Sample records for karachi pakistan south

  1. Tactical cities : negotiating violence in Karachi, Pakistan

    E-print Network

    Yusuf, Huma

    2008-01-01

    This thesis examines the relationship between violence and urbanity. Using Karachi, Pakistan, as a case study, it asks how violent cities are imagined and experienced by their residents. The thesis draws on a variety of ...

  2. Primary amebic meningoencephalitis caused by Naegleria fowleri, Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Shakoor, Sadia; Beg, Mohammad Asim; Mahmood, Syed Faisal; Bandea, Rebecca; Sriram, Rama; Noman, Fatima; Ali, Farheen; Visvesvara, Govinda S; Zafar, Afia

    2011-02-01

    We report 13 cases of Naegleria fowleri primary amebic meningoencephalitis in persons in Karachi, Pakistan, who had no history of aquatic activities. Infection likely occurred through ablution with tap water. An increase in primary amebic meningoencephalitis cases may be attributed to rising temperatures, reduced levels of chlorine in potable water, or deteriorating water distribution systems. PMID:21291600

  3. Research fatigue among injecting drug users in Karachi, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Karachi is the largest metropolis of Pakistan and its economic hub attracting domestic migrants for economic opportunities. It is also the epicenter of HIV epidemic in the country. Since 2004, one pilot study and four behavioral and biological surveillance rounds have been conducted in Karachi. In addition many student research projects have also focused on key risk groups including injection drug users (IDUs). As a result of this extra ordinary exposure of same kind of questions, IDUs know how to respond to high value questions related to sharing of needles or unsafe sexual practices. The purpose of the study was to explore the element of research fatigue among IDUs in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods The study was conducted on 32 spots in Karachi, selected on the basis of estimate of IDUs at each spot. A trained field worker (recovered IDU) visited each spot; observed sharing behavior of IDUs and asked questions related to practices in January 2009. Verbal consent was obtained from each respondent before asking questions. Results On average 14 IDUs were present at each spot and out of 32 selected spots, 81% were active while more than two groups were present at 69% spots. In each group three to four IDUs were present and everyone in the group was sharing. One dose of injecting narcotics was observed. Sharing of syringes, needles and distilled water was observed at 63% spots while professional injector/street doctor was present at 60% spots. Conclusion There is a need to check internal consistency in surveillance research. It is highly likely that IDUs and other risk groups know how to respond to key questions but their responses do not match with the practices. PMID:23758666

  4. Water and Private Sector Partnership: Case of Karachi, A Mega-City of Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tahir Imran Qureshi; Young-Ju Kim

    2002-01-01

    Implementation of private sector partnership (PSP) into Karachi Water and Sewerage Board (KWSB) of Karachi, a mega-city of Pakistan, was studied. The assignment was categorized into three distinct phases: development of the most appropriate strategy for PSP; execution of the preparatory work for PSP; and implementation of the agreed program. The PSP strategy approved by Government of Sindh (GS) province

  5. Spatio-temporal patterns of road traffic noise pollution in Karachi, Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammed Raza Mehdi; Minho Kim; Jeong Chang Seong; Mudassar Hassan Arsalan

    2011-01-01

    We studied the spatial and temporal patterns of noise exposure due to road traffic in Karachi City, Pakistan, and found that levels of noise were generally higher during mornings and evenings because of the commuting pattern of Karachi residents. This study found the average value of noise levels to be over 66dB, which could cause serious annoyance according to the

  6. "Shelter within my reach" : medium rise apartment housing for the middle income group in Karachi, Pakistan

    E-print Network

    Mahmood, Saman, 1972-

    1999-01-01

    This thesis identifies the project development processes of medium rise (five storied or less) apartment housing built by the private formal sector, catering to the middle income groups in Karachi, Pakistan. Middle income ...

  7. Karachi Cancer Registry Data--implications for the National Cancer Control Program of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Bhurgri, Yasmin

    2004-01-01

    Cancer registries play a major role in providing the data to justify establishment, implementation and monitoring of cancer control programs, therefore stability in cancer registration is of pivotal importance. An erroneous assessment of the cancer burden can have long-term negative implications for the limited health resources of a country. Thus, registries starting simultaneously with cancer control programs clearly cannot be adequate for the purpose. The Karachi Cancer Registry (KCR) is the first population-based registry of Pakistan, with 9 years proven data stability (1995-2003) for Karachi South (KS), a location with a population distribution similar to that for the country in general as regards age, gender, and religion. It also has the distinction of being the only district in the country with representation of all ethnic and socio-economic groups of the country. The primary recommended strategy for the 'National Cancer Control Program' (NCCP), Pakistan based on the assessment of eight common cancers in Karachi and the WHO estimates would be identical. A curb on the epidemic levels of tobacco and areca nut use would reduce malignancies in males by 43.7% and in females by 17.8%. WHO estimates put these figures at 45% and 18.5% for males and females respectively. Primary prevention in the form of diet control, checks on preservatives, dyes, and pesticides; protection from occupational hazards, control of biological agents and solar UV protection would help control of another half of the malignancies. Resource restrictions put high technology methods beyond the scope of Pakistan today. Early detection of cancers of accessible sites, though not an urgent requirement, would be warranted for oral, cervical and breast cancer, after sufficient capacity building, initially in the high-risk groups. In females, this could help target 47.6% (approximately half) of the malignancies and in men 13% of the total. Establishment of equitable pain control and a palliative care network throughout the country is an urgent and essential measure as more than 70% of cancer patients report with very advanced stages of malignancy. The estimated annual incident cancer cases for Pakistan, year 2000 on the basis of KCR data were 138,343 for males and 135,054 for females; approximately twice the number cited by WHO for the same year. The argument that higher KCR estimates reflect an urban catchment population may be justified, the urban: rural ratio being 2:1 in Pakistan. Evidence-based strategies, however,support the counter argument, that the rising incidence of cancer in Pakistan is primarily attributable to risk factors equally prevalent in the rural and urban areas viz. increasing tobacco use, low socio-economic conditions, dietary deficiencies and prevalence of oncogenic viruses. Pakistan has a significant cancer burden and rising trends of risk factors - it is a country in dire need of a Cancer Control Program. KCR data along with WHO estimates can form the initial framework of a NCCP in Pakistan; the lack of a national cancer registration should not deter initiatives. Benefits of an immediate, prompt and targeted implementation established today will be realized after 20-30 years. Otherwise the country should be prepared to face epidemic proportions of the disease in the next decade or two. Prerequisite 'qualification criteria' or 'sincerity of intent test' for NCCP funding by international donors should be legislation against tobacco and areca nuts in Pakistan and stringent evaluative criteria. PMID:15075010

  8. Academic misconduct among students in medical colleges of Karachi, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Hafeez, Kamran; Laiq-uz-Zaman Khan, Muhammad; Jawaid, Masood; Haroon, Saroona

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the trends of academic misconduct in undergraduate students of different private and government section medical institutes. Methodology: This cross sectional study was conducted at three medical colleges of Karachi, Pakistan. The students were evaluated by giving a self reported questionnaire containing various questions assessing their educational dishonesty and cheating behaviors. Results: A total of 274 students from different years completed the questionnaire. Mean age was 21.48 ± 1.89 years. Most of the students were in 4th year (n=86; 31.3%). There were 182 (66.5%) females and 92 (33.5%) males. Majority of the students (n=155; 55.1%) accepted that they have cheated at least once. There was no significant difference regarding acceptance of cheating among different years of study (p=0.23) however females were found to accept cheating more as compared to males (p=0.036). First year students were found more to ask teachers for answers during OSCE (p=0.01). A large number of students accepted that they mark proxy for their friends (85.7%) and also ask their friends to mark proxy for them (85.03%). Nearly half (44.02%) of the students rotating in wards also admitted to write fake histories. Conclusion: A large number of medical students admitted cheating and involvement in other academic misconduct. We need to improve our educational system, formally add professional session and strict disciplinary action should be taken against those who are found guilty. PMID:24353611

  9. Heavy Metals Contamination in Coastal Sediments of Karachi, Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Siddique; M. Mumtaz; N. A. Zaigham; K. A. Mallick; S. Saied; H. A. Khwaja

    2008-01-01

    Toxic compounds such as heavy metals exert chronic and lethal effects in animals, plants, and human health. With the rapid industrialization, urbanization, and economic development in Karachi, heavy metals are continuing to be introduced to estuarine and coastal environment through rivers, runoff and land-based point sources. Pollution in the Karachi coastal region (167 km long) is mainly attributed to Lyari

  10. Knowledge and Attitude of General Practitioners regarding Autism in Karachi, Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahbar, Mohammad Hossein; Ibrahim, Khalid; Assassi, Parisa

    2011-01-01

    General practitioners (GPs) could have an important role in early diagnosis of autism. There have been no studies evaluating the knowledge of GPs regarding autism in Pakistan. We aimed to fill that gap by assessing knowledge and attitude of GPs in Karachi regarding autism. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 348 GPs; only 148 (44.6%) had…

  11. Dietary risk factors associated with acute and persistent diarrhea in children in Karachi, Pakistan13

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Salma H Badruddin; Asma Islam; Kristy M Hendricks; Zulfiqar A Bhutta; Salahuddin Shaikh; John D Snyder; A Majid Molla

    Feeding practices may have an important im- pact on diarrheal diseases in developing countries. This study evaluated feeding practices in three groups of male children aged 6-36 mo: 100 with persistent diarrhea (PD), 79 with acute diar- rhea (AD), and 86 in a comparison group (CG). The children came from comparably poor socioeconomic settings in Karachi, Pakistan, except that the

  12. Limited effectiveness of home drinking water purification efforts in Karachi, Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen E. Luby; Amber H. Syed; Naureen Atiullah; Mohammad K. Faizan; Susan Fisher-Hoch

    2000-01-01

    Objective: In many developing-country urban areas, municipally supplied water is not microbiologically safe. This study evaluated drinking water quality and effect of home water purification efforts in Karachi, Pakistan.Methods: Members of 300 households, including 100 households who used the Aga Khan University Hospital Laboratory and 200 of their neighbors were interviewed. In 293 consenting households, structured observations were performed and

  13. The Main Reasons of Declining Educational Standards at Secondary Level in Karachi, Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faizi, Waqar-un-Nisa; Shakil, Anila Fatima; Lodhi, Farida Azim

    2011-01-01

    The cause of this investigation was to identify the main reasons which decline the educational standards at secondary level in Karachi, Pakistan. It was carried out through survey. The population of the study was both "government and private" schools students and teachers. The views of male and female students and teachers were sought out. One…

  14. Menstrual Knowledge and Practices of Female Adolescents in Urban Karachi, Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Tazeen Saeed; Rizvi, Syeda Naghma

    2010-01-01

    Menstruation is a normal physiological process that is managed differently according to various social and cultural understandings. Therefore, this cross-sectional study was conducted to explore the menstrual practices among 1275 female adolescents of urban Karachi, Pakistan from April to October 2006 by using interviews. Data was entered and…

  15. Predictors of obesity among post graduate trainee doctors working in a tertiary care hospital of public sector in Karachi, Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sajid Mahmood; Muhammad Kazim Rahim Najjad; Nasir Ali; Naeem Yousuf; Yasir Hamid

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To identify the predictors of obesity among post graduate trainee doctors working in a tertiary care hospital of public sector at Karachi, Pakistan.METHODS: A cross sectional analytical study was conducted at one of the tertiary care hospitals of public sector in Karachi. Information was collected from 117 post graduate trainee doctors via pre-tested self administered questionnaire and standard tools

  16. Prevalence of byssinosis in spinning and textile workers of Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Memon, Ismail; Panhwar, Amanullah; Rohra, Dileep K; Azam, Syed Iqbal; Khan, Nadir

    2008-01-01

    The authors measured prevalence of byssinosis in spinning and textile workers of Karachi, Pakistan, and examined association of the disease with demographic and environmental factors. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in 3 spinning and textile mills and 3 colonies inhabited by spinning and textile workers. A precoded questionnaire was administered to the workers and followed by physical and clinical examination. Among 362 textile workers, the authors found the prevalence of byssinosis to be 35.6%. Educational status of the workers and section of the mill were significantly associated with prevalence of the disease. The authors conclude that there is a high prevalence of byssinosis in spinning and textile workers of Karachi. Furthermore, low education level and work in the spinning section of the mill appear to contribute significantly to the high prevalence of the disease in Pakistan. PMID:18980877

  17. Knowledge and Attitude of General Practitioners Regarding Autism in Karachi, Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad Hossein Rahbar; Khalid Ibrahim; Parisa Assassi

    2011-01-01

    General practitioners (GPs) could have an important role in early diagnosis of autism. There have been no studies evaluating\\u000a the knowledge of GPs regarding autism in Pakistan. We aimed to fill that gap by assessing knowledge and attitude of GPs in\\u000a Karachi regarding autism. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 348 GPs; only 148 (44.6%) had heard of “autism.” Our

  18. Knowledge and attitudes about tetanus and rabies: a population-based survey from Karachi, Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad Wasay; Abdul Malik; Ammad Fahim; Adnan Yousuf; Rajesh Chawla; Haroon Daniel; Muhammad Rafay; Iqbal Azam; Junaid Razzak

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate public knowledge regarding predisposing factors, fatality and prevention of Tetanus and Rabies and attitudes toward vaccination and post-exposure prophylaxis.METHODS: A population-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted in all the 18 towns of Karachi, the largest metropolitan city of Pakistan, from December 2007 to January 2008. Men and women of more than 18 years of age were included in

  19. Risk Factors for Neonatal Mortality in Low-Income Population Subgroups in Karachi, Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Hussain

    2002-01-01

    This paper assesses the risk factors for neonatal mortality (0–28 days of life) for full-term singleton live births. The study sample comprised 1,011 ever-married women who were residents of four multi-ethnic, multi-religious low-income areas of Karachi, Pakistan during 1995. The analysis sample was restricted to 4,488 live births to 912 women. Results showed that 4.8% (n = 217) of all

  20. Vitamin D Levels in Asymptomatic Adults-A Population Survey in Karachi, Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adil Sheikh; Zeb Saeed; Syed Ali Danial Jafri; Iffat Yazdani; Syed Ather Hussain

    2012-01-01

    BackgroundIt is well established that low levels of 25(OH) Vitamin D (<30 ng\\/dL) are a common finding world over, affecting over a billion of the global population. Our primary objective was to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in the asymptomatic adult population of Karachi, Pakistan and the demographic, nutritional and co-morbidity characteristics associated with serum vitamin

  1. Consequences of traffic noise in residents of Karachi, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Imtiaz Ather; Nizami, Sohaib; Chandio, Rida Rouf; Nizami, Saad; Sikander, Nazish; Ashraf, Sana

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To find out effect of road traffic noise on human beings in busy places of Karachi, working at these places and to compare its results with the previously done studies on this subject. Methods: This prospective epidemiological study was designed to evaluate effects of Noise induced hearing Loss due to road traffic at different places (Gurumander, Tibet Centre, Marry Weather Tower) of Karachi. A sample of 125 cases were randomly selected who had noise exposure of 90 dB or above of their surroundings for more than 6 months. The study was conducted from October 1st 2013 to January 1st 2013. Results: The minimum age was 18 years while maximum age was 47 years. The age group found most affected was from 23 years to 27 years. The males were 84% and females 16%. Subjects exposed to noise for more than 12 hours per day were 36.8%. Varying degree of hearing loss was evaluated in subjects where 17.6% were normal, 33.6% had mild hearing loss, 45.6% had moderate and 3.2% had moderately severe hearing loss. Traffic noise was found to bother 55.2% of subjects. Conclusion: Analysis of data indicates an enormous increase in noise levels as compared to previous studies. This study establishes that there exists a concrete direct link between NIHL and duration of exposure to noise above permissible levels. Traffic authorities should initiate measures to reduce the noise levels in the city particularly at more noisy places.

  2. How well can physicians manage Tuberculosis? A Public-Private sector comparison from Karachi, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) is endemic in Pakistan which ranks fifth amongst the twenty two countries designated to be highly burdened by TB according to the World Health Organization. However, there is paucity of data regarding the knowledge of diagnosis of TB and its management amongst public and private practitioners. In this study, we endeavor to identify this gap in knowledge regarding the diagnosis and management of TB between public and private doctors and the factors affecting these knowledge scores in urban Pakistan. Methods This cross sectional survey was conducted between June and December 2011. Doctors from public hospitals, private hospitals and private clinics scattered in all eighteen towns of Karachi were included in the study. Qualified MBBS doctors working in any specialty were eligible to participate whereas doctors working in both the public and private sectors were excluded from the study. Vignette based clinical scenarios were given to assess the knowledge score regarding the diagnosis and management of TB. Results A total of 196 doctors participated in the study. There was a significant difference between private and public physicians in terms of age and years of practice (p-value <0.05). Significant differences in the proportion of knowledge scores were observed between the public and private doctors and National TB Control Program trained and untrained doctors in Karachi. Factors associated with inadequate knowledge scores were being female gender [OR: 2.76 (95% CI: 1.418-5.384)], private employment status [OR: 1.50 (95% CI: 1.258-2.439)], and not trained by NTP [OR: 2.98 (95% CI: 1.286-3.225)] on multivariate logistic regression analysis. Conclusion It is concluded that a knowledge gap exists between the public and private doctors in Karachi. Strengthening of currently implemented public private mix model along with improvement in the trainings of public and private practitioners is highly recommended to control TB in Pakistan. PMID:24156568

  3. Applying community-based participatory research methods to improve maternal and child health in Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Karmaliani, Rozina; McFarlane, Judith; Asad, Nargis; Madhani, Farhana; Hirani, Saima; Shehzad, Shireen; Zaidi, Anita

    2009-01-01

    To achieve health for all, the development of partnerships between community residents and researchers is essential. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) engages community members, uses local knowledge in the understanding of health problems and the design of interventions, and invests community members in the processes and products of research. CBPR pivots on an iterative process of open communication, mutual respect, and power sharing to build community capacity to sustain effective health interventions. This article describes how the tenets of CBPR were applied by a multidisciplinary, international research team of maternal-child health specialists toward better health for women and children in multilingual, multiethnic, low socioeconomic communities in Karachi, Pakistan. PMID:19631062

  4. Comparison between Satellite and Ground Based Ozone data of Karachi, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakir Hussain, S.; Siddiqui, Z.; Ghauri, B.

    Ozone occupies a very important place in the list of atmospheric consequents, firstly because of the significant role of ozone in controlling the chemical composition of the atmosphere and climate and secondly because of the detrimental effects of it's high surface concentrations on vegetation and human health. Ozone is present in the atmosphere at all altitude from surface upto 100 Km. Most of the ozone is formed in stratosphere at altitude between 15 to 50 Km. The presence of ozone in the lower and middle stratosphere is more pronounced, whereas the concentration of ozone in the upper atmosphere decreases with height. Measurements of surface ozone concentration in the ambient air of Karachi (Pakistan) is continuously been made in SUPARCO. In Karachi, because of large number of cloudless sunny days over the year and considerable high emission of Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) and Hydrocarbons originating from vehicular exhausts and industrial combustion of fossil fuel, the local formation of ozone can hardly be over looked. However, urban photosynthesis of ozone does not seem significant as far as the concentration of surface ozone observed in and around Karachi. The total ozone in the vertical air column is cumulative value of the total ozone content over a given geographical region. The Total Ozone contenet has been, acquired through TOROS Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) system of NOAA series of satellites at SUPARCO Karachi. In this paper, the ground based ozone concentration data as well as the total ozone content present in the vertical column, have been satisfactorily analysed. The analysis of these data has revealed that, a reasonable correlation between surface ozone and the total ozone content exists. It is expected that the regression fit would also be valid for other places. The seasonal and diurnal variation in the ozone concentration at ground level and total ozone content have also been studied. It has been found that, the Total ozone content varies not only with latitude but also with the time of the year.

  5. Breast cancer risk factor knowledge among nurses in teaching hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan: a cross-sectional study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Faiza Ahmed; Sadia Mahmud; Juanita Hatcher; Shaista M Khan

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in both the developed and the developing world. The incidence of breast cancer in Karachi, Pakistan is 69.1 per 100,000 with breast cancer presentation in stages III and IV being common (? 50%). The most pragmatic solution to early detection lies in breast cancer education of women. Nurses constitute a

  6. Studies on the bioactivity and elementology of marine algae from the coast of Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Muhammad Afzal; Shameel, Mustafa

    2004-11-01

    Some species of marine benthic algae belonging to the Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta collected from different coastal areas of Karachi (Pakistan) were investigated for their antibacterial, antifungal, phytotoxic and insecticidal activities. Brown seaweeds showed greater antibacterial activity than the green and red ones. Botryocladia leptopoda (J. Ag.) Kylin exhibited the greatest antifungal activity and Codium shameelii Nizam. the least. The highest phytotoxic activity (95%) was displayed by Enteromorpha intestinalis (L.) Nees at 100 microg/mL concentration, while Osmundea pinnatifida (Huds.) Stack. showed the low insecticidal activity as compared to the other investigated species. Many elements e.g. Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, Pb, Zn were determined quantitatively. Among them Ca, Cr and Pb were found to occur in largest amount in green seaweeds, Co, Cu, Fe and Zn in greatest quantity in brown seaweeds, while Cd, K, Mg and Na in highest proportion in the investigated red seaweeds. PMID:15597330

  7. Status of free-living amoebae (Acanthamoeba spp., Naegleria fowleri, Balamuthia mandrillaris) in drinking water supplies in Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Yousuf, Farzana Abubakar; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Subhani, Faysal; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2013-06-01

    The ability of pathogenic free-living amoebae to produce infections is a growing concern. In this study, we investigated the presence of free-living amoebae (Acanthamoeba spp., Naegleria fowleri, Balamuthia mandrillaris) in drinking water supplies in Karachi, Pakistan. Fifty-two domestic tap water samples were examined. Amoebae were identified by morphological characteristics and polymerase chain reaction. Thirty percent of the examined samples were positive for Acanthamoeba spp., 8% for N. fowleri while B. mandrillaris were not recovered. Additionally we examined secretory IgA antibody to Acanthamoeba and B. mandrillaris. Acanthamoeba antibody prevalence rate was 100% in both males and females, while B. mandrillaris antibody prevalence rate was 5.5% in males only (females were negative). Our findings suggest that free-living amoebae are a potential health hazard in domestic water supplies in Karachi, Pakistan. PMID:23708583

  8. Understanding the knowledge and perceptions about clubfoot in Karachi, Pakistan: a qualitative exploration.

    PubMed

    Burfat, Aziza; Mohammed, Shama; Siddiqi, Osman; Samad, Lubna; Khan, Mansoor Ali; Chinoy, Mohammad Amin

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores local knowledge and perceptions about clubfoot in the Indus Hospital's catchment population in Karachi, Pakistan. Data was collected through seven focus group discussions with community members and Lady Health Workers, nine in-depth interviews with parents of children with treated or untreated clubfoot, and one interview with an adult with untreated clubfoot. We found that participants were unable to distinguish clubfoot from other disabilities. Moreover, participants had a number of beliefs about the causes of clubfoot, which included lunar and solar eclipses, religious explanations, the health status and behaviours of parents, and genetics. While participants were aware of surgery and other allopathic treatments for clubfoot, many also believed in traditional and religious treatments or were unaware that clubfoot is a treatable condition. This study is the first of its kind in Pakistan and provides important insights that clubfoot programs need comprehensive strategies to raise awareness about clubfoot amongst community members, health providers, and religious leaders in order to be successful. PMID:24027475

  9. Perception and attitude of general practitioners regarding generic medicines in Karachi, Pakistan: A questionnaire based study

    PubMed Central

    Jamshed, Shazia Qasim; Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham Mohamed; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi Ahmad; Masood, Imran; Low, Bee Yean; Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Babar, Zaheer-ud-din

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: In developing countries out-of-pocket payments (OOP) are as high as 80% of healthcare spending. Generic medicines can be instrumental in reducing this expenditure. The current study is aimed to explore the knowledge, perception, and attitude of general practitioners towards generic medicines in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods: This exploratory, descriptive study was conducted on a sample of 289 randomly selected general practitioners who were dispensing at their private clinics in Karachi, Pakistan. The questionnaires were distributed and collected by hand. Data was entered to SPSS version 17. Fischer’s exact test was applied to see the association between variables. Results: A total of 206 questionnaires were included in the study. A response rate of 71.3% was achieved. Out of 206 respondents, 139 (67.5%) were male while 67 (32.5%) respondents were female. Close to three quaters of the respondents (n= 148; 71.8%) showed correct knowledge about generic medicines being a ‘copy of the brand name medicines’ and ‘interchangeable with brand name medicines’ (n= 148; 71.8%). In terms of safety, the majority of respondents (n=85; 41.26%) incorrectly understood that the generic medicines are less safe than brand name medicines. The total percentage of correct responses was seen in 53% of the respondents. More than half of the respondents agreed that locally manufactured medicines are of the same effectiveness as brand name medicines (n=114; 55.4%). Male practitioners with practice experience of 11-15 years showed positive perception towards the quality of multinational products. The Majority of respondents believed that their prescribing decision is influenced by medical representatives (n=117; 56.8%). More than three-quarters of the respondents expressed their wish to prescribe low cost medicines in their practice (n=157; 76.2%). More than one third of the respondents expressed their uneasiness to prescribe products from all local manufacturers (n=72; 35%). Conclusion: There were gaps identified in the knowledge of respondents. Although good perception and attitude were noted among the respondents, dissemination of information regarding generic medicines may perhaps strengthen generic prescribing. There is a need to introduce ‘Quality by Design’ concept in local manufacturing units. This, in turn, can inculcate confidence in prescribers towards locally manufactured generic medicines. PMID:23093896

  10. Demographic survey of the level and determinants of perinatal mortality in Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Fikree, F F; Gray, R H

    1996-01-01

    A demographic survey was used to estimate the level and determinants of perinatal mortality in eight lower socio-economic squatter settlements of Karachi, Pakistan. The perinatal mortality rate was 54.1 per 1000 births, with a stillbirth to early neonatal mortality ratio of 1:1. About 65% of neonatal deaths occurred in the early neonatal period, and early neonatal mortality contributed 32% of all infant deaths. Risk factor assessment was conducted on 375 perinatal deaths and 6070 current survivors. Poorer socio-economic status variables such as maternal and paternal illiteracy, maternal work outside the home and fewer household assets were significantly associated with perinatal mortality as were biological factors of higher parental age, short birth intervals and poor obstetric history. Multivariable logistic analysis indicated that some socio-economic factors retained their significance after adjusting for the more proximate biological factors. Population attributable risk estimates suggest that public health measures for screening of high-risk women and use of family planning to space births will not improve perinatal mortality substantially without improvement of socio-economic conditions, particularly maternal education. The results of this study indicate that an evaluation of perinatal mortality can be conducted using pregnancy histories derived from demographic surveys. PMID:8746434

  11. Human papillomavirus infection in women with and without cervical cancer in Karachi, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Raza, S A; Franceschi, S; Pallardy, S; Malik, F R; Avan, B I; Zafar, A; Ali, S H; Pervez, S; Serajuddaula, S; Snijders, P J F; van Kemenade, F J; Meijer, C J L M; Shershah, S; Clifford, G M

    2010-01-01

    Background: No data exist on the population prevalence of, or risk factors for, human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in predominantly Muslim countries in Asia. Methods: Cervical specimens were obtained from 899 married women aged 15–59 years from the general population of Karachi, Pakistan and from 91 locally diagnosed invasive cervical cancers (ICCs). HPV was detected using a GP5+/6+ PCR-based assay. Results: The prevalence of HPV in the general population was 2.8%, with no evidence of higher HPV prevalence in young women. The positivity of HPV was associated with women's lifetime number of sexual partners, but particularly with the age difference between spouses and other husbands' characteristics, such as extramarital sexual relationships and regular absence from home. The HPV16/18 accounted for 24 and 88% of HPV-positive women in the general population and ICC, respectively. Conclusion: Cervical cancer prevention policies should take into account the low HPV prevalence and low acceptability of gynaecological examination in this population. PMID:20407442

  12. Time Trends in the Incidence of Cancer Cervix in Karachi South, 1995-2002

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasmin Bhurgri; Shahid Pervez; Naila Kayani; Muneeza Afif; Imran Tahir; Kauser Nazir; Ahmed Usman; Naveen Faridi; Hadi Bhurgri; Jawaid Malik; Imtiaz Bashir; Asif Bhurgri; Rashida Ahmed; Sheema H Hasan; Mohammed Khurshed; SMH Zaidi

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: The objective of the study was to determine the trends of cancer cervix in Karachi South during an eight (1995-2002) year period. Methodology: Cancer cervix cases recorded at Karachi Cancer Registry during 1st January 1995 to 31st December 2002 were analyzed. Trends were studied by analyzing the age standardized incidence rates (ASR)s in 2 time periods, 1995-97 and 1998-2002.

  13. Development of an economic skill building intervention to promote women's safety and child development in Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Hirani, Saima Shams; Karmaliani, Rozina; McFarlane, Judith; Asad, Nargis; Madhani, Farhana; Shehzad, Shireen; Ali, Nazbano Ahmed

    2010-02-01

    Violence against women is a global epidemic phenomenon that can result in major mental health problems. Not only are women affected but also the health and well-being of their children are in jeopardy. To prevent violence and promote women's safety, several strategies have been tested in various cultural contexts. This article describes the process of developing and validating an economic skill building intervention for women of an urban slum area of Karachi, Pakistan. The purpose of the intervention is to increase women's economic independence, promote women's safety, and improve the behavioral functioning of their children. PMID:20070221

  14. Violence permeating daily life: a qualitative study investigating perspectives on violence among women in Karachi, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Tazeen S; Krantz, Gunilla; Mogren, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study explored how married women perceive situations which create family conflicts and lead to different forms of violence in urban Pakistan. In addition, it examines perceptions of consequences of violence, their adverse health effects, and how women resist violence within marital life. Methods: Five focus group discussions were conducted with 28 women in Karachi. Purposive sampling, aiming for variety in age, employment status, education, and socioeconomic status, was employed. The focus group discussions were conducted in Urdu and translated into English. Manifest and latent content analysis were applied. Results: One major theme emerged during the analysis, ie, family violence through the eyes of females. This theme was subdivided into three main categories. The first category, ie, situations provoking violence and their manifestations, elaborates on circumstances that provoke violence and situations that sustain violence. The second category, ie, actions and reactions to exposure to violence, describes consequences of ongoing violence within the family, including those that result in suicidal thoughts and actions. The final category, ie, resisting violence, describes how violence is avoided through women’s awareness and actions. Conclusion: The current study highlights how female victims of abuse are trapped in a society where violence from a partner and family members is viewed as acceptable, where divorce is unavailable to the majority, and where societal support of women is limited. There is an urgent need to raise the subject of violence against women and tackle this human rights problem at all levels of society by targeting the individual, family, community, and societal levels concurrently. PMID:23152709

  15. Emergency medical services and cultural determinants of an emergency in Karachi, Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junaid A. Razzak; David C. Cone; Rifat Rehmani

    2001-01-01

    Objectives. The study was conducted to understand the prehospital system in Karachi, the mode of transport that adult inpatients use to reach the emergency departments (EDs), and the barriers to the use of ambulances. Methods. The study consisted of two parts. The first part involved interviewing the administrators of major ambulance services in Karachi. The second part consisted of a

  16. Prevalence and factors associated with irritable bowel syndrome among medical students of Karachi, Pakistan: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and its association with stress, has not been studied among university students in Pakistan. We investigated the prevalence and the pattern of anxiety related IBS symptoms among medical students of Karachi. Findings An observational case–control study was carried out at three medical colleges of Karachi, Pakistan. Random sampling was done on 360 medical students. Data was collected using validated tools “Rome III Criteria” and “Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire”. Participants with IBS were diagnosed on the criteria having experienced abdominal discomfort at least 2–3?days/month associated with high level of anxiety. The apparent prevalence of IBS was found to be 28.3%, with a predominance of 87 (85.29%) females (85.29%) over males (14.71%). The psychological symptoms of anxiety were encountered in 57 (55.8%) participants with IBS, among which males were 15.7% and females 84.2% respectively. Conclusion Students who more frequently suffer with mental stress and anxiety are more associated with IBS. PMID:22624886

  17. In vitro Activity of Tigecycline and Other Tetracyclines against Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter Species: Report from a Tertiary Care Centre in Karachi, Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sadia Shakoor; Erum Khan; Afia Zafar; Rumina Hasan

    2010-01-01

    Background: The Aga Khan University Hospital is a tertiary care centre in Karachi, Pakistan, where tigecycline has not been used previously. We report findings of a pre-use in vitro study to evaluate sensitivity of nosocomial Acinetobacter spp. Tigecycline minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was correlated with that of other tetracyclines to assess their predictive potential. Methods:Acinetobacter spp. were collected from hospitalized

  18. Fitting the Bill: Commissioned Theatre Projects on Human Rights in Pakistan--The Work of Karachi-Based Theatre Group "Tehrik e Niswan"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mundrawala, Asma

    2007-01-01

    Theatre practitioners in Pakistan's southern city Karachi have seen a recent surge of interest in the past two decades by donor agencies from the Western world to fund theatre companies and employ various forms of theatre for development to service their agendas and areas of interest within their target communities. This trend may have lent a…

  19. Power, self-care, and health in women living in urban squatter settlements in Karachi, Pakistan: A test of Orem's theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marilyn Bell Lee

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the contribution of selected conditioning factors, perceptions of power, and other components of self-care in explaining health outcomes of women living in urban squatter settlements was conducted in Karachi, Pakistan. Statement's in Orem's theory were used to construct a theoretical model which was tested using four hypotheses about: (a) the role of

  20. Metal pollution and ecological risk assessment in marine sediments of Karachi Coast, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Mashiatullah, Azhar; Chaudhary, Muhammad Zaman; Ahmad, Nasir; Javed, Tariq; Ghaffar, Abdul

    2013-02-01

    Concentrations of 12 metals (Fe, Mn, Cr, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, U, V, Zn, and Zr) in surface sediments of Karachi Coast, Pakistan were determined to evaluate their distribution and pollution assessment. The measured metals in the sediments were found to be in the range of Fe, 0.84-6.96 %; Mn, 300-1,300 ?g/g; Cr, 12.0-319.84 ?g/g; Mo, 0.49-2.03 ?g/g; Ni, 1.53-58.86 ?g/g; Pb, 9.0-49.46 ?g/g; Se, 0.25-.86 ?g/g; Sr, 192-1185 ?g/g; U, 0.19-1.66 ?g/g; V, 15.80-118.20 ?g/g; Zn, 15.60-666.28 ?g/g; and Zr, 44.02-175.26 ?g/g. The mean contents of the metal studied were: Fe, 3.07 %, Mn, 0.05 %; Cr, 96.75 ?g/g; Mo, 1.34 ?g/g; Ni, 31.39 ?g/g; Pb, 23.24 ?g/g; Se, 0.61 ?g/g; Sr, 374.83 ?g/g; U, 0.64 ?g/g; V, 61.75 ?g/g; Zn, 204.75 ?g/g; and Zr:76.27 ?g/g, and arrangement of the metals from higher to lower mean content in this area is: Fe > Zn > Mn > Sr > Zn > Cr > Zr > V > Ni > Pb > Mo > U > Se. There is no significant correlation among most of these metals, indicating different anthropogenic and natural sources. To assess ecotoxic potential of marine sediments, Numerical Sediment Quality Guidelines were also applied. The concentration of Pb in all the sediments except one was lower than the threshold effect concentration (TECs) showing that there are no harmful effects to marine life from Pb. On the other hand, the concentrations of Cr, Ni, and Zn exceeded TEC in three stations, indicating their potential risk. The degree of pollution in sediments for metals was assessed by calculating enrichment factor (EF) and pollution load index (PLI). The results indicated that sediments of Layari River Mouth Area, Fish Harbour, and KPT Boat Building Area are highly enriched with Cr and Zn (EF > 5). Sediments of Layari River Outfall Zone were moderately enriched with Ni and Pb (EF > 2). The pollution load index was found in the range of 0.98 to 1.34. Lower values of PLI (? 1) at most of sampling locations imply no appreciable input from anthropogenic sources. However, relatively higher PLI values (>1) at Layari River Mouth Area, Fish Harbour, and KPT Boat Building Area are attributed to increased human activity in the area. PMID:22580789

  1. Acute health effects of the Tasman Spirit oil spill on residents of Karachi, Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naveed Zafar Janjua; Pashtoon Murtaza Kasi; Haq Nawaz; Sadia Zohra Farooqui; Urooj Bakht Khuwaja; Najam-ul-Hassan; Syed Nadim Jafri; Shahid Ali Lutfi; Muhammad Masood Kadir; Nalini Sathiakumar

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: On July 27 2003, a ship carrying crude oil run aground near Karachi and after two weeks released 37,000 tons of its cargo into the sea. Oil on the coastal areas and fumes in air raised health concerns among people. We assessed the immediate health impact of oil spill from the tanker Tasman Spirit on residents of the affected

  2. Influence of an enforcement campaign on seat-belt and helmet wearing, karachi-hala highway, pakistan.

    PubMed

    Bhatti, Junaid A; Ejaz, Kiran; Razzak, Junaid A; Tunio, Israr Ali; Sodhar, Irshad

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed to what extent an enforcement campaign influenced seat-belt and helmet wearing on a Pakistani highway. The study setting was the Karachi-Hala highway where a traffic enforcement campaign was conducted from Dec 2009 to Feb 2010. Seat-belt and helmet wearing were observed in Nov 2009 and Apr 2010 at Karachi toll plaza. Differences in wearing rates as a function of occupants' age, sex, and vehicle type were compared between the two periods. On average, 9 119 (Standard deviation=1 896) traffic citations were issued per month from Aug 2009 to Feb 2010; 4.2% of which were for not wearing helmet. A 22.5% increase in citations was observed for Dec 2009 to Feb 2010 periods compared with Aug 2009 to Oct 2009 periods. Nearly six thousand four-wheeled and four hundred two-wheeled motorized vehicle occupants were observed in Nov 2009 and Apr 2010. Overall, two of the five drivers and one of the five front seat occupants wore seat belts. This proportion was significantly higher in drivers and front-seat occupants of cars than those of heavier vehicles. Similarly, one of two motorcyclists used a helmet but this proportion was 5.8% for pillion riders in Nov 2009. The increased enforcement had a limited influence on belt wearing in drivers (+4.0%; 95% Confidence Interval [95%CI]=1.8-6.1) and occupants (+6.2%; 95%CI=4.2-8.2). A higher increase was observed for motorcyclists (+9.8%; 95%CI=2.6-16.8) and pillion riders (+12.8%; 95%CI=5.4, 20.5). These results suggested that serious efforts are required to increase seat-belt and helmet use on Pakistani highways. Improving enforcement resources, increased fines, not allowing such vehicles on roads, and awareness campaigns targeting drivers of heavy vehicles might increase wearing rates in Pakistan. PMID:22105384

  3. Understanding and perceptions of final-year Doctor of Pharmacy students about generic medicines in Karachi, Pakistan: a quantitative insight

    PubMed Central

    Jamshed, Shazia Qasim; Ibrahim, Mohamad Izham Mohamad; Hassali, Mohamad Azmi; Sharrad, Adheed Khalid; Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Babar, Zaheer-Ud-Din

    2015-01-01

    General objective To evaluate the understanding and perceptions of generic medicines among final-year Doctor of Pharmacy students in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods A 23-item survey instrument that included a question on the bioequivalence limits and Likert-type scale questions regarding the understanding and perceptions of generic medicines among the students was executed. Cronbach’s alpha was found to be 0.62. Results Responses were obtained from 236 final-year Doctor of Pharmacy students (n=85 from a publicly funded institute; n=151 from a privately funded institute). When comparing a brand-name medicine to a generic medicine, pharmacy students scored poorly on bioequivalence limits. More than 80% of the students incorrectly answered that all the products that are rated as generic equivalents are therapeutically equivalent to each other (P<0.04). Half of the students agreed that a generic medicine is bioequivalent to the brand-name medicine (P<0.001). With regard to quality, effectiveness, and safety, more than 75% of the students disagreed that generic medicines are of inferior quality and are less effective than brand-name medicines (P<0.001). More than 50% of the students disagreed that generic medicines produce more side effects than brand-name medicines (P<0.001). Conclusion The current study identified a positive perception toward generic medicines but also gaps in the understanding of generic medicines. Pharmacy students lacked a thorough understanding of the concepts of bioequivalence. Pharmacy academia should address these issues, which will help build confidence in generic medicines and increase the generic medicine use in Pakistan. PMID:26028981

  4. Effect of pesticide residues on health and blood parameters of farm workers from rural Gadap, Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Azmi, M Ahmed; Naqvi, S N H; Akhtar, Kehkashan; Moinuddin; Parveen, Shahida; Parveen, Rehana; Aslam, M

    2009-09-01

    The samples were collected from 83 persons on 1 day (reading-I), 7 days (reading-II) and 30 days (reading-III) engaged in pesticide spraying in fourteen different fruit and vegetable farm stations located in the orchards of Gadap (rural area), Karachi-Pakistan. In the present study 26 workers out of 83 who were exposed to different pesticides (ie., cypermethrin, deltamethrin, polytrin-C, diazninon, monocrotophos, DDT and DDE) were compared with 25 healthy control persons. Different blood parameters were determined in comparison to control subjects. The results indicate some alterations in blood indices in allthe pesticide exposed persons, and only two persons from two different stations were affected severely and therefore their Hb, MCV MCHC, TLC, monocyte and neutrophil counts increased significantly. High lymphocyte count was noted in almost all the exposed persons. Platelets count was also found high in few persons but Hb, MCV, MCH, TLC, RBC and neutrophil counts significantly decreased in such persons. Exposure of multiple pesticides for prolong period has also affected the health of exposed persons and produced dermatological, hepatic, nephritic, respiratory and other clinical disorders reflecting the toxic effects of pesticides. Our findings indicate that indiscriminate use of pesticides in farming environments must be regularly assessed and farm workers must be trained for safe use of pesticides. PMID:20136060

  5. Physico-Chemical Characterization of Carrageenan at Different Temperatures, Isolated from Hypnea musciformis from Karachi Coast Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junaid Mahmood, Syed; Bi, Fatima; Taj, Noor; Seema; Farhan, M.; Shahid, M.; Azmat, Rafia; Uddin, Fahim

    This study describe the basic tools like viscosity measurements and thermodynamic parameters of the polysaccharide isolated from Hypnea musciformis (red algae) of Karachi Coast (Pakistan) showed characteristics of κ-carrageenan. An IR spectrum showed a fairly sharp band at 1210, 1225 cm-1 corresponding to sulphate ester and is in accordance with the high sulphate content of κ-carrageenan. Viscosity measurements revealed a linear relationship with increase in concentration and decreased with the rise in temperature of aqueous solutions of κ-carrageenan. Thermodynamic parameters were determined by the change in viscosity data as a function of temperature and concentration. The free energy change of activation (Î'Gη) increased regularly as the concentration of aqueous κ-carrageenan increased, as well as rises in temperature. Higher values of free energy change of activation, (Î'Gη) showed the higher association of κ-carrageenan with water at given temperature. The values of entropy change of activation (Î'Sη) of viscous flow also increased with the increase in concentration and temperature of aqueous κ-carrageenan solution. The high negative values of entropy change of activation (Î'Sη) showed that the solution of κ-carrageenan was more ordered in initial state than the activated one.

  6. Antibiotic resistance pattern of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from urine samples of Urinary Tract Infections patients in Karachi, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Dania Aijaz; Wasim, Shehnaz; Essa Abdullah, Farhan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibiotic resistance pattern of Psedomonas aeruginosa and its prevalence in patients with urinary tract infections (UTI) for effective treatment in a developing country like Pakistan. Methods: This is an observational study conducted for a period of ten months which ended on December 2013 at the Dr. Essa Laboratory and Diagnostic Centre in Karachi. A total of 4668 urine samples of UTI patients were collected and standard microbiological techniques were performed to identify the organisms in urine cultures. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by Kirby-Bauer technique for twenty five commonly used antimicrobials and then analyzed on SPSS version 17. Results: P. aeruginosa was isolated in 254 cultures (5.4%). The most resistant drugs included Ceclor(100%) and Cefizox (100%) followed by Amoxil/Ampicillin (99.6%), Ceflixime (99.6%), Doxycycline (99.6%), Cefuroxime (99.2%), Cephradine (99.2%), Cotrimoxazole (99.2%), Nalidixic acid (98.8%), Pipemidic acid (98.6%) and Augmentin (97.6%). Conclusion: Emerging resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa are potentially linked to injudicious use of drugs leading to ineffective empirical therapy and in turn, appearance of even more resistant strains of the bacterium. Therefore, we recommend culture and sensitivity testing to determine the presence of P.aeruginosa prior to specific antimicrobial therapy.

  7. Effects of mothers’ employment on toddlers’ cognitive development: a study conducted in Karachi, Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Salima Moez Meherali; Rozina Karmaliani; Nargis Asad

    2011-01-01

    Over the past several decades in Pakistan, an increasing number of women with young children are joining the workforce, which is one of the biggest social changes in the later half of the twentieth century. More children are being raised in households where mothers work for pay as compared with the scenario a generation ago. This change has prompted concerns

  8. Effects of mothers’ employment on toddlers’ cognitive development: a study conducted in Karachi, Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Salima Moez Meherali; Rozina Karmaliani; Nargis Asad

    2010-01-01

    Over the past several decades in Pakistan, an increasing number of women with young children are joining the workforce, which is one of the biggest social changes in the later half of the twentieth century. More children are being raised in households where mothers work for pay as compared with the scenario a generation ago. This change has prompted concerns

  9. Effects of Mothers' Employment on Toddlers' Cognitive Development: A Study Conducted in Karachi, Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meherali, Salima Moez; Karmaliani, Rozina; Asad, Nargis

    2011-01-01

    Over the past several decades in Pakistan, an increasing number of women with young children are joining the workforce, which is one of the biggest social changes in the later half of the twentieth century. More children are being raised in households where mothers work for pay as compared with the scenario a generation ago. This change has…

  10. Diabetes knowledge, beliefs and practices among people with diabetes attending a university hospital in Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Rafique, G; Azam, S I; White, F

    2006-09-01

    A structured questionnaire on knowledge, beliefs and practices regarding diabetes was administered to 199 persons with diabetes (92.5% type 2) attending the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi. Mean age [standard deviation (SD)] was 53 (11) years. Mean duration of diabetes (SD) was 8 (7) years in men and 9 (6) years in women. Men had a significantly better knowledge score than women (P = 0.02); there was no significant difference in the beliefs and practices scores. Scores were classed as good (> 60%) in only 13.6% of participants for knowledge, 17.6% for beliefs and 11.2% for practices. About 38% of the participants had received education on diabetes care. PMID:17333798

  11. Why do Families of Sick Newborns Accept Hospital Care? A Community-Based Cohort Study in Karachi, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Owais, Aatekah; Sultana, Shazia; Stein, Aryeh D.; Bashir, Nasira H.; Awaldad, Razia; Zaidi, Anita K M

    2011-01-01

    Objective Sick young infants are at high risk of mortality in developing countries but families often decline hospital referral. Our objective was to identify the predictors of acceptance of referral for hospital care among families of severely ill newborns and infants <59 days old in three low-income communities of Karachi, Pakistan. Study design A cohort of 541 newborns and infants referred from home by community health workers doing household surveillance, and diagnosed with a serious illness at local community clinics between January 1 and December 31, 2007, was followed-up within 1 month of referral to the public hospital. Results Only 24% of families accepted hospital referral. Major reasons for refusal were financial difficulties (67%) and father/elder denying permission (65%). Religious/cultural beliefs were cited by 20% of families. Referral acceptance was higher with recognition of severity of the illness by mother (OR=12.7; 95% CI=4.6–35.2), family’s ability to speak the dominant language at hospital (OR=2.0; 95% CI=1.3–3.1), presence of grunting in the infant (OR=3.3; 95% CI=1.2–9.0), and infant temperature <35.5°C (OR=4.1; 95% CI=2.3–7.4). No gender differential was observed. Conclusion Refusal of hospital referral for sick young infants is very common. Interventions that encourage appropriate care seeking, as well as community-based management of young infant illnesses when referral is not feasible are needed to improve neonatal survival in low-income countries. PMID:21273989

  12. Association of SNP rs9939609 in FTO gene with metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetic subjects, rectruited from a tertiary care unit of Karachi, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Fawwad, Asher; Siddiqui, Iftikhar Ahmed; Zeeshan, Nimra Fatima; Shahid, Syed Muhammad; Basit, Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the association of SNP in FTO gene, rs9939609, with Metabolic Syndrome (MS) in type 2 diabetic subjects at a tertiary care unit of Karachi, Pakistan. Methods: We genotyped FTO rs9939609 SNP in 296 patients with type 2 diabetes from the Out Patient Department (OPD) of Baqai Institute of Diabetology and Endocrinology (BIDE). MS was defined on the basis of International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and National Cholesterol Education program (NCEP) criterion. Association between the rs9939609 SNP and MS was tested through chi-square and Z-tests by using odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals. Results: The frequency of MS as defined by IDF criterion was significantly higher in female subjects as compared to male subjects (p= 0.006). Carriers of ? 1 copy of the rs9939609 A allele were significantly more likely to had MS (69.6%) than non-carriers (30.4%), corresponding to a carrier odds ratio (OR) of 0.52 (95% confidence interval [CI] (0.29-0.93), with a similar trend for the ATP III-defined MS.“A” allele carriers under dominant model, carry all the criterion of MS more significantly as compared to non-carriers. Conclusion: The FTO rs9939609 SNP was associated with an increased risk for Metabolic Syndrome in type 2 diabetic populations at a tertiary care unit of Karachi, Pakistan. PMID:25878631

  13. Parental awareness and coverage of mass measles vaccination drive 2011: cross-sectional survey in the metropolitan city of Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khowaja, Asif Raza; Sheikh, Sana; Saleem, Ali Faisal; Zaidi, Anita K M

    2015-03-01

    High measles incidence and frequent epidemics are reported in Pakistan, given the low coverage for measles vaccine. This study evaluated coverage of mass measles campaign 2011 and estimated parental awareness and determinants for low/no coverage. Household survey was conducted 4 months after the measles campaign in Karachi, Pakistan. Parents of children younger than 5 years were administered structured questionnaire about their knowledge and participation in measles campaign. Of 1020 eligible households, only 282 (28%) parents knew about measles supplementary immunization activity, mainly from public announcements (49%). Of these, 174 (62%) children received measles vaccine, whereas, 108 (38%) parents refused measles vaccine. Overall, only 17% children received measles vaccine during this campaign. Low maternal education, not having received DPT/Pentavalent-3 vaccine, and routine vaccination from public Expanded Program on Immunization facility were significant determinants for low coverage. Measles vaccine coverage in Karachi remains low, and sporadic outbreaks of measles every 2 to 3 years are expected unless population coverage can be rapidly increased. PMID:23165488

  14. Pakistan.

    PubMed

    1992-06-01

    Pakistan's background notes which profile the population, geography, government, and the economy contain a capsule of selected country statistics and a descriptive text. Pakistan has 117 million people distributed at 134/sq km with a growth rate of 3%. The major cities are Islamabad, Rawalpindi, Karachi, Lahore, and Faisalabad. Ethnic groups include the Punjabi, Sindhi, Pathan, Baluch, and Huhajirs. 97% are Muslim. Urdu is the official language, but 65% speak Punjabi, 11% Sindhi, and 24% other languages. 26% are literate. Infant mortality is 109/1000. 54% are involved in agriculture, 33% services, and 13% in industry. A parliamentary democracy was established in 1947 with an executive, legislative, and judicial branch of government. The Islamic Democratic Alliance is the most important national party. Voting rights are for those 21 years. Seats are reserved for non-Muslims. There are 4 political subdivisions. Gross national product (GNP) was $43 billion in 1990. The economic growth rate is 5% and 2%/capita. The natural resources are arable land, natural gas, petroleum, coal, iron ore, and hydropower potential. Agricultural products include wheat, cotton, rice, and sugarcane. Industry includes textiles, fertilizer, steel products, food processing, and oil and gas products. Major trade partners are Japan, the US, the United Kingdom, and Saudi Arabia. Economic aid was $36 billion between 1947-85, of which the US contributed 3 billion between 1981-87. Major donors are id entified. The population concentration is around Karachi. Political unrest has prevailed for 26 years and includes the creation of Bangladesh in 1970 from East Pakistan. Pakistan is considered to have the resources and entrepreneurial skills to develop economically rapidly. Defense strength is characterized as the world's 11th largest. Pakistan is nonaligned, but a member of the Organization of the Islamic Conference and the UN. Relations with India have been difficult. There is a desire for a stable Afghanistan. There are close relations with China and security and economic interests in the Persian Gulf. Relations with the US are wide and bilateral. PMID:12178039

  15. Cervical cancer screening and HPV genotype distribution among asymptomatic patients of Karachi Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Shahid, Mubeena; Kazmi, Shahana Urooj; Rehman, Ameena; Ainuddin, Jahanara; Furqan, Sayed; Nazeer, Sobia

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer is the second most prevalent cancer in females worldwide. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a sexually transmitted infection. However, in addition to HPV infection, other factors exist that influence the risk of developing cervical cancer. In Pakistan most women who developed cervical cancer have been infrequently or never screened. Objective: To determine the prevalence of HPV infection and its subtype profile among asymptomatic patients with pre cancerous cervical intraepithelial lesion. Methods: In this hospital-based descriptive study, 160 asymptomatic females attending gynecology clinics were subjected to HPV screening after obtaining informed consent. Cervical Scrapings were examined by cytopathology and colposcopic directed biopsies taken. High-grade intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) CIN-2, and Low-grade intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) CIN-1 were selected. Samples were analyzed for the presence of HPV-DNA general and type specific genotype 16 and 18. HPV- DNA was extracted by QIA amp DNA kit protocol and amplification was done by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and genotyped by type specific primers. Results: Out of 160, 17 Pap smear tests were positive, 6 (35.3%) with abnormal results (HSIL) CIN-2 were HPV-DNA positive. Among them, 5 (83.3%) had subtype 16 and in 1 (16.7%) case the genotype was undetectable. The remaining 11(6.9%) with pre cancer minimal abnormal (LSIL) CIN-1 presented. Out of them 3 (27.3%) were HPV-DNA positive with subtype 16. Five (45.4%) were followed by repeated pap smear every six months for two years, and the rest of 3 (27.3%) patients refused for the test. Conclusion: A high incidence of Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is found in women with pre cancerous lesion of cervix in Pakistani women.

  16. Knowledge of modifiable risk factors of heart disease among patients with acute myocardial infarction in Karachi, Pakistan: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Muhammad S; Jafary, Fahim H; Jafar, Tazeen H; Faruqui, Azhar M; Rasool, Syed I; Hatcher, Juanita; Chaturvedi, Nish

    2006-01-01

    Background Knowledge is an important pre-requisite for implementing both primary as well as secondary preventive strategies for cardiovascular disease (CVD). There are no estimates of the level of knowledge of risk factor of heart disease in patients with CVD. We estimated the level of knowledge of modifiable risk factors and determined the factors associated with good level of knowledge among patients presenting with their first acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods A hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted at the National Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, a major tertiary care hospital in Karachi Pakistan. Patients admitted with their first AMI were eligible to participate. Standard questionnaire was used to interview 720 subjects. Knowledge of four modifiable risk factors of heart disease: fatty food consumption, smoking, obesity and exercise were assessed. The participants knowing three out of four risk factors were regarded as having a good level of knowledge. A multiple logistic regression model was constructed to identify the determinants of good level of knowledge. Results The mean age (SD) was 54 (11.66) years. A mere 42% of our study population had a good level of knowledge. In multiple logistic regression analysis, independent predictors of "good" level of knowledge were (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]) more than ten years of schooling were 2.5 [1.30, 4.80] (verses no schooling at all) and nuclear family system (verses extended family system) 2.54 [1.65, 3.89]. In addition, Sindhi ethnicity OR [3.03], higher level of exercise OR [2.76] and non user of tobacco OR [2.53] were also predictors of good level of knowledge. Conclusion Our findings highlight the lack of good level of knowledge of modifiable risk factors for heart disease among subjects admitted with AMI in Pakistan. There is urgent need for aggressive and targeted educational strategies in the Pakistani population. PMID:16643643

  17. Impact of marine pollution in green mussel Perna viridis from four coastal sites in Karachi, Pakistan, North Arabian Sea: histopathological observations.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Iftikhar; Ayub, Zarrien; Siddiqui, Ghazala

    2015-04-01

    Pathological changes are regarded as a standard technique to monitor the effects of pollutants in marine animals. Histopathological examination of the population of green mussel Perna viridis (L.) from four sites in Pakistan, namely, Manora Channel, Rehri Creek, Sandspit Backwaters and Bhanbore was conducted. The first three sites are on the Karachi coast, whereas the fourth one, Bhanbore is situated outside Karachi, and is considered to be less polluted. Two types of parasites, Rickettsia-like organisms and metacestode were found in the mussels studied. In the present study, we observed various pathological lesions, such as inflammatory responses, granulocytomas, lipofuscin pigments, vacuolation in the digestive gland and gonads, lamellar fusion and dilated hemolymphatic sinus in the gills of P. viridis. These observations indicate the extent of environmental pollution in the studied areas. Although, Bhanbore is considered to be relatively less polluted compared to other three sites, the present results have revealed that the waters of Bhanbore are also polluted as evidenced by the pathological changes observed in the mussels collected from there. PMID:26011983

  18. Inducible clindamycin resistance due to expression of erm genes in Staphylococcus aureus: report from a tertiary care Hospital Karachi, Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naima Fasih; Seema Irfan; Afia Zafar; Erum Khan; Rumina Hasan

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the frequency of phenotypic expression of inducible resistance of clindamycin due to expression of erm genes, in clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), by double disk diffusion test (D-test).METHOD: This was a cross sectional study conducted in the clinical laboratory of Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi. A total of 2432, non duplicate clinical isolates of S.

