pakistan, and Library of Congress Office. Works…

Mohammadally, R.

1986-01-01

106

Bioethics on the Subcontinent: The Sindh Institute in Karachi  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this personal narrative the author recounts his experiences teaching bioethics in Pakistan. He notes the different moral,\\u000a cultural and legal environments of Pakistan as compared to the United States, and in particular, the ways in which subtle\\u000a interpretations of Sharia law shape bioethical reflections as well as the biomedical legal environment. As he argues, any\\u000a attempt to export models

Paul A. Lombardo

2011-01-01

107

Traditional perceptions of marasmus in Pakistan.  

PubMed

One hundred and fifty mothers of under-5 children clinically identified as malnourished were interviewed in their homes in katchi abadis (squatter settlements) of Karachi. A variety of ethnic and religious groups were represented. Mothers were shown a photograph of a child with third-degree malnutrition (marasmus) and were asked what might be wrong with the child. Virtually of the mothers said that they had seen the condition, typically identifying it as sukhay ki bimari (Urdu: 'the disease of dryness and thinness'). The majority said that diarrhea predisposed to sukhay ki bimari, and vice versa, but only 3 of the 150 mothers said that diarrhea and/or lack of food could, in themselves, cause the condition. Instead, most said that the usual cause was contact with a woman who had a marasmic child or was otherwise in a state of ritual impurity. The mediating factor was said to be a saya ('shadow, influence') emanating from such a person and ultimately linked with the spirit world. Although the condition was judged to have a very poor prognosis, mothers described various magico-religious therapies that could be tried. Treatment by physicians or by giving more food was considered ineffective or even detrimental, and hiding of such children was reportedly common because of social stigma. Subsequent inquiries carried out by the author in Chitral in northwestern Pakistan produced similar findings except that there, the condition was known as moordasip and was more overtly associated with fright and spirit possession. In Karachi, 45 of the 150 mothers interviewed had children with third-degree malnutrition according to weight-for-age criteria, 15 of whom died in the course of the study. In these 45 families especially, early bottlefeeding had occurred, sometimes reportedly because of fear that the mother was a carrier of a saya and could pass it on through her milk. Most mothers had only sketchy knowledge of suitable weaning foods and an appropriate timetable for introducing such foods, and many showed little awareness of what their children were eating once they reached the toddler stage. Implications for the identification and treatment of marasmic children are discussed. A brief summary of crosscultural beliefs surrounding marasmus and the 'hard to raise' child is included. PMID:1901666

Mull, D S

1991-01-01

108

Bioethics on the subcontinent: the Sindh Institute in Karachi.  

PubMed

In this personal narrative the author recounts his experiences teaching bioethics in Pakistan. He notes the different moral, cultural and legal environments of Pakistan as compared to the United States, and in particular, the ways in which subtle interpretations of Sharia law shape bioethical reflections as well as the biomedical legal environment. As he argues, any attempt to export models of bioethics from one country to another with no attention to social and cultural differences is a recipe for failure. To presume that all ethical considerations are universal is to devalue moral traditions that differ from our own, and dismiss cultural values of other societies. PMID:21188473

Lombardo, Paul A

2011-03-01

109

Women's Autonomy in India and Pakistan: The Influence of Religion and Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article compares the lives of women and explores dimensions of their autonomy in different regions of South Asia-Punjab in Pakistan, and Uttar Pradesh in north India and Tamil Nadu in south India. It explores the contextual factors underlying observed differences and assesses the extent to which these differences could be attributed to religion, nationality, or north-south cultural distinctions. Findings

Shireen J. Jejeebhoy; Zeba A. Sathar

2001-01-01

110

Report: prevalence of shigellosis in three different areas of Karachi.  

PubMed

Shigellosis is communicated when the pathogen is swallowed down through the factors like stool or polluted hands with dust. Inappropriate hygienic conditions may reach such clinical manifestations. Shigellosis is frequently originated in crowded places and where hygienic conditions are insufficient and sanitation is poor. Infections easily transmissible from person to person like family members or infected playmates. The disease can easily transmit through infected food handlers with inappropriate hygienic conditions, crops nurturing in contaminated water with sewage line system, swimming in contaminated pool water. Similarly houseflies can also form an important vector for its transmission. In this study, Ecological factors were also the causative indicators for the disease. The issue was the water contamination of the different areas of Karachi mainly the Pehlwan Goth, Safora Goth. Then another area we focused was Patel Para in which Salmonella species were present. Other indicator was the individual-to-individual transfer that was common in Safora Goth. PMID:24577930

Qureshi, Tasneem; Saeed, Aftab; Usmanghani, Khan

2014-03-01

111

National Level Assessment of Mangrove Forest Cover in Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mangroves ecosystems consist of inter tidal flora and fauna found in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Mangroves forest is a collection of halophytic trees, shrubs, and other plants receiving inputs from regular tidal flushing and from freshwater streams and rivers. A global reduction of 25 % mangroves' area has been observed since 1980 and it is categorized as one of to the most threatened and vulnerable ecosystems of the world. Forest resources in Pakistan are being deteriorating both quantitatively and qualitatively due to anthropogenic activities, climatic v and loose institutional management. According to the FAO (2007), extent of forest cover of Pakistan in 2005 is 1,902,000 ha, which is 2.5% of its total land area. Annual change rate during 2000-2005 was -2.1% which is highest among all the countries in Asia. The Indus delta region contains the world's fifth-largest mangrove forest which provides a range of important ecosystem services, including coastal stabilisation, primary production and provision of nursery habitat for marine fish. Given their ecological importance in coastal settings, mangroves receive special attention in the assessment of conservation efforts and sustainable coastal developments. Coastline of Pakistan is 1050km long shared by the provinces, Sind (350km) and Baluchistan (700 km). The coastline, with typical arid subtropical climate, possesses five significant sites that are blessed with mangroves. In the Sindh province, mangroves are found in the Indus Delta and Sandspit. The Indus Delta is host to the most extensive mangroves areas and extends from Korangi Creek in the West to Sir Creek in the East, whereas Sandspit is a small locality in the West of Karachi city. In the Balochistan province, mangroves are located at three sites, Miani Hor, Kalmat Khor and Jiwani. Contemporary methods of Earth observation sciences are being incorporated as an integral part of environmental assessment related studies in coastal areas. GIS and Remote Sensing based technologies and methods are in use to map forest cover since the last two decades in Pakistan. The national level forest cover studies based upon satellite images include, Forestry Sector Master Plan (FSMP) and National Forest & Range Resources Assessment Study (NFRRAS). In FSMP, the mangrove forest extent was visually determined from Landsat images of 1988 - 1991, and was estimated to be 155,369 ha; whereas, in NFRRAS, Landsat images of 1997 - 2001 were automated processed and the mangroves areas was estimated to be 158,000 ha. To our knowledge, a comprehensive assessment of current mangroves cover of Pakistan has not been made over the last decade, although the mangroves ecosystems have become the focus of intention in context of recent climate change scenarios. This study was conducted to support the informed decision making for sustainable development in coastal areas of Pakistan by providing up-todate mangroves forest cover assessment of Pakistan. Various types of Earth Observation satellite images and processing methods have been tested in relation to mangroves mapping. Most of the studies have applied classical pixel - based approached, there are a few studies which used object - based methods of image analysis to map the mangroves ecosystems. Object - based methods have the advantage of incorporating spatial neighbourhood properties and hierarchical structures into the classification process to produce more accurate surface patterns recognition compared with classical pixel - based approaches. In this research, we applied multi-scale hierarchical approach of object-based methods of image analysis to ALOS - AVNIR-2 images of the year 2008-09 to map the land cover in the mangroves ecosystems of Pakistan. Considering the tide height and phonological effects of vegetation, particularly the algal mats, these data sets were meticulously chosen. Incorporation of multi-scale hierarchical structures made it easy to effectively discriminate among the land cover classes, particularly the mudflats from sparse mangroves, at their r

Abbas, S.; Qamer, F. M.; Hussain, N.; Saleem, R.; Nitin, K. T.

2011-09-01

112

Acid Violence in Pakistan  

E-print Network

violence criminals on death row. 153 However, death penalty is in itself a brutal punishment andviolence against women in Pakistan not only possible but a crime which largely goes without punishment,violence since most of its victims are women and it is often directed against them as punishment

Zia, Taiba

2013-01-01

113

Three Cups of Tea: Building Collaborations to Assess Earthquake Hazard in Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern Methods in Seismic Hazard Assessment; Nagarkot, Nepal, 8-12 June 2009; The M7.6 Muzaffarabad, Pakistan, earthquake struck the Pakistani Kashmir on 8 October 2005, claiming more than 80,000 lives. The earthquake underscored two points about earthquake hazard in Pakistan: first, that it is high, and, second, that it is poorly understood. In Karachi, for example, hazard is generally considered to be low, yet this rapidly growing megacity is as close to a major strike-slip fault system as Los Angeles is to the San Andreas fault. The Pakistani engineering community has sought guidance from seismologists on improved characterization of seismic hazard. This requires both improved hazard assessment methodology and improved constraints on the critical inputs to seismic hazard maps, for example, assessment of fault slip rates and geological site characterization. These inputs are currently unavailable. Efforts to map seismicity and attenuation and to estimate fault slip rates have been hampered by political instability. Yet there is no shortage of intellectual energy—Pakistan boasts an eager community of trained earthquake professionals.

Hough, Susan E.; Yong, Alan

2009-12-01

114

The Energy Short Fall and its After Effects (A Case Study for Karachi City in context to Karachi Electric Supply Corporation)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is an attempt to interrogate and examine the unstoppable short fall of energy which has been paralyzing the life of Karachi for decades. The monthly data for the period of Jan-2009 to Dec-2011 has been interrogated while using the Pearson correlation, Vector Auto regression (VAR) and Tobit model, to conclude the bottom line. The findings reveal that there

Syed Akif Hasan; Muhammad Imtiaz Subhani; Amber Osman

2012-01-01

115

Extending Transit Facility to India: Implications for Pakistan’s Bilateral Trade with Afghanistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper examines patterns of bilateral trade between Pakistan, India, Afghanistan and CARs. It also investigates whether providing India transit route to Afghanistan has opportunity costs for Pakistan’s trade potential with Afghanistan and CARs. In 2009, Pakistan’s exports to Afghanistan amount to US$ 1.3 billion which make up for 7.8 % of Pakistan’s total exports. For the same year, India’s

Dawood Mamoon; Zahid Junaid Mukhtar; Anam Ayesha; Noorulain Hanif; Rizwan Aslam; Maliha Quddus

2010-01-01

116

Suicides in the developing world: case study from Pakistan.  

PubMed

There are no official data on suicide from Pakistan, a conservative South Asian Islamic country with traditionally low suicide rates. Both suicide and attempted suicide are illegal acts, as well as socially and religiously condemned, making research in this area difficult. Recent reports suggest an increase in suicide rates. In this study, police data from the Sindh province were examined to provide a unique picture of trends of suicide over 15 years (1985-1999). During this period there were 2,568 reported suicides (71% men, 39% women; ratio 1.8). The lowest number was 90 in 1987 and maximum was 360 in 1999. Poisoning by organophosphates was the most common method followed by hanging. This study, although limited in scope, provides evidence of an increase in suicide rates in Pakistan, from one data source. There is urgent need for further research on suicide in Pakistan; interventions for suicide prevention in the country can then be planned. PMID:16676628

Khan, Murad Moosa; Hyder, Adnan Ali

2006-02-01

117

Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication - Afghanistan and Pakistan, 2009.  

PubMed

Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, and Nigeria are the four remaining countries where indigenous wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission has never been interrupted. This report updates previous reports and describes polio eradication activities in Afghanistan and Pakistan during January-December 2009 and proposed activities in 2010 to address challenges. During 2009, both countries continued to conduct coordinated supplemental immunization activities (SIAs) and used multiple strategies to reach previously unreached children. These strategies included 1) use of short interval additional dose (SIAD) SIAs to administer a dose of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) within 1-2 weeks after a prior dose during negotiated periods of security; 2) systematic engagement of local leaders; 3) negotiations with conflict parties; and 4) increased engagement of nongovernmental organizations delivering basic health services. However, security problems continued to limit access by vaccination teams to large numbers of children. In Afghanistan, poliovirus transmission during 2009 predominantly occurred in 12 high-risk districts in the conflict-affected South Region; 38 WPV cases were confirmed in 2009, compared with 31 in 2008. In Pakistan, 89 WPV cases were confirmed in 2009, compared with 118 in 2008, but transmission persisted both in security-compromised areas and in accessible areas, where managerial and operational problems continued to affect immunization coverage. Continued efforts to enhance safe access of vaccination teams in insecure areas will be required for further progress toward interruption of WPV transmission in Afghanistan and Pakistan. In addition, substantial improvements in subnational accountability and oversight are needed to improve immunization activities in Pakistan. PMID:20224544

2010-03-12

118

Nuclear nonproliferation strategies for South Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continued expansion of the nuclear weapons capabilities of India and Pakistan, coupled with ongoing conflict between them, raises the probability of nuclear war in South Asia. A nuclear arms race between India and Pakistan could also harm efforts to discourage other nations from acquiring nuclear weapons. United States policy opposes the spread of nuclear weapons because proliferation increases threats to

1994-01-01

119

Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Pakistan.  

PubMed

Leishmaniasis is a major health problem worldwide. It is also a particular problem in the rural areas of Pakistan. The disease occurs in varying presentations, from the self-limited and even self-healing cutaneous forms to fatal systemic disease. Lesions of cutaneous leishmaniasis may occur anywhere on the body but the most likely sites are the exposed parts. The initial papule rapidly gives rise to an ulcer. Systemic leishmaniasis is rarer in Pakistan and invariably fatal if not treated promptly. It affects the internal body organs, particularly the spleen and the liver. Leishmaniasis is transmitted by an infected female sandfly. Cutaneous lesions are usually single and often self-healing, but a presentation with multiple ulcers resulting from multiple bites from the sandfly is not rare in Pakistan. The disease has a very long history and lesions like leishmaniasis have been described dating back to the ninth century (Balkan sore). Cutaneous leishmaniasis has been given various names in different civilizations such as "Delhi boil" in India, "Baghdad boil" in Iraq, and "saldana" in Afghanistan. The organism responsible for leishmaniasis was discovered 100 years ago but the disease has not been eradicated; rather it is on rise in many parts of the world. If control measures are not taken, it might emerge as a major health problem. Pakistan has a burden of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis, the mucocutaneous form being almost nonexistent. The physicians need to know the diagnostic criteria as well as the treatment of the disease. Because of a scarcity of dermatologists in the rural areas, most of these cases present to general practitioners. Control of this disease is further complicated by an inadequate supply of appropriate drugs. PMID:15748545

Khan, Shiraz Jamal; Muneeb, Syed

2005-01-01

120

Invasive candidiasis in Pakistan: clinical characteristics, species distribution and antifungal susceptibility.  

PubMed

This study reports for the first time, to our knowledge, descriptive epidemiological data for 188 invasive Candida isolates from Pakistan, including species identification and antifungal susceptibility against fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, caspofungin, micafungin, anidulafungin and amphotericin. Risk factors for invasive candidiasis (IC) were determined for 96 patients from Karachi, Pakistan. In adults and neonates, Candida tropicalis (38 and 36?%, respectively) was the most common species, followed in adults by Candida parapsilosis (17.8?%), Candida glabrata (15.9?%) and Candida albicans (12.3?%). C. albicans (21?%) was the second most common in neonates. In children, C. albicans (31.9?%), C. tropicalis (26.4?%) and C. parapsilosis (19.4?%) were the most common. C. albicans IC was significantly associated with paediatric age [crude odds ratio (COR) 3.46, 95?% confidence interval (CI) 1.63-7.32]. Rare species made up 17.5?% of the total isolates studied. Resistance to fluconazole was seen in C. glabrata (15?.0%) and Candida krusei (100?.0%). Only one isolate (C. glabrata) was resistant to all three echinocandins. Low MICs of fluconazole for 98?% (184/188) of isolates tested support its continued use as an empiric therapy for IC. Non-C. albicans IC was associated with the use of ?-lactam inhibitor combinations (COR 3.16, 95?% CI 1.05-9.57). Use of healthcare devices was documented in 85.4?% of IC patients, whilst 75?.0% had been admitted to special care units. Surprisingly, 66.7?% of patients with IC were not obviously immunosuppressed. The high frequency of modifiable risk factors in this population indicates that candidaemia can be reduced with stringent antibiotic and infection control measures. These data will be useful for empiric selection of antifungals in Karachi, and contribute to global assessments of antifungal resistance. PMID:23105021

Farooqi, J Q; Jabeen, K; Saeed, N; Iqbal, N; Malik, B; Lockhart, S R; Zafar, A; Brandt, M E; Hasan, R

2013-02-01

121

Risks of drowning and safety concerns at the beaches of Karachi--perspective from lifeguards.  

PubMed

Going to beaches is a popular pastime for many people in Karachi. Lifeguards have been deployed on many beaches for the safety and protection of beachgoers. This cross-sectional survey was conducted to study the opinions and experiences of lifeguards posted at eight beaches of Karachi. Ignorance among beachgoers about how dangerous it could be at seaside, was reported by 19 (61.3%) out of 31 lifeguards interviewed. Lifeguards had to put up with verbal and physical abuse while discharging their duties, with verbal abuse being the universal experience. Improved record keeping of drowning and near-drowning data would help make better evidence-informed beach-safety decisions in Karachi for reducing the morbidity and mortality burden owing to drowning. PMID:25272549

Shaikh, Masood Ali

2014-05-01

122

Association of airborne Aspergillus with asthma exacerbation in Southern Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Exposure to airborne fungi has been related with exacerbation of asthma in adults and children leading to increased outpatient, emergency room visits, and hospitalizations. Hypersensitivity to these airborne fungi may be an important initial predisposing factor in the development and exacerbation of asthma. Objective This study was conducted to determine an association between fungal types and spore concentrations with the risk of asthma exacerbation in adults. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted from May 2008 to August 2009 at the Aga Khan University Hospital Karachi, Pakistan. All adult (age?16 years) patients presenting to the hospital with acute asthma exacerbation were enrolled after informed consent. A home survey was conducted for each patient to assess their environmental characteristics. Indoor air samples were also obtained from the patient's home to determine the type and spore concentration of fungi within the week of their enrollment in the study. Results Three hundred and ninety-one patients with an acute asthma exacerbation were enrolled during the study period. The mean age of participants was 46 years (standard deviation, ±18 years) and 247 (63.2%) were females. A trend of higher asthma enrollment associated with higher Aspergillus concentrations was found in two consecutive summers. A total of nineteen types of fungi were found in air samples. Aspergillus spp. was the most frequently isolated fungus with acute asthma exacerbation. Conclusion An association of higher concentration of indoor Aspergillus spp. with asthma exacerbation in adults was observed in this study. PMID:24809014

Zubairi, Ali Bin Sarwar; Azam, Iqbal; Awan, Safia; Zafar, Afia

2014-01-01

123

The determinants of infant mortality in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines factors associated with infant survival in Pakistan. It uses data from the Pakistan Integrated Household Survey 1991, a nationally representative sample survey of the Government of Pakistan, funded by the World Bank. The infant mortality rate was still very high in Pakistan until the early 1990s, at 100 deaths per 1000 live births. The study shows that

Sohail Agha

2000-01-01

124

SOUTH ASIAN STUDIES CURRICULUM COMMITTEE  

E-print Network

, but not necessarily limited to, the nations of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, Sri Lanka, Afghanistan Asian country (e.g., India or Nepal), or South Asia-focused "Wooster In" pro- grams led by Wooster IN THEORIES AND ISSUES IN THE STUDY OF RELIGION (approved when topic is South Asia-related) [R] THEATRE

Wilson, Mark A.

125

SOUTH ASIAN STUDIES CURRICULUM COMMITTEE  

E-print Network

, the nations of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, Sri Lanka, Afghanistan, and Myanmar), both.g., India or Nepal), or South Asia-focused "Wooster In" programs led by Wooster faculty members (e IN THE STUDY OF RELIGION (approved when topic is South Asia-related) [R] THEATRE AND DANCE THTD 24300

Wilson, Mark A.

126

OPTIMUM DESIGN OF SEDIMENTATION TANKS BASED ON SETTLING CHARACTERISTICS OF KARACHI TANNERY WASTES  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was carried out in a specially designed settling column to investigate the settling characteristics of effluents arising from Karachi tanneries. The Jar-tests were conducted to determine the optimum dosage of coagulants such as potash alum and ferric chloride to maximize the removal of suspended solids (S.S) from the wastes. For alum, the optimum dosage was found to be

Waseem Akhtar; Muhammad Rauf; Iqbal Ali; Nayeemuddin

1997-01-01

127

Optimum design of sedimentation tanks based on setting characteristics of Karachi tannery wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was carried out in a specially designed settling column to investigate the settling characteristics of effluents arising from Karachi tanneries. The Jar-tests were conducted to determine the optimum dosage of coagulants such as potash alum and ferric chloride to maximize the removal of suspended solids (S.S) from the wastes. For alumn, the optimum dosage was found to be

Waseem Akhtar; Muhammad Rauf; Iqbal Ali

1997-01-01

128

Deliberate self-harm and suicide: a review from Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suicide is now considered a major public health problem, especially in low income countries. A systematic review was conducted to identify risk factors and causes of deliberate self-harm and suicide in Pakistan – a Muslim, South Asian nation. In addition, the role of emergency department-based surveillance is explored. Four electronic databases (PubMed, CINAHL Plus, MDConsult, PakMediNet) were searched and 23

Muhammad Shahid; Adnan A. Hyder

2008-01-01

129

Nuclear nonproliferation strategies for South Asia  

SciTech Connect

Continued expansion of the nuclear weapons capabilities of India and Pakistan, coupled with ongoing conflict between them, raises the probability of nuclear war in South Asia. A nuclear arms race between India and Pakistan could also harm efforts to discourage other nations from acquiring nuclear weapons. United States policy opposes the spread of nuclear weapons because proliferation increases threats to U.S. national security and to world peace and stability. However, there is debate on the dangers of an escalating arms race in South Asia. Steps taken by the United States and other countries to persuade India and Pakistan to end their nuclear weapons programs have had limited success, at most slowing down their pace. A complicating factor is that India maintains a nuclear capability in part to deter China, whereas Pakistan`s nuclear weapons capability is aimed at deterring India`s superior conventional and nuclear capabilities. Analysts and policy officials are divided on how to avoid an arms race in South Asia. The Clinton Administration has renewed efforts to break the deadlock over nonproliferation, but longstanding obstacles have blocked progress. Pakistan favors a regional approach to nonproliferation, while India insists on a global approach that treats the nuclear powers on an equal basis with non nuclear weapon countries. This report analyzes the nuclear capabilities of India and Pakistan and reviews several options for U.S. nonproliferation policy in South Asia.

Davis, Z.S.

1994-05-03

130

Post partum anxiety and depression in peri-urban communities of Karachi, Pakistan: a quasi-experimental study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Postpartum anxiety and depression is a major public health concern because of its adverse effects on the cognitive and social development of the infant. Globally postpartum depression has been widely investigated but as anxiety is a more prominent feature of postpartum depression we assessed the prevalence of anxiety and depression and their associated factors in post partum women. METHODS:

Niloufer S Ali; Badar S Ali; Iqbal S Azam

2009-01-01

131

Exploring the use of literary texts to develop moral values in grade six of a private school in Karachi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

English literature teaching and learning practice can transform individual understanding, appreciation, and eventual practice of moral values. Research in this area indicates the ever-present dichotomy of how reading literary texts for moral learning should ensue, through William Bennett's teacher-centred, transmission approach, or through a more transactional approach between reader and text, as elaborated in Louise Rosenblatt's Reader Response Theory. Dr

William Charles Kir Henderson

2008-01-01

132

Suicidal ideation among medical students of Pakistan: A cross-sectional study.  

PubMed

Few studies have investigated suicidal ideation among medical students in the developing world. We found only one report on suicidal ideation among medical students in Pakistan published in the year 2005. The present cross-sectional survey on suicidal ideation conducted in July 2013 involved 331 medical students of Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan. In the past one year, suicidal ideation was found in 118 (35.6%) students. Forty-six (13.9%) of all the students had made a plan in their life time to commit suicide while 16 (4.8%) of the 331 students tried to commit suicide at some point of time in their life. More females than males pondered suicide while first year medical students formed the majority of those with suicidal ideation. The single greatest risk factor predisposing to suicidal ideation was substance abuse. This was followed jointly by parental neglect and previous psychiatric disorder. Campaigns against substance abuse and counseling of vulnerable students will help in eradicating suicidal intent. PMID:25287803

Osama, Muhammad; Islam, Mohammad Yousuful; Hussain, Syed Ather; Masroor, Syed Muhammad Zia; Burney, Muhammad Usman; Masood, Muhammad Atif; Menezes, Ritesh G; Rehman, Razaur

2014-10-01

133

Unsafe injections and the transmission of hepatitis B and C in a periurban community in Pakistan.  

PubMed Central

Following reports of frequent deaths associated with jaundice and chronic liver disease among adults in a periurban community of Karachi, Pakistan, an investigation was conducted to evaluate the relationship between injections and viral hepatitis infections, to identify the reasons why patients received frequent injections, and to observe the injection practices employed in clinics. Two hundred and three adult patients were interviewed as they left each of the 18 area clinics. Practitioners were interviewed and three consecutive injections were observed at each clinic. Eighty-one per cent of patients received an injection on the day of the interview. Of the 135 patients who provided a serum sample, 59 (44%) had antibodies against hepatitis C virus and 26 (19%) had antibodies against hepatitis B virus. Patients who received more injections were more likely to be infected with hepatitis C. If oral and injected medications were equally effective, 44% of patients preferred injected medication. None of the practitioners knew that hepatitis C could be transmitted by injections. Non-sterile syringes and needles that had been used earlier in the day on other patients were used for 94% of the observed injections. Interventions to limit injections to those which are safe and clinically indicated are needed to prevent injection-associated infections in Pakistan and other low-income countries. PMID:10994278

Khan, A. J.; Luby, S. P.; Fikree, F.; Karim, A.; Obaid, S.; Dellawala, S.; Mirza, S.; Malik, T.; Fisher-Hoch, S.; McCormick, J. B.

2000-01-01

134

Guillain-Barré syndrome in Pakistan: similarity of demyelinating and axonal variants.  

PubMed

Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) comprises multiple subtypes whose nosological and pathophysiologic interrelationships are unclear. In an attempt to better understand the relationship between the disease's major subtypes, we reviewed the characteristics of GBS cases consecutively admitted to a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan, over a 13-year period. Of 175 cases, 80 (46%) were demyelinating and 55 (31%) axonal, whilst 40 (23%) had ambiguous electrophysiological findings precluding classification. The three groups differed in severity of weakness at presentation (axonal approximately ambiguous > demyelinating; P = 0.002 for arm strength and P = 0.025 for leg strength); mean age (demyelinating > axonal > ambiguous; P = 0.05); and mean cerebrospinal fluid protein concentration (demyelinating > ambiguous > axonal; P = 0.05). However, they were similar in several other respects, including gender ratio, proportion of pediatric cases, history of antecedent infection, length of hospital stay, need and duration of mechanical ventilation, and functional outcome at discharge. Stool culture data was available for 146 (83%) cases in the study; none was positive for Campylobacter jejuni. GBS in Pakistan comprises a high proportion of axonal cases. Similarity of outcomes in axonal and demyelinating variants and lack of C. jejuni stool culture positivity are atypical features. PMID:16796593

Shafqat, S; Khealani, B A; Awan, F; Abedin, S E

2006-06-01

135

Pakistan’s Debt Problem: Its Changing Nature and Growing Gravity  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been evident for some time that Pakistan’s debt burden is extremely onerous. The danger of external debt default first emerged in 1996 towards the end of the second Benazir government. Following the nuclear explosions by first India and then Pakistan and the subsequent imposition of economic sanctions by the Western countries in mid-1998, Pakistan froze the foreign currency

Pervez Hasan

1999-01-01

136

Patient communication in radiology: current status of breaking bad news among radiologists and radiology trainees in Pakistan.  

PubMed

Breaking bad news can be an intimidating task for any physician. The aim of this study was to record the practices of breaking bad news to the patients by Pakistani radiologists and trainees. The radiologists and trainees attending the 26th National Radiological Conference in October 2010 in Karachi, Pakistan, were surveyed. The response rate was 76%. The respondents included residents (51%), private practicing radiologists (28%), academic radiologists (13%), and other trainees (8%). Most of the academic radiologists communicated with their patients. The daily frequency of breaking bad news by residents was noted, which was highest in the public teaching hospitals (71%). For severe abnormalities such as malignancy, 50% residents, 55% of the academic radiologists and 74% of the private practicing radiologists were very uncomfortable in disclosure of results. Differences in frequency of communication with patients were noticed with both different training levels, and different settings of practice in a developing country. PMID:24112271

Ali Khawaja, Ranish Deedar; Akhtar, Waseem; Khawaja, Ali; Irfan, Hira; Naeem, Mohammad; Memon, Mukhtiar

2013-10-01

137

The Independence-Dependence Paradox: Stability Dilemmas in South Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Has a new era of détente and stability emerged in South Asia five years after India and Pakistan first openly tested nuclear weapons? In the process, have India and Pakistan effectively demonstrated the value of nuclear weapons in deterring war? Deterrence optimists claim that fear of the ultimate weapon has restrained the otherwise rough actors who have been at each

Feroz Hassan Khan

138

Sentinel Hospital-Based Surveillance for Assessment of Burden of Rotavirus Gastroenteritis in Children in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine the burden and molecular epidemiology of rotavirus gastroenteritis in children hospitalized with severe acute watery diarrhea in Pakistan prior to introduction of rotavirus vaccine. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out over a period of two years from 2006 – 2008 at five sentinel hospitals in the cities of Karachi, Lahore, Rawalpindi, and Peshawar. Stool samples collected from children under five years of age hospitalized with severe acute watery diarrhea were tested for rotavirus antigen via enzyme immunoassay (EIA) (IDEA REF K6020 Oxoid Ltd (Ely), Cambridge, United Kingdom). A subset of EIA positive stool samples were further processed for genotyping. Results 6679 children were enrolled and stool specimens of 2039 (30.5%) were positive for rotavirus. Rotavirus positivity ranged from 16.3% to 39.4% in the 5 hospitals with highest positivity in Lahore. 1241 (61%) of all rotavirus cases were in infants under one year of age. Among the strains examined for G-serotypes, the occurrence of G1, G2, G9 and G4 strains was found to be 28%, 24%, 14% and 13%, respectively. Among P-types, the most commonly occurring strains were P6 (31.5%) followed by P8 (20%) and P4 (12%). Prevalent rotavirus genotype in hospitalized children of severe diarrhea were G1P[8] 11.6% (69/593), followed by G2P[4] 10.4% (62/593), and G4P[6] 10.1% (60/593). Conclusions Approximately one third of children hospitalized with severe gastroenteritis in urban centers in Pakistan have rotavirus. Introduction of rotavirus vaccine in Pakistan's national immunization program could prevent many severe episodes and diarrheal deaths. PMID:25295613

Kazi, Abdul Momin; Warraich, Gohar Javed; Qureshi, Shahida; Qureshi, Huma; Khan, Muhammad Mubashir Ahmad; Zaidi, Anita Kaniz Mehdi

2014-01-01

139

Military Takeover Complete in Pakistan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

General Pervez Musharraf assumed the position of chief executive of Pakistan early this morning, completing a very quick and bloodless coup that began on Tuesday night. General Musharraf declared a state of emergency, suspending the constitution and the national and provincial assemblies, dismissing the provincial governments and governors, and banning the Supreme Court from challenging his authority. Reaction to the coup has been rather muted within Pakistan and abroad. Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif, who is now in custody, was increasingly unpopular in Pakistan because of the country's dire economic situation, his handling of the conflict with India in Kashmir, and what some saw as his systematic efforts to undermine the authority of rival political parties and branches of government. Foreign officials and editorials have criticized the military and called for the restoration of civilian rule as soon as possible. However, many have also acknowledged Sharif's poor record and some have even called for a transitional "technocratic" government to revive the economy and fight corruption. While the crucial question of foreign aid and loans to Pakistan is still very much up in the air, it does appear that at least some nations, most notably arch-rival India, are prepared to do business with Pakistan's new leaders, at least for the short term.

De Nie, Michael W.

140

The role and processes of service learning in a high school Karachi: a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores a case of Service-Learning in a school context. Service-Learning is a methodological approach that facilitates learning through action\\/service, usually carried out in a community context. For this, using purposive sampling, a private school in Karachi was approached whereby Service Learning was initiated. Having identified the school, then access was sought, after which an informed consent was taken

Amir Wali Khan

2004-01-01

141

Prevalence and Susceptibility Pattern of Multi Drug Resistant Clinical Isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Karachi  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine the frequency and susceptibility pattern of multi-drug resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from clinical specimens in Karachi. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in Microbiology Department, University of Karachi, from January 2012 to January 2013. Clinical specimens were collected from different hospitals of Karachi. Clinical isolates were identified by standard and specific microbiological methods. The antibiotic susceptibility pattern was determined by Kirby Bauer Disc diffusion method. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines were used to determine the results. Results: The frequency of MDR P. aeruginosa isolated from different clinical specimens was found to be 30%. Amikacin was found to be the most effective antibiotic, followed by Co-trimaxazole and Quinolones. Conclusion: Antibiotic resistant P. aeruginosa are emerging as a critical human health issue. There is an urgent need to resolve the issue by taking some preventive measures. Combined efforts of health care professionals and researchers are required to educate people about the proper use of antibiotics and other infection control measures. PMID:25225505

Khan, Fouzia; Khan, Adnan; Kazmi, Shahana Urooj

2014-01-01

142

118 Recent & Best-Selling Titles * Not for sale in Pakistan  

E-print Network

, 95 Dawisha, 70 Dayan, 84 Death & Redemption, 86 Debtor Nation, 49 Delete, 60 Democratic Legitimacy118 Recent & Best-Selling Titles * Not for sale in Pakistan ** For sale only in the United States only in the United States and Canada *** Not for sale in South Asia For sale only in North America

Landweber, Laura

143

Vulnerability of Internally Displaced Children in Disaster Relief Camps of Pakistan: Issues, Challenges, and Way Forward  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pakistan is a developing country with the second highest infant and child mortality rates in South Asia. During the past years this region has undergone several humanitarian emergencies that have negatively affected all the aspects of health and development of young children. During these emergencies relief camps are set up by governmental and…

Hirani, Shela Akbar Ali

2014-01-01

144

Drainage, sediment transport, and denudation rates on the Nanga Parbat Himalaya, Pakistan  

E-print Network

Drainage, sediment transport, and denudation rates on the Nanga Parbat Himalaya, Pakistan Kevin, sediment transport, and denudation rates for the Raikot and Buldar drainage basins (north slope of Nanga Parbat) and the upper reach of the Rupal drainage basin (south slope). The overall tasks of determining

Marston, Richard A.

145

Mangla Dam Raising Project (Pakistan): General Review and Socio-Spatial Impact Assessment  

E-print Network

on river Jhelum. This project has restored and even enhanced the storage capacity of Mangla dam reservoir. Pakistan's agriculture sector will definitely benefit from this increase in available water resource range and the reservoir is situated in the south-west sub-basin in the Siwalik soft rocks. The original

Boyer, Edmond

146

Near East/South Asia Report. No. 2764.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains translations/transcriptions of articles and/or broadcasts on the Near East and South Asia. Titles include: Hoffman Discusses Liberation Front Party's Foreign Relations; Pakistan Envoy Tells Hopes for Better Relations; Delegate Speaks ...

