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1

Perspectives on domestic violence: case study from Karachi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is no adequate profile of domestic violence in Pakistan although this issue is fre- quently highlighted by the media. This case study used qualitative and quantitative methods to explore the nature and forms of domestic violence, circumstances, impact and coping mechanisms amongst selected women victims in Karachi. Violence was a continuum: all the women reported verbal abuse, often escalating

F. Rabbani; F. Qureshi; N. Rizvi

2008-01-01

2

Syncope: experience at a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Our aim was to determine the characteristics of patients presenting with syncope at a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A review of medical records was conducted retrospectively at the Department of Medicine, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi.\\u000a Patients aged 16 and above, admitted from January 2000 to December 2005 with the diagnosis of syncope made by the attending\\u000a physician

Muhammad Junaid Patel; Nadeem Ullah Khan; Abdul Jawwad Samdani; Muhammad Furqan; Aamir Hameed; Muhammad Shoaib Khan; Syed Imran Ayaz; Muhammad Omer Jamil

2008-01-01

3

THE EFFECT OF ANTIBACTERIAL SOAP ON IMPETIGO INCIDENCE, KARACHI, PAKISTAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a study to determine if soap containing 1.2% triclocarban would be effective in reducing the incidence of impetigo. We randomized 162 households in a low-income neighborhood of Karachi, Pakistan, to receive a regular supply of 1.2% triclocarban-containing soap (n 81) or an identically appearing placebo (n 81); 79 households in a nearby neighborhood were enrolled as standard practice

STEPHEN LUBY; MUBINA AGBOATWALLA; BEVERLY M. SCHNELL; ROBERT M. HOEKSTRA; MOHAMMAD H. RAHBAR; BRUCE H. KESWICK

4

Profile of drug users in Karachi City, Pakistan.  

PubMed

Drug use has been identified as a major public issue in Pakistan. A descriptive questionnaire survey in Karachi city was made to identify the socioeconomic profile and beliefs and practices of 500 drug users The most commonly used drugs were cocaine (19.0%) and crack-cocaine (15.0%), followed by amphetamine, (11.0%), alcohol, caffeine, barbiturates and benzodiazepines (10.0% each). Key psychological factors leading tc drug use were problems with parental or marital relations or break-up of a relationship (45.0%). Drugs were seer as an escape from stressful life events (28.0%) or feelings of failure (18.2%). Many drug users blamed the origin of their drug use on bad social influences (47.0%) or socioeconomic problems (23.4%). Preventive measures are needed to decrease the rate of drug addiction in Karachi. PMID:21735800

Ali, H; Bushra, R; Aslam, N

2011-01-01

5

Water and Private Sector Partnership: Case of Karachi, A Mega-City of Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Implementation of private sector partnership (PSP) into Karachi Water and Sewerage Board (KWSB) of Karachi, a mega-city of Pakistan, was studied. The assignment was categorized into three distinct phases: development of the most appropriate strategy for PSP; execution of the preparatory work for PSP; and implementation of the agreed program. The PSP strategy approved by Government of Sindh (GS) province

Tahir Imran Qureshi; Young-Ju Kim

2002-01-01

6

Elevated iron levels in hair from steel mill workers in Karachi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

logy clinic at a steel mill in Karachi, Pakistan. Samples were taken from the nape of the neck of 26 workers. Samples were also collected from 28 age- and sex-matched control Pakistani men in the city of Karachi, primarily students, to enable a comparison of hair metal profiles between two nutritionally similar groups differing only in their occupation. Informed consent

I. Siraj Jamall; R. A. Jaffer

1987-01-01

7

Perspectives on domestic violence: case study from Karachi, Pakistan.  

PubMed

There is no adequate profile of domestic violence in Pakistan although this issue is frequently highlighted by the media. This case study used qualitative and quantitative methods to explore the nature and forms of domestic violence, circumstances, impact and coping mechanisms amongst selected women victims in Karachi. Violence was a continuum: all the women reported verbal abuse, often escalating into physical, emotional, sexual and economic abuse. The husband was the most common perpetrator. Women suffered in silence due to sociocultural norms, misinterpretation of religious beliefs, subordinate status, economic dependence and lack of legal redress. Besides short-term local measures, public policy informed by correct interpretation of religion can bring about a change in prevailing societal norms. PMID:18561735

Rabbani, F; Qureshi, F; Rizvi, N

8

Newborn care practices in low socioeconomic settlements of Karachi, Pakistan.  

PubMed

To explore traditional neonatal beliefs and care practices and to assess the predictors for giving prelacteal feeds, a qualitative and quantitative study was conducted in low socioeconomic settlements of Karachi, Pakistan. Five focus group discussions and 15 in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted in July and August 2000; structured questionnaires were administered to 525 recently delivered women through November. Antenatal care coverage was common; a little over half of the women delivered at home with traditional birth attendants. Among the 387 women who reported at least one antenatal visit, most (78.6%) reported receiving counseling on breastfeeding by their healthcare provider. A significant proportion of women (44.8%) reported giving lacteals; colostrum (41.7%) or animal/formula milk (3.1%), as the first feed. Newborns were bathed immediately (82.1%) after delivery as the vernix was considered 'dirty looking' (78.5%), and it was felt it should be removed. To foster muscle relaxation (80.2%) and strengthen the bones (43.0%), daily massage was universally practiced, mustard oil (75.9%) being the most frequently used lubricant. Risky feeding practices such as giving prelacteals (55.0%) or supplementary feeds (71.3%), or delaying first feed (30.9%) were common. During the neonatal period, breast milk was the preferred feed (98.6%); however, honey (28.7%), ghutti (27.8%) and water (11.8%) were also given in order to 'reduce colic' or 'act as a laxative', which were perceived health benefits mentioned by mothers and traditional birth attendants. Ethnicity and birth attendant at delivery were strong predictors for women who gave prelacteals (after adjusting for education, socioeconomic status and facility delivery). Although administration of colostrum as the first feed was relatively common in this setting, the predominance of other risky traditional newborn care practices stresses the need for promoting health education programs on improving newborn care practices. PMID:15589663

Fikree, Fariyal F; Ali, Tazeen S; Durocher, Jill M; Rahbar, Mohammad Hossein

2005-03-01

9

Risk Factors for Secondary Infertility among Women in Karachi, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Secondary infertility in developing countries is mostly attributable to blockage of the fallopian tubes due to adhesions caused by reproductive tract infections. There is a dearth of information on the prevalence and causes of secondary infertility from Pakistan. This paper presents results on factors associated with secondary infertility among married women in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods A matched case-control study was conducted. Cases were women aged 15–35 years with history of at least one previous conception and currently seeking treatment for secondary infertility. Controls were women residing in the neighborhood of cases with at least one live birth and not taking treatment for secondary infertility. The age of controls was matched by ±5 years to that of cases. Data was collected from June to August 2003. Conditional logistic regression was used to determine crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) for factors associated with secondary infertility. Results The final multivariate logistic regression model revealed that after adjusting for age, cases were more likely to be the housewives (AOR?=?2.6, 95% CI:1.5–4.4), had used inappropriate material to absorb blood during menstruation (AOR?=?9.0, 95% CI: 5.0–16.4), and at their last delivery, had a birth attendant who did not wash hands with soap and water (AOR?=?3.0, 95% CI: 1.4–5.7). Moreover, women with secondary infertility were more likely to report current or past history of having STI symptoms (AOR?=?3.6, 95% CI: 2.4–5.6) and use of intra-vaginal indigenous medicines during their last post-partum period (AOR?=?3.1, 95% CI: 1.6–5.7). Conclusion We recommend health education and awareness messages for safe practices during menstruation, delivery, and the postpartum period for women in general. Additionally, sanitary napkins should be made available at an affordable cost, and safe delivery kits should contain educational/pictorial brochures for appropriate hand washing skills.

Sami, Neelofar; Ali, Tazeen Saeed; Wasim, Saba; Saleem, Sarah

2012-01-01

10

Hyperendemic pulmonary tuberculosis in peri-urban areas of Karachi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Currently there are very limited empirical data available on the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis among residents of marginalized settings in Pakistan. This study assessed the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis through active case detection and evaluated predictors of pulmonary tuberculosis among residents of two peri-urban neighbourhoods of Karachi, Pakistan. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in two peri-urban neighbourhoods from

Saeed Akhtar; Franklin White; Rumina Hasan; Shafquat Rozi; Mohammad Younus; Faiza Ahmed; Sara Husain; Bilquis Sana Khan

2007-01-01

11

Risky behavior of bus commuters and bus drivers in Karachi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Buses account for a disproportionate number of road traffic accident fatalities in Karachi, Pakistan and other developing countries. Potentially dangerous bus driving and commuting practices that increase risk of road accidents and the effect of traffic police on bus behavior are evaluated. A total of 250 episodes each of disembarking and embarking commuters, buses stopping and moving on the road

Saema Mirza; Muneeza Mirza; Habib Chotani; Stephen Luby

1999-01-01

12

Public Health Problems in Low and High Socio Economic Areas of Karachi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Despite many media campaigns by government and private sectors highlighting, water and sanitation treat- ment plans and policies, the public health problems are still common in different socioeconomic areas. The objective of our study was to explore the major public health problems prevailing in two different socio economic areas in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods: A cross sectional survey was conducted

HA Qazi; J Ahmed Soomro; A Hashmi; M Hafeez Qadri; F Rasheed; M Tariq Karim

13

The Main Reasons of Declining Educational Standards at Secondary Level in Karachi, Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The cause of this investigation was to identify the main reasons which decline the educational standards at secondary level in Karachi, Pakistan. It was carried out through survey. The population of the study was both "government and private" schools students and teachers. The views of male and female students and teachers were sought out. One…

Faizi, Waqar-un-Nisa; Shakil, Anila Fatima; Lodhi, Farida Azim

2011-01-01

14

Limited effectiveness of home drinking water purification efforts in Karachi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: In many developing-country urban areas, municipally supplied water is not microbiologically safe. This study evaluated drinking water quality and effect of home water purification efforts in Karachi, Pakistan.Methods: Members of 300 households, including 100 households who used the Aga Khan University Hospital Laboratory and 200 of their neighbors were interviewed. In 293 consenting households, structured observations were performed and

Stephen E. Luby; Amber H. Syed; Naureen Atiullah; Mohammad K. Faizan; Susan Fisher-Hoch

2000-01-01

15

Use of satellite imagery in constructing a household GIS database for health studies in Karachi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Household-level geographic information systems (GIS) database are usually constructed using the geographic positioning system (GPS). In some research settings, GPS receivers may fail to capture accurate readings due to structural barriers such as tall buildings. We faced this problem when constructing a household GIS database for research sites in Karachi, Pakistan because the sites are comprised of congested groups

Mohammad Ali; Shahid Rasool; Jin-Kyung Park; Shamoon Saeed; Rion Leon Ochiai; Qamaruddin Nizami; Camilo J Acosta; Zulfiqar Bhutta

2004-01-01

16

Knowledge and Attitude of General Practitioners regarding Autism in Karachi, Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|General practitioners (GPs) could have an important role in early diagnosis of autism. There have been no studies evaluating the knowledge of GPs regarding autism in Pakistan. We aimed to fill that gap by assessing knowledge and attitude of GPs in Karachi regarding autism. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 348 GPs; only 148 (44.6%) had…

Rahbar, Mohammad Hossein; Ibrahim, Khalid; Assassi, Parisa

2011-01-01

17

Cost of Acute Stroke Care at a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate cost of acute stroke care and its determinants at a tertiary care hospital in Karachi and to find out predictors of high cost care. Acute stroke is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Cost of care is the single most important determinant in availability of acute stroke care at a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan. It

B. A. Khealani; Z. F. Javed; N. A. Syed; S. Shafqat; M. Wasay

2003-01-01

18

HIV risk in Karachi and Lahore, Pakistan: an emerging epidemic in injecting and commercial sex networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: The objective of this study was to measure HIV prevalence and risk behaviour in injecting drug users (IDUs), male sex workers (MSWs), Hijras (transgenders), female sex workers (FSWs) and male truckers in Karachi and Lahore, Pakistan. The design was a linked-anonymous cross-sectional study of individuals identified at key venues or through peer referral. Approximately 400 respondents in each group

Asma Bokhari; Naseer M Nizamani; Denis J Jackson; Naghma E Rehan; Motiur Rahman; Rana Muzaffar; Samina Mansoor; Hasan Raza; Kanwal Qayum; Philippe Girault; Elizabeth Pisani; Inayat Thaver

2007-01-01

19

Predictors of obesity among post graduate trainee doctors working in a tertiary care hospital of public sector in Karachi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To identify the predictors of obesity among post graduate trainee doctors working in a tertiary care hospital of public sector at Karachi, Pakistan.METHODS: A cross sectional analytical study was conducted at one of the tertiary care hospitals of public sector in Karachi. Information was collected from 117 post graduate trainee doctors via pre-tested self administered questionnaire and standard tools

Sajid Mahmood; Muhammad Kazim Rahim Najjad; Nasir Ali; Naeem Yousuf; Yasir Hamid

2010-01-01

20

Awareness of cancer risk factors among patients and attendants presenting to a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To determine awareness of cancer risk factors in the patients and attendants of Out-patient Clinics at a University Hospital in Karachi, Pakistan.METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 315 respondents reporting to a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan, to assess their level of awareness regarding risk factors of cancer.RESULTS: The respondents belonged to an urban population with the

Hadi Bhurgri; Saqib Ali Gowani; Ahmed Itrat; Saira Samani; Akbar Zuberi; Momin Saulat Siddique; Waris Qidwai; Yasmin Bhurgri

2008-01-01

21

Understanding unintentional childhood home injuries: pilot surveillance data from Karachi, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Childhood injuries, an important public health issue, globally affects more than 95% of children living in low-and middle-income countries. The objective of this study is to describe the epidemiology of childhood unintentional injuries in Karachi, Pakistan with a specific focus on those occurring within the home environment. Methods This was a secondary analysis of a childhood unintentional injury surveillance database setup in the emergency department of the Aga Khan Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan for 3 months. The data was collected by interviewing caretakers of children under 12 years of age presenting with an unintentional injury to the emergency departments of the four major tertiary care hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan. Results The surveillance included 566 injured children of which 409 (72%) injuries had taken place at/around home. Of 409 children, 66% were males and mostly between 5 and 11 years of age. Injuries commonly occurred during play time (51%). Fall (59%), dog bites (11%) and burns (9%) were the commonest mechanisms of injury. The majority of the children (78%) were directly discharged from the emergency room with predicted short term disability (42%). There were 2 deaths in the emergency department both due to falls. Conclusion Childhood injury surveillance system provides valuable in-depth information on child injuries. The majority of these unintentional childhood injuries occur at home; with falls, dog bites and burns being the most common types of unintentional childhood home injuries. Specific surveillance systems for child injuries can provide new and valuable information for countries like Pakistan.

2012-01-01

22

Knowledge and attitudes about tetanus and rabies: a population-based survey from Karachi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate public knowledge regarding predisposing factors, fatality and prevention of Tetanus and Rabies and attitudes toward vaccination and post-exposure prophylaxis.METHODS: A population-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted in all the 18 towns of Karachi, the largest metropolitan city of Pakistan, from December 2007 to January 2008. Men and women of more than 18 years of age were included in

Mohammad Wasay; Abdul Malik; Ammad Fahim; Adnan Yousuf; Rajesh Chawla; Haroon Daniel; Muhammad Rafay; Iqbal Azam; Junaid Razzak

2012-01-01

23

Knowledge and Attitude of General Practitioners Regarding Autism in Karachi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

General practitioners (GPs) could have an important role in early diagnosis of autism. There have been no studies evaluating\\u000a the knowledge of GPs regarding autism in Pakistan. We aimed to fill that gap by assessing knowledge and attitude of GPs in\\u000a Karachi regarding autism. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 348 GPs; only 148 (44.6%) had heard of “autism.” Our

Mohammad Hossein Rahbar; Khalid Ibrahim; Parisa Assassi

2011-01-01

24

Smoking prevalence, knowledge and attitudes among medical students in Karachi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of smoking prevalence and attitudes was made among medical students ran- domly selected from classes at the Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan. Of 271 respondents, 14.4% were current smokers (22.0% male and 3.8% females) and 3.3% ex-smokers. A majority of students recognized the dangers associated with active as well as passive smoking although only 55% of cur- rent

F. M. Khan; S. J. Husain; A. Laeeq; A. Awais; S. F. Hussain; J. A. Khan

25

Risk Factors for Neonatal Mortality in Low-Income Population Subgroups in Karachi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper assesses the risk factors for neonatal mortality (0–28 days of life) for full-term singleton live births. The study sample comprised 1,011 ever-married women who were residents of four multi-ethnic, multi-religious low-income areas of Karachi, Pakistan during 1995. The analysis sample was restricted to 4,488 live births to 912 women. Results showed that 4.8% (n = 217) of all

R. Hussain

2002-01-01

26

Prevalence and determinants of violence against emergency medical care providers in Karachi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundViolence against healthcare workers is a growing problem. About 9% to 49.5% violence has been reported from different parts of the world. Healthcare providers in emergency departments throughout the world are exposed to workplace violence.ObjectiveTo determine the prevalence and determinants of workplace violence against emergency care providers in tertiary care hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan.MethodsThe study was conducted in emergency departments

E U Siddiqui; K Ejaz; J A Razzak; M U Shehzad; S Jamali

2010-01-01

27

Spatio-temporal patterns of road traffic noise pollution in Karachi, Pakistan.  

PubMed

We studied the spatial and temporal patterns of noise exposure due to road traffic in Karachi City, Pakistan, and found that levels of noise were generally higher during mornings and evenings because of the commuting pattern of Karachi residents. This study found the average value of noise levels to be over 66 dB, which could cause serious annoyance according to the World Health Organization (WHO) outdoor noise guidelines. Maximum peak noise was over 101 dB, which is close to 110 dB, the level that can cause possible hearing impairment according to the WHO guidelines. We found that noise pollution is not an environmental problem reserved for developed countries, but occurs in developing countries as well. For this reason, steps might be required to reduce noise levels caused by road traffic. PMID:20851468

Mehdi, Mohammed Raza; Kim, Minho; Seong, Jeong Chang; Arsalan, Mudassar Hassan

2010-09-19

28

HIV risk in Karachi and Lahore, Pakistan: an emerging epidemic in injecting and commercial sex networks.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to measure HIV prevalence and risk behaviour in injecting drug users (IDUs), male sex workers (MSWs), Hijras (transgenders), female sex workers (FSWs) and male truckers in Karachi and Lahore, Pakistan. The design was a linked-anonymous cross-sectional study of individuals identified at key venues or through peer referral. Approximately 400 respondents in each group (200 for Hijras) responded to a standardized questionnaire and were tested for HIV antibodies at each site. In Karachi, 23% of IDUs and 4% of MSWs were HIV positive, and HIV-positive individuals were identified in all risk groups in at least one city. Two-thirds of all IDUs used a shared needle in the previous week, and unprotected commercial sex activity with men and women was high. The HIV epidemic has entered IDU and male and female commercial sex networks in Karachi and Lahore. Targeted intervention services must be scaled up and risk group surveillance intensified. PMID:17623508

Bokhari, Asma; Nizamani, Naseer M; Jackson, Denis J; Rehan, Naghma E; Rahman, Motiur; Muzaffar, Rana; Mansoor, Samina; Raza, Hasan; Qayum, Kanwal; Girault, Philippe; Pisani, Elizabeth; Thaver, Inayat

2007-07-01

29

Breast cancer risk factor knowledge among nurses in teaching hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan: a cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in both the developed and the developing world. The incidence of breast cancer in Karachi, Pakistan is 69.1 per 100,000 with breast cancer presentation in stages III and IV being common (? 50%). The most pragmatic solution to early detection lies in breast cancer education of women. Nurses constitute a

Faiza Ahmed; Sadia Mahmud; Juanita Hatcher; Shaista M Khan

2006-01-01

30

Determinants of Food Acceptance and MicroNutrients Deficiency in Preschoolers: A Case Study of Households from Karachi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

3 Abstract: This study attempts to find out the determinants of food acceptance and micro-nutrient deficiency in preschool children from Karachi, Pakistan. Primary data was collected through survey from 400 households by interviewing and filling up the questionnaire. Index for food acceptance and micro-nutrient deficiency were constructed with the help of related questions from the questionnaire. Econometric models were developed

Zammurud Subzwari; Abid Hasnain; Muhammad Ali

2009-01-01

31

Determinants of Food Acceptance and MicroNutrient Deficiency in Preschoolers: A Case Study of Households from Karachi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study attempts to find out the determinants of food acceptance and micro-nutrient deficiency in preschool children from Karachi, Pakistan. Primary data was collected through survey from 400 households by interviewing and filling up the questionnaire. Index for food acceptance and micro-nutrient deficiency were constructed with the help of related questions from the questionnaire. Econometric models were developed and Logit

Zammurud Subzwari; Abid Hasnain; Muhammad Ali

2008-01-01

32

Risk factors for typhoid fever in an endemic setting, Karachi, Pakistan.  

PubMed

We conducted a study to evaluate risk factors for developing typhoid fever in a setting where the disease is endemic in Karachi, Pakistan. We enrolled 100 cases with blood culture-confirmed Salmonella typhi between July and October 1994 and 200 age-matched neighbourhood controls. Cases had a median age of 5.8 years. In a conditional logistic regression model, eating ice cream (Odds ratio [OR] = 2.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-4.2, attributable risk [AR] = 36%), eating food from a roadside cabin during the summer months (OR = 4.6, 95% CI 1.6-13.0; AR = 18%), taking antimicrobials in the 2 weeks preceding the onset of symptoms (OR = 5.7, 95% CI 2.3-13.9, AR = 21%), and drinking water at the work-site (OR = 44.0, 95% CI 2.8-680, AR = 8%) were all independently associated with typhoid fever. There was no difference in the microbiological water quality of home drinking water between cases and controls. Typhoid fever in Karachi resulted from high-dose exposures from multiple sources with individual susceptibility increased by young age and prior antimicrobial use. Improving commercial food hygiene and decreasing unnecessary antimicrobial use would be expected to decrease the burden of typhoid fever. PMID:9593481

Luby, S P; Faizan, M K; Fisher-Hoch, S P; Syed, A; Mintz, E D; Bhutta, Z A; McCormick, J B

1998-03-01

33

Prevalence and predictors of smokeless tobacco use among high-school males in Karachi, Pakistan.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional study was conducted in 3 towns in Karachi, Pakistan to investigate the prevalence of and factors associated with the use of smokeless tobacco among 772 high-school adolescent males. A structured questionnaire collected data on sociodemographic factors and history of cigarette and smokeless tobacco use. Prevalence of smokeless tobacco use (gutka, snuff, niswar) was 16.1% (95% CI: 13.5%-18.9%). On multiple logistic regression analysis, the factors significantly related to smokeless tobacco use among the sample were: attending government school [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 6.3], smoking cigarettes (OR 3.2), not seeing anti-tobacco advertisements (OR 1.5), family history of tobacco use (OR 3.9), use of betel quid (OR 2.9) and use of areca nut (OR 3.2). PMID:17955775

Rozi, S; Akhtar, S

34

Smoking prevalence, knowledge and attitudes among medical students in Karachi, Pakistan.  

PubMed

A survey of smoking prevalence and attitudes was made among medical students randomly selected from classes at the Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan. Of 271 respondents, 14.4% were current smokers (22.0% male and 3.8% females) and 3.3% ex-smokers. A majority of students recognized the dangers associated with active as well as passive smoking although only 55% of current smokers planned to quit in the near future. Most smokers (96%) believed that they as well as other health professionals needed training on smoking cessation and 95% of all students believed that doctors should play a role model in smoking cessation by not smoking themselves. Specific training and counselling should be a part of the required curriculum at medical schools. PMID:16761665

Khan, F M; Husain, S J; Laeeq, A; Awais, A; Hussain, S F; Khan, J A

35

Occurrence of diclofenac and its metabolites in surface water and effluent samples from Karachi, Pakistan.  

PubMed

Diclofenac and five of its transformation products were identified in Malir River and Lyari River water as well as in effluent samples from Karachi, Pakistan. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the identification of 3'-hydroxydiclofenac and 8-chlorocarbazole-1-yl-ethanoic acid in environmental samples. Their estimated concentrations ranged between 0.08-0.3 microg L(-1) and 0.03-0.4 microg L(-1), respectively. In addition, 4'- and 5-hydroxydiclofenac as well as 1-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-2H-indole-2-one were detected in the samples at concentrations between 0.4-1.8, 0.01-0.3, and 0.02-0.2 microg L(-1), respectively. The hydroxy derivatives seem to reflect human excretions via household wastewater, while the chlorocarbazole derivative is related to abiotic photolytic transformation of diclofenac. PMID:19767057

Scheurell, M; Franke, S; Shah, R M; Hühnerfuss, H

2009-09-19

36

Firearm Injuries Presenting to a Tertiary Care Hospital of Karachi, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Abstract: Background: Violence is a public health problem in low and middle income countries. Our study attempted to define the circumstances, risk groups, extent and severity of firearm-related injuries in patients coming to the Aga Khan University Hospital (AKUH) Karachi, Pakistan. Methods: This was a retrospective study conducted in the department of Emergency Medicine (EM) at AKUH Karachi, Pakistan. Past medical records of all patients who were injured by firearms and were presented to the AKUH Emergency Department (ED) from June 2002 till May 2007 were reviewed. Data were recorded on the basic demographics of injured, length of hospital stay, body parts injured and the outcome (alive vs. dead). Results: Total of 286 patients with firearm injuries were identified. Majority of them were males (92%; n=264). More than half of the patients (63%) were in the age group of 21-40 years. Upon arrival to the hospital 85% (n=243) of patients had Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS)>= 13. The mean injury severity score (ISS) was found to be 6 (SD ±4). The length of hospital stay of patients ranged from 0 to 54 days with a mean of 7 days. Lower limb were the most affected body parts (30%, n=86) followed by abdomen pelvis (27%, n=77). Seven percent (n=21) of the patient who were brought to the hospital were labeled as "deceased on arrival". Most of the injuries were caused during the act of robbery (40%, n=103) in the city. Conclusions: Robbery was the most common cause of firearm injuries. Lower limb, abdomen and pelvis were the most affected body regions. Educational efforts, and individual, community and societal approaches are needed to alleviate firearm-related injuries.

Nasrullah, Muazzam; A Razzak, Junaid

2009-01-01

37

Association of Blood Lead (Pb) and Plasma Homocysteine: A Cross Sectional Survey in Karachi, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background High blood lead (Pb) and hyperhomocysteinemia have been found to be associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Mean blood Pb and mean plasma homocysteine levels have been reported to be high in Pakistani population. The objective of the present study was to assess the relationship of blood Pb to the risk of hyperhomocysteinemia in a low income urban population of Karachi, Pakistan. Methodology/Principal Findings In a cross sectional survey, 872 healthy adults (355 males, 517 females; age 18–60 years) were recruited from a low income urban population of Karachi. Fasting venous blood was obtained and assessed for blood Pb and plasma/serum homocysteine, folate, pyridoxal phosphate (PLP, a coenzymic form of vitamin B6) and vitamin B12. The study population had median (IQR) blood Pb of 10.82 µg/dL (8.29–13.60). Prevalence of high blood Pb (levels >10 µg/dL) was higher in males compared to females (62.5% males vs 56% females; p value?=?0.05). Mean ± SD/median (IQR) value of plasma homocysteine was significantly higher in the highest quartile of blood Pb compared to the lowest quartile 16.13±11.2 µmol/L vs 13.28±9.7µmol/L/13.15 (10.33–17.81) µmol/L vs 11.09 (8.65 14.31) µmol/L (p value<0.001). Daily consumption of fruit juice had a positive influence on both levels of plasma homocysteine and blood Pb. Compared with the lowest quartile of blood Pb, the OR for hyperhomocysteinemia was 1.69 (95% CI, 1.00 to 2.85) for the fourth quartile when the model was adjusted for age, gender, folate and vitamin B12. Conclusions/Significance This study showed a relationship between blood Pb and hyperhomocysteinemia in a general population of Karachi, Pakistan. The harmful effect of Pb on cardiovascular system could be due to its association with hyperhomocysteinemia.

Yakub, Mohsin; Iqbal, Mohammad Perwaiz

2010-01-01

38

Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) Measurements in Karachi, Pakistan (2006): a Comparison With Previous Urban Sampling Campaigns Worldwide.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mixing ratios of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and 47 nonmethane hydrocarbons - NMHCs - (19 alkanes, 13 alkenes, ethyne, and 14 aromatics) were determined for ground level whole air samples collected during the winter of 2006 in Karachi, Pakistan. Pakistan is among the fastest growing economies in Asia, and Karachi is one of the largest cities in the world with a rapidly expanding population of over 14 million in the whole metropolitan area, and a large industrial base. Samples were collected in January 2006 throughout the urban area to characterize the overall air composition of the city, and along the busiest road to determine the traffic signature of Karachi. This sampling campaign follows a previous study carried out in the winter of 1998-1999 in the same city, when elevated concentrations of many NMHCs were observed. Exceptionally high levels of methane were still observed in 2006 with an average mixing ratio of 5.0 ppmv (6.3 ppmv were observed in 1999). The overall air composition of the Karachi urban environment characterized during this 2006 sampling is compared to 1999 aiming to highlight any possible change in the main VOC sources present throughout the city. In particular, we want to evaluate the impact of the heavy usage of natural gas on the overall air quality of Karachi and the recently increased use of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as alternative source of energy. We also compare the composition of the urban troposphere of Karachi to other major urban centers worldwide such as Guangzhou (China), Mexico City (Mexico), and Milan (Italy).

Barletta, B.; Meinardi, S.; Khwaja, H. A.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Baker, A. K.; Zou, S.; Rowland, F.; Blake, D. R.

2008-12-01

39

Understanding the knowledge and perceptions about clubfoot in karachi, pakistan: a qualitative exploration.  

PubMed

This paper explores local knowledge and perceptions about clubfoot in the Indus Hospital's catchment population in Karachi, Pakistan. Data was collected through seven focus group discussions with community members and Lady Health Workers, nine in-depth interviews with parents of children with treated or untreated clubfoot, and one interview with an adult with untreated clubfoot. We found that participants were unable to distinguish clubfoot from other disabilities. Moreover, participants had a number of beliefs about the causes of clubfoot, which included lunar and solar eclipses, religious explanations, the health status and behaviours of parents, and genetics. While participants were aware of surgery and other allopathic treatments for clubfoot, many also believed in traditional and religious treatments or were unaware that clubfoot is a treatable condition. This study is the first of its kind in Pakistan and provides important insights that clubfoot programs need comprehensive strategies to raise awareness about clubfoot amongst community members, health providers, and religious leaders in order to be successful. PMID:24027475

Burfat, Aziza; Mohammed, Shama; Siddiqi, Osman; Samad, Lubna; Mansoor, Ali Khan; Mohammad Amin, Chinoy

2013-01-01

40

Qualitative explorative study of role of a head teacher in promoting a collaborative learning culture in a government secondary school in Karachi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of this study was to explore the role of a headteacher in creating a collaborative learning culture in a government secondary school in Karachi, Pakistan. In the context of Pakistan, particularly in public sector schools, headteachers play their role as an administrator, which develops a kind of distance between the headteacher and the other stakeholders in the schools.

Umar Jan

2007-01-01

41

The Burden of Non-Communicable Disease in Transition Communities in an Asian Megacity: Baseline Findings from a Cohort Study in Karachi, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background The demographic transition in South Asia coupled with unplanned urbanization and lifestyle changes are increasing the burden of non-communicable disease (NCD) where infectious diseases are still highly prevalent. The true magnitude and impact of this double burden of disease, although predicted to be immense, is largely unknown due to the absence of recent, population-based longitudinal data. The present study was designed as a unique ‘Framingham-like’ Pakistan cohort with the objective of measuring the prevalence and risk factors for hypertension, obesity, diabetes, coronary artery disease and hepatitis B and C infection in a multi-ethnic, middle to low income population of Karachi, Pakistan. Methods We selected two administrative areas from a private charitable hospital’s catchment population for enrolment of a random selection of cohort households in Karachi, Pakistan. A baseline survey measured the prevalence and risk factors for hypertension, obesity, diabetes, coronary artery disease and hepatitis B and C infection. Results Six hundred and sixty-seven households were enrolled between March 2010 and August 2011. A majority of households lived in permanent structures (85%) with access to basic utilities (77%) and sanitation facilities (98%) but limited access to clean drinking water (68%). Households had high ownership of communication technologies in the form of cable television (69%) and mobile phones (83%). Risk factors for NCD, such as tobacco use (45%), overweight (20%), abdominal obesity (53%), hypertension (18%), diabetes (8%) and pre-diabetes (40%) were high. At the same time, infectious diseases such as hepatitis B (24%) and hepatitis C (8%) were prevalent in this population. Conclusion Our findings highlight the need to monitor risk factors and disease trends through longitudinal research in high-burden transition communities in the context of rapid urbanization and changing lifestyles. They also demonstrate the urgency of public health intervention programs tailored for these transition communities.

Khan, Faisal S.; Lotia-Farrukh, Ismat; Khan, Aamir J.; Siddiqui, Saad Tariq; Sajun, Sana Zehra; Malik, Amyn Abdul; Burfat, Aziza; Arshad, Mohammad Hussham; Codlin, Andrew J.; Reininger, Belinda M.; McCormick, Joseph B.; Afridi, Nadeem; Fisher-Hoch, Susan P.

2013-01-01

42

Perceptions and Experiences of Women in Karachi, Pakistan Regarding Secondary Infertility: Results from a Community-Based Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Background. The prevalence of infertility in Pakistan is 22% with primary infertility at 4% and secondary infertility at 18%. This study explored perceptions and experiences of women in Karachi, Pakistan regarding the causes, treatment-seeking behavior for and consequences of secondary infertility. Methods. Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with married women explored their perceptions and experiences for issues related to secondary infertility. Results. The knowledge of women about the causes and scientific treatment options for infertility was limited resulting in inclination for traditional unsafe health care. Infertility was stated to result in marital instability, stigmatization and abuse specially for women with no live child. Conclusions. Since infertility can have a serious effect on both the psychological well-being and the social status of women in Pakistan, effective interventions are the need of the day. There is a dire need for health education and counseling to be integrated into infertility management plans.

Sami, Neelofar; Saeed Ali, Tazeen

2012-01-01

43

Microbiologic effectiveness of hand washing with soap in an urban squatter settlement, Karachi, Pakistan.  

PubMed

We conducted a study in a squatter settlement in Karachi, Pakistan where residents report commonly washing their hands to determine if providing soap, encouraging hand washing, and improving wash-water quality would improve hand cleanliness. We allocated interventions to 75 mothers and collected hand-rinse samples on unannounced visits. In the final model compared with mothers who received no hand-washing intervention, mothers who received soap would be expected to have 65% fewer thermotolerant coliform bacteria on their hands (95% CI 40%, 79%) and mothers who received soap, a safe water storage vessel, hypochlorite for water treatment, and instructions to wash their hands with soap and chlorinated water would be expected to have 74% fewer (95% CI 57%, 84%). The difference between those who received soap alone, and those who received soap plus the safe water vessel was not significant (P = 0.26). Providing soap and promoting hand washing measurably improved mothers' hand cleanliness even when used with contaminated water. PMID:11693501

Luby, S P; Agboatwalla, M; Raza, A; Sobel, J; Mintz, E D; Baier, K; Hoekstra, R M; Rahbar, M H; Hassan, R; Qureshi, S M; Gangarosa, E J

2001-10-01

44

Knowledge and Practice Gaps among Pediatric Nurses at a Tertiary Care Hospital Karachi Pakistan.  

PubMed

The advancement in medical science has created health care environments that require nursing professionals who posses specialized clinical knowledge and skills to provide care and deal with critically and acutely ill children. This study explored gaps between knowledge and practice as perceived by the registered nurses of pediatric units by further recommending the changes suggested by them. A descriptive exploratory study design under the quantitative research methodology was utilized using universal sampling of all pediatric nurses working at a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. The gaps between knowledge and practice, as perceived by the participants, were categorized into five major categories: (1) medication (34%), (2) skills (28.3%), (3) knowledge (13.36%), (4) handling of code blue and intubations (12.6%), and (5) operating medical devices (11.58%). As a result, anxiety and incompetency were notably seen in the participants which had great amount of impact on the level of care provided to the patients. The implications of the findings for quality patient care were also analyzed. PMID:22389778

Roshan Essani, Rozina; Ali, Tazeen Saeed

2011-05-03

45

Knowledge and Practice Gaps among Pediatric Nurses at a Tertiary Care Hospital Karachi Pakistan  

PubMed Central

The advancement in medical science has created health care environments that require nursing professionals who posses specialized clinical knowledge and skills to provide care and deal with critically and acutely ill children. This study explored gaps between knowledge and practice as perceived by the registered nurses of pediatric units by further recommending the changes suggested by them. A descriptive exploratory study design under the quantitative research methodology was utilized using universal sampling of all pediatric nurses working at a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. The gaps between knowledge and practice, as perceived by the participants, were categorized into five major categories: (1) medication (34%), (2) skills (28.3%), (3) knowledge (13.36%), (4) handling of code blue and intubations (12.6%), and (5) operating medical devices (11.58%). As a result, anxiety and incompetency were notably seen in the participants which had great amount of impact on the level of care provided to the patients. The implications of the findings for quality patient care were also analyzed.

Roshan Essani, Rozina; Ali, Tazeen Saeed

2011-01-01

46

Geochemical assessment of metal concentrations in sediment core of Korangi Creek along Karachi Coast, Pakistan.  

PubMed

Sediment core from Korangi Creek, one of the polluted coastal locations along the Karachi Coast Pakistan, was collected to trace the history of marine pollution and to determine the impact of industrial activity in the area. Down core variation of metals such as Ca, K, Mg, Al, S, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu and Zn was studied in the 72.0 cm core. Nuclear analytical techniques, proton induced X-rays emission (PIXE), was employed to ascertain the chemical composition in sediment core. Grain size analysis and sediment composition of cored samples indicated that Korangi creek sediments are clayey in nature. Correlation matrix revealed a strong association of Ni, Cu, Cr and Zn with Fe and Mn. To infer anthropogenic input, enrichment factor (EF), degree of contamination and pollution load index were calculated. EF showed severe enrichment in surface sediment for Ni, Cu, Cr and Zn, indicating increased industrial effluents discharge in recent years. The study suggests that heavy metal discharge in the area should be regulated. If the present trend of enrichment is allowed to continue unabated, it is most likely that the local food web complexes in the creek might be at highest risk. PMID:23279880

Chaudhary, M Z; Ahmad, N; Mashiatullah, A; Ahmad, N; Ghaffar, A

2013-01-03

47

Microbiologic effectiveness of hand washing with soap in an urban squatter settlement, Karachi, Pakistan.  

PubMed Central

We conducted a study in a squatter settlement in Karachi, Pakistan where residents report commonly washing their hands to determine if providing soap, encouraging hand washing, and improving wash-water quality would improve hand cleanliness. We allocated interventions to 75 mothers and collected hand-rinse samples on unannounced visits. In the final model compared with mothers who received no hand-washing intervention, mothers who received soap would be expected to have 65% fewer thermotolerant coliform bacteria on their hands (95% CI 40%, 79%) and mothers who received soap, a safe water storage vessel, hypochlorite for water treatment, and instructions to wash their hands with soap and chlorinated water would be expected to have 74% fewer (95% CI 57%, 84%). The difference between those who received soap alone, and those who received soap plus the safe water vessel was not significant (P = 0.26). Providing soap and promoting hand washing measurably improved mothers' hand cleanliness even when used with contaminated water.

Luby, S. P.; Agboatwalla, M.; Raza, A.; Sobel, J.; Mint, E. D.; Baier, K.; Hoekstra, R. M.; Rahbar, M. H.; Hassan, R.; Qureshi, S. M.; Gangarosa, E. J.

2001-01-01

48

Violence permeating daily life: a qualitative study investigating perspectives on violence among women in Karachi, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background: This study explored how married women perceive situations which create family conflicts and lead to different forms of violence in urban Pakistan. In addition, it examines perceptions of consequences of violence, their adverse health effects, and how women resist violence within marital life. Methods: Five focus group discussions were conducted with 28 women in Karachi. Purposive sampling, aiming for variety in age, employment status, education, and socioeconomic status, was employed. The focus group discussions were conducted in Urdu and translated into English. Manifest and latent content analysis were applied. Results: One major theme emerged during the analysis, ie, family violence through the eyes of females. This theme was subdivided into three main categories. The first category, ie, situations provoking violence and their manifestations, elaborates on circumstances that provoke violence and situations that sustain violence. The second category, ie, actions and reactions to exposure to violence, describes consequences of ongoing violence within the family, including those that result in suicidal thoughts and actions. The final category, ie, resisting violence, describes how violence is avoided through women’s awareness and actions. Conclusion: The current study highlights how female victims of abuse are trapped in a society where violence from a partner and family members is viewed as acceptable, where divorce is unavailable to the majority, and where societal support of women is limited. There is an urgent need to raise the subject of violence against women and tackle this human rights problem at all levels of society by targeting the individual, family, community, and societal levels concurrently.

Ali, Tazeen S; Krantz, Gunilla; Mogren, Ingrid

2012-01-01

49

Knowledge of patients' visual experience during cataract surgery: a survey of eye doctors in Karachi, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Several recent studies have recommended that ophthalmologists must be aware of the visual sensations (and their associated anxiety/fear) experienced by patients undergoing cataract surgery. We assessed the knowledge of a group of eye doctors in Pakistan regarding these phenomena. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey. Eye doctors (ophthalmologists, residents and medical officers) attending the Ophthalmological Society of Pakistan Annual Conference 2011, in Karachi were invited to participate in the study. A self-administered structured questionnaire was used to examine their knowledge of visual sensations and their associated anxiety/fear experienced by patients during cataract surgery. Simple frequencies and proportions were calculated to describe the data. Results A total of 150 ophthalmologists, residents and medical officers were invited to participate in the study. Of these, 68 (45.3%) responded. The mean age (±SD) of the participants was 42.9 (13.2) years. The proportion of participants who thought that patients could experience visual sensations during cataract surgery under regional anaesthesia was 89.7% and that under topical anaesthesia was 73.5%. The most frequently cited sensations included: light perception, changes in light brightness, movements, instruments and surgeon’s hands or fingers. The eye doctors estimated that 38.9% and 64.3% patients would see at least something during cataract surgery under regional anaesthesia and topical anaesthesia, respectively. They also believed that 24.2%-36.9% of patients may experience anxiety/fear as a result of visual sensations during such surgery. Approximately half of the eye doctors did not think that retained vision was a source of fear or anxiety for the patients. While most of them acknowledged the importance of preoperative counselling in helping to alleviate such fear/anxiety, the majority of them did not regularly counsel their patients on what to expect during the surgery. Conclusion Our study reveals that a significant proportion of eye doctors do not have adequate knowledge of the visual phenomenon and their associated anxiety or fear, that patients can experience during cataract surgery. Targeted educational interventions are needed to increase awareness of this phenomenon among eye care professionals.

2012-01-01

50

Social and educational risk factors for child mental health problems in Karachi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are limited studies examining risk factors associated with child mental health problems in developing countries. To explore the association between social and educational factors and child mental health problems among primary school age children in Karachi, children aged 5–11 years were randomly selected from 27 mainstream schools in Karachi. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and a socio-demographic checklist were

Sajida Abdul Hassan; Panos Vostanis; John Bankart

2012-01-01

51

Social and educational risk factors for child mental health problems in Karachi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are limited studies examining risk factors associated with child mental health problems in developing countries. To explore the association between social and educational factors and child mental health problems among primary school age children in Karachi, children aged 5–11 years were randomly selected from 27 mainstream schools in Karachi. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and a socio-demographic checklist were

Sajida Abdul Hassan; Panos Vostanis; John Bankart

2011-01-01

52

Power, self-care, and health in women living in urban squatter settlements in Karachi, Pakistan: A test of Orem's theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to explore the contribution of selected conditioning factors, perceptions of power, and other components of self-care in explaining health outcomes of women living in urban squatter settlements was conducted in Karachi, Pakistan. Statement's in Orem's theory were used to construct a theoretical model which was tested using four hypotheses about: (a) the role of

Marilyn Bell Lee

1996-01-01

53

Condom use during commercial sex among clients of Hijra sex workers in Karachi, Pakistan (cross-sectional study)  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe the prevalence and predictors of condom use and sexual risk in the male clients of Hijra sex workers (HSWs) in Karachi, Pakistan. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Karachi, Pakistan. Participants Clients of HSWs were recruited with assistance from HSWs and a non-governmental organisation (NGO) focused on men who have sex with men (MSM) during October–November 2010. Measurements The interviewer administered the questionnaire to each participant to solicit information on demographics, HIV/AIDS knowledge/attitudes and sexual risk behaviours/practices, including condom use in the last sexual act with the HSW. Results Of the 203 participants, 42.4% reported that they used condoms during their last sexual act with HSW, 40% were married, 18% had ever used drugs or alcohol, and 52% reported also engaging with female sex workers in the last month. Casual HSW clients were more likely to use condoms than regular clients (adjusted OR (AOR), 2.50; 95% CI 1.34 to 4.65), as were persons with a higher education level (AOR 5.8; 95% CI 1.6 to 20.3). Drug/alcohol users and non-users were equally likely to use condoms (AOR 1.11; 95% CI 0.51 to 2.24). Conclusion Clients of HSWs in Pakistan are at risk of acquiring HIV/STI infections. Concerted efforts are needed to increase condom use in this key bridge population to curtail the spread of HIV in the general population.