  19. Sociocultural influences on newborn health in the first 6 weeks of life: qualitative study in a fishing village in Karachi, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Given regional variability and minimal improvement in infant mortality rates in Pakistan, this study aimed to explicate sociocultural influences impacting mothers’ efforts to maintain or improve newborn health. Methods We used a qualitative phenomenological approach. A total of 10 mothers and 8 fathers from a fishing village in Karachi, Pakistan were purposefully sampled and interviewed individually. A focus group was undertaken with four grandmothers (primary decision makers). Transcripts were independently reviewed using interpretive thematic analysis. Results A multigenerational approach was used in infant care, but mothers did not have a voice in decision-making. Parents connected breast milk to infant health, and crying was used as cue to initiate feeding. Participants perceived that newborns required early supplementation, given poor milk supply and to improve health. There were tensions between traditional (i.e., home) remedies and current medical practices. Equal importance was given to sons and daughters. Conclusion Findings suggest that social and cultural influences within families and the community must be considered in developing interventions to improve newborn health. Introducing non-breast milk substances into newborn diets may reduce the duration of exclusive or partial breastfeeding and increase risks to infant health. PMID:25030836

  20. Adherence of Healthcare Professionals to American Diabetes Association 2004 guidelines for the care of patients with type 2 diabetes at Peripheral Diabetes Clinics in Karachi, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Muzaffar, Farzana; Fatima, Nimra; Fawwad, Asher; Riaz, Mussarat

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To observe the adherence of Healthcare Professionals to American Diabetes Association (ADA) 2004 guidelines for the care of patients with type 2 diabetes at Peripheral Diabetes Clinics (PDCs) in Karachi, Pakistan. Methodology: The study was conducted using a retrospective medical chart review of patients with type 2 diabetes at four PDCs in four townships of Karachi district from January 2005 to December 2006. Entire medical records of patients were evaluated for the evidence of documentation of testing and treatment. Results: Medical records of 691 patients (332 males and 359 females) with type 2 diabetes were reviewed. Mean age of the patients was 50.79 ± 10.75 years. Deficiencies were observed in most areas of diabetes care. Blood pressure was documented in 85.81% patients, whereas, serum creatinine, HbA1c and lipid profile were noted in 56%, 44.57% and 40.08% of the patients respectively. Similarly, lower leg examination was registered in 44% patients, while in 30.53% of the patients fundoscopic examination was recorded. Co-morbid conditions like hypertension and hyperlipidemia were documented in 92.7% and 84.6% patients respectively. HbA1c < 7% was achieved by 59.04% patients, while 27.50% of the patients attained the recommended level of serum cholesterol. Likewise, ADA recommended goal for blood pressure and LDL was achieved by13.02% and 12.16% patients respectively. Conclusions: The study showed that adherence of healthcare professionals to ADA guidelines was suboptimal. Moreover, insufficient documentation of medical records reflected inadequate care of patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:24353559

  1. Gendered Disparities in Quality of Cataract Surgery in a Marginalised Population in Pakistan: The Karachi Marine Fishing Communities Eye and General Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Khabir; Zwi, Anthony B.; Tarantola, Daniel J. M.; Soomro, Abdul Qadeem; Baig, Rashid; Azam, Syed Iqbal

    2015-01-01

    Background Marine fishing communities are among the most marginalised and hard-to-reach groups and have been largely neglected in health research. We examined the quality of cataract surgery and its determinants, with an emphasis on gender, in marine fishing communities in Karachi, Pakistan, using multiple indicators of performance. Methods and Findings The Karachi Marine Fishing Communities Eye and General Health Survey was a door-to-door, cross-sectional study conducted between March 2009 and April 2010 in fishing communities living on 7 islands and in coastal areas in Keamari, Karachi, located on the Arabian Sea. A population-based sample of 638 adults, aged ? 50 years, was studied. A total of 145 eyes (of 97 persons) had undergone cataract surgery in this sample. Cataract surgical outcomes assessed included vision (presenting and best-corrected with a reduced logMAR chart), satisfaction with surgery, astigmatism, and pupil shape. Overall, 65.5% of the operated eyes had some form of visual loss (presenting visual acuity [PVA] < 6/12). 55.2%, 29.0%, and 15.9% of these had good, borderline, and poor visual outcomes based on presenting vision; with best correction, these values were: 68.3 %, 18.6%, and 13.1%, respectively. Of 7 covariates evaluated in the multivariable generalized estimating equations (GEE) analyses, gender was the only significant independent predictor of visual outcome. Women’s eyes were nearly 4.38 times more likely to have suboptimal visual outcome (PVA<6/18) compared with men’s eyes (adjusted odds ratio 4.38, 95% CI 1.96-9.79; P<0.001) after adjusting for the effect of household financial status. A higher proportion of women’s than men’s eyes had an irregular pupil (26.5% vs. 14.8%) or severe/very severe astigmatism (27.5% vs. 18.2%). However, these differences did not reach statistical significance. Overall, more than one fourth (44/144) of cataract surgeries resulted in dissatisfaction. The only significant predictor of satisfaction was visual outcome (P <0.001). Conclusions The quality of cataract surgery in this marginalised population, especially among women, falls well below the WHO recommended standards. Gender disparities, in particular, deserve proactive attention in policy, service delivery, research and evaluation. PMID:26186605

  2. What do young adults know about the HIV\\/AIDS epidemic? Findings from a population based study in Karachi, Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Syed Farid-ul-Hasnain; Eva Johansson; Gunilla Krantz

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: HIVAIDS is spreading globally, hitting the younger generations. In Pakistan, the prevalence of HIV in high-risk subpopulations is five per cent or higher. This poses a serious threat of a generalised epidemic especially among the younger population. In the wake of HIVAIDS epidemic this is worrying as a well informed younger generation is crucial in restricting the spread of

  3. INTERDEPENDENCE OF SOUTH ASIAN & DEVELOPED STOCK MARKETS AND THEIR IMPACT ON KSE (PAKISTAN)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Safdar Hussain Tahir; Hazoor Muhammad Sabir; Yasir Ali; Saima Jamat Ali; Ammara Ismail

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the interdependence among the South Asian and developed markets and their impact on Karachi Stock Exchange. The data were collected from eight worldly stock exchanges, four from each South Asia and developed countries for the period starting from July, 1999 to June, 2011. For analytical purposes, the techniques like Correlation Matrix, Unit

  4. Prevalence and factors related to dental caries among pre-school children of Saddar town, Karachi, Pakistan: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dental caries is highly prevalent and a significant public health problem among children throughout the world. Epidemiological data regarding prevalence of dental caries amongst Pakistani pre-school children is very limited. The objective of this study is to determine the frequency of dental caries among pre-school children of Saddar Town, Karachi, Pakistan and the factors related to caries. Methods A cross-sectional study of 1000 preschool children was conducted in Saddar town, Karachi. Two-stage cluster sampling was used to select the sample. At first stage, eight clusters were selected randomly from total 11 clusters. In second stage, from the eight selected clusters, preschools were identified and children between 3- to 6-years age group were assessed for dental caries. Results Caries prevalence was 51% with a mean dmft score being 2.08 (±2.97) of which decayed teeth constituted 1.95. The mean dmft of males was 2.3 (±3.08) and of females was 1.90 (±2.90). The mean dmft of 3, 4, 5 and 6-?year olds was 1.65, 2.11, 2.16 and 3.11 respectively. A significant association was found between dental caries and following variables: age group of 4-years (p-value?²?0.029, RR?=?1.248, 95% Bias corrected CI 0.029-0.437) and 5-years (p-value?²?0.009, RR?=?1.545, 95% Bias corrected CI 0.047-0.739), presence of dental plaque (p-value?²?0.003, RR?=?0.744, 95% Bias corrected CI (?0.433)-(?0.169)), poor oral hygiene (p-value?²?0.000, RR?=?0.661, 95% Bias corrected CI (?0.532)-(?0.284)), as well as consumption of non-sweetened milk (p-value?²?0.049, RR?=?1.232, 95% Bias corrected CI 0.061-0.367). Conclusion Half of the preschoolers had dental caries coupled with a high prevalence of unmet dental treatment needs. Association between caries experience and age of child, consumption of non-sweetened milk, dental plaque and poor oral hygiene had been established. PMID:23270546

  5. New record of Afrimenopon waar (Eichler) (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae) from budgerigar Melopsittacus undulatus (Psittaciformes: Psittacidae) from Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Sychra, Oldrich; Naz, Saima; Rizvi, S Anser

    2007-08-01

    Chewing lice of the species Afrimenopon waar (Eichler) were collected from captive budgerigar Melopsittacus undulatus (Shaw) in Pakistan. This is the first record of amblyceran lice from this host. It is also the first record of the genus Afrimenopon from Pakistani region. The primary host species of Afrimenopon waar is the rosy-faced lovebird Agapornis roseicollis (Vieillot). The finding of A. waar on budgerigars is, most likely, a result of a contamination in captivity. Morphological variation and origin of these lice are discussed. PMID:17334969

  6. Simplified Antibiotic Regimens for the Management of Clinically Diagnosed Severe Infections in Newborns and Young Infants in First-level Facilities in Karachi, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background: Infection in young infants is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in low-middle income countries, with high neonatal mortality rates. Timely case management is lifesaving, but the current standard of hospitalization for parenteral antibiotic therapy is not always feasible. Alternative, simpler antibiotic regimens that could be used in outpatient settings have the potential to save thousands of lives. Methods: This trial aims to determine whether 2 simplified antibiotic regimens are equivalent to the reference therapy with 7 days of once-daily (OD) intramuscular (IM) procaine penicillin and gentamicin for outpatient management of young infants with clinically presumed systemic bacterial infection treated in primary health-care clinics in 5 communities in Karachi, Pakistan. The reference regimen is close to the current recommendation of the hospital-based intravenous ampicillin and gentamicin therapy for neonatal sepsis. The 2 comparison arms are (1) IM gentamicin OD and oral amoxicillin twice daily for 7 days; and (2) IM penicillin and gentamicin OD for 2 days, followed by oral amoxicillin twice daily for 5 days; 2250 “evaluable” infants will be enrolled. The primary outcome of this trial is treatment failure (death, deterioration or lack of improvement) within 7 days of enrollment. Results are expected by early 2014. Discussion: This trial will determine whether simplified antibiotic regimens with fewer injections in combination with high-dose amoxicillin are equivalent to 7 days of IM procaine penicillin and gentamicin in young infants with clinical severe infection. Results will have program and policy implications in countries with limited access to hospital care and high burden of neonatal deaths. PMID:23945571

  7. Gender roles and their influence on life prospects for women in urban Karachi, Pakistan: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Tazeen S.; Krantz, Gunilla; Gul, Raisa; Asad, Nargis; Johansson, Eva; Mogren, Ingrid

    2011-01-01

    Background Pakistan is a patriarchal society where men are the primary authority figures and women are subordinate. This has serious implications on women's and men's life prospects. Objective The aim was to explore current gender roles in urban Pakistan, how these are reproduced and maintained and influence men's and women's life circumstances. Design Five focus group discussions were conducted, including 28 women representing employed, unemployed, educated and uneducated women from different socio-economic strata. Manifest and latent content analyses were applied. Findings Two major themes emerged during analysis: ‘Reiteration of gender roles’ and ‘Agents of change’. The first theme included perceptions of traditional gender roles and how these preserve women's subordination. The power gradient, with men holding a superior position in relation to women, distinctive features in the culture and the role of the extended family were considered to interact to suppress women. The second theme included agents of change, where the role of education was prominent as well as the role of mass media. It was further emphasised that the younger generation was more positive to modernisation of gender roles than the elder generation. Conclusions This study reveals serious gender inequalities and human rights violations against women in the Pakistani society. The unequal gender roles were perceived as static and enforced by structures imbedded in society. Women routinely faced serious restrictions and limitations of autonomy. However, attainment of higher levels of education especially not only for women but also for men was viewed as an agent towards change. Furthermore, mass media was perceived as having a positive role to play in supporting women's empowerment. PMID:22065609

  8. Ethnic differences and determinants of proteinuria among South Asian subgroups in Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tazeen H. Jafar; Nish Chaturvedi; Asma Gul; Abdul Q. Khan; Christopher H. Schmid; Andrew S. Levey

    2003-01-01

    Ethnic differences and determinants of proteinuria among South Asian subgroups in Pakistan.BackgroundHypertension, diabetes, increasing age, and smoking are known risk factors for proteinuria. Prevalence of proteinuria is high in South Asians. However, ethnic subgroup differences and determinants of proteinuria within the South Asian population have not been explored.MethodsThe National Health Survey of Pakistan conducted between 1990 and 1994 was used

  9. Immune Responses to Vi Capsular Polysaccharide Typhoid Vaccine in Children 2 to 16 Years Old in Karachi, Pakistan, and Kolkata, India

    PubMed Central

    Khan, M. Imran; Soofi, Sajid B.; Sur, Dipika; Kanungo, Suman; You, Young Ae; Habib, M. Atif; Sahito, Shah Muhammad; Manna, Byomkesh; Dutta, Shanta; Acosta, Camilo J.; Ali, Mohammad; Bhattacharya, Sujit K.; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Clemens, John D.

    2014-01-01

    The geometric mean concentration (GMC) and the proportion maintaining a protective level (150 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) units [ELU]/ml) 2 years following a single dose of 25 ?g of injectable Vi capsular polysaccharide typhoid vaccine was measured against that of the control hepatitis A vaccine in children 2 to 16 years old in cluster randomized trials in Karachi and Kolkata. The GMC for the Vi group (1,428 ELU/ml) was statistically significantly different from the GMC of the control hepatitis A vaccine group (86 ELU/ml) after 6 weeks. A total of 117 children (95.1%) in the Vi group and 9 (7.5%) in the hepatitis A group showed a 4-fold rise in Vi IgG antibody concentrations at 6 weeks (P < 0.01). Protective antibody levels remained significantly different between the two groups at 2 years (38% in the Vi vaccine groups and 6% in the hepatitis A group [P < 0.01]). A very small proportion of younger children (2 to 5 years old) maintained protective Vi IgG antibody levels at 2 years, a result that was not statistically significantly different compared to that for the hepatitis A group (38.1% versus 10.5%). The GMCs of the Vi IgG antibody after 2 years were 133 ELU/ml for children 2 to <5 years old and 349 ELU/ml for children 5 to 16 years old. In conclusion, Vi capsular polysaccharide typhoid vaccine is immunogenic in children in settings of South Asia where typhoid is highly endemic. The antibody levels in children who received this vaccine remained higher than those in children who received the control vaccine but were significantly reduced at 2 years of follow-up. PMID:24599532

  10. Need for multilevel strategies and enhanced acceptance of contraceptive use in order to combat the spread of HIV/AIDS in a Muslim society: a qualitative study of young adults in urban Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Farid-ul-Hasnain, Syed; Johansson, Eva; Gulzar, Saleema; Krantz, Gunilla

    2013-09-01

    This qualitative study explored knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and perceptions of sexual and reproductive health, focusing specifically on contraceptive use and HIV prevention among young unmarried men and women, 17-21 years, in urban Karachi, Pakistan. The main theme, identified as underlying meaning in the focus group discussions was "Societal norms and perceptions create barriers to knowledge and awareness about sexual and reproductive health matters among young adults". A knowledge gap was revealed concerning HIV/AIDS and contraceptive use among young males and females, who have to rely on media and peers for information seeking. Study participants perceived that HIV/AIDS is incurable and carries a social stigma. It was further revealed, that there is an opposition towards contraceptive use from religious leaders. Young adults in Pakistan are in need of improved knowledge about HIV/AIDS and contraceptive use. Youth clinics and schools/colleges may play a significant role in this regard. The religious leaders need to be informed about the beneficial effects of contraceptives and they should be part of any family planning/contraceptive use program to ensure better community acceptance. At the structural level there is an urgent need for policies targeting the issue of sexual and reproductive health, particularly HIV/AIDS information and contraceptive use to target the young population. The health care services should be able to respond by offering relevant services. PMID:23985107

  11. Pakistan.

    PubMed

    1987-03-01

    This information sheet about Pakistan, by the U.S. State Dept., summarizes its geography, political history, government, economy and international relations. Pakistan, lying on the Arabian Sea between Iran and India, and neighboring Afghanistan and China, has been independent from British control since 1947. Her people, 98 million, come from several Indo-European ethnic groups, but are 97% Muslim. Most live in the fertile Indus river valley; 53% work in agriculture; 13% in industry; mean per capita income is $331. The infant mortality rate is about 119/1000; life expectancy around 51 years. The country is endowed with resources, besides farmland, of oil, gas, coal, iron and hydroelectric power. It produces cotton, rice, fruits and vegetables as well for export. Pakistan's history is filled with strife, armed or political, marked by the independence of East Pakistan, now Bangladesh, in 1970, and rivalry for power by military and democratic factions, ending with a real election of Benazir Bhutto in 1986. Despite basic resources and a net export of food and textiles, the country has a significant debt and runs a deficit, and supports a rapidly growing young population (3.1% growth rate). Pakistan partakes in a complicated net of international relations due to the alignment of countries on her borders. Religious and ethnic conflicts with India, ideological difficulties and millions of refugees flowing from Afghanistan, but good relations with Iran and China make up this pattern. PMID:12177945

  12. Prevalence of Obesity in School-Going Children of Karachi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haider Javed Warraich; Faisal Javed; Mohammed Faraz-Ul-Haq; Fariha Batool Khawaja; Sarah Saleem; J. Jaime Miranda

    2009-01-01

    BackgroundObesity is an emerging problem in Pakistan. The authors sought to determine prevalence of obesity and malnutrition in school-going children, from grades 6th to 8th of different schools of Karachi and assess associations that affect the weight of the children.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsA cross sectional study design with children studying in grades 6th to 8th grade, in different schools of Karachi. We

  13. Pakistan: Summary Report. Education Financing and People's Aspirations in Pakistan. Asia-South Pacific Education Watch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lozada, Rebecca, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted across the country in a total of 23 districts, 5 districts each in the four provinces of Pakistan, i.e. Balochistan, Punjab, Sindh, North Western Frontier Province (NWFP), and 2 districts in Azad Jammu & Kashmir (AJK). The main purpose of the paper was to unravel the intricate budgeting process in the education sector,…

  14. Parental involvement in a private primary school in Karachi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Navbukhor Mamadyusufov

    2005-01-01

    This research is a case study on how parental involvement is enacted in a private primary school in Karachi, Pakistan. The study looked at the ways in which parents are involved in education in the school. Data was collected through interviews, observations and document analysis. Findings from the study indicate that all the stakeholders positively view the involvement of parents

  15. High rate of non-susceptibility to metronidazole and clindamycin in anaerobic isolates: Data from a clinical laboratory from Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Sadia Omer; Jabeen, Kauser; Qaiser, Saba; Ahsan, Syed Tanwir; Khan, Erum; Zafar, Afia

    2015-06-01

    Due to increasing resistance amongst anaerobic pathogens periodic surveillance of resistance has been recommended in regional/local settings. Anaerobic antimicrobial susceptibility testing is not routinely performed in many laboratories in Pakistan, hence absence of local data may lead to inappropriate empirical therapy in serious cases. 121 clinically significant anaerobic strains (26/121; 21% bacteremic isolates) were isolated and saved from 2010 to 2011. Susceptibility testing against metronidazole, clindamycin, co-amoxiclav, meropenem, piperacillin/tazobactam, linezolid and gatifloxacin was performed by determining minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). A high proportion of non-susceptible strains to metronidazole (10% of 121 isolates) and clindamycin (12% of 121 isolates) was seen, most noticeable in Bacteroides fragilis. Three Bacteroides species strains were non-susceptible to both metronidazole and clindamycin. One strain of Clostridium species was fully resistant to metronidazole and had intermediate resistance to clindamycin. No resistance to any of the other tested antibiotics was seen. Resistance to metronidazole was higher in bacteremic vs. non bacteremic isolates (p = value 0.07). In our setting where there is a high usage of empirical metronidazole and clindamycin for the treatment of serious anaerobic infections clinicians should be aware of increased resistance to these agents. Periodic surveillance of resistance to anti-anaerobic drugs especially metronidazole and clindamycin should be performed to generate antibiogram and guide appropriate empiric therapy. PMID:25800668

  16. Trends in undergraduate teaching of parasitology in medical schools of Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vikram Mehraj; Taimur Saleem; Saima Lalani; Nadia Sani; Imran Khan; Fatima Afridi; Hina Irfan; Mohammad Asim Beg

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Parasitic diseases are a major public health problem in the tropical and sub tropical countries including the subcontinent region. We aimed to assess methods of Parasitology education in medical schools of Karachi Pakistan.METHODS: Ten medical schools in Karachi, Pakistan were sent a structured questionnaire collecting information on different aspects of Parasitology education. The collected data was analyzed using SPSS

  17. The Muslim Response to English in South Asia: With Special Reference to Inequality, Intolerance, and Militancy in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, Tariq

    2005-01-01

    This article argues that since the British colonial era, Muslims in South Asia have responded to English in three ways: (a) rejection and resistance, (b) acceptance and assimilation, and (c) pragmatic utilization. These responses continue in Pakistan and are respectively associated with the traditionalist ulema, the Westernized middle and upper…

  18. Disasters, women's health, and conservative society: working in Pakistan with the Turkish Red Crescent following the South Asian Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Miller, Andrew C; Arquilla, Bonnie

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, numerous catastrophic disasters caused by natural hazards directed worldwide attention to medical relief efforts. These events included the: (1) 2003 earthquake in Bam, Iran; (2) 2004 earthquake and tsunami in Southeast Asia; (3) Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in the southern United States in 2005; (4) 2005 south Asian earthquake; and (5) 2006 Indonesian volcanic eruption and earthquakes. Health disparities experienced by women during relief operations were a component of each of these events. This article focuses on the response of the Turkish Red Crescent Society's field hospital in northern Pakistan following the South Asian Earthquake of October 2005, and discusses how the international community has struggled to address women's health issues during international relief efforts. Furthermore, since many recent disasters occurred in culturally conservative South Asia and the local geologic activity indicates similar disaster-producing events are likely to continue, special emphasis is placed on response efforts. Lessons learned in Pakistan demonstrate how simple adjustments in community outreach, camp geography, staff distribution, and supplies can enhance the quality, delivery, and effectiveness of the care provided to women during international relief efforts. PMID:18019091

  19. War against Rape (WAR): The Experience of an Activist Group in Karachi in Raising Awareness of Sexual Crimes against Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaman, Riffat Moazam

    This paper describes the experiences of an activist group in Karachi (Pakistan) in raising awareness of sexual crimes against women, pursuant to a rape of a professional woman which occurred during an armed robbery. It describes how, since rape was regarded as rare or nonexistent in a conservative, Islamic society, the efforts of the Women's…

  20. Ecological disturbances due to high cutback in the green infrastructure of Karachi: Analyses of public perception about associated health problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Salman Qureshi; Syed Jamil Hasan Kazmi; Jürgen H. Breuste

    2010-01-01

    This paper evaluates the changes to the green infrastructure of the megacity of Karachi, Pakistan, occurring during a period of rapid development, involving extensive loss of trees and green spaces since 2000, occurring as a consequence of road widening and improvements to the city's transport infrastructure, aggravated by a series of cyclones, involving further tree loss and which has led

  1. Impact of maternal education about complementary feeding on their infants' nutritional outcomes in low- and middle-income households: a community-based randomized interventional study in Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Ali Faisal; Mahmud, Sadia; Baig-Ansari, Naila; Zaidi, Anita K M

    2014-12-01

    This cluster-randomized interventional trial at periurban settings of Karachi was conducted to evaluate the impact of maternal educational messages regarding appropriate complementary feeding (CF) on the nutritional status of their infants after 30 weeks of educational interventions delivered by trained community health workers. Mothers in the intervention group received three education modules about breastfeeding (BF) and appropriate CF at a baseline visit and two subsequent visits 10 weeks apart. The control group received advice about BF according to national guidelines. Infants' growth [weight, length, and mid-upper arm-circumference (MUAC), stunting, wasting, and underweight] were measured at four time points. At the end of the study, infants in the intervention group had a higher mean weight of 350 g (p=0.001); length of 0.66 cm (p=0.001), and MUAC of 0.46 cm (p=0.002) compared to the controls; proportionate reduction of stunting and underweight were 10% (84% vs. 74%; OR(adj) 8.36 (5.6-12.42) and 5% (25% vs. 20%; OR(adj) 0.75 (0.4-1.79) in the intervention compared to the control group. For relatively food-secure populations, educational interventions about appropriate CF to mothers had a direct positive impact on linear growth of their infants. PMID:25895196

  2. Railway associated injuries in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Bhatti, Junaid A; Razzak, Junaid A

    2010-03-01

    Pakistan is ranked 12th worldwide for passenger kilometres (km) travelled by railway network. The objective of this study was to assess the railway network related morbidity and mortality in Pakistan. Reported deaths and injuries due to this network were extracted from two secondary datasets: (1) an international disaster database and (2) ambulance log registers for the city of Karachi. Over the period from 1997 to 2006, a total of 11 railway disasters resulted in 449 deaths and 840 injuries. An estimated 2.05 passengers died and another 3.84 passengers were injured per billion km travelled in Pakistan, a rate six times higher than Western European countries. The ambulance log showed that one person died every two weeks in Karachi over a period from September 2007 to Jun 2008 (N = 26). The male-to-female ratio of all injury victims (N = 50) was 9:1 with a mean age of 35.6 years. Surveillance of these injuries is essential to implement prevention and control measures in Pakistan. PMID:19787521

  3. Rehabilitating agriculture and promoting food security following the 2010 Pakistan floods: Insights from South Asian experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Dorosh; Sohail Malik; Marika Krausova

    2010-01-01

    The recent floods in Pakistan have had a devastating effect on the Pakistani population. The Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA 2010) estimates that, as of early September 2010, more than 20 million people had been displaced by the flood and by some estimates the damage to crops, housing, other buildings, roads, and irrigation infrastructure now reaches $6.5

  4. Gastric ulcer in Karachi.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, W; Qureshi, H; Alam, S E; Zuberi, S J

    1992-09-01

    Of 138 endoscopically or surgically confirmed cases of gastric ulcer, 102 (74%) were males and 36 (26%) females. Both sexes were affected most commonly in the 6th decade of life. Pain, vomiting and gastrointestinal bleeding were the major presenting symptoms, with a median duration of 6 months. Cigarette smoking was the most common (44%) addiction and 10% were on analgesics or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID). Family history of ulcer was uncommon (2%) and no predilection for any blood group was noted. Among males 53% were skilled workers while 94% of females were housewives. Forty five percent patients were migrants from India and the rest belonged to different provinces of Pakistan. Presentation and behaviour of different sites of gastric ulcers though varied but the results were not significant. Healing rates with H2 receptor antagonists were 33% at 4 weeks and 78% at 8 weeks. PMID:1433804

  5. Initial Teacher Training: South Asian Approaches. Quality in Basic Education: Professional Development of Teachers. Papers Prepared for a South Asian Colloquium on Teacher Training in Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka (Colombo, Sri Lanka, April 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commonwealth Secretariat, London (England).

    This publication is one of two prepared for a South Asian Colloquium on issues related to teacher training in Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. The papers in this volume focus on innovations and alternative strategies designed to improve quality in teacher education at preservice phase. The publication is in five sections. The first four…

  6. School Leadership in Pakistan: Exploring the Headteacher's Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simkins, Tim; Sisun, Charles; Memon, Muhammand

    2003-01-01

    Explores the nature of school leadership in Pakistan by drawing on two studies describing experiences of headteachers in Karachi. Identifies three determinants of personal efficacy of headteachers: The powers and accountability of the school system, community expectations within the context of the national culture, and the individual's personality…

  7. Antenatal Depression is Not Associated with Low-Birth Weight: A Study from Urban Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Husain, Nusrat; Munshi, Tariq; Jafri, Farhat; Husain, Meher; Parveen, Asia; Saeed, Qamar; Tomenson, Barbara; Naeem, Farooq; Chaudhry, Nasim

    2014-01-01

    Background: Low-birth weight (LBW) (<2500?g) is considered to be a leading cause of cognitive impairment and physical disabilities in children. Incidence of LBW in South Asia has been reported to be as high as 33%. We investigated the association between antenatal depression and LBW in an urban community, in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods: A total of 1357 pregnant women in their third trimester were recruited into the study. They were screened for antenatal depression with Edinburgh postnatal depression scale. Self-reporting questionnaire was also used to measure psychological distress. Birth weights of 763 newborns were obtained from the hospital records. Results: We did not find a significant association between antenatal depression and LBW (odds ratio 0.881, 95%CI 0.732–1.060) in mothers attending a charity run hospital in an urban setting in Pakistan. Conclusion: Antenatal depression is not associated with LBW in this urban population in Pakistan. However, the prevalence of depression is high during pregnancy. There is a need to develop culturally adapted psychosocial interventions to address the high rates of depression for this population group. PMID:25540627

  8. Some aspects of South Asia's groundwater irrigation economy: analyses from a survey in India, Pakistan, Nepal Terai and Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Tushaar; Singh, O. P.; Mukherji, Aditi

    2006-03-01

    Since 1960, South Asia has emerged as the largest user of groundwater in irrigation in the world. Yet, little is known about this burgeoning economy, now the mainstay of the region's agriculture, food security and livelihoods. Results from the first socio-economic survey of its kind, involving 2,629 well-owners from 278 villages from India, Pakistan, Nepal Terai and Bangladesh, show that groundwater is used in over 75% of the irrigated areas in the sample villages, far more than secondary estimates suggest. Thanks to the pervasive use of groundwater in irrigation, rain-fed farming regions are a rarity although rain-fed plots within villages abound. Groundwater irrigation is quintessentially supplemental and used mostly on water-economical inferior cereals and pulses, while a water-intensive wheat and rice system dominates canal areas. Subsidies on electricity and canal irrigation shape the sub-continental irrigation economy, but it is the diesel pump that drives it. Pervasive markets in tubewell irrigation services enhance irrigation access to the poor. Most farmers interviewed reported resource depletion and deterioration, but expressed more concern over the high cost and poor reliability of energy supply for groundwater irrigation, which has become the fulcrum of their survival strategy.

  9. Pesticide susceptibility status of Anopheles mosquitoes in four flood-affected districts of South Punjab, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Rathor, Hamayun Rashid; Nadeem, Ghazala; Khan, Imtinan Akram

    2013-01-01

    Recent floods drastically increased the burden of disease, in particular the incidence of malaria, in the southern districts of the Punjab province in Pakistan. Control of malaria vector mosquitoes in these districts requires the adoption of an appropriate evidence-based policy on the use of pesticides, and having the latest information on the insecticide resistance status of malaria vector mosquitoes is essential for designing effective disease prevention policy. Using World Health Organization (WHO) test kits, the present study utilized papers impregnated with DDT, malathion, deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, and permethrin, to determine the insecticide susceptibility/resistance status of malaria vector mosquitoes in four flood-affected districts. The test results showed that both Anopheles stephensi and Anopheles culicifacies remained resistant to DDT and malathion. Tests with three commonly used pyrethroids, permethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, and deltamethrin, detected resistance in the majority of cases, but in a number of localities mortalities with these three pyrethroids ranged from 80-97% and were therefore placed under verification-required status. This status indicates the presence of susceptible individuals in these populations. These results suggest that if appropriate resistance management strategies are applied in these areas, then the development of high levels of resistance can still be prevented or slowed. This study forms an important evidence base for the strategic planning of vector control in the four flood-affected districts. PMID:23199276

  10. The burden of stroke and transient ischemic attack in Pakistan: a community-based prevalence study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The burden of cerebrovascular disease in developing countries is rising sharply. The prevalence of established risk factors of stroke is exceptionally high in Pakistan. However, there is limited data on the burden of stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) in South Asia. We report the first such study conducted in an urban slum of Karachi, Pakistan. Methods Individuals 35 years of age or older were invited for participation in this investigation through simple random sampling. A structured face-to-face interview was conducted using a pre-tested stroke symptom questionnaire in each participant to screen for past stroke or TIA followed by neurological examination of suspected cases. Anthropometric measurements and random blood glucose levels were recorded. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the association of vascular risk factors with prevalence of stroke. Results Five hundred and forty five individuals (49.4% females) participated in the study with a response rate of 90.8%. One hundred and four individuals (19.1%) were observed to have a prior stroke while TIA was found in 53 individuals (9.7%). Overall, 119 individuals (21.8% with 66.4% females) had stroke and/or TIA. Female gender, old age, raised random blood glucose level and use of chewable tobacco were significantly associated with the prevalence of cerebrovascular disease. Conclusion This is the first study demonstrating an alarmingly high life-time prevalence of cerebrovascular disease in Pakistan. Individual and public health interventions in Pakistan to increase awareness about stroke, its prevention and therapy are warranted. PMID:19948076

  11. Useful ethnophytomedicinal recipes of angiosperms used against diabetes in South East Asian Countries (India, Pakistan & Sri Lanka).

    PubMed

    Marwat, Sarfaraz Khan; Rehman, Fazalur; Khan, Ejaz Ahmad; Khakwani, Abdul Aziz; Ullah, Imdad; Khan, Kaleem Ullah; Khan, Inam Ullah

    2014-09-01

    This paper is based on data recorded from various literatures pertaining to ethnophytomedicinal recipes used against diabetes in South East Asia (India, Pakistan and Srilanka). Traditional plant treatments have been used throughout the world for the therapy of diabetes mellitus. In total 419 useful phytorecipes of 270 plant species belonging to 74 Angiospermic families were collected. From the review it was revealed that plants showing hypoglycemic potential mainly belong to the families, Cucurbitaceae (16 spp.), Euphorbiaceae (15 spp.), Caesalpiniaceae and Papilionaceae (13 spp. each), Moraceae (11 spp.), Acanthaceae (10 spp.), Mimosaceae (09 spp.), Asteraceae, Malvaceae and Poaceae (08 spp. each), Hippocrateaceae, Rutaceae and Zingiberaceae (07 spp. each), Apocynaceae, Asclepiadaceae and Verbenaceae (06 spp. each), Apiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Lamiaceae, Myrtaceae, Solanaceae (05 spp.each). The most active plants are Syzigium cumini (14 recipes), Phyllanthus emblica (09 recipes), Centella asiatica and Momordica charantia (08 recipes each), Azadirachta indica (07 recipes), Aegle marmelos, Catharanthus roseus, Ficus benghalensis, Ficus racemosa, Gymnema sylvestre (06 recipes each), Allium cepa, A. sativum, Andrographis paniculata, Curcuma longa (05 recipes each), Citrullus colocynthis, Justicia adhatoda, Nelumbo nucifera, Tinospora cordifolia, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Ziziphus mauritiana and Wattakaka volubilis (4 recipes each). These traditional recipes include extracts, leaves, powders, flour, seeds, vegetables, fruits and herbal mixtures. Data inventory consists of botanical name, recipe, vernacular name, English name. Some of the plants of the above data with experimentally confirmed antidiabetic properties have also been recorded. More investigations must be carried out to evaluate the mechanism of action of diabetic medicinal plants. Toxicity of these plants should also be explained. Scientific validation of these recipes may help in discovering new drugs from these medicinal plants for diabetes. PMID:25176368

  12. Metamorphic pressure-temperature conditions of Indian plate rocks south of the main mantle thrust, lower Swat, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dipietro, Joseph A.

    1991-08-01

    The Lower Swat rock sequence, in northern Pakistan, is composed of greenschist and amphibolite facies Indian plate rocks that crop out in a dome directly south of the Main Mantle thrust zone and Kohistan arc terrane. The metamorphism is Eocene to Oligocene in age and records the collision of the Indian plate with the Kohistan arc. This paper presents mineral assemblage, mineral composition and garnet zoning data on the Lower Swat rock sequence in order to estimate the pressure-temperature conditions of metamorphism and to infer a possible pressure-temperature-time path. The stratigraphic sequence consists of Precambrian to Cambrian(?) Manglaur formation unconformably overlain by late Paleozoic to early Mesozoic Alpurai group. The Alpurai group is further subdivided into the Marghazar, Kashala, Saidu and Nikanai Ghar formations. The Manglaur formation, in the core of the dome, is at kyanite grade. Metamorphic grade decreases in the overlying Alpurai group where a garnet "isograd" is mapped in calcareous schist of the Kashala formation. Mineral composition geothermometers and geobarometers indicate final metamorphic equilibrium conditions of about 600°-700°C and 9-11 kbar in the Manglaur and Marghazar formations. These conditions are associated with a phase of static recrystallization which postdates the main phases of deformation. Correlation of the structural-tectonic history with the pressure-temperature estimates, and with the garnet zoning analysis, suggests that in the Eocene the Lower Swat rock sequence was subducted to a depth of 35 to 45 km beneath the MMT suture melange. Subduction was followed immediately by exhumation. The initiation of exhumation is believed to have been triggered by a change from subduction to strike slip motion in the MMT, thereby allowing the relatively buoyant Lower Swat crust to rise. The entire metamorphic-deformational cycle lasted from 7 to 16 m.y., ending in the late Eocene about 38 Ma when the rocks cooled through the argon blocking temperature in hornblende (? 550°C).

  13. Prevalence of immediate vasovagal reaction in blood donors visiting two blood banks of Karachi.

    PubMed

    Rohra, D K; Juriasinghani, V; Rai, K; Azam, S I

    2010-06-01

    Vasovagal reaction (VVR) is a very common adverse event related to blood donation. No study has been conducted in Pakistan to estimate the prevalence of VVR in blood donors. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of immediate VVR in blood donors of Karachi, Pakistan. The study was conducted in two blood banks of Karachi. Data regarding the development of immediate VVR were documented. The effect of blood donation on vital parameters like pulse rate, blood pressure (BP), temperature and respiratory rate was also observed. Six hundred and seventy-four blood donors were recruited. All the donors who consented were males. Weakness and dizziness were two most common symptoms which were reported by 91 (13.5%) and 73 (10.8%) of the participants, respectively. Out of 91 donors in whom signs and symptoms of immediate VVR were observed, a significant drop in systolic BP (13.5 +/- 2.5 mmHg) and decrease in pulse rate (13.3 +/- 3.6) were concurrently noted in 55 donors (8.2% of all the participants). There was lack of association of age, body mass index (BMI), estimated blood volume, ethnicity, educational status, profession and first time donation status with the frequency of VVR. Only marital status was found to be significantly associated with higher frequency of immediate VVR, where married donors were having higher odds as compared to singles. The prevalence of VVR in the blood donors at two blood banks of Karachi is at least 8.2%. Furthermore, married men are at more risk of experiencing VVR in our population. PMID:19958470

  14. Epidemiology of Karachi road traffic crash mortality in 2013.

    PubMed

    Jooma, Rashid; Shaikh, Masood Ali

    2015-05-01

    Road Traffic Crash (RTC) is the eighth leading cause of death globally. In a recent World Health Organization report, there were 5,192 RTC deaths reported from Pakistan in 2010. The Road Traffic Injury Research and Prevention Center (RTIRPC) is a unique public-private public health enterprise in Karachi, and collects data from five major public and private hospitals' emergency departments in the city. Cumulatively, 1130 deaths were recorded in the year 2013. Males accounted for 981 (86.8%) deaths. The most vulnerable decades of life were twenties and thirties; accounting for 307 (27.2%) of all deaths. In terms of involvement of vehicle type in fatalities; over half 577 (51.1%) of all fatalities involved motorbikes, while the second most common type of vehicle involved were buses/coasters which accounted for 108 (9.6%) fatalities. In the burgeoning cities of developing countries, road injury and fatality surveillance can fulfill a vital role in highlighting the human cost of rapid motorization. PMID:26028391

  15. Battle against poliovirus in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Fatima, Kaneez; Qadri, Ishtiaq

    2013-11-01

    On 22 Feb 2013, the Polio Monitoring Cell of Pakistan announced that the 2012-2013 polio campaign ended, and that 1.6 million children could not be vaccinated due to security concerns in several regions where polio workers had been killed. Those who could not be vaccinated included 50,000 children from the Federally Administrated Tribal Area (FATA), 150,000 form Khyber Pakhtoon Khao, 400,000 from a Quetta, 400,000 from Karachi, and a small number from the Rawalpindi District. These statistics are worrying, as several districts in the large metropolitan cities of Karachi and Quetta were also excluded. The fear of advanced medicine, ideas, or complex devices is a new phenomenon in many conservative and poor countries such as Pakistan, Afghanistan, Sudan, and Somalia. To safeguard the safety of the rest of the world, the failure in the implementation of WHO guidelines for vaccination must be regulated by the UN. There are a number of reasons for the phobias surrounding vaccination, but as technology continues to evolve at such a rapid rate, those with self-determined ideologies cannot cope with such advances. They become vocal to gain popularity and prevent the use of these technologies and medicine by creating and spreading rumors and propaganda of expediency. The struggle to vaccinate children is not easily understood by anyone living in the developed world. The irrational fear of vaccines and the lack of vaccination pose a serious global health risk and must be curbed through a wide variety of pro-vaccination media and religious campaigns. PMID:24240051

  16. Description of Tylenchorhynchus qasimii sp. n with a new report of T. kegasawai Minagawa, 1995 from Pakistan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new stunt nematode, from soil around the roots of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.) from Karachi, Pakistan is described and illustrated as Tylenchorhynchus qasimii n. sp. This new species is characterized by having females with 3-4 head annules, anteriorly directed stylet knob...

  17. Diurnal water relations of inland and coastal halophytic populations from Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Salman Gulzar; M. Ajmal Khan

    1998-01-01

    The diurnal water relations of three halophytic species common to both inland and coastal habitats in saline flats of Karachi, Pakistan were studied. The first hypothesis was that species with different adaptation modes [leaf succulent (Suaeda fruticosa(L.) Forssk.), recreting (Atriplex griffithiiMoq. var.stocksiiBoiss.) and non-recreting (Heliotropium currassavicumL.)] have different patterns of water relations. The second hypothesis was that the coastal populations

  18. Characterizing US Operations in Pakistan: Is the United States Engaged In An Armed Conflict?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurie R. Blank; Benjamin R. Farley

    2011-01-01

    On January 14, 2010, four Hellfire missiles fired from an unmanned aerial vehicle (“drone”) slammed into a compound in Pakistan’s South Waziristan region, killing ten people. Hakimullah Mehsud, leader of Tehrik-e-Taliban Pakistan (“TTP”), was the reported target of the strike. Already the eighth US drone attack in Pakistan in 2010, these strikes followed two consecutive years of dramatically increased drone

  19. An early South Asian dust storm during March 2012 and its impacts on Indian Himalayan foothills: a case study.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, A K; Soni, V K; Singh, Sachchidanand; Kanawade, V P; Singh, N; Tiwari, S; Attri, S D

    2014-09-15

    The impacts of an early South Asian dust storm that originated over the western part of the Middle East and engulfed northwest parts of India during the third week of March 2012 have been studied at four different stations covering India and Pakistan. The impacts of this dust storm on aerosol optical properties were studied in detail at Delhi, Jodhpur, Lahore and Karachi. The impact could also be traced up to central Himalayan foothills at Manora Peak. During dust events, the aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 500 nm reached a peak value of 0.96, 1.02, 2.17 and 0.49 with a corresponding drop in Ångström exponent (AE for 440-870 nm) to 0.01, -0.02, 0.00 and 0.12 at Delhi, Jodhpur, Lahore and Karachi, respectively. The single scattering albedo (SSA) at 675 nm was relatively lower at Delhi (0.87) and Jodhpur (0.86), with absorption Ångström exponent (AAE) less than 1.0, but a large value of SSA was observed at Lahore (0.98) and Karachi (0.93), with AAE value greater than 1.0 during the event. The study of radiative impact of dust aerosols revealed a significant cooling at the surface and warming in the atmosphere (with corresponding large heating rate) at all the stations during dust event. The effect of this dust storm was also seen at Manora Peak in central Himalayas which showed an enhancement of ~28% in the AOD at 500 nm. The transport of dust during such events can have severe climatic implications over the affected plains and the Himalayas. PMID:24973722

  20. Underestimation of weight and its associated factors among overweight and obese adults in Pakistan: a cross sectional study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seema Bhanji; Ali Khan Khuwaja; Fawad Siddiqui; Iqbal Azam; Khawar Kazmi

    2011-01-01

    Background  Weight loss is known to decrease the health risks associated with being overweight and obese. Awareness of overweight status\\u000a is an important determinant of weight loss attempts and may have more of an impact on one's decision to lose weight than objective\\u000a weight status. We therefore investigated the perception of weight among adults attending primary care clinics in Karachi,\\u000a Pakistan,

  1. Women's mental health in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Niaz, Unaiza

    2004-01-01

    In Pakistan, societal attitudes and norms, as well as cultural practices (Karo Kari, exchange marriages, dowry, etc.), play a vital role in women's mental health. The religious and ethnic conflicts, along with the dehumanizing attitudes towards women, the extended family system, role of in-laws in daily lives of women, represent major issues and stressors. Such practices in Pakistan have created the extreme marginalisation of women in numerous spheres of life, which has had an adverse psychological impact. Violence against women has become one of the acceptable means whereby men exercise their culturally constructed right to control women. Still, compared to other South Asian countries, Pakistani women are relatively better off than their counterparts. PMID:16633458

  2. Frequency of thyroid incidentalomas in Karachi population

    PubMed Central

    Kamran, Mahrukh; Hassan, Nuzhat; Ali, Muhammad; Ahmad, Farah; Shahzad, Sikandar; Zehra, Nosheen

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine frequency of thyroid incidentalomas (TI) through ultrasound (US) and its association with age, gender and ethnicities. Methods: It was a cross-sectional study. Total 269 adults who were asymptomatic for thyroid disease aged 21 years and above underwent ultrasound examination of their thyroid. Results: Frequency of TI found was 21%. TI was detected in 25% of females and 16% males (P= 0.078). 61% had thyroid nodules (TNs) in one lobe (right, left or isthmus) and 39% had TNs in more than one location. About 55% had single TN and 45% had multiple TNs. 38% had TNs greater than 1cm while 57% had TNs smaller than 1 cm. 5% had TNs greater and smaller than 1 cm. TI was equally common in individuals of different ethinicities (P= 0.758). Conclusion: Frequency of thyroid incidentalomas found in our study was higher than most of the other iodine sufficient states. Unlike other studies, incidentalomas were equally common in both the genders of our study. This may be due to the previous iodine deficient status of Pakistan which was prevalent. However further studies on the same topic will help us in identifying the correct status of thyroid incidentalomas if Pakistan retains it’s status as an iodine sufficient state. PMID:25097519

  3. Learning from the Past, Looking to the Future: Modeling Social Unrest in Karachi, Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, Jarrod; Kurzrok, Andrew J.; Hund, Gretchen; Fagley, Erik M.

    2014-01-01

    Social unrest represents a major challenge for policy makers around the globe, as it can quickly escalate from small scale disturbances to highly public protests, riots and even civil war. This research was motivated by a need to understand social instability and to unpack the comments made during a spring 2013 conference hosted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s Center for Global Security and the U.S. Institute for Peace, where policymakers noted that models considering social instability are often not suitable for decision-making. This analysis shows that existing state level models of instability could be improved in spatial scale to the city level, even without significantly improved data access. Better data would make this analysis more complete and likely improve the quality of the model. Another challenge with incorporating modeling into decision-making is the need to understand uncertainty in a model. Policy makers are frequently tasked with making decisions without a clear outcome, so characterization of uncertainty is critical. This report describes the work and findings of the project. It took place in three phases: a literature review of social stability research, a “hindsight scan” that looked at historical data, and a “foresight scan” looking at future scenarios.

  4. Geochemical assessment of metal pollution and ecotoxicology in sediment cores along Karachi Coast, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Mashiatullah, Azhar; Chaudhary, Muhammad Zaman; Ahmad, Nasir; Ahmad, Nisar; Javed, Tariq; Ghaffar, Abdul

    2015-05-01

    This paper is an attempt to compare the pollution status in two sediment cores, one from a polluted site (Ghizri Creek) and another from a relatively unpolluted site (Sandspit). Sediment cores (45 cm in length) from coastal locations were characterized in terms of grain size, sediment composition, pH, organic matter, calcium carbonate, and metal element contents. Metal elements, including Al, Ca, Cr, Co Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, Ti, and Zn, were determined using PIXE. Grain size analysis and sediment composition demonstrated a sandy nature of both cores. Acidic trend in sediment core I was predominant from bottom to top, whereas neutral pH was observed throughout core II. TOC values varied in the range of 1.23-2.68 and 1.14-2.60% in core I and core II, respectively; however, there was an increasing trend in TOC level from bottom to top. The values of enrichment factor for Zn, Cu, Co, Ni, Pb, and Cr were slightly higher in core I than core II. The average geo-accumulation index values for core I and core II showed that sediments were moderately Co- and Pb-polluted but not polluted with Mg, Al, Ca, K, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Ti, V, and Zn. The degree of contamination was however considerably higher in core I relative to core II. The pollution load index values, although showing an increasing trend from bottom to top in both cores, overall rendered the marine sediment pollution free. The metal toxicology results demonstrated that heavy metal pollution, except Cr, may pose low to moderate risk to marine biota. The sum of toxic unit values however indicated that sediment core I was relatively more polluted than that of core II. PMID:25869090

  5. Indicators of sustainable urban development: A review of urban regeneration projects in Karachi, Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amna Salman; Salman Qureshi

    The notion of sustainability is widely used from micro to macro scale studies but only few approaches deal with its measurement. Increased global interest in sustainability has triggered attention in indicators as a means of achieving a more sustainable world. Although the search for indicators has led to the development of criteria for good indicators, it has also been dominated

  6. Use of locally made off-loading techniques for diabetic plantar foot ulcer in Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Miyan, Zahid; Ahmed, Jameel; Zaidi, Syed I; Ahmedani, Muhammad Y; Fawwad, Asher; Basit, Abdul

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of applying locally made pressure off-loading techniques on plantar foot ulcer in individuals with diabetes. This prospective study of 70 diabetic patients was conducted at the foot clinic of Baqai Institute of Diabetology & Endocrinology. Plantar foot ulcer, stages 1A and 2A according to the University of Texas classification, was treated by using three off-loading techniques: modified foot wear (sandal), modified plaster of Paris cast with plywood platform and Scotchcast boot. The outcome was assessed at either complete wound healing (defined as complete epithelialisation) or at 12 weeks, whichever came first. Of the 70 patients, 24 were in modified foot wear group, 23 in modified plaster of Paris cast and 23 in Scotchcast boot group. There was almost equal proportion of patients healed within 12 weeks period treated with these three off-loading techniques, i.e. 22 (95·7%) for modified foot wear group, 19 (95%) for modified plaster cast and 18 (94·7%) for Scotchcast boot group. No significant difference was observed in median healing time and cumulative wound survival at 12 weeks in the three off-loading techniques. Modified foot wear group was the most cost effective ($7) amongst the three off-loading techniques. It is concluded that in this cohort, no significant difference in healing time was observed in the three off-loading techniques, although modified foot wear (sandal) was found to be a more cost-effective treatment modality. PMID:23369009

  7. Bibliographical Control in Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammadally, R.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the main aspects of national bibliographical control in Pakistan--legal deposit, national bibliographical agency, and retrospective and current national bibliographies. Highlights include registration of publications, copyright, the National Bibliographic Unit, National Book Council of Pakistan, and Library of Congress Office. Works…

  8. Islamic Education in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fair, C. Christine

    2006-01-01

    On March 21, 2006 Christine Fair spoke about her recent trip to Pakistan. Fair's fieldwork was conducted with her Pakistan-based colleague Syed Rashad Bukhari and in collaboration with the National Bureau of Asian Research. Fair and Bukhari spent nearly three weeks visiting administrators at ten of the most prominent post-secondary madaris…

  9. Dimensions of physical wellness among medical students of public and private medical colleges in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Rakhshaan; Rehman, Rehana; Baig, Mukhtiar; Hussain, Mehwish; Khan, Mariam; Syed, Fatima

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine adherence to dimensions of physical wellness among medical students of public and private medical colleges in Pakistan. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out from January to July 2011 among 820 students of private and public medical colleges in Karachi, Pakistan. Results: Overall, medical students scored low in dimensions of physical wellness. Private medical colleges students were fond of vigorous activities such as aerobics and swimming, whereas public medical colleges students were involved in moderate intensity activities such as walking and use of stairs (p<0.0001). Private students reported to consume more fast food (p=0.0001), had less sleep (p=0.0001), but attended regular annual medical checkups (p=0.009) as compared with their public institute counterparts. Safe practices such as avoidance of tobacco were almost the same. Conclusion: Comprehensive adherence to all dimensions of physical wellness was lacking among medical students. PMID:25987122

  10. Status of heavy metal residues in fish species of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Majid; Muhammad, Said; Malik, Riffat N; Khan, Muhammad U; Farooq, Umar

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we evaluate and summarize the available data that addresses the levels of HM that exist in aquatic species, mainly fish, of Pakistan. Data on this topic were collected from the literature of the last two decades (1990-2012). Results revealed that the highest number (>50%) of studies addressing HM-contaminated fish have occurred in the Punjab province, followed by the Sindh and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa provinces. Our review disclosed that the HM concentrations in Pakistani fish species varied considerably with location. Generally, the level of HM residues detected in fish species had the following descending order: Fe>Zn>Pb>Cd>Hg>Ni>Cu>Ag>Cr>Mn>As. Fish samples collected from the Kabul River near the Nowshera district, Stretch of Ravi River, Indus River near Mainwali district, and Arabian Sea at Karachi revealed extremely high HM concentrations (range: 0.34-8,381.30 jlg/g), compared to other fresh water bodies, such as the Llyold Barrage, Guddu Barrage, Jinnah Barrage, and Chashma Barrage (0.01-2.13 jlg/g). As a reference point, we also reviewed selected data on HM fish residues that exist in countries that neighbor Pakistan. With the exception of fish collected in India, the majority of fish analyzed for HM residues in neighboring countries displayed lower residues than did fish from Pakistan. We concluded from reviewing the available published data that the most probable sources for the HM contaminants found in Pakistani water and fish were release of domestic sewage, agricultural runoff, and industrial effluents. We strongly recommend that action be taken to better control the discharges of unregulated waste that enters the Pakistani aquatic environment, with the intent to mitigate any continuing future damage to the aquatic ecosystem. We also recommend intensifying research programs that address the toxicity of HM to the aquatic environment, so that a better understanding of metal effects on fish can be achieved that will lead to a sustainable ecological harmony in Pakistan. PMID:24609520

  11. Mumbai: A Battle in the War for Pakistan

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-01-01

    The Council on Foreign Relations publishes a wide variety of publications, and their "Expert Briefs" series is quite exceptional. Given the recent unrest in Mumbai, visitors with an interest in South Asian affairs and world affairs in general will find this brief particularly compelling. Authored by Daniel Markey, Senior Fellow for India, Pakistan, and South Asia, this expert brief was released in December 2008. The piece looks at the political economy and relationship between India and Pakistan, along with offering some commentary on combating terrorism in the region.

  12. Aerosol size distribution and mass concentration measurements in various cities of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Alam, Khan; Blaschke, Thomas; Madl, Pierre; Mukhtar, Azam; Hussain, Majid; Trautmann, Thomas; Rahman, Said

    2011-07-01

    During March and April 2010 aerosol inventories from four large cities in Pakistan were assessed in terms of particle size distributions (N), mass (M) concentrations, and particulate matter (PM) concentrations. These M and PM concentrations were obtained for Karachi, Lahore, Rawalpindi, and Peshawar from N concentrations using a native algorithm based on the Grimm model 1.109 dust monitor. The results have confirmed high N, M and PM concentrations in all four cities. They also revealed major contributions to the aerosol concentrations from the re-suspension of road dust, from sea salt aerosols, and from vehicular and industrial emissions. During the study period the 24 hour average PM(10) concentrations for three sites in Karachi were found to be 461 ?g m(-3), 270 ?g m(-3), and 88 ?g m(-3), while the average values for Lahore, Rawalpindi and Peshawar were 198 ?g m(-3), 448 ?g m(-3), and 540 ?g m(-3), respectively. The corresponding 24 hour average PM(2.5) concentrations were 185 ?g m(-3), 151 ?g m(-3), and 60 ?g m(-3) for the three sites in Karachi, and 91 ?g m(-3), 140 ?g m(-3), and 160 ?g m(-3) for Lahore, Rawalpindi and Peshawar, respectively. The low PM(2.5)/PM(10) ratios revealed a high proportion of coarser particles, which are likely to have originated from (a) traffic, (b) other combustion sources, and (c) the re-suspension of road dust. Our calculated 24 hour averaged PM(10) and PM(2.5) concentrations at all sampling points were between 2 and 10 times higher than the maximum PM concentrations recommended by the WHO guidelines. The aerosol samples collected were analyzed for crustal elements (Al, Fe, Si, Mg, Ca) and trace elements (B, Ba, Cr, Cu, K, Na, Mn, Ni, P, Pb, S, Sr, Cd, Ti, Zn and Zr). The averaged concentrations for crustal elements ranged from 1.02 ± 0.76 ?g m(-3) for Si at the Sea View location in Karachi to 74.96 ± 7.39 ?g m(-3) for Ca in Rawalpindi, and averaged concentrations for trace elements varied from 7.0 ± 0.75 ng m(-3) for B from the SUPARCO location in Karachi to 17.84 ± 0.30 ?g m(-3) for Na at the M. A. Jinnah Road location, also in Karachi. PMID:21677943

  13. POLLEN FLORA OF PAKISTAN-LI CARYOPHYLLACEAE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ANJUM PERVEEN; MUHAMMAD QAISER

    Pollen morphology of 74 species belonging to 23 genera of the family Caryophyllaceae from Pakistan has been examined by light and scanning electron microscope. Pollen grains are usually radially symmetrical, apolar rarely isopolar, pantoporate rarely 3-10 colpate, spheroidal to prolate-spheroidal to sub-prolate occasionally prolate. Sexine thicker or thinner than nexine. Tectum spinulose-punctuate or scabrate-punctate often reticulate or reticulate-scabrate. On the

  14. Nuclear Pakistan and nuclear India: Stable deterrent or proliferation challenge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George H. Quester

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear proliferation, a security issue which has transcended the cold war, has been, and is, particularly troublesome in South Asia. There, India and Pakistan, neighbors with unresolved disputes since they were granted independence at the end of World War II, are believed to have nuclear weapons (although the leaders of both nations deny it) and are intermittently engaged in conflict

  15. Cretaceous source rocks in Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Kari, I.B. (Pakistan Petroleum Limited, Sindh (Pakistan))

    1993-02-01

    Pakistan is located at the converging boundaries of the Indian, Arabian, and Eurasian plates. Evolution of this tectonic setting has provided an array of environmental habitats for deposition of petroleum source rocks and development of structural forms. The potential Cretaceous source rocks in Central and South Indus Basin are spread over an area of about 300,000 km[sup 2]. With 2% cutoff on Total Organic Carbon, the average source rock thickness is 30-50 m, which is estimated to have generated more than 200 billion bbl of oil equivalent. To date, production of more than 30,000 bbl of oil and about 1200 million ft[sup 3] of gas per day can be directly attributed to Cretaceous source. This basin was an area of extensional tectonics during the Lower to Middle Cretaceous associated with slightly restricted circulation of the sea waters at the north-western margin of Indian Plate. Lower Cretaceous source rocks (Sembar Formation) were deposited while the basin was opening up and anoxia was prevailing. Similarly Middle to Upper Cretaceous clastics were deposited in setting favorable for preservation of organic matter. The time and depth of burial of the Cretaceous source material and optimum thermal regime have provided the requisite maturation level for generation of hydrocarbons in the basin. Central Indus basin is characterized by Cretaceous source rocks mature for gas generation. However, in South Indus Basin Cretaceous source rocks lie within the oil window in some parts and have gone past it in others.