1983-01-01

147

Can Formal Disability-Related Services Be Developed with South Asian Historical and Conceptual Foundations? Constructions from Experience and Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper uses experiences in Pakistan to address issues in the application of European-based principles of disability-related concepts and services to cultures in South Asia, especially Pakistan and India. Emphasis is on understanding the South Asian conceptual world of disability so that "development" rather than "transfer" of knowledge and…

Miles, M.

148

Traditional perceptions of marasmus in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred and fifty mothers of under-5 children clinically identified as malnourished were interviewed in their homes in katchi abadis (squatter settlements) of Karachi. A variety of ethnic and religious groups were represented. Mothers were shown a photograph of a child with third-degree malnutrition (marasmus) and were asked what might be wrong with the child. Virtually all of the mothers

Dorothy S. Mull

1991-01-01

149

Musharraf and Pakistan: Democracy Postponed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following a 1999 coup, Pakistan's General Pervez Musharraf ruled by decree with the support of the military. He held a presidential referendum and got his party elected. He amended the constitution to legitimize his military rule. His involvement in the war on terrorism led to the rise of religious extremism, and he persuaded the United States to propose a power-sharing

Mohamed A. El-Khawas

2009-01-01

150

Approaching South Asians in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

South Asians” is usually an inclusive term to refer to ethnic minorities originating from countries like India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal and Sri Lanka. Despite the apparent concern with “South Asians” in Hong Kong society in recent years, such as pushing for legislation against racial discrimination and initiating social and educational programmes to help these minorities to better integrate into Hong

Hung Mui SUNG

2005-01-01

151

Satellite image maps of Pakistan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Georeferenced Landsat satellite image maps of Pakistan are now being made available for purchase from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The first maps to be released are a series of Multi-Spectral Scanner (MSS) color image maps compiled from Landsat scenes taken before 1979. The Pakistan image maps were originally developed by USGS as an aid for geologic and general terrain mapping in support of the Coal Resource Exploration and Development Program in Pakistan (COALREAP). COALREAP, a cooperative program between the USGS, the United States Agency for International Development, and the Geological Survey of Pakistan, was in effect from 1985 through 1994. The Pakistan MSS image maps (bands 1, 2, and 4) are available as a full-country mosaic of 72 Landsat scenes at a scale of 1:2,000,000, and in 7 regional sheets covering various portions of the entire country at a scale of 1:500,000. The scenes used to compile the maps were selected from imagery available at the Eros Data Center (EDC), Sioux Falls, S. Dak. Where possible, preference was given to cloud-free and snow-free scenes that displayed similar stages of seasonal vegetation development. The data for the MSS scenes were resampled from the original 80-meter resolution to 50-meter picture elements (pixels) and digitally transformed to a geometrically corrected Lambert conformal conic projection. The cubic convolution algorithm was used during rotation and resampling. The 50-meter pixel size allows for such data to be imaged at a scale of 1:250,000 without degradation; for cost and convenience considerations, however, the maps were printed at 1:500,000 scale. The seven regional sheets have been named according to the main province or area covered. The 50-meter data were averaged to 150-meter pixels to generate the country image on a single sheet at 1:2,000,000 scale

Geological Survey (U.S.)

1997-01-01

152

Molecular characterization of beta-thalassemia in Pakistan.  

PubMed

Beta-thalassemia is one of the most common inherited hemoglobin disorders in Pakistan. The carrier frequency is estimated to be 5.4%. To determine the spectrum of beta-globin gene defects causing beta-thalassemia, we have analyzed a representative sample of 602 alleles from six ethnic groups in Pakistan; 99.2% alleles were characterized, while 0.8% remained unidentified. The spectrum of mutations is heterogeneous and we have found 19 different mutations in all ethnic groups. The four most common mutations, IVS-I-5 (G-->C) (37.7%), codons 8/9 (+G) (21.1%), the 619 bp deletion (12.4%), and IVS-I-1 (G-->T) (9.5%), account for 80.7% of the alleles. There are differences between the ethnic groups and also between provinces. In the four provinces of Pakistan, the IVS-I-5 (G-->C) mutation is more prevalent in Sindh and Balochistan, bordering India in the south and Iran in the southwest, while the codons 8/9 (+G) mutation is more common in the Punjab and the North West Frontier Province, bordering India in the northeast and Afghanistan, respectively. The 619 bp deletion is high (46%) in Gujratis and Memons residing in the Province of Sindh, neighboring the Indian Gujrat. PMID:9730364

Khan, S N; Riazuddin, S

1998-07-01

153

Prevalence of arthritis in India and Pakistan: a review.  

PubMed

Recent studies of rheumatoid arthritis worldwide suggest that prevalence of arthritis is higher in Europe and North America than in developing countries. Prevalence data for major arthritis disorders have been compiled in West for several decades, but figures from the third world are just emerging. A coordinated effort by WHO and ILAR (International League Against Rheumatism) has resulted in collecting data for countries like Philippines, China, Malaysia, Indonesia, and rural South Africa but the information about prevalence of arthritis in India and Pakistan is scarce. Since both countries, i.e., India and Pakistan, share some ethnic identity, we reviewed published literature to examine the prevalence of arthritis in these countries. Medline and Pubmed were searched for suitable articles about arthritis from 1980 and onwards. Findings from these articles were reviewed and summarized. The prevalence, clinical features, and laboratory findings of rheumatoid arthritis are compiled for both India and Pakistan. Data collected from these two countries were compared with each other, and some of the characteristics of the disease were compared with Europe and North America. It is found to be quite similar to developed countries. Additionally, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis is of different variety than reported in West. It is more of polyarticular onset type while in West pauciarticular predominates. Additionally, in systemic onset, JRA uveitis and ANA are common finding in developed countries; on the other hand, they are hardly seen in this region. Although the prevalence of arthritis in Pakistan and India is similar to Western countries, there are inherent differences (clinical features, laboratory findings) in the presentation of disease. The major strength of the study is that it is the first to pool reports to provide an estimate of the disease in the Indian subcontinent. Scarcity of data is one of the major limitations. This study helps to understand the pattern of disease in this part of country that can be stepping-stone for policy makers to draft policies that can affect target population more appropriately. PMID:21331574

Akhter, Ehtisham; Bilal, Saira; Kiani, Adnan; Haque, Uzma

2011-07-01

154

International Terrorism in South Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report reviews the international terrorist environment in South Asia, concentrating on Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India.1 With U.S.-led counterterrorism efforts focused especially on Southwest Asia, the existence of international terrorist groups and their supporters in South Asia is identified as a threat to both regional stability and to the attainment of key U.S. policy goals. Al Qaeda forces that fled

K. Alan Kronstadt

155

Food irradiation development in Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The large scale trials were held to extend the storage life of potatoes, onions and dry fruits by gamma radiation. It was concluded that radiation preservation of potatoes and onions was much cheaper as compared to conventional methods. A dose of 1 kGy can control the insects in dry fruits and nuts. The consumers' acceptability and market testing performed during the last four years are also conducive to the commercialization of the technology in this country. The Government of Pakistan has accorded clearance for the irradiation of some food items like potatoes, onions, garlic and spices for human consumption. The Pakistan Radiation Services (PARAS), the commercial irradiator (200 Kci) at Lahore, has already started functioning in April, 1987. It is planned to start large scale sterilization of spices by gamma radiation in PARAS shortly.

Khan, I.

156

Protocol for a qualitative study on promoting dietary change and positive food choices for poor people with low income who experience cardiovascular disease in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Introduction There is a misconception that cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the burden of wealthy nations, but, in fact, it is the leading cause of death and disability-adjusted life worldwide. Healthy diets are an essential factor in the prevention of CVD. However, promoting healthy diet is challenging, particularly for people with low-socioeconomic status (SES), because poverty is linked with many risk behaviours such as smoking, unhealthy eating and obesity. Multiple factors, cultural values and beliefs interact and make healthy eating very challenging. The effects of these factors in the context of low-SES populations with CVD are largely unknown. To address this gap, this study will examine the factors that affect decisions about consuming healthy diet in Pakistanis with low SES who suffer from CVD. Methods and analysis A qualitative method of interpretive description will be used. 25 participants will be selected from two cardiac rehabilitation (CR) centres in Karachi, Pakistan. Face-to-face interviews using a critical realist framework will be used to understand individual and contextual factors in the food choices of people with low SES and CVD. ATLAS.ti qualitative data analysis software will be used to identify themes and patterns in the interview data. Ethics and discussion Ethical approvals were received from the Ethics Review board of University of Alberta, Canada and Aga Khan University, Karachi Pakistan. The findings will generate new knowledge about which and how factors influence the food choices of Pakistanis with CVD and low SES to provide an insight into the development of an operational framework for designing interventions for prevention of CVD. For knowledge-translation purposes, we will publish the findings in highly accessed, peer-reviewed scientific and health policy journals at the national and international level. This research protocol received IRDC (International Development Research Centre) doctoral award from International Development Research Centre, Ottawa, Canada. PMID:24309173

Barolia, Rubina Iqbal; Clark, Alexander M; Higginbottom, Gina M A

2013-01-01

157

Multi-drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex genetic diversity and clues on recent transmission in Punjab, Pakistan.  

PubMed

Multi-Drug Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB), i.e. bacilli resistant to rifampicin (RIF) and isoniazid (INH), is a major Public Health concern in Pakistan according to WHO estimates (3.5% and 32% of new and retreated cases, respectively). Previous Pakistanis reports identified a correlation between being MDR and belonging to Beijing or EAI lineages in one study, and belonging to "H4"-Ural Euro-American sublineage in another study. In addition, MDR-TB transmission was suspected in Karachi. We tested MDR characteristics on a Punjab sample of 278 clinical isolates (without selection for Multi-Drug Resistance) including new and retreated cases collected from 2008 to 2012. All samples were characterized by a new, microbead-based method named "TB-SPRINT" (molecular diagnostic including spoligotype identification, and genetic resistance determinants to first-line anti-TB drugs RIF and INH). Isolates from 2011 to 2012 (n=100) were further analyzed using 24-loci MIRU-VNTR. We detected 8.7% MDR isolates (CI95%=[5.0; 12.5]), mainly among CAS lineage that predominates in this central-East region of Pakistan. Out of 20 MDR-TB cases, 12 different TB-SPRINT profiles were identified, limiting the suspicion of MDR-TB transmission. 24 MIRU-VNTR confirmed the unrelatedness of isolates with different TB-SPRINT profiles and discriminated 3 isolates with identical TB-SPRINT profiles. In conclusion, our study did not confirm any of the correlations between Multi-Drug Resistance and lineage or sublineage in Punjab, Pakistan. MDR-TB isolates were diverse indicating that transmission is not pervasive. TB-SPRINT proved useful as a first step for detecting MDR-TB likely transmission events, before more extensive genotyping such as 15 or 24 MIRU-VNTR and thorough epidemiological investigation. PMID:24981519

Yasmin, Memona; Gomgnimbou, Michel K; Siddiqui, Rubina T; Refrégier, Guislaine; Sola, Christophe

2014-10-01

158

The ten questions screen for childhood disabilities: its uses and limitations in Pakistan.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To assess the accuracy of the ten questions screen as a measure of childhood disability for epidemiologic studies in populations lacking resources for professional assessment of children's development and functioning. DESIGN--Household survey and screening of children in phase one followed by clinical assessments in phase two. SETTING--Karachi, Pakistan. PARTICIPANTS--A cluster sample of 6365 children, aged 2 to 9 years, screened using the ten questions and a subsample referred for clinical assessments. MAIN RESULTS--Although the sensitivity of the ten questions as a global screen for serious cognitive, motor, and seizure disabilities is high (84-100%), its sensitivity for identifying and distinguishing specific types of disability and for detecting vision, hearing, and mild disabilities, overall, is limited (generally < 80% and as low as 4% for mild vision disability). The predictive value of a positive screening result is also limited-using the ten questions in surveys without clinical confirmation results in overestimation of the prevalence of serious disability by more than 300%. CONCLUSIONS--The ten questions screen is not an assessment tool. Its utility lies in its ability to screen or select a fraction of the population at high risk for serious disability. As a screening tool, it allows scarce diagnostic and other professional resources to be efficiently directed toward those at high risk. Images PMID:7650469

Durkin, M S; Hasan, Z M; Hasan, K Z

1995-01-01

159

Fever of unknown origin at a teritiary care teaching hospital in Pakistan.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the causes of fever of unknown origin (FUO) at a tertiary care teaching hospital in Pakistan. We conducted this cross sectional descriptive study at the Department of Medicine, Civil Hospital Karachi, from January 2006 to December 2011. We reviewed the medical records of all patients aged > 12 years with a primary diagnosis of FUO. We excluded those who did not meet inclusion criteria. Two hundred five patients were analyzed, 111 (54%) were male. The mean age of patients was 38 +/-14 years. The mean duration of fever prior to hospitalization was 37 +/- 16 days and the mean time taken to reach a final diagnosis was 19 +/- 14 days. A diagnosis was established in 171 patients. Infections, especially tuberculosis, were the most common cause of FUO, followed by connective tissue diseases and malignancies. Causes of FUO and their frequencies in the population should be known because FUO is most often caused by an unusual presentation of a common disease, but may also be caused by a rare condition. Common diseases should be suspected first when investigating FUO. Factors causing delay in diagnosis should be identified and overcome to improve outcomes. PMID:24050083

Mahmood, Khalid; Akhtar, Tehseen; Naeem, Muhammad; Talib, Abu; Haider, Iftikhar; Siraj-Us-Salikeen

2013-05-01

160

Heterogeneity of BCR-ABL rearrangement in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background and Objective: Breakpoint cluster region-Abelson (BCR-ABL) rearrangement or Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) is derived from a reciprocal chromosomal translocation between ABL gene on chromosome 9 and BCR gene on chromosome 22. This chimeric protein has various sizes and therefore different clinical behaviour. The purpose of this study was to determine the heterogeneity of BCR-ABL rearrangement in patients with Ph+CML in Pakistan. Methods: The study was conducted at Civil Hospital and Baqai Institute of Hematology (BIH) Karachi. Blood samples from 25 patients with CML were collected. Multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to identify various BCR-ABL transcripts. Results: All 25 samples showed BCR-ABL rearrangements. Out of these, 24 (96%) patients expressed p210 BCR-ABL rearrangements i.e. 60% (n=15) had b3a2 and 32% (n=8) had b2a2 rearrangements. Co-expression of b3a2 /b2a2 rearrangement and p190 (e1a3) rearrangement was also identified in two patients. Conclusion: It is apparent that majority of the patients had p210 BCR-ABL rearrangements. Frequency of co-expression and rare fusion transcripts was very low. PMID:25097530

Tabassum, Najia; Saboor, Mohammad; Ghani, Rubina; Moinuddin, Moinuddin

2014-01-01

161

Late Paleozoic Rifting in northern Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metasedimentary rocks exposed in the eastern Peshawar basin and the southern Swat region of northern Pakistan provide evidence for late Paleozoic continental rifting. The onset of extensional tectonics in the Early Carboniferous is indicated by north derived clasts in the Jafar Kandao Formation eroded from thermally induced uplifts of parts of the formerly passive margin of Gondwana. Rift highlands were eroded until they were inundated during the Middle Carboniferous. Renewed uplift accompanied the eruption of basaltic lava flows during the Early Permian. Uplift along south dipping, northeast striking normal faults during the Carboniferous was accompanied by alkaline magmatism represented by the Shewa-Shahbazgarhi and Warsak porphyries and Koga syenite. Geochemistry of basaltic flows (now amphibolites) and intrusions associated with Permian uplift is similar to the coeval Panjal volcanics of northwestern India and indicates rift zone magmatism. Postrifting thermal subsidence led to the deposition of Upper Triassic marine carbonate rocks which unconformably overlie the rift basalts. A similar tectonic history in central Afghanistan suggests continuity between the two regions prior to the opening of the Neo-Tethys.

Pogue, Kevin R.; Dipietro, Joseph A.; Khan, Said Rahim; Hughes, Scott S.; Dilles, John H.; Lawrence, Robert D.

1992-08-01

162

Atmospheric polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in India and Pakistan.  

PubMed

Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) are now under review by the Stockholm Convention as candidates for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) due to their persistence, toxicity, bioaccumulation, and long-range atmospheric transport. Data on PCN levels are sparse in South Asia. Atmospheric PCNs in India and Pakistan were monitored during the winter by polyurethane foam disk passive air samplers (PUF-PAS). The average concentrations were 29 pg/m(3) and 7.7 pg/m(3) in the Indian and Pakistani samples, respectively. Those concentration levels were relatively lower than the previously reported values in other Asian countries, but still considerably higher than in other sites in the world. Tri-CNs and tetra-CNs were the dominant homologues in the air, especially in India. Spatially, the PCNs were ubiquitous in the target areas, and local distribution was generally impacted by the proximity to potential sources. Major sources of PCNs in this study were the re-emission of Halowax and industrial thermal processes. Biomass burning influenced some sites in Pakistan. However, the enrichment of tri-CNs in Indian cities cannot be ascribed to either the signature of a specific source or the preferential volatilization and/or photodegradation in tropical areas. Despite this unclear issue in South Asia, the present study indicates that the potential health impact was generally comparable to that in non-urban sites worldwide. PMID:23988747

Xu, Yue; Li, Jun; Chakraborty, Paromita; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Wang, Yan; Tian, Chongguo; Luo, Chunling; Zhang, Gan; Jones, Kevin C

2014-01-01

163

Pakistan: A Struggling Nation-State  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the course of Pakistan's sixty-three years of existence it has been called “a failed state,” occasionally “a failing state,” and even at times “a rogue state.” Perhaps this is a trend in contemporary comparative politics to label and characterize third world countries with such epithets. This article argues against these assertions, and I contend that Pakistan is a “struggling

Farah Jan

2010-01-01

164

PROSPECTS OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN PAKISTAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pakistan, despite the enormous potential of its energy resources, remains energy deficient and has to rely heavily on imports to satisfy hardly its needs. Moreover a very large part of the rural areas does not have the electrification facilities because they are either too remote and\\/or too expensive to connect to the national grid. Pakistan obtains its energy requirements from

Zeeshan Alam Nayyer

165

U.S. strategy: Assisting Pakistan's transformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pakistan today is clearly both part of the problem and the solution to the threat of terrorism facing the United States. Although it did not set out to do so, the landmark report issued by the 9\\/11 Commission ended up highlighting Pakistan's deep involvement with international terrorism. For more than two decades, beginning with the Sikh insurgency in the Indian

Ashley J. Tellis

2004-01-01

166

The Ford Foundation Program in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

At Independence, in 1947, Pakistan suffered not only a severe shortage of trained personnel needed for its de velopment but also a dearth of institutions for the training of personnel. The Ford Foundation has made grants since 1951 to help Pakistan establish and strengthen key institutions to produce competence. Grants are made for projects which are within the framework of

George F. Gant

1959-01-01

167

Pakistan’s maternal and child health policy: analysis, lessons and the way forward  

Microsoft Academic Search

An estimated 400,000 infant and 16,500 maternal deaths occur annually in Pakistan. These translate into an infant mortality rate and maternal mortality ratio that should be unacceptable to any state. Disease states including communicable diseases and reproductive health (RH) problems, which are largely preventable account for over 50% of the disease burden.The analysis of Pakistan’s maternal and child health (MCH)

S. Siddiqi; I. U. Haq; A. Ghaffar; T. Akhtar; R. Mahaini

2004-01-01

168

Sects Within Sect: The Case of Deobandi–Barelvi Encounter in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sunni Muslims of South Asia are divided into two major sub-sects, i.e. Deobandi and Barelvi, named after their places of origin in India in the 19th century. Because of abiding differences between them, these two sub-sects have built up walls of hatred and mistrust between them over time. The faultline between them has erupted violently in Pakistan since the

Ashok K. Behuria

2008-01-01

169

A study of how English is taught in government schools in Karachi  

Microsoft Academic Search

English is considered to be one of the core subjects in secondary schools in Pakistan. But it is observed that the way it is taught is through the cascading approach rather than the development of language as a whole. Teachers provide few opportunities to students to relate their learning with their experiences in daily life. Students are mostly asked to

Rashida Yousuf Memon

2000-01-01

170

Weight misperception amongst youth of a developing country: Pakistan -a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Weight misperception is the discordance between an individual’s actual weight status and the perception of his/her weight. It is a common problem in the youth population as enumerated by many international studies. However data from Pakistan in this area is deficient. Methods A multi-center cross-sectional survey was carried out in undergraduate university students of Karachi between the ages of 15–24. Participants were questioned regarding their perception of being thin, normal or fat and it was compared with their Body Mass Index (BMI). Measurements of height and weight were taken for this purpose and BMI was categorized using Asian cut offs. Weight misperception was identified when the self-perceived weight (average, fat, thin) did not match the calculated BMI distribution. Chi square tests and logistic regression tests were applied to show associations of misperception and types of misperception (overestimation, underestimation) with independent variables like age, gender, type of university and faculties. P-value of <0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results 42.4% of the total participants i.e. 43.3% males and 41% females misperceived their weight. Amongst those who misperceived 38.2% had overestimated and 61.8% had underestimated their weight. Greatest misperception of was observed in the overweight category (91%), specifically amongst overweight males (95%). Females of the underweight category overestimated their weight and males of the overweight category underestimated their weight. Amongst the total participants, females overestimated 8 times more than males (OR 8.054, 95% CI 5.34-12.13). Misperception increased with the age of the participants (OR 1.114, 95% CI 1.041-1.191). Odds of misperception were greater in students of private sector universities as compared to public (OR 1.861, 95% CI: 1.29-2.67). Odds of misperception were less in students of medical sciences (OR 0.693, 95% CI 0.491-0.977), engineering (OR 0.586, 95% CI 0.364-0.941) and business administration (OR 0.439, 95% CI 0.290-0.662) as compared to general faculty universities. Conclusion There was marked discrepancy between the calculated BMI and the self-perceived weight in the youth of Karachi. Better awareness campaigns need to be implemented to reverse these trends. PMID:23915180

2013-01-01

171

Spirituality of South Asian Women: Implications for Adult Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The implications of the spirituality of South Asian women for adult learning were examined through semistructured interviews of five South Asian women who resided in Canada. The women, who included students, working professionals, mothers, and single women, originated from Nepal, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka and were from Hindu, Moslem, and…

Marshall, Jody L.

172

Damselflies (Zygoptera: Odonata) of Pakistan: Part 1  

PubMed Central

The present study is an effort to document bio-geographical distribution for Zygoptera of Pakistan. Damselflies were collected throughout the country and territory of Azad Jammu and Kashmir during 2004–2009. A total of 2692 specimens were collected yielding 9 families, 21 genera, and 48 species and subspecies. Three of these species, Libellago lineata lineata (Burmeister), Elattoneura atkinsoni (Selys), and Elattoneura souteri (Fraser), are recorded for the first time from Pakistan. Distribution, habitats, previous records, and Zoogeographic affiliation for all collected taxa are discussed. Help was also taken from published literature on Zygoptera of Pakistan, and specimens housed at National Insect Museum were also studied. In total, 53 species are accounted for providing an updated record for all modern taxa of damselfly fauna of Pakistan. PMID:22221175

Zia, Ahmed; Naeem, Muhammad; Rafi, Muhammad Ather; Naz, Falak; Afsheen, Sumera; Ilyas, Muhammad

2011-01-01

173

Determinants of Wheat Import Demand: Pakistan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pakistan is one of Asia's major producers and consumers of wheat. Recent trends indicate significant growth in future imports under current policies. The United States has historically dominated the Pakistani market because government purchase procedures ...

M. Ash, R. Landes

1993-01-01

174

Oral Hygiene KAP Assessment and DMFT Scoring Among Children Aged 11-12 Years in an Urban School of Karachi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the oral hygiene knowledge, attitude and practices among school children and evaluate their DMFT (Decayed\\/Missing\\/Filled Teeth) scores. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: A private school of Karachi from March to April 2008. Methodology: Convenient sample comprising 300 students of grade 6 within the age group of 11-12 years was selected. A knowledge, attitude

Farhan Vakani; Nadia Basaria; Shahjahan Katpar

2011-01-01

175

The Islamic Republic of Pakistan: country profile.  

PubMed

This discussion of Pakistan covers the following: regions and cities; the dominant Islamic sect; ethnicity and language; population growth; housing; households and families; the labor force; and information sources. Currently, Pakistan is in a period of transition. In 1985 Pakistan was ruled under martial law. On December 30, 1985, martial law was lifted, and a modified version of the 1973 constitution was adopted, restoring fundamental rights of Pakistanis and powers of the judiciary. Pakistan is divided into 4 provinces. The last census recorded the 1981 population at 84.3 million, nearly double the 1961 figure of 42.9 million. By 1983, the population had tripled to nearly 93 million, making Pakistan the world's 9th most populous country, although in area it ranked 34th. Its 3% annual growth rate placed it among the world's fastest growing countries. Although created as a sanctuary for followers of Islam, Pakistan suffers from periodic disputes between the members of Islam's various sects. Generally, ethnic groups and the use of their native languages divide along provincial boundaries. Punjabi, the native tongue of Pakistan's predominant group, is spoken in 48% of all Pakistani households and in about 80% of Punjab and Islamabad Federal Territory households. Pakistan's sixth 5-year plan recognizes the need for an additional 1.4 million dwellings to adequately house the current population. In 1980, Pakistan's 12.6 million housing units averaged nearly 7 people per unit. The ideal Pakistani household is an extended family consisting of a married couple, their sons, and their sons' wives and children. At the death of the patriarch, each son establishes a separate household. Marriage solidifes all social relationships. Single adults have little place in society. Women, although protected by law, often are deprived of their legal rights where marriage is concerned. Only 23% of the population aged 10 or older has completed primary school. Fewer than 1% hold university degree. Little hard data are available about Pakistan's labor force. In 1985, the economically active population was estimated at 28.6 million compared with 10.4 million in 1951. Unemployment rose from an estimated 3.1% in 1981 to 3.5% in 1983. The Pakistani economy is currently on the upswing. PMID:12314371

Newcomb, L

1986-07-01

176

HIV/AIDS in Pakistan: the battle begins.  

PubMed

Pakistan, the second most populous Muslim nation in the world, has started to finally experience and confront the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The country had been relatively safe from any indigenous HIV cases for around two decades, with most of the infections being attributable to deported HIV positive migrants from the Gulf States. However, the virus finally seems to have found a home-base, as evidenced by the recent HIV outbreaks among the injection drug user community. Extremely high-risk behavior has also been documented among Hijras (sex workers) and long-distance truck drivers. The weak government response coupled with the extremely distressing social demographics of this South-Asian republic also helps to compound the problem. The time is ripe now to prepare in advance, to take the appropriate measures to curtail further spread of the disease. If this opportunity is not utilized right now, little if at all could be done later. PMID:17376244

Rai, Mohammad A; Warraich, Haider J; Ali, Syed H; Nerurkar, Vivek R

2007-01-01

177

Unconventional Warfare and Counterinsurgency in Pakistan: A Brief History.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since Pakistan s creation in 1947, the country s leaders have relied on Islamic guerrillas as a low-cost, high-return means of achieving strategic objectives. Religious militants of varying persuasions developed an enormous infrastructure across Pakistan,...

J. Meyerle

2012-01-01

178

Adherence to the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines for chronic heart failure - A national survey of the cardiologists in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background The aims of this study were to evaluate the awareness of and attitudes towards the 2005 European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines for Heart Failure (HF) of the cardiologists in Pakistan and assess barriers to adherence to guidelines. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in person from March to July 2009 to all cardiologists practicing in 4 major cities in Pakistan (Karachi, Lahore, Quetta and Peshawar). A validated, semi-structured questionnaire assessing ESC 2005 Guidelines for HF was used to obtain information from cardiologists. It included questions about awareness and relevance of HF guidelines (See Additional File 1). Respondents' management choices were compared with those of an expert panel based on the guidelines for three fictitious patient cases. Cardiologists were also asked about major barriers to adherence to guidelines. Results A total of 372 cardiologists were approached; 305 consented to participate (overall response rate, 82.0%). The survey showed a very high awareness of CHF guidelines; 97.4% aware of any guideline. About 13.8% considered ESC guidelines as relevant or very relevant for guiding treatment decisions while 92.8% chose AHA guidelines in relevance. 87.2% of respondents perceived that they adhered to the HF guidelines. For the patient cases, the proportions of respondents who made recommendations that completely matched those of the guidelines were 7% (Scenario 1), 0% (Scenario 2) and 20% (Scenario 3). Respondents considered patient compliance (59%) and cost/health economics (50%) as major barriers to guideline implementation. Conclusion We found important self reported departures from recommended HF management guidelines among cardiologists of Pakistan. PMID:22093082

2011-01-01

179

Addressing Nuclear Dangers: Confidence Building Between India-China-Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

China has been a nuclear weapon power since October 1964 and India and Pakistan openly since May 1998. Each had its own reason to acquire nuclear weapons—Pakistan to counter India, India to counter both Pakistan and China, and Beijing has always viewed the U.S. and for some time the former Soviet Union as possible nuclear threats. Within Asia, no meaningful

Major General Dipankar Banerjee

2010-01-01

180

Pakistan (country/area statements).  

PubMed

According to this statement presented to the Committee on Population of the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Pakistan's crude birth rate at present is 40/1000. The Pakistan Fertility Survey (PFS) of 1974-75 showed a marital total fertility rate of 8 and marital gross reproduction rate of 3.9. The total fertility rate is estimated at around 6. Evaluation of past family planning activities indicates that the impact of the program on the birth rate has been minimal. Although a large majority of married women know about family planning methods, few fertile couples use a method. Of the 90% of respondents in the PFS who had never used a method, 57% indicated they intended to use a method at some point and 23% said they did not. The average age of all current users was 34 in 1975. Preliminary results of a contraceptive prevalence survey indicate that current use is 10%. The crude birth rate was 46 or 47/1000 in 1965 when an official population program was initiated. The gains from the reduction of the total fertility rate have been partly offset by change in the age structure. Pakistan's population policy was formulated in light of the recommendations of the 1974 World Population Plan of Action. The program approach is multidisciplinary and due consideration is given to the interrelationships between population, resources, environment, and development stratgey. The program relies primarily on community participation and involvement of local leadership to promote acceptability. At the federal level, the major focus of the program is on development of national policy, planning and coordination, funding, training, procurement of contraceptives and equipment, research and evaluation, monitoring, and statistics. The population welfare departments at the provincial level are responsible for the administration and supervision of all field activities relating to service delivery, motivation, training, coordination, monitoring, evaluation, and feedback. The primary objectives are to raise the level of family planning practice from 9.5% in 1982-83 to 18.6% by 1987-88, to raise the level of continuous practice from an estimated 6.8% to 13.0% by the end of the 6th Population Welfare Plan period, and to provide reproductive health services to mothers and child health services for children under 5. The demographic objectives are to reduce the crude birth rate from 40.3 to 36.2 and to prevent approximately 2 million births during the plan period from 1983-88. Private and public sector agencies are cooperating in an immunization program, a diarrheal disease control program based on oral rehydration therapy, training of traditional midwives, provision of family planning services, and encouragement of local women to participate in development activities. PMID:12267452

1985-09-01

181

Physician migration at its roots: a study on the factors contributing towards a career choice abroad among students at a medical school in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Physician migration, also known as “brain drain,” results from a combination of a gap in the supply and demand in developed countries and a lack of job satisfaction in developing countries. Many push and pull factors are responsible for this effect, with media and internet playing their parts. Large-scale physician migration can pose problems for both the donor and the recipient countries, with a resulting reinforcement in the economic divide between developed and developing countries. The main objectives of our study were to determine the prevalence of migration intentions in medical undergraduates, to elucidate the factors responsible and to analyze the attitudes and practices related to these intentions. Methods This was a cross-sectional, observational, questionnaire-based study, conducted at Dow Medical College of Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, between January, 2012 and May, 2012. A total of 323 students responded completely. The questionnaire consisted of 3 sections, and was aimed at collecting demographic details, determining students’ migratory intentions, evaluating reasons for and against migration and assessing attitudes and practices of students related to these intentions. Results Out of 323 respondents, 195 wanted to pursue their careers abroad, giving a prevalence rate of 60.4% in our sample. United States was the most frequently reported recipient country. The most common reasons given by students who wished to migrate, in descending order, were: lucrative salary abroad followed by quality of training, job satisfaction, better way of life, relatives, more opportunities, better working environment, terrorism in Pakistan, harassment of doctors in Pakistan, desire to settle abroad, more competition in Pakistan, better management, peer pressure, longer working hours in Pakistan, religious reasons, parent pressure, political reasons and favoritism in Pakistan. A considerable number of respondents had already started studying for licensing examinations, and were also planning of gaining clinical experience in their desired country of interest. Conclusion Physician migration is a serious condition that requires timely intervention from the concerned authorities. If considerable measures are not taken, serious consequences may follow, which may pose a threat to the healthcare system of the country. PMID:23241435

2012-01-01

182

Active reading strategy to facilitate students' understanding of science concepts in a secondary science classroom of a community based school in Karachi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reading is not the strategy which is associated with language subjects. It is equally important in the area of Science as other strategies like hands-on and inquiry. Consequently, the access to Science content in terms of understanding is only possible when a reader has ability to actively read the text. Reading plays a very important role in strengthening the understanding

Sobia Suri

2007-01-01

183

Effectiveness of counseling for anxiety and depression in mothers of children ages 0-30 months by community workers in Karachi, Pakistan: a quasi experimental study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of anxiety\\/depression is quite high during the perinatal period but unfortunately its detection and treatment have been less than satisfactory. Moreover, many women are reluctant to take pharmacotherapy for fear of excretion of drugs into their breast milk. This study assesses the effectiveness of counseling from minimally trained community health workers in reducing anxiety\\/depression, the rate of

Niloufer S Ali; Badar S Ali; Iqbal S Azam; Ali K Khuwaja

2010-01-01

184

Belief in Charity Giving (Sadqa) and its Role in Healing: Results of a Survey Conducted at a Teaching Hospital in Karachi, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Objectives To study patients’ belief and practice about Sadqa (charity) and its role in recovery from illness and restoration of health. This study will determine whether such belief and practice is related to any demographic factors such as sex, education, and religious sects. Methods A questionnaire was designed that included the demographic profile of patients and questions in accordance to the study objective. It was administered to 400 patients or their attendants against the calculated sample size of 385. There were very few refusals to participate with response rate of around 98%. The study objective was explained to all participants, written consent was obtained and full confidentiality was assured. Results The mean age of the study population was 34.33 years, majority of the patients were males with 65.6% having grade XII or higher education. The practice of giving sadqa/charity for healing was significantly associated with females (p<0.001); Ismaili sect (p=0.017); educational level of grade V (p=0.03); graduate (p=0.041); being housewives (p<0.001), students (p=0.048) and employees in private services (p<0.001). Approximately 85% of the study population gave sadqa/charity for healing diseases and 84.8% believed that sadqa/charity heals diseases. According to 97.5% of the participants, medical treatment should be combined along with sadqa/charity for healing. Conclusion This study highlights the importance of the patients’ attachment to charity giving and expectation that it will lead to recovery from illness. Future research in this area should be qualitative rather than quantitative to explore more about beliefs, attitude and behavior of the individuals. It is recommended that health care professionals should consider and also respect patients’ and relatives beliefs about sadqa and charity; clashing with their beliefs during provision of medial care should be avoided. PMID:22125711

Qidwai, Waris; Tabassum, Rumina; Hanif, Raheela; Khan, Fahad H.