Qian, Han-Zhu; Altaf, Arshad; Cassell, Holly; Shah, Sharaf Ali; Vermund, Sten H

2011-01-01

54

Vitamin D Levels in Asymptomatic Adults-A Population Survey in Karachi, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background It is well established that low levels of 25(OH) Vitamin D (<30 ng/dL) are a common finding world over, affecting over a billion of the global population. Our primary objective was to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in the asymptomatic adult population of Karachi, Pakistan and the demographic, nutritional and co-morbidity characteristics associated with serum vitamin D levels. Methods A cross-sectional population survey was conducted at two spaced out densely populated areas of the city. Serum levels of 25OHVitamin D were measured and GFR as renal function was assessed by using 4 variable MDRD formula. Results Our sample of 300 had a median age of 48(interquartile range 38–55) years. The median level of serum vitamin D was 18.8 (IQ range 12.65–24.62) ng/dL. A total of 253 (84.3%) respondents had low levels (<30 ng/dL) of 25OH vitamin D. Serum PTH and vitamin D were negatively correlated (r?=??0.176, p?=?0.001). The median PTH in the vitamin D sufficiency group was 38.4(IQ range28.0–48.8)pg/mL compared with 44.4(IQ range34.3–56.8) pg/mL in the deficiency group (p?=?0.011).The median serum calcium level in the sample was 9.46(IQ range 9.18–9.68) ng/dL. Low serum levels of vitamin D were not associated with hypertension (p?=?0.771) or with an elevated spot blood pressure (p?=?0.164).In our sample 75(26%) respondents had an eGFR corresponding to stage 2 and stage 3 CKD. There was no significant correlation between levels of vitamin D and eGFR (r?=??0.127, p-value?=?0.277).Respondents using daily vitamin D supplements had higher 25 OH vitamin D levels (p-value?=?0.021). Conclusion We observed a high proportion of the asymptomatic adult population having low levels of vitamin D and subclinical deterioration of eGFR. The specific cause(s) for this observed high prevalence of low 25OH vitamin D levels are not clear and need to be investigated further upon.

Sheikh, Adil; Saeed, Zeb; Jafri, Syed Ali Danial; Yazdani, Iffat; Hussain, Syed Ather

2012-01-01

55

Diabetes related knowledge among residents and nurses: a multicenter study in Karachi, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Assessment of knowledge among resident trainees and nurses is very important since majority of patients admitted in hospital have underlying diabetes which could lead to adverse clinical outcomes if not managed efficiently. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the knowledge related to the management of diabetes among registered nurses (RN) and trainee residents of internal medicine (IMR), family medicine (FMR) and surgery (SR) at tertiary care hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan. Methods A validated questionnaire consisting of 21 open ended questions related to diabetes awareness was acquired through a study done at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia with the permission of primary author. Results 169 IMR, 27 FMR, 86 SR and 99 RN completed a questionnaire that assessed the knowledge related to different aspects of management of diabetes. The results were further stratified by participant's specialty and level of training. The percentage of knowledge based questions answered correctly was found to be low. The overall mean correct percentage among all the participants was 50% +/- 21. There was no statistical difference in terms of knowledge between IMR & FMR residents (64% +/- 14 vs. 60% +/- 16, p?=?0.47) respectively. The total scores of SR and RN were quite low (40% +/- 16 & 31% +/- 15 respectively).SR and RN were found to have profound deficit in both inpatient and outpatient knowledge of diabetes. We did not observe any improvement in level of knowledge of FMR & SR with increase in duration of their training (p?=?0.47 & 0.80 respectively). In contrast, improvement in the level of knowledge of IMR was observed from first to second year of their training (p?=?0.03) with no further improvement thereafter. RN's didn't respond correctly on most of the items related to in-patient management of diabetes (Mean score 40% +/- 20). Conclusion As there are no prior studies in our setting evaluating knowledge related to diabetes management among residents and nurses, this study is of paramount importance. Based on these results, considerable knowledge gaps were found among trainee residents and nurses pointing towards need of providing additional education to improve the delivery of diabetes care.

2012-01-01

56

Differences in police, ambulance, and emergency department reporting of traffic injuries on Karachi-Hala road, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Research undertaken in developing countries has assessed discrepancies in police reporting of Road Traffic Injury (RTI) for urban settings only. The objective of this study was to assess differences in RTI reporting across police, ambulance, and hospital Emergency Department (ED) datasets on an interurban road section in Pakistan. Methods The study setting was the 196-km long Karachi-Hala road section. RTIs reported to the police, Edhi Ambulance Service (EAS), and five hospital EDs in Karachi during 2008 (Jan to Dec) were compared in terms of road user involved (pedestrians, motorcyclists, four-wheeled vehicle occupants) and outcome (died or injured). Further, records from these data were matched to assess ascertainment of traffic injuries and deaths by the three datasets. Results A total of 143 RTIs were reported to the police, 531 to EAS, and 661 to hospital EDs. Fatality per hundred traffic injuries was twice as high in police records (19 per 100 RTIs) than in ambulance (10 per 100 RTIs) and hospital ED records (9 per 100 RTIs). Pedestrian and motorcyclist involvement per hundred traffic injuries was lower in police records (8 per 100 RTIs) than in ambulance (17 per 100 RTIs) and hospital ED records (43 per 100 RTIs). Of the 119 deaths independently identified after matching, police recorded 22.6%, EAS 46.2%, and hospital ED 50.4%. Similarly, police data accounted for 10.6%, EAS 43.5%, and hospital ED 54.9% of the 1 095 independently identified injured patients. Conclusions Police reporting, particularly of non-fatal RTIs and those involving vulnerable road users, should be improved in Pakistan.

2011-01-01

57

Metal pollution and ecological risk assessment in marine sediments of Karachi Coast, Pakistan.  

PubMed

Concentrations of 12 metals (Fe, Mn, Cr, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, U, V, Zn, and Zr) in surface sediments of Karachi Coast, Pakistan were determined to evaluate their distribution and pollution assessment. The measured metals in the sediments were found to be in the range of Fe, 0.84-6.96 %; Mn, 300-1,300 ?g/g; Cr, 12.0-319.84 ?g/g; Mo, 0.49-2.03 ?g/g; Ni, 1.53-58.86 ?g/g; Pb, 9.0-49.46 ?g/g; Se, 0.25-.86 ?g/g; Sr, 192-1185 ?g/g; U, 0.19-1.66 ?g/g; V, 15.80-118.20 ?g/g; Zn, 15.60-666.28 ?g/g; and Zr, 44.02-175.26 ?g/g. The mean contents of the metal studied were: Fe, 3.07 %, Mn, 0.05 %; Cr, 96.75 ?g/g; Mo, 1.34 ?g/g; Ni, 31.39 ?g/g; Pb, 23.24 ?g/g; Se, 0.61 ?g/g; Sr, 374.83 ?g/g; U, 0.64 ?g/g; V, 61.75 ?g/g; Zn, 204.75 ?g/g; and Zr:76.27 ?g/g, and arrangement of the metals from higher to lower mean content in this area is: Fe > Zn > Mn > Sr > Zn > Cr > Zr > V > Ni > Pb > Mo > U > Se. There is no significant correlation among most of these metals, indicating different anthropogenic and natural sources. To assess ecotoxic potential of marine sediments, Numerical Sediment Quality Guidelines were also applied. The concentration of Pb in all the sediments except one was lower than the threshold effect concentration (TECs) showing that there are no harmful effects to marine life from Pb. On the other hand, the concentrations of Cr, Ni, and Zn exceeded TEC in three stations, indicating their potential risk. The degree of pollution in sediments for metals was assessed by calculating enrichment factor (EF) and pollution load index (PLI). The results indicated that sediments of Layari River Mouth Area, Fish Harbour, and KPT Boat Building Area are highly enriched with Cr and Zn (EF > 5). Sediments of Layari River Outfall Zone were moderately enriched with Ni and Pb (EF > 2). The pollution load index was found in the range of 0.98 to 1.34. Lower values of PLI (? 1) at most of sampling locations imply no appreciable input from anthropogenic sources. However, relatively higher PLI values (>1) at Layari River Mouth Area, Fish Harbour, and KPT Boat Building Area are attributed to increased human activity in the area. PMID:22580789

Mashiatullah, Azhar; Chaudhary, Muhammad Zaman; Ahmad, Nasir; Javed, Tariq; Ghaffar, Abdul

2012-05-13

58

Acute health effects of the Tasman Spirit oil spill on residents of Karachi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: On July 27 2003, a ship carrying crude oil run aground near Karachi and after two weeks released 37,000 tons of its cargo into the sea. Oil on the coastal areas and fumes in air raised health concerns among people. We assessed the immediate health impact of oil spill from the tanker Tasman Spirit on residents of the affected

Naveed Zafar Janjua; Pashtoon Murtaza Kasi; Haq Nawaz; Sadia Zohra Farooqui; Urooj Bakht Khuwaja; Najam-ul-Hassan; Syed Nadim Jafri; Shahid Ali Lutfi; Muhammad Masood Kadir; Nalini Sathiakumar

2006-01-01

59

Enhanced disease surveillance through private health care sector cooperation in Karachi, Pakistan: experience from a vaccine trial.  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION: In research projects such as vaccine trials, accurate and complete surveillance of all outcomes of interest is critical. In less developed countries where the private sector is the major health-care provider, the private sector must be included in surveillance systems in order to capture all disease of interest. This, however, poses enormous challenges in practice. The process and outcome of recruiting private practice clinics for surveillance in a vaccine trial are described. METHODS: The project started in January 2002 in two urban squatter settlements of Karachi, Pakistan. At the suggestion of private practitioners, a phlebotomy team was formed to provide support for disease surveillance. Children who had a reported history of fever for more than three days were enrolled for a diagnosis. RESULTS: Between May 2003 and April 2004, 5540 children younger than 16 years with fever for three days or more were enrolled in the study. Of the children, 1312 (24%) were seen first by private practitioners; the remainder presented directly to study centres. In total, 5329 blood samples were obtained for microbiology. The annual incidence of Salmonella typhi diagnosed by blood culture was 407 (95% confidence interval (95% CI), 368-448) per 100 000/year and for Salmonella paratyphi A was 198 (95% CI, 171-227) per 100 000/year. Without the contribution of private practitioners, the rates would have been 240 per 100 000/year (95% CI, 211-271) for S. typhi and 114 (95% CI, 94-136) per 100 000/year for S. paratyphi A. CONCLUSION: The private sector plays a major health-care role in Pakistan. Our experience from a surveillance and burden estimation study in Pakistan indicates that this objective is possible to achieve but requires considerable effort and confidence building. Nonetheless, it is essential to include private health care providers when attempting to accurately estimate the burden of disease in such settings.

Khan, Mohammad Imran; Sahito, Shah Muhammad; Khan, Mohammad Javed; Wassan, Shafi Mohammad; Shaikh, Abdul Wahab; Maheshwari, Ashok Kumar; Acosta, Camilo J.; Galindo, Claudia M.; Ochiai, Rion Leon; Rasool, Shahid; Peerwani, Sheeraz; Puri, Mahesh K.; Ali, Mohammad; Zafar, Afia; Hassan, Rumina; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Clemens, John D.; Nizami, Shaikh Qamaruddin; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.

2006-01-01

60

A low-cost intervention for cleaner drinking water in Karachi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To pilot test an inexpensive, home-based water decontamination and storage system in a low-income neighborhood of Karachi.Methods: Fifty households received a 20-L plastic water storage vessel with a high-quality spout and a regular supply of diluted hypochlorite solution. Twenty-five control households were recruited. Water samples were collected at baseline and during unannounced follow-up visits 1, 3, 6, and 10

Stephen Luby; Mubina Agboatwalla; Abida Raza; Jeremy Sobel; Eric Mintz; Kathleen Baier; Mohammad Rahbar; Shahida Qureshi; Rumina Hassan; Farooq Ghouri; Robert M. Hoekstra; Eugene Gangarosa

2001-01-01

61

Situation analysis of child labour in Karachi, Pakistan: a qualitative study.  

PubMed

In Karachi, large employment opportunities, burgeoning population and the availability of cheap labour might be the contributing factors for the increasing prevalence of child labour. A literature review was conducted in 2007 that included published and unpublished literature since 2000. Various organizations working in the field were also covered, while the perception of the child labourers was covered through three focus group discussions. Common health issues among the child labourers in Karachi included respiratory illnesses, fever and generalised pains, as well as drug and sexual abuse. Organisations working for child labour could be broadly categorised into those working for legal advice and advocacy; those generating statistics; and those that are providing interventions. Discussion with children showed that irrespective of the immediate cause, the underlying determinant for child labour was poverty. The best practices identified included evening schools and drop-in centers for working children with provision for skill-based education and basic health facilities. There is need to have more such centres. PMID:23866451

Nafees, Asaad Ahmed; Khan, Kausar Saeed; Fatmi, Zafar; Aslam, Mubashir

2012-10-01

62

Health Care Use Patterns for Diarrhea in Children in Low-Income Periurban Communities of Karachi, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Diarrhea causes 16% of all child deaths in Pakistan. We assessed patterns of healthcare use among caretakers of a randomly selected sample of 959 children ages 0–59 months in low-income periurban settlements of Karachi through a cross-sectional survey. A diarrheal episode was reported to have occurred in the previous 2 weeks among 298 (31.1%) children. Overall, 280 (80.3%) children sought care. Oral rehydration solution and zinc were used by 40.8% and 2%, respectively; 11% were admitted or received intravenous rehydration, and 29% sought care at health centers identified as sentinel centers for recruiting cases of diarrhea for a planned multicenter diarrheal etiology case-control study. Odds ratios for independent predictors of care-seeking behavior were lethargy, 4.14 (95% confidence interval = 1.45–11.77); fever, 2.67 (1.27–5.59); and stool frequency more than six per day, 2.29 (1.03–5.09). Perception of high cost of care and use of home antibiotics were associated with reduced care seeking: odds ratio = 0.28 (0.1–0.78) and 0.29 (0.11–0.82), respectively. There is a need for standardized, affordable, and accessible treatment of diarrhea as well as community education regarding appropriate care in areas with high diarrheal burden.

Quadri, Farheen; Nasrin, Dilruba; Khan, Asia; Bokhari, Tabassum; Tikmani, Shiyam Sunder; Nisar, Muhammad Imran; Bhatti, Zaid; Kotloff, Karen; Levine, Myron M.; Zaidi, Anita K. M.

2013-01-01

63

Use of hair as an indicator of environmental lead pollution in women of child-bearing age in Karachi, Pakistan and Bangladesh  

SciTech Connect

The present study was prompted by an observation made during a visit to Karchi in 1986 when three blood samples from two women and a man, all between 30-35 years yielded blood Pb levels of 31.4, 21.9 and 41.7 ug Pb/dl blood. Karachi is a highly industrialized urban center with very large numbers of motor vehicles, all of which use leaded gasoline. Lead-based paint is also extensively used in the city. The present study was conducted to determine if hair metal analyses could be used to determine elevated exposures to lead in women of child-bearing age living in Karachi (Pakistan). Rural Bangladeshi women living in areas with little or no vehicular traffic and no factories in the vicinity were used as controls.

Jamall, I.S. (Univ. of California, Davis (USA)); Allen, P.V. (Department of Agriculture, Albany, CA (USA))

1990-03-01

64

Effects of Mothers' Employment on Toddlers' Cognitive Development: A Study Conducted in Karachi, Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Over the past several decades in Pakistan, an increasing number of women with young children are joining the workforce, which is one of the biggest social changes in the later half of the twentieth century. More children are being raised in households where mothers work for pay as compared with the scenario a generation ago. This change has…

Meherali, Salima Moez; Karmaliani, Rozina; Asad, Nargis

2011-01-01

65

Effects of mothers’ employment on toddlers’ cognitive development: a study conducted in Karachi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past several decades in Pakistan, an increasing number of women with young children are joining the workforce, which is one of the biggest social changes in the later half of the twentieth century. More children are being raised in households where mothers work for pay as compared with the scenario a generation ago. This change has prompted concerns

Salima Moez Meherali; Rozina Karmaliani; Nargis Asad

2011-01-01

66

Effects of mothers’ employment on toddlers’ cognitive development: a study conducted in Karachi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past several decades in Pakistan, an increasing number of women with young children are joining the workforce, which is one of the biggest social changes in the later half of the twentieth century. More children are being raised in households where mothers work for pay as compared with the scenario a generation ago. This change has prompted concerns

Salima Moez Meherali; Rozina Karmaliani; Nargis Asad

2010-01-01

67

The Effect of Clinical Clerkship on Students' Attitudes toward Psychiatry in Karachi, Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Attitudes of medical students toward a specialty is strongly related to their future choice of specialty. In developing countries like Pakistan, where there is a shortage of psychiatrists, there is a need to assess the effect of exposure to psychiatry on medical students. Methods: The authors conducted a survey of fourth-year medical…

Sajid, Ayesha; Khan, Murad M.; Shakir, Murtaza; Moazam-Zaman, Riffat; Ali, Asad

2009-01-01

68

Deliberate Self-Harm: Characteristics of Patients Presenting to a Tertiary Care Hospital in Karachi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Previous deliberate self-harm (DSH) is the strongest predictor of suicide. Although several studies exist in other countries, characteristics of DSH have not been well-studied in Pakistan. Aims: To identify characteristics of deliberate self-harm in a hospital population, building on previous work carried out on this subject at this center. Methods: 284 cases admitted to the Aga Khan University Hospital,

Nida Zakiullah; Sadia Saleem; Sameea Sadiq; Nadia Sani; Munira Shahpurwala; Afroz Shamim; Atif Yousuf; Murad M. Khan; Parvez Nayani

2008-01-01

69

Role of health-seeking behaviour in child mortality in the slums of Karachi, Pakistan.  

PubMed

The role of family health-seeking behaviour in under-five-year child mortality was explored through the combined approach of examining health-seeking behaviour regarding treatment generally, and in specific in relation to illness before death. A population-based case control study was carried out during the period 1993-1994 using 222 deaths from diarrhoea and acute respiratory illness (ARI) in children under five years of age in six slums of Karachi as cases, and 419 controls matched on age, disease (diarrhoea and ARI) and slum. Factors significantly associated (p<0.05) with child mortality in the multivariate analysis were: mothers changing healers quickly, using a traditional healer or an unqualified doctor and mothers to whom doctors did not explain the treatment, even when maternal education was controlled for. Seeking effective medical services is highly influential on whether the child survives or succumbs to ARI or diarrhoea. As mothers are the first providers of care, an attempt should be made to try and improve their skills through health education so that they can use simple and effective treatments for minor illnesses. They should also be taught to recognize potentially life-threatening conditions, to seek care early and to persist with treatment. PMID:12537161

D'Souza, Rennie M

2003-01-01

70

Assessment of characteristics of patients with cholelithiasis from economically deprived rural Karachi, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Gallstones have been regarded as one of the most expensive diseases in Gastroenterology, posing a great economic burden on developing nations. The majority of Pakistani people live in rural areas where healthcare facilities are not available or are very primitive. We aim to assess the characteristics among cholelithiasis patients from rural Karachi so that a prevention campaign can be launched in rural underprivileged settings to reduce the economic burden of this preventable disease. Method A total of 410 patients were included in the study after giving verbal consent as well as written consent. Variables such as age, weight, height, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, waist circumference, number of children, monthly family income, number of siblings, and number of family members, were considered in this questionnaire. All data was analysed by SPSS ver. 16.0. Mean and standard deviation (SD) were calculated for continuous variables. Frequency and percentages were calculated for categorical variables. Results Nearly 85.4% of the participants were female. The mean?±?S.D. for age was 43.8?±?9.59. Nearly 61% of the patients were illiterate. All of our patients were from low socioeconomic status and their mean salary?±?S.D. was 6915?±?1992 PKR (1 US $?=?90.37PKR). 75% of them were smokers with mean consumption?±?S.D. of 7.5?±?10 cigarettes per day. Fibre in diet was not used by 83.65% of patients. 40.2% were living in combined families. 61% were living in purchased homes. A positive history of diabetes mellitus was given by 45.1%, family history of cholelithiasis by 61% and history of hypertension by 31.7% of subjects. Soft drink consumption was given by 45.1% of patients; while only 8.5% used snacked daily. Tea was consumed by 95.1% of the subjects. Daily physical activity for 30 minutes was reported by only 13.4% of participants. Conclusion In conclusion, rural dwellers from low socioeconomic strata are neglected patients and illiteracy further adds fuel to the fire by decreasing the contact with the health professionals. Assessment of the characteristics are very important because considering the great socio-economic burden, an intervention strategy in the form of mass media campaign as well as small group discussions in such rural areas can be formulated and applied to high risk populations to reduce the burden and complications of gallstone disease.

2012-01-01

71

Good knowledge about hypertension is linked to better control of hypertension; A multicentre cross sectional study in Karachi, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background According to the National Health survey only 3% of the population has controlled hypertension. This study was designed to elucidate the knowledge about hypertension in hypertensive patients at three tertiary care centers in Karachi. Secondly we sought to compare the knowledge of those with uncontrolled hypertension and controlled hypertension. Methods It was a cross-sectional study conducted at The Aga Khan University hospital (AKUH), Ziauddin Hospital (ZH) and Civil hospital, Karachi (CHK. All diagnosed Hypertensive patients (both inpatients and outpatients) coming to a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan aged > 18 years were included. Patients were categorized into 2 groups: controlled and uncontrolled hypertension based on their initial BP readings on presentation Uncontrolled Hypertension was defined as average BP ? 140/90 mm Hg in patients on treatment. Controlled Hypertension (HTN) was defined as average BP <140/90 mm Hg in patients on treatment. Standardized methods were used to record BP in the sitting position. Knowledge was recorded as a15 item question. Primary outcome was knowledge about hypertension. Results A total of 650 participants were approached and consented 447 were found eligible. 284(63.5%) were from Aga Khan University, 101(22.6) from Dow University of health sciences and 62(13.9) were from Ziauddin University. Mean (SD) age of participants was 57.7(12) years, 50.1(224) were men. Controlled hypertension was present in 323(72.3) and uncontrolled hypertension was present in 124(27.4). The total mean (SD) Knowledge score was 20.97(4.93) out of a maximum score of 38. On comparison of questions related to knowledge between uncontrolled and controlled hypertension, there was statistically significant different in; meaning of hypertension (p <0.001), target SBP(p0.001), target DBP(p 0.001), importance of SBP versus DBP, improvement of health with lowering of blood pressure (p 0.002), high blood pressure being asymptomatic (p <0.001), changing lifestyle improves blood pressure(p 0.003),hypertension being a lifelong disease (<0.001), lifelong treatment with antihypertensives(<0.001) and high blood pressure being part of aging(<0.001). On comparison of knowledge as a composite score between uncontrolled and controlled hypertensive; Mean (SD) score was 21.85(4.74) v18.67 (4.70) (p value: < 0.001). On multivariate analysis; gender ? (95% CI) 1.67(0.75, 2.59) p <0.001, uncontrolled blood pressure; -2.70(?3.76,-1.67) p <0.001, Sindhi ethnicity; -1.79(?3.25,-3.27) p 0.01 and pukhtoon ethnicity; -2.72(?4.13,-1.32) p <0.001 were significantly associated with knowledge score. Conclusion Knowledge about hypertension in hypertensive patients is not adequate and is alarmingly poor in patients with uncontrolled hypertension. More emphasis needs to be made on target blood pressure and need for taking antihypertensives for life to patients by physicians.

2012-01-01

72

Prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen and HCV antibodies in hepatocellular carcinoma cases in Karachi, Pakistan.  

PubMed

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common cancer the world over. In Pakistan it has an incidence of 8/ 100,000 per annum. To assess the prevalence of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections in biopsy proven cases of HCC a serological study was conducted at Screening Laboratory of Blood Transfusion Services, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre. Of 54 sera of HCC tested for HBV and HCV infections, 67% showed HBV infection, and 33% HCV infection. Among them 24% were positive for both HBV and HCV infections. No HBV and HCV infection was found in 24% cases of HCC. Our findings suggest viral association for most of the HCC cases reported in the country. We suggest an immediate intervention strategy to prevent the spread of HBV and HCV infections by mandatory screening of blood for HBV and HCV infections, and the use of disposable/sterilized needles, instruments for all invasive procedures. For the prevention of vertical transmission of HBV infections all pregnant women should be screened and vaccinated and HBV vaccination should also be included in EPI (expanded programme for immunization). PMID:9030022

Abdul Mujeeb, S; Jamal, Q; Khanani, R; Iqbal, N; Kaher, S

1997-01-01

73

Correlates of cigarette smoking among male college students in Karachi, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background About 1.3 billion people are regular smokers world wide and every day between 8,200 and 9,900 young people start to smoke, risking rapid addiction to nicotine. Transition from high school to college is a critical period to adopt healthy habits and life style. Therefore, it is important to understand the factors that might influence their smoking habit. Our study aims to assess the influence of factors that encourage college students to smoke cigarettes. Methods The data used in this survey were obtained from a representative sample of registered colleges of Karachi. A random sample of 576 male college students of ages ranging from 15–30 years was interviewed using a questionnaire administered by survey officers, by applying multi stage cluster sampling during the academic year 2004–2005. Results In this study, we found 26.7% of students had ever tried smoking, whereas 24%(95% CI: 21.0%–28.0%) of college students reported current smoking (that is whether one had smoked a cigarette in past 30 days). Among different age groups, prevalence of current smoking was 19.2% in 15–17 years, 26.5% in 18–20 years and 65% in 21 years and above. After adjusting for age of respondent, students in public schools were more likely to smoke as compared to students in private schools (adjusted OR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.3–4.2). Students whose friends are smokers were 5 times more likely to smoke compared to those whose friends are non-smokers (adjusted OR = 4.8; 95%CI: 3.1 – 7.4). Those students having fathers with no formal schooling were more likely to smoke (adjusted OR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.1–4.2) as compared to those whose fathers had some degree of education. Students having non-working mothers were more likely to smoke as compared to students with working mothers (adjusted OR = 2.8; 95% CI: 0.9–9.1). Students belonging to Bin Qasim (adjusted OR = 2.1; 95% C.I: 1.1–4.1) and Gadap town (adjusted OR = 2.1; 95%C.I) were more likely to smoke as compared to students residing in other towns. Conclusion This study shows that smoking is strongly associated with age, which may suggest social tolerance to smoking in this setting and that social and educational variables appear to play a significant role in smoking among college students. Our study suggests that such factors should be taken into account when designing effective tobacco control programs among college students. This is an effort which has been done to reduce tobacco consumption among college students and introduce awareness programs to amend their health risk behavior.

Rozi, Shafquat; Butt, Zahid A; Akhtar, Saeed

2007-01-01

74

Knowledge of modifiable risk factors of heart disease among patients with acute myocardial infarction in Karachi, Pakistan: a cross sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Knowledge is an important pre-requisite for implementing both primary as well as secondary preventive strategies for cardiovascular disease (CVD). There are no estimates of the level of knowledge of risk factor of heart disease in patients with CVD. We estimated the level of knowledge of modifiable risk factors and determined the factors associated with good level of knowledge among patients presenting with their first acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods A hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted at the National Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, a major tertiary care hospital in Karachi Pakistan. Patients admitted with their first AMI were eligible to participate. Standard questionnaire was used to interview 720 subjects. Knowledge of four modifiable risk factors of heart disease: fatty food consumption, smoking, obesity and exercise were assessed. The participants knowing three out of four risk factors were regarded as having a good level of knowledge. A multiple logistic regression model was constructed to identify the determinants of good level of knowledge. Results The mean age (SD) was 54 (11.66) years. A mere 42% of our study population had a good level of knowledge. In multiple logistic regression analysis, independent predictors of "good" level of knowledge were (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]) more than ten years of schooling were 2.5 [1.30, 4.80] (verses no schooling at all) and nuclear family system (verses extended family system) 2.54 [1.65, 3.89]. In addition, Sindhi ethnicity OR [3.03], higher level of exercise OR [2.76] and non user of tobacco OR [2.53] were also predictors of good level of knowledge. Conclusion Our findings highlight the lack of good level of knowledge of modifiable risk factors for heart disease among subjects admitted with AMI in Pakistan. There is urgent need for aggressive and targeted educational strategies in the Pakistani population.

Khan, Muhammad S; Jafary, Fahim H; Jafar, Tazeen H; Faruqui, Azhar M; Rasool, Syed I; Hatcher, Juanita; Chaturvedi, Nish

2006-01-01

75

An autoregressive integrated moving average model for short-term prediction of hepatitis C virus seropositivity among male volunteer blood donors in Karachi, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

AIM: To identify the stochastic autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model for short term forecasting of hepatitis C virus (HCV) seropositivity among volunteer blood donors in Karachi, Pakistan. METHODS: Ninety-six months (1998-2005) data on HCV seropositive cases (1000-1 × month-1) among male volunteer blood donors tested at four major blood banks in Karachi, Pakistan were subjected to ARIMA modeling. Subsequently, a fitted ARIMA model was used to forecast HCV seropositive donors for 91-96 mo to contrast with observed series of the same months. To assess the forecast accuracy, the mean absolute error rate (%) between the observed and predicted HCV seroprevalence was calculated. Finally, a fitted ARIMA model was used for short-term forecasts beyond the observed series. RESULTS: The goodness-of-fit test of the optimum ARIMA (2,1,7) model showed non-significant autocorrelations in the residuals of the model. The forecasts by ARIMA for 91-96 mo closely followed the pattern of observed series for the same months, with mean monthly absolute forecast errors (%) over 6 mo of 6.5%. The short-term forecasts beyond the observed series adequately captured the pattern in the data and showed increasing tendency of HCV seropositivity with a mean ± SD HCV seroprevalence (1000-1 × month-1) of 24.3 ± 1.4 over the forecast interval. CONCLUSION: To curtail HCV spread, public health authorities need to educate communities and health care providers about HCV transmission routes based on known HCV epidemiology in Pakistan and its neighboring countries. Future research may focus on factors associated with hyperendemic levels of HCV infection.

Akhtar, Saeed; Rozi, Shafquat

2009-01-01

76

Pakistan.  

PubMed

Pakistan's background notes which profile the population, geography, government, and the economy contain a capsule of selected country statistics and a descriptive text. Pakistan has 117 million people distributed at 134/sq km with a growth rate of 3%. The major cities are Islamabad, Rawalpindi, Karachi, Lahore, and Faisalabad. Ethnic groups include the Punjabi, Sindhi, Pathan, Baluch, and Huhajirs. 97% are Muslim. Urdu is the official language, but 65% speak Punjabi, 11% Sindhi, and 24% other languages. 26% are literate. Infant mortality is 109/1000. 54% are involved in agriculture, 33% services, and 13% in industry. A parliamentary democracy was established in 1947 with an executive, legislative, and judicial branch of government. The Islamic Democratic Alliance is the most important national party. Voting rights are for those 21 years. Seats are reserved for non-Muslims. There are 4 political subdivisions. Gross national product (GNP) was $43 billion in 1990. The economic growth rate is 5% and 2%/capita. The natural resources are arable land, natural gas, petroleum, coal, iron ore, and hydropower potential. Agricultural products include wheat, cotton, rice, and sugarcane. Industry includes textiles, fertilizer, steel products, food processing, and oil and gas products. Major trade partners are Japan, the US, the United Kingdom, and Saudi Arabia. Economic aid was $36 billion between 1947-85, of which the US contributed 3 billion between 1981-87. Major donors are id entified. The population concentration is around Karachi. Political unrest has prevailed for 26 years and includes the creation of Bangladesh in 1970 from East Pakistan. Pakistan is considered to have the resources and entrepreneurial skills to develop economically rapidly. Defense strength is characterized as the world's 11th largest. Pakistan is nonaligned, but a member of the Organization of the Islamic Conference and the UN. Relations with India have been difficult. There is a desire for a stable Afghanistan. There are close relations with China and security and economic interests in the Persian Gulf. Relations with the US are wide and bilateral. PMID:12178039

1992-06-01

77

Socioeconomic differences in height and body mass index of children and adults living in urban areas of Karachi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To study the socio-economic differences in height and body mass index (BMI) in urban areas of Karachi.Design: A comparative study was undertaken to compare the heights and BMIs of adults and children belonging to three distinctively different income groups living in urban areas of Karachi.Setting: Data was collected from families living in small, medium and large houses located in

R Hakeem

2001-01-01

78

Home visits reduce the number of hazards for childhood home injuries in Karachi, Pakistan: a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Although unintentional injuries are major causes of morbidity and mortality in less developed countries, they have received scant attention, and injury prevention policies and programs have just begun to be addressed systemically. Aims To reduce hazards associated with home injuries due to falls and ingestions through an injury prevention program administered by home visitors. Methods Non-blinded randomized controlled trial design of two interventions where one branch of the study group served as the control for the other in an urban neighborhood in Karachi, Pakistan. The study participants included 340 families with at least one child aged 3 years or less, discharged home from the Emergency Department following a visit for any reason other than an injury. The interventions included: (1) counseling to reduce falls; (2) counseling to reduce poisoning and choking. The primary outcome measure for each intervention was the relative risk of change in the home status from “unsafe” to “safe” after the intervention. Results There were 170 families in the fall prevention and 170 families in the ingestion prevention branch of the study. The percentage of homes deemed “safe” in which the families had received fall intervention counseling was 13.5% compared to 3.5% in the control group (relative risk 3.8; 95% CI: 1.5 to 10.0; p = 0.002), whereas the percentage of homes deemed “safe” in which the families had received the ingestions intervention counseling was 18.8% compared to 2.4% in the control group (relative risk 7.8; 95% CI: 2.4 to 25.3; p?

LeBlanc, John C.

2010-01-01

79

Socio-demographic correlates of betel, areca and smokeless tobacco use as a high risk behavior for head and neck cancers in a squatter settlement of Karachi, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Head and neck cancers are a major cancer burden in Pakistan. They share a common risk factor profile including regular consumption of products of betel, areca and tobacco. Use of paan, chaalia, gutka, niswar and tumbaku is acceptable in Pakistan and is considered a normal cultural practice. This cross-sectional study was carried out to understand the relation of socio-demographic factors for the consumption of paan, chaalia, gutka, niswar and tumbaku in Pakistani population. Through systematic sampling, 425 subjects from a squatter settlement in Karachi were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. High risk behavior was defined as Daily use of any of the above products. Results Daily use of all the substances except chaalia was higher among males compared to females. Chaalia use was higher among adolescents than adults while non-married consumed both chaalia and gutka more than married. Mohajir ethnicity had higher prevalence of paan, gutka and tumbaku use while Pathans had higher prevalence of niswar use. Conclusion Prevalence of use of chewable products is high in Pakistan with particularly high use of certain substances related with socio-demographic profiles. Industrially prepared products, chaalia and gutka, are gaining popularity among youth. Policies and focused interventions can be developed taking into consideration the preferred use of products among different socio-demographic groups.

Mazahir, Samia; Malik, Rabia; Maqsood, Maria; Merchant, Kanwal AliRaza; Malik, Farida; Majeed, Atif; Fatmi, Zafar; Khawaja, Muhammad Rizwanulhaq; Ghaffar, Shehzad

2006-01-01

80

To Explore the Experiences of Women on Reasons in Initiating and Maintaining Breastfeeding in Urban Area of Karachi, Pakistan: An Exploratory Study  

PubMed Central

This is an exploratory study that explores the experiences of lactating women in initiating, continuing, or discontinuing breastfeeding in an urban area of Karachi, Pakistan. Objectives. To explore the experiences of lactating women and to understand their support and hindering mechanisms in initiating and maintaining breastfeeding. Methods. This is an exploratory design assisting in exploring the participant's experiences of initiating and maintaining breastfeeding to better understand their world. Purposive sampling was used, and data was analyzed through manual thematic analysis. Results. The data revealed that mother's knowledge, sociocultural environment, breastfeeding decision, and self- and professional support acted as driving forces for the participants. However, sociocultural environment, physiological changes, time management, and being a housewife to breastfeed their children were all challenges and barriers that the participants thought hindered their breastfeeding initiation and maintenance. Conclusion. Breastfeeding is a natural but taxing phenomenon, and breastfeeding mothers experience supporting and hindering factors in initiating and maintaining breastfeeding.

Shaheen Premani, Zahra; Kurji, Zohra; Mithani, Yasmin

2011-01-01

81

Exploring the perceptions of parents and girls about girls' education in a Kachi Abadi of Karachi Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

he study explores perceptions of parents and girls about girls' education. The participants belong to a slum area, Gareeb Abad of Karachi. The only source of earning in the community is burning the dumped garbage to find valuables which they sell to earn some income. This study was conducted under qualitative research paradigm. Focus group discussions and individual interviews were

Sakhi Ahmed Jan

2007-01-01

82

Nocturnal Stratification of the Ionospheric F-layer over Karachi, Pakistan during Solar Cycle 22 (1986-96)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study has been carried out employing the ionospheric data of Karachi (24.95o N, 67.14o E) for a complete Solar Cycle-22 (1986-96), acquired by means of Digisonde DGS-256. The visual observations of data as shown that some times Nocturnal Ionospheric Stratification at Karachi do occur. However, Nocturnal Ionospheric Stratification is very rare in middle and lower latitudes (TAN and HUANG, 1985). Therefore, the present study is undertaken. Only the night-time F-layer Stratification cases have been included in this study. It is revealed that the Nocturnal Stratification in F-layer at Karachi is mainly a post-midnight phenomenon, under both magnetically quite and disturbed conditions. Though it may occur on pre and post -midnight periods, its occurrence in all the seasons is frequent (95%) in post mid-night period 0215-0500 LT . Only 5% cases were observed in pre mid-night period 2200-0000 LT. Its occurrence during Solar Maximum (1989-90) is significantly greater than at the two solar minimum i.e. 1986-87 and 1995-96. However, its maximum occurrence is observed in 1992 i.e. 2 years after the solar maximum. The seasons in order of its maximum occurrence are Winter, Equinoxes and Summer. Even in Winter its occurrence is observed to be the highest in the month of January. Nocturnal Ionospheric Stratification at Karachi may and may not occur on a TID (Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances) night, irrespective of the fact whether the night is magnetically quite and disturbed. This shows that the nocturnal Stratification is not caused by a TID as reported by TA N and HUANG (1985) over Wuchang (30.5o N, 11.4o E), China. Moreover, Karachi does not lie under any of the zones of particle precipitation described by BOSS and SMITH (1980). Therefore, a future study on the cause of Nocturnal Ionospheric Stratification is clearly required.

Zafar, H.; Zaidi, S.

83

JPRS Report, Near East South Asia: Pakistan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains translations/transcriptions of articles and/or broadcasts from Pakistan. Titles include: U.S. Pressure on Government Forecast Weaker Under Clinton; President Khan Said Likely to Obtain Another Term; Death Sentence of Christian for Bla...

1992-01-01

84

Does improving maternal knowledge of vaccines impact infant immunization rates? A community-based randomized-controlled trial in Karachi, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background In Pakistan, only 59-73% of children 12-23 months of age are fully immunized. This randomized, controlled trial was conducted to assess the impact of a low-literacy immunization promotion educational intervention for mothers living in low-income communities of Karachi on infant immunization completion rates. Methods Three hundred and sixty-six mother-infant pairs, with infants aged ? 6 weeks, were enrolled and randomized into either the intervention or control arm between August - November 2008. The intervention, administered by trained community health workers, consisted of three targeted pictorial messages regarding vaccines. The control group received general health promotion messages based on Pakistan's Lady Health Worker program curriculum. Assessment of DPT/Hepatitis B vaccine completion (3 doses) was conducted 4-months after enrollment. A Poisson regression model was used to estimate effect of the intervention. The multivariable Poisson regression model included maternal education, paternal occupation, ownership of home, cooking fuel used at home, place of residence, the child's immunization status at enrollment, and mother's perception about the impact of immunization on child's health. Results Baseline characteristics among the two groups were similar. At 4 month assessment, among 179 mother-infant pairs in the intervention group, 129 (72.1%) had received all 3 doses of DPT/Hepatitis B vaccine, whereas in the control group 92/178 (51.7%) had received all 3 doses. Multivariable analysis revealed a significant improvement of 39% (adjusted RR = 1.39; 95% CI: 1.06-1.81) in DPT-3/Hepatitis B completion rates in the intervention group. Conclusion A simple educational intervention designed for low-literate populations, improved DPT-3/Hepatitis B vaccine completion rates by 39%. These findings have important implications for improving routine immunization rates in Pakistan.

2011-01-01

85

A diagnostic study of heavy rainfall in Karachi due to merging of a mesoscale low and a diffused tropical depression during South Asian summer monsoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the results of a diagnostic study of a typical case of very heavy rainfall during the South Asian summer monsoon when a mesoscale low in a desert climate merged with a diffused tropical depression. The former low was located over Pakistan’s desert region and the latter depression originated over the Bay of Bengal. Surface and NCEP reanalysis data supported by satellite and radar images were incorporated in the diagnosis. The relationship between the heavy precipitation process and large-scale circulations such as monsoon trough, subtropical high, westerly jet, low level jet and water vapor transport were investigated to further understand the mechanism of this peculiar interaction. It was found that: (1) the mesoscale low developed as a result of cold air advection aloft from northern latitudes and strong convection over the region of humidity convergence on 24 July 2003 over the Indian Rajistan area. (2) On the same day, a low that formed over the Bay of Bengal was transformed into a monsoon depression and moved westward to the mesoscale low which existed over southwest India and the adjoining southeastern parts of Pakistan. (3) Initially, the mesoscale low received moisture supply from both the Bay of Bengal as well as the Arabian Sea, whereas the Bay of Bengal maintained the continuous supply of moisture to the monsoon depression. (4) After the depression crossed central India, the Bay’s moisture supply was cut off and the Arabian Sea became the only source of moisture to both the closely located systems. On 27 July, both of the systems merged together and the merger resulted in a heavy downpour in the Karachi metropolitan and in its surroundings. (5) With the intensification as well as the southeastward extension of the subtropical high and the shift of the monsoon trough axis from southwest-west to northeast-east, the monsoon depression moved southwestward. In this situation, there existed a very favourable condition for a merger of the two systems in the presence of cross-latitude influence. (6) A number of convective cloud clusters were developed and organized in the mesoscale low. Probably, interactions existed among the multi-scale systems.

Rasul, Ghulam; Chaudhry, Qamar-Uz-Zaman; Sixiong, Zhao; Qingcun, Zeng; Linlin, Qi; Gaoying, Zhang

2005-06-01

86

Health of people working/living in the vicinity of an oil-polluted beach near Karachi, Pakistan.  

PubMed

A short-term study was conducted after the oil spillage from the tanker Tasman Spirit to analyse seawater and sand samples taken from Karachi beach for hydrocarbon/organic contents. Blood samples were collected from people who were working or living in the vicinity of the beach. Lymphocyte and eosinophil levels were slightly increased. About 11 people had raised serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, but this was not significant. Such steps are vital to ensure that there are no long-term hazardous effects of oil on human health. PMID:18557466

Khurshid, R; Sheikh, M A; Iqbal, S

87

Evaluation of teaching and learning course in the nursing baccalaureate curriculum in one University Teaching Hospital in Karachi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Generic BSC Nursing four years degree program is a great achievement of Pakistan Nursing Council (PNC). It was developed in collaboration with HEC (Higher Education Commission). There is an unprecedented shortage of nurse educators in the country. The course entitled NU361: Teaching and Learning: Principles and Practices, forms the foundation for educating students about teaching theory, principles and practices.

Jacqueline Maria Dias; Zohra Kurji

2011-01-01

88

Prevalence and factors related to dental caries among pre-school children of Saddar town, Karachi, Pakistan: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Dental caries is highly prevalent and a significant public health problem among children throughout the world. Epidemiological data regarding prevalence of dental caries amongst Pakistani pre-school children is very limited. The objective of this study is to determine the frequency of dental caries among pre-school children of Saddar Town, Karachi, Pakistan and the factors related to caries. Methods A cross-sectional study of 1000 preschool children was conducted in Saddar town, Karachi. Two-stage cluster sampling was used to select the sample. At first stage, eight clusters were selected randomly from total 11 clusters. In second stage, from the eight selected clusters, preschools were identified and children between 3- to 6-years age group were assessed for dental caries. Results Caries prevalence was 51% with a mean dmft score being 2.08 (±2.97) of which decayed teeth constituted 1.95. The mean dmft of males was 2.3 (±3.08) and of females was 1.90 (±2.90). The mean dmft of 3, 4, 5 and 6-?year olds was 1.65, 2.11, 2.16 and 3.11 respectively. A significant association was found between dental caries and following variables: age group of 4-years (p-value?²?0.029, RR?=?1.248, 95% Bias corrected CI 0.029-0.437) and 5-years (p-value?²?0.009, RR?=?1.545, 95% Bias corrected CI 0.047-0.739), presence of dental plaque (p-value?²?0.003, RR?=?0.744, 95% Bias corrected CI (?0.433)-(?0.169)), poor oral hygiene (p-value?²?0.000, RR?=?0.661, 95% Bias corrected CI (?0.532)-(?0.284)), as well as consumption of non-sweetened milk (p-value?²?0.049, RR?=?1.232, 95% Bias corrected CI 0.061-0.367). Conclusion Half of the preschoolers had dental caries coupled with a high prevalence of unmet dental treatment needs. Association between caries experience and age of child, consumption of non-sweetened milk, dental plaque and poor oral hygiene had been established.

2012-01-01

89

REASSESSMENT OF SELECTED HEALTHCARE ASSOCIATED RISK FACTORS FOR HBV AND HCV INFECTIONS AMONG VOLUNTEER BLOOD DONORS, KARACHI, PAKISTAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Epidemiologic studies conducted in the 1990s identified several independent healthcare associated risk factors for HBV and HCV infections in Pakistan. In 2002, we re-examined healthcare associated HBV and\\/or HCV infection risk factors in volunteer blood donors. In this case-control study , we collected data using a structured questionnaire on socioeconomic attributes, putative healthcare related risk factors, and other known

Muhammad Younus; Azfar-e-Alam Siddiqi; Saeed Akhtar

90

Power, self-care and health in women living in urban squatter settlements in Karachi, Pakistan: a test of Orem's theory.  