  16. Report: prevalence of shigellosis in three different areas of Karachi.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Tasneem; Saeed, Aftab; Usmanghani, Khan

    2014-03-01

    Shigellosis is communicated when the pathogen is swallowed down through the factors like stool or polluted hands with dust. Inappropriate hygienic conditions may reach such clinical manifestations. Shigellosis is frequently originated in crowded places and where hygienic conditions are insufficient and sanitation is poor. Infections easily transmissible from person to person like family members or infected playmates. The disease can easily transmit through infected food handlers with inappropriate hygienic conditions, crops nurturing in contaminated water with sewage line system, swimming in contaminated pool water. Similarly houseflies can also form an important vector for its transmission. In this study, Ecological factors were also the causative indicators for the disease. The issue was the water contamination of the different areas of Karachi mainly the Pehlwan Goth, Safora Goth. Then another area we focused was Patel Para in which Salmonella species were present. Other indicator was the individual-to-individual transfer that was common in Safora Goth. PMID:24577930

  17. SDPISustainable Development Policy Institute Pakistan Forest

    E-print Network

    Richner, Heinz

    in English and errors and omissions are expected. #12;SDPISustainable Development Policy Institute Pakistan of the Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (NCS), also called Pakistan's Agenda 21. SDPI is a policy- oriented

  18. Community perceptions of reasons for preference for consanguineous marriages in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Hussain, R

    1999-10-01

    Although the recent Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) show that two-thirds of marriages in Pakistan are consanguineous, the sociocultural determinants of such marriages remain largely unexplored. This paper examines the relative importance of the three commonly perceived reasons for such marriages: religious, economic and cultural. The analysis is based on qualitative data collected in 1995 from multi-ethnic and multi-religious communities in Karachi, the largest city of Pakistan. Results show that consanguineous marriages are preferred across all ethnic and religious groups to a varying degree, and that parents continue to be the prime decision-makers for marriages of both sons and daughters. The major reasons for a preference for consanguineous marriages are sociocultural rather than any perceived economic benefits, either in the form of consolidation of family property or smaller and less expensive dowries. Among Muslims, following religious traditions is the least commonly cited reason for such marriages. Despite the reported sociocultural advantages of consanguineous marriages, such unions are perceived to be exploitative as they perpetuate the existing power structures within the family. PMID:10581876

  19. Association of airborne Aspergillus with asthma exacerbation in Southern Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Zubairi, Ali Bin Sarwar; Azam, Iqbal; Awan, Safia; Zafar, Afia

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposure to airborne fungi has been related with exacerbation of asthma in adults and children leading to increased outpatient, emergency room visits, and hospitalizations. Hypersensitivity to these airborne fungi may be an important initial predisposing factor in the development and exacerbation of asthma. Objective This study was conducted to determine an association between fungal types and spore concentrations with the risk of asthma exacerbation in adults. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted from May 2008 to August 2009 at the Aga Khan University Hospital Karachi, Pakistan. All adult (age?16 years) patients presenting to the hospital with acute asthma exacerbation were enrolled after informed consent. A home survey was conducted for each patient to assess their environmental characteristics. Indoor air samples were also obtained from the patient's home to determine the type and spore concentration of fungi within the week of their enrollment in the study. Results Three hundred and ninety-one patients with an acute asthma exacerbation were enrolled during the study period. The mean age of participants was 46 years (standard deviation, ±18 years) and 247 (63.2%) were females. A trend of higher asthma enrollment associated with higher Aspergillus concentrations was found in two consecutive summers. A total of nineteen types of fungi were found in air samples. Aspergillus spp. was the most frequently isolated fungus with acute asthma exacerbation. Conclusion An association of higher concentration of indoor Aspergillus spp. with asthma exacerbation in adults was observed in this study. PMID:24809014

  20. Deliberate self-harm and suicide: a review from Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Muhammad Shahid; Adnan A. Hyder

    2008-01-01

    Suicide is now considered a major public health problem, especially in low income countries. A systematic review was conducted to identify risk factors and causes of deliberate self-harm and suicide in Pakistan – a Muslim, South Asian nation. In addition, the role of emergency department-based surveillance is explored. Four electronic databases (PubMed, CINAHL Plus, MDConsult, PakMediNet) were searched and 23

  1. Duality of female employment in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Kazi, S; Raza, B

    1991-01-01

    The trends in the level and pattern of women's employment in Pakistan in terms of supply and demand factors which influence women's participation in the labor market are discussed. Women's labor participation is underestimated in official sources such as the Labor Force Survey (LFS) and the Population Census. Figures which were obtained from micro level surveys and the Agricultural Census, show the duality of employment at the top and bottom socioeconomically. LFS data show the female share of the professional work force to have risen from 15.5% to 18.3% between 1984-95 and 1987-88, which translates to 33% of teachers and 25% of physicians being women. Urban female participation rates have increased only slightly from 3 to 5% between 1971 and 72 and 1987-88, based on LFS data, while informal sector surveys have shown an increase of workers who are women who have never worked before in the formal sector. In manufacturing, the female work force remains low at 5% in factories in the Punjab and Sindh, but only 20% were in regular employment compared with 50% of men. Agricultural work on the family farm has increased from 35% in 1972 and 42% in 1980. Increases are also shown in more recent LF surveys. Constraints on both male and female employment are the recent (1978-79 and 1986-87) shift to capital investment in agriculture with tubewells and tractors and in manufacturing. Women's movement into agriculture may be precipitated by men's out migration to urban areas or the Gulf region into other nonfarm occupations. In manufacturing there is exploitation of workers through low overhead costs of temporary or part time help. Supply constraints for women involve cultural restrictions, household responsibilities, and low levels of education and skills. Women enter the work force out of financial need. Data on female-headed households are scarce, but a Karachi survey finds that most female-headed households belong to the poorest strata and women work when family size increases. Enrollment figures show part of the gender gap in education and skills with 33% of women enrolling in school at the primary level and 25% at the secondary level. 50-60% drop out at the primary level. Area of study is also gender dominated with few women in engineering, commerce, and law. The problems of female employment are restricted demand in the labor market and supply side constraints. Preventing regular employment and keeping women in casual positions in the informal sector is the outcome of a deliberate policy of exploitation of a cheap source of labor. PMID:12285308

  2. Anaphylaxis: incidence, presentation, causes and outcome in patients in a tertiary-care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Shakeel, N.; Makda, A.; Mallick, A.S.; Ali Memon, M.; Hashmi, S.H.; Khan, U.R.; Razzak, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Anaphylaxis is a potentially fatal condition requiring immediate resuscitation. Data regarding the epidemiology of anaphylaxis are limited and inconsistent. A reason for the variability was unavailability of a universally acceptable case definition till 2005. We reviewed cases using this new definition Aim: To review the incidence, clinical presentation, cause and outcome of anaphylaxis at a tertiary-care centre in a low-income country. Design: Retrospective, case series Methods: Chart review of all patients discharged from Aga Khan University Hospital between January 1988 and December 2012 (24 years) with anaphylaxis definition as per second National Institute of Allergy and Infection disease/Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network Symposium Results: Total of 129 cases were found with mean age of 41.6 years (SD 18.8). Majority of patients had cutaneous features (76.7%), followed by respiratory (68.9%), cardiac (64.3%) and gastrointestinal (20.9%) symptoms, respectively. About 22.4% of patients had positive history for allergens out of which 31% (n = 9) were exposed to the same allergens. The common causes identified for anaphylaxis were drugs (60.5%), food (16.3%) and intravenous contrast (10.9%), respectively. Only 22.5% of cases received epinephrine as a part of their initial management. In four patients (3.1%) the cause of death was attributed to anaphylaxis. Conclusion: Anaphylaxis is a rare but life-threatening condition. Though cutaneous features are most common, their absence does not exclude the diagnosis. Drugs were the most common cause and epinephrine was not commonly used as first-line agent for its management. PMID:24082151

  3. Renal transplantation in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, S A H; Naqvi, S A A; Zafar, M N

    2002-01-01

    The economic indicators of Pakistan show that the GNP is dollar 70 billion and foreign exchange reserves stand at dollar 8.0 billion and foreign debt at more than dollar 36 billion. Against this backdrop, the government is unlikely to provide state-of-the-art facilities for management of end-stage organ failure. The unequal distribution of wealth leaves more than 40% below the poverty line. Economic solutions are based on temporary fixes where foreign aid and loans keeps the government machinery operational. Many of the basic health measures such as immunization are also foreign funded. Under such a scenario, local philanthropy has come to play a vital role. SIUT developed a model based on self-help--a model based on a community-government partnership, where the doctor plays the pivotal role and the beneficiary is the patient. SIUT acquired funds by developing a community-government partnership. The government fulfills about 40% of the total budget and the rest comes from the community as donations. The scheme has been extremely successful in providing free medical care and renal support to thousands of patients. It has been sustained over the past 15 years through complete transparency, public audit and accountability. These confidence-building means stimulate the community to come forward and donate money, equipment and medicines. The goal of transplantation is to provide organs to all with long-term survival of the graft. The emerging challenges to achieve this goal and efforts that can be made to increase and sustain transplant activity in Pakistan require a concerted effort on the part of the government, society and the medical profession. PMID:12971449

  4. Survey report: Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Zheng, J

    1991-10-01

    Pakistan suffers an unsuccessful population policy, with a resultant annual population growth of greater than 3%. Cultural and religious objections to family planning (FP) are recognized as the major obstacles to reducing fertility. Accordingly, a 1990-91 demographic and health survey was conducted to elicit information or fertility, family planning, marriage patterns, breastfeeding, and child health for planners and policymakers. The survey was jointly funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development and the government of Pakistan, and interviewed 6,494 ever-married women aged 15-49. The average total fertility rate for the 6-year period prior to the survey was 5.5 lifetime births/woman, less than the figure of greater than 6 found in previous surveys. Increasing age at 1st marriage and a slightly higher level of contraceptive use may be causal factors for the observed decline. Decreased fertility notwithstanding, contraceptive prevalence is low compared to other developing countries in Asia. 1 out of 5 Pakistani women report ever having used contraceptives, and no single method has ever been used by more than 7% of married women. 7% use condoms, 5% the pill, 3% female sterilization, and 3 the IUD and injections, with male sterilization virtually nonexistent, and only limited knowledge of barrier methods. Contraceptive prevalence, including traditional methods, among married women was 12%, with higher coverage in cities, especially among educated women. 37% desire no additional children, and 18% wish to delay child birth for 2 years. Intervention strategy may include working to improve the status of women, fostering greater educational opportunities for women, changing traditional attitudes toward large families and son preference, providing sufficient FP services, and getting commitments for support and action from government and community leaders. PMID:12284304

  5. SDPISustainable Development Policy Institute Pakistan Forest

    E-print Network

    Richner, Heinz

    translated in English and errors and omissions are expected. #12;SDPISustainable Development Policy Institute of the Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (NCS), also called Pakistan's Agenda 21. SDPI is a policy- oriented

  6. Prevalence of drug resistance associated mutations in Plasmodium vivax against sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine in southern Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Pakistan, Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum co-exist and usage of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) against P. falciparum exposes P. vivax to the drug leading to generation of resistant alleles. The main aim of this study was to investigate frequency distribution of drug resistance associated mutations in pvdhfr, pvdhps genes and provide baseline molecular epidemiological data on SP-associated resistance in P. vivax from southern Pakistan. Methods From January 2008 to May 2009, a total of 150 samples were collected from patients tested slide-positive for P. vivax, at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, or its collection units located in Baluchistan and Sindh Province. Nested PCR using pvdhfr and pvdhps specific primers was performed for all samples.91.3% (137/150) of the samples were tested PCR positive of which 87.3% (131/137) were successfully sequenced. Sample sequencing data was analysed and compared against wild type reference sequences. Results In dhfr, mutations were observed at codons F57L, S58R and S117N/T. Novel non-synonymous mutations were observed at codon positions N50I, G114R and E119K while a synonymous mutation was observed at codon position 69Y. In dhps, mutations were observed at codon position A383G and A553G while novel non-synonymous mutations were observed at codon positions S373T, E380K, P384L, N389T, V392D, T393P, D459A, M601I, A651D and A661V. Conclusion This is the first report from southern Pakistan on SP resistance in clinical isolates of P. vivax. Results from this study confirm that diverse drug resistant alleles are circulating within this region. PMID:23890361

  7. Sentinel Hospital-Based Surveillance for Assessment of Burden of Rotavirus Gastroenteritis in Children in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Kazi, Abdul Momin; Warraich, Gohar Javed; Qureshi, Shahida; Qureshi, Huma; Khan, Muhammad Mubashir Ahmad; Zaidi, Anita Kaniz Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine the burden and molecular epidemiology of rotavirus gastroenteritis in children hospitalized with severe acute watery diarrhea in Pakistan prior to introduction of rotavirus vaccine. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out over a period of two years from 2006 – 2008 at five sentinel hospitals in the cities of Karachi, Lahore, Rawalpindi, and Peshawar. Stool samples collected from children under five years of age hospitalized with severe acute watery diarrhea were tested for rotavirus antigen via enzyme immunoassay (EIA) (IDEA REF K6020 Oxoid Ltd (Ely), Cambridge, United Kingdom). A subset of EIA positive stool samples were further processed for genotyping. Results 6679 children were enrolled and stool specimens of 2039 (30.5%) were positive for rotavirus. Rotavirus positivity ranged from 16.3% to 39.4% in the 5 hospitals with highest positivity in Lahore. 1241 (61%) of all rotavirus cases were in infants under one year of age. Among the strains examined for G-serotypes, the occurrence of G1, G2, G9 and G4 strains was found to be 28%, 24%, 14% and 13%, respectively. Among P-types, the most commonly occurring strains were P6 (31.5%) followed by P8 (20%) and P4 (12%). Prevalent rotavirus genotype in hospitalized children of severe diarrhea were G1P[8] 11.6% (69/593), followed by G2P[4] 10.4% (62/593), and G4P[6] 10.1% (60/593). Conclusions Approximately one third of children hospitalized with severe gastroenteritis in urban centers in Pakistan have rotavirus. Introduction of rotavirus vaccine in Pakistan's national immunization program could prevent many severe episodes and diarrheal deaths. PMID:25295613

  8. Can Formal Disability-Related Services Be Developed with South Asian Historical and Conceptual Foundations? Constructions from Experience and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, M.

    This paper uses experiences in Pakistan to address issues in the application of European-based principles of disability-related concepts and services to cultures in South Asia, especially Pakistan and India. Emphasis is on understanding the South Asian conceptual world of disability so that "development" rather than "transfer" of knowledge and…

  9. Military Takeover Complete in Pakistan

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    de Nie, Michael Willem.

    General Pervez Musharraf assumed the position of chief executive of Pakistan early this morning, completing a very quick and bloodless coup that began on Tuesday night. General Musharraf declared a state of emergency, suspending the constitution and the national and provincial assemblies, dismissing the provincial governments and governors, and banning the Supreme Court from challenging his authority. Reaction to the coup has been rather muted within Pakistan and abroad. Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif, who is now in custody, was increasingly unpopular in Pakistan because of the country's dire economic situation, his handling of the conflict with India in Kashmir, and what some saw as his systematic efforts to undermine the authority of rival political parties and branches of government. Foreign officials and editorials have criticized the military and called for the restoration of civilian rule as soon as possible. However, many have also acknowledged Sharif's poor record and some have even called for a transitional "technocratic" government to revive the economy and fight corruption. While the crucial question of foreign aid and loans to Pakistan is still very much up in the air, it does appear that at least some nations, most notably arch-rival India, are prepared to do business with Pakistan's new leaders, at least for the short term.

  10. The Relationship between Corporate Governance Indicators and Firm Value : A Case Study of Karachi Stock Exchange

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Attiya Y. Javed; Robina Iqbal

    2007-01-01

    We investigated whether differences in quality of firm-level corporate governance can explain the firm-level performance in a cross-section of companies listed at Karachi Stock Exchange. Therefore, we analysed the relationship between firm-level value as measured by Tobins Q and total Corporate Governance Index (CGI) and three sub-indices : Board, Shareholdings and Ownership, and Disclosures and Transparency for a sample of

  11. Applying WHO's health systems performance assessment in Pakistan: critical reflections.

    PubMed

    Hyder, Adnan A

    2003-04-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) proposed a health systems performance assessment framework in 2000, which met with quick and often severe criticisms in terms of process, methods and utility. However, a country specific reflection for the potential application of this framework has not been published to-date from South Asia. This paper reviews the recent literature and critiques and analyzes the potential for applying the framework in Pakistan. Deconstruction of the framework into its five component parts--health (level, distribution), responsiveness (level, distribution) and fair financing--allows an assessment of data needs for generation of specific indicators. This paper proposes that three of the five components may be attempted in Pakistan due to the availability of specific data; however the two components of responsiveness will require the collection of new primary data and present a considerable challenge. The conduct of a burden of disease study, assessment of health expenditures using household consumption surveys, and use of numerous national surveys will allow for optimal utilization of available information in Pakistan. The assimilation and analysis of available data will also be critical in informing national health decision-making. PMID:12718770

  12. Monetary Conditions Index for Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zulfiqar Hyder; Muhammad Mazhar Khan

    The paper discusses how changes in interest rate and exchange rate, through Monetary Conditions Index (MCI), are used for assessing the overall monetary policy stance. The weights for construction of MCI are derived using the Johansen's cointegration techniques. The constructed MCI indicates that Pakistan has eight tight and six soft periods of monetary stance during March 1991 to April 2006.

  13. Prevalence of arthritis in India and Pakistan: a review.

    PubMed

    Akhter, Ehtisham; Bilal, Saira; Kiani, Adnan; Haque, Uzma

    2011-07-01

    Recent studies of rheumatoid arthritis worldwide suggest that prevalence of arthritis is higher in Europe and North America than in developing countries. Prevalence data for major arthritis disorders have been compiled in West for several decades, but figures from the third world are just emerging. A coordinated effort by WHO and ILAR (International League Against Rheumatism) has resulted in collecting data for countries like Philippines, China, Malaysia, Indonesia, and rural South Africa but the information about prevalence of arthritis in India and Pakistan is scarce. Since both countries, i.e., India and Pakistan, share some ethnic identity, we reviewed published literature to examine the prevalence of arthritis in these countries. Medline and Pubmed were searched for suitable articles about arthritis from 1980 and onwards. Findings from these articles were reviewed and summarized. The prevalence, clinical features, and laboratory findings of rheumatoid arthritis are compiled for both India and Pakistan. Data collected from these two countries were compared with each other, and some of the characteristics of the disease were compared with Europe and North America. It is found to be quite similar to developed countries. Additionally, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis is of different variety than reported in West. It is more of polyarticular onset type while in West pauciarticular predominates. Additionally, in systemic onset, JRA uveitis and ANA are common finding in developed countries; on the other hand, they are hardly seen in this region. Although the prevalence of arthritis in Pakistan and India is similar to Western countries, there are inherent differences (clinical features, laboratory findings) in the presentation of disease. The major strength of the study is that it is the first to pool reports to provide an estimate of the disease in the Indian subcontinent. Scarcity of data is one of the major limitations. This study helps to understand the pattern of disease in this part of country that can be stepping-stone for policy makers to draft policies that can affect target population more appropriately. PMID:21331574

  14. Delayed marriages in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Sathar, Z A; Kiani, M F

    1986-01-01

    Data from the Migration Module of the Population, Labor Force, and Migration (PLM) Survey of 1979 and from the population censuses of 1961, 1972, and 1981 were examined to explore the impact of modernization, particularly of expansion of education and modern sector employment, urbanization, and migration on proportions never married in various age groups in Pakistan. Table 1 shows a noticeable and substantial increase in proportions never married between 1961 and 1975 and subsequently until 1981. The increase in proportions never married was more pronounced for young females aged 15-29 years than for males in the same age group. The figures for 1972 and 1981 were similar, indicating that increases in the proportions never married occurred more in the 1960s. The singulate mean age at marriage for females was computed to be 18.1 years in 1961, 19.8 years in 1972, and 20.7 years in 1981. Over the 1961-81 period, marital postponement for males was considerably less pronounced. In the age groups above age 30, the proportions never married were lower in 1981 than in 1961 for both males and females. Overall increases in the proportions never married were not as marked in the case of Pakistani males, which may be attributed to the fact that beginning in 1961 male marriage age was already considerably higher than female marriage age -- 23.6 years. Patterns of marriage behavior were expected to vary in the 4 provinces -- Punjab, Sind, NWFP, and Baluchistan -- because of differences in cultural patterns, levels of development, and urbanization. Punjab, the most developed province, contained the bulk of the proportion never married in the 15-19 age group, both in urban and in rural areas. The provincial differential in proportions never married was much greater for females than for males. Punjab had the highest proportions of never married females, followed by the NWFP and Sind, in both urban and rural areas. Urban Punjab had the least differences in average ages at marriage between men and women (4.6 years); in other provinces this difference was more than 5 years. As Table 4 demonstrates, there was a clear pattern of higher proportions never married by each level of education for both males and females in urban and rural areas. The extent of postponement in marriage was more pronounced among younger educated females in urban areas the among rural females. Although the number of persons sampled with 9 or more years of education were on the low side in rural areas, there was a distinct relationship between acquisition of education and marriage postponement there also. Male nuptiality behavior also varied by educational levels. PMID:12341741

  15. Women, islam, and the state in Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Afshan Jafar

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, I outline the history of Pakistan’s experience with “Islamic” laws and their impact on women. I also trace\\u000a the links between the state, nationalism, religion, and women’s organizations, and demonstrate how they have shaped women's\\u000a lives in Pakistan. I focus mainly on General Zia ul-Haq’s influence in fostering and reinforcing certain detrimental ideologies\\u000a and policies regarding women.

  16. Pakistan combats hidden AIDS menace.

    PubMed

    1996-05-20

    The conservative Islamic society in Pakistan associates human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) with prostitution, homosexuality, and drug abuse, activities which are prohibited in Pakistan. There are 1000 reported cases of HIV, 55 with advanced AIDS (53 have died) in Pakistan. Birjees Mazhar Kazi, head of the National AIDS Program, believes that, based on the computer model of the World Health Organization (WHO), the number of HIV cases in Pakistan can be 50,000 to 80,000. Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto's government has allocated $2 million for AIDS prevention. Although some officials argue that Islamic strictures and traditional social pressures discourage sexual license, the poor public health and education standards in Pakistan make it vulnerable to AIDS. Drug abuse has risen in the last 20 years; there are an estimated 1.5 million heroin users among an estimated 3 million addicts. According to Health Ministry Director General Naik Muhammad Shaikh, the government has established 30 HIV/AIDS screening centers and is sponsoring a law that would require all blood banks to provide only safe blood and blood products for transfusion. Marvi states that the reuse and poor disposal of needles, a common practice in Pakistan, could be responsible for most of the transmission there of AIDS and hepatitis C. Health experts acknowledge the obstacles placed in the way of AIDS awareness campaigns by sex taboos and religious sensitivities; condoms cannot be mentioned or displayed in shops, or used in electronic or print media campaigns. They can be mentioned in a recorded message on a 24-hr AIDS hotline. Community-based and nongovernmental organizations are being used to reach segments of society who cannot use the hotline. Eunuchs (hijras), who are much in demand as "female" entertainers at weddings, are particularly resistant to safe sex messages, according to Abid Atiq, head of the information and education section of the National AIDS Program. He says families conceal AIDS patients because of the stigma, and, although counseling services are provided, most are reluctant to contact the program. PMID:12320183

  17. Predictable Equilibrium Multichannel Network Characteristizes The Indus River, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carling, Paul

    2015-04-01

    PREDICTABLE EQUILIBRIUM MULTICHANNEL NETWORK CHARACTERIZES THE INDUS RIVER, PAKISTAN Carling, P.A.1, Trieu, H.1, Hornby, D.2, Darby, S.E.1, Sear, D.A.1, Hutton, C.2, Ali, Z.3, Iqbal, I.3 1Geography & Environment, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK; 2GeoData, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK; 3SUPARCO, Karachi, Pakistan The Indus River in Pakistan between Chasma and Taunsa is a 304 river km reach characterised by islands dividing multiple channels. Previously, the behaviour of such channel networks has been considered unpredictable. Crosato & Mosselman (2009) argue that physics-based predictors of channel splitting developed for braided-river bars apply poorly to island-divided rivers and recommend the application of regime theory (Bettess & White, 1983) to predict the number (n) of channels in rivers such as the Indus. The Indus is characterized by two to 11 channels at each cross section with, on average, about four channels being active during the dry season and five during the monsoon. Thus the expansion of the network during the monsoon is slight and is due to reoccupation of channels that are dry during low flows. The network evolves on an annual basis primarily due to bendway progression, whilst avulsions to form major new channels are relatively rare (one or two in the reach per year) and are matched by a similar number of closures. Thus the network structure, if not its shape, is relatively stable year to year. The standard deviation of channel numbers comparing sections throughout the reach is practically identical at c. two channels and there is no significant variation between years. Theory indicates that stable networks have three to four channels, thus the stability in the number of active channels through the annual monsoon and between years accords with the presence of a near-equilibrium reach-scale channel network that demonstrates local disequilibrium when 3 > n > 4, being perturbed by the annual monsoon. Application of the Bettess & White regime theory demonstrates that the river channel network does not respond to monsoon floods (which typically peak at 13,200 m3s-1), but rather it maintains a network that is in near-equilibrium with the 20-year mean annual flow (3090 m3s-1) for a narrow range of channel slopes (2.8 - 2.9 10-4) and a narrow range of total sediment load (120 - 180 mg l-1). Given the stability in n and B (channel width), it can be inferred that channel depths (d) also are relatively stable during the monsoon. Thus despite any minor adjustments in B:d during the annual hydrological cycle, the time-scale for adjustment of the physical network is much longer than the time-scale of the monsoon hydrograph, with the annual excess water being stored and transported across neighbouring floodplains, rather than being conveyed in enlarged channels or in new avulsed channels. The analysis explains the lack of significant channel adjustment following the largest recorded flood in 40 years: 27,100 m3s-1 in 2010.

  18. Late Paleozoic Rifting in northern Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogue, Kevin R.; Dipietro, Joseph A.; Khan, Said Rahim; Hughes, Scott S.; Dilles, John H.; Lawrence, Robert D.

    1992-08-01

    Metasedimentary rocks exposed in the eastern Peshawar basin and the southern Swat region of northern Pakistan provide evidence for late Paleozoic continental rifting. The onset of extensional tectonics in the Early Carboniferous is indicated by north derived clasts in the Jafar Kandao Formation eroded from thermally induced uplifts of parts of the formerly passive margin of Gondwana. Rift highlands were eroded until they were inundated during the Middle Carboniferous. Renewed uplift accompanied the eruption of basaltic lava flows during the Early Permian. Uplift along south dipping, northeast striking normal faults during the Carboniferous was accompanied by alkaline magmatism represented by the Shewa-Shahbazgarhi and Warsak porphyries and Koga syenite. Geochemistry of basaltic flows (now amphibolites) and intrusions associated with Permian uplift is similar to the coeval Panjal volcanics of northwestern India and indicates rift zone magmatism. Postrifting thermal subsidence led to the deposition of Upper Triassic marine carbonate rocks which unconformably overlie the rift basalts. A similar tectonic history in central Afghanistan suggests continuity between the two regions prior to the opening of the Neo-Tethys.

  19. Multi-drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex genetic diversity and clues on recent transmission in Punjab, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Yasmin, Memona; Gomgnimbou, Michel K; Siddiqui, Rubina T; Refrégier, Guislaine; Sola, Christophe

    2014-10-01

    Multi-Drug Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB), i.e. bacilli resistant to rifampicin (RIF) and isoniazid (INH), is a major Public Health concern in Pakistan according to WHO estimates (3.5% and 32% of new and retreated cases, respectively). Previous Pakistanis reports identified a correlation between being MDR and belonging to Beijing or EAI lineages in one study, and belonging to "H4"-Ural Euro-American sublineage in another study. In addition, MDR-TB transmission was suspected in Karachi. We tested MDR characteristics on a Punjab sample of 278 clinical isolates (without selection for Multi-Drug Resistance) including new and retreated cases collected from 2008 to 2012. All samples were characterized by a new, microbead-based method named "TB-SPRINT" (molecular diagnostic including spoligotype identification, and genetic resistance determinants to first-line anti-TB drugs RIF and INH). Isolates from 2011 to 2012 (n=100) were further analyzed using 24-loci MIRU-VNTR. We detected 8.7% MDR isolates (CI95%=[5.0; 12.5]), mainly among CAS lineage that predominates in this central-East region of Pakistan. Out of 20 MDR-TB cases, 12 different TB-SPRINT profiles were identified, limiting the suspicion of MDR-TB transmission. 24 MIRU-VNTR confirmed the unrelatedness of isolates with different TB-SPRINT profiles and discriminated 3 isolates with identical TB-SPRINT profiles. In conclusion, our study did not confirm any of the correlations between Multi-Drug Resistance and lineage or sublineage in Punjab, Pakistan. MDR-TB isolates were diverse indicating that transmission is not pervasive. TB-SPRINT proved useful as a first step for detecting MDR-TB likely transmission events, before more extensive genotyping such as 15 or 24 MIRU-VNTR and thorough epidemiological investigation. PMID:24981519

  20. Protocol for a qualitative study on promoting dietary change and positive food choices for poor people with low income who experience cardiovascular disease in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Barolia, Rubina Iqbal; Clark, Alexander M; Higginbottom, Gina M A

    2013-01-01

    Introduction There is a misconception that cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the burden of wealthy nations, but, in fact, it is the leading cause of death and disability-adjusted life worldwide. Healthy diets are an essential factor in the prevention of CVD. However, promoting healthy diet is challenging, particularly for people with low-socioeconomic status (SES), because poverty is linked with many risk behaviours such as smoking, unhealthy eating and obesity. Multiple factors, cultural values and beliefs interact and make healthy eating very challenging. The effects of these factors in the context of low-SES populations with CVD are largely unknown. To address this gap, this study will examine the factors that affect decisions about consuming healthy diet in Pakistanis with low SES who suffer from CVD. Methods and analysis A qualitative method of interpretive description will be used. 25 participants will be selected from two cardiac rehabilitation (CR) centres in Karachi, Pakistan. Face-to-face interviews using a critical realist framework will be used to understand individual and contextual factors in the food choices of people with low SES and CVD. ATLAS.ti qualitative data analysis software will be used to identify themes and patterns in the interview data. Ethics and discussion Ethical approvals were received from the Ethics Review board of University of Alberta, Canada and Aga Khan University, Karachi Pakistan. The findings will generate new knowledge about which and how factors influence the food choices of Pakistanis with CVD and low SES to provide an insight into the development of an operational framework for designing interventions for prevention of CVD. For knowledge-translation purposes, we will publish the findings in highly accessed, peer-reviewed scientific and health policy journals at the national and international level. This research protocol received IRDC (International Development Research Centre) doctoral award from International Development Research Centre, Ottawa, Canada. PMID:24309173

  1. Anatomy Education Faces Challenges in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Memon, Ismail K.

    2009-01-01

    Anatomy education in Pakistan is facing many of the same challenges as in other parts of the world. Roughly, a decade ago, all medical and dental colleges in Pakistan emphasized anatomy as a core basic discipline within a traditional medical science curriculum. Now institutions are adopting problem based learning (PBL) teaching philosophies, and…

  2. Pesticides exposure in Pakistan: A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Muhammad Ilyas Tariq; Shahzad Afzal; Ishtiaq Hussain; Nargis Sultana

    2007-01-01

    This is the first systematic review of studies done since 1960, and to give an integrated picture of pesticides exposure to humans, animals, plants, waters, soils\\/sediments, atmosphere etc. in Pakistan. Authors have extracted data from different departments, published literature in research journals and National reports. Although the wide-spread usage of pesticides in Pakistan has controlled the pests, but like other

  3. Pakistan's Naval strategy: Past and future

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vijay Sakhuja

    2002-01-01

    Over the past fifty years, the Pakistan Navy has developed an effective naval strategy and capability to counter the threat posed by the superior Indian Navy. It has adopted an offensive sea denial strategy that dictates primacy of submarines and maritime aircraft equipped with missiles as the main instruments of waging war at sea. The Pakistan Navy has taken lead

  4. Heterogeneity of BCR-ABL rearrangement in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Tabassum, Najia; Saboor, Mohammad; Ghani, Rubina; Moinuddin, Moinuddin

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective: Breakpoint cluster region-Abelson (BCR-ABL) rearrangement or Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) is derived from a reciprocal chromosomal translocation between ABL gene on chromosome 9 and BCR gene on chromosome 22. This chimeric protein has various sizes and therefore different clinical behaviour. The purpose of this study was to determine the heterogeneity of BCR-ABL rearrangement in patients with Ph+CML in Pakistan. Methods: The study was conducted at Civil Hospital and Baqai Institute of Hematology (BIH) Karachi. Blood samples from 25 patients with CML were collected. Multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to identify various BCR-ABL transcripts. Results: All 25 samples showed BCR-ABL rearrangements. Out of these, 24 (96%) patients expressed p210 BCR-ABL rearrangements i.e. 60% (n=15) had b3a2 and 32% (n=8) had b2a2 rearrangements. Co-expression of b3a2 /b2a2 rearrangement and p190 (e1a3) rearrangement was also identified in two patients. Conclusion: It is apparent that majority of the patients had p210 BCR-ABL rearrangements. Frequency of co-expression and rare fusion transcripts was very low. PMID:25097530

  5. Concentrations of particulate airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and metals collected in Lahore, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. J. T.; Harrison, Roy M.; Luhana, L.; Pio, Casimiro A.; Castro, L. M.; Tariq, Mohammad Nawaz; Hayat, S.; Quraishi, T.

    Hi-vol air sampling equipment was run at three sites (representative of "city", "industrial" and "rural" sampling locations) in Lahore, Pakistan, for over a year. The extraction and quantitative analyses of all Lahore air samples was completed for a suite of metals, various anions, ammonium, elemental and organic carbon, as well as particle-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). A comparison of Lahore yearly mean pollutant concentrations with those obtained in Birmingham, U.K., shows that airborne metal levels in the Pakistani city are greater by at least one order of magnitude. The concentrations in Lahore obtained from this study are broadly in line with similar studies in Karachi as well as Calcutta and Bombay. Concentrations of particle-associated PAH are also around one order of magnitude higher than in U.K. samples, and, given the difference in ambient temperature, vapour-to-particle ratios of PAH are expected to be far higher in the hotter climate of Lahore. Minerals identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) in the Lahore air samples were broadly in line with those determined at locations in other parts of the world.

  6. SAWNET: South Asian Women's Network

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    SAWNET, the South Asian Women's Network, provides a forum for disseminating information about women's issues in the nations of Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. Organized into seventeen topical sections, SAWNET includes articles and books by and for South Asian women, background material on South Asian women's organizations, the latest news about women in the region, and a myriad of other resources relevant to women's rights and health. SAWNET also hosts an electronic mailing list to discuss issues covered by the Website. Please note that the moderated list is restricted to women only. Detailed subscription information and mailing list policies are available at the site.

  7. Current trends in treatment of obesity in Karachi and possibilities of cost minimization.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Mirza Izhar; Naqvi, Baqir Shyum

    2015-03-01

    Our study finds out drug usage trends in over weight and obese patients without any compelling indications in Karachi, looks for deviations of current practices from evidence based antihypertensive therapeutic guidelines and identifies not only cost minimization opportunities but also communication strategies to improve patients' awareness and compliance to achieve therapeutic goal. In present study two sets were used. Randomized stratified independent surveys were conducted in hospital doctors and family physicians (general practitioners), using pretested questionnaires. Sample size was 100. Statistical analysis was conducted on Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). Opportunities of cost minimization were also analyzed. One the basis of doctors' feedback, preference is given to non-pharmacologic management of obesity. Mass media campaign and media usage were recommended to increase patients awareness and patients' education along with strengthening family support systems was recommended for better compliance of the patients to doctor's advice. Local therapeutic guidelines for weight reduction were not found. Feedbacks showed that global therapeutic guidelines were followed by the doctors practicing in the community and hospitals in Karachi. However, high price branded drugs were used instead of low priced generic therapeutic equivalents. Patient's education is required for better awareness and improving patients' compliance. The doctors found preferring brand leaders instead of low cost options. This trend increases cost of therapy by 0.59 to 4.17 times. Therefore, there are great opportunities for cost minimization by using evidence-based clinically effective and safe medicines. PMID:25796152

  8. Spirituality of South Asian Women: Implications for Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Jody L.

    The implications of the spirituality of South Asian women for adult learning were examined through semistructured interviews of five South Asian women who resided in Canada. The women, who included students, working professionals, mothers, and single women, originated from Nepal, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka and were from Hindu, Moslem, and…

  9. SDPISustainable Development Policy Institute Pakistan Forest

    E-print Network

    Richner, Heinz

    ; and that apart from English news clippings, the Urdu news clippings are also translated in English and errors Conservation Strategy (NCS), also called Pakistan's Agenda 21. SDPI is a policy- oriented research institute

  10. Weight misperception amongst youth of a developing country: Pakistan -a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Weight misperception is the discordance between an individual’s actual weight status and the perception of his/her weight. It is a common problem in the youth population as enumerated by many international studies. However data from Pakistan in this area is deficient. Methods A multi-center cross-sectional survey was carried out in undergraduate university students of Karachi between the ages of 15–24. Participants were questioned regarding their perception of being thin, normal or fat and it was compared with their Body Mass Index (BMI). Measurements of height and weight were taken for this purpose and BMI was categorized using Asian cut offs. Weight misperception was identified when the self-perceived weight (average, fat, thin) did not match the calculated BMI distribution. Chi square tests and logistic regression tests were applied to show associations of misperception and types of misperception (overestimation, underestimation) with independent variables like age, gender, type of university and faculties. P-value of <0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results 42.4% of the total participants i.e. 43.3% males and 41% females misperceived their weight. Amongst those who misperceived 38.2% had overestimated and 61.8% had underestimated their weight. Greatest misperception of was observed in the overweight category (91%), specifically amongst overweight males (95%). Females of the underweight category overestimated their weight and males of the overweight category underestimated their weight. Amongst the total participants, females overestimated 8 times more than males (OR 8.054, 95% CI 5.34-12.13). Misperception increased with the age of the participants (OR 1.114, 95% CI 1.041-1.191). Odds of misperception were greater in students of private sector universities as compared to public (OR 1.861, 95% CI: 1.29-2.67). Odds of misperception were less in students of medical sciences (OR 0.693, 95% CI 0.491-0.977), engineering (OR 0.586, 95% CI 0.364-0.941) and business administration (OR 0.439, 95% CI 0.290-0.662) as compared to general faculty universities. Conclusion There was marked discrepancy between the calculated BMI and the self-perceived weight in the youth of Karachi. Better awareness campaigns need to be implemented to reverse these trends. PMID:23915180

  11. In Pakistan, the Problems that Money Can Bring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neelakantan, Shailaja

    2007-01-01

    Over the past four years, Pakistan's higher-education budget has increased more than sevenfold, to about $449-million. While that amounts to only 0.5 percent of Pakistan's gross domestic product, it is a big improvement from the days of barely enough to pay "measly salaries and basic bills." But for students, along with many of Pakistan's most…

  12. Nexus between aid and security: the case of Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vaqar Ahmed; Abdul Wahab Siddiqui

    2010-01-01

    Pakistan being a frontline state in the war against terrorism has also remained one of the highest recipients of foreign aid. This paper analyses foreign assistance through four main facets namely: the link between aid, security and growth with special reference to Pakistan, general equilibrium impact of foreign resource inflow on economic growth and poverty, aid effectiveness in Pakistan, and

  13. Baseline for Monitoring Water Resources Along Kabul and Indus Rivers of Pakistan for Potential Terrorist Contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamidullah, S.; Tariq, S.; Shah, M. T.; Bishop, M. P.; Kamp, U.; Olsenholler, J.

    2002-05-01

    Baseline for Monitoring Water Resources Along Kabul and Indus Rivers of Pakistan for Potential Terrorist Contamination Terrorism has temporarily constrained the dynamism of the world it was enjoying before September 11, 2001, but also has opened avenues for people of all ethnicities, creeds, and professions to join hands in combating it. Scientific efforts to combat terrorism are likely to lead to better use of existing scientific knowledge as well as to discoveries that will increase world organization, interconnectivity, and peace promotion. Afghanistan and surrounding regions are major focal points for current anti-terrorist activities of the USA and its allies, including Pakistan. The United States, Pakistan, and Afghanistan have shared many similar political objectives, as well as differences, in cold war and post-cold-war eras, reflected by variable provisions of material aid. It is well recognized that understanding Afghanistan requires comprehension of the Pakistan situation as well, especially for common resources. Water is paramount because it is absolutely vital, but can be contaminated by internal or cross-border terrorism. The Kabul and Indus rivers originate in the Hindu Kush - Himalaya ranges. The Kabul River flows from Afghanistan into Pakistan, and after irrigating Peshawar basin, joins the Indus. The Indus, after its origin in Tibet and flow through the Indian Himalaya, enters Pakistan and flows south as the irrigation lifeblood of the country. Any terroristic addition of radioactive nuclides or contaminants to either river could dramatically impact the dependent riverine ecologies. Monitoring cells thus need to be established at locations in Afghanistan and Pakistan to assess base-line river variances for possible future contamination by terrorists. This paper presents a general view and the physical and chemical parameters of parts of the two rivers, and of the surrounding underground water in Peshawar Basin, including pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids, major elements, trace elements, heavy metals and oxygen isotopes. Data are mostly within allowed limits of US-EPA for surface and underground water. Oxygen isotopes confirm the dangers of contamination from the Kabul River to underground water. Heavy metals were determined through spectrophotometery, however, modern geophysical methods are cheaper and quicker and can be applied at monitoring stations. With Kabul river and its surroundings as examples, similar theory and practice can be applied to rivers within the United States and other parts of the world.

  14. Nuclear weapons issues in South Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Joeck, N.

    1993-07-02

    This report discusses how the US can play a productive mediating role in South Asia by engaging India and Pakistan in an international forum to manage nuclear weapons, as Edward Teller advocated. India and Pakistan have developed their nuclear capabilities because they fear their neighbors, not because they want to threaten fear their neighbors, not because they want to threaten the US. The appropriate response for the US, therefore, is diplomatic engagement and negotiations. In addition to the international approach, encouragement and facilitation of regional and bilateral interactions will also be important. Formal arms control agreements have been reached, but less formal confidence-building measures, and unilateral security pledges may well be combined to form a more secure strategic environment in South Asia than a nuclear armed confrontation across the porous South Asian border.

  15. Pakistan (country/area statements).

    PubMed

    1985-09-01

    According to this statement presented to the Committee on Population of the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Pakistan's crude birth rate at present is 40/1000. The Pakistan Fertility Survey (PFS) of 1974-75 showed a marital total fertility rate of 8 and marital gross reproduction rate of 3.9. The total fertility rate is estimated at around 6. Evaluation of past family planning activities indicates that the impact of the program on the birth rate has been minimal. Although a large majority of married women know about family planning methods, few fertile couples use a method. Of the 90% of respondents in the PFS who had never used a method, 57% indicated they intended to use a method at some point and 23% said they did not. The average age of all current users was 34 in 1975. Preliminary results of a contraceptive prevalence survey indicate that current use is 10%. The crude birth rate was 46 or 47/1000 in 1965 when an official population program was initiated. The gains from the reduction of the total fertility rate have been partly offset by change in the age structure. Pakistan's population policy was formulated in light of the recommendations of the 1974 World Population Plan of Action. The program approach is multidisciplinary and due consideration is given to the interrelationships between population, resources, environment, and development stratgey. The program relies primarily on community participation and involvement of local leadership to promote acceptability. At the federal level, the major focus of the program is on development of national policy, planning and coordination, funding, training, procurement of contraceptives and equipment, research and evaluation, monitoring, and statistics. The population welfare departments at the provincial level are responsible for the administration and supervision of all field activities relating to service delivery, motivation, training, coordination, monitoring, evaluation, and feedback. The primary objectives are to raise the level of family planning practice from 9.5% in 1982-83 to 18.6% by 1987-88, to raise the level of continuous practice from an estimated 6.8% to 13.0% by the end of the 6th Population Welfare Plan period, and to provide reproductive health services to mothers and child health services for children under 5. The demographic objectives are to reduce the crude birth rate from 40.3 to 36.2 and to prevent approximately 2 million births during the plan period from 1983-88. Private and public sector agencies are cooperating in an immunization program, a diarrheal disease control program based on oral rehydration therapy, training of traditional midwives, provision of family planning services, and encouragement of local women to participate in development activities. PMID:12267452

  16. Frequency of JAK2 V617F mutation in patients with Philadelphia positive Chronic Myeloid Leukemia in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Tabassum, Najia; Saboor, Mohammed; Ghani, Rubina; Moinuddin, Moinuddin

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective: Co-existence of myeloproliferative disorders (MPD) and Janus associated kinase 2 mutation (JAK2 V617F) is a well-established fact. Only few case reports are available showing presence of JAK2 V617F mutation in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of JAK2 V617F mutation in Philadelphia Chromosome positive (Ph +) CML patients in Pakistan. Methods: The study was conducted from August 2009 to July 2010 at Civil Hospital and Baqai Institute of Hematology (BIH) Karachi. Blood samples from 25 patients with CML were collected. Multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed for Breakpoint Cluster Region – Abelson (BCR-ABL) rearrangement. Conventional PCR was performed for JAK2 V617F mutation on BCR-ABL positive samples. Results: All 25 samples showed BCR-ABL rearrangement. Out of these 11 samples (44%) had JAK2 V617F mutation; the remaining 14 (56%) cases showed JAK2 617V wild type. Conclusion: It is concluded that the co-existence of Ph +CML and JAK2 V617F mutation is possible. PMID:24639858

  17. Advisory board approves Pakistan SMC marketing plan.

    PubMed

    1986-01-01

    Under a 2-year contract funded by the US Agency for International Development, PSI Marketing Associates is providing technical assistance for the development of a social marketing project in Pakistan. The national launch of a new condom, Sathi, is planned for 1987. This new social marketing of contraceptives project emphasizes child spacing and will use the slogan, "Until you want another child." As a result of the Pakistan Government's generic family planning advertising and promotion campaigns, there is a high degree of public awareness of contraception. However, this awareness is not reflected in levels of contraceptive use. A 3-month test market for Sathi (which means "companion") will take place in 2 areas representative of Pakistan's socioeconomic and ethnic composition. All printed materials (including posters, stickers, mobiles, and shop signs) will use the Sathi logo--2 birds flying into the sun. Other project materials include a 1-minute video and pamphlets for consumers, dealers, and medical professionals. PMID:12341468

  18. Source rock potential in Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Raza, H.A. (Hydrocarbon Development Institute of Pakistan, Islamabad (Pakistan))

    1991-03-01

    Pakistan contains two sedimentary basins: Indus in the east and Balochistan in the west. The Indus basin has received sediments from precambrian until Recent, albeit with breaks. It has been producing hydrocarbons since 1914 from three main producing regions, namely, the Potwar, Sulaisman, and Kirthar. In the Potwar, oil has been discovered in Cambrian, Permian, Jurassic, and Tertiary rocks. Potential source rocks are identified in Infra-Cambrian, Permian, Paleocene, and Eocene successions, but Paleocene/Eocene Patala Formation seems to be the main source of most of the oil. In the Sulaiman, gas has been found in Cretaceous and Tertiary; condensate in Cretaceous rocks. Potential source rocks are indicated in Cretaceous, Paleocene, and Eocene successions. The Sembar Formation of Early Cretaceous age appears to be the source of gas. In the Kirthar, oil and gas have been discovered in Cretaceous and gas has been discovered in paleocene and Eocene rocks. Potential source rocks are identified in Kirthar and Ghazij formations of Eocene age in the western part. However, in the easter oil- and gas-producing Badin platform area, Union Texas has recognized the Sembar Formation of Early Cretaceous age as the only source of Cretaceous oil and gas. The Balochistan basin is part of an Early Tertiary arc-trench system. The basin is inadequately explored, and there is no oil or gas discovery so far. However, potential source rocks have been identified in Eocene, Oligocene, Miocene, and Pliocene successions based on geochemical analysis of surface samples. Mud volcanoes are present.

  19. A case study of outsourced primary healthcare services in Sindh, Pakistan: is this a real reform?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Since a decade, low and middle income countries have a rising trend of contracting their primary healthcare services to NGOs. In Pakistan, public sector often lacks capacity to effectively & equitably manage the healthcare services. It led the government to outsource the administration of primary health care services to a semi-autonomous government entity i.e. Peoples’ Primary Healthcare Initiative (PPHI). This small scale study has assessed the quality of healthcare services at the contracted Basic Health Units (BHUs) with the PPHI and compared it with those managed by the local district government in the province of Sindh. Methods A cross-sectional mix methods survey was conducted in November 2011. Two BHUs of each type were selected from the districts Karachi and Thatta in Sindh province. BHUs were selected randomly and a purposive sampling technique was used to recruit the study participants at the two study sites. Focus group discussions were conducted with patients visiting the facility while in-depth interviews were conducted with service providers. An observation based resource availability checklist was also administered. Results There was a significant difference between the PPHI and the district government administered BHUs with regard to infrastructure, availability of essential medicines, basic medical appliances, mini-lab facilities and vehicles for referrals. These BHUs were found to have sufficient number of trained clinical staff and no punctuality and retention issues whatsoever. The district government administered BHUs presented a dismal picture in all the aspects. Conclusion Out-sourcing of primary healthcare facilities has resulted in significantly improved certain aspects quality and responsiveness of primary healthcare services. This strategy is likely to achieve an efficient and perhaps an equitable healthcare delivery in low and middle income countries where governments have limited capacity to manage healthcare services. PMID:24965769

  20. The stem cell transplant program in Pakistan--the first decade.

    PubMed

    Shamsi, Ts; Hashmi, K; Adil, S; Ahmad, P; Irfan, M; Raza, S; Masood, N; Shaikh, U; Satti, T; Farzana, T; Ansari, S

    2008-08-01

    Stem cell transplantation is curative in a number of otherwise fatal hematological diseases. In Pakistan, SCT was started in October 1995 at Dr Ziauddin Hospital by Dr Tahir Shamsi and his team. The first case was of a young man suffering from AML. In 1999, allogeneic BMT was started at Bismillah Taqee Institute of Health Sciences and Blood Diseases Centre, Karachi. In 2001, the Armed Forces Bone Marrow Transplant Centre, started functioning. Since then, over 350 allogeneic stem cell transplants have been carried out in these latter two centers. Another 50 autologous procedures were carried out in all centers. In 2004, a third center started transplants at the Aga Khan Hospital. The main indications for transplant are aplastic anemia, beta-thalassemia major and hematological malignancies. HLA-identical sibling donors provide stem cells for the recipient. In 70% of cases, a matched donor is identified. In sharp contrast to the rest of the world, the majority of transplants are allogeneic, donor-recipient pairs are CMV positive and fungal infection, tuberculosis and malaria are particular problems. The early results are promising, with transplant-related mortality reported to be 10-20%, whereas long-term survival is reported to be 78, 72 and 49% in aplastic anemia, beta-thalassemia major and leukemia, respectively. Financial constraints, poor socioeconomic status, poor transfusion services, trained human resources and difficulty in keeping pace with technological advances are major hurdles in the growth of transplant medicine. Government support is badly needed to strengthen existing facilities and to develop more centers. PMID:18724282

  1. Immunogenicity of poliovirus vaccines in chronically malnourished infants: A randomized controlled trial in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Ali Faisal; Mach, Ondrej; Quadri, Farheen; Khan, Asia; Bhatti, Zaid; Rehman, Najeeb Ur; Zaidi, Sohail; Weldon, William C; Oberste, Steven M; Salama, Maha; Sutter, Roland W; Zaidi, Anita K M

    2015-06-01

    Reaching high population immunity against polioviruses (PV) is essential to achieving global polio eradication. Efficacy of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) varies and is lower among children living in tropical areas with impoverished environments. Malnutrition found as a risk factor for lower serological protection against PV. We compared whether inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) can be used to rapidly close the immunity gap among chronically malnourished (stunted) infants in Pakistan who will not be eligible for the 14 week IPV dose in routine EPI schedule. A phase 3, multicenter 4-arm randomized controlled trial conducted at five Primary Health Care (PHC) centers in Karachi, Pakistan. Infants, 9-12 months were stratified by length for age Z score into chronically malnourished and normally nourished. Infants were randomized to receive one dose of either bivalent OPV (bOPV) alone or bOPV+IPV. Baseline seroprevalence of PV antibodies and serum immune response to study vaccine dose were assessed by neutralization assay. Vaccine PV shedding in stool was evaluated 7 days after a bOPV challenge dose. Sera and stool were analyzed from 852/928 (92%) enrolled children. At baseline, the seroprevalence was 85.6% (n=386), 73.6% (n=332), and 70.7% (n=319) in malnourished children against PV types 1, 2 and 3 respectively; and 94.1% (n=448), 87.0% (n=441) and 83.6% (n=397) in the normally nourished group (p<0.05). Children had previously received 9-10 doses of bOPV (80%) or tOPV (20%). One dose of IPV+bOPV given to malnourished children increased their serological protection (PV1, n=201, 97.6%; PV2, n=198, 96.1% and PV3, n=189, 91.7%) to parity with normally nourished children who had not received IPV (p=<0.001). Seroconversion and boosting for all three serotypes was significantly more frequent in children who received IPV+bOPV than in those with bOPV only (p<0.001) in both strata. Shedding of polioviruses in stool did not differ between study groups and ranged from 2.4% (n=5) to 7.1% (n=15). In malnourished children the shedding was reduced after bOPV+IPV compared to bOPV only. Chronically malnourished infants were more likely to be unprotected against polioviruses than normal infants. bOPV+IPV helped close the immunity gap better than bOPV alone. PMID:25917673

  2. Immunogenicity of poliovirus vaccines in chronically malnourished infants: A randomized controlled trial in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Saleem, Ali Faisal; Mach, Ondrej; Quadri, Farheen; Khan, Asia; Bhatti, Zaid; Rehman, Najeeb ur; Zaidi, Sohail; Weldon, William C.; Oberste, Steven M.; Salama, Maha; Sutter, Roland W.; Zaidi, Anita K.M.