2010-01-01

185

Exploring teachers' perceptions of teacher-students' interactions in inquiry-based mathematics classrooms in lower secondary schools in Karachi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teaching and learning mathematics is still considered a difficult task. It is believed that mathematics is based on universal and absolute foundations and the learning of mathematics should involve rules, facts and principles. Moreover, a one-way teaching strategy is being used in the mathematics classroom. Innovative teaching strategies such as, cooperative learning, activity-based learning and investigation are not used often

Bahader Khan

2009-01-01

186

Neonatal Mortality and Prevalence of Practices for Newborn Care in a Squatter Settlement of Karachi, Pakistan: A Cross-Sectional Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundDuring the past two decades there has been a sustained decline in child and infant mortality, however neonatal mortality has remained relatively unchanged. Almost all neonatal deaths (99%) occur in developing countries, where the majority are delivered at homes. Evidence suggests that these deaths could be prevented by simple, inexpensive practices and interventions during the pregnancy, delivery and postnatal period.

Afsheen Ayaz; Sarah Saleem; Abdisalan M. Noor

2010-01-01

187

Potential Risk of Cross-Infection by Tourniquets: A Need for Effective Control Practices in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background: Tourniquets used repeatedly on patients for blood sampling are a potential source of nosocomial infections. They harbor numerous microorganisms, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The aim of this study was to investigate tourniquets for the presence of microorganisms and to ascertain the infection control practices of health care workers. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2012 on 100 samples of tourniquets collected from public and private sector hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan. The samples were cultured, and pathogenic microorganisms were identified and tested for methicillin resistance. A questionnaire was administered simultaneously to 100 health care workers who had used the tourniquets. Descriptive data are represented as frequencies and percentages. Ethical considerations were taken into account. Results: The total colonization rate was 51%, with no bacterial growth in 17/40 and 32/60 samples from public and private sector hospitals, respectively. S. aureus was isolated from 12 (42%) private sector hospital samples and 10 (43%) public sector hospital samples. Although MRSA was found in more samples from public than private sector hospitals, the difference was not statistically significant. Nevertheless, 90% of all elastic and 41% of all rubber tourniquets harbored microorganisms (P < 0.001). Although 96% of health care workers agreed that hospital staff and fomites can transmit infection, none identified tourniquets as a potential source. When asked whether tourniquets appeared clean before use, 66% agreed, and only 25% considered that tourniquets should be washed or cleaned before use. Conclusions: Tourniquets are a potential reservoir and vehicle for the spread of nosocomial infections, including MRSA. Health care workers have inadequate knowledge about infection control procedures and personal hygiene for disinfecting reusable items.

Mehmood, Zara; Mubeen, Syed Muhammad; Afzal, Muhammad Shehzad; Hussain, Zainab

2014-01-01

188

High HIV Incidence among Persons Who Inject Drugs in Pakistan: Greater Risk with Needle Sharing and Injecting Frequently among the Homeless  

PubMed Central

Background The incidence of HIV among persons who inject drugs (PWIDU) has fallen in many nations, likely due to successes of clean needle/syringe exchange and substance abuse treatment and service programs. However in Pakistan, prevalence rates for PWID have risen dramatically. In several cities, prevalence exceeded 20% by 2009 compared to a 2003 baseline of just 0.5%. However, no cohort study of PWID has ever been conducted. Methods We enrolled a cohort of 636 HIV seronegative PWID registered with three drop-in centers that focus on risk reduction and basic social services in Karachi. Recruitment began in 2009 (March to June) and PWID were followed for two years. We measured incidence rates and risk factors associated with HIV seroconversion. Results Incidence of HIV was 12.4 per 100 person-years (95% exact Poisson confidence interval [CI]: 10.3–14.9). We followed 474 of 636 HIV seronegative persons (74.5%) for two years, an annual loss to follow-up of <13 per 100 person years. In multivariable Cox regression analysis, HIV seroconversion was associated with non-Muslim religion (Adjusted risk ratio [ARR]?=?1.7, 95%CI:1.4, 2.7, p?=?0.03), sharing of syringes (ARR?=?2.3, 95%CI:1.5, 3.3, p<0.0001), being homeless (ARR?=?1.7, 95%CI:1.1, 2.5, p?=?0.009), and daily injection of drugs (ARR?=?1.1, 95%CI:1.0, 1.3, p?=?0.04). Conclusions Even though all members of the cohort of PWID were attending risk reduction programs, the HIV incidence rate was very high in Karachi from 2009–2011. The project budget was low, yet we were able to retain three-quarters of the population over two years. Absence of opiate substitution therapy and incomplete needle/syringe exchange coverage undermines success in HIV risk reduction. PMID:24358123

Samo, Rab Nawaz; Altaf, Arshad; Agha, Ajmal; Pasha, Omrana; Rozi, Shafquat; Memon, Ashraf; Azam, Saleem; Blevins, Meridith; Vermund, Sten H.; Shah, Sharaf Ali

2013-01-01

189

Son preference, fertility desire and contraceptive use in two largest cities of Pakistan.  

PubMed

The preference for sons in deeprooted in Pakistan and the growth rate is 3.1%/year, which has long term implications for the Population Welfare Program. In this study, the relationship between living sons and contraceptive use is examined among 1243 currently married industrial workers and 307 control group workers from 13 sample industries in Karachi and Lahore, Pakistan. The Family Welfare Education for Workers' Project has been operating in these industries. Questions were asked about the number of living children by sex, desired number of children by sex, and ideal family size by sex. The ideal number of children was 4 (3.7) with an average of 2.2 sons and 1.5 daughters, which indicates son preference. Average desired children (living plus additional wanted) is 5.0 (4.7) with an average of 2.6 for sons and 2.1 for daughters. All workers with an ideal of 1 wanted a son. 90% of those wanting an ideal of 2 children desired 1 son and 1 daughter. 95% with an ideal of 3 children wanted 2 sons and 1 daughter. 83% with an ideal of 4 children desired 2 sons and 2 daughters, and 16% wanted 3 sons and 1 daughter. 85% with an ideal of 5 children wanted 3 sons and 2 daughters. Further evidence for son preference occurs with total desired number of children; i.e., 79% of those desiring 2 children preferred 1 of each sex, and 21%, 2 sons. This pattern was repeated for each increase in child desired. The desire for children was also examined in terms of existing children. Workers who have more sons were less likely to desire another child; however, those with 2 living daughters desired 1.63 more children and those with 1 of each desired .85 more children. Those with 2 sons desired .67 more children. The number of additional children desired decreases with the increasing number of living children, and with increasing numbers of living sons. Desiring no more children tends to increase with an increase in number of living children, and with an increase in the number of living sons shows a stronger tendency to desire no more children. Contraception is used for spacing as well as halting childbearing. There is a direct association between the number of living children and the current use of contraception, and contraception use increases with an increase in the number of living children, and in the number of living sons, linearly. The exception is 2 sons and a desire for a daughter. Results are not generalizable to the national population. PMID:12317086

Farooqui, M N

1990-01-01

190

Prevalence and risk factors of kidney disease in urban Karachi: baseline findings from a community cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is being increasingly recognized as a leading public health problem. However, there are limited data available with respect to prevalence of CKD in Pakistan, a developing South Asian country. The study presents the baseline findings of prevalence and risk factors for adult kidney disease in a Pakistani community cohort. Methods A total of 667 households were enrolled between March 2010 and August 2011 including 461 adults, aged 15 and older. Mild kidney disease was defined as estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) ?60 ml/min with microalbuminuria ? 30 mg/dl and moderate kidney disease was defined as eGFR <60 ml/min (with or without microalbuminuria). Results The overall prevalence of kidney disease was 16.6% with 8.6% participants having mild kidney disease and 8% having moderate kidney disease. Age was significantly associated with kidney disease (p?

2014-01-01

191

Blastocystis spp., Cryptosporidium spp., and Entamoeba histolytica exhibit similar symptomatic and epidemiological patterns in healthcare-seeking patients in Karachi.  

PubMed

In this study, we collected data on the incidence of enteric parasites in healthcare-seeking individuals along with their symptoms to quantify the potential roles of factors such as age, sex, and seasonality in infection. We performed analysis to identify factors which could help differentiate parasitic infection from other causes of gastrointestinal illness in a community. The size of the patient population (n = 339), patient selection methodology, collection methods, and statistical analysis followed approaches from similar studies in core clinical journals. Ethical approval was obtained from the University of Karachi's Ethical Review Board. Fecal specimens (n = 339) submitted by symptomatic patients were collected from two clinical laboratories, along with information about the patients' age, sex, and symptoms. We found that symptoms of fever, vomiting, and constipation were 100 % predictive of finding a parasitic infection, while diarrhea was 88 % predictive of a parasitic infection. Gastrointestinal parasite-positive patients reported diarrhea (~60 %), vomiting (~30 %), fever (~25 %) and constipation (~25 %), while parasite-negative patients exhibited a symptomatic profile without fever, vomiting, and constipation. The distribution of symptoms in parasite-positive patients remained relatively invariant regardless of the parasite identified. Blastocystis spp.-mono-infected patients reported a similar profile to patients positive for Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar and Cryptosporidium spp. Most parasitic infections exhibited a strong seasonal pattern, with a peak incidence in summer months. Infection by Blastocystis spp. was the most prevalent, and it was the only infection mathematically correlated to rainfall by Pearson's method. We observed no increase in healthcare-seeking behavior following a stressful community event, namely, the attempted assassination of Benazir Bhutto in Karachi. The data suggest that parasitological testing would produce a high yield of positive results when performed on healthcare-seeking patients in Karachi in 2007 with symptoms of fever, vomiting, or constipation and a low yield when performed on patients noting only abdominal pain. Parasitological testing also produces a higher yield on patients seen in summer months. PMID:22763702

Haider, Syeda Sadaf; Baqai, Rakhshanda; Qureshi, Fouad M; Boorom, Kenneth

2012-09-01

192

Vertical transmission of hepatitis C virus in low to middle socio-economic pregnant population of Karachi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To determine the rate of vertical transmission (transmission from mother to child) of hepatitis C virus in low to middle socio-economic\\u000a pregnant women.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  This study was conducted at Sarwar Zuberi Liver Centre (SZLC) in collaboration with the department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics,\\u000a Civil Hospital Karachi (CHK) and Abbasi Shaheed Hospital (ASH) for a period of 4 years from September 2005 to

Sina Aziz; Nazli Hossain; Saadiya Aziz Karim; Jamila Rajper; Nargis Soomro; Wajeeha Noorulain; Rana Qamar; Rafiq Khanani

2011-01-01

193

Epidemiology of major incidents: an EMS study from Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background A major incident is defined as an event that owing to the number of casualties has the potential to overwhelm the available resources. This paper attempts to describe the incidence and epidemiology of major incidents dealt with by a government-run emergency medical service (EMS) in the Punjab province of Pakistan, a developing country in South Asia. A major incident in this EMS is defined as any incident that produces three or more patients, or any incident in which extraordinary resources are needed. Methods All the calls received by an EMS Rescue 1122 were studied over a 6-month period. Calls that were defined as major incidents were identified, and further details were sought from the districts regarding these incidents. Questions specifically asked were the type of incident, time of the incident, response time for the incident, the resources needed, and the number of dead and injured casualties. Retrospective data were collected from the submitted written reports. Results Road traffic crashes (RTCs) emerged as the leading cause of a major incident in the province of Punjab and also led to the greatest number of casualties, followed by fire incidents. The total number of casualties was 3,380, out of which 73.7% were RTC victims. There was a high rate of death on the scene (10.4%). Certain other causes of major incidents also emerged, including violence, gas explosions and drowning. Conclusion Road traffic crashes are the most common cause of a major incident in developing countries such as Pakistan. Injury prevention initiatives need to focus on RTCs. PMID:21798011

2011-01-01

194

Muslim Cosmopolitans? Transnational Life in Northern Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the importance of transnational forms of Muslim cultural identity in northern Pakistan. By documenting the dynamism of a transnational form of Muslim identity that encompasses people belonging to a wide range of ethnic communities and Islamic doctrinal traditions, as well as extending across countries whose Muslim peoples have experienced the differential effects of their incorporation into both

Magnus Marsden

2008-01-01

195

Attitudes Toward Suicide Bombing In Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although suicide bombing is a historical phenomenon, there has been a recent upsurge in such incidents. In Pakistan, over the last year, more than 1,000 people have been killed in suicide bombing incidents. Assessing the attitudes and perceptions of people toward suicide bombing can help understand some of the root causes of this phenomenon. In this pilot study, we conducted

Syed Faraz Kazim; Zarmeneh Aly; Haider Khan Bangash; Bhisham Pardeep Harchandani; Affan Bin Irfan; Syed Muhammad Javed; Rana Khalil-ur-Rehman; Haider Naqvi; Murad Moosa Khan

2008-01-01

196

Pakistan and the Shanghai Cooperation Organization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) has in the last few years emerged as an important actor in the international order. Besides bringing together two major Eurasian powers, China and Russia, the organization has recently granted observer status to three additional regional powers, India, Pakistan, and Iran. A number of Western, and especially American scholars, view the SCO as a challenge

Rizwan Zeb

197

Understanding Support for Islamist Militancy in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Islamist militancy in Pakistan has long stood atop the international security agenda, yet there is almost no systematic evidence about why individual Pakistanis support Islamist militant organizations. An analysis of data from a nationally representative survey of urban Pakistanis refutes four influential conventional wisdoms about why Pakistanis support Islamic militancy. First, there is no clear relationship between poverty and support

Jacob N. Shapiro; C. Christine Fair

2010-01-01

198

Understanding Support for Islamist Militancy in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Islamist militancy in Pakistan has long stood atop the international security agenda, yet there is almost no systematic evidence about why individual Pakistanis support Islamist militant organizations. An analysis of data from a nationally representative survey of urban Pakistanis refutes four influential conventional wisdoms about why Pakistanis support Islamic militancy. First, there is no clear relationship between poverty and support

Jacob N. Shapiro; C. Christine Fair

2009-01-01

199

Understanding Support for Islamist Militancy in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

:Islamist militancy in Pakistan has long stood atop the international security agenda, yet there is almost no systematic evidence about why individual Pakistanis support Islamist militant organizations. An analysis of data from a nationally representative survey of urban Pakistanis refutes four influential conventional wisdoms about why Pakistanis support Islamic militancy. First, there is no clear relationship between poverty and support

Jacob N. Shapiro; C. Christine Fair

2009-01-01

200

Communication Gap in Education in Sindh, Pakistan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Exposure to industrialization, urbanization, and commercial activities in the past 45 years has improved attitudes towards women in Pakistan, but they are still considered subordinate to men and the property of parents or husband. Traditional social values do not allow women full integration and participation in social and economic activities.…

Panhwar, Farzana

201

Unraveling the Afghanistan-Pakistan Riddle  

Microsoft Academic Search

U.S. President Barack Obama made a campaign promise to the nation that, if elected, he would withdraw combat forces from Iraq and shift the focus of U.S. strategy from the Middle East to the border of Afghanistan and Pakistan, where a renascent and spreading Taliban movement harbors al Qaeda leaders and foot soldiers and threatens to reverse the forces of

Lawrence Ziring

2009-01-01

202

Drones over Pakistan: Secrecy, Ethics, and Counterinsurgency  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US government appears to be using drones to launch air strikes inside Pakistan. This article details uncertainties regarding the ethical soundness of these strikes and highlights the consequent need for greater official transparency. Available evidence is assessed in the light of traditional ethical requirements that the use of force is beneficial to a legitimate military objective, that it discriminates

Christian Enemark

2011-01-01

203

Decentralization in Pakistan: Context, Content and Causes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a description of the recent decentralization reforms in Pakistan under General Musharraf. In the process, we hope to not only highlight major aspects of this reform, but also to analyze the evolution of this reform in historical context in order to better understand the potential causes behind the current decentralization. Analyzing the evolution of local government reforms

Ali Cheema; Asim Ijaz Khwaja; Adnan Qadir

2005-01-01

204

Learning levels and gaps in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors report on a survey of primary public and private schools in rural Pakistan with a focus on student achievement as measured through test scores. Absolute learning is low compared with curricular standards and international norms. Tested at the end of the third grade, a bare majority had mastered the K-I mathematics curriculum and 31 percent could correctly form

Jishnu Das; Priyanka Pandey; Tristan Zajonc

2006-01-01

205

The hawkmoth fauna of Pakistan (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae).  

PubMed

This study represents the first complete modern account of the Sphingidae of Pakistan and takes the form of an annotated checklist, based on several national collections and those of a number of individuals. Of the 60 species and subspecies found, 14 are new records to the fauna of Pakistan, namely Agnosia orneus, Langia zenzeroides subsp. zenzeroides, Polyptychus trilineatus subsp. trilineatus, Dolbina inexacta, Ambulyx sericeipennis subsp. sericeipennis, Thamnoecha uniformis, Macroglossum belis, Macroglossum stellatarum, Cechetra scotti, Hippotion boerhaviae, Hyles euphorbiae subsp. euphorbiae, Rhagastis olivacea, Rethera brandti subsp. euteles and Theretra latreillii subsp. lucasii. Anambulyx elwesi subsp. kitchingi and Clanis deucalion subsp. thomaswitti are not recognised as valid subspecies and are synonymized with their respective nominotypical subspecies. An additional list is given of 30 taxa which may yet be found in Pakistan as they are present in neighbouring countries close to the border. Of the species/subspecies found, 24 are part of the Palaearctic fauna, 27 are part of the Oriental fauna and nine are Palaeo-Oriental/Palaeotropical. This reconfirms the transitional biogeographical position of the Pakistan fauna. PMID:24870331

Rafi, Muhammad Ather; Sultan, Amir; Kitching, Ian J; Pittaway, Anthony R; Markhasiov, Maxim; Khan, Muhammad Rafique; Naz, Falak

2014-01-01

206

Radiological implications of granite of northern Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Granite is an igneous rock that contains natural radioactivity of primordial radionuclides. In Pakistan, granite is distributed in a vast area called the Ambela Granitic Complex (AGC) in North West Frontier Province (NWFP). Granite is a hard rock that exists in different colours and is used to decorate floors, kitchen counter tops, etc. The use of granite in a building

M. Asghar; M. Tufail; Sabiha-Javied; A. Abid; M. Waqas

2008-01-01

207

Exploring environmental literacy in low-literate communities of Pakistan: A descriptive study to recommend strategies for planning environmental education programs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The widely accepted definition of environmental education as stated by The Tbilisi Declaration of 1978 focuses on developing an environmentally literate citizenry which is capable of working "...individually and collectively toward solutions of current [environmental] problems and the prevention of new ones". The two basic tenets of environmental literacy are further defined in this study as the ability to understand environmental problems and the ability to address those environmental problems in a responsible manner. Acquisition of knowledge has also been considered an important element when developing environmental literacy programs. However, a large sector of the world population is non- or low-literate and communication is through channels other than the written word. The challenge for environmental educators is to reach the low-literate learners who have not had many opportunities to participate in formal education activities through established institutions. The purpose of this study was to describe levels of environmental literacy in communities with varying levels of formal literacy in two cities, Karachi and Islamabad, Pakistan to determine the role formal literacy plays in enhancing environmental literacy and decision making in relation to age, sex, location, number of years spent in formal education, and the socio-economic status (SES) of adult learners. Based on the outcomes, recommendations were made for designing effective programs to ensure involvement of low-literate communities in established decision-making processes through relevant program planning. This study suggested strategies to program planners and environmental educators for designing programs that reach low-literate communities, highlight local environmental concerns, and empower these communities in addressing local environmental issues. A purposive sample was identified from the constituencies of five non-governmental organizations in Karachi and Islamabad, Pakistan. Two instruments, one to measure levels of formal literacy, and the other to assess environmental literacy of the participants at the nominal, functional, and operational levels, were developed for this study. Negligible correlations were found between environmental literacy and the demographic or "external" variables of age, sex, location, number of years participants had spent in formal education institutions, socio-economic status, and formal literacy. However, some low and moderate positive correlations were found between formal literacy and age, sex, location, number of years participants had spent in formal education institutions, and socio-economic status of the participants. No correlations were found between environmental literacy and formal literacy indicating that the ability to read and write did not relate to environmental literacy or awareness in the participants.

Daudi, Sabiha Shafique

2000-10-01

208

3 CFR - Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Resulting from Flooding in Pakistan  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Refugee and Migration Needs Resulting from Flooding in Pakistan Presidential Documents...Refugee and Migration Needs Resulting from Flooding in Pakistan Memorandum for the Secretary...needs resulting from recent devastating flooding in Pakistan. You are authorized...

2011-01-01

209

Aid cutoff threatens condom program in Pakistan.  

PubMed

The Pressler Amendment, a law prohibiting US assistance to any country that does not sign the UN Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty, is forcing USAID to shut down its highly successful Social Marketing of Contraceptives (SMC) program in Pakistan. Adopted in 1985, the amendment calls for an end of funding for projects in Pakistan as of fiscal year 1991, since the country has refused to sign the treaty. Only previously committed funds have kept SMC running, but it may soon have a close shop. The cutoff comes at an especially inopportune time--just when SMC had begun to make an impact. Introduced 5 years ago, Sathi condoms (the project's main product) account for 2/3 of all condoms used in Pakistan. Sales jumped from 30 million in 1978 to 74 million last year. SMC administrators explain that the country has a vast potential for social marketing. But because of the cutoff in aid, the program will exhaust its supply of condoms by March 1992. The end of the SMC program will mean a serious setback for Pakistan, which already has the 2nd largest population in southern Asia, and which has double the fertility of the most populous country in the region, India. Only 7% of the women in Pakistan rely on a modern method of contraception, compared to 42% in India and 26% in Bangladesh. USAID officials explain that the organization is working with the Pakistani government to find ways to continue funding the program after US funds run out. They add that this development will provide Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif an opportunity to demonstrate his stated commitment to curb population growth. PMID:12284521

Barron, T

1991-01-01

210

From conflict to collaboration, local political climate accelerates ITREOH's regionalization in South Asia.  

PubMed

As Pakistan becomes industrialized, the development of human resources is essential to addressing emerging health problems. The Fogarty International Center (FIC)-funded University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB)-Aga Khan University (AKU) ITREOH initiative has been instrumental in filling the gaps in environmental and occupational health (EOH) training and research. Because of travel impediments to Pakistan, a regional short-term training program was implemented in Nepal and Sri Lanka. Workshop participants were from Pakistan, Nepal, Sri Lanka, India, and Bangladesh. The training programs enhanced north-to-south and south-to-south collaboration in research and training in South Asia. A major impact is the development of a certificate program in EOH at AKU. Research initiatives of regional and/or global concern are also under way in the other participating countries. The combination of face-to-face training with Web-based interaction for follow-up was optimal for short-term training. PMID:17168227

Sathiakumar, Nalini; Janjua, Naveed Zafar; Kadir, Masood; Spokes, Alexis Mclean; White, Heather; Kristensen, Sibylle; Delzell, Elizabeth

2006-01-01

211

MAHFIL: A Quarterly of South Asian Literature, Spring-Summer 1971.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume contains both literature from South Asia and articles about South Asian literature. The first article consists of an interview with a leading Pakistani poet, N.M. Rashed, who discusses modern Urdu literature. Other articles are: "Five 'Dangerous' Books"--on censorship in East Pakistan--by P. Sarkar; "Baluchi Language and Literature"…

Coppola, Carlo, Ed.

212

Knowledge and Practices of Barbers Regarding HIV Transmission in Karachi: A Cross-Sectional Study.  

PubMed

A barber shop is a potential place for non-sexual transmission of deadly blood borne diseases such as acquired immuno-deficient syndrome. Few researches have been conducted to assess the knowledge of barbers regarding human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission in Pakistan. With majority of the population visiting roadside saloons, it is imperative to have local data in this regard. The objective of this study was to investigate the knowledge and practices of barbers with reference to razor use and steps taken to sterilize their instruments. A total of 300 barber saloons were conveniently selected for this cross-sectional study during a time period of 5 months from May 2012 till September 2012. The shops were categorized into three groups: big saloons, small saloons and roadside saloons based on the inclusion criteria. One barber was randomly selected as a representative from each saloon. Data collection from each barber shop was carried out by an interviewer using a pre-coded questionnaire. Majority of the barbers had low school education. Awareness regarding sharing of blades as a route of HIV transmission was known by 90 % (n = 90) of big saloon barbers with awareness decreasing in small (n = 55) and roadside saloon barbers (n = 27). Only 60.3 % (n = 181) of the barbers used new blades between customers. In comparison to big saloon barbers, the majority (n = 53) of roadside saloon barbers used tap water for cleaning purposes. Only 40 % of the roadside barbers used antiseptic after shaving. The results of our study indicate that roadside saloon barbers, to whom majority of Pakistani population visit, have inadequate awareness regarding HIV transmission. Their poor barbering practices were mainly due to their low education. This potentiates a great risk for aggravating the HIV endemic in Pakistan. PMID:24504994

Bawany, Faizan Imran; Khan, Muhammad Shahzeb; Shoaib, Atif Bilal; Naeem, Muhammad; Kazi, Abdul Nafey; Shehzad, Abdul Moid

2014-10-01

213

South Asia transboundary water quality monitoring workshop summary report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cooperative Monitoring Center (CMC) promotes collaborations among scientists and researchers in several regions as a means of achieving common regional security objectives. To promote cooperation in South Asia on environmental research, an international working group made up of participants from Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and the United States convened in Kathmandu, Nepal, from February 17-23,2002. The workshop was held

Jeffrey David Betsill; Adriane C. Littlefield; Frederick O. Luetters; Gaurav Rajen

2003-01-01

214

NCCR North-South Dialogue, no. 48 Maximising the Impact  

E-print Network

Sustainable Development Policy Institute (SDPI), Islamabad, Pakistan Nepal Center for Contemporary Research, Kathmandu, Nepal #12;NCCR North-South Dialogue, no. 48 2013 Maximising the Impact of Research: The NCCR and producing a youth magazine (right) to share their experiences related to sexuality and teenage pregnancy

Richner, Heinz

215

National Target for South Asia Specialists. A Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The South Asia Panel of the National Council on Foreign Languages and International Studies reports on the need for specialists in the languages and cultures of Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bhutan, and the Maldives. Two categories of specialists are discussed: (1) individuals in government, mission, etc., in…

National Council on Foreign Language and International Studies, New York, NY.

216

THE POTENTIAL OF CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN SOILS OF SOUTH ASIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessment of the potential of carbon (C) sequestration in soils of 8 countries in South Asia (Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Iran, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka) is made on the basis of the available information on the area and soil C dynamics for different land use and soil management practices. Out of a total land area of 642 million hectares

R. Lal

2004-01-01

217

Fifty years of planning for water power in South Asia  

SciTech Connect

Water power is an important part of planning for energy in the Indian subcontinent and Burma. Hydropower projects in the four countries of South Asia: Pakistan, India, Bangladesh and Burma are reviewed, focusing on the challenges of foundation problems, construction in seismic areas, storage in Karstic areas and long-term planning for large and complex water power and multipurpose projects.

Dutta, D.N. [UNDP, Valley Cottage, NY (United States)

1995-12-31

218

Crop Residue Burning: A Threat to South Asian Air Quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For more than 2 decades, crop residues in Punjab, a region spanning northwestern India and eastern Pakistan, have been burned during October and November to ready fields for the next year's planting. This practice poses a serious threat to air quality in South Asia.

Singh, Ramesh P.; Kaskaoutis, Dimitris G.

2014-09-01

219

Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/11: Cooperative Environmental Monitoring in the Coastal Regions of India and Pakistan  

SciTech Connect

The cessation of hostilities between India and Pakistan is an immediate need and of global concern, as these countries have tested nuclear devices, and have the capability to deploy nuclear weapons and long-range ballistic missiles. Cooperative monitoring projects among neighboring countries in South Asia could build regional confidence, and, through gradual improvements in relations, reduce the threat of war and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. This paper discusses monitoring the trans-border movement of flow and sediment in the Indian and Pakistani coastal areas. Through such a project, India and Pakistan could initiate greater cooperation, and engender movement towards the resolution of the Sir Creek territorial dispute in their coastal region. The Joint Working Groups dialogue being conducted by India and Pakistan provides a mechanism for promoting such a project. The proposed project also falls within a regional framework of cooperation agreed to by several South Asian countries. This framework has been codified in the South Asian Seas Action Plan, developed by Bangladesh, India, Maldives, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. This framework provides a useful starting point for Indian and Pakistani cooperative monitoring in their trans-border coastal area. The project discussed in this paper involves computer modeling, the placement of in situ sensors for remote data acquisition, and the development of joint reports. Preliminary computer modeling studies are presented in the paper. These results illustrate the cross-flow connections between Indian and Pakistani coastal regions and strengthen the argument for cooperation. Technologies and actions similar to those suggested for the coastal project are likely to be applied in future arms control and treaty verification agreements. The project, therefore, serves as a demonstration of cooperative monitoring technologies. The project will also increase people-to-people contacts among Indian and Pakistani policy makers and scientists. In the perceptions of the general public, the project will crystallize the idea that the two countries share ecosystems and natural resources, and have a vested interest in increased collaboration.

Rajen, Gauray

1999-06-01

220

Environment Friendly Coal Based Power Generation in Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main emphasis of this paper is on the engineering economics and design developments in the field of thermal power generation in Pakistan. Pakistan is rich with coal fields but is making no use of this available natural resource to fulfil its energy demands. The shortage of power is getting worst day by day and to align with the power requirements, Pakistan needs to add 2000 MW each year to national grid. With the increasing prices of natural gas and oil, Pakistan should consider coal, the abundantly available natural resource, as an alternate fuel for its new power plants to overcome the power crises.

Qureshi, S. A.; Javed, M. Adnan

2010-06-01

221

Aerosol optical properties and radiative forcing over mega-city Karachi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerosol optical properties have been analyzed through the ground-based Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) over the mega city Karachi during August 2006-July 2007. The aerosol optical depth (AOD) is strongly dependent on wavelength; for shorter wavelengths AOD values are higher than at longer wavelengths. The results reveal that the monthly average AOD at 500 nm ranges from 0.31 to 0.92 with an annual mean of 0.48 ± 0.18 and monthly averaged angstrom exponent (Alpha) ranges from 0.17 to 1.05 with an annual mean of 0.49 ± 0.31. The maximum monthly average AOD value of 0.92 ± 0.28 with the corresponding Alpha value of 0.21 ± 0.11 is found for July 2007, while the minimum monthly average AOD value of 0.31 ± 0.11 with the corresponding Alpha value of 0.53 ± 0.13 is recorded for March 2007. The volume size distribution in the coarse mode is higher in summer and lower in winter, whereas in the accumulation mode the volume size distribution is higher in winter than in other seasons due to the hygroscopic growth of aerosol particles. The single scattering albedo (SSA) during spring, autumn and summer seasons shows a slight increase with the wavelength and ranges from 0.88 ± 0.02 to 0.97 ± 0.01. The asymmetry parameter (ASY) is also wavelength dependent and varies from 0.61 ± 0.03 to 0.74 ± 0.02 during the year. The aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) for the whole observation period at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) is in the range of - 7 to - 35 Wm -2 (average - 22 ± 6 Wm -2), at the surface from - 56 to - 96 Wm -2 (average - 73 ± 12 Wm -2), increasing the atmospheric forcing from + 38 to + 61 Wm -2(average + 51 ± 13 Wm -2). The SBDART-AERONET radiative forcing at the surface and TOA agree with correlation of 0.92 and 0.82, respectively.

Alam, Khan; Trautmann, Thomas; Blaschke, Thomas

2011-08-01

222

Solar-hydrogen energy system for Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar-hydrogen energy system has been proposed for Pakistan as the best replacement for the present fossil fuel based energy system. It has been suggested to produce hydrogen via photovoltaic-electrolysis, utilizing the available non-agricultural sunny terrain in Baluchistan region. There will be a desalination plant for sea water desalination. The area under the photovoltaic panels with the availability of water

Lutfi

1990-01-01

223

The Status of Women Physicists in Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A significant number of women physicists work in high-ranking positions in the universities and research institutes of Pakistan; however, the number of women is much lower compared with men. We surveyed these women about the challenges they faced in the workplace and the pace of their progress and scientific work in a male-dominant society. We also surveyed girls' attitudes toward studying physics at the graduate and undergraduate levels.

Hasnain, Aziz Fatima; Islam, Jabeen

2009-04-01

224

Nurse-midwifery in rural Pakistan.  

PubMed

Pakistan is a relatively new nation of predominantly Islamic influence. Like many developing countries, it is plagued by extensive communicable diseases, malnutrition, inadequate sewage systems, and illiteracy. Religious beliefs and cultural influences impact heavily on access to health care and on maternal-child health outcomes. This paper examines the major maternal-child health problems encountered, as well as implications for midwifery practice in an Islamic country. PMID:1895175

Woods, A B

1991-01-01

225

Child Health and Poverty in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the health status of Pakistani children using two important indicators, morbidity and malnutrition measured by weight-for-age and height-for-age. The demand for medical services has also been determined. The main data source used in this study is the 2000-01 Pakistan Social-Economic Survey (PSES), which provides sufficient information on child health and poverty. Findings of the study show that

G. M. Arif

2004-01-01

226

Radio and distance learning in Pakistan.  

PubMed

Radio is a powerful communication vehicle in Pakistan able to reach 3/4 of urban and 2/3 of rural households. Until 1974, most radio broadcasts of the Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation, a state monopoly, were in the categories of music, drama, and features; news and current affairs; and religious broadcasts. The Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU), a distance learning educational institution, was established through an act of the Pakistan Parliament in 1974 and is the only institution in the country to use radio broadcasts for its curriculum. Also established in 1974 within the AIOU was the Institute of Educational Technology (IET). The IET channels the transmission and flow of well-designed educational messages and lessons from the teachers to the students by employing distance teaching methodology that seeks to reinforce students' weekly lessons. IET closely integrates its activities within the University's academic departments. IET staff members not only participate in the development of course curriculum and syllabi, but also help to identify course content needing reinforcement through radio. While the teachers at AIOU convert the course curricula into distance-learning self-study activity-oriented correspondence texts, IET producers transcribe these scripts into actual production scripts. Feedback from students and findings of the University's Research and Statistical Cell are used to make revisions in the scripts. The AIOU enrolls an average of 100,000 students each year. Expansion is being limited only by the costs of purchasing time from the Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation (Rs 2000 for a 15-minute lesson) and the availability of appropriate time slots. PMID:12281001

Abbas, R

1987-01-01

227

Growing burden of stroke in Pakistan: a review of progress and limitations.  

PubMed

Stroke rates in middle-aged people are five to ten times higher in Pakistan, India, Russia, China, and Brazil, compared with the United Kingdom or United States. South Asia is home to 20% of the world's population and has one of the highest burdens of cardiovascular disease in the world. With an aging population, there is an expected increase in the number of stroke cases and a corresponding increase in the burden of stroke in developing countries including South Asian countries like Pakistan. Limited data from prior studies in developing countries indicate that stroke epidemiology differs between these and Western countries. These differences include a higher incidence of stroke at younger ages, a higher prevalence of hemorrhagic stroke, and higher age-specific prevalence rates of stroke in women. The reasons for these differences in stroke epidemiology in developing countries are not clear. This may be explained by higher prevalence of established stroke risk factors, or potential nontraditional risk factors such as water pipe smoking, use of daldaghee or naswaar, and paan chewing; hepatitis and rheumatic heart disease may also contribute to these differences. Acute and long-term stroke treatment has shown limited progress in Pakistan like other developing countries because of poor awareness of patients and general physician on stroke symptomatology, management of stroke risk factors, lack of specialized stroke units in the country, very low utilization of thrombolytic therapy because of financial constraints and, above all, poor knowledge of physicians on the role of rehabilitation and its different aspects in the management of post stroke disability. PMID:22759392

Hashmi, Mubashirah; Khan, Maria; Wasay, Mohammad

2013-10-01

228

Factors affecting the process of obtaining informed consent to surgery among patients and relatives in a developing country: results from Pakistan.  