PubMed

This was a study of health in women living in urban squatter settlements in Karachi, Pakistan. The study grew out of the author's concern for the generally poor health status of Pakistani women. Orem's nursing theory was selected to examine health in these women. The purpose of the study was to examine relationships among basic conditioning factors, self-care agency (specifically, perception of power as a foundational capability of self-care agency and the enabling capabilities of self-care agency), self-care, and selected health outcomes of Pakistani women. Four hypotheses were developed and tested. They were that in a group of Pakistani women: (1) perception of power as a foundational capability and enabling capabilities of self-care agency and self-care will be related to selected basic conditioning factors; (2) perception of power, as a foundational capability of self-care agency, will be directly and positively related to enabling capabilities of self-care agency; (3) perception of power as a foundational capability and enabling capabilities of self-care agency will have a direct and positive relationship with self-care; and (4) self-care will be related to selected health outcomes. Hypotheses one, two and three were supported. Findings indicate that the basic conditioning factors, socioeconomic variables, ethnicity and roles, were predictive of perception of power, enabling capabilities of self-care agency, self-care and health. Hypothesis four was not supported; basic conditioning factors had more influence on health than self-care. PMID:10404002

Lee, M B

1999-07-01

91

Experiences of nurses related to prolonged-stay patients in a postanesthesia care unit in Karachi, Pakistan.  

PubMed

The role of the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) is to provide short-term monitoring of patients after surgery until recovery from anesthesia. The transfer of patients from the PACU to their designated units, however, may be delayed for various reasons. A qualitative descriptive approach was used to explore the experiences of six nurses working in the PACU at a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan. Data were collected using semistructured interviews. The data were grouped into categories and subcategories. An overarching theme that was derived from the content analysis was that of the factors impacting quality patient care. The content analysis generated a broad category of "general effects" and subcategories that included patients, families, and PACU nurses. The findings highlight the effects of prolonged PACU stays on patients, their families, and PACU nurses. PMID:22264619

Lalani, Sharifa Bashir; Kanji, Zeenatkhanu; Ali, Fauziya

2012-02-01

92

Gender roles and their influence on life prospects for women in urban Karachi, Pakistan: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Pakistan is a patriarchal society where men are the primary authority figures and women are subordinate. This has serious implications on women's and men's life prospects. Objective The aim was to explore current gender roles in urban Pakistan, how these are reproduced and maintained and influence men's and women's life circumstances. Design Five focus group discussions were conducted, including 28 women representing employed, unemployed, educated and uneducated women from different socio-economic strata. Manifest and latent content analyses were applied. Findings Two major themes emerged during analysis: ‘Reiteration of gender roles’ and ‘Agents of change’. The first theme included perceptions of traditional gender roles and how these preserve women's subordination. The power gradient, with men holding a superior position in relation to women, distinctive features in the culture and the role of the extended family were considered to interact to suppress women. The second theme included agents of change, where the role of education was prominent as well as the role of mass media. It was further emphasised that the younger generation was more positive to modernisation of gender roles than the elder generation. Conclusions This study reveals serious gender inequalities and human rights violations against women in the Pakistani society. The unequal gender roles were perceived as static and enforced by structures imbedded in society. Women routinely faced serious restrictions and limitations of autonomy. However, attainment of higher levels of education especially not only for women but also for men was viewed as an agent towards change. Furthermore, mass media was perceived as having a positive role to play in supporting women's empowerment.

Ali, Tazeen S.; Krantz, Gunilla; Gul, Raisa; Asad, Nargis; Johansson, Eva; Mogren, Ingrid

2011-01-01

93

Knowledge of emergency contraception among women of childbearing age at a teaching hospital of Karachi  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To assess knowledge and attitudes about Emergency Contraception among women of childbearing age in Karachi, Pakistan.METHODS: A questionnaire based survey was conducted on 400 married women, attending the family practice clinics at a teaching hospital in Karachi, Pakistan from July to December 2006. Questionnaire was administered to women at the family practice clinic-seeking level of knowledge of emergency contraception

Farhana Irfan; Syed Irfan Karim; Saman Hashmi; Sajid Ali; Syed Arif Ali

2009-01-01

94

Ethnic differences and determinants of proteinuria among South Asian subgroups in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethnic differences and determinants of proteinuria among South Asian subgroups in Pakistan.BackgroundHypertension, diabetes, increasing age, and smoking are known risk factors for proteinuria. Prevalence of proteinuria is high in South Asians. However, ethnic subgroup differences and determinants of proteinuria within the South Asian population have not been explored.MethodsThe National Health Survey of Pakistan conducted between 1990 and 1994 was used

Tazeen H. Jafar; Nish Chaturvedi; Asma Gul; Abdul Q. Khan; Christopher H. Schmid; Andrew S. Levey

2003-01-01

95

A diagnostic study of heavy rainfall in karachi due to merging of a mesoscale low and a diffused tropical depression during South Asian summer monsoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of a diagnostic study of a typical case of very heavy rainfall during the South Asian summer\\u000a monsoon when a mesoscale low in a desert climate merged with a diffused tropical depression. The former low was located over\\u000a Pakistan’s desert region and the latter depression originated over the Bay of Bengal. Surface and NCEP reanalysis

Ghulam Rasul; Qamar-Uz-Zaman Chaudhry; Zhao Sixiong; Zeng Qingcun; Qi Linlin; Zhang Gaoying

2005-01-01

96

Application of Geographical Information System (GIS) for mapping road traffic injuries using existing source of data in Karachi, Pakistan — A pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the feasibility of using Geographical Information System for mapping of road traffic injuries with an existing data source in a developing country. Methods: The study was a retrospectives case series of road traffic injury cases registered with the medico-legal office located in the three major trauma centers in Karachi for the period of January 1, 2004 till

Junaid Abdul Razzak; Uzma Rahim Khan; Sabeena Jalal; Sabeena Jalal Khan

2011-01-01

97

Rehabilitating Agriculture and Promoting Food Security After the 2010 Pakistan Floods: Insights from the South Asian Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 2010 floods in Pakistan had a devastating effect on the Pakistani population. This paper summarises recovery experiences from previous natural disasters in South Asia, including the 2005 earthquake in Pakistan and the 1998 flood in Bangladesh, and suggests several lessons relevant for recovery efforts following the 2010 Pakistan flood. First, market and trade policies should maintain adequate price incentives

Paul Dorosh; Sohail J. Malik; Marika Krausova

2010-01-01

98

Need for Multilevel Strategies and Enhanced Acceptance of Contraceptive Use in Order to Combat the Spread of HIV/AIDS in a Muslim Society: A Qualitative Study of Young Adults in Urban Karachi, Pakistan.  

PubMed

This qualitative study explored knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and perceptions of sexual and reproductive health, focusing specifically on contraceptive use and HIV prevention among young unmarried men and women, 17-21 years, in urban Karachi, Pakistan. The main theme, identified as underlying meaning in the focus group discussions was "Societal norms and perceptions create barriers to knowledge and awareness about sexual and reproductive health matters among young adults". A knowledge gap was revealed concerning HIV/AIDS and contraceptive use among young males and females, who have to rely on media and peers for information seeking. Study participants perceived that HIV/AIDS is incurable and carries a social stigma. It was further revealed, that there is an opposition towards contraceptive use from religious leaders. Young adults in Pakistan are in need of improved knowledge about HIV/AIDS and contraceptive use. Youth clinics and schools/colleges may play a significant role in this regard. The religious leaders need to be informed about the beneficial effects of contraceptives and they should be part of any family planning/contraceptive use program to ensure better community acceptance. At the structural level there is an urgent need for policies targeting the issue of sexual and reproductive health, particularly HIV/AIDS information and contraceptive use to target the young population. The health care services should be able to respond by offering relevant services. PMID:23985107

Hasnain, Syed Farid-Ul-; Johansson, Eva; Gulzar, Saleema; Krantz, Gunilla

2013-05-27

99

Socio-demographic correlates of betel, areca and smokeless tobacco use as a high risk behavior for head and neck cancers in a squatter settlement of Karachi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Head and neck cancers are a major cancer burden in Pakistan. They share a common risk factor profile including regular consumption of products of betel, areca and tobacco. Use of paan, chaalia, gutka, niswar and tumbaku is acceptable in Pakistan and is considered a normal cultural practice. This cross-sectional study was carried out to understand the relation of socio-demographic

Samia Mazahir; Rabia Malik; Maria Maqsood; Kanwal AliRaza Merchant; Farida Malik; Atif Majeed; Zafar Fatmi; Muhammad Rizwanulhaq Khawaja; Shehzad Ghaffar

2006-01-01

100

Use of hair as an indicator of environmental lead pollution in women of child-bearing age in Karachi, Pakistan and Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was prompted by an observation made during a visit to Karchi in 1986 when three blood samples from two women and a man, all between 30-35 years yielded blood Pb levels of 31.4, 21.9 and 41.7 ug Pb\\/dl blood. Karachi is a highly industrialized urban center with very large numbers of motor vehicles, all of which use

Ijaz S. Jamall; Paul V. Allen

1990-01-01

101

Enhancing and sustaining teacher professionalism in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a conceptual framework for fostering teacher professionalism in Government primary schools in Karachi, Pakistan. The framework identifies various stages for enhancing and sustaining teacher professionalism. These stages have been derived from in?depth multiple case studies of four Government primary schools in Karachi where reforms have been occurring. In order to enhance and sustain professionalism among the teachers

Meher Rizvi; Bob Elliott

2007-01-01

102

Enhancing and Sustaining Teacher Professionalism in Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a conceptual framework for fostering teacher professionalism in Government primary schools in Karachi, Pakistan. The framework identifies various stages for enhancing and sustaining teacher professionalism. These stages have been derived from in-depth multiple case studies of four Government primary schools in Karachi where…

Rizvi, Meher; Elliott, Bob

2007-01-01

103

Formative research and development of an evidence-based communication strategy: the introduction of Vi typhoid fever vaccine among school-aged children in Karachi, Pakistan.  

PubMed

The authors conducted formative research (a) to identify stakeholders' concerns related to typhoid fever and the need for disease information and (b) to develop a communication strategy to inform stakeholders and address their concerns and motivate for support of a school-based vaccination program in Pakistan. Data were collected during interactive and semi-structured focus group discussions and interviews, followed by a qualitative analysis and multidisciplinary consultative process to identify an effective social mobilization strategy comprised of relevant media channels and messages. The authors conducted 14 focus group discussions with the parents of school-aged children and their teachers, and 13 individual interviews with school, religious, and political leaders. Parents thought that typhoid fever was a dangerous disease, but were unsure of their children's risk. They were interested in vaccination and were comfortable with a school-based vaccination if conducted under the supervision of trained and qualified staff. Teachers and leaders needed information on typhoid fever, the vaccine, procedures, and sponsors of the vaccination program. Meetings were considered the best form of information dissemination, followed by printed materials and mass media. This study shows how qualitative research findings can be translated into an effective social mobilization and communication approach. The findings of the research indicated the importance of increasing awareness of typhoid fever and the benefits of vaccination against the disease. Identification and dissemination of relevant, community-based disease and vaccination information will increase demand and use of vaccination. PMID:23330632

Pach, Alfred; Tabbusam, Ghurnata; Khan, M Imran; Suhag, Zamir; Hussain, Imtiaz; Hussain, Ejaz; Mumtaz, Uzma; Haq, Inam Ul; Tahir, Rehman; Mirani, Amjad; Yousafzai, Aisha; Sahastrabuddhe, Sushant; Ochiai, R Leon; Soofi, Sajid; Clemens, John D; Favorov, Michael O; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

2013-01-18

104

Childhood Unintentional Injuries: Need for a Community-Based Home Injury Risk Assessments in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background. A substantial proportion of the annual 875,000 childhood unintentional injury deaths occur in the home. Very few printed tools are available in South Asia for disseminating home injury prevention information. Methods. Three tools were planned: an injury hazard assessment tool appropriate for a developing country setting, an educational pamphlet highlighting strategies for reducing home injury hazards, and an in-home safety tutorial program to be delivered by a trained community health worker. Results. The three tools were successfully developed. Two intervention neighborhoods in Karachi, Pakistan, were mapped. The tools were pretested in this local setting and are now ready for pilot testing in an intervention study. Conclusion. Planning for an innovative, community-based pilot study takes considerable time and effort in a low-income setting like Pakistan. The primary outcome of the pre-testing phase of the study was the development of three important tools geared for low-income housing communities in Pakistan.

Hyder, Adnan A.; Chandran, Aruna; Khan, Uzma Rahim; Zia, Nukhba; Huang, Cheng-Ming; de Ramirez, Sarah Stewart; Razzak, Junaid

2012-01-01

105

The Muslim Response to English in South Asia: With Special Reference to Inequality, Intolerance, and Militancy in Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article argues that since the British colonial era, Muslims in South Asia have responded to English in three ways: (a) rejection and resistance, (b) acceptance and assimilation, and (c) pragmatic utilization. These responses continue in Pakistan and are respectively associated with the traditionalist ulema, the Westernized middle and upper…

Rahman, Tariq

2005-01-01

106

Trends in using CD-ROM is academic libraries of three South Asian countries - Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka  

Microsoft Academic Search

High hopes were attached to CD-ROM technology at its inception in bridging the gap between ‘information rich’ and ‘information poor’ countries. However, this is technology is entering the libraries of developing countries at a much slower pace than expected. This paper explores the use of CD-ROM in academic libraries of three South Asian countries, namely Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka.

Shaheen Majid

2001-01-01

107

Congenital Bleeding Disorders in Karachi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the frequency of inherited bleeding disorders, its complications, and treatment modalities available for its treatment. Design: Cross-sectional study. Patients and Methods: Patients with a history of bleeding tendency were tested for confirmation of the diagnosis. History and clinical findings were recorded. Laboratory analysis included prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), bleeding time (BT), and fibrinogen

Munira Borhany; Tahir Shamsi; Arshi Naz; Asif Khan; Kousar Parveen; Saqib Ansari; Tasneem Farzana

2011-01-01

108

Adult anopheline ecology and malaria transmission in irrigated areas of South Punjab, Pakistan.  

PubMed

Surface irrigation in the Punjab province of Pakistan has been carried out on a large scale since the development of the Indus Basin Irrigation System in the late 19th century. The objective of our study was to understand how the population dynamics of adult anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) could be related to malaria transmission in rural areas with intensive irrigation and a history of malaria epidemics. In this paper we present our observations from three villages located along an irrigation canal in South Punjab. The study was carried out from 1 April 1999 to 31 March 2000. Mosquitoes were collected from bedrooms using the pyrethroid spraycatch method and from vegetation and animal sheds using backpack aspirators. Overall, Anopheles subpictus Grassi sensu lato predominated (55.6%), followed by An. stephensi Liston s.l. (41.4%), An. culicifacies Giles s.l. (2.0%), An. pulcherrimus Theobald (1.0%) and An. peditaeniatus Leicester (0.1%). Most mosquitoes (98.8%) were collected from indoor resting-sites whereas collections from potential resting-sites outdoors accounted for only 1.2% of total anopheline densities, confirming the endophilic behaviour of anophelines in Pakistan. Anopheles stephensi, An. culicifacies and An. subpictus populations peaked in August, September and October, respectively. High temperatures and low rainfall negatively affected seasonal abundance in our area. There were interesting differences in anopheline fauna between villages, with An. culicifacies occurring almost exclusively in the village at the head of the irrigation canal, where waterlogged and irrigated fields prevailed. Monthly house-to-house fever surveys showed that malaria transmission remained low with an overall slide positivity rate of 2.4% and all cases were due to infection with Plasmodium vivax. The most plausible explanation for low transmission in our study area seems to be the low density of Pakistan's primary malaria vector, An. culicifacies. The role of other species such as An. stephensi is not clear. Our observations indicate that, in South Punjab, irrigation-related sites support the breeding of anopheline mosquitoes, including the vectors of malaria. As our study was carried out during a year with exceptionally hot and dry climatic conditions, densities and longevity of mosquitoes would probably be higher in other years and could result in more significant malaria transmission than we observed. To assess the overall importance of irrigation-related sites in the epidemiology of malaria in the Punjab, more studies are needed to compare irrigated and non-irrigated areas. PMID:15189239

Herrel, N; Amerasinghe, F P; Ensink, J; Mukhtar, M; van der Hoek, W; Konradsen, F

2004-06-01

109

The city as arena, hub and prey patterns of violence in Kabul and Karachi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Violence in today’s cities limits the scope for effective urban governance. It also destroys opportunities for collective action conducive to political and economic development, thus jeopardizing the regional competitiveness of these cities. A myriad of causal factors have been suggested, including urbanization, ethnic diversity, social fragmentation and widespread poverty. The cases of Kabul in Afghanistan and Karachi in Pakistan illustrate

Daniel Esser

2004-01-01

110

THE STATE OF POLLUTION LEVELS OF KARACHI HARBOUR AND ADJOINING COASTAL WATER  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was carried out recently to determine the pollution level of waters in the Karachi harbour and adjoining backwaters. Nine locations were selected, four in the backwaters, two on the seaside, and three in the main navigable channel. Four of these locations were deliberately selected to coincide with those of a previous study conducted in 1982 by Pakistan Council

Waseem Akhtar; Iqbal Ali; S. S. H. Zaidi; Seema Jilani

1997-01-01

111

Reflective Dialogue: What's in It for Teachers? A Pakistan Case  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reflective dialogue is still very much an unexplored area in teacher education in Pakistan. This article presents findings of a study that engaged four teachers in the process of reflective dialogue in a school in Karachi, Pakistan. It explores the teachers' response to the process and possible reasons. It also examines the role played by those…

Rarieya, Jane F. A.

2005-01-01

112

Comprehensive Bibliography of Pakistan Archaeology: Paleolithic to Historic Times. South Asia Series, Occasional Paper No. 24.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The comprehensive bibliography is a compilation of twentieth century documents about Pakistan prehistory from Paleolithic times to the arrival of the Greeks in approximately 330 B.C., also includes some of the major archaeological studies in adjacent countries which have a bearing on the interpretation and comparative analysis of Pakistan

King, Denise E.

113

Containing Pakistan: Engaging the Raja-Mandala in South-Central Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent events have refocused attention on Pakistan's role as an epicenter of global Islamist terror and called into question Islamabad's reliability as an ally in the fight against a resurgent Taliban and the hunt for Osama bin Laden. Pakistan in fact suffers from abiding structural pathologies that make it a questionable Western ally at best. In its foreign policy toward

Vanni Cappelli

2007-01-01

114

Ecological disturbances due to high cutback in the green infrastructure of Karachi: Analyses of public perception about associated health problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates the changes to the green infrastructure of the megacity of Karachi, Pakistan, occurring during a period of rapid development, involving extensive loss of trees and green spaces since 2000, occurring as a consequence of road widening and improvements to the city's transport infrastructure, aggravated by a series of cyclones, involving further tree loss and which has led

Salman Qureshi; Syed Jamil Hasan Kazmi; Jürgen H. Breuste

2010-01-01

115

War against Rape (WAR): The Experience of an Activist Group in Karachi in Raising Awareness of Sexual Crimes against Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper describes the experiences of an activist group in Karachi (Pakistan) in raising awareness of sexual crimes against women, pursuant to a rape of a professional woman which occurred during an armed robbery. It describes how, since rape was regarded as rare or nonexistent in a conservative, Islamic society, the efforts of the Women's…

Zaman, Riffat Moazam

116

Library and Information Science Education in South Asia: India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews formal postgraduate-level library and information science programs offered by universities, documentation centers, and research institutions in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka. Highlights include historical background; admission requirements; length of program; curricula; faculty; course content; research; administrative…

Mangla, P. B.

1994-01-01

117

The state of pollution levels of Karachi harbour and adjoining coastal water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was carried out recently to determine the pollution level of waters in the Karachi harbour and adjoining backwaters.\\u000a Nine locations were selected, four in the backwaters, two on the seaside, and three in the main navigable channel. Four of\\u000a these locations were deliberately selected to coincide with those of a previous study conducted in 1982 by Pakistan Council

Waseem Akhtar; Iqbal Ali; S. S. H. Zaidi; Seema Jilani

1997-01-01

118

Health service utilization for perceived postpartum morbidity among poor women living in Karachi  

Microsoft Academic Search

To explore traditional beliefs and practices, to assess puerperal morbidity, and to understand care-seeking behaviors, a qualitative and quantitative study was conducted in low socio-economic settlements of Karachi, Pakistan. Five focus group discussions and 15 in-depth interviews were conducted in July and August 2000. 525 Muslim women, who were 6–8 weeks post-partum, were then interviewed at home. Maternal care was

Fariyal F. Fikree; Tazeen Ali; Jill M. Durocher; Mohammad H. Rahbar

2004-01-01

119

Inquiry-Based teaching strategies employed by mathematics teachers in lower secondary classroom in karachi  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to explore the inquiry-based teaching strategies employed by mathematics teachers in lower secondary classrooms. The inquiry-based teaching strategy provides an opportunity for learners to learn mathematical concepts by 'exploring', 'conjecturing', 'reasoning', and 'evaluating' (Arendas, 1994; Jaworski,1994; Borasi, 1992). The study was conducted in a government and a private school in Karachi, Pakistan. The research participants were mathematics

Ali Ahmad Khan

2009-01-01

120

Rehabilitating agriculture and promoting food security following the 2010 Pakistan floods: Insights from South Asian experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent floods in Pakistan have had a devastating effect on the Pakistani population. The Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA 2010) estimates that, as of early September 2010, more than 20 million people had been displaced by the flood and by some estimates the damage to crops, housing, other buildings, roads, and irrigation infrastructure now reaches $6.5

Paul Dorosh; Sohail Malik; Marika Krausova

2010-01-01

121

Content audit of drug advertisements in Pakistan.  

PubMed

A sample of 120 drug advertisements was drawn by nonprobability convenience sampling from among the stalls of 50 pharmaceutical companies participating in an exhibition in Karachi, Pakistan. 23 belonging to the NSAID drug group were selected and evaluated on whether they met guidelines for ethical advertisements as laid down in the Drugs Act, 1976. Only 5 out of the 23 advertisements met at least 14 out of 16 criteria for ethical advertisements as given in the Drugs Act, 1976. PMID:22106645

Vakani, Farhan; Naqv, Kashif; Amin, Almas

122

An experience of teaching bioethics at secondary schools in Karachi.  

PubMed

Bioethics is the "critical analysis of emerging moral issues in health". The term was first used to refer to "the moral problems of the life sciences encompassing medicine, biology, environment, population and social sciences". Teaching bioethics is complex and challenging within multi-system educational program as in Pakistan for secondary schools. The objectives are difficult as bioethics teaching require changes in knowledge, skills and attitudes along with strong improvement in moral reasoning. The objectives of the study were to teach bioethics and evaluate comprehension and skills of ethical reasoning in students of secondary school in Karachi. This was a quasi-experimental study conducted in two schools (public and private-sector) of Karachi from January 2007 to December 2009. This was a preliminary study and used simple random sampling to recruit one hundred and ten students. The qualitative analysis of comprehension and skills were evaluated on numeric scales. The study found higher comprehension and skills level in females (66%) compared to male students during class-room sessions. PMID:23286632

Khan, Mahjabeen

2013-01-01

123

Pakistan's Kashmir Policy and Strategy Since 1947.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis analyzes Pakistan's Kashmir policy and strategy since 1947. Pakistan has sought to obtain the accession of Kashmir for over fifty years. This policy has its origins in Pakistan's struggle for a separate state for South Asia's Muslims, its beli...

M. P. Taylor

2004-01-01

124

Paleosols from Pakistan, Greece, and South Dakota: Strengths and pitfalls of the use of carbon isotopes in paleoecologic reconstruction  

SciTech Connect

The delta C-13 of soil carbonates in paleosols can be used to reconstruct the proportion of C[sub 3] and C[sub 4] plants that grew on the site during pedogenesis. This reconstruction is only possible where: (1) soil carbonate, not other secondary carbonates, is sampled, (2) carbon isotopes have not undergone post-burial replacement or exchange, and (3) there is no detrital contamination of soil nodules. Preservation of soil organic matter provides the simplest test of all these conditions. In modern soils coexisting soil carbonate and organic matter differ by 14--17%. This difference is preserved in Mio-Pliocene paleosols from the Siwalik Sequence in Pakistan, verifying a pedogenic origin, but not in coexisting carbonate and organic layers from Pikermi in Greece. Minor detrital contamination is present in some Siwalik soil carbonates, but this can be quantified by analyzing entire paleosol profiles. Other post-pedogenic carbonate cements are also present by they display very different delta C-13 and delta O-18 values from those in soil carbonates, aging suggesting that post-pedogenic exchange has not occurred. In the Badlands of South Dakota, preliminary results show that all sampled carbonate phases, including those in paleosols, display very homogeneous delta C-13 values of around [minus]7 to [minus]8%, indicating that (1) no pedogenic carbonate is present, (2) post-burial isotopic alteration may have occurred, or (3) Oligocene atmospheric pCO[sub 2] was substantially higher than today's.

Quade, J. (Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Geosciences); Cerling, T.E.; Wang, Yang (Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

1992-01-01

125

The burden of stroke and transient ischemic attack in Pakistan: a community-based prevalence study  

PubMed Central

Background The burden of cerebrovascular disease in developing countries is rising sharply. The prevalence of established risk factors of stroke is exceptionally high in Pakistan. However, there is limited data on the burden of stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) in South Asia. We report the first such study conducted in an urban slum of Karachi, Pakistan. Methods Individuals 35 years of age or older were invited for participation in this investigation through simple random sampling. A structured face-to-face interview was conducted using a pre-tested stroke symptom questionnaire in each participant to screen for past stroke or TIA followed by neurological examination of suspected cases. Anthropometric measurements and random blood glucose levels were recorded. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the association of vascular risk factors with prevalence of stroke. Results Five hundred and forty five individuals (49.4% females) participated in the study with a response rate of 90.8%. One hundred and four individuals (19.1%) were observed to have a prior stroke while TIA was found in 53 individuals (9.7%). Overall, 119 individuals (21.8% with 66.4% females) had stroke and/or TIA. Female gender, old age, raised random blood glucose level and use of chewable tobacco were significantly associated with the prevalence of cerebrovascular disease. Conclusion This is the first study demonstrating an alarmingly high life-time prevalence of cerebrovascular disease in Pakistan. Individual and public health interventions in Pakistan to increase awareness about stroke, its prevention and therapy are warranted.

2009-01-01

126

India and Pakistan's Unstable Peace: Why Nuclear South Asia Is Not Like Cold War Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scholars attribute conventional violence in a nuclear South Asia to a phenomenon known as the stability\\/instability paradox. According to this paradox, the risk of nuclear war makes it unlikely that conventional confict will escalate to the nuclear level, thereby making conventional confict more likely. Although this phenomenon encouraged U.S.-Soviet violence during the Cold War, it does not explain the dynamics

S. Paul Kapur

2005-01-01

127

Pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09: An unrecognized cause of mortality in children in Pakistan.  

PubMed

Abstract The role of influenza virus as a cause of child mortality in South Asia is under-recognized. We aimed to determine the incidence and case fatality rate of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 infections in hospitalized children in Karachi, Pakistan. Children less than 5 y old admitted with respiratory illnesses to the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from 17 August 2009 to 16 September 2011, were tested for influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 using a real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Out of 2650 children less than 5 y old admitted with a respiratory illness during the study period, 812 (31%) were enrolled. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus was detected in 27 (3.3%) children. There were 4 deaths in children who tested positive for influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 (case fatality rate of 15%). Children with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 were 5 times more likely to be admitted or transferred to the intensive care unit, 5.5 times more likely to be intubated, and 12.9 times more likely to die as compared to children testing negative for influenza A(H1N1)pdm09. PMID:23826795

Ali, Syed Asad; Aziz, Fatima; Akhtar, Nida; Qureshi, Shahida; Edwards, Kathryn; Zaidi, Anita

2013-07-05

128

Developing creative writing skills in early childhood: A case study from Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study explores how a teacher of Early Childhood teaches young children creative writing skills in a community-based school in Karachi, Pakistan. A qualitative case study method was used to examine the practices of the teacher and four early years’ learners (seven to eight years). Data was generated through semi-structured interviews; classroom observations and document analysis. Findings reveal that current

Nilofar Vazir; Shairoz Ismail

2009-01-01

129

Unsafe injections and the transmission of hepatitis B and C in a periurban community in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following reports of frequent deaths associated with jaundice and chronic liver disease among adults in a periurban community of Karachi, Pakistan, an investigation was conducted to evaluate the relationship between injections and viral hepatitis infections, to identify the reasons why patients received frequent injections, and to observe the injection practices employed in clinics. Two hundred and three adult patients were

Aamir J. Khan; Stephen P. Luby; Fariyal Fikree; Anita Karim; Saima Obaid; Salima Dellawala; Shaper Mirza; Tariq Malik; Sue Fisher-Hoch; Joseph B. McCormick

2000-01-01

130

Weight patterns and perceptions among female university students of Karachi: a cross sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Body weight and its perception play an important role in the physical and mental well-being of a person. Weight perception is found to be a better predictor of weight management behaviour as compared to actual weight. In Pakistan, studies have been done on the prevalence of weight status but weight perception is still unexplored. The study was done to examine relationships between body weight perception, actual weight status, and weight control behaviour among the female university students of Karachi. Methods A cross sectional study was carried out during Sep-Nov 2009 on female students in four universities of Karachi, Pakistan. Our final sample size included 338 female university students. Height and weight were measured on calibrated scales. A modified BMI criterion for Asian populations was used. Results Based on measured BMI; the prevalence of underweight, normal weight and overweight females was 27.2%, 51.5% and 21.3% respectively. As a whole, just over one third (33.73%) of the sample misclassified their weight status. Among underweight (n=92), 45.70% thought they were of normal weight. No one who was truly underweight perceived them self as overweight. Among the normal weight (n= 174), 9.8% thought they were underweight and 23.6% considered themselves overweight. Among the overweight (n=72); 18.3% considered themselves normal. Only one female student thought she was underweight despite being truly overweight. Conclusions Our study shows that among female university students in Karachi, the prevalence of being underweight is comparatively high. There is a significant misperception of weight, with one third of students misclassifying themselves. Underweight females are likely to perceive themselves as normal and be most satisfied with their weight. Health policy makers should implement these findings in future development of health interventions and prevention of depression, social anxiety and eating disorders associated with incorrect weight perception among young females. Studies that employ a longitudinal approach are needed to validate our findings.

2013-01-01

131

Lay perceptions of genetic risks attributable to inbreeding in Pakistan.  

PubMed

Pakistan along with many other West and South Asian countries has a very high prevalence of consanguineous, especially close cousin, marriages. Although there is substantial empirical information on offspring morbidity and mortality attributable to parental consanguinity, population-based information on how communities in general, and women in particular, perceive the health risks associated with consanguineous unions is limited. This paper considers community perceptions of health effects associated with consanguineous marriages using qualitative data from 15 focus group discussions and 294 in-depth interviews. The study was conducted in four low-income, multi-ethnic, and multi-religious communities in Karachi, the principal commercial center of Pakistan. The results show a general lack of awareness of the possible adverse health effects of consanguineous marriage. In cases where a link between consanguinity and ill health was acknowledged, it often centered on the familial origins of non-communicable disorders such as diabetes and hypertension or infectious diseases such as tuberculosis. Belief in fate and the "evil eye" was widespread across all ethnic and religious groups. Many respondents did not agree with medical explanations of a genetic mode of disease inheritance, even in cases where there was an affected child in the family. The absence of a uniform manifestation of disease among all children of a couple who were identified as carriers of a specific mutation added to the confusion among participants. The study highlights the need for further quantification of risks associated with consanguinity and a need for provision of appropriate information to primary-care clinicians and also to communities. The likely impact of increasing morbidity attributable to inbreeding on the health care system in resource poor settings is also discussed. PMID:11891938

Hussain, Rafat

132

Geology and hydrocarbon potential of offshore Indus Basin, Pakistan  

SciTech Connect

The Indus offshore basin, located in the south of the Karachi trough and Thar slope, between Murray Ridge and the Indian border (23 to 25/sup 0/N lat.; 66 to 68/sup 0/E long.) has been investigated geologically from the point of view of hydrocarbon potential. Nine wells were drilled in the area: two onshore wells (Karachi 1,2), three wells near the Karachi shore (Dabbo creek, Patiani Creek, and Korangi Creek), one well on the offshore platform (Karachi South A-1), and three wells in offshore depressions (Indus Marine A-1, B-1, and C-1). No oil or gas deposit was discovered, but gas shows and traces were recorded. However, considering the large area (7,700 mi/sup 2/; 20,000 km/sup 2/) the number of wells drilled represents an insufficient effort of exploration and drilling. Tectonically, the Indus offshore basin can be divided into three units: (1) an ofshore depression on the west, between Murray Ridge and the hinge line; (2) the offshore Karachi trough platform in the middle between the hinge and the Karachi shoreline; and (3) offshore Thar slope platform or Indus River deltaic area on the east. The hinge-line zone and the outer margin of the carbonate platform, where there is a possibility of reef buildups, seem to be potential areas for hydrocarbons, and further investigation and drilling for suitable structural traps should be pursued.

Shuaib, S.M.

1982-07-01

133

Patterns and trends in Pakistan's heterogeneous HIV epidemic  

PubMed Central

Background Considerable HIV transmission occurs among injection drug users (IDUs) in Pakistan and recently the HIV prevalence has been increasing among male (MSW), hijra (transgender; HSW) and female (FSW) sex workers. We describe past and estimate future patterns of HIV emergence among these populations in several cities in Pakistan. Methods The density of these key populations per 1000 adult men was calculated using 2011 mapping data from Karachi, Lahore, Faisalabad, Larkana, Peshawar and Quetta, and surveillance data were used to assess bridging between these key populations. We used the UNAIDS Estimation and Projection Package model to estimate and project HIV epidemics among these key populations in Karachi, Lahore, Faisalabad and Larkana. Results The density and bridging of key populations varied across cities. Lahore had the largest FSW population (11.5/1000 adult men) and the smallest IDU population (1.7/1000 adult men). Quetta had the most sexual and drug injection bridging between sex workers and IDUs (6.7%, 7.0% and 3.8% of FSW, MSW and HSW, respectively, reported injecting drugs). Model evidence suggests that by 2015 HIV prevalence is likely to reach 17–22% among MSWs/HSWs in Karachi, 44–49% among IDUs in Lahore and 46–66% among IDUs in Karachi. Projection suggests the prevalence may reach as high as 65–75% among IDUs in Faisalabad by 2025. HIV prevalence is also estimated to increase among FSWs, particularly in Karachi and Larkana. Conclusions There is a need to closely monitor regional and subpopulation epidemic patterns and implement prevention programmes customised to local epidemics.

Reza, Tahira; Melesse, Dessalegn Y; Shafer, Leigh Anne; Salim, Momina; Altaf, Arshad; Sonia, Altaf; Jayaraman, Gayatri C; Emmanuel, Faran; Thompson, Laura H; Blanchard, James F

2013-01-01

134

Parent's literacy and pre-school education: a study of practices and problems of early childhood education in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study focused to evaluate the current practices and problems of pre-school education in Pakistan. It was conducted on 120 parents through convenient sampling technique from Islamabad, Lahore, Karachi, Peshawar, Quetta and Bahawalpur Districts. Questionnaire and interview schedule were used as research tools for data collection. Study reflected that the literate, working and economically sound parents were more inclined towards

Irshad Hussain; Sarwat Sultan

2010-01-01

135

The Pakistan Risk of Myocardial Infarction Study: a resource for the study of genetic, lifestyle and other determinants of myocardial infarction in South Asia  

PubMed Central

The burden of coronary heart disease (CHD) is increasing at a greater rate in South Asia than in any other region globally, but there is little direct evidence about its determinants. The Pakistan Risk of Myocardial Infarction Study (PROMIS) is an epidemiological resource to enable reliable study of genetic, lifestyle and other determinants of CHD in South Asia. By March 2009, PROMIS had recruited over 5,000 cases of first-ever confirmed acute myocardial infarction (MI) and over 5,000 matched controls aged 30–80 years. For each participant, information has been recorded on demographic factors, lifestyle, medical and family history, anthropometry, and a 12-lead electrocardiogram. A range of biological samples has been collected and stored, including DNA, plasma, serum and whole blood. During its next stage, the study aims to expand recruitment to achieve a total of about 20,000 cases and about 20,000 controls, and, in subsets of participants, to enrich the resource by collection of monocytes, establishment of lymphoblastoid cell lines, and by resurveying participants. Measurements in progress include profiling of candidate biochemical factors, assay of 45,000 variants in 2,100 candidate genes, and a genomewide association scan of over 650,000 genetic markers. We have established a large epidemiological resource for CHD in South Asia. In parallel with its further expansion and enrichment, the PROMIS resource will be systematically harvested to help identify and evaluate genetic and other determinants of MI in South Asia. Findings from this study should advance scientific understanding and inform regionally appropriate disease prevention and control strategies.

2009-01-01

136

Polyester projects for India, Pakistan  

SciTech Connect

India's Indo Rama Synthetics (Bombay) is planning a $186-million integrated polyester fiber and filament complex at Nagpur, Maharashtra. The complex will have annual capacities for 38,000 m.t. of polyester chips by polycondensation, 25,000 m.t. of polyester staple fiber, and 12,000 m.t. of polyester blended yarn. The company is negotiating with the main world suppliers of polycondensation technology. The first stage of the project is slated to begin production by the end of this year and be fully completed by 1994. In Pakistan, National Fibers Ltd. (PNF; Karachi) has signed a deal with Zimmer (Frankfurt) for technology, procurement, construction, and support work to expand polyester staple fiber capacity from 14,000 m.t./year to 52,000 m.t./year. The technology involves a continuous polymerization process. The project also calls for improvements to PNF's existing batch plant. It is scheduled for completion by the end of 1994. Total cost of the project is estimated at Rs1.745 billion ($70 million), out of which the foreign exchange component is Rs1.05 billion. The Islamic Development Bank (Jeddah; Saudi Arabia) has already approved a $27-million slice of the financing, while the balance of the foreign exchange loan is being arranged through suppliers credit. Local currency loans will be provided by other financial institutions in Pakistan.

Siddiqi, R.

1993-02-10

137

Cretaceous source rocks in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pakistan is located at the converging boundaries of the Indian, Arabian, and Eurasian plates. Evolution of this tectonic setting has provided an array of environmental habitats for deposition of petroleum source rocks and development of structural forms. The potential Cretaceous source rocks in Central and South Indus Basin are spread over an area of about 300,000 km[sup 2]. With 2%

Kari

1993-01-01

138

Persisting role of healthcare settings in hepatitis C transmission in Pakistan: cause for concern.  

PubMed

Transmission of hepatitis C (HCV) in Pakistan is a continuing public health problem; 15 years ago it was linked to the practice of reusing therapeutic instruments in healthcare settings. We sought to examine current risk factors for HCV transmission in a hospital population in Karachi, Pakistan. We enrolled 300 laboratory-confirmed HCV-positive participants and 300 laboratory confirmed HCV-negative participants from clinics at Indus Hospital. Independent and significant risk factors for both men and women were: receiving o12 injections in the past year, blood transfusions, having had dental work performed, and delivery in hospital or transfusion for women. Interestingly, being of Mohajir origin or born in Sindh province were protective.Encouragingly, a strong protective effect was observed for those that reported bringing their own needle for injections (59%). The widespread reuse of therapeutic needles in healthcare settings in Karachi remains a major driver of the HCV epidemic. PMID:23114026

Ver Hoeve, E; Codlin, A J; Jawed, F; Khan, A J; Samad, L; Vatcheva, K M; Fallon, M B; Ali, M; Niaz, S K; McCormick, J B; Fisher-Hoch, S P

2012-11-01

139

Profiling the Politically Violent in Pakistan: Self-Construals and Values  

Microsoft Academic Search

Empirical evidence relating individualism–collectivism (IC) to sociopolitical factors is still scarce. This survey explores how factors generally purported to represent an Asian society (i.e., collectivism) relate to context-specific characteristics of political groups within that society (i.e., the endorsement of political violence). The city of Karachi in Pakistan has a long history of political, sectarian and criminal violence, economic inequality, and

Nichola Khan; Peter B. Smith

2003-01-01

140

Counterinsurgency in Pakistan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Beginning in 2001, Pakistan conducted a range of operations against militant groups in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) and other parts of Pakistan. Because of Pakistan's nuclear status and the presence of international terrorist organizatio...

C. C. Fair S. G. Jones

2010-01-01

141

Distance Education in South Asia. Proceedings of the Round Table Conference on Distance Education for South Asian Countries (Islamabad, Pakistan, November 6-8, 1989).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document begins with an introduction followed by a list of recommendations that were an outcome of the conference. The core papers included are "Liberation of the Learner: A Self-Reliance Strategy for Education" (Sharma); "Distance Education in South Asia: Problems and Strategies for Cooperation" (Taylor); "Cooperation in Distance Education…

Asian Development Bank, Manila (Philippines).

142

Teaching Bioethics to Medical Technology Students in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Incorporating ethics education in curriculum of medical technology students and highlighting the importance of teaching the subject to this particular population in this part of world are our aims. At SIUT we have a school with name of “Zain ul Abidin” school of Biomedical Technology, which is supposed to award B.S. degree in 5 sub-specialties that is hemodialysis, radiology, laboratory sciences, operation theater technology and intensive care technology. This school is affiliated by Karachi University. The students entering in school have done fellow in science (F.Sc.)with pre-medical group, thus have background knowledge of biology, physics, chemistry, languages, religion and Pakistan studies. Here for B.S. included in their curriculum are the subjects of anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, microbiology, pharmacology, pathology, Islamiat and English for all and then related sub-specialty topics to each group for example student in hemodialysis group more exposed to nephrology topics etc. I planned to add ethics with subjects, which are common to all specialties and designed curriculum. Curriculum was approved (after minor changes), from Karachi University and I started teaching ethics to these students. This paper highlights methods and tools of teaching and evaluation and results observed. This will be the first examination in bioethics from medical technologists, at university level in the history of country. This is a great achievement in country to start teaching bioethics to medical technologists. Karachi University has implemented the same curriculum to other medical technology schools affiliated with University.

Naqvi, Rubina

2009-01-01

143

Characterizing US Operations in Pakistan: Is the United States Engaged In An Armed Conflict?  

Microsoft Academic Search

On January 14, 2010, four Hellfire missiles fired from an unmanned aerial vehicle (“drone”) slammed into a compound in Pakistan’s South Waziristan region, killing ten people. Hakimullah Mehsud, leader of Tehrik-e-Taliban Pakistan (“TTP”), was the reported target of the strike. Already the eighth US drone attack in Pakistan in 2010, these strikes followed two consecutive years of dramatically increased drone

Laurie R. Blank; Benjamin R. Farley

2011-01-01

144

Students' Corner Sleep Deprivation and its associated factors among general ward patients at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To estimate the occurrence rate of sleep deprivation and to identify the environmental, staff-related and patient-related factors associated with SD among general ward patients of a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, a pre-tested questionnaire was administered to 108 patients admitted into the general medical and general surgical wards of Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi.

Majid Shafiq; Farah F. Salahuddin; Maham Siddiqi; Zaman Shah; Rehmat Ali; Rizwan A. Siwani; Ayesha Saleem; Kashif Shakoor Shaikh; Ali Khan Khuwaja

145

A 5000-yr Record of Climate Change in Varved Sediments from the Oxygen Minimum Zone off Pakistan, Northeastern Arabian Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The upper Holocene marine section from a kasten core taken from the oxygen minimum zone off Karachi (Pakistan) at water depth 700 m contains continuously laminated sediments with a sedimentation rate of 1.2 mm\\/yr and a unique record of monsoonal climatic variability covering the past 5000 years. Our chronostratigraphy is based on varve counts verified by conventional and AMS14C dating.

Ulrich von Rad; Michael Schaaf; Klaus H. Michels; Hartmut Schulz; Wolfgang H. Berger; Frank Sirocko

1999-01-01

146

Transition towards health promoting hospitals: adapting a global framework to Pakistan.  

PubMed

The World Health Organization encourages hospitals to become Health Promoting Hospitals (HPH) but adapting this concept to Pakistan has not been investigated. We explore perceptions of healthcare stakeholders about strategies and a priority action-plan to encourage HPHs in Pakistan. We conducted a qualitative study in 2007 where key-informant interviews and focus group discussions were held with healthcare stakeholders in Karachi. Thematic analysis was done and emerging themes were categorized. The HPH core components were perceived as the "standard framework"; however more emphasis was placed on priority actions as to satisfy "basic needs" of patients, staff and the community. This included basic facilities of comfort, health, hygiene, safety, security and emotional support. A change in the traditional mindset from cure to care and identification of key personnel, awareness-raising and cooperation would strengthen advocacy efforts for HPH in Pakistan. PMID:22256406

Khowaja, A R; Karmaliani, R; Mistry, R; Agha, A

2011-10-01

147

Patala-Nammal Composite Total Petroleum System, Kohat-Potwar Geologic Province, Pakistan. Petroleum Systems and Related Geologic Studies in Region 8, South Asia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describing the petroleum resources within a total petroleum system in Pakistan was prepared as part of the World Energy Assessment Project of the U.S. Geological Survey. For this project, the world was divided into 8 regions and 937 geologic p...