    2015-01-01

    Reaching high population immunity against polioviruses (PV) is essential to achieving global polio eradication. Efficacy of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) varies and is lower among children living in tropical areas with impoverished environments. Malnutrition found as a risk factor for lower serological protection against PV. We compared whether inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) can be used to rapidly close the immunity gap among chronically malnourished (stunted) infants in Pakistan who will not be eligible for the 14 week IPV dose in routine EPI schedule. A phase 3, multicenter 4-arm randomized controlled trial conducted at five Primary Health Care (PHC) centers in Karachi, Pakistan. Infants, 9–12 months were stratified by length for age Z score into chronically malnourished and normally nourished. Infants were randomized to receive one dose of either bivalent OPV (bOPV) alone or bOPV + IPV. Baseline seroprevalence of PV antibodies and serum immune response to study vaccine dose were assessed by neutralization assay. Vaccine PV shedding in stool was evaluated 7 days after a bOPV challenge dose. Sera and stool were analyzed from 852/928 (92%) enrolled children. At baseline, the seroprevalence was 85.6% (n = 386), 73.6% (n = 332), and 70.7% (n = 319) in malnourished children against PV types 1, 2 and 3 respectively; and 94.1% (n = 448), 87.0% (n = 441) and 83.6% (n = 397) in the normally nourished group (p < 0.05). Children had previously received 9–10 doses of bOPV (80%) or tOPV (20%). One dose of IPV + bOPV given to malnourished children increased their serological protection (PV1, n = 201, 97.6%; PV2, n = 198, 96.1% and PV3, n = 189, 91.7%) to parity with normally nourished children who had not received IPV (p = <0.001). Seroconversion and boosting for all three serotypes was significantly more frequent in children who received IPV + bOPV than in those with bOPV only (p < 0.001) in both strata. Shedding of polioviruses in stool did not differ between study groups and ranged from 2.4% (n = 5) to 7.1% (n = 15). In malnourished children the shedding was reduced after bOPV + IPV compared to bOPV only. Chronically malnourished infants were more likely to be unprotected against polioviruses than normal infants. bOPV + IPV helped close the immunity gap better than bOPV alone. PMID:25917673

  3. Prevalence and risk factors of kidney disease in urban Karachi: baseline findings from a community cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is being increasingly recognized as a leading public health problem. However, there are limited data available with respect to prevalence of CKD in Pakistan, a developing South Asian country. The study presents the baseline findings of prevalence and risk factors for adult kidney disease in a Pakistani community cohort. Methods A total of 667 households were enrolled between March 2010 and August 2011 including 461 adults, aged 15 and older. Mild kidney disease was defined as estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) ?60 ml/min with microalbuminuria ? 30 mg/dl and moderate kidney disease was defined as eGFR <60 ml/min (with or without microalbuminuria). Results The overall prevalence of kidney disease was 16.6% with 8.6% participants having mild kidney disease and 8% having moderate kidney disease. Age was significantly associated with kidney disease (p?

  4. High HIV Incidence among Persons Who Inject Drugs in Pakistan: Greater Risk with Needle Sharing and Injecting Frequently among the Homeless

    PubMed Central

    Samo, Rab Nawaz; Altaf, Arshad; Agha, Ajmal; Pasha, Omrana; Rozi, Shafquat; Memon, Ashraf; Azam, Saleem; Blevins, Meridith; Vermund, Sten H.; Shah, Sharaf Ali

    2013-01-01

    Background The incidence of HIV among persons who inject drugs (PWIDU) has fallen in many nations, likely due to successes of clean needle/syringe exchange and substance abuse treatment and service programs. However in Pakistan, prevalence rates for PWID have risen dramatically. In several cities, prevalence exceeded 20% by 2009 compared to a 2003 baseline of just 0.5%. However, no cohort study of PWID has ever been conducted. Methods We enrolled a cohort of 636 HIV seronegative PWID registered with three drop-in centers that focus on risk reduction and basic social services in Karachi. Recruitment began in 2009 (March to June) and PWID were followed for two years. We measured incidence rates and risk factors associated with HIV seroconversion. Results Incidence of HIV was 12.4 per 100 person-years (95% exact Poisson confidence interval [CI]: 10.3–14.9). We followed 474 of 636 HIV seronegative persons (74.5%) for two years, an annual loss to follow-up of <13 per 100 person years. In multivariable Cox regression analysis, HIV seroconversion was associated with non-Muslim religion (Adjusted risk ratio [ARR]?=?1.7, 95%CI:1.4, 2.7, p?=?0.03), sharing of syringes (ARR?=?2.3, 95%CI:1.5, 3.3, p<0.0001), being homeless (ARR?=?1.7, 95%CI:1.1, 2.5, p?=?0.009), and daily injection of drugs (ARR?=?1.1, 95%CI:1.0, 1.3, p?=?0.04). Conclusions Even though all members of the cohort of PWID were attending risk reduction programs, the HIV incidence rate was very high in Karachi from 2009–2011. The project budget was low, yet we were able to retain three-quarters of the population over two years. Absence of opiate substitution therapy and incomplete needle/syringe exchange coverage undermines success in HIV risk reduction. PMID:24358123

  5. Circumglobal wave train and the summer monsoon over northwestern India and Pakistan: the explicit role of the surface heat low

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeed, Sajjad; Müller, Wolfgang A.; Hagemann, Stefan; Jacob, Daniela

    2011-09-01

    This study examines the influence of the mid-latitude circulation on the surface heat low (HL) and associated monsoon rainfall over northwestern India and Pakistan using the ERA40 data and high resolution (T106L31) climate model ECHAM5 simulation. Special emphasis is given to the surface HL which forms over Pakistan and adjoining areas of India, Iran and Afghanistan during the summer season. A heat low index (HLI) is defined to depict the surface HL. The HLI displays significant correlations with the upper level mid-latitude circulation over western central Asia and low level monsoon circulation over Arabian Sea and acts as a bridge connecting the mid-latitude wave train to the Indian summer monsoon. A time-lagged singular value decomposition analysis reveals that the eastward propagation of the mid-latitude circumglobal wave train (CGT) influences the surface pressure anomalies over the Indian domain. The largest low (negative) pressure anomalies over the western parts of the HL region (i.e., Iran and Afghanistan) occur in conjunction with the upper level anomalous high that develops over western-central Asia during the positive phase of the CGT. The composite analysis also reveals a significant increase in the low pressure anomalies over Iran and Afghanistan during the positive phase of CGT. The westward increasing low pressure anomalies with its north-south orientation provokes enormous north-south pressure gradient (lower pressure over land than over sea). This in turn enables the moist southerly flow from the Arabian Sea to penetrate farther northward over northwestern India and Pakistan. A monsoon trough like conditions develops over northwestern India and Pakistan where the moist southwesterly flow from the Arabian Sea and the Persian Gulf converge. The convergence in association with the orographic uplifting expedites convection and associated precipitation over northwestern India and Pakistan. The high resolution climate model ECHAM5 simulation also underlines the proposed findings and mechanism.

  6. Schools as potential vaccination venue for vaccines outside regular EPI schedule: results from a school census in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Vaccines are the most effective public health intervention. Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) provides routine vaccination in developing countries. However, vaccines that cannot be given in EPI schedule such as typhoid fever vaccine need alternative venues. In areas where school enrolment is high, schools provide a cost effective opportunity for vaccination. Prior to start of a school-based typhoid vaccination program, interviews were conducted with staff of educational institutions in two townships of Karachi, Pakistan to collect baseline information about the school system and to plan a typhoid vaccination program. Data collection teams administered a structured questionnaire to all schools in the two townships. The administrative staff was requested information on school fee, class enrolment, past history of involvement and willingness of parents to participate in a vaccination campaign. Results A total of 304,836 students were enrolled in 1,096 public, private, and religious schools (Madrasahs) of the two towns. Five percent of schools refused to participate in the school census. Twenty-five percent of schools had a total enrolment of less than 100 students whereas 3% had more than 1,000 students. Health education programs were available in less than 8% of public schools, 17% of private schools, and 14% of Madrasahs. One-quarter of public schools, 41% of private schools, and 43% of Madrasahs had previously participated in a school-based vaccination campaign. The most common vaccination campaign in which schools participated was Polio eradication program. Cost of the vaccine, side effects, and parents' lack of information were highlighted as important limiting factors by school administration for school-based immunization programs. Permission from parents, appropriateness of vaccine-related information, and involvement of teachers were considered as important factors to improve participation. Conclusions Health education programs are not part of the regular school curriculum in developing countries including Pakistan. Many schools in the targeted townships participated in immunization activities but they were not carried out regularly. In the wake of low immunization coverage in Pakistan, schools can be used as a potential venue not only for non-EPI vaccines, but for a catch up vaccination of routine vaccines. PMID:22221404

  7. On the Dynamics of Extreme Meteorological Droughts during Pakistan Summer Monsoon by Focusing the Anomalous States of Upper Troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, S.; Koike, T.; Nishii, K.

    2012-12-01

    The lack of summer monsoon sometimes brings severe droughts in many parts of the world including South Asian countries like Pakistan. Human life and economy in Pakistan considerably depends on the summer monsoon. So, an essential question arises "how can we contribute better to manage the water resources during drought conditions for the societal needs". To address the concern as a hydrologist, we need to develop a basis of the scientific understanding of the different contrast of the climatology during extremely dry rainfall events over Pakistan region. However, compared to other regional studies i.e. Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) and South-East Asian Monsoon (SEAM), the basis of the thermodynamical structure and the processes associated with upper tropospheric conditions during the climatological mean Pakistan Summer Monsoon (PSM) and its extreme events have not been addressed deeply yet and need to be investigated, because it is immensely vital for the hydrologist as a first step to develop the basis of scientific understanding. By data analysis, an attempt has been made to accomplish this objective. Firstly, the climatological tropospheric conditions and the associated processes from pre-monsoon phase to the PSM mature phase are investigated. During the PSM mature phase (mid July), the climatological-mean structure of the atmosphere favors convective activity compared to the pre-monsoon phase (late June) with weakening of the subsidence in the upper troposphere and also with increasing of incoming moisture flux in the lower troposphere from Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal around Pakistan. Specifically, in the upper troposphere, the upper-level subsidence and convergence observed over Pakistan during pre-monsoon phase shifts and reallocates to the northwest of Pakistan during mature phase, which results in weakening of the subsidence just over Pakistan, and then the PSM mature phase initiated. Secondly, comparing the PSM mature phase climatological mean characteristics, the characteristics of the extremely dry PSM events are investigated by focusing their common anomalous tropospheric conditions observed during the period 1979-2008. We found that the extremely dry PSM events were closely related with the anomalous state of upper tropospheric cyclonic circulation northwest of Pakistan and the associated cold temperature anomaly around Pakistan. This anomalous state of upper tropospheric cyclonic circulation is accompanied with the anomalous upper level convergence around Pakistan, which anomalously weakens the climatological mean PSM trough to suppress the PSM activities. We found two possibilities i.e. Matsuno-Gill type atmospheric response from the tropics and/or the Rossby wave train along the Asian Jet to trigger, reinforce, and maintain the upper-tropospheric cyclonic circulation. In summary, the strong convection anomalies resulting in severe drought events over the PSM region are suggested to be induced by both the tropical and extratropical processes. However what (i.e. source) triggers the circulation anomaly from the tropics and/or extratropics is unknown at the moment, which needs further investigations to reach a definite conclusion. Further, if hydrologist gets a prediction signal in advance, the integrated water resources management (IWRM) will be much more effective for the region.

  8. Library Web OPACs in Pakistan: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahmood, Khalid

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to analyse features and functions of indigenously developed web-based catalogues of academic, special and national libraries of Pakistan. Design/methodology/approach: The assessment of 16 OPACs is based on a 91-item checklist developed with the help of previous studies conducted in other countries. Findings: The paper…

  9. Population Bulletin. Pakistan: A Demographic Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Reference Bureau, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This report presents a brief history of Pakistan as a nation and reviews a number of demographic variables. Major topics discussed are population growth and shifts, urbanization, and labor characteristics and problems. Based on this information and projections, the report concludes with a discussion of the failure of family planning programs and…

  10. Food safety challenges--a Pakistan's perspective.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Biological, chemical, and physical contamination of foods is a terrifying threat for the health and economic growth in developing societies. Rampantly available literature on foodborne illnesses especially diarrhea among children exclusively depicts the intensified disease burden associated with foodborne illness in the underdeveloped economies. Prevalence of many pathogens in several foods is commonplace in Pakistan. Precise estimates for foodborne illnesses in Pakistan are hard to make because of the absence of any monitoring, surveillance, and infection control. Poor processing and storage of milk, cereal grains, and nuts are a major cause of aflatoxin contamination and mold proliferation. Numerous studies manifest a multitude of foods to be contaminated with heavy metals. Escalating population growth limits the economic potential of the individual and the state through a tendency among the traders and manufacturers to intentionally debase food commodities offered for sale to make profit at the cost of their quality and safety. Therefore, a growing trend of adulteration in foods during the recent past, particularly adulteration of milk, poses a pressing challenge for the government. This review is a concerted attempt to elucidate the prevailing food safety scenario in Pakistan. Information derived from local and related international studies will be presented to clearly depict a picture of food safety in Pakistan. It is proposed that an extensive food safety infrastructure leading to a safer supply of foods needs to be devised, designed, and implemented. PMID:24915401

  11. Optimal Hedging Ratio for Pakistan's Wheat Imports

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TARIQ ALI; SARFRAZ HASSAN; KHALID MUSHTAQ; KHUDA BAKHSH

    In this paper, optimal hedging ratio is calculated for Pakistan's wheat imports from USA. Price risk faced by various market participants is estimated. Slope coefficient from OLS regression is used to calculate optimal hedging ratio (OHR). Results indicate that FOB and CIF prices of wheat are significantly volatile and need proper management of associated risk. While optimal hedging ratio of

  12. The Medium of Instruction Controversy in Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, Tariq

    1997-01-01

    Traces the controversy about the medium of instruction in Pakistan, beginning with the use of English for elitist education in pre-partition days. Notes that the official policy is opposed by the indigenously educated proto-elite, who would find entry into positions of power easier if Urdu was used and nobody was educated in English. (63…

  13. Indo-Pakistan Trade Cooperation and Saarc

    E-print Network

    Ghuman, Ranjit Singh; Madaan, Da Vinder Kumar

    2006-01-01

    for imports from India during this period. It may be noted that there are certain other items like P-xylene, soyabean, petro oil products, tyres for buses/lorries/tractors, ayurvedic and unani herbs, benzene, denim, lentils, etc. in which Pakistan did...

  14. Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/11: Cooperative Environmental Monitoring in the Coastal Regions of India and Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Rajen, Gauray

    1999-06-01

    The cessation of hostilities between India and Pakistan is an immediate need and of global concern, as these countries have tested nuclear devices, and have the capability to deploy nuclear weapons and long-range ballistic missiles. Cooperative monitoring projects among neighboring countries in South Asia could build regional confidence, and, through gradual improvements in relations, reduce the threat of war and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. This paper discusses monitoring the trans-border movement of flow and sediment in the Indian and Pakistani coastal areas. Through such a project, India and Pakistan could initiate greater cooperation, and engender movement towards the resolution of the Sir Creek territorial dispute in their coastal region. The Joint Working Groups dialogue being conducted by India and Pakistan provides a mechanism for promoting such a project. The proposed project also falls within a regional framework of cooperation agreed to by several South Asian countries. This framework has been codified in the South Asian Seas Action Plan, developed by Bangladesh, India, Maldives, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. This framework provides a useful starting point for Indian and Pakistani cooperative monitoring in their trans-border coastal area. The project discussed in this paper involves computer modeling, the placement of in situ sensors for remote data acquisition, and the development of joint reports. Preliminary computer modeling studies are presented in the paper. These results illustrate the cross-flow connections between Indian and Pakistani coastal regions and strengthen the argument for cooperation. Technologies and actions similar to those suggested for the coastal project are likely to be applied in future arms control and treaty verification agreements. The project, therefore, serves as a demonstration of cooperative monitoring technologies. The project will also increase people-to-people contacts among Indian and Pakistani policy makers and scientists. In the perceptions of the general public, the project will crystallize the idea that the two countries share ecosystems and natural resources, and have a vested interest in increased collaboration.

  15. Environment Friendly Coal Based Power Generation in Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qureshi, S. A.; Javed, M. Adnan

    2010-06-01

    The main emphasis of this paper is on the engineering economics and design developments in the field of thermal power generation in Pakistan. Pakistan is rich with coal fields but is making no use of this available natural resource to fulfil its energy demands. The shortage of power is getting worst day by day and to align with the power requirements, Pakistan needs to add 2000 MW each year to national grid. With the increasing prices of natural gas and oil, Pakistan should consider coal, the abundantly available natural resource, as an alternate fuel for its new power plants to overcome the power crises.

  16. Knowledge and practices of barbers regarding HIV transmission in Karachi: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Bawany, Faizan Imran; Khan, Muhammad Shahzeb; Shoaib, Atif Bilal; Naeem, Muhammad; Kazi, Abdul Nafey; Shehzad, Abdul Moid

    2014-10-01

    A barber shop is a potential place for non-sexual transmission of deadly blood borne diseases such as acquired immuno-deficient syndrome. Few researches have been conducted to assess the knowledge of barbers regarding human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission in Pakistan. With majority of the population visiting roadside saloons, it is imperative to have local data in this regard. The objective of this study was to investigate the knowledge and practices of barbers with reference to razor use and steps taken to sterilize their instruments. A total of 300 barber saloons were conveniently selected for this cross-sectional study during a time period of 5 months from May 2012 till September 2012. The shops were categorized into three groups: big saloons, small saloons and roadside saloons based on the inclusion criteria. One barber was randomly selected as a representative from each saloon. Data collection from each barber shop was carried out by an interviewer using a pre-coded questionnaire. Majority of the barbers had low school education. Awareness regarding sharing of blades as a route of HIV transmission was known by 90 % (n = 90) of big saloon barbers with awareness decreasing in small (n = 55) and roadside saloon barbers (n = 27). Only 60.3 % (n = 181) of the barbers used new blades between customers. In comparison to big saloon barbers, the majority (n = 53) of roadside saloon barbers used tap water for cleaning purposes. Only 40 % of the roadside barbers used antiseptic after shaving. The results of our study indicate that roadside saloon barbers, to whom majority of Pakistani population visit, have inadequate awareness regarding HIV transmission. Their poor barbering practices were mainly due to their low education. This potentiates a great risk for aggravating the HIV endemic in Pakistan. PMID:24504994

  17. Tsunami Generation and Propagation along the Coastal Zone of Makran and Karachi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gohar Ali Mahar; Zeeshan Alam Nayyar

    2006-01-01

    Tsunami usually generates around the Pacific Ocean, causing huge amount of loss of life and damage of property. Its frequent actions were seen in south East Asia, Japan and western coast of North and South America. It most frequently occurs around the coast of Japan. This phenomenon is mostly due to the release and transfer of energy of tectonic type

  18. Essential medicines management during emergencies in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Bukhari, S K S; Qureshi, J A R H; Jooma, R; Bile, K M; Kazi, G N; Zaibi, W A; Zafar, A

    2010-01-01

    This paper illustrates the experiences of essential medicine management in providing cure and care to victims of Pakistan's 2005 earthquake in a safe, rational and effective mode. The health interventions assured access to essential medicine, sustained supply, inventory control through a computerized logistic support system and rational use of medicines. World Health Organization Pakistan outlined modalities for acceptance of donated medicines, assisted in speedy procurement of medicines and designed customized kits. Proper storage of medicines at controlled temperature was ensured in warehousing facilities in 12 locations. A steady supply of medicines and their consumption without stock-outs in the 56 first-level care facilities of calamity-hit areas helped to ascertain the average consumption and cost of essential medicines and supplies for the catchment population. Tools for quantification and forecasting of medicines and supplies were developed and shared. Medicines and medical supplies were efficiently used resulting in minimum wastage. PMID:21495596

  19. Hydrocarbon prospects of southern Indus basin, Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Quadri, V.U.N.; Shuaib, S.M.

    1986-06-01

    The Southern Indus basin extends approximately between lat. 23/sup 0/ and 28/sup 0/31'N, and from long. 66/sup 0/E to the eastern boundary of Pakistan. Of the 55 exploratory wells drilled (1955-1984), 27 were based on results of multifold seismic surveys. Five commercial oil discoveries and one gas discovery in Cretaceous sands, three gas discoveries in Paleocene limestone or sandstone, and one gas-condensate discovery from lower Eocene limestone prove that hydrocarbons are present. The main hydrocarbon fairways are Mesozoic tilted fault blocks. Tertiary reefal banks, and drape and compressional anticlines. Older reservoirs are accessible toward the east and northeast, and younger mature source rocks are to the west, including offshore, of the Badin block oil field area. The Indus offshore basin reflects sedimentation associated with Mesozoic rifting of the Pakistan-Indian margin, superimposed by a terrigenous clastic depositional system comprised of deltas, shelves, and deep-sea fans of the Indus River.

  20. Islamabad: The Struggle for Pakistan's Identity

    E-print Network

    Siddiqui, Eman

    2012-04-01

    Ayub Khan declared the need for a new capital for a young Pakistan in 1958. General Ayub's desire required bringing about greater national unity by rejecting a cultural baggage of the past for a new national identity. This premise disqualified.... It became the center for General Ayub Khan's ambitious industrialization program after his coup d'etat in 1958. This economic expansion led to an ever- increasing number of immigrants from other parts of the country. The impact of Ayub Khan's Green...

  1. Makran Mountain Range, Iran and Pakistan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The long folded mountain ridges and valleys of the coastal Makran Ranges of Iran and Pakistan (26.0N, 63.0E) illustrate the classical Trellis type of drainage pattern, common in this region. The Dasht River and its tributaries is the principal drainage network for this area. To the left, the continental drift of the northward bound Indian sub-continent has caused the east/west parallel ranges to bend in a great northward arc.

  2. An overview of smoking practices in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Noreen; Siddiqui, Saad

    2015-01-01

    Smoking remains a major player in morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is a matter of immense public health importance as single leading cause of preventable deaths. The aim of this study was to assess smoking practices that prevail across Pakistan & Attitude of people towards this issue. We conducted an extensive search on major databases as well as search of bibliography of published literature for studies assessing Attitudes and Practices of tobacco smoking that prevail across Pakistan. Data from available studies was abstracted and utilized in preparation of this manuscript. After screening of 613 articles, we were able to identify 22 studies matching our criteria for inclusion. Majority of studies reported adolescence as time of initiation. Average national prevalence was 21.6%. A significant portion of smokers comprised of females. The prevalence of smoking in healthcare professionals ranged from 32 – 37%. Passive smoking was a major contributor of tobacco exposure. Prevalence of ‘Shisha’ use was 33%. Smoking continues to be a major Public Health issue in Pakistan. The prevalence in healthcare professionals and adolescents is alarming. Adequate measures need to be taken to ensure its control.

  3. Mutations of GJB2 encoding connexin 26 contribute to non-syndromic moderate and severe hearing loss in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Salman, Midhat; Bashir, Rasheeda; Imtiaz, Ayesha; Maqsood, Azra; Mujtaba, Ghulam; Iqbal, Muddassar; Naz, Sadaf

    2015-08-01

    Mutations of GJB2 which encode connexin 26, contribute to 6-7 % of profound deafness in Pakistan. We investigated the involvement of GJB2 mutations in a cohort of 84 pedigrees and 86 sporadic individuals with moderate or severe hearing loss. Individuals in eight consanguineous families and four sporadic cases (9.52 and 4.65 %, respectively) were homozygous or compound heterozygous for p.W24X or p.W77X mutations in GJB2. These two variants are also among the most common mutations known to cause profound deafness in South Asia. The association of identical mutations with both profound and less severe phenotype of hearing loss suggests that alleles of other genes modify the phenotype due to these GJB2 nonsense mutations. Our study demonstrates that GJB2 mutations are an important contributor to aetiology of moderate to severe hearing loss in Pakistan. PMID:25636251

  4. Nuclear Pakistan and nuclear India: Stable deterrent or proliferation challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Quester, G.H.

    1992-11-25

    Nuclear proliferation, a security issue which has transcended the cold war, has been, and is, particularly troublesome in South Asia. There, India and Pakistan, neighbors with unresolved disputes since they were granted independence at the end of World War II, are believed to have nuclear weapons (although the leaders of both nations deny it) and are intermittently engaged in conflict with each other. Professor Quester has examined this unique nuclear relationship, analyzing the attitudes and behavior of both nations. He concludes with a paradox: both have 'bombs in the basement', if not in their respective military inventories, and these weapons present serious dangers to the world simply because of their destructive potential, even if their leaders have the best intentions. On the other hand, Indian and Pakistani leaders appear to have low levels of concern about each others' nuclear (not conventional military) developments. It is possible to be optimistic and conclude that the relationship is actually stable and, like the U.S.-Soviet nuclear relationship of the cold war, helps prevent war on the subcontinent, or to be cynical and conclude that each regime cares more about the prestige of membership in the nuclear club than the ominous threat posed thereby against their populations.

  5. Determinants of Household Costs Associated With Childhood Diarrhea in 3 South Asian Settings

    PubMed Central

    Rheingans, Richard; Kukla, Matt; Faruque, Abu Syed Golam; Sur, Dipika; Zaidi, Anita K. M.; Nasrin, Dilruba; Farag, Tamer H.; Levine, Myron M.; Kotloff, Karen L.

    2012-01-01

    In addition to being a major cause of mortality in South Asia, childhood diarrhea creates economic burden for affected households. We used survey data from sites in Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan to estimate the costs borne by households due to childhood diarrhea, including direct medical costs, direct nonmedical costs, and productivity losses. Mean cost per episode was $1.82 in Bangladesh, $3.33 in India, and $6.47 in Pakistan. The majority of costs for households were associated with direct medical costs from treatment. Mean costs understate the distribution of costs, with 10% of cases exceeding $6.61, $8.07, and $10.11 in Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan, respectively. In all countries there was a trend toward lower costs among poorer households and in India and Pakistan there were lower costs for episodes among girls. For both poor children and girls this may reflect rationing of care, which may result in increased risks of mortality. PMID:23169945

  6. A Study of Students' Attitude Towards Virtual Education in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussain, Irshad

    2007-01-01

    Virtual education paradigm has been developing as a form of distance education to provide education across the boundaries of a nation and/or country. It imparts education through information and communication technologies. In Pakistan the Virtual University of Pakistan imparts it. The main objective of the study was to evaluate the students'…

  7. Education and Gendered Citizenship in Pakistan. Postcolonial Studies in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naseem, M. Ayaz

    2010-01-01

    "Education and Gendered Citizenship in Pakistan" challenges the uncritical use of the long held dictum of the development discourse that education empowers women. Situated in the post-structuralist feminist position, it argues that in its current state the educational discourse in Pakistan actually disempowers women. Through a systematic…

  8. Ownership Concentration, Corporate Governance and Firm Performance: Evidence from Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Attiya Y. Javid; Robina Iqbal

    2008-01-01

    The study investigates the determinants of ownership concentration, the effect of ownership concentration on the firm’s performance with the sample of sixty representativ e firms from different manufacturing sectors of the Pakistan’s economy during 2003 to 2008. The results suggest that firms where ownership is concentrated they do not adopt better governance practices and disclose less, however board composition has

  9. A Review of Comparison of Complications of Vaginal Hysterectomy with and without Concomitant Surgery for SUI: A 5 Years' Experience at a Tertiary Care Hospital of Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Mohsin Rizvi, Raheela; Akhtar, Munnazza; Zuberi, Nadeem Faiyaz

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The study was performed to review the complications of surgery for POP with or without surgery for SUI. This included the need for second procedure two years after the primary surgery. Study Design. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional comparative study at the Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan. International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) was used to identify women who underwent vaginal hysterectomy with anterior/posterior repair alone and those with concomitant tension-free vaginal tape surgery for urodynamic stress incontinence. Results. The 28 cases of VH/repair combined with TVT were compared for complications with 430 cases of VH with repair alone. The basic characteristics like age, BMI, and degree of prolapse showed no statistical difference among two groups. The main comorbidities in both groups were hypertension, diabetes, and bronchial asthma. We observed no significant differences in intraoperative and postoperative complications except for cuff abscess, need for medical intervention, and readmission following discharge from hospital, which were higher in cases with vaginal hysterectomy with concomitant TVT. Conclusions. Vaginal hysterectomy is an efficient treatment for uterovaginal prolapse with a swift recovery, short length of hospital stay, and rare serious complications. The addition of surgery for USI does not appear to increase the morbidity. PMID:24454388

  10. Evidence for the recurrence of large-magnitude earthquakes along the Makran coast of Iran and Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, W.D.; Alt, J.N.; Cluff, L.S.; Plafker, G.

    1979-01-01

    The presence of raised beaches and marine terraces along the Makran coast indicates episodic uplift of the continental margin resulting from large-magnitude earthquakes. The uplift occurs as incremental steps similar in height to the 1-3 m of measured uplift resulting from the November 28, 1945 (M 8.3) earthquake at Pasni and Ormara, Pakistan. The data support an E-W-trending, active subduction zone off the Makran coast. The raised beaches and wave-cut terraces along the Makran coast are extensive with some terraces 1-2 km wide, 10-15 m long and up to 500 m in elevation. The terraces are generally capped with shelly sandstones 0.5-5 m thick. Wave-cut cliffs, notches, and associated boulder breccia and swash troughs are locally preserved. Raised Holocene accretion beaches, lagoonal deposits, and tombolos are found up to 10 m in elevation. The number and elevation of raised wave-cut terraces along the Makran coast increase eastward from one at Jask, the entrance to the Persian Gulf, at a few meters elevation, to nine at Konarak, 250 km to the east. Multiple terraces are found on the prominent headlands as far east as Karachi. The wave-cut terraces are locally tilted and cut by faults with a few meters of displacement. Long-term, average rates of uplift were calculated from present elevation, estimated elevation at time of deposition, and 14C and U-Th dates obtained on shells. Uplift rates in centimeters per year at various locations from west to east are as follows: Jask, 0 (post-Sangamon); Konarak, 0.031-0.2 (Holocene), 0.01 (post-Sangamon); Ormara 0.2 (Holocene). ?? 1979.

  11. Munazza's story: Understanding science teaching and conceptions of the nature of science in Pakistan through a life history study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halai, Nelofer

    In this study I have described and tried to comprehend how a female science teacher understands her practice. Additionally, I have developed some understanding of her understanding of the nature of science. While teaching science, a teacher projects messages about the nature of science that can be captured by observations and interviews. Furthermore, the manner is which a teacher conceptualizes science for teaching, at least in part, depends on personal life experiences. Hence, I have used the life history method to understand Munazza's practice. Munazza is a young female science teacher working in a private, co-educational school for children from middle income families in Karachi, Pakistan. Her stories are central to the study, and I have represented them using a number of narrative devices. I have woven in my own stories too, to illustrate my perspective as a researcher. The data includes 13 life history interviews and many informal conversations with Munazza, observations of science teaching in classes seven and eight, and interviews with other science teachers and administrative staff of the school. Munazza's personal biography and experiences of school and undergraduate courses has influenced the way she teaches. It has also influenced the way she does not teach. She was not inspired by her science teachers, so she has tried not to teach the way she was taught science. Contextual factors, her conception of preparation for teaching as preparation for subject content and the tension that she faces in balancing care and control in her classroom are some factors that influence her teaching. Munazza believes that science is a stable, superior and value-free way of knowing. In trying to understand the natural world, observations come first, which give reliable information about the world leading inductively to a "theory". Hence, she relies a great deal on demonstrations in the class where students "see" for themselves and abstract the scientific concept from the activity. I believe this inquiry is significant because it has led to a better understanding of a science teacher's practice and her conceptions of the nature of science in a school in Pakistan. Moreover, the study has utilized research methods that advocates a more equitable researcher-researched relationship.

  12. Does academic assessment system type affect levels of academic stress in medical students? A cross-sectional study from Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Madiha; Asim, Hamna; Edhi, Ahmed Iqbal; Hashmi, Muhammad Daniyal; Khan, Muhammad Shahjahan; Naz, Farah; Qaiser, Kanza Noor; Qureshi, Sidra Masud; Zahid, Mohammad Faizan; Jehan, Imtiaz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Stress among medical students induced by academic pressures is on the rise among the student population in Pakistan and other parts of the world. Our study examined the relationship between two different systems employed to assess academic performance and the levels of stress among students at two different medical schools in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods A sample consisting of 387 medical students enrolled in pre-clinical years was taken from two universities, one employing the semester examination system with grade point average (GPA) scores (a tiered system) and the other employing an annual examination system with only pass/fail grading. A pre-designed, self-administered questionnaire was distributed. Test anxiety levels were assessed by The Westside Test Anxiety Scale (WTAS). Overall stress was evaluated using the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Results There were 82 males and 301 females while four did not respond to the gender question. The mean age of the entire cohort was 19.7±1.0 years. A total of 98 participants were from the pass/fail assessment system while 289 were from the GPA system. There was a higher proportion of females in the GPA system (85% vs. 59%; p<0.01). Students in the pass/fail assessment system had a lower score on the WTAS (2.4±0.8 vs. 2.8±0.7; p=0.01) and the PSS (17.0±6.7 vs. 20.3±6.8; p<0.01), indicating lower levels of test anxiety and overall stress than in students enrolled in the GPA assessment system. More students in the pass/fail system were satisfied with their performance than those in the GPA system. Conclusion Based on the present study, we suggest governing bodies to revise and employ a uniform assessment system for all the medical colleges to improve student academic performance and at the same time reduce stress levels. Our results indicate that the pass/fail assessment system accomplishes these objectives. PMID:26112353

  13. Vertical and lateral flux on the continental slope off Pakistan: correlation of sediment core and trap results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, H.; von Rad, U.

    2014-06-01

    Due to the lack of bioturbation, the varve-laminated muds from the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) off Pakistan provide a unique opportunity to precisely determine the vertical and lateral sediment fluxes in the nearshore part of the northeastern Arabian Sea. West of Karachi (Hab area), the results of two sediment trap stations (EPT and WPT) were correlated with 16 short sediment cores on a depth transect crossing the OMZ. The top of a distinct, either reddish- or light-gray silt layer, 210Pb-dated as AD 1905 ± 10, was used as an isochronous stratigraphic marker bed to calculate sediment accumulation rates. In one core, the red and gray layer were separated by a few (5-10) thin laminae. According to our varve model, this contributes < 10 years to the dating uncertainty, assuming that the different layers are almost synchronous. We directly compared the accumulation rates with the flux rates from the sediment traps that collected the settling material within the water column above. All traps on the steep Makran continental slope show exceptionally high, pulsed winter fluxes of up to 5000 mg m-2 d-1. Based on core results, the flux at the seafloor amounts to 4000 mg m-2 d-1 and agrees remarkably well with the bulk winter flux of material, as well as with the flux of the individual bulk components of organic carbon, calcium carbonate and opal. However, due to the extreme mass of remobilized matter, the high winter flux events exceeded the capacity of the shallow traps. Based on our comparisons, we argue that high-flux events must occur regularly during winter within the upper OMZ off Pakistan to explain the high accumulations rates. These show distribution patterns that are a negative function of water depth and distance from the shelf. Some of the sediment fractions show marked shifts in accumulation rates near the lower boundary of the OMZ. For instance, the flux of benthic foraminifera is lowered but stable below ~1200-1300 m. However, flux and sedimentation in the upper eastern Makran area are dominated by the large amount of laterally advected fine-grained material and by the pulsed nature of the resuspension events at the upper margin during winter.

  14. Pseudomazzia macrolabiata n.gen.,n.sp. (Nematoda: Spiruridae: Mazziinae) from the fish Pomadasys olivaceus of Karachi coast.

    PubMed

    Bilqees, Fatima Mujib; Ghazi, Rafia Rehana; Haseeb, Muhammad Farooq

    2005-01-01

    A nematode Pseudomazzia macrolabiata of a new genus and a new species is described here from the intestine of the fish Pomadasys olivaceus of Karachi coast. The new genus is characterized by having an enlarged head region with three large prominent lips protruding externally from the head, a prominent buccal cavity and with a proboscis. The esophagus is not clearly divided into muscular and glandular parts and the intestine is simple. The male has very unequal spicules, dissimilar in shape. The caudal alae are prominent supported by several pedunculate papillae including 5 pre anal pairs and two pairs including one pro-anal and one post-anal. The female vulva is near the middle of the body. The tail is elongate, bluntly pointed and is provided with a terminal forked spike. The eggs are thin shelled and oval in shape. PMID:17124692

  15. Islamic Republic of Pakistan: A Study of the Educational System of Pakistan and a Guide to the Academic Placement of Students from Pakistan in Educational Institutions of the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Leo J.

    Written as a guide to be used in the admission and placement of students from Pakistan in U.S. institutions of higher education, this study discusses the education system of Pakistan. The first four chapters contain a summary of the development of Pakistan. These are followed by guidelines and suggestions for admissions officers and admissions and…

  16. Economic Liberalisation and Employment in South Asia

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This new 93-page report from the Center for Development Research analyses the impact of liberalization on a variety of aspects of employment and labor incomes, and compares this impact to conditions in Sub-Saharan Africa and Latin American countries. The main findings include that real wage growth for agricultural workers fell after liberalization; unemployment rates rose in Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Nepal, but declined in India and Sri Lanka; and for the most part, GDP growth, with the exception of that in Pakistan, seemed to be only slightly higher after liberalization. The paper concludes that "a lot more effort is needed for South Asian countries in order to have more productive employment and higher labour incomes."

  17. South Campus South Campus

    E-print Network

    Oh, Kwang W.

    South Campus South Campus To Dow ntow n Cam pus Clinic Parking Zipcar space EOC M.W. Kapoor Hall Hall Sherman Annex Allen Lot Foster Lot Squire Loop NFTA Park & Ride Lot Garage Building 36 5/12MR 4 1 (COE) 6. Roswell Park Cancer Institute 5. Buffalo General 4. Parker Lot 3. Main Circle 2. Goodyear 1

  18. South Africa South Korea

    E-print Network

    Tchumper, Gregory S.

    ,150 6 hours of various credit France Chemistry in France: Research in Food, Health, and Culture TBA $2AFRICA South Africa ASIA China Japan South Korea Thailand CARIBBEAN Barbados Jamaica EUROPE Belgium 30-July 15 $3,700 6 hours of various credit Belize Education, Health, and Child Welfare May 16-May 28

  19. Evaluation of three high-resolution satellite precipitation estimates: Potential for monsoon monitoring over Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Sadiq Ibrahim; Hong, Yang; Gourley, Jonathan J.; Khattak, Muhammad Umar Khan; Yong, Bin; Vergara, Humberto J.

    2014-08-01

    Multi-sensor precipitation datasets including two products from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) and estimates from Climate Prediction Center Morphing Technique (CMORPH) product were quantitatively evaluated to study the monsoon variability over Pakistan. Several statistical and graphical techniques are applied to illustrate the nonconformity of the three satellite products from the gauge observations. During the monsoon season (JAS), the three satellite precipitation products captures the intense precipitation well, all showing high correlation for high rain rates (>30 mm/day). The spatial and temporal satellite rainfall error variability shows a significant geo-topography dependent distribution, as all the three products overestimate over mountain ranges in the north and coastal region in the south parts of Indus basin. The TMPA-RT product tends to overestimate light rain rates (approximately 100%) and the bias is low for high rain rates (about ±20%). In general, daily comparisons from 2005 to 2010 show the best agreement between the TMPA-V7 research product and gauge observations with correlation coefficient values ranging from moderate (0.4) to high (0.8) over the spatial domain of Pakistan. The seasonal variation of rainfall frequency has large biases (100-140%) over high latitudes (36N) with complex terrain for daily, monsoon, and pre-monsoon comparisons. Relatively low uncertainties and errors (Bias ±25% and MAE 1-10 mm) were associated with the TMPA-RT product during the monsoon-dominated region (32-35N), thus demonstrating their potential use for developing an operational hydrological application of the satellite-based near real-time products in Pakistan for flood monitoring.

  20. Rabies in South Asia: fighting for elimination.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Fazle-Rabbi; Basher, Ariful; Amin, Mohammad R; Hassan, Nazia; Patwary, Mohammad I

    2015-01-01

    South Asia is regarded as the hot spot for the tourist and travelers. Unfortunately, three big countries (India, Pakistan and Bangladesh) of this region belong to top five rabies endemic countries of the world. Around 55,000 people die of rabies every year globally and 45% of them belong to South and South East Asia. Countries are now working on the elimination of rabies by the year 2020. Elimination of animal rabies is the pivotal of controlling human rabies. Dog (primary source) registration, population control and mass vaccination are the different ways of eliminating animal rabies. Pre (for risk groups including travelers) and post-exposure vaccine is the core for controlling human rabies. Post-exposure vaccine consists of nerve tissue vaccine and tissue culture vaccine. Due to low antigenicity and post-vaccine neurological complications all countries of South Asia except Pakistan have phased out the production and use of nerve tissue vaccine. To reduce the cost intramuscular regimen is now largely replaced by intradermal regimen and equine rabies immunoglobulin will probably replace human immunoglobulin in future for category III animal bite. 'SAARC' took initiatives for rabies elimination through 'SAARC development fund' which would hopefully play a vital role in regional collaboration to make the region rabies free. PMID:25858305

  1. PHYTOPHAGOUS INSECTS ASSOCIATED TO REPRODUCTIVE STRUCTURES OF MESQUITE (PROSOPIS SPP) IN ARGENTINA THEIR POTENTIAL USE IN BIOLOGICAL CONTROL IN SOUTH AFRICA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mesquites (Prosopis spp.) are thorny leguminous shrubs or trees native to Southwest Asia, Africa, and, predominantly, North and South America. Introduced as beneficial plants in India, Pakistan, South Africa, Egypt, Kuwait, Australia, USA (Hawaii) and Brazil, some Prosopis species have become weeds ...

  2. Sociopolitical adjustment among Afghan refugees in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Centlivres, P; Centlivres-demont, M

    1987-01-01

    Although international organizations and Pakistanis expect Afghans to act like true refugees--dependent, obedient, and grateful--Afghans consider themselves as temporary exiles who, in protest against an anti-Islamic government, found temporary refuge in Pakistan; or as soldiers in the holy wars who temporarily use their Islamic neighbor as a base before returning to fight in Afghanistan. Conforming to this concept and to these objectives, the refugees seek to preserve a certain autonomy and to lean towards forms of organization which are derived either from their traditional social structure, or as is more common now, from the ideology of the Islamic movements. One can understand that this situation may cause many misunderstandings, especially with international organizations which finance and supervise aid to the Afghan refugees in Pakistan. As for anthropologists, it is necessary to go beyond known concepts, to relativize familiar models and to act on changes which have come about in the structures and ideology of the Afghan people. PMID:12315316

  3. Political determinants of Health: Lessons for Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Jooma, Rashid; Sabatinelli, Guido

    2014-01-01

    There is much concern about the capacity of the health system of Pakistan to meet its goals and obligations. Historically, the political thrust has been absent from the health policy formulation and this is reflected in the low and stagnant public allocations to health. Successive political leaderships have averred from considering healthcare is a common good rather than a market commodity and health has not been recognized as a constitutional right. Over 120 of world’s nation states have accepted health as a constitutional right but the 1973 Constitution of Pakistan does not mandate health or education as a fundamental right and the recently adopted 18th constitutional amendment missed the opportunity to extend access to primary health care as an obligation of the State. It is argued in this communication that missing from the calculations of policy formulation and agenda setting is the political benefits of providing health and other social services to underserved populations. Across the developing world, many examples are presented of governments undertaking progressive health reforms that bring services where none existed and subsequently reaping electoral benefit. The political determinant of healthcare will be realized when the political leaders of poorly performing countries can be convinced that embracing distributive policies and successfully bringing healthcare to the poor can be major factors in their re-elections. PMID:24948958

  4. Pakistan's pattern of development and prospects.

    PubMed

    Baqui, M

    1979-01-01

    This paper analyzes past and present development experiences in Pakistan, and gives indications of possible directions for future development. Since 1969 there has been an open dissatisfaction with economic management from the government, which has resulted in a drying up of private investment. However, this drawback was partly balanced by a rapid increase in income received by Pakistanis working abroad, particularly in the Middle East. There have been slight increases in growth in agriculture, industry, and in the service sector, such as banking, insurance, and shipping. The growth of per capita income, however, is constantly offset by the acceleration in population growth, which has reached 3% a year. Literacy rate is still 19% of the total population, and basic health facilities cover only 50% of the population, while potable water supply is available to 11.2% of the rural population. Possible development directions would include the denationalization of some industries, and the creation of competition between the private and public sectors, so to improve the climate for private investment. Water availability for land irrigation should be expanded, and mineral fields better surveyed and exploited. Pakistan should develop the possibility of growing trade offered by its geographical location, improve all kinds of social services, including family planning, education, and health services, and provide the means to produce energy for all the prospected programs. PMID:12261814

  5. The case for family medicine in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Sabzwari, Saniya Raghib

    2015-06-01

    The specialty of Family Medicine enjoys a special position in the medical practice of the West, serving as one of the key primary care specialties. Family physicians act as providers of first contact catering to the medical needs of the entire family in all aspects of preventive, curative and rehabilitative stages of illness and to health maintenance. The growth of this specialty, however, has lagged behind in Pakistan for various reasons. Having both a high burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases in Pakistan; family physicians should form the frontline force in dealing with these health issues. Several success stories of Family Medicine forming the base of medical services have been noted, validating its presence and propagation. The World Health Organisation also supported this in its 2008 report that discusses primary care for all. Growth of family practice needs to be encouraged at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels to ensure adequate training and provision of quality of medical care to our society. The need of the hour is that both medical institutions and the government develop policies to strengthen Family Medicine and incentivise family practice in rural and urban settings to cater to the needs of society at large. PMID:26060167

  6. Study of maximum electron density N mF 2 at Karachi and Islamabad during solar minimum (1996) and solar maximum (2000) and its comparison with IRI

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Ayub; S. Iqbal; M. A. Ameen; B. W. Reinisch

    2009-01-01

    The monthly hourly medians of maximum electron density, NmF2, at two Pakistani ionospheric stations, Karachi and Islamabad, have been determined for solar minimum (1996) and solar maximum (2000) and compared with IRI predictions using the URSI coefficients. At night and pre-noon period the NmF2 values at both stations are almost equal during the 2years. However, at post-noon the values at

  7. The challenges of injuries and trauma in Pakistan: An opportunity for concerted action

    PubMed Central

    Hyder, A.A.; Razzak, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Injuries and trauma are a major cause of mortality and morbidity in low and middle income countries (LMICs). In Pakistan, a low income South Asian developing country, they are among the top ten contributors to disease burden and causes of disabilities, with the majority of the burden falling on younger people in the population. This burden of injuries comes with a high social and economic cost. Several distal and proximal determinants, such as poverty, political instability, frequent natural disasters, and the lack of legislation and enforcement of preventive measures, make the Pakistani population susceptible to injuries. Historically, there has been a low level of investment in the prevention of injuries in Pakistan. Data is limited and while a public sector surveillance project has been initiated in one major urban centre, the major sources of information on injuries have been police and hospital records. Given the cost-effectiveness of injury prevention programs and their success in other LMICs, it is essential that the public sector invest in injury prevention through improving national policies and creating a strong evidence-based strategy while collaborating with the private sector to promote injury prevention and mobilizing people to engage in these programs. PMID:23489711

  8. Predicting impacts of climate change on medicinal asclepiads of Pakistan using Maxent modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanum, Rizwana; Mumtaz, A. S.; Kumar, Sunil

    2013-05-01

    Maximum entropy (Maxent) modeling was used to predict the potential climatic niches of three medicinally important Asclepiad species: Pentatropis spiralis, Tylophora hirsuta, and Vincetoxicum arnottianum. All three species are members of the Asclepiad plant family, yet they differ in ecological requirements, biogeographic importance, and conservation value. Occurrence data were collected from herbarium specimens held in major herbaria of Pakistan and two years (2010 and 2011) of field surveys. The Maxent model performed better than random for the three species with an average test AUC value of 0.74 for P. spiralis, 0.84 for V. arnottianum, and 0.59 for T. hirsuta. Under the future climate change scenario, the Maxent model predicted habitat gains for P. spiralis in southern Punjab and Balochistan, and loss of habitat in south-eastern Sindh. Vincetoxicum arnottianum as well as T. hirsuta would gain habitat in upper Peaks of northern parts of Pakistan. T. hirsuta is predicted to lose most of the habitats in northern Punjab and in parches from lower peaks of Galliat, Zhob, Qalat etc. The predictive modeling approach presented here may be applied to other rare Asclepiad species, especially those under constant extinction threat.

  9. Emergence of a new antibiotic resistance mechanism in India, Pakistan, and the UK: a molecular, biological, and epidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    Kumarasamy, Karthikeyan K; Toleman, Mark A; Walsh, Timothy R; Bagaria, Jay; Butt, Fafhana; Balakrishnan, Ravikumar; Chaudhary, Uma; Doumith, Michel; Giske, Christian G; Irfan, Seema; Krishnan, Padma; Kumar, Anil V; Maharjan, Sunil; Mushtaq, Shazad; Noorie, Tabassum; Paterson, David L; Pearson, Andrew; Perry, Claire; Pike, Rachel; Rao, Bhargavi; Ray, Ujjwayini; Sarma, Jayanta B; Sharma, Madhu; Sheridan, Elizabeth; Thirunarayan, Mandayam A; Turton, Jane; Upadhyay, Supriya; Warner, Marina; Welfare, William; Livermore, David M; Woodford, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Summary Background Gram-negative Enterobacteriaceae with resistance to carbapenem conferred by New Delhi metallo-?-lactamase 1 (NDM-1) are potentially a major global health problem. We investigated the prevalence of NDM-1, in multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in India, Pakistan, and the UK. Methods Enterobacteriaceae isolates were studied from two major centres in India—Chennai (south India), Haryana (north India)—and those referred to the UK's national reference laboratory. Antibiotic susceptibilities were assessed, and the presence of the carbapenem resistance gene blaNDM-1 was established by PCR. Isolates were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of XbaI-restricted genomic DNA. Plasmids were analysed by S1 nuclease digestion and PCR typing. Case data for UK patients were reviewed for evidence of travel and recent admission to hospitals in India or Pakistan. Findings We identified 44 isolates with NDM-1 in Chennai, 26 in Haryana, 37 in the UK, and 73 in other sites in India and Pakistan. NDM-1 was mostly found among Escherichia coli (36) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (111), which were highly resistant to all antibiotics except to tigecycline and colistin. K pneumoniae isolates from Haryana were clonal but NDM-1 producers from the UK and Chennai were clonally diverse. Most isolates carried the NDM-1 gene on plasmids: those from UK and Chennai were readily transferable whereas those from Haryana were not conjugative. Many of the UK NDM-1 positive patients had travelled to India or Pakistan within the past year, or had links with these countries. Interpretation The potential of NDM-1 to be a worldwide public health problem is great, and co-ordinated international surveillance is needed. Funding European Union, Wellcome Trust, and Wyeth. PMID:20705517

  10. Daughters of Eve : violence against women in Pakistan

    E-print Network

    Noor, Muhammad Jehanzeb, 1982-

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct extensive research on domestic violence against women in Pakistan and to present the results in a comprehensive document. Some of the issues investigated through fieldwork and covered ...

  11. Gift of the Indus: The Arts and Culture of Pakistan

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Gift of the Indus: The Arts and Culture of Pakistan, presented by ARTSEDGE, the Kennedy Center's arts education network, introduces the arts and culture of Pakistan to young people and teenagers in the US, Pakistan, and all over the world, in the hope of fostering greater understanding. The site has three broad sections: The Nation, with information about the people and the land; Culture & Daily Life; and Arts of Pakistan, the most extensive section, encompassing music, theater, dance, and the visual arts. Video is used extensively on the site; allowing visitors to watch both folk and classical dance, see masters and students creating Arabic calligraphy, or sculptors working with wood, glass, and metal. There is also a weblog called Mehfil: A Gathering Place, a "one-year experiment in cultural conversation" constructed to allow teens to communicate while protecting their privacy.

  12. Dietary reconstruction of the Amphipithecidae (Primates, Anthropoidea) from the Paleogene of South Asia and paleoecological implications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anusha Ramdarshan; Gildas Merceron; Paul Tafforeau; Laurent Marivaux

    2010-01-01

    The primate family, Amphipithecidae, lived during the early Cenozoic in South Asia. In this study, the diet of late middle Eocene amphipithecids from the Pondaung Formation (Central Myanmar) is characterized using three different approaches: body mass estimation, shearing quotient quantification and dental microwear analysis. Our results are compared with other Paleogene amphipithecids from Thailand and Pakistan, and to the other

  13. An Examination of Calorie Demand Relationship in Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2007-01-01

    3 Abstract: This paper has examined the long-run relationship between daily per capita calorie intake, per capita income and food prices for Pakistan using aggregate data 1960-2001. Cointegration analysis yields the income-calorie elasticity of 0.21, while food-price elasticity is insignificant. Thus, economic growth, as measured by increasing per capita income, has significantly improved calorie intake in Pakistan; future economic growth

  14. Pattern of demand for children in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, T

    1992-01-01

    The study aim was to determine the pattern of demand for children and to suggest ways to introduce the idea of a small-family norm and reduce the unmet need for contraception in Pakistan. The concept of demand for children included the wantedness of the last birth and the timing of the next birth and changed with stage in reproductive life cycle. Data were obtained from the Pakistan Contraception Prevalence Survey of 1984/85. Pakistan's strong patriarchal system emphasized rapid achievement of first pregnancy in order to assure the perpetuation of the lineage. Female status, even with advanced education, emphasized fecundity and producing a male heir. The birthing pattern among rural and urban lower-class women is to bear 3-4 children early in marriage. Evidence from prior surveys showed that educated women plan for a delay in second birth. Of the 6655 ever pregnant and nonsterilized women, about 48% of currently married women desired discontinuation of childbearing. 18% desired a delay of childbearing by 2 years and 10% desired no more children after a last undesired pregnancy. Unmet need was estimated at 17% of all women in the sample. Women desiring no more children were primarily older with 6-8 prior births. Indirect fertility estimates were generated by using Arriaga's techniques for stages of family formation. The resulting estimates showed that higher-parity women desiring no more children still had 2 more children, which was evidence of unmet need. Those desiring more children had higher fertility than those not desiring more children. These women also showed different patterns in their total demand for children, ideal family size, currently living children, and desire for their next birth. Ideal size tended to rise over the length of a marriage, which may mean that women with growing families may justify unwanted fertility. Duration of marriage was viewed as a reasonable indicator of need for fertility control and the concomitant need for outreach, counseling, and family planning services. Increased birth spacing occurred only after 3-4 births. There was a decline in the proportion desiring an additional child with increased birth interval and parity. Results indicated a high prevalence of intended pregnancy, rationalization of high parity in terms of demand for children, and demand for contraception for spacing or limiting births. PMID:12344809

  15. Stem Cell Research in Pakistan; Past, Present and Future

    PubMed Central

    Zahra, Sayeda Anum; Muzavir, Sayed Raheel; Ashraf, Sadia; Ahmad, Aftab

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Stem cells have proved to have great therapeutic potential as stem cell treatment is replacing traditional ways of treatment in different disorders like cancer, aplastic anemia, stroke, heart disorders. The developed and developing countries are investing differently in this area of research so research output and clinical translation of research greatly vary among developed and developing countries. Present study was done to investigate the current status of stem cells research in Pakistan and ways to improve it. Results Many advanced countries (USA, UK and Canada etc.) are investing heavily in stem cell research and treatment. Different developing countries like Iran, Turkey and India are also following the developed countries and investing a lot in stem cells research. Pakistan is also making efforts in establishing this field to get desired benefits but unfortunately the progress is at very low pace. If Government plays an active role along with private sector, stem cell research in Pakistan can be boosted up. The numbers of publications from Pakistan are very less compared to developed and neighboring countries and Pakistan also has very less number of institutes working in this area of research. Conclusions Stem cells research is at its initial stages in Pakistan and there is great need to bring Government, academia and industry together so they could make serious efforts to promote research in this very important field. This will help millions of patients suffering from incurable disorders and will also reduce economic loss. PMID:26019749

  16. Anthracobunids from the Middle Eocene of India and Pakistan Are Stem Perissodactyls

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Lisa Noelle; Seiffert, Erik R.; Clementz, Mark; Madar, Sandra I.; Bajpai, Sunil; Hussain, S. Taseer; Thewissen, J. G. M.

    2014-01-01

    Anthracobunidae is an Eocene family of large mammals from south Asia that is commonly considered to be part of the radiation that gave rise to elephants (proboscideans) and sea cows (sirenians). We describe a new collection of anthracobunid fossils from Middle Eocene rocks of Indo-Pakistan that more than doubles the number of known anthracobunid fossils and challenges their putative relationships, instead implying that they are stem perissodactyls. Cranial, dental, and postcranial elements allow a revision of species and the recognition of a new anthracobunid genus. Analyses of stable isotopes and long bone geometry together suggest that most anthracobunids fed on land, but spent a considerable amount of time near water. This new evidence expands our understanding of stem perissodactyl diversity and sheds new light on perissodactyl origins. PMID:25295875

  17. Anthracobunids from the middle eocene of India and pakistan are stem perissodactyls.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Lisa Noelle; Seiffert, Erik R; Clementz, Mark; Madar, Sandra I; Bajpai, Sunil; Hussain, S Taseer; Thewissen, J G M

    2014-01-01

    Anthracobunidae is an Eocene family of large mammals from south Asia that is commonly considered to be part of the radiation that gave rise to elephants (proboscideans) and sea cows (sirenians). We describe a new collection of anthracobunid fossils from Middle Eocene rocks of Indo-Pakistan that more than doubles the number of known anthracobunid fossils and challenges their putative relationships, instead implying that they are stem perissodactyls. Cranial, dental, and postcranial elements allow a revision of species and the recognition of a new anthracobunid genus. Analyses of stable isotopes and long bone geometry together suggest that most anthracobunids fed on land, but spent a considerable amount of time near water. This new evidence expands our understanding of stem perissodactyl diversity and sheds new light on perissodactyl origins. PMID:25295875

  18. Climate change, flooding in South Asia and implications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Monirul Qader Mirza; Qader Mirza

    2011-01-01

    South Asia is one of the most flood vulnerable regions in the world. Floods occur often in the region triggered by heavy monsoon\\u000a precipitation and can cause enormous damages to lives, property, crops and infrastructure. The frequency of extreme floods\\u000a is on the rise in Bangladesh, India and Pakistan. Past extreme floods fall within the range of climate variability but

  19. Probabilistic seismic hazard analysis of Islamabad, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatti, Abdul Qadir; Hassan, Syed Zamir Ul; Rafi, Zahid; Khatoon, Zubeda; Ali, Qurban

    2011-08-01

    Pakistan is prone to seismic activity, and its capital, Islamabad, is located close to the Main Boundary Thrust (MBT) fault. On October 8th, 2005 the disastrous Muzaffarabad earthquake shook Islamabad and damaged many high-rise buildings. A probabilistic seismic hazard analysis technique was used to estimate strong ground motion parameters for a closely spaced 1 km grid. Traditionally, PGA is calculated, which is then used in structural earthquake resistant design or seismic safety assessment. However, Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) is not sufficient to design for seismic load or to account for the modern building code's emphasis on the use of spectral acceleration values. Therefore, a seismic hazard analysis was performed for Islamabad, and the design parameters that are required by codes to account for seismic loading were derived.