PubMed

Efforts have been made in Pakistan to create ethical guidelines for research and medical practice. This study explored the perceptions of and factors affecting the process of obtaining informed consent to surgery among inpatients and families at a tertiary-care hospital in Karachi. A random sample of 400 post-surgery adult patients answered a pre-tested, structured questionnaire. Overall, 233 patients (58.3%) had signed the surgery consent form themselves, while 167 relatives (41.7%) had signed on behalf of the patient. Perceived factors significantly associated with patients not signing the consent form themselves were: language used (adjusted OR = 4.6), medical terminology used (aOR = 2.7), insufficient time allocation (aOR = 3.8), cultural/traditional reasons (aOR = 1.5) and low education (aOR = 2.4). Inappropriate timing for taking consent and not being informed/asked about consent were not statistically significant factors. Health-care practitioners should encourage patients to sign the consent form themselves. PMID:25343470

Jahan, F; Roshan, R; Nanji, K; Sajwani, U; Warsani, S; Jaffer, S

2014-09-01

229

A Review of Comparison of Complications of Vaginal Hysterectomy with and without Concomitant Surgery for SUI: A 5 Years' Experience at a Tertiary Care Hospital of Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Objective. The study was performed to review the complications of surgery for POP with or without surgery for SUI. This included the need for second procedure two years after the primary surgery. Study Design. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional comparative study at the Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan. International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) was used to identify women who underwent vaginal hysterectomy with anterior/posterior repair alone and those with concomitant tension-free vaginal tape surgery for urodynamic stress incontinence. Results. The 28 cases of VH/repair combined with TVT were compared for complications with 430 cases of VH with repair alone. The basic characteristics like age, BMI, and degree of prolapse showed no statistical difference among two groups. The main comorbidities in both groups were hypertension, diabetes, and bronchial asthma. We observed no significant differences in intraoperative and postoperative complications except for cuff abscess, need for medical intervention, and readmission following discharge from hospital, which were higher in cases with vaginal hysterectomy with concomitant TVT. Conclusions. Vaginal hysterectomy is an efficient treatment for uterovaginal prolapse with a swift recovery, short length of hospital stay, and rare serious complications. The addition of surgery for USI does not appear to increase the morbidity. PMID:24454388

Mohsin Rizvi, Raheela; Akhtar, Munnazza; Zuberi, Nadeem Faiyaz

2013-01-01

230

Obesity and the need for bariatric surgery in Pakistan.  

PubMed

After establishing a foothold in the West, the pandemic of obesity now threatens to spin out of control in the developing nations of Asia and the Indian subcontinent. Like many of its neighbors, Pakistan has witnessed an unprecedented growth in the number of overweight and obese individuals in its population, and obesity is proving to be an issue of considerable public health concern. Conventional medical therapies for obesity and related complications have proven to be less than effective, especially in the population of the southeast, which appears to be inherently predisposed to developing obesity-related complications. Bariatric surgery is fast emerging as a definitive therapeutic alternative for obesity and has proven to be highly successful and cost-effective at producing remission of complications of the same. In this article, we expound the need for introducing and incorporating bariatric surgery as part of the therapeutic protocols for obese individuals of South Asian descent suffering from the chronic and debilitating complications of obesity. PMID:23834754

Shah, Adil Aijaz; Shariff, Amir Hafeez

2013-11-01

231

Attitudes to School Science held by Primary Children in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attitudes to science scales developed earlier in England have been used in and around a Pakistan city with children in Primary\\/Elementary Grades 4–8. The limitations of a ‘transferred scale’ in a culturally different context are apparent in a failure to reproduce the English factor patterns, but items are identified to serve as a base for future attitudinal research in Pakistan.

Hafiz Muhammad Iqbal; Tabassum Nageen; Anthony William Pell

2008-01-01

232

Education Reform in Pakistan: Building for the Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Washington seems to be in a season of worrying--some might say "obsessing"--about the education system in Pakistan. The 9/11 Commission, whose final report has become a fixture on the bestseller lists, has highlighted the links between international terrorism and Pakistan's religious seminaries, or "madaris", and recommended that the United States…

Hathaway, Robert M., Ed.

2005-01-01

233

A Sea Change in Pakistan? Breaking Down the Arguments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pakistani forces have seized a number of high-ranking Quetta Shura Taliban (QST) leaders in recent weeks. Pakistan has actively supported the QST in Afghanistan (which it created in 1995) as a proxy force to ensure Pakistan's influence in Afghanistan and defend against Indian encroachment there. The recent arrests have caused a flurry of speculation about possible changes in Pakistani policy.

Jeffrey Dressler; Reza Jan

234

Al Qaeda in the Tribal Areas of Pakistan and Beyond  

Microsoft Academic Search

After the U.S. led coalition forces attacked Al Qaeda and Taliban infrastructure in Afghanistan beginning in October 2001, the epicenter of global terrorism moved from Afghanistan to tribal Pakistan. Known as the Federally Administered Tribal Area (FATA) in Pakistan, this region has emerged as the premier hunting ground for the Al Qaeda leadership. With the co-option of new groups in

Rohan Gunaratna; Anders Nielsen

2008-01-01

235

The retention of girls in school in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

While many problems have besieged the education of girls over the years, one problem has plagued the various governments of Pakistan: getting girls to finish secondary school. Although in Pakistan all governments stipulate policies and envisage plans to provide schooling to all young people, the problem of dropping out appears to be increasing among girls. The focus of this study

Farah Imam

1995-01-01

236

Promoting Primary Education for Girls in Pakistan. CDIE Impact Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report details a field study to evaluate the efforts of Pakistan's Primary Education Development Program (PED) to improve the access, equity, and quality of primary education in Pakistan, especially for rural girls. A 3-week visit was conducted in 1997 by a team from the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) Center for…

Agency for International Development (IDCA), Washington, DC.

237

Renewable energy technologies in Pakistan: Prospects and challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pakistan is an energy-deficient country. This paper accentuates the importance and challenges of new era technologies. The renewable energy sources like wind energy, solar energy, geothermal energy, ocean energy, biomass energy and fuel cell technology can be used to overcome energy shortage in Pakistan. Renewable energy sources and technologies have the potential to provide solutions to the long-standing energy problems

M. Ashraf Chaudhry; R. Raza; S. A. Hayat

2009-01-01

238

Militant Recruitment in Pakistan: Implications for Al Qaeda and Other Organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite Pakistan's extensive contribution to the global war on terrorism, many questions persist about the extent to which Al Qaeda and its associated outfits are currently operating within Pakistan. This article examines this issue by posing several empiri- cal questions: (1) What are the general contours of militancy in Pakistan? (2) What motivates individuals to join specific Pakistan-based militant outfits?

C. CHRISTINE

239

Militant Recruitment in Pakistan: Implications for Al Qaeda and Other Organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite Pakistan's extensive contribution to the global war on terrorism, many questions persist about the extent to which Al Qaeda and its associated outfits are currently operating within Pakistan. This article examines this issue by posing several empirical questions: (1) What are the general contours of militancy in Pakistan? (2) What motivates individuals to join specific Pakistan-based militant outfits? (3)

C. CHRISTINE FAIR

2004-01-01

240

Mapping vulnerability to climate change and its repercussions on human health in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Pakistan is highly vulnerable to climate change due to its geographic location, high dependence on agriculture and water resources, low adaptive capacity of its people, and weak system of emergency preparedness. This paper is the first ever attempt to rank the agro-ecological zones in Pakistan according to their vulnerability to climate change and to identify the potential health repercussions of each manifestation of climate change in the context of Pakistan. Methods A climate change vulnerability index is constructed as an un-weighted average of three sub-indices measuring (a) the ecological exposure of each region to climate change, (b) sensitivity of the population to climate change and (c) the adaptive capacity of the population inhabiting a particular region. The regions are ranked according to the value of this index and its components. Since health is one of the most important dimensions of human wellbeing, this paper also identifies the potential health repercussions of each manifestations of climate change and links it with the key manifestations of climate change in the context of Pakistan. Results The results indicate that Balochistan is the most vulnerable region with high sensitivity and low adaptive capacity followed by low-intensity Punjab (mostly consisting of South Punjab) and Cotton/Wheat Sindh. The health risks that each of these regions face depend upon the type of threat that they face from climate change. Greater incidence of flooding, which may occur due to climate variability, poses the risk of diarrhoea and gastroenteritis; skin and eye Infections; acute respiratory infections; and malaria. Exposure to drought poses the potential health risks in the form of food insecurity and malnutrition; anaemia; night blindness; and scurvy. Increases in temperature pose health risks of heat stroke; malaria; dengue; respiratory diseases; and cardiovascular diseases. Conclusion The study concludes that geographical zones that are more exposed to climate change in ecological and geographic terms- such as Balochistan, Low-Intensity Punjab, and Cotton-Wheat Sindh -also happen to be the most deprived regions in Pakistan in terms of socio-economic indicators, suggesting that the government needs to direct its efforts to the socio-economic uplift of these lagging regions to reduce their vulnerability to the adverse effects of climate change. PMID:22938568

2012-01-01

241

The recent evolution of Liligo glacier, Karakoram, Pakistan, and its present quiescent phase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liligo glacier, in the central eastern Karakoram, Pakistan, is a small, south-to-north-flowing glacier situated in a transverse valley on the left (south) side of Baltoro glacier. New processing of satellite imagery enables a better quantification of terminus oscillations over the past 30 years. From the beginning of the 1970s to the beginning of the 21st century, Liligo glacier advanced about 2 km (60 m a-1). The progress was characterized by a significant evolution of terminus morphology, similar to that observed on the same glacier during the advance event near the beginning of the 20th century, and to those of many other Karakoram glaciers. This suggests indications of a surge-type mechanism. Field observations performed in 2004 indicated there was probably no confluence at that time between Liligo and Baltoro glaciers and that a quiescent phase had started in the early years of the 21st century.

Belò, Marco; Mayer, Christoph; Smiraglia, Claudio; Tamburini, Andrea

242

Munazza's story: Understanding science teaching and conceptions of the nature of science in Pakistan through a life history study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study I have described and tried to comprehend how a female science teacher understands her practice. Additionally, I have developed some understanding of her understanding of the nature of science. While teaching science, a teacher projects messages about the nature of science that can be captured by observations and interviews. Furthermore, the manner is which a teacher conceptualizes science for teaching, at least in part, depends on personal life experiences. Hence, I have used the life history method to understand Munazza's practice. Munazza is a young female science teacher working in a private, co-educational school for children from middle income families in Karachi, Pakistan. Her stories are central to the study, and I have represented them using a number of narrative devices. I have woven in my own stories too, to illustrate my perspective as a researcher. The data includes 13 life history interviews and many informal conversations with Munazza, observations of science teaching in classes seven and eight, and interviews with other science teachers and administrative staff of the school. Munazza's personal biography and experiences of school and undergraduate courses has influenced the way she teaches. It has also influenced the way she does not teach. She was not inspired by her science teachers, so she has tried not to teach the way she was taught science. Contextual factors, her conception of preparation for teaching as preparation for subject content and the tension that she faces in balancing care and control in her classroom are some factors that influence her teaching. Munazza believes that science is a stable, superior and value-free way of knowing. In trying to understand the natural world, observations come first, which give reliable information about the world leading inductively to a "theory". Hence, she relies a great deal on demonstrations in the class where students "see" for themselves and abstract the scientific concept from the activity. I believe this inquiry is significant because it has led to a better understanding of a science teacher's practice and her conceptions of the nature of science in a school in Pakistan. Moreover, the study has utilized research methods that advocates a more equitable researcher-researched relationship.

Halai, Nelofer

243

Women's rights in Pakistan: a forensic perspective.  

PubMed

Pakistan is a large and an important West Asian country which came into being in the name of Islam and therefore Islamic tenets remain the core of its constitution. The laws of the state have to conform to Islamic law so that they can have a positive impact on the society. Unfortunately, in Pakistan today not all men enjoy the rights and facilities to which they are entitled and women are doubly disadvantaged by poverty and gender. With their own political agendas, various governments have promulgated laws which affect the society in various ways. The laws which directly influence women's rights merit mention, as women comprise more than 50% of the population of Pakistan and are still kept on the sidelines by the male dominant society. The Muslim Family Law Ordinance, 1961, and the Hudood Ordinance, 1979 were both promulgated by military dictators with different visions. The former codified the rights of women bestowed by Islamic law; the latter repealed laws for sexual offences according to the injunctions of Islam and had a negative impact. Both laws need the assistance of forensic medicine as age estimation and medical examinations are necessary if they are to be followed in the right perspective. However, a legal need for an examination by an expert in forensic medicine is sadly lacking in both laws. This has happened due to lack of training of forensic physicians and therefore a lack of research in important areas of forensic medicine in the country. This paper examines these laws and the interaction they have with forensic medicine and proposes that the laws need revision in accordance with modern science, incorporating forensic sciences as well as the injunctions of Islam. PMID:12741660

Hadi, Sibte

2003-04-01

244

Factors affecting contraceptive use in Pakistan.  

PubMed

This study postulates that contraceptive use in Pakistan is affected by the usual demographic factors as well as husband-wife communication, female autonomy, son preference, religious beliefs, and family planning service supply. Analysis is based on data obtained from the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey of 1990-91. Findings indicate that 74% of women never talked in the past year with their husbands about family planning. Almost 60% believed that family size was "up to God." About 47% knew where to obtain contraception; only 20.4% had easy access to a source of supplies. Current use was 14% and ever use was 22.4%. Analysis is based on three basic models. Model 1 includes the control variables and son preference. Model 2 includes husband-wife communication, religious attitudes, and female autonomy. Model 3 includes the addition of family planning to model 2 variables. Urban residence increases the odds of contraceptive use considerably only in Model 1. The influence of urban residence in the other models is reduced. Husband's education is significant only in Models 1 and 2 and insignificant in Model 3 when the family planning variable is included. Increased women's age is also insignificant in Model 3. Of the supply factors in Model 3, knowledge of a source and easy access to a source were highly significant, while mass media exposure was not important. Knowledge of a source was the most important predictor. Model 3 explained 90% of use. Among urban women, lack of husband-wife communication and fatalistic beliefs reduce the log-odds of contraceptive use. For rural women, age and women's secondary education were key predictors. Findings confirm that demographic and socio-cultural factors affect contraceptive use in Pakistan. All the theorized variables exerted a strong influence on contraceptive use, which can be counteracted by improved supply and service strategies. PMID:12292564

Mahmood, N; Ringheim, K

1996-01-01

245

Fissile material production potential in South Asia  

SciTech Connect

The cases of India and Pakistan show how civilian nuclear activities could potentially contribute significantly to the production of weapons-grade fissile materials. The paper estimates the amount of weapons-grade plutonium that could have been produced from unsafeguarded power reactors in India if these reactors were operated deliberately for this purpose, and the rate at which Pakistan could accumulate weapons-grade uranium if it used its stockpile of low-enriched uranium as feed material to its enrichment facilities. These estimates are not judgments of what these countries have actually done or intend to do, but are forwarded to call attention to an issue that will have to be addressed under a fissile material production cutoff in South Asia and elsewhere. The prospect of a Fissile Material Cut-off convention raises important questions about the accumulated fissile material stocks in countries which are known to have nuclear weapons capability. We look here at the cases of India and Pakistan. These two countries have followed different routes to produce fissile material: India has reprocessed spent fuel from nuclear reactors to extract plutonium, while Pakistan has relied on uranium enrichment. While there are estimates available of weapons-grade plutonium (WGPu) production in India, they have assumed that the Indian nuclear power program has made no contribution to such production. Similarly, estimates for uranium enrichment in Pakistan have focused on production of highly enriched uranium (HEU) and not examined the stockpiling of low enriched uranium (LEU) and the time it would take to turn such stockpiled material into weapons-grade material. 24 refs., 5 tabs.

Nayyar, A.H.; Toor, A.H. [Quaid-i-Azam Univ., Islamabad (Pakistan); Mian, Z. [Sustainable Development Policy Institute, Islamabad (Pakistan)

1997-01-01

246

Characterization of Mineral Ores from Northern and Northwest Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pakistan is home to many varieties of minerals, some of which make it prominent in the mineral world. The exploration of Pakistan's mineral wealth is far from complete and has rarely been conducted in the north and northwest of the country. This article presents the newest exploration and examination of minerals from an unexploited area in Pakistan. Several materials characterization techniques were carried out to examine and identify the phase and structure of the minerals, including x-ray diffraction, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. In this study, several commonly found minerals are identified, including calcite, dolomite, quartz, talc, and fluorapatite.

Iqbal, Yaseen; Leu, Lii-Cherng; Fahad, Muhammad; Ubic, Rick

2013-01-01

247

Voices of resistance: seeking shelter services in Pakistan.  

PubMed

Gender violence is a global human rights issue that presents serious risk to women in Pakistan. Multiple factors make leaving violence extremely challenging. This study examines the experiences of women who escaped violence and sought shelter services in Pakistan through an ecological lens within the social, cultural, and legal realities of Pakistan. Nineteen women residing at a private shelter were interviewed. Explored were the processes leading women to take action against violence, barriers encountered, and the consequences of the decision to go to a shelter, with a focus on the women's strengths and resilience. PMID:22807502

Critelli, Filomena M

2012-04-01

248

Sociopolitical adjustment among Afghan refugees in Pakistan.  

PubMed

Although international organizations and Pakistanis expect Afghans to act like true refugees--dependent, obedient, and grateful--Afghans consider themselves as temporary exiles who, in protest against an anti-Islamic government, found temporary refuge in Pakistan; or as soldiers in the holy wars who temporarily use their Islamic neighbor as a base before returning to fight in Afghanistan. Conforming to this concept and to these objectives, the refugees seek to preserve a certain autonomy and to lean towards forms of organization which are derived either from their traditional social structure, or as is more common now, from the ideology of the Islamic movements. One can understand that this situation may cause many misunderstandings, especially with international organizations which finance and supervise aid to the Afghan refugees in Pakistan. As for anthropologists, it is necessary to go beyond known concepts, to relativize familiar models and to act on changes which have come about in the structures and ideology of the Afghan people. PMID:12315316

Centlivres, P; Centlivres-demont, M

1987-01-01

249

Political determinants of Health: Lessons for Pakistan  

PubMed Central

There is much concern about the capacity of the health system of Pakistan to meet its goals and obligations. Historically, the political thrust has been absent from the health policy formulation and this is reflected in the low and stagnant public allocations to health. Successive political leaderships have averred from considering healthcare is a common good rather than a market commodity and health has not been recognized as a constitutional right. Over 120 of world’s nation states have accepted health as a constitutional right but the 1973 Constitution of Pakistan does not mandate health or education as a fundamental right and the recently adopted 18th constitutional amendment missed the opportunity to extend access to primary health care as an obligation of the State. It is argued in this communication that missing from the calculations of policy formulation and agenda setting is the political benefits of providing health and other social services to underserved populations. Across the developing world, many examples are presented of governments undertaking progressive health reforms that bring services where none existed and subsequently reaping electoral benefit. The political determinant of healthcare will be realized when the political leaders of poorly performing countries can be convinced that embracing distributive policies and successfully bringing healthcare to the poor can be major factors in their re-elections. PMID:24948958

Jooma, Rashid; Sabatinelli, Guido

2014-01-01

250

Indian psychiatry and research in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

In Asian culture, there is much stigmatization attached on having mental health problems and seeking help from a mental health expert. It is therefore, not surprising, that this stigmatization results in the refutation of the subsistence of a psychiatric problem in an individual and his family but also produces obstruction to help-seeking desires. To get a clear picture of the existence of psychiatric issues in the population, various research projects addressing psychiatric issues in children, women, and elderly are conducted both in Pakistan and India. A significant input has been taken from research conducted in India combating disaster management. In addition, public awareness programs are organized to provide information about common psychiatric disorders in children, adults, women, and the elderly.-Furthermore, psychiatric patients and their families are educated for the management of mental heath problems related to marriage, pregnancy, birth and hazards of smoking & substance abuse in young adults. Keeping in view the similarity in cultural background, treatment models, family structure, and psychosocial factors, collaborative research studies should be encouraged leading to improvement in psychiatric care of the patients both in India and Pakistan. PMID:21836720

Chaudhry, Haroon Rashid

2010-01-01

251

Pakistan's pattern of development and prospects.  

PubMed

This paper analyzes past and present development experiences in Pakistan, and gives indications of possible directions for future development. Since 1969 there has been an open dissatisfaction with economic management from the government, which has resulted in a drying up of private investment. However, this drawback was partly balanced by a rapid increase in income received by Pakistanis working abroad, particularly in the Middle East. There have been slight increases in growth in agriculture, industry, and in the service sector, such as banking, insurance, and shipping. The growth of per capita income, however, is constantly offset by the acceleration in population growth, which has reached 3% a year. Literacy rate is still 19% of the total population, and basic health facilities cover only 50% of the population, while potable water supply is available to 11.2% of the rural population. Possible development directions would include the denationalization of some industries, and the creation of competition between the private and public sectors, so to improve the climate for private investment. Water availability for land irrigation should be expanded, and mineral fields better surveyed and exploited. Pakistan should develop the possibility of growing trade offered by its geographical location, improve all kinds of social services, including family planning, education, and health services, and provide the means to produce energy for all the prospected programs. PMID:12261814

Baqui, M

1979-01-01

252

Priorities for toxic wastewater management in Pakistan  

SciTech Connect

This study assesses the number of industries in Pakistan, the total discharge of wastewater, the biological oxygen demand (BOD) load, and the toxicity of the wastewater. The industrial sector is a major contributor to water pollution, with high levels of BOD, heavy metals, and toxic compounds. Only 30 industries have installed water pollution control equipment, and most are working at a very low operational level. Priority industrial sectors for pollution control are medium- to large-scale textile industries and small-scale tanneries and electroplating industries. Each day the textile industries discharge about 85,000 m{sup 3} of wastewater with a high BOD, while the electroplating industries discharge about 23,000 m{sup 3} of highly toxic and hazardous wastewater. Various in-plant modifications can reduce wastewater discharges. Economic incentives, like tax rebates, subsidies, and soft loans, could be an option for motivating medium- to large-scale industries to control water pollution. Central treatment plants may be constructed for treating wastewater generated by small-scale industries. The estimated costs for the treatment of textile and electroplating wastewater are given. The legislative structure in Pakistan is insufficient for control of industrial pollution; not only do existing laws need revision, but more laws and regulations are needed to improve the state of affairs, and enforcement agencies need to be strengthened. 15 refs., 1 fig., 9 tabs.

Rahman, A. [Sustainable Development Policy Institute, Islamabad (Pakistan)

1996-12-31

253

South Campus South Campus  

E-print Network

Child Care Center UB Anderson Gallery One Martha Jackson Place ub-parking.buffalo.edu · 716-645-3943 AllenSouth Campus South Campus To Dow ntow n Cam pus Clinic Parking Zipcar space EOC M.W. Kapoor Hall

Oh, Kwang W.

254

Energy conservation and thermal comfort in buildings in northern Pakistan  

E-print Network

The Hunza Valley, a remote area of mountainous northern Pakistan, is undergoing rapid change culturally, socially, and architecturally. Many of these changes are linked to the exchange of information and commerce facilitated ...

Sullivan, Gregory Patrick

1995-01-01

255

Structural engineering for northern Pakistan : indigenous architecture and earthquake resistance  

E-print Network

In the Fall of 1993, a joint project began between architectural designers and engineers, for the design of houses in Karimabad, located in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. This thesis records the author's involvement as ...

Su, Jimmy Chi-yi

1995-01-01

256

Gift of the Indus: The Arts and Culture of Pakistan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Gift of the Indus: The Arts and Culture of Pakistan, presented by ARTSEDGE, the Kennedy Center's arts education network, introduces the arts and culture of Pakistan to young people and teenagers in the US, Pakistan, and all over the world, in the hope of fostering greater understanding. The site has three broad sections: The Nation, with information about the people and the land; Culture & Daily Life; and Arts of Pakistan, the most extensive section, encompassing music, theater, dance, and the visual arts. Video is used extensively on the site; allowing visitors to watch both folk and classical dance, see masters and students creating Arabic calligraphy, or sculptors working with wood, glass, and metal. There is also a weblog called Mehfil: A Gathering Place, a "one-year experiment in cultural conversation" constructed to allow teens to communicate while protecting their privacy.

257

Daughters of Eve : violence against women in Pakistan  

E-print Network

The purpose of this study was to conduct extensive research on domestic violence against women in Pakistan and to present the results in a comprehensive document. Some of the issues investigated through fieldwork and covered ...

Noor, Muhammad Jehanzeb, 1982-

2004-01-01

258

Integrated reservoir characterization for the Mazari oil field, Pakistan  

E-print Network

This thesis describes a field study performed on the Mazari oil field located in Sind province, Pakistan. We used an integrated reservoir characterization technique to incorporate the geological, petrophysical, and reservoir performance data...

Ashraf, Ejaz

2012-06-07

259

Beggarization: Beggary as an Organized Crime in Pakistan  

E-print Network

Abstract This research analyzes beggary as an organized crime, or beggarization, in Pakistan, focusing on economic, religious, and political trends enabling the growth of this lucrative industry. Economic factors include ...

Azam, Nadia

2011-12-12

260

Predicting impacts of climate change on medicinal asclepiads of Pakistan using Maxent modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Maximum entropy (Maxent) modeling was used to predict the potential climatic niches of three medicinally important Asclepiad species: Pentatropis spiralis, Tylophora hirsuta, and Vincetoxicum arnottianum. All three species are members of the Asclepiad plant family, yet they differ in ecological requirements, biogeographic importance, and conservation value. Occurrence data were collected from herbarium specimens held in major herbaria of Pakistan and two years (2010 and 2011) of field surveys. The Maxent model performed better than random for the three species with an average test AUC value of 0.74 for P. spiralis, 0.84 for V. arnottianum, and 0.59 for T. hirsuta. Under the future climate change scenario, the Maxent model predicted habitat gains for P. spiralis in southern Punjab and Balochistan, and loss of habitat in south-eastern Sindh. Vincetoxicum arnottianum as well as T. hirsuta would gain habitat in upper Peaks of northern parts of Pakistan. T. hirsuta is predicted to lose most of the habitats in northern Punjab and in parches from lower peaks of Galliat, Zhob, Qalat etc. The predictive modeling approach presented here may be applied to other rare Asclepiad species, especially those under constant extinction threat.

Khanum, Rizwana; Mumtaz, A. S.; Kumar, Sunil

2013-05-01

261

Contending Identities of Pakistan and The Issue of Democratic Governance  

E-print Network

to live in. The non Sindhi population have been multiplied manifold by large scale movement of industrial labour from rest of Pakistan, especially Pashtuns and Punjabis to the urban centres of Sindh. Sindh was scene of widespread language riots in 1970... s, when the government of Pakistan Peoples’ Party introduced Sindhi as compulsory language in Sindh schools.21 The language riots in Sindh in the 1970s gave spur to a new identity consciousness, the Muhajir (refugee) identity (referring...

Khan, Ijaz

2006-01-01

262

Energy geopolitics and Iran–Pakistan–India gas pipeline  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the growing energy demands in India and its neighboring countries, Iran–Pakistan–India (IPI) gas pipeline assumes special significance. Energy-deficient countries such as India, China, and Pakistan are vying to acquire gas fields in different parts of the world. This has led to two conspicuous developments: first, they are competing against each other and secondly, a situation is emerging where they

Shiv Kumar Verma

2007-01-01

263

Diseases caused by Ganoderma spp. on perennial crops in Pakistan.  

PubMed

Ganoderma applanatum (Pres. Wallr) Pat. and G. lucidum (Leyss. ex Fr.) Karst attack species of Pinus, Dalbergia, Artocarpus, Morus, Cedrus, Melia, Quercus, Populus and other trees in Pakistan causing stem, butt and root rot diseases. A research institution to manage the diseases of perennial crops in general and of trees yielding edible oil in particular such as coconut and oil palm needs to be established in Pakistan. PMID:15750743

Nasir, Nasreen

2005-01-01

264

Migration, small towns and social transformations in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper derives from a longer IIED report and describes the close relationship between migration\\/emigration and the sociology\\/ecology of the different regions of Pakistan, and poverty-related issues in these regions. It also deals with the massive migrations from India to Pakistan (at the time of partition and as a result of three wars with India), the migration from Afghanistan (as

Arif Hasan

2010-01-01

265

United States Internal Security Assistance to Pakistan1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pakistan confronts numerous domestic security challenges including jihadist extremism, Sunni-Shi'a sectarian violence, drug trafficking, illegal commodity smuggling, endemic corruption, and systemic problems with the provision of justice and law enforcement. While much has been written about US military assistance to the Government of Pakistan (GOP) and the ever-evolving political relations between the two countries, basic questions of highest policy significance

C. Christine Fair; Peter Chalk

2006-01-01

266

Solar-hydrogen energy system for Pakistan  

SciTech Connect

A solar-hydrogen energy system has been proposed for Pakistan as the best replacement for the present fossil fuel based energy system. It has been suggested to produce hydrogen via photovoltaic-electrolysis, utilizing the available non-agricultural sunny terrain in Baluchistan region. There will be a desalination plant for sea water desalination. The area under the photovoltaic panels with the availability of water would provide suitable environment for growing some cash crops. This would change the cast useless desert land into green productive farms. In order to show the quantitative benefits of the proposed system, future trends of important energy and economical parameters have been studied with and without hydrogen introduction. The following parameters have been included: population, energy demand (fossil + hydrogen), energy production (fossil + hydrogen), gross national product, fossil energy imports, world energy prices, air pollution, quality of life, environmental savings due to hydrogen introduction, savings due to the higher utilization efficiency of hydrogen, by-product credit, agricultural income, income from hydrogen sale, photovoltaic cell area, total land area, water desalination plant capacity, capital investment, operating and maintenance cost, and total income from the system. The results indicate that adopting the solar-hydrogen energy system would eliminate the import dependency of fossil fuels, increase gross product per capita, reduce pollution, improve quality of life and establish a permanent and clean energy system. The total annual expenditure on the proposed system is less than the total income from the proposed system. The availability of water, the cash crop production, electricity and hydrogen would result in rapid development of Baluchistan, the largest province of Pakistan.

Lutfi, N.

1990-01-01

267

Synergizing health and population in Pakistan.  

PubMed

The delivery of health and family planning services in Pakistan is the respective mandate of the Ministry of Health/departments of health and the Ministry of Population Welfare. This institutional separation creates issues due to marginalization of family planning and reproductive health as core health issues. The government of Pakistan has made several attempts in the past to merge both the institutional hierarchal arrangements. This study was conducted to examine if merger is a viable option and to explore a way forward to bridge the current population-health disconnect in the country. Qualitative survey methods, inclusive of review of published and grey literature, archival analysis, informant interviews and focus group discussions were used for the analysis. Findings outline both the imperatives for merging the ministries and the challenges inherent in doing so. Recommendations recognize that although not a sufficient step to improve health and population outcomes, creating synergies between the health and population sectors is an imperative. The sustainable long-term solution to the existing population-health disconnect centres on deep-rooted reform at several levels in both the institutional hierarchies, with transformation of the role of stewardship agencies and reengineering of service delivery arrangements as its hallmarks. Restructured service delivery arrangements are meant to allow the delivery of a set of MDG+ services, where family planning and reproductive health are grouped alongside and together with essential health services. The latter are envisaged to be a yardstick for public delivery of services and the basis of contractual relationships in new management arrangements, which involve a role for the private sector. The short to medium term strategies proposed in this paper centre on a range of specific collaborative measures with a view to building capacity for the broader systems transformation. Sustained political and institutional commitment will be needed to implement these recommendations. PMID:20088459

Nishtar, Sania; Amjad, Saba; Sheikh, Sobia; Ahmad, Mahbub

2009-09-01

268

Anthracobunids from the middle eocene of India and pakistan are stem perissodactyls.  

PubMed

Anthracobunidae is an Eocene family of large mammals from south Asia that is commonly considered to be part of the radiation that gave rise to elephants (proboscideans) and sea cows (sirenians). We describe a new collection of anthracobunid fossils from Middle Eocene rocks of Indo-Pakistan that more than doubles the number of known anthracobunid fossils and challenges their putative relationships, instead implying that they are stem perissodactyls. Cranial, dental, and postcranial elements allow a revision of species and the recognition of a new anthracobunid genus. Analyses of stable isotopes and long bone geometry together suggest that most anthracobunids fed on land, but spent a considerable amount of time near water. This new evidence expands our understanding of stem perissodactyl diversity and sheds new light on perissodactyl origins. PMID:25295875

Cooper, Lisa Noelle; Seiffert, Erik R; Clementz, Mark; Madar, Sandra I; Bajpai, Sunil; Hussain, S Taseer; Thewissen, J G M

2014-01-01

269

Anthracobunids from the Middle Eocene of India and Pakistan Are Stem Perissodactyls  

PubMed Central

Anthracobunidae is an Eocene family of large mammals from south Asia that is commonly considered to be part of the radiation that gave rise to elephants (proboscideans) and sea cows (sirenians). We describe a new collection of anthracobunid fossils from Middle Eocene rocks of Indo-Pakistan that more than doubles the number of known anthracobunid fossils and challenges their putative relationships, instead implying that they are stem perissodactyls. Cranial, dental, and postcranial elements allow a revision of species and the recognition of a new anthracobunid genus. Analyses of stable isotopes and long bone geometry together suggest that most anthracobunids fed on land, but spent a considerable amount of time near water. This new evidence expands our understanding of stem perissodactyl diversity and sheds new light on perissodactyl origins. PMID:25295875

Cooper, Lisa Noelle; Seiffert, Erik R.; Clementz, Mark; Madar, Sandra I.; Bajpai, Sunil; Hussain, S. Taseer; Thewissen, J. G. M.

2014-01-01

270

A Survey of Communication/Journalism Education in South Asian Universities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In South Asia (the land mass that includes Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and the island nation Sri Lanka), college-level programs in journalism and communication, which can help developing nations to promote social change and to improve societal living standards, have not progressed with media growth. The reasons for…

Vilanilam, John V.

271

Financial sector development and economic growth: The South-Asian experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates the relationship between financial sector development and economic growth for three majors South-Asian economies, namely, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. The standard Granger causality tests are employed to determine the pattern of causal linkage between various measures of financial sector development and economic growth. Also, several regression equations are estimated, using the Cobb-Douglas production function framework, in

S. M. Ahmed; M. I. Ansari

1998-01-01

272

A contemporary architectural quest and synthesis : Kamil Khan Mumtaz in Pakistan  

E-print Network

This thesis looks at an important Pakistani architect's work and philosophy as a possible direction or approach for contemporary architecture in Pakistan. Although there are more prolific builders in Pakistan, Kamil Khan ...

Ansari, Zarminae

1997-01-01

273

Interprovenance variation in the composition of Moringa oleifera oilseeds from Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interprovenance variation was examined in the composition of Moringa oleifera oilseeds from Pakistan. The hexane-extracted oil content of M. oleifera seeds harvested in the vicinity of the University of Agriculture, Faisalabad (Punjab, Pakistan), Bahauddin Zakariya University\\u000a (Multan, Pakistan), and the University of Sindh, Jamshoro (Sindh, Pakistan), ranged from 33.23 to 40.90%. Protein, fiber,\\u000a moisture, and ash contents were found to

Farooq Anwar; Muhammad Ashraf; Muhammad Iqbal Bhanger

2005-01-01

274

Pakistan: Reporting on Visa Delays That Disrupt U.S. Assistance Could Be Improved.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pakistan is a key U.S. partner in the effort to combat terrorism and violent extremism. In fiscal years 2002 through 2012, Pakistan received more than $26 billion in U.S. funding. To travel to Pakistan to implement and oversee programs, U.S. officials are...

2013-01-01

275

Measuring the Determinants of School Completion in Pakistan: Analysis of Censoring and Selection Bias  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the demand for child schooling in Pakistan, using the Pakistan Integrated Household Survey (1991). There have been few such studies for Pakistan, a country with relatively low enrollment rates and education levels, high illiteracy, and large disparity between male and female education. Additionally, this study focuses on two potential sources of bias in the estimation of the

Jessica Holmes

1999-01-01

276

The China–Pakistan–United States Strategic Triangle: From Cold War to the “War on Terrorism”  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Navy SEAL raid in Abbottabad, Pakistan, and Islamabad's subsequent turn toward China have highlighted one of the most remarkable legacies of the Cold War: the persistence of a strategic triangle composed of China, Pakistan, and the United States. Throughout much of the Cold War, China and the United States competed to keep Pakistan within their particular sphere of

Paul J. Smith

2011-01-01

277

Organizational Barriers to Technology Adoption: Evidence from Soccer-Ball Producers in Pakistan  

E-print Network

Organizational Barriers to Technology Adoption: Evidence from Soccer-Ball Producers in Pakistan of soccer-ball producers in Sialkot, Pakistan. Our research team invented a new cutting technology Hamid, who first suggested we study the soccer ball sector in Sialkot, Pakistan. All errors are ours

Qian, Ning

278

DIGITAL DIVIDE AND DIGITIZATION INITIATIVES IN PAKISTAN: A BIRD'S EYE VIEW  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of digitization in libraries of Pakistan is at a very initial stage. Pakistan is lagging behind developed countries due to many reasons such as: funding, computer illiteracy and expertise in digitization. However, some institutions like the Higher Education Commission, the Punjab University Library, the National Library of Pakistan and some private organizations are doing digitization. In social sciences,

Muhammad Ahsan

279

Frequency of poor quality of life and predictors of health related quality of life in cirrhosis at a tertiary care hospital Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Cirrhosis produces variety of symptoms which eventually lead to a negative impact on Health Related Quality of Life (HRQOL). The general aim of this study was to evaluate the magnitude of poor HRQOL and to assess factors related with HRQOL in patients with CLD in Pakistan. Findings This was a cross sectional study conducted in gastroenterology outpatient clinics of Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi on adult patients with cirrhosis. In this study chronic liver disease questionnaire (CLDQ) was used to assess HRQOL of these patients and CLDQ score was used as an outcome measure to determine factors related with HRQOL. 273 participants were recruited in the study; 155 (57%) were males. Mean age of participants was 49?±?11?years. The most common cause for cirrhosis was viral infection 247(91.5%). Mean Model for End Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score was 12.6?±?6.8 and 2/3 of patients 209 (76.6%) had advanced cirrhosis in Child Turcot Pugh (CTP) B or C stage. Poor HRQOL was seen in 187(69%; 95% C.I.: 63%, 74%) of the participants. Mean CLDQ score was 4.36 ±1.1. Amongst all of the domains, fatigue domain had lower CLDQ score. Hemoglobin (??=?0.09 [SE?=?0.04]), Albumin (??=?0.32[SE?=?0.09]), Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP) (??=?0.01[0.005) prior history of decompensation (??=?0.98[SE?=?0.39] were significant factors associated with HRQOL in patients with liver cirrhosis. Conclusion Frequency of poor health related quality of life determined by CLDQ score is high in patients with liver cirrhosis. Hemoglobin, serum albumen, prior history of decompensation (like encephalopathy and upper gastro intestinal bleed), are associated with health related quality of life. PMID:22905795

2012-01-01

280

Radiological implications of granite of northern Pakistan.  

PubMed

Granite is an igneous rock that contains natural radioactivity of primordial radionuclides. In Pakistan, granite is distributed in a vast area called the Ambela Granitic Complex (AGC) in North West Frontier Province (NWFP). Granite is a hard rock that exists in different colours and is used to decorate floors, kitchen counter tops, etc. The use of granite in a building as a decor material is a potential source of radiation dose; therefore, natural radioactivity has been measured in 20 granite samples of the AGC with an HPGe (high purity germanium) based gamma ray spectrometer. The average specific activities and their range (given in parentheses) for primordial radionuclides (40)K, (226)Ra and (232)Th were 1218 (899-1927), 659 (46-6120) and 598 (92-3214) Bq kg(-1), respectively. The measured activity concentrations were used for the assessment of hazard indices and radiation dose which were evaluated based on the permissible limits defined for these parameters. The measured specific activities and the derived quantities, hazard indices and radiation dose, have been compared with those given in the literature for these parameters. PMID:18714139

Asghar, M; Tufail, M; Sabiha-Javied; Abid, A; Waqas, M

2008-09-01

281

Violence against Children: A Challenge for Public Health in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

World Health Organization has identified violence against children as a growing public-health issue with a global magnitude. This paper explored violence against children as a challenge in the developing world using Pakistan as a case study. A systematic review of existing research and literature on violence against children was followed by assessing the magnitude of this challenge and its impact on policy. Most research done in Pakistan is observational, descriptive, and anecdotal with data collected through survey methods and interviews with small sample sizes. The findings suggest that the confluence of macro risk factors, such as poverty, poor legal protections, illiteracy, large family size, and unemployment, create an enabling environment for violence against children. Lack of empirical data makes it difficult to assess the magnitude of this issue. The health problems reported and the extent of human potential destroyed are unknown. Conclusion calls for focused research to examine the prevalence, potential interventions, and policies in Pakistan. PMID:17985818

Hyder, Adnan Ali; Malik, Fauzia Aman

2007-01-01

282

Evaluation of compliance and outcomes of a management protocol for massive postpartum hemorrhage at a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Massive postpartum hemorrhage is a life threatening obstetric emergency. In order to prevent the complications associated with this condition, an organized and step-wise management protocol should be immediately initiated. Methods An evidence based management protocol for massive postpartum hemorrhage was implemented at Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan after an audit in 2005. We sought to evaluate the compliance and outcomes associated with this management protocol 3 years after its implementation. A review of all deliveries with massive primary postpartum hemorrhage (blood loss ? 1500 ml) between January, 2008 to December, 2008 was carried out. Information regarding mortality, mode of delivery, possible cause of postpartum hemorrhage and medical or surgical intervention was collected. The estimation of blood loss was made via subjective and objective assessment. Results During 2008, massive postpartum hemorrhage occurred in 0.64% cases (26/4,052). No deaths were reported. The mean blood loss was 2431 ± 1817 ml (range: 1500 - 9000 ml). Emergency cesarean section was the most common mode of delivery (13/26; 50%) while uterine atony was the most common cause of massive postpartum hemorrhage (14/26; 54%). B-lynch suture (24%) and balloon tamponade (60%) were used more commonly as compared to our previously reported experience. Cesarean hysterectomy was performed in 3 cases (12%) for control of massive postpartum hemorrhage. More than 80% compliance was observed in 8 out of 10 steps of the management protocol. Initiation of blood transfusion at 1500 ml blood loss (89%) and overall documentation of management (92%) were favorably observed in most cases. Conclusion This report details our experience with the practical implementation of a management protocol for massive postpartum hemorrhage at a tertiary care hospital in a developing country. With the exception of arterial embolization, relatively newer, simpler and potentially safer techniques are now being employed for the management of massive postpartum hemorrhage at our institution. Particular attention should be paid to the documentation of the management steps while ensuring a stricter adherence to the formulated protocols and guidelines in order to further ameliorate patient outcomes in emergency obstetrical practice. More audits like the one we performed are important to recognize and rectify any deficiencies in obstetrical practice in developing countries. Dissemination of the same is pivotal to enable an open discourse on the improvement of existing obstetrical strategies. PMID:21489279

2011-01-01

283

Differences in household characteristics by income distribution in Pakistan.  

PubMed

The authors examine household characteristics by income distribution in Pakistan using data from the 1979 Population, Labour Force and Migration (PLM) Survey. Tabular data, organized by measures of income and expenditure, are presented on average household size, dependency ratios, average number of children and average number of adults, proportion of female household members, labor force participation rates for various ages, and occupational status of heads of households. The authors conclude that "the findings for Pakistan generally are in consonance with those for other Third World countries and confirm that certain characteristics are associated with poverty." Comments by Karol J. Krotki are also included (pp. 668-9). PMID:12340761

Kazi, S; Sathar, Z A

1985-01-01

284

Pathways of Women Prisoners to Jail in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background: The present study aimed to examine pathways to imprisonment for women in Pakistan. It was hypothesized that early life victimization in women, problematic family relationship and economical deprivation would be significantly associated with criminal activities of women prisoners. Method: To identify the pathways to prison, structured interview was devised by the researchers. Sample comprised of 114 women prisoners enlisted from KotLakhpat jail, Lahore, Pakistan. Results: Poverty, revenge, anger and lack of empowerment were significantly associated with criminal activities of women of fender. Conclusion: The umbrella of rehabilitation should also cover social and legal matters of women offenders along with tackling their psychological issues. PMID:24688950

Khalid, Adeela; Khan, Nashi

2013-01-01

285

Stroke in South Asian countries.  

PubMed

Three of the world's top 10 most populous countries are located in South Asia. The health-care problems of this region are different from those in the developed world, and the rapidly changing socioeconomic scenario, fast-increasing urbanization and longevity, changes in dietary patterns, and decrease in mortality from infectious diseases has made chronic illnesses of old age, such as coronary artery disease and stroke, an important area of focus. This article reviews stroke epidemiology and management issues in four South Asian countries: India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh. The available literature is limited and mostly hospital-based, and differing study methodologies make direct comparisons difficult. The high prevalence of traditional risk factors, including hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia and smoking, in these countries is alarming, and several nontraditional risk factors, such as water-pipe use, desi ghee, chewable tobacco, and infectious causes of stroke, are understudied. Access to tertiary stroke care is limited, and the use of tissue plasminogen activator is scarce. In addition, public and caregiver awareness of stroke risk factors and management is disappointing, and the interest of governments and policy makers in stroke is suboptimal. Interventions to reduce stroke burden and stroke-related mortality in South Asia should have a substantial impact at the global level. PMID:24514866

Wasay, Mohammad; Khatri, Ismail A; Kaul, Subhash

2014-03-01

286

Gender and livelihoods in northern Pakistan.  

PubMed

This article reports on findings from a study in 1993-94 on women and sustainable development in Hunza and Nagar districts in the Karakorum mountains of northern Pakistan. The study aims to explore the impact of development on women's work burden and sustainable use of natural resources. Local natural resource management has been a complex system of agro-pastoralist use, with poor yields. Modernization resulted in construction of the Karakorum Highway in 1978 and the Aga Khan Support Program, which mobilized the community in irrigation and agricultural projects. Village organizations were formed as a forum for community decision making and information exchange. These changes resulted in the doubling of household income during 1983-92. Agricultural productivity increased without compromising soil fertility. Livestock herds doubled during 1976-86. The road created the opportunity for new strategies for improving income. Wholesale markets became accessible. Tourism increased, the economy diversified in ways that increased women's income and control of income, and demand for education increased. Women reported that the increased demands on workload were worth the improved standard of living. Gendered work was reallocated, and division of labor changed among women of various ages. Village councils began protecting depleted forest reserves. Men collected wood on the higher slopes, according to anthropomorphic and spiritual beliefs. Women's knowledge of the environment was greater with age and specific to the tasks performed. Men and women did not have permanently fixed gender roles. Women were not exclusive managers of the environment. Women benefited the most from technology that was in their interest and not controlled by men. PMID:12289815

Joekes, S

1995-01-01

287

Comments on "Towards Balanced Development in Pakistan".  

PubMed

Critical comment on the proposal of Professor Pyatt for balanced development in Pakistan focused on broad methodological issues. Professor Pyatt's approach proposes to balance efficiency criteria with longterm objectives of sustainable economic and human development: changing asset distribution through new investment and shifting investment returns in the social sector to households. I is a systematic attempt to compensate for deficits in human development. Policies would include "tariffisation of quota allocation of goods such as water, differential pricing to protect the poor; national conservation and polluter penalties; foreign aid shift to human maintenance expenditure; and reform of fiscal policy on income and expenditure to allow for support of social objectives." Patterns of property and institutional privilege can be effectively altered through market practices, such that wage goods could be subsidized in order to increase productivity. Constructive rethinking of assumptions underlying the balanced development argument is suggested, because of Pyatt model is contrary to the Dornbusch assumptions behind structural adjustment of the standard World Bank model. The assumption in question is that nontraditional expenditure on health, education, and the environment reduces unit labor costs. Concern is also raised about the approach to "efficiency wages" and the inputs of health and education, and food and housing, which are required to supply labor. Real wages might be conceptualized as affecting labor productivity in a more dynamic way than Professor Pyatt recognized. Use of human capital would be maximized and would be equivalent to the formation of new human capital. Wages may be construed to act like internal trade, where prices and markets are effectively interchanged so that farmers receive not only agricultural products, but also essential and nonessential consumer goods. Professor Pyatt's article is relevant to any country's development planning and important because of the structural constraints that remain on development. Discussion will center on these issues when it becomes apparent that productive investment requires more than monetary stability. PMID:12345148

Fitzgerald, E V

1992-01-01

288

Phytoecological evaluation with detail floristic appraisal of the vegetation arround Malam Jabba, Swat, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the present status of plant communities and their possible association with the habitat in Malam Jabba, Swat, Pakistan. Methods A study on the phytoecology was conducted in various ecologically important sites of Malam Jabba, Swat, Pakistan from 2002 to 2004. The altitude of these sites ranged from 1?200 m to 3?200 m. Quadrat method was used for evaluation of plants communities and the data on these attributes was converted to relative values. The plant communities were named after 3 leading species with highest importance values. Biological spectrum of the flora based on the life form was prepared by following Raunkiar's life form classes. Results The floristic composition and structure of the study area were found to be 200 species belonging to 75 families. Asteraceae, Lamiaceae and Poaceae were important families in the study area. The biological spectrum showed that therophytic and hemicrytophytic life form and micro-nonophyllous leaf sizes were dominant in the area. The air and soil temperatures were decreasing with increasing elevation. Both the air and soil temperatures were relatively higher in south slopes than on the northeast slopes. The vegetation analysis of the area indicated eleven plant communities around the area. The present vegetation is the relics of moist temperate coniferous forest in the area. The communities reflect highly deteriorated conditions. Both the structure and composition of the surrounding vegetation were associated with the types of habitats. Conclusions The conservation of the remaining populations of the reported communities will be best achieved by proper time of sustainable harvesting. It is only possible with the participation of local communities. PMID:23569814

Rashid, Abdur; Swati, Mohammad Farooq; Sher, Hassan; Al-Yemeni, Mohammad N

2011-01-01

289

Exploring principal-student relationships in a private secondary school in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores principal-student relationships in a private Montessori to Secondary school in Karachi. The study was contextual which necessitated the design of the study to adopt a qualitative case study paradigm. Observation and interview were the main methods for data collection. The study analyzed the data using grounded theory development approach. The research participants included the principal of the

Gulab Khan

2005-01-01

290

Reaction of Stock Prices to Dividend Announcements and Market Efficiency in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tests the semi-strong form of market efficiency by investigating the reaction of stock prices to dividend announcements. It analyzes cash, stock, and simultaneous cash and stock dividend announcements of 79 companies listed on the Karachi Stock Exchange from July 2004 to June 2007. Abnormal returns from the market model are evaluated for statistical significance using the t-test and

Muhammad Akbar; Humayun Habib Baig

2010-01-01

291

Gender representation in the public sector schools textbooks of Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines gender biases in school textbooks after a decade long effort by the ministry of education (MoE) Pakistan and international organisation (IOs) to eliminate all forms of gender inequality in education. The intention underpinning these initiatives was to nurture a view of gender equality based consciousness through the introduction of more positive gendered images into school textbooks in

Hazir Ullah; Christine Skelton

2012-01-01

292

Were the 2010 Pakistan floods predictable? P. J. Webster,1  

E-print Network

is highly predictable out to 6­8 days including rainfall in the summer of 2010. We conclude]. The arrival of convection over the Indian subconti- nent heralds an active pluvial period. Summer rainfall in Pakistan is also monsoonal and, as such, has active and break periods. However, the total summer rainfall

Webster, Peter J.

293

Alkaloids of an Ipomoea Seed known as Kaladana in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ipomoea muricata Jacq. (Calonyction muricatum G. Don) has now been confirmed as the biological origin of the Ipomoea seed mentioned in a previous communication1. Seeds of Indian origin (obtained by courtesy of Dr O. Fervidi, Simes Servizi Scientifici, Milan), identical to those from Pakistan, showed on germination in Beirut the typical shape and size of the cotyledonary and first leaves

Charles I. Abou-Chaar

1970-01-01

294

Management of River and Reservoir Sedimentation in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water is the mainstay of Pakistan's economy for irngation, electricity generation and industrial production. The precious Mangle and Tarbele reservoirs are being silted up at the rate of 42 000 and 109 000 acre feet annually, due to faulty practices in the catchment areas. This is costing 2.3 billion rupees annually. The scientific management of these areas can reduce the

Sultan Maqsood Khan

1985-01-01

295

Few determinants of compulsive buying of youth in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumer compulsive buying has been an important area of study in consumer behavior research. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of factors like age, tendency to spend, post purchase guilt, drive to spend compulsively, feeling about shopping and spending and dysfunctional spending on compulsive buying behavior of youth in Pakistan. The primary data for this study

Salman Saleem; Rashid Salaria

2010-01-01

296

Judging democracy in Pakistan: Conflict between the executive and judiciary  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article deals with the judicialization of politics in Pakistan under the Supreme Court Chief Justice Choudhry (2009–). Confrontation between the executive and judiciary under him led to speculation about the imminent collapse of the democratic system, given the history of military take-over in the country. The use of judicial review, whereby the Court exercised the power of interpreting the

Mohammad Waseem

2012-01-01

297

Biologically active traditional medicinal herbs from Balochistan, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biological activities of the following four important medicinal plants of Balochistan, Pakistan were checked; Grewia erythraea Schwein f. (Tiliaceae), Hymenocrater sessilifolius Fisch. and C.A. Mey (Lamiaceae), Vincetoxicum stocksii Ali and Khatoon (Asclepiadaceae) and Zygophyllum fabago L. (Zygophyllaceae). The methanolic extracts were fractionated into hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, butanol and water. The antifungal and antibacterial activities of these plants were

Mudassir A. Zaidi; Sidney A. Crow

2005-01-01

298

Early Childhood Teacher Education in Pakistan: Time for Action  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a critical account of early childhood education (ECE) in Pakistan. It moves from a general review of the benefits of ECE to focus on the issues and challenges connected to the professional development of early childhood teachers. It highlights problems encountered in developing practitioners who are highly skilled in the…

Zada, Khan

2014-01-01

299

CRYPTOSPORIDIUMINFECTION IN YOUNG CHILDREN WITH DIARRHEA IN RAWALPINDI, PAKISTAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fecal excretion of Cryptosporidium parvumoocysts was determined in 625 children less than five years old who presented at the pediatric clinic of a teaching hospital in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Single stool specimens were collected from 475 children with acute diarrhea and from 150 children without diarrhea. The Cryptosporidium infec- tion rate was significantly higher in children with diarrhea than in children

JAMSHAID IQBAL; MOHAMMAD ARIF MUNIR; MUBASHIR A. KHAN

300

PASSPORTS TO PRIVILEGE: THE ENGLISH-MEDIUM SCHOOLS IN PAKISTAN  

E-print Network

to Pakistan. David D. Laitin, for instance, tells us that in Kazakhistan laws for the learning and use of the Kazakh language were enacted in 1989 but there are ‘ardent nationalists who vote to promote “their” language, yet send their children to more...

Rahman, Tariq

2005-01-01

301

Multipurpose community telecenters for rural development in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The paper aims to: assess the situation of rural population in Pakistan and information facilities available to them including telecommunications, computers and public libraries; document the community information initiatives in terms of objectives, institutional framework, staff, services, use, finance, technology and lessons learned; understand challenges and opportunities regarding the establishment of multipurpose community telecenters (MCTs) in rural areas

Khalid Mahmood

2005-01-01

302

A Regional Planning Application of Satellite Image Processing in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

For most of the city and regional planning applications, the traditional methods for the assessment of land cover\\/land use are labour-intensive, time consuming and expensive. Their credibility is often questionable especially in developing countries; (such as Pakistan), these data are quite insufficient and inconsistent. Nowadays in various parts of the world, satellite data have been successfully used for the appraisal

Mudassar Hassan Arsalan; Mohammed Raza Mehdi; Mubushar Hussain

2006-01-01

303

Report on Mammalian Fossils of Chinji Formation, Dhulian, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty mammalian fossil specimens of varying preservational state are described from the Chinji Formation of Dhulian, Pakistan. The remains desribed in this study are all teeth and represent the Proboscidea, Perissodactyla and Artiodactyla. All the dental specimens are new variants recorded here for the first time. Pliotriplopus dhulianensis is new to science having small size and absence of crista than

Muhammad Akbar Khan; Abdul Ghaffar; Farooq Zafar; Hameed Bhatti; Muhammad Akhtar

2005-01-01

304

Agricultural Use of Untreated Urban Waste water in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Untreated waste water is used for irrigation in over 80% of all Pakistani communities with a population of over 10,000 inhabitants. The absence of a suitable alternative water source, waste water’s high nutrient value, reliability, and its proximity to urban markets are the main reasons for its use. Two case studies in Pakistan studied the impact of untreated waste water

Samina Khalil; Mehmood khan kakar

2011-01-01

305

Attitudes of Health Care Providers to Induced Abortion in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Though the Penal Code of Pakistan makes provision for abortion if the life of the mother is endan- gered, yet the fact that no data is available concerning legally induced therapeutic abortion, indicates restrictive interpretation of the law by the medical profession. There is considerable difference of opinion regarding med- ical indication for termination of pregnancy among practicing gynecologists

N. Rehan

306

Qualitative Inquiry into Local Education Administration in Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The level of educational development in Pakistan is low. A decentralisation reform was introduced in 2000 to improve the delivery of basic education by designating the local government body with primary responsibility for administering it. A qualitative field study on local education administration at the North West Frontier Province found…

Komatsu, Taro

2009-01-01

307

Strategic Framework for Teacher Education and Professional Development: Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is common to find well-crafted and coherent policy designs failing to attain desired results in developing counties. Pakistan is no exception. Despite having taken a significant number of initiatives in a quest to further its Teacher Professional Development (TPD) objectives, progress remains less than satisfactory. While a number of studies…

US Agency for International Development, 2006

2006-01-01

308

Sustainable urban transport in Pakistan: threats and opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of the paper is to explore this phenomenon, how initial choice in the history of transport policy in Pakistan became “locked into” suboptimal transport policies biased towards private vehicles and roads and now resisting change to a more sustainable transport policy. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The methodology was designed by applying the concept of “path dependence” on a

Muhammad Imran; Nicholas Low

2005-01-01

309

Rethinking rural water supply policy in the Punjab, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an analysis of public policy relating to the rural water supply sector in the Punjab, Pakistan. Based on household survey data, it shows that rural water policies have not kept pace with the rapid economic development in this region and that in the absence of adequate public investment households find private sector alternatives to meet their water

Mir Anjum Altaf; Dale Whittington; Haroon Jamal; V. Kerry Smith

1993-01-01

310

REVIEW: Natural radioactivity measurements in Pakistan---an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humans have always been exposed throughout their period of existence to naturally occurring ionising radiation. Specifically, naturally occurring radionuclides are present in variable amounts in our environment. To assess radiological health hazards, naturally occurring radionuclides are being measured in soil, sand, marble, bricks etc throughout the world. In this regard, extensive data have been reported for Pakistan, which have been

Said Rahman; Munazza Faheem; Matiullah

2008-01-01

311

A socioeconomic survey of kidney vendors in Pakistan.  

PubMed

In recent years, Pakistan has emerged as one of the largest centres for commerce and tourism in renal transplantation. Kidney vendors belong to Punjab in eastern Pakistan, the agricultural heartland, where 34% people live below poverty line. We report results of a socioeconomic and health survey of 239 kidney vendors. The mean age was 33.6 +/- 7.2 years (M:F 3.5:1). Mean nephrectomy period was 4.8 +/- 2.3 years. Ninety per cent of the vendors were illiterate. Sixty-nine per cent were bonded labourers who were virtual slaves to landlords, labourers 12%, housewives 8.5% and unemployed 11%. Monthly income was $US15.4 +/- 8.9 with 2-11 dependents per family. Majority (93%), vended for debt repayment with mean debt of $1311.4 +/- 819. The mean agreed sale price was $1737 +/- 262. However, they received $1377 +/- 196 after deduction for hospital and travel expenses. Postvending 88% had no economic improvement in their lives and 98% reported deterioration in general health status. Future vending was encouraged by 35% to pay off debts and freedom from bondage. This study gives a snapshot of kidney vendors from Pakistan. These impoverished people, many in bondage, are examples of modern day slavery. They will remain exploited until law against bondage is implemented and new laws are introduced to ban commerce and transplant tourism in Pakistan. PMID:17645418

Naqvi, Syed Ali Anwar; Ali, Bux; Mazhar, Farida; Zafar, Mirza Naqi; Rizvi, Syed Adibul Hasan

2007-11-01

312

Supply, Demand, and Policy Environment for Pulses in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper fills an information gap regarding factors affecting the supply and demand of pulses in Pakistan. The short- and long-term supply elasticities were estimated using the Nerlovian partial adjustment process, while demand elasticities were estimated by applying the Deaton and Muellbauer Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS). Generally lack of technological innovation in pulses, except in mungbean, has reduced their

Mubarik Ali; Abedullah

1998-01-01

313

Technology and Distance Education: Sharing Experience in Sindh, Pakistan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Female literacy in Pakistan is among the lowest in the world. In 1981, the literacy rate was 16 percent for females, and 7.3 percent for rural women. Distance education can effect many social changes. Females would be the main beneficiaries because it is not socially acceptable for girls to leave home for education; parents do not like…

Panhwar, Farzana

314

Home Economics Curricula in Pakistan: Time for Reform?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most home economics in Pakistan focuses on women's homemaking skills (food preparation, clothing, interior design), not career orientation; it caters to upper/middle class needs and traditional roles. Rural/lower class women's needs (agricultural production, nutrition, hygiene, family planning) are not generally served. (SK)

Saeed, Fouzia; McClelland, Jerry

1991-01-01

315

The Determinants of Child Health in Pakistan: An Economic Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper estimates linear structural models using LISREL and employs MIMIC models to find out factors determining child health in Pakistan. A distinction has been made in permanent and transitory health states that lend support to Grossman's (1972) stock and flow concepts of health. The paper addresses the issue of health unobservability and…

Shehzad, Shafqat

2006-01-01

316

Standardization of pathology laboratories in Pakistan: Problems and prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Total Quality Management System with an internationally recognized accreditation process is the only guarantee of a reliable pathology service. However in a developing country like Pakistan nearly 90% of labs are small and without adequate physical and man power infrastructures. A modified plan may have to be tailored for them. A two tier system has been formulated. Accreditation based

Manzoor Ahmad; Farooq Ahmad Khan; Sadia Atif Ahmad

2009-01-01

317

Kiran Libraries for Children in Prison in Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Pakistan, there are 7,000 children in 70 jails. From observations on why children commit crime, the author offers that the core cause is poverty; 99 per cent of young prisoners belong to deprived sections of society. They do not have access to education; living in prison is difficult; the degrading and harsh treatment adversely affects the…

Shinji, Tajima

2009-01-01

318

Molecular epidemiology of Hepatitis B virus genotypes in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Eight genotypes of Hepatitis B virus designated A-H, have been known but in Pakistan, no such data is available on the prevalent HBV genotypes. Therefore, the subject study was conducted to determine HBV genotypes in the indigenous Pakistani population. METHODS: A total of 690 individuals were enrolled for HBV screening with EIA and nested PCR. Positive samples were further

Muhammad Masroor Alam; Sohail Zahoor Zaidi; Salman Akbar Malik; Shahzad Shaukat; Asif Naeem; Salmaan Sharif; Mehar Angez; Javed Aslam Butt

2007-01-01

319

Analyzing the impact of legislation on child labor in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper exploits a natural experiment approach to identify the impact of legislation (Employment of Children Act 1991) in Pakistan on participation of children in the labor markets. The law prohibits employment of children less than 14 years of age in sectors other than agriculture or household enterprises. With micro-data, making use of regression discontinuity data design, the study findssome

Tazeen Fasih

2007-01-01

320

HIV\\/AIDS in Pakistan: the battle begins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pakistan, the second most populous Muslim nation in the world, has started to finally experience and confront the HIV\\/AIDS epidemic. The country had been relatively safe from any indigenous HIV cases for around two decades, with most of the infections being attributable to deported HIV positive migrants from the Gulf States. However, the virus finally seems to have found a

Mohammad A Rai; Haider J Warraich; Syed H Ali; Vivek R Nerurkar

2007-01-01

321

South Centre  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based in Switzerland, South Centre is a multi-national organization which promotes the global organization of its 46 member nations in order to become "effective in mobilizing its considerable combined expertise and experience or its bargaining power." The site contains a large number of current working papers, South Centre's quarterly newsletter South Letter, and relevant links.

322

Pakistan embarks on new campaign to reduce fertility.  

PubMed

There was both international and domestic significance in a plea for population stabilization issued by Pakistan's Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif in his address at the recent Earth Summit conference in Rio de Janeiro. Speaking as both a national leader and chairman of the Group of 77, a coalition of developing countries, Sharif said that to eradicate the abject poverty under which more than a billion people in the world live today "developing countries must assume their full responsibility in limiting population growth to manageable levels." Those words may seem odd coming from the leader of a country that has been indifferent about population problems for the past 2 decades. Until Prime Minister Sharif made a public commitment to a population program last July, the last leader of Pakistan to take such action was the late President Ayub Khan in 1969. With an annual 3.1% growth rate, Pakistan's population of 122 million is projected to double in only 23 years. The average Pakistani woman has 6.1 children in her reproductive lifetime. Reduction of population growth was an issue in the October 1990 election campaign. After his Islamic Democratic Alliance won, the government named Syeda Abida Hussain, a prominent and popular politician, to the cabinet post of Minister of Family Welfare. Hussain, who is now Pakistan's Ambassador to the US, recalls that many experts felt that starting a population program would be "an impossible undertaking, "that" attitudes were not conducive to family planning and government would never support it." In a speech on World Population Day in Rio, organized by the Population Institute, she said she soon found that "the problems were managerial, not attitudinal." She maintained that the relatively low acceptance of contraception among the people of Pakistan, Bangladesh and India is not because of religion or ideology "but because they are too poor to have access to birth control." Shortly after Hussain was names Minister of Family Welfare, she travelled throughout Pakistan to promote a small family norm. Under the new government program, family planning services would be provided along with maternal and child health services. Meanwhile, in an address before a national population conference, Prime Minister Sharif made a strong emotional appeal for a slowdown in population growth. He directed all government ministries and departments to provide all possible support. A recent study in Pakistan showed that the lack of service delivery outlets, rather than lack of awareness of family planning, was the reason behind the weak response to earlier programs. The study further indicated that 60% of married women either do not want more children or want to delay their next birth, but only 20% have access to family planning services. 90% said their desired family size was 4 children, yet they were having 7. The shortage of family planning services is especially acute in rural areas. While 54% of the country's 35 million urban residents have access to services, only 5% of rural people do. In the past, population programs in Pakistan have been handicapped by bureaucratic red tape, inefficiency and corruption. But with the Prime Minister solidly supporting lower population growth as a key to the success of his economic initiatives, top managers of the program are optimistic that this time it will work. "Bringing down the population growth rate in Pakistan is not the world's responsibility, "says Ambassador Syeda Abida Hussain. "It is Pakistan's." PMID:12317621

1992-01-01

323

Concordance between Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL-10) and Pakistan Anxiety and Depression Questionnaire (PADQ), in a rural self-motivated population in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There have been no previous studies conducted in Pakistan comparing the concordance of any well established Western anxiety\\/depression screening instrument with an indigenous scale, in a community based setting. METHODS: Participants (n = 1040) in the present study were recruited from the six villages of our interest from the district Gujarat of Pakistan, using a convenient sampling technique. Interview

Hammad Raza Syed; Henrik Daae Zachrisson; Odd Steffen Dalgard; Ingvild Dalen; Nora Ahlberg

2008-01-01

324

Motivational determinants among physicians in Lahore, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Introduction Human resource crises in developing countries have been identified as a critical aspect of poor quality and low accessibility in health care. Worker motivation is an important facet of this issue. Specifically, motivation among physicians, who are an important bridge between health systems and patients, should be considered. This study aimed to identify the determinants of job motivation among physicians, a neglected perspective, especially in developing countries. Methods A stratified random sample of 360 physicians was selected from public primary, public secondary and public and private tertiary health facilities in the Lahore district, Pakistan. Pretested, semi-structured, self-administered questionnaires were used. For the descriptive part of this study, physicians were asked to report their 5 most important work motivators and demotivators within the context of their current jobs and in general. Responses were coded according to emergent themes and frequencies calculated. Of the 30 factors identified, 10 were classified as intrinsic, 16 as organizational and 4 as socio-cultural. Results Intrinsic and socio-cultural factors like serving people, respect and career growth were important motivators. Conversely, demotivators across setups were mostly organizational, especially in current jobs. Among these, less pay was reported the most frequently. Fewer opportunities for higher qualifications was a demotivator among primary and secondary physicians. Less personal safety and poor working conditions were important in the public sector, particularly among female physicians. Among private tertiary physicians financial incentives other than pay and good working conditions were motivators in current jobs. Socio-cultural and intrinsic factors like less personal and social time and the inability to financially support oneself and family were more important among male physicians. Conclusion Motivational determinants differed across different levels of care, sectors and genders. Nonetheless, the important motivators across setups in this study were mostly intrinsic and socio-cultural, which are difficult to affect while the demotivators were largely organizational. Many can be addressed even at the facility level such as less personal safety and poor working conditions. Thus, in resource limited settings a good strategic starting point could be small scale changes that may markedly improve physicians' motivation and subsequently the quality of health care. PMID:20618962

2010-01-01

325

doi: 10.1111/j.1469-1809.2009.00517.x Refined Geographic Distribution of the Oriental  

E-print Network

of Genetic Engineering, School of Life Sciences and Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University Institute of Urology and Transplantation (SIUT), Karachi 74200 Pakistan 7 Biomedical and Genetic Engineering

Kidd, Kenneth

326

Civil-Military Relations in "Islamic Democracies": Military Intervention & Withdrawal in Algeria, Pakistan, & Turkey .  