C. J. Wandrey B. E. Law H. A. Shah

2004-01-01

148

Regional model of ionosphere over Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For regional models of critical frequencies of E and F 2 layers f o E f o F 2 peak height h m F 2 and semi thickness Y m F 2 of F 2 layer over Pakistan we propose to use the techniques of expansion in empirical orthogonal functions EOFs The method of EOFs achieves a better rate of convergence than anyone of the methods of expansions after prescribed functions The variations of the given data field are represented by a minimum number of uncorrelated expansion coefficients To construct regional models of the parameters levels of solar activity specified by Smoothed Sunspot Number R from 10 to 200 at a difference of 1 is taken into account whereas the dips I ranging from 30 o to 60 o at a difference of 1 o have been used The EOFs and the expansion coefficients for each of the above parameters for the desired region over Pakistan have been obtained in the tabular form The values of f o F 2 and f o E obtained from empirical models are found comparable with the hourly tabulated medians of these parameters during the complete solar cycle 1989-99 for the network of V I stations in Pakistan i e Karachi Geog Latitude 24 95 o N Multan Geog Latitude 30 18 o N and Islamabad Geog Latitude 33 75 o N The tabulated values have been used to predict the relevant parameters for any local time t month s geographical location x and level of solar activity R

Murtaza, G.; Iqbal, S.; Iqbal, A.

149

Regional model of the Ionosphere over Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For regional models of critical frequencies of E and F2 layers (foE, foF2), peak height (hmF2) and semi thickness (YmF2) of F2 layer over Pakistan, we propose to use the techniques of expansion in empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs). The method of EOFs achieves a better rate of convergence than anyone of the methods of expansions after prescribed functions. The variations of the given data field are represented by a minimum number of uncorrelated expansion coefficients. To construct regional models of the parameters, levels of solar activity specified by Smoothed Sunspot Number(R) from 10 to 200 at a difference of 1 is taken into account, whereas the modified dips (Im) ranging from 30z to 60z at a difference of 1z are used. The EOFs and the expansion coefficients for each of the above parameters for the desired region (over Pakistan) were obtained in the tabular form. The values of foF2 and foE obtained from empirical models were found comparable with the hourly tabulated medians of these parameters during the complete solar cycle (1989-99) for the network of V.I. stations in Pakistan, i.e. Karachi (Geog. Latitude = 24.95oN), Multan (Geog. Latitude = 30.18oN) and Islamabad (Geog. Latitude = 33.75oN). The tabulated values were used to predict the relevant parameters for any local time(t), month(s), geographical location(x) and level of solar activity(R).

Murtaza, G.; Ashiq, M.; Shafatullah, K.; Iqbal, S.

150

Women's mental health in Pakistan.  

PubMed

In Pakistan, societal attitudes and norms, as well as cultural practices (Karo Kari, exchange marriages, dowry, etc.), play a vital role in women's mental health. The religious and ethnic conflicts, along with the dehumanizing attitudes towards women, the extended family system, role of in-laws in daily lives of women, represent major issues and stressors. Such practices in Pakistan have created the extreme marginalisation of women in numerous spheres of life, which has had an adverse psychological impact. Violence against women has become one of the acceptable means whereby men exercise their culturally constructed right to control women. Still, compared to other South Asian countries, Pakistani women are relatively better off than their counterparts. PMID:16633458

Niaz, Unaiza

2004-02-01

151

The organisation, operational dynamics and structure of female sex work in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Pakistan is known to have large populations of female sex workers (FSWs) with considerable geographic heterogeneity in their characteristics. In this paper, we describe the social organisation and structural patterns of female sex work in different geographic regions of Pakistan. Methods We report geographic and network mapping data collected among FSWs in 15 cities across Pakistan in 2011 as part of the Canada-Pakistan HIV/AIDS Surveillance Project. Results A total number of 89?178 FSWs were estimated in the target cities for an average of 7.2 FSWs per 1000 adult males. 55% of the estimated number of FSWs concentrated in Karachi and Lahore. Based on the operations of female sex work, two major typologies of FSWs were identified: establishment-based and non-establishment-based. FSWs were further subtyped into those operating through brothels, homes, kothikhanas, streets and by cell phone. Cities varied considerably in terms of predominance of different FSW typologies. Conclusions There is considerable heterogeneity among FSWs in Pakistan, geographically and in terms of operational typology. Understanding the social organisation of sex work and the influence of social-cultural and legal factors in Pakistan is essential for the design of HIV prevention programmes and other services for FSWs.

Emmanuel, Faran; Thompson, Laura H; Athar, Uzma; Salim, Momina; Sonia, Altaf; Akhtar, Naeem; Blanchard, James F

2013-01-01

152

Heterogeneity of characteristics, structure, and dynamics of male and hijra sex workers in selected cities of Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background We sought to describe the characteristics and operational dynamics of male sex workers (MSW) and hijra sex workers (HSWs) in 11 cities across Pakistan in 2011. Methods We report descriptive statistics of self-reported sexual behaviour data from cross-sectional mapping and biological and behavioural surveys conducted among 1431 MSWs and 1415 HSWs in four cities across Pakistan in 2011. Results While Karachi had the largest numbers of MSWs and HSWs, Quetta had the largest relative population sizes, with 3.6?MSWs per 1000 male adults and 3.3?HSWs per 1000 male adults. There was considerable variability in the proportion of HSWs who operate through deras, ranging from 2.2% in Peshawar to 62.7% in Karachi. The number of HSWs per guru varies by city, from 1.5 in Quetta to 16.5?HSWs per guru in Karachi. Among HSWs, the use of mobile phones for solicitation ranged from 37.6% in Quetta to 83% in Peshawar and among MSWs the use of mobile phones ranged from 27% in Karachi to 52% in Quetta. In Quetta, a large proportion of HSWs (41%) find clients through gurus. Client volume tended to be higher among HSWs and among both MSWs and HSWs in Quetta and Peshawar. Condom use with clients was most consistent in Quetta, with 31% of MSWs and 41% of HSWs reporting always using condoms with clients. Peshawar had the greatest proportion reporting never using condoms. Conclusions There is considerable geographic heterogeneity in the characteristics and operational dynamics of MSWs and HSWs across Pakistan.

Thompson, Laura H; Salim, Momina; Baloch, Chaker Riaz; Musa, Nighat; Reza, Tahira; Dar, Nosheen; Arian, Shahzad; Blanchard, James F; Emmanuel, Faran

2013-01-01

153

Identification of a major pathogenicity determinant and suppressors of RNA silencing encoded by a South Pacific isolate of Banana bunchy top virus originating from Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five genes encoded by Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) originating from Pakistan were expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana using a Potato virus X (PVX) vector. Expression of the master replication-associated protein (mRep) and movement protein\\u000a (MP) resulted in necrotic cell death of inoculated tissues, as well as leaf curling and necrosis along the veins in newly\\u000a emerging leaves. The systemic necrosis

Imran Amin; Muhammad Ilyas; Javaria Qazi; Rohina Bashir; Jitender S. Yadav; Shahid Mansoor; Claude M. Fauquet; Rob W. Briddon

2011-01-01

154

Characteristics of TIA and its management in a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Transient ischemic attack (TIA) is described as a brief episode of neurological dysfunction caused by focal brain ischemia, with clinical symptoms typically lasting less than an hour, and without evidence of acute infarction. Recent studies depict TIA as a particularly unstable condition. Risk of stroke is greater than 10% in the first 90 days after an index TIA. The presentation, prognosis and intervention for TIA have not been reported in South-Asians in a developing country. Method A retrospective chart review was done for 158 patients who were admitted with the diagnosis of TIA, as defined by ICD 9 code 435, from January 2003 to December 2005 at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan. The data was entered and analyzed in SPSS version 14.0. Findings Among 158 patients, 57.6% were male and 41.1% were female. The common presenting symptoms were motor symptoms (51.3%), speech impairment (43%), sensory impairment (34.8%) and loss of balance/vertigo (29.1%). The median delay in presenting to the hospital was 4 hours. Those with motor symptoms were found to present earlier. The study showed that only 60.8% of all the patients presenting with TIA received any immediate treatment out of which 44.7% received aspirin. Neuroimaging was used in 91.1% of the patients. Of all the TIA patients 9.1% converted to stroke with 50% doing so within the first 24 hours. Conclusion The natural history of TIA from this developing nation is comparable to international descriptions. A large percentage of patients are still not receiving any immediate treatment as recommended in available guidelines, even in a tertiary care hospital.

Kamal, Ayeesha; Khimani, Farhad; Raza, Rushna; Zafar, Sahar; Bandeali, Salman; Jan, Sayeedullah

2008-01-01

155

FSWs Typology and Condoms Use Among HIV High Risk Groups in Sindh, Pakistan: A Developing Country Perspective  

PubMed Central

Objective We aimed to determine the association of FSWs typology with condom use among HIV high risk groups in Sindh, Pakistan Introduction HIV is growing rapidly worldwide resulting in estimated 34 million population [1]. Recently, its epidemic has spread in Africa, Latin America, and the Caribbean, and most parts of Asia [2]. According to Antenatal sero surveillance study conducted in 2011 by Agriteam canada, it’s prevalence in Pakistan is <0.1 [3].Focusing narrowly, its prevalence in Sindh, (one of the provinces of Pakistan) is similar in general population, but it is in the phase of concentrated epidemic (having more than 5% of prevalence in high risk groups)in vulnerable groups like IDUs and Male sex workers and transgender [4]. Sexual intercourse has been identified as major route especially in HIV high risk groups including male sex workers, female sex workers (FSWs), transgender (hijras) and IV drug users. Among them, FSWs are at high risk because of unprotected sex and illicit drug use. Their prevalence is found to be 30.7% in low and middle income countries [5]. South Asia contributed with 12.63 lakh FSW in India only [6]. On the basis of their station of work, they are categorized into facility based (kothikhana, brothel or home) and mobile (street, mobile or beggars). They use different preventive measures including condom for their protection from HIV [7]. It varies with availability and access [8] . FSWs typology have different cliental and mode of action, therefore, it important to explore the preventive methods. Methods Data was extracted from Second Generation Surveillance, Integrated behavioral and biological survey, Round IV for HIV infection conducted by Agriteam Canada in partnership with National AIDS Control Program, Pakistan in 2011. It was a cross sectional survey for high risk groups including FSWs from Pakistan. It was ethically approved by Review Board of the Public Health Agency of Canada and HOPE International’s Ethical Review Board, Pakistan. From Sindh province, FSWs based in Karachi, Sukkur and Larkana were recruited. Considering typology, they were categorized as mobile or facility based. After informed consent, socio-demographic and risk behavior were inquired. HIV was tested by ELISA/EIA and confirmed by Western Blot. Data was analyzed on SPSS 19. Continuous variables were expressed as mean±SD while categorical as frequency(%). Logistic regression assessed the association of FSWs typology with condoms use among HIV high risk groups. Results Out of 4567 high risk population, 1127 were identified as FSWs. Mean age was 26.9 years. Most of them were facility based (72.8%) and 81.3% used condoms. Typology, age, education, duration of involvement, number of client per day, number of paid oral sex per month, knowledge about STI and knowledge about drop in center were significantly associated with condom use among HIV high risk groups. Conclusions Majority of facility based FSWs use condoms to prevent HIV infection. Awareness and access to home based FSWs should be increased. It may help in targeting and designing preventive strategies for them at government and mass level.

Otho, Suleman M.; Perveen, Shazia; Abbas, Qamar

2013-01-01

156

Increasing ciprofloxacin resistance of isolates from infected urines of a cross-section of patients in Karachi  

PubMed Central

Background The objective of the research was to evaluate the current effectiveness of Ciprofloxacin on the uropathogens prevalent in infected urines of a cross-section of patients in Karachi, Pakistan. Findings An observational study conducted in a private diagnostic laboratory and its branches in key areas of Karachi City from February 2010 to July 2011. A total of 2963 consecutive urine samples were cultured on chocolate agar, CLED medium and selective EMB agar. Growth of possible uropathogens was noted, and compared retrospectively with earlier lab data of suggestive urine cultures (n?=?1997) recorded during January 2009 and December 2009. The isolates were identified using routine procedures and the API 20 system and evaluated for their sensitivity to ciprofloxacin by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Data was subjected to statistical analysis on SPSS version 16. Out of the present-day culture-positive urines, 2409 (80.4%) yielded gram-negative rods, and 554 (18.5%) gram-positive cocci. E.coli (43.1%) was most frequent, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (22.4%) and Staphylococcus aureus (15.5%). 57.2% of the Gram-negative bacteria and 48.7% of the Gram-positive isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin. In the earlier (2009) screening, 39% of Gram-negative rods and 48% of Gram-positive cocci were indifferent to the drug. Conclusions A decrease in bacterial susceptibility of uropathogens to ciprofloxacin, a commonly prescribed drug in our population, is underlined, occurring possibly due to overuse pressure. Empirical initial treatment with ciprofloxacin would be inadequate in more than half of UTI cases, thereby counseling increased C/S testing of urines to provide existing sensitivity data for apt drug prescription.

2012-01-01

157

Workers' Organizations in Pakistan: Why No Role in Formal Politics?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why have Pakistani workers failed to transform their evident street power into sustained influence in formal politics? Throughout South Asia, worker' organi- zations formed alliances with political parties, political parties formed workers' or- ganizations, and governments incorporated worker' organizations into state con- sultation machinery. With the exception of Pakistan, in each of the countries of South Asia, representatives at these

Christopher Candland

2007-01-01

158

Prescription of medicines by medical students of Karachi, Pakistan: A cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Prescription of medicines by non-doctors is an issue with serious global implications. To our knowledge prescription of drugs by medical and non-medical students has not been studied before. We aimed to determine the practice and attitudes of drug prescription by medical students and: a) how non-medical students respond to this practice, b) How this compares with the attitudes and practices of non-medical students. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 600 students randomly selected from 2 medical and 2 non-medical universities. Ethical requirements were ensured and data was collected using self administered questionnaires. The Chi square tests and logistic univariate regression analyses were performed using SPSS v 14 to identify associations and differences. Results A total of 572 forms were completed and the sample consisted of 295 medical students and 277 non-medical students with no significant difference in their demographic profile. Of the 295 medical students 163 (55.3%) had prescribed a medicine independently and most (48.5%) said that they did this 2–3 times a year. The commonest reasons for this were 'previous experience' (68.7%), 'problem too trivial' (34.4%) and 'we knew everything about the condition' (31.3%). One-third (33.6%) of the undergraduate medical students thought that it was alright to independently diagnose an illness while a vast majority (78.3%) thought that it was alright for them to prescribe medicines to others. Common prescriptions were pain-killers, antipyretics, antiallergics and antibiotics. Medical students who prescribed medicines were of lesser age (CI = 1.366–1.887) and more likely to belong to the 1st (CI = 3.588–21.731), 2nd (CI = 2.059– 10.869) or 3rd (CI = 4.331–26.374) year of medical college. One-third (33.9%) of the non-medical students reported that a medical student had prescribed medicines to them and 21.3% said that they trusted medical students and would follow their advice blindly. Many students thought it alright for medical students to diagnose and treat illnesses. A similar proportion of non-medical students (58.5%) reported prescribing medicines to others. Conclusion Prescription of medicines by non-doctors is rampant and urgent corrective measures are warranted. We have highlighted areas for future research and intervention and have given a few recommendations.

Zafar, Syed Nabeel; Syed, Reema; Waqar, Sana; Irani, Faria A; Saleem, Sarah

2008-01-01

159

Green Space Functionality Along an Urban Gradient in Karachi, Pakistan: A Socio-Ecological Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important component of urban green space functionality is the way in which such spaces are perceived and used by urban\\u000a residents. Use is affected by many factors including the nature and dynamics of urban morphology at the city and neighbourhood\\u000a scale. This paper demonstrates a method for conducting analyses of green space socio-ecological functionality and presents\\u000a the results of

Salman Qureshi; Jürgen H. Breuste; Sarah J. Lindley

2010-01-01

160

Hepatitis B and C: prevalence and risk factors associated with seropositivity among children in Karachi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Infections with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) can lead to chronic liver disease and hepato-cellular carcinoma (HCC). This cross-sectional study estimated the prevalence and identified risk factors associated with Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and HCV antibody (anti-HCV) sero-positivity among children 1 to 15 years of age. METHODS: The study targeted the low to middle

Wasim Jafri; Nadim Jafri; Javed Yakoob; Muhammad Islam; Syed Farhan Ali Tirmizi; Tazeen Jafar; Saeed Akhtar; Saeed Hamid; Hasnain Shah; Sheikh Nizami

2006-01-01

161

Hepatitis B and C: prevalence and risk factors associated with seropositivity among children in Karachi, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Infections with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) can lead to chronic liver disease and hepato-cellular carcinoma (HCC). This cross-sectional study estimated the prevalence and identified risk factors associated with Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and HCV antibody (anti-HCV) sero-positivity among children 1 to 15 years of age. Methods The study targeted the low to middle socioeconomic population that comprises 80% to 85% of the population. Consent was obtained from parents of the eligible children before administering questionnaire and collected a blood sample for anti-HCV and HBsAg serology. Results 3533 children were screened for HBsAg and anti-HCV. 1826 (52 %) were males. 65 (1.8 %) were positive for HBsAg, male to female ratio 38:27; mean age 10 ± 4 years. 55 (1.6 %) were positive for anti-HCV with a mean age 9 ± 4 years. 3 (0.11%) boys were positive for both HBsAg and anti-HCV. The overall infection rate was 3.3 % in the studied population. Hepatitis BsAg was more prevalent in subjects who received therapeutic injections 45 (69.2%) positive [Odd Ratio OR = 2.2; 95% Confidence interval CI: 1.3–3.6] inspite of using new needle and syringe 44 (67.7%) positive [OR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.3–3.7] and vaccination in the government healthcare facilities 46 (70.7 %) positive with [OR = 3.0; 95% CI: 1.4–6.4]. These factors were not significant in anti-HCV positive cases. Conclusion There is a need to educate general population regarding HBV and HCV infection and risks associated with inappropriate therapeutic injections. Hepatitis B vaccine should be administered to all newborns regardless of maternal HBsAg status.

Jafri, Wasim; Jafri, Nadim; Yakoob, Javed; Islam, Muhammad; Tirmizi, Syed Farhan Ali; Jafar, Tazeen; Akhtar, Saeed; Hamid, Saeed; Shah, Hasnain Ali; Nizami, Sheikh Qamaruddin

2006-01-01

162

Evaluation of multiple micronutrient supplementation in the management of oral submucous fibrosis in Karachi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is an oral pre?cancerous condition characterized by symptoms such as intolerance to spicy food, altered salivation, progressive difficulty in opening the mouth, and signs like vesiculation, ulceration, blanching, rigidity, and stiffening of the oral mucosa and depapillation and altered mobility of the tongue. It is seen mostly among people of Indian subcontinent origin. The major structural

Rehana Maher; Perin Aga; Newell W. Johnson; Rengaswamy Sankaranarayanan; Saman Warnakulasuriya

1997-01-01

163

USE OF PSYCHOACTIVE DRUGS AMONG PATIENTS VISITING OUTPATIENT CLINICS IN KARACHI, PAKISTAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

(1) This study is of particular relevance to us, as India also has similar problems regarding the control of sale of such drugs over-the-counter. The results are not surprising, but confirm what we encounter in every day practice. The study produced valuable information, however a major lacuna was the absence of data regarding the kind of drugs the study subjects

164

Prescription of medicines by medical students of Karachi, Pakistan: A cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Prescription of medicines by non-doctors is an issue with serious global implications. To our knowledge prescription of drugs by medical and non-medical students has not been studied before. We aimed to determine the practice and attitudes of drug prescription by medical students and: a) how non-medical students respond to this practice, b) How this compares with the attitudes and

Syed Nabeel Zafar; Reema Syed; Sana Waqar; Faria A Irani; Sarah Saleem

2008-01-01

165

Correlates of cigarette smoking among male college students in Karachi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: About 1.3 billion people are regular smokers world wide and every day between 8,200 and 9,900 young people start to smoke, risking rapid addiction to nicotine. Transition from high school to college is a critical period to adopt healthy habits and life style. Therefore, it is important to understand the factors that might influence their smoking habit. Our study

Shafquat Rozi; Zahid A Butt; Saeed Akhtar

2007-01-01

166

Elevated iron levels in hair from steel mill workers in Karachi, Pakistan  

SciTech Connect

Over the last two decades, much interest has been focused on the use of trace metals in human hair to diagnose nutritional deficiencies of these metals or toxicities of metals such as lead or organic mercury. Although the diagnostic value of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), lead and mercury levels in human hair have been well established, little information is available on the significance of iron (Fe) levels in hair to diagnose nutritional deficiency or toxicity of this metal. The present study was conducted to determine if occupational exposure in the steel industry resulted in alterations i the levels of Fe, Zn, and Cu in hair and could thus serve as a simple tool for monitoring exposure to potentially hazardous levels of these metals.

Jamall, I.S.; Jaffer, R.A.

1987-10-01

167

Cochlear implant in a patient with mondini's deformity of the cochlea: pilot patient in Pakistan.  

PubMed

Autosomal-recessive genes account for about 80% of the patients of non-syndromic deafness, and a major portion of those lead to cochlear pathology. Given the strong cultural practice of consanguineous marriages and the lack of awareness regarding screening modalities, a high prevalence of hereditary pre-lingual deafness is seen in Pakistan. Considering the situation, cochlear implant surgery was introduced by Aga Khan University Hospital (AKUH), Karachi, Pakistan, in 2003. Recently we decided to expand the profile and services available and conducted the first ever cochlear implant on an anatomically-challenged cochlea. The case report relates to the experience of our pilot patient who was suffering from Mondini's deformity. PMID:23901720

Qadeer, Sadaf; Junaid, Montasir; Sobani, Zainul Abedeen; Nadeem, Naila; Awans, Mohammad Sohail

2013-07-01

168

Pottery from Pakistan. A Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of three handbooks dealing with pottery traditions from around the world, this packet draws together information about historical, ethnographic, and pottery traditions of Pakistan. The handbook begins with a brief discussion of Pakistan's land and people, a short history of Pakistan, Islamic pottery traditions, and Pakistan potters and…

Rammage, Alix

169

Special education in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Special education, as we understand it in the West, is a relatively new development in Pakistan. Fresh interest in the field was aroused by the International Year for Disabled Persons (1981) and by the United Nations declaration of 1983?92 as the Decade of the Disabled. Special education in Pakistan is organized on the basis of four broadly defined categories of

Zahida S. Lari

1996-01-01

170

Sectrarian Conflicts in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history of sectarian conflict in Pakistan is as old as the existence of this country. Yet, the intensification of sectarian divide in Pakistan was observed during late 1970s and early 1980s because of domestic political changes and the implications of Islamic revolution in Iran and the subsequent adverse reaction in some Arab countries to the assumption of power by

Moonis Ahmar

171

Pakistan's nuclear development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history of Pakistan's nuclear development is a major example of the clandestine acquisition of reprocessing and uranium enrichment equipment in defiance of the international non-proliferation regime. Pakistan at present practices a policy of ''nuclear ambiguity'': it has the capability to make nuclear weapons but carefully avoids demonstrating that capability; and turns this ambiguous position to its advantage in changing

1987-01-01

172

Library Automation in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Library automation, in rudimentary form, began in the late 1960s and since 1990 has been the main focus of Pakistani librarianship. The generous financial assistance provided by the Netherlands Library Development Project (Pakistan) further accelerated the pace in this regard. However, the libraries in Pakistan have not registered any significant progress. Automated systems are lacking in large university libraries, as

Syed Jalaluddin Haider

1998-01-01

173

Health service utilization for perceived postpartum morbidity among poor women living in Karachi.  

PubMed

To explore traditional beliefs and practices, to assess puerperal morbidity, and to understand care-seeking behaviors, a qualitative and quantitative study was conducted in low socio-economic settlements of Karachi, Pakistan. Five focus group discussions and 15 in-depth interviews were conducted in July and August 2000. 525 Muslim women, who were 6-8 weeks post-partum, were then interviewed at home. Maternal care was relatively good-more than three-quarters of recent mothers sought antenatal care and more than half (267/525) delivered in a hospital or maternity home. Counseling to attend post-partum clinics among facility deliveries was 16% (43/267), of which only 26% (11/43) attended. Practices during the delivery and puerperium, such as massaging the vaginal walls with mustard oil during labor to facilitate delivery and inserting vaginal or rectal herbal pessaries to facilitate 'shrinkage of the uterus' and/or 'strengthening of the backbone', were pervasive. The core symptoms that are clinically significant during the puerperium are heavy vaginal bleeding and high fever, since they are potentially fatal symptoms if appropriate and timely care is not sought. About half of the study women (53.3%) reported at least one illness symptom, high fever (21.1%), heavy vaginal bleeding (13.9%), and foul smelling vaginal discharge (9.6%). Women did not know the underlying biologic cause of their perceived post-partum morbidity; weakness was frequently mentioned. Women sought care initially from close relatives or traditional healers and if they continued to suffer from their morbidity they finally approached a trained health care (allopathic) provider. The high prevalence of perceived post-partum morbidity illustrates the demand for post-partum community-based health care programs. We suggest promoting maternal health education that encourages women to seek appropriate and timely care by accessing public or private health services. PMID:15177827

Fikree, Fariyal F; Ali, Tazeen; Durocher, Jill M; Rahbar, Mohammad H

2004-08-01

174

Aerosol size distribution and mass concentration measurements in various cities of Pakistan.  

PubMed

During March and April 2010 aerosol inventories from four large cities in Pakistan were assessed in terms of particle size distributions (N), mass (M) concentrations, and particulate matter (PM) concentrations. These M and PM concentrations were obtained for Karachi, Lahore, Rawalpindi, and Peshawar from N concentrations using a native algorithm based on the Grimm model 1.109 dust monitor. The results have confirmed high N, M and PM concentrations in all four cities. They also revealed major contributions to the aerosol concentrations from the re-suspension of road dust, from sea salt aerosols, and from vehicular and industrial emissions. During the study period the 24 hour average PM(10) concentrations for three sites in Karachi were found to be 461 ?g m(-3), 270 ?g m(-3), and 88 ?g m(-3), while the average values for Lahore, Rawalpindi and Peshawar were 198 ?g m(-3), 448 ?g m(-3), and 540 ?g m(-3), respectively. The corresponding 24 hour average PM(2.5) concentrations were 185 ?g m(-3), 151 ?g m(-3), and 60 ?g m(-3) for the three sites in Karachi, and 91 ?g m(-3), 140 ?g m(-3), and 160 ?g m(-3) for Lahore, Rawalpindi and Peshawar, respectively. The low PM(2.5)/PM(10) ratios revealed a high proportion of coarser particles, which are likely to have originated from (a) traffic, (b) other combustion sources, and (c) the re-suspension of road dust. Our calculated 24 hour averaged PM(10) and PM(2.5) concentrations at all sampling points were between 2 and 10 times higher than the maximum PM concentrations recommended by the WHO guidelines. The aerosol samples collected were analyzed for crustal elements (Al, Fe, Si, Mg, Ca) and trace elements (B, Ba, Cr, Cu, K, Na, Mn, Ni, P, Pb, S, Sr, Cd, Ti, Zn and Zr). The averaged concentrations for crustal elements ranged from 1.02 ± 0.76 ?g m(-3) for Si at the Sea View location in Karachi to 74.96 ± 7.39 ?g m(-3) for Ca in Rawalpindi, and averaged concentrations for trace elements varied from 7.0 ± 0.75 ng m(-3) for B from the SUPARCO location in Karachi to 17.84 ± 0.30 ?g m(-3) for Na at the M. A. Jinnah Road location, also in Karachi. PMID:21677943

Alam, Khan; Blaschke, Thomas; Madl, Pierre; Mukhtar, Azam; Hussain, Majid; Trautmann, Thomas; Rahman, Said

2011-06-15

175

Mumbai: A Battle in the War for Pakistan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Council on Foreign Relations publishes a wide variety of publications, and their "Expert Briefs" series is quite exceptional. Given the recent unrest in Mumbai, visitors with an interest in South Asian affairs and world affairs in general will find this brief particularly compelling. Authored by Daniel Markey, Senior Fellow for India, Pakistan, and South Asia, this expert brief was released in December 2008. The piece looks at the political economy and relationship between India and Pakistan, along with offering some commentary on combating terrorism in the region.

2008-01-01

176

Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence Directorate: A State within a State.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Standing at the crossroads of South, Southwest, and Central Asia, Pakistan is strategically important to the United States. Vice President Richard Nixon recognized the country's significance for Cold War containment in 1953, envisioning it as a linchpin t...

M. J. Roberts

2008-01-01

177

Identification of a major pathogenicity determinant and suppressors of RNA silencing encoded by a South Pacific isolate of Banana bunchy top virus originating from Pakistan.  

PubMed

Five genes encoded by Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) originating from Pakistan were expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana using a Potato virus X (PVX) vector. Expression of the master replication-associated protein (mRep) and movement protein (MP) resulted in necrotic cell death of inoculated tissues, as well as leaf curling and necrosis along the veins in newly emerging leaves. The systemic necrosis induced by the expression of MP was discolored (dark) in comparison to that induced by mRep. Expression of the cell-cycle link protein (Clink), the coat protein (CP), and the nuclear shuttle protein from the PVX vector induced somewhat milder symptoms, consisting of mild leaf curling and mosaic, although expression of the CP caused a necrotic response in inoculated leaf. The accumulation of viral RNA was enhanced by MP, Clink, and CP. Of the five BBTV-encoded gene products two, the MP and Clink, stabilized GFP-specific mRNA and reduced GFP-specific small interfering RNA in N. benthamiana line 16c when expressed under the control of the 35S promoter and co-inoculated with a construct for the expression of GFP hairpin RNA construct. These results identified MP and Clink as suppressors of RNA silencing. Taken together the ability of MP to induce severe symptoms in plants and suppress RNA silencing implicates this product as a major pathogenicity determinant of BBTV. PMID:21161359

Amin, Imran; Ilyas, Muhammad; Qazi, Javaria; Bashir, Rohina; Yadav, Jitender S; Mansoor, Shahid; Fauquet, Claude M; Briddon, Rob W

2010-12-16

178

Pakistan's nuclear development  

SciTech Connect

The history of Pakistan's nuclear development is a major example of the clandestine acquisition of reprocessing and uranium enrichment equipment in defiance of the international non-proliferation regime. Pakistan at present practices a policy of ''nuclear ambiguity'': it has the capability to make nuclear weapons but carefully avoids demonstrating that capability; and turns this ambiguous position to its advantage in changing circumstances. This book traces the development of Pakistan's nuclear capability. It examines the international assistance Pakistan got in developing its nuclear capability, revealing evidence of Chinese, US and other Islamic states involvement. It analyses the motives for the development, reviewing the changing attitude of successive regimes, and concludes by exploring the relationship between Pakistan's nuclear development and regional security. CONTENTS. Acknowledgements; abbreviations; introduction; the framework of study. 1953-59; the origins and early history of pakistani nuclear activities; Dr. Usmani Takes Over, 1960-71. Pakistan's nuclear posture, 1950s-1960s. Bhutto and the bomb, 1972-77; neither eating grass nor making the bomb. Zia's bomb: Riding the nuclear tiger; concluding note: What Should be Done; appendices; index.

Kapur, A.

1987-01-01

179

Women's Autonomy in India and Pakistan: The Influence of Religion and Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article compares the lives of women and explores dimensions of their autonomy in different regions of South Asia-Punjab in Pakistan, and Uttar Pradesh in north India and Tamil Nadu in south India. It explores the contextual factors underlying observed differences and assesses the extent to which these differences could be attributed to religion, nationality, or north-south cultural distinctions. Findings

Shireen J. Jejeebhoy; Zeba A. Sathar

2001-01-01

180

Supporting Democratic Development in Pakistan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Supporting Democratic Development in Pakistan (SDDP) was a two-year program awarded by USAID to The Asia Foundation on 27 September 2002. The program's overall goal was to establish conditions for more effective democratic governance in Pakistan by creati...

2004-01-01

181

Jihadi Groups, Nuclear Pakistan, and the New Great Game.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For the United States and other nations concerned with security in South and Central Asia, one of the most ominous trends has been the growing influence of Jihadist groups in Pakistan which feel obligated to wage holy war against everything that they perc...

M. E. Ahrari

2001-01-01

182

Suicides in the Developing World: Case Study from Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There are no official data on suicide from Pakistan, a conservative South Asian Islamic country with traditionally low suicide rates. Both suicide and attempted suicide are illegal acts, as well as socially and religiously condemned, making research in this area difficult. Recent reports suggest an increase in suicide rates. In this study, police…

Khan, Murad Moosa; Hyder, Adnan Ali

2006-01-01

183

Suicides in the Developing World: Case Study from Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are no official data on suicide from Pakistan, a conservative South Asian Islamic country with traditionally low suicide rates. Both suicide and attempted suicide are illegal acts, as well as socially and religiously condemned, making research in this area difficult. Recent reports suggest an increase in suicide rates. In this study, police…

Khan, Murad Moosa; Hyder, Adnan Ali

2006-01-01

184

Barite in Pakistan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Before 1953 almost no barite deposits were known in Pakistan. Discovery of such deposits relatively close to oil fields in northern Pakistan in 1953 led to increased barite production from 1957 to 1961 and to doubling of production in 1962, firmly establishing new industry for the country. During 1962 and 1963, most of the known barite deposits in Pakistan were geologically mapped, and minimum reserves were estimated to be 1,423,000 short tons. The largest single deposit, Ehuzdar, is estimated to contain more than 1,100,000 short tons of barite. Barite has been found in Pakistan principally in the Hazara, Khuzdar, and Las Bela districts. Although several vein deposits contain good quality barite, 90 percent of estimated reserves are in replacement deposits concordant to bedding in sedimentary rocks. Host rocks range in age from Precambrian to Pleistocene, but the periods of barite deposition are probably Jurassic or younger. Some barite concentrated in sandstone may be of detrital origin. In late 1962, demand for barite in Pakistan was estimated at about 8,000 tons annually. Although domestic barite resources exceed this figure, less than 40 percent of demand was being supplied by domestic nines in 1963. Transportation costs and limited production facilities are partly responsible for output, but the lack of quality control is a major obstacle. Producers are not generally familiar with commercial specifications for barite and have net recognized that their products are too impure to be successfully marketed without installing the necessarycontrol procedures of sampling and beneficiation.

Klinger, F. L.; Richards, R. L.

1973-01-01

185

Hepatocellular carcinoma in Native South Asian Pakistani population; trends, clinico-pathological characteristics & differences in viral marker negative & viral-hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background HCC is the fifth most common cancer globally. Our study was conducted to (1)investigate the trends and clinico-pathological characteristics of Hepatocellular carcinoma among native South Asian patients in Pakistan, (2)to estimate the prevalence as well as the trends of viral marker negative HCC and (3) to compare the clinico-pathological, radiological characteristics, applicability of treatment at diagnosis and prognostic factors among patients with both viral marker negative and viral marker positive-HCC being consulted at Aga Khan University Hospital(AKUH), Karachi, Pakistan. Method Patients ?18 years, already diagnosed to have HCC and visiting AKUH during 1999–2009 were identified using ICD code 1550. The diagnosis of HCC was made in the presence of characteristic features of HCC on triple-phasic CT scan/MRI or with histological findings on biopsy. Results 645 patients were enrolled. Of these 546(84.7%) were viral-HCC and 99(15.3%) were viral marker negative HCC. Among viral-HCC group underlying etiology of cirrhosis was HCV in 67.9%, HBV in 21.8% and concomitant HBV with HCV or HDV in 10.3% cases. Majority (62.8%) patients had advanced HCC. Larger tumor size (p?South Asian Pakistani population and the viral marker negative HCC are not uncommon in our population. Viral marker negative HCC tend not to be under surveillance as compared to viral-HCC and are diagnosed mostly at advanced stage & when they became symptomatic.

2013-01-01

186

Pakistan Agricultural Research Council  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Pakistan Agricultural Research Council (PARC) works at the highest national level to coordinate and support research being conducted at universities, provincial institutions, and federal institutions. The four main PARC research divisions are: Crop Sciences, Natural Resources, Animal Sciences, and Social Sciences. The PARC website contains summary information about these main research areas, as well as information about a variety of crops, research staff, publications, and more. From the PARC site, visitors can also learn about regional research efforts by linking to one the seven major PARC centers including the Sugar Crops Research Institute in Thatta; the National Agricultural Research Centre in Islamabad; the Himalayan Agricultural Research Institute in Kaghan, and the Arid Zone Research Centre in Quetta. Various databases are also available including Plant Genetic Resources with over 15,000 records searchable by species and/or genus; and Pakistan Agriculture--a bibliographic database with more than 32,000 records regarding agriculture in Pakistan.

187

Characterization of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses isolated from poultry in Pakistan 2006-2008.  

PubMed

Nine avian influenza viruses (AIV), H5N1 subtype, were isolated from dead poultry in the Karachi region of Pakistan from 2006 to 2008. The intravenous pathogenicity indices and HA protein cleavage sites of all nine viruses were consistent with highly pathogenic AIV. Based on phylogenetic analysis of the HA genes, these isolates belong to clade 2.2 and both the HA and NA are closely related to each other (nucleotide identities above 99.0%) and to other Middle Eastern H5N1 AIV isolates (nucleotide identities above 98.0%). The phylogenetic data suggest that the virus in both epornitics of H5N1 HPAIV in commercial poultry in the Karachi region of Pakistan between 2006 and 2008 were from a very closely related source, however, there is inadequate epidemiological data to determine what the reservoir was for the virus between the 2006 and 2007 outbreaks other than that there was a single introduction into the region. PMID:22083300

Wasilenko, Jamie L; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary; Khan, Taseer Ahmed; Ahmed, Ayaz; Rehmani, Shafqat F; Lone, Nazir Ahmed; Swayne, David E; Spackman, Erica

2011-11-15

188

Nuclear nonproliferation strategies for South Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continued expansion of the nuclear weapons capabilities of India and Pakistan, coupled with ongoing conflict between them, raises the probability of nuclear war in South Asia. A nuclear arms race between India and Pakistan could also harm efforts to discourage other nations from acquiring nuclear weapons. United States policy opposes the spread of nuclear weapons because proliferation increases threats to

1994-01-01

189

Cretaceous source rocks in Pakistan  

SciTech Connect

Pakistan is located at the converging boundaries of the Indian, Arabian, and Eurasian plates. Evolution of this tectonic setting has provided an array of environmental habitats for deposition of petroleum source rocks and development of structural forms. The potential Cretaceous source rocks in Central and South Indus Basin are spread over an area of about 300,000 km[sup 2]. With 2% cutoff on Total Organic Carbon, the average source rock thickness is 30-50 m, which is estimated to have generated more than 200 billion bbl of oil equivalent. To date, production of more than 30,000 bbl of oil and about 1200 million ft[sup 3] of gas per day can be directly attributed to Cretaceous source. This basin was an area of extensional tectonics during the Lower to Middle Cretaceous associated with slightly restricted circulation of the sea waters at the north-western margin of Indian Plate. Lower Cretaceous source rocks (Sembar Formation) were deposited while the basin was opening up and anoxia was prevailing. Similarly Middle to Upper Cretaceous clastics were deposited in setting favorable for preservation of organic matter. The time and depth of burial of the Cretaceous source material and optimum thermal regime have provided the requisite maturation level for generation of hydrocarbons in the basin. Central Indus basin is characterized by Cretaceous source rocks mature for gas generation. However, in South Indus Basin Cretaceous source rocks lie within the oil window in some parts and have gone past it in others.

Kari, I.B. (Pakistan Petroleum Limited, Sindh (Pakistan))

1993-02-01

190

Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication - Afghanistan and Pakistan, 2009.  

PubMed

Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, and Nigeria are the four remaining countries where indigenous wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission has never been interrupted. This report updates previous reports and describes polio eradication activities in Afghanistan and Pakistan during January-December 2009 and proposed activities in 2010 to address challenges. During 2009, both countries continued to conduct coordinated supplemental immunization activities (SIAs) and used multiple strategies to reach previously unreached children. These strategies included 1) use of short interval additional dose (SIAD) SIAs to administer a dose of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) within 1-2 weeks after a prior dose during negotiated periods of security; 2) systematic engagement of local leaders; 3) negotiations with conflict parties; and 4) increased engagement of nongovernmental organizations delivering basic health services. However, security problems continued to limit access by vaccination teams to large numbers of children. In Afghanistan, poliovirus transmission during 2009 predominantly occurred in 12 high-risk districts in the conflict-affected South Region; 38 WPV cases were confirmed in 2009, compared with 31 in 2008. In Pakistan, 89 WPV cases were confirmed in 2009, compared with 118 in 2008, but transmission persisted both in security-compromised areas and in accessible areas, where managerial and operational problems continued to affect immunization coverage. Continued efforts to enhance safe access of vaccination teams in insecure areas will be required for further progress toward interruption of WPV transmission in Afghanistan and Pakistan. In addition, substantial improvements in subnational accountability and oversight are needed to improve immunization activities in Pakistan. PMID:20224544

2010-03-12

191

Using SERVQUAL for assessing and improving patient satisfaction at a rural health facility in Pakistan.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional study of patient satisfaction with care was conducted over a period of 1 year from March 2004 to March 2005 in a secondary-level hospital in a peri-urban area of Karachi, Pakistan. Using the SERVQUAL tool and exit interviews, data were collected quarterly from a total of 1533 patients. Results sharing and capacity-building workshops were arranged during the 4 phases of the survey to sensitize the staff of the hospital to work towards improving patient satisfaction. The level of satisfaction of the patients with the outpatient health services provided showed a gradual increase from 34.4% to 82.0% over the 1-year period. PMID:18561738

Shaikh, B T; Mobeen, N; Azam, S I; Rabbani, F

192

Sembar Goru/Ghazij Composite Total Petroleum System, Indus and Sulaiman-Kirthar Geologic Provinces, Pakistan and India. Petroleum Systems and Related Geologic Studies in Region 8, South Asia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describing the petroleum resources within the Sembar-Goru/Ghazij Composite Total Petroleum System, Pakistan and India, was prepared as part of the World Energy Assessment Project of the U.S. Geological Survey. For this project, the world was d...

C. J. Wandrey B. E. Law H. A. Shah

2003-01-01

193

Intimate partner violence in urban Pakistan: prevalence, frequency, and risk factors  

PubMed Central

Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is an important public health issue with severe adverse consequences. Population-based data on IPV from Muslim societies are scarce, and Pakistan is no exception. This study was conducted among women residing in urban Karachi, to estimate the prevalence and frequency of different forms of IPV and their associations with sociodemographic factors. Methods: This cross-sectional community-based study was conducted using a structured questionnaire developed by the World Health Organisation for research on violence. Community midwives conducted face-to-face interviews with 759 married women aged 25–60 years. Results: Self-reported past-year and lifetime prevalence of physical violence was 56.3 and 57.6%, respectively; the corresponding figures for sexual violence were 53.4% and 54.5%, and for psychological abuse were 81.8% and 83.6%. Violent incidents were mostly reported to have occurred on more than three occasions during the lifetime. Risk factors for physical violence related mainly to the husband, his low educational attainment, unskilled worker status, and five or more family members living in one household. For sexual violence, the risk factors were the respondent’s low educational attainment, low socioeconomic status of the family, and five or more family members in one household. For psychological violence, the risk factors were the husband being an unskilled worker and low socioeconomic status of the family. Conclusion: Repeated violence perpetrated by a husband towards his wife is an extremely common phenomenon in Karachi, Pakistan. Indifference to this type of violence against women stems from the attitude that IPV is a private matter, usually considered a justifiable response to misbehavior on the part of the wife. These findings point to serious violations of women’s rights and require the immediate attention of health professionals and policymakers.

Ali, Tazeen S; Asad, Nargis; Mogren, Ingrid; Krantz, Gunilla

2011-01-01

194

Pakistan Research Repository  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sponsored by Pakistan's Higher Education Commission, the Pakistan Research Repository was established to help promote the profile and visibility of research originating from various higher education institutions within the country. Currently the archive contains well over 1800 PhD theses, along with various research papers and other documents of potential interest. From the homepage, visitors can view the latest additions to this online repository, and they can also view items within the repository organized by subject, year, type, or originating institution. What is perhaps most impressive about the site is the topical variation throughout the collection, as visitors can view scholarly works on archaeology, chemistry, and various branches of the humanities. Additionally, visitors can sign up to receive RSS feeds.

195

Satire in Talk Shows: Pakistan’s media pungent approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Media is the strongest communication channel and one of key players in making the world as a global village. This industry is more apparent to the world’s audience. Pakistan’s media has moved quite fast and is trying to beat the international hues of media. Our media is trying to highlight the problems but solutions are quite suppressed and left out

Syed Akif Hasan; Muhammad Imtiaz Subhani; Amber Osman

2012-01-01

196

Multiple sclerosis in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe retrospective data from the largest series of patients (n \\/142) with multiple sclerosis (MS) from Pakistan. Mean age at onset was 27 years, with a female to male ratio of 1.45:1. The disease onset was polysymptomatic in 75% patients. Motor weakness was the most common onset symptom (70%), followed by sensory symptoms (45%). Optico-spinal type of MS was

M. Wasay; S. Ali; I. A. Khatri; A. Hassan; M. Asif; N. Zakiullah; A. Ahmed; A. Malik; B. Khealani; A. Haq; S. Fredrikson

2007-01-01

197

South Asia: Danger Ahead.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since their creation in 1947 following the end of British rule in South Asia, India and Pakistan have fought three major wars and spent 64 years in nearly constant conflict, primarily over the future of Kashmir. Over the years, numerous border crises have...

C. E. Costanzo

2011-01-01

198

WAR on Terrorism: Impact on Pakistan's Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In analyzing the government of Pakistan's policies towards USA in the war against terrorism, this article focuses on Pakistan US relationship and US assistance to Pakistan for economic development. The main concern is to understand the environment of mistrust between the two states and need to analyze that Pakistan's economic development should be based on sound long term economic policies.

Rehana Saeed Hashmi

199

Quality Management in Pakistan's Readymade Garments' Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pakistan's readymade garments' industry is a key player in Pakistan's industry in general, and its textile industrial output and exports in particular. In a liberalizing international trade regime, quality will be a critical success factor in the international competitiveness of Pakistan's readymade garments. Research in quality management in Pakistan's readymade garments' industry was undertaken. To gain further information, a postal

Mahnaz Fatima; Ejaz Ahmed

2005-01-01

200

Aerosol optical and radiative properties during summer and winter seasons over Lahore and Karachi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of aerosol optical and radiative properties presented here focuses on a geographic region in which there exist significant gaps in our knowledge. These properties have been analyzed through the ground-based Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) over the two megacities of Lahore and Karachi for summer (April-June) and winter (December-February) of 2010-11. During the study period the monthly mean aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 500 nm over Lahore ranged from 0.57 ± 0.18 to 0.76 ± 0.38, and the monthly mean Ångström exponent () ranged from 0.39 ± 0.17 to 1.22 ± 0.13. Likewise, over Karachi the monthly mean AOD ranged from 0.33 ± 0.11 to 0.63 ± 0.28 and the values varied between 0.29 ± 0.08 to 0.95 ± 0.22. The average AOD values in summer and winter are 0.66 ± 0.30, 0.50 ± 0.18 and 0.67 ± 0.40, 0.34 ± 0.12 in Lahore and Karachi respectively. The relationship between the Absorption Ångström Exponent (AAE) and the Extinction Ångström Exponent (EAE) provided an indication of the relative proportions of urban-industrial and mineral dust aerosols over the two sites. The volume size distributions were higher over Lahore than over Karachi during both seasons. The single scattering albedo (SSA) ranged from 0.83 ± 0.02 (440 nm) to 0.91 ± 0.05 (1020 nm) over Lahore and from 0.88 ± 0.02 (440 nm) to 0.97 ± 0.01 (1020 nm) over Karachi. The lower SSA values over Lahore suggest that absorbing aerosols are more dominant over Lahore than over Karachi. The average aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) values in summer at the surface and the top of atmosphere (TOA) are -101.6 ± 8.2, -63.3 ± 9.5 and -19 ± 4.35, -20 ± 3.1 over Lahore and Karachi respectively. Likewise, the average ARF values in winter at the surface and TOA are -90.3 ± 21.03, -57 ± 6.35 and -26 ± 7, -16 ± 2.3 over Lahore and Karachi respectively. The averaged aerosol ARF values over Lahore and Karachi for the entire period covered by the observations were -22.5 ± 5.9 W m-2 and -18 ± 2.2 W m-2 at the TOA and -96 ± 13 W m-2 and -60 ± 6.8 W m-2 at the surface, respectively, giving an averaged atmospheric forcing of 74.56 ± 16.8 W m-2 over Lahore and 41.85 ± 6.4 W m-2 over Karachi, which indicates significant heating of the atmosphere at both sites. The average heating rate during summer was 2.3 ± 0.1 and 1.2 ± 0.2 K day-1 and during winter was 1.8 ± 0.4 and 1.1 ± 0.1 K day-1 over Lahore and Karachi respectively.

Alam, Khan; Trautmann, Thomas; Blaschke, Thomas; Majid, Hussain

2012-04-01

201

Deliberate self-harm and suicide: a review from Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suicide is now considered a major public health problem, especially in low income countries. A systematic review was conducted to identify risk factors and causes of deliberate self-harm and suicide in Pakistan – a Muslim, South Asian nation. In addition, the role of emergency department-based surveillance is explored. Four electronic databases (PubMed, CINAHL Plus, MDConsult, PakMediNet) were searched and 23

Muhammad Shahid; Adnan A. Hyder

2008-01-01

202

Suicide terrorism: what, where, when and how in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionTerrorism in which violence is intentionally directed at civilian targets has indeed become a major cause of morbidity and mortality in some Eastern Mediterranean countries. The aim of this study was to assess the burden and factors associated with this problem in Pakistan.MethodInformation about suicide-terrorism related events, deaths and injuries was extracted from South-Asian Terrorism Portal for the period from

J A Bhatti; A Mehmood; M Shahid; S A Bhatti; U Akhtar; J A Razzak

2010-01-01

203

Study of precursory signatures of shallow earthquakes in Pakistan using ground-based ionosonde foF2 measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 8 Oct. 2005, a devastating major earthquake measuring 7.6 on Richter scale struck the northern areas of Pakistan. This earthquake claimed more than 75,000 lives and destroyed thousands of houses / villages spread across a mountainous rural area. So, in order to reduce the risk of an earthquake and mitigate its effects, this study was initiated to forecast the large earthquakes. This study is based on the data of ionospheric parameter foF2 acquired by Digisonde DGS-256 at Karachi (24.95o N, 67.14o E) and Islamabad (33.75o N, 72.87o E) stations of Pakistan. The employed foF2 data are related to four shallow earthquakes, which hit the coastal and mountainous areas of Pakistan in 1985, 2001 and 2005. Two of these four earthquakes hitting Karachi on 17 Dec. 1985 and 26 Jan. 2001 were of the moderate (M = 5.4 R) and strong (M = 6.5 R) categories respectively, while the remaining two hitting Islamabad on 25 Feb. 2001 and 8 Oct. 2005 measuring (M = 6.0 R) and (M = 7.6 R) were of the strong and major categories in order. This was revealed that the upper and / or lower anomalous signals equal to or more than 0.55 MHz occurred on 1-6 days prior the earthquake day. However, such signals for the major earthquake of Islamabad were observed only on earthquake day just 3-6 hours before the earthquake. These signals were classified into three categories as (i) A noticeable upper and / or lower anomalous signal (i.e. 0.50 MHz < ? foF2 = 1.50 MHz), (ii) more noticeable upper and / or lower anomalous signal (i.e. 1.55 MHz < ? foF2 = 2.50 MHz), and (iii) most noticeable upper and / or lower anomalous signal (i.e. ? foF2 > 2.50 MHz). The analysis of upper and / or lower anomalous signals are significantly stronger on pre-earthquake days for a moderate earthquake than for a strong earthquake occurring in the coastal area like Karachi and / or for strong / major earthquakes for a mountainous area like Islamabad.

Ara Zafar, Husan; Ashiq, Muhammad; Hussain, Safqat

204

Student's Corner Byssinosis: As seen in cotton spinning mill workers of Karachi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To identify Byssinosis in cotton spinning mill workers, probable associations of disease with factors such as different work areas, safety gadget usage and overtime and to ascertain proportions of byssinosis to accidental injuries. Methods: This study was conducted in a spinning mill of Karachi in June 2006. Mill workers who had worked for a period of minimum 5 years

Mohammed Irfan Farooque; Bushra Khan; Erum Aziz; Mehreen Moosa; Mohammed Raheel; Santosh Kumar; Farah Asad Mansuri

205

OCCUPATIONAL STRESS AND COPING MECHANISM TO INCREASE JOB SATISFACTION AMONG SUPERVISORS AT KARACHI PHARMACEUTICALS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research explores the extent of stress and coping mechanism, in pharmaceuticals based in Korangi and other industrial areas in Karachi. The research is based on a previous study conducted by MA Khan (2006). The findings substantiate the view that coping mechanism increases job satisfaction of supervisors in the sampled firms. The design of the research is based on the

M. A. KHAN; AMBER RAZA; UZMA ALI

206

The Independence-Dependence Paradox: Stability Dilemmas in South Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Has a new era of détente and stability emerged in South Asia five years after India and Pakistan first openly tested nuclear weapons? In the process, have India and Pakistan effectively demonstrated the value of nuclear weapons in deterring war? Deterrence optimists claim that fear of the ultimate weapon has restrained the otherwise rough actors who have been at each

Feroz Hassan Khan

207

Molecular characterisation of banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) from Pakistan.  

PubMed

Banana bunchy top disease is caused by a single-stranded circular DNA virus, banana bunchy top virus (BBTV), which is a member of the genus Babuvirus (family Nanoviridae). We have cloned and sequenced five components (DNA-R, DNA-S, DNA-N, DNA-M and DNA-C) of a BBTV isolate originating from Pakistan. In addition, the DNA-R and several other components of five further isolates, originating from geographically distinct sites across the banana-growing area of Sindh province, Pakistan, were cloned and sequenced. Analysis of the sequences indicates that BBTV present in Pakistan belongs to the "South Pacific" group of isolates and that the genetic diversity of the virus in the country is very low. The virus shows the highest levels of sequence identity to BBTV isolates originating from Egypt, India and Australia. The significance of these results with respect to the possible origin of the virus in Pakistan and the prospects for obtaining genetically engineered resistance to the virus are discussed. PMID:17990091

Amin, Imran; Qazi, Javaria; Mansoor, Shahid; Ilyas, Muhammad; Briddon, Rob W

2007-11-07

208

Hydrocarbon potential in Pakistan - A geological perspective  

SciTech Connect

Share of petroleum in the energy mix of Pakistan is about 76%. Indigenous oil production meets only one-third of the requirement while the remaining is imported at a high cost. The pinch of soaring crude prices of the late 1970s accelerated the search for new petroleum resources. The last decade saw a notable increase in petroleum exploration as well as production of oil and gas. Pakistan lies along part of the Tertiary convergence zone and straddles the boundaries between Indian, Arabian, and Eurasian plates. It has a large sedimentary area and a proven petroleum potential. The basin evolution along the fringe of proto-Indian Ocean and subsequent modifications by continental collision can be correlated with the plate tectonic history. Better understanding of the geological history and the petroleum geodynamics have contributed in the finding of new resources. At the advent of the last decade, application of conceptual geological modeling opened up a new petroleum province in the south. Application of the state-of-the-art technique has made it possible to identify attractive prospects in the geologically complex imbricate zone in the northern province. The vast Indus basin also has the possibilities associated with stratigraphic, reefal, and other subtle trapping mechanisms. Finally, the Baluchistan basin and the continental shelf have only been marginally explored. The prospects for the future seem extremely bright, particularly the unproven Indus delta and the Baluchistan basin, which may drastically change this situation.

Kemal, A. (Oil and Gas Development Corp., Islamabad (Pakistan))

1991-03-01

209

Post partum anxiety and depression in peri-urban communities of Karachi, Pakistan: a quasi-experimental study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Postpartum anxiety and depression is a major public health concern because of its adverse effects on the cognitive and social development of the infant. Globally postpartum depression has been widely investigated but as anxiety is a more prominent feature of postpartum depression we assessed the prevalence of anxiety and depression and their associated factors in post partum women. METHODS:

Niloufer S Ali; Badar S Ali; Iqbal S Azam

2009-01-01

210

Secondary prevention of heart disease – knowledge among cardiologists and ?-3 (Omega3) fatty acid prescribing behaviors in Karachi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The use of omega-3 fatty acids is a currently proven strategy for secondary prevention of heart disease. The prescription practices for this important nutraceutical is not currently known. It is imperative to assess the knowledge of cardiologists regarding the benefits of omega-3 fatty acids and to determine the frequency of its prescription. The aim of the study was to

Saqib A Gowani; Sana Shoukat; Ather M Taqui; Hashim M Hanif; Wasiq F Rawasia; Zeeshan Qadri; Sajid H Dhakam

2009-01-01

211

Experiences of nurses related to prolonged-stay patients in a postanesthesia care unit (PACU) in Karachi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) is to provide short term monitoring of patients following surgery, until recovery from the anesthesia. The transfer of patients from the PACU to their designated units, however, may be delayed due to various reasons. A qualitative descriptive approach was used to explore the experiences of six nurses working in the PACU at

Sharifa Bashir Lalani; Zeenatkhanu Kanji; Fauziya Ali

212

Comparing IRI and a regional model with ionosonde measurements in Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have used the technique of expansion in Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOFs) to develop regional models of the critical frequencies of E and F 2 layers ( foE, foF 2), peak height ( hmF 2), and semi-thickness of F 2 layer ( YmF 2) over Pakistan. In the present study levels of solar activity specified by Smoothed Sunspot Number ( R) from 10 to 200 are taken into account. The magnetic dip angle for the model ranges from 30° to 60°. We have compared the regional model and the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) with measurements of three ionosondes in Pakistan. The model parameters foE and foF 2 are found overall comparable to the observed hourly median values during daytime at Karachi (geographic latitude = 24.95°N, longitude = 67.13°E, magnetic inclination = 37°), Multan (30.18°N, 71.48°E, 45°) and Islamabad (33.75°N, 73.13°E, 51.5°) during the years 1988, 1996 and 2000. For hmF 2 the computed values by regional and IRI model for the year 1995 are found close to each other. However, for YmF 2the results are better during daytime as compared to nighttime.

Murtaza, G.; Iqbal, S.; Ameen, M. A.; Iqbal, A.

2008-08-01

213

Establishment of a comprehensive epilepsy center in pakistan: initial experiences, results, and reflections.  

PubMed

Background. Developing countries, home to 80% of epilepsy patients, do not have comprehensive epilepsy surgery programs. Considering these needs we set up first epilepsy surgery center in Pakistan. Methods. Seventeen teleconferences focused on setting up an epilepsy center at the Aga Khan University (AKU), Karachi, Pakistan were arranged with experts from the University of Alberta Hospital, Alberta, Canada and the University of West Virginia, USA over a two-year period. Subsequently, the experts visited the proposed center to provide hands on training. During this period several interactive teaching sessions, a nationwide workshop, and various public awareness events were organized. Results. Sixteen patients underwent surgery, functional hemispherectomy (HS) was done in six, anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) in six, and neuronavigation-guided selective amygdalohippocampectomy (SAH) using keyhole technique in four patients. Minimal morbidity was observed in ATL and, SAH groups. All patients in SAH group (100%) had Grade 1 control, while only 5 patients (83%) in ATL group, and 4 patients (66%) in HS group had Grade 1 control according to Engel's classification, in average followups of 12 months, 24 months and 48 months for SAH, ATL, and HS, respectively. Conclusion. As we share our experience we hope to set a practical example for economically constrained countries that successful epilepsy surgery centers can be managed with limited resources. PMID:22957232

Tahir, M Zubair; Sobani, Zain A; Quadri, S A; Ahmed, S Nizam; Sheerani, Mughis; Siddiqui, Fowzia; Boling, Warren W; Enam, Syed Ather

2012-02-12

214

Pakistan’s Debt Problem: Its Changing Nature and Growing Gravity  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been evident for some time that Pakistan’s debt burden is extremely onerous. The danger of external debt default first emerged in 1996 towards the end of the second Benazir government. Following the nuclear explosions by first India and then Pakistan and the subsequent imposition of economic sanctions by the Western countries in mid-1998, Pakistan froze the foreign currency

Pervez Hasan

1999-01-01

215

Evaluation of genetic diversity of bread wheat landraces from Pakistan by AFLP and implications for a future collection strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used amplified-fragment-length polymorphism (AFLP) markers to evaluate genetic variation in a set of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) landraces and improved materials. Landraces collected from different geographic and agro-ecological zones in Pakistan\\u000a in 1987, 1989 and 1991 were separated into two groups based on their geographic origins: northern (Himalaya) and south-western\\u000a (Balochistan) Pakistan. Six AFLP primer combinations detected 453

Ryoko Hirano; Akira Kikuchi; Makoto Kawase; Kazuo N. Watanabe

2008-01-01

216

Patient communication in radiology: current status of breaking bad news among radiologists and radiology trainees in pakistan.  

PubMed

Breaking bad news can be an intimidating task for any physician. The aim of this study was to record the practices of breaking bad news to the patients by Pakistani radiologists and trainees. The radiologists and trainees attending the 26th National Radiological Conference in October 2010 in Karachi, Pakistan, were surveyed. The response rate was 76%. The respondents included residents (51%), private practicing radiologists (28%), academic radiologists (13%), and other trainees (8%). Most of the academic radiologists communicated with their patients. The daily frequency of breaking bad news by residents was noted, which was highest in the public teaching hospitals (71%). For severe abnormalities such as malignancy, 50% residents, 55% of the academic radiologists and 74% of the private practicing radiologists were very uncomfortable in disclosure of results. Differences in frequency of communication with patients were noticed with both different training levels, and different settings of practice in a developing country. PMID:24112271

Ali Khawaja, Ranish Deedar; Akhtar, Waseem; Khawaja, Ali; Irfan, Hira; Naeem, Mohammad; Memon, Mukhtiar

2013-10-01

217

Prevalence of drug resistance associated mutations in Plasmodium vivax against sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine in southern Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background In Pakistan, Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum co-exist and usage of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) against P. falciparum exposes P. vivax to the drug leading to generation of resistant alleles. The main aim of this study was to investigate frequency distribution of drug resistance associated mutations in pvdhfr, pvdhps genes and provide baseline molecular epidemiological data on SP-associated resistance in P. vivax from southern Pakistan. Methods From January 2008 to May 2009, a total of 150 samples were collected from patients tested slide-positive for P. vivax, at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, or its collection units located in Baluchistan and Sindh Province. Nested PCR using pvdhfr and pvdhps specific primers was performed for all samples.91.3% (137/150) of the samples were tested PCR positive of which 87.3% (131/137) were successfully sequenced. Sample sequencing data was analysed and compared against wild type reference sequences. Results In dhfr, mutations were observed at codons F57L, S58R and S117N/T. Novel non-synonymous mutations were observed at codon positions N50I, G114R and E119K while a synonymous mutation was observed at codon position 69Y. In dhps, mutations were observed at codon position A383G and A553G while novel non-synonymous mutations were observed at codon positions S373T, E380K, P384L, N389T, V392D, T393P, D459A, M601I, A651D and A661V. Conclusion This is the first report from southern Pakistan on SP resistance in clinical isolates of P. vivax. Results from this study confirm that diverse drug resistant alleles are circulating within this region.

2013-01-01

218

Can Formal Disability-Related Services Be Developed with South Asian Historical and Conceptual Foundations? Constructions from Experience and Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper uses experiences in Pakistan to address issues in the application of European-based principles of disability-related concepts and services to cultures in South Asia, especially Pakistan and India. Emphasis is on understanding the South Asian conceptual world of disability so that "development" rather than "transfer" of knowledge and…

Miles, M.

219

Can Formal Disability-Related Services Be Developed with South Asian Historical and Conceptual Foundations? Constructions from Experience and Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper uses experiences in Pakistan to address issues in the application of European-based principles of disability-related concepts and services to cultures in South Asia, especially Pakistan and India. Emphasis is on understanding the South Asian conceptual world of disability so that "development" rather than "transfer" of knowledge and…

Miles, M.

220

GIS of poverty mapping analysis for Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report presents the results of Poverty Mapping Analysis for Pakistan with the help of Geographical Information System (GIS) under the project titled RETA 6073 undertaken in various countries like China, Philippines, Indonesia, and Pakistan. The Poverty Mapping GIS has been developed using two data sets namely Pakistan Socio Economic Survey 2001 and Population Census 1998. Therefore, two sets of

Nabeela Arshad

2005-01-01

221

Environmental impacts and mitigation costs associated with cloth and leather exports from Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have drawn two propositions, critical from a developing country viewpoint, from the trade and environment literature and assessed them for cloth and leather production in Pakistan. The first is that trade liberalization will result in export by developing countries of their environmental capital. The second is that the costs of mitigating these damaging environmental effects in the South are

Shahrukh Rafi Khan; Mahmood A. Khwaja; Abdul Matin Khan

2001-01-01

222

SEASONAL DYNAMICS OF ZINC IN SOIL, DIETARY FACTORS AND GRAZING SHEEP FROM SOUTHWESTERN, PUNJAB, PAKISTAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study has been conducted in a sheep farm to determine the zinc status in a semiarid region of south western Punjab, Pakistan, during two different seasons. The purpose of this was to investigate as function of the season and the sampling period, the transfer of Zn from soils and forages to sheep grazing in this semiarid region in order

I. KHAN; M. ASHRAF; KAFEEL AHMAD; EHSAN ELAHI VALEEM

2007-01-01

223

Preliminary report on the geology and vertebrate fauna of the Miocene Manchar Formation, Sind, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Manchar Formation, a middle and upper Miocene fluvial sequence of sandstones, silts, and conglomerates, is exposed in a narrow north–south belt in the Lower Indus Basin of Sind Province, Pakistan. The formation, as measured in geological sections near Lake Manchar, can be divided into three parts differing in the proportions of the sandstones and silts. The contact with the

S. Mahmood Raza; John C. Barry; Grant E. Meyer; Lawrence Martin

1984-01-01

224

Military Takeover Complete in Pakistan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

General Pervez Musharraf assumed the position of chief executive of Pakistan early this morning, completing a very quick and bloodless coup that began on Tuesday night. General Musharraf declared a state of emergency, suspending the constitution and the national and provincial assemblies, dismissing the provincial governments and governors, and banning the Supreme Court from challenging his authority. Reaction to the coup has been rather muted within Pakistan and abroad. Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif, who is now in custody, was increasingly unpopular in Pakistan because of the country's dire economic situation, his handling of the conflict with India in Kashmir, and what some saw as his systematic efforts to undermine the authority of rival political parties and branches of government. Foreign officials and editorials have criticized the military and called for the restoration of civilian rule as soon as possible. However, many have also acknowledged Sharif's poor record and some have even called for a transitional "technocratic" government to revive the economy and fight corruption. While the crucial question of foreign aid and loans to Pakistan is still very much up in the air, it does appear that at least some nations, most notably arch-rival India, are prepared to do business with Pakistan's new leaders, at least for the short term.

De Nie, Michael W.

225

Pakistan, Madrassas, and Militancy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Following the terrorist attacks of September 11th, 2001, the US government has become increasingly concerned with madrassas, Islamic schools of religious education in Central and South Asia. U.S. Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld and Secretary of State...

D. L. Billquist J. M. Colbert

2006-01-01

226

The Relationship between Corporate Governance Indicators and Firm Value : A Case Study of Karachi Stock Exchange  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated whether differences in quality of firm-level corporate governance can explain the firm-level performance in a cross-section of companies listed at Karachi Stock Exchange. Therefore, we analysed the relationship between firm-level value as measured by Tobins Q and total Corporate Governance Index (CGI) and three sub-indices : Board, Shareholdings and Ownership, and Disclosures and Transparency for a sample of

Attiya Y. Javed; Robina Iqbal

2007-01-01

227

International Terrorism in South Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report reviews the international terrorist environment in South Asia, concentrating on Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India.1 With U.S.-led counterterrorism efforts focused especially on Southwest Asia, the existence of international terrorist groups and their supporters in South Asia is identified as a threat to both regional stability and to the attainment of key U.S. policy goals. Al Qaeda forces that fled

K. Alan Kronstadt

228

GROWTH OF ALBIZIA LEBBECK (L.) BENTH., AND LEUCAENA LEUCOCEPHALA (LAM.) DE-WIT, IN DIFFERENT SOIL COMPOSITIONS OF KARACHI UNIVERSITY CAMPUS SOIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth of Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth., and Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de-Wit, were studied in soils collected from Karachi University area under natural ecological circumstances. Various growth variables of A. lebbeck and L. leucocephala were reduced from different soil composition (25, 50 and 75%) of Karachi University soil (sandy soil) as compared to Garden soil. Growth of L. leucocephala in

Syed Atiq-ur-Rehman; Muhammad Zafar Iqbal

2010-01-01

229

75 FR 51615 - Establishment of Pakistan and Afghanistan Support Office  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of August 18, 2010 Establishment of Pakistan and Afghanistan Support Office By the...temporary organization to be known as the Pakistan and Afghanistan Support Office (PASO...strengthening the governments in Afghanistan and Pakistan, enhancing the capacity of those...

2010-08-23

230

Molecular epidemiology of glanders, Pakistan.  

PubMed

We collected epidemiologic and molecular data from Burkholderia mallei isolates from equines in Punjab, Pakistan from 1999 through 2007. We show that recent outbreaks are genetically distinct from available whole genome sequences and that these genotypes are persistent and ubiquitous in Punjab, probably due to human-mediated movement of equines. PMID:19961695

Hornstra, Heidie; Pearson, Talima; Georgia, Shalamar; Liguori, Andrew; Dale, Julia; Price, Erin; O'Neill, Matthew; Deshazer, David; Muhammad, Ghulam; Saqib, Muhammad; Naureen, Abeera; Keim, Paul

2009-12-01

231

Reforming Militant Madaris in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The madaris located in Pakistan have played an important role in spreading militant jihadist ideologies and some have even labeled the madaris “terrorist factories.” After the War on Terror began the Pakistani government was forced to deal with their violent religious schools. The federal government did produce a plan for reform; however, the already unimpressive strategies have not been followed

Moniza Khokhar

2007-01-01

232

Solar energy applications in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energy deficit budget of Pakistan demands for an energy transition from limited fossil fuel reserves to abundant renewable energy sources. With a modest research and development programme for solar energy utilisation, PCSIR and DGNRER concentrated on both solar thermal and PV systems. The achievements as a result of research and development over the last decade has been discussed in

Iftikhar A. Raja; M. G. Dougar; R. S. Abro

1996-01-01

233

Democracy and Education in Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the potential for democratic change in educational practice in Pakistan. Using focus group discussions in urban and rural areas of Sindh and Balochistan, it builds up a picture of educational practices from policy-making to implementation level and identifies the barriers to democratic approaches in education. It suggests that…

Nazir, Muhammad

2010-01-01

234

Prevalence of arthritis in India and Pakistan: a review.  

PubMed

Recent studies of rheumatoid arthritis worldwide suggest that prevalence of arthritis is higher in Europe and North America than in developing countries. Prevalence data for major arthritis disorders have been compiled in West for several decades, but figures from the third world are just emerging. A coordinated effort by WHO and ILAR (International League Against Rheumatism) has resulted in collecting data for countries like Philippines, China, Malaysia, Indonesia, and rural South Africa but the information about prevalence of arthritis in India and Pakistan is scarce. Since both countries, i.e., India and Pakistan, share some ethnic identity, we reviewed published literature to examine the prevalence of arthritis in these countries. Medline and Pubmed were searched for suitable articles about arthritis from 1980 and onwards. Findings from these articles were reviewed and summarized. The prevalence, clinical features, and laboratory findings of rheumatoid arthritis are compiled for both India and Pakistan. Data collected from these two countries were compared with each other, and some of the characteristics of the disease were compared with Europe and North America. It is found to be quite similar to developed countries. Additionally, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis is of different variety than reported in West. It is more of polyarticular onset type while in West pauciarticular predominates. Additionally, in systemic onset, JRA uveitis and ANA are common finding in developed countries; on the other hand, they are hardly seen in this region. Although the prevalence of arthritis in Pakistan and India is similar to Western countries, there are inherent differences (clinical features, laboratory findings) in the presentation of disease. The major strength of the study is that it is the first to pool reports to provide an estimate of the disease in the Indian subcontinent. Scarcity of data is one of the major limitations. This study helps to understand the pattern of disease in this part of country that can be stepping-stone for policy makers to draft policies that can affect target population more appropriately. PMID:21331574

Akhter, Ehtisham; Bilal, Saira; Kiani, Adnan; Haque, Uzma

2011-02-18

235

Contribution of BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutations to Breast and Ovarian Cancer in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

The population of Pakistan has been reported to have the highest rate of breast cancer of any Asian population (excluding Jews in Israel) and one of the highest rates of ovarian cancer worldwide. To explore the contribution that genetic factors make to these high rates, we have conducted a case-control study of 341 case subjects with breast cancer, 120 case subjects with ovarian cancer, and 200 female control subjects from two major cities of Pakistan (Karachi and Lahore). The prevalence of BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations among case subjects with breast cancer was 6.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.1%–9.4%), and that among case subjects with ovarian cancer was 15.8% (95% CI 9.2%–22.4%). Mutations of the BRCA1 gene accounted for 84% of the mutations among case subjects with ovarian cancer and 65% of mutations among case subjects with breast cancer. The majority of detected mutations are unique to Pakistan. Five BRCA1 mutations (2080insA, 3889delAG, 4184del4, 4284delAG, and IVS14-1A?G) and one BRCA2 mutation (3337C?T) were found in multiple case subjects and represent candidate founder mutations. The penetrance of deleterious mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 is comparable to that of Western populations. The cumulative risk of cancer to age 85 years in female first-degree relatives of BRCA1-mutation–positive case subjects was 48% and was 37% for first-degree relatives of the BRCA2-mutation–positive case subjects. A higher proportion of case subjects with breast cancer than of control subjects were the progeny of first-cousin marriages (odds ratio [OR] 2.1; 95% CI 1.4–3.3; P=.001). The effects of consanguinity were significant for case subjects with early-onset breast cancer (age <40 years) (OR=2.7; 95% CI 1.5–4.9; P=.0008) and case subjects with ovarian cancer (OR=2.4; 95% CI 1.4–4.2; P=.002). These results suggest that recessively inherited genes may contribute to breast and ovarian cancer risk in Pakistan.

Liede, Alexander; Malik, Imtiaz A.; Aziz, Zeba; Rios, Patricia de los; Kwan, Elaine; Narod, Steven A.

2002-01-01

236

Pattern of benzodiazepine use in psychiatric outpatients in Pakistan: a cross-sectional survey  

PubMed Central

Background Benzodiazepines (BDZ) are the largest-selling drug group in the world. The potential of dependence with BDZ has been known for almost three decades now. In countries like Pakistan where laws against unlicensed sale of BDZ are not implemented vigorously the risk of misuse of and dependence on these drugs is even higher. Previous studies have shown that BDZ prevalence among patients/visitors to general outpatient clinics in Pakistan may be as high as 30%. However, no research has been carried out on the prevalence of BDZ use in psychiatric patients in Pakistan. Methods We carried out a cross-sectional survey over 3 months in psychiatry outpatient clinics of two tertiary care hospitals in Karachi and Lahore. Besides basic socio-demographic data the participants were asked if they were taking a BDZ at present and if yes, the frequency, route and dosage of the drug, who had initiated the drug and why it had been prescribed. We used chi-square test and t-test to find out which socio-demographic or clinical factors were associated with an increased risk of BDZ use. We used Logistic Regression to find out which variable(s) best predicted the increased likelihood of BDZ use. Results Out of a total of 419 participants 187 (45%) of the participants had been currently using at least one BDZ. Seventy-three percent of the users had been using the drug for 4 weeks or longer and 87% were taking it every day. In 90% of cases the BDZ had been initiated by a doctor, who was a psychiatrist in 70% of the cases. Female gender, increasing age, living in Lahore, and having seen a psychiatrist before, were associated with an increased likelihood of using BDZ. Conclusion The study shows how high BDZ use is in psychiatric outpatients in Pakistan. Most of the users were taking it for a duration and with a frequency which puts them at risk of becoming dependent on BDZ. In most of the cases it had been initiated by a doctor. Both patients and doctors need to be made aware of the risk of dependence associated with the use of BDZ.

2009-01-01

237

Tackling Extremism, Radicalisation and Militancy in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

With global attention focused upon the ongoing conflict in Pakistan, it is timely to consider current strategies of the Pakistan government.\\u000aProfessor Samina Yasmeen, a Pakistani Muslim with decades of expertise in the field of political science, was well placed to address the subject of her recent talk: Tackling Extremism, Radicalization and Militancy in Pakistan: A Critical Appraisal of Current

Ben Clarke

2010-01-01

238

SAWNET: South Asian Women's Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

SAWNET, the South Asian Women's Network, provides a forum for disseminating information about women's issues in the nations of Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. Organized into seventeen topical sections, SAWNET includes articles and books by and for South Asian women, background material on South Asian women's organizations, the latest news about women in the region, and a myriad of other resources relevant to women's rights and health. SAWNET also hosts an electronic mailing list to discuss issues covered by the Website. Please note that the moderated list is restricted to women only. Detailed subscription information and mailing list policies are available at the site.

239

Defusing the Pakistan "bomb". Population.  

PubMed

Pakistan has the highest population growth rate in Asia at 3.1%. The average Pakistani woman has 6 or 7 children. Currently the population 110 million; this has grown from 32.5 million in 1945. Nearly half the nation is under age 15 which means that even if growth rates level of the population will continue to grow for another 20 years to about 160 million. Due to a high illiteracy rate and pressure from husbands, most women do not have access to family planning services. Another reason that family planning is not widely accepted is a fear of government intervention similar to that of India's forced sterilization in the 70s. The Division of Population under the Ministry of Planning has been made into a separate Ministry and its budget increased from $20 million to 28.4% million. Also a new high profile multi-media campaign has been launched in 11 of Pakistan's largest cities to encourage family planning. A private distributor has started to market a new line of contraceptives called Sethi (friend). The author's conclusion is that other countries have turned around population problems of this magnitude, Pakistan can do it too. PMID:12283708

1990-09-28

240

Security Implications of Water: Prospects for Instability or Cooperation in South and Central Asia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis will explore the security implications of water scarcity through an examination of the politics of water in South Asia (India and Pakistan) and Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan). The thesis will ar...

A. Radin

2010-01-01

241

Analysis of ochratoxin A blood levels in bladder cancer cases and healthy persons from Pakistan.  

PubMed

The mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA), a well-known human nephrotoxic and carcinogenic agent, is a public health concern in many countries. Exposure is assessed by means of mycotoxin analysis in food commodities and by human biomonitoring of OTA in blood samples. Data available from several European countries and some studies in Africa, Asia, and the Americas indicate frequent detection of OTA. Thus far, data from developing countries that compare blood levels in healthy and diseased individuals are scarce. Thus, the aim of this investigation was to determine OTA levels in blood samples of bladder cancer patients (n = 96) and healthy controls (n = 31) from Pakistan. OTA in blood plasma was analyzed after extraction by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. Among samples of 87 cancer patients and 30 controls, 92% in total contained quantifiable amounts of OTA. In bladder cancer cases the median OTA concentration was 0.19 ng/ml (mean 0.296; range: 0.03 to 3.41 ng/ml), and in healthy controls the median OTA was 0.19 ng/ml (mean 0.3; range: 0.04 to 1.24 ng/ml). The OTA levels found in the Pakistanian cohorts were comparable to those reported previously for the general population in the European Union. In conclusion, OTA is not likely to play a major role in the etiology of bladder cancer in the Karachi cohort, at least as the sole risk factor. PMID:22994571

Aslam, Muhammad; Rivzi, S Abidul Hassan; Beg, Anwer Ejaz; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Golka, Klaus; Degen, Gisela H

2012-01-01

242

Afghanistan and Pakistan Regional Stabilization Strategy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As President Obama reiterated during his December 1, 2009 speech at West Point, the core U.S. goal remains to disrupt, dismantle, and defeat al-Qaeda and its safe havens in Pakistan, and to prevent their return to Pakistan or Afghanistan. While our combat...

2010-01-01

243

Biogas, renewable energy resource for Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developing countries are in critical energy crisis. Pakistan spends almost 7 billion US$ on import of fossil fuels annually to congregate its energy needs. The renewable and sustainable energy resources are best substitute to the conventional fuels and energy sources. Pakistan takes the opportunity to have almost 159 million animals producing almost 652millionkg of manure daily from cattle and buffalo

Syed S. Amjid; Muhammad Q. Bilal; Muhammad S. Nazir; Altaf Hussain

2011-01-01

244

Higher Education and Women's Empowerment in Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper summarises the findings of a 2005 doctoral study by Malik which explored to what extent participation in higher education offers empowerment to women in Pakistan. A survey instrument was used to question female faculty members and female students from 10 public universities in Pakistan; 1290 students and 290 faculty members responded.…

Malik, Samina; Courtney, Kathy

2011-01-01

245

U.S. Arms Sales to Pakistan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report briefly reviews the issue of U.S. arms sales to Pakistan. It provides background details regarding recent major weapons transactions between the United States and Pakistan, as well as the rationale given for such sales. It also reviews the cur...

R. F. Grimmett

2007-01-01

246

PROSPECTS OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN PAKISTAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pakistan, despite the enormous potential of its energy resources, remains energy deficient and has to rely heavily on imports to satisfy hardly its needs. Moreover a very large part of the rural areas does not have the electrification facilities because they are either too remote and\\/or too expensive to connect to the national grid. Pakistan obtains its energy requirements from

Zeeshan Alam Nayyer

247

Suicide and Attempted Suicide in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suicide and attempted suicide are understudied subjects in Pakistan, an Islamic country where they are considered criminal offenses. National suicide statistics are not compiled nor are suicide mortality statistics reported to the World Health Organization (WHO). Although there are strong religious sanctions against suicide, there are no clear principles against attempted suicide in Islam. Despite this, Pakistan, like many other

Murad Moosa Khan

1998-01-01

248

Female Suicide Rates in Ghizer, Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suicide is an understudied subject in Pakistan. There are many social, legal, and religious sanctions against it. National rates of suicides are not known. We calculated suicide rates of women in the Ghizer District of the remote Northern Areas of Pakistan. During years 2000 to 2004, 49 women committed suicide. Taking average mean population for…

Khan, Murad M.; Ahmed, Aziz; Khan, Sultan R.

2009-01-01

249

Pakistan's Nuclear Future: Reining in the Risk.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

With any attempt to assess security threats, there is a natural tendency to focus first on the worst. Consider the most recent appraisals of Pakistan's nuclear program. Normally, the risk of war between Pakistan and India and possible nuclear escalation w...

H. Sokolski

2009-01-01

250

Female Suicide Rates in Ghizer, Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Suicide is an understudied subject in Pakistan. There are many social, legal, and religious sanctions against it. National rates of suicides are not known. We calculated suicide rates of women in the Ghizer District of the remote Northern Areas of Pakistan. During years 2000 to 2004, 49 women committed suicide. Taking average mean population for…

Khan, Murad M.; Ahmed, Aziz; Khan, Sultan R.

2009-01-01

251

Business, Stakeholders and Strategic Responses in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is an effort to view the historical past of the Pakistan area, in the context of strategic responses from different stakeholders to the forces of the market economy and the emergence of the business segment. Taking a time span for this analysis that goes beyond the reach of most social science discussions of developments in Pakistan, the paper

Imran Ali

252

U.S. strategy: Assisting Pakistan's transformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pakistan today is clearly both part of the problem and the solution to the threat of terrorism facing the United States. Although it did not set out to do so, the landmark report issued by the 9\\/11 Commission ended up highlighting Pakistan's deep involvement with international terrorism. For more than two decades, beginning with the Sikh insurgency in the Indian

Ashley J. Tellis

2004-01-01

253

Dietary Patterns Associated with Risk for Metabolic Syndrome in Urban Community of Karachi Defined by Cluster Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

4 Abstract: Dietary trends have been found to be related with metabolic syndrome in various studies. To identify dietary patterns and study associations between the dietary patterns of subjects with high and low risk of metabolic syndrome in a Karachi based community. A group of 871 men and women were selected randomly from 532 households. Data about consumption of specific

M. Zafar; Iqbal Hydrie; Abdul Basit; A. Samad Shera; Rubina Hakeem; Akhtar Hussain; Raana Liaqat; Ali Khan

2010-01-01

254

Nuclear proliferation and nuclear reversal in South Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article assesses prospects for nuclear proliferation reversal in India and Pakistan by examining previous case studies of nuclear reversal (South Africa, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Argentina, Brazil) and drawing comparisons with the positions of the two South Asian powers. In the six cases of nuclear reversal, change became possible when national leaders became convinced that the security threats to the

Neil Joeck

1997-01-01

255

Cultural Issues in the Primary Care of South Asians  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the fastest growing immigrant groups in the United States is from the Indian subcontinent of South Asia. Included in this group are people from India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, and Pakistan. Although there is considerable heterogeneity within and between the populations of these countries, cultural similarities contribute to common challenges when South Asian immigrants are seen in primary care

Syed M. Ahmed; Jeanne P. Lemkau

2000-01-01

256

New US Policy Options for South Asia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since Pakistan and India gained independence in the late 1940s, U.S. policies toward South Asia have shown little consistency. Washington rarely saw the region as important in its own right; rather, the United States tended to treat it as a pawn in the su...

J. Murphy

1991-01-01

257

Forecasting Extreme Flooding in South Asia (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In most years there is extensive flooding across India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. On average, 40 million people are displaced by floods in India and half that many again in Bangladesh. Occasionally, even more extensive and severe flooding occurs across South Asia. In 2007 and 2008 the Brahmaputra flooded three times causing severe disruption of commerce, agriculture and life in general.

P. J. Webster

2010-01-01

258

Introduction to the Special Issue on Domestic Violence and the South Asian Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

The South Asian community in the United States is composed of immigrants from the Indian subcontinent (primarily, India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh) and immigrants from the lands of the South Asian diaspora, including the Caribbean nations and South American countries. In themselves, these countries represent complex and diverse histories. Individuals coming from these countries are therefore influenced by a variety of

Helen E. Sheehan; Rafael Art. Javier; Theresa Thanjan

2000-01-01

259

Impact of today's media on university student's body image in Pakistan: a conservative, developing country's perspective  

PubMed Central

Background Living in a world greatly controlled by mass media makes it impossible to escape its pervading influence. As media in Pakistan has been free in the true sense of the word for only a few years, its impact on individuals is yet to be assessed. Our study aims to be the first to look at the effect media has on the body image of university students in a conservative, developing country like Pakistan. Also, we introduced the novel concept of body image dissatisfaction as being both negative and positive. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 7 private universities over a period of two weeks in the city of Karachi, Pakistan's largest and most populous city. Convenience sampling was used to select both male and female undergraduate students aged between 18 and 25 and a sample size of 783 was calculated. Results Of the 784 final respondents, 376 (48%) were males and 408 (52%) females. The mean age of males was 20.77 (+/- 1.85) years and females was 20.38 (+/- 1.63) years. Out of these, 358 (45.6%) respondents had a positive BID (body image dissatisfaction) score while 426 (54.4%) had a negative BID score. Of the respondents who had positive BID scores, 93 (24.7%) were male and 265 (65.0%) were female. Of the respondents with a negative BID score, 283 (75.3%) were male and 143 (35.0%) were female. The results for BID vs. media exposure were similar in both high and low peer pressure groups. Low media exposure meant positive BID scores and vice versa in both groups (p < 0.0001) showing a statistically significant association between high media exposure and negative body image dissatisfaction. Finally, we looked at the association between gender and image dissatisfaction. Again a statistically significant association was found between positive body image dissatisfaction and female gender and negative body image dissatisfaction and male gender (p < 0.0001). Conclusions Our study confirmed the tendency of the media to have an overall negative effect on individuals' body image. A striking feature of our study, however, was the finding that negative body image dissatisfaction was found to be more prevalent in males as compared to females. Likewise, positive BID scores were more prevalent amongst females.

2011-01-01

260

Nuclear relations in South Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The strategic landscape of South Asia changed dramatically in 1998.;\\u000aWith the reciprocal testing of nuclear weapons, India and Pakistan emerged;\\u000afrom the world of threshold status to an overt posture which has yet to be fully;\\u000adefined. Each claims the status of a nuclear weapon state, yet the contours of;\\u000athat status are unclear. A number of important strategic

Joeck

1998-01-01

261

PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA IN CHRONIC SUPPURATIVE OTITIS MEDIA: SENSITIVITY SPECTRUM AGAINST VARIOUS ANTIBIOTICS IN KARACHI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) is a prevailing and notorious infection in developing countries causing serious local damage and threatening complications. Early and effective treatment based on the knowledge of causing micro organisms and their sensitivity results in good clinical recovery and prevents from damage and complications. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is most common pathogen causing CSOM in Pakistan. The objective

Tahira Mansoor; Mohammed Ayub Musani; Gulnaz Khalid; Mustafa Kamal

2009-01-01

262

Malpractice awareness among surgeons at a teaching hospital in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background The duty of a doctor to take care presumes the person who offers medical advice and treatment to unequivocally possess the skills and knowledge to do so. However, a sense of responsibility cannot be guaranteed in the absence of accountability, which in turn requires a comprehensive medical law system to be in place. Such a system is almost non-existent in Pakistan. Keeping the above in mind, we designed this study to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of surgeons regarding malpractice at a tertiary care center in Pakistan. Methods This was an observational, cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study conducted during a three month period from 31st March, 2012 to 30th June, 2012 at Civil Hospital, Karachi. Surgeons who were available during the period of our study and had been working in the hospital for at least 6 months were included. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed after seeking informed, written consent. The specialties included were general surgery, cardiothoracic surgery, neurosurgery, ophthalmology, otolaryngology, plastic surgery, pediatric surgery, orthopedic surgery, oral and maxillofacial surgery and gynecology and obstetrics. The study questionnaire comprised of four sections. The first section was concerned with the demographics of the surgeons. The second section analyzed the knowledge of the respondents regarding professional negligence and malpractice. The third section assessed the attitudes surgeons with regard to malpractice. The last section dealt with the general and specific practices and experiences of surgeons regarding malpractice. Results Of the 319 surgeons interviewed, 68.7% were oblivious of the complete definition of malpractice. Leaving foreign objects inside the patient (79.6%) was the most commonly agreed upon form of malpractice, whereas failure to break news in entirety (43.9%) was most frequently disagreed. In the event of a medical error, majority (67.7%) were ready to disclose their error to the patient. The most common perceived reason for not disclosing the error was threat of a claim or assault (90.9%). Majority (68.3%) believed that malpractice had a negative effect on reputation. Only 13(4.1%) had received at least one legal claim for damages. Only about three-fourths (75.5%) had the habit of frequently obtaining informed consent from the patients. 83(26.0%) expressed reluctance in accepting a case that was deemed to be difficult. Financial gains and liabilities were responsible for biased approach in 8.5% and 12.2% of the respondents respectively. Conclusion There is a dire need of programs aimed at increasing awareness among practicing surgeons in our setup. Proactive measures are required for the formulation of an efficient system of litigation. Physician accountability will not only arouse a greater sense of responsibility in them, but will also augment the confidence placed by patients on the healthcare system.

2012-01-01

263

Serotype and genotype analysis of dengue virus by sequencing followed by phylogenetic analysis using samples from three mini outbreaks-2007-2009 in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Since the first reported outbreak of dengue hemorrhagic fever in Pakistan, several mini outbreaks have erupted in the region. Dengue virus serotype 3 (DEN-3) was first documented in 2005 outbreak in Karachi. Reports show that serotype 3 is prevalent in Lahore since 2008. Serotype 2 (DEN-2) is the major circulating serotype in Pakistan as it is documented since 1994. We have conducted a detailed study of three outbreaks of dengue virus infection that occurred in years 2007, 2008 and 2009 in Lahore by using molecular techniques such as PCR and nucleotide sequencing of the C-prM gene junction of Dengue virus. Results Through the analysis of 114 serum samples collected over the period of three years (2007-2009), total 20 patients were found to be infected with dengue virus. In year 2007, four were positive for serotype 2 and one sample was positive for serotype DEN-3. In 2008, five samples had concurrent infection with serotypes DEN-2 and DEN-3 while three samples were infected only with serotype DEN-2. In year 2009, one sample had concurrent infection with serotypes DEN-2 and DEN-3 while six were positive for serotype DEN-2 only. Conclusions Our study showed that serotype DEN-2 was dominant in positive samples of dengue virus infection collected during the period of three years (2007-2009). The other serotype present was serotype DEN-3. Genotypes of serotype DEN-2 and serotype DEN-3 were subtype IV and subtype III, respectively.

2011-01-01

264

South Asia Water Resources Workshop: An effort to promote water quality data sharing in South Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

To promote cooperation in South Asia on environmental research, an international working group comprised of participants from Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and the US convened at the Soaltee Hotel in Kathmandu, Nepal, September 12 to 14, 1999. The workshop was sponsored in part by the Cooperative Monitoring Center (CMC) at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, through

GAURAV RAJEN; KENT L. BIRINGER; J. DAVID BETSILL

2000-01-01

265

Pakistan's Nuclear Future: Worries Beyond War.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Raise the issue of Pakistan's nuclear program before almost any group of Western security analysts, and they are likely to throw up their hands. What might happen if the current Pakistani government is taken over by radicalized political forces sympatheti...

H. D. Sokolski

2008-01-01

266

Poverty and Blindness in Pakistan: Results from the Pakistan National Blindness and Visual Impairment Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To explore the association between blindness and deprivation in a nationally representative sample of adults in Pakistan. Design: Cross sectional population based survey. Setting: 221 rural and urban clusters selected randomly throughout Pakistan. Participants: Nationally representative sample of 16 507 adults aged 30 or above (95.3% response rate). Main outcome measures: Associations between visual impairment and poverty assessed by

Clare E. Gilbert; S. P. Shah; M. Z. Jadoon; R. Bourne; B. Dioneen; M. A. Khan; G. J. Johnson; M. D. Khan

2008-01-01

267

Nuclear weapons issues in South Asia  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses how the US can play a productive mediating role in South Asia by engaging India and Pakistan in an international forum to manage nuclear weapons, as Edward Teller advocated. India and Pakistan have developed their nuclear capabilities because they fear their neighbors, not because they want to threaten fear their neighbors, not because they want to threaten the US. The appropriate response for the US, therefore, is diplomatic engagement and negotiations. In addition to the international approach, encouragement and facilitation of regional and bilateral interactions will also be important. Formal arms control agreements have been reached, but less formal confidence-building measures, and unilateral security pledges may well be combined to form a more secure strategic environment in South Asia than a nuclear armed confrontation across the porous South Asian border.

Joeck, N.

1993-07-02

268

Spatial biostratigraphy of NW Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mesozoic to Cenozoic biostratigraphy of NW Pakistan has been conducted in order to document the temporal and spatial relationship between different marine strata with the help of remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). These relationships were then used to help distinguish different tectonostratigraphic units in the Waziristan and the Kurram areas located at the northwestern margin of the Indo-Pakistani craton. Extensive biostratigraphic work in the Waziristan and Kurram areas enabled to distinguish five tectonostratigraphic units and two significant unconformities in the study area. Different foraminiferal zones from Early Jurassic to Middle Eocenewere developed, although due to random samples these zones are not continuous in the sedimentary record. However continuous biozonation from the Late Paleocene P4 to the Early Eocene P9 (Bolli, 1985) biozone was observed. It is observed that the Santonian stage is generally missing in the sedimentary sequence, and it is only found in the olistoliths. This implies that during the Campanian stage there was instability in the shelf due to ophiolite obduction, which caused the displacement of the Santonian strata. The absence of Early Paleocene (Zone P1--P3) microfauna is suggested by rapid subsidence of the NW Indian shelf beginning in the early Paleocene. Moreover, index fossils for the Palpha, P1a, b, c, d, P2 and P3 biozones are absent in the melange of the Thal area suggesting regional uplift during the Paleocene. The presence of Planorotalites pseudomenardii P4 zone microfauna above the unconformable Upper Cretaceous Kahi melange strata suggest the India-Asia collision age between 58 Ma--56 Ma. Foraminiferal biostratigraphy of upper Cretaceous olistoliths was conducted from the Mughal Kot gorge, Baluchistan, Pakistan in order to reveal the depositional history of Late Santonian aged (Dicarinella asymmetrica zone) olistoliths and associated upper Cretaceous to early Tertiary Indo-Pakistani shelf strata. These olistoliths are embedded in uppermost Campanian strata of the Mughal Kot Formation. Similar olistostromes are found at approximately the same stratigraphic level across a broad region of NW Pakistan. These olistostromes are similar in age to radiometrically constrained deformation in the Zhob and Waziristan ophiolites 50 and 90 km to the west and northwest respectively and may record incipient underthrusting of the NW Indo Pakistani craton beneath oceanic crust now in Waziristan and northern Baluchistan. This Campanian event precedes stratigraphically constrained Paleocene and Early Eocene deformation in Parachinar, Orakzai and the Attock-Cherat Ranges, which is interpreted as the collision of NW Indo-Pakistan with Asia and the Kabul Block. A turbiditic depositional environment of the Mughal Kot Formation was developed due to the regional collapse of the NW Indo-Pakistani shelf margin during the Late Campanian (G. calcarata zone ˜80--74 Ma), possibly as a result of ophiolite obduction as the Indo-Pakistani plate moved beneath Tethyan oceanic crust.

Shafique, Naseer Ahmed

2001-07-01

269

Pakistan's Transformation: Why It WIll Not (and Need Not) Happen.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pakistan's reputation is receiving a battering from its numerous American critics as brutal as any suffered in its past. The battering focuses on four categories of Pakistan's strategic behavior: Islamic extremism and terrorism, democratic restoration and...

R. G. Wirsing

2005-01-01

270

Knowledge, perceptions and myths regarding infertility among selected adult population in Pakistan: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background The reported prevalence of infertility in Pakistan is approximately 22% with 4% primary and 18% secondary infertility. Infertility is not only a medical but also a social problem in our society as cultural customs and perceived religious dictums may equate infertility with failure on a personal, interpersonal, or social level. It is imperative that people have adequate knowledge about infertility so couples can seek timely medical care and misconceptions can be rectified. We aim to assess the knowledge, perception and myths regarding infertility and suggest ways to improve it. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out by interviewing a sample of 447 adults who were accompanying the patients at two tertiary care hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan. They were interviewed one-on-one with the help of a pretested questionnaire drafted by the team after a thorough literature review and in consultation with infertility specialists. Results The correct knowledge of infertility was found to be limited amongst the participants. Only 25% correctly identified when infertility is pathological and only 46% knew about the fertile period in women's cycle. People are misinformed that use of IUCD (53%) and OCPs (61%) may cause infertility. Beliefs in evil forces and supernatural powers as a cause of infertility are still prevalent especially amongst people with lower level of education. Seeking alternative treatment for infertility remains a popular option for 28% of the participant as a primary preference and 75% as a secondary preference. IVF remains an unfamiliar (78%) and an unacceptable option (55%). Conclusions Knowledge about infertility is limited in the population and a lot of misconceptions and myths are prevalent in the society. Alternative medicine is a popular option for seeking infertility treatment. The cultural and religious perspective about assisted reproductive technologies is unclear, which has resulted in its reduced acceptability.

2011-01-01

271

The Trade and Gender Interface: A Perspective from Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

News on Pakistan’s trade performance is rarely found side by side, or even associated with, headlines on gender equality. Yet both are burning issues for Pakistani society. This article aims at highlighting their connections. Put differently, it shows how the world market is tied to Pakistani stoves. Trade is important for Pakistan’s economy due to the country’s comparative openness. The

K. A. Siegmann

2009-01-01

272

Baseline for Monitoring Water Resources Along Kabul and Indus Rivers of Pakistan for Potential Terrorist Contamination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Baseline for Monitoring Water Resources Along Kabul and Indus Rivers of Pakistan for Potential Terrorist Contamination Terrorism has temporarily constrained the dynamism of the world it was enjoying before September 11, 2001, but also has opened avenues for people of all ethnicities, creeds, and professions to join hands in combating it. Scientific efforts to combat terrorism are likely to lead to better use of existing scientific knowledge as well as to discoveries that will increase world organization, interconnectivity, and peace promotion. Afghanistan and surrounding regions are major focal points for current anti-terrorist activities of the USA and its allies, including Pakistan. The United States, Pakistan, and Afghanistan have shared many similar political objectives, as well as differences, in cold war and post-cold-war eras, reflected by variable provisions of material aid. It is well recognized that understanding Afghanistan requires comprehension of the Pakistan situation as well, especially for common resources. Water is paramount because it is absolutely vital, but can be contaminated by internal or cross-border terrorism. The Kabul and Indus rivers originate in the Hindu Kush - Himalaya ranges. The Kabul River flows from Afghanistan into Pakistan, and after irrigating Peshawar basin, joins the Indus. The Indus, after its origin in Tibet and flow through the Indian Himalaya, enters Pakistan and flows south as the irrigation lifeblood of the country. Any terroristic addition of radioactive nuclides or contaminants to either river could dramatically impact the dependent riverine ecologies. Monitoring cells thus need to be established at locations in Afghanistan and Pakistan to assess base-line river variances for possible future contamination by terrorists. This paper presents a general view and the physical and chemical parameters of parts of the two rivers, and of the surrounding underground water in Peshawar Basin, including pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids, major elements, trace elements, heavy metals and oxygen isotopes. Data are mostly within allowed limits of US-EPA for surface and underground water. Oxygen isotopes confirm the dangers of contamination from the Kabul River to underground water. Heavy metals were determined through spectrophotometery, however, modern geophysical methods are cheaper and quicker and can be applied at monitoring stations. With Kabul river and its surroundings as examples, similar theory and practice can be applied to rivers within the United States and other parts of the world.

Hamidullah, S.; Tariq, S.; Shah, M. T.; Bishop, M. P.; Kamp, U.; Olsenholler, J.

2002-05-01

273

In Pakistan, the Problems that Money Can Bring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Over the past four years, Pakistan's higher-education budget has increased more than sevenfold, to about $449-million. While that amounts to only 0.5 percent of Pakistan's gross domestic product, it is a big improvement from the days of barely enough to pay "measly salaries and basic bills." But for students, along with many of Pakistan's most…

Neelakantan, Shailaja

2007-01-01

274

United States in Pakistan: Toward a More Unified Effort.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper considers the relationship between the U.S and Pakistan since 9/11, recognizing that the U.S. has had limited success in achieving its goals in-Pakistan. Specifically, this paper asks: how can the U.S. move forward in Pakistan to better achieve...

A. Demartino

2012-01-01

275

Pakistan: The role of religion in political evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides an insight into the demand of the Islamic fundamentalist parties for an Islamic state today. The fundamentalists opposed the creation of Pakistan because it contradicted orthodox Islamic thinking. However, after the formation of Pakistan these groups who experienced a sense of alienation sought desperately to establish an Islamic state.Pakistan was created as a Muslim state and therefore

B. M. Chengappa

2001-01-01

276

Exploring Uranium Resource Constraints on Fissile Material Production in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates possible scenarios for Pakistan's uranium enrichment and plutonium production programs since the late 1970s by using Pakistan's supply of natural uranium as a constraint. Since international sanctions have prevented Pakistan from importing uranium for decades, it has had to rely on domestic uranium production—currently estimated as approximately 40 tons a year. The paper divides the development of

ZIA MIAN; A. H. NAYYAR; R. RAJARAMAN

2009-01-01

277

In Pakistan, the Problems that Money Can Bring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past four years, Pakistan's higher-education budget has increased more than sevenfold, to about $449-million. While that amounts to only 0.5 percent of Pakistan's gross domestic product, it is a big improvement from the days of barely enough to pay "measly salaries and basic bills." But for students, along with many of Pakistan's most…

Neelakantan, Shailaja

2007-01-01

278

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever nosocomial infection in a immunosuppressed patient, Pakistan: case report and virological investigation.  

PubMed

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is endemic in the Baluchistan province, Pakistan. Sporadic outbreaks of CCHF occur throughout the year especially in individuals in contact with infected livestock. Nosocomial transmission remains a risk due to difficulties in the diagnosis of CCHF and limited availability of facilities for the isolation of suspected patients. Rapid diagnosis of CCHF virus infection is required for early management of the disease and to prevent transmission. This study describes the case of a 43-year-old surgeon who contracted CCHF during a surgical procedure in Quetta, Baluchistan and who was transferred to a tertiary care facility at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi within 1 week of contracting the infection. Diagnosis of CCHF was made using a rapid real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for CCHF viral RNA. The patient had chronic hepatitis B and hepatitis D infection for which he had previously received a liver transplant. He proceeded to develop classic hemorrhagic manifestations and succumbed to the infection 14 days post-onset of disease. There was no further nosocomial transmission of the CCHF during the hospital treatment of the surgeon. Early diagnosis of CCHF enables rapid engagement of appropriate isolation, barrier nursing and infection control measures thus preventing nosocomial transmission of the virus. PMID:23172105

Hasan, Zahra; Mahmood, Faisal; Jamil, Bushra; Atkinson, Barry; Mohammed, Murtaza; Samreen, Azra; Altaf, Lamia; Moatter, Tariq; Hewson, Roger

2012-11-21

279

Physician migration at its roots: a study on the factors contributing towards a career choice abroad among students at a medical school in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Physician migration, also known as “brain drain,” results from a combination of a gap in the supply and demand in developed countries and a lack of job satisfaction in developing countries. Many push and pull factors are responsible for this effect, with media and internet playing their parts. Large-scale physician migration can pose problems for both the donor and the recipient countries, with a resulting reinforcement in the economic divide between developed and developing countries. The main objectives of our study were to determine the prevalence of migration intentions in medical undergraduates, to elucidate the factors responsible and to analyze the attitudes and practices related to these intentions. Methods This was a cross-sectional, observational, questionnaire-based study, conducted at Dow Medical College of Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, between January, 2012 and May, 2012. A total of 323 students responded completely. The questionnaire consisted of 3 sections, and was aimed at collecting demographic details, determining students’ migratory intentions, evaluating reasons for and against migration and assessing attitudes and practices of students related to these intentions. Results Out of 323 respondents, 195 wanted to pursue their careers abroad, giving a prevalence rate of 60.4% in our sample. United States was the most frequently reported recipient country. The most common reasons given by students who wished to migrate, in descending order, were: lucrative salary abroad followed by quality of training, job satisfaction, better way of life, relatives, more opportunities, better working environment, terrorism in Pakistan, harassment of doctors in Pakistan, desire to settle abroad, more competition in Pakistan, better management, peer pressure, longer working hours in Pakistan, religious reasons, parent pressure, political reasons and favoritism in Pakistan. A considerable number of respondents had already started studying for licensing examinations, and were also planning of gaining clinical experience in their desired country of interest. Conclusion Physician migration is a serious condition that requires timely intervention from the concerned authorities. If considerable measures are not taken, serious consequences may follow, which may pose a threat to the healthcare system of the country.

2012-01-01

280

Study of maximum electron density N mF 2 at Karachi and Islamabad during solar minimum (1996) and solar maximum (2000) and its comparison with IRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The monthly hourly medians of maximum electron density, N mF 2, at two Pakistani ionospheric stations, Karachi and Islamabad, have been determined for solar minimum (1996) and solar maximum (2000) and compared with IRI predictions using the URSI coefficients. At night and pre-noon period the N mF 2 values at both stations are almost equal during the 2 years. However, at post-noon the values at Karachi are considerably larger than those at Islamabad due to the equatorial or geomagnetic anomaly. Karachi (geomag. coord. 16.44°N, 139.08°E) lies near the region of the equatorial anomaly (+20 and -20 geomagnetic latitude), so most of the N mF 2 values at Karachi are larger than those at Islamabad (geomag. coord. 24.46°N, 145.67°E). The maximum monthly values of N mF 2 show a semi-annual variation at Karachi and Islamabad both during 1996 and 2000 as predicted by IRI.

Ayub, M.; Iqbal, S.; Ameen, M. A.; Reinisch, B. W.

2009-06-01

281

Childhood cancer in the south Asian population of England (1990-1992)  

PubMed Central

Cancer incidence in 1990–92 among English south Asian (residents with ethnic origins in India, Pakistan or Bangladesh) and non-south Asian children is compared. Standardized incidence ratios show significant overall excesses in south Asians (131), largely due to higher rates in south Asian boys, and specific excesses for leukaemia (141), lymphoid leukaemia (141), lymphoma (172) and hepatic tumours (375). Aetiological investigation is required. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com

Cummins, C; Winter, H; Maric, R; Cheng, K K; Silcocks, P; Varghese, C; Batlle, G

2001-01-01

282

From conflict to collaboration, local political climate accelerates ITREOH's regionalization in South Asia.  

PubMed

As Pakistan becomes industrialized, the development of human resources is essential to addressing emerging health problems. The Fogarty International Center (FIC)-funded University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB)-Aga Khan University (AKU) ITREOH initiative has been instrumental in filling the gaps in environmental and occupational health (EOH) training and research. Because of travel impediments to Pakistan, a regional short-term training program was implemented in Nepal and Sri Lanka. Workshop participants were from Pakistan, Nepal, Sri Lanka, India, and Bangladesh. The training programs enhanced north-to-south and south-to-south collaboration in research and training in South Asia. A major impact is the development of a certificate program in EOH at AKU. Research initiatives of regional and/or global concern are also under way in the other participating countries. The combination of face-to-face training with Web-based interaction for follow-up was optimal for short-term training. PMID:17168227

Sathiakumar, Nalini; Janjua, Naveed Zafar; Kadir, Masood; Spokes, Alexis Mclean; White, Heather; Kristensen, Sibylle; Delzell, Elizabeth

283

The Karachi intracranial stenosis study (KISS) Protocol: An urban multicenter case-control investigation reporting the clinical, radiologic and biochemical associations of intracranial stenosis in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Intracranial stenosis is the most common cause of stroke among Asians. It has a poor prognosis with a high rate of recurrence. No effective medical or surgical treatment modality has been developed for the treatment of stroke due to intracranial stenosis. We aim to identify risk factors and biomarkers for intracranial stenosis and to develop techniques such as use

Ayeesha Kamran Kamal; Fawad Taj; Babar Junaidi; Asif Rasheed; Moazzam Zaidi; Muhammed Murtaza; Naved Iqbal; Fahad Hashmat; Syed Vaqas Alam; Uzma Saleem; Shahan Waheed; Lajpat Bansari; Nabi Shah; Maria Samuel; Madiha Yameen; Sobia Naz; Farrukh Shahab Khan; Naveeduddin Ahmed; Khalid Mahmood; Niaz Sheikh; Karim Ullah Makki; Muhammad Masroor Ahmed; Abdul Rauf Memon; Mohammad Wasay; Nadir Ali Syed; Bhojo Khealani; Philippe M Frossard; Danish Saleheen

2009-01-01

284

Popularity of Tracking Device as an Anti-theft Measure and Impact of its sales on Sales of Auto Insurance Policies: Evidence from Karachi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper attempt has been made to examine the popularity of tracking devices and its impact on the sales of automobiles insurance policies. Literature review revealed that people insure their vehicles to protect them from theft as well as from other perils such as fire, SRCC, accidental losses and third party liability. The coverage is mainly obtained to prevent

Syed Karamat Ullah Hussainy; Salman Bashir; Syed Luqman Hakim

2009-01-01

285

Active reading strategy to facilitate students' understanding of science concepts in a secondary science classroom of a community based school in Karachi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reading is not the strategy which is associated with language subjects. It is equally important in the area of Science as other strategies like hands-on and inquiry. Consequently, the access to Science content in terms of understanding is only possible when a reader has ability to actively read the text. Reading plays a very important role in strengthening the understanding

Sobia Suri

2007-01-01

286

Knowledge of modifiable risk factors of heart disease among patients with acute myocardial infarction in Karachi, Pakistan: a cross sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Knowledge is an important pre-requisite for implementing both primary as well as secondary preventive strategies for cardiovascular disease (CVD). There are no estimates of the level of knowledge of risk factor of heart disease in patients with CVD. We estimated the level of knowledge of modifiable risk factors and determined the factors associated with good level of knowledge among

Muhammad S Khan; Fahim H Jafary; Tazeen H Jafar; Azhar M Faruqui; Syed I Rasool; Juanita Hatcher; Nish Chaturvedi

2006-01-01

287

School-Based management and its influence on school improvement efforts: a case study of a community-based secondary school in Karachi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

School-based management (SBM) has increasingly become an agreed-upon model for the operation of schools around the world. A critical element of the model is devolving enhanced levels of decision-making from the centre (head office) to the schools. SBM is usually acclaimed as a positive step for principals, teachers, parents, students, and the wider community to get involved in the decision-making

Mohammad Nasir Khan

2005-01-01

288

Neonatal Mortality and Prevalence of Practices for Newborn Care in a Squatter Settlement of Karachi, Pakistan: A Cross-Sectional Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundDuring the past two decades there has been a sustained decline in child and infant mortality, however neonatal mortality has remained relatively unchanged. Almost all neonatal deaths (99%) occur in developing countries, where the majority are delivered at homes. Evidence suggests that these deaths could be prevented by simple, inexpensive practices and interventions during the pregnancy, delivery and postnatal period.

Afsheen Ayaz; Sarah Saleem; Abdisalan M. Noor

2010-01-01

289

MAHFIL: A Quarterly of South Asian Literature, Spring-Summer 1971.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This volume contains both literature from South Asia and articles about South Asian literature. The first article consists of an interview with a leading Pakistani poet, N.M. Rashed, who discusses modern Urdu literature. Other articles are: "Five 'Dangerous' Books"--on censorship in East Pakistan--by P. Sarkar; "Baluchi Language and Literature"…

Coppola, Carlo, Ed.

290

No first use: The way to contain nuclear war in South Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major news media and think tanks have written and broadcast repeatedly about efforts to prevent nuclear war in South Asia, but relatively little attention has been paid to containment should a conflict between India and Pakistan break out. Even a limited nuclear exchange in South Asia would kill millions and have adverse environmental effects far beyond the region. Because India

Lawrence J. Korb; Alexander Rothman

2012-01-01

291

Hypertension Beliefs and Practices Among South Asian Immigrants: A Focus Group Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

South Asian immigrants are a large, rapidly growing community in the United States. The rate of cardiovascular disease in immigrants from India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh is disproportionately high. We conducted focus groups with diverse South Asian community members in New York City to elucidate hypertension knowledge, and screening and treatment practices. Focus groups were conducted in partnership with community-based organizations.

Jyotsna Changrani; Sapna Pandya; B. Runi Mukherjee-Ratnam; Sudha Acharya; Ayaz Ahmed; Jennifer Leng; Francesca Gany

2011-01-01

292

Tobacco use among South Asians: results of a community–university collaborative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Although South Asians (individuals from India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, and the Maldives) are the third largest Asian group in the USA, relatively little data are available to document their use of tobacco. We collected data from a community sample of 344 South Asian adults to assess rates of smokeless tobacco product use and smoking and examine

Beth Ann Glenn; Zul Surani; Neetu Chawla; Roshan Bastani

2009-01-01

293

The burden of road traffic injuries in developing countries: the 1st national injury survey of Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To assess the burden of road traffic injuries in Pakistan—a developing country in South Asia. Methods: A nationally representative household interview survey, to measure the burden of all injuries for all ages and in both genders using a three-month recall period. Results: The overall incidence of injury events was 41 (CI: 39.2–43.8) per 1000 per year and for road

Abdul Ghaffar; Adnan A Hyder; Tayyeb I Masud

2004-01-01

294

Source rock potential in Pakistan  

SciTech Connect

Pakistan contains two sedimentary basins: Indus in the east and Balochistan in the west. The Indus basin has received sediments from precambrian until Recent, albeit with breaks. It has been producing hydrocarbons since 1914 from three main producing regions, namely, the Potwar, Sulaisman, and Kirthar. In the Potwar, oil has been discovered in Cambrian, Permian, Jurassic, and Tertiary rocks. Potential source rocks are identified in Infra-Cambrian, Permian, Paleocene, and Eocene successions, but Paleocene/Eocene Patala Formation seems to be the main source of most of the oil. In the Sulaiman, gas has been found in Cretaceous and Tertiary; condensate in Cretaceous rocks. Potential source rocks are indicated in Cretaceous, Paleocene, and Eocene successions. The Sembar Formation of Early Cretaceous age appears to be the source of gas. In the Kirthar, oil and gas have been discovered in Cretaceous and gas has been discovered in paleocene and Eocene rocks. Potential source rocks are identified in Kirthar and Ghazij formations of Eocene age in the western part. However, in the easter oil- and gas-producing Badin platform area, Union Texas has recognized the Sembar Formation of Early Cretaceous age as the only source of Cretaceous oil and gas. The Balochistan basin is part of an Early Tertiary arc-trench system. The basin is inadequately explored, and there is no oil or gas discovery so far. However, potential source rocks have been identified in Eocene, Oligocene, Miocene, and Pliocene successions based on geochemical analysis of surface samples. Mud volcanoes are present.

Raza, H.A. (Hydrocarbon Development Institute of Pakistan, Islamabad (Pakistan))

1991-03-01

295

Circumglobal wave train and the summer monsoon over northwestern India and Pakistan: the explicit role of the surface heat low  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines the influence of the mid-latitude circulation on the surface heat low (HL) and associated monsoon rainfall over northwestern India and Pakistan using the ERA40 data and high resolution (T106L31) climate model ECHAM5 simulation. Special emphasis is given to the surface HL which forms over Pakistan and adjoining areas of India, Iran and Afghanistan during the summer season. A heat low index (HLI) is defined to depict the surface HL. The HLI displays significant correlations with the upper level mid-latitude circulation over western central Asia and low level monsoon circulation over Arabian Sea and acts as a bridge connecting the mid-latitude wave train to the Indian summer monsoon. A time-lagged singular value decomposition analysis reveals that the eastward propagation of the mid-latitude circumglobal wave train (CGT) influences the surface pressure anomalies over the Indian domain. The largest low (negative) pressure anomalies over the western parts of the HL region (i.e., Iran and Afghanistan) occur in conjunction with the upper level anomalous high that develops over western-central Asia during the positive phase of the CGT. The composite analysis also reveals a significant increase in the low pressure anomalies over Iran and Afghanistan during the positive phase of CGT. The westward increasing low pressure anomalies with its north-south orientation provokes enormous north-south pressure gradient (lower pressure over land than over sea). This in turn enables the moist southerly flow from the Arabian Sea to penetrate farther northward over northwestern India and Pakistan. A monsoon trough like conditions develops over northwestern India and Pakistan where the moist southwesterly flow from the Arabian Sea and the Persian Gulf converge. The convergence in association with the orographic uplifting expedites convection and associated precipitation over northwestern India and Pakistan. The high resolution climate model ECHAM5 simulation also underlines the proposed findings and mechanism.

Saeed, Sajjad; Müller, Wolfgang A.; Hagemann, Stefan; Jacob, Daniela

2011-09-01

296

Circumglobal wave train and the summer monsoon over northwestern India and Pakistan: the explicit role of the surface heat low  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines the influence of the mid-latitude circulation on the surface heat low (HL) and associated monsoon rainfall over northwestern India and Pakistan using the ERA40 data and high resolution (T106L31) climate model ECHAM5 simulation. Special emphasis is given to the surface HL which forms over Pakistan and adjoining areas of India, Iran and Afghanistan during the summer season. A heat low index (HLI) is defined to depict the surface HL. The HLI displays significant correlations with the upper level mid-latitude circulation over western central Asia and low level monsoon circulation over Arabian Sea and acts as a bridge connecting the mid-latitude wave train to the Indian summer monsoon. A time-lagged singular value decomposition analysis reveals that the eastward propagation of the mid-latitude circumglobal wave train (CGT) influences the surface pressure anomalies over the Indian domain. The largest low (negative) pressure anomalies over the western parts of the HL region (i.e., Iran and Afghanistan) occur in conjunction with the upper level anomalous high that develops over western-central Asia during the positive phase of the CGT. The composite analysis also reveals a significant increase in the low pressure anomalies over Iran and Afghanistan during the positive phase of CGT. The westward increasing low pressure anomalies with its north-south orientation provokes enormous north-south pressure gradient (lower pressure over land than over sea). This in turn enables the moist southerly flow from the Arabian Sea to penetrate farther northward over northwestern India and Pakistan. A monsoon trough like conditions develops over northwestern India and Pakistan where the moist southwesterly flow from the Arabian Sea and the Persian Gulf converge. The convergence in association with the orographic uplifting expedites convection and associated precipitation over northwestern India and Pakistan. The high resolution climate model ECHAM5 simulation also underlines the proposed findings and mechanism.

Saeed, Sajjad; Müller, Wolfgang A.; Hagemann, Stefan; Jacob, Daniela

2010-08-01

297

Schools as potential vaccination venue for vaccines outside regular EPI schedule: results from a school census in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Vaccines are the most effective public health intervention. Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) provides routine vaccination in developing countries. However, vaccines that cannot be given in EPI schedule such as typhoid fever vaccine need alternative venues. In areas where school enrolment is high, schools provide a cost effective opportunity for vaccination. Prior to start of a school-based typhoid vaccination program, interviews were conducted with staff of educational institutions in two townships of Karachi, Pakistan to collect baseline information about the school system and to plan a typhoid vaccination program. Data collection teams administered a structured questionnaire to all schools in the two townships. The administrative staff was requested information on school fee, class enrolment, past history of involvement and willingness of parents to participate in a vaccination campaign. Results A total of 304,836 students were enrolled in 1,096 public, private, and religious schools (Madrasahs) of the two towns. Five percent of schools refused to participate in the school census. Twenty-five percent of schools had a total enrolment of less than 100 students whereas 3% had more than 1,000 students. Health education programs were available in less than 8% of public schools, 17% of private schools, and 14% of Madrasahs. One-quarter of public schools, 41% of private schools, and 43% of Madrasahs had previously participated in a school-based vaccination campaign. The most common vaccination campaign in which schools participated was Polio eradication program. Cost of the vaccine, side effects, and parents' lack of information were highlighted as important limiting factors by school administration for school-based immunization programs. Permission from parents, appropriateness of vaccine-related information, and involvement of teachers were considered as important factors to improve participation. Conclusions Health education programs are not part of the regular school curriculum in developing countries including Pakistan. Many schools in the targeted townships participated in immunization activities but they were not carried out regularly. In the wake of low immunization coverage in Pakistan, schools can be used as a potential venue not only for non-EPI vaccines, but for a catch up vaccination of routine vaccines.

2012-01-01

298

South Asia transboundary water quality monitoring workshop summary report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cooperative Monitoring Center (CMC) promotes collaborations among scientists and researchers in several regions as a means of achieving common regional security objectives. To promote cooperation in South Asia on environmental research, an international working group made up of participants from Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and the United States convened in Kathmandu, Nepal, from February 17-23,2002. The workshop was held

Jeffrey David Betsill; Adriane C. Littlefield; Frederick O. Luetters; Gaurav Rajen

2003-01-01

299

Forensic and genetic characterization of mtDNA from Pathans of Pakistan.  

PubMed

Complete mitochondrial control region data were generated for 230 unrelated Pathans from North West Frontier Province and Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan. To confirm data quality and to explore the genetic structure of Pathans, mitochondrial DNA haplogroup affiliation was determined by shared haplogroup-specific polymorphisms in the control region and by the analysis of diagnostic coding region single-nucleotide polymorphisms using a multiplex system for the assignment of eight haplogroups: M, N1'5, W, R, R0, T, J, and U. Sequence comparison revealed that 193 haplotypes were defined by 215 variable sites when major insertions were ignored at nucleotide positions 16193, 309, and 573. From a phylogenetic perspective, Pathans have a heterogeneous origin, displaying a high percentage of West Eurasian haplogroups followed by haplogroups native to South Asia and a small fraction from East Asian lineages. In population comparisons, this ethnic group differed significantly from several other ethnic groups from Pakistan and surrounding countries. These results suggest that frequency estimates for mtDNA haplotypes should be determined for endogamous ethnic groups individually instead of pooling data for these subpopulations into a single dataset for the Pakistani population. Data presented here may contribute to the accuracy of forensic mtDNA comparisons in the Pathans of Pakistan. PMID:21184092

Rakha, Allah; Shin, Kyoung-Jin; Yoon, Jung Ah; Kim, Na Young; Siddique, Muhammad Hassan; Yang, In Seok; Yang, Woo Ick; Lee, Hwan Young

2010-12-24

300

3 CFR - Unexpected Urgent Humanitarian Needs Related to Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Georgia  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Unexpected Urgent Humanitarian Needs Related to Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Georgia Presidential...Unexpected Urgent Humanitarian Needs Related to Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Georgia Memorandum...urgent refugee and migration needs in Pakistan and Afghanistan resulting from...

2009-01-01

301

South Asian Oral History Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Oral histories are an important way of telling a community's history, and this intriguing project from the University of Washington Libraries sheds new light on a very interesting aspect of history in the Pacific Northwest. The goal of the South Asian Oral History Project (SAOHP) is "to record pan-South Asian immigrant experiences in the Pacific Northwest using the medium of oral history." The project began in 2005, and the interviews here include immigrants who moved to the area from Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka from the 1950s to the present. Visitors can view transcripts of the interviews at their leisure, and good background material can be found in the section titled "A librarian's gift: Oral history project preserves memories of South Asian immigrants". The interviews are quite fascinating, and they include memories of studying at the University of Washington, attending the1962 Seattle World's Fair, and the challenges immigrants faced when they arrived.

302

Challenges to wheat production in South Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat is the second major staple crop, after rice, in India and Pakistan and is also gaining similar importance in Nepal and\\u000a Bangladesh. Wheat production in South Asia has increased from 15 mt in 1960s to 95.5 mt during 2004–2005. It still needs to\\u000a grow at the rate of 2–2.5% annually until the middle of 21st century. However, for India, recent estimations

R. Chatrath; B. Mishra; G. Ortiz Ferrara; S. K. Singh; A. K. Joshi

2007-01-01

303

Hunza Landslide and Monsoon Flooding in Pakistan Call for International Attention to Transboundary Natural Hazards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two major disasters in Pakistan and innumerable lesser disasters throughout the Himalaya-Karakoram region in 2010 highlight geologic events and extreme weather (perhaps climate change) in affecting the well being of whole nations and commerce and relations between nations. Two chief events in Pakistan include the Jan. 4 rockslide into the Hunza River and the subsequent formation of a natural dam lake (Lake Gojal); and the monsoon precipitation-fed flooding across the Indus Basin. The first event severed Pakistan’s major land link with China. The second event devastated Pakistan’s national land-based transportation infrastructure and agriculture and displaced millions of people. In a country plagued by monsoon-driven floods, the lack of catastrophic breakout of Lake Gojal is welcome. Satellite-based monitoring shows the spillway to be eroding more rapidly (but not alarmingly) under August’s monsoon peak flow. Similar events have occurred before in the region and will occur again. These mega-events in Pakistan should be an alert for all of South Asia, as climate change increases or shifts the hazard environment, encroaching development and urbanization increases the vulnerabilities, and as improved capacity for trans-national commerce breaks down the Himalayan barrier and both promotes new opportunities and possible conflicts. 2010's natural mega-calamities in Pakistan and widespread landsliding and flooding elsewhere in South Asia underscores the subcontinent’s need for a thorough field-, remote sensing-, and modeling-based assessment of the disaster potential related to landslides, glacier surges, extreme monsoon precipitation events, natural glacier and landslide dam lake outbursts, and unseasonal snow melting. The Himalayan-Karakoram region is remarkable for its heterogeneous responses to climate change. For instance, some areas are undergoing rapid glacier recession and stagnation; others are undergoing glacier growth. We take the instance of the rockslide-formed Lake Gojal and of the region’s glacier dynamics seen by satellite to show the promise of remote sensing to address disaster management and hazard identification. However, the biggest role of remote sensing should be in the identification of hazard-prone situations, such as areas where landslides or the development of dangerous glacier lakes is likely. Increased satellite surveillance and deployment of air- and land surface-borne sensor platforms, and in some cases surface or subsurface watercraft, may aid the characterization of the landscape, identify geologic and climatic instabilities, and identify vulnerabilities among the people and infrastructure. A broad-based remote sensing program should fit within a coherent regional/international approach to the key related issues of natural hazards, water resources, urban planning, food security, hydropower, and environmental conservation. Notably, these issues all are interlinked to transboundary hydrology and climate change.

Kargel, J. S.; Fink, W.; Furfaro, R.; Leonard, G. J.; Patterson, M.; Glims, Gaphaz

2010-12-01

304

Renewable energy resource potential in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pakistan energy situation is seriously troubling today due to lack of careful planning and implementation of its energy policies. To avoid the worse situation in the years ahead, the country will have to exploit its huge natural renewable resource. In this paper a review is being presented about renewable energy resource potential available in the country to be exploited for

Munawar A. Sheikh

2009-01-01

305

Learning levels and gaps in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors report on a survey of primary public and private schools in rural Pakistan with a focus on student achievement as measured through test scores. Absolute learning is low compared with curricular standards and international norms. Tested at the end of the third grade, a bare majority had mastered the K-I mathematics curriculum and 31 percent could correctly form

Jishnu Das; Priyanka Pandey; Tristan Zajonc

2006-01-01

306

Renewable Sources of Energy in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper has been divided into three parts. Part I sets the background of energy for development and some features of the Pakistan situation. Part II shows the need for renewable sources and introduces their likely contribution in the near future (2,000 A.D.). In the third part, we examine the various renewable sources of energyto obtain estimates of their economics

M. M. QURASH

1984-01-01

307

Responding to the water crisis in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, Pakistan has suffered from severe water shortages, flooding and declining water quality. The worsening water crisis must be resolved if the country is ever to achieve stability and develop. Using water more efficiently is a necessary but insufficient strategy. Far deeper changes are required, including cultural and social paradigm shifts that will help the country evolve from

Naser I. Faruqui

2004-01-01

308

Understanding household consumption patterns in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzes the household consumption patterns in urban and rural regions using Household Integrated Expenditure Survey of Pakistan for the year 2001–2002. Engel curves are estimated by spline quadratic expenditure system for expenditures on 18 commodity groups. The breakdown of the household size into demographic groups by age and sex has proved to be a successful exercise in explaining

Farkhanda Shamim; Eatzaz Ahmad

2007-01-01

309

Anatomy Education Faces Challenges in Pakistan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article explains the difficulties anatomy education in Pakistan is facing. The article highlights the concern about how the changes to the traditional curriculum decreases the quality of education medical students are receiving. Issues discussed are the advantages/disadvantages of PBL learning, lack of trained faculty, lack of cadaver access among others.

2009-07-27

310

Women, civil society and politics in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article makes the argument that when women have organized themselves into groups with a political purpose, we have witnessed significant advancement in the construction of a civil society in Pakistan. It traces the role women's groups have played as intermediary groups, particularly as they play increasingly important political and social roles in countering the actions and inactions of the

Anita M. Weiss

1999-01-01

311

Status of Project Management Education in Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Emerging contractual delivery systems, collaborative partnerships, new management initiatives, and global product markets require professionals and students to have a broader awareness of construction methods and project management issues. This paper presents the state of the project management education in Pakistan. The analysis is based on…

Arain, Faisal Manzoor; Tipu, Syed Awais Ahmad

2009-01-01

312

Pakistan and the Shanghai Cooperation Organization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) has in the last few years emerged as an important actor in the international order. Besides bringing together two major Eurasian powers, China and Russia, the organization has recently granted observer status to three additional regional powers, India, Pakistan, and Iran. A number of Western, and especially American scholars, view the SCO as a challenge

Rizwan Zeb

313

Technical evaluation of woodstoves in rural Pakistan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A technical evaluation of wood stoves has been carried out in rural Pakistan. A water boiling test (WBT) was used to study how variations in stove design affect fuel efficiency. Controlled cooking test (CCT) were designed to study cooking performance in t...

A. N. Qazi

1991-01-01

314

Polarisation of social studies textbooks in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article looks at the evolution of the social studies curricula in Pakistan, which are of critical importance in shaping the outlook of many young Pakistanis, who are affected by this polarised discourse. The author argues that this trend of polarisation springing from dynamics of education also effectively contributes to a widening social divide, which the extremist project exploits by

Syed Manzar Abbas Zaidi

2011-01-01

315

Library Web OPACs in Pakistan: An Overview  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This paper aims to analyse features and functions of indigenously developed web-based catalogues of academic, special and national libraries of Pakistan. Design/methodology/approach: The assessment of 16 OPACs is based on a 91-item checklist developed with the help of previous studies conducted in other countries. Findings: The paper…

Mahmood, Khalid

2008-01-01

316

Hydrocarbon potential in Pakistan - A geological perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Share of petroleum in the energy mix of Pakistan is about 76%. Indigenous oil production meets only one-third of the requirement while the remaining is imported at a high cost. The pinch of soaring crude prices of the late 1970s accelerated the search for new petroleum resources. The last decade saw a notable increase in petroleum exploration as well as

1991-01-01

317

BIOINFORMATICS RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT IN PAKISTAN: A REVIEW  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: The article describes the perspective of Bioinformatics, its importance and the measures of implementation in Pakistan and in other developing countries. The article is expected to help in projecting new research ideas embodied in the ongoing research effort being made in this field in Pakistani institutions. The issues and constraints in the development of Bioinformatics are addressed with some

Sajid Rashid

2006-01-01

318

Radiological implications of granite of northern Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Granite is an igneous rock that contains natural radioactivity of primordial radionuclides. In Pakistan, granite is distributed in a vast area called the Ambela Granitic Complex (AGC) in North West Frontier Province (NWFP). Granite is a hard rock that exists in different colours and is used to decorate floors, kitchen counter tops, etc. The use of granite in a building

M. Asghar; M. Tufail; Sabiha-Javied; A. Abid; M. Waqas

2008-01-01

319

Profile of Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The organizational strength, military strategy and leadership quality of the Taliban in Pakistan's tribal territories has qualitatively improved during the last few years. At the time of the U.S.-led military campaign in Afghanistan in late 2001, allies a...

H. Abbas

2008-01-01

320

Pakistan: Some Reflections on Its Economic Future.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pakistan could achieve a very rapid rate of economic growth over the next one decade. Growth over the last four years averaged 6.5 percent per annum; it could go up between 7-8 percent in the next few years. It is possible - given the right policies and a...

S. J. Burki

1981-01-01

321

Foraminiferal stratigraphy of Ranikot (Paleocene) of Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sedimentary deposits of Pakistan are divided into three distinct basins: the Lower Indus basin, the Upper Indus basin, and the Baluchistan basin. The Lower Indus basin is further divided into two parts; the northern part is the Sulaiman Province, and the southern part is known as Kirthar Province. The tertiary stratigraphy of Kirthar Province is conspicuous for its characteristic

Kureshy

1983-01-01

322

Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/11: Cooperative Environmental Monitoring in the Coastal Regions of India and Pakistan  

SciTech Connect

The cessation of hostilities between India and Pakistan is an immediate need and of global concern, as these countries have tested nuclear devices, and have the capability to deploy nuclear weapons and long-range ballistic missiles. Cooperative monitoring projects among neighboring countries in South Asia could build regional confidence, and, through gradual improvements in relations, reduce the threat of war and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. This paper discusses monitoring the trans-border movement of flow and sediment in the Indian and Pakistani coastal areas. Through such a project, India and Pakistan could initiate greater cooperation, and engender movement towards the resolution of the Sir Creek territorial dispute in their coastal region. The Joint Working Groups dialogue being conducted by India and Pakistan provides a mechanism for promoting such a project. The proposed project also falls within a regional framework of cooperation agreed to by several South Asian countries. This framework has been codified in the South Asian Seas Action Plan, developed by Bangladesh, India, Maldives, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. This framework provides a useful starting point for Indian and Pakistani cooperative monitoring in their trans-border coastal area. The project discussed in this paper involves computer modeling, the placement of in situ sensors for remote data acquisition, and the development of joint reports. Preliminary computer modeling studies are presented in the paper. These results illustrate the cross-flow connections between Indian and Pakistani coastal regions and strengthen the argument for cooperation. Technologies and actions similar to those suggested for the coastal project are likely to be applied in future arms control and treaty verification agreements. The project, therefore, serves as a demonstration of cooperative monitoring technologies. The project will also increase people-to-people contacts among Indian and Pakistani policy makers and scientists. In the perceptions of the general public, the project will crystallize the idea that the two countries share ecosystems and natural resources, and have a vested interest in increased collaboration.

Rajen, Gauray

1999-06-01

323

Drifting continents and endemic goitre in northern Pakistan.  

PubMed Central

Although Baltistan, north east Pakistan, is in a region of iodine deficiency disorders, the distribution of goitre within the district, according to age and sex, has not been clearly defined. To establish the prevalence of the condition and to measure the reported difference in prevalence in the north and south of the district thyroid size was assessed in new patients attending the Aman clinic, Khapalu, and outlying areas between April and September from 1981 to 1986. Samples of potable water collected from villages were analysed for iodine (as iodide) concentrations in Britain. Population weighted prevalences were: in the north in males 20.4%, in females 28.1% and in the south in males 13.9%, in females 21.2%. There was an overall deficiency of iodine in the water (mean iodine (as iodide) concentrations (north) 11.0 nmol/l (1.4 micrograms/l), (south) 11.8 nmol/l (1.5 micrograms/l) (95% confidence interval -0.7 to 0.9). The differences followed the Main Karakoram Thrust, suggesting a geological goitrogen in the north, which might be minerals containing ions such as BF4- and SO3F-, and molybdenite and calcium, which are present in rocks in Baltistan. A new hypothesis for the genesis of endemic goitre is proposed--that is, that continents on crustal plates drift across the earth and collide, one plate sliding under the other and melting, giving rise to characteristic mineral assemblages in the overlying rocks. As the minerals weather out they enter the diet of the local population, where in the presence of iodine deficiency they produce or enhance iodine deficiency disorders. Despite the current iodised oil campaign by the Pakistani government with Unicef a long term working iodisation programme is still urgently needed.

Stewart, A G

1990-01-01

324

Pakistan/USAID to start CSM project.  

PubMed

Pakistan, with the assistance of funds for the US Agency for International Development (USAID), is about to start its novel approach to contraceptive social marketing (CSM). This new effort suggests a marked policy shift on the part of the Pakistan government toward intensifying its family planning activities. The program will be government-operated and supported by AID over the next 5 years with $20 million, more than double the cost of similar CSM projects elswhere. Distribution of a condom on a pilot project basis is expected to begin by December 1984. Sales of a low-dose oral contraceptive (OC) could begin in test market areas by mid-1985, with national launching of both products tentatively scheduled for January 1986. The Pakistan/USAID agreement represents the 1st time since the formation of India's Nirodh project in the late 1960s that a CSM program is being established without the involvement of either an international social marketing contractor or a country's family planning association. The Pakistan CSM program will be managed by a policy board composed of representatives from the government's Ministries of Planning, Health and Education; a resident advisor from USAID; and a local company responsible for product marketing and distribution. The approach has received a skeptical response among international social marketing experts about the program's chances for success. Their doubts extend to 2 other aspects of the proposed design: an official of the Ministry of Planning's Population and Welfare Division expects the CSM program to generate sufficient revenues to cover all operating costs following the 5-year subsidy period, while also providing attractive profit margins for the marketing/distribution company; and the government prohibits mass media advertising of contraceptives. According to AID, the issue of mass media contraceptive advertising has not yet been resolved, and a national survey will be conducted to determine what communication needs are required for product promotion. In addition, AID's agreement requires a yearly review by the Pakistan government of its marketing strategies. The Pakistan government hopes that its new emphasis on family planning can slow the country's annual rate of population growth from 1983's 2.9% figure to 2.6% by 1988. PMID:12266332

1984-01-01

325

Age, growth, maturity and the overfishing of the iconic sciaenid, Argyrosomus japonicus, in south-eastern, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mulloway (Argyrosomus japonicus) occur in estuarine and coastal waters surrounding Australia, Africa, India, Pakistan, China, Korea and Japan, where they are important in fisheries. This study identified that mulloway in south-eastern Australia had similar growth rates, but matured at smaller lengths and younger ages, to those in South Africa and Western Australia. Growth of both sexes was similar to about

V. Silberschneider; C. A. Gray; J. Stewart

2009-01-01

326

Determinants of Household Costs Associated With Childhood Diarrhea in 3 South Asian Settings  

PubMed Central

In addition to being a major cause of mortality in South Asia, childhood diarrhea creates economic burden for affected households. We used survey data from sites in Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan to estimate the costs borne by households due to childhood diarrhea, including direct medical costs, direct nonmedical costs, and productivity losses. Mean cost per episode was $1.82 in Bangladesh, $3.33 in India, and $6.47 in Pakistan. The majority of costs for households were associated with direct medical costs from treatment. Mean costs understate the distribution of costs, with 10% of cases exceeding $6.61, $8.07, and $10.11 in Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan, respectively. In all countries there was a trend toward lower costs among poorer households and in India and Pakistan there were lower costs for episodes among girls. For both poor children and girls this may reflect rationing of care, which may result in increased risks of mortality.

Rheingans, Richard; Kukla, Matt; Faruque, Abu Syed Golam; Sur, Dipika; Zaidi, Anita K. M.; Nasrin, Dilruba; Farag, Tamer H.; Levine, Myron M.; Kotloff, Karen L.

2012-01-01

327

Hydrocarbon prospects of southern Indus basin, Pakistan  

SciTech Connect

The Southern Indus basin extends approximately between lat. 23/sup 0/ and 28/sup 0/31'N, and from long. 66/sup 0/E to the eastern boundary of Pakistan. Of the 55 exploratory wells drilled (1955-1984), 27 were based on results of multifold seismic surveys. Five commercial oil discoveries and one gas discovery in Cretaceous sands, three gas discoveries in Paleocene limestone or sandstone, and one gas-condensate discovery from lower Eocene limestone prove that hydrocarbons are present. The main hydrocarbon fairways are Mesozoic tilted fault blocks. Tertiary reefal banks, and drape and compressional anticlines. Older reservoirs are accessible toward the east and northeast, and younger mature source rocks are to the west, including offshore, of the Badin block oil field area. The Indus offshore basin reflects sedimentation associated with Mesozoic rifting of the Pakistan-Indian margin, superimposed by a terrigenous clastic depositional system comprised of deltas, shelves, and deep-sea fans of the Indus River.

Quadri, V.U.N.; Shuaib, S.M.

1986-06-01

328

Indus basin off Pakistan contains few wells  

SciTech Connect

The U.N. Conference on the Law of the Sea reaffirmed sovereignty of nations over 22 km of territorial sea, a 370 km Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), and rights over the continental shelf to at least 370 km and out to 648 km or beyond under specified conditions. With a coast line of about 990 km, the EEZ for Pakistan extends over an area almost 240,000 sq km, or 40% of the land sedimentary area, in which two distinct geological provinces, and the Indus Offshore and the Makran offshore, have been defined. The paper discusses the tectonics, structure, exploration history, and play types offshore Pakistan. Data show a potential for both oil and gas.

Quadri, V.N. [Quadri (Viqar un Nisa), Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Quadri, S.M.G.J. [Quadri (S.M.G.J.), Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

1997-06-16

329

Essential medicines management during emergencies in Pakistan.  

PubMed

This paper illustrates the experiences of essential medicine management in providing cure and care to victims of Pakistan's 2005 earthquake in a safe, rational and effective mode. The health interventions assured access to essential medicine, sustained supply, inventory control through a computerized logistic support system and rational use of medicines. World Health Organization Pakistan outlined modalities for acceptance of donated medicines, assisted in speedy procurement of medicines and designed customized kits. Proper storage of medicines at controlled temperature was ensured in warehousing facilities in 12 locations. A steady supply of medicines and their consumption without stock-outs in the 56 first-level care facilities of calamity-hit areas helped to ascertain the average consumption and cost of essential medicines and supplies for the catchment population. Tools for quantification and forecasting of medicines and supplies were developed and shared. Medicines and medical supplies were efficiently used resulting in minimum wastage. PMID:21495596

Bukhari, S K S; Qureshi, J A R H; Jooma, R; Bile, K M; Kazi, G N; Zaibi, W A; Zafar, A

2010-01-01

330

Radio and distance learning in Pakistan.  

PubMed

Radio is a powerful communication vehicle in Pakistan able to reach 3/4 of urban and 2/3 of rural households. Until 1974, most radio broadcasts of the Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation, a state monopoly, were in the categories of music, drama, and features; news and current affairs; and religious broadcasts. The Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU), a distance learning educational institution, was established through an act of the Pakistan Parliament in 1974 and is the only institution in the country to use radio broadcasts for its curriculum. Also established in 1974 within the AIOU was the Institute of Educational Technology (IET). The IET channels the transmission and flow of well-designed educational messages and lessons from the teachers to the students by employing distance teaching methodology that seeks to reinforce students' weekly lessons. IET closely integrates its activities within the University's academic departments. IET staff members not only participate in the development of course curriculum and syllabi, but also help to identify course content needing reinforcement through radio. While the teachers at AIOU convert the course curricula into distance-learning self-study activity-oriented correspondence texts, IET producers transcribe these scripts into actual production scripts. Feedback from students and findings of the University's Research and Statistical Cell are used to make revisions in the scripts. The AIOU enrolls an average of 100,000 students each year. Expansion is being limited only by the costs of purchasing time from the Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation (Rs 2000 for a 15-minute lesson) and the availability of appropriate time slots. PMID:12281001

Abbas, R

1987-01-01

331

Nurse-midwifery in rural Pakistan.  

PubMed

Pakistan is a relatively new nation of predominantly Islamic influence. Like many developing countries, it is plagued by extensive communicable diseases, malnutrition, inadequate sewage systems, and illiteracy. Religious beliefs and cultural influences impact heavily on access to health care and on maternal-child health outcomes. This paper examines the major maternal-child health problems encountered, as well as implications for midwifery practice in an Islamic country. PMID:1895175

Woods, A B

332

Hydrocarbon prospects of southern Indus basin, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Southern Indus basin extends approximately between lat. 23° and 28°31'N, and from long. 66°E to the eastern boundary of Pakistan. Of the 55 exploratory wells drilled (1955-1984), 27 were based on results of multifold seismic surveys. Five commercial oil discoveries and one gas discovery in Cretaceous sands, three gas discoveries in Paleocene limestone or sandstone, and one gas-condensate discovery

V. U. N. Quadri; S. M. Shuaib

1986-01-01

333

Infant mortality trends in rural East Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infant mortality trends in a rural area of East Pakistan are analyzed utilizing the Bogue pregnancy history technique. The\\u000a findings indicate that infant mortality has declined slightly over 20 percent between 1958 and 1967. The existence of development\\u000a programs in women’s education and family planning since 1961 are proposed as possible reasons for this finding. A convergence\\u000a in infant mortality

John Stoeckel

1970-01-01

334

The recent evolution of Liligo glacier, Karakoram, Pakistan, and its present quiescent phase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liligo glacier, in the central eastern Karakoram, Pakistan, is a small, south-to-north-flowing glacier situated in a transverse valley on the left (south) side of Baltoro glacier. New processing of satellite imagery enables a better quantification of terminus oscillations over the past 30 years. From the beginning of the 1970s to the beginning of the 21st century, Liligo glacier advanced about 2 km (60 m a-1). The progress was characterized by a significant evolution of terminus morphology, similar to that observed on the same glacier during the advance event near the beginning of the 20th century, and to those of many other Karakoram glaciers. This suggests indications of a surge-type mechanism. Field observations performed in 2004 indicated there was probably no confluence at that time between Liligo and Baltoro glaciers and that a quiescent phase had started in the early years of the 21st century.

Belò, Marco; Mayer, Christoph; Smiraglia, Claudio; Tamburini, Andrea

335

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Pakistan.  

PubMed

Crimean-Congo virus, the causative agent of Crimean-Congo Virus Fever (CCVF) is endemic in Pakistan. Cases are documented sporadically ever year, mostly at and around the time of Eid-ul-Adha, an Islamic festival, celebrated on day 10 through 13 of the 12th month of each lunar calendar year. At this time of the year in Pakistan, livestock are brought down to the urban areas from the rural parts of the country. Animals are housed in open spaces and private houses until they are slaughtered during the 3 days of Eid-ul-Adha. This allows the CCHF virus, which is carried by a tick that inhabits the animal hide, to be transmitted through unprotected contact with live animals as well as through contact with animal blood subsequent to its slaughter. In this report, a typical case of CCVF is described that was encountered in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. A number of issues pertaining to the management of recurrent outbreaks of CCVF in the country are discussed. PMID:18428123

Rai, Mohammad A; Khanani, Mohammad R; Warraich, Haider J; Hayat, Abbas; Ali, Syed H

2008-06-01

336

Ablation of avalanched and undisturbed snow, Himalaya Mountains, Pakistan  

SciTech Connect

Avalanche deposits represent a significant storage of winter snow on the south slope of the Himalaya Mountains, Pakistan, complicating the annual snowmelt cycle because of the differences in ablation of avalanche-transported snow and undisturbed snow. Measurements show very high rates of melting of both snow types, particularly of avalanche sow late in the melt season. The high rates are a function of the low latitude of the study area and the low elevation of the avalanche snow deposits, as well as heat release by condensation. Air temperature was closely correlated with daily snowmelt and appears to hold promise as a predictor, however, data constraints prevent an energy balance analysis of this relationship. Gravimetric measurements show that condensation is important in the snow surface energy exchange and can represent a significant source of energy for snowmelt. Rainfall during warm conditions also makes a more significant contribution to snowmelt than shown in previous studies. The derived temperature-based melt factors or coefficients compare well with published figures from other mountain areas, but their confidence limits are sufficiently wide to produce significant errors in the prediction of basin snowmelt runoff.

de Scally, F.A. (Okanagan College, Kelowna, British Columbia (Canada)); Gardner, J.S. (Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada))

1990-11-01

337

Nuclear Pakistan and nuclear India: Stable deterrent or proliferation challenge  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear proliferation, a security issue which has transcended the cold war, has been, and is, particularly troublesome in South Asia. There, India and Pakistan, neighbors with unresolved disputes since they were granted independence at the end of World War II, are believed to have nuclear weapons (although the leaders of both nations deny it) and are intermittently engaged in conflict with each other. Professor Quester has examined this unique nuclear relationship, analyzing the attitudes and behavior of both nations. He concludes with a paradox: both have 'bombs in the basement', if not in their respective military inventories, and these weapons present serious dangers to the world simply because of their destructive potential, even if their leaders have the best intentions. On the other hand, Indian and Pakistani leaders appear to have low levels of concern about each others' nuclear (not conventional military) developments. It is possible to be optimistic and conclude that the relationship is actually stable and, like the U.S.-Soviet nuclear relationship of the cold war, helps prevent war on the subcontinent, or to be cynical and conclude that each regime cares more about the prestige of membership in the nuclear club than the ominous threat posed thereby against their populations.

Quester, G.H.

1992-11-25

338

Rethinking “Wana”: A Game Theoretic Analysis of the Conflict in the Tribal Region of Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to analyze the ongoing conflict situation between the government of Pakistan and the tribal population groups residing in the tribal belt along the Pakistan–Afghanistan border, while Pakistan aids the United States in its “War on Terror.” The article brings into limelight the political problems being faced by the government of Pakistan while it supports

Rabia Aslam

2008-01-01

339

A REVIEW AND EVALUATION OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT PROCESS IN PAKISTAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most developing countries, such as Pakistan, now officially regard environmental concern as part of their overall framework for economic and social planning. Pakistan has established national environmental policies and programs, including legislation, to protect the environment. This paper describes the evaluation of the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) process in Pakistan using the Christopher Wood model. The Pakistan EIA process has

RUMANA RIFFAT; DAULAT KHAN

340

Militant Recruitment in Pakistan: Implications for Al Qaeda and Other Organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite Pakistan's extensive contribution to the global war on terrorism, many questions persist about the extent to which Al Qaeda and its associated outfits are currently operating within Pakistan. This article examines this issue by posing several empirical questions: (1) What are the general contours of militancy in Pakistan? (2) What motivates individuals to join specific Pakistan-based militant outfits? (3)

C. CHRISTINE FAIR

2004-01-01

341

Militant Recruitment in Pakistan: Implications for Al Qaeda and Other Organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite Pakistan's extensive contribution to the global war on terrorism, many questions persist about the extent to which Al Qaeda and its associated outfits are currently operating within Pakistan. This article examines this issue by posing several empiri- cal questions: (1) What are the general contours of militancy in Pakistan? (2) What motivates individuals to join specific Pakistan-based militant outfits?

C. CHRISTINE

342

Afghanistan and Pakistan Regional Stabilization Strategy. Updated February 2010.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As President Obama reiterated during his December 1, 2009 speech at West Point, the core U.S. goal remains to disrupt, dismantle, and defeat al-Qaeda and its safe havens in Pakistan, and to prevent their return to Pakistan or Afghanistan. While our combat...

2010-01-01

343

The epidemiology of peste des petits ruminants in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an acute and highly contagious viral disease of small ruminants, which is newly emerging in Pakistan. Information provided by participatory disease surveillance teams was used to develop a database for PPR outbreaks in Pakistan. Twenty-four villages were selected throughout the country and field investigations were conducted in each village to study the dynamics

A. B. Zahur; H. Irshad; M. Hussain; A. Ullah; M. Jahangir; M. Qasim Khan; M. Sabir Farooq

344

Status and outlook of solar energy use in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pakistan is an energy deficient country, where a large fraction of the population still does not have access to modern day energy services such as electricity. This is due to very limited fossil fuel resources and poor economy, which restrains the import of fossil fuels on a large scale. To overcome energy shortage, Pakistan needs to develop its indigenous energy

Umar K. Mirza; M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer; Nasir Ahmad

2003-01-01

345

Trends, issues and challenges in English language education in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to critically examine the trends, issues and challenges in policy and practice of English language education in Pakistan. This is done first by historically reviewing the English language education policies since Pakistan's independence in 1947, looking particularly at policy objectives, implementation strategies and outcomes, and the rationale for policy change. Second, the practice of teaching English in

Fauzia Shamim

2008-01-01

346

DEMAND FOR TEXTILE AND CLOTHING EXPORTS OF PAKISTAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research has seen the trade prospects for Pakistan’s textile and clothing exports in the international market at the time when it has been decided in the WTO Agreement on Textiles and Clothing that the trade in this sector from the developing to developed countries should be completely free from quantitative restrictions and governed by the normal GATT rules by

Afia Malik

2000-01-01

347

Are Status of Women and Contraceptive Prevalence Correlated in Pakistan?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pakistan with an estimated population of around 142.5 million in mid 2001 is the seventh most populous country in the world and fourth in Asia and Pacific countries. The historical trends indicate a continuously increasing growth in population (Table 1). The population of the area now constituting Pakistan was 16.6 million in 1901. Since then the population has increased over

Abdul Hakim

2000-01-01

348

Pakistan's health policy: Appropriateness and relevance to women's health needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interface between national health policy and women's health needs is complex in developing countries like Pakistan. This paper aims to assess if Pakistan's national health policy 2001 is relevant and appropriate to women's health needs.Through review of existing data on women, a profile of women's health needs was developed which was transformed into framework of analysis. This framework indicates

Narjis Rizvi; Sania Nishtar

2008-01-01

349

Promoting Primary Education for Girls in Pakistan. CDIE Impact Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report details a field study to evaluate the efforts of Pakistan's Primary Education Development Program (PED) to improve the access, equity, and quality of primary education in Pakistan, especially for rural girls. A 3-week visit was conducted in 1997 by a team from the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) Center for…

Agency for International Development (IDCA), Washington, DC.

350

PAKISTAN: THE ONGOING CONTRADICTIONS OF DEVELOPMENT AND MILITARY RULE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the current situation of the Pakistan economy which appears to be doing well in terms of macro-economic indicators but has serious vulnerabilities of an economic, political and cultural nature. Since General Musharraf came to power, I have monitored the evolution of Pakistan's economic trajectory and find that my analysis has shifted from optimism to growing pessimism. Despite

Marika Vicziany

351

Agricultural 'Crisis' in Pakistan: Some Explanations and Policy Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is about public policy and agricultural growth in Pakistan. The author takes the position that, in a historical perspective, public policy has been a large part of the erratic, maybe unsustainable, growth of agriculture in Pakistan. The most important policy issue, therefore, is to radically restructure the existing bureaucratic, patronage-ridden, rent-seeking, and wasteful system of institutions and services.

Mahmood Hasan Khan

1997-01-01

352

Ownership Concentration, Corporate Governance and Firm Performance: Evidence from Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study investigates the determinants of ownership concentration, the effect of ownership concentration on the firm’s performance with the sample of sixty representativ e firms from different manufacturing sectors of the Pakistan’s economy during 2003 to 2008. The results suggest that firms where ownership is concentrated they do not adopt better governance practices and disclose less, however board composition has

Attiya Y. Javid; Robina Iqbal

2008-01-01

353

Returns to Schooling, Ability and Cognitive Skills in Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the economic outcomes of education for wage earners in Pakistan. This is done by analysing the relationship between schooling, cognitive skills and ability, on the one hand, and economic activity, occupation, sectoral choice and earnings, on the other. In Pakistan, an important question remains largely unaddressed: what…

Aslam, Monazza; Bari, Faisal; Kingdon, Geeta

2012-01-01

354

Empowerment of Women through Distance Education in Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study was undertaken to highlight the gender disparities of Pakistan as well as at regional and international level. The study, measured the comparative outcome of formal and non-formal system of education in Pakistan. To achieve the desired goal, documentary analysis was considered appropriate. The number of schools and enrollment…

Bukhsh, Qadir

2007-01-01

355

Problematizing High School Certificate Exam in Pakistan: A Washback Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes and evaluates the Higher-Secondary School Certificate (HSC) exam in Pakistan that has been in place in its present form for more than thirty years. The author recounts her experience as a teacher of English in a representative high school in Pakistan and, reflecting on the impact of high school public exam, she argues that the…

Jilani, Raana

2009-01-01

356

Trends, Issues and Challenges in English Language Education in Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper aims to critically examine the trends, issues and challenges in policy and practice of English language education in Pakistan. This is done first by historically reviewing the English language education policies since Pakistan's independence in 1947, looking particularly at policy objectives, implementation strategies and outcomes, and…

Shamim, Fauzia

2008-01-01

357

PAKISTAN'S FATA, TRANSNATIONAL TERRORISM AND THE GLOBAL DEVELOPMENT MODEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concerns regarding Pakistan's instability—the increasing influence of the Taliban and radicals, and an fragile nuclear country—have led to debate as to the optimal, systematic approach to simultaneously bolstering the Zardari government and also stymieing the encroachment of the Taliban in Pakistan and Afghanistan. In particular, the unrest in the Federally Administrated Tribal Areas (FATA) has called into question whether

Anita Demkiv

358

Al Qaeda in the Tribal Areas of Pakistan and Beyond  

Microsoft Academic Search

After the U.S. led coalition forces attacked Al Qaeda and Taliban infrastructure in Afghanistan beginning in October 2001, the epicenter of global terrorism moved from Afghanistan to tribal Pakistan. Known as the Federally Administered Tribal Area (FATA) in Pakistan, this region has emerged as the premier hunting ground for the Al Qaeda leadership. With the co-option of new groups in

Rohan Gunaratna; Anders Nielsen

2008-01-01

359

Pakistan's defense industry: An effort towards self-reliance?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the current state of Pakistan's defense industry and its potential. Like most of the developing Third World countries, Pakistan also has a number of weapons production and related R&D facilities. The defense industrial infrastructure was considered necessary to maintain an ability to fight without compromising foreign policy or other state objectives. However, the present state of the

Ayesha Siddiqa-Agha

1999-01-01

360

Discovering identities of teachers of English in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Pakistan, the perception among teachers of English is that teaching of English is an easy task, requiring no specific academic\\/professional background in English subject. In this backdrop, this research attempts to investigate the identity of teachers of English in Pakistan, using primarily narrative inquiry methods. The term identity' is elusive because of multiplicity of meanings. The literature reveals that

Zaigham Aizad Malik

2008-01-01

361

Need for biomedical engineering educational program in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of biomedical engineering and the engineer is introduced; thereafter the author reviews the present state of the arts of medicine, engineering and their interface area in Pakistan. The importance of biomedical equipment cannot be denied even in an underdeveloped economy such as Pakistan, where the need for biomedical engineers has not been realised, thereby decreasing the usefulness of

N. U. Janjua

1995-01-01

362

SWOT analysis of mobile telecommunications sector of Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to perform SWOT analysis of the mobile telecom sector in Pakistan. Detailed study has been carried out by conducting surveys with subjects having different backgrounds and belonging to different professions, regions and age groups. A comparative study of the mobile networks presently operating in Pakistan has been performed. It is found that telecom sector has significant potential

Muhammad Bilal Khan; Muhammad Asim

2010-01-01

363

Faunistics of Tiger Beetles (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae) from Pakistan  

PubMed Central

The present biogeographic distribution of tiger beetle fauna is an attempt to register all modern taxa from Pakistan. It includes 55 taxa under 14 genera and 11 subgenera. Three species, Cylindera (Eriodera) albopunctata (Chaudoir 1852), Cicindela viridilabris (Chaudoir 1852) and Neocollyris (Neocollyris) redtenbacheri (Horn 1894) are recorded from Pakistan for the first time.

Rafi, Muhammad Ather; Jurgen, Wiesner; Matin, Muhammad Abdul; Zia, Ahmed; Sultan, Amir; Naz, Falak

2010-01-01

364

Sources of Income Inequality and Poverty in Rural Pakistan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report pinpoints the contribution of different sources of income to income inequality in rural Pakistan by analyzing a three-year panel data set of income collected in 12 rounds of household interviews. It finds that in rural Pakistan nonfarm and live...

R. H. Adams J. J. He

1995-01-01

365

Pakistan at the Threshold of the 21st Century: How to Shape a Better Economic Future?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pakistan has been facing a deep-seated economic and financial crisis and seemingly intractable governance issues for the last few years. Factors such as international sanctions and global economic slowdown, which have worsened Pakistan’s economic difficulties, were beyond Pakistan’s control. But by and large, the country’s economic and financial difficulties are the result of economic mismanagement in key areas over long

Pervez Hasan

1998-01-01

366

Economic Liberalisation and Employment in South Asia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new 93-page report from the Center for Development Research analyses the impact of liberalization on a variety of aspects of employment and labor incomes, and compares this impact to conditions in Sub-Saharan Africa and Latin American countries. The main findings include that real wage growth for agricultural workers fell after liberalization; unemployment rates rose in Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Nepal, but declined in India and Sri Lanka; and for the most part, GDP growth, with the exception of that in Pakistan, seemed to be only slightly higher after liberalization. The paper concludes that "a lot more effort is needed for South Asian countries in order to have more productive employment and higher labour incomes."

367

Emigration dynamics from and within South Asia.  

PubMed

This review of current knowledge about emigration dynamics from and within South Asia (Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka) opens with a brief history of the three phases of emigration from the area since the 1830s (plantation labor; postindependence to the UK, US, Canada, and Australia; and labor migration to the oil-exporting countries). The influence of the creation of Pakistan and Bangladesh is also covered as are British colonial and commonwealth policies. It is noted that migration data are incomplete and that India exhibits an ambivalence about collecting such information. The discussion then turns to emigration since 1970 and considers permanent migration from South Asia to the traditional receivers; South Asian asylum seekers in Europe; South Asian refugees, illegal migrants, migrant workers (flows and destinations), the stock of contract migrant workers (and their characteristics); returnee migrant workers; and skill levels. Analysis is provided of macro level determinants of emigrations such as gross national product (level and growth), the general demographic and social situation, labor force growth and structure, poverty and inequality, and internal and international migration. Environmental factors causing displacement in Southern Asia include floods, cyclones, river bank erosion, drought, and desertification. Global warming could displace millions of people in the region, and development projects have contributed to displacement. The remainder of the report covers political and ethnic factors, micro-factors influencing migration decision-making, the policies of sending and receiving countries, the consequences of emigration, and the potential for migration in the future. PMID:12347011

Shah, N M

1995-01-01

368

Changes in the diet of a South Asian transmigratory population may be associated with an increase in incidence of childhood diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emigrants from Pakistan to Bradford, UK, have moved from an area of low to one of higher incidence of type 1 diabetes. South Asian children in this population have shown a marked rise in diabetes incidence. Changes in diet over the last 40 years were investigated as a potential explanatory factor. Dietary information were collected on (1) South Asian children

Sian Edwards; Catherine Murphy; Richard G. Feltbower; Carolyn R. Stephenson; Janet E. Cade; Patricia A. McKinney; H. Jonathan Bodansky

2006-01-01

369

PHYTOPHAGOUS INSECTS ASSOCIATED TO REPRODUCTIVE STRUCTURES OF MESQUITE (PROSOPIS SPP) IN ARGENTINA THEIR POTENTIAL USE IN BIOLOGICAL CONTROL IN SOUTH AFRICA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mesquites (Prosopis spp.) are thorny leguminous shrubs or trees native to Southwest Asia, Africa, and, predominantly, North and South America. Introduced as beneficial plants in India, Pakistan, South Africa, Egypt, Kuwait, Australia, USA (Hawaii) and Brazil, some Prosopis species have become weeds ...

370

Molecular Epidemiology of Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Viruses from Pakistan in 2009-2010  

PubMed Central

Background In early 2009, a novel influenza A(H1N1) virus that emerged in Mexico and United States rapidly disseminated worldwide. The spread of this virus caused considerable morbidity with over 18000 recorded deaths. The new virus was found to be a reassortant containing gene segments from human, avian and swine influenza viruses. Methods/Results The first case of human infection with A(H1N1)pdm09 in Pakistan was detected on 18th June 2009. Since then, 262 laboratory-confirmed cases have been detected during various outbreaks with 29 deaths (as of 31st August 2010). The peak of the epidemic was observed in December with over 51% of total respiratory cases positive for influenza. Representative isolates from Pakistan viruses were sequenced and analyzed antigenically. Sequence analysis of genes coding for surface glycoproteins HA and NA showed high degree of high levels of sequence identity with corresponding genes of regional viruses circulating South East Asia. All tested viruses were sensitive to Oseltamivir in the Neuraminidase Inhibition assays. Conclusions Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses from Pakistan form a homogenous group of viruses. Their HA genes belong to clade 7 and show antigenic profile similar to the vaccine strain A/California/07/2009. These isolates do not show any amino acid changes indicative of high pathogenicity and virulence. It is imperative to continue monitoring of these viruses for identification of potential variants of high virulence or drug resistance.

Bashir Aamir, Uzma; Badar, Nazish; Mehmood, Muhammad Rashid; Nisar, Nadia; Suleman, Rana Muhammad; Shaukat, Shehzad; Sharif, Salman; Kamran, Jaleel; Zaidi, Syed Sohail Zahoor; Kazi, Birjees Mazher; Gubareva, Larisa; Xu, Xiyan; Garten, Rebecca; Klimov, Alexander

2012-01-01

371

Characterization of Mineral Ores from Northern and Northwest Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pakistan is home to many varieties of minerals, some of which make it prominent in the mineral world. The exploration of Pakistan's mineral wealth is far from complete and has rarely been conducted in the north and northwest of the country. This article presents the newest exploration and examination of minerals from an unexploited area in Pakistan. Several materials characterization techniques were carried out to examine and identify the phase and structure of the minerals, including x-ray diffraction, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. In this study, several commonly found minerals are identified, including calcite, dolomite, quartz, talc, and fluorapatite.

Iqbal, Yaseen; Leu, Lii-Cherng; Fahad, Muhammad; Ubic, Rick

2013-01-01

372

Characterization of Mineral Ores from Northern and Northwest Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pakistan is home to many varieties of minerals, some of which make it prominent in the mineral world. The exploration of Pakistan's mineral wealth is far from complete and has rarely been conducted in the north and northwest of the country. This article presents the newest exploration and examination of minerals from an unexploited area in Pakistan. Several materials characterization techniques were carried out to examine and identify the phase and structure of the minerals, including x-ray diffraction, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. In this study, several commonly found minerals are identified, including calcite, dolomite, quartz, talc, and fluorapatite.

Iqbal, Yaseen; Leu, Lii-Cherng; Fahad, Muhammad; Ubic, Rick

2012-10-01

373

Economic Corridors in South Asia: Exploring the Benefits of Market Access and Trade Facilitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows that there are significant prospects of rise in intra-regional trade among the four Eastern South Asian countries. The partial equilibrium modelling exercise helps identify the products with high export potentiality. Simulation exercise based on a global general equilibrium model suggests that though there are prospects of welfare gains for India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka, there are risks

Selim Raihan

2011-01-01

374

Reefal petroleum prospects possible in Pakistan  

SciTech Connect

Carbonate buildups including reefs and banks have proven to be prolific hydrocarbon reservoirs in the US, Canada, Mexico, North Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Middle East. Seismic interpretation, particularly of high quality marine data, and geological analyses, including petrographic studies of selected formations, reveal a broad spectrum of possible reefal prospects in formations of different ages in Pakistan. However, the region with good seismic that provides good recognition of possible reefal buildups remains to date devoid of well confirmation. Oil and Gas Development Corp. of Pakistan formed the technical services department in 1976 for a systematic scientific review of all exploration data and basin analysis. In 1985 this department was renamed offshore department, with responsibility for all offshore exploration. This article is based on the department`s work in collaboration with geoscientists from Russia, the US, Norway, and Canada covering the area shown. Four major types of carbonate buildups, easily recognized from seismic interpretation, include: barrier buildups that are linear with relatively deep water on both sides during deposition; pinnacle buildups that are roughly equidimensional and were surrounded by deep water during deposition; shelf margin buildups that are linear with deep water on one side and shallow water on the other; and patch buildups that form in shallow water either in close proximity to shelf margins, or over broad shallow seas.

Quadri, V.N.; Quadri, S.M.G.J.

1996-03-25

375

Indian psychiatry and research in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

In Asian culture, there is much stigmatization attached on having mental health problems and seeking help from a mental health expert. It is therefore, not surprising, that this stigmatization results in the refutation of the subsistence of a psychiatric problem in an individual and his family but also produces obstruction to help-seeking desires. To get a clear picture of the existence of psychiatric issues in the population, various research projects addressing psychiatric issues in children, women, and elderly are conducted both in Pakistan and India. A significant input has been taken from research conducted in India combating disaster management. In addition, public awareness programs are organized to provide information about common psychiatric disorders in children, adults, women, and the elderly.-Furthermore, psychiatric patients and their families are educated for the management of mental heath problems related to marriage, pregnancy, birth and hazards of smoking & substance abuse in young adults. Keeping in view the similarity in cultural background, treatment models, family structure, and psychosocial factors, collaborative research studies should be encouraged leading to improvement in psychiatric care of the patients both in India and Pakistan.

Chaudhry, Haroon Rashid

2010-01-01

376

Floods and flood management in Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flooding is the most devastating natural hazard in Pakistan and the recent flooding has demonstrated its severeness. Floods are common throughout the country. However, their characteristics differ from region to region. Flooding behavior of the major basins and flood management at the national level are investigated in this article. Monsoon rainfalls are the main source of floods in the Indus Basin, while Mediterranean Waves and Cyclones, which are generated over the Arabian Sea, induce flooding in the Kharan Basin and the Makran Coastal Area. Fluvial floods in the Indus Basin have caused major economic losses. Pakistan's government has spent vast resources on relief operations and flood works since the country came into existence in 1947. A number of provincial and federal acts, ordinances, accords, and treaties shape the national flood policy. Institutional setup for flood hazard and crisis management has evolved over the years. Nevertheless, data show no major reduction in the flood-to-damage ratio. The inter-linkage of structural and non-structural measures and their combined efficiency must be analyzed and optimized for more effective flood management.

Tariq, Muhammad Atiq Ur Rehman; van de Giesen, Nick

377

Size of Pakistan government AIDS grant criticized.  

PubMed

The World Health Organization (WHO) states that there are between 20,000 and 50,000 HIV cases in Pakistan. Although the country's AIDS Prevention and Control Program was initiated in 1987, it is only being pursued aggressively now after being integrated with the overall health care system. Critics have stated that Pakistan has no program to screen HIV high-risk groups. The biggest challenge before the government is to educate people about AIDS and its consequences. This task is, however, complex in a conservative Islamic country which has a 40% national literacy rate, 67% rural population, and where sex is not openly discussed. Health officials are planning to involve the Islamic clergy to disseminate information about HIV/AIDS through sermons in the mosques. However, it is not yet known if the idea will be accepted by the clergy. Experts warn that urgent steps need to be taken to prevent the HIV situation from developing into an advanced epidemic. PMID:12345808

1995-01-01

378

"Social marketing" for early neonatal care: saving newborn lives in Pakistan.  

PubMed

According to the World Health Organization and the United Nations Children's Fund, developing countries carry a large share of neonatal mortality in the world. According to UNICEF, almost 450 newborn children die every hour, mostly from preventable causes. Restricted access to quality and hygienic delivery services and limited knowledge about handling the newborn aggravate the situation. South Asia, and Pakistan in particular, have reduced their child and infant mortality during the last decade; however, neonatal mortality still remains unacceptably high. There are multiple reasons, mainly related to practices and behaviours of communities and traditional birth attendants. Rural and poor populations suffer most in Pakistan, where three out of five deliveries still occur at home. Traditional community practices and conservative norms drastically affect neonatal health outcomes. Preventing sepsis at the umbilical cord, keeping the baby at the correct temperature after birth and early initiation of exclusive breastfeeding are three simple strategies or messages that need to be disseminated widely to prevent many neonatal mortalities and morbidities. Since inappropriate practices in handling newborns are directly linked with persistent and unremitting behaviours among health providers and the community at large, we suggest doing robust "social marketing" for saving newborn lives. The objective of the paper is to present a social-marketing strategy and a marketing mix that will help address and surmount actual barriers and promote alternative behaviours in early neonatal care. PMID:20357556

Ejaz, Iram; Shaikh, Babar Tasneem

2010-01-01

379

The challenges of injuries and trauma in Pakistan: an opportunity for concerted action.  

PubMed

Injuries and trauma are a major cause of mortality and morbidity in low and middle income countries (LMICs). In Pakistan, a low income South Asian developing country, they are among the top ten contributors to disease burden and causes of disabilities, with the majority of the burden falling on younger people in the population. This burden of injuries comes with a high social and economic cost. Several distal and proximal determinants, such as poverty, political instability, frequent natural disasters, and the lack of legislation and enforcement of preventive measures, make the Pakistani population susceptible to injuries. Historically, there has been a low level of investment in the prevention of injuries in Pakistan. Data is limited and while a public sector surveillance project has been initiated in one major urban centre, the major sources of information on injuries have been police and hospital records. Given the cost-effectiveness of injury prevention programs and their success in other LMICs, it is essential that the public sector invest in injury prevention through improving national policies and creating a strong evidence-based strategy while collaborating with the private sector to promote injury prevention and mobilizing people to engage in these programs. PMID:23489711

Hyder, A A; Razzak, J A

2013-03-13

380

Predicting impacts of climate change on medicinal asclepiads of Pakistan using Maxent modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Maximum entropy (Maxent) modeling was used to predict the potential climatic niches of three medicinally important Asclepiad species: Pentatropis spiralis, Tylophora hirsuta, and Vincetoxicum arnottianum. All three species are members of the Asclepiad plant family, yet they differ in ecological requirements, biogeographic importance, and conservation value. Occurrence data were collected from herbarium specimens held in major herbaria of Pakistan and two years (2010 and 2011) of field surveys. The Maxent model performed better than random for the three species with an average test AUC value of 0.74 for P. spiralis, 0.84 for V. arnottianum, and 0.59 for T. hirsuta. Under the future climate change scenario, the Maxent model predicted habitat gains for P. spiralis in southern Punjab and Balochistan, and loss of habitat in south-eastern Sindh. Vincetoxicum arnottianum as well as T. hirsuta would gain habitat in upper Peaks of northern parts of Pakistan. T. hirsuta is predicted to lose most of the habitats in northern Punjab and in parches from lower peaks of Galliat, Zhob, Qalat etc. The predictive modeling approach presented here may be applied to other rare Asclepiad species, especially those under constant extinction threat.

Khanum, Rizwana; Mumtaz, A. S.; Kumar, Sunil

2013-05-01

381

Monitoring spatio-temporal aerosol patterns over Pakistan based on MODIS, TOMS and MISR satellite data and a HYSPLIT model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three different satellite-borne sensors, namely the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and the Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR), were used to investigate the spatial and temporal variations of aerosols over several cities in Pakistan. A Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model was used for trajectory analysis in order to reconstruct the origins of air masses and understand the spatio-temporal variability of aerosol concentrations. Recent MODIS aerosol data (2002-2008) and earlier TOMS data (1979-2001) revealed increasing concentrations of aerosols over Pakistan and adjacent areas. Validation of MODIS and MISR derived aerosol optical depths (AODs) with Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data for 2007 demonstrated that the MISR data was more accurate when close to the ocean, while the MODIS was more accurate over vegetated areas. The relationship between MODIS and MISR AOD data from 2002 to 2008 was analyzed, revealing a strong correlation between the two datasets. An assessment of seasonal variability in AOD for industrial, urban, semi-urban, rural, and semi-arid areas revealed maximum AOD values during the summer over all the areas investigated. Back trajectory analyses indicated that while winter air masses reaching Pakistan had travelled long distances, summer air masses had travelled only short distances. The higher aerosol concentrations during the summer are interpreted to be a result of the air masses spending more time over land during the summer than they do during the winter. While monsoonal rainfall tends to reduce aerosol concentrations by washing aerosols out of the atmosphere, this effect is mainly restricted to the eastern and south-eastern parts of Pakistan.

Alam, Khan; Qureshi, Salman; Blaschke, Thomas

2011-09-01

382

Renewable energy resources in Pakistan: status, potential and information systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper provides some details regarding the characteristic properties, potential and assessment of renewable energy compared with other forms of energy sources. It gives status of renewable energy sources in Pakistan. It also lights about the agencies ...

A. M. Khan

1991-01-01

383

Gift of the Indus: The Arts and Culture of Pakistan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Gift of the Indus: The Arts and Culture of Pakistan, presented by ARTSEDGE, the Kennedy Center's arts education network, introduces the arts and culture of Pakistan to young people and teenagers in the US, Pakistan, and all over the world, in the hope of fostering greater understanding. The site has three broad sections: The Nation, with information about the people and the land; Culture & Daily Life; and Arts of Pakistan, the most extensive section, encompassing music, theater, dance, and the visual arts. Video is used extensively on the site; allowing visitors to watch both folk and classical dance, see masters and students creating Arabic calligraphy, or sculptors working with wood, glass, and metal. There is also a weblog called Mehfil: A Gathering Place, a "one-year experiment in cultural conversation" constructed to allow teens to communicate while protecting their privacy.

384

Excessive Defense Expenditures and Economic Stabilization: The Case of Pakistan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Toward the end of 1988, Pakistan's deteriorating resource situation caused a financial crisis, many remnants of which still exist today. In 1988 the government's budget deficit reached 8.5 percent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), inflation accelerated, th...

R. E. Looney

1997-01-01

385

Pakistan's and Palestine's Role in Promoting Violent Ideological Education.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Violent ideology is fostered by promoting religious extremism within the Pakistan madrassah system and the Palestinian National Authority educational system. Success in countering this methodology may lie in the ability of the U.S. to engage the internati...

D. L. Barnes

2009-01-01

386

Pakistan: Bio-Fuels, 2008. GAIN Report No. PK8033.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pakistan has the potential to produce significant quantities of bio-fuels ethanol and biodiesel. Input availability and the infrastructure for ethanol manufacturing exist, but the safe handling of blending with petrol and the establishment of regulatory m...

M. Shafig U. Rehman

2008-01-01

387

Active faulting south of the Himalayan Front: Establishing a new plate boundary  

Microsoft Academic Search

New tectonic uplifts south of the Salt Range Thrust and Himalayan Front Thrust (HFT) represent an outward step of the plate boundary from the principal tectonic displacement zone into the Indo-Gangetic Plain. In Pakistan, the Lilla Anticline deforms fine-grained overbank deposits of the Jhelum River floodplain 15 km south of the Salt Range. The anticline is overpressured in Eocambrian non-marine strata.

Robert S. Yeats; V. C. Thakur

2008-01-01

388

Heavy metal pollution assessment in various industries of Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water pollution is a source of danger to the health of people living in developing countries such as Pakistan. The main industries\\u000a located at various industrial zones of Pakistan cause water pollution, which ultimately result in various diseases. The aim\\u000a of the present study was to study the concentrations of essential and toxic metals (Na, K, Cu, Zn, Fe, Ca,

Wajid Rehman; Akif Zeb; Nayyara Noor; Mohsan Nawaz

2008-01-01

389

STI prevalence and associated factors among urban men in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives:To measure the prevalence of selected sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among urban men in Pakistan and identify associated factors.Methods:A cross-sectional survey of 2400 urban men aged 16–45 years was carried out in six cities of Pakistan. Respondents were selected through a multistage systematic sampling design. After obtaining informed consent a structured behavioural questionnaire was administered. Blood and urine samples were

A M Mir; A Wajid; L Reichenbach; M Khan

2009-01-01

390

Physicochemical characteristics of various milk samples available in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report physicochemical characteristics of various kinds of liquid milk commercially available in Pakistan in comparison\\u000a with those of fresh natural milk from animals. Milk samples were collected from local markets at Peshawar, Pakistan, and analyzed\\u000a for their physical features, including moisture, total solids, specific gravity, conductivity, viscosity and titratable acidity\\u000a (lactic acid equivalent), and chemical components and macro-minerals, including

Mohammad Imran; Hamayun Khan; Syed Shah Hassan; Rasool Khan

2008-01-01

391

Probabilistic seismic hazard analysis of Islamabad, Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pakistan is prone to seismic activity, and its capital, Islamabad, is located close to the Main Boundary Thrust (MBT) fault. On October 8th, 2005 the disastrous Muzaffarabad earthquake shook Islamabad and damaged many high-rise buildings. A probabilistic seismic hazard analysis technique was used to estimate strong ground motion parameters for a closely spaced 1 km grid. Traditionally, PGA is calculated, which is then used in structural earthquake resistant design or seismic safety assessment. However, Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) is not sufficient to design for seismic load or to account for the modern building code's emphasis on the use of spectral acceleration values. Therefore, a seismic hazard analysis was performed for Islamabad, and the design parameters that are required by codes to account for seismic loading were derived.

Bhatti, Abdul Qadir; Hassan, Syed Zamir Ul; Rafi, Zahid; Khatoon, Zubeda; Ali, Qurban

2011-08-01

392

3 CFR - Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to the Continuing Conflict in Pakistan  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Refugee and Migration Needs Related to the Continuing Conflict in Pakistan Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents ...Refugee and Migration Needs Related to the Continuing Conflict in Pakistan Memorandum for the Secretary of State By the...

2010-01-01

393

75 FR 71079 - Determination on Use of Cooperative Threat Reduction Funds in Pakistan and Afghanistan Under...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Determination on Use of Cooperative Threat Reduction Funds in Pakistan and Afghanistan Under Section 1308 of the National Defense...Reduction (CTR) funds for the implementation of CTR programs in Pakistan and Afghanistan will permit the United States to take...

2010-11-22

394

Food poverty and its causes in Pakistan.  

PubMed

Economists and a demographer analyzed data from the 1984-1985 Household and Income Expenditure Survey using the Foster and Thorbeke model to measure the poverty level in Pakistan. This model considers the minimum level of food expenditure/adult equivalent required to purchase the required daily allowance of energy intake. The analysts calculated the poverty lines to be Rs 246.00 for urban areas and Rs 149.00 for rural areas. They learned that the real poor and less poor households did not rank expenditures on food as a top priority despite deficient food intake. Thus traditional diet pattern did not differentiate the real poor from the less power, but rather lower purchasing power. They defined real poor households as those who had a negative or O relationship between income and food and less poor households as those who had a positive relationship even though the magnitude of the slope coefficient was extremely small (.024 for urban areas and .082 for rural areas). The larger the family size the more likely a household was poor and the members malnourished. This was especially true if the family size grew because of the addition of more dependents. On the other hand, the more education the head of the household and his wife the less likely the household was poor and the members malnourished. In fact, the negative effect of education on poverty and malnutrition was strongest for the wife. 2% of all urban households and 3% of all rural households ranked as real poor households. 59% and 35% respectively ranked as less poor households. Even though the difference in food poverty between extended and nuclear families was insignificant, extended families fared better than nuclear families. These findings showed that Pakistan should design its food policy to target the real poor by improving their nutritional status without forsaking that of the less poor. PMID:12285313

Mahmood, S; Sheikh, K H; Mahmood, T

1991-01-01

395

Linking population to conservation. Special report: Pakistan.  

PubMed

The National Conservation Strategy of Pakistan took 5 years to prepare and it was produced in close consultation with the World Conservation Union (IUCN), on whose World Conservation Strategy it is modeled. The environment has been under grave stress for the past 30 years, the ecosystem has been greatly damaged, and natural resources are being depleted at an alarming rate. Deforestation is occurring at a rate of 1'%/year in a country where forest cover is down to 5%. Desertification has affected 60% of Pakistan's land. Soil erosion threatens over 11 million hectares and waterlogging and salinity 1/2 as much. Many species of plants, animals, and fish face extinction, as river and mangrove systems are almost destroyed. Over 25% of hospital patients are ill from waterborne diseases, and 60% of infant deaths are caused by infectious and parasitic diseases. The neglect of women's development is responsible for the average family size of 6.7 children. The population is projected to double in 22 years, from 100 million to 200 million, and at the present rate it could reach 400 million by the year 2033. Although the crude death rate has dropped from over 25/1000 in 1984-86, and the infant mortality rate has fallen from 180/1000 to 106, the birth rate has hardly changed, falling only from 45 to 43/1000. In the 40 years since independence government family planning efforts have been feeble without success in reducing birth rates. Water resources are also scarce: only a 25-30% expansion in the volume of water is available in the Indus Basin. Biological solutions, farm forestry, increased water efficiency, demand-based irrigation, less wasteful and more decentralized use of energy are recommended rather than cost-intensive use of the soil. Community-based management systems, strengthened nongovernmental organization action, and a new role for women in development is emphasized. PMID:12285667

Rowley, J

1990-01-01

396

Interprovenance variation in the composition of Moringa oleifera oilseeds from Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interprovenance variation was examined in the composition of Moringa oleifera oilseeds from Pakistan. The hexane-extracted oil content of M. oleifera seeds harvested in the vicinity of the University of Agriculture, Faisalabad (Punjab, Pakistan), Bahauddin Zakariya University\\u000a (Multan, Pakistan), and the University of Sindh, Jamshoro (Sindh, Pakistan), ranged from 33.23 to 40.90%. Protein, fiber,\\u000a moisture, and ash contents were found to

Farooq Anwar; Muhammad Ashraf; Muhammad Iqbal Bhanger

2005-01-01

397

Measuring the Determinants of School Completion in Pakistan: Analysis of Censoring and Selection Bias  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the demand for child schooling in Pakistan, using the Pakistan Integrated Household Survey (1991). There have been few such studies for Pakistan, a country with relatively low enrollment rates and education levels, high illiteracy, and large disparity between male and female education. Additionally, this study focuses on two potential sources of bias in the estimation of the

Jessica Holmes

1999-01-01

398

Teacher Education in Pakistan: Analysis of Planning Issues in Early Childhood Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article focuses on the status of teacher education and early childhood education in Pakistan. The paper analyzes planning issues in early childhood teacher education by examining education policies and existing practices in early childhood teacher education in Pakistan. Initiatives taken at public and private levels in Pakistan are also discussed. The paper suggests ways in which teachers can be

Zohra Nisar Hunzai

2009-01-01

399

HIV\\/AIDS in Pakistan: the context and magnitude of an emerging threat  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDY OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this review were to: (1) assess the nature and comprehensiveness of information regarding HIV\\/AIDS in Pakistan; (2) to evaluate the extent of HIV\\/AIDS in Pakistan by epidemiological estimates; (3) to indicate the implications of the results for health policy in Pakistan and other regions at a similar stage in the epidemic. DESIGN: A structured review

A. A. Hyder; O. A. Khan

1998-01-01

400

Estimating Consumer Preferences for Food, Using Time Series Data of Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumer preferences for food and non-food items in Pakistan are frequently estimated by using data from the household surveys. However, structural change in consumer preferences, caused by changes in tastes, can be studied by using the annual time series data, a time series of cross sections, or the panel data. This paper uses Pakistan’s annual time series disappearance data for

Abid A. Burki

1997-01-01

401

The China–Pakistan–United States Strategic Triangle: From Cold War to the “War on Terrorism”  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Navy SEAL raid in Abbottabad, Pakistan, and Islamabad's subsequent turn toward China have highlighted one of the most remarkable legacies of the Cold War: the persistence of a strategic triangle composed of China, Pakistan, and the United States. Throughout much of the Cold War, China and the United States competed to keep Pakistan within their particular sphere of

Paul J. Smith

2011-01-01

402

Teacher Education in Pakistan: Analysis of Planning Issues in Early Childhood Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article focuses on the status of teacher education and early childhood education in Pakistan. The paper analyzes planning issues in early childhood teacher education by examining education policies and existing practices in early childhood teacher education in Pakistan. Initiatives taken at public and private levels in Pakistan are also…

Hunzai, Zohra Nisar

2009-01-01

403

Making Money in the Mayhem: Funding Taliban Insurrection in the Tribal Areas of Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The insurrection in Pakistan's tribal areas has been unexpectedly robust, lethal, and resilient, which has surprised many in Pakistan and the Western world. The focus of the violence emanating from this region is not confined to Afghanistan or Pakistan alone, but spans the entire world, especially Europe and North America. A number of external actors like Al Qaeda and its

Arabinda Acharya; Syed Adnan Ali Shah Bukhari; Sadia Sulaiman

2009-01-01

404

A Study on Extremely Dry and Wet Summer Monsoon in Pakistan by Focusing on the Anomalous States of the Upper Troposphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seasonally-changes in wind pattern, monsoon, sometimes results in severe droughts and intense flooding in many parts of the world including South Asian countries like Pakistan. The livelihood of a vast population in Pakistan depends on agriculture and land use is strongly influenced by water-based ecosystems that depend on the monsoon rains. Furthermore, climate change studies undertaken so far reveal that action is essential in order to prevent long term damage to water cycle and thus of great concern to the community and stakeholders. Pakistan Summer Monsoon (PSM) is generally affected by both the disturbances from the tropical and the extratropical regions; however there is lack of understanding of physical mechanisms of PSM compared to other regional studies i.e. Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) and South-East Asian Monsoon (SEAM). In our study, we applied heat and vorticity budgets and wave train analysis to reveal the mechanisms of the extremely dry and wet PSM events associated with the anomalous upper tropospheric circulation. We found that the extremely dry (wet) PSM events are closely related with the strengthening(weakening) of the upper-tropospheric central Asian high. We also found that in addition to Rossby-wave (Matsuno-Gill) type atmospheric response, the Rossby wave train along the Asian Jet originating from northwestern Europe or North Atlantic Ocean strengthened(weakened) the upper-tropospheric central Asian high. Therefore strong convection anomalies resulting in severe flooding (drought) events over the PSM region are induced by both the tropical and extratropical processes. Key Words: Pakistan, Extremes Monsoon Events, Physical Processes, Heat Budget, Vorticity, Wave Train

Ahmad, S.; Koike, T.; Nishii, K.

2012-04-01

405

Creating Instability in Dangerous Global Regions: North Korean Proliferation and Support to Terrorism in the Middle East and South Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

North Korea contributes to instability in the Middle East and South Asia through its proliferation of missiles and other weapons systems used as delivery platforms for chemical (and the production of chemical munitions) or biological weapons, including long-range artillery. Evidence also shows that North Korea has collaborated in the nuclear programs of Syria, Iran, Libya, and Pakistan and has provided

Bruce E. Bechtol Jr

2009-01-01

406

US security policy towards South Asia after September 11 and its implications for China: A Chinese perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

American security policy towards South Asia can basically be divided into three stages: balance of power in the Cold War era, beyond balance of power after the end of Cold War, and new balance of power after September 11.The Cold War saw an allied US and?Pakistan rival the close relations between the Soviet Union and India in the subcontinent. Yet,

Zhang Guihong

2003-01-01

407

South Asia and US Interests: Peripheral, But Impossible to Ignore* (*1 Billion+ People Can Quickly Get Your Attention).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

South Asia, the land mass consists of Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, the Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka has been a crossroads of civilization and history for centuries. The cradle of two or more world's religions, the home of one billion people, hun...

B. B. Alexander J. Boyle K. Milas

1996-01-01

408

South Centre  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based in Switzerland, South Centre is a multi-national organization which promotes the global organization of its 46 member nations in order to become "effective in mobilizing its considerable combined expertise and experience or its bargaining power." The site contains a large number of current working papers, South Centre's quarterly newsletter South Letter, and relevant links.

409

Flux and accumulation of sedimentary particles off the continental slope of Pakistan: a comparison of water column and seafloor estimates from the oxygen minimum zone, NE Arabian Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the lack of bioturbation, the laminated muds from the oxygen-minimum zone (OMZ) off Pakistan provide a unique opportunity to precisely determine the vertical and lateral sediment fluxes in the near shore part of the northeastern Arabian Sea, and to explore the effects of the margin topography and the low oxygen conditions on the accumulation of organic matter and other particles. West of Karachi, in the Hab river area of EPT and WPT (Eastern and Western PAKOMIN Traps), 16 short sediment profiles from water depths between 250 m and 1970 m on a depth transect crossing the OMZ (~ 120 to ~ 1200 m water depth) were investigated, and correlated on the basis of a thick, light-gray- to reddish-colored turbidite layer. Varve counting yielded a date for this layer of AD 1905 to 1888. We adopted the young age which agrees with 210Pb- dating, and used this isochronous stratigraphic marker bed to calculate sediment accumulation rates, that we could directly compare with the flux rates from the sediment traps installed within the water column above. All traps in the area show exceptionally high, pulsed winter fluxes of up to 5000 mg m-2 d-1 in this margin environment. The lithic flux at the sea floor is as high as 4000 mg m-2 d-1 , and agrees remarkably well with the bulk winter flux of material. This holds as well for the individual bulk components (organic carbon, calcium carbonate, opal, lithic fraction). However, the high winter flux events (HFE) by their extreme mass of remobilized matter terminated the recording in the shallow traps by clogging the funnels. Based on our comparisons, we argue that HFE for the past 5000 yr most likely occurred as regular events within the upper OMZ off Pakistan. Coarse fraction and foraminiferal accumulation rates from sediment surface samples along the Hab transect show distribution patterns that seem to be a function of water depth and distance from the shelf. Some of these sediment fractions show sudden shifts at the lower boundary of the OMZ. However, the potential effect of the OMZ on carbon preservation in the area would by masked by high mass of fine-grained matter laterally advected, and by the pulsed nature of the resuspension events.

Schulz, H.; von Rad, U.

2013-07-01

410

The epidemiology of peste des petits ruminants in Pakistan.  

PubMed

Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an acute and highly contagious viral disease of small ruminants, which is newly emerging in Pakistan. Information provided by participatory disease surveillance teams was used to develop a database for PPR outbreaks in Pakistan. Twenty-four villages were selected throughout the country and field investigations were conducted in each village to study the dynamics of the disease. In each area, flocks with a history of PPR were identified and serological sampling was conducted. Some 1,463 small ruminants (sheep and goats) were sampled and 1,096 tested positive for the presence of antibodies against PPR. These results clearly indicate that PPR is prevalent throughout Pakistan. PMID:19284055

Zahur, A B; Irshad, H; Hussain, M; Ullah, A; Jahangir, M; Khan, M Qasim; Farooq, M Sabir

2008-12-01

411

Beliefs about euthanasia among university students: perspectives from Pakistan.  

PubMed

Opinions of university students about euthanasia were studied in 4 cities in Pakistan using convenience sampling. A total of 836 students (316 males and 520 females) completed a questionnaire in which euthanasia was defined as deliberate administration of an overdose of a drug by a doctor to relieve pain and suffering of a dying patient at his/her explicit request to end his/her life. Only 25.6% of students agreed that euthanasia should be legalized in Pakistan. The most common reason cited for legalization of euthanasia was to relieve patient's suffering but only when a committee of physicians agreed to recommend it. Students who opposed legalization (74.4%) cited impediments to future medical research as the most common reason, followed by the risk of misuse by physicians or family members. Only 8.9% of students cited religious beliefs as a reason against legalization. There is a need in Pakistan for more debate about euthanasia. PMID:22256415

Shaikh, M A; Kamal, A

2011-10-01

412

Satellite Monitoring of Pakistan's Rockslide-Dammed Lake Gojal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 4 January 2010, a rockslide 1200 meters long, 350 meters wide, and 125 meters high dammed the Hunza River in Attabad, northern Pakistan, and formed Lake Gojal. The initial mass movement of rock killed 20 people and submerged several villages and 22 kilometers of the strategic Karakoram Highway linking Pakistan and China. Tens of thousands of people were displaced or cut off from overland connection with the rest of the country. On 29 May, the lake overflow began to pour through a spillway excavated by Pakistani authorities. On approximately 20 July, the lake attained a maximum depth of 119 meters and a torrent at least 9 meters deep issued over the spillway, according to Pakistan's National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA). To date, the natural dam is holding and eroding slowly. However, the threat of a catastrophic outburst flood remains.

Kargel, Jeffrey S.; Leonard, Gregory; Crippen, Robert E.; Delaney, Keith B.; Evans, Stephen G.; Schneider, Jean

2010-10-01

413

Effective use of action-oriented studies in Pakistan.  

PubMed

Little formal research has been done in special education and rehabilitation in Pakistan because of a lack of basic groundwork and trained researchers. However, the absence of formal structures permits innovative approaches. Several low-cost, action-oriented participatory studies have been carried out at the Mental Health Centre, Peshawar. These have ranged from community survey exercises to more complex studies of attitudes towards disability, childhood developmental skills, trends in polio paralysis and casual educational integration. The studies were undertaken in collaboration with education and welfare authorities. Formal and informal channels were used to disseminate the study findings widely in Pakistan and many other countries, and to generate an on-going movement for policy development and service provision. This article summarizes results from some of these studies. It also considers problems associated with the dissemination of special education and rehabilitation research findings in developing countries like Pakistan. PMID:1830868

Miles, M

1991-01-01

414

Observations on haemorrhagic septicaemia in Pakistan livestock.  

PubMed

Information based on field observations of Veterinary Officers in nine districts of Punjab, Pakistan showed 11% incidence, 9% mortality and 78% case fatality rates of haemorrhagic septicaemia in buffalo, whereas these values were 4%, 2.5% and 62% in cattle. Disease incidence was higher in 0-24-month-old animals and groups of less than 10 animals. The disease was seasonal, occurring only in rainy seasons of the year, and victims were only cattle and buffalo. The clinical course of the disease was generally 1-2 days. symptoms included high temperature, salivation, swelling of the throat and difficulty in breathing and could result in death. Successful treatment was reported if antibiotics were given at the initial stages of the disease. Various combinations of sulphur drugs and antibiotics were considered more effective. The results of the questionnaire survey suggest that a favourable response was obtained using clamoxyl LA, farmox 15%, vesulong, gentakel and chloramphenicol. Previous vaccination of livestock with the alum-precipitated formalinized broth culture of Pasteurella multocida vaccine (bacterin) was not considered to protect against field outbreaks. PMID:8779811

Sheikh, M A; Anzam, M; Shakoori, A R

1996-07-01

415

OH point defects in olivine from Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The infrared (IR) spectra of gem-quality olivine crystals from Pakistan, formed in serpentinised dunitic rocks, are characterised by strongly pleochroic absorption bands at 3,613, 3,597, 3,580 and 3,566 cm-1. These bands are assigned to O-H stretching vibrations of OH point defects corresponding to H2O concentrations of about 35 wt ppm. Unlike other olivine spectra, the dominating bands are strongly polarised parallel to the b-axis. The unusual spectra type, excludes the presence of planar defects. This finding is supported by transmission electron microscopy. The 3,613 cm-1 band is related to vacant Si sites, the slightly lower energetic bands preferentially to vacant M2 sites. The exclusive presence of these bands is not only a characteristic feature of olivines treated under high P,T conditions equivalent to mantle environment, the presence of these bands in untreated natural olivine also indicates formation conditions equivalent to crustal rocks.

Gose, Jürgen; Schmädicke, Esther; Markowitz, Margit; Beran, Anton

2010-05-01

416

Road traffic injuries in Rawalpindi city, Pakistan.  

PubMed

Data on road traffic accident (RTA) injuries and their outcome are scarce in Pakistan. This study assessed patterns of RTA injuries reported in Rawalpindi city using standard surveillance methods. All RTA injury patients presenting to emergency departments of 3 tertiary care facilities from July 2007 to June 2008 were included. RTA injuries (n = 19 828) accounted for 31.7% of all injuries. Among children aged 0-14 years females suffered twice as many RTA injuries as males (21.3% versus 11.4%), whereas this trend reversed for the age group 15-24 years (41.9% versus 21.7%). One-fifth of injuries were either fractures or concussion. Severity and outcome of injuries were worse for the age group 45 years and older. For every road traffic death in Rawalpindi city, 29 more people were hospitalized and 177 more received emergency department care. These results suggest the need for better RTA injury surveillance to identify preventive and control measures for the increasingly high road disease burden in this city. PMID:22259914

Farooq, U; Bhatti, J A; Siddiq, M; Majeed, M; Malik, N; Razzak, J A; Khan, M M

2011-09-01

417

Foraminiferal stratigraphy of Ranikot (Paleocene) of Pakistan  

SciTech Connect

The sedimentary deposits of Pakistan are divided into three distinct basins: the Lower Indus basin, the Upper Indus basin, and the Baluchistan basin. The Lower Indus basin is further divided into two parts; the northern part is the Sulaiman Province, and the southern part is known as Kirthar Province. The tertiary stratigraphy of Kirthar Province is conspicuous for its characteristic lithostratigraphic units. The Paleocene deposits of Kirthar Province are designated as Ranikot Group. The Ranikot Group was divided by Cheema et al in 1977 into three distinct lithostratigraphic units: the Khadro formation (Cardita beaumonti beds), Bara formation (Lower Ranikot), and Lakhra formation (Upper Ranikot). The Khadro and Lakhra formations are marine, characterized by foraminiferal assemblages. The characteristic planktonic forms are: Globigerina triloculinoides Plummer, Globorotalia pseudobulloids (Plummer), G. compressa (Plummer), G. valascoensis (Cushman), and G. pseudomenardii Bolli. The diagnostic forms of larger foraminifera are: Nummulites nuttalli Davies, Miscellanea (d'Archiac and Haime), Kathina major Smout, and Lockartia conditii (Nuttall). The planktonic foraminifera were assigned to Globorotali trinidadensis, G. pseudomenardii, and G. velasoensis zones of Kureshy in 1977, and larger foraminifera were assigned to Nummulities nuttalli zones of Kureshy in 1978.

Kureshy, A.A.

1983-03-01

418

Fourth-generation spinal instrumentation: experience with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis at a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the radiological and functional outcome of surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis using fourth-generation posterior spinal instrumentation at The Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan. Design Case series. Place and duration of study The Aga Khan University Hospital after a minimum of 2 years postoperatively. Patients and methods A total of 20 patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis were recruited into the study and evaluated for radiological and functional outcome. The study period was from 2000 to 2005. Radiological outcome was assessed using Cobb angle measurement pre and postoperatively, hence assessing percentage correction. The lower instrumented vertebra was taken as the neutral vertebra and the level was recorded. Functional outcome was determined using the Scoliosis Research Society patient administered questionnaire. All patients were called to the clinic and asked to fill in the form. Those patients who were out of the city were mailed the forms and requested via telephone to complete and return. Results Of the 20 patients operated on, twelve were female and eight were male. The average age at operation was 12.7 years. The mean Cobb angle was 69° preoperatively and 20° postoperatively, representing a percentage correction of 71%. The average duration of follow-up was 3.6 years. There was one major complication involving neurological injury post-op and two minor complications involving wound infection. The average Scoliosis Research Society score (on a scale of 1–5, with 5 being best) for pain was 4.5, self-image was 4.2, functional status was 4.1, mental status was 3.8, and satisfaction was 4.4. There was no relationship between the percentage correction of scoliosis and the functional outcome. Those patients with a high preoperative Cobb angle tended to have a better outcome for functional and mental status postoperatively. There was no relation between the lower instrumented vertebra and functional outcome. Conclusion In the correct indications, fourth-generation posterior instrumentation and fusion is a reliable and satisfactory technique to treat adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

Fazal, Akil; Lakdawala, Riaz H

2012-01-01

419

Evaluation of compliance and outcomes of a management protocol for massive postpartum hemorrhage at a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Massive postpartum hemorrhage is a life threatening obstetric emergency. In order to prevent the complications associated with this condition, an organized and step-wise management protocol should be immediately initiated. Methods An evidence based management protocol for massive postpartum hemorrhage was implemented at Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan after an audit in 2005. We sought to evaluate the compliance and outcomes associated with this management protocol 3 years after its implementation. A review of all deliveries with massive primary postpartum hemorrhage (blood loss ? 1500 ml) between January, 2008 to December, 2008 was carried out. Information regarding mortality, mode of delivery, possible cause of postpartum hemorrhage and medical or surgical intervention was collected. The estimation of blood loss was made via subjective and objective assessment. Results During 2008, massive postpartum hemorrhage occurred in 0.64% cases (26/4,052). No deaths were reported. The mean blood loss was 2431 ± 1817 ml (range: 1500 - 9000 ml). Emergency cesarean section was the most common mode of delivery (13/26; 50%) while uterine atony was the most common cause of massive postpartum hemorrhage (14/26; 54%). B-lynch suture (24%) and balloon tamponade (60%) were used more commonly as compared to our previously reported experience. Cesarean hysterectomy was performed in 3 cases (12%) for control of massive postpartum hemorrhage. More than 80% compliance was observed in 8 out of 10 steps of the management protocol. Initiation of blood transfusion at 1500 ml blood loss (89%) and overall documentation of management (92%) were favorably observed in most cases. Conclusion This report details our experience with the practical implementation of a management protocol for massive postpartum hemorrhage at a tertiary care hospital in a developing country. With the exception of arterial embolization, relatively newer, simpler and potentially safer techniques are now being employed for the management of massive postpartum hemorrhage at our institution. Particular attention should be paid to the documentation of the management steps while ensuring a stricter adherence to the formulated protocols and guidelines in order to further ameliorate patient outcomes in emergency obstetrical practice. More audits like the one we performed are important to recognize and rectify any deficiencies in obstetrical practice in developing countries. Dissemination of the same is pivotal to enable an open discourse on the improvement of existing obstetrical strategies.

2011-01-01

420

Syncrisis: The Dynamics of Health. An Analytic Series on the Interactions of Health and Socioeconomic Development. 18: Islamic Republic of Pakistan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Synopsis of the Pakistan health environment: Problems, issues and policies; Health risks, diseases and other problems affecting the Pakistan health environment; Organization and functioning of the Pakistan health system: Health and delivery of h...

A. H. Furnia

1976-01-01

421

75 FR 53732 - In the Matter of the Designation of Tehrik-e Taliban Pakistan (TTP) also known as Tehrik-I...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the Designation of Tehrik-e Taliban Pakistan (TTP) also known as Tehrik-I-Taliban Pakistan also known as Tehrik-e- Taliban also...exist with respect to Tehrik-e Taliban Pakistan (TTP), also known as...

2010-09-01

422

SCM practices and the health of the SMEs in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this research is to provide a window into the supply chain practices of the small and medium enterprise sector in Pakistan. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The Small and Medium Enterprise Center (SMEC) at the Lahore University of Management Sciences undertook a survey in 2003 to gauge the health of this sector. A survey of 650 firms in

M. Khurrum S. Bhutta; Arif I. Rana; Usman Asad

2007-01-01

423

Development of the Himalayan frontal thrust zone: Salt Range, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Salt Range is the active frontal thrust zone of the Himalaya in Pakistan. Seismic reflection data show that a 1 km offset of the basement acted as a buttress that caused the central Salt Range-Potwar Plateau thrust sheet to ramp to the surface, exposing Mesozoic and Paleozoic strata. The frontal part of the thrust sheet was folded passively as

Dan M. Baker; Robert J. Lillie; Robert S. Yeats; Gary D. Johnson; Mohammad Yousuf; Agha Sher Hamid Zamin

1988-01-01

424

PAKISTAN AND SIKH NATIONALISM: STATE POLICY AND PRIVATE PERCEPTIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper will examine Pakistan policies and perceptions of Sikh nationalism in the period from 1947 until the present day. The policies, it will be argued, have been opportunistic rather than strategic and have embraced both covert support for militancy against the Indian state in the 1980s and the attempt to use Sikhs and East Punjab as a bridge between

Ian Talbot

2010-01-01

425

Kiran Libraries for Children in Prison in Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In Pakistan, there are 7,000 children in 70 jails. From observations on why children commit crime, the author offers that the core cause is poverty; 99 per cent of young prisoners belong to deprived sections of society. They do not have access to education; living in prison is difficult; the degrading and harsh treatment adversely affects the…

Shinji, Tajima

2009-01-01

426

Pakistan's Law Enforcement Agencies -- Harnessing their Potential to Combat Terrorism.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the aftermath of 9/11, the United States embarked upon a massive global hunt for terrorists and launched 'Operation Enduring Freedom' in Afghanistan. Owing to its geographical proximity to Afghanistan, Pakistan emerged as an ally of the United States i...

D. Khan

2008-01-01

427

Learning organization and development of woman managers in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women's participation in economic activities in general and at managerial status in particular is insignificant in Pakistan. Furthermore, the opportunities for professional development of women managers are meagre because of multiple socio-cultural limitations. This paper attempts to draw a profile of female managers focusing, inter alia, on the trend and structure of women's human resource, ratio of employment, work environment

2009-01-01

428

An applied palaeohydrological study in Cholistan, Thar Desert, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 1986 to 1991 the Hydrogeology Directorate of the Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA), Lahore, and the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR), Hannover, jointly explored fresh groundwater resources in the Thar Desert of Pakistan. Low rainfall, high rates of évapotranspir ation, low ground­ water recharge and absence of perennial streams explain the general scarcity of water

M. A. GEYH; D. PLOETHNER

429

Economic potential of recycling business in Lahore, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The state of household waste recycling in Lahore city, Pakistan with a population of 7.2 million was analyzed. Data on solid waste recycling were gathered from residents of low-, middle- and high-income groups, as well as from scavengers and junkshops. The recycling activities in Lahore exert a significant impact on resource conservation, creation of jobs, provision of economic opportunity and

Syeda Adila Batool; Nawaz Chaudhry; Khalid Majeed

2008-01-01

430

Time and Opportunity To Learn in Pakistan's Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper challenges the current conventional policy view of time as a critical resource for learning. After reviewing literature on the subject, the paper analyzes the contribution of instructional time to learning using data from primary schools in Pakistan. The principal finding reported in this paper is that the amount of contact time…

Reimers, Fernando

431

Pakistan's Edible Oil Needs and Prospects for Self-sufficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

In today's world economy, financial crises have been quite rampant and have been a source of greater misery, deprivation and poverty among a growing number of countries [Wolfensehn (1998)]. Some of the major causes of this state of affairs especially in Pakistan lie in rising debt servicing liabilities, receding donor assistance and growing saving-investment and import-export gaps [UN (1997)]. To

M. Ghaffar Chaudhry; Amir Mahmood; Ghulam Mustafa Chaudhry

1998-01-01

432

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN PAKISTAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the causal relationship between energy consumption and economic growth and energy consumption and employment in Pakistan. By applying techniques of co-integration and Hsiao's version of Granger causality, the results infer that economic growth causes total energy consumption. Economic growth also leads to growth in petroleum consumption, while on the other hand, neither economic growth nor gas consumption

Anjum Aqeel; Mohammad Sabihuddin Butt

2001-01-01

433

Qualitative Inquiry into Local Education Administration in Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The level of educational development in Pakistan is low. A decentralisation reform was introduced in 2000 to improve the delivery of basic education by designating the local government body with primary responsibility for administering it. A qualitative field study on local education administration at the North West Frontier Province found…

Komatsu, Taro

2009-01-01

434

Pakistan and Terror: The Eye of the Storm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pakistan almost uniquely is both a major victim of terrorism and a major sponsor of terrorism. It has been the scene of horrific acts of terrorist violence, including the murder of Benazir Bhutto, and it has been one of the most prolific state sponsors of terror aimed at advancing its national security interests. Over the course of the past three

Bruce Riedel

2008-01-01

435

The relationship between agricultural technology and energy demand in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was two fold: (i) to investigate the casual relationship between energy consumption and agricultural technology factors, and (ii) electricity consumption and technological factors in the agricultural sector of Pakistan. The study further evaluates four alternative but equally plausible hypotheses, each with different policy implications. These are: (i) Agricultural technology factors cause energy demand (the conventional

Khalid Zaman; Muhammad Mushtaq Khan; Mehboob Ahmad; Rabiah Rustam

2012-01-01

436

Pakistan's Capital Crisis: Implications for U.S. Policy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pakistan -- a key U.S. ally in global efforts to combat Islamist militancy -- is in urgent need of an estimated $4 billion in capital to avoid defaulting on its sovereign debt. The elected government of President Asif Ali Zardari and Prime Minister Yousaf...

K. A. Kronstadt M. F. Martin

2008-01-01

437

Strategic Framework for Teacher Education and Professional Development: Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is common to find well-crafted and coherent policy designs failing to attain desired results in developing counties. Pakistan is no exception. Despite having taken a significant number of initiatives in a quest to further its Teacher Professional Development (TPD) objectives, progress remains less than satisfactory. While a number of studies…

US Agency for International Development, 2006

2006-01-01

438

Attitudes to School Science Held by Primary Children in Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Attitudes to science scales developed earlier in England have been used in and around a Pakistan city with children in Primary/Elementary Grades 4-8. The limitations of a "transferred scale" in a culturally different context are apparent in a failure to reproduce the English factor patterns, but items are identified to serve as a base for future…

Iqbal, Hafiz Muhammad; Nageen, Tabassum; Pell, Anthony William

2008-01-01

439

A Long-Term Investment in Pakistan: Early Childhood Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Despite the enormous demand for early childhood education care and education, it remains a privilege for young children in most of the world's nine high population countries, known as the E-9 group (Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Nigeria and Pakistan), according to a report published by UNESCO (2003). The World…

Hunzai, Zohra Nisar

2006-01-01

440

Customers' perceptions towards adoption of e-banking in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electronic distribution channels provide alternatives for faster delivery of banking services to a wider scope of customers. This study aims to understand customers' perception towards the potential benefits and risks associated with electronic banking in Pakistan. The outcomes would help the policy makers to develop effective strategies for future outlook of electronic banking in a country. Primary sources were used

Muhammad Shahbaz Shabbir; Ahmad Kaleem; Shabana Kirmani; Imran M. Qureshi

2011-01-01

441

Temperament Styles of Children from Pakistan and the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Age, gender, and cross-national differences of children ages 9 through 16 in Pakistan (n = 463) and the United States (n = 500) are examined on four bipolar temperament styles: Extroversion-introversion, practical-imaginative, thinking-feeling, and organized-flexible. In general, Pakistani children prefer extroverted over introverted, practical…

Oakland, Thomas; Callueng, Carmelo; Rizwan, Muhammad; Aftab, Sobia

2012-01-01

442

The pioneers of rural Pakistan: The lady health visitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1978, when the World Health Organization and the United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund called for urgent action by all governments to provide appropriate health care for the underprivileged, the world community has attempted to implement primary health care strategies. Pakistan, with a population of 118 million people, is one of those countries where the rural population and the

Jocelyn Hezekiah

1993-01-01

443

Contemporary Terrorist Threats in the UK: The Pakistan Dimension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many key international terrorists active in the West since the late 1990s, including the 7 July 2005 bombers in London, have shown linkages with the country of Pakistan. For Britain, these are facilitated by cultural and ethnic ties with the Pakistani community ? the largest Muslim group in the UK. President Musharraf rejects the notion that his country is a

Julian Richards

2007-01-01

444

Country Reports on Human Rights Practices, 2006: Pakistan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pakistan is a federal republic with a population of approximately 168 million. The head of state is President Pervez Musharraf, who assumed power after overthrowing the civilian government in 1999 and was elected president in 2002. He affirmed his right t...

2007-01-01

445

Kiran Libraries for Children in Prison in Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Pakistan, there are 7,000 children in 70 jails. From observations on why children commit crime, the author offers that the core cause is poverty; 99 per cent of young prisoners belong to deprived sections of society. They do not have access to education; living in prison is difficult; the degrading and harsh treatment adversely affects the…

Shinji, Tajima

2009-01-01

446

Library Web Sites in Pakistan: An Analysis of Content  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate library web sites in Pakistan, to analyse their content and navigational strengths and weaknesses and to give recommendations for developing better web sites and quality assessment studies. Design/methodology/approach: Survey of web sites of 52 academic, special, public and national libraries…

Qutab, Saima; Mahmood, Khalid

2009-01-01

447

Gender representation in the public sector schools textbooks of Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines gender biases in school textbooks after a decade long effort by the ministry of education (MoE) Pakistan and international organisation (IOs) to eliminate all forms of gender inequality in education. The intention underpinning these initiatives was to nurture a view of gender equality based consciousness through the introduction of more positive gendered images into school textbooks in

Hazir Ullah; Christine Skelton

2012-01-01

448

Simulating the Afghanistan-Pakistan opium supply chain  

SciTech Connect

This paper outlines an opium supply chain using the Hilmand province of Afghanistan as exemplar. The opium supply chain model follows the transformation of opium poppy seed through cultivation and chemical alteration to brown heroin base. The purpose of modeling and simulating the Afghanistan-Pakistan opium supply chain is to discover and test strategies that will disrupt this criminal enterprise.

Watkins, Jennifer H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mac Kerrow, Edward P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Merritt, Terence [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01

449

Veil and four walls: a state of terror in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The understanding of terrorism should be expanded to encompass the types of violence most often experienced by women, such as rape. Pakistani men, soldiers and civilians have used rape as a strategy of terrorism against Pakistan's women, particularly those who dare to transgress existing social hierarchies or who belong to stigmatized social groups. Moreover, the complex and sometimes contradictory set

Lisa Sharlach

2008-01-01

450

Iran?Pakistan relations: Political and strategic dimensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iran?Pakistan relations have had a distinct characteristic over the past five decades and Islamabad's clandestine transfer of nuclear technology and materials to Iran underlines its significance. Political and strategic imperatives have formed the basis of their close relationship despite divergence of interests and political outlook on regional and global issues. Both the countries have tried to reconcile differences and consolidate

Shah Alam

2004-01-01

451

Contested Identities: gendered politics, gendered religion in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Pakistan, the self-serving use of Islam by more secular elements alongside politico-religious ones facilitated the latter's increasing influence and the conflation and intricate interweaving of Islam and Pakistani nationhood. A paradigm shift under Zia's martial law revamped society as much as state laws, producing both religiously defined militias and aligned civil society groups. Examining the impact on women of

Farida Shaheed

2010-01-01

452

Injuries in Pakistan: directions for future health policy.  

PubMed

Injuries result in major financial and productivity losses to nations while inflicting tremendous personal burden on the injured and their families. Two-thirds of the global deaths from injuries occur in the developing world, consuming substantial health sector resources. Pakistan is a developing country with a population of 136 million and no reported estimate of the national impact of injuries. This study presents a profile of injuries in Pakistan, estimates the impact on the country and recommends strategies to further delineate this important public health problem. A methodical review of published, unpublished and government literature was undertaken and data collected for all types of injuries principally over the 1982-1994 period. Motor vehicle injuries, homicides, assaults, work-related injuries, poisonings and risk factors have been included. Selected epidemiological estimates have been generated and the WHO motorization index has been used to assess road-side accident risk. The lack of reliable data and under-reporting of work-related injuries is revealing. The rising time trend in all injuries, the significant loss of life from injuries and the age of those injured have a critical impact on the national economy and health system. Data on injuries in Pakistan are primarily recorded by police authorities and used for legal purposes. Pakistan must institute an information system to evaluate the true impact of injuries and develop national safety standards. Implementation of such standards is especially important for road traffic safety and occupational health in industrial units within the country. PMID:10351465

Ghaffar, A; Hyder, A A; Mastoor, M I; Shaikh, I

1999-03-01

453

Managing salinity in the Indus Basin of Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waterlogging and salinity have plagued irrigated agriculture in the Indus Basin for the past 30–40 years. Approximately 6 million ha (35–40% of total irrigated area) experience these twin problems. As a result, the production potential of the Indus Basin has been reduced by 25%. Over the last 40 years, the Government of Pakistan has adopted engineering, reclamation, and biological measures

Asad S. Quereshi; Asaf Sarwar

2009-01-01

454

Hydrology research in the upper Indus basin, Karakoram Himalaya, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the hydrological, meteoro­ logical and glaciological characteristics of the Upper Indus Basin, Pakistan as they influence water supply. In the past, apart from some long-term discharge records for the Indus and some of its major tributaries, hydrological measurements were very scarce. Meteorological measurements were almost wholly confined to valley bottom locations thus missing the hydrologically most active

G. J. YOUNG; K. HEWITT

1990-01-01

455

Multipurpose community telecenters for rural development in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The paper aims to: assess the situation of rural population in Pakistan and information facilities available to them including telecommunications, computers and public libraries; document the community information initiatives in terms of objectives, institutional framework, staff, services, use, finance, technology and lessons learned; understand challenges and opportunities regarding the establishment of multipurpose community telecenters (MCTs) in rural areas

Khalid Mahmood

2005-01-01

456

Mother's milk and pseudoscientific breastmilk testing in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In urban squatter settlements and rural villages of Pakistan, human breastmilk is regarded as a potential source of destruction as well as of nurturance. Though it is highly valued as crucial for infant survival, it is also thought susceptible to becoming tainted in many ways: by a 'shadow' from the spirit world; by 'evil eye' or black magic due to

Dorothy S. Mull

1992-01-01

457

Taxonomy of Cyber Crimes and Legislation in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

We inhabit a rapidly developing world of shifting trends. Information Technology that was considered as a key contributor in progress of any country has evolved into a nightmare in form of Cyber Crimes. Despite proper legislation, most of such offences of less severe nature remain veiled in Pakistan. Deficient law enforcement and absence of an international treaty against Cyber Crimes

M. Adeel; A. A. Chaudhry; R. A. Shaikh; S. I. Shah

2005-01-01

458

Taxation Reforms: a CGE-Microsimulation Analysis for Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an ex ante assessment of taxation reforms being considered in Pakistan, in order to widen the tax base and rationalise the rate structure of different taxes. Amongst the main proposals, those focusing on sales tax and agricultural direct taxes seem relatively more attractive. The former has the highest share in indirect taxes and is also easier to

Saira Ahmed; Vagar Ahmed; Ahsan Abbas

2010-01-01

459

Barriers to Development and Progression of Women Entrepreneurs in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Pakistan, women entrepreneurs do not enjoy the same opportunities as men due to a number of deep-rooted discriminatory socio-cultural values and traditions. Furthermore, these restrictions can be observed within the support mechanisms that exist to assist such fledgling businesswomen. The economic potential of female entrepreneurs is not being realised as they suffer from a lack of access to capital,

Muhammad Azam Roomi; Guy Parrott

2008-01-01

460

A Long-Term Investment in Pakistan: Early Childhood Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the enormous demand for early childhood education care and education, it remains a privilege for young children in most of the world's nine high population countries, known as the E-9 group (Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Nigeria and Pakistan), according to a report published by UNESCO (2003). The World…

Hunzai, Zohra Nisar

2006-01-01

461

Qualitative Inquiry into Local Education Administration in Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The level of educational development in Pakistan is low. A decentralisation reform was introduced in 2000 to improve the delivery of basic education by designating the local government body with primary responsibility for administering it. A qualitative field study on local education administration at the North West Frontier Province found…

Komatsu, Taro

2009-01-01

462

Schools for Change: A Perspective on School Improvement in Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on the deeply unsatisfactory state of public and private schooling in a developing country, Pakistan, and the half-hearted measures employed at improving these schools. In the process, the author explores the negative aspects of the ways in which change has been effected in the country's education system and why these reasons…

Riaz, Ismat

2008-01-01

463

Dilemmas of Higher Education in Pakistan: A Political Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relates problems of higher education in Pakistan since the 1950s. Intense student involvement in politics and conflict between traditional and modern versions of Islamic society have continually promoted turmoil in university life and government response to student unrest. Journal available from American-Asian Educational Exchange, Inc., 88…

Ziring, Lawrence

1978-01-01

464

Humanization of Education in Pakistan through Freire's Concept of Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pakistan is an underdeveloped country, full of socio-economic problems where a few oppress and exploit many. One of the most significant reasons, in this context, is the high illiteracy rate in the country. However, can high literacy rates guarantee peace, prosperity, and justice in any society? Clearly, not. There are several countries where the…

Raja, Nazir

2005-01-01

465

Willingness to Pay for Primary Education in Rural Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highly subsidised public schools are the principal provider of education in the rural areas of Pakistan. Steady growth of school age population over time coupled with stagnant public funding has put enormous pressure on this system. The alternative of cost recovery through user charges has its own critics. They argue that introduction of tuition fees would substantially reduce the already

Najam us Saqib

2004-01-01

466

Epidemiology of Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical and epidemiologic studies of defined geo- graphic populations can serve as a means of establishing data important for the diagnosis, treatment, and coun- seling of patients with cleft lip and cleft palate. Several descriptive epidemiologic studies have been carried out in many countries worldwide; however, no such study has ever been performed in Pakistan. Population-based data on the incidence

Mohammed Mehboob Elahi; Ian T. Jackson; Omar Elahi; Ayesha H. Khan; Fatima Mubarak; Gul Bano Tariq; Amit Mitra

2004-01-01

467

A socioeconomic survey of kidney vendors in Pakistan.  

PubMed

In recent years, Pakistan has emerged as one of the largest centres for commerce and tourism in renal transplantation. Kidney vendors belong to Punjab in eastern Pakistan, the agricultural heartland, where 34% people live below poverty line. We report results of a socioeconomic and health survey of 239 kidney vendors. The mean age was 33.6 +/- 7.2 years (M:F 3.5:1). Mean nephrectomy period was 4.8 +/- 2.3 years. Ninety per cent of the vendors were illiterate. Sixty-nine per cent were bonded labourers who were virtual slaves to landlords, labourers 12%, housewives 8.5% and unemployed 11%. Monthly income was $US15.4 +/- 8.9 with 2-11 dependents per family. Majority (93%), vended for debt repayment with mean debt of $1311.4 +/- 819. The mean agreed sale price was $1737 +/- 262. However, they received $1377 +/- 196 after deduction for hospital and travel expenses. Postvending 88% had no economic improvement in their lives and 98% reported deterioration in general health status. Future vending was encouraged by 35% to pay off debts and freedom from bondage. This study gives a snapshot of kidney vendors from Pakistan. These impoverished people, many in bondage, are examples of modern day slavery. They will remain exploited until law against bondage is implemented and new laws are introduced to ban commerce and transplant tourism in Pakistan. PMID:17645418

Naqvi, Syed Ali Anwar; Ali, Bux; Mazhar, Farida; Zafar, Mirza Naqi; Rizvi, Syed Adibul Hasan

2007-07-20

468

Cable Television Watching Habits of the Youth in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the expansion of Cable Television service to much of the nation over the past six years, concern has grown about the Cable TV watching habits of the youth in Pakistan. This study is aimed at collecting precise data to analyze the \\

Anjum Zia

469

An overview of biomass energy utilization in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy plays a pivotal role in socio-economic development by raising standard of living. Biomass has been used as an energy source for thousands of years by the humankind. Traditional fuels like firewood, dung and crop residues currently contribute a major share in meeting the everyday energy requirements of rural and low-income urban households in Pakistan. An average biomass using household

Umar K. Mirza; Nasir Ahmad; Tariq Majeed

2008-01-01

470