  20. Food poverty and its causes in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, S; Sheikh, K H; Mahmood, T

    1991-01-01

    Economists and a demographer analyzed data from the 1984-1985 Household and Income Expenditure Survey using the Foster and Thorbeke model to measure the poverty level in Pakistan. This model considers the minimum level of food expenditure/adult equivalent required to purchase the required daily allowance of energy intake. The analysts calculated the poverty lines to be Rs 246.00 for urban areas and Rs 149.00 for rural areas. They learned that the real poor and less poor households did not rank expenditures on food as a top priority despite deficient food intake. Thus traditional diet pattern did not differentiate the real poor from the less power, but rather lower purchasing power. They defined real poor households as those who had a negative or O relationship between income and food and less poor households as those who had a positive relationship even though the magnitude of the slope coefficient was extremely small (.024 for urban areas and .082 for rural areas). The larger the family size the more likely a household was poor and the members malnourished. This was especially true if the family size grew because of the addition of more dependents. On the other hand, the more education the head of the household and his wife the less likely the household was poor and the members malnourished. In fact, the negative effect of education on poverty and malnutrition was strongest for the wife. 2% of all urban households and 3% of all rural households ranked as real poor households. 59% and 35% respectively ranked as less poor households. Even though the difference in food poverty between extended and nuclear families was insignificant, extended families fared better than nuclear families. These findings showed that Pakistan should design its food policy to target the real poor by improving their nutritional status without forsaking that of the less poor. PMID:12285313

  1. Local Conceptions of Food Security in Northern Pakistan: Issues of Scale 

    E-print Network

    Hamidi, Sarah

    2014-08-13

    In 1980s, the Chinese-Pakistan all-weather friendship materialised with the creation of a modern highway that links Kashgar, in China, to Rawalpindi, in Pakistan. The highway has also enabled intense food goods exchanges between the North...

  2. 3 CFR - Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Resulting from Flooding in Pakistan

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...false Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Resulting from Flooding in Pakistan...2010 Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Resulting from Flooding in Pakistan...including section 2(c)(1) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of...

  3. K-means cluster analysis and seismicity partitioning for Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Khaista; Burton, Paul W.; Weatherill, Graeme A.

    2014-07-01

    Pakistan and the western Himalaya is a region of high seismic activity located at the triple junction between the Arabian, Eurasian and Indian plates. Four devastating earthquakes have resulted in significant numbers of fatalities in Pakistan and the surrounding region in the past century (Quetta, 1935; Makran, 1945; Pattan, 1974 and the recent 2005 Kashmir earthquake). It is therefore necessary to develop an understanding of the spatial distribution of seismicity and the potential seismogenic sources across the region. This forms an important basis for the calculation of seismic hazard; a crucial input in seismic design codes needed to begin to effectively mitigate the high earthquake risk in Pakistan. The development of seismogenic source zones for seismic hazard analysis is driven by both geological and seismotectonic inputs. Despite the many developments in seismic hazard in recent decades, the manner in which seismotectonic information feeds the definition of the seismic source can, in many parts of the world including Pakistan and the surrounding regions, remain a subjective process driven primarily by expert judgment. Whilst much research is ongoing to map and characterise active faults in Pakistan, knowledge of the seismogenic properties of the active faults is still incomplete in much of the region. Consequently, seismicity, both historical and instrumental, remains a primary guide to the seismogenic sources of Pakistan. This study utilises a cluster analysis approach for the purposes of identifying spatial differences in seismicity, which can be utilised to form a basis for delineating seismogenic source regions. An effort is made to examine seismicity partitioning for Pakistan with respect to earthquake database, seismic cluster analysis and seismic partitions in a seismic hazard context. A magnitude homogenous earthquake catalogue has been compiled using various available earthquake data. The earthquake catalogue covers a time span from 1930 to 2007 and an area from 23.00° to 39.00°N and 59.00° to 80.00°E. A threshold magnitude of 5.2 is considered for K-means cluster analysis. The current study uses the traditional metrics of cluster quality, in addition to a seismic hazard contextual metric to attempt to constrain the preferred number of clusters found in the data. The spatial distribution of earthquakes from the catalogue was used to define the seismic clusters for Pakistan, which can be used further in the process of defining seismogenic sources and corresponding earthquake recurrence models for estimates of seismic hazard and risk in Pakistan. Consideration of the different approaches to cluster validation in a seismic hazard context suggests that Pakistan may be divided into K = 19 seismic clusters, including some portions of the neighbouring countries of Afghanistan, Tajikistan and India.

  4. Use, exploitation and prospects for conservation: people and plant biodiversity of Naltar Valley, northwestern Karakorums, Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kashif Sheikh; Tahira Ahmad; Mir Ajab Khan

    2002-01-01

    Very little research has been conducted in the Himalayan and Karakorum Highlands of northern Pakistan on the aspects of biodiversity and conservation. The present research was carried out within the scope of the Pakistan–German Research Project, ‘Culture Area Karakorum’ which aims to highlight the ‘Problems and Prospects of High-Mountain Research’ in northern Pakistan. Naltar Valley, IUCN Management Category no. 4,

  5. The Gender Digital Divide in Rural Pakistan: How Wide is it and How to Bridge it?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. A. Siegmann

    2009-01-01

    While Pakistan’s National Information Technology (IT) Policy aims at harnessing the potential of information and communication technologies (ICTs) for development, especially in the underserved rural areas, it ignores the role of existing gender inequalities on the possible benefits of ICTs. We have investigated aspects of the ‘gender digital divide’ in rural areas of Pakistan in order to enable an evidence-based

  6. DIGITAL DIVIDE AND DIGITIZATION INITIATIVES IN PAKISTAN: A BIRD'S EYE VIEW

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Muhammad Ahsan

    The process of digitization in libraries of Pakistan is at a very initial stage. Pakistan is lagging behind developed countries due to many reasons such as: funding, computer illiteracy and expertise in digitization. However, some institutions like the Higher Education Commission, the Punjab University Library, the National Library of Pakistan and some private organizations are doing digitization. In social sciences,

  7. 479: A quick Design Approach towards the Energy Efficient Buildings in Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabahat Alamgir

    2008-01-01

    The professionals in building industry of Pakistan, lacks the incorporation of Energy efficient measures in their designs. Vernacular architecture of Pakistan shows that the climate of Lahore - Pakistan, convinces the use of solar passive design strategies to heat and cool the buildings for the energy conservation. To remove the hurdles identified after field survey in implementation of the considerations

  8. DISTANCE EDUCATION AS A STRATEGY FOR ELIMINATING GENDER DISPARITY IN PAKISTAN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irshad Hussain; Muhammad Aslam Adeeb; Muhammad Safdar; Sabiha Hameed Rahmanai

    This paper examines the role of distance education in addressing the issue of gender disparity in Pakistan. The study aimed to (a). analyze the present situation of gender disparity in education sector at different levels in Pakistan. (b). examine the role of distance education in eliminating gender discrimination in Pakistan. (c). evaluate the impact of distance education on gender empowerment.

  9. Regional Trade and Food Price Stablisation in South Asia: Policy Responses to the 2007-08 World Price Shocks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul A. Dorosh

    2008-01-01

    World price shocks and disruptions in international cereal trade in 2007 and 2008 caused considerable anxiety and hardship for food importing countries throughout the world. In South Asia, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Bangladesh and India were all affected by these movements in international prices, though the effects on domestic prices in each case was mitigated or exacerbated by each country’s own trade

  10. Stroke in South Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Wasay, Mohammad; Khatri, Ismail A; Kaul, Subhash

    2014-03-01

    Three of the world's top 10 most populous countries are located in South Asia. The health-care problems of this region are different from those in the developed world, and the rapidly changing socioeconomic scenario, fast-increasing urbanization and longevity, changes in dietary patterns, and decrease in mortality from infectious diseases has made chronic illnesses of old age, such as coronary artery disease and stroke, an important area of focus. This article reviews stroke epidemiology and management issues in four South Asian countries: India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh. The available literature is limited and mostly hospital-based, and differing study methodologies make direct comparisons difficult. The high prevalence of traditional risk factors, including hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia and smoking, in these countries is alarming, and several nontraditional risk factors, such as water-pipe use, desi ghee, chewable tobacco, and infectious causes of stroke, are understudied. Access to tertiary stroke care is limited, and the use of tissue plasminogen activator is scarce. In addition, public and caregiver awareness of stroke risk factors and management is disappointing, and the interest of governments and policy makers in stroke is suboptimal. Interventions to reduce stroke burden and stroke-related mortality in South Asia should have a substantial impact at the global level. PMID:24514866

  11. Physicochemical characteristics of various milk samples available in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Imran, Mohammad; Khan, Hamayun; Hassan, Syed Shah; Khan, Rasool

    2008-07-01

    We report physicochemical characteristics of various kinds of liquid milk commercially available in Pakistan in comparison with those of fresh natural milk from animals. Milk samples were collected from local markets at Peshawar, Pakistan, and analyzed for their physical features, including moisture, total solids, specific gravity, conductivity, viscosity and titratable acidity (lactic acid equivalent), and chemical components and macro-minerals, including total protein, casein, lactose, ash and minerals (Na, K and Mg). These items were compared with the physicochemical characteristics of the fresh natural milk samples from buffalo, cow and goat. The results were also compared with reported nutritional quality of milk from various countries and World Health Organization (WHO) standards. We found that all the physical features and chemical components of commercially available milk in Pakistan markets meet WHO's requirements, except for Na, K, Ca and Mg, which are below the standards. PMID:18600784

  12. Physicochemical characteristics of various milk samples available in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Imran, Mohammad; Khan, Hamayun; Hassan, Syed Shah; Khan, Rasool

    2008-01-01

    We report physicochemical characteristics of various kinds of liquid milk commercially available in Pakistan in comparison with those of fresh natural milk from animals. Milk samples were collected from local markets at Peshawar, Pakistan, and analyzed for their physical features, including moisture, total solids, specific gravity, conductivity, viscosity and titratable acidity (lactic acid equivalent), and chemical components and macro-minerals, including total protein, casein, lactose, ash and minerals (Na, K and Mg). These items were compared with the physicochemical characteristics of the fresh natural milk samples from buffalo, cow and goat. The results were also compared with reported nutritional quality of milk from various countries and World Health Organization (WHO) standards. We found that all the physical features and chemical components of commercially available milk in Pakistan markets meet WHO’s requirements, except for Na, K, Ca and Mg, which are below the standards. PMID:18600784

  13. Health reform in Pakistan: a call to action.

    PubMed

    Nishtar, Sania; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Jafar, Tazeen H; Ghaffar, Abdul; Akhtar, Tasleem; Bengali, Kaiser; Isa, Qazi Asmat; Rahim, Ejaz

    2013-06-29

    Pakistan's enormous macroeconomic, internal, and human security challenges coexist alongside the opportunity created by a huge desire for change. With democracy taking root and a new constitutionally ushered era in state governance, The Lancet Series about Pakistan and health focuses on health as a nation-building and social-welfare agenda at a time of unprecedented social upheaval and economic hardships in the country. We call for a unified vision for the goal of universal and equitable health access. We provide recommendations for six objectives for policy and action. Higher political priority for health, increased investments, a combination of targeted and universal approaches, action in terms of the social determinants, institutionalisation of the right organisational network, and frameworks for accountability are crucial for the attainment of the health goals in Pakistan. PMID:23684259

  14. Beliefs about euthanasia among university students: perspectives from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, M A; Kamal, A

    2011-10-01

    Opinions of university students about euthanasia were studied in 4 cities in Pakistan using convenience sampling. A total of 836 students (316 males and 520 females) completed a questionnaire in which euthanasia was defined as deliberate administration of an overdose of a drug by a doctor to relieve pain and suffering of a dying patient at his/her explicit request to end his/her life. Only 25.6% of students agreed that euthanasia should be legalized in Pakistan. The most common reason cited for legalization of euthanasia was to relieve patient's suffering but only when a committee of physicians agreed to recommend it. Students who opposed legalization (74.4%) cited impediments to future medical research as the most common reason, followed by the risk of misuse by physicians or family members. Only 8.9% of students cited religious beliefs as a reason against legalization. There is a need in Pakistan for more debate about euthanasia. PMID:22256415

  15. Cholera vaccine field trials in East Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Benenson, A. S.; Mosley, W. H.; Fahimuddin, M.; Oseasohn, R. O.

    1968-01-01

    A cholera-vaccine field trial in a rural area of East Pakistan where cholera is highly endemic has indicated that a high-potency whole-cell vaccine can provide significant protection against disease due to Vibrio cholerae for at least 18 months. This vaccine gave more than 70% protection during the first cholera season after vaccination. In the second cholera season after the administration of a single dose of vaccine, protection fell in those under 5 years of age, while continuing at significantly effective levels in older persons. Purified Ogawa antigen (lipopolysaccharide) afforded significant protection to adults against disease due to the heterologous Inaba serotype, but only protected children against milder diarrhoeas. The effect of cholera vaccine on the incidence of infections among family contacts of cholera patients was variable. Vaccine had no effect on the proportion of asymptomatic infections. Diarrhoeal disease associated with V. cholerae occurred predominantly among children, while protection was most marked among adults. Adverse reactions were practically restricted to the adults, suggesting that children will not only tolerate a larger dose, but actually require a larger dose for maximum protection against infection. PMID:5302329

  16. Foraminiferal stratigraphy of Ranikot (Paleocene) of Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Kureshy, A.A.

    1983-03-01

    The sedimentary deposits of Pakistan are divided into three distinct basins: the Lower Indus basin, the Upper Indus basin, and the Baluchistan basin. The Lower Indus basin is further divided into two parts; the northern part is the Sulaiman Province, and the southern part is known as Kirthar Province. The tertiary stratigraphy of Kirthar Province is conspicuous for its characteristic lithostratigraphic units. The Paleocene deposits of Kirthar Province are designated as Ranikot Group. The Ranikot Group was divided by Cheema et al in 1977 into three distinct lithostratigraphic units: the Khadro formation (Cardita beaumonti beds), Bara formation (Lower Ranikot), and Lakhra formation (Upper Ranikot). The Khadro and Lakhra formations are marine, characterized by foraminiferal assemblages. The characteristic planktonic forms are: Globigerina triloculinoides Plummer, Globorotalia pseudobulloids (Plummer), G. compressa (Plummer), G. valascoensis (Cushman), and G. pseudomenardii Bolli. The diagnostic forms of larger foraminifera are: Nummulites nuttalli Davies, Miscellanea (d'Archiac and Haime), Kathina major Smout, and Lockartia conditii (Nuttall). The planktonic foraminifera were assigned to Globorotali trinidadensis, G. pseudomenardii, and G. velasoensis zones of Kureshy in 1977, and larger foraminifera were assigned to Nummulities nuttalli zones of Kureshy in 1978.

  17. Road traffic injuries in Rawalpindi city, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Farooq, U; Bhatti, J A; Siddiq, M; Majeed, M; Malik, N; Razzak, J A; Khan, M M

    2011-09-01

    Data on road traffic accident (RTA) injuries and their outcome are scarce in Pakistan. This study assessed patterns of RTA injuries reported in Rawalpindi city using standard surveillance methods. All RTA injury patients presenting to emergency departments of 3 tertiary care facilities from July 2007 to June 2008 were included. RTA injuries (n = 19 828) accounted for 31.7% of all injuries. Among children aged 0-14 years females suffered twice as many RTA injuries as males (21.3% versus 11.4%), whereas this trend reversed for the age group 15-24 years (41.9% versus 21.7%). One-fifth of injuries were either fractures or concussion. Severity and outcome of injuries were worse for the age group 45 years and older. For every road traffic death in Rawalpindi city, 29 more people were hospitalized and 177 more received emergency department care. These results suggest the need for better RTA injury surveillance to identify preventive and control measures for the increasingly high road disease burden in this city. PMID:22259914

  18. Abnormally high formation pressures, Potwar Plateau, Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Shah, S.H.A.; Malik, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormally high formation pressures in the Potwar Plateau of north-central Pakistan are major obstacles to oil and gas exploration. Severe drilling problems associated with high pressures have, in some cases, prevented adequate evaluation of reservoirs and significantly increased drilling costs. Previous investigations of abnormal pressure in the Potwar Plateau have only identified abnormal pressures in Neogene rocks. We have identified two distinct pressure regimes in this Himalayan foreland fold and thrust belt basin: one in Neogene rocks and another in pre-Neogene rocks. Pore pressures in Neogene rocks are as high as lithostatic and are interpreted to be due to tectonic compression and compaction disequilibrium associated with high rates of sedimentation. Pore pressure gradients in pre-Neogene rocks are generally less than those in Neogene rocks, commonly ranging from 0.5 to 0.7 psi/ft (11.3 to 15.8 kPa/m) and are most likely due to a combination of tectonic compression and hydrocarbon generation. The top of abnormally high pressure is highly variable and doesn't appear to be related to any specific lithologic seal. Consequently, attempts to predict the depth to the top of overpressure prior to drilling are precluded.

  19. 2D Ball-and-Socket Tectonic Rotation in a Heterogeneous Strain Field: The 2013 Mw7.7 Balochistan, Pakistan Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnhart, W. D.; Hayes, G. P.; Briggs, R. W.; Gold, R. D.; Bilham, R. G.

    2014-12-01

    The September 2013 Mw7.7 Balochistan strike-slip earthquake ruptured a ~200 km long segment of the curved Hoshab fault within the Makran accretionary prism - the active zone of convergence between the northward subducting Arabia plate and overriding Eurasia. The Hoshab fault ruptured bilaterally with ~10 m of mean sinistral and ~1.7 m of dip slip along the length of the rupture, quantified jointly from geodetic and seismological observations. This rupture is unusual because the fault dips ~60o towards the focus of a small circle centered in northwest Pakistan, and, despite a 30o increase in obliquity along the curving strike of the fault with respect to Arabia:Eurasia convergence, the ratio of strike and dip slip remain relatively uniform. Static friction prior to rupture was unusually weak ( <0.05) as inferred from topographic and slab profiles, and friction may have approached zero during dynamic rupture, thus permitting in part this unusual event. In this presentation, we argue that the northward dipping Hosab fault defines the northern rim of a structural unit in southeast Makran. This unit rotates - akin to a 2-D ball-and-socket joint - counter clockwise in response to India's penetration into the Eurasia plate. According to this interpretation, the mechanically weak Makran accretionary prism is subjected to a highly heterogeneous strain and deforms in response to convergence from both the Arabia and India plates. Rotation of the southeast Makran block accounts for complexity in the Chaman fault system and, in principle, reduces the seismic potential near Karachi by accommodating some slip along the southern Ornach-Nal fault. At the same time, geological indicators and along-strike fault slip profiles indicate that the Hoshab fault may also slip as a reverse fault in response to Arabia:Eurasia convergence - indicating that a single fault may accommodate multiple components of strain partitioning in a heterogeneous strain field over several seismic cycles.

  20. Pathways of Women Prisoners to Jail in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Khalid, Adeela; Khan, Nashi

    2013-01-01

    Background: The present study aimed to examine pathways to imprisonment for women in Pakistan. It was hypothesized that early life victimization in women, problematic family relationship and economical deprivation would be significantly associated with criminal activities of women prisoners. Method: To identify the pathways to prison, structured interview was devised by the researchers. Sample comprised of 114 women prisoners enlisted from KotLakhpat jail, Lahore, Pakistan. Results: Poverty, revenge, anger and lack of empowerment were significantly associated with criminal activities of women of fender. Conclusion: The umbrella of rehabilitation should also cover social and legal matters of women offenders along with tackling their psychological issues. PMID:24688950

  1. South Centre

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Based in Switzerland, South Centre is a multi-national organization which promotes the global organization of its 46 member nations in order to become "effective in mobilizing its considerable combined expertise and experience or its bargaining power." The site contains a large number of current working papers, South Centre's quarterly newsletter South Letter, and relevant links.

  2. Equity and vaccine uptake: a cross-sectional study of measles vaccination in Lasbela District, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Achieving equity means increased uptake of health services for those who need it most. But the poorest families continue to have the poorest service. In Pakistan, large numbers of children do not access vaccination against measles despite the national government's effort to achieve universal coverage. Methods A cross-sectional study of a random sample of 23 rural and 9 urban communities in the Lasbela district of south Pakistan, explored knowledge, attitudes and discussion around measles vaccination. Several socioeconomic variables allowed examination of the role of inequities in vaccination uptake; 2479 mothers provided information about 4007 children aged 10 to 59 months. A Mantel-Haenszel stratification analysis, with and without adjustment for clustering, clarified determinants of measles vaccination in urban and rural areas. Results A high proportion of mothers had appropriate knowledge of and positive attitudes to vaccination; many discussed vaccination, but only one half of children aged 10-59 months accessed vaccination. In urban areas, having an educated mother, discussing vaccinations, having correct knowledge about vaccinations, living in a community with a government vaccination facility within 5 km, and living in houses with better roofs were associated with vaccination uptake after adjusting for the effect of each of these variables and for clustering; maternal education was an equity factor even among those with good access. In rural areas, the combination of roof quality and access (vaccination post within 5 km) along with discussion about vaccines and knowledge about vaccines had an effect on uptake. Conclusion Stagnating rates of vaccination coverage may be related to increasing inequities. A hopeful finding is that discussion about vaccines and knowledge about vaccines had a positive effect that was independent of the negative effect of inequity - in both urban and rural areas. At least as a short term strategy, there seems to be reason to expect an intervention increasing knowledge and discussion about vaccination in this district might increase uptake. PMID:19828065

  3. Gender and livelihoods in northern Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Joekes, S

    1995-01-01

    This article reports on findings from a study in 1993-94 on women and sustainable development in Hunza and Nagar districts in the Karakorum mountains of northern Pakistan. The study aims to explore the impact of development on women's work burden and sustainable use of natural resources. Local natural resource management has been a complex system of agro-pastoralist use, with poor yields. Modernization resulted in construction of the Karakorum Highway in 1978 and the Aga Khan Support Program, which mobilized the community in irrigation and agricultural projects. Village organizations were formed as a forum for community decision making and information exchange. These changes resulted in the doubling of household income during 1983-92. Agricultural productivity increased without compromising soil fertility. Livestock herds doubled during 1976-86. The road created the opportunity for new strategies for improving income. Wholesale markets became accessible. Tourism increased, the economy diversified in ways that increased women's income and control of income, and demand for education increased. Women reported that the increased demands on workload were worth the improved standard of living. Gendered work was reallocated, and division of labor changed among women of various ages. Village councils began protecting depleted forest reserves. Men collected wood on the higher slopes, according to anthropomorphic and spiritual beliefs. Women's knowledge of the environment was greater with age and specific to the tasks performed. Men and women did not have permanently fixed gender roles. Women were not exclusive managers of the environment. Women benefited the most from technology that was in their interest and not controlled by men. PMID:12289815

  4. Family planning in Pakistan: applying what we have learned.

    PubMed

    Khan, Adnan Ahmad; Khan, Ayesha; Javed, Wajiha; Hamza, Hasan Bin; Orakzai, Mejzgaan; Ansari, Aliya; Abbas, Khadija

    2013-04-01

    Despite six decades of government and private sector programs, CPR in Pakistan is among the lowest in the region. This article reviews published and grey literature to understand why despite sufficient time and usually sufficient funding, CPR remains low in Pakistan. This paper looks beyond the usual factors of quality of services, coverage and supplies and management issues to examine how family planning may be improved in Pakistan. Based on analysis of the Pakistan Demographic Health Survey 2006-7, the public sector provides around a third of FP services, while NGOs and private providers another 15%. More than half of all family planning users buy their methods directly from stores. Within the government, the services cost 5-8 fold more than the private sector. Nearly a fifth of pregnancies end in an abortion suggesting the role of abortions as a key FP method. This together with a high unmet need pose the question: why is there such low uptake of FP services in the country. To explain this lack of uptake, we explore the limitations of the public sector in providing services, the lack of effect of religious beliefs, of abundant, yet misdirected funding and gaps in demand creation. The increasing role of NGOs and donors in filling the void left by the public sector is discussed. Suggestions are provided about improving public and private sector services including better information gathering and use in defining needs, measuring results and creating demand for FP. PMID:24386723

  5. Taxonomy of Cyber Crimes and Legislation in Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Adeel; A. A. Chaudhry; R. A. Shaikh; S. I. Shah

    2005-01-01

    We inhabit a rapidly developing world of shifting trends. Information Technology that was considered as a key contributor in progress of any country has evolved into a nightmare in form of Cyber Crimes. Despite proper legislation, most of such offences of less severe nature remain veiled in Pakistan. Deficient law enforcement and absence of an international treaty against Cyber Crimes

  6. Veil and four walls: a state of terror in Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa Sharlach

    2008-01-01

    The understanding of terrorism should be expanded to encompass the types of violence most often experienced by women, such as rape. Pakistani men, soldiers and civilians have used rape as a strategy of terrorism against Pakistan's women, particularly those who dare to transgress existing social hierarchies or who belong to stigmatized social groups. Moreover, the complex and sometimes contradictory set

  7. Qualitative Inquiry into Local Education Administration in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komatsu, Taro

    2009-01-01

    The level of educational development in Pakistan is low. A decentralisation reform was introduced in 2000 to improve the delivery of basic education by designating the local government body with primary responsibility for administering it. A qualitative field study on local education administration at the North West Frontier Province found…

  8. A Strategy for Upgrading Primary Education in Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastmond, Jefferson N.

    Upgrading education requires a systematic effort to resolve its problems, expand its impact, and improve its quality by (1) acquiring commitment, (2) determining the present status, (3) setting goals and establishing a plan, (4) executing the plan, and (5) monitoring and evaluating progress. In Pakistan, a national commitment is needed to solve…

  9. A Participatory Planning Model for Village Education in Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bokhari, Khalid H.; Eastmond, Jefferson N.

    Successfully field tested in four villages in the Federal Capital Area, Pakistan, the model is designed to: identify and prioritize village concerns and educational needs; validate and analyze the needs with respect to village values and goals; and select, develop, implement, and evaluate a best solution. Major steps in the model are: data…

  10. Pollen morphologyof the genus Silene (Sileneae-Caryophyllaceae) from Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sumaira SAHREEN; Mir Ajab KHAN; Akbar Ali MEO; Asma JABEEN

    Pollen morphological studies of 16 species of the g enus Silene have been carried out from Pakistan. Pollen grains are polypantoporate or periporate at polar v iew. There is a great variation in pollen morpholog y in the species of Silene .In Silene conoidea 22 - 24 number of pores is a species specific char acter. Silene brahuica, S. conoidea,

  11. The Molecular Basis of Retinal Dystrophies in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Muhammad Imran; Azam, Maleeha; Ajmal, Muhammad; Collin, Rob W. J.; den Hollander, Anneke I.; Cremers, Frans P. M.; Qamar, Raheel

    2014-01-01

    The customary consanguineous nuptials in Pakistan underlie the frequent occurrence of autosomal recessive inherited disorders, including retinal dystrophy (RD). In many studies, homozygosity mapping has been shown to be successful in mapping susceptibility loci for autosomal recessive inherited disease. RDs are the most frequent cause of inherited blindness worldwide. To date there is no comprehensive genetic overview of different RDs in Pakistan. In this review, genetic data of syndromic and non-syndromic RD families from Pakistan has been collected. Out of the 132 genes known to be involved in non-syndromic RD, 35 different genes have been reported to be mutated in families of Pakistani origin. In the Pakistani RD families 90% of the mutations causing non-syndromic RD and all mutations causing syndromic forms of the disease have not been reported in other populations. Based on the current inventory of all Pakistani RD-associated gene defects, a cost-efficient allele-specific analysis of 11 RD-associated variants is proposed, which may capture up to 35% of the genetic causes of retinal dystrophy in Pakistan. PMID:24705292

  12. Librarianship in Pakistan into the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilyas, Muhammed

    1998-01-01

    Discusses 50 years' worth of development of librarianship in Pakistan and analyzes the policies and plans made. Reviews the role of library schools and their curriculum in the development of the profession and examines the impact of the information revolution, as well as new dimensions in librarianship. Provides a timeline of plans and…

  13. Coal briquetting in Pakistan: A market and business assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. G. Stevenson; T. D. Willson

    1988-01-01

    Our objectives are to evaluate the potential financial success of an unsubsidized, private sector coal briquetting venture in Pakistan, based on financial competitiveness in market niches, market size, and consumer acceptance; to examine private sector interest and potential business arrangements; to examine potential effects of government policies on such an undertaking; and to make recommendations to the private sector, USAID,

  14. The Changing Perspective of Art Education in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Muhammad Sher Ali

    2014-01-01

    The development of art education in Pakistan over the last five decades is explored through three major phases: Arts as traditional crafts together with proficiency in painting and calligraphy. Such skills; somewhat existed in academies but, were then transferred through apprenticeship system. Arts in the academies; the first turning point, that…

  15. Perspectives of Aacademic Activities in Universities in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Akhtar; Tariq, Riaz H.; Topping, Keith J.

    2013-01-01

    The article explores perspectives on academic activities in public sector universities in Pakistan. Seven Pakistani universities yielded 290 teachers and 568 students in the sample. Factor analysis indicated five main factors in both teacher and student data sets. Both teachers and students were dissatisfied with the performance of the…

  16. Kiran Libraries for Children in Prison in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shinji, Tajima

    2009-01-01

    In Pakistan, there are 7,000 children in 70 jails. From observations on why children commit crime, the author offers that the core cause is poverty; 99 per cent of young prisoners belong to deprived sections of society. They do not have access to education; living in prison is difficult; the degrading and harsh treatment adversely affects the…

  17. Effectiveness of Regulatory Structure in the Power Sector of Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Afia Malik

    2007-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to study the regulatory environment in the electricity sector of Pakistan. NEPRA, a regulatory authority was formed in 1997 to protect consumer interests in the area of electricity provision, and to ensure an efficient and competitive environment for the electricity generators and distributors, but it has so far not been able to achieve anything. The

  18. Rethinking rural water supply policy in the Punjab, Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mir Anjum Altaf; Dale Whittington; Haroon Jamal; V. Kerry Smith

    1993-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of public policy relating to the rural water supply sector in the Punjab, Pakistan. Based on household survey data, it shows that rural water policies have not kept pace with the rapid economic development in this region and that in the absence of adequate public investment households find private sector alternatives to meet their water

  19. Three-Gap Analysis of Structural Adjustment in Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Iqbal

    1996-01-01

    This study addresses two specific sets of questions. The first main question that has occupied a number of researchers is whether the adjustment programs (advocated by the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund) have had any positive effects to date on macroeconomic performance (i.e. on exports, imports, savings, investment, consumption, and gross domestic product) in Pakistan. The second main

  20. Three-Gap Analysis of Structural Adjustment in Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zafar Iqbal; Jeffrey James; Graham Pyatt

    2000-01-01

    This paper addresses two specific sets of questions. The first main question that has occupied a number of researchers is whether the adjustment programs (advocated by the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund) have had any positive effects to date on macroeconomic performance (i.e., on exports, imports, savings, investment, consumption, and gross domestic product) in Pakistan. The second main

  1. HIV\\/AIDS in Pakistan: the battle begins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad A Rai; Haider J Warraich; Syed H Ali; Vivek R Nerurkar

    2007-01-01

    Pakistan, the second most populous Muslim nation in the world, has started to finally experience and confront the HIV\\/AIDS epidemic. The country had been relatively safe from any indigenous HIV cases for around two decades, with most of the infections being attributable to deported HIV positive migrants from the Gulf States. However, the virus finally seems to have found a

  2. EFFECT OF LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT ON EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE IN PAKISTAN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    QAISAR ABBAS; SARA YAQOOB

    2009-01-01

    The study was aimed to examine the effect of leadership development on employee performance in Pakistan. This study was conducted considering five factors of leadership development, i.e. coaching, training and development, empowerment, participation and delegation and it was found that the combined effect of these factors influences employee performance with 50%. However, rest of the 50% contribution towards employee performance

  3. Multipurpose community telecenters for rural development in Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Khalid Mahmood

    2005-01-01

    Purpose – The paper aims to: assess the situation of rural population in Pakistan and information facilities available to them including telecommunications, computers and public libraries; document the community information initiatives in terms of objectives, institutional framework, staff, services, use, finance, technology and lessons learned; understand challenges and opportunities regarding the establishment of multipurpose community telecenters (MCTs) in rural areas

  4. Agricultural Use of Untreated Urban Waste water in Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samina Khalil; Mehmood khan kakar

    2011-01-01

    Untreated waste water is used for irrigation in over 80% of all Pakistani communities with a population of over 10,000 inhabitants. The absence of a suitable alternative water source, waste water’s high nutrient value, reliability, and its proximity to urban markets are the main reasons for its use. Two case studies in Pakistan studied the impact of untreated waste water

  5. Decentralised and Private Education: The Case of Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez, Emmanuel; Tan, Jee Peng

    1987-01-01

    In response to limited central government resources available for education, Pakistan has attempted to decentralize educational financing and management. Lifting prohibitions on private schools has brought dramatic increases in enrollments. Preliminary evidence shows improved average quality of schooling, but effects on internal efficiency or…

  6. Biologically active traditional medicinal herbs from Balochistan, Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mudassir A. Zaidi; Sidney A. Crow

    2005-01-01

    The biological activities of the following four important medicinal plants of Balochistan, Pakistan were checked; Grewia erythraea Schwein f. (Tiliaceae), Hymenocrater sessilifolius Fisch. and C.A. Mey (Lamiaceae), Vincetoxicum stocksii Ali and Khatoon (Asclepiadaceae) and Zygophyllum fabago L. (Zygophyllaceae). The methanolic extracts were fractionated into hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, butanol and water. The antifungal and antibacterial activities of these plants were

  7. Home Economics Curricula in Pakistan: Time for Reform?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saeed, Fouzia; McClelland, Jerry

    1991-01-01

    Most home economics in Pakistan focuses on women's homemaking skills (food preparation, clothing, interior design), not career orientation; it caters to upper/middle class needs and traditional roles. Rural/lower class women's needs (agricultural production, nutrition, hygiene, family planning) are not generally served. (SK)

  8. Technology and Distance Education: Sharing Experience in Sindh, Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panhwar, Farzana

    Female literacy in Pakistan is among the lowest in the world. In 1981, the literacy rate was 16 percent for females, and 7.3 percent for rural women. Distance education can effect many social changes. Females would be the main beneficiaries because it is not socially acceptable for girls to leave home for education; parents do not like…

  9. Burn Wound Infections and Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns at Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Saaiq, Muhammad; Ahmad, Shehzad; Zaib, Muhammad Salman

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROND Burn wound infections carry considerable mortality and morbidity amongst burn injury victims who have been successfully rescued through the initial resuscitation. This study assessed the prevalent microrganisms causing burn wound infections among hospitalized patients; their susceptibility pattern to commonly used antibiotics; and the frequency of infections with respect to the duration of the burn wounds. METHODS This study was carried out at Burn Care Centre, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS), Islamabad, Pakistan over a period of two years (i.e. from June 2010 to May 2012). The study included all wound-culture-positive patients of either gender and all ages, who had sustained deep burns and underwent definitive management with wound excisions and skin auto-grafting. Patients with negative cultures of the wounds were excluded. Tissue specimens for culture and sensitivity were collected from burn wounds using standard collection techniques and analyzed at microbiological laboratory. RESULTS Out of a total of 95 positive microbial growths, 36 were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (35.29%) as the most frequent isolate found, followed by 21 Klebsiella pneumoniae (20.58%), 19 Staphylococcus aureaus (18.62%), 10 Proteus (9.80%), 7 E. coli (6.86%), 7 Acinetobacter (6.86%), and 4 Candida (3.92%). A variable antibiotic susceptibility pattern was observed among the grown microbes. Positive cultures were significantly more frequent among patients with over two weeks duration of burn wounds. CONCLUSION P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae and S. aureus constituted the most common bacterial microbes of burn wounds in our in-patients cases. Positive cultures were more frequent among patients with over two weeks duration of burn wounds. Early excision and skin grafting of deep burns and adherence to infection control measures can help to effectively reduce the burden of these infections. PMID:25606471

  10. View looking south from pavilion, showing south entrance house, south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking south from pavilion, showing south entrance house, south wing, and engine house - Fairmount Waterworks, East bank of Schuylkill River, Aquarium Drive, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  11. Literacy, Income Generation, and Poverty Alleviation in Sindh Pakistan and Its Impact on Economic Development, Human Resource Development in Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panhwar, Farzana

    Rural poverty in Sindh, Pakistan, has been artificially created by low prices of wheat, fixed by the federal government's price control board. Agriculture and agro-based industries account for 80 percent of the country's labor force. Among the consequences of this price control are low margins of profit to the farming community; low capacity to…

  12. Girl child marriage and its effect on fertility in Pakistan: findings from Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, 2006-2007.

    PubMed

    Nasrullah, Muazzam; Muazzam, Sana; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Raj, Anita

    2014-04-01

    Child marriage (before 18 years) is prevalent in Pakistan, which disproportionately affects young girls in rural, low income and low education households. Our study aims to determine the association between early marriage and high fertility and poor fertility health indicators among young women in Pakistan beyond those attributed to social vulnerabilities. Nationally representative data from Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, 2006-2007, a cross-sectional observational survey, were limited to ever-married women aged 20-24 years (n = 1,560; 15% of 10,023) to identify differences in poor fertility outcomes [high fertility (three or more childbirths); rapid repeat childbirth (<24 months between births); unwanted pregnancy (any ever); pregnancy termination (any stillbirth, miscarriage or abortion ever)] by early (<18) versus adult (?18) age at marriage. Associations between child marriage and fertility outcomes were assessed by calculating adjusted odds ratios (AORs) using logistic regression models after controlling for demographics, social equity indicators (education, wealth index, rural residence), contraception use, marriage duration and culture-specific factors (husband's desire for more children, son preference). Overall, 50% of ever-married women aged 20-24 years in Pakistan were married before the age of 18 years. Girl child marriage was significantly (p < 0.001) associated with low social equity indicators (poverty, rural residence, and no formal education). Adjusted logistic regression models showed that girl child marriage was significantly associated with high fertility (AOR 6.62; 95% CI 3.53-12.43), rapid repeat childbirth (AOR 2.88; 95% CI 1.83-4.54), unwanted pregnancy (AOR 2.90; 95% CI 1.75-4.79), and pregnancy termination (AOR 1.75; 95% CI 1.10-2.78). Girl child marriage affects half of all ever-married women aged 20-24 years in Pakistan, and increases their risk for high fertility and poor fertility health indicators, highlighting the need of increasing the age of marriage among women in Pakistan. Efforts to eliminate girl child marriage by strict law enforcement, promoting civil, sexual and reproductive health rights for women can help eliminate girl child marriage in Pakistan. PMID:23580067

  13. Land surface hydrological investigation in Upper Indus River Basin (UIB), North Pakistan under the Framework of TPE Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The Upper Indus Basin (UIB) is home to three of the world's mightiest mountain ranges. The Karakoram in north and the Himalaya in northeast while the Hindukush in the northwest of Pakistan. The Indus River emerges from the Tibetan Plateau and flows toward northern areas of Pakistan where it changes its direction toward the south and flows into the Arabian Sea. The catchment area of Indus River is located in Pakistan, China and India, but most part covered in Pakistan. The Upper Indus Basin lies within the variable influence of three major weather systems: the sub-Mediterranean regime of mainly winter, westerly storms; the summer monsoon; and the Tibetan anticyclone. The Upper Indus River Basin has a total catchment area of approx. 206,000 km2. The UIB includes the Hunza, Gilgit, Astore, Shigar and Shyok sub-basins. Nearly 11.5% (22,000 km2) of the total area of the UIB is covered by perennial glacial ice (including most of the largest valley glaciers) making it the largest area outside the polar and Greenland regions (Hewitt, 2007). UIB has a mean elevation of 4750 m with almost 60% of its total area above an elevation of 4500 m and 12% of its area (almost the same area is glacier covered) above 5500 m. Glacial melt is one of the major sources of inflow in the Upper Indus Basin, 44.8% of its river flow depends upon glacial melting. Its mean discharge at Tarbela dam is 5533 m3/s (IUCN, IWMI). Most of the annual precipitation in the UIB falls in the winter and spring and originates from the west (Young and Hewitt, 1990). Several researchers reported that 80% of the flow of the Upper Indus River is contributed by less than 20% of its area, essentially from the zones of heavy snowfall and glaciated basins above 3500m in elevation. Under the Framework of TPE Program, observational researches have been lunched since last year. The project aim to the objective of hydrological consequence of snow cover in UIB; impact of glacier dynamic to basin drainage and response of discharge to climatic changes during past 50 years. The presentation will highlight the research including field expedition in 2011, objective and strategies, and request to cooperation as well.

  14. Determinants of neonatal mortality in Pakistan: secondary analysis of Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey 2006–07

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Globally 7.6 million children died in 2010 before reaching their fifth birthday and 40% of these deaths occur in the neonatal period. Pakistan has the third highest rate of neonatal mortality globally. To implement evidence-based interventions for the reduction of neonatal mortality, it is important to investigate factors associated with neonatal mortality. The aim of the current study was to identify determinants of neonatal mortality in Pakistan. Methods Data was derived from the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey 2006–07. All singleton live births between 2002 and 2006 were selected for the current analyses. Data was analysed by using STATA 13 and adjusted for the cluster sampling design. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard models were performed using step-wise backward elimination procedures to identify the determinants of neonatal mortality. Results A total of 5,702 singleton live births in the last five years preceding the survey were selected. Multivariate analyses showed that living in Punjab province (Adj HR?=?2.10, p?=?0.015), belonging to the poorest household wealth index quintile (Adj HR?=?1.95, p?=?0.035), male infants (Adj HR?=?1.57, p?=?0.014), first rank baby (Adj HR?=?1.59, p?=?0.049), smaller than average birth size (Adj HR?=?1.61, p?=?0.023) and mothers with delivery complications (Adj HR?=?1.93, p?=?0.001) had significantly higher hazards of neonatal death in Pakistan. Conclusions To reduce neonatal mortality, there is a need to implement interventions focusing on antenatal care, effective referral system and retraining of healthcare providers to manage delivery complications and smaller than average birth size babies in resource poor communities of Pakistan. PMID:24972633

  15. Suicide bombing as an unusual cause of spinal cord injury: a case series from Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F A Rathore; A Ayub; S Farooq; P W New

    2011-01-01

    Study design:Descriptive case series.Objectives:Describe the unusual etiology and pattern of spinal cord injury due to terrorist suicide bombings in Pakistan.Settings:Spinal Rehabilitation Unit, Armed Forces Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine, Rawalpindi, Pakistan.Methods:Hundreds of suicide attacks on civil and military forces have occurred over the last 6 years in Pakistan. These have resulted in thousands of death and many more injured. Six victims

  16. South Asia Network of Economic Research Institutes (SANEI)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The South Asia Network of Economic Research Institute was formed in 1998 in order to foster strong networks among economic research institutes in regions of South Asia. Currently, the 40 participating institutes are from countries including India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and Pakistan. Along with in-depth information about SANEI's mission, structure, and committee members, the site includes discussion forums and links to a variety of related organizations and publications. Be sure to explore the Research section of the site featuring a comprehensive collection of ongoing and completed studies from member institutes. This well-organized site will be of interest to anyone looking at models of networking organizations as well as those studying the economy of South Asian countries.

  17. Suicide and attempted suicide trends in Mianwali, Pakistan: social perspective.

    PubMed

    Tahir, M N; Akbar, A H; Naseer, R; Khan, Q O; Khan, F; Yaqub, I

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the epidemiology and potential causes of suicides and attempted suicide cases that were reported to Rescue 1122 Mianwali in Pakistan. The data were collected prospectively for 2011. One hundred and eight suicides were reported during the study period. Four (4%) victims were found dead at the scene and 104 (96%) were taken to hospital. There were 84(78%) men and 24(22%) women and 98 (90%) were aged 11-30 years. Toxic substances (36%), pesticides (31%) and drug overdose (11%) were the most common materials/methods used. Depression/mental illness (33%), socioeconomic conditions (24%) and unemployment (21%) were the major reasons for attempting suicide. Suicide is a sensitive and multifaceted problem that needs to be addressed in Pakistan. PMID:24995732

  18. Ecology of rhesus macaques ( Macaca mulatta ) in northwest Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J. Goldstein; A. F. Richard

    1989-01-01

    The feeding ecology of rhesus monkeys,Macaca mulatta, was studied between 1978 and 1981. The study site, located in the Murree Hills of northwestern Pakistan, supported a mixed\\u000a coniferous-deciduous forest community and was characterized by a high degree of human disturbance. We used a linear transect\\u000a method to sample the species composition and structure of the vegetation. Comparison of these data

  19. Molecular epidemiology of ?-thalassemia in Pakistan: far reaching implications

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Saqib H; Shamsi, Tahir S; Ashraf, Mushtaq; Bohray, Muneera; Farzana, Tasneem; Khan, Mohammed Tahir; Perveen, Kousar; Erum, Sajida; Ansari, Iqra; Nadeem, Muhammad; Ahmed, Masood; Raza, Faizan

    2011-01-01

    ?-thalassaemia, an autosomal recessive hemoglobinopathy, is one of the commonest genetically transmitted disorders throughout the world. Collective measures including carrier identification, genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis are required for preventing ?-thalassemia. To achieve this objective, Identification of the spectrum of genetic mutations, especially for various ethnic backgrounds in Pakistan is necessary. Therefore, we designed a cross sectional prospective study to identify the frequency of various gene mutations in different ethnic groups of Pakistan. Over a 5-year period, DNA from 648 blood samples [including specimens of chorionic villus sampling (CVS)] were analyzed for the twelve most common ?-thalassemia mutations found in the Pakistani population by a Multiplex amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS). The most common mutation identified was Intervening Sequence 1-5 (IVS 1-5 (G-C)); accounting for 40.89% mutated alleles, and was represented in all ethnic groups. 15.7 % of the ?-thalassemia alleles were found to have Frameshift 8-9 (Fr 8-9) as the second most common mutation Other common genetic defects responsible for ?-thalassemia: IVS 1-1 (G-T) was found in 8.17%, Codon-30 (Cd-30 (G-C)) 8.02%, Codon-5(Cd-5 (-CT)) contributed 2.16% and Deletion 619 base pair (Del 619bp) affected 11.11% were found in Pakistan. This large study adds to the pre-existing data in Pakistan. Knowledge of the predominant mutation in a given ethnic group will not only help in developing a short panel of (population-specific) primers of mutations thereby providing a cost-effective method for prenatal diagnosis and also help the clinicians to counsel regarding blood transfusion regimen/ pregnancy termination. PMID:22200002

  20. Makran Mountain Range, Indus River Valley, Pakistan, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The enormous geologic pressures exerted by continental drift can be very well illustrated by the long northward curving parallel folded mountain ridges and valleys of the coastal Makran Range of Pakistan (27.0N, 66.0E). As a result of the collision of the northward bound Indian sub-continent into the Asian Continent, the east/west parallel range has been bent in a great northward arc and forming the Indus River valley at the interface of the collision.

  1. Source Apportionment of the Atmospheric Aerosol in Lahore, Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suresh Raja; Karabi F. Biswas; Liaquat Husain; Philip K. Hopke

    2010-01-01

    Samples of airborne particulate matter (PM2.5) were collected at a site in Lahore, Pakistan from November 2005 to January 2006. A total of 129 samples were collected using\\u000a an Andersen Reference Ambient Air Sampler 2.5-400 sampler and analyzed for major ions, trace metals, and organic and elemental\\u000a carbon concentrations. The data set was then analyzed by positive matrix factorization (PMF)

  2. Migrant men: a priority for HIV control in Pakistan?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Faisel; J Cleland

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: To assess sexual risk behaviour and prevalence of treatable sexually transmitted infections (STI) in migrant male workers in Lahore, Pakistan.Methods: Behavioural interviews were conducted on a representative sample of 590 migrant men aged 20–49 years. Biological samples were collected from a subsample of 190 and tested for chlamydia, gonorrhoea, and syphilis.Results: Over half (55%) of single men were sexually

  3. Forecasting Extreme Flooding in South Asia (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, P. J.

    2010-12-01

    In most years there is extensive flooding across India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. On average, 40 million people are displaced by floods in India and half that many again in Bangladesh. Occasionally, even more extensive and severe flooding occurs across South Asia. In 2007 and 2008 the Brahmaputra flooded three times causing severe disruption of commerce, agriculture and life in general. Systems set up by an international collaboration predicted these Bangladesh floods with an operational system at the 10 and 15-day horizon. These forecasts determined the risk of flooding and allowed the Bangladeshis in peril to prepare, harvesting crops and storing of household and agricultural assets. Savings in increments of annual income resulted form the forecasts. In July and August 2010, severe flooding occurred in Pakistan causing horrendous damage and loss of life. But these floods were also predictable at the 10-day time scale if the same forecasting system developed for Bangladesh had been implemented. Similar systems could be implemented in India but would require local cooperation. We describe the manner in which quantified probabilistic precipitation forecasts, coupled with hydrological models can provide useful and timely extended warnings of flooding.

  4. Quality of ceftriaxone in Pakistan: reality and resonance.

    PubMed

    Obaid, Ali

    2009-04-01

    The quality of pharmaceuticals is a global concern, counterfeit/ poor quality/ substandard medicines can cause harms in various ways: In a number of developing countries including Pakistan there is reportedly a high incidence of the availability of substandard drugs. The majority of these reports do not contain quantitative data to support these claims, nor do they describe the methodology employed for the quality assessment. Quality of drugs available in Pakistan are being questioned and topic of discussion in local news paper, TV channels in general public including journalist and physicians due to disparity of price among same generics, lack of knowledge for such science and unknown reasons. Since, quality of drugs can neither be assessed by naked eye or by every one therefore, randomly selected, 96 samples of different strength of injection ceftriaxone sodium and its generic, a widely used third generation cephalosporin in Pakistan since 1982 and 1994 till date respectively included in the said study to know the reality. 15.62% of ceftriaxone injection was found to be out of specification, however, not a single sample was found fake (spurious) out of 96 tested samples. Nevertheless, quality is a wide ranging concept covering all matters that individually or collectively influence the excellence of a product hence price and other related issues are also analyzed in the study. PMID:19339236

  5. Coal briquetting in Pakistan: A market and business assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, G.G.; Willson, T.D.

    1988-04-01

    Our objectives are to evaluate the potential financial success of an unsubsidized, private sector coal briquetting venture in Pakistan, based on financial competitiveness in market niches, market size, and consumer acceptance; to examine private sector interest and potential business arrangements; to examine potential effects of government policies on such an undertaking; and to make recommendations to the private sector, USAID, and the Government of Pakistan on further work. Our results show that coal briquettes potentially can compete against firewood in some markets, particularly in certain urban areas of Punjab and most urban markets of the NWFP. Salt Range or Makerwal coal would be used for these briquettes. Coal briquettes will also compete against charcoal and kerosene in many areas of Pakistan. The most promising briquette is a coal/biomass mixture not requiring carbonization. A limited opportunity may also exist for a carbonized briquette using Makerwal coal. Smoky briquettes for space heating also are competitive in certain areas, but market size is limiting. The total penetrable residential market for coal briquettes in the Punjab and NWFP of 440,000 to 545,000 tonnes of briquettes per year replacing firewood is sufficiently large to support one or more plants of 50,000 tonnes per year. Charcoal, kerosene, and commercial uses of briquettes could add to this market. 9 refs., 20 figs., 39 tabs.