E-print Network

??CIVIL-MILITARY RELATIONS IN "ISLAMIC DEMOCRACIES": MILITARY INTERVENTION & WITHDRAWAL IN ALGERIA, PAKISTAN, & TURKEY Abstract by Paul Ernest Lenze, Jr., Ph.D. Washington State University May… (more)

Lenze, Jr, Paul Ernest

2011-01-01

327

Geochemistry of the Bela Ophiolite, Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Bela ophiolite complex of Balochistan, Pakistan has been the subject of several geochemical and tectonic studies in the past. However until now there has never been a combined structural, geochemical and tectonic assimilation study which adequately explains the observed geochemistry and structural geology in a global tectonic framework. Here we present the geochemical findings of our work. The Bela ophiolite complex consists of two major units: the basal section or Lower Unit, and the Upper Unit, between the two is a mélange zone. The Lower Unit is relatively homogeneous and consists almost entirely of flow basalts and pillow basalts. The base of the Upper Unit is the metamorphic sole which is overlain by a sequence of massive basalts flows and intrusions of gabbro and granites. The entire Upper Unit is cut by doleritic dykes and sills. Geochemically the Lower Unit is comprised of basaltic lavas with E-MORB affinities. These lavas are tholeiitic, low-K series lavas with trace element signatures of E-type MORB. For example ratios such as V/Ti, Zr/Y, Nb/Th, Th/La and Nb/U all suggest these lavas are E-MORB. Previous workers have suggested these lavas are back-arc basin (BAB) however the samples lack the characteristic signatures of subduction modified MORB. This conclusion is supported by chondrite and N-MORB normalized spider diagrams where the Lower Unit lavas are enriched in the LILE with respect to the HFSE. The Upper Unit of the Bela Ophiolite sequence has a slightly more complex history. The older lavas sequences, the massive basalt flows, gabbros and granites, all formed in an oceanic arc environment. These lavas exhibit classic arc signatures such as a negative Nb and Ti anomalies, are enriched in LILE and LREE relative to HSFE, and plot in the volcanic arc and island arc fields in classic ternary plots such as 2Nb- Zr/4-Y and Y/15-La/10-Nb/8. The younger sequence of intrusions found in the Bela ophiolite appear to have BAB signatures. These lavas have relatively flat MORB normalized plots, are slightly depleted in the LILE relative the HFSE, and have a very small negative Nb anomaly. Source characteristics for both units have been determined using trace element data. This work suggests that the E-MORB lavas are derived from partial melting of enriched mantle. The lavas found in the Upper Unit have all been sourced from depleted or N-MORB mantle which has been modified by subducting fluids. It is possible that the younger BAB samples have a slightly more enriched source than the corresponding arc lavas which might indicate movement of the subduction zone allowing the influx of new mantle material below the wedge. In conclusion, our new geochemical work shows that the Bela ophiolite contains three distinct magmatic sequences: a lower E-MORB sequence over lain by a series of volcanic arc lavas which are cut by BAB-type sills and dykes.

Khan, M.; Nicholson, K. N.; Mahmood, K.

2008-12-01

328

Brain Drain of Doctors; Causes and Consequences in Pakistan  

E-print Network

Abstract—Pakistani doctors (MBBS) are emigrating towards developed countries for professional adjustments. This study aims to highlight causes and consequences of doctors ’ brain drain from Pakistan. Primary data was collected from Mayo Hospital, Lahore by interviewing doctors (n=100) through systematic random sampling technique. It found that various socio-economic and political conditions are working as push and pull factors for brain drain of doctors in Pakistan. Majority of doctors (83%) declared poor remunerations and professional infrastructure of health department as push factor of doctors ’ brain drain. 81 % claimed that continuous instability in political situation and threats of terrorism are responsible for emigration of doctors. 84 % respondents considered fewer opportunities of further studies responsible for their emigration. Brain drain of doctors is affecting health sector’s policies / programs, standard doctor-patient ratios and quality of health services badly.

Muhammad Wajid Tahir; Rubina Kauser; Majid Ali Tahir

329

Suicide and attempted suicide trends in Mianwali, Pakistan: social perspective.  

PubMed

This study aimed to examine the epidemiology and potential causes of suicides and attempted suicide cases that were reported to Rescue 1122 Mianwali in Pakistan. The data were collected prospectively for 2011. One hundred and eight suicides were reported during the study period. Four (4%) victims were found dead at the scene and 104 (96%) were taken to hospital. There were 84(78%) men and 24(22%) women and 98 (90%) were aged 11-30 years. Toxic substances (36%), pesticides (31%) and drug overdose (11%) were the most common materials/methods used. Depression/mental illness (33%), socioeconomic conditions (24%) and unemployment (21%) were the major reasons for attempting suicide. Suicide is a sensitive and multifaceted problem that needs to be addressed in Pakistan. PMID:24995732

Tahir, M N; Akbar, A H; Naseer, R; Khan, Q O; Khan, F; Yaqub, I

2014-01-01

330

Community participation eludes Pakistan's maternal, newborn and child health programme.  

PubMed

This study looked at the comprehensiveness of the primary health care approach being applied in Pakistan's National Maternal, Newborn and Child Health (MNCH) Programme launched in 2005. The methods included a review of the programme's guideline documents, in-depth interviews with managers/advisors and focus group discussions with community groups and service providers. The MNCH Programme is applying a selective primary care model. Programme advisors and managers were concerned about the quality of training, political interference and incomplete implementation. Service providers were not working together as envisioned. Community midwives complained about the community's perceptions of them. Community members were unaware of MNCH Programme implementation in their areas. Pakistan's primary health care programme needs to be reviewed and revised according current thinking on community participation and inter-sectoral collaboration to accelerate progress towards achievement of Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5. PMID:24932928

Akhtar, T; Khan, Z; Raoof, S

2014-01-01

331

Ecology of rhesus macaques ( Macaca mulatta ) in northwest Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feeding ecology of rhesus monkeys,Macaca mulatta, was studied between 1978 and 1981. The study site, located in the Murree Hills of northwestern Pakistan, supported a mixed\\u000a coniferous-deciduous forest community and was characterized by a high degree of human disturbance. We used a linear transect\\u000a method to sample the species composition and structure of the vegetation. Comparison of these data

S. J. Goldstein; A. F. Richard

1989-01-01

332

Active wrench faults of Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung  Auf einer beigegebenen Karte wird der Verlauf von aktiven und von vermutlichen Hauptverwerfungen in Afghanistan, Pakistan und im Iran gezeigt, wie er anhand von Luftbild-Mosaikkarten und Luftaufnahmen bestimmt wurde. Die fünf wichtigsten aktiven Dislokationen sind die Herat-, Chaman-, Sharud-, Doruneh- und die Zagros-Verwerfung.Die deutlich sichtbare Herat-Verwerfung erstreckt sich in ENE-Richtung über 800 km durch den Nordteil Afghanistans zur chinesischen Grenze.

H. W. Wellman

1966-01-01

333

Acreage response in Pakistan: a co-integration approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper seeks to quantify the acreage responses of wheat, cotton, sugarcane and rice in Pakistan using co-integration techniques and impulse response analysis. Results indicate that acreages of wheat and basmati rice do not respond significantly to shocks in own-price while cotton, sugarcane and high yielding variety (HYV) rice do, and that long-run equilibrium is re-established after about 4 years.

Khalid Mushtaq; P. J Dawson

2002-01-01

334

Sex-Trait Stereotypes in India and Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sex-trait stereotypes are defined as the psychological characteristics differentially ascribed to women and to men. These stereotypes were studied among five- and eight-year-old children and among university students in India and Pakistan. Results were generally congruent with the findings from similar studies in Western countries; for example, in both countries, traits associated with men were stronger and more active than

John E. Williamsa; Deborah L. Best; Abdul Haque; Janak Pandey; Ravi Kumar Verma

1982-01-01

335

Existence of a J-Curve-The Case of Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper an attempt has been made to identify J-curve phenomenon for Pakistan vis-à-vis her ten major trading partners by employing disaggregated quarterly data from 1972-I to 2003-IV. Results from the study support the traditional view that devaluation leads to improvement in trade balance; but due to a very rapid impact of devaluation on trade balance we fail to

Abid Hameed; Shehla Kanwal

2009-01-01

336

Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication - Pakistan, January 2012-September 2013.  

PubMed

Pakistan is one of three countries where transmission of indigenous wild poliovirus (WPV) has never been interrupted. This report describes polio eradication activities and progress in Pakistan during January 2012-September 2013 and updates previous reports. During 2012, 58 WPV cases were reported in selected areas, compared with 198 cases throughout the country in 2011; 52 WPV cases were reported during January-September 2013, compared with 54 cases during the same period in 2012. Of the 110 WPV cases reported since January 2012, 92 cases (84%) occurred in the conflict-affected Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) and in security-compromised Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) Province. WPV type 3 (WPV3) was isolated from only three persons with polio in a single district in 2012; the most recent case occurred in April 2012. During August 2012-September 2013, 52 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) cases were detected, including 30 cases (58%) identified in FATA during January-September 2013. Approximately 350,000 children in certain districts of FATA have not received polio vaccine during supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) conducted since mid-2012 because local authorities have banned polio vaccination. In some other areas of Pakistan, SIAs have been compromised by attacks targeting polio workers that started in mid-2012. Further efforts to reach children in conflict-affected and security-compromised areas, including vaccinating at transit points and conducting additional short-interval-additional-dose (SIAD) SIAs as areas become accessible, will be necessary to prevent reintroduction of WPV into other areas of Pakistan and other parts of the world. PMID:24257203

2013-11-22

337

Prevalence and distribution of human Plasmodium infection in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Both Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum are prevalent in Pakistan, yet up-to-date data on the epidemiology of malaria in Pakistan are not available. This study was undertaken to determine the current prevalence and distribution of Plasmodium species across the country. Methods A malariometric population survey was conducted in 2011 using blood samples collected from 801 febrile patients of all ages in four provinces and the capital city of Islamabad. Microscopically confirmed Plasmodium-positive blood samples were reconfirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Confirmed parasite-positive samples were subjected to species-specific PCR capable of detecting four species of human malaria. Results Of the 707 PCR-positive samples, 128 (18%) were P. falciparum, 536 (76%) were P. vivax, and 43 (6%) were mixed P. falciparum and P. vivax. Ninety-four microscopy-positive samples were PCR-negative, and Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium ovale were not detected. Prevalence of P. vivax ranged from 2.4% in Punjab Province to 10.8% in Sindh Province and prevalence of P. falciparum ranged from 0.1% in Islamabad to 3.8% in Balochistan. Conclusions Plasmodium infections in Pakistan are largely attributed to P. vivax but P. falciparum and mixed species infections are also prevalent. In addition, regional variation in the prevalence and species composition of malaria is high. PMID:23984968

2013-01-01

338

Genetic analysis of peste des petits ruminants virus from Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an endemic and highly contagious disease in small ruminants of Pakistan. Despite the fact that an effective vaccine is available, outbreaks are regularly occurring in the country. Thus so far, the diagnosis has primarily been made based on clinical outcome or serology. This study was carried out to characterize PPRV from an emerging wave of outbreaks from Punjab, Pakistan. Results A total of 32 blood samples from five different flocks were tested with real-time PCR for the presence of PPRV genome. The samples detected positive in real-time PCR (n?=?17) were subjected to conventional PCR for the amplification of the nucleoprotein (N) gene. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequenced N genes (n?=?8) indicated the grouping of all the sequences in lineage IV along with PPRV strains from Asian and Middle East. However, interestingly sequences were divided into two groups. One group of viruses (n?=?7) clustered with previously characterized Pakistani isolates whereas one strain of PPRV was distinct and clustered with Saudi Arabian and Iranian strains of PPRV. Conclusions Results demonstrated in this study expanded the information on the genetic nature of different PPRV population circulating in small ruminants. Such information is essential to understand genetic nature of PPRV strains throughout the country. Proper understanding of these viruses will help to devise control strategies in PPRV endemic countries such as Pakistan. PMID:23537146

2013-01-01

339

Coal briquetting in Pakistan: A market and business assessment  

SciTech Connect

Our objectives are to evaluate the potential financial success of an unsubsidized, private sector coal briquetting venture in Pakistan, based on financial competitiveness in market niches, market size, and consumer acceptance; to examine private sector interest and potential business arrangements; to examine potential effects of government policies on such an undertaking; and to make recommendations to the private sector, USAID, and the Government of Pakistan on further work. Our results show that coal briquettes potentially can compete against firewood in some markets, particularly in certain urban areas of Punjab and most urban markets of the NWFP. Salt Range or Makerwal coal would be used for these briquettes. Coal briquettes will also compete against charcoal and kerosene in many areas of Pakistan. The most promising briquette is a coal/biomass mixture not requiring carbonization. A limited opportunity may also exist for a carbonized briquette using Makerwal coal. Smoky briquettes for space heating also are competitive in certain areas, but market size is limiting. The total penetrable residential market for coal briquettes in the Punjab and NWFP of 440,000 to 545,000 tonnes of briquettes per year replacing firewood is sufficiently large to support one or more plants of 50,000 tonnes per year. Charcoal, kerosene, and commercial uses of briquettes could add to this market. 9 refs., 20 figs., 39 tabs.

Stevenson, G.G.; Willson, T.D.

1988-04-01

340

Privatisation in reproductive health services in Pakistan: three case studies.  

PubMed

Privatisation in Pakistan's health sector was part of the Structural Adjustment Programme that started in 1998 following the country's acute foreign exchange crisis. This paper examines three examples of privatisation which have taken place in service delivery, management and capacity-building functions in the health sector: 1) large-scale contracting out of publicly-funded health services to private, not-for-profit organisations; 2) social marketing/franchising networks providing reproductive health services; and 3) a public-private partnership involving a consortium of private players and the government of Pakistan. It assesses the extent to which these initiatives have contributed to promoting equitable access to good quality, comprehensive reproductive health services. The paper concludes that these forms of privatisation in Pakistan's health sector have at best made available a limited range of fragmented reproductive health services, often of sub-optimal quality, to a fraction of the population, with poor returns in terms of health and survival, especially for women. This analysis has exposed a deep-rooted malaise within the health system as an important contributor to this situation. Sustained investment in health system strengthening is called for, where resources from both public and private sectors are channelled towards achieving health equity, under the stewardship of the state and with active participation by and accountability to members of civil society. PMID:21111347

Ravindran, T K Sundari

2010-11-01

341

On the fog variability over south Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An increasing trend in fog frequencies over south Asia during winter in the last few decades has resulted in large economical losses and has caused substantial difficulties in the daily lives of people. In order to better understand the fog phenomenon, we investigated the climatology, inter-annual variability and trends in the fog occurrence from 1976 to 2010 using observational data from 82 stations, well distributed over India and Pakistan. Fog blankets large area from Pakistan to Bangladesh across north India from west to east running almost parallel to south of the Himalayas. An EOF analysis revealed that the fog variability over the whole region is coupled and therefore must be governed by some large scale phenomenon on the inter-annual time scale. Significant positive trends were found in the fog frequency but this increase is not gradual, as with the humidity, but comprises of two distinct regimes shifts, in 1990 and 1998, with respect to both mean and variance. The fog is also detected in ERA-Interim 3 hourly, surface and model level forecast data when using the concept of "cross-over temperature" combined with boundary layer stability. This fog index is able to reproduce the regime shift around 1998 and shows that the method can be applied to analyze fog over south Asia. The inter-annual variability seems to be associated with the wave train originating from the North Atlantic in the upper troposphere that when causing higher pressure over the region results in an increased boundary layer stability and surface-near relative humidity. The trend and shifts in the fog occurrence seems to be associated with the gradual increasing trend in relative humidity from 1990 onwards.

Syed, F. S.; Körnich, H.; Tjernström, M.

2012-12-01

342

On the fog variability over south Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An increasing trend in fog frequencies over south Asia during winter in the last few decades has resulted in large economical losses and has caused substantial difficulties in the daily lives of people. In order to better understand the fog phenomenon, we investigated the climatology, inter-annual variability and trends in the fog occurrence from 1976 to 2010 using observational data from 82 stations, well distributed over India and Pakistan. Fog blankets large area from Pakistan to Bangladesh across north India from west to east running almost parallel to south of the Himalayas. An EOF analysis revealed that the fog variability over the whole region is coupled and must therefore be governed by some large scale phenomenon on the inter-annual time scale. Significant trends were found in the fog frequencies and this increase is not gradual, as seen in the humidity, but shows two distinct regimes shifts in 1990 and 1998 with respect to both mean and variance. The fog is also detected in ERA-Interim 3 hourly, surface and model level forecast data when using the concept of "cross-over temperature" combined with boundary layer stability. This detected fog index is able to reproduce the regime shift around 1998 and shows that the method can be applied to detect fog over south Asia. The inter-annual variability seems to be associated with the wave train originating from north Atlantic in the upper atmosphere that causes higher pressure over the region,resulting in increased boundary layer stability and surface-near relative humidity. The trend and shifts in the fog occurrence seems to be associated with the gradual increasing trend in relative humidity from 1990 onwards.

Syed, F. S.; Körnich, H.; Tjernström, M.

2012-04-01

343

Supporting Innovations in Education: Preparing Administrators, Supervisors and Other Key Personnel. Report of a Technical Working Group Meeting (Seoul, South Korea, September 29-October 11, 1980).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eleven countries (Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, South Korea, Sri Lanka, and Thailand) participated in a 1980 meeting on methods of training educational administrators and supervisors to be supportive of educational innovation. This report summarizes the proceedings of that meeting and the…

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

344

Geological investigations at a high altitude, remote coal mine on the Northwest Pakistan and Afghanistan frontier, Karakoram Himalaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Northwest Pakistan and Afghanistan frontier is located one of the most remote, inaccessible, and inhospitable part of the Himalayan orogenic belt. In this region, two of the world's largest and most distinct mountain belts intersect; the Karakoram Himalaya (mainly in Pakistan) and the Hindu Kush (mainly in Afghanistan). Located at high altitude, in a remote part of Northwest Pakistan,

Laurance J. Donnelly

2004-01-01

345

Climate change and managing water crisis: Pakistan's perspective.  

PubMed

Climate change is a global phenomenon manifested mainly through global warming. The International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has reported its negative consequences on natural resources, anthropogenic activities, and natural disasters. The El Nino and La Nina have affected hydrologic regimes and ecosystems. It has been observed that the average temperature in 1995 was 0.4°C higher than that in 1895. By the end of the 21st century, 10% of the area of Bangladesh is likely to be submerged by the sea. Most of the islands of Pacific Ocean will disappear. A major part of Maldives will be submerged. The sea level is expected to rise by 30-150 cm. Extreme events such as floods, cyclones, tsunamis, and droughts have become regular phenomena in many parts of the world. Other adverse impacts are proliferation of water-borne diseases, sea water intrusion, salinization of coastal areas, loss of biodiversity, eco-degradation of watersheds and global glacial decline, and haphazard snow melts/thaws. In turn, these factors have serious effect on water resources. Pakistan is confronting similar climate change. Meteorological data reveal that winter temperatures are rising and summers are getting cooler. Temperature is expected to increase by 0.9°C and 1.5°C by years 2020 and 2050, respectively. Water resources in Pakistan are affected by climate change as it impacts the behavior of glaciers, rainfall patterns, greenhouse gas emissions, recurrence of extreme events such as floods and droughts. Severe floods have occurred in the years 1950, 1956, 1957, 1973, 1976, 1978, 1988, 1992, 2010, 2011, and 2012. Pakistan has faced the worst-ever droughts during the period from 1998 to 2004. Pakistan has surface water potential of 140 million acre feet (MAF) and underground water reserve of 56 MAF. It is one of the most water-stressed countries in the world. The per capita annual availability of water has reduced from 5140 m3 in 1950 to 1000 m3 now. It is fast approaching towards water scarcity. To minimize adverse impacts of climate change on the water crisis in Pakistan, the preparation of integrated national, provincial, and local level master plans encompassing technical, social, environmental, administrative, and financial considerations is necessary. It is imperative to implement two simultaneous approaches of adaptation (living with climate change) and mitigation (addressing negativities of climate change). Salient features are integrated management of watersheds/catchments/water bodies, optimum exploitation of present sources, development of new sources, water conservation, adequate drainage, efficient design of water storage, conveyance, distribution and supply systems, utilization of waste water, and regulation of water quality. PMID:24695031

Hussain, Mumtaz; Mumtaz, Saniea

2014-01-01

346

Smokeless tobacco consumption in a multi-ethnic community in Pakistan: a cross-sectional study.  

PubMed

Smokeless tobacco is commonly used in south Asia. In addition to causing oral and pharyngeal cancers, its harmful effects are comparable to smoking tobacco. A cross-sectional survey with systematic sampling was conducted in 2010-2011 to investigate smokeless tobacco use in a multi-ethnic, semi-urban population in Islamabad, Pakistan (n = 2030). The prevalence of smokeless tobacco use was 16.0% (21.6% among males and 8.8% among females); 51.7% of smokeless tobacco users were also cigarette smokers. The rate of smokeless tobacco use was comparatively high among Pakhtun males (38.2%) and Sindhi females (22.4%). The associations between smokeless tobacco use and ethnicity, age group, income level and cigarette smoking were statistically significant among male smokeless tobacco users. Of the sample 41.4% (840/2030) had inadequate knowledge about the health problems associated with smokeless tobacco. Appropriate interventions are needed to raise awareness of the health risks and to prevent smokeless tobacco use. PMID:24960515

Abbas, S M; Alam, A Y; Usman, M; Siddiqi, K

2014-06-01

347

Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/18: Maritime Cooperation Between India and Pakistan: Building Confidence at Sea  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses ways in which the navies of both India and Pakistan can cooperate on issues of maritime and naval significance. Although the militaries and navies of the two countries have traditionally seen each other as rivals, international economic developments make cooperation imperative. South Asia requires an approach that can alter the existing hostile images and perceptions. This can be achieved through developing an incremental approach towards confidence building that would allow consistency and help build confidence gradually. The aim is to make confidence building a sustainable activity that would help transform hostile images and build cooperative and nonhostile relationships. This paper proposes a five-step model to suggest what the two navies can do jointly to build confidence, with the ultimate goal of naval arms control. The steps include (1) the Signaling Stage to initiate communication between the two navies, (2) the Warming-Up Stage to build confidence through nonmilitary joint ventures, (3) the Handshake Stage to build confidence between the two navies through military joint ventures, (4) the Problem-Solving Stage to resolve outstanding disputes, and (5) the Final Nod Stage to initiate naval arms control. This model would employ communication, navigation, and remote sensing technologies to achieve success.

SIDDIQA-AGHA,AYESHA

2000-11-01

348

IMPACT OF RESOURCE CONSERVATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR SUSTAINABILITY OF IRRIGATED AGRICULTURE IN PUNJAB-PAKISTAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pakistan is rightly proclaimed as an agricultural country. Agriculture is the largest commodity producing sector and mainstay of the country's economy. Wheat as a main staple food crop of Pakistan is grown on about 8 million hectares every year. It is a Rabi (winter) crop and replaces rice and cotton in rice-wheat and cotton-wheat systems, respectively. Rice and cotton is

Muhammad Rafiq Akhtar

2006-01-01

349

University of Cambridge scholarships awarded to learners in Pakistan and India  

E-print Network

University of Cambridge scholarships awarded to learners in Pakistan and India 24 April 2012 We in India and Pakistan who have received an offer of a place at the University. The scholarships were for students in India - Miss Payoshaa Shah (Prabhavati Padamshi Soni International Junior College, Mumbai) has

Travis, Adrian

350

Economic assessment of the impact of climate change on the agriculture of Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate Change in Pakistan among others manifests itself in temperature increases, rainfall reduction in the arid plains and increases in the monsoon areas and last but not least, accelerated glacial melt. All these and other developments call for a deeper insight into the effects Recent Climate Change - or Weather Change has had on Pakistan in the course of the

Mirza Nomman Ahmed; Michael Schmitz

2011-01-01

351

Hepatitis C virus genotype 3a with phylogenetically distinct origin is circulating in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the leading causes of viral hepatitis worldwide and its genotype 3a is predominant in vast areas of Pakistan. FINDINGS: The present study reports the first full sequence of HCV 3a isolate PK-1 from Pakistan. This nucleotide sequence was compared with six other HCV genotype 3a full length sequences from different regions of

Irshad-ur Rehman; Muhammad Idrees; Muhammad Ali; Liaqat Ali; Sadia Butt; Abrar Hussain; Haji Akbar; Samia Afzal

2011-01-01

352

Multiscale analysis of three consecutive years of anomalous flooding in Pakistan  

E-print Network

Multiscale analysis of three consecutive years of anomalous flooding in Pakistan By K. L. Rasmussen investigation into three years of anomalous floods in Pakistan provides insight into their formation, unifying three floods existed from planetary and large- scale synoptic conditions down to the mesoscale storm

Houze Jr., Robert A.

353

Research Output from Pakistan This analysis takes into account the Publications from Pakistani Universities,  

E-print Network

of Nuclear Science & Technology 106 171 2. Pakistan Council for Scientific & Industrial Research 38 110 3Research Output from Pakistan This analysis takes into account the Publications from Pakistani University 20 29 20. Lahore University of Management Sciences 19 27 21. University of Veterinary & Animal

Siddiqi, Sajjad Ahmed

354

Comparison of Seroepidemiology and Transmission Modes of Viral Hepatitis B in Iran and Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is endemic in the Middle East region and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Strict strategies are needed for prevention, diagnosis and management of HBV infection. Reviewing literature about seroepidemilogy and modes of infection transmission in Iran and Pakistan performed. Iran is in low endemicity and Pakistan in intermediate endemicity of HBV infection, now.

Seyed-M Moayed Alavian; Farahnaz Fallahian; Kamran Bagheri Lankarani

355

Technocratic Solutions versus Political Realities: Implementing Governance Reforms in the Balochistan Province of Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Almost immediately after taking power in 1999, Pakistan's fourth military regime articulated a seven point agenda that in large measure entailed governance policy shifts – the key being decentralization of powers and democratic local governance. Pakistan's Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) articulated these goals in the pro-poor growth framework. The international aid community favoured this reform climate and the Asian

Raza Ahmad; Syed A. A. Akif

2007-01-01

356

Responding to HIV service needs of injecting drug users in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drug abuse is increasingly becoming a major social and public health problem in Pakistan, specially injecting drug use. Poverty and geographical location of Pakistan also makes the country most vulnerable. However, it is often overshadowed by other issues the country is facing. Until the mid-1990s popular mode of taking drugs was inhalation. Due to the heroin supply disruptions and many

T. Hussain

2008-01-01

357

Money Supply, Food Prices and Manufactured Product Prices: A Causality Analysis for Pakistan Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This pioneer research for Pakistan uses monthly time series data for the period of 1997-1 to 2008-4 to determine the causal relationship between the money supply, food prices and manufactured product prices in developing country like Pakistan. Empirical analysis is performed by using the ARDL and Toda Yamamoto causality test. The results show that the bidirectional causality between the food

Qazi Muhammad Adnan Hye; Asghar Ali

2009-01-01

358

How learning and teaching of mathematics can be made interesting: a study based on statistical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we evaluate the true proportion of mathematics educators and teachers at under\\/post graduate levels in Karachi, Pakistan in making math courses lively to students. We use a random sample of 75 students of engineering and commerce studying in three different universities namely University of Karachi, Usman Institute of Technology (UIT) and Karachi Institute of Economics & Technology

Sarwar J. Abbasi; Kahkashan Iqbal

2009-01-01

359

Forecasting Extreme Flooding in South Asia (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In most years there is extensive flooding across India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. On average, 40 million people are displaced by floods in India and half that many again in Bangladesh. Occasionally, even more extensive and severe flooding occurs across South Asia. In 2007 and 2008 the Brahmaputra flooded three times causing severe disruption of commerce, agriculture and life in general. Systems set up by an international collaboration predicted these Bangladesh floods with an operational system at the 10 and 15-day horizon. These forecasts determined the risk of flooding and allowed the Bangladeshis in peril to prepare, harvesting crops and storing of household and agricultural assets. Savings in increments of annual income resulted form the forecasts. In July and August 2010, severe flooding occurred in Pakistan causing horrendous damage and loss of life. But these floods were also predictable at the 10-day time scale if the same forecasting system developed for Bangladesh had been implemented. Similar systems could be implemented in India but would require local cooperation. We describe the manner in which quantified probabilistic precipitation forecasts, coupled with hydrological models can provide useful and timely extended warnings of flooding.

Webster, P. J.

2010-12-01

360

Critical appraisal of apparently evidence-based written advertising in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives The objective of the study was to critically assess references cited in support of claims in drug advertisements. Methods Drug advertising brochures were collected from privately practicing General Practitioners from different parts of Karachi.\\u000a Three blinded reviewers then categorized each reference in the brochure according to the sources viz: journals (both Medline\\u000a indexed and non-indexed), medical reference books, web

Dileep Kumar Rohra; Muhammad Umair Bashir; Ummey Aymen Khwaja; Muhammad Ressam Nazir

2008-01-01

361

Aid and stability in Pakistan: lessons from the 2005 earthquake response.  

PubMed

United States foreign assistance to Pakistan has always been driven by security considerations. By 2010, US counter-terrorism and stabilisation objectives resulted in Pakistan becoming the second largest recipient of US foreign aid globally. Given the policy impact of the assumption that aid promotes US security objectives in Pakistan, there is surprisingly little analysis or evidence of its effectiveness in this regard. This paper helps to address this gap by first reviewing the history and assumptions underpinning current US aid and stabilisation policies. It then uses field research on the 2005 earthquake relief efforts in northern Pakistan to assess the impact of the 'War on Terror' on the humanitarian response. In particular, it examines the assumption of influential US policymakers that humanitarian aid following the earthquake was an effective way to promote US security objectives by 'winning hearts and minds'-an assumption that has been used to justify all subsequent major US foreign aid commitments to Pakistan. PMID:20846352

Wilder, Andrew

2010-10-01

362

A question mark on zinc deficiency in 185 million people in Pakistan--possible way out.  

PubMed

This paper reviews research published in recent years concerning the effects of zinc deficiency, its consequences, and possible solutions. Zinc is an essential trace element necessary for over 300 zinc metalloenzymes and required for normal nucleic acid, protein, and membrane metabolism. Zinc deficiency is one of the ten biggest factors contributing to burden of disease in developing countries. Populations in South Asia, South East Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa are at greatest risk of zinc deficiency. Zinc intakes are inadequate for about a third of the population and stunting affects 40% of preschool children. In Pakistan, zinc deficiency is an emerging health problem as about 20.6% children are found in the levels of zinc, below 60 ?g/dL. Signs and symptoms caused by zinc deficiency are poor appetite, weight loss, and poor growth in childhood, delayed healing of wounds, taste abnormalities, and mental lethargy. As body stores of zinc decline, these symptoms worsen and are accompanied by diarrhea, recurrent infection, and dermatitis. Daily zinc requirements for an adult are 12-16 mg/day. Iron, calcium and phytates inhibit the absorption of zinc therefore simultaneous administration should not be prescribed. Zinc deficiency and its effects are well known but the ways it can help in treatment of different diseases is yet to be discovered. Improving zinc intakes through dietary improvements is a complex task that requires considerable time and effort. The use of zinc supplements, dietary modification, and fortifying foods with zinc are the best techniques to combat its deficiency. PMID:24499152

Khalid, Nauman; Ahmed, Anwaar; Bhatti, Muhammad Shahbaz; Randhawa, Muhammad Atif; Ahmad, Asif; Rafaqat, Rabab

2014-01-01

363

Complementary feeding practices in South Asia: analyses of recent national survey data by the South Asia Infant Feeding Research Network.  

PubMed

South Asian region has the highest global burden of child undernutrition, with almost 41% of children stunted, 16% wasted and 33% underweight. Improved feeding of children less than 2 years of age is particularly important because they experience rapid growth and development, and are vulnerable to illnesses such as acute respiratory infections and diarrhoeal diseases. The present supplement aimed to describe complementary feeding practices in five South Asian countries - Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka - using the new and updated global complementary feeding indicators and to identify determinants of inappropriate complementary feeding practices. The South Asia Infant Feeding Research Network held a series of workshops to study and discuss the operational guidelines for the new complementary feeding indicators in consultation with regional and international experts. The latest Demographic and Health Surveys for Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka, and the National Family Health Survey of India were used as data sources. Four key indicators were calculated: introduction of solid, semisolid or soft foods in 6-8 months aged, minimum dietary diversity, minimum meal frequency and minimum acceptable diet in 6-23-month-aged children. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify determinants of poor complementary feeding practices. The papers in this supplement present results of these analyses for each individual country and a comparison between countries. The results have important implications for policies, programmes and research on infant and young child feeding in the region, especially for targeting groups at high risk for suboptimal practices. PMID:22168515

Senarath, Upul; Dibley, Michael J

2012-01-01

364

Microbial contamination of drinking water in Pakistan-a review.  

PubMed

Water pollution with pathogenic microorganisms is one of the serious threats to human health, particularly in developing countries. The main objective of this article is to highlight microbial contamination of drinking water, the major factors responsible for microbial contamination, and the resulting health problems in Pakistan. Furthermore, this study will be helpful for researchers and administrative agencies to initiate relevant studies and develop new policies to protect further deterioration of water supply with pathogenic microbes and ensure clean and safe drinking water to the public in Pakistan. In Pakistan, water at the source, in the distribution network, and at the consumer tap is heavily polluted with coliforms and fecal coliforms all over the country. An overview of more than 7,000 water samples reviewed here reveals that an average of over 71 and 58 % samples in the country was contaminated with total coliforms and fecal coliforms, respectively. Drinking water contamination accounts for 20 to 40 % of all diseases in the country, which causes national income losses of Rs 25-58 billion annually (US$0.25-0.58 billion, approximately 0.6-1.44 % of the country's GDP). Improper disposal of industrial and municipal wastes is the most important factor responsible for water pollution in the country followed by cross-contamination due to old and leaking pipes and lack of water filtration and disinfection facilities. There is an urgent need for emergency steps to stop further deterioration of water quality and improve the existing water quality so as to protect the public from widespread waterborne diseases. PMID:25056753

Nabeela, Farhat; Azizullah, Azizullah; Bibi, Roqaia; Uzma, Syeda; Murad, Waheed; Shakir, Shakirullah Khan; Ullah, Waheed; Qasim, Muhammad; Häder, Donat-Peter

2014-12-01

365

Discrimination in the Pakistan labour market: myth and reality.  

PubMed

This paper examines what author calls a fundamental form of sex discrimination in Pakistan: the fact that women's extensive participation in the labor force is ignored by economic planners. While wage and job discrimination are the most common forms of sex discrimination in Europe and North America, in Pakistan sex discrimination revolves around the divergence between the myth that women do not work and the reality that women's labor force participation is high. Because of the myth that women do not work, women are overlooked by the same planning process that could serve to enhance their productivity. The paper is divided into 5 sections: 1) the introduction; 2) an examination of the myth concerning women's labor force participation and its underlying reasons; 3) an analysis of the extent of women's participation in the labor force in rural and urban settings; 4) a discussion of the extent of wage and occupational discrimination in Pakistan; and 5) a discussion of the policy implications. While official figures calculate the labor force activity of rural women and urban women to be between 3%-10.7% and 3.5%-4.7%, respectively, the author explains that the figures are closer to 55% and 25% (and this does not include women's participation in the informal sector). The author identifies 4 reasons that perpetuate the myth that women do not work: 1) women are physically hidden from view, a seclusion institutionalized by the practice of purdah (the veil); 2) the middle-class ideal of a nonworking wife; 3) the perception that only paid labor counts as work; and 4) the failure of statistics to capture the true extent of women's participation. PMID:12285316

Mohiuddin, Y

1991-01-01

366

Experience of a Clinic for Afghan Refugees in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Since the Soviets invaded Afghanistan in 1979, 3.5 to 4 million refugees have moved into Pakistan and Iran. Even before the war, the health status of the Afghans was extremely poor and the medical personnel limited. Various international efforts are attempting to cope with the health care needs of the refugees. Economic, language, and cultural problems hamper the projects. One clinic found the most common problems were of the gastrointestinal tract, then the respiratory tract, with a problem ranking similar to that of pre-war Afghanistan. Many of the health problems are linked to deficiencies in sanitation and nutrition. PMID:3247740

Morgan, Walter A.

1988-01-01

367

13. VIEW SOUTH, ROUTE 130 SOUTH FROM ROUTE 130 SOUTH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. VIEW SOUTH, ROUTE 130 SOUTH FROM ROUTE 130 SOUTH ISLAND - White Horse Pike Rond Point, Intersection of Crescent Boulevard (U.S. Route 130), White Horse Pike (U.S. Route 30), & Clay Avenue, Collingswood, Camden County, NJ

368

Epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease in Landhi Dairy Colony, Pakistan, the world largest Buffalo colony  

PubMed Central

Background Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Pakistan and causes huge economic losses. This work focus on the Landhi Dairy Colony (LDC), located in the suburbs of Karachi. LDC is the largest Buffalo colony in the world, with more than 300,000 animals (around 95% buffaloes and 5% cattle, as well as an unknown number of sheep and goats). Each month from April 2006 to April 2007 we collected mouth-swabs from apparently healthy buffaloes and cattle, applying a convenient sampling based on a two-stage random sampling scheme, in conjunction with participatory information from each selected farm. Furthermore, we also collected epithelium samples from animals with clinical disease, as well as mouth-swabs samples from those farms. In addition, we analysed a total of 180 serum samples randomly collecting 30 samples each month at the local slaughterhouse, from October 2006 to March 2007. Samples have been screened for FMDV by real-time RT-PCR and the partial or full 1D coding region of selected isolates has been sequenced. Serum samples have been analysed by applying serotype-specific antibody ELISA and non-structural proteins (NSP) antibody ELISA. Results FMDV infection prevalence at aggregate level shows an endemic occurrence of FMDV in the colony, with peaks in August 2006, December 2006 and February 2007 to March 2007. A significant association of prevalence peaks to the rainy seasons, which includes the coldest time of the year and the muslimic Eid-festival, has been demonstrated. Participatory information indicated that 88% of all questioned farmers vaccinate their animals. Analysis of the serum samples showed high levels of antibodies for serotypes O, A, Asia 1 and C. The median endpoint-titre for all tested serotypes, except serotype C, in VNT titration is at a serum dilution of equal or above 1/100. All 180 serum samples collected have been tested for antibodies against the non-structural proteins and all but four have been found positive. Out of the 106 swab-samples from apparently healthy and affected animals positive in real-time RT-PCR, we sequenced the partial or full 1D coding region from 58 samples. In addition we sequenced the full 1D coding region of 17 epithelium samples from animals with clinical signs of FMD. From all sequenced samples, swabs and epithelium, 19 belong to the regional PanAsia II lineage of serotype O and 56 to the A/Iran/2005 lineage of serotype A. Conclusion For an effective and realisable FMD control program in LDC, we suggest to introduce a twice annually mass vaccination of all buffaloes and cattle in the colony. These mass vaccinations should optimally take place shortly before the beginning of the two rainy periods, e.g. in June and September. Those vaccinations should, in our opinion, be in addition to the already individually performed vaccinations of single animals, as the latter usually targets only newly introduced animals. This suggested combination of mass vaccination of all large ruminants with the already performed individually vaccination should provide a continuous high level of herd immunity in the entire colony. Vaccines used for this purpose should contain the matching vaccine strains, i.e. as our results indicate antigens for A/Iran/2005 and the regional type of serotype O (PanAsia II), but also antigens of the, in this world region endemic, Asia 1 lineage should be included. In the long term it will be important to control the vaccine use, so that subclinical FMD will be avoided. PMID:18445264

Klein, Joern; Hussain, Manzoor; Ahmad, Munir; Afzal, Muhammad; Alexandersen, Soren

2008-01-01

369

CONSEQUENCES OF A MEDICAL EMERGENCY AMONG EMERGENCY ROOM PATIENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To study the consequences of a medical emergency among Emergency Room patients, at a teaching hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. Design: A questionnaire-based survey Settings: Emergency Room of Aga Khan University Hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. Main outcome measures: Consequences of a medical emergency in terms of impact on employment, financial position, family life, social life, recreational life, self-confidence and psyche.

Qidwai W; Ali SS; Baqir M; Ayub S

370

Market or government: lessons from a comparative analysis of the experience of Pakistan and India.  

PubMed

A comparison of India and Pakistan (and Bangladesh) in the last 40 years is made in view of the consensus emerging in the 1980s about the supremacy of market-oriented strategy to overcome and alleviate poverty even in less developed countries (LDC). For 4 decades India consistently intervened in the economy, while Pakistan had periods of deregulation and more reliance on market forces. The period from 1947 to 1969-1970, the 1970's, and the 1980s were examined. Dirigiste strategy produced similar or lower production in Pakistan and Bangladesh as in India (1% growth), however, market strategy production in the former countries (3%). Foreign aid (over 10% of gross domestic product in Pakistan and less than one-half of that in India) also stimulated growth. In the late 1970s and late 1980s the import surplus of Pakistan and Bangladesh was 11% vs. 25% of that in India. In the 1950s Pakistan's exports grew rapidly, and in the 1960s the rate of growth in manufactured goods was double that of India due to the Export Bonus Voucher System. The reverse was true during 1969-70 and 1976-77 when India's total manufactured exports grew at twice the rate of Pakistan as the abolition of the voucher scheme occurred, inflation climbed and export duties were imposed. In the late 1970s to mid 1980s military governments in Pakistan and Bangladesh relied heavily on the market devaluing by 100%, deregulating imported inputs, and introducing incentives for exports. Dirigism produced a 50% higher grown in India vs. 200% in the other countries by market efforts. Government intervention tended to aggravate market distortions, although it produced positive results in nontraditional exports in Pakistan and in agricultural infrastructure building, primary school attendance and health services, electrification, and road building in India. Market-induced rapid growth used more unskilled labor and alleviated poverty. PMID:12285367

Papanek, G F

1991-01-01

371

Karo-kari: a form of honour killing in pakistan.  

PubMed

Karo-Kari is a type of premeditated honour killing, which originated in rural and tribal areas of Sindh, Pakistan. The homicidal acts are primarily committed against women who are thought to have brought dishonour to their family by engaging in illicit pre-marital or extra-marital relations. In order to restore this honour, a male family member must kill the female in question. We conducted a systematic review of the published literature other sources on karo-kari and related forms of honour killing or violence against women. Media and non-governmental organization reports were utilized for case studies and analysis. Although legally proscribed, socio-cultural factors and gender role expectations have given legitimacy to karo-kari within some tribal communities. In addition to its persistence in areas of Pakistan, there is evidence that karo-kari may be increasing in incidence in other parts of the world in association with migration. Moreover, perpetrators of ;honour killings' often have motives outside of female adultery. Analysis of the socio-cultural and psycho-pathological factors associated with the practice of karo-kari can guide the development of prevention strategies. PMID:19091732

Patel, Sujay; Gadit, Amin Muhammad

2008-12-01

372

Welfare implications of electricity pricing and power outages in Pakistan  

SciTech Connect

At the theoretical level, the existing literature on the application of marginal cost pricing is reviewed. Since it is not always possible to implement strict marginal cost pricing, the welfare implications of second best pricing given by the Ramsey pricing model are explored. The Ramsey pricing model is extended to incorporate the lifeline rates and the cots of power outages. Welfare effects of price vs. nonprice rationing are compared. On the empirical side, sector-wise electricity demand functions are estimated for the residential, industrial, commercial, and agricultural consumers in Pakistan. Ramsey numbers are derived for each sector by using the elasticity estimates from these demand functions combined with the prices and marginal cost estimates for each sector. It is determined that the current pricing policy does not follow the Ramsey pricing principles. The welfare losses resulting from divergence of prices from marginal costs are estimated. The problem of power outages in Pakistan is analyzed and its welfare costs are determined. Based on the results of this study, policy recommendations are made to bring the price of electricity in line with the cost of supplying electricity to each consumer group.

Sabih, F.

1986-01-01

373

Resistance of polio to its eradication in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background This study is based on EPI (Expanded Program on Immunization) immunization surveys and surveillance of polio, its challenges in immunization and the way forward to overcome these challenges. Methods Several Government documents, survey reports and unpublished program documents were studied and online search was made to find information on EPI Pakistan. SPSS 16 and Microsoft Excel 2007 were used for the statistical analysis. Results Immunization against polio is higher in urban areas as compared to rural areas. Marked variation in vaccination has been observed in different provinces of Pakistan in the last decade. Secondly 10-20% of the children who have received their first dose of trivalent polio vaccine were deprived of their 2nd and 3rd dose because of poor performance of EPI and Lack of information about immunization. Conclusion In spite of numerous successes, such as the addition of new vaccines and raising immunization to over 100% in some areas, EPI is still struggling to reach its polio eradication goals. Inadequate service delivery, lack of information about immunization and limited number of vaccinators were found to be the key reason for poor performance of immunization and for large number of cases reported each year due to the deficiency of second and third booster dose. PMID:21962145

2011-01-01

374

Moving Pakistan into the Global Community via Networking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The knowledge economies are the key enablers for the creation of jobs, fast economic development, wealth generation and prosperity to masses. Developing countries have started feeling the need to rapidly develop their knowledge base through investments in Information Communication Technologies (ICT) infrastructure and human resource development as a means for facilitating competitiveness. To meet this challenge, emerging technologies offer excellent opportunities for collaborative efforts across the globe among academia, research institutions and industry to ensure that local economy could reap the benefits of economic prosperity. Government of Pakistan at its highest level recognizes that information and knowledge are the driving forces for the economic growth today and we all witness a new era in communications that would not only revolutionize this sector but undoubtedly lays the foundation for connectivity for our future generations. An efficient, low-cost, broadband and high-speed communication system, employing state-of-the-art technologies across the whole spectrum, is a key pillar of the knowledge society. This paper highlights the major initiatives taken by Pakistan in revolutionizing the Internet access to its people. Case study in establishing international collaborations of Pakistani academia with internationally renowned research centers bring about a practical solution in bridging knowledge divide across developing nations and the key role it can play in human resource development by providing access to dispersed laboratory facilities at minimal cost.

Ali, Arshad

2007-04-01

375

An all time low utilization of intrauterine contraceptive device as a birth spacing method- a qualitative descriptive study in district Rawalpindi, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Pakistan was among the leading countries in south Asia which started the family planning program in late 50s, forecasting the need to control the population. Despite this early intervention, fertility rate has declined but slower in Pakistan as compared to most other Asian countries. Pakistan has almost a stagnant contraceptive prevalence rate for more than a decade now, perhaps owing to the inadequate performance of the family planning programs. The provision and use of long term contraceptives such as IUCD has always been low (around 2%) and associated with numerous issues. Married women who want to wait before having another child, or end childbearing altogether, are not using any long term method of contraception. Methodology A descriptive qualitative study was conducted from May to July 2012, to explore and understand the perceptions of women regarding the use of IUCDs and to understand the challenges/issues at the service provider’s end. Six FGDs with community women and 12 in-depth interviews were conducted with family planning providers. The data was analyzed using the Qualitative Content Analysis approach. Results The study revealed that the family planning clients are reluctant to use IUCDs because of a number of myths and misconceptions associated with the method. They have reservations about the provider’s capability and quality of care at the facility. Private health providers are not motivated and are reluctant to provide the IUCDs because of inadequate counseling skills, lack of competence and improper supporting infrastructure. Government programs either do not have enough supplies or trained staff to promote the IUCD utilization. Conclusion Besides a well-designed community awareness campaign, providers’ communication and counseling skills have to be enhanced, as these are major contributing factors in IUCD acceptance. Ongoing training of all family planning service providers in IUCD insertion is very important, along with strengthening of their services. PMID:23394188

2013-01-01

376

[South] Korea.  

PubMed

The Republic of Korea occupies approximately 38,000 square miles in the southern position of a mountaineous peninsula. It shares a land boundary with North Korea. With a population of more than 40 million people, South Korea has 1 of the highest population densities in the world. The language spoken is a Uralic language, closely akin to Japanese, Hungarian, Finnish, and Mongolian, and the traditional religions are Shamanism and Buddhism. Over the course of time, South Korea has been invaded and fought over by its neighbors. The US and the Soviet Union have never been able to reach a unification agreement for North and South Korea. The 3rd Republic era, begun in 1963, saw a time of rapid industrialization and a great deal of economic growth. The 5th Republic began with a new constitution and new elections brought about the election of a president to a 7-year term of office beginning in 1981. Economic growth has been remarkable over the last 25 years despite the fact that North Korea possesses most of the mineral and hydroelectric resources and the existing heavy industrial base built by the Japanese while South Korea has the limited agricultural resources and had, initially, a large unskilled labor pool. Serious industrial growth began in South Korea in the early 1960s and the GNP grew at an annual rate of 10% during the period 1963-78. Current GNP is now, at $2000, well beyond that of its neighbors to the north. The outlook for longterm growth is good; however, the military threat posed by North Korea and the absence of foreign economic assistance has resulted in Korea spending 1/3 of its budget on defense. South Korea is active in international affairs and in the UN. Economic realities have forced Korea to give economics priority in their foreign policy. There has been an on-again, off-again quality to dialogue between the 2 nations. However, the US is committed to maintaining peace on the Korean peninsula. In order to do so, they have supplied manpower and support to supplement Korea's efforts to deter aggression. The US also believes that talks between governments are essential if reunification will ultimately occur. South Korea is now the US' largest commercial partner and Korea seems to understand that they can benefit greatly by having increased US private sector involvement in Korea's development. PMID:12177925

1987-04-01

377

South Africa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This true-color image of South Africa was acquired on May 14, 2000, by NASA's Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, or MODIS. The image was produced using a combination of the sensor's 250-m and 500-m resolution visible wavelength bands. As part of the opening ceremony to begin the joint U.S.-South Africa SAFARI Field Experiment, NASA presented print copies of this image as GIFts to Dr. Ben Ngubane, Minister of Arts, Science and Technology, and Honorable Advocate Ngoaka Ramathlodi, Premier of the Northern Province, South Africa. The area shown in this image encompasses seven capital cities and a number of the region's distinctive geological features can be seen clearly. Toward the northern (top) central part of the image, the browns and tans comprise the Kalahari Desert of southern Botswana. The Tropic of Capricorn runs right through the heart of the Kalahari and the Botswanan capital city of Gaborone sits on the Limpopo River, southeast of the Kalahari. Along the western coastline of the continent is the country of Namibia, where the Namib Desert is framed against the sea by the Kaokoveld Mountains. The Namibian capital of Windhoek is obscured by clouds. Looking closely in the center of the image, the Orange River can be seen running from east to west, demarcating the boundary between Namibia and South Africa. On the southwestern corner of the continent is the hook-like Cape of Good Hope peninsula and Cape Town, the parliamentary capital of South Africa. Running west to east away from Cape Town are the Great Karroo Mountains. The shadow in this image conveys a sense of the very steep grade of the cliffs along the southern coast of South Africa. Port Elizabeth sits on the southeasternmost point of South Africa, and a large phytoplankton bloom can be seen in the water about 100 miles east of there. Moving northward along the east coast, the Drakensberg Mountains are visible. The two small nations of Lesotho and Swaziland are in this region, completely contained within South Africa's boundaries. In the upper righthand corner of the image is the Bay of Maputo, where sits Maputo, the capital of Mozambique. Fires are visible in the northeast corner of the image, near Maputo. Just north of Maputo is where the Limpopo River empties into the Indian Ocean. Tracing the Limpopo inland back toward the west, this river defines the northern boundary of South Africa with both Zimbabwe and Botswana. Johannesburg, the commercial capital of South Africa, can be seen as the greyish pixels in the northeastern region of the country. The country's legislative capital, Pretoria, is about 50 miles north of Johannesburg and 250 miles west of Maputo, in the heart of the Northern Province (formerly known as Transvaal). (Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Group, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center)

2002-01-01

378

Cross-Sectional Time Series Analysis of Associations between Education and Girl Child Marriage in Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Pakistan, 1991-2011  

PubMed Central

Background Girl education is believed to be the best means of reducing girl child marriage (marriage <18 years) globally. However, in South Asia, where the majority of girl child marriages occur, substantial improvements in girl education have not corresponded to equivalent reductions in child marriage. This study examines the levels of education associated with female age at marriage over the previous 20 years across four South Asian nations with high rates (>20%) of girl child marriage- Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Pakistan. Methods Cross-sectional time series analyses were conducted on Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) from 1991 to 2011 in the four focal nations. Analyses were restricted to ever-married women aged 20–24 years. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to assess the effect of highest level of education received (none, primary, secondary or higher) on age at marriage (<14, 14–15, 16–17, 18 and older). Results In Bangladesh and Pakistan, primary education was not protective against girl child marriage; in Nepal, it was protective against marriage at <14 years (AOR?=?0.42) but not for older adolescents. Secondary education was protective across minor age at marriage categories in Bangladesh (<14 years AOR?=?0.10; 14–15 years AOR?=?.25; 16–17 years AOR?=?0.64) and Nepal (<14 years AOR?=?0.21; 14–15 years AOR?=?0.25; 16–17 years AOR?=?0.57), but protective against marriage of only younger adolescents in Pakistan (<14 years AOR?=?0.19; 14–15 years AOR?=?0.23). In India, primary and secondary education were respectively protective across all age at marriage categories (<14 years AOR?=?0.34, AOR?=?0.05; 14–15 years AOR?=?0.52, AOR?=?0.20; 16–17 years AOR?=?0.71, AOR?=?0.48). Conclusion Primary education is likely insufficient to reduce girl child marriage in South Asia, outside of India. Secondary education may be a better protective strategy against this practice for the region, but may be less effective for prevention of marriage among older relative to younger adolescents. PMID:25203635

Raj, Anita; McDougal, Lotus; Silverman, Jay G.; Rusch, Melanie L. A.

2014-01-01

379

Incentive and coordination issues in the mobile banking industry of Pakistan  

E-print Network

With the introduction of Branch less Banking regulations in 2008 by the State Bank of Pakistan a new opportunity for banks and telecoms was created to service the needs of the 85% of Pakistanis who lacked any formal or ...

Ali, Tughral Turab

2014-01-01

380

Pakistan and Water: New Pressures on Global Security and Human Health  

PubMed Central

The Indus River is the major source of water for the more than 180 million people of Pakistan. A rapidly increasing population over the past 60 years has created new pressures on water that was once a plentiful resource for the health and development of the country. Rising tensions between India and Pakistan, which share the Indus flow, may lead to violent confrontation in an already volatile part of the globe. The recent flooding, which affected more than 20 million people, drew attention to poor management of the rivers of Pakistan. Public health has the scientific knowledge and professional capacity to help develop water management practices that could improve population health in Pakistan. PMID:21421956

2011-01-01

381

Asia Research Centre public lecture Pakistan and the challenges of a new decade  

E-print Network

the figure rose to four out of five or 81 per cent. A similar number, 82 per cent, pointed to al Qaedas activities in Pakistan as a critical threat. So although al Qaedas view of America gets a sympathetic hearing

382

Genomic Epidemiology of Vibrio cholerae O1 Associated with Floods, Pakistan, 2010  

PubMed Central

In August 2010, Pakistan experienced major floods and a subsequent cholera epidemic. To clarify the population dynamics and transmission of Vibrio cholerae in Pakistan, we sequenced the genomes of all V. cholerae O1 El Tor isolates and compared the sequences to a global collection of 146 V. cholerae strains. Within the global phylogeny, all isolates from Pakistan formed 2 new subclades (PSC-1 and PSC-2), lying in the third transmission wave of the seventh-pandemic lineage that could be distinguished by signature deletions and their antimicrobial susceptibilities. Geographically, PSC-1 isolates originated from the coast, whereas PSC-2 isolates originated from inland areas flooded by the Indus River. Single-nucleotide polymorphism accumulation analysis correlated river flow direction with the spread of PSC-2. We found at least 2 sources of cholera in Pakistan during the 2010 epidemic and illustrate the value of a global genomic data bank in contextualizing cholera outbreaks. PMID:24378019

Shah, Muhammad Ali; Mutreja, Ankur; Thomson, Nicholas; Baker, Stephen; Parkhill, Julian; Dougan, Gordon; Bokhari, Habib

2014-01-01

383

Investigating socio-economic-demographic determinants of tobacco use in Rawalpindi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: To investigate the socio-economic and demographic determinants of tobacco use in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. METHODS: Cross sectional survey of households (population based) with 2018 respondent (1038 Rural; 980 Urban) was carried out in Rawalpindi (Pakistan) and included males and females 18–65 years of age. Main outcome measure was self reported daily tobacco use. RESULTS: Overall 16.5% of the study population

Ali Yawar Alam; Azhar Iqbal; Khalif Bile Mohamud; Ronald E Laporte; Ashfaq Ahmed; Sania Nishtar

2008-01-01

384

Hepatitis B virus in Pakistan: A systematic review of prevalence, risk factors, awareness status and genotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Pakistan, there are estimated 7-9 million carriers of hepatitis B virus (HBV) with a carrier rate of 3-5%. This article\\u000a reviews the available literature about the prevalence, risk factors, awareness status and genotypes of the HBV in Pakistan\\u000a by using key words; HBV prevalence, risk factors, awareness status and genotypes in Pakistani population in PubMed, PakMediNet,\\u000a Directory of Open

Muhammad Ali; Muhammad Idrees; Liaqat Ali; Abrar Hussain; Irshad Ur Rehman; Sana Saleem; Samia Afzal; Sadia Butt

2011-01-01

385

Food habits of the snow leopard Panthera uncia (Schreber, 1775) in Baltistan, Northern Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The snow leopard (Panthera uncia) inhabits the high, remote mountains of Pakistan from where very little information is available on prey use of this species.\\u000a Our study describes the food habits of the snow leopard in the Himalayas and Karakoram mountain ranges in Baltistan, Pakistan.\\u000a Ninety-five putrid snow leopard scats were collected from four sites in Baltistan. Of these, 49

Muhammad Bilal Anwar; Rodney Jackson; Muhammad Sajid Nadeem; Jan E. Jane?ka; Shafqat Hussain; Mirza Azhar Beg; Ghulam Muhammad; Mazhar Qayyum

386

Stratigraphic boundary problems: Permian and Triassic of West Pakistan. Edited by Bernhard Kummel and Curt Teichert  

E-print Network

encompass this bound- ary in marine facies. Unfortunately, such stratigraphic sections are ex- tremely rare and, until quite recently, detailed stratigraphic and paleonto- logic investigations were nonexistent. In a worldwide review the search... Member, Mianwali Formation, Salt Range, West Pakistan 177 Bernhard Kummel Early Triassic Marine Ostracodes from the Salt Range and Surghar Range, West Pakistan 193 I. G. Sohn Uppermost Permian and Lower Triassic Conodonts of the Salt Range and Trans...

1970-01-01

387

The China?Pakistan Strategic Relationship: Trade, Investment, Energy and Infrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traditional Sino-Pakistan friendship of 55 years now has a new objective—to improve the economic content of their relationship, which comprises trade, investment and energy co-operation within a bilateral framework. The result of this determination to implement the new economic agenda is visible in the quantum of Chinese investment in Pakistan. However, there are indications that the trade agenda may

Sumita Kumar

2007-01-01

388

Consanguinity and Its Sociodemographic Differentials in Bhimber District, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Kashmiri population in the northeast of Pakistan has strong historical, cultural and linguistic affinities with the neighbouring populations of upper Punjab and Potohar region of Pakistan. However, the study of consanguineous unions, which are customarily practised in many populations of Pakistan, revealed marked differences between the Kashmiris and other populations of northern Pakistan with respect to the distribution of marriage types and inbreeding coefficient (F). The current descriptive epidemiological study carried out in Bhimber district of Mirpur division, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan, demonstrated that consanguineous marriages were 62% of the total marriages (F=0.0348). First-cousin unions were the predominant type of marriages and constituted 50.13% of total marital unions. The estimates of inbreeding coefficient were higher in the literate subjects, and consanguinity was witnessed to be rising with increasing literacy level. Additionally, consanguinity was observed to be associated with ethnicity, family structure, language, and marriage arrangements. Based upon these data, a distinct sociobiological structure, with increased stratification and higher genomic homozygosity, is expected for this Kashmiri population. In this communication, we present detailed distribution of the types of marital unions and the incidences of consanguinity and inbreeding coefficient (F) across various sociodemographic strata of Bhimber/Mirpuri population. The results of this study would have implication not only for other endogamous populations of Pakistan but also for the sizeable Kashmiri community immigrated to Europe. PMID:25076667

Jabeen, Nazish

2014-01-01

389

Environmental impact assessment (EIA): an overlooked instrument for sustainable development in Pakistan.  

PubMed

Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is a policy tool used for evaluating a project proposal from physical and socioeconomic environmental perspectives. Its aim is to reduce the impact of development on environment, hence, ensuring environmental sustainability. It is mandatory to submit an Environmental Impact Statement before starting a mega project as required by Environmental Protection Act of 1997 and Environmental Policy of Pakistan. Public consultation plays a key role in an EIA system, identifying the likely aspects and impacts of a development activity. This aspect has been ignored in effective enactment of environmental legislation in Pakistan. Sufficient legislative instruments are there to support EIA system in the country but the agencies responsible for the enforcement of environmental regulations have failed to do so. The current research gives an insight into the actual status of EIA system in Pakistan along with the feedback of EIA specialists and university teachers of the concerned departments. A new index has been devised on the basis of questionnaire response to work out the overall performance of EIA system in Pakistan or any other country. The weaknesses and deficiencies of each EIA stage have been worked out for Pakistan and elaborated with the help of the controversial Zero point Interchange Project in the capital city of Pakistan. PMID:21887481

Saeed, Rashid; Sattar, Ayesha; Iqbal, Zafar; Imran, Muhammad; Nadeem, Raziya

2012-04-01

390

Biologically active traditional medicinal herbs from Balochistan, Pakistan.  

PubMed

The biological activities of the following four important medicinal plants of Balochistan, Pakistan were checked; Grewia erythraea Schwein f. (Tiliaceae), Hymenocrater sessilifolius Fisch. and C.A. Mey (Lamiaceae), Vincetoxicum stocksii Ali and Khatoon (Asclepiadaceae) and Zygophyllum fabago L. (Zygophyllaceae). The methanolic extracts were fractionated into hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, butanol and water. The antifungal and antibacterial activities of these plants were determined against 12 fungal and 12 bacterial strains by agar well diffusion and disk diffusion assays. The extract of Zygophyllum fabago was found to be highly effective against Candida albicans and Escherichia coli. The extract of Vincetoxicum stocksii was also found to be significantly active against Candida albicans, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus. Extracts of Hymenocrater sessilifolius and Grewia erythraea showed good activity only against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:15588685

Zaidi, Mudassir A; Crow, Sidney A

2005-01-01

391

Protecting Pakistan's health during the global economic crisis.  

PubMed

The world is facing an unprecedented global economic crisis, with many countries needing to reconsider their level of health care spending. This paper explores the many consequences of the global economic turndown on Pakistan's health, including reduced government and donor spending and increased poverty with the consequent diversion of funds away from health. Nevertheless, these challenges may provide opportunities not only to mitigate the adverse effects of the economic crisis but also to institute some much-needed reforms that may not receive political support during more affluent times. Our suggestions focus on setting priorities based on the national disease burden, prioritizing prevention interventions, demanding results, curbing corruption, experimenting with innovative funding mechanisms, advocating for increased funding by presenting health spending as an investment rather than an expense and by selected recourse to civil society interventions and philanthropy to bridge the gap between available and needed resources. PMID:22574485

Jooma, R; Khan, A; Khan, A A

2012-03-01

392

Identification of novel silent HIV propagation routes in Pakistan.  

PubMed

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is rapidly increasing in both high risk groups and the general population. In this study, silent routes of propagation in teenaged Pakistanis are discussed. In order to promote sexual activity in youths, regular clients write contact details of sex workers on the doors of public washrooms. HIV prevalence is much higher among Hijra sex workers. Hijra sex workers have apparently stepped into the profession of begging at public places, where they earn money by both begging and distributing visiting cards offering unsafe sex. In many educational institutes, sex education is lacking or absent; if delivered via teachers, government agencies and nongovernmental organizations this could prevent a future epidemic of sexually transmitted infections in Pakistan. PMID:24255884

Saeed, Umar; Waheed, Yasir; Manzoor, Sobia; Ashraf, Muhammad

2013-08-12

393

Identification of novel silent HIV propagation routes in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is rapidly increasing in both high risk groups and the general population. In this study, silent routes of propagation in teenaged Pakistanis are discussed. In order to promote sexual activity in youths, regular clients write contact details of sex workers on the doors of public washrooms. HIV prevalence is much higher among Hijra sex workers. Hijra sex workers have apparently stepped into the profession of begging at public places, where they earn money by both begging and distributing visiting cards offering unsafe sex. In many educational institutes, sex education is lacking or absent; if delivered via teachers, government agencies and nongovernmental organizations this could prevent a future epidemic of sexually transmitted infections in Pakistan. PMID:24255884

Saeed, Umar; Waheed, Yasir; Manzoor, Sobia; Ashraf, Muhammad

2013-01-01

394

Russia`s Great Game in a nuclear South Asia  

SciTech Connect

Lost in the noise of Pakistan`s nuclear weapon tests in the western Baluchistan desert on 28 and 30 May was a surprising diplomatic move by Russia. On 23 May, Russia became the first state to express its willingness to recognize India as a nuclear-weapon state, provided that India commits itself to the international nonproliferation regime. Russia`s Ambassador to India, Albert Chernyshev, stated in the days after the Indian but before the Pakistani nuclear tests that ``India proclaimed itself a nuclear weapons power. One now hopes that India will behave as a nuclear weapons power by acting responsibly. Every nuclear weapons state has some rights. But for getting recognition it must have some obligations. Once it is ready to show these obligations by joining the nonproliferation regime, its recognition as a nuclear weapons power will follow.`` Russia`s Great Game in South Asia in pursuit of short-term economic and other interests appears to be a serious obstacle on the path to dealing effectively with the South Asian nuclear crisis. Grave damage to security, stability and nonproliferation has already resulted from India`s and Pakistan`s actions, but the situation does not have to spiral out of control. It is imperative that the international community respond appropriately to this challenge. The international community is at a crossroads and Russia`s actions will be critical. Will it be willing to go beyond the narrow economic and political calculations reflected in its diplomatic posturing, and take actions that will serve its long-term interests by bridging differences with other great powers in order to demonstrate to India that it has not chosen the right path. If Russia decides it can gain from India`s current, perilous path and blocks or otherwise frustrates appropriate responses, the nuclear danger on the subcontinent will escalate and the global regimes to promote nonproliferation and to ban testing will be seriously, perhaps fatally, weakened with unpredictable regional and global effects.

Pilat, J.F.; Taylor, T.T. [International Inst. for Strategic Studies, London (United Kingdom)

1998-12-31

395

Gender, region, religion and reproductive behaviour in India and Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The demographic profile of South Asia is one of high levels of fertility, low ages at marriage and relatively low contraceptive prevalence. This generalisation, however, obscures considerable variations in reproductive behaviour and there exist such notable exceptions from this standard pattern as Sri Lanka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu, which pioneered the fertility transition in South Asia (Dyson and Crook 1984).

Zeba Sathar; Christine Callum; Shireen Jejeebhoy

396

Psychologists experience of cognitive behaviour therapy in a developing country: a qualitative study from Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Psychological therapies especially Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) are used widely in the West to help patients with psychiatric problems. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy has an established evidence base for the treatment of different emotional disorders. In spite of these developments in the developed world, patients in most developing countries hardly benefit from non pharmacological interventions. Although a significant number of psychologists are trained in Pakistan each year, psychological interventions play only a minor role in treatment plans in Pakistan. We conducted interviews with psychologists in Pakistan, to explore their experiences and their views on "providing CBT in Pakistan". These interviews were conducted as part of a project whose focus was to try to develop culturally-sensitive CBT in Pakistan. Methods In depth semi structured interviews were conducted with 5 psychologists working in psychiatry departments in Lahore, Pakistan. Results All the psychologists reported that psychotherapies, including CBT, need adjustments for use in Pakistan, although they were not able to elicit on these in details. Four major themes were discovered, hurdles in therapy, therapy related issues, involvement of the family and modification in therapy. The biggest hurdles in therapy were described to be service and resource issues. Conclusions For CBT to be acceptable, accessible and effective in Non Western cultures numerous adjustments need to be made, taking into consideration; factors related to service structure and delivery, patient's knowledge and beliefs about health and the therapy itself. Interviews with the psychologists in these countries can give us insights which can guide development of therapy and manuals to support its delivery. PMID:20181039

2010-01-01

397

Unroofing history of a suture zone in the Himalaya of Pakistan by means of fission-track annealing ages  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The uplift history of the Swat Valley and Hazara region of northwestern Pakistan has been established using 22 fission-track dates on apatite, zircon and sphene. A major fault, the Main Mantle Thrust (MMT) strikes east-west across the Swat Valley, separates regions of markedly differing fission-track age regimesm, and may be a suture zone separating an extinct island arc terrane on the north from the Indian plate to the south. Fission-track ages ranging from about 55 to 58 m.y. for sphene, 18 to 53 m.y. for zircon, and 9 to 17 m.y. for apatite were obtained from the region north of the MMT. To the south the fission-track age ranges are 20 to 25 m.y. for sphene, 17 to 26 m.y. for zircon, and 16 to 23 m.y. for apatite. Disparate zircon and sphene ages on each side of the MMT imply different cooling histories for each side of the fault prior to 15 m.y. Similar apatite ages on both sides of the fault imply similar cooling histories during the past 15 m.y. This may indicate that faulting ceased by 15 m.y. Mean uplift rates have been derived from the fission-track data using mainly the mineral-pair method. Uplift rates in the region north of the MMT increased from 0.07 to 0.20 mm/yr during the period 55 to 15 m.y. South of the fault, uplift rates averaged in excess of 0.70 mm/yr for the period 25 to 15 m.y. During the past 15 m.y. uplift across the MMT in the Swat Valley showsno discontinuities, ranging from 0.16 mm/yr in the south to 0.39 mm/yr in the north. A plausible interpretation for the fission-track uplift data has the MMT verging to the south with overthrusting taking place at a depth between 3.5 and 6.0 km, juxtaposing two terranes that were originally separated by a substantial, but unknown distance. In this model, regional uplift followed cessation of faulting just prior to 15 m.y. ?? 1982.

Zeitler, P.K.; Tahirkheli, R.A.K.; Naeser, C.W.; Johnson, N.M.

1982-01-01

398

Priorities in Educational Development in Pakistan: Projects and Training Programs. Report of an International Seminar (Islamabad, Pakistan, September 7-9, 1983).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Center for International Education and Development (CIED) of the University of Alberta, in its commitment to share--through publication--information about new projects and policies being tried in developing countries, published the proceedings of an international seminar focusing on education in Pakistan. The meeting was the result of…

Mellor, Warren L., Ed.; Khan, M. Athar, Ed.

399

PREVALENCE OF DIABETIC RETINOPATHY AND INFLUENCE FACTORS AMONG NEWLY DIAGNOSED DIABETICS IN RURAL AND URBAN AREAS OF PAKISTAN: Data analysis from the Pakistan National Blindness & Visual Impairment Survey 2003  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To estimate the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy among newly diagnosed adult diabetics from the data set of Pakistan National Blindness survey 2003. Methodology: We analyzed the data collected from the Pakistan National Blindness Survey, a population based survey with regards to diabetic retinopathy and its risk factors. Descriptive information for each of the variable was derived and distribution was

Aurangzeb Shaikh; Faheemullah Shaikh; Ziauddin Ahmed Shaikh; Jamshed Ahmed

400

Promoting Space Education and Awareness in Pakistan- Initiatives, Achievements, Challenges and Issues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With about 180 million inhabitants, Pakistan is the sixth most populous and the 34th largest country in the world in terms of area. Pakistan's economy, which is pre-dominantly based on agriculture, is the 26th largest in the world in terms of purchasing power parity and 45th largest in terms of nominal GDP. Pakistan is counted among the Next Eleven (N11) countries that have the potential to become the world's largest economies in the 21st century. Despite considerable potential to develop into a stable, moderate and democratic state, major challenges of internal security, poor agricultural productivity, inadequate infrastructure, food insecurity, insufficient health and educational facilities, depletion of natural resources, rapid environmental degradation and recurring natural disasters have burdened the country and have hampered sustainable development of Pakistan. Space technology applications offer a cost-effective means of addressing many of the above mentioned issues and have made impressive advances in the last few years in different countries in the region. Unfortunately, for various reasons, Pakistan has not been able to fully exploit the benefits of space technology and its applications to meet the challenges she faces. One of the reasons is lack of awareness and understanding by planners, decision-makers and users about the potential benefits of space technology in planning and implementation of developmental plans as well as good governance. Similarly, Pakistan's space program enjoys little public support due, primarily, to lack of awareness of the benefits space offers and the ubiquitousness of space applications in modern life. There is thus an acute need to create awareness and educate all segments of the society and stakeholders in Pakistan about the potential benefits of space technology and its applications. In the past ten years, many initiatives have been taken to promote space education and awareness for students as well as decision-makers in Pakistan. These include establishment of space science departments in universities, developing space-specific educational institutes, cooperation and collaboration between universities and SUPARCO, outreach to schools, and holding of short courses, seminars and symposia. To create awareness among the general public, efforts are being made to air programs on the electronic media. This paper covers achievements of Pakistan in promoting space education and awareness in the country and the related issues and impediments to pursue these programs.

Jagirani, Aisha

401

South Carolina Cooperative  

E-print Network

South Carolina Cooperative Fish & Wildlife Research Unit Report of Activities 2009 Wildlife Management Institute South Carolina Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit G27 Lehotsky Hall technician), Samantha Collins (MS student) #12;USGS South Carolina Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research

Jodice, Patrick

402

Spatial and temporal dynamics of land use pattern in District Swat, Hindu Kush Himalayan region of Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

District Swat is a part of the high altitude Hindu Kush Himalaya (HKH) region of Pakistan comprising a diverse set of biophysical, ecological and socio-economic characteristics. Analysis of land cover data of this region is particularly important because of disparate accounts on the state of forest resources of Pakistan in general and Swat in particular. Mainly official Pakistani sources frequently

Muhammad Qasim; Klaus Hubacek; Mette Termansen; Ahmad Khan

2011-01-01

403

Development of low cost household drinking water treatment system for the earthquake affected communities in Northern Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The devastating earthquake of 2005 severely damaged over 4000 water and sanitation schemes in northern Pakistan. The present study aimed at testing a low cost household sand filter (HSF) in treating low quality drinking water in disaster-hit areas of northern Pakistan. Two villages were randomly selected for practical demonstration of a low cost drinking water treatment system in earthquake affected

Qaisar Mahmood; Shams Ali Baig; Bahadar Nawab; Mustafa Nawaz Shafqat; Arshid Pervez; Bibi Saima Zeb

2011-01-01

404

Floods, Relief Aid, and Household Resilience in Rural Pakistan: Findings from a Pilot Survey in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on a pilot survey conducted in early 2011, in ten villages in the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, we analysed the damage caused by floods in Pakistan in 2010, the distribution of aid, and the extent to which households recovered from flood damage. Our findings are as follows. Flood damage within a village was disuniform. Aid from outside was

Takashi Kurosaki; Humayun Khan

2011-01-01

405

Pharmaceuticals--strategic considerations in health reforms in Pakistan.  

PubMed

Pharmaceuticals are critical to the functioning of healthcare systems which require a sustainable supply of quality, efficacious, and safe essential medicines. With this as a context, the Gateway Paper in its capacity as a suggested roadmap for health reforms within Pakistan stressed on the need for a pharmaceutical policy to be directed towards improving people's access to medicines; within this framework a number of issues have been highlighted. Weaknesses in the current legislation on drugs, in particular gaps, which have emerged contemporaneously with reference to the post WTO situation and the technology boom, have been discussed and the incongruity between the drug policies and policies in the other sectors addressed. The Gateway Paper makes a strong case to establish a statutory semi-autonomous drug regulatory authority in order to ensure stricter implementation of the Drug Law, which needs to be amended to bridge the current gaps. The paper lays emphasis on a formal quality assurance mechanism and the need to build capacity to implement regulation in this regard. Lack of clarity in the current pricing formula has been flagged as a key issue and the need highlighted to develop a pricing formula that is predictable, transparent and acceptable to the stakeholders, yet one that does not create access and affordability issues for the poor and disadvantaged. The paper addresses gaps in the process of drug registration in Pakistan and stresses on the need to redefine its scope and ensure its stricter enforcement. Unethical market practices and irrational use of drugs have been discussed and the need for transparently implementing standard operating procedures for drug selecting, procurement, storage, dispensing and rational prescribing and the introduction of appropriate evidence based education, managerial and regulatory interventions in this regard, highlighted. The myriad of reasons which lead to the shortage of drugs and to the mushrooming of spurious, counterfeit and sub-standard drugs in the market have also been the subject of discussion as have been issues relating to the present size and utilization of the National Essential Drug List. PMID:17595837

Nishtar, Sania

2006-12-01

406

Childhood Injuries in Pakistan: Results from Two Communities  

PubMed Central

The study aimed at determining the incidence, nature, and extent of childhood injuries in two suburban and rural communities of Pakistan. The findings of the study are based on a cross-sectional survey of 2,292 children aged 1-8 years. Information was sought retrospectively from the primary caregiver on the occurrence of injury that required formal or informal medical consultation during the past three months. The incidence rate of non-fatal injuries that required care outside home for children aged 1-8 years was 19.7 injuries per 100 person (child)-years of exposure [95% confidence interval (CI) 16.41-23.51]: 26.5 injuries per 100 person (child)-years of exposure (95% CI 21.31-32.63) in the suburban area and 12.1 injuries per 100 person (child)-years of exposure (95% CI 8.68-16.66) in the rural area. The most common non-fatal injuries were falls (10.5 fall injuries per 100 person (child)-years of exposure), burns and scalds (3.5 burn injuries per 100 person (child)-years of exposure), and road traffic injuries (RTIs) (2 RTIs per 100 person (child)-years of exposure). One fatality due to drowning was also reported during the study period. The difference among sex was highly significant (p=0.03). Boys (60%) were at a higher risk of injuries compared to girls (40%). The data also revealed that 61% of the injuries took place inside the home. The magnitude of childhood injuries in the two communities was significant compared to the findings of the National Health Survey of Pakistan (1990–1994). The fact that the majority (61%) of the injuries occurred inside the home raises many questions in relation to the household hazards and adequacy of safety and child-proofing measures in these households. There is a need to develop community-based interventions, creating awareness about the consequences of childhood injuries and educating families about preventive measures to reduce the incidence of injuries during early and middle childhood. PMID:20824983

Rafique, Ghazala; Peermohamed, Habib

2010-01-01

407

Benthic Nitrogen Loss in the Arabian Sea Off Pakistan  

PubMed Central

A pronounced deficit of nitrogen (N) in the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the Arabian Sea suggests the occurrence of heavy N-loss that is commonly attributed to pelagic processes. However, the OMZ water is in direct contact with sediments on three sides of the basin. Contribution from benthic N-loss to the total N-loss in the Arabian Sea remains largely unassessed. In October 2007, we sampled the water column and surface sediments along a transect cross-cutting the Arabian Sea OMZ at the Pakistan continental margin, covering a range of station depths from 360 to 1430?m. Benthic denitrification and anammox rates were determined by using 15N-stable isotope pairing experiments. Intact core incubations showed declining rates of total benthic N-loss with water depth from 0.55 to 0.18?mmol?N?m?2?day?1. While denitrification rates measured in slurry incubations decreased from 2.73 to 1.46?mmol?N?m?2?day?1 with water depth, anammox rates increased from 0.21 to 0.89?mmol?N?m?2?day?1. Hence, the contribution from anammox to total benthic N-loss increased from 7% at 360?m to 40% at 1430?m. This trend is further supported by the quantification of cd1-containing nitrite reductase (nirS), the biomarker functional gene encoding for cytochrome cd1-Nir of microorganisms involved in both N-loss processes. Anammox-like nirS genes within the sediments increased in proportion to total nirS gene copies with water depth. Moreover, phylogenetic analyses of NirS revealed different communities of both denitrifying and anammox bacteria between shallow and deep stations. Together, rate measurement and nirS analyses showed that anammox, determined for the first time in the Arabian Sea sediments, is an important benthic N-loss process at the continental margin off Pakistan, especially in the sediments at deeper water depths. Extrapolation from the measured benthic N-loss to all shelf sediments within the basin suggests that benthic N-loss may be responsible for about half of the overall N-loss in the Arabian Sea. PMID:23226143

Sokoll, Sarah; Holtappels, Moritz; Lam, Phyllis; Collins, Gavin; Schluter, Michael; Lavik, Gaute; Kuypers, Marcel M. M.

2012-01-01

408

Interwell tracing by environmental isotopes at Fimkassar Oilfield, Pakistan.  

PubMed

Water flooding is an important operation to enhance oil recovery. Movement of injected water is traced to test the performance of the water flood and verify suspected geological barriers or flow channels, etc. This paper describes the application of environmental isotopes as interwell tracers at Fimkassar Oilfield in Chakwal District, Pakistan. Water flooding was started in March 1996 in the Sakessar formation (Eocene). When water appeared in the production well in June 1998, isotopes (18O, 2H and 3H) were used to determine the breakthrough/transit time of the water flood and the contribution of fresh injected water. Water samples were collected during June 1998-August 1999 from the injection well, the production well, and some other fields for reference indices of the Sakessar formation and analyzed for the 18O, 2H and 3H, and chloride contents. The isotopic results confirmed the breakthrough of injected water and indicated that the water in the production well was a mixture of the injected water and the formation water. The initial breakthrough time was 27 months. The contribution of injected water varied from 67% to 80%. This percentage did not change significantly from the time of breakthrough until the last sampling indicating good mixing in the reservoir and the absence of any high permeability channel. Chloride content did not give any information about the hydraulic connection between the injection well and the production well. The study proved the potential of environmental isotopes for interwell tracing. PMID:12735980

Ahmad, M; Tasneem, M A; Rafiq, Muhammad; Khan, I H; Farooq, M; Sajjad, M I

2003-05-01

409

Weather yield model for the semi tropical region (Pakistan)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weather models are essential tools for checking of the effect of the weather elements in terms of their effect on the production of the crop. This research is an attempt to see the effect of only two variables i.e., temperature and rainfall for the division Faisalabad (semitropical region of Pakistan). The model fitted is of the linear form: Y= a+ bX 1+ cX 2, the values of a,b,c have been found. The expected yield has been calculated by using the aridity indices X 1 and X 2 and the result in the form of coefficient of determination R 2 has been found equal to 0.166. The significance of the regression coefficient has been tested, which shows that the contribution to the yield from aridity index at germination and that at ripening is significant. The wheat yields are the results of a wide variety of variables, most of which show varying degree of relationship with one another, some positive and some negative in terms of output. These variables may be technology, fertilizers, pesticides, epidemics, kinds of seeds used, market price of crop and the area under cultivation etc, which can be the source of variation in the wheat yield. Since rainfall during germination and temperature at the ripening periods are the necessary factors for the yield of wheat, for this purpose these parameters have been studied in order to their contribution.

Haider, Syed Faizan; Asif, K. H.; Gilani, Amjad Hussain

1992-09-01

410

Emergency blood transfusion services after the 2005 earthquake in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background On 8 October 2005, an earthquake measuring 7.6 on the Richter Scale struck the Himalayan region of Kashmir and Hazara divisions, killing an estimated 73?000 people. Soon after, a situation and response analysis of the emergency blood transfusion services was carried out in the affected areas to ascertain specific needs and suggest appropriate measures to assist in the disaster plan. Method A semistructured questionnaire, complete with a checklist and participatory observation method, was used to collect data between 12 and 20 October 2005. Study sites were Abbotabad, Mansehra and Muzzafarabad in Pakistan, and interviewees were surgeons and blood bank personnel. Results Of the seven major hospitals in the area, 3 (43%) had a functional blood transfusion service. Although supply of voluntary blood was abundant, shortage of individual blood groups was noted at each centre. Quality assurance standards were either non?existent or inadequate. Only three blood banks had refrigerators, but with limited storage capacities. A complete breakdown of infrastructure coupled with frequent power failures posed a serious threat to safety of the blood. The continued aftershocks added to the problems. Although initial estimates of blood requirement were high, actual demand noted later was much lower. Discussion Timely establishment of blood banks in disaster areas, is a challenging task. Mobile blood banks can be advantageous in such situations. Organisation at a national level for blood transfusion services and development of a minimum standard of quality assurance in normal times should ensure safe emergency blood transfusion services when disaster strikes. PMID:17183037

Mujeeb, S A; Jaffery, S H

2007-01-01

411

Pakistan: Asia-Pacific energy series, country report  

SciTech Connect

As part of our continuing assessment of Asia-Pacific energy markets, the Energy Program has embarked on a series of country studies that discuss in detail the structure of the energy sector in each major country in the region. The country studies also provide the reader with an overview of the economic and political situation in the various countries. We have particularly highlighted petroleum and gas issues in the country studies and have attempted to show the foreign trade implications of oil and gas trade. Finally, to the greatest extent possible, we have provided the latest available statistics -- often from unpublished and disparate sources that are unavailable to most readers. Staff members have traveled extensively in -- and at times have lived in -- the countries under review and have held discussions with senior policymakers in government and industry. Thus, these reports provide not only information but also the latest thinking on energy issues in the various countries. This report summarizes the energy and economic situation in Pakistan.

Gazdar, M.N.

1992-03-01

412

To donate a kidney: public perspectives from Pakistan.  

PubMed

Despite the majority opinion of Muslim jurists that organ donation is permitted in Sharia, surveys indicate continuing resistance by lay Muslims, especially to donating organs following death. Pakistan, a country with 165 million Muslims, currently reliant on live donors, is considering steps to establish deceased donor programs which will require public acceptance and support. This article analyzes the results of in-depth interviews with 105 members of the public focusing on opinions and knowledge about juristic rulings regarding kidney donations, donor-family dynamics in deceased donation decisions, and attitudes towards buying kidneys. The objective was to determine the influence if any of cultural and religious values, and norms of traditional family structures and kinships, on decisions to donate. Study participants view donation of kidneys, particularly from the deceased, through a different lens from that used by jurists and physicians, one that also does not conform to familiar paradigms defining ethical organ donation. A socially modulated understanding of Islam passed down the generations, and longstanding family-centric norms, shape the moral worldview of many rather than academic juristic rulings or non-contextual concepts of autonomy and rights. The results of this study also highlight that medical science may be universal but its application occurs within particularities of cultural and religious values, social constructs of the self and its relationship with others, and different ways in which humans comprehend illness, suffering, and death. These findings are of relevance both to transplant related professionals and bioethicists involved with this field. PMID:23278568

Moazam, Farhat; Jafarey, Aamir M; Shirazi, Bushra

2014-02-01

413

Early Miocene anatexis identified in the western syntaxis, Pakistan Himalaya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evidence for typical Himalayan Early to Middle Miocene anatexis has remained elusive in the Nanga Parbat massif in the western Himalaya of Pakistan; previous work has identified only young plutonism (10-1 Ma). New U-(Th)-Pb data from the Southern Chichi granite, a leucogranite in southern Nanga Parbat, reveal that crustal melting occurred during the Early Miocene. This largely undeformed, fine-grained pluton intrudes the Indian metasedimentary cover sequence adjacent to the Rupal shear, a major shear zone at Nanga Parbat. Th-Pb ion microprobe analyses of monazites from the Chichi granite yield ages between 22 Ma and 16 Ma, with the majority of analyses lying at 19-18 Ma. U/Pb zircon analyses yield ages which fall along a chord with a lower intercept age of 19 Ma. The zircons also contain an ˜1850 Ma inherited component. These data indicate that the Early Miocene anatexis that is ubiquitous in central portions of the Himalayan orogen, unreported anywhere in the NW Himalaya, also occurred in the western Himalayan syntaxis, and demonstrates that Nanga Parbat has a protracted melting history. A small granitic dike that cross-cuts the outer portion of the Rupal shear yields monazite ages between 22 Ma and 9 Ma, where the young ages correlate with high U concentrations. 40Ar- 39Ar biotite ages from adjacent gneisses indicate cooling by 10 Ma, requiring significant displacement on this portion of the Rupal shear to be older than ˜10 Ma and possibly as old as ˜20 Ma.

Schneider, D. A.; Edwards, M. A.; Kidd, W. S. F.; Zeitler, P. K.; Coath, C. D.

1999-04-01

414

[South] Yemen.  

PubMed

Yemen has an area of 112,000 square miles, the terrain is mountainous in the interior, and has a flat and sandy coast. The climate is extremely hot with little rainfall. 2.2 million is the population level with an annual growth rate of 2.6%. The ethnic background is Arab, the religion is Islam and the language is Arabic. 50 years is the average life expectancy and the infant mortality rate is 142/1000. The labor force is 42% agriculture, fisheries, industry and commerce 31%, and services 27%. A republic formed in 1967, the government has a constitution approved in 1978. They have 1 party, the Yemeni Socialist Party with a executive presidium, a supreme people's council and a federal high court. Natural resources include oil and fish, and agricultural products are cotton, hides, skins, and coffee. In 1962 the Federation of South Arabia was formed and a treaty was signed in 1959 for independence by 1968. There was much turmoil from 1967 until 1986 when Haydar Bakr Al-Attus gained power, and there are still strong internal rivalries. The economy has been concentrated in the city of Aden, and with the loss of tourist trade in 1967, and closing of the British base, it has declined by more than 20% by 1968. Attempts are being made to build roads, fisheries, villages, a power plant, and agriculture and irrigation projects. PMID:12178022

1989-12-01

415

The tectonic development of south-central Asia and the paleogeographic setting of its hydrocarbon resources  

SciTech Connect

The countries of south-central Asia (Afghanistan to Thailand) are made up of fragments of Gondwana that collided with the southern margin of Eurasia during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic. The Cimmerian terranes (Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan, Qiang Tang, and Burma-Malaya) rifted away from Gondwana beginning in the Late Carboniferous and were accreted to Asia during the Late Triassic-Jurassic. The Lhasa terrane, presumably also derived from Gondwana, was accreted during the Late Jurassic. By the Early Cretaceous, India-Madagascar had separated from Africa and from Australia-Antarctica. In the middle Cretaceous, India rapidly rifted away from Madagascar, and during the early Eocene collided with Asia giving rise to the Tibetam Plateau and the mountain belts from Afghanistan through Burma. The sedimentary basins and petroleum provinces adjacent to and south of these collision zones are best understood when viewed in the context of their tectonic history and paleogeographic setting. About 7 billion bbl of oil and 50 tcf of gas have been discovered in south-central Asia, mostly in Cenozoic deltaic sandstones or marine carbonate reservoirs in rift (Cambay), passive margin (Bombay shelf), and foreland basins (Assam, Indux, Potwar, Bengal) in India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, and in a fore-arc setting in Burma. Source rocks are mostly Paleogene shale, but some Paleozoic and Mesozoic sources be present in Pakistan. New exploration is underway or will begin soon in India, Bangladesh, Nepal, and Burma.

Scotese, C.R. (Shell Development Co., Houston, TX (USA)); Tyrell, W.W. Jr. (Amoco Production Co., Houston, TX (USA)); Maher, K.A. (Shell Development Co., Houston, TX (USA))

1990-05-01

416

Achievements of the FIGO Initiative for the Prevention of Unsafe Abortion and its Consequences in South-Southeast Asia.  

PubMed

Since 2008, the FIGO Initiative for the Prevention of Unsafe Abortion and its Consequences has contributed to ensuring the substitution of sharp curettage by manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) and medical abortion in selected hospitals in participating countries of South-Southeast Asia. This initiative facilitated the registration of misoprostol in Pakistan and Bangladesh, and the approval of mifepristone for "menstrual regulation" in Bangladesh. The Pakistan Nursing Council agreed to include MVA and medical abortion in the midwifery curriculum. The Bangladesh Government has approved the training of nurses and paramedics in the use of MVA to treat incomplete abortion in selected cases. The Sri Lanka College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, in collaboration with partners, has presented a draft petition to the relevant authorities appealing for them to liberalize the abortion law in cases of rape and incest or when lethal congenital abnormalities are present. Significantly, the initiative has introduced or strengthened the provision of postabortion contraception. PMID:24743025

Zaidi, Shahida; Begum, Ferdousi; Tank, Jaydeep; Chaudhury, Pushpa; Yasmin, Haleema; Dissanayake, Mangala

2014-07-01

417

Nuclear arms race technologies in the 1990s The case of India and Pakistan  

SciTech Connect

India and Pakistan continue to inch towards a capability to produce nuclear weapons, with India having the stronger industrial base of the two to supply the necessary nuclear materials. This trend challenges U.S. policy to discourage the further spread, or proliferation, of nuclear weapons. After providing background on the production of nuclear weapons materials, this paper briefly describes the nuclear industrial bases of India and Pakistan; reason for and against their acquisition of nuclear weapons, and related U.S. response; and suggests some options for action and for study.

Donnelly, W.H.

1988-12-15

418

Emerging nuclear programs in Asia: The Phillipines, Thailand, Indonesia, and Pakistan  

SciTech Connect

This article is a review of the potential for nuclear energy development in the developing nations of Pakistan, Indonesia, Thailand, and the Philippines. In each country, there is a substantial need for new generating capacity, and each is exploring the idea of having nuclear energy supply a meaningful portion of this new capacity. Of the four countries, only Pakistan is currently a nuclear operator, and one vintage CANDU plant in operation and the Chashma unit under construction. Thailand and Indonesia have ambitious plans to have 12 reactors in service by the year 2015.

Williams, M.L.

1993-12-01

419

South Asia Water Resources Workshop: An effort to promote water quality data sharing in South Asia  

SciTech Connect

To promote cooperation in South Asia on environmental research, an international working group comprised of participants from Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and the US convened at the Soaltee Hotel in Kathmandu, Nepal, September 12 to 14, 1999. The workshop was sponsored in part by the Cooperative Monitoring Center (CMC) at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, through funding provided by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nonproliferation and National Security. The CMC promotes collaborations among scientists and researchers in regions throughout the world as a means of achieving common regional security objectives. In the long term, the workshop organizers and participants are interested in the significance of regional information sharing as a means to build confidence and reduce conflict. The intermediate interests of the group focus on activities that might eventually foster regional management of some aspects of water resources utilization. The immediate purpose of the workshop was to begin the implementation phase of a project to collect and share water quality information at a number of river and coastal estuary locations throughout the region. The workshop participants achieved four objectives: (1) gaining a better understanding of the partner organizations involved; (2) garnering the support of existing regional organizations promoting environmental cooperation in South Asia; (3) identifying sites within the region at which data is to be collected; and (4) instituting a data and information collection and sharing process.

RAJEN,GAURAV; BIRINGER,KENT L.; BETSILL,J. DAVID

2000-04-01

420

SOUTH AFRICA'S MEERKAT ARRAY  

E-print Network

SOUTH AFRICA'S MEERKAT ARRAY THE MEERKAT ARRAY, currently taking shape in South Africa's Karoo) is completed around 2024. Via MeerKAT, South Africa is playing a key role in design and technology developments at the engineering office in Cape Town, and at universities and technology companies across South Africa and Africa

Jarrett, Thomas H.

421

Siraat-e-Mustaqeem or the straight path.  

PubMed

This article focuses on conversations the author had with a middle-class, urban, working Muslim lesbian and her partner in Karachi, Pakistan. The couple discuss their lives within the framework of Islamic culture of South Asia. The author attempts to explore how women-loving- women define and construct knowledge about their sexuality, about non-normative forms of sexual relations/preferences, and how they negotiate the imagined and real restrictions placed on their sexuality by religion, society, and family, and the impact of such control mechanisms on women's health and emotional well-being, mobility, education, livelihood, sexual behaviors, and expression of desire. PMID:22978286

Gandhi, Nighat M

2012-01-01

422

84. South Oregon St., 621 (residential), south and east facades, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

84. South Oregon St., 621 (residential), south and east facades, facade on right is South Oregon St., and facade on left is on Fifth Ave. - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

423

HLA association in SLE patients from Lahore-Pakistan.  

PubMed

The first genetic factors to be identified as important in the pathogenesis of Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) were those of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) on chromosome 6. It is now widely accepted that MHC genes constitute a part of the genetic susceptibility to SLE. The study population comprised 61 SLE patients fulfilling at least four of the American college of Rheumatology criteria for SLE and 61 healthy blood donors as controls. SLE female versus male ratio was approximately 9:1. Mean age at diagnosis was 30.35 ± 1.687 (12-68 years). DNA-based HLA Typing for HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-DRB1 was carried out by Polymerase chain reaction with sequence specific primers using genomic DNA obtained from blood samples. A total of 22 alleles have been studied at locus A, 37 alleles at locus B and 17 DRB1 alleles. The allelic frequencies of HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-DRB1 antigens in SLE patients from Pakistan were compared with the controls. A significant increase was observed in the frequency of HLA-A*01, A*03, A*11, A*23, A*26 A*69, HLA-B*27, B*40, B*49, B*51, B*52, B*53, B*54, B*95, HLA-DRBI*01, DRBI*03, DRBI*11, DRBI*14 among SLE patients indicating a positive association of these alleles with SLE. HLA-A*24, A*29, A*31, A*34, A*68, A*92, HLA-B*18, HLA-DRB1*12, were found to be decreased in the patient group as compared to controls indicating a negative association of these alleles with SLE. Thus from this study we can conclude that SLE is associated with certain MHC alleles in Pakistani population. PMID:21342137

Hussain, Nageen; Jaffery, Ghazala; Sabri, Anjum Nasim; Hasnain, Shahida

2011-02-01

424

Drinking water quality assessment in Southern Sindh (Pakistan).  

PubMed

The southern Sindh province of Pakistan adjoins the Arabian Sea coast where drinking water quality is deteriorating due to dumping of industrial and urban waste and use of agrochemicals and yet has limited fresh water resources. The study assessed the drinking water quality of canal, shallow pumps, dug wells, and water supply schemes from the administrative districts of Thatta, Badin, and Thar by measuring physical, chemical, and biological (total coliform) quality parameters. All four water bodies (dug wells, shallow pumps canal water, and water supply schemes) exceeded WHO MPL for turbidity (24%, 28%, 96%, 69%), coliform (96%, 77%, 92%, 81%), and electrical conductivity (100%, 99%, 44%, 63%), respectively. However, the turbidity was lower in underground water, i.e., 24% and 28% in dug wells and shallow pumps as compared to open water, i.e., 96% and 69% in canal and water supply schemes, respectively. In dug wells and shallow pumps, limits for TDS, alkalinity, hardness, and sodium exceeded, respectively, by 63% and 33%; 59% and 70%, 40% and 27%, and 78% and 26%. Sodium was major problem in dug wells and shallow pumps of district Thar and considerable percent in shallow pumps of Badin. Iron was major problem in all water bodies of district Badin ranging from 50% to 69% and to some extent in open waters of Thatta. Other parameters as pH, copper, manganese, zinc, and phosphorus were within standard permissible limits of World Health Organization. Some common diseases found in the study area were gastroenteritis, diarrhea and vomiting, kidney, and skin problems. PMID:20658360

Memon, Mehrunisa; Soomro, Mohammed Saleh; Akhtar, Mohammad Saleem; Memon, Kazi Suleman

2011-06-01

425

DNA Barcoding of Bemisia tabaci Complex (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Reveals Southerly Expansion of the Dominant Whitefly Species on Cotton in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Although whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci complex) are an important pest of cotton in Pakistan, its taxonomic diversity is poorly understood. As DNA barcoding is an effective tool for resolving species complexes and analyzing species distributions, we used this approach to analyze genetic diversity in the B. tabaci complex and map the distribution of B. tabaci lineages in cotton growing areas of Pakistan. Methods/Principal Findings Sequence diversity in the DNA barcode region (mtCOI-5?) was examined in 593 whiteflies from Pakistan to determine the number of whitefly species and their distributions in the cotton-growing areas of Punjab and Sindh provinces. These new records were integrated with another 173 barcode sequences for B. tabaci, most from India, to better understand regional whitefly diversity. The Barcode Index Number (BIN) System assigned the 766 sequences to 15 BINs, including nine from Pakistan. Representative specimens of each Pakistan BIN were analyzed for mtCOI-3? to allow their assignment to one of the putative species in the B. tabaci complex recognized on the basis of sequence variation in this gene region. This analysis revealed the presence of Asia II 1, Middle East-Asia Minor 1, Asia 1, Asia II 5, Asia II 7, and a new lineage “Pakistan”. The first two taxa were found in both Punjab and Sindh, but Asia 1 was only detected in Sindh, while Asia II 5, Asia II 7 and “Pakistan” were only present in Punjab. The haplotype networks showed that most haplotypes of Asia II 1, a species implicated in transmission of the cotton leaf curl virus, occurred in both India and Pakistan. Conclusions DNA barcodes successfully discriminated cryptic species in B. tabaci complex. The dominant haplotypes in the B. tabaci complex were shared by India and Pakistan. Asia II 1 was previously restricted to Punjab, but is now the dominant lineage in southern Sindh; its southward spread may have serious implications for cotton plantations in this region. PMID:25099936

Ashfaq, Muhammad; Hebert, Paul D. N.; Mirza, M. Sajjad; Khan, Arif M.; Mansoor, Shahid; Shah, Ghulam S.; Zafar, Yusuf

2014-01-01

426

Pakistan Vet. J., 24(3): 2004 EFFECTS OF ASCORBIC ACID AND ACETYLSALICYLIC ACID  

E-print Network

Pakistan Vet. J., 24(3): 2004 109 EFFECTS OF ASCORBIC ACID AND ACETYLSALICYLIC ACID SUPPLEMENTATION into 5 equal groups and kept under elevated temperature (93-97o F) to see the effect of ascorbic acid, thymus and spleen to body weight of the birds. Ascorbic acid and acetylsalicylic acid supplementation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

427

Production of Cognitive and Life Skills in Public, Private, and NGO Schools in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The share of private and NGO schools in primary education has substantially increased over time, though the public sector is still a major player in this area. The present study analyses the factors determining the quality of education offered by the three types of schools and draws policy recommendations for improving primary education in Pakistan. The study compares learning achievement

G. M. Arif; Najam Us Saqib

2003-01-01

428

Organic Matter Contents in Selected Peatlands and Wetlands of Pakistan: The Role of Water Level  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pakistan is home to different wetland types including lacustrine wetlands and alpine peatlands. To our knowledge, very little and\\/or nothing is known about the amount of organic matter (OM) stored in soils of these ecosystems, and the role of groundwater level in OM accumulation rates, which could play a significant role in atmospheric CO2 sequestration. The amount of soil OM

Imran Ullah; Ahmad Khan

429

Comparison of the Personal Health Questionnaire and the Self Reporting Questionnaire in rural Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To apply ROC analysis to select the best threshold scores for the PHQ and SRQ; to compare the sensitivity and specificity of the PHQ and SRQ against a criterion diagnosis of depressive disorder in a commu- nity sample in rural Pakistan, and to examine the influence of socio-demographic factors on misclassification. Methods: The study used a two-stage design. Receiver

Nusrat Husain; Richard Gater; Barbara Tomenson; Francis Creed

430

Success stories in saline agriculture in Pakistan: from research to produc- tion and development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes some of the work on saline agriculture in Pakistan over the last 20 years, giving ex- amples of successes in translating techniques from the laboratory to the farming community. Examples are given of projects demonstrating the use of halophytic species for fodder and fuel production, and im- provements due to new agronomic techniques and plant breeding. Halophytes

P. A. Hollington; Z. Hussain; MA Kahlown; M. Abdullah

431

Prospects of Renewable Energy for Meeting Growing Electricity Demand in Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pakistan is an energy deficit country. About half of the country's population has access to electricity and per capita supply is only 520 kWh. Majority of the country's population resides in rural areas and most of them are yet without electricity. Conventional electricity generation includes 66.8% thermal, 30% hydel and 3.3% nuclear. It has been projected that electricity demand in Pakistan will increase in the range of 12 MTOE to 17 MTOE by the year 2018, at an average growth rate of about 5% to 7% and will require installed capacity of about 35 GW to 50 GW. Indigenous reserves of oil and gas are limited and the country heavily depends on imported oil. Thermal power generation on the other hand also pollutes the environment. This paper presents the availability of renewables such as hydel, solar, wind and biomass energy, and their prospects for meeting growing electricity demand in Pakistan and subsequent contribution in air pollution abatement. The study concludes that there is substantial potential of these renewables and they have also bright prospects for meeting growing electricity demand in Pakistan.

Uqaili, Mohammad Aslam; Harijan, Khanji; Memon, Mujeebuddin

2007-10-01

432

From LAMP to Koha: Case Study of the Pakistan Legislative Assembly Libraries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This paper aims to elaborate the library data migration process from LAMP (Library Automation Management Program) to the open source software Koha's (2.2.8 Windows based) Pakistani flavour PakLAG-Koha in six legislative assembly libraries of Pakistan. Design/methodology/approach: The paper explains different steps of the data migration…

Shafi-Ullah, Farasat; Qutab, Saima

2012-01-01

433

Primary Health Care Physicians’ Response to the Victims of Spousal Violence Against Women in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we investigates the primary care physicians’ response to the victims of spousal violence in Pakistan. By drawing upon the data collected by in-depth interviews from 24 physicians from Lahore and Sialkot, in this research we documented their knowledge, attitudes, and behavior treating the victims of violence. Data revealed that the physicians lacked competence, training, and resources to

Rubeena Zakar; Muhammad Zakria Zakar; Alexander Kraemer

2011-01-01

434

Measuring Push, Pull And Personal Factors Affecting Turnover Intention: A Case Of University Teachers In Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been observed that professional and qualified teacher’s retention become a challenge for Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) in Pakistan as the turnover rate has been significantly increased in recent years. The main objective of this paper is to access personal, push and pull factors and to find out that which factors contribute more to turnover intention. Primary data were

Iqtidar ALI SHAH; Zainab FAKHR; M. Shakil AHMAD; Khalid ZAMAN

2010-01-01

435

Selection criteria for Islamic home financing: a case study of Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The aim of this research is to examine the selection criteria of customers for Islamic home financing in the context of Pakistan and to examine these factors with respect to gender, age, income, and occupation. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This study uses a quantitative approach to investigate the choice criteria for Islamic home financing. All 18 independent variables are taken

Ayesha Hamid; Omar Masood

2011-01-01

436

FORAGE EVALUATION FOR SOME TRACE ELEMENTS: A CASE STUDY IN THE SOONE VALLEY, PAKISTAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey was conducted in the soone valley in the north-west of the Punjab Province of Pakistan to assess the concentrations of some essential minerals during the period of whole year in forages for livestock grazing therein. Samples of dominant species of forage plants were taken, which consisted chiefly of legumes, after following the animals. The samples were analysed for

KAFEEL AHMAD; ZAFAR IQBAL KHAN; MUHAMMAD YASIN ASHRAF; EHSAN ELAHI VALEEM

2008-01-01

437

Literacy for Women and Their Participation in the Labour Force in Pakistan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In rural Pakistan, agricultural land is owned by men and they use family labor, including women. Women usually transact no cash from cradle to grave. There is no social support for high achievement in their lives. The illiteracy rate among women is very high, especially in rural areas, where only 7.3 percent of women are literate. Poor…

Panhwar, Farzana

438

Using remote sensing data to monitor land cover changes near Afghan refugee camps in northern Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

By the early 1990s, the civil war in Afghanistan had forced more than three million Afghan refugees to resettle in neighboring Pakistan. Although previous studies have noted that refugees have had a negative impact on natural resources in the vicinity of resettlement camps, there has been little work done to quantify these impacts. The research presented here examines the clearing

Mahtab A. Lodhi; Fernando R. Echavarria; Chris Keithley

1998-01-01