  6. Polyendocrine syndrome type 3C in a family from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Gessoni, G; Antico, F; Caroli, D; Nogara, A; Valverde, S; Fezzi, M; Zucchelli, M; Boscolo-Bariga, A

    2013-09-01

    In type 3 polyendocrine syndrome (PAS3), autoimmune thyroiditis occurs with other organ-specific autoimmune disease, but not with autoimmune adrenalitis. In this report we described a family from Pakistan in which mother and three daughters were affected by a PAS3. We studied a family from Pakistan: Father MMu age 44, mother KN aged 44, three daughters MM age 20, MH age 16 and MA age 14 and a son MU age 18. These subjects were tested for thyroids function, metabolic function, adrenal function, autoimmune disease. In this family the four females were shown hypothyroidism with presence of anti thyroid autoantibodies (AA) and high TSH serum concentration in association with the presence of anti transglutaminase AA. Moreover KN, MM and MH were positive for anti nuclear AA (granular pattern) and for antibodies against Saccaromyces cerevisiae. MM was positive for AA against nuclear extractable antigens (SSA and SSB) too. No diabetes or pernicious anemia were observed. Adrenal and Pituitary function were normal. PAS 3C is an uncommon disease. In this family from Pakistan we observed a PAS3C in the four female members: mother and three daughters while father and son were unaffected. PMID:24126553

  7. Genetic analysis of peste des petits ruminants virus from Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an endemic and highly contagious disease in small ruminants of Pakistan. Despite the fact that an effective vaccine is available, outbreaks are regularly occurring in the country. Thus so far, the diagnosis has primarily been made based on clinical outcome or serology. This study was carried out to characterize PPRV from an emerging wave of outbreaks from Punjab, Pakistan. Results A total of 32 blood samples from five different flocks were tested with real-time PCR for the presence of PPRV genome. The samples detected positive in real-time PCR (n?=?17) were subjected to conventional PCR for the amplification of the nucleoprotein (N) gene. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequenced N genes (n?=?8) indicated the grouping of all the sequences in lineage IV along with PPRV strains from Asian and Middle East. However, interestingly sequences were divided into two groups. One group of viruses (n?=?7) clustered with previously characterized Pakistani isolates whereas one strain of PPRV was distinct and clustered with Saudi Arabian and Iranian strains of PPRV. Conclusions Results demonstrated in this study expanded the information on the genetic nature of different PPRV population circulating in small ruminants. Such information is essential to understand genetic nature of PPRV strains throughout the country. Proper understanding of these viruses will help to devise control strategies in PPRV endemic countries such as Pakistan. PMID:23537146

  8. Prevalence and distribution of human Plasmodium infection in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Both Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum are prevalent in Pakistan, yet up-to-date data on the epidemiology of malaria in Pakistan are not available. This study was undertaken to determine the current prevalence and distribution of Plasmodium species across the country. Methods A malariometric population survey was conducted in 2011 using blood samples collected from 801 febrile patients of all ages in four provinces and the capital city of Islamabad. Microscopically confirmed Plasmodium-positive blood samples were reconfirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Confirmed parasite-positive samples were subjected to species-specific PCR capable of detecting four species of human malaria. Results Of the 707 PCR-positive samples, 128 (18%) were P. falciparum, 536 (76%) were P. vivax, and 43 (6%) were mixed P. falciparum and P. vivax. Ninety-four microscopy-positive samples were PCR-negative, and Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium ovale were not detected. Prevalence of P. vivax ranged from 2.4% in Punjab Province to 10.8% in Sindh Province and prevalence of P. falciparum ranged from 0.1% in Islamabad to 3.8% in Balochistan. Conclusions Plasmodium infections in Pakistan are largely attributed to P. vivax but P. falciparum and mixed species infections are also prevalent. In addition, regional variation in the prevalence and species composition of malaria is high. PMID:23984968

  9. Violence against women in Pakistan: contributing factors and new interventions.

    PubMed

    Karmaliani, Rozina; Pasha, Aneeta; Hirani, Saima; Somani, Rozina; Hirani, Shela; Asad, Nargis; Cassum, Laila; McFarlane, Judith

    2012-12-01

    Pakistan ranks 125th out of 169 countries on the Gender Development Index and has high prevalence rates of Violence against Women (VAW). Contributing factors toward gender based violence at the micro, meso and macro levels include the acceptability of violence amongst both men and women, internalization of deservability, economic disempowerment, lack of formal education, joint family systems, entrenched patriarchal norms and values, and a lack of awareness of legal and other support systems. These factors have a long-lasting impact on the health of women and children. The gender disparities in the experience of women seeking health care in Pakistan are well-recognized and documented. In the past, common government policy responses to these disparities have included developing the role of community health workers (CHWs) and lady health visitors (LHVs). Despite being commendable initiatives, these too have been unsuccessful in addressing these multi-faceted disparities. Within this complex scenario, new interventions to address VAW and its impact on health in Pakistan include Group Counselling, Economic Skills Building, Health-Based Microfinance, and Family-Based models that increase male involvement, especially at the primary health care level. The purpose of this article is to outline key contributing factors to VAW, explore tested and new interventions, and highlight the opportunities that exist in implementing them. PMID:23215983

  10. Measuring the Determinants of School Completion in Pakistan: Analysis of Censoring and Selection Bias. Center Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Jessica

    This paper explores the demand for child schooling in Pakistan, using the "Pakistan Integrated Household Survey" (1991). There have been few such studies for Pakistan, a country with relatively low enrollment rates and education levels, high illiteracy, and a large disparity between male and female education. This study focuses on two potential…

  11. Oesophageal carcinoma in Karachi.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, W U; Qureshi, H; Alam, E; Zuberi, S J; Jamal, Q; Alam, S M

    1992-06-01

    Between January, 1979 to August, 1990, 107 histologically proven cases of oesophageal carcinoma were seen. The ages of the patients ranged from 19-85 years (mean 55 +/- 14 years) with a male to female ratio of 1.2:1. Majority (70%) of the cases belonged to lower socioeconomic group and 56% were migrants from India. History of tobacco chewing or smoking was present in 78% cases. In 54%, the lesion was located in the middle third of the oesophagus, followed by lower third in 44%. Histology showed squamous cell carcinoma in 86% and adenocarcinoma in 10% cases. Of the 19 cases followed, 16 underwent surgery and 3 received chemotherapy. Two cases died within 7 months following surgery and in 6 carcinomas recurred. All cases receiving chemotherapy died within 8 months of treatment. PMID:1522662

  12. The human resource information system: a rapid appraisal of Pakistan’s capacity to employ the tool

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Human resources are an important building block of the health system. During the last decade, enormous investment has gone into the information systems to manage human resources, but due to the lack of a clear vision, policy, and strategy, the results of these efforts have not been very visible. No reliable information portal captures the actual state of human resources in Pakistan’s health sector. The World Health Organization (WHO) has provided technical support for the assessment of the existing system and development of a comprehensive Human Resource Information System (HRIS) in Pakistan. Methods The questions in the WHO-HRIS Assessment tool were distributed into five thematic groups. Purposively selected (n=65) representatives from the government, private sector, and development partners participated in this cross sectional study, based on their programmatic affiliations. Results Fifty-five percent of organizations and departments have an independent Human Resources (HR) section managed by an establishment branch and are fully equipped with functional computers. Forty-five organizations (70%) had HR rules, regulations and coordination mechanisms, yet these are not implemented. Data reporting is mainly in paper form, on prescribed forms (51%), registers (3%) or even plain papers (20%). Data analysis does not give inputs to the decision making process and dissemination of information is quite erratic. Most of the organizations had no feedback mechanism for cross checking the HR data, rendering it unreliable. Conclusion Pakistan is lacking appropriate HRIS management. The current HRIS indeed has a multitude of problems. In the wake of 2011 reforms within the health sector, provinces are even in a greater need for planning their respective health department services and must work on the deficiencies and inefficiencies of their HRIS so that the gaps and HR needs are better aligned for reaching the 2015 UN Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) targets. PMID:24016066

  13. Climate change and managing water crisis: Pakistan's perspective.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Mumtaz; Mumtaz, Saniea

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is a global phenomenon manifested mainly through global warming. The International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has reported its negative consequences on natural resources, anthropogenic activities, and natural disasters. The El Nino and La Nina have affected hydrologic regimes and ecosystems. It has been observed that the average temperature in 1995 was 0.4°C higher than that in 1895. By the end of the 21st century, 10% of the area of Bangladesh is likely to be submerged by the sea. Most of the islands of Pacific Ocean will disappear. A major part of Maldives will be submerged. The sea level is expected to rise by 30-150 cm. Extreme events such as floods, cyclones, tsunamis, and droughts have become regular phenomena in many parts of the world. Other adverse impacts are proliferation of water-borne diseases, sea water intrusion, salinization of coastal areas, loss of biodiversity, eco-degradation of watersheds and global glacial decline, and haphazard snow melts/thaws. In turn, these factors have serious effect on water resources. Pakistan is confronting similar climate change. Meteorological data reveal that winter temperatures are rising and summers are getting cooler. Temperature is expected to increase by 0.9°C and 1.5°C by years 2020 and 2050, respectively. Water resources in Pakistan are affected by climate change as it impacts the behavior of glaciers, rainfall patterns, greenhouse gas emissions, recurrence of extreme events such as floods and droughts. Severe floods have occurred in the years 1950, 1956, 1957, 1973, 1976, 1978, 1988, 1992, 2010, 2011, and 2012. Pakistan has faced the worst-ever droughts during the period from 1998 to 2004. Pakistan has surface water potential of 140 million acre feet (MAF) and underground water reserve of 56 MAF. It is one of the most water-stressed countries in the world. The per capita annual availability of water has reduced from 5140 m3 in 1950 to 1000 m3 now. It is fast approaching towards water scarcity. To minimize adverse impacts of climate change on the water crisis in Pakistan, the preparation of integrated national, provincial, and local level master plans encompassing technical, social, environmental, administrative, and financial considerations is necessary. It is imperative to implement two simultaneous approaches of adaptation (living with climate change) and mitigation (addressing negativities of climate change). Salient features are integrated management of watersheds/catchments/water bodies, optimum exploitation of present sources, development of new sources, water conservation, adequate drainage, efficient design of water storage, conveyance, distribution and supply systems, utilization of waste water, and regulation of water quality. PMID:24695031

  14. Scaling up of Life Skills Based Education in Pakistan: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svanemyr, Joar; Baig, Qadeer; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman

    2015-01-01

    Young people between the ages of 10 and 19 make up 23% of Pakistan's population. In Pakistan, young people face many challenges in terms of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) issues. These include early marriage and pregnancy, low use of contraception, use of unsafe abortion, lack of relevant information and poor knowledge about bodily…

  15. RELATIONSHIP OF EXPORT AND ECONOMIC GROWTH; AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF PAKISTAN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Muhammad Usman; Saliha Ashfaq; Nabeela Mushtaq

    2012-01-01

    Pakistan has been facing the phenomenon of disturbed economy and unequal distribution of income. Export sector is not being given the required importance in most of countries. It requires attention toward outward oriented policies and international markets. This research aims at studying the impact of export on the economy. The relationship of export and economic growths for Pakistan is the

  16. Women's Perspectives of Peace: Unheard Voices from Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habib, Zehra

    2013-01-01

    Pakistan is currently impacted by rampant terrorism and is simultaneously grappling with intrastate ethnic and sectarian violence. The focus of this dissertation was on examining grassroots Pakistani women's perspectives on peace and women's contributions to peace in Pakistan. The study was centered on grassroots women because their…

  17. The epidemiology of peste des petits ruminants in Pakistan and possible control policies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Hussain; M. Afzal; Q. Ali; W. Taylor; J. Mariner; P. Roeder

    2008-01-01

    Summary Peste des petits ruminants made its first clinical appearance in Pakistan during an epidemic in Punjab Province in 1991, but its level of activity in subsequent years was never systematically recorded. In 2003, 2004 and 2005 teams trained in participatory disease surveillance methods visited a large number of villages throughout Pakistan to record the prevalence and impact of key

  18. Voices of Strength and Struggle: Women's Coping Strategies against Spousal Violence in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zakar, Rubeena; Zakar, Muhammad Zakria; Kramer, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    This article documents the coping strategies adopted by women victims of spousal violence in Pakistan. By drawing on 21 in-depth interviews conducted in Lahore and Sialkot (Pakistan), we found that the women tried to cope with violence by using various strategies, both emotion focused (e.g., use of religion, placating the husband, etc.) and…

  19. Study on Instructional Paradigms of Virtual Education in Pakistan: A Learners' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussain, Irshad

    2012-01-01

    The present study is aimed at examining instructional paradigms of virtual education in Pakistan. The population of the study consisted of learners from Master of Business Administration (MBA) Program at Virtual University (VU) of Pakistan. The researcher adopted convenient sampling technique and collected data from 600 learners through five-point…

  20. EARTHQUAKE RISK PERCEPTION OF STAKE HOLDERS INVOLVED IN HOUSING SAFETY IN PAKISTAN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ghazala Naeem; Kenji Okazaki

    Pakistan is vulnerable against potential seismic risk and has recently suffered from the disastrous earthquake in October 2005 causing enormous human and economics losses. In this study, after an outline of seismicity of Pakistan, damages by the 2005 Kashmir earthquake and consequent reconstruction activities, results and analysis of a survey conducted among all stake holders involved in housing construction are

  1. Handling the Cerebral Palsied Child: Multi-Level Skills Transfer in Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, M.; Frizzell, Yvonne

    1990-01-01

    The majority of children with cerebral palsy in developing countries have no access to trained therapists; for example, in Pakistan, there is less than one trained general physiotherapist per million population. In Pakistan, cerebral palsy handling skills were taught to a group of parents, teachers, and paraprofessionals in a series of practical…

  2. The Mosque Schools in Pakistan: An Experiment in Integrating Nonformal and Formal Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, K. A.

    A wide-ranging study of the centrality of the mosque to Islamic education in Pakistan emphasizes Islamic educational traditions, the historical background of such education, the obstacles to educational improvement in Pakistan, and the attempt to provide universal primary education. Traditionally, the Prophet Mohammad and the Holy Quran have been…

  3. Pakistan-Specific Cases for the Advanced Management Course in Public Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Gary N., Ed.

    A compilation of management case studies concerning public administration in Pakistan and accompanying teaching notes, this document is intended to foster discussion in classes such as the advanced management course in public administration at the National Institute of Public Administration in Lahore, Pakistan. Included are case studies entitled…

  4. Heavy metal pollution from medical waste incineration at Islamabad and Rawalpindi, Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabiha-Javied; M. Tufail; Sofia Khalid

    2008-01-01

    Hospitals in Pakistan generate a large quantity of waste which is mainly managed by burning in incinerators. Burning of medical waste pollutes the environment by fly ash and toxic metals in the incinerated ash. Information regarding generation of heavy metals from incineration of medical waste is rare in Pakistan. The infectious waste generated in the hospitals of Islamabad (the capital

  5. 13. VIEW SOUTH, ROUTE 130 SOUTH FROM ROUTE 130 SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW SOUTH, ROUTE 130 SOUTH FROM ROUTE 130 SOUTH ISLAND - White Horse Pike Rond Point, Intersection of Crescent Boulevard (U.S. Route 130), White Horse Pike (U.S. Route 30), & Clay Avenue, Collingswood, Camden County, NJ

  6. Poverty, environment and economic growth: exploring the links among three complex issues with specific focus on the Pakistan’s case

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Himayatullah Khan

    2008-01-01

    Eradicating poverty, reducing environmental degradation and achieving sustainable economic growth are some of the major macroeconomic\\u000a goals of Pakistan. There are, however, serious interlinkages among these issues. The present paper investigates these linkages\\u000a and the existing evidence for Pakistan and other countries. The aim of the paper is to examine and test some hypotheses and\\u000a answer some questions regarding poverty-environment-nexus

  7. Policy and Practice in Initial Teacher Training. Quality in Basic Education: Professional Development of Teachers. Papers Presented at a South Asian Colloquium on Teacher Training (Colombo, Sri Lanka, April 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Elwyn

    This publication is one of two prepared for a South Asian colloquium on issues related to teacher training in Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. This volume includes four papers presented at the conference. The papers present an analytical view of both policy and practical measures on teacher education. The first paper, "The Professional…

  8. Current Status of HIV/AIDS in South Asia

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigo, Chaturaka; Rajapakse, Senaka

    2009-01-01

    Background: According to the United Nations Joint Program on HIV/AIDS, 33.2 million adults and children are living with the infection worldwide. Of these, two to three million are estimated to be in South Asia. All countries of the region have a low prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, it is important to review the current epidemiological data to identify the trends of infection as it would have implications on prevention. Materials and Methods: We performed a MEDLINE search using phrases ‘South Asia’ plus ‘HIV’, ‘AIDS’, and names of individual countries in South Asia (limits: articles published in last 10 years, in English language). Clinical trials, reviews, meta-analyses, letters, editorials, and practice guidelines were all considered. The following countries were included as belonging to South Asia; Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Recent estimates and data on country status, and details of national control programs were obtained from websites of international agencies such as the World Bank and United Nations Joint Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). Results and Discussion: This review looks into many aspects of HIV infection in South Asia including country profiles with regard to infection, economic and psychological burden of illness and treatment issues in the South Asian context. PMID:20300398

  9. Analyzing Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Diversity in Pakistan by DNA Barcoding

    PubMed Central

    Ashfaq, Muhammad; Hebert, Paul D. N.; Mirza, Jawwad H.; Khan, Arif M.; Zafar, Yusuf; Mirza, M. Sajjad

    2014-01-01

    Background Although they are important disease vectors mosquito biodiversity in Pakistan is poorly known. Recent epidemics of dengue fever have revealed the need for more detailed understanding of the diversity and distributions of mosquito species in this region. DNA barcoding improves the accuracy of mosquito inventories because morphological differences between many species are subtle, leading to misidentifications. Methodology/Principal Findings Sequence variation in the barcode region of the mitochondrial COI gene was used to identify mosquito species, reveal genetic diversity, and map the distribution of the dengue-vector species in Pakistan. Analysis of 1684 mosquitoes from 491 sites in Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa during 2010–2013 revealed 32 species with the assemblage dominated by Culex quinquefasciatus (61% of the collection). The genus Aedes (Stegomyia) comprised 15% of the specimens, and was represented by six taxa with the two dengue vector species, Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti, dominant and broadly distributed. Anopheles made up another 6% of the catch with An. subpictus dominating. Barcode sequence divergence in conspecific specimens ranged from 0–2.4%, while congeneric species showed from 2.3–17.8% divergence. A global haplotype analysis of disease-vectors showed the presence of multiple haplotypes, although a single haplotype of each dengue-vector species was dominant in most countries. Geographic distribution of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus showed the later species was dominant and found in both rural and urban environments. Conclusions As the first DNA-based analysis of mosquitoes in Pakistan, this study has begun the construction of a barcode reference library for the mosquitoes of this region. Levels of genetic diversity varied among species. Because of its capacity to differentiate species, even those with subtle morphological differences, DNA barcoding aids accurate tracking of vector populations. PMID:24827460

  10. Microbial contamination of drinking water in Pakistan--a review.

    PubMed

    Nabeela, Farhat; Azizullah, Azizullah; Bibi, Roqaia; Uzma, Syeda; Murad, Waheed; Shakir, Shakirullah Khan; Ullah, Waheed; Qasim, Muhammad; Häder, Donat-Peter

    2014-12-01

    Water pollution with pathogenic microorganisms is one of the serious threats to human health, particularly in developing countries. The main objective of this article is to highlight microbial contamination of drinking water, the major factors responsible for microbial contamination, and the resulting health problems in Pakistan. Furthermore, this study will be helpful for researchers and administrative agencies to initiate relevant studies and develop new policies to protect further deterioration of water supply with pathogenic microbes and ensure clean and safe drinking water to the public in Pakistan. In Pakistan, water at the source, in the distribution network, and at the consumer tap is heavily polluted with coliforms and fecal coliforms all over the country. An overview of more than 7,000 water samples reviewed here reveals that an average of over 71 and 58 % samples in the country was contaminated with total coliforms and fecal coliforms, respectively. Drinking water contamination accounts for 20 to 40 % of all diseases in the country, which causes national income losses of Rs 25-58 billion annually (US$0.25-0.58 billion, approximately 0.6-1.44 % of the country's GDP). Improper disposal of industrial and municipal wastes is the most important factor responsible for water pollution in the country followed by cross-contamination due to old and leaking pipes and lack of water filtration and disinfection facilities. There is an urgent need for emergency steps to stop further deterioration of water quality and improve the existing water quality so as to protect the public from widespread waterborne diseases. PMID:25056753

  11. Discrimination in the Pakistan labour market: myth and reality.

    PubMed

    Mohiuddin, Y

    1991-01-01

    This paper examines what author calls a fundamental form of sex discrimination in Pakistan: the fact that women's extensive participation in the labor force is ignored by economic planners. While wage and job discrimination are the most common forms of sex discrimination in Europe and North America, in Pakistan sex discrimination revolves around the divergence between the myth that women do not work and the reality that women's labor force participation is high. Because of the myth that women do not work, women are overlooked by the same planning process that could serve to enhance their productivity. The paper is divided into 5 sections: 1) the introduction; 2) an examination of the myth concerning women's labor force participation and its underlying reasons; 3) an analysis of the extent of women's participation in the labor force in rural and urban settings; 4) a discussion of the extent of wage and occupational discrimination in Pakistan; and 5) a discussion of the policy implications. While official figures calculate the labor force activity of rural women and urban women to be between 3%-10.7% and 3.5%-4.7%, respectively, the author explains that the figures are closer to 55% and 25% (and this does not include women's participation in the informal sector). The author identifies 4 reasons that perpetuate the myth that women do not work: 1) women are physically hidden from view, a seclusion institutionalized by the practice of purdah (the veil); 2) the middle-class ideal of a nonworking wife; 3) the perception that only paid labor counts as work; and 4) the failure of statistics to capture the true extent of women's participation. PMID:12285316

  12. Health burden of skin lesions at low arsenic exposure through groundwater in Pakistan. Is river the source?

    SciTech Connect

    Fatmi, Zafar, E-mail: zafar.fatmi@aku.edu [Department of Community Health Sciences, Aga Khan University, Stadium Road, P.O. Box 3500, Karachi (Pakistan)] [Department of Community Health Sciences, Aga Khan University, Stadium Road, P.O. Box 3500, Karachi (Pakistan); Azam, Iqbal; Ahmed, Faiza; Kazi, Ambreen; Gill, Albert Bruce; Kadir, Muhmmad Masood; Ahmed, Mubashir; Ara, Naseem; Janjua, Naveed Zafar [Department of Community Health Sciences, Aga Khan University, Stadium Road, P.O. Box 3500, Karachi (Pakistan)] [Department of Community Health Sciences, Aga Khan University, Stadium Road, P.O. Box 3500, Karachi (Pakistan)

    2009-07-15

    A significant proportion of groundwater in south Asia is contaminated with arsenic. Pakistan has low levels of arsenic in groundwater compared with China, Bangladesh and India. A representative multi-stage cluster survey conducted among 3874 persons {>=}15 years of age to determine the prevalence of arsenic skin lesions, its relation with arsenic levels and cumulative arsenic dose in drinking water in a rural district (population: 1.82 million) in Pakistan. Spot-urine arsenic levels were compared among individuals with and without arsenic skin lesions. In addition, the relation of age, body mass index, smoking status with arsenic skin lesions was determined. The geographical distribution of the skin lesions and arsenic-contaminated wells in the district were ascertained using global positioning system. The total arsenic, inorganic and organic forms, in water and spot-urine samples were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The prevalence of skin lesions of arsenic was estimated for complex survey design, using surveyfreq and surveylogistic options of SAS 9.1 software.The prevalence of definitive cases i.e. hyperkeratosis of both palms and soles, was 3.4 per 1000 and suspected cases i.e. any sign of arsenic skin lesions (melanosis and/or keratosis), were 13.0 per 1000 among {>=}15-year-old persons in the district. Cumulative arsenic exposure (dose) was calculated from levels of arsenic in water and duration of use of current drinking water source. Prevalence of skin lesions increases with cumulative arsenic exposure (dose) in drinking water and arsenic levels in urine. Skin lesions were 2.5-fold among individuals with BMI <18.5 kg/m{sup 2}. Geographically, more arsenic-contaminated wells and skin lesions were alongside Indus River, suggests a strong link between arsenic contamination of groundwater with proximity to river.This is the first reported epidemiological and clinical evidence of arsenic skin lesions due to groundwater in Pakistan. Further investigations and focal mitigation measures for arsenic may be carried out alongside Indus River.

  13. Role of the state in population planning: Singapore and Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Hassan, R

    1984-01-01

    State intervention in population and family planning has been gradually increasing on the assumption that unregulated population growth poses serious national problems requiring public action. Among 152 developing nations in areas surveyed with respect to population and family planning policies in 1980, 52 supported family planning primarily from a demographic rationale and 65 from a health or human rights rationale, while only 35 provide no support. There appear to be 4 major underlying sociophilosophical perspectives on the role of the state in population planning: 1) the deontic/utilitarian whose prime concern is with the rights and obligations of present generations to future generations; this view provides a very vague basis for a general policy of population planning, 2) the environmentalist, which with varying degrees of pessimism in different formulations argue the need to limit population and economic growth because of the limited nature of the world's resources; this view ignores a considerable body of evidence that more than just overpopulation is involved in environmental problems, 3) the family planning perspective, advocated and supported by various international organizations and conferences, holds that decisions about birth control should be made by prospective parents. The assumption is that making birth control methods and education readily accessible to everyone will eventually result in birth rates which are desirable for the society as a whole. In practice, it is difficult to establish whether such voluntaristic measures are enough to control population, 4) the developmental distributionist position sees low birth rates as resulting from modernization, including such factors as more equitable distribution of income and increased educational and social services. Pakistan's family planning program has undergone 3 major bureaucratic reorganizations and shifts in strategy consequent on changes in national leadership since services were 1st offered in 1965. Singapore's leadership has supported family planning actively and consistently since 1966, and the country's socioeconomic development has contributed to its remarkable fertility decline. A 1975 survey of 864 persons in Singapore and a 1981 survey of 584 persons in Pakistan included questions on opinions of the appropriate role of the state in population planning. In Singapore and Pakistan respectively, 31 and 17% felt that the government should have a strict role in controlling family size, 32 and 10% felt that the government should primarily provide advice and pass laws, 18 and 18% felt the government should provide advice only, 17 and 37% felt it should be left to the married couple, and 2 and 18% didn't know. The empirical evidence suggests that the political legitimacy of the state and public policies to promote distributive justice, are both more developed in Singapore than Pakistan, have significant influence on the degree of public acceptance of state intervention in family planning. PMID:12279906

  14. Epidemiology, determinants and dynamics of cholera in Pakistan: gaps and prospects for future research.

    PubMed

    Naseer, Maliha; Jamali, Tanzil

    2014-11-01

    Cholera is one of the notifiable endemic diseases in Pakistan, but the reporting of cholera cases is still unsatisfactory. Most of the diagnosed cases are never reported to the relevant authorities. In the year 1993 - 2005, the country did not report any single case of cholera to the WHO. The objectives of this review were to understand the epidemiology and to identify the possible determinants of cholera infection in Pakistan. Medscape, Medline, PakMedinet and PubMed, was searched, using key words, epidemiology and determinants of cholera infection in Pakistan during 1995 - 2010. Morbidity and mortality due to cholera infection during 1995 - 2010, without any language restriction. Out of 27 articles published between 1995 - 2010, 17 articles were included in the review. Vibrio cholerae O139 identified as a major cause of infection in older age group, while O1 biotype of cholera as a predominant cause of cholera among young individuals. Mainly reported determinants of cholera in Pakistan include poor sanitation and hygiene practices, increased population density in urban areas, leading to rapid and unplanned urbanization of the major cities and climate change due to increased environmental pollution in Pakistan are plausible factors for endemicity of cholera in Pakistan. Cholera reporting as a notifiable disease to the relevant departments and timely action can prevent the risk of outbreaks. There is a need to identify specific behavioral and environmental determinants responsible for outbreaks and epidemics of cholera in Pakistan which can help to design appropriate preventive and control interventions. PMID:25404447

  15. An all time low utilization of intrauterine contraceptive device as a birth spacing method- a qualitative descriptive study in district Rawalpindi, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pakistan was among the leading countries in south Asia which started the family planning program in late 50s, forecasting the need to control the population. Despite this early intervention, fertility rate has declined but slower in Pakistan as compared to most other Asian countries. Pakistan has almost a stagnant contraceptive prevalence rate for more than a decade now, perhaps owing to the inadequate performance of the family planning programs. The provision and use of long term contraceptives such as IUCD has always been low (around 2%) and associated with numerous issues. Married women who want to wait before having another child, or end childbearing altogether, are not using any long term method of contraception. Methodology A descriptive qualitative study was conducted from May to July 2012, to explore and understand the perceptions of women regarding the use of IUCDs and to understand the challenges/issues at the service provider’s end. Six FGDs with community women and 12 in-depth interviews were conducted with family planning providers. The data was analyzed using the Qualitative Content Analysis approach. Results The study revealed that the family planning clients are reluctant to use IUCDs because of a number of myths and misconceptions associated with the method. They have reservations about the provider’s capability and quality of care at the facility. Private health providers are not motivated and are reluctant to provide the IUCDs because of inadequate counseling skills, lack of competence and improper supporting infrastructure. Government programs either do not have enough supplies or trained staff to promote the IUCD utilization. Conclusion Besides a well-designed community awareness campaign, providers’ communication and counseling skills have to be enhanced, as these are major contributing factors in IUCD acceptance. Ongoing training of all family planning service providers in IUCD insertion is very important, along with strengthening of their services. PMID:23394188

  16. Market or government: lessons from a comparative analysis of the experience of Pakistan and India.

    PubMed

    Papanek, G F

    1991-01-01

    A comparison of India and Pakistan (and Bangladesh) in the last 40 years is made in view of the consensus emerging in the 1980s about the supremacy of market-oriented strategy to overcome and alleviate poverty even in less developed countries (LDC). For 4 decades India consistently intervened in the economy, while Pakistan had periods of deregulation and more reliance on market forces. The period from 1947 to 1969-1970, the 1970's, and the 1980s were examined. Dirigiste strategy produced similar or lower production in Pakistan and Bangladesh as in India (1% growth), however, market strategy production in the former countries (3%). Foreign aid (over 10% of gross domestic product in Pakistan and less than one-half of that in India) also stimulated growth. In the late 1970s and late 1980s the import surplus of Pakistan and Bangladesh was 11% vs. 25% of that in India. In the 1950s Pakistan's exports grew rapidly, and in the 1960s the rate of growth in manufactured goods was double that of India due to the Export Bonus Voucher System. The reverse was true during 1969-70 and 1976-77 when India's total manufactured exports grew at twice the rate of Pakistan as the abolition of the voucher scheme occurred, inflation climbed and export duties were imposed. In the late 1970s to mid 1980s military governments in Pakistan and Bangladesh relied heavily on the market devaluing by 100%, deregulating imported inputs, and introducing incentives for exports. Dirigism produced a 50% higher grown in India vs. 200% in the other countries by market efforts. Government intervention tended to aggravate market distortions, although it produced positive results in nontraditional exports in Pakistan and in agricultural infrastructure building, primary school attendance and health services, electrification, and road building in India. Market-induced rapid growth used more unskilled labor and alleviated poverty. PMID:12285367

  17. South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of South Africa was acquired on May 14, 2000, by NASA's Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, or MODIS. The image was produced using a combination of the sensor's 250-m and 500-m resolution visible wavelength bands. As part of the opening ceremony to begin the joint U.S.-South Africa SAFARI Field Experiment, NASA presented print copies of this image as GIFts to Dr. Ben Ngubane, Minister of Arts, Science and Technology, and Honorable Advocate Ngoaka Ramathlodi, Premier of the Northern Province, South Africa. The area shown in this image encompasses seven capital cities and a number of the region's distinctive geological features can be seen clearly. Toward the northern (top) central part of the image, the browns and tans comprise the Kalahari Desert of southern Botswana. The Tropic of Capricorn runs right through the heart of the Kalahari and the Botswanan capital city of Gaborone sits on the Limpopo River, southeast of the Kalahari. Along the western coastline of the continent is the country of Namibia, where the Namib Desert is framed against the sea by the Kaokoveld Mountains. The Namibian capital of Windhoek is obscured by clouds. Looking closely in the center of the image, the Orange River can be seen running from east to west, demarcating the boundary between Namibia and South Africa. On the southwestern corner of the continent is the hook-like Cape of Good Hope peninsula and Cape Town, the parliamentary capital of South Africa. Running west to east away from Cape Town are the Great Karroo Mountains. The shadow in this image conveys a sense of the very steep grade of the cliffs along the southern coast of South Africa. Port Elizabeth sits on the southeasternmost point of South Africa, and a large phytoplankton bloom can be seen in the water about 100 miles east of there. Moving northward along the east coast, the Drakensberg Mountains are visible. The two small nations of Lesotho and Swaziland are in this region, completely contained within South Africa's boundaries. In the upper righthand corner of the image is the Bay of Maputo, where sits Maputo, the capital of Mozambique. Fires are visible in the northeast corner of the image, near Maputo. Just north of Maputo is where the Limpopo River empties into the Indian Ocean. Tracing the Limpopo inland back toward the west, this river defines the northern boundary of South Africa with both Zimbabwe and Botswana. Johannesburg, the commercial capital of South Africa, can be seen as the greyish pixels in the northeastern region of the country. The country's legislative capital, Pretoria, is about 50 miles north of Johannesburg and 250 miles west of Maputo, in the heart of the Northern Province (formerly known as Transvaal). (Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Group, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center)

  18. Molecular epidemiology of ?-thalassemia in Pakistan: Far reaching implications

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Saqib H.; Shamsi, Tahir S.; Ashraf, Mushtaq; Farzana, Tasneem; Bohray, Muneera; Perveen, Kousar; Erum, Sajida; Ansari, Iqra; Ahmed, Muhammad Nadeem; Ahmed, Masood; Raza, Faizan

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: ? -Thalassaemia, an autosomal recessive hemoglobinopathy, is one of the commonest genetically transmitted disorders throughout the world. Collective measures including carrier identification, genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis are required for preventing ?-thalassemia. Aim: To achieve this objective, Identification of the spectrum of genetic mutations, especially for various ethnic backgrounds in Pakistan. Therefore, we designed a cross sectional prospective study to identify the frequency of various gene mutations in different ethnic groups of Pakistan. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Over a 5-year period, DNA from 648 blood samples {including specimens of chorionic villus sampling (CVS)} were analyzed for the twelve most common ?-thalassemia mutations found in the Pakistani population by a Multiplex amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS). Each sample was analyzed for the mutation as well as the normal gene, appropriate with negative and positive controls, and reagent blanks. RESULTS: Out of 648 samples mutations were identified in 640 (98.75%) samples by multiplex ARMS. 8 common ?-thalassemia mutations were identified in 8 different ethnic groups accounting for 93.9% of the ?-thalasemia alleles. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the outcome of this study a cost effective proposal is formulated for detection of ?-thalassemia mutations. PMID:23162295

  19. On the widespread winter fog in northeastern Pakistan and India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hameed, Sultan; Mirza, M. Ishaq; Ghauri, B. M.; Siddiqui, Z. R.; Javed, Rubina; Khan, A. R.; Rattigan, O. V.; Qureshi, Sumizah; Husain, Liaquat

    2000-07-01

    During the last two winters widespread fog frequently occurred in northeastern India and Pakistan, in a region extending over 1500 km. A particularly severe fog episode lasted from mid-December, 1998 to early January, 1999. The fog caused extensive economic damage and disruptions in transport. We determined concentrations of SO42-, NO3-, and selected trace elements at Lahore, Pakistan during and after the fog event by collecting aerosols on Whatman 41 filters every 12 h. SO42- concentrations of up to 100 µg/m³ were observed during fog. The SO42-/Se ratios and trace element data suggest a distant source of SO42- aerosols, hundreds of kms away. Lahore was downwind of coal-burning in India during the fog. The high concentrations of SO42- observed suggest a more extensive investigation of the chemistry and transport processes in this region is necessary to delineate emission sources and develop control strategies as there are serious likely effects on human health and economy in a region populated by hundreds of millions of people, and on global climate change through direct and indirect forcing.

  20. Intercomparison of personal dosimetry for service providers in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Jabeen, Akhter; Salman, Syed Ahmad

    2009-02-01

    An intercomparison exercise for personal dosimetry service providers within Pakistan was conducted by the Health Physics Division of the Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology. Participation in the exercise was on voluntary basis. The exercise was carried out to harmonize individual dose monitoring techniques for high energy photons in terms of a new operational quantity, namely personal dose equivalent Hp(10), for personal dosimetry in accordance with the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements. Each laboratory submitted 25 dosimeters for participation in the intercomparison exercise. Protection level Co and Cs sources were used for irradiation of dosimeters on a water phantom according to International Atomic Energy Agency protocol at the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory. Hp(10) doses for five different dose levels were measured by the participating laboratories. The ratios of measured dose/true dose (Hm/Ht) remained in the range of 0.66 to 1.11 for the Co source and 0.84 to 1.17 for the Cs source. Performance of service providers' laboratories to measure Hp(10) doses was analyzed and evaluated in terms of trumpet curves plotted for photons at a 95% confidence level. PMID:19125056

  1. Status of rheumatic heart disease in rural Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Rizvi, S F; Khan, M A; Kundi, A; Marsh, D R; Samad, A; Pasha, O

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the community based prevalence of rheumatic heart disease (RHD) in the rural population of the district of Rahim Yaar Khan in Pakistan. Subjects and methods: A representative sample of the rural population of Rahim Yaar Khan district was selected. RHD was screened for by physical examination and the diagnosis was confirmed with echocardiographic Doppler studies. Sociodemographic data on each screened person were collected. Results: 54 cases of RHD were found among the 9430 people screened (prevalence of 5.7 in 1000, 95% confidence interval 4.2 to 7.2). Females were significantly more likely to be affected. There was no significant relation with other factors studied (education, crowding, and socioeconomic status). Less than 20% of those found to have RHD were aware of their diagnosis before participation in this study and only three affected people (8%) were taking rheumatic prophylaxis. Conclusions: There is a high prevalence of RHD among the rural population of Pakistan. The prevalence has not declined over the past three decades. Nearly all people with RHD, including most of those who know their diagnosis, do not receive the benefit of potentially life saving secondary prevention measures. PMID:15020513

  2. Karo-kari: a form of honour killing in pakistan.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sujay; Gadit, Amin Muhammad

    2008-12-01

    Karo-Kari is a type of premeditated honour killing, which originated in rural and tribal areas of Sindh, Pakistan. The homicidal acts are primarily committed against women who are thought to have brought dishonour to their family by engaging in illicit pre-marital or extra-marital relations. In order to restore this honour, a male family member must kill the female in question. We conducted a systematic review of the published literature other sources on karo-kari and related forms of honour killing or violence against women. Media and non-governmental organization reports were utilized for case studies and analysis. Although legally proscribed, socio-cultural factors and gender role expectations have given legitimacy to karo-kari within some tribal communities. In addition to its persistence in areas of Pakistan, there is evidence that karo-kari may be increasing in incidence in other parts of the world in association with migration. Moreover, perpetrators of ;honour killings' often have motives outside of female adultery. Analysis of the socio-cultural and psycho-pathological factors associated with the practice of karo-kari can guide the development of prevention strategies. PMID:19091732

  3. Comments on "Urbanisation and Environmental Degradation in Pakistan".

    PubMed

    Qutub, S A

    1993-01-01

    The article on environmental degradation in urban Pakistan referenced in this article's critique addresses the problem and some policy solutions but misses identifying causative factors behind urban growth and the much more extensive and serious problem of soil degradation. Urban growth is due to an imbalance between agricultural productivity and industrial productivity and not population growth, which slows urbanization. Rural poverty promotes starvation. Urbanization is inevitable, and the costs are felt in the short term in urban services. The costs of absorbing people in urban areas are four to six times greater than the costs of rural retention. There is a need for a Human Settlements Policy, which is sensitive to the different agro-ecological zones in Pakistan. The carrying density of irrigated lands is 12 persons per hectare and of dry areas is 3 persons per 100 hectares. Out-migration from fragile ecological areas needs to be encouraged. Irrigated areas should have incentives for population to remain in the area. Pollution emission control for water discharges must be controlled better. Environmental impact in localized areas needs to be assessed. The notion of a sustainable city should be promoted and policies established for recycling of water, energy, and materials. Solutions will require imagination and insight. For example, the lack of sufficient operational sewage treatment plants could be compensated for by using sewage on livestock farms. PMID:12346812

  4. Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Pakistan: Prospects and Limitations

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Despite all the marvelous advancements in modern medicine, traditional medicine has always been practiced. More than 70% of the developing world's population still depends on the complementary and alternative systems of medicine (CAM). Cultural beliefs and practices often lead to self-care or home remedies in rural areas and consultation with traditional healers. Evidence-based CAM therapies have shown remarkable success in healing acute as well as chronic diseases. Alternative therapies have been utilized by people in Pakistan who have faith in spiritual healers, clergymen, hakeems, homeopaths or even many quacks. These are the first choice for problems such as infertility, epilepsy, psychosomatic troubles, depression and many other ailments. The traditional medicine sector has become an important source of health care, especially in rural and tribal areas of the country. The main reasons for consulting a CAM healer is the proximity, affordable fee, availability, family pressure and the strong opinion of the community. Pakistan has a very rich tradition in the use of medicinal plants for the treatment of various ailments. It necessitates the integration of the modern and CAM systems in terms of evidence-based information sharing. The health-seeking behavior of the people especially in developing countries calls for bringing all CAM healers into the mainstream by providing them with proper training, facilities and back-up for referral. A positive interaction between the two systems has to be harnessed to work for the common goal of improving health of the people. PMID:15937553

  5. Moving Pakistan into the Global Community via Networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Arshad

    2007-04-01

    The knowledge economies are the key enablers for the creation of jobs, fast economic development, wealth generation and prosperity to masses. Developing countries have started feeling the need to rapidly develop their knowledge base through investments in Information Communication Technologies (ICT) infrastructure and human resource development as a means for facilitating competitiveness. To meet this challenge, emerging technologies offer excellent opportunities for collaborative efforts across the globe among academia, research institutions and industry to ensure that local economy could reap the benefits of economic prosperity. Government of Pakistan at its highest level recognizes that information and knowledge are the driving forces for the economic growth today and we all witness a new era in communications that would not only revolutionize this sector but undoubtedly lays the foundation for connectivity for our future generations. An efficient, low-cost, broadband and high-speed communication system, employing state-of-the-art technologies across the whole spectrum, is a key pillar of the knowledge society. This paper highlights the major initiatives taken by Pakistan in revolutionizing the Internet access to its people. Case study in establishing international collaborations of Pakistani academia with internationally renowned research centers bring about a practical solution in bridging knowledge divide across developing nations and the key role it can play in human resource development by providing access to dispersed laboratory facilities at minimal cost.

  6. Cross-Sectional Time Series Analysis of Associations between Education and Girl Child Marriage in Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Pakistan, 1991-2011

    PubMed Central

    Raj, Anita; McDougal, Lotus; Silverman, Jay G.; Rusch, Melanie L. A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Girl education is believed to be the best means of reducing girl child marriage (marriage <18 years) globally. However, in South Asia, where the majority of girl child marriages occur, substantial improvements in girl education have not corresponded to equivalent reductions in child marriage. This study examines the levels of education associated with female age at marriage over the previous 20 years across four South Asian nations with high rates (>20%) of girl child marriage- Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Pakistan. Methods Cross-sectional time series analyses were conducted on Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) from 1991 to 2011 in the four focal nations. Analyses were restricted to ever-married women aged 20–24 years. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to assess the effect of highest level of education received (none, primary, secondary or higher) on age at marriage (<14, 14–15, 16–17, 18 and older). Results In Bangladesh and Pakistan, primary education was not protective against girl child marriage; in Nepal, it was protective against marriage at <14 years (AOR?=?0.42) but not for older adolescents. Secondary education was protective across minor age at marriage categories in Bangladesh (<14 years AOR?=?0.10; 14–15 years AOR?=?.25; 16–17 years AOR?=?0.64) and Nepal (<14 years AOR?=?0.21; 14–15 years AOR?=?0.25; 16–17 years AOR?=?0.57), but protective against marriage of only younger adolescents in Pakistan (<14 years AOR?=?0.19; 14–15 years AOR?=?0.23). In India, primary and secondary education were respectively protective across all age at marriage categories (<14 years AOR?=?0.34, AOR?=?0.05; 14–15 years AOR?=?0.52, AOR?=?0.20; 16–17 years AOR?=?0.71, AOR?=?0.48). Conclusion Primary education is likely insufficient to reduce girl child marriage in South Asia, outside of India. Secondary education may be a better protective strategy against this practice for the region, but may be less effective for prevention of marriage among older relative to younger adolescents. PMID:25203635

  7. IMPACT OF FIRM'S CHARACTERISTICS ON STOCK RETURN: A CASE OF NON-FINANCIAL LISTED COMPANIES IN PAKISTAN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Safdar Hussain Tahir; Hazoor Muhammad Sabir; Toheed Alam; Ammara Ismail

    2013-01-01

    The unique characteristics of the firms have some power to predict the expected returns. This study was conducted with an attempt to bridge the gap in the literature by offering empirical evidence about firm's characteristics and their effect to stock returns. The secondary data of 307 Non- financial companies listed in Karachi Stock Exchange (KSE) were collected from the B-Recorder

  8. Characterization of ambient aerosol at a remote site and twin cities of Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghauri, B.; Lodhi, A.

    The pollution controls have significantly decreased pollutant concentrations in the industrialized nations in the west while the concentrations are expected to grow in developing countries. In this study the concentrations of major ions i.e SO4 2 -, NO3 -, NO2 -, Cl- , NH4 + and trace metals i.e. Al, V, Cr, Mn, Cu, As, Se, Cd, Sb, Ba, Ti and Pb were determined in aerosols at a remote site of Northern Pakistan in July 1996. Later in May 1998, a comparative study of aerosols in two size fractions (bulk &PM10) at 14 sites enabled to understand the anomalous distribution of several constituents present in the ambient air of the twin cities, Islamabad / Rawalpindi 90 km from South East of earlier site. The suspended particulate matter concentrations (bulk and PM10) were 475 ug/m3, 175 ug/m3 respectively. For urban areas Pb, Cd, Zn and Ni are obviously contributed by steel and other allied industries besides vehicle's contribution of lead and cadmium. In Northern area concentrations of Al, K, Ca, and Fe exceeded 1000 ng/m3. The SO2 concentrations varied from 0.03 to 1.2 ppb. Mean SO4 2- and NO3 - concentrations were 5.2 ug/m3 and 3.6 ug/m3 respectively. Concentrations of Se, Ti, Pb, Cd, Sb, Zn and As in all aerosol samples were highly enriched relative to average crustal abundances indicating significant anthropogenic contributions. As the dominant flow pattern from the Arabian Sea through India (monsoon air pattern) this may transport pollution derived aerosol and moisture from distant sources in China or India. Key word index: Aerosol, trace metals , enrichment, anions, air pollution, Islamabad/Rawalpindi, remote site.

  9. Psychosocial Factors of Antenatal Anxiety and Depression in Pakistan: Is Social Support a Mediator?

    PubMed Central

    Waqas, Ahmed; Raza, Nahal; Lodhi, Haneen Wajid; Muhammad, Zerwah; Jamal, Mehak; Rehman, Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Pregnancy is generally viewed as a time of fulfillment and joy; however, for many women it can be a stressful event. In South Asia it is associated with cultural stigmas revolving around gender discrimination, abnormal births and genetic abnormalities. Methodology This cross-sectional study was done at four teaching hospitals in Lahore from February, 2014 to June, 2014. A total of 500 pregnant women seen at hospital obstetrics and gynecology departments were interviewed with a questionnaire consisting of three sections: demographics, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Social Provisions Scale (SPS). Pearson’s chi-squared test, bivariate correlations and multiple linear regression were used to analyze associations between the independent variables and scores on the HADS and SPS. Results Mean age among the 500 respondents was 27.41 years (5.65). Anxiety levels in participants were categorized as normal (145 women, 29%), borderline (110, 22%) or anxious (245, 49%). Depression levels were categorized as normal (218 women, 43.6%), borderline (123, 24.6%) or depressed (159, 31.8%). Inferential analysis revealed that higher HADS scores were significantly associated with lower scores on the SPS, rural background, history of harassment, abortion, cesarean delivery and unplanned pregnancies (P < .05). Social support (SPS score) mediated the relationship between the total number of children, gender of previous children and HADS score. Women with more daughters were significantly more likely to score higher on the HADS and lower on the SPS, whereas higher numbers of sons were associated with the opposite trends in the scores (P < .05). Conclusion Because of the predominantly patriarchal sociocultural context in Pakistan, the predictors of antenatal anxiety and depression may differ from those in developed countries. We therefore suggest that interventions designed and implemented to reduce antenatal anxiety and depression should take into account these unique factors. PMID:25629925

  10. High prevalence of West Nile virus in equines from the two provinces of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Zohaib, A; Saqib, M; Beck, C; Hussain, M H; Lowenski, S; Lecollinet, S; Sial, A; Asi, M N; Mansoor, M K; Saqalein, M; Sajid, M S; Ashfaq, K; Muhammad, G; Cao, S

    2015-07-01

    This study describes the first large-scale serosurvey on West Nile virus (WNV) conducted in the equine population in Pakistan. Sera were collected from 449 equids from two provinces of Pakistan during 2012-2013. Equine serum samples were screened using a commercial ELISA kit detecting antibodies against WNV and related flaviviruses. ELISA-positive samples were further investigated using virus-specific microneutralization tests (MNTs) to identify infections with Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), WNV and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). Anti-WNV antibodies were detected in 292 samples by ELISA (seroprevalence 65·0%) and WNV infections were confirmed in 249 animals by MNT. However, there was no animal found infected by JEV or TBEV. The detection of WNV-seropositive equines in Pakistan strongly suggests a widespread circulation of WNV in Pakistan. PMID:25358382

  11. SURVEY OF STYLET BEARING NEMATODES ASSOCIATED WITH DATE PALM IN KHUZDAR DISTRICT, BALOCHISTAN, PAKISTAN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surveys were conducted during September and October 2002 to identify the stylet-bearing nematodes associated with date palm in Khuzdar district, Balochistan, Pakistan. The nematodes recorded were Tylenchus sp., Merlinius sp., Helicotylenchus indicus, Psilenchus hilarulus, Aphelenchoides sp., Meloido...

  12. 75 FR 67015 - Unexpected Urgent Refugee And Migration Needs Resulting From Flooding InPakistan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-01

    ...2010 Unexpected Urgent Refugee And Migration Needs Resulting From Flooding InPakistan...including section 2(c)(1) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962...the United States Emergency Refugee and Migration Assistance Fund for the purpose of...

  13. Measuring the Determinants of School Completion in Pakistan: Analysis of Censoring and Selection Bias.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Jessica

    2003-01-01

    Examines the demand for schooling in Pakistan, focusing on two potential sources of bias in the estimation of that demand: censoring bias and selection bias. Finds evidence of both biases. (Contains 51 references.) (PKP)

  14. Dorcatherium majus, a Study of Upper Dentition from the Lower and Middle Siwaliks of Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farooq, Umar; Akbar Khan, Muhammad; Akhtar, Muhammad; Majid Khan, Abdul

    Dorcatherium majus, comparatively a large tragulid is studied from the Lower and Middle Siwaliks of Pakistan. D. majus is only found from the fresh water deposits along the foot hills of Himalayas. A number of localities are thoroughly visited from the Potwar Plateau of northern Pakistan and collected worth describing specimens of D. majus. Eight specimens are described in this study and all belong to the upper dentition of D. majus.

  15. One size does not fit all: local determinants of measles vaccination in four districts of Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne Cockcroft; Neil Andersson; Khalid Omer; Noor M Ansari; Amir Khan; Ubaid Ullah Chaudhry; Umaira Ansari

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rates of childhood vaccination in Pakistan remain low.There is continuing debate about the role of consumer and service factors in determining levels of vaccination in developing countries. METHODS: In a stratified random cluster sample of census enumeration areas across four districts in Pakistan, household interviews about vaccination of children and potentially related factors with 10,423 mothers of 14,542 children

  16. Assessment of A. I. D. environmental programs: Energy conservation in Pakistan. Technical report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Church; K. Kumar; F. Sowers

    1993-01-01

    This report highlights a model of environmental management that appears to work in the current political and economic context of Pakistan. The model focuses on energy conservation. This evaluation examines how the U.S. Agency for International Development (A.I.D.) has assisted Pakistan in using market forces to promote the adoption of energy conservation practices and technologies. The central operating hypothesis of

  17. Environmental impact assessment (EIA): an overlooked instrument for sustainable development in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Rashid; Sattar, Ayesha; Iqbal, Zafar; Imran, Muhammad; Nadeem, Raziya

    2012-04-01

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is a policy tool used for evaluating a project proposal from physical and socioeconomic environmental perspectives. Its aim is to reduce the impact of development on environment, hence, ensuring environmental sustainability. It is mandatory to submit an Environmental Impact Statement before starting a mega project as required by Environmental Protection Act of 1997 and Environmental Policy of Pakistan. Public consultation plays a key role in an EIA system, identifying the likely aspects and impacts of a development activity. This aspect has been ignored in effective enactment of environmental legislation in Pakistan. Sufficient legislative instruments are there to support EIA system in the country but the agencies responsible for the enforcement of environmental regulations have failed to do so. The current research gives an insight into the actual status of EIA system in Pakistan along with the feedback of EIA specialists and university teachers of the concerned departments. A new index has been devised on the basis of questionnaire response to work out the overall performance of EIA system in Pakistan or any other country. The weaknesses and deficiencies of each EIA stage have been worked out for Pakistan and elaborated with the help of the controversial Zero point Interchange Project in the capital city of Pakistan. PMID:21887481

  18. A comparative study of the systems of marketing eggs in the United States and in East Pakistan 

    E-print Network

    Alam, Khurshid

    1966-01-01

    Areas, East Pakistan, 1960 3 Per Capita Consumption of Eggs, Broilers and Turkeys in the United States in Selected Years from 1940 to 1964 17 4 Gross Farm Income from Eggs, Farm Chickens, Broilers and Turkeys in Selected Years 1940, 1945, 1950... Pakistan, in 1951 and 1961 98 24 Rural-urban Income Distribution in Pakistan 25 Prices per Dozen Hen Eggs and per Pound of Poultry , Meat (chicken liveweight) at Dacca and Chittagong, in East Pakistan from 1960 to 1964 101 ix LIST OF TABLES (Continued...

  19. Identification of novel silent HIV propagation routes in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Umar; Waheed, Yasir; Manzoor, Sobia; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2013-08-12

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is rapidly increasing in both high risk groups and the general population. In this study, silent routes of propagation in teenaged Pakistanis are discussed. In order to promote sexual activity in youths, regular clients write contact details of sex workers on the doors of public washrooms. HIV prevalence is much higher among Hijra sex workers. Hijra sex workers have apparently stepped into the profession of begging at public places, where they earn money by both begging and distributing visiting cards offering unsafe sex. In many educational institutes, sex education is lacking or absent; if delivered via teachers, government agencies and nongovernmental organizations this could prevent a future epidemic of sexually transmitted infections in Pakistan. PMID:24255884

  20. Factors associated with contraceptive approval among religious leaders in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Nasir, Jamal Abdul; Hinde, Andrew

    2011-09-01

    Research is needed to understand the role of religion in family planning dynamics, particularly in societies where the views of religious leaders can be an important influence on the reproductive decisions of individuals. This paper attempts to describe the factors associated with approval of contraception among religious leaders in Pakistan. The data are taken from the 1999-2000 Survey of Perception of Religious Leaders about Population Welfare. Regression modelling shows that whether or not religious leaders approve of family planning is associated with their views on the ideal family size, their level of religious education, the specific religious sect to which they belong, their own knowledge and use of family planning, their exposure to television and the region of the country in which they live. PMID:21554832

  1. Devonian palaeobiogeographic affinities of Afghanistan and surrounding areas (Iran, Pakistan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mistiaen, B.; Brice, D.; Hubert, B. L. M.; Pinte, E.

    2015-04-01

    Palaeozoic (Devonian) outcrops in Afghanistan and neighbouring countries (Iran, Pakistan) are numerous but very sparsely distributed, and poorly known. The first interpretation, based on rare or poor data considered these North Gondwanan terranes as poorly connected and some authors have suggested the presence of large oceanic domains in palaeogeographical models. Increase in knowledge, especially of the distribution of main fossils groups, and also some lithological similarities, allow a review of the preliminary models and the identification of connections between the different terranes. For example the presence of Fistuliporid Bryozoan beds or rich Receptaculites levels in different sections of the three countries, especially in the Dasht-e Nawar and Central Iran areas, allows the preliminary models to be reviewed and the connections among the different terranes to be clarified.

  2. Medicolegal practice in Pakistan. A view from within.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, N; Busuttil, A

    1993-09-01

    Two generations have passed since Pakistan changed constitutionally from being under the rule of the British monarchy to becoming an independent Islamic-based democratic republic. Its medicolegal system, including the administration of justice, the academic basis of its medical and scientific expertise, and the practical investigation of crime, is thus a conglomerate of the English legal system and traditionally orientated and religiously based addenda that were successfully grafted onto the preexisting codes. With increasing urbanization, the greater availability of education, and specialization, further changes are likely that will mirror ongoing developments and activities in medicolegal practice worldwide. An overview of the Pakistani medicolegal system as it now exists is presented here to enable a better understanding of the changes that are gradually occurring and that need to continue. PMID:8311063

  3. Measles hectic in Pakistan; Upsurge versus the lurking vaccination.

    PubMed

    2015-02-01

    Measles has claimed more lives than anticipated, as the outbreaks hit Pakistan severely in 2013 as compared to 2012. Claiming 350 lives through the year 2013, Measles became a headache for the health agencies, authorities and common people. The sudden appearance of the virus in different parts of the country both rural and urban at the same time can be linked to more than one cause. The notable being corruption in health system, poor health infrastructure, destabilized routine immunization, shortage in number of vaccinators, negligence among parents, and floods. As a consequence of these causative factors, the unclear picture of immunization coverage can be presumed as the ultimate etiology of outbreaks in such numbers. Therefore, there is an urgent need to draw out the actual data of immunisation coverage and focus on elimination of hurdles in the road to success in fully coverage with vaccines. PMID:25842561

  4. Biologically active traditional medicinal herbs from Balochistan, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Mudassir A; Crow, Sidney A

    2005-01-01

    The biological activities of the following four important medicinal plants of Balochistan, Pakistan were checked; Grewia erythraea Schwein f. (Tiliaceae), Hymenocrater sessilifolius Fisch. and C.A. Mey (Lamiaceae), Vincetoxicum stocksii Ali and Khatoon (Asclepiadaceae) and Zygophyllum fabago L. (Zygophyllaceae). The methanolic extracts were fractionated into hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, butanol and water. The antifungal and antibacterial activities of these plants were determined against 12 fungal and 12 bacterial strains by agar well diffusion and disk diffusion assays. The extract of Zygophyllum fabago was found to be highly effective against Candida albicans and Escherichia coli. The extract of Vincetoxicum stocksii was also found to be significantly active against Candida albicans, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus. Extracts of Hymenocrater sessilifolius and Grewia erythraea showed good activity only against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:15588685

  5. Determinants of institutional delivery in rural Jhang, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is expert consensus that delivery at a health facility substantially reduces the risk of maternal death. By increasing the use of antenatal (ANC), postnatal care (PNC) and family planning, the risk of maternal death can be further reduced. There has been little investigation of factors associated with the use of these services in Pakistan. Methods A representative household survey was conducted in rural areas of Jhang district, Pakistan, to determine the effect of demographic, economic and program factors on the utilization of maternal health services. Married women who had children ages 12 months or younger were interviewed. Data was collected from 2,018 women on socio-demographic characteristics and the utilization of health services. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify the correlates of health services use. Marginal effects quantify the impact of various factors on service utilization. Results Parity and education had the largest impact on institutional delivery: women were substantially less likely to deliver at a health facility after their first birth; women with primary or higher education were much more likely to have an institutional delivery. Age, autonomy, household wealth, proximity to a health facility and exposure to mass media were also important drivers of institutional delivery. The use of family planning within a year of delivery was low, with parity, education and husband's approval being the strongest determinants of use. Conclusions The findings suggest that rural women are likely to respond to well-designed interventions that remove financial and physical barriers to accessing maternal health services and motivate women by emphasizing the benefits of these services. Interventions should specifically target women who have two or more living children, little formal education and are from the poorest households. PMID:21801437

  6. Malaria burden in human population of Quetta, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Tareen, A. M.; Rafique, M.; Wadood, A.; Qasim, M.; Rahman, H.; Shah, S. H.; Khan, K.; Pirkani, G. S.

    2012-01-01

    Malaria is a serious global health challenge, which is responsible for more than one million deaths a year. Malarial infection is more prevalent in developing countries including Pakistan. Significant efforts have been made to control malaria; however, due to socio-environmental factors, it remains a frequent problem in Quetta. The present study was undertaken to determine the malarial incidence, species prevalence, and its demographic evaluation in human population of Quetta, Pakistan. A total of 1831 subjects, comprising 1072 male and 759 female presenting symptoms of malaria, were included in this study. Blood samples from clinically suspected individuals were subjected to the standard immunochromatographic and malaria parasite smear analysis for malaria diagnosis. Out of 1831 subjects, 338 (18.45%) patients were positive for malarial parasite while the species prevalence was found as 276 (81.66%) and 62 (18.34%) for Plasmodium vivax, and Plasmodium falciparum, respectively. Furthermore, seasonal variations gradual increase in the prevalence rate. The age group of 21–30 years (30.47%) was found more prone to malaria. The suspected malaria cases were found more frequent in rural (72.1%) as compared to urban (27.9%). In addition, the malaria burden was high in urban area (22.89%) population as compared to the rural area (16.74%) population. It was observed that the highest disease occurrence was caused by P. vivax, which reflects a serious threat for public health. The current findings will be helpful to plan effective strategies to prevent and control malaria in this area. PMID:24688766

  7. Gender, region, religion and reproductive behaviour in India and Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zeba Sathar; Christine Callum; Shireen Jejeebhoy

    The demographic profile of South Asia is one of high levels of fertility, low ages at marriage and relatively low contraceptive prevalence. This generalisation, however, obscures considerable variations in reproductive behaviour and there exist such notable exceptions from this standard pattern as Sri Lanka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu, which pioneered the fertility transition in South Asia (Dyson and Crook 1984).

  8. Unroofing history of a suture zone in the Himalaya of Pakistan by means of fission-track annealing ages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zeitler, P.K.; Tahirkheli, R.A.K.; Naeser, C.W.; Johnson, N.M.

    1982-01-01

    The uplift history of the Swat Valley and Hazara region of northwestern Pakistan has been established using 22 fission-track dates on apatite, zircon and sphene. A major fault, the Main Mantle Thrust (MMT) strikes east-west across the Swat Valley, separates regions of markedly differing fission-track age regimesm, and may be a suture zone separating an extinct island arc terrane on the north from the Indian plate to the south. Fission-track ages ranging from about 55 to 58 m.y. for sphene, 18 to 53 m.y. for zircon, and 9 to 17 m.y. for apatite were obtained from the region north of the MMT. To the south the fission-track age ranges are 20 to 25 m.y. for sphene, 17 to 26 m.y. for zircon, and 16 to 23 m.y. for apatite. Disparate zircon and sphene ages on each side of the MMT imply different cooling histories for each side of the fault prior to 15 m.y. Similar apatite ages on both sides of the fault imply similar cooling histories during the past 15 m.y. This may indicate that faulting ceased by 15 m.y. Mean uplift rates have been derived from the fission-track data using mainly the mineral-pair method. Uplift rates in the region north of the MMT increased from 0.07 to 0.20 mm/yr during the period 55 to 15 m.y. South of the fault, uplift rates averaged in excess of 0.70 mm/yr for the period 25 to 15 m.y. During the past 15 m.y. uplift across the MMT in the Swat Valley showsno discontinuities, ranging from 0.16 mm/yr in the south to 0.39 mm/yr in the north. A plausible interpretation for the fission-track uplift data has the MMT verging to the south with overthrusting taking place at a depth between 3.5 and 6.0 km, juxtaposing two terranes that were originally separated by a substantial, but unknown distance. In this model, regional uplift followed cessation of faulting just prior to 15 m.y. ?? 1982.

  9. South Asian Research. Education. Outreach.

    E-print Network

    Garfunkel, Eric

    the Indian subcontinent, which includes Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. According suggests a lack of awareness· about preventable dental disease in this population. Impact of stigma, mental

  10. Epidemiological typing of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from Pakistan and India.

    PubMed

    Shabir, Sahida; Hardy, Katherine J; Abbasi, Waseem S; McMurray, Claire L; Malik, Salman A; Wattal, Chand; Hawkey, Peter M

    2010-03-01

    The levels of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Pakistan and India are known to be high, but few studies have described the epidemiology of the different MRSA clones present. In order to gain an understanding of the epidemiology of MRSA within this region, 60 MRSA isolates from Pakistan (49) and India (11) were genotyped. All isolates were typed using PFGE, staphylococcal interspersed repeat units (SIRUs), a restriction-modification method and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing. A subset of isolates that were distinct by PFGE and SIRUs were typed using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Clonal complex (CC) 8 was the dominant clonal complex (57/60) and was present in both Pakistan and India. Within CC8, there were 10 SIRU profiles and 24 PFGE profiles. Two SIRU profiles were present in isolates from both India and Pakistan, whilst seven were distinct for Pakistan and one for India. All PFGE profiles were distinct for each of the two countries. Thirty-four of the 57 isolates carried SCCmec type III/IIIa and the remainder carried type IV SCCmec. MLST analysis of 14 CC8 isolates with diverse SIRU and PFGE profiles showed that all were single-locus variants, with nine belonging to sequence type (ST) 239, three to ST8 and two to ST113. From a single hospital in Pakistan, three isolates belonged to CC30 and all were indistinguishable by PFGE and SIRUs and carried the Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene. Thus, epidemiological typing of strains from three distinct locations in India and Pakistan revealed the predominance of one clonal complex and highly related STs. The ability of SIRUs and PFGE to differentiate within ST239 demonstrates their utility in defining local epidemiology in these countries. PMID:19926728

  11. Prospects of gold mineralization in the Gilgit-Baltistan Province of Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, M. T.; Khan, S. D.; Tahirkheli, T.; Ahmad, L.; Miandad, S.; Rehman, A. U.; Ali, L.

    2012-12-01

    Gilgit-Baltistan province is the northern most province of Pakistan having its eastern, northern and western boarders with India, China and Afghanistan respectively. The geology of this province is unique as it has the spectacular tectonic entities of Asiatic plate (AP), Indian plate (IP) and the Kohistan-Ladakh arc (KLA). The Northern Suture Zone (NSZ) or Main Karakoram Thrust (MKT) separate the KLA from AP in the north while the Maim Mantle Thrust (MMT) separate the KLA from IP in the south. These different tectonic events have generated various types of igneous and metamorphic rocks in the form of gigantic mountain chains in the region. Considering the metallogenic provinces related to such types of tectonic environments world over, it can be suggested that the Gigit-Baltistan province may have the potential for the occurrence of economic mineral deposits. The present study is the follow-up of the previous studies for exploration of gold and base metals conducted by the Austrominerals and the Pakistan Mineral Development Corporation (PMDC) in the region. On the basis of PMDC extensive stream sediments geochemical survey of the province and delineated number of anomalous catchment areas for gold mineralization. In order to find the source bed-rock of gold, we have identified various alteration zones in these catchment areas by applying Remote sensing techniques by using both multispectral (LANDSAT, ASTER and Geoeye) and hyperspectral (Hyperion) data. Most of the alteration zones were found in steep high altitude inaccessible terrains. During this study, few of the accessible alteration zones in Golo Das, Bagrot valley, Shigri Bala, Machulu and Ranthak areas were selected for geological filed work and collection of proper samples from the alteration zones and host rocks for the identification of possible gold mineralization. In all these localities, the alteration zones are present along shear zones where the sulfide mineralization commonly occurs in the form of mainly pyrite and chalcopyrite with subordinate amount of bornite and tetrahedrite. Surface leaching of these phases to malachite, azurite and limonite is common. Quartz veining, silicification, carbonization and at places brecciation are the common features of these alteration zones. The concentrations of gold were found in the range of 3ppb to 112ppb, <5- 95ppb, 1ppb to 545ppb, 1ppb to 385 and 1ppb to 318ppb in the alteration zones of Golo Das, Bagrot valley, Shigri Bala, Machulu and Ranthak areas respectively. The barren rock samples have generally <5ppb gold. This is indicative of the multi-times enrichment of gold in the alteration zones. The sulfide mineralization along with gold in the alteration zones could be attributed to the hydrothermal/epithermal activity involving meteoric, igneous and or metamorphic fluid individually or mixture of these. The occurrence of dioritic intrusions (igneous fluid source) and the transitional dilated zones (metamorphic fluid source) on the major reactivated thrust fault (i.e., NSZ) in the vicinity of these alteration zones strengthen these observations. However, isotopic studies are underway to solve this problem. This study suggests that the alteration zones in the studied areas have the potential to be explored in detail for possible economical gold mineralization.

  12. New Directions in Vocational Guidance. Report of a Country Workshop Sponsored Jointly by the Government of Pakistan and the Colombo Plan Bureau (Islamabad, Pakistan).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1976

    The objective of this workshop was to prepare recommendations to the Government of Pakistan on a vocational guidance system which would be geared to the needs of the country, while bearing in mind the inevitable constraints on the resources and personnel which could be made available in a developing economy. Discussions centered on six working…

  13. Promoting Space Education and Awareness in Pakistan- Initiatives, Achievements, Challenges and Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagirani, Aisha

    With about 180 million inhabitants, Pakistan is the sixth most populous and the 34th largest country in the world in terms of area. Pakistan's economy, which is pre-dominantly based on agriculture, is the 26th largest in the world in terms of purchasing power parity and 45th largest in terms of nominal GDP. Pakistan is counted among the Next Eleven (N11) countries that have the potential to become the world's largest economies in the 21st century. Despite considerable potential to develop into a stable, moderate and democratic state, major challenges of internal security, poor agricultural productivity, inadequate infrastructure, food insecurity, insufficient health and educational facilities, depletion of natural resources, rapid environmental degradation and recurring natural disasters have burdened the country and have hampered sustainable development of Pakistan. Space technology applications offer a cost-effective means of addressing many of the above mentioned issues and have made impressive advances in the last few years in different countries in the region. Unfortunately, for various reasons, Pakistan has not been able to fully exploit the benefits of space technology and its applications to meet the challenges she faces. One of the reasons is lack of awareness and understanding by planners, decision-makers and users about the potential benefits of space technology in planning and implementation of developmental plans as well as good governance. Similarly, Pakistan's space program enjoys little public support due, primarily, to lack of awareness of the benefits space offers and the ubiquitousness of space applications in modern life. There is thus an acute need to create awareness and educate all segments of the society and stakeholders in Pakistan about the potential benefits of space technology and its applications. In the past ten years, many initiatives have been taken to promote space education and awareness for students as well as decision-makers in Pakistan. These include establishment of space science departments in universities, developing space-specific educational institutes, cooperation and collaboration between universities and SUPARCO, outreach to schools, and holding of short courses, seminars and symposia. To create awareness among the general public, efforts are being made to air programs on the electronic media. This paper covers achievements of Pakistan in promoting space education and awareness in the country and the related issues and impediments to pursue these programs.

  14. Population structure and mating type distribution of the chickpea blight pathogen Ascochyta rabiei from Pakistan and United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ascochyta blight caused by the fungus Ascochyta rabiei (AR) depresses chickpea production in Pakistan and worldwide. Thirty two AR isolates representing six geographical regions of Pakistan was compared with a US AR population for frequency of mating types and genetic variation. Mating type results ...

  15. Pakistan's Primary Education Quality Improvement Program: Local Partners Work with Rural Communities to Support High Quality Education for Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afridi, Zahid A.

    2006-01-01

    This document describes the contributions made by the Primary Education Quality Improvement Program (1996-1999) to the broad goals of improved access, equity, and quality in girls' primary education in Pakistan. In Balochistan, the largest but least developed province of Pakistan, an innovative approach to educational development was successfully…

  16. Development of low cost household drinking water treatment system for the earthquake affected communities in Northern Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qaisar Mahmood; Shams Ali Baig; Bahadar Nawab; Mustafa Nawaz Shafqat; Arshid Pervez; Bibi Saima Zeb

    2011-01-01

    The devastating earthquake of 2005 severely damaged over 4000 water and sanitation schemes in northern Pakistan. The present study aimed at testing a low cost household sand filter (HSF) in treating low quality drinking water in disaster-hit areas of northern Pakistan. Two villages were randomly selected for practical demonstration of a low cost drinking water treatment system in earthquake affected

  17. Studies on Plant Population and Stand Establishment Techniques for Increasing Productivity of Rice in Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad Safdar BALOCH; Inayat Ullah AWAN; Gul HASSAN; Muhammad ZUBAIR

    2007-01-01

    Rice production in Pakistan is constraint by many factors pertaining to prevalent planting techniques. A research on the feasibility of new planting techniques (direct seeding on flat, transplanting on flat, direct seeding on ridges, transplanting on ridges and parachute planting) in transplanted and direct wet-seeded rice was undertaken at Dera Ismail Khan region of Pakistan's North West Frontier Province during

  18. Achievements of the FIGO Initiative for the Prevention of Unsafe Abortion and its Consequences in South-Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Shahida; Begum, Ferdousi; Tank, Jaydeep; Chaudhury, Pushpa; Yasmin, Haleema; Dissanayake, Mangala

    2014-07-01

    Since 2008, the FIGO Initiative for the Prevention of Unsafe Abortion and its Consequences has contributed to ensuring the substitution of sharp curettage by manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) and medical abortion in selected hospitals in participating countries of South-Southeast Asia. This initiative facilitated the registration of misoprostol in Pakistan and Bangladesh, and the approval of mifepristone for "menstrual regulation" in Bangladesh. The Pakistan Nursing Council agreed to include MVA and medical abortion in the midwifery curriculum. The Bangladesh Government has approved the training of nurses and paramedics in the use of MVA to treat incomplete abortion in selected cases. The Sri Lanka College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, in collaboration with partners, has presented a draft petition to the relevant authorities appealing for them to liberalize the abortion law in cases of rape and incest or when lethal congenital abnormalities are present. Significantly, the initiative has introduced or strengthened the provision of postabortion contraception. PMID:24743025

  19. SOUTH CAROLINA COOPERATIVE FISH

    E-print Network

    Jodice, Patrick

    SOUTH CAROLINA COOPERATIVE FISH AND WILDLIFE RESEARCH UNIT 2011 Annual Report The South Carolina issues in the state of South Carolina, as well as throughout the SE U.S. and internationally. #12;2011 Annual Report Page 2 South Carolina Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit 2 0 1 1 A N N U

  20. Infectious diseases in the aftermath of monsoon flooding in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Baqir, Maryam; Sobani, Zain A; Bhamani, Amyn; Bham, Nida Shahab; Abid, Sidra; Farook, Javeria; Beg, M Asim

    2012-01-01

    Pakistan is ranked 9th in terms of flood-affected countries worldwide. In the summer of 2010, the northern province of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa received more than 312 mm of rain in a 56 hour period. This resulted in over 1 600 deaths across the region. In addition, over 14 million people were directly affected by this record-breaking deluge. Flood affected regions serve as ideal breeding grounds for pathogens, leading to the spread of diseases. The poor standards of hygiene in camps set up for individuals displaced by the floods also contribute to this. It is essential that those involved in relief efforts are aware of the epidemiology of diseases that have historically seen a sudden upsurge after natural disasters. Keeping this in mind, we conducted a simple review of literature. An extensive literature search was conducted using the PubMed data base and online search engines. Articles published in the last 20 years were considered along with some historical articles where a background was required. Seven major diseases were identified to increase substantially in the aftermath of natural disasters. They were then classified into acute and sub-acute settings. Diarrhea, skin & eye infections and leptospirosis were identified in the acute setting while malaria, leishmaniasis, respiratory infections and hepatitis were identified in the sub-acute setting. PMID:23569839

  1. Acceptability of prenatal testing and termination of pregnancy in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Jafri, H; Hewison, J; Sheridan, E; Ahmed, S

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess acceptability of prenatal testing (PNT) and termination of pregnancy (TOP) for a range of conditions in Pakistani parents with and without a child with a genetic condition. A structured questionnaire assessing acceptability of PNT and TOP for 30 conditions was completed by 400 Pakistani participants: 200 parents with a child with a genetic condition (100 fathers and 100 mothers) and 200 parents without an affected child (100 fathers and 100 mothers). There was a high level of interest in PNT, where over 80 % of parents in all four study groups would want PNT for the majority of the conditions. There was comparatively less interest in TOP for the same conditions (ranging from 5 to 70 % of parents, with mothers of an affected child being most interested). Parents were most likely to be interested in TOP for conditions at the serious end of the continuum. More than half of the participants in each group would consider TOP for anencephaly and quadriplegia. The interest in PNT and TOP for a range of conditions suggests that rapidly developing PNT technologies are likely to be acceptable in Pakistan, a low-middle income level and Muslim country. The comparatively lower level of interest in TOP for the same conditions highlights ethical dilemmas that such technologies are likely to raise. PMID:25081227

  2. Weather yield model for the semi tropical region (Pakistan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haider, Syed Faizan; Asif, K. H.; Gilani, Amjad Hussain

    1992-09-01

    Weather models are essential tools for checking of the effect of the weather elements in terms of their effect on the production of the crop. This research is an attempt to see the effect of only two variables i.e., temperature and rainfall for the division Faisalabad (semitropical region of Pakistan). The model fitted is of the linear form: Y= a+ bX 1+ cX 2, the values of a,b,c have been found. The expected yield has been calculated by using the aridity indices X 1 and X 2 and the result in the form of coefficient of determination R 2 has been found equal to 0.166. The significance of the regression coefficient has been tested, which shows that the contribution to the yield from aridity index at germination and that at ripening is significant. The wheat yields are the results of a wide variety of variables, most of which show varying degree of relationship with one another, some positive and some negative in terms of output. These variables may be technology, fertilizers, pesticides, epidemics, kinds of seeds used, market price of crop and the area under cultivation etc, which can be the source of variation in the wheat yield. Since rainfall during germination and temperature at the ripening periods are the necessary factors for the yield of wheat, for this purpose these parameters have been studied in order to their contribution.

  3. Aflatoxins in corn and rice sold in Lahore, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Firdous, Shamma; Ashfaq, Ayisha; Khan, Shaista Jabeen; Khan, Nikhat

    2014-01-01

    A survey was conducted to evaluate aflatoxin contamination of commonly used food in Lahore, Pakistan. In this context, 1125 samples of various food commodities were collected from various areas of Lahore city. In corn-based products AFB1 was detected in 52% (range 2.0-1405.3 µg kg(-1)) and AFB2 in 25% (range 1.0-55.2 µg kg(-1)) of the samples. In super kernel basmati rice, 13.3% of the samples (range 1.1-32.9 µg kg(-1)) showed the presence of AFB1, 1.9% was contaminated with AFB2 (range 1.0-8.1 µg kg(-1)) and only one sample exhibited the presence of AFG1. As far as the status of basmati rice is concerned, 18.3% was contaminated with AFB1 (range 1.0-15.4 µg kg(-1)) and 2% was contaminated with AFG1. In 42.9% of parboiled rice (range 1.1-9.2 µg kg(-1)) and 36.4% of broken rice (range 2.1-25.3 µg kg(-1)), samples were contaminated with AFB1. PMID:24914592

  4. Epidote from the Zard Mountains, Kharan, Balochistan, Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Lowers, Heather A.; Betterton, William K.

    2013-01-01

    The authors received two unusual crystals of epidote from Rock Currier, Jewel Tunnel Imports, in 2012. The mineral specimens were collected at Zard Mountain (Zard Koh), in the central part of the Ruskoh Mountains (Rusk Koh), west of Kharan, Balochistan, Pakistan (written communication, Rock Currier, 2013). The epidote locality was most likely discovered in 2010. These epidote crystals were unusual in both form and composition. The large crystals were flat tabular and pseudohexagonal in shape which is an uncommon crystal form for a monoclinic mineral (fig. 1). Other specimens from the same locality have been described as pseudo-octahedral in shape. The two crystals range in size from 5.5 to 6.5 centimeters (2.2 to 2.6 inches) and are slightly magnetic. The epidote crystals have a core matrix that resembles a weathered igneous rock. Some micro brown- to reddish-titanite crystals were observed under a binocular microscope on the surface and core areas of the crystals (figs. 2 and 3). Other minerals observed in the core areas include feldspar, biotite, and quartz. The crystals display evidence of cluster-growth with points of attachment to other crystals. The epidotes were most likely collected in pockets of a weathered igneous-skarn deposit.

  5. Clinical Manifestations and Distribution of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Afghan, Abaseen Khan; Kassi, Masoom; Kasi, Pashtoon Murtaza; Ayub, Adil; Kakar, Niamatullah; Marri, Shah Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a rising epidemic in Pakistan. It is a major public health problem in the country especially alongside regions bordering the neighboring Afghanistan and cities that have had the maximum influx of refugees. The purpose of our paper is to highlight the diverse clinical manifestations of the disease seen along with the geographic areas affected, where the hosts are particularly susceptible. This would also be helpful in presenting the broad spectrum of the disease for training of health care workers and help in surveillance of CL in the region. The increased clinical diversity and the spectrum of phenotypic manifestations noted underscore the fact that the diagnosis of CL should be not only considered when dealing with common skin lesions, but also highly suspected by dermatologists and even primary care physicians even when encountering uncommon pathologies. Hence, we would strongly advocate that since most of these patients present to local health care centers and hospitals, primary care practitioners and even lady health workers (LHWs) should be trained in identification of at least the common presentations of CL. PMID:22174721

  6. Clinical manifestations and distribution of cutaneous leishmaniasis in pakistan.

    PubMed

    Afghan, Abaseen Khan; Kassi, Masoom; Kasi, Pashtoon Murtaza; Ayub, Adil; Kakar, Niamatullah; Marri, Shah Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a rising epidemic in Pakistan. It is a major public health problem in the country especially alongside regions bordering the neighboring Afghanistan and cities that have had the maximum influx of refugees. The purpose of our paper is to highlight the diverse clinical manifestations of the disease seen along with the geographic areas affected, where the hosts are particularly susceptible. This would also be helpful in presenting the broad spectrum of the disease for training of health care workers and help in surveillance of CL in the region. The increased clinical diversity and the spectrum of phenotypic manifestations noted underscore the fact that the diagnosis of CL should be not only considered when dealing with common skin lesions, but also highly suspected by dermatologists and even primary care physicians even when encountering uncommon pathologies. Hence, we would strongly advocate that since most of these patients present to local health care centers and hospitals, primary care practitioners and even lady health workers (LHWs) should be trained in identification of at least the common presentations of CL. PMID:22174721

  7. Estimation of disaggregated canal water deliveries in Pakistan using geomatics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Mobin-ud-Din; Stein, Alfred; Bastiaanssen, Wim G. M.

    2004-11-01

    Lack of accurate information on water distribution within an irrigation system is a major roadblock for effective management of scarce water resources. Numerical techniques to estimate canal water distribution require large amounts of data with respect to hydraulic parameters and operation of the hydraulic structures; such data are absent in large irrigation systems. In this study, six quantitative geomatic models, with varying complexity and physical representation, were formulated. They all use high-spatial resolution Landsat-7 images and a canal network stored in a GIS. The models require only the flow rates at the head of the distribution system to calculate downstream water distribution. Results were compared with discharge measurements for three tertiary canals (watercourses) within two selected secondary canals (distributaries), Gajiana and Ghour Dour, in Rechna Doab, Pakistan. The model that computed canal water distribution using the shape of the irrigated area was the most accurate at the watercourse scale. The overall deviation was 28% and the standard deviation of differences between modelled and measured flow was 10%. The model that relates canal water distribution directly to normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) has the lowest accuracy with a 32% absolute deviation and 16% standard deviation. We conclude that geo-information techniques can be used to compute water distribution in large irrigation systems with a minimum of field data if an appropriate geomatic model is selected.

  8. Human exposure to arsenic in groundwater from Lahore district, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Bibi, Mehwish; Hashmi, Muhammad Zaffar; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we determined As concentrations in healthy volunteers from three different age groups (children, adults and old age) residing in Lahore, Pakistan to gain insight into arsenic exposure to humans via drinking water. The results revealed that the concentrations of As were significantly (p<0.05) different among different sites, while non significant trends were observed among different age classes. As concentrations in blood and nails samples showed a significant (p<0.05) positive correlation. The mean concentrations of As were higher in nails samples (1.43?g/g) followed by blood samples (1.15?g/L); urine samples (0.82?g/l) and hair samples (0.74?g/g) based on all sites. The antioxidants enzyme activities in blood samples showed a significant (p<0.01) decrease with the increase in As concentrations. The result suggests that urgent action is needed to prevent further human exposure to As. PMID:25434761

  9. 12. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH FROM PAVILION, SHOWING SOUTH ENTRANCE HOUSE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH FROM PAVILION, SHOWING SOUTH ENTRANCE HOUSE, SOUTH WING, AND ENGINE HOUSE - Fairmount Waterworks, East bank of Schuylkill River, Aquarium Drive, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  10. Distribution and dynamics of mangrove forests of South Asia.

    PubMed

    Giri, Chandra; Long, Jordan; Abbas, Sawaid; Murali, R Mani; Qamer, Faisal M; Pengra, Bruce; Thau, David

    2015-01-15

    Mangrove forests in South Asia occur along the tidal sea edge of Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. These forests provide important ecosystem goods and services to the region's dense coastal populations and support important functions of the biosphere. Mangroves are under threat from both natural and anthropogenic stressors; however the current status and dynamics of the region's mangroves are poorly understood. We mapped the current extent of mangrove forests in South Asia and identified mangrove forest cover change (gain and loss) from 2000 to 2012 using Landsat satellite data. We also conducted three case studies in Indus Delta (Pakistan), Goa (India), and Sundarbans (Bangladesh and India) to identify rates, patterns, and causes of change in greater spatial and thematic details compared to regional assessment of mangrove forests. Our findings revealed that the areal extent of mangrove forests in South Asia is approximately 1,187,476 ha representing ?7% of the global total. Our results showed that from 2000 to 2012, 92,135 ha of mangroves were deforested and 80,461 ha were reforested with a net loss of 11,673 ha. In all three case studies, mangrove areas have remained the same or increased slightly, however, the turnover was greater than the net change. Both, natural and anthropogenic factors are responsible for the change and turnover. The major causes of forest cover change are similar throughout the region; however, specific factors may be dominant in specific areas. Major causes of deforestation in South Asia include (i) conversion to other land use (e.g. conversion to agriculture, shrimp farms, development, and human settlement), (ii) over-harvesting (e.g. grazing, browsing and lopping, and fishing), (iii) pollution, (iv) decline in freshwater availability, (v) floodings, (vi) reduction of silt deposition, (vii) coastal erosion, and (viii) disturbances from tropical cyclones and tsunamis. Our analysis in the region's diverse socio-economic and environmental conditions highlights complex patterns of mangrove distribution and change. Results from this study provide important insight to the conservation and management of the important and threatened South Asian mangrove ecosystem. PMID:24735705

  11. Economic Development in South Carolina

    E-print Network

    Almor, Amit

    Retirement and Economic Development in South Carolina Supported by: The South Carolina DepartmentCollege of Business AdministrationCollege of Business Administration University of South CarolinaUniversity of South CarolinaUniversity of South CarolinaUniversity of South CarolinaUniversity of South Carolina Columbia

  12. Evolution and heterogeneity of multiple serotypes of Dengue virus in Pakistan, 2006–2011

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Even though dengue has been recognized as one of the major public health threats in Pakistan, the understanding of its molecular epidemiology is still limited. The genotypic diversity of Dengue virus (DENV) serotypes involved in dengue outbreaks since 2005 in Pakistan is not well studied. Here, we investigated the origin, diversity, genetic relationships and geographic distribution of DENV to understand virus evolution during the recent expansion of dengue in Pakistan. Methods The study included 200 sera obtained from dengue-suspected patients from 2006 to 2011. DENV infection was confirmed in 94 (47%) sera by a polymerase chain reaction assay. These included 36 (38.3%) DENV-2, 57 DENV-3 (60.6%) and 1 DENV-4 (1.1%) cases. Sequences of 13 whole genomes (6 DENV-2, 6 DENV-3 and 1 DENV-4) and 49 envelope genes (26 DENV-2, 22 DENV-3 and 1 DENV-4) were analysed to determine the origin, phylogeny, diversity and selection pressure during virus evolution. Results DENV-2, DENV-3 and DENV-4 in Pakistan from 2006 to 2011 shared 98.5-99.6% nucleotide and 99.3-99.9% amino acid similarity with those circulated in the Indian subcontinent during the last decade. Nevertheless, Pakistan DENV-2 and DENV-3 strains formed distinct clades characterized by amino acid signatures of NS2A-I116T + NS5-K861R and NS3-K590R + NS5-S895L respectively. Each clade consisted of a heterogenous virus population that circulated in Southern (2006–2009) and Northern Pakistan (2011). Conclusions DENV-2, DENV-3 and DENV-4 that circulated during 2006–2011 are likely to have first introduced via the southern route of Pakistan. Both DENV-2 and DENV-3 have undergone in-situ evolution to generate heterogenous populations, possibly driven by sustained local DENV transmission during 2006–2011 periods. While both DENV-2 and DENV-3 continued to circulate in Southern Pakistan until 2009, DENV-2 has spread in a Northern direction to establish in Punjab Province, which experienced a massive dengue outbreak in 2011. PMID:24007412

  13. Conducting rapid health needs assessments in the cluster era: experience from the Pakistan flood.

    PubMed

    Dar, Osman A; Khan, Mishal S; Murray, Virginia

    2011-06-01

    Due to its unprecedented scale, the Pakistan flood disaster tested the limits of disaster management and coordination. Under the leadership of the World Health Organization, the Global Health Cluster system for coordinating activities improved collaboration and efficiency in conducting rapid needs assessments. However, the involvement of non-Cluster members was lacking, and information on existing service provision was not collected adequately. The present rapid health needs assessment process under the Cluster system will be discussed, using the recent floods in Pakistan as an example. PMID:22107774

  14. Physical activity patterns among South-Asian adults: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) has many beneficial physical and mental health effects. Physical inactivity is considered the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality. At present there are no systematic reviews on PA patterns among South Asian adults residing in the region. The present study aims to systematically evaluate studies on PA patterns in South Asian countries. A five-staged comprehensive search of the literature was conducted in Medline, Web of Science and SciVerse Scopus using keywords ‘Exercise’, ‘Walking’, ‘Physical activity’, ‘Inactivity’, ‘Physical Activity Questionnaire’, ‘International Physical Activity Questionnaire’, ‘IPAQ’, ‘Global Physical Activity Questionnaire’ and ‘GPAQ’, combined with individual country names. The search was restricted to English language articles conducted in humans and published before 31st December 2012. To obtain additional data a manual search of the reference lists of articles was performed. Data were also retrieved from the search of relevant web sites and online resources. The total number of hits obtained from the initial search was 1,771. The total number of research articles included in the present review is eleven (India-8, Sri Lanka-2, Pakistan-1). In addition, eleven country reports (Nepal-3, Bangladesh-2, India-2, Sri Lanka-2, Bhutan-1, Maldives-1) of World Health Organization STEPS survey from the South-Asian countries were retrieved online. In the research articles the overall prevalence of inactivity was as follows; India (18.5%-88.4%), Pakistan (60.1%) and Sri Lanka (11.0%-31.8%). STEPS survey reports were available from all countries except Pakistan. Overall in majority of STEPS surveys females were more inactive compared to males. Furthermore, leisure related inactivity was >75% in studies reporting inactivity in this domain and people were more active in transport domain when compared with the other domains. In conclusion, our results show that there is a wide variation in the prevalence of physical inactivity among South-Asian adults within and between countries. Furthermore, physical inactivity in South Asian adults was associated with several socio-demographic characteristics. Majority of South Asian adults were inactive during their leisure time. These Factors need to be considered when planning future interventions and research aimed at improving PA in the region. PMID:24119682

  15. Health promotion in South East Asia.

    PubMed

    Mir, N S

    1998-01-01

    The countries of the South East Asia region, which includes Bangladesh, Bhutan, Pakistan, Korea, India, Indonesia, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, and Thailand, have undertaken a variety of strategies to address the health challenges in the region. The ever-growing pressure of population in the region has allowed rapid transmission of communicable diseases like malaria, tuberculosis (TB), leprosy, and HIV/AIDS. One of the innovative community-based health initiatives in response to this problem is Indonesia's Primary Health Care Project. This project aimed to develop a sustainable health infrastructure by training medical staff, coordinators, village cadres, midwives and those working for TB programs; provision of ongoing guidance and education in this area; and provision of medicines and funds. The project has pioneered a process towards positive changes. Another strategy is the collaboration of youth groups, island development committees, and health workers in Maldives which has led to the declaration of two islands (Madifushi and Haa Alif Berinmadhoo) as 'no smoking' islands. In addition, Sarvodaya has successfully developed a methodology to involve Buddhist monks in AIDS prevention and control through "the Buddhist approach to AIDS prevention in Sri Lanka." PMID:12349574

  16. Institutional and Regulatory Economics of Electricity Market Reforms: the Evidence from India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, and Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Bipulendu

    Five South Asian countries-- India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal and Sri Lanka -- embarked on electricity market reforms in the 1990's. The dissertation uses the framework of New Institutional Economics to assess the effects on electricity sector performance of both observables elements of reform (i.e. privatization, unbundling, establishment of independent regulatory agencies etc.) as well as the unobservable elements (informal beliefs, habit, norms and culture of the actors involved in reforms). The first part of the dissertation -- econometric analysis of the relationship between observable electricity market reform measures and performance indicators -- finds that for the most part electricity market reforms in South Asia are having a positive impact on the performance of the sector. This is particularly the case for reforms that have increased private sector participation in generation and distribution and have vertically unbundled utilities into generation, transmission and distribution entities. Many of the reforms are positively correlated with higher tariffs, indicating a cost to the consumers from the reforms. The relationship between independent regulation and performance indicators , however, is not established. The second part of the dissertation - analytical narrative of the reform experiences of Gujarat and Nepal -- examines the informal elements (such as beliefs, norms, culture) that motivate behavior and explains how and why reform outcomes differed in these two places. The dissertation finds that the strength of formal institutions rules and the nature of social norms and customs have a significant influence on the outcome of reforms. Aided by the strength of its formal institutional framework and more evolved social norms and customs that encouraged people to follow formal rules, reforms in the Indian state of Gujarat were a success. The weakness of the formal institutional framework and the predominance of relation-based norms and customs in Nepal that led to limited compliance with formal rules, by contrast, limited the success of power sector reforms there. Efforts to reform the electricity sector in South Asia undertaken by governments with the assistance of development agencies such as the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank have focused to a large extent on getting the content of electricity market reform measures such as unbundling, privatization, and establishment of a power market right. The analysis in this dissertation suggests that such measures will be more successful in places with relatively robust formal rule based systems. Countries that are planning to carry out significant reforms in the electricity sector will benefit from the explicit consideration of the informal norms, habits and customs of the actors that will be affected by the reforms.

  17. DNA Barcoding of Bemisia tabaci Complex (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Reveals Southerly Expansion of the Dominant Whitefly Species on Cotton in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Ashfaq, Muhammad; Hebert, Paul D. N.; Mirza, M. Sajjad; Khan, Arif M.; Mansoor, Shahid; Shah, Ghulam S.; Zafar, Yusuf

    2014-01-01

    Background Although whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci complex) are an important pest of cotton in Pakistan, its taxonomic diversity is poorly understood. As DNA barcoding is an effective tool for resolving species complexes and analyzing species distributions, we used this approach to analyze genetic diversity in the B. tabaci complex and map the distribution of B. tabaci lineages in cotton growing areas of Pakistan. Methods/Principal Findings Sequence diversity in the DNA barcode region (mtCOI-5?) was examined in 593 whiteflies from Pakistan to determine the number of whitefly species and their distributions in the cotton-growing areas of Punjab and Sindh provinces. These new records were integrated with another 173 barcode sequences for B. tabaci, most from India, to better understand regional whitefly diversity. The Barcode Index Number (BIN) System assigned the 766 sequences to 15 BINs, including nine from Pakistan. Representative specimens of each Pakistan BIN were analyzed for mtCOI-3? to allow their assignment to one of the putative species in the B. tabaci complex recognized on the basis of sequence variation in this gene region. This analysis revealed the presence of Asia II 1, Middle East-Asia Minor 1, Asia 1, Asia II 5, Asia II 7, and a new lineage “Pakistan”. The first two taxa were found in both Punjab and Sindh, but Asia 1 was only detected in Sindh, while Asia II 5, Asia II 7 and “Pakistan” were only present in Punjab. The haplotype networks showed that most haplotypes of Asia II 1, a species implicated in transmission of the cotton leaf curl virus, occurred in both India and Pakistan. Conclusions DNA barcodes successfully discriminated cryptic species in B. tabaci complex. The dominant haplotypes in the B. tabaci complex were shared by India and Pakistan. Asia II 1 was previously restricted to Punjab, but is now the dominant lineage in southern Sindh; its southward spread may have serious implications for cotton plantations in this region. PMID:25099936

  18. Comments on "Food Poverty and its Causes in Pakistan".

    PubMed

    Malik, M H

    1991-01-01

    This critique pertains to the development of a new poverty index by Foster, Greer, and Thorbeke (1984). The method is described and compared to A.K. Sen's poverty index, and ramifications of the method are discussed. The Foster et al. index estimates the incidence of poverty in terms of a head-count ration, but does not measure the poverty gap or the distribution of income among the poor, which is included in the Sen index. The Foster index is useful because of its decomposability by regions of the country, for different household sizes, and other groups, but this information is not expressed. An unpublished paper by Foster et al. explains the methodology for estimating poverty lines. Differentiation is made between the less poor, whose food expenditures are lower than the poverty line Z based on existing household patterns, and the real poor, whose food expenditures are lower than the line Q, which is based on the least cost of obtaining the required nutrients. The poverty line Q is stable at Rs 76/adult/month for all regions of Pakistan, but the poverty line Z varies between regions. Poverty lines vary because of differences in consumption patterns and prices. However, the stability of the poverty line Q throughout the regions does not reflect the changes in prices regionally. Consumption is not a factor. The findings are that the less poor constitute a large number, i.e., 76% are poor in urban areas and 46% are poor in rural areas. The incidence of real poor, however, is negligible at 2% of the urban population and 3% of the rural population. The logical conclusion from these incidence figures is that people are poor because people are uneducated about the nutritional value of food items, which can be remedied and food poverty eliminated. However, this is considered an exaggeration. PMID:12285314

  19. Nappe structure in a crustal scale duplex in Swat, Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, R.D.; Snee, L.W.; Rosenberg, P.S.

    1985-01-01

    In the internal zone of thrust belts of continental collision orogens like the Himalaya metamorphic rocks of deep origin record penetrative ductile deformation. In Swat, Pakistan, this zone between the Indus suture and the sedimentary fold-and-thrust belt is narrower and tectonically simpler than elsewhere along the Himalayan orogenic belt. Here the authors have recognized large overturned, orthogneiss cored nappes of 15 km half wavelength. These are defined by para-amphibolite marker beds found in upright stratigraphic section above and in overturned section below the gneissic cores. They distinguish premetamorphic granite porphyry and tourmaline granite intruded into quartzose metasediments as gneissic cores of the nappes and a surrounding sequence of quartzites, amphibolites, and carbonates that were either deposited unconformably above the cores or premetamorphically thrust over them. Metamorphic isogrades cut across the nappe and /sup 40/Ar//sup 39/Ar hornblende dates indicate that metamorphic culmination occurred around 37-40 Ma at about 550/sup 0/C and at depths of about 20 km. These structures thus appear to predate the recognized age of metamorphism and thrusting of crystalline rocks on the MCT in the central Himalaya. They represent an early deep burial of the leading edge of the Indian shield by ophiolite slabs of oceanic lithosphere and/or the Kohistan island arc. By 30 Ma metamorphic temperatures (/sup 40/Ar//sup 39/Ar muscovite) had dropped to 320/sup 0/C, and the nappes were rising through the crust on underlying thrusts. The entire structure is very similar to that of the internal zone of the Alps, but such features have not previously been described in the Himalaya.

  20. The labour force matrix of Pakistan: selected applications.

    PubMed

    Cohen, S I

    1985-01-01

    This paper develops and estimates a labor force matrix (LFM) for Pakistan, which is shown to be a new and very useful tool in describing the multi-dimensional nature of the work force and its dynamic characteristics over time. The paper then uses the LFM as a guideline in the simulation of the labor force in the 6th Five-Year Plan. The LFM allows one to read the number of persons who belong to a specific combination of location, status, sector, occupation, and education, and is, therefore, superior to 2-dimensional cross-tabulations. Under plausible assumptions, such matrices have been constructed from published data of the labor surveys of 1977-1978 and 1982-1983 and projected to 1988. The authors simulated the 6th Plan by means of a model which forecasts demand and supply and generates a planned LFM for 1988. A comparison between the 2 matrices shows that on the whole the plan does not predict major surprises in the structure of the labor force. Concurrently, the results suggest some future unresolved shortage-imbalances for production workers and the lowest educational levels and some surpluses of a frictional nature in the upper skills and educational levels. Even though the apparent recommendations for balancing the labor force may be more vocational training, a higher rate of primary school enrollment and fewer primary school dropouts, and job upgrading at the higher end of skills and education, a complementary analysis is required before sensible conclusions can be drawn. Besides, a disaggregation into many more occupations and short-term labor market signals as regards trends in vacancies and relative earnings are indispensable in complementing the obtained picture. PMID:12340756

  1. Occurrence of Aflatoxins Contamination in Brown Rice from Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    ASGHAR, Muhammad Asif; IQBAL, Javed; AHMED, Aftab; KHAN, Mobeen Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background The objective of this study was to determine the distribution of an economically–important class of mycotoxins, the aflatoxins (AFs) in Pakistani Brown Rice. Methods A total of 262 of brown rice samples were collected from different vendors during July 2006 to June 2011. Samples were analyzed for the occurrence of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), B2 (AFB2), G1 (AFG1) and G2 (AFG2) by thin layer chromatography (TLC) technique. Results AFB1 was detected in 250 (95.4%) samples, whereas AFB2 was detected in 20 (7.6%) samples. Furthermore, AFG1 and AFG2 were not found in any sample. The contamination range of AFB1 and AFB2 was found 1.07–24.65 ?g/kg and 0.52–2.62 ?g/kg, respectively. Total AFs were quantified in 250 (95.4%) samples with an average of 3.89 ?g/kg and contamination range was noted to be between 1.07–27.27 ?g/kg. The overall results indicated that in 12 (4.6%) samples, AFs were not found within detectable limits. Furthermore, in 188 (71.7%) samples, AFs level was found below than maximum tolerated levels (MTL) as recommended by the European Union (4 ?g/kg). Moreover, in 61 (23.3%) samples, AFs range was found between 4–20 ?g/kg, which were fit for human consumption as per MTL (20 ?g/kg) assigned by USA (FDA and FAO) and Pakistan (PSQCA). While only one sample (27.27 ?g/kg) exceeded the above mention regulation limits. Conclusion Low level of AFs occurs frequently in brown rice, and can be improved using proper harvesting practices, storage and transportation conditions. The small quantities of AFs warrant performing further investigation, monitoring and routine analysis on regular basis. PMID:25988088

  2. Multistage structural evolution of Northern Karakorum (Hunza region, Pakistan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanchi, Andrea; Gritti, Damiano

    1996-07-01

    Detailed mapping and structural work in Upper Hunza Valley, Pakistan, have enlightened the tectonics and the structural evolution of the sedimentary cover of Northern Karakorum. This includes the Northern Sedimentary Belt (NSB) with the Guhjal and Sost Units (Permian-Cretaceous), cropping out north of the Karakorum Axial Batholith (KAB); the NSB is bounded to the north by the Misgar Unit, consisting of slates of unknown age. In the Sost Unit a mid-Cretaceous deformed belt is sealed with a strong angular unconformity by the Late Cretaceous formations. Folds within the mid-Cretaceous belt possibly indicate north-vergent transport. Stacking of NE- to N-vergent thrusts sheets postdates the deposition of Cretaceous sediments, which are largely included within tectonic slices developed along the southern flank of the Sost stack. The southern part of the stack is in turn intruded by the Palaeogene Kuk pluton belonging to the Batura Unit of the KAB. S- to SSE-vergent thrusting was successively active, stacking steep north-dipping thrust sheets along the northern side of the Sost Unit, forming a complex antiformal stack, well exposed around Sost. High angle pure dip-slip reverse and oblique dextral motions are recorded by fault-slip data and calc-mylonites along major faults, forming a transpressive fault zone close to the contact between the Sost and Misgar Units. During this stage, the Misgar Unit was thrusted southward above the Sost Unit along the Northern Fault. Prosecution of dextral motion was also active afterwards along the boundary between the two units. The importance of wrench tectonics is also indicated by widespread activation of E-W sinistral strike-slip faults in the whole study area, generally moving along pre-existent fault planes.

  3. Gender: shaping personality, lives and health of women in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Gender norms determine the status of Pakistani women that influence their life including health. In Pakistan, the relationship between gender norms and health of women is crucial yet complex demanding further analysis. This paper: determines the reasons for reiteration of gender roles; describes the societal processes and mechanisms that reproduce and reinforce them; and identifies their repercussions on women’s personality, lives and health especially reproductive health. Methods As part of a six-country study titled ‘Women’s Empowerment in Muslim Contexts’, semi-structured group discussions (n?=?30) were conducted with women (n?=?250) who were selected through snowballing from different age, ethnic and socio-economic categories. Discussion guidelines were used to collect participant’s perceptions about Pakistani women’s: characteristics, powers, aspirations, needs and responsibilities; circumstances these women live in such as opportunities, constraints and risks; and influence of these circumstances on their personality, lifestyle and health. Results The society studied has constructed a ‘Model’ for women that consider them ‘Objects’ without rights and autonomy. Women’s subordination, a prerequisite to ensure compliance to the constructed model, is maintained through allocation of lesser resources, restrictions on mobility, seclusion norms and even violence in cases of resistance. The model determines women’s traits and responsibilities, and establishes parameters for what is legitimate for women, and these have implications for their personality, lifestyle and health, including their reproductive behaviours. Conclusion There is a strong link between women’s autonomy, rights, and health. This demands a gender sensitive and a, right-based approach towards health. In addition to service delivery interventions, strategies are required to counter factors influencing health status and restricting access to and utilization of services. Improvement in women’s health is bound to have positive influences on their children and wider family’s health, education and livelihood; and in turn on a society’s health and economy. PMID:24690271

  4. New South Wales

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Smoke Blankets New South Wales, Australia     View ... smoke when more than 80 wildfires raged across the state of New South Wales. These images were captured on the morning of December 30, ... Wildfires location:  Australia and New Zealand thumbnail:  ...

  5. Construction Project Cost Feedback in Developing Economies: the Case of Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S O OGUNLANA; K BUTT

    Construction projects are fraught with uncertainty and they are learning processes. As such, managers need to constantly use field data to refine planning. Feedb ack is an effective management tool because it serves an informational function that enhances work performance. The construction industries in developing economies like Pakistan suffer many problems such as delays, cost overruns, and miscommunication of information

  6. Reconnaissance of the geology and ore mineralization in part of the Chagai District, Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nagell, Raymond H.

    1975-01-01

    The Chagai District of the Quetta Division is in the northwestern part of Pakistan. Igneous activity during the Himalayan orogeny included the extrusion of horizontally layered andesites of the Cretaceous Sinjrani Volcanic Group, emplacement of monzonitic stocks of the Cretaceous Chagai intrusions, and the extrusion of flows and tuffs of the Koh-i-Sultan Volcanic Group during the Pleistocene.

  7. Phylogenetic and pathological characterization of Newcastle disease virus isolates from Pakistan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Virulent Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) is endemic in Pakistan and is a major problem to their poultry industry. Since Newcastle Disease is highly contagious and clinically similar to the highly pathogenic avian influenza, accurate and rapid monitoring of an outbreak is very important. Additionally, ...

  8. Tick-borne diseases of bovines in Pakistan: major scope for future research and improved control.

    PubMed

    Jabbar, Abdul; Abbas, Tariq; Sandhu, Zia-Ud-Din; Saddiqi, Hafiz A; Qamar, Muhammad F; Gasser, Robin B

    2015-01-01

    Ticks and tick-borne diseases (TBDs) affect the productivity of bovines in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, leading to a significant adverse impact on the livelihoods of resource-poor farming communities. Globally, four main TBDs, namely anaplasmosis, babesiosis, theileriosis, and cowdriosis (heartwater) affect bovines, and the former three are of major economic importance in bovines in Pakistan. Given that the livestock sector has become an integral part of Pakistan's economy and a large number of dairy cattle are being imported into the country, in order to meet an increasing demand of milk and milk products, it is timely to review current status of bovine TBDs in Pakistan and to identify gaps in the knowledge of TBDs and their control. Although there has been a recent increase in the number of studies of TBDs in this country, information on their prevalence, distribution, tick vectors, and control is limited. This article provides a brief background on key bovine TBDs and ticks and reviews the current status of bovine TBDs in Pakistan to identify gaps in knowledge and understanding of these diseases, propose areas for future research and draw attention to the need for improved tools for the diagnosis and control of TBDs in this country. PMID:25994588

  9. Morphometric comparisons of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) populations from Iran, USA and Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Lashkari, Mohammadreza; Hentz, Matthew G.

    2015-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), vector of citrus greening disease pathogen, Huanglongbing (HLB), is considered the most serious pest of citrus in the world. Prior molecular based studies have hypothesized a link between the D. citri in Iran and the USA (Florida). The purpose of this study was to collect morphometric data from D. citri populations from Iran (mtCOI haplotype-1), Florida (mtCOI haplotype-1), and Pakistan (mtCOI haplotype-6), to determine whether different mtCOI haplotypes have a relationship to a specific morphometric variation. 240 samples from 6 ACP populations (Iran—Jiroft, Chabahar; Florida—Ft. Pierce, Palm Beach Gardens, Port St. Lucie; and Pakistan—Punjab) were collected for comparison. Measurements of 20 morphological characters were selected, measured and analysed using ANOVA and MANOVA. The results indicate differences among the 6 ACP populations (Wilks’ lambda = 0.0376, F = 7.29, P < 0.0001). The body length (BL), circumanal ring length (CL), antenna length (AL), forewing length (WL) and Rs vein length of forewing (RL) were the most important characters separating the populations. The cluster analysis showed that the Iran and Florida populations are distinct from each other but separate from the Pakistan population. Thus, three subgroups can be morphologically discriminated within D. citri species in this study, (1) Iran, (2) USA (Florida) and (3) Pakistan population. Morphometric comparisons provided further resolution to the mtCOI haplotypes and distinguished the Florida and Iranian populations. PMID:26038715

  10. MPhil and PhD library and information science research in Pakistan: an evaluation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Syed Jalaluddin Haider; Khalid Mahmood

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – The aim of this study is to provide an insight to international readers into the perspective of doctoral level research in Pakistan. The factors which led to the start of this program and difficulties encountered in this regard at different universities are discussed. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The study is mainly based on review of the literature. Research theses approved

  11. Causes of the Decline of Education in Pakistan and Its Remedies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghazi, Safdar Rehman; Ali, Riasat; Khan, Muhammad Saeed; Hussain, Shaukat; Fatima, Zakia Tanzeela

    2010-01-01

    Low literacy rate and poor quality of education are the major drawbacks of the educational system in Pakistan. Our education is influenced by a number of factors that cause this downfall. Some of them are more prominent, such as low enrollment and high dropout rate at the primary level, different standards of education, low budget allocation for…

  12. International Conference on Earthquake Engineering and Seismology (ICEES 2011), NUST, Islamabad, Pakistan

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , Pakistan April 25-26, 2011 Post-Event Reconstruction in Asia since 1999: An Overview Focusing on the Social attitudes towards seismic vulnerability through instances of post-event reconstruction. For this purpose two parameters of reconstruction drives as valid indicators of attitude of a society to enhance

  13. HRM Practices in Public and Private Universities of Pakistan: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iqbal, Muhammad Zafar; Arif, Muhammad Irfan; Abbas, Furrakh

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the HRM practices of public and private universities in Punjab province of Pakistan. The data for the study was collected through a questionnaire comprising 30 items mainly related to job definition, training and development, compensation, team work, employee's participation and performance appraisal. The…

  14. Learning with participatory monitoring and evaluation in Dir district, northwest frontier province, Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon Bell

    1996-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the development of a monitoring and evaluation system for the second phase of a United Nations Drug Control Programme (UNDCP) in Pakistan and the manner in which participatory structures are developed and built on in a complex development context. Initially the paper introduces the context. The project is concerned with rural development issues as part

  15. Provision of Educational Technology at Secondary School Level in North West Frontier Province Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akhtar, Sajjad Hayat

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The study looked into a descriptive research to evaluate the use of educational technology at secondary school level North West Frontier Province (Pakistan). The study has defined the availability, usefulness, problems, emerging trends and status of educational technology. The main focus of the study was the utilization and availability…

  16. Situation Report--Hong Kong, Malawi, Pakistan, Panama, Philippines, Ryukyu Islands (Okinawa), Sabah, Sarawak.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in eight foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Hong Kong, Malawi, Pakistan, Panama, Philippines, Ryukyu Islands (Okinawa), Sabah, and Sarawak. Information is provided where appropriate and available, under two topics, general background and family planning…

  17. Burnup study for Pakistan Research Reactor1 utilizing high density low enriched uranium fuel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rizwan Ahmed; Aslam; Nasir Ahmad

    2005-01-01

    Burnup study for Pakistan Research Reactor-1 (PARR-1), which is a typical swimming pool type MTR utilizing high density low enriched uranium fuel, was performed by using Fuel Cycle Analysis Program (FCAP). Existing equilibrium core of PARR-1, which is relatively economical but provides less neutron fluxes per unit power than the first equilibrium core, was formed by adding five more fuel

  18. Parents' Attitude toward Daughters' Education in Tribal Area of Dera Ghazi Khan (Pakistan)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buzdar, Muhammad Ayub; Ali, Akhtar

    2011-01-01

    The paper aimed to investigate the parents' attitudes toward their daughters' education in tribal areas of district Dera Ghazi Khan (Pakistan). To achieve the objectives four research questions were established. Focus of the questions was to examine the significance of girls' education for tribal parents. Existing and expected role of tribal…

  19. Equity and vaccine uptake: a cross-sectional study of measles vaccination in Lasbela District, Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven Mitchell; Neil Andersson; Noor Mohammad Ansari; Khalid Omer; José Legorreta Soberanis; Anne Cockcroft

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Achieving equity means increased uptake of health services for those who need it most. But the poorest families continue to have the poorest service. In Pakistan, large numbers of children do not access vaccination against measles despite the national government's effort to achieve universal coverage. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of a random sample of 23 rural and 9 urban

  20. A systems study of livestock production in the Northern Areas of Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. A. Wright; A. J Duncan; J. Clemens; A. Rahman; O. Raja; I. J. Gordon; A. J. Hester; S. M. Raffique; F. Ali; A. Baig

    Introduction Over 1 million people live in the northern areas of Pakistan, with 60% of income from livestock and agriculture, rising to 84% for the poorest families (AKRSP, 2000). Precipitation is only about 150 to 400mm per annum in the valley bottoms, but water from glacial snowmelt is used to irrigate parcels of land in the villages in the valley

  1. Promoting motivation towards community health care: A qualitative study from nurses in Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saleema A. Gulzar; Muhammad Shahid Shamim; Ali Khan Khuwaja

    2010-01-01

    Based on the extensive health care needs of Pakistani population, the idea of Community Health Nursing was introduced in 1985. The educational nursing institutes adopted nursing curriculum in order to produce competent nurses to meet the rising demands of society. However, very few numbers of nurses choose community health nursing as their career pathway in Pakistan. Based on the current

  2. Socio-Economic Affects of Floods on Female Teachers in Jampur (Pakistan)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buzdar, Muhammad Ayub; Ali, Akhtar

    2011-01-01

    Women are major affected segment of society in any disaster in under developed countries. Floods of 2010, in Pakistan, affected more than 17 million people. Ultimately, it created several social, psychological and financial problems for affected females. The current paper aimed to study the socio-economic affects of floods on female teachers of…

  3. Denial of flood aid to members of the Ahmadiyya Muslim community in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Malik, Atif M

    2011-01-01

    During the catastrophic floods of 2010 in Pakistan, approximately 500 internally displaced families belonging to the Ahmadiyya sect of Islam were denied humanitarian relief. The failure of international agencies and Pakistan's government to protect basic human rights in the context of disaster relief raises profound questions. If all humanitarian work associated with natural disasters must be governed by canons of human rights, how should international agencies deal with legally empowered official discrimination? A review of the history of the Ahmadiyya community in Pakistan reveals decades of state-sanctioned persecution, particularly through its anti-blasphemy laws, and poses a serious challenge to the international community. When effective intervention is predicated on cooperation with state institutions, how can international relief agencies avoid becoming implicated in official discrimination? The denial of flood aid to Pakistan's Ahmadiyya community highlights the need for concerted action in disaster settings to prevent discrimination against vulnerable groups. Discriminatory legislation is not only a violation of basic norms enshrined in international compacts, it is a key problem for disaster relief. PMID:22772966

  4. Evaluation of a water, sanitation, and hygiene education intervention on diarrhoea in northern Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Nanan; F. White; I. Azam; H. Afsar; S. Hozhabri

    2003-01-01

    Objective Inadequate water and sanitation services adversely affect the health and socioeconomic development of communities. The Water and Sanitation Extension Programme (WASEP) project, undertaken in selected villages in northern Pakistan between 1997 and 2001, was designed to deliver an integrated package of activities to improve potable water supply at village and household levels, sanitation facilities and their use, and awareness

  5. Complete Genome Sequence of a Recent Panzootic Virulent Newcastle Disease Virus from Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Wajid, Abdul; Wasim, Muhammad; Rehmani, Shafqat F.; Bibi, Tasra; Ahmed, Nazir

    2015-01-01

    The genome sequence of a new strain of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) (chicken/Pak/Quality Operations Lab/SFR-611/13) is reported here. The strain was isolated from a vaccinated chicken flock in Pakistan in 2013 and has panzootic features. The genome is 15,192 nucleotides in length and is classified in subgenotype VIIi of genotype VII, class II.

  6. Health Risk Assessment of Metals in Surface Water from Freshwater Source Lakes, Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Javed Iqbal; Munir H. Shah

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the concentrations of selected metals (Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, Sr, and Zn) in freshwater source lakes in Pakistan and to assess the preliminary health risks associated with them. Water samples were collected from Khanpur and Simly Lakes and analyzed for the metals using flame atomic absorption spectrophototmetry. Major contributions

  7. Complete genome sequence of a recent panzootic virulent Newcastle disease virus from Pakistan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Complete genome sequence of a new strain of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) (chicken/Pak/Lahore-611/2013) is reported. The strain was isolated from a vaccinated chicken flock in Pakistan in 2013 and has panzootic features. The genome is 15192 nucleotides in length and is classified as sub-genotype V...

  8. Mangla Dam Raising Project (Pakistan): General Review and Socio-Spatial Impact Assessment

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Mangla Dam Raising Project (Pakistan): General Review and Socio-Spatial Impact Assessment Saheeb ­ In this research paper, different aspects of Mangla dam raising project have been reviewed. The raising project like the construction of the dam brought with it dislocation of a large number of people as one major

  9. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials in Pakistan. April-June 1969. Vol. 3, No. 2, 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saad, Ismail, Comp.

    A 136-item bibliography covering April-June 1969 with English abstracts of books and articles in English and Indic languages provides information on various aspects of education in Pakistan. Significant emphasis is placed on sections dealing with libraries; teachers; and general, elementary, and secondary education. Briefer sections deal with (1)…

  10. Selected Bibliography and Abstracts of Educational Materials in Pakistan. Volume 4, Number 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saad, Ismail, Ed.

    This selected list of 121 citations on the public education system of Pakistan is annotated to give the description and appropriate level of each document. Entries are arranged according to 33 major topics: 1) education administration, organization, and finance; 2) educational history, educational philosophy; 3) educational development,…

  11. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials in Pakistan; July-September 1969, Volume 3, Number 3, 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saad, Ismail, Comp.

    This 123-item bibliography with English abstracts of recent books and articles on various aspects of Pakistan education includes a special section on new education policy. Emphasis is placed on elementary, secondary, and higher education, history of education, literature for children, science education, sociology, teacher training, and women's…

  12. ANALYSIS OF FATTY ACID, ELEMENTAL AND TOTAL PROTEIN OF CALOTROPIS PROCERA MEDICINAL PLANT FROM SINDH, PAKISTAN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SAMINA KABIR KHANZADA; W. SHAIKH; T. G. KAZI; S. SOFIA; AMINA KABIR; K. USMANGHANI; AFTAB A. KANDHRO

    2008-01-01

    Calotropis procera (Asclepiadaceae) is a well known medicinal plant with leaves, roots and bark being exported as popular medicine to fight many human and animal diseases. It is locally known as AKK with English name as Milk Weed, grows abundantly in Sindh province of Pakistan. The isolated fatty acid composition in the extract of C.procera has 7 saturated fatty acid

  13. Milk fatty acid composition of indigenous goat and ewe breeds from Sindh, Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Farah N. Talpur; M. I. Bhanger; Nusrat N. Memon

    2009-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the breed influence on milk fatty acid (FA) composition, particularly on the concentration of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) from two different indigenous breeds of goats (Pateri and Kamori; n=30 for each breed) and ewes (Kachi and Kooka; n=25 for each) from Sindh, Pakistan. All animals were managed together and received the same diet.

  14. Prevalence and demographics of anxiety disorders: a snapshot from a community health centre in Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hassan Khan; Saira Kalia; Ahmed Itrat; Abdullah Khan; Mahwash Kamal; Muhammad A Khan; Roha Khalid; Salman Khalid; Sunniya Javed; Sanniya Javed; Affan Umer; Haider Naqvi

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The developing world is faced with a high burden of anxiety disorders. The exact prevalence of anxiety disorders in Pakistan is not known. There is a need to develop an evidence base to aid policy development on tackling anxiety and depressive disorders in the country. This is the first pilot study to address the prevalence of anxiety disorders and

  15. Job stress among community health workers: a multi-method study from Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zaeem Haq; Zafar Iqbal; Atif Rahman

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In low income countries, the task of providing primary health care is often the responsibility of community health workers. In Pakistan, community workers called Lady Health Workers (LHW) deliver basic health care at the doorstep in the rural areas and urban slums. Evaluations show that it is a successful programme but point out inconsistencies in the quality of service

  16. Perspectives of low cost arsenic remediation of drinking water in Pakistan and other countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amir Haider Malik; Zahid Mehmood Khan; Qaisar Mahmood; Sadia Nasreen; Zulfiqar Ahmed Bhatti

    2009-01-01

    Arsenic concentrations above acceptable standards for drinking water have been detected in many countries and this should therefore is a global issue. The presence of arsenic in subsurface aquifers and drinking water systems is a potentially serious human health hazard. The current population growth in Pakistan and other developing countries will have direct bearing on the water sector for meeting

  17. Higher Education in Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan after 9/11: Problems and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Syed Hafeez; Junaid, Fatima A.

    2010-01-01

    The troubled state of affairs in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) of Pakistan portends serious repercussions and grave consequences, destined to affect education particularly higher education in the entire tribal belt. Ironically, no extensive study has been conducted, to investigate those dimensions of FATA higher education which…

  18. Acquisition of technological capability in development: A quantitative case study of Pakistan's capital goods sector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henny Romijn

    1997-01-01

    There is by now a substantial body of literature that points to the importance of technological capability acquisition for industrial development. This literature, however, is almost exclusively based on qualitative case studies. This paper addresses the lack of objective quantitative measurement and testing. Using data from a survey among capital goods manufacturers in Pakistan, it develops quantitative proxies for technological

  19. Pakistan Vet. J., 24(3): 2004 EFFECT OF EXPERIMENTAL YOLK SAC INFECTION WITH ESCHERICHIA

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    ON IMMUNE STATUS OF BROILER CHICKS M. S. D. Shah, S. A. Khan, A. Aslam, M. Rabbani1 , K. A. Khan and M. F Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan. ABSTRACT In this study, 100 day-old broiler chicks were divided into two groups infection, Escherichia coli, maternal immunity, broiler chicks. INTRODUCTION The first two weeks of age

  20. Pakistan Vet. J., 24(3): 2004 EFFECTS OF ASCORBIC ACID AND ACETYLSALICYLIC ACID

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ON THE PERFORMANCE OF BROILER CHICKS EXPOSED TO HEAT STRESS B. Anwar, S. A. Khan, A. Aslam, A. Maqbool1 and K. A Sciences, Lahore-54000, Pakistan ABSTRACT A total of 100, day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided agents are used to mimimize the harmful effects of heat stress on the performance of broiler chicks

  1. Farmers' perceptions of insect pests and pest management practices in Bt cotton in the Punjab, Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Muhammad Arshad; Anjum Suhail; M. Dildar Gogi; M. Yaseen; M. Asghar; M. Tayyib; Haider Karar; Faisal Hafeez; Unsar Naeem Ullah

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to (1) examine the factors involved in the adoption or non-adoption of Bt cotton, (2) identify sources of Bt cotton seed acquisition, and (3) evaluate farmers' knowledge and perception of insect pests incidence and management practices in Bt cotton in the Punjab, Pakistan. A total of 150 farmers growing Bt cotton expressing Cry1Ac protein

  2. Purposeful Change? Changing the Teaching of Reading in a Regional University in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Memon, Rafique; Badger, Richard

    2007-01-01

    "The teacher who works for or allows status quo is the traitor. Purposeful change is the new norm in teaching" [Fullan, M., 1993. Change Forces: Probing the Depths of Educational Reform. Falmer, London.]. The University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan (USJP) is the main provider of tertiary education in English in the province of Sindh. However,…

  3. CORPORAL PUNISHMENT AS CULTURAL AND EDUCATIONAL PROCESS IN THE ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF PAKISTAN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Profanter Annemarie

    2007-01-01

    Corporal punishment of children and youth is a fundamental concern that continues to challenge the philosophical and educational practices of many nations worldwide. This study investigates the issue of corporal punishment in the Division of Peshawar, North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan, using quantitative and qualitative data obtained from the broad student and teacher sample (N = 473)1. In this paper,

  4. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials in Pakistan, Volume One, Number Two, January - June 1967.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saad, Ismail

    A selected bibliography of materials dealing with education in Pakistan--books, parts of books, and editorials--is presented with each entry described in several paragraphs of summary. The arrangement is topical, the topics including adult education; agricultural education, childhood education, curriculum, discipline problems, education goals,…

  5. The Allama Iqbal Open University, Pakistan. A Case Study in Distance Learning Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaye, A. R.

    A brief description of Pakistan (physical setting, population, economy, government, communications, and rural development program) and its educational system introduce a description of the Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) in Islamabad. AIOU was established by the Pakistani government primarily to provide adult and continuing education through…

  6. Impact of financial reforms on efficiency of state-owned, private and foreign banks in Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abid A. Burki; G. S. K. Niazi

    2010-01-01

    This article uses a unique bank level data from 1991 to 2000 and evaluates how financial reforms affect banking efficiency of domestic and foreign banks in Pakistan. The results suggest that banking efficiency falls during initial reform period when banks adjust to enhanced competition but increases in more advanced stages of reform. While in general foreign and private banks show

  7. Leadership Styles and Employees' Job Satisfaction: A Case from the Private Banking Sector of Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hafiz Ali Javed; Asad Abbas Jaffari; Muzahir Rahim

    2014-01-01

    This research study shows the relationship of leadership styles with the job satisfaction of employees working in the private banking sector of Pakistan and also depicts which leadership style leaders have adopted most. A questionnaire with five points likert scale was used to collect data on different dimensions of leadership styles and employees' job satisfaction from 230 participants working in

  8. The epidemic of HIV/AIDS in developing countries; the current scenario in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Yousaf, Muhammad Z; Zia, Sadia; Babar, Masroor E; Ashfaq, Usman A

    2011-01-01

    HIV (Human Immunodeficiency virus) causes (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) AIDS, in which the immune system of body totally fails to develop any defense against the foreign invaders. Infection with HIV occurs by transfer of blood, semen, and breast milk. HIV/AIDS is a global problem and it results nearly 25 million deaths worldwide. Developing countries like Pakistan have issues regarding Public Health. Currently, epidemic of HIV/AIDS is established in Pakistan and there is a threat of an expanded HIV/AIDS outbreak in the country. The major reason is that population is engaging in high-risk practices, low awareness about HIV/AIDS, and treacherous blood transfusion practices. A supplementary threat to Pakistan is India because both sharing a border and India is facing a rapidly growing HIV/AIDS epidemic. Local NGOs, National and International organizations are warning that in near future Pakistan may experiences bad situation regarding HIV/AIDS.In the present article we focused current situation of surveillance of HIV/AIDS, its virology, genotype, diagnostics, high-risk groups, reasons of vulnerability in Pakistani population, and the role of different national and international organizations in this situation. PMID:21838892

  9. Is Skill Training a Good Investment for the Poor? The Evidence from Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janjua, Shehryar

    2011-01-01

    Technical and vocational skills development (TVSD) has received pronounced emphasis in planning and policy texts in Pakistan over the last decade. Several positive outcomes are typically ascribed to TVSD, ranging from purely economic (increased productivity, competitiveness and economic growth) to social (improved employment, poverty-reduction and…

  10. Policy Studies in Asia--the Training of Educational Personnel: India, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Thailand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    Five study papers by educators from India, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, and Thailand focus on: (1) policies and strategies in the implementation of universalization of education; (2) current policies and strategies in the preparation of teachers; and (3) recommendations for teachers in the universalization of education. Each of these elements…

  11. Becoming Teacher Educators in Pakistan: Voices from the Government Colleges of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Haji Karim

    2011-01-01

    Little is known of the identities and practices of teacher educators in Pakistan. This paper aims to contribute towards redressing that situation. It draws on part of a larger scale study to explore the lives of two teacher educators in one of the largest cities in the country, discussing what influences individuals as they develop their…

  12. Impact of Financial Reforms on Efficiency of State-owned, Private and Foreign Banks in Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abid A. Burki; G. S. K. Niazi

    2006-01-01

    This paper uses a unique bank level data from 1991 to 2000 and evaluates how financial reforms affect banking efficiency of domestic and foreign banks in Pakistan. The results suggest that banking efficiency falls during initial reform period when banks adjust to enhanced competition, but increases in more advanced stages of reform. While in general foreign and private banks show

  13. Prevention of non-communicable diseases in Pakistan: an integrated partnership-based model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sania Nishtar

    2004-01-01

    Development and implementation of non-communicable disease (NCD) prevention polices in the developing countries is a multidimensional challenge. This article highlights the evolution of a strategic approach in Pakistan. The model is evidence-based and encompasses a concerted and integrated approach to NCDs. It has been modelled to impact a set of indicators through the combination of a range of actions capitalizing

  14. Issues of Access in Public and Private Higher Education Institutions in Islamabad, Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Muhammad Majid

    2010-01-01

    The study examined the issues of access in public and private higher education institutions in Islamabad, Pakistan. The policies and institutions currently in place to deal with access related issues are not effective, therefore, not providing students with the support systems to help them succeed at the institutions of higher learning. The…

  15. THE CONCEPT OF COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO ITS PRESENT AND FUTURE APPLICATIONS IN PAKISTAN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AHMED, FIROZA

    COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS ARE ANALYZED IN THIS STUDY TO CLARIFY THEIR DEMOCRATIC PHILOSOPHICAL ORIENTATION, TO IDENTIFY PROGRAMS IN INDIA, EGYPT, IRAN, AFGHANISTAN, THE PHILIPPINES, AND BURMA HAVING POTENTIAL SIGNIFICANCE FOR PAKISTAN, AND TO SUGGEST SOCIAL SERVICE AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES THAT SHOULD BE EXPANDED OR INAUGURATED IN…

  16. Community Management of Intellectual Disabilities in Pakistan: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirza, I.; Tareen, A.; Davidson, L. L.; Rahman, A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Pakistan has one of the highest reported rates of childhood intellectual disabilities (ID) in the world. Prevalence estimates vary from 19.1/1000 for serious ID to 65/1000 for mild ID. Methods: We surveyed carers of persons with ID (n = 100) using quantitative and qualitative instruments. We conducted in-depth interviews of carers (n =…

  17. Impact of Oil Price Volatility on Macroeconomic Variables (A Case Study of Pakistan)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raja Mohsin Nawaz; Mujtaba Qayyum

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the impact of oil price volatility on macroeconomic variables of the economy of Pakistan. We employed the Glosten, Jagannathan and Runkle (GJR) and Vector Autoregressive (VAR) models. The outcomes of the GJR model show the symmetric effect of oil price shock on conditional variance. Whereas Impulse Response Functions (IRFs) show the hostile effect on the employment and

  18. Teaching Practices To Increase Student Achievement: Evidence from Pakistan. BRIDGES Research Report Series, No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rugh, Andrea B.; And Others

    Findings of a study that described effective teaching practices in Pakistan elementary schools and made recommendations for improving teacher effectiveness are presented in this paper. The research project was conducted by Basic Research and Implementation in DevelopinG Education Systems (BRIDGES) of Harvard University (Massachusetts). During…

  19. Emerging geo-information technologies (GIT) for natural disaster management in Pakistan: an overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mubushar Hussain; Mudassar Hassan Arsalan; Kashif Siddiqi; Bushra Naseem; Uzma Rabab

    2005-01-01

    Geo-information Technologies (GIT) are playing a significant role for an efficient management of natural disasters all over the world. Among them space technologies are prominent for geo-information acquisition in an efficient and timely manner. This paper is focused on the potential uses of GIT for natural disaster management with particular examples in Pakistan which is vulnerable to various natural hazards

  20. Zircon fission-track ages from the Gasherbrum Diorite, Karakoram Range, northern Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip F. Cerveny; Charles W. Naeser; Peter B. Kelemen; Joshua E. Lieberman; Peter K. Zeitler

    1989-01-01

    The Gasherbrum Peaks, in the Himalaya of Pakistan, reach elevations of >8000 m. The relief between the peaks and the adjacent valley (Baltoro Glacier) is in excess of 3000 m. Eight samples of the Early Cretaceous Gasherbrum Diorite at elevations between 4880 and 7165 m on Gasherbrum IV were collected for fission-track dating. Zircon fission-track ages from the Gasherbrum Diorite

  1. Successful Leadership Practices of Head Teachers for School Improvement: Some Evidence from Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salfi, Naseer Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The main purpose of this study is to identify the successful leadership practices of head teachers for school improvement at secondary level in Pakistan. Design/methodology/approach: The study was descriptive (survey type) in nature. It was conducted on a sample of 351 secondary school head teachers, 702 elementary and secondary school…

  2. New records of scyphomedusae from Pakistan coast: Catostylus perezi and Pelagia

    E-print Network

    Morandini, Andre C.

    . mosaicus in Pakistan assuming it to be of C. perezi. Keywords: jellyfish, Rhizostomeae, Semaeostomeae, medusae, North Arabian Sea Submitted 18 April 2013; accepted 8 June 2013 I N T R O D U C T I O N Jellyfish, aquaculture and tourism (Purcell et al., 2007). Among the cnidarian jellyfish groups (known as medusozoans

  3. A model for government-community partnership in building sewage systems for urban areas: the experiences of the Orangi Pilot Project--Research and Training Institute (OPP-RTI), Karachi.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Arif

    2002-01-01

    Over 20 years the Orangi Pilot Project has been working to understand the problems of Orangi, a district of Karachi largely characterised by high-density informal settlement, and enable its residents to develop and implement solutions. Sanitation was identified as the major problem and a sewerage system was built. From this work was developed the "internal-external" concept for sanitation, which has 4 levels: sanitary latrines in houses; underground sewer in lane; neighbourhood collector sewer; and trunk sewer and treatment plant. The first three components are "internal" and can be undertaken by low-income communities; the "external" fourth component has to be funded and carried out by government or similar agency. Successful and unsuccessful attempts elsewhere to replicate this model have both confirmed the effectiveness and practicality of such community-based action and shown the - largely organisational pitfalls that must be avoided. PMID:12019823

  4. South Carolina Geological Survey

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The South Carolina Geological Survey (SCGS) homepage contains information about state mapping, education and outreach programs, and recent news. For educators, there is the Earth Science education series of publications which includes presentations and page-size graphics on such topics as earthquakes, plate tectonics, geologic time, fossils, and others. Other materials include information on mineral resources, links to organizations in and about South Carolina geology, the South Carolina core repository, the Geologic Map of South Carolina, and others.

  5. South Carolina Cooperative

    E-print Network

    Jodice, Patrick

    South Carolina Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit Report of Activities 2007-2008 Cooperating Agencies U.S. Geological Survey South Carolina Department of Natural Resources Clemson University Wildlife Management Institute South Carolina Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit G27 Lehotsky Hall

  6. South Carolina Cooperative

    E-print Network

    Jodice, Patrick

    USGS South Carolina Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit Report of Activities November 2002 - November 2004 Cooperating Agencies U.S. Geological Survey South Carolina Department of Natural Resources Clemson University Wildlife Management Institute South Carolina Cooperative Fish & Wildlife Research Unit

  7. South Carolina Cooperative

    E-print Network

    Jodice, Patrick

    South Carolina Cooperative Fish & Wildlife Research Unit Report of Activities 2009-2010 Cooperating Agencies U.S. Geological Survey South Carolina Department of Natural Resources Clemson University Wildlife Management Institute South Carolina Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit G27 Lehotsky Hall

  8. South Carolina Cooperative

    E-print Network

    Jodice, Patrick

    South Carolina Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit Report of Activities 2005-2006 Cooperating Agencies U.S. Geological Survey South Carolina Department of Natural Resources Clemson University Wildlife Management Institute South Carolina Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit G27 Lehotsky Hall

  9. South Carolina Cooperative

    E-print Network

    Jodice, Patrick

    South Carolina Cooperative Fish & Wildlife Research Unit Report of Activities 2008-2009 Cooperating Agencies U.S. Geological Survey South Carolina Department of Natural Resources Clemson University Wildlife Management Institute South Carolina Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit G27 Lehotsky Hall Clemson

  10. 75 FR 52712 - Notice of Decision To Issue Permits for the Importation of Fresh Mango Fruit From Pakistan Into...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ...designated phytosanitary measures will be sufficient to mitigate the risks of introducing or disseminating plant pests or noxious weeds via the importation of fresh mango fruit from Pakistan. DATES: Effective Date: August 27, 2010. FOR FURTHER...

  11. How Ethno-Religious Identity Influences the Living Conditions of Hazara and Pashtun Refugees in Peshawar, Pakistan

    E-print Network

    Punjani, Shahid

    This paper examines how living conditions and settlement patterns differ between two ethnic groups belonging to the Afghan refugee population residing in Peshawar, Pakistan. Evidence from Peshawar suggests that the Pashtun, ...

  12. Lithofacies, depositional environments, regional biostratigraphy and age of the Chitarwata Formation in the Bugti Hills, Balochistan, Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Grégoire Métais; Pierre-Olivier Antoine; S. R. Hassan Baqri; Jean-Yves Crochet; Dario De Franceschi; Laurent Marivaux; Jean-Loup Welcomme

    2009-01-01

    The Oligocene-early Miocene Chitarwata Formation records a critical interval of terrestrial sedimentation that predates the Siwalik deposits on the Potwar Plateau of north-central Pakistan. This Oligocene-early Miocene time interval has long been considered as lacking in the entire Indo-Pakistan region. The Chitarwata Formation is widely exposed in the Sulaiman Range, but has never been described in detail in the Sulaiman

  13. Structure, diversity, and regeneration potential of Monotheca buxifolia (Falc.) A. DC. dominated forests of Lower Dir District, Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nasrullah Khan; Moinuddin Ahmed; Syed Shahid Shaukat; Muhammad Wahab; Muhammad Faheem Siddiqui

    2011-01-01

    This study reports on the multivariate analysis of the vegetation of Hindukush Range in Pakistan, concentrating on the structure\\u000a and regeneration potential of Monotheca buxifolia and associated tree species. Twenty stands at different locations in the Dir District of the Hindukush Range in Pakistan\\u000a were chosen for the study. A point centered quarter method for trees and 5m × 5m

  14. Are Drone Strikes Effective in Afghanistan and Pakistan? On the Dynamics of Violence between the United States and the Taliban

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Jaeger; Zahra Siddique

    2011-01-01

    Strikes by unmanned aerial vehicles, or drones, have been the primary weapon used by the United States to combat the Taliban and Al-Qaeda in Afghanistan and Pakistan. This paper examines the dynamics of violence involving drone strikes and the Taliban\\/Al-Qaeda in Afghanistan and Pakistan from January 2007 to December 2010. We find that drone strikes do not have any significant

  15. Water conflicts in South Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. G. Verghese

    1997-01-01

    Water conflicts within and between nations are endemic all over the world where water?demand is high became of population growth and development needs. After the partition of India, India and Pakistan signed an Indus Water Treaty in 1960. The lingering Indo?Bangladesh conflict over sharing the lean season flows of the Ganga has been happily resolved by the Ganga Water Treaty

  16. Prelude and South Pole

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lori Perkins

    1999-11-08

    This animation was released for two separate stories. The first release was of the first 15 seconds (450 frames) as Prelude to Antarctica and is stored in our database as animation 988. The entire animation was released as Tour of South Pole and appears here. The animation was created by laying the Pathfinder data over the globe, RADARSAT data over Antarctica, and the South Pole inset at the South Pole.

  17. Assessment of water quality of Manchar Lake in Sindh (Pakistan).

    PubMed

    Mastoi, Ghulam Murtaza; Shah, Syed Ghulam Sarwar; Khuhawar, Mohammad Yar

    2008-06-01

    Manchar Lake is the largest natural freshwater lake in Pakistan. The Lake has received less fresh water in past few years. In addition, drainage water is being discharged in the Lake through Main Nara Valley Drain (MNVD) since many years. Consequently, concern has grown regarding the water quality of the Lake. The aim of this study was to assess the water quality of Manchar Lake and MNVD and the objectives were to determine physiochemical properties and the concentrations of common cations and anions as well as seven trace metals i.e. Cu, Ni, Zn, Co, Fe, Pb and Cd. The concentration of the trace metals were determined by simultaneous preconcentration and solvent extraction using flame atomic absorption spectrometer. Results of physicochemical parameters of Manchar Lake water samples showed mean pH 8.4 (+/-0.2), conductivity 2,310.3 (+/-581.3) muS cm(-1) and hardness (as CaCO3) 213.1 (+/-62.3) mg l(-1). Mean concentrations of cations and anions were Na 521.5 (+/-49.7), Cl(-) 413.6 (+/-225.7), Ca 70.7 (+/-12.9), Mg 56.2 (+/-28.9), K 17.6 (+/-6.5), NO(3-) 0.34 (+/-0.2) and PO4(3-) 0.02 (+/-0.01) mg l(-1). Mean concentrations of trace metals were Zn 15.7 (+/-1), Fe 12 (+/-3.5), Pb 9 (+/-2.7), Cu 8.9 (+/-7.7), Ni 4.3 (+/-3.4), Co 4 (+/-3.4) and Cd 1.1 (+/-1) microg l(-1). MNVD water samples showed mean pH 8.9 (+/-0.8), conductivity 1,735.7 (+/-567.8) muS cm(-1) and hardness (as CaCO3) 184.8 (+/-32.4) mg l(-1). In MNWD, the mean concentrations of cations and anions were Na 482.7 (+/-11.7), Cl(-) 395.7 (+/-271.5), Ca 79.1 (+/-23.5), Mg 54.2 (+/-28.1), K 26.2 (+/-21.3), NO(-3) 0.5 (+/-0.3) and PO4(3-) 0.1 (+/-0.1) mg l(-1). Mean concentrations of trace metals observed in MNWD water were Fe 14.9(+/-3.5), Cd 8.3 (+/-9.4), Pb 6.9 (+/-2.4), Cu 6.6 (+/-3.1), Zn 6.2 (+/-1.8), Co 4.5 (+/-2.7), and Ni 3.5 (+/-2.9) microg l(-1). The pH of both Manchar Lake and MNVD waters and concentration of Pb in Manchar Lake and concentration of Cd in MNVD water were higher than the World Health Organisation's guideline values for the drinking water quality. The water quality of Manchar Lake was found degraded. PMID:17929187

  18. Terrorism in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Wang, Soon Joo; Choi, Jin Tae; Arnold, Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    South Korea has experienced > 30 suspected terrorism-related events since 1958, including attacks against South Korean citizens in foreign countries. The most common types of terrorism used have included bombings, shootings, hijackings, and kidnappings. Prior to 1990, North Korea was responsible for almost all terrorism-related events inside of South Korea, including multiple assassination attempts on its presidents, regular kidnappings of South Korean fisherman, and several high-profile bombings. Since 1990, most of the terrorist attacks against South Korean citizens have occurred abroad and have been related to the emerging worldwide pattern of terrorism by international terrorist organizations or deranged individuals. The 1988 Seoul Olympic Games provided a major stimulus for South Korea to develop a national emergency response system for terrorism-related events based on the participation of multiple ministries. The 11 September 2001 World Trade Center and Pentagon attacks and the 2001 United States of America (US) anthrax letter attacks prompted South Korea to organize a new national system of emergency response for terrorism-related events. The system is based on five divisions for the response to specific types of terrorist events, involving conventional terrorism, bioterrorism, chemical terrorism, radiological terrorism, and cyber-terrorism. No terrorism-related events occurred during the 2002 World Cup and Asian Games held in South Korea. The emergency management of terrorism-related events in South Korea is adapting to the changing risk of terrorism in the new century. PMID:15074497

  19. CLN6 disease caused by the same mutation originating in Pakistan has varying pathology.

    PubMed

    Guerreiro, Rita; Bras, Jose T; Vieira, Mariana; Warrier, Varun; Agrawal, Shakti; Stewart, Helen; Anderson, Glenn; Mole, Sara E

    2013-11-01

    The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs), the most common neurodegenerative diseases in children, are characterised by storage of autofluorescent material that has a characteristic ultrastructure. We report two families with variant late infantile NCL, both originating from Pakistan. Probands from both families were homozygous for the same mutation (c.316dupC) but had variable pathology to that currently thought to be typical for CLN6 disease, late infantile variant. The observed pathology of one proband resembled condensed fingerprints, previously described in late infantile CLN7 and CLN8 diseases, and pathology from the second proband was thought to be absent even after repeated skin biopsy, but observed after review. This mutation is the most common NCL mutation in families originating from Pakistan and could be prioritised for testing. Finally, this report contains the first prenatal diagnosis for late infantile CLN6 disease, initially made on the basis of EM and now confirmed by mutation analysis. PMID:23735787

  20. A Review on Fuel Economy Standards and Labels for Motor Vehicles: Implementation Possibility in Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Memon, Liaquat Ali; Mahlia, T. M. I.; Masjuki, H. H.

    This research investigates the possibilities of potential savings and reduction in Green House Gas (GHG) emissions caused by road transport in general and private cars in particular. Private cars use a large share of the transport fuel, thus these are the major and ever increasing contributor to the GHG emissions. An extensive review of international experiences on fuel economy standards and labels, in order to encounter the problem, is carried. The possibilities of the implementation of fuel economy standards and labels for motor vehicles in Pakistan are examined. Based on the studies carried out in developed countries, results have shown that the implementation of fuel economy standards and labels for motor vehicles in developing countries like Pakistan would be beneficial for the society, government as well as environment.

  1. Recovering from disasters: a study of livelihoods in post-quake villages in northern Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khan, Kashif Saeed; Shanmugaratnam, Nadarajah; Nyborg, Ingrid L P

    2015-04-01

    The October 2005 earthquake in northern Pakistan severely affected the livelihoods of 1.5 million people. With the destruction of material assets and communications infrastructure, the quake had a devastating impact on people's way of life in this remote mountainous region. This paper explores livelihood revival interventions undertaken during the earthquake response, and considers how differentiated livelihood outcomes were achieved. In addressing this objective the paper examines livelihood rehabilitation schemes in terms of structural aspects, working strategies, key factors, strengths of interventions and the role of human agency in influencing livelihood trajectories of quake-affected communities. Primary data for this study was gathered in northern Pakistan between October 2008 and January 2009. The study identifies structural shortcomings and strengths of the programmes attempting to revive the livelihoods of poor and vulnerable households. It identifies how households in two villages made the most of opportunities to improve their lives and move towards favourable outcomes. PMID:25442035

  2. A question mark on iron deficiency in 185 million people of Pakistan: its outcomes and prevention.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Anwaar; Ahmad, Asif; Khalid, Nauman; David, Angel; Sandhu, Mansoor Abdullah; Randhawa, Muhammad Atif; Suleria, Hafiz Ansar Rasul

    2014-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiency especially the iron deficiency is the bane of our lives, affecting all strata of society. Unfortunately, the women during pregnancy, adolescence, and children are under this curse particularly in developing countries like Pakistan. It is one of the biggest reasons of complications during pregnancy and malnourished children under five years of age. Maternal death, still-births, and underweight births are most common consequences of iron deficiency and these outbreaks as iron-deficiency anemia in Pakistan. Disastrous nature of iron deficiency requires an urgent call to eradicate it. Hence, the solution should not be frail comparing with the huge economic loss and other incompatibilities. Flour fortification, supplementation, dietary diversification, and especially maternal education are possible solutions for combating this micronutrient deficiency. PMID:24580562

  3. Movements of people, ideas, trade, and technology: Toward a peaceful coexistence of India and Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, S. [Asia Foundation, Islamabad (Pakistan); Das, S. [Univ. of Calcutta (India)

    1998-03-01

    The potential exists for peaceful and constructive bilateral relations between India and Pakistan. Domestic developments in both countries, the changing global economic and political environment, and structural changes in regional trading patterns have created new opportunities for replacing traditional Indian and Pakistani perceptions of hostility and suspicion with mutual understanding and trust. This substitution process can be accelerated by increasing people-to-people contact, the free flow of information, and economic and technological cooperation between the two neighbors. Nonmilitary confidence building measures could create conditions for an incremental reduction on tensions between India and Pakistan. A popular consciousness for enhanced bilateral cooperation is growing. This process could be strengthened by identifying and exploring new areas of mutually beneficial cooperation that could pave the way for peace.

  4. 3. SOUTH SIDE. Edwards Air Force Base, South Base ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. SOUTH SIDE. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing & Control Blockhouse for 10,000-foot Track, South of Sled Track at midpoint of 20,000-foot track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  5. 10. BUILDING: SECOND FLOOR (East Section), VIEW SOUTH: EAST, SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. BUILDING: SECOND FLOOR (East Section), VIEW SOUTH: EAST, SOUTH AND WEST WALLS OF COLD STORAGE, ALSO SHOWING REMNANTS OF COOLING PIPES - Boston Beer Company, 225-249 West Second Street, South Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  6. 118. Stage basement. View, facing south, of the south hydraulic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    118. Stage basement. View, facing south, of the south hydraulic ram (type D) in the middle row. Photo was taken before the stage flooring was removed. - Auditorium Building, 430 South Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  7. How Learning and Teaching of Mathematics Can Be Made Interesting: A Study Based on Statistical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbasi, Sarwar J.; Iqbal, Kahkashan

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we evaluate the true proportion of mathematics educators and teachers at under/post graduate levels in Karachi, Pakistan in making math courses lively to students. We use a random sample of 75 students of engineering and commerce studying in three different universities namely University of Karachi, Usman Institute of Technology…

  8. Biogeochemical and environmental study of the chromite-rich ultramafic terrain of Malakand area, Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Q. Kfayatullah; M. Tahir Shah; M. Arfan

    2001-01-01

    The biogeochemical distribution of enzyme-bound metals in the plants and soil of the chromite-rich mineralized area of Malakand Agency and the non-mineralized area of Mardan (N.W.F.P., Pakistan) has been studied in regard to mineral prospecting and environmental pollution. Samples of lower plants accompanied with their associated soil samples were collected and analysed for copper, lead, zinc, nickel, chromium and cobalt.

  9. Interpretation of landslide distribution triggered by the 2005 Northern Pakistan earthquake using SPOT 5 imagery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi P. Sato; Hiroyuki Hasegawa; Satoshi Fujiwara; Mikio Tobita; Mamoru Koarai; Hiroshi Une; Junko Iwahashi

    2007-01-01

    The 2005 northern Pakistan earthquake (magnitude 7.6) of 8 October 2005 occurred in the northwestern part of the Himalayas.\\u000a We interpreted landslides triggered by the earthquake using black-and-white 2.5-m-resolution System Pour l’Observation de la Terre 5 (SPOT 5) stereo images. As a result, the counts of 2,424 landslides were identified in the study area of 55 by 51 km. About\\u000a 79%

  10. Transmission and control of vivax malaria in Afghan refugee settlements in Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Rowland; Sean Hewitt; Naeem Durrani; Naveeda Bano; Robert Wirtz

    1997-01-01

    Regular biting collections were conducted in 1993–1994 to investigate seasonal fluctuations in the abundance of anophelines in Afghan refugee villages in north-western Pakistan. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to test heads-plus-thoraces for the presence of malaria sporozoites. Anophelines giving positive results for Plasmodium vivax were captured in every month except January. Nine species were positive. Biting rates showed a marked

  11. A preliminary passive surveillance of clinical diseases of cart pulling camels in Faisalabad metropolis (Pakistan)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ghulam Muhammad; Abdul Jabbar; Zafar Iqbal; Muhammad Athar; Muhammad Saqib

    2006-01-01

    We identified clinical disorders of all 200 city-dwelling cart pulling male camels attending the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan during a 7-year period (1993–1999). Data were collected prospectively on a predesigned form and collated. Diagnoses of different diseases\\/disorders were based on clinical examination supplemented with relevant laboratory tests. A total of 463 entries of 34 different clinical

  12. Measurement of rare earths elements in Kakul phosphorite deposits of Pakistan using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabiha-Javied; S. Waheed; N. Siddique; R. Shakoor; M. Tufail

    2010-01-01

    The rare earth elements (REEs) content of Kakul phosphate rock (PR) from different localities of the main Hazara deposits\\u000a of Pakistan were determined using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). 25 phosphorite samples were collected from\\u000a different phosphorite sites and 6 samples representing different batches from the crushing plant near Kakul Mine. Concentrations\\u000a of seven REEs (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Sm,

  13. Complete Genome Sequence of a Recent Panzootic Virulent Newcastle Disease Virus from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Wajid, Abdul; Wasim, Muhammad; Rehmani, Shafqat F; Bibi, Tasra; Ahmed, Nazir; Afonso, Claudio L

    2015-01-01

    The genome sequence of a new strain of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) (chicken/Pak/Quality Operations Lab/SFR-611/13) is reported here. The strain was isolated from a vaccinated chicken flock in Pakistan in 2013 and has panzootic features. The genome is 15,192 nucleotides in length and is classified in subgenotype VIIi of genotype VII, class II. PMID:26089424

  14. Beyond Kargil: The technology of peace in India-Pakistan border relations

    SciTech Connect

    Tahir-Kheli, S.; Biringer, K.L.

    2000-01-12

    The potential for cooperation between India and Pakistan is substantial. Topics as widely varying as national security, the environment and trade hold the potential for improved bilateral relations. This paper looks at a few areas in which monitoring technology could contribute to enhancing cooperative border agreements between the two nations. The goal of the paper is not to provide prescriptive solutions to regional problems, but to expand the number of options being considered for improving Indian-Pakistan relations. Many of the impediments to bilateral progress are a result of a history of conflict and mistrust. By utilizing technical monitoring and inspections, each side can begin to replace suspicion and doubt with knowledge and information useful in making informed political, economic and military decisions. At the same time, technical monitoring and inspections can build confidence through common interactions. India and Pakistan have pledged to resolve their disputes, including Kashmir, through dialogue. Implementation of that pledge is influenced by a number of factors, including changes in the political systems and the fortunes of the leadership. Events of the past year and a half have severely tested these two governments' ability to move forward along a constructive and positive path. Testing of new missile systems both preceded and followed testing of nuclear weapons in May 1998. Both countries disregarded subsequent international displeasure as they proceeded to openly declare their respective nuclear capability. Their brief engagement with each other in February 1999 and movement toward a rapprochement diluted international condemnation of their nuclear activity. Within a recent period of nine months however, progress in the dialogue has been stalled first by the Pakistani move in Kashmir in May 1999, then by the Indian election in the summer of 1999 and most recently by the military coup in Pakistan.

  15. Comparative Study of Liver Cancer Patients in Arsenic Exposed and Non-exposed Areas of Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sham Kumar Wadhwa; Tasneem Gul Kazi; Akhtar Ali Chandio; Hassan Imran Afridi; Nida Fatima Kolachi; Sumaira Khan; Ghulam Abbas Kandhro; Syeda Nasreen; Abdul Qadir Shah; Jameel Ahmed Baig

    The investigated data shows that arsenic (As) in drinking water is associated with increased mortality from different types\\u000a of cancers including liver cancer. In this study, blood and scalp hair samples of male liver cancer patients and healthy referents\\u000a belonging to As exposed areas of Sindh Pakistan were analyzed for As contents. The As levels in drinking water of understudy

  16. Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication--Afghanistan and Pakistan, January 2013-August 2014.

    PubMed

    Farag, Noha H; Alexander, James; Hadler, Stephen; Quddus, Arshad; Durry, Elias; Wadood, Mufty Zubair; Tangermann, Rudolph H; Ehrhardt, Derek

    2014-10-31

    In 2012, the World Health Assembly declared the completion of polio eradication a programmatic emergency for global public health and called for a comprehensive polio endgame strategy. Afghanistan and Pakistan are two of the three remaining countries (the other is Nigeria) where circulation of indigenous wild poliovirus (WPV) has never been interrupted. This report updates previous reports and describes polio eradication activities and progress in Afghanistan and Pakistan during January 2013-August 2014. In Afghanistan, 14 WPV cases were reported in 2013, compared with 37 cases in 2012; nine cases were reported during January-August 2014, compared with six cases during the same period in 2013. In Pakistan, 93 WPV cases were reported in 2013, compared with 58 cases in 2012; 170 cases were reported during January-August 2014, compared with 33 cases during the same period in 2013. All WPV cases reported during January 2013-August 2014 were WPV type 1 (WPV1). Vaccination campaigns have been banned since June 2012 in specific areas in Pakistan, where an estimated 300,000 children aged <5 years reside and where 69% of WPV cases have occurred in 2014. To accomplish the objectives of the Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan for 2013-2018 both countries should continue to negotiate access of vaccinators to insecure and temporarily inaccessible areas, improve immunization program performance to reach more children in accessible areas, and ensure that political and health leaders at all levels are fully committed to the program, including being committed to providing financial resources needed to fully implement all the recommendations of external technical advisory groups. Both countries should also continue to strengthen cross-border collaboration to improve surveillance and case detection, coordinate outbreak response, and maximize vaccination coverage of children moving between the two countries. PMID:25356605

  17. Boiling fluids in a region of rapid uplift, Nanga Parbat Massif, Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Craw; P. O. Koons; D. Winslow; C. P. Chamberlain; P. Zeitler

    1994-01-01

    The Nanga Parbat massif of northern Pakistan is currently undergoing rapid uplift (approx. 5-10 mm\\/a), resulting in near-surface elevated temperatures. Numerous quartz veins cut geologically young structures (less than 2 Ma), attesting to widespread young fluid flow. Fluid inclusions in quartz veins are predominantly low density water vapor (down to 0.05 mg\\/cu m), with some low density carbon dioxide vapor,

  18. Stratigraphy and structure of the Indus Suture in the Lower Swat, Pakistan, NW Himalaya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Anczkiewicz; J.-P. Burg; S. S. Hussain; H. Dawood; M. Ghazanfar; M. N. Chaudhry

    1998-01-01

    We present a geological map, detailed structural description and new subdivisions of the Indus Suture Zone lithologies in northeast Pakistan (Lower Swat region). The Indus Suture Zone is a dominantly fore-arc related assemblage obducted onto the Indian Plate. Initial southward thrusting was followed by the reactivation of the Indus Suture as a ductile-brittle normal fault. Significant strike-slip faulting may have

  19. Spores and pollen from tertiary lignites from Dandot, West Punjab (Pakistan)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. P. Vimal

    1952-01-01

    Summary  The paper deals with fossil spores and pollen recovered from lignites (Eocene) of the Dandot coalfields, West Punjab (Pakistan).\\u000a Ten different kinds of spores referred to the form genusTrilites and twenty types of pollen grains, classed underNonaperturites, Monocolpites, Dicolpites, Tricolpites,Tetracolpites, Hexacolpites, Septacolpites, Octacolpites andTriorites, have been described here. Some of the spores resemble those ofOphioglossum falcatum, O. vulgatum, Lycopodium alpinum,

  20. Dry matter accumulation in potato clones under seasonal high temperature conditions in Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nasrullah J. Malik; Robert B. Dwelle; Michael K. Thornton; Joseph J. Pavek

    1992-01-01

    The effects of seasonal high temperatures on potatoes were investigated under field conditions near Peshawar, Pakistan. Five\\u000a potato clones (A79196-1, Desiree, DTO-28, LT-1, Russet Burbank) were grown during the spring season at two locations. Canopy\\u000a development, vine dry weight and tuber dry weight were determined at 13-day intervals, starting 68 days after planting (DAP).\\u000a Tuber yield was higher in heat

  1. The Role of Information Technology in Education Sector (A Case Study of Faisalabad - Pakistan)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Muhammad Rizwan Safdar; Falak Sher; Shabbar Iqbal; Khaliq Ali Shakir

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the theoretical approaches of educated people about the role of information technology in the development of education sector, with particular context of Pakistan. Quantitative (measured scale) variables and qualitative thematic variables generated from open-ended responses were analyzed by applying statistical measures, i.e. SPSS, to find out the outcomes. About 91.7% of the respondents signify information technology as

  2. Phenotypic variation and the relationships among mustard (Brassica juncea L.) germplasm from Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Malik Ashiq Rabbani; Aki Iwabuchi; Yoshie Murakami; Tohru Suzuki; Kenji Takayanagi

    1998-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the extent of diversity and relationships among the Brassica juncea germplasm\\u000a from Pakistan using morphological characters. A total of 52 accessions, including the collected germplasm as well as commercial\\u000a cultivars\\/improved lines, were studied under field conditions at Tsukuba, Japan during 1995 and 1996. All the accessions were\\u000a characterized for 35 agro-morphological characters from seedling

  3. Composite use of numerical groundwater flow modeling and geoinformatics techniques for monitoring Indus Basin aquifer, Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zulfiqar Ahmad; Arshad Ashraf; Alan Fryar; Gulraiz Akhter

    2011-01-01

    The integration of the Geographic Information System (GIS) with groundwater modeling and satellite remote sensing capabilities\\u000a has provided an efficient way of analyzing and monitoring groundwater behavior and its associated land conditions. A 3-dimensional\\u000a finite element model (Feflow) has been used for regional groundwater flow modeling of Upper Chaj Doab in Indus Basin, Pakistan.\\u000a The approach of using GIS techniques

  4. Non-invasive prenatal determination of fetal RhD genotyping from maternal plasma: a preliminary study in Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nuruddin Mohammed; Fatima Kakal; Mehreen Somani; Wajiha Zafar

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy of the non-invasive pre-natal real-time polymerase chain reaction based fetal RhD genotyping from maternal plasma.\\u000aSTUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.\\u000aPLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Juma Health Sciences Research Laboratory, The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from July to December 2008.\\u000aMETHODOLOGY: Cell-free plasma DNA from 21 D-negative women with D-positive spouse between 20-39 weeks of

  5. The 2010 Pakistan Flood and Russian Heat Wave: Teleconnection of Hydrometeorological Extremes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, William K. M.; Kim, Kyu-Myong

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, preliminary results are presented showing that the two record-setting extreme events during 2010 summer (i.e., the Russian heat wave-wildfires and Pakistan flood) were physically connected. It is found that the Russian heat wave was associated with the development of an extraordinarily strong and prolonged extratropical atmospheric blocking event in association with the excitation of a large-scale atmospheric Rossby wave train spanning western Russia, Kazakhstan, and the northwestern China-Tibetan Plateau region. The southward penetration of upper-level vorticity perturbations in the leading trough of the Rossby wave was instrumental in triggering anomalously heavy rain events over northern Pakistan and vicinity in mid- to late July. Also shown are evidences that the Russian heat wave was amplified by a positive feedback through changes in surface energy fluxes between the atmospheric blocking pattern and an underlying extensive land region with below-normal soil moisture. The Pakistan heavy rain events were amplified and sustained by strong anomalous southeasterly flow along the Himalayan foothills and abundant moisture transport from the Bay of Bengal in connection with the northward propagation of the monsoonal intraseasonal oscillation.

  6. Reforms in Pakistan: Decisive Times for Improving Maternal and Child Health

    PubMed Central

    Mazhar, Arslan; Shaikh, Babar Tasneem

    2012-01-01

    Pakistan is a struggling economy with poor maternal and child health indicators that have affected attainment of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 (under-five child and maternal mortality). Recent health reforms have abolished the federal Ministry of Health and devolved administrative and financial powers to the provinces. Ideally, devolution tends to simplify a healthcare system's management structure and ensure more efficient delivery of health services to underserved populations, in this case women and children. In this time of transition, it is appropriate to outline prerequisites for the efficient management of maternal and child health (MCH) services. This paper examines the six building blocks of health systems in order to improve the utilization of MCH services in rural Pakistan. The targeted outcomes of recent reforms are devolved participatory decision-making regarding distribution of MCH-related services, improved deployment of the healthcare workforce, prioritization of pro-poor strategies for health financing and integration of various health information systems. Given this window of opportunity, the provinces need to guarantee fairness and equity through their stewardship of the healthcare system so as to protect vulnerable mothers and their children, especially in rural, remote and disadvantaged areas of Pakistan. PMID:23968601

  7. DNA barcode analysis of butterfly species from Pakistan points towards regional endemism

    PubMed Central

    Ashfaq, Muhammad; Akhtar, Saleem; Khan, Arif M; Adamowicz, Sarah J; Hebert, Paul D N

    2013-01-01

    DNA barcodes were obtained for 81 butterfly species belonging to 52 genera from sites in north-central Pakistan to test the utility of barcoding for their identification and to gain a better understanding of regional barcode variation. These species represent 25% of the butterfly fauna of Pakistan and belong to five families, although the Nymphalidae were dominant, comprising 38% of the total specimens. Barcode analysis showed that maximum conspecific divergence was 1.6%, while there was 1.7–14.3% divergence from the nearest neighbour species. Barcode records for 55 species showed <2% sequence divergence to records in the Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD), but only 26 of these cases involved specimens from neighbouring India and Central Asia. Analysis revealed that most species showed little incremental sequence variation when specimens from other regions were considered, but a threefold increase was noted in a few cases. There was a clear gap between maximum intraspecific and minimum nearest neighbour distance for all 81 species. Neighbour-joining cluster analysis showed that members of each species formed a monophyletic cluster with strong bootstrap support. The barcode results revealed two provisional species that could not be clearly linked to known taxa, while 24 other species gained their first coverage. Future work should extend the barcode reference library to include all butterfly species from Pakistan as well as neighbouring countries to gain a better understanding of regional variation in barcode sequences in this topographically and climatically complex region. PMID:23789612

  8. Detection and phylogenetic analysis of peste des petits ruminants virus isolated from outbreaks in Punjab, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Munir, M; Zohari, S; Saeed, A; Khan, Q M; Abubakar, M; LeBlanc, N; Berg, M

    2012-02-01

    Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) is an important viral disease of small ruminants and is endemic in Pakistan. In the following study, samples from two outbreaks of PPR in goats have been subjected to laboratory investigations. The Peste des Petits Ruminants virus (PPRV) genome was detected using both conventional and real-time PCR. Genetic characterization of the local PPRV field isolates was conducted by sequencing 322?bp of the fusion (F) gene and 255 bp of the nucleoprotein (N) gene. The phylogenetic tree based on the F gene clustered samples from both outbreaks into lineage 4 along with other Asian isolates, specifically into subcluster 1 along with isolates from Middle East. Analysis of N gene revealed a different pattern. In this case, the Pakistani samples clustered with Chinese, Tajikistani and Iranian isolates, which probably represents the true geographical pattern of virus circulation. This is the first report presenting the phylogenetic tree based on N gene as well as performing a parallel comparison of the trees of F and N gene together from Pakistani isolates. The results of this study shed light on the PPRV population in Pakistan and emphasize the importance of using molecular methods to understand the epidemiology. Such understanding is essential in any efforts to control the number and impact of outbreaks that are occurring in endemic countries such as Pakistan, especially in the current scenario where OIE and FAO are eager to control and subsequently eradicate PPR from the globe, as has been achieved for Rinderpest. PMID:21777402

  9. Frequency of ICD-10 psychiatric diagnosis in children with intellectual disability in Lahore, Pakistan & Caregivers Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Imran, Nazish; Azeem, Muhammad Waqar; Sattar, Ahsan; Bhatti, Mohammad Riaz

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Association between Intellectual disability (ID) and psychiatric disorders in children & adolescents is well established but there is a paucity of published studies from Pakistan on this topic. The main aim of the study was to assess the frequency of ICD-10 psychiatric diagnosis in the hospital outpatient sample of children with ID in Lahore, Pakistan as well as to find out which challenging behaviors, caregivers find difficult to manage in this setup. Methods: Socio-demographic information was collected, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised & ICD-10 diagnostic criteria was used to assess children (age range 6 – 16 years) with suspected ID along with identification of behaviors found to be difficult to manage by caregivers. Results: 150 children were assessed with mean age of 10.7 years (males 70 %). Majority (72%) had mild ID while 18.7% and 9.3% had moderate and severe ID respectively. Thirty percent of children met the criteria for any psychiatric diagnosis, the most common being Oppositional Defiant Disorder (14%) and Hyperkinetic Disorders (10%). Verbal and physical aggression, school difficulties, socialization problems, inappropriate behaviors (e.g. disinhibition), sleep & feeding difficulties were the significant areas identified by the caregivers as a cause of major concern. Conclusions: Significantly high prevalence of ICD-10 psychiatric diagnosis in children with ID was found in Lahore, Pakistan. Support services for these children should be responsive not only to the needs of the child, but also to the needs of the family.

  10. Access to Essential Medicines in Pakistan: Policy and Health Systems Research Concerns

    PubMed Central

    Zaidi, Shehla; Bigdeli, Maryam; Aleem, Noureen; Rashidian, Arash

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Inadequate access to essential medicines is a common issue within developing countries. Policy response is constrained, amongst other factors, by a dearth of in-depth country level evidence. We share here i) gaps related to access to essential medicine in Pakistan; and ii) prioritization of emerging policy and research concerns. Methods An exploratory research was carried out using a health systems perspective and applying the WHO Framework for Equitable Access to Essential Medicine. Methods involved key informant interviews with policy makers, providers, industry, NGOs, experts and development partners, review of published and grey literature, and consultative prioritization in stakeholder’s Roundtable. Findings A synthesis of evidence found major gaps in essential medicine access in Pakistan driven by weaknesses in the health care system as well as weak pharmaceutical regulation. 7 major policy concerns and 11 emerging research concerns were identified through consultative Roundtable. These related to weaknesses in medicine registration and quality assurance systems, unclear and counterproductive pricing policies, irrational prescribing and sub-optimal drug availability. Available research, both locally and globally, fails to target most of the identified policy concerns, tending to concentrate on irrational prescriptions. It overlooks trans-disciplinary areas of policy effectiveness surveillance, consumer behavior, operational pilots and pricing interventions review. Conclusion Experience from Pakistan shows that policy concerns related to essential medicine access need integrated responses across various components of the health systems, are poorly addressed by existing evidence, and require an expanded health systems research agenda. PMID:23717442

  11. Identification of an Australian-like dicot-infecting mastrevirus in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Kraberger, Simona; Mumtaz, Huma; Claverie, Sohini; Martin, Darren P; Briddon, Rob W; Varsani, Arvind

    2015-03-01

    Although members of five distinct viral species in the genus Mastrevirus (family Geminiviridae) infect dicotyledonous plants in Australia, in the remainder of the world, only a single dicot-infecting mastrevirus, chickpea chlorotic dwarf virus (CpCDV) has ever been identified. This virus has been found infecting leguminous hosts in Africa, the Middle East and the Indian subcontinent. To further explore the diversity of CpCDV in Pakistan, ten full mastrevirus genome sequences from chickpea and lentil plants were determined. Eight of these genomes were from previously described CpCDV strains and included the first reported strain D and H isolates in Pakistan. Two other genomes derived from infected chickpea plants are more closely related to dicot-infecting mastreviruses found in Australia than they are to CpCDV. These two divergent genomes shared less than 75 % genome-wide nucleotide sequence identity with other characterised mastreviruses and therefore are likely to belong to a second species of dicot-infecting mastreviruses outside of Australia. We propose naming this species Chickpea yellow dwarf virus. We discuss how the presence of chickpea yellow dwarf virus (CpYDV) in Pakistan weakens the hypothesis that Australia is the geographical origin of the dicot-infecting mastreviruses. PMID:25537086

  12. Subfamily Coleoscirinae (Acari: Trombidiformes: Cunaxidae), with Description of One New Species from Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Bashir, Muhammad Hamid; Afzal, Muhammad; Ashfaq, Muhammad; Ali, Shaukat; Kamran, Muhammad; Honey, Sabyan Faris

    2014-01-01

    The Coleoscirinae (Acari: Trombidiformes: Cunaxidae) from Pakistan are summarized in this paper. Two species of Scutascirus Den Heyer (S. pirgus Chaudhri and Akbar and S. tactus Chaudhri and Akbar), ten species of Coleoscirus Berlese (C. baptos (Chaudhri and Akbar), C. carex (Inayatullah and Shahid), C. carnus Muhammad and Chaudhri, C. comis Muhammad and Chaudhri, C. disparis Muhammad and Chaudhri, C. irroratus Muhammad and Chaudhri, C. mardi (Inatullah and Shahid), C. raviensis Afzal, Ashfaq and Khan, C. tobaensis Bashir, Afzal, Ashfaq, and Khan, and C. trudus Bashir, Afzal and Akbar), and three species of Pseudobonzia Smiley (P. ashfaqi Bashir, Afzal and Akbar, P. numida Chaudhri and Akbar, and P. parilus Chaudhri) have been previously reported. One new species of Pseudobonzia, Pseudobonzia bakeri sp. n., is herein described and illustrated. A key to the genera of the subfamily and keys to the species in each genus are given to incorporate the new species from Pakistan. Distribution records of all known species in Pakistan are also given. PMID:25368038

  13. 15. First floor, south wall, looking south Veterans Administration ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. First floor, south wall, looking south - Veterans Administration Center, Officers Duplex Quarters, 5302 East Kellogg (Legal Address); 5500 East Kellogg (Common Address), Wichita, Sedgwick County, KS

  14. 56. SOUTH ENTRANCE DOORS WITH RESTORED FANLIGHT, LOOKING SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. SOUTH ENTRANCE DOORS WITH RESTORED FANLIGHT, LOOKING SOUTH - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  15. South Atlantic -East Florida

    E-print Network

    South Atlantic Key South Atlantic Commercial Species · Clams · Oysters · Blue crab · Shrimp · Flounders groups covered in these fishery management plans, pink shrimp, snowy grouper, black sea bass, red porgy, and red snapper are currently considered overfished. For short-lived species such as pink shrimp

  16. SOUTH BELOIT TOLL PLAZA ELGINTOLLPLAZA

    E-print Network

    90 39 SOUTH BELOIT TOLL PLAZA ELGINTOLLPLAZA BELVIDERETOLLPLAZA DEVON TOLLPLAZA RIVERROAD TOLLPLAZA SOUTH BELOIT TOLL PLAZA Toll Plaza Location Possible Interchange Expansion Space for New Transit Options

  17. A new species of the cicada genus Cicadatra Kolenati, 1857 (Hemiptera, Cicadidae) from Pakistan with a key to the known species of Pakistani Cicadatra

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Zubair; Sanborn, Allen F.; Akhter, Muhammad Atique

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A new species of cicada, Cicadatra ziaratica sp. n., is described from Pakistan. Male genitalia, timbal and opercula are described and illustrated as important diagnostic characters. Biological notes are also provided. A key to the known Cicadatra of Pakistan is provided. PMID:22451783

  18. From their own perspective - constraints in the Polio Eradication Initiative: perceptions of health workers and managers in a district of Pakistan's Punjab province

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Muhammad Umair Mushtaq; Ubeera Shahid; Muhammad Ashraf Majrooh; Mushtaq Ahmad Shad; Arif Mahmood Siddiqui; Javed Akram

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The success of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative was remarkable, but four countries - Afghanistan, Pakistan, India and Nigeria - never interrupted polio transmission. Pakistan reportedly achieved all milestones except interrupting virus transmission. This paper describes the perceptions of health workers and managers regarding constraints in the Polio Eradication Initiative (PEI) to ultimately provide evidence for designing future interventions.

  19. Cooperative Mmonitoring Center Occasional Paper/5: Propspects of Conventional Arms Control in South Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Amit; Kamal, Nazir

    1998-11-01

    The intensely adversarial relationship between India and Pakistan is marked by military rivalry, mutual distrust, and suspicion. The most dividing disagreement has been over the Kashmir region. An inability to discuss the Kashmir issue has prevented discussion on other important issues. Since there is little prospect of detente, at least in the near-term, the question is whether this rivalry can be contained by other means, such as arms control approaches. Conventional arms control has been applied flexibly and successfully in some regions to reduce threat-perceptions and achieve reassuring military stability. Some lessons from other international models might be applied to the India/Pakistan context. This paper discusses the status of conventional arms control in South Asia, the dominant Indian and Pakistani perceptions about arms control, the benefits that could be derived from arms control, as well as the problems and prospects of arms control. It also discusses existing conventional arms control agreements at the regional and global levels as well as the potential role of cooperative monitoring technology.

  20. View looking south out the door opening from the south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking south out the door opening from the south side of the rotunda extension onto the "dog house" or vestibule positioned where the west Verandah of the south wing turns ninety degrees and continues along the south wall of the central pavilion. - U. S. Naval Asylum, Biddle Hall, Gray's Ferry Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA