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  1. Tactical cities : negotiating violence in Karachi, Pakistan

    E-print Network

    Yusuf, Huma

    2008-01-01

    This thesis examines the relationship between violence and urbanity. Using Karachi, Pakistan, as a case study, it asks how violent cities are imagined and experienced by their residents. The thesis draws on a variety of ...

  2. Determinants of childhood mortality in slums of Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    D'souza, R M; Bryant, J H

    1999-01-01

    Pakistan has an infant mortality rate (IMR) of 90.5/1000 live births, and the country's child mortality level of 117.5 is worse than in other South Asian countries. Rapid population growth combined with rural-to-urban migration has led to the creation of urban slums in which morbidity levels are usually higher than in rural populations. A study was conducted in January 1993 in 6 slums of Karachi where the Aga Khan University has operated primary health care programs since 1985. Researchers recorded the deaths of 347 children under age 5 years old due to diarrhea and acute respiratory infections (ARI) during 1989-93. 235 mothers of these children were interviewed. The following are discussed as risk factors for under-5 child mortality: the use of traditional healers, poor nutritional status, incomplete or no immunization, the quick change of healers, inappropriate child care arrangements, mother's literacy, who decides about outside treatment, short birth interval, bottle feeding, and nuclear family structure. Maternal autonomy, appropriate health-seeking behavior, and child-rearing processes identified in the study point to the need for intervention strategies which go beyond the usual primary health care initiatives and involve communities in developing social support systems for mothers. PMID:12349108

  3. Cholera in a developing megacity; Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, A; Khan, A; Malik, T; Fisher-Hoch, S P

    1997-12-01

    Despite rapid urbanization and increasing affluence in Karachi, cases of cholera are frequent. We analysed computerized isolation data from the AKUH Clinical Microbiology Laboratory, Karachi, from 1990-6 to examine microbiological, temporal and demographic trends in Vibrio cholerae infections. During this period 888 strains of V. cholerae (566 V. cholerae serogroup O1, and 204 V. cholerae serogroup O139) were isolated from specimens from 886 patients; 214/464 were adult inpatients, and 250/464 paediatric inpatients, the remaining 422 outpatients. Isolations peaked between June and August. Overlapping epidemics occurred in 1993 and 1994 of serogroup O1 (May to August), and serogroup O139 (August to October). All ages and social and economic strata were affected. Forty-four percent of all isolates were from children under the age of 5 years. The mean age of all patients with serogroup O1 infections was 19.6 years (+/-0.9) compared with 367 (+/-1.7) for serogroup O139 infections (P < 0.0001, t test). More than a quarter (27%) of all serogroup O1 isolates were from babies under 2 years of age. One patient had a serogroup O1 infection followed by a serogroup O139 infection 1 year later. Another patient was infected with serogroup O1 strains 5 years apart. Emergence of resistant strains was observed, but by 1996 serogroup O139 had disappeared. An aquatic organism, cholera nevertheless continues to take its toll in this city of 11 million situated in a desert. PMID:9440430

  4. Research fatigue among injecting drug users in Karachi, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Karachi is the largest metropolis of Pakistan and its economic hub attracting domestic migrants for economic opportunities. It is also the epicenter of HIV epidemic in the country. Since 2004, one pilot study and four behavioral and biological surveillance rounds have been conducted in Karachi. In addition many student research projects have also focused on key risk groups including injection drug users (IDUs). As a result of this extra ordinary exposure of same kind of questions, IDUs know how to respond to high value questions related to sharing of needles or unsafe sexual practices. The purpose of the study was to explore the element of research fatigue among IDUs in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods The study was conducted on 32 spots in Karachi, selected on the basis of estimate of IDUs at each spot. A trained field worker (recovered IDU) visited each spot; observed sharing behavior of IDUs and asked questions related to practices in January 2009. Verbal consent was obtained from each respondent before asking questions. Results On average 14 IDUs were present at each spot and out of 32 selected spots, 81% were active while more than two groups were present at 69% spots. In each group three to four IDUs were present and everyone in the group was sharing. One dose of injecting narcotics was observed. Sharing of syringes, needles and distilled water was observed at 63% spots while professional injector/street doctor was present at 60% spots. Conclusion There is a need to check internal consistency in surveillance research. It is highly likely that IDUs and other risk groups know how to respond to key questions but their responses do not match with the practices. PMID:23758666

  5. "Shelter within my reach" : medium rise apartment housing for the middle income group in Karachi, Pakistan

    E-print Network

    Mahmood, Saman, 1972-

    1999-01-01

    This thesis identifies the project development processes of medium rise (five storied or less) apartment housing built by the private formal sector, catering to the middle income groups in Karachi, Pakistan. Middle income ...

  6. Sociodemographic Pattern of Depression in Urban Settlement of Karachi, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Altaf, Areeba; Khan, Maham; Fatima, Kaneez; Tunio, Sameer Altaf; Hussain, Mehwish; Khan, Muhammad Asim; Shaikh, Moazzam Ali; Arshad, Mohammad Hussham

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Depression is a global issue prevalent among developing countries like Pakistan as compared to developed countries. We conducted a study to assess the prevalence and identify the significant predictors of depression in an elite urban settlement in Karachi, Pakistan. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was done in the elitist residential area of Karachi; Defence Housing Authority (DHA). Four hundred and twenty three participants were included by going to their residences. Self-administered questionnaires were handed out after taking informed consent. Level of depression was assessed by Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Data were entered and analysed in Predictive Analytical Software v. 18.0. Results The mean and median total score of the scale were 5.9 ± 5.4 and 4 (7) respectively with minimum score 0 and maximum 27. In this sequence, 139 (32.86%) respondents were identified to be depressed. It was found that females were slight more depressed than males (p = 0.063). Regression Model identified only gender and marital status as significant predictors of depression. Having a female gender increased 0.658 times chance of being depressed (p = 0.047). Unmarried person had 0.296 times more likely to be depressed (p = 0.019). Boredom was considered as significant factor of depression by the participants (p< 0.0001). Odds ratio signified depression occurred 0.310 times more if one was bored. Discussion Depression should be considered as a major public health issue for the city. Public awareness should be done in all parts of the city in an attempt to reduce depression especially among the female gender. PMID:26266197

  7. Harnessing Photovoice for tuberculosis advocacy in Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Shama; Sajun, Sana Zehra; Khan, Faisal S

    2015-06-01

    In Pakistan, despite publically available free testing and treatment throughout the country, there were an estimated 58,000 deaths due to tuberculosis in 2010. Understanding the experiences of people affected by TB is essential in addressing barriers to effective treatment. The Indus Hospital used Photovoice to understand the experiences of people affected by TB in Karachi. Two hundred and thirty photographs and stories were collected from 55 people affected by TB. Five major themes and 12 sub-themes emerged from the data: the physical aspects of TB (weakness and the side effects of the medication), the social aspects of TB (loneliness, stigma, and the fear/guilt of infecting family members), the socio-economic aspects of TB (financial difficulties/poverty and poor living conditions), supportive factors during treatment (support from family and friends, support from welfare organizations, prayer, visiting peaceful places), and recovery (happiness about getting better). The photographs, stories, and a Call for Action were shared at a Gallery event with patients, practitioners, and policy-makers. This study provides a look at the complexities surrounding TB and emphasizes the need for holistic interventions for TB that address all aspects of the disease, including its social determinants. It also highlights the potential of Photovoice as an effective means to bring much-needed attention to this disease. PMID:23793302

  8. The Main Reasons of Declining Educational Standards at Secondary Level in Karachi, Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faizi, Waqar-un-Nisa; Shakil, Anila Fatima; Lodhi, Farida Azim

    2011-01-01

    The cause of this investigation was to identify the main reasons which decline the educational standards at secondary level in Karachi, Pakistan. It was carried out through survey. The population of the study was both "government and private" schools students and teachers. The views of male and female students and teachers were sought out. One…

  9. The Main Reasons of Declining Educational Standards at Secondary Level in Karachi, Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lodhi, Farida Azeem; Faizi, Waqar Un Nisa

    2009-01-01

    The cause of this investigation was to identify the main reasons which decline the educational standards at secondary level in Karachi, Pakistan. It was carried out through survey. The population of the study was the both Government and Private schools students and teachers. The views of male and female students and teachers were sought out. One…

  10. Menstrual Knowledge and Practices of Female Adolescents in Urban Karachi, Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Tazeen Saeed; Rizvi, Syeda Naghma

    2010-01-01

    Menstruation is a normal physiological process that is managed differently according to various social and cultural understandings. Therefore, this cross-sectional study was conducted to explore the menstrual practices among 1275 female adolescents of urban Karachi, Pakistan from April to October 2006 by using interviews. Data was entered and…

  11. Knowledge and Attitude of General Practitioners regarding Autism in Karachi, Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahbar, Mohammad Hossein; Ibrahim, Khalid; Assassi, Parisa

    2011-01-01

    General practitioners (GPs) could have an important role in early diagnosis of autism. There have been no studies evaluating the knowledge of GPs regarding autism in Pakistan. We aimed to fill that gap by assessing knowledge and attitude of GPs in Karachi regarding autism. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 348 GPs; only 148 (44.6%) had…

  12. Heavy Metals Contamination in Coastal Sediments of Karachi, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddique, A.; Mumtaz, M.; Zaigham, N. A.; Mallick, K. A.; Saied, S.; Khwaja, H. A.

    2008-12-01

    Toxic compounds such as heavy metals exert chronic and lethal effects in animals, plants, and human health. With the rapid industrialization, urbanization, and economic development in Karachi, heavy metals are continuing to be introduced to estuarine and coastal environment through rivers, runoff and land-based point sources. Pollution in the Karachi coastal region (167 km long) is mainly attributed to Lyari and Malir Rivers flowing through the city of Karachi. Both rivers are served by various channels of domestic and industrial wastes carrying more than 300 million gallons per day untreated effluent of 6000 industries and ultimately drain into the beaches of Arabian Sea. Concentrations of selected heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in surface sediments from eighty-eight sites in Karachi coastal region were studied in order to understand metal contamination due to industrialization, urbanization, and economic development in Karachi. Sediment samples were collected in 2005 and 2006. We have found that heavy metal concentrations in surface sediments varied from 0.006 to 24.3 ug/g for Cd, 5.1 to 95 ug/g for Co, 2.9 to 571 ug/g for Cr, 6.9 to 272 ug/g for Cu, 0.55 to 6.5% for Fe, 1.2 to 318 ug/g for Mn, 7.5 to 75 ug/g for Ni, 6.3 to 121 ug/g for Pb, and 3.3 to 389 ug/g for Zn. Enrichment factors (EFs) were calculated to assess whether the concentrations observed represent background or contaminated levels. The highest levels of metals were found to be at the confluence of the Lyari and Malir River streams at the Arabian Sea, indicating the impact of the effluents of the highly urbanized and industrialized city of Karachi. Furthermore, this study assessed heavy metal toxicity risk with the application of Sediment Quality Guideline (SQG) indices (effect range low/effect range median values, ERL/ERM). Results indicated that the potential toxicity of marine environment can cause adverse biological effects to the biota directly and the human health indirectly through food web chain.

  13. Understanding unintentional childhood home injuries: pilot surveillance data from Karachi, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Childhood injuries, an important public health issue, globally affects more than 95% of children living in low-and middle-income countries. The objective of this study is to describe the epidemiology of childhood unintentional injuries in Karachi, Pakistan with a specific focus on those occurring within the home environment. Methods This was a secondary analysis of a childhood unintentional injury surveillance database setup in the emergency department of the Aga Khan Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan for 3 months. The data was collected by interviewing caretakers of children under 12 years of age presenting with an unintentional injury to the emergency departments of the four major tertiary care hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan. Results The surveillance included 566 injured children of which 409 (72%) injuries had taken place at/around home. Of 409 children, 66% were males and mostly between 5 and 11 years of age. Injuries commonly occurred during play time (51%). Fall (59%), dog bites (11%) and burns (9%) were the commonest mechanisms of injury. The majority of the children (78%) were directly discharged from the emergency room with predicted short term disability (42%). There were 2 deaths in the emergency department both due to falls. Conclusion Childhood injury surveillance system provides valuable in-depth information on child injuries. The majority of these unintentional childhood injuries occur at home; with falls, dog bites and burns being the most common types of unintentional childhood home injuries. Specific surveillance systems for child injuries can provide new and valuable information for countries like Pakistan. PMID:22260430

  14. Consequences of traffic noise in residents of Karachi, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Imtiaz Ather; Nizami, Sohaib; Chandio, Rida Rouf; Nizami, Saad; Sikander, Nazish; Ashraf, Sana

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To find out effect of road traffic noise on human beings in busy places of Karachi, working at these places and to compare its results with the previously done studies on this subject. Methods: This prospective epidemiological study was designed to evaluate effects of Noise induced hearing Loss due to road traffic at different places (Gurumander, Tibet Centre, Marry Weather Tower) of Karachi. A sample of 125 cases were randomly selected who had noise exposure of 90 dB or above of their surroundings for more than 6 months. The study was conducted from October 1st 2013 to January 1st 2013. Results: The minimum age was 18 years while maximum age was 47 years. The age group found most affected was from 23 years to 27 years. The males were 84% and females 16%. Subjects exposed to noise for more than 12 hours per day were 36.8%. Varying degree of hearing loss was evaluated in subjects where 17.6% were normal, 33.6% had mild hearing loss, 45.6% had moderate and 3.2% had moderately severe hearing loss. Traffic noise was found to bother 55.2% of subjects. Conclusion: Analysis of data indicates an enormous increase in noise levels as compared to previous studies. This study establishes that there exists a concrete direct link between NIHL and duration of exposure to noise above permissible levels. Traffic authorities should initiate measures to reduce the noise levels in the city particularly at more noisy places. PMID:26101509

  15. Comparison between Satellite and Ground Based Ozone data of Karachi, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakir Hussain, S.; Siddiqui, Z.; Ghauri, B.

    Ozone occupies a very important place in the list of atmospheric consequents, firstly because of the significant role of ozone in controlling the chemical composition of the atmosphere and climate and secondly because of the detrimental effects of it's high surface concentrations on vegetation and human health. Ozone is present in the atmosphere at all altitude from surface upto 100 Km. Most of the ozone is formed in stratosphere at altitude between 15 to 50 Km. The presence of ozone in the lower and middle stratosphere is more pronounced, whereas the concentration of ozone in the upper atmosphere decreases with height. Measurements of surface ozone concentration in the ambient air of Karachi (Pakistan) is continuously been made in SUPARCO. In Karachi, because of large number of cloudless sunny days over the year and considerable high emission of Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) and Hydrocarbons originating from vehicular exhausts and industrial combustion of fossil fuel, the local formation of ozone can hardly be over looked. However, urban photosynthesis of ozone does not seem significant as far as the concentration of surface ozone observed in and around Karachi. The total ozone in the vertical air column is cumulative value of the total ozone content over a given geographical region. The Total Ozone contenet has been, acquired through TOROS Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) system of NOAA series of satellites at SUPARCO Karachi. In this paper, the ground based ozone concentration data as well as the total ozone content present in the vertical column, have been satisfactorily analysed. The analysis of these data has revealed that, a reasonable correlation between surface ozone and the total ozone content exists. It is expected that the regression fit would also be valid for other places. The seasonal and diurnal variation in the ozone concentration at ground level and total ozone content have also been studied. It has been found that, the Total ozone content varies not only with latitude but also with the time of the year.

  16. Use of satellite imagery in constructing a household GIS database for health studies in Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mohammad; Rasool, Shahid; Park, Jin-Kyung; Saeed, Shamoon; Ochiai, Rion Leon; Nizami, Qamaruddin; Acosta, Camilo J; Bhutta, Zulfiqar

    2004-09-28

    BACKGROUND: Household-level geographic information systems (GIS) database are usually constructed using the geographic positioning system (GPS). In some research settings, GPS receivers may fail to capture accurate readings due to structural barriers such as tall buildings. We faced this problem when constructing a household GIS database for research sites in Karachi, Pakistan because the sites are comprised of congested groups of multi-storied building and narrow lanes. In order to overcome this problem, we used high resolution satellite imagery (IKONOS) to extract relevant geographic information. RESULTS: The use of IKONOS satellite imagery allowed us to construct an accurate household GIS database, which included the size and orientation of the houses. The GIS database was then merged with health data, and spatial analysis of health was possible. CONCLUSIONS: The methodological issues introduced in this paper provide solutions to the technical barriers in constructing household GIS database in a heavily populated urban setting. PMID:15450121

  17. Morphotaxonomy and seasonal distribution of planktonic and benthic Prorocentrales in Karachi waters, Pakistan Northern Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munir, Sonia; Burhan, Zaib-un-nisa; Naz, Tahira; Siddiqui, P. J. A.; Morton, Steve L.

    2013-03-01

    Morphotaxonomy and seasonal abundance of dinoflagellates of the genera Prorocentrum and Mesoporos (Prorocentrales) were studied from nutrient-rich waters, Karachi Harbor and the mouth of the Manora Channel, Pakistan during May 2002-July 2003. Using both light and scanning electron microscopy, 13 species of Prorocentrales were identified according to cell shape, size, ornamentation of thecal plates, and architecture of apical platelets, apical pore area, marginal pores, and intercalary bands. P. sigmoides, P. arcuatum, P. scutellum, P. donghaiense, P. balticum, P. minimum, P. emarginatum, P. lima, P. faustiae, and Mesoporos perforatus constitute new records for sindh coast of Pakistan. The most abundant species were P. minimum/P. balticum (4.5×103 cells/L), P. micans (1.1×103 cells/L), P. gracile / P. sigmoides (2.5×10 2 cells/L) and P. donghaiense (6.6×103 cells/L) at temperatures of 29-31°C and salinities of 35-40. Maximum abundance was observed in winter and lower abundance in summer. There was no significant change in the distribution of species between stations except for the benthic species which occurred close to Karachi Harbor waters. Significant positive correlations were observed between Prorocentrum spp. and temperature ( R 2 =0.27) and negative correlations with salinity ( R 2 =-0.32) except for P. minimum and P. emarginatum which has negative correlation with temperature ( R 2 =-0.24) and positive with salinity ( R 2 =0.08, 0.19). The finding of potential okadaic-acid producing species of benthic Prorocentrum call for monitoring for possible human health problems in this region.

  18. Understanding the Knowledge and Perceptions About Clubfoot in Karachi, Pakistan: A Qualitative Exploration

    PubMed Central

    Burfat, Aziza; Mohammed, Shama; Siddiqi, Osman; Samad, Lubna; Mansoor, Ali Khan; Mohammad Amin, Chinoy

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores local knowledge and perceptions about clubfoot in the Indus Hospital’s catchment population in Karachi, Pakistan. Data was collected through seven focus group discussions with community members and Lady Health Workers, nine in-depth interviews with parents of children with treated or untreated clubfoot, and one interview with an adult with untreated clubfoot. We found that participants were unable to distinguish clubfoot from other disabilities. Moreover, participants had a number of beliefs about the causes of clubfoot, which included lunar and solar eclipses, religious explanations, the health status and behaviours of parents, and genetics. While participants were aware of surgery and other allopathic treatments for clubfoot, many also believed in traditional and religious treatments or were unaware that clubfoot is a treatable condition. This study is the first of its kind in Pakistan and provides important insights that clubfoot programs need comprehensive strategies to raise awareness about clubfoot amongst community members, health providers, and religious leaders in order to be successful. PMID:24027475

  19. Understanding the knowledge and perceptions about clubfoot in Karachi, Pakistan: a qualitative exploration.

    PubMed

    Burfat, Aziza; Mohammed, Shama; Siddiqi, Osman; Samad, Lubna; Khan, Mansoor Ali; Chinoy, Mohammad Amin

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores local knowledge and perceptions about clubfoot in the Indus Hospital's catchment population in Karachi, Pakistan. Data was collected through seven focus group discussions with community members and Lady Health Workers, nine in-depth interviews with parents of children with treated or untreated clubfoot, and one interview with an adult with untreated clubfoot. We found that participants were unable to distinguish clubfoot from other disabilities. Moreover, participants had a number of beliefs about the causes of clubfoot, which included lunar and solar eclipses, religious explanations, the health status and behaviours of parents, and genetics. While participants were aware of surgery and other allopathic treatments for clubfoot, many also believed in traditional and religious treatments or were unaware that clubfoot is a treatable condition. This study is the first of its kind in Pakistan and provides important insights that clubfoot programs need comprehensive strategies to raise awareness about clubfoot amongst community members, health providers, and religious leaders in order to be successful. PMID:24027475

  20. Assessing Parental Knowledge About Thalassemia in a Thalassemia Center of Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Maheen, Humaira; Malik, Farrukh; Siddique, Barera; Qidwai, Asim

    2015-12-01

    Thalassemia is the leading haemoglobinopathy after sickle cell anemia that accounts for 1.5 % of the global population. In Pakistan, every 1-4 per 1000 infants suffers from Thalassemia. Regardless of being a population "at high risk" for Thalassemia major, evidence suggest that Pakistanis possess poor knowledge of the disease. The present study aimed to assess parents' accurate knowledge about Thalassemia disease at Afzaal Memorial Thalassemia Foundation in Karachi, Pakistan. A total of 172 parents of existing patients who were receiving regular blood transfusion from the center were included in the study. Parents' knowledge was assessed via a pre-tested and validated Thalassemia knowledge questionnaire. Findings show that 40 % of the sample showed lower knowledge scores about Thalassemia. Among different ethnic origins, Urdu speaking respondents showed a higher average score of correct knowledge about Thalassemia major (21.6?±?4.41) as compared to the Siraiki (17.9?±?4.48) and the Pathans (17.2?±?4.34). These latter two ethnic groups also showed poor knowledge about Thalassemia minor. Generally parents provided correct answers about treatment of Thalassemia major. The findings suggest targeted interventions are required for high risk ethnic groups. Thalassemia education programs should be offered to extended family members of existing patients by all Thalassemia centers. High risk ethnic groups (Siraiki and Pathan) need rigorous interventions, and Thalassemia worker program should be introduced nationwide. PMID:25843562

  1. Objects of temporary contraception: an exploratory study of women's perspectives in Karachi, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Marvi, Kamyla; Howard, Natasha

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To explore perspectives of three modern contraceptive objects, using an emic approach, among women in a low-income community in Karachi, Pakistan. Design A qualitative interview study design was employed, using qualitative content analysis with an inductive approach and manual thematic coding. Setting Shah Faisal Colony, Karachi. Participants 20 women, potential contraceptive users of reproductive age and living within a health centre catchment, were purposively selected to provide a similar number of non-users (n=5), contraceptive injection users (n=7), pill users (n=4), and intrauterine device users (n=4). One interview was excluded because it was not recorded. No other exclusion criteria were used. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcome was interpretation of potency and effects of selected family planning objects. Secondary outcome measures were knowledge of family planning and description of therapeutic approaches used and preferred. Results Awareness of family planning was high. Women described different therapeutic approaches, stating they generally preferred modern medicine for contraception as it was fastest and most powerful. They reported that fear of some contraceptive objects, particularly injections and intrauterine contraceptive devices, influenced their choices. Women explained their perceptions of how the heating effects of contraceptives could cause unwanted side effects including menstrual irregularities, weight gain and weakness, leading to disease. Conclusions Most women wanted family planning, but remained dissatisfied with the available contraceptives and their effects. While women reported that they relied on modern medicine for contraception, their descriptions of how contraceptives affected their health relied on the hot–cold explanatory idiom of traditional medicine. PMID:23906959

  2. Attitudes towards child restrains and seat belts usage in the learned population of Karachi, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Emaduddin; Ejaz, Kiran; Waheed, Shahan; Kazi, Ghazala Irfan; Khursheed, Munawar

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Motor vehicles crashes (MVCs) are the leading cause of injury related morbidity and mortality in developed countries. Recent evidence proves that properly used child seat belts can dramatically reduce the risk of severe and life-threatening injury from MVCs. There are rarities of thought and inspiration regarding the use of child seat belts in our society and region, therefore we lack of data regarding factors and paucity of usage of child seat belts in motor vehicles. This study aimed to assess the knowledge and attitudes of child seat belt usage among the educated population in Karachi, Pakistan. METHODS: Altogether 304 employees were investigated. They were employees of Aga Khan University who were using their cars and having children younger than 10 years old. A cross sectional observational study was designed, and a 36-item questionnaire in English was used to collect data on participants’ demographic details, designation, educational level, economic status, validity of driving license, number of children and cars, availability of adult seat belts and child seat belts along with their functionality, awareness, knowledge and attitude toward its use, and reason of not using these devices. SPSS version 20 for Windows was used to analyze the data and the Chi-square test was used. RESULTS: Totally 290 participants were recruited with a response rate of 72% (212). Of 212 participants, 126 (59%) were male. 154 (72.6%) participants had valid driver licenses, and 154 (72.6%) had adult seat belts in their vehicles. Only 32 (15%) reported regular use of adult seat belts. Although 168 (79.2%) participants had some knowledge about child restrains (CRs), only 65 (22%) had CRs in their cars. Eighty-two (38.7%) participants got the knowledge about CRs and seat belts from media. Mothers were more concerned about the use of CRs than fathers. Only 14 (6.6%) parents were found to use both adult and child seat belts all the time. Of the 157 parents who did not us use CRs, 42 considered unnecessary, 35 lacked relevant knowledge. But 15 parents used CR against their children’s wills. CONCLUSIONS: The pattern of CR usage among the employees at Aga Khan University, Karachi is dictated by the unavailability of CR, followed by ignorance, inconvenience, and non-acceptance by their children. The important issue of CR has consistently been ignored over the years and it has never gained enough popularity in Pakistan. PMID:25225589

  3. Perception and attitude of general practitioners regarding generic medicines in Karachi, Pakistan: A questionnaire based study

    PubMed Central

    Jamshed, Shazia Qasim; Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham Mohamed; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi Ahmad; Masood, Imran; Low, Bee Yean; Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Babar, Zaheer-ud-din

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: In developing countries out-of-pocket payments (OOP) are as high as 80% of healthcare spending. Generic medicines can be instrumental in reducing this expenditure. The current study is aimed to explore the knowledge, perception, and attitude of general practitioners towards generic medicines in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods: This exploratory, descriptive study was conducted on a sample of 289 randomly selected general practitioners who were dispensing at their private clinics in Karachi, Pakistan. The questionnaires were distributed and collected by hand. Data was entered to SPSS version 17. Fischer’s exact test was applied to see the association between variables. Results: A total of 206 questionnaires were included in the study. A response rate of 71.3% was achieved. Out of 206 respondents, 139 (67.5%) were male while 67 (32.5%) respondents were female. Close to three quaters of the respondents (n= 148; 71.8%) showed correct knowledge about generic medicines being a ‘copy of the brand name medicines’ and ‘interchangeable with brand name medicines’ (n= 148; 71.8%). In terms of safety, the majority of respondents (n=85; 41.26%) incorrectly understood that the generic medicines are less safe than brand name medicines. The total percentage of correct responses was seen in 53% of the respondents. More than half of the respondents agreed that locally manufactured medicines are of the same effectiveness as brand name medicines (n=114; 55.4%). Male practitioners with practice experience of 11-15 years showed positive perception towards the quality of multinational products. The Majority of respondents believed that their prescribing decision is influenced by medical representatives (n=117; 56.8%). More than three-quarters of the respondents expressed their wish to prescribe low cost medicines in their practice (n=157; 76.2%). More than one third of the respondents expressed their uneasiness to prescribe products from all local manufacturers (n=72; 35%). Conclusion: There were gaps identified in the knowledge of respondents. Although good perception and attitude were noted among the respondents, dissemination of information regarding generic medicines may perhaps strengthen generic prescribing. There is a need to introduce ‘Quality by Design’ concept in local manufacturing units. This, in turn, can inculcate confidence in prescribers towards locally manufactured generic medicines. PMID:23093896

  4. Home injury risks to young children in Karachi, Pakistan: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Uzma Rahim; Chandran, Aruna; Zia, Nukhba; Huang, Cheng-Ming; De Ramirez, Sarah Stewart; Feroze, Asher; Hyder, Adnan Ali; Razzak, Junaid Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Objective To pilot an in-home unintentional injury hazard assessment tool and to quantify potential injury risks for young children in a low-income urban setting. Methods Two low-income neighbourhoods in Karachi, Pakistan, were mapped, and families with at least one child between the ages of 12 and 59 months were identified. Using existing available home injury risk information, an in-home injury risk assessment tool was drafted and tailored to the local setting. Home injury assessments were done in June–July 2010 after obtaining informed consent. Results Approximately 75.4% of mothers were educated through at least grade 12. The main risks identified were stoves within the reach of the child (n=279, 55.5%), presence of open buckets in the bathroom (n=240, 47.7%) within the reach of the child, and pedestal fans accessible to the child (n=242, 48.1%). In terms of safety equipment, a first-aid box with any basic item was present in 70% of households, but only 4.8% of households had a fire extinguisher in the kitchen. Conclusions This was the first time that an in-home, all-unintentional injury risk assessment tool was tailored and applied in the context of a low-income community in Pakistan. There was a significant burden of hazards present in the homes in these communities, representing an important opportunity for injury prevention. This pilot may have future relevance to other LMICs where child injury prevention is a critical need. PMID:23995075

  5. Perceptions and Experiences of Women in Karachi, Pakistan Regarding Secondary Infertility: Results from a Community-Based Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Sami, Neelofar; Saeed Ali, Tazeen

    2012-01-01

    Background. The prevalence of infertility in Pakistan is 22% with primary infertility at 4% and secondary infertility at 18%. This study explored perceptions and experiences of women in Karachi, Pakistan regarding the causes, treatment-seeking behavior for and consequences of secondary infertility. Methods. Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with married women explored their perceptions and experiences for issues related to secondary infertility. Results. The knowledge of women about the causes and scientific treatment options for infertility was limited resulting in inclination for traditional unsafe health care. Infertility was stated to result in marital instability, stigmatization and abuse specially for women with no live child. Conclusions. Since infertility can have a serious effect on both the psychological well-being and the social status of women in Pakistan, effective interventions are the need of the day. There is a dire need for health education and counseling to be integrated into infertility management plans. PMID:22474450

  6. Knowledge, attitude and practices of school teachers towards epileptic school children in Karachi, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Homi Bhesania, Nasha; Rehman, Anaya; Saleh Savul, Ilma; Zehra, Nosheen

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the knowledge and attitude of school teachers towards an epileptic child. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among teachers of primary, middle and high schools from different communities in Karachi, Pakistan. A total of 120 self-administered KAP questionnaires were distributed in schools selected through convenience sampling. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 19. Results: Out of the total sample size, 90.9% (n=100) had heard about epilepsy. Sixteen (14.5%) teachers considered epilepsy to be contagious while 72.7% (n=80) teachers were of the view that epileptics can succeed as other normal children and sixty nine (62.7%) teachers were willing to help a child experiencing a fit, though only 15.5% (n=17) received knowledge about epilepsy during their training years. Conclusion: The research was conclusive for assessing the knowledge and attitude of teachers towards epileptic children. It highlighted the lack of awareness and negative attitude still existing among teachers. However, many were in the favor of mass education through awareness programs. PMID:24639865

  7. Epidemiologic study of chronic hepatitis B virus infection in male volunteer blood donors in Karachi, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Saeed; Younus, Muhammad; Adil, Salman; Hassan, Farrukh; Jafri, Sarffraz Hussain

    2005-01-01

    Background The magnitude of chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) varies substantially between the countries. A better understanding of incidence and/ or prevalence of HBV infection and associated risk factors provides insight into the transmission of this infection in the community. The purpose of this investigation was to estimate the prevalence of and to identify the risk factors associated with chronic infection with HBV, as assessed by HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) positivity, in asymptomatic volunteer male blood donors in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods Consecutive blood donations made at the two large blood banks between January 1, 1998 and December 31, 2002 were assessed to estimate the prevalence of HBsAg positivity. To evaluate the potential risk factors, a case-control study design was implemented; cases (HBsAg positives) and controls (HBsAg negatives), were recruited between October 15, 2001 and March 15, 2002. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was administered through trained interviewers to collect the data on hypothesized risk factors for HBV infection. Sera were tested for HBsAg using commercially available kits for enzyme linked Immunosorbant assay-III. Results HBsAg prevalence in the male volunteer blood donors was 2.0 % (7048/351309). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that after adjusting for age and ethnicity, cases were significantly more likely than controls to have received dental treatment from un-qualified dental care provider (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 9.8; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.1, 46.1), have received 1–5 injections (adjusted OR = 3.3; 95% CI: 1.1, 9.6), more than 5 injections (adjusted OR = 1.4; 95% CI: 1.4, 12.7) during the last five years or have received injection through a glass syringe (adjusted OR = 9.4; 95% CI: 2.6, 34.3). Injury resulted in bleeding during shaving from barbers (adjusted OR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.1, 4.8) was also significant predictor of HBsAg positivity. Conclusion Prevalence of HBsAg positivity in the male volunteer blood donors in Karachi was 2%. Infection control measures in health-care settings including safe injection practices and proper sterilization techniques of medical instruments and education of barbers about the significance of sterilization of their instruments may reduce the burden of HBV infection in this and similar settings. There is also an urgent need of developing locally relevant guidelines for counseling and management of HBsAg positive blood donors. PMID:16086833

  8. Maternal nutritional status during pregnancy and surma use determine cord lead levels in Karachi, Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Janjua, Naveed Zafar Delzell, Elizabeth; Larson, Rodney R.; Meleth, Sreelatha; Kabagambe, Edmond K.; Kristensen, Sibylle; Sathiakumar, Nalini

    2008-09-15

    Objectives: To estimate the umbilical cord blood lead levels (BLLs) of Pakistani neonates and to identify determinants for umbilical BLLs. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of mothers and infants at one of the two obstetric units of two tertiary care hospitals in Karachi during January-August 2005. Information from 540 mothers selected randomly from those registered for delivery was obtained about their pregnancy, diet, and current and past lead exposures. We collected umbilical cord blood for lead levels analyzed using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. We computed geometric and arithmetic means. We performed multiple linear regression analysis to identify factors associated with log-transformed umbilical cord BLLs. We also performed logistic regression analysis to identify determinants of high lead cord BLLs ({>=}10 {mu}g/dl). Results: The geometric mean cord BLL of the neonates was 9.6 {mu}g/dl; arithmetic mean (S.D.) was 10.8 {mu}g/dl (5.7) with a median of 9.7 {mu}g/dl and a range of 1.8-48.9 {mu}g/dl. Women who reported intake of less than 58.5 mg of elemental iron supplement per day during pregnancy had cord BLL of 10.0 {mu}g/dl; in comparison those women who had higher iron intake had lower cord BLL (8.4 {mu}g/dl). Those who used surma (an eye cosmetic) daily had higher cord BLL (11.5 {mu}g/dl) as compared to those who used it less frequently (9.4 {mu}g/dl). In multivariable linear regression model, higher iron intake, owning a car, and being in 2nd quartile of mid-arm circumference were associated with low lead levels while father's occupation in lead-based industry was associated with significantly higher umbilical cord BLLs. There was interaction of daily surma use and ethnicity. Geometric mean BLLs were varied among surma users by ethnicity. Conclusions: Umbilical cord BLLs are high in Karachi, Pakistan, in comparison to those in developed countries such as United States. Measures are needed to reduce fetal lead exposure to prevent adverse affect on neurocognitive development. Association of low iron (below RDA of 60 mg per day) with high umbilical cord has implications for strengthening iron supplement intake during pregnancy. Umbilical cord BLLs differed among surma users by ethnicity.

  9. Violence permeating daily life: a qualitative study investigating perspectives on violence among women in Karachi, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Tazeen S; Krantz, Gunilla; Mogren, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study explored how married women perceive situations which create family conflicts and lead to different forms of violence in urban Pakistan. In addition, it examines perceptions of consequences of violence, their adverse health effects, and how women resist violence within marital life. Methods: Five focus group discussions were conducted with 28 women in Karachi. Purposive sampling, aiming for variety in age, employment status, education, and socioeconomic status, was employed. The focus group discussions were conducted in Urdu and translated into English. Manifest and latent content analysis were applied. Results: One major theme emerged during the analysis, ie, family violence through the eyes of females. This theme was subdivided into three main categories. The first category, ie, situations provoking violence and their manifestations, elaborates on circumstances that provoke violence and situations that sustain violence. The second category, ie, actions and reactions to exposure to violence, describes consequences of ongoing violence within the family, including those that result in suicidal thoughts and actions. The final category, ie, resisting violence, describes how violence is avoided through women’s awareness and actions. Conclusion: The current study highlights how female victims of abuse are trapped in a society where violence from a partner and family members is viewed as acceptable, where divorce is unavailable to the majority, and where societal support of women is limited. There is an urgent need to raise the subject of violence against women and tackle this human rights problem at all levels of society by targeting the individual, family, community, and societal levels concurrently. PMID:23152709

  10. Association Between Intensive Handwashing Promotion and Child Development in Karachi, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Anna; Agboatwalla, Mubina; Luby, Stephen; Tobery, Timothy; Ayers, Tracy; Hoekstra, R. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate associations between handwashing promotion and child growth and development. Design Cluster randomized controlled trial. Setting Informal settlements in Karachi, Pakistan. Participants A total of 461 children who were enrolled in a trial of household-level handwashing promotion in 2003 and were younger than 8 years at reassessment in 2009. Interventions In 2003, neighborhoods were randomized to control (n=9), handwashing promotion (n=9), or handwashing promotion and drinking water treatment (n=10); intervention households received free soap and weekly handwashing promotion for 9 months. Main Outcome Measures Anthropometrics and developmental quotients measured with the Battelle Developmental Inventory II at 5 to 7 years of age. Results Overall, 24.9% (95% CI, 20.0%–30.6%) and 22.1% (95% CI, 18.0%–26.8%) of children had z scores that were more than 2 SDs below the expected z scores for height and body mass index for age, respectively; anthropometrics did not differ significantly across study groups. Global developmental quotients averaged 104.4 (95% CI, 101.9–107.0) among intervention children and 98.3 (95% CI, 93.1–103.4) among control children (P=.04). Differences of similar magnitude were measured across adaptive, personal-social, communication, cognitive, and motor domains. Conclusions Although growth was similar across groups, children randomized to the handwashing promotion during their first 30 months of age attained global developmental quotients 0.4 SDs greater than those of control children at 5 to 7 years of age. These gains are comparable to those of at-risk children enrolled in publicly funded preschools in the United States and suggest that handwashing promotion could improve child wellbeing and societal productivity. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01538953 PMID:22986783

  11. Fitting the Bill: Commissioned Theatre Projects on Human Rights in Pakistan--The Work of Karachi-Based Theatre Group "Tehrik e Niswan"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mundrawala, Asma

    2007-01-01

    Theatre practitioners in Pakistan's southern city Karachi have seen a recent surge of interest in the past two decades by donor agencies from the Western world to fund theatre companies and employ various forms of theatre for development to service their agendas and areas of interest within their target communities. This trend may have lent a…

  12. Report: a study of morbidity of induced abortion data from women belonging to Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Farah; Aslam, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the morbidity of induced abortion in relation to facilities, service providers and social responses of general population of women, from Karachi, Pakistan. Cross-sectional survey, conducted from February to December 2010, through a researcher-administered questionnaire from 61 randomly selected women, who underwent for Induced Abortion, aged 18-50 years. The questionnaire included open and closed ended questions, regarding demography, facilities, service providers and various complications observed. Overall, 98 immediate health problems were reported by 40 (65.5%) of the respondents, 153 late adverse effects or chronic by 46 (75.4%); while 101 mental complications had been reported by 45 (73.8%) of the 61 aborting women; respectively. Private clinics surfaced as the most frequently adopted source as reported by 40.7% of the respondents. Two third majorities had the procedure in satisfactory, good hygienic conditions by skilled professionals. Around 59% of the aborting women were aware of the religious perspective of the subject. Marked incidence of complications had been registered, regardless of type of method adopted, hygienic condition of the procedure or skill of the provider. Although, awareness of religious perspective of the subject was there, still quite a lot opted for abortion. This suggests that strong socioeconomic factors influence women to take peril of such an attempt. It also reveals the existence of a big gap for the awareness services for educating the risks involved to the women's health. Study revealed that services are easily accessible; without any legal, religious or social barriers. Semi or un-educated women, mostly from low socioeconomic sector are opting the procedure in majority, being less aware and stalwartly influenced by environmental factors; hence excessive availability of abortion services should be revisited. Lack of deep awareness of the consequences also contributes for deteriorating future reproductive and mental health. Awareness and counseling services for aborting women, for their health risks, as well as about human perspective of the issue, needs to be initiated, for better management of their reproductive health and rights. PMID:25553703

  13. Metal pollution and ecological risk assessment in marine sediments of Karachi Coast, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Mashiatullah, Azhar; Chaudhary, Muhammad Zaman; Ahmad, Nasir; Javed, Tariq; Ghaffar, Abdul

    2013-02-01

    Concentrations of 12 metals (Fe, Mn, Cr, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, U, V, Zn, and Zr) in surface sediments of Karachi Coast, Pakistan were determined to evaluate their distribution and pollution assessment. The measured metals in the sediments were found to be in the range of Fe, 0.84-6.96 %; Mn, 300-1,300 ?g/g; Cr, 12.0-319.84 ?g/g; Mo, 0.49-2.03 ?g/g; Ni, 1.53-58.86 ?g/g; Pb, 9.0-49.46 ?g/g; Se, 0.25-.86 ?g/g; Sr, 192-1185 ?g/g; U, 0.19-1.66 ?g/g; V, 15.80-118.20 ?g/g; Zn, 15.60-666.28 ?g/g; and Zr, 44.02-175.26 ?g/g. The mean contents of the metal studied were: Fe, 3.07 %, Mn, 0.05 %; Cr, 96.75 ?g/g; Mo, 1.34 ?g/g; Ni, 31.39 ?g/g; Pb, 23.24 ?g/g; Se, 0.61 ?g/g; Sr, 374.83 ?g/g; U, 0.64 ?g/g; V, 61.75 ?g/g; Zn, 204.75 ?g/g; and Zr:76.27 ?g/g, and arrangement of the metals from higher to lower mean content in this area is: Fe > Zn > Mn > Sr > Zn > Cr > Zr > V > Ni > Pb > Mo > U > Se. There is no significant correlation among most of these metals, indicating different anthropogenic and natural sources. To assess ecotoxic potential of marine sediments, Numerical Sediment Quality Guidelines were also applied. The concentration of Pb in all the sediments except one was lower than the threshold effect concentration (TECs) showing that there are no harmful effects to marine life from Pb. On the other hand, the concentrations of Cr, Ni, and Zn exceeded TEC in three stations, indicating their potential risk. The degree of pollution in sediments for metals was assessed by calculating enrichment factor (EF) and pollution load index (PLI). The results indicated that sediments of Layari River Mouth Area, Fish Harbour, and KPT Boat Building Area are highly enriched with Cr and Zn (EF > 5). Sediments of Layari River Outfall Zone were moderately enriched with Ni and Pb (EF > 2). The pollution load index was found in the range of 0.98 to 1.34. Lower values of PLI (? 1) at most of sampling locations imply no appreciable input from anthropogenic sources. However, relatively higher PLI values (>1) at Layari River Mouth Area, Fish Harbour, and KPT Boat Building Area are attributed to increased human activity in the area. PMID:22580789

  14. Factors associated with elevated blood lead concentrations in children in Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed Central

    Rahbar, Mohammad Hossein; White, Franklin; Agboatwalla, Mubina; Hozhabri, Siroos; Luby, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To confirm whether blood lead concentrations in Karachi were as high as reported in 1989 and to identify which types of exposure to lead contribute most to elevated blood lead concentrations in children in Karachi. METHODS: A total of 430 children aged 36-60 months were selected through a geographically stratified design from the city centre, two suburbs, a rural community and an island situated within the harbour at Karachi. Blood samples were collected from children and a pretested questionnaire was administered to assess the effect of various types of exposure. Cooked food, drinking-water and house dust samples were collected from households. FINDINGS: About 80% of children had blood lead concentrations 10 g/dl, with an overall mean of 15.6 g/dl. At the 5% level of significance, houses nearer to the main intersection in the city centre, application of surma to children's eyes, father's exposure to lead at workplace, parents' illiteracy and child's habit of hand- to-mouth activity were among variables associated with elevated lead concentrations in blood. CONCLUSION: These findings are of public health concern, as most children in Karachi are likely to suffer some degree of intellectual impairment as a result of environmental lead exposure. We believe that there is enough evidence of the continuing problem of lead in petrol to prompt the petroleum industry to take action. The evidence also shows the need for appropriate interventions in reducing the burden due to other factors associated with this toxic element. PMID:12471396

  15. Enhanced disease surveillance through private health care sector cooperation in Karachi, Pakistan: experience from a vaccine trial.

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Mohammad Imran; Sahito, Shah Muhammad; Khan, Mohammad Javed; Wassan, Shafi Mohammad; Shaikh, Abdul Wahab; Maheshwari, Ashok Kumar; Acosta, Camilo J.; Galindo, Claudia M.; Ochiai, Rion Leon; Rasool, Shahid; Peerwani, Sheeraz; Puri, Mahesh K.; Ali, Mohammad; Zafar, Afia; Hassan, Rumina; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Clemens, John D.; Nizami, Shaikh Qamaruddin; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In research projects such as vaccine trials, accurate and complete surveillance of all outcomes of interest is critical. In less developed countries where the private sector is the major health-care provider, the private sector must be included in surveillance systems in order to capture all disease of interest. This, however, poses enormous challenges in practice. The process and outcome of recruiting private practice clinics for surveillance in a vaccine trial are described. METHODS: The project started in January 2002 in two urban squatter settlements of Karachi, Pakistan. At the suggestion of private practitioners, a phlebotomy team was formed to provide support for disease surveillance. Children who had a reported history of fever for more than three days were enrolled for a diagnosis. RESULTS: Between May 2003 and April 2004, 5540 children younger than 16 years with fever for three days or more were enrolled in the study. Of the children, 1312 (24%) were seen first by private practitioners; the remainder presented directly to study centres. In total, 5329 blood samples were obtained for microbiology. The annual incidence of Salmonella typhi diagnosed by blood culture was 407 (95% confidence interval (95% CI), 368-448) per 100 000/year and for Salmonella paratyphi A was 198 (95% CI, 171-227) per 100 000/year. Without the contribution of private practitioners, the rates would have been 240 per 100 000/year (95% CI, 211-271) for S. typhi and 114 (95% CI, 94-136) per 100 000/year for S. paratyphi A. CONCLUSION: The private sector plays a major health-care role in Pakistan. Our experience from a surveillance and burden estimation study in Pakistan indicates that this objective is possible to achieve but requires considerable effort and confidence building. Nonetheless, it is essential to include private health care providers when attempting to accurately estimate the burden of disease in such settings. PMID:16501718

  16. Influence of an enforcement campaign on seat-belt and helmet wearing, karachi-hala highway, pakistan.

    PubMed

    Bhatti, Junaid A; Ejaz, Kiran; Razzak, Junaid A; Tunio, Israr Ali; Sodhar, Irshad

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed to what extent an enforcement campaign influenced seat-belt and helmet wearing on a Pakistani highway. The study setting was the Karachi-Hala highway where a traffic enforcement campaign was conducted from Dec 2009 to Feb 2010. Seat-belt and helmet wearing were observed in Nov 2009 and Apr 2010 at Karachi toll plaza. Differences in wearing rates as a function of occupants' age, sex, and vehicle type were compared between the two periods. On average, 9 119 (Standard deviation=1 896) traffic citations were issued per month from Aug 2009 to Feb 2010; 4.2% of which were for not wearing helmet. A 22.5% increase in citations was observed for Dec 2009 to Feb 2010 periods compared with Aug 2009 to Oct 2009 periods. Nearly six thousand four-wheeled and four hundred two-wheeled motorized vehicle occupants were observed in Nov 2009 and Apr 2010. Overall, two of the five drivers and one of the five front seat occupants wore seat belts. This proportion was significantly higher in drivers and front-seat occupants of cars than those of heavier vehicles. Similarly, one of two motorcyclists used a helmet but this proportion was 5.8% for pillion riders in Nov 2009. The increased enforcement had a limited influence on belt wearing in drivers (+4.0%; 95% Confidence Interval [95%CI]=1.8-6.1) and occupants (+6.2%; 95%CI=4.2-8.2). A higher increase was observed for motorcyclists (+9.8%; 95%CI=2.6-16.8) and pillion riders (+12.8%; 95%CI=5.4, 20.5). These results suggested that serious efforts are required to increase seat-belt and helmet use on Pakistani highways. Improving enforcement resources, increased fines, not allowing such vehicles on roads, and awareness campaigns targeting drivers of heavy vehicles might increase wearing rates in Pakistan. PMID:22105384

  17. HEALTH CARE PERSONNEL AND WORKPLACE VIOLENCE IN THE EMERGENCY DEPARTMENTS OF A VOLATILE METROPOLIS: RESULTS FROM KARACHI, PAKISTAN

    PubMed Central

    Zafar, Waleed; Siddiqui, Emaduddin; Ejaz, Kiran; Shehzad, Muhammad Umer; Khan, Uzma Rahim; Jamali, Seemin; Razzak, Junaid A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Workplace violence (WPV) is an important challenge faced by health care personnel in the emergency department (ED). Study Objectives To determine the prevalence and nature of WPV reported by physicians and nurses working in the EDs of four of the largest tertiary care hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan and to understand the mental health impact of experiencing WPV. Methods This cross-sectional survey was conducted between September and November 2008 using a widely used questionnaire developed by the World Health Organization. Overall, 266 (86% response rate) questionnaires were included in this study. Results A total of 44 (16.5%) physicians and nurses said they had been physically attacked, and 193 (72.5%) said that they had experienced verbal abuse in the last 12 months. Among those who reported physical attack, 29.6% reported that the last incident involved a weapon, and in 64% of cases the attacker was a patient’s relative. Eighty-six percent thought that the last attack could have been prevented, and 64% said that no action was taken against the attacker. After adjusting for covariates, physicians were less likely than nurses to report physical attack (odds ratio [OR] 0.46; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.2–1.0), and personnel with greater work experience (OR 4.8; 95% CI 2.0–11.7) and those who said that there were procedures to report WPV in their workplace (OR 3.2; 95% CI 1.6–6.5) were more likely to report verbal abuse. WPV was associated with mental health effects in the form of bothersome memories, super-alertness, and feelings of avoidance and futility. Conclusion WPV is an important challenge in the EDs of large hospitals in Karachi. A majority of respondents feel that WPV is preventable, but only a minority of attackers face consequences. PMID:24011477

  18. Impact and correlation of environmental conditions on pollen counts in Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Perveen, Anjum; Khan, Muneeba; Zeb, Shaista; Imam, Asif Ali

    2015-02-01

    A quantitative and qualitative survey of airborne pollen was performed in the city of Karachi, and the pollen counts were correlated with different climatic conditions. The aim of the study was to determine the possible effect of meteorological factors on airborne pollen distribution in the atmosphere of Karachi city. Pollen sampling was carried out by using Burkard spore Trap for the period of August 2009 to July 2010, and a total of 2,922 pollen grains/m(3) were recorded. In this survey, 22 pollen types were recognized. The highest pollen count was contributed by Poaceae pollen type (1,242 pollen grains/m(3)) followed by Amaranthaceae/Chenopodiaceae (948 pollen grains/m(3)), Cyperus rotundus (195 pollen grains/m(3)) and Prosopis juliflora (169 pollen grains/m(3)). Peak pollen season was in August showing a total of 709 pollen grains/m(3) and lowest pollen count was observed in January-2010. Pearson's chi-square test was performed for the possible correlation of pollen counts and climatic factors. The test revealed significant positive correlation of wind speed with pollen types of Amaranthaceae/Chenopodiaceae; Brassica campestris; Asteraceae; and Thuja orientalis. While the correlation of "average temperature" showed significant positive value with Asteraceae and Tamarix indica pollen types. Negative correlation was observed between humidity/ precipitation and pollen types of Brassica campestris; Daucus carota; Ephedra sp.; and Tamarix indica. In the light of above updated data one could identify various aeroallergens present in the air of Karachi city. PMID:25530143

  19. Understanding and perceptions of final-year Doctor of Pharmacy students about generic medicines in Karachi, Pakistan: a quantitative insight

    PubMed Central

    Jamshed, Shazia Qasim; Ibrahim, Mohamad Izham Mohamad; Hassali, Mohamad Azmi; Sharrad, Adheed Khalid; Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Babar, Zaheer-Ud-Din

    2015-01-01

    General objective To evaluate the understanding and perceptions of generic medicines among final-year Doctor of Pharmacy students in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods A 23-item survey instrument that included a question on the bioequivalence limits and Likert-type scale questions regarding the understanding and perceptions of generic medicines among the students was executed. Cronbach’s alpha was found to be 0.62. Results Responses were obtained from 236 final-year Doctor of Pharmacy students (n=85 from a publicly funded institute; n=151 from a privately funded institute). When comparing a brand-name medicine to a generic medicine, pharmacy students scored poorly on bioequivalence limits. More than 80% of the students incorrectly answered that all the products that are rated as generic equivalents are therapeutically equivalent to each other (P<0.04). Half of the students agreed that a generic medicine is bioequivalent to the brand-name medicine (P<0.001). With regard to quality, effectiveness, and safety, more than 75% of the students disagreed that generic medicines are of inferior quality and are less effective than brand-name medicines (P<0.001). More than 50% of the students disagreed that generic medicines produce more side effects than brand-name medicines (P<0.001). Conclusion The current study identified a positive perception toward generic medicines but also gaps in the understanding of generic medicines. Pharmacy students lacked a thorough understanding of the concepts of bioequivalence. Pharmacy academia should address these issues, which will help build confidence in generic medicines and increase the generic medicine use in Pakistan. PMID:26028981

  20. Antibiotic resistance pattern of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from urine samples of Urinary Tract Infections patients in Karachi, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Dania Aijaz; Wasim, Shehnaz; Essa Abdullah, Farhan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibiotic resistance pattern of Psedomonas aeruginosa and its prevalence in patients with urinary tract infections (UTI) for effective treatment in a developing country like Pakistan. Methods: This is an observational study conducted for a period of ten months which ended on December 2013 at the Dr. Essa Laboratory and Diagnostic Centre in Karachi. A total of 4668 urine samples of UTI patients were collected and standard microbiological techniques were performed to identify the organisms in urine cultures. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by Kirby-Bauer technique for twenty five commonly used antimicrobials and then analyzed on SPSS version 17. Results: P. aeruginosa was isolated in 254 cultures (5.4%). The most resistant drugs included Ceclor(100%) and Cefizox (100%) followed by Amoxil/Ampicillin (99.6%), Ceflixime (99.6%), Doxycycline (99.6%), Cefuroxime (99.2%), Cephradine (99.2%), Cotrimoxazole (99.2%), Nalidixic acid (98.8%), Pipemidic acid (98.6%) and Augmentin (97.6%). Conclusion: Emerging resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa are potentially linked to injudicious use of drugs leading to ineffective empirical therapy and in turn, appearance of even more resistant strains of the bacterium. Therefore, we recommend culture and sensitivity testing to determine the presence of P.aeruginosa prior to specific antimicrobial therapy. PMID:26101487

  1. Physico-Chemical Characterization of Carrageenan at Different Temperatures, Isolated from Hypnea musciformis from Karachi Coast Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junaid Mahmood, Syed; Bi, Fatima; Taj, Noor; Seema; Farhan, M.; Shahid, M.; Azmat, Rafia; Uddin, Fahim

    This study describe the basic tools like viscosity measurements and thermodynamic parameters of the polysaccharide isolated from Hypnea musciformis (red algae) of Karachi Coast (Pakistan) showed characteristics of κ-carrageenan. An IR spectrum showed a fairly sharp band at 1210, 1225 cm-1 corresponding to sulphate ester and is in accordance with the high sulphate content of κ-carrageenan. Viscosity measurements revealed a linear relationship with increase in concentration and decreased with the rise in temperature of aqueous solutions of κ-carrageenan. Thermodynamic parameters were determined by the change in viscosity data as a function of temperature and concentration. The free energy change of activation (Î'Gη) increased regularly as the concentration of aqueous κ-carrageenan increased, as well as rises in temperature. Higher values of free energy change of activation, (Î'Gη) showed the higher association of κ-carrageenan with water at given temperature. The values of entropy change of activation (Î'Sη) of viscous flow also increased with the increase in concentration and temperature of aqueous κ-carrageenan solution. The high negative values of entropy change of activation (Î'Sη) showed that the solution of κ-carrageenan was more ordered in initial state than the activated one.

  2. The Effect of Clinical Clerkship on Students' Attitudes toward Psychiatry in Karachi, Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sajid, Ayesha; Khan, Murad M.; Shakir, Murtaza; Moazam-Zaman, Riffat; Ali, Asad

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Attitudes of medical students toward a specialty is strongly related to their future choice of specialty. In developing countries like Pakistan, where there is a shortage of psychiatrists, there is a need to assess the effect of exposure to psychiatry on medical students. Methods: The authors conducted a survey of fourth-year medical…

  3. Effects of Mothers' Employment on Toddlers' Cognitive Development: A Study Conducted in Karachi, Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meherali, Salima Moez; Karmaliani, Rozina; Asad, Nargis

    2011-01-01

    Over the past several decades in Pakistan, an increasing number of women with young children are joining the workforce, which is one of the biggest social changes in the later half of the twentieth century. More children are being raised in households where mothers work for pay as compared with the scenario a generation ago. This change has…

  4. Monitoring of geomorphological changes for planning reclamation work in coastal area of Karachi, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiqui, M. N.; Maajid, S.

    2004-01-01

    The coastal zones form an important segment and play a vital role in the economy of the country. The land-water interface comprising of coastal zone is modified all the time by oceanic currents, waves and tidal oscillations. The sediments are brought into the creeks from the erosion prone open coast beaches as well as through small rivers and inlets, and dispersed and deposited along the coast. Satellite Remote Sensing (SRS) due to its repetitive, multi-spectral and synoptic nature provides a unique view to recognize various features on land and sea. SRS techniques can be of great help in collection of continuous wave currents, wind, tides, suspended matter, shallow water area, wetlands, mangroves, mudflats and other coastal features and coastal changes, like land accretion or erosion. Therefore, a study has been undertaken to monitor geomorphological changes along the coast of Karachi using multi-temporal Landsat MSS and TM data from 1978 to 1998. SRS data were processed using interactive digital image processing/enhancement techniques like colour enhancement, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and by Colour draping techniques and different enhanced products of the area have been prepared. The multi-temporal PC analysis results were integrated with each other and with navigational map of the area by GIS technique. The geomorphological changes occurring at the middle part of the coast of Karachi along Bundal and Buddo Islands and in Korangi-Phitti Creek area were delineated. The integrated techniques applied on multi-temporal SRS data in this study were found very useful for monitoring and mapping the land accretion and erosion processes. The analyses provided the old as well as the most recent data base of coastal environmental conditions of the study area, which may led for better understanding of coastal processes and help for planning reclamation work in this area.

  5. Prevalence of Smoking and Associated Risk Factors Among Medical Professionals in Hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Zafar, Mubashir

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smoking is the largest preventable risk factor for morbidity and mortality in developed countries where at least one in four adults smoke cigarettes. Healthcare providers who smoke are less likely to advise patients to quit smoking. The aim of this study is to find out the frequency of tobacco smoking among medical professionals in tertiary care hospitals of Karachi, and to identify the common factors responsible for the continuation of smoking among healthcare providers. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out at public and private tertiary Care Hospitals/Institutes at Karachi. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from 180 subjects. An informed consent was obtained from all the subjects. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Results: Prevalence of smoking was 29%. High prevalence of smoking was among male doctors as compared to female doctors. Sixty-eight per cent of smokers started smoking between 20 to 30 years of age. Age less than 35 years, male and public sectors hospitals were more likely OR 1.23, CI (0.98-2.41), 6.40 CI (4.48-10.52) and 2.61 CI (2.20-3.78) respectively. Conclusions: The Result of the study suggests that while healthcare smoking habits appear to be high, they are not uniformly low when compared from an international perspective. Health promotion programs focused on self-efficacy may be an effective tool for reducing the initiation, frequency, and amount of cigarette smoking among healthcare providers. PMID:24829733

  6. Effect of recent diarrhoeal episodes on risk of pneumonia in children under the age of 5 years in Karachi, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Ashraf, Sania; Huque, M Hamidul; Kenah, Eben; Agboatwalla, Mubina; Luby, Stephen P

    2015-01-01

    Background We assessed the association between the duration of diarrhoea and the risk ofpneumonia incidence among children <5 years of age. Methods We analysed data from a cluster randomized controlled trial in Karachi, Pakistan, which assessed the effect of promoting hand washing with soap (antibacterial and plain) on child health. Field workers visited households with children <5 years of age weekly and asked primary caregivers if their child had diarrhoea, cough or difficulty breathing in the preceding week. We used the WHO clinical case definitions for diarrhoea and pneumonia. We used adjusted time-to-event analyses with cumulative diarrhoea prevalence over the previous 2 and 4 weeks as exposure and pneumonia as outcome. We calculated the attributable risk of pneumonia due to recent diarrhoea across the intervention groups. Results 873 households with children <5 years were visited. Children had an increased risk of pneumonia for every additional day of diarrhoea in the 2 weeks (1.06, 95% CI: 1.03–1.09) and 4 weeks (1.04, 95% CI: 1.03–1.06) prior to the week of pneumonia onset. The attributable risk of pneumonia cases due to recent exposure to diarrhoea was 6%. A lower associated pneumonia risk following diarrhoea was found in the control group: (3%) compared with soap groups (6% in antibacterial soap, 9% in plain soap). Conclusion Children <5 years of age are at an increased risk of pneumonia following recent diarrhoeal illness. Public health programmes that prevent diarrhoea may also reduce the burden of respiratory illnesses. PMID:23378152

  7. Newborn care knowledge and practices among mothers attending pediatric outpatient clinic of a hospital in Karachi, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Gul, Saadia; Khalil, Rehana; Yousafzai, M. Tahir; Shoukat, Faiza

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess newborn care knowledge and practices among mothers. Methodology A cross-sectional study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. A total of 170 mothers accompanying their infants attending the Paediatric Out Patient Department were interviewed through a structured questionnaire. Areas of inquiry included Antenatal care seeking, delivery care, cord care, eye care, bathing and breastfeeding practices. Results Ninety-two percent mothers reported at least one antenatal care visit. Tetanus Toxoid coverage was 88%. Home deliveries were 18%. Seventy-four percent reported applying various substances like coconut oil, mustard oil, purified butter and turmeric to the cord stump. Kohl application to newborn’s eyes was 68%, while 86% reported first bath within 24 hrs of birth. 48% mothers initiated breastfeeding within 2 hours of delivery. Colostrum was discarded by 43% and prelacteal feeds given by 73%. Exclusive Breast Feeding rate was 26%. Family income of Rs. 10, 000 (USD120) or less/month and maternal education level of primary or less were significantly associated with home delivery, unhygienic cord care and kohl application to the newborn’s eyes. Home delivery was a risk factor for poor cord care (OR=4.07) and discarding colostrum (OR= 3.18). Conclusion Antenatal care coverage was good, but knowledge regarding newborn care was poor. Harmful practices regarding newborn care were prevalent among mothers. Institutional deliveries did not guarantee optimal practices. Tradition and culture played a significant role. Health education can improve the mothers’ knowledge regarding newborn care practices. PMID:25246884

  8. Determinants of Default from Tuberculosis Treatment among Patients with Drug-Susceptible Tuberculosis in Karachi, Pakistan: A Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Chida, Natasha; Ansari, Zara; Hussain, Hamidah; Jaswal, Maria; Symes, Stephen; Khan, Aamir J.; Mohammed, Shama

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Non-adherence to tuberculosis therapy can lead to drug resistance, prolonged infectiousness, and death; therefore, understanding what causes treatment default is important. Pakistan has one of the highest burdens of tuberculosis in the world, yet there have been no qualitative studies in Pakistan that have specifically examined why default occurs. We conducted a mixed methods study at a tuberculosis clinic in Karachi to understand why patients with drug-susceptible tuberculosis default from treatment, and to identify factors associated with default. Patients attending this clinic pick up medications weekly and undergo family-supported directly observed therapy. Methods In-depth interviews were administered to 21 patients who had defaulted. We also compared patients who defaulted with those who were cured, had completed, or had failed treatment in 2013. Results Qualitative analyses showed the most common reasons for default were the financial burden of treatment, and medication side effects and beliefs. The influence of finances on other causes of default was also prominent, as was concern about the effect of treatment on family members. In quantitative analysis, of 2120 patients, 301 (14.2%) defaulted. Univariate analysis found that male gender (OR: 1.34, 95% CI: 1.04–1.71), being 35–59 years of age (OR: 1.54, 95% CI: 1.14–2.08), or being 60 years of age or older (OR: 1.84, 95% CI: 1.17–2.88) were associated with default. After adjusting for gender, disease site, and patient category, being 35–59 years of age (aOR: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.10–2.03) or 60 years of age or older (aOR: 1.76, 95% CI: 1.12–2.77) were associated with default. Conclusions In multivariate analysis age was the only variable associated with default. This lack of identifiable risk factors and our qualitative findings imply that default is complex and often due to extrinsic and medication-related factors. More tolerable medications, improved side effect management, and innovative cost-reduction measures are needed to reduce default from tuberculosis treatment. PMID:26562787

  9. Association of SNP rs9939609 in FTO gene with metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetic subjects, rectruited from a tertiary care unit of Karachi, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Fawwad, Asher; Siddiqui, Iftikhar Ahmed; Zeeshan, Nimra Fatima; Shahid, Syed Muhammad; Basit, Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the association of SNP in FTO gene, rs9939609, with Metabolic Syndrome (MS) in type 2 diabetic subjects at a tertiary care unit of Karachi, Pakistan. Methods: We genotyped FTO rs9939609 SNP in 296 patients with type 2 diabetes from the Out Patient Department (OPD) of Baqai Institute of Diabetology and Endocrinology (BIDE). MS was defined on the basis of International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and National Cholesterol Education program (NCEP) criterion. Association between the rs9939609 SNP and MS was tested through chi-square and Z-tests by using odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals. Results: The frequency of MS as defined by IDF criterion was significantly higher in female subjects as compared to male subjects (p= 0.006). Carriers of ? 1 copy of the rs9939609 A allele were significantly more likely to had MS (69.6%) than non-carriers (30.4%), corresponding to a carrier odds ratio (OR) of 0.52 (95% confidence interval [CI] (0.29-0.93), with a similar trend for the ATP III-defined MS.“A” allele carriers under dominant model, carry all the criterion of MS more significantly as compared to non-carriers. Conclusion: The FTO rs9939609 SNP was associated with an increased risk for Metabolic Syndrome in type 2 diabetic populations at a tertiary care unit of Karachi, Pakistan. PMID:25878631

  10. Good knowledge about hypertension is linked to better control of hypertension; A multicentre cross sectional study in Karachi, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background According to the National Health survey only 3% of the population has controlled hypertension. This study was designed to elucidate the knowledge about hypertension in hypertensive patients at three tertiary care centers in Karachi. Secondly we sought to compare the knowledge of those with uncontrolled hypertension and controlled hypertension. Methods It was a cross-sectional study conducted at The Aga Khan University hospital (AKUH), Ziauddin Hospital (ZH) and Civil hospital, Karachi (CHK. All diagnosed Hypertensive patients (both inpatients and outpatients) coming to a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan aged > 18 years were included. Patients were categorized into 2 groups: controlled and uncontrolled hypertension based on their initial BP readings on presentation Uncontrolled Hypertension was defined as average BP ? 140/90 mm Hg in patients on treatment. Controlled Hypertension (HTN) was defined as average BP <140/90 mm Hg in patients on treatment. Standardized methods were used to record BP in the sitting position. Knowledge was recorded as a15 item question. Primary outcome was knowledge about hypertension. Results A total of 650 participants were approached and consented 447 were found eligible. 284(63.5%) were from Aga Khan University, 101(22.6) from Dow University of health sciences and 62(13.9) were from Ziauddin University. Mean (SD) age of participants was 57.7(12) years, 50.1(224) were men. Controlled hypertension was present in 323(72.3) and uncontrolled hypertension was present in 124(27.4). The total mean (SD) Knowledge score was 20.97(4.93) out of a maximum score of 38. On comparison of questions related to knowledge between uncontrolled and controlled hypertension, there was statistically significant different in; meaning of hypertension (p <0.001), target SBP(p0.001), target DBP(p 0.001), importance of SBP versus DBP, improvement of health with lowering of blood pressure (p 0.002), high blood pressure being asymptomatic (p <0.001), changing lifestyle improves blood pressure(p 0.003),hypertension being a lifelong disease (<0.001), lifelong treatment with antihypertensives(<0.001) and high blood pressure being part of aging(<0.001). On comparison of knowledge as a composite score between uncontrolled and controlled hypertensive; Mean (SD) score was 21.85(4.74) v18.67 (4.70) (p value: < 0.001). On multivariate analysis; gender ? (95% CI) 1.67(0.75, 2.59) p <0.001, uncontrolled blood pressure; -2.70(?3.76,-1.67) p <0.001, Sindhi ethnicity; -1.79(?3.25,-3.27) p 0.01 and pukhtoon ethnicity; -2.72(?4.13,-1.32) p <0.001 were significantly associated with knowledge score. Conclusion Knowledge about hypertension in hypertensive patients is not adequate and is alarmingly poor in patients with uncontrolled hypertension. More emphasis needs to be made on target blood pressure and need for taking antihypertensives for life to patients by physicians. PMID:23095492

  11. Trends in Transfusion Transmitted Infections Among Replacement Blood Donors in Karachi, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Irfan, Syed Mohammad; Uddin, Jamal; Zaheer, Hasan Abbas; Sultan, Sadia; Baig, Amjad

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of Hepatitis-B, Hepatitis-C and Human Immunodeficiency infections in replacement blood donors. Materials and Methods: From January 2004 to December 2011, 108,598 apparently healthy donors donated blood at our Blood Bank. Screening was done by Microparticle Enzyme Immuno Assay (MEIA) method on Axsym System (Abbott Diagnostic, USA) and in year 2011 by Chemiluminescent Immunoassay (CIA) method on Architect i2000 (Abbott Diagnostic, USA). From 2010 onward, HIV reactive donors were advised for confirmatory tests and reported back with the results. Results: Of the 108,598 total donors, 108,393 (99.8%) were replacement donors with a mean age of 28.92 (17-55) years. Of this, only 164 (0.15%) were females. Among the replacement donors, 4,906 (4.5%) were found to be reactive for Hepatitis-B, C and Human Immunodeficiency Virus. All the reactive patients, except one, were males. HbsAg was positive in 2,068 (1.90%) and anti-HCV in 2832 (2.61%) donors, while 111 (0.10%) were positive for Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Co-infectivity was observed in 103 (0.09%) cases. The prevalence appeared to be higher in younger age group (17-30 yrs). Only 16.6% cases should be patients returned with results of the confirmatory tests for HIV and were found positive. Conclusion: Hepatitis-B and C sero-prevalence in our series of replacement donors appears high compared to most studies from neighboring countries and relatively low in comparison to earlier studies from Pakistan. Prevalence of HIV, however, appears low and turn out of HIV positive cases for confirmatory tests is low. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:24385780

  12. Pakistan.

    PubMed

    1992-06-01

    Pakistan's background notes which profile the population, geography, government, and the economy contain a capsule of selected country statistics and a descriptive text. Pakistan has 117 million people distributed at 134/sq km with a growth rate of 3%. The major cities are Islamabad, Rawalpindi, Karachi, Lahore, and Faisalabad. Ethnic groups include the Punjabi, Sindhi, Pathan, Baluch, and Huhajirs. 97% are Muslim. Urdu is the official language, but 65% speak Punjabi, 11% Sindhi, and 24% other languages. 26% are literate. Infant mortality is 109/1000. 54% are involved in agriculture, 33% services, and 13% in industry. A parliamentary democracy was established in 1947 with an executive, legislative, and judicial branch of government. The Islamic Democratic Alliance is the most important national party. Voting rights are for those 21 years. Seats are reserved for non-Muslims. There are 4 political subdivisions. Gross national product (GNP) was $43 billion in 1990. The economic growth rate is 5% and 2%/capita. The natural resources are arable land, natural gas, petroleum, coal, iron ore, and hydropower potential. Agricultural products include wheat, cotton, rice, and sugarcane. Industry includes textiles, fertilizer, steel products, food processing, and oil and gas products. Major trade partners are Japan, the US, the United Kingdom, and Saudi Arabia. Economic aid was $36 billion between 1947-85, of which the US contributed 3 billion between 1981-87. Major donors are id entified. The population concentration is around Karachi. Political unrest has prevailed for 26 years and includes the creation of Bangladesh in 1970 from East Pakistan. Pakistan is considered to have the resources and entrepreneurial skills to develop economically rapidly. Defense strength is characterized as the world's 11th largest. Pakistan is nonaligned, but a member of the Organization of the Islamic Conference and the UN. Relations with India have been difficult. There is a desire for a stable Afghanistan. There are close relations with China and security and economic interests in the Persian Gulf. Relations with the US are wide and bilateral. PMID:12178039

  13. Impact of marine pollution in green mussel Perna viridis from four coastal sites in Karachi, Pakistan, North Arabian Sea: histopathological observations.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Iftikhar; Ayub, Zarrien; Siddiqui, Ghazala

    2015-04-01

    Pathological changes are regarded as a standard technique to monitor the effects of pollutants in marine animals. Histopathological examination of the population of green mussel Perna viridis (L.) from four sites in Pakistan, namely, Manora Channel, Rehri Creek, Sandspit Backwaters and Bhanbore was conducted. The first three sites are on the Karachi coast, whereas the fourth one, Bhanbore is situated outside Karachi, and is considered to be less polluted. Two types of parasites, Rickettsia-like organisms and metacestode were found in the mussels studied. In the present study, we observed various pathological lesions, such as inflammatory responses, granulocytomas, lipofuscin pigments, vacuolation in the digestive gland and gonads, lamellar fusion and dilated hemolymphatic sinus in the gills of P. viridis. These observations indicate the extent of environmental pollution in the studied areas. Although, Bhanbore is considered to be relatively less polluted compared to other three sites, the present results have revealed that the waters of Bhanbore are also polluted as evidenced by the pathological changes observed in the mussels collected from there. PMID:26011983

  14. Young adults' perceptions on life prospects and gender roles as important factors to influence health behaviour: a qualitative study from Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Hasnain, Syed Farid-ul; Johansson, Eva; Mogren, Ingrid; Krantz, Gunilla

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore perceptions and expectations of young males and females, in Karachi, Pakistan, regarding their life prospects and gender roles, with resulting implications for health behaviour. The main theme emerging was "Young adults' prospects in life are hampered by psychosocial and gender equality constraints". Gender inequality and the low status of women in society were described as major obstacles to the overall development. Persistent withholding of information to the younger generation on sexual and reproductive health issues was perceived to increase exposure to health risks, particularly sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The present study reveals new discourses on equality among young adults, pointing towards an increasing, sound interaction between the sexes and aspirations for more gender equal relationships. Such views and awareness among the younger generation constitutes a strong force towards change of traditional norms, including reproductive health behaviour, and calls for policy change. PMID:22980235

  15. Sociocultural influences on newborn health in the first 6 weeks of life: qualitative study in a fishing village in Karachi, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Given regional variability and minimal improvement in infant mortality rates in Pakistan, this study aimed to explicate sociocultural influences impacting mothers’ efforts to maintain or improve newborn health. Methods We used a qualitative phenomenological approach. A total of 10 mothers and 8 fathers from a fishing village in Karachi, Pakistan were purposefully sampled and interviewed individually. A focus group was undertaken with four grandmothers (primary decision makers). Transcripts were independently reviewed using interpretive thematic analysis. Results A multigenerational approach was used in infant care, but mothers did not have a voice in decision-making. Parents connected breast milk to infant health, and crying was used as cue to initiate feeding. Participants perceived that newborns required early supplementation, given poor milk supply and to improve health. There were tensions between traditional (i.e., home) remedies and current medical practices. Equal importance was given to sons and daughters. Conclusion Findings suggest that social and cultural influences within families and the community must be considered in developing interventions to improve newborn health. Introducing non-breast milk substances into newborn diets may reduce the duration of exclusive or partial breastfeeding and increase risks to infant health. PMID:25030836

  16. Gendered Disparities in Quality of Cataract Surgery in a Marginalised Population in Pakistan: The Karachi Marine Fishing Communities Eye and General Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Khabir; Zwi, Anthony B.; Tarantola, Daniel J. M.; Soomro, Abdul Qadeem; Baig, Rashid; Azam, Syed Iqbal

    2015-01-01

    Background Marine fishing communities are among the most marginalised and hard-to-reach groups and have been largely neglected in health research. We examined the quality of cataract surgery and its determinants, with an emphasis on gender, in marine fishing communities in Karachi, Pakistan, using multiple indicators of performance. Methods and Findings The Karachi Marine Fishing Communities Eye and General Health Survey was a door-to-door, cross-sectional study conducted between March 2009 and April 2010 in fishing communities living on 7 islands and in coastal areas in Keamari, Karachi, located on the Arabian Sea. A population-based sample of 638 adults, aged ? 50 years, was studied. A total of 145 eyes (of 97 persons) had undergone cataract surgery in this sample. Cataract surgical outcomes assessed included vision (presenting and best-corrected with a reduced logMAR chart), satisfaction with surgery, astigmatism, and pupil shape. Overall, 65.5% of the operated eyes had some form of visual loss (presenting visual acuity [PVA] < 6/12). 55.2%, 29.0%, and 15.9% of these had good, borderline, and poor visual outcomes based on presenting vision; with best correction, these values were: 68.3 %, 18.6%, and 13.1%, respectively. Of 7 covariates evaluated in the multivariable generalized estimating equations (GEE) analyses, gender was the only significant independent predictor of visual outcome. Women’s eyes were nearly 4.38 times more likely to have suboptimal visual outcome (PVA<6/18) compared with men’s eyes (adjusted odds ratio 4.38, 95% CI 1.96-9.79; P<0.001) after adjusting for the effect of household financial status. A higher proportion of women’s than men’s eyes had an irregular pupil (26.5% vs. 14.8%) or severe/very severe astigmatism (27.5% vs. 18.2%). However, these differences did not reach statistical significance. Overall, more than one fourth (44/144) of cataract surgeries resulted in dissatisfaction. The only significant predictor of satisfaction was visual outcome (P <0.001). Conclusions The quality of cataract surgery in this marginalised population, especially among women, falls well below the WHO recommended standards. Gender disparities, in particular, deserve proactive attention in policy, service delivery, research and evaluation. PMID:26186605

  17. Prevalence and factors related to dental caries among pre-school children of Saddar town, Karachi, Pakistan: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dental caries is highly prevalent and a significant public health problem among children throughout the world. Epidemiological data regarding prevalence of dental caries amongst Pakistani pre-school children is very limited. The objective of this study is to determine the frequency of dental caries among pre-school children of Saddar Town, Karachi, Pakistan and the factors related to caries. Methods A cross-sectional study of 1000 preschool children was conducted in Saddar town, Karachi. Two-stage cluster sampling was used to select the sample. At first stage, eight clusters were selected randomly from total 11 clusters. In second stage, from the eight selected clusters, preschools were identified and children between 3- to 6-years age group were assessed for dental caries. Results Caries prevalence was 51% with a mean dmft score being 2.08 (±2.97) of which decayed teeth constituted 1.95. The mean dmft of males was 2.3 (±3.08) and of females was 1.90 (±2.90). The mean dmft of 3, 4, 5 and 6-?year olds was 1.65, 2.11, 2.16 and 3.11 respectively. A significant association was found between dental caries and following variables: age group of 4-years (p-value?²?0.029, RR?=?1.248, 95% Bias corrected CI 0.029-0.437) and 5-years (p-value?²?0.009, RR?=?1.545, 95% Bias corrected CI 0.047-0.739), presence of dental plaque (p-value?²?0.003, RR?=?0.744, 95% Bias corrected CI (?0.433)-(?0.169)), poor oral hygiene (p-value?²?0.000, RR?=?0.661, 95% Bias corrected CI (?0.532)-(?0.284)), as well as consumption of non-sweetened milk (p-value?²?0.049, RR?=?1.232, 95% Bias corrected CI 0.061-0.367). Conclusion Half of the preschoolers had dental caries coupled with a high prevalence of unmet dental treatment needs. Association between caries experience and age of child, consumption of non-sweetened milk, dental plaque and poor oral hygiene had been established. PMID:23270546

  18. Geographic Variation in Access to Dog-Bite Care in Pakistan and Risk of Dog-Bite Exposure in Karachi: Prospective Surveillance Using a Low-Cost Mobile Phone System

    PubMed Central

    Zaidi, Syed Mohammad Asad; Labrique, Alain B.; Khowaja, Saira; Lotia-Farrukh, Ismat; Irani, Julia; Salahuddin, Naseem; Khan, Aamir Javed

    2013-01-01

    Background Dog-bites and rabies are under-reported in developing countries such as Pakistan and there is a poor understanding of the disease burden. We prospectively collected data utilizing mobile phones for dog-bite and rabies surveillance across nine emergency rooms (ER) in Pakistan, recording patient health-seeking behaviors, access to care and analyzed spatial distribution of cases from Karachi. Methodology and Principal Findings A total of 6212 dog-bite cases were identified over two years starting in February 2009 with largest number reported from Karachi (59.7%), followed by Peshawar (13.1%) and Hyderabad (11.4%). Severity of dog-bites was assessed using the WHO classification. Forty percent of patients had Category I (least severe) bites, 28.1% had Category II bites and 31.9% had Category III (most severe bites). Patients visiting a large public hospital ER in Karachi were least likely to seek immediate healthcare at non-medical facilities (Odds Ratio?=?0.20, 95% CI 0.17–0.23, p-value<0.01), and had shorter mean travel time to emergency rooms, adjusted for age and gender (32.78 min, 95% CI 31.82–33.78, p-value<0.01) than patients visiting hospitals in smaller cities. Spatial analysis of dog-bites in Karachi suggested clustering of cases (Moran's I?=?0.02, p value<0.01), and increased risk of exposure in particular around Korangi and Malir that are adjacent to the city's largest abattoir in Landhi. The direct cost of operating the mHealth surveillance system was USD 7.15 per dog-bite case reported, or approximately USD 44,408 over two years. Conclusions Our findings suggest significant differences in access to care and health-seeking behaviors in Pakistan following dog-bites. The distribution of cases in Karachi was suggestive of clustering of cases that could guide targeted disease-control efforts in the city. Mobile phone technologies for health (mHealth) allowed for the operation of a national-level disease reporting and surveillance system at a low cost. PMID:24349590

  19. Simplified Antibiotic Regimens for the Management of Clinically Diagnosed Severe Infections in Newborns and Young Infants in First-level Facilities in Karachi, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background: Infection in young infants is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in low-middle income countries, with high neonatal mortality rates. Timely case management is lifesaving, but the current standard of hospitalization for parenteral antibiotic therapy is not always feasible. Alternative, simpler antibiotic regimens that could be used in outpatient settings have the potential to save thousands of lives. Methods: This trial aims to determine whether 2 simplified antibiotic regimens are equivalent to the reference therapy with 7 days of once-daily (OD) intramuscular (IM) procaine penicillin and gentamicin for outpatient management of young infants with clinically presumed systemic bacterial infection treated in primary health-care clinics in 5 communities in Karachi, Pakistan. The reference regimen is close to the current recommendation of the hospital-based intravenous ampicillin and gentamicin therapy for neonatal sepsis. The 2 comparison arms are (1) IM gentamicin OD and oral amoxicillin twice daily for 7 days; and (2) IM penicillin and gentamicin OD for 2 days, followed by oral amoxicillin twice daily for 5 days; 2250 “evaluable” infants will be enrolled. The primary outcome of this trial is treatment failure (death, deterioration or lack of improvement) within 7 days of enrollment. Results are expected by early 2014. Discussion: This trial will determine whether simplified antibiotic regimens with fewer injections in combination with high-dose amoxicillin are equivalent to 7 days of IM procaine penicillin and gentamicin in young infants with clinical severe infection. Results will have program and policy implications in countries with limited access to hospital care and high burden of neonatal deaths. PMID:23945571

  20. Drug resistance profile and biofilm forming potential of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from contact lenses in Karachi-Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The contaminated contact lens provides Pseudomonas aeruginosa an ideal site for attachment and biofilm production. Continuous contact of the eye to the biofilm-infested lens can lead to serious ocular diseases, such as keratitis (corneal ulcers). The biofilms also prevent effective penetration of the antibiotics, which increase the chances of antibiotic resistance. Methods For this study, 22 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were obtained from 36 contact lenses and 14 contact lens protective fluid samples. These isolates were tested against eight commonly used antibiotics using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. The biofilm forming potential of these isolates was also evaluated using various qualitative and quantitative techniques. Finally, a relationship between biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance was also examined. Results The isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa tested were found resistant to most of the antibiotics tested. Qualitative and quantitative biofilm analysis revealed that most of the isolates exhibited strong biofilm production. The biofilm production was significantly higher in isolates that were multi-drug resistant (p?Pakistan, which analyzes both antibiotic resistance profile and biofilm forming potential of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from contact lens of the patients with contact lens associated infections. PMID:24134792

  1. The utilization of LANDSAT imagery in nuclear power plant siting. [in Pakistan, South Carolina, and Spain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eggenberger, A. J.; Rowlands, D.; Rizzo, P. C.

    1975-01-01

    LANDSAT imagery was used primarily to map geologic features such as lineaments, linears, faults, and other major geologic structures which affect site selection for a nuclear power plant. Areas studied include Pakistan, the South Carolina Piedmont, and Huelva, Spain.

  2. The Karachi intracranial stenosis study (KISS) Protocol: An urban multicenter case-control investigation reporting the clinical, radiologic and biochemical associations of intracranial stenosis in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Kamal, Ayeesha Kamran; Taj, Fawad; Junaidi, Babar; Rasheed, Asif; Zaidi, Moazzam; Murtaza, Muhammed; Iqbal, Naved; Hashmat, Fahad; Alam, Syed Vaqas; Saleem, Uzma; Waheed, Shahan; Bansari, Lajpat; Shah, Nabi; Samuel, Maria; Yameen, Madiha; Naz, Sobia; Khan, Farrukh Shahab; Ahmed, Naveeduddin; Mahmood, Khalid; Sheikh, Niaz; Makki, Karim Ullah; Ahmed, Muhammad Masroor; Memon, Abdul Rauf; Wasay, Mohammad; Syed, Nadir Ali; Khealani, Bhojo; Frossard, Philippe M; Saleheen, Danish

    2009-01-01

    Background Intracranial stenosis is the most common cause of stroke among Asians. It has a poor prognosis with a high rate of recurrence. No effective medical or surgical treatment modality has been developed for the treatment of stroke due to intracranial stenosis. We aim to identify risk factors and biomarkers for intracranial stenosis and to develop techniques such as use of transcranial doppler to help diagnose intracranial stenosis in a cost-effective manner. Methods/Design The Karachi Intracranial Stenosis Study (KISS) is a prospective, observational, case-control study to describe the clinical features and determine the risk factors of patients with stroke due to intracranial stenosis and compare them to those with stroke due to other etiologies as well as to unaffected individuals. We plan to recruit 200 patients with stroke due to intracranial stenosis and two control groups each of 150 matched individuals. The first set of controls will include patients with ischemic stroke that is due to other atherosclerotic mechanisms specifically lacunar and cardioembolic strokes. The second group will consist of stroke free individuals. Standardized interviews will be conducted to determine demographic, medical, social, and behavioral variables along with baseline medications. Mandatory procedures for inclusion in the study are clinical confirmation of stroke by a healthcare professional within 72 hours of onset, 12 lead electrocardiogram, and neuroimaging. In addition, lipid profile, serum glucose, creatinine and HbA1C will be measured in all participants. Ancillary tests will include carotid ultrasound, transcranial doppler and magnetic resonance or computed tomography angiogram to rule out concurrent carotid disease. Echocardiogram and other additional investigations will be performed at these centers at the discretion of the regional physicians. Discussion The results of this study will help inform locally relevant clinical guidelines and effective public health and individual interventions. PMID:19604359

  3. Informed consent: views from Karachi.

    PubMed

    Jafarey, Aamir

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about the public's perceptions about the process of obtaining informed consent for participation in medical research. A study was made of the views of patients, their attendants, parents, schoolteachers and office workers living in Karachi, Pakistan. Participants felt that informed consent was an important step in recruiting research participants but many felt that it was a trust-based process not requiring proper documentation. For recruiting women, both men and women believed it was important to approach women through their husbands and fathers. When there was a conflict with the opinions of family leaders, it was clear that the male participants' opinion was valued more than that of the female participants by both men and women. PMID:17037689

  4. The Muslim Response to English in South Asia: With Special Reference to Inequality, Intolerance, and Militancy in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, Tariq

    2005-01-01

    This article argues that since the British colonial era, Muslims in South Asia have responded to English in three ways: (a) rejection and resistance, (b) acceptance and assimilation, and (c) pragmatic utilization. These responses continue in Pakistan and are respectively associated with the traditionalist ulema, the Westernized middle and upper…

  5. Marine geology and oceanography of Arabian Sea and coastal Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Haq, B.U.; Milliman, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    This volume is a collection of papers presented at the first US-Pakistan workshop in marine science held in Karachi, Pakistan, in November 1982. Of the twenty-four contributions in this book, fourteen cover topics specific to the Arabian Sea-coastal Pakistan region. These include six papers on the geology, tectonics, and petroleum potential of Pakistan, four papers on sedimentary processes in the Indus River delta-fan complex, and four papers on the biological oceanography of the Arabian Sea and coastal Pakistan. The additional ten papers are overviews of shelf sedimentation processes, paleoceanography, the marine nutrient cycle, and physical and chemical oceanography.

  6. Impact of Maternal Education about Complementary Feeding on Their Infants' Nutritional Outcomes in Low- and Middle-income Households: A Community-based Randomized Interventional Study in Karachi, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Saleem, Ali Faisal; Mahmud, Sadia; Baig-Ansari, Naila

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT This cluster-randomized interventional trial at peri-urban settings of Karachi was conducted to evaluate the impact of maternal educational messages regarding appropriate complementary feeding (CF) on the nutritional status of their infants after 30 weeks of educational interventions delivered by trained community health workers. Mothers in the intervention group received three education modules about breastfeeding (BF) and appropriate CF at a baseline visit and two subsequent visits 10 weeks apart. The control group received advice about BF according to national guidelines. Infants' growth [weight, length, and mid-upper arm-circumference (MUAC), stunting, wasting, and underweight] were measured at four time points. At the end of the study, infants in the intervention group had a higher mean weight of 350 g (p=0.001); length of 0.66 cm (p=0.001), and MUAC of 0.46 cm (p=0.002) compared to the controls; proportionate reduction of stunting and underweight were 10% (84% vs 74%; ORadj 8.36 (5.6-12.42) and 5% (25% vs 20%; ORadj 0.75 (0.4-1.79) in the intervention compared to the control group. For relatively food-secure populations, educational interventions about appropriate CF to mothers had a direct positive impact on linear growth of their infants. PMID:25895196

  7. Antenatal Depression is Not Associated with Low-Birth Weight: A Study from Urban Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Husain, Nusrat; Munshi, Tariq; Jafri, Farhat; Husain, Meher; Parveen, Asia; Saeed, Qamar; Tomenson, Barbara; Naeem, Farooq; Chaudhry, Nasim

    2014-01-01

    Background: Low-birth weight (LBW) (<2500?g) is considered to be a leading cause of cognitive impairment and physical disabilities in children. Incidence of LBW in South Asia has been reported to be as high as 33%. We investigated the association between antenatal depression and LBW in an urban community, in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods: A total of 1357 pregnant women in their third trimester were recruited into the study. They were screened for antenatal depression with Edinburgh postnatal depression scale. Self-reporting questionnaire was also used to measure psychological distress. Birth weights of 763 newborns were obtained from the hospital records. Results: We did not find a significant association between antenatal depression and LBW (odds ratio 0.881, 95%CI 0.732–1.060) in mothers attending a charity run hospital in an urban setting in Pakistan. Conclusion: Antenatal depression is not associated with LBW in this urban population in Pakistan. However, the prevalence of depression is high during pregnancy. There is a need to develop culturally adapted psychosocial interventions to address the high rates of depression for this population group. PMID:25540627

  8. Prevalence and pattern of self-medication in Karachi: A community survey

    PubMed Central

    Afridi, M. Iqbal; Rasool, Ghulam; Tabassum, Rabia; Shaheen, Marriam; Siddiqullah; Shujauddin, M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study the prevalence and pattern of self-medication among adult males and females in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods: This cross-sectional community- based survey was carried out at five randomly selected towns of Karachi (Defence, Gulshan-e-Iqbal, North Nazimabad, Malir, Orangi town) over a period of 3 months (October, November & December 2012). A sample size of 500 adult cases (250 males & 250 females), with systemic random selection from different towns of Karachi were inducted in this study. The city was divided in 5 zones and one town from each zone was selected by systemic randomization. First available male and female from each randomly selected house were included in the study. After consent and confidentiality assurance they were interviewed on semi-structured Performa designed for this purpose. Results were analyzed and tabulated through SPSS v14.0. Result: The prevalence of self-medication in males and females in Karachi is found to be 84.8% (males 88.4% and females 81.2%). The most frequent symptoms for which self-medication used were headache (32.7%), fever (23.3%) and the medicines used were painkillers (28.8%), fever reducer medicines (19.8%). The most common reason 33.3% was previous experience with similar symptom. Conclusion: Self-medication is highly prevalent (84.8%) in Karachi. It was frequently used for headache followed by fever. Predominantly painkillers, fever reducer and cough syrups were used in the form of tablets and syrups. Main source of medicines for males were friends and for females were relatives. PMID:26649022

  9. Risk Factors for Deliberate Self-Harm in Patients Presenting to the Emergency Departments of Karachi

    PubMed Central

    Shahid, Muhammad; Iqbal, Romaina; Khan, Murad M.; Khan, Muhammad Zaman; Shamsi, Uzma Shoaib; Nakeer, Rooham

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the risk factors for Deliberate Self-Harm (DSH) in patients presenting to the Emergency Departments (EDs) of three tertiary care hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan. Study Design Multicentre matched case control study. Place and Duration of Study EDs of the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Civil Hospital, Karachi and Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, from March 2011 to February 2012. Methodology A total of 201 cases and 201 matched controls were taken from three hospitals situated in Karachi. All patients of 16 years and above presenting to the EDs of the hospitals with DSH attempt were invited to participate in the study. Controls were ED patients with complaints other than DSH. A control was matched with case for hospital, gender and age. Two questionnaires were used to collect information on the risk factors of DSH. Conditional Logistic Regression (CLR) was used to assess the association of various risk factors with DSH. Results Risk factors of DSH in Karachi included current history of mental disorder (OR = 4.53, 95% CI = 1.59 – 12.92), not sharing problems with someone (OR = 4.67, 95% CI = 2.4 – 9.0), living in rented houses (OR = 2.58, 95% CI = 1.37 – 4.84), Pathan ethnicity (OR = 5.05, 95% CI = 1.01–25.38) followed by others (OR = 3.88, 95% CI = 0.77 – 19.69) and Urdu speaking (OR = 2.71, 95% CI = 0.59 – 12.45). Absence of physical illness in the past month had an inverse association with DSH (OR = 0.17, 95% CI = 0.07 – 0.37). Conclusion Mental illnesses, low socio-economic status and loneliness were the risk factors of DSH patients presenting to the three EDs of Karachi. Physical illness in the last month was protective against DSH in these patients. Psychiatric evaluation of DSH patients in the ED is important for early diagnosis and management of mental disorders. PMID:25604370

  10. Grid parity analysis of stand-alone hybrid microgrids: A comparative study of Germany, Pakistan, South Africa and the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiqui, Jawad M.

    Grid parity for alternative energy resources occurs when the cost of electricity generated from the source is lower than or equal to the purchasing price of power from the electricity grid. This thesis aims to quantitatively analyze the evolution of hybrid stand-alone microgrids in the US, Germany, Pakistan and South Africa to determine grid parity for a solar PV/Diesel/Battery hybrid system. The Energy System Model (ESM) and NREL's Hybrid Optimization of Multiple Energy Resources (HOMER) software are used to simulate the microgrid operation and determine a Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE) figure for each location. This cost per kWh is then compared with two distinct estimates of future retail electricity prices at each location to determine grid parity points. Analysis results reveal that future estimates of LCOE for such hybrid stand-alone microgrids range within the 35-55 cents/kWh over the 25 year study period. Grid parity occurs earlier in locations with higher power prices or unreliable grids. For Pakistan grid parity is already here, while Germany hits parity between the years 2023-2029. Results for South Africa suggest a parity time range of the years 2040-2045. In the US, places with low grid prices do not hit parity during the study period. Sensitivity analysis results reveal the significant impact of financing and the cost of capital on these grid parity points, particularly in developing markets of Pakistan and South Africa. Overall, the study helps conclude that variations in energy markets may determine the fate of emerging energy technologies like microgrids. However, policy interventions have a significant impact on the final outcome, such as the grid parity in this case. Measures such as eliminating uncertainty in policies and improving financing can help these grids overcome barriers in developing economies, where they may find a greater use much earlier in time.

  11. Useful ethnophytomedicinal recipes of angiosperms used against diabetes in South East Asian Countries (India, Pakistan & Sri Lanka).

    PubMed

    Marwat, Sarfaraz Khan; Rehman, Fazalur; Khan, Ejaz Ahmad; Khakwani, Abdul Aziz; Ullah, Imdad; Khan, Kaleem Ullah; Khan, Inam Ullah

    2014-09-01

    This paper is based on data recorded from various literatures pertaining to ethnophytomedicinal recipes used against diabetes in South East Asia (India, Pakistan and Srilanka). Traditional plant treatments have been used throughout the world for the therapy of diabetes mellitus. In total 419 useful phytorecipes of 270 plant species belonging to 74 Angiospermic families were collected. From the review it was revealed that plants showing hypoglycemic potential mainly belong to the families, Cucurbitaceae (16 spp.), Euphorbiaceae (15 spp.), Caesalpiniaceae and Papilionaceae (13 spp. each), Moraceae (11 spp.), Acanthaceae (10 spp.), Mimosaceae (09 spp.), Asteraceae, Malvaceae and Poaceae (08 spp. each), Hippocrateaceae, Rutaceae and Zingiberaceae (07 spp. each), Apocynaceae, Asclepiadaceae and Verbenaceae (06 spp. each), Apiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Lamiaceae, Myrtaceae, Solanaceae (05 spp.each). The most active plants are Syzigium cumini (14 recipes), Phyllanthus emblica (09 recipes), Centella asiatica and Momordica charantia (08 recipes each), Azadirachta indica (07 recipes), Aegle marmelos, Catharanthus roseus, Ficus benghalensis, Ficus racemosa, Gymnema sylvestre (06 recipes each), Allium cepa, A. sativum, Andrographis paniculata, Curcuma longa (05 recipes each), Citrullus colocynthis, Justicia adhatoda, Nelumbo nucifera, Tinospora cordifolia, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Ziziphus mauritiana and Wattakaka volubilis (4 recipes each). These traditional recipes include extracts, leaves, powders, flour, seeds, vegetables, fruits and herbal mixtures. Data inventory consists of botanical name, recipe, vernacular name, English name. Some of the plants of the above data with experimentally confirmed antidiabetic properties have also been recorded. More investigations must be carried out to evaluate the mechanism of action of diabetic medicinal plants. Toxicity of these plants should also be explained. Scientific validation of these recipes may help in discovering new drugs from these medicinal plants for diabetes. PMID:25176368

  12. Weight patterns and perceptions among female university students of Karachi: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Body weight and its perception play an important role in the physical and mental well-being of a person. Weight perception is found to be a better predictor of weight management behaviour as compared to actual weight. In Pakistan, studies have been done on the prevalence of weight status but weight perception is still unexplored. The study was done to examine relationships between body weight perception, actual weight status, and weight control behaviour among the female university students of Karachi. Methods A cross sectional study was carried out during Sep-Nov 2009 on female students in four universities of Karachi, Pakistan. Our final sample size included 338 female university students. Height and weight were measured on calibrated scales. A modified BMI criterion for Asian populations was used. Results Based on measured BMI; the prevalence of underweight, normal weight and overweight females was 27.2%, 51.5% and 21.3% respectively. As a whole, just over one third (33.73%) of the sample misclassified their weight status. Among underweight (n=92), 45.70% thought they were of normal weight. No one who was truly underweight perceived them self as overweight. Among the normal weight (n= 174), 9.8% thought they were underweight and 23.6% considered themselves overweight. Among the overweight (n=72); 18.3% considered themselves normal. Only one female student thought she was underweight despite being truly overweight. Conclusions Our study shows that among female university students in Karachi, the prevalence of being underweight is comparatively high. There is a significant misperception of weight, with one third of students misclassifying themselves. Underweight females are likely to perceive themselves as normal and be most satisfied with their weight. Health policy makers should implement these findings in future development of health interventions and prevention of depression, social anxiety and eating disorders associated with incorrect weight perception among young females. Studies that employ a longitudinal approach are needed to validate our findings. PMID:23496854

  13. Age and origin of post collision Baltoro granites, south Karakoram, north Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahar, M.; Maheo, G.; Goodell, P.; Pavlis, T. L.

    2013-12-01

    New in-situ U-Pb, Hf and oxygen data indicate that the Baltoro plutonic unit in the southern part of the Karakoram axial batholith was formed by partial melting of pre existing igneous sources with some input from supra-crustal rocks. This is consistent with the previous interpretations emphasizing partial melting of mafic lower crust beneath the Karakoram during the early Miocene 26-21Ma. The Baltoro batholith is mainly composed of biotite monzogranites and garnet two-mica leucogranites. Our zircon U-Pb ages corroborate the previous geochronology ranging from 26.3-17.3Ma., Cretaceous ages (97-72Ma) have also been observed in some zircons. Inherited ages are ranging from 553-2605Ma similar to those reported for the Lhasa block, confirming the westward continuation of south Tibet. The weighted mean ?Hf(0) for each sample varies from -8.7 to -4.0 and ranges from -17.1 to +4.4. These values are similar to the whole rock Hf data from the same rocks and are indistinguishable from those reported for the Cretaceous calc-alkaline magmatic rocks along the east-west transect of the Karakoram Terrane. Also, Miocene two-mica granites in the Darbuk area, eastern Karakoram show the comparable Hf composition. These values are significantly more evolved than the southward juvenile oceanic Cretaceous-Paleogene Kohistan-Ladakh Arc (+5to+16). The initial ?Hf(t) values of the Cretaceous zircons (+0.9 to +4.7) are more correlated to the Cretaceous calc-alkaline basement of Karakoram Batholith than the Kohistan-Ladakh Arc. The Hf composition of inherited cores is significantly different than the magmatic zircons with ?Hf(0) ranging from -58.6 to -14.3 comparable to the mid-crustal migmatitic gneisses southward in the Karakoram Metamorphic Complex. Both Miocene granites and Cretaceous zircons share similar and homogenous igneous type ?18O with mean ?18O range from 7.2 to 9.4‰ (2?). The mean ?18O of the core domain has a mixed signature ranging from 6.9 ‰ to 9.2 ‰. We suggest that the granites were formed by partial melting of pre existing igneous sources with some input from supracrustal rocks. The intermediate Hf composition of the magmatic zircons between highly evolved inherited core (similar to the mid- upper crustal Dassu migmatite) and calc-alkaline Cretaceous granodiorites suggests possible mixing between the two sources. Possible involvement of upper crust is also evident by the few more evolved Hf composition and slight increase in the observed oxygen composition than typical igneous zircons (> 8‰). This may have resulted by the interaction of the magma with the supracrustal material during the final ascent and emplacement at shallow depths beneath the Karakoram. Our zircon oxygen data did not show evidence of a juvenile (< 6‰) component. Moreover, the Hf compositions observed in Kohistan-Ladakh Arc are too radiogenic ((+6 to +16) than what we observe in the Baltoro granites. Therefore, mixing of such magma with the adjacent juvenile Kohistan-Ladakh batholiths or any direct contribution from juvenile mantle derived magma is unlikely. However this does not exclude the role of mantle melts in providing the additional heat to melt lower crust beneath the Karakoram. Our Hf data is significantly evolved than the Karakoram shear zone leucogranites (+1 to +9) where unlike to Baltoro region, magmas were strongly influenced by the juvenile Ladakh batholith.

  14. Epidemiology of Karachi road traffic crash mortality in 2013.

    PubMed

    Jooma, Rashid; Shaikh, Masood Ali

    2015-05-01

    Road Traffic Crash (RTC) is the eighth leading cause of death globally. In a recent World Health Organization report, there were 5,192 RTC deaths reported from Pakistan in 2010. The Road Traffic Injury Research and Prevention Center (RTIRPC) is a unique public-private public health enterprise in Karachi, and collects data from five major public and private hospitals' emergency departments in the city. Cumulatively, 1130 deaths were recorded in the year 2013. Males accounted for 981 (86.8%) deaths. The most vulnerable decades of life were twenties and thirties; accounting for 307 (27.2%) of all deaths. In terms of involvement of vehicle type in fatalities; over half 577 (51.1%) of all fatalities involved motorbikes, while the second most common type of vehicle involved were buses/coasters which accounted for 108 (9.6%) fatalities. In the burgeoning cities of developing countries, road injury and fatality surveillance can fulfill a vital role in highlighting the human cost of rapid motorization. PMID:26028391

  15. Blood and hair lead in children with different extents of iron deficiency in Karachi

    SciTech Connect

    Ataur Rahman, Muhammad; Rahman, Bushra; Saeed Ahmad, Muhammad; Blann, Andrew; Ahmed, Nessar

    2012-10-15

    Childhood iron deficiency has a high incidence in Pakistan. Some but not all studies have shown that dietary iron deficiency may cause increased absorption of lead as both compete for the same transporters in the small intestine. Therefore, children in Pakistan, residing in heavily polluted cities like Karachi may be prone to lead poisoning. This hypothesis was tested by investigating blood and hair lead concentrations in children from Karachi who were divided into four groups of iron status; normal, borderline iron deficiency, iron deficiency and iron deficiency anaemia. A prospective observational study was conducted where 269 children were categorized into four groups of iron status using the World Health Organization criteria and one based on soluble transferrin receptor measurements. Blood iron status was determined using a full blood count, serum iron, ferritin, transferrin saturation and soluble transferrin receptor measurements. Blood lead was determined by graphite atomic absorption spectroscopy, whereas hair lead was assessed using an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy technique. Blood lead concentrations were significantly higher in children with iron deficiency anaemia (mean [95% confidence intervals] were 24.9 [22.6-27.2] {mu}g/dL) compared to those with normal iron status (19.1 [16.8-21.4] {mu}g/dL) using WHO criteria. In contrast, hair lead content was not significantly different in children of different iron status. Our findings reinforce the importance of not only reducing environmental lead pollution but also the development of national health strategies to reduce childhood iron deficiency in Pakistan.

  16. Characaterization of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses isolated from poultry in Pakistan 2006-2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nine avian influenza viruses (AIV), H5N1 subtype, were isolated from dead poultry in the Karachi region of Pakistan from 2006-2008. The intravenous pathogenicity indices and HA protein cleavage sites of all nine viruses were consistent with highly pathogenic AIV. Based on phylogenetic analysis of ...

  17. Description of Tylenchorhynchus qasimii sp. n with a new report of T. kegasawai Minagawa, 1995 from Pakistan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new stunt nematode, from soil around the roots of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.) from Karachi, Pakistan is described and illustrated as Tylenchorhynchus qasimii n. sp. This new species is characterized by having females with 3-4 head annules, anteriorly directed stylet knob...

  18. Pakistan Flooding

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... Tens of thousands of villages have been flooded, more than 1,500 people have been killed, and millions have been left homeless. The ... and Aug 11, 2010 Images:  Pakistan Flood location:  Asia thumbnail:  ...

  19. Polyester projects for India, Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Siddiqi, R.

    1993-02-10

    India's Indo Rama Synthetics (Bombay) is planning a $186-million integrated polyester fiber and filament complex at Nagpur, Maharashtra. The complex will have annual capacities for 38,000 m.t. of polyester chips by polycondensation, 25,000 m.t. of polyester staple fiber, and 12,000 m.t. of polyester blended yarn. The company is negotiating with the main world suppliers of polycondensation technology. The first stage of the project is slated to begin production by the end of this year and be fully completed by 1994. In Pakistan, National Fibers Ltd. (PNF; Karachi) has signed a deal with Zimmer (Frankfurt) for technology, procurement, construction, and support work to expand polyester staple fiber capacity from 14,000 m.t./year to 52,000 m.t./year. The technology involves a continuous polymerization process. The project also calls for improvements to PNF's existing batch plant. It is scheduled for completion by the end of 1994. Total cost of the project is estimated at Rs1.745 billion ($70 million), out of which the foreign exchange component is Rs1.05 billion. The Islamic Development Bank (Jeddah; Saudi Arabia) has already approved a $27-million slice of the financing, while the balance of the foreign exchange loan is being arranged through suppliers credit. Local currency loans will be provided by other financial institutions in Pakistan.

  20. Parasuicide in Pakistan: experience at a university hospital.

    PubMed

    Khan, M M; Islam, S; Kundi, A K

    1996-04-01

    There have been few reports of parasuicide from Pakistan, where the act is considered to be a criminal offence and the Islamic religion strongly disapproves of it. In order to address the problem, a retrospective case report analysis of all index cases of parasuicide presenting over a period of 3.5 years to a university hospital in Karachi, Pakistan, was undertaken. Our results showed that most of the subjects were young adults, with married women representing the single largest group. Self-poisoning with medication was the most common method, and benzodiazepines the most frequently used drug. Interpersonal conflict with the opposite sex was the most common precipitating cause. In Pakistani culture, marriage appears to be a significant source of stress for women. Reports based on official police records do not reflect the true picture of the problem in Pakistan. PMID:8712026

  1. The Pakistan Risk of Myocardial Infarction Study: a resource for the study of genetic, lifestyle and other determinants of myocardial infarction in South Asia

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The burden of coronary heart disease (CHD) is increasing at a greater rate in South Asia than in any other region globally, but there is little direct evidence about its determinants. The Pakistan Risk of Myocardial Infarction Study (PROMIS) is an epidemiological resource to enable reliable study of genetic, lifestyle and other determinants of CHD in South Asia. By March 2009, PROMIS had recruited over 5,000 cases of first-ever confirmed acute myocardial infarction (MI) and over 5,000 matched controls aged 30–80 years. For each participant, information has been recorded on demographic factors, lifestyle, medical and family history, anthropometry, and a 12-lead electrocardiogram. A range of biological samples has been collected and stored, including DNA, plasma, serum and whole blood. During its next stage, the study aims to expand recruitment to achieve a total of about 20,000 cases and about 20,000 controls, and, in subsets of participants, to enrich the resource by collection of monocytes, establishment of lymphoblastoid cell lines, and by resurveying participants. Measurements in progress include profiling of candidate biochemical factors, assay of 45,000 variants in 2,100 candidate genes, and a genomewide association scan of over 650,000 genetic markers. We have established a large epidemiological resource for CHD in South Asia. In parallel with its further expansion and enrichment, the PROMIS resource will be systematically harvested to help identify and evaluate genetic and other determinants of MI in South Asia. Findings from this study should advance scientific understanding and inform regionally appropriate disease prevention and control strategies. PMID:19404752

  2. Myths and fallacies about epilepsy among residents of a Karachi slum area.

    PubMed

    Shafiq, Majid; Tanwir, Mansoor; Tariq, Asma; Saleem, Ayesha; Zafar, Monaa; Khuwaja, Ali Khan

    2008-01-01

    Misconceptions about epilepsy may explain the considerable stigma accompanying it. We aimed to identify such fallacies through questionnaire-based interviews of 487 adult residents of a slum area in Karachi, Pakistan. Of those interviewed, 25% believed that epilepsy was caused by evil spirits, black magic and envy by others - those without a school education were more likely to hold these views (P < 0.05). Perceived complications included impotence and cancer. Shoe-sniffing was considered a treatment modality by 13%. It appears that misconceptions abound regarding epilepsy's causes, complications and methods of treatment. However, those who had received a school education were less likely to link epilepsy with supernatural phenomena. PMID:18302862

  3. A systematic review of air pollution as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in South Asia: limited evidence from India and Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, S S; Phalkey, R; Malik, A A

    2014-03-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are major contributors to mortality and morbidity in South Asia. Chronic exposure to air pollution is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, although the majority of studies to date have been conducted in developed countries. Both indoor and outdoor air pollution are growing problems in developing countries in South Asia yet the impact on rising rates of CVD in these regions has largely been ignored. We aimed to assess the evidence available regarding air pollution effects on CVD and CVD risk factors in lower income countries in South Asia. A literature search was conducted in PubMed and Web of Science. Our inclusion criteria included peer-reviewed, original, empirical articles published in English between the years 1990 and 2012, conducted in the World Bank South Asia region (Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka). This resulted in 30 articles. Nine articles met our inclusion criteria and were assessed for this systematic review. Most of the studies were cross-sectional and examined measured particulate matter effects on CVD outcomes and indicators. We observed a bias as nearly all of the studies were from India. Hypertension and CVD deaths were positively associated with higher particulate matter levels. Biomarkers of oxidative stress such as increased levels of P-selection expressing platelets, depleted superoxide dismutase and reactive oxygen species generation as well as elevated levels of inflammatory-related C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 were also positively associated with biomass use or elevated particulate matter levels. An important outcome of this investigation was the evidence suggesting important air pollution effects regarding CVD risk in South Asia. However, too few studies have been conducted. There is as an urgent need for longer term investigations using robust measures of air pollution with different population groups that include a wider range of air pollutants and outcomes, including early indicators of CVD. These regions are facing burdens from increasing urbanization, air pollution and populations, generally weaker health infrastructure, aging populations and increased incidence of non-communicable diseases, included CVD. The extent to which the problem of air pollution and CVD will impact these countries will depend largely on the information available to inform policy and programs, which are still lacking, political will as well as social and economic development. PMID:24064368

  4. Strategies for prevention of road traffic injuries (RTIs) in Pakistan: situational analysis.

    PubMed

    Khan, Adeel Ahmed; Fatmi, Zafar

    2014-05-01

    Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are one of the leading causes of death among productive age group. Using systems approach framework (SAF), current preventive strategies for RTI control were reviewed in Pakistan. A review of the literature was done using four international search engines. Only ten studies on preventive strategies for RTI stemming from Pakistan were found. The first Road Traffic Injuries Research Network (RTIRN) surveillance system for road traffic injuries was established in urban city (Karachi) in Pakistan has shown promise for injury control and should be scaled up to other cities. Enforcement of traffic laws on seat-belt and helmet wearing is poor. National Highway and Motorway Police Ordinance (2000) was one of the few legislative measure so far taken in Pakistan. Using SAF, efforts are required to implement interventions targeting human, vehicle design and also making environment safer for road users. PMID:24848396

  5. Production of crude oils in Pakistan: Outlook for the future

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, S.

    1995-12-31

    Pakistan`s sedimentary basins cover an area of 827,000 km{sub 2} that stretches from the Karakurum Mountains in the north to the Arabian Sea in the south. The first exploration well in the region was drilled near Kundal in 1866, just seven years after the Drake well in Pennsylvania. To date, 384 exploration wells have been drilled in Pakistan resulting in 45 oil and 55 gas discoveries, thus generating a highly favourable success ratio of 1:4. The drilling density in Pakistan is one well/1000 square kilometers. Pakistan has proven oil reserves of around 500 million barrels of oil, whereas proven gas reserves are about 31 trillion cubic feet. However, Pakistan`s resource potential is estimated to be 40 billion barrels of oil and 200 TCF of gas. The purpose of this paper is to describe: (i) habitat and production of crude oil in Pakistan, (ii) Pakistan`s current energy needs and future outlook, and (iii) steps being taken by the Government of Pakistan to promote exploration for oil and gas.

  6. Knowledge, attitude and practices regarding HIV/AIDS among adult fishermen in coastal areas of Karachi

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Migrant populations are at high risk of Human Immuno Deficiency Virus infection (HIV) and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Studies of HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes and practices among fishermen in developing countries have shown gaps in knowledge and fear of contagion with ambivalent attitudes towards HIV/AIDS and inconsistent universal precautions adherence. The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge, attitude and practices regarding HIV/AIDS among adult fishermen in a coastal area of Karachi, Pakistan. Methods Community based cross sectional study was conducted among fishermen in coastal area of Karachi from June to September 2012. A total of 297 adult fishermen were selected by using simple random sampling technique from different sectors of coastal village. Data were collected using a structured validated questionnaire. The frequency distribution of both dependent and independent variables were worked out. Comparisons of knowledge, attitude and practices regarding HIV/AIDS by socio-demographic characteristics were made using logistic regression. Results Out of 297 fishermen, majority had in-appropriate knowledge (93.6%), negative attitude (75.8%) and less adherent sexual practices (91.6%). In univariate analysis, lower education and higher income were significantly associated (OR 2.25, 95% CI, 1.11, 4.55), (OR = 3.04 CI 1.03-9.02, p value 0.04) with negative attitude and un-safe practices towards HIV/AIDS respectively, whereas no significant association of socio-economic characteristics with knowledge, attitude and practices were observed in multivariate analysis. Conclusions This study suggests that fishermen had very poor knowledge, negative attitudes towards HIV and AIDS and had unsafe sexual practices which suggest that they lack the basic understanding of HIV/AIDS infection. Extensive health education campaign should be provided to the vulnerable sections of the society for the control of HIV/AIDS. PMID:24886122

  7. Attitudes toward suicide bombing in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Kazim, Syed Faraz; Aly, Zarmeneh; Bangash, Haider Khan; Harchandani, Bhisham Pardeep; Irfan, Affan Bin; Javed, Syed Muhammad; Khalil-ur-Rehman, Rana; Naqvi, Haider; Khan, Murad Moosa

    2008-01-01

    Although suicide bombing is a historical phenomenon, there has been a recent upsurge in such incidents. In Pakistan, over the last year, more than 1,000 people have been killed in suicide bombing incidents. Assessing the attitudes and perceptions of people toward suicide bombing can help understand some of the root causes of this phenomenon. In this pilot study, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of people (N = 215) in Karachi, Pakistan, to assess their attitudes and perceptions toward suicide bombing. The majority of the respondents condemned suicide bombing and disagreed with the notion that Islam or any other religion supports it. Belonging to the Sunni Muslim sect and strong adherence to religion predicted support for suicide bombing. The majority believed suicide bombing to be a result of religious fundamentalism. Opinion was divided as to whether suicide bombers have an underlying psychiatric illness. Further studies with larger sample sizes are needed to determine the attitudes and perceptions of the Pakistani population regarding this important issue. PMID:18664233

  8. Library Automation in Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haider, Syed Jalaluddin

    1998-01-01

    Examines the state of library automation in Pakistan. Discusses early developments; financial support by the Netherlands Library Development Project (Pakistan); lack of automated systems in college/university and public libraries; usage by specialist libraries; efforts by private-sector libraries and the National Library in Pakistan; commonly used…

  9. Regional model of ionosphere over Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murtaza, G.; Iqbal, S.; Iqbal, A.

    For regional models of critical frequencies of E and F 2 layers f o E f o F 2 peak height h m F 2 and semi thickness Y m F 2 of F 2 layer over Pakistan we propose to use the techniques of expansion in empirical orthogonal functions EOFs The method of EOFs achieves a better rate of convergence than anyone of the methods of expansions after prescribed functions The variations of the given data field are represented by a minimum number of uncorrelated expansion coefficients To construct regional models of the parameters levels of solar activity specified by Smoothed Sunspot Number R from 10 to 200 at a difference of 1 is taken into account whereas the dips I ranging from 30 o to 60 o at a difference of 1 o have been used The EOFs and the expansion coefficients for each of the above parameters for the desired region over Pakistan have been obtained in the tabular form The values of f o F 2 and f o E obtained from empirical models are found comparable with the hourly tabulated medians of these parameters during the complete solar cycle 1989-99 for the network of V I stations in Pakistan i e Karachi Geog Latitude 24 95 o N Multan Geog Latitude 30 18 o N and Islamabad Geog Latitude 33 75 o N The tabulated values have been used to predict the relevant parameters for any local time t month s geographical location x and level of solar activity R

  10. Frequency of ABH secretors and non secretors: A cross sectional study in Karachi

    PubMed Central

    Saboor, Muhammad; Ullah, Aman; Qamar, Khansa; Mir, Awal; Moinuddin

    2014-01-01

    Objective: ABO blood group and secretor status is valuable in relation to some diseases in clinical and forensic medicine. Across the globe there are geographic and racial differences in the frequency of secretors and non-secretors. Aim of this study was to evaluate the status of ABH blood group secretors and non-secretors in Karachi (Pakistan). Methods: Blood and saliva samples were randomly collected from one hundred and one (n=101) healthy adult students (76 male, 25 female) ranging in age from 15 to 40 years. Their ABO and Rhesus blood groups were determined by conventional methods, and their secretor status was studied by hemagglutination inhibition method of saliva. Results: Results showed that 64.4% of the study population were ABH blood group secretors while 35.6% were non-secretors. Frequencies of the secretor status among various ABO blood groups were 71.4% in group A, 79.5% in group B, 45.5% in group AB, and 61.5% in group O. Conclusion: Frequency of ABH secretor is high (64.4%). Blood group B has the highest secretor (79.5%) frequency while Blood group AB has the lowest (45.5%). PMID:24639859

  11. Indo-Pakistan Trade Cooperation and Saarc

    E-print Network

    Ghuman, Ranjit Singh; Madaan, Da Vinder Kumar

    2006-01-01

    in South Asia, Volume 2, Numbers 1 & 2, 2006. 76 medicines, cashew nuts, etc. It has been routed through third country like Afghanistan, Dubai, Hong Kong, Singapore and Gulf States. This tortuous route costs both India and Pakistan dearly in terms...

  12. The organisation, operational dynamics and structure of female sex work in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Emmanuel, Faran; Thompson, Laura H; Athar, Uzma; Salim, Momina; Sonia, Altaf; Akhtar, Naeem; Blanchard, James F

    2013-01-01

    Background Pakistan is known to have large populations of female sex workers (FSWs) with considerable geographic heterogeneity in their characteristics. In this paper, we describe the social organisation and structural patterns of female sex work in different geographic regions of Pakistan. Methods We report geographic and network mapping data collected among FSWs in 15 cities across Pakistan in 2011 as part of the Canada-Pakistan HIV/AIDS Surveillance Project. Results A total number of 89?178 FSWs were estimated in the target cities for an average of 7.2 FSWs per 1000 adult males. 55% of the estimated number of FSWs concentrated in Karachi and Lahore. Based on the operations of female sex work, two major typologies of FSWs were identified: establishment-based and non-establishment-based. FSWs were further subtyped into those operating through brothels, homes, kothikhanas, streets and by cell phone. Cities varied considerably in terms of predominance of different FSW typologies. Conclusions There is considerable heterogeneity among FSWs in Pakistan, geographically and in terms of operational typology. Understanding the social organisation of sex work and the influence of social-cultural and legal factors in Pakistan is essential for the design of HIV prevention programmes and other services for FSWs. PMID:23771032

  13. Heterogeneity of characteristics, structure, and dynamics of male and hijra sex workers in selected cities of Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Laura H; Salim, Momina; Baloch, Chaker Riaz; Musa, Nighat; Reza, Tahira; Dar, Nosheen; Arian, Shahzad; Blanchard, James F; Emmanuel, Faran

    2013-01-01

    Background We sought to describe the characteristics and operational dynamics of male sex workers (MSW) and hijra sex workers (HSWs) in 11 cities across Pakistan in 2011. Methods We report descriptive statistics of self-reported sexual behaviour data from cross-sectional mapping and biological and behavioural surveys conducted among 1431 MSWs and 1415 HSWs in four cities across Pakistan in 2011. Results While Karachi had the largest numbers of MSWs and HSWs, Quetta had the largest relative population sizes, with 3.6?MSWs per 1000 male adults and 3.3?HSWs per 1000 male adults. There was considerable variability in the proportion of HSWs who operate through deras, ranging from 2.2% in Peshawar to 62.7% in Karachi. The number of HSWs per guru varies by city, from 1.5 in Quetta to 16.5?HSWs per guru in Karachi. Among HSWs, the use of mobile phones for solicitation ranged from 37.6% in Quetta to 83% in Peshawar and among MSWs the use of mobile phones ranged from 27% in Karachi to 52% in Quetta. In Quetta, a large proportion of HSWs (41%) find clients through gurus. Client volume tended to be higher among HSWs and among both MSWs and HSWs in Quetta and Peshawar. Condom use with clients was most consistent in Quetta, with 31% of MSWs and 41% of HSWs reporting always using condoms with clients. Peshawar had the greatest proportion reporting never using condoms. Conclusions There is considerable geographic heterogeneity in the characteristics and operational dynamics of MSWs and HSWs across Pakistan. PMID:23605854

  14. Typhoid vaccine introduction: An evidence-based pilot implementation project in Nepal and Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khan, M Imran; Pach, Alfred; Khan, Ghulam Mustafa; Bajracharya, Deepak; Sahastrabuddhe, Sushant; Bhutta, Waqaas; Tahir, Rehman; Soofi, Sajid; Thapa, Chandra B; Joshi, Nilesh; Puri, Mahesh K; Shrestha, Parisha; Upreti, Shyam Raj; Clemens, John D; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Ochiai, R Leon

    2015-06-19

    The World Health Organization (WHO) in 2008 recommended the use of currently licensed typhoid vaccines using a high risk or targeted approach. The epidemiology of disease and the vaccine characteristics make school-based vaccination most feasible in reducing typhoid disease burden in many settings. To assess feasibility of school-based typhoid vaccination, two districts in Kathmandu, Nepal and two towns in Karachi, Pakistan were selected for pilot program. Vaccination campaigns were conducted through the departments of health and in partnerships with not-for-profit organizations. In total 257,015 doses of Vi polysaccharide vaccine were given to students in grades 1-10 of participating schools. The vaccination coverage ranged from 39 percent (38,389/99,503) in Gulshan town in Karachi, to 81 percent (62,615/77,341) in Bhaktapur in Kathmandu valley. No serious adverse event was reported post vaccination. The coverage increased for vaccination of the second district in Pakistan as well as in Nepal. There was an initial concern of vaccine safety. However, as the campaign progressed, parents were more comfortable with vaccinating their children in schools. Supported and conducted by departments of health in Pakistan and Nepal, a school-based typhoid vaccination was found to be safe and feasible. PMID:25937612

  15. The epidemiology of stroke in Pakistan: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Farooq, M U; Majid, A; Reeves, M J; Birbeck, G L

    2009-10-01

    Stroke is a major public health problem in developing countries of South Asia. In this paper, we review the epidemiology of stroke in Pakistan. Most of the available data are based on hospital-centred case series addressing established stroke risk factors, stroke-related mortality and disability, functional status, and case fatality rates. There are limited population-based data regarding the prevalence of established stroke risk factors in the general population, and no epidemiologic studies have been conducted to specifically identify potential stroke risk factors unique to the region. The limited data that are available from Pakistan indicate that stroke epidemiology differs between Pakistan and Western populations - in Pakistan first stroke occurs at a younger age, particularly among women, and there is a higher proportion of haemorrhagic strokes. Besides the established stroke risk factors (e.g. hypertension, smoking, and diabetes) some potentially unique stroke risk factors related to life style and dietary habits such as huqqa smoking, use of dalda and desi ghee, and orally consumed forms of tobacco, may exist in Pakistan, and warrant further investigation. The shortage of trained stroke epidemiologists is a major limiting factor to the conduct of epidemiological stroke studies in Pakistan. Epidemiologic data are essential to guide health policy development aimed at decreasing the mortality and morbidity from stroke in Pakistan. To facilitate this process, medical professionals in Pakistan could participate in the World Health Organization's STEPwise approach to stroke surveillance, which provides a framework for data collection and comparison between and within populations. PMID:19765127

  16. Energy drinks consumption practices among medical students of a Private sector University of Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Usman, Asma; Bhombal, Swaleha Tariq; Jawaid, Ambreen; Zaki, Samar

    2015-09-01

    Consumption of energy drinks has become popular among students and athletes over the past few years. To explore the phenomenon, a cross-sectional survey was conducted through a self-administered pilot-tested questionnaire. Frequency of energy drinks consumption was found to be 121(52%) in a sample of 233 medical students. Red bull was the most common brand consumed 101(43%). The major reasons reported for its usage were to gain/replenish energy by 36(15.4%), and studying for examination by 34(14.6%). Television was reported as the major source of information 153(66%) followed by friends 113(48%). There was a high frequency of energy drinks' consumption among medical students of a private university. There is a strong need to create awareness regarding these drinks, especially among adolescents and teenagers. PMID:26338750

  17. Learning from the Past, Looking to the Future: Modeling Social Unrest in Karachi, Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, Jarrod; Kurzrok, Andrew J.; Hund, Gretchen; Fagley, Erik M.

    2014-01-01

    Social unrest represents a major challenge for policy makers around the globe, as it can quickly escalate from small scale disturbances to highly public protests, riots and even civil war. This research was motivated by a need to understand social instability and to unpack the comments made during a spring 2013 conference hosted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s Center for Global Security and the U.S. Institute for Peace, where policymakers noted that models considering social instability are often not suitable for decision-making. This analysis shows that existing state level models of instability could be improved in spatial scale to the city level, even without significantly improved data access. Better data would make this analysis more complete and likely improve the quality of the model. Another challenge with incorporating modeling into decision-making is the need to understand uncertainty in a model. Policy makers are frequently tasked with making decisions without a clear outcome, so characterization of uncertainty is critical. This report describes the work and findings of the project. It took place in three phases: a literature review of social stability research, a “hindsight scan” that looked at historical data, and a “foresight scan” looking at future scenarios.

  18. Nuclear programs in India and Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Mian, Zia

    2014-05-09

    India and Pakistan launched their respective nuclear programs in the 1940s and 1950s with considerable foreign technical support, especially from the United States Atoms for Peace Program. The technology and training that was acquired served as the platform for later nuclear weapon development efforts that included nuclear weapon testing in 1974 and in 1998 by India, and also in 1998 by Pakistan - which had illicitly acquired uranium enrichment technology especially from Europe and received assistance from China. As of 2013, both India and Pakistan were continuing to produce fissile material for weapons, in the case of India also for nuclear naval fuel, and were developing a diverse array of ballistic and cruise missiles. International efforts to restrain the South Asian nuclear build-up have been largely set aside over the past decade as Pakistani support became central for the U.S. war in Afghanistan and as U.S. geopolitical and economic interests in supporting the rise of India, in part as a counter to China, led to India being exempted both from U.S non-proliferation laws and international nuclear trade guidelines. In the absence of determined international action and with Pakistan blocking the start of talks on a fissile material cutoff treaty, nuclear weapon programs in South Asia are likely to keep growing for the foreseeable future.

  19. Nuclear programs in India and Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mian, Zia

    2014-05-01

    India and Pakistan launched their respective nuclear programs in the 1940s and 1950s with considerable foreign technical support, especially from the United States Atoms for Peace Program. The technology and training that was acquired served as the platform for later nuclear weapon development efforts that included nuclear weapon testing in 1974 and in 1998 by India, and also in 1998 by Pakistan - which had illicitly acquired uranium enrichment technology especially from Europe and received assistance from China. As of 2013, both India and Pakistan were continuing to produce fissile material for weapons, in the case of India also for nuclear naval fuel, and were developing a diverse array of ballistic and cruise missiles. International efforts to restrain the South Asian nuclear build-up have been largely set aside over the past decade as Pakistani support became central for the U.S. war in Afghanistan and as U.S. geopolitical and economic interests in supporting the rise of India, in part as a counter to China, led to India being exempted both from U.S non-proliferation laws and international nuclear trade guidelines. In the absence of determined international action and with Pakistan blocking the start of talks on a fissile material cutoff treaty, nuclear weapon programs in South Asia are likely to keep growing for the foreseeable future.

  20. Islamic Education in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fair, C. Christine

    2006-01-01

    On March 21, 2006 Christine Fair spoke about her recent trip to Pakistan. Fair's fieldwork was conducted with her Pakistan-based colleague Syed Rashad Bukhari and in collaboration with the National Bureau of Asian Research. Fair and Bukhari spent nearly three weeks visiting administrators at ten of the most prominent post-secondary madaris…

  1. Dimensions of physical wellness among medical students of public and private medical colleges in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Rakhshaan; Rehman, Rehana; Baig, Mukhtiar; Hussain, Mehwish; Khan, Mariam; Syed, Fatima

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine adherence to dimensions of physical wellness among medical students of public and private medical colleges in Pakistan. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out from January to July 2011 among 820 students of private and public medical colleges in Karachi, Pakistan. Results: Overall, medical students scored low in dimensions of physical wellness. Private medical colleges students were fond of vigorous activities such as aerobics and swimming, whereas public medical colleges students were involved in moderate intensity activities such as walking and use of stairs (p<0.0001). Private students reported to consume more fast food (p=0.0001), had less sleep (p=0.0001), but attended regular annual medical checkups (p=0.009) as compared with their public institute counterparts. Safe practices such as avoidance of tobacco were almost the same. Conclusion: Comprehensive adherence to all dimensions of physical wellness was lacking among medical students. PMID:25987122

  2. Status of heavy metal residues in fish species of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Majid; Muhammad, Said; Malik, Riffat N; Khan, Muhammad U; Farooq, Umar

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we evaluate and summarize the available data that addresses the levels of HM that exist in aquatic species, mainly fish, of Pakistan. Data on this topic were collected from the literature of the last two decades (1990-2012). Results revealed that the highest number (>50%) of studies addressing HM-contaminated fish have occurred in the Punjab province, followed by the Sindh and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa provinces. Our review disclosed that the HM concentrations in Pakistani fish species varied considerably with location. Generally, the level of HM residues detected in fish species had the following descending order: Fe>Zn>Pb>Cd>Hg>Ni>Cu>Ag>Cr>Mn>As. Fish samples collected from the Kabul River near the Nowshera district, Stretch of Ravi River, Indus River near Mainwali district, and Arabian Sea at Karachi revealed extremely high HM concentrations (range: 0.34-8,381.30 jlg/g), compared to other fresh water bodies, such as the Llyold Barrage, Guddu Barrage, Jinnah Barrage, and Chashma Barrage (0.01-2.13 jlg/g). As a reference point, we also reviewed selected data on HM fish residues that exist in countries that neighbor Pakistan. With the exception of fish collected in India, the majority of fish analyzed for HM residues in neighboring countries displayed lower residues than did fish from Pakistan. We concluded from reviewing the available published data that the most probable sources for the HM contaminants found in Pakistani water and fish were release of domestic sewage, agricultural runoff, and industrial effluents. We strongly recommend that action be taken to better control the discharges of unregulated waste that enters the Pakistani aquatic environment, with the intent to mitigate any continuing future damage to the aquatic ecosystem. We also recommend intensifying research programs that address the toxicity of HM to the aquatic environment, so that a better understanding of metal effects on fish can be achieved that will lead to a sustainable ecological harmony in Pakistan. PMID:24609520

  3. Educating and Informing Patients Receiving Psychopharmacological Medications: Are Family Physicians in Pakistan up to the Task?

    PubMed Central

    Ganatra, Hammad Ashraf; Bhurgri, Hadi; Channa, Roomasa; Bawany, Fauzia Ahmad; Zafar, Syed Nabeel; Chaudhry, Rafia Ishfaq; Batool, Syeda Hina; Basit, Abdul; Asghar, Mehmood; Saleem, Sarah; Naqvi, Haider

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Studies have shown a high prevalence of psychiatric illnesses among patients in primary health care settings. Family physicians have a fundamental role in managing psychiatric illness with psychopharmacological medications. Providing information about the disease, its management and the potential adverse effects of the medications is an important part of the management of mental illnesses. Our objective was to determine if patients who were prescribed psychopharmacological drugs by family physicians at a community health center in Karachi, Pakistan were provided adequate education about their disease and its management. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Community Health Centre (CHC), Aga Khan University Hospital Karachi, Pakistan. Details about the prescriptions and patient education were acquired from the patients after their consultations. Results A total of 354 adult patients were interviewed during 3 days. Among them, 73 (20.6%) were prescribed psychopharmacological medications. Among patients receiving psychopharmacological medicines, 37 (50.7%) did not know their diagnosis; 50 (68.5%) were unaware of the disease process; 52 (71.2%) were unaware of alternative treatments; 63 (86.3%) were not cautioned about the potential adverse effects of the drugs; 24 (32.9%) were unaware of the duration of treatment and in 60 (82.2%) of the participants an appropriate referral had not been discussed. For all aspects of education, patients prescribed psychopharmacological medications knew less as compared to those patients that were prescribed other medications. Discussion The practice of imparting information to patients who receive psychopharmacological medications seems to be inadequate in Pakistan. We have hypothesized about the possible reasons for our findings, and identified a need for further research to determine the cause for such findings and to address them accordingly. At the same time there is a need to educate family physicians in Pakistan about the special importance of providing adequate information to such patients. PMID:19247488

  4. Comparison of exhaled carbon monoxide levels among commuters and roadside vendors in an urban and a suburban population in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Sabzwari, Saniya R; Fatmi, Zafar

    2011-09-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is one of the six criteria air pollutants related to urbanization and has a wide range of health effects. The study measured and compared the exhaled CO levels among commuters and roadside vendors in potentially heavy and low traffic volume areas of Karachi, a megacity in Pakistan. Saddar town [areas of M. A. Jinnah Road (Tibet Center, Denso Hall) and Empress Market] was selected to represent an area of high traffic volume and the suburban town of Gadap (Gadap and Gulshan-e-Maymar) was selected to represent an area of no or low traffic volume. The study compared the CO exposure of commuters and roadside vendors in high and low traffic volume in Karachi. CO exposure was measured in expired air using the breath analyzer module of Bacharach Monoxor-II, USA. A total of 326 individuals (115 commuters and 211 stationary roadside vendors) from Saddar town (n?=?193) and Gadap town (n?=?133) were selected. In addition, CO levels in ambient air in the same areas, using portable CO analyzer (Bacharach, Monoxor-II, USA), were measured. The mean ambient CO level at Saddar town was 15.6 (SE ± 2.6) ppm compared to 3.3 (SE ± 0.3) ppm at Gadap town. The mean CO level in expired air was significantly higher among nonsmokers at Saddar town (12.8 ± 0.5 ppm) compared to the nonsmokers at Gadap town (7.8 ± 0.4 ppm). The mean CO level in expired air among smokers was twice that of nonsmokers (21.6 vs. 10.6 ppm). CO in expired air was greater among high traffic volume commuters and roadside stationary population in Karachi, Pakistan. The population in Karachi is exposed to high concentration of air pollutants. These pollutants need to be characterized for health effects and interventions needs to be developed. PMID:21120689

  5. Pakistan and the bomb

    SciTech Connect

    Khalilzad, Z.

    1980-01-01

    Pakistan is thought to be the next candidate for the nuclear club. A civilian program inevitably greatly reduces the incremental time and cost for further steps that might be taken toward military uses. Pakistani leaders realized that a civilian nuclear program could bring their country close to a nuclear weapons capability, and that emphasis on the non-military importance and economic necessity of certain civilian technologies can provide a cover for essentially military programs. In 1975, Pakistan announced its energetic nuclear plan for the remainder of this century, in which it called for the installation of a 600-MW reactor in 1980 and 10 more reactors in the decade following. In 1976, Pakistan signed an agreement with France for the purchase of a nuclear reprocessing facility. With reprocessing and testing and construction of the non-nuclear parts of nuclear devices a nonweapon state can come anywhere from a few hours to a few days within putting a nuclear device together, depending on the technical capabilities of the countries concerned. But, Pakistan's interest in reprocessing has been taken as a serious indicator of a desire to be able to produce nuclear weapons. The effects and the impact of 1974 Indian explosion on Pakistan are examined. If India's 1974 explosion results in the production of nuclear weapons, Pakistan will probably follow suit. Pakistan has refused to become a party to the Partial Test Ban and the Non-Proliferation Treatly. 28 references. (MCW)

  6. Emigration dynamics in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Azam, F I

    1995-01-01

    This study of emigration dynamics in Pakistan focuses on Pakistan's position as one of the world's leading manpower exporters. The study opens with a review of the history of international labor from the subcontinent. The second section looks at the problems with the collection of data on international migration and then considers the volume of international migration, migrant destinations, return migration, undocumented migration, and the stock of migrant workers abroad. The third section describes the economic and demographic context for overseas migration through a consideration of gross national product and the remittances of migrant workers, growth in gross domestic product, poverty and income distribution, the state of the population, labor force and employment, a profile of migrant workers, and the government's employment policy. The political and social context for overseas migration is the topic of the next section, and the discussion centers on emigration policy, institutional arrangements for manpower export and the welfare of migrants, and the economic resettlement of return migrants. Consideration of the future trends in international migration from Pakistan focuses on the cyclic nature of overseas labor migration, the existence of networks to facilitate such migration, uneven distribution of enabling resources in Pakistan, the paucity of available data, and governmental/cultural factors that promote and restrict such migration. It is concluded that both individual Pakistanis and the government consider overseas migration a positive force but that a reliance on such an ad hoc measure has costs that have not been considered by Pakistan's policy-makers. PMID:12347015

  7. Suicides in the Developing World: Case Study from Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Murad Moosa; Hyder, Adnan Ali

    2006-01-01

    There are no official data on suicide from Pakistan, a conservative South Asian Islamic country with traditionally low suicide rates. Both suicide and attempted suicide are illegal acts, as well as socially and religiously condemned, making research in this area difficult. Recent reports suggest an increase in suicide rates. In this study, police…

  8. Secondary School Choice of Ismailis from Gilgit Baltistan (GB) in Karachi 

    E-print Network

    Khan, Khurshid Sana

    2012-01-01

    My study aimed to explore the secondary school choice of the internally migrant Ismailisi from Gilgit-Baltistan (GB) in Karachi, Pakistanii. I became interested in the topic for several reasons. Firstly, there was a ...

  9. Forensic psychiatry in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Tariq; Nizami, Asad Tamizuddin; Hirji, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews existing forensic psychiatric services in Pakistan highlighting the role played by the judicial and the medical fraternity in managing the legal and forensic issues of the population of patients with mental illnesses. Until 2001, all legal and forensic issues were dealt with the mental health legislation of 1912, the Lunacy Act of 1912. This was inherited from the British rulers in the Sub-Continent at the time. The Mental Health Ordinance of 2001 could not sustain following the 18th constitutional amendment in 2010, whereby psychiatric healthcare was devolved to the provinces from the previous federal authority. The article also highlights the difficulties and the barriers in implementation of the forensic psychiatric services in Pakistan at various levels within the healthcare system. This article also delves into the current framework of training in forensic psychiatry for postgraduates as well as the assessments and management schedules for the mentally ill offenders at tertiary care institutions in Pakistan. PMID:26024984

  10. National Level Assessment of Mangrove Forest Cover in Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, S.; Qamer, F. M.; Hussain, N.; Saleem, R.; Nitin, K. T.

    2011-09-01

    Mangroves ecosystems consist of inter tidal flora and fauna found in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Mangroves forest is a collection of halophytic trees, shrubs, and other plants receiving inputs from regular tidal flushing and from freshwater streams and rivers. A global reduction of 25 % mangroves' area has been observed since 1980 and it is categorized as one of to the most threatened and vulnerable ecosystems of the world. Forest resources in Pakistan are being deteriorating both quantitatively and qualitatively due to anthropogenic activities, climatic v and loose institutional management. According to the FAO (2007), extent of forest cover of Pakistan in 2005 is 1,902,000 ha, which is 2.5% of its total land area. Annual change rate during 2000-2005 was -2.1% which is highest among all the countries in Asia. The Indus delta region contains the world's fifth-largest mangrove forest which provides a range of important ecosystem services, including coastal stabilisation, primary production and provision of nursery habitat for marine fish. Given their ecological importance in coastal settings, mangroves receive special attention in the assessment of conservation efforts and sustainable coastal developments. Coastline of Pakistan is 1050km long shared by the provinces, Sind (350km) and Baluchistan (700 km). The coastline, with typical arid subtropical climate, possesses five significant sites that are blessed with mangroves. In the Sindh province, mangroves are found in the Indus Delta and Sandspit. The Indus Delta is host to the most extensive mangroves areas and extends from Korangi Creek in the West to Sir Creek in the East, whereas Sandspit is a small locality in the West of Karachi city. In the Balochistan province, mangroves are located at three sites, Miani Hor, Kalmat Khor and Jiwani. Contemporary methods of Earth observation sciences are being incorporated as an integral part of environmental assessment related studies in coastal areas. GIS and Remote Sensing based technologies and methods are in use to map forest cover since the last two decades in Pakistan. The national level forest cover studies based upon satellite images include, Forestry Sector Master Plan (FSMP) and National Forest & Range Resources Assessment Study (NFRRAS). In FSMP, the mangrove forest extent was visually determined from Landsat images of 1988 - 1991, and was estimated to be 155,369 ha; whereas, in NFRRAS, Landsat images of 1997 - 2001 were automated processed and the mangroves areas was estimated to be 158,000 ha. To our knowledge, a comprehensive assessment of current mangroves cover of Pakistan has not been made over the last decade, although the mangroves ecosystems have become the focus of intention in context of recent climate change scenarios. This study was conducted to support the informed decision making for sustainable development in coastal areas of Pakistan by providing up-todate mangroves forest cover assessment of Pakistan. Various types of Earth Observation satellite images and processing methods have been tested in relation to mangroves mapping. Most of the studies have applied classical pixel - based approached, there are a few studies which used object - based methods of image analysis to map the mangroves ecosystems. Object - based methods have the advantage of incorporating spatial neighbourhood properties and hierarchical structures into the classification process to produce more accurate surface patterns recognition compared with classical pixel - based approaches. In this research, we applied multi-scale hierarchical approach of object-based methods of image analysis to ALOS - AVNIR-2 images of the year 2008-09 to map the land cover in the mangroves ecosystems of Pakistan. Considering the tide height and phonological effects of vegetation, particularly the algal mats, these data sets were meticulously chosen. Incorporation of multi-scale hierarchical structures made it easy to effectively discriminate among the land cover classes, particularly the mudflats from sparse mangroves, at their r

  11. Impact of human mobility on the emergence of dengue epidemics in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Wesolowski, Amy; Qureshi, Taimur; Boni, Maciej F.; Sundsøy, Pål Roe; Johansson, Michael A.; Rasheed, Syed Basit; Engø-Monsen, Kenth; Buckee, Caroline O.

    2015-01-01

    The recent emergence of dengue viruses into new susceptible human populations throughout Asia and the Middle East, driven in part by human travel on both local and global scales, represents a significant global health risk, particularly in areas with changing climatic suitability for the mosquito vector. In Pakistan, dengue has been endemic for decades in the southern port city of Karachi, but large epidemics in the northeast have emerged only since 2011. Pakistan is therefore representative of many countries on the verge of countrywide endemic dengue transmission, where prevention, surveillance, and preparedness are key priorities in previously dengue-free regions. We analyze spatially explicit dengue case data from a large outbreak in Pakistan in 2013 and compare the dynamics of the epidemic to an epidemiological model of dengue virus transmission based on climate and mobility data from ?40 million mobile phone subscribers. We find that mobile phone-based mobility estimates predict the geographic spread and timing of epidemics in both recently epidemic and emerging locations. We combine transmission suitability maps with estimates of seasonal dengue virus importation to generate fine-scale dynamic risk maps with direct application to dengue containment and epidemic preparedness. PMID:26351662

  12. Impact of human mobility on the emergence of dengue epidemics in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Wesolowski, Amy; Qureshi, Taimur; Boni, Maciej F; Sundsøy, Pål Roe; Johansson, Michael A; Rasheed, Syed Basit; Engø-Monsen, Kenth; Buckee, Caroline O

    2015-09-22

    The recent emergence of dengue viruses into new susceptible human populations throughout Asia and the Middle East, driven in part by human travel on both local and global scales, represents a significant global health risk, particularly in areas with changing climatic suitability for the mosquito vector. In Pakistan, dengue has been endemic for decades in the southern port city of Karachi, but large epidemics in the northeast have emerged only since 2011. Pakistan is therefore representative of many countries on the verge of countrywide endemic dengue transmission, where prevention, surveillance, and preparedness are key priorities in previously dengue-free regions. We analyze spatially explicit dengue case data from a large outbreak in Pakistan in 2013 and compare the dynamics of the epidemic to an epidemiological model of dengue virus transmission based on climate and mobility data from ?40 million mobile phone subscribers. We find that mobile phone-based mobility estimates predict the geographic spread and timing of epidemics in both recently epidemic and emerging locations. We combine transmission suitability maps with estimates of seasonal dengue virus importation to generate fine-scale dynamic risk maps with direct application to dengue containment and epidemic preparedness. PMID:26351662

  13. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Vitamin Supplementation among Patients visiting Out-Patient Physicians in a Teaching Hospital in Karachi

    PubMed Central

    Qidwai, Waris; Samani, Zahra Aziz; Azam, Iqbal; Lalani, Saima

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the knowledge, attitude and practices regarding the use of vitamin supplements among patients visiting Out-Patient clinics of a teaching hospital. Methods Four hundred patients were interviewed during the period of July to September 2008, at the Out-patient clinics, Aga Khan University hospital, Karachi. A pre-tested and structured questionnaire was used to collect information. It consisted of questions regarding demographics, awareness of vitamin supplements and its consumption, reasons for usage and its effects. The purpose of the study was explained and assurance of confidentiality was given. After obtaining written consent, eligible individuals were interviewed. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 19.0 was used to analyze the data. Results The results revealed that 98% of the respondents were aware of vitamin supplements. The most known vitamin was found to be Vitamin C (16.9%) with Vitamin K being the least well-known (0.4%); while 51.8% of the respondents were unaware of the harmful effects of vitamin supplements. The results also showed that 84.8% of the study population had taken vitamin supplements, and 79% of the participants considered that vitamin supplements to be helpful. Taking vitamin supplements as a compensation for the deficiencies in the body was the most frequently chosen answer (17.7%) as the reason for use of vitamin supplements. On the other hand, a majority of the population was unaware of the indications for use of vitamin supplements. Conclusion This study highlights a very significant yet ignored issue of vitamin supplementation in Pakistan. A need exists to inform the general population about the use of vitamin supplementation. The media and the medical community are required to play their role in this regard. Short/ refresher training courses are needed for doctors to update and disseminate adequate knowledge of vitamin supplementation to their patients. PMID:22496935

  14. Country watch: Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Toll, K; Agha, S

    1999-01-01

    In Pakistan, which has a high fertility rate, affordable prices of condoms and family planning services attract low-income residents. This was shown by the two projects: the condom distribution scheme and the family planning franchise. A condom social marketing (CSM) program started by Population Services International (PSI) increased contraceptive use in urban areas and sold low-priced condoms. However, in 1991 the price doubled in order to recover the costs, which resulted in a decline in sales. Thus, in 1995 PSI and Social Marketing Pakistan franchised the Green Star project that aimed to raise the quality of private sector family planning clinics serving low-income women and to increase the availability and use of female-controlled contraception. By 1996, the CSM project was selling over 80 million condoms annually. PMID:12295466

  15. Clothing-related motorcycle injuries in Pakistan: findings from a surveillance study.

    PubMed

    Khan, Uzma R; Bhatti, Junaid A; Shamim, M Shahzad; Zia, Nukhba; Razzak, Junaid A; Jooma, Rashid

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to assess the burden and patterns of clothing-related motorcycle injuries in Karachi, Pakistan. Data were extracted from an ongoing traffic injury surveillance system. In three years (2007-2009), out of 99155 road traffic injury cases there were 986 (0.9%) cases of clothing-related motorcycle injuries. Most cases were females (73.9%) and pillion riders (80.6%). The crashes involving clothing-related injuries were mostly single vehicle (98.5%), and largely resulted in injuries to the external body (60.3%), limbs (51.0%), head (41.5%) and face (35.9%). One-third of injuries were either moderate (26.7%) or severe (10.2%) while 10 (1.01%) deaths were reported. Female gender (11.4%), age ? 45 years (19.4%), pillion riding (11.3%) and crashes occurring at intersections (12.3%) were more likely to result in moderate or severe injury as compared to other users (P < 0.001). Injuries due to entanglement of loose fitting clothing in motorcycles are not uncommon in Karachi. Awareness campaigns for prevention of such injuries may involve promotion of appropriate dressing for motorcycle riding including close wrapping of clothes and encouraging installations of covers on the rear wheels and drive chains. PMID:24881928

  16. Dengue transmission based on urban environmental gradients in different cities of Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalid, Bushra; Ghaffar, Abdul

    2015-03-01

    This study focuses on the dengue transmission in different regions of Pakistan. For this purpose, the data of dengue cases for 2009-2012 from four different cities (Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Lahore, and Karachi) of the country is collected, evaluated, and compiled. To identify the reasons and regions of higher risk of Dengue transmission, land use classification, analysis of climate covariates and drainage patterns was done. Analysis involves processing of SPOT 5 10 m, Landsat TM 30 m data sets, and SRTM 90 m digital elevation models by using remote sensing and GIS techniques. The results are based on the change in urbanization and population density, analysis of temperature, rainfall, and wind speed; calculation of drainage patterns including stream features, flow accumulation, and drainage density of the study areas. Results suggest that the low elevation areas with calm winds and minimum temperatures higher than the normal, rapid increase in unplanned urbanization, low flow accumulation, and higher drainage density areas favor the dengue transmission.

  17. Atmospheric variability of methane over Pakistan, Afghanistan and adjoining areas using retrievals from SCIAMACHY/ENVISAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ul-Haq, Zia; Tariq, Salman; Ali, Muhammad

    2015-12-01

    In the present work we have studied spatial and temporal variability of methane total column (MTC) over Pakistan and neighboring regions of Afghanistan, India and Iran by using observations of SCanning Imaging Absorption SpectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY) aboard EOS ENVISAT. Satellite measurements show large spatio-temporal variations in MTC over the study domain at different time scales. We find an average MTC of 1787±22 ppb (annual average±standard deviation) with 3.7% (slope 7.14±1.28, y-intercept 1751±7.19, r=0.91) increase during the period of January 2003 to April 2012. An enhanced MTC is observed mostly over the Indo-Gangetic Plain and areas with high anthropogenic activities. MTC exhibits a seasonal peak of 1804±28 ppb in summer followed by autumn (1800±25 ppb) and winter (1777±24 ppb). We have also discussed anthropogenic emission estimates in the study area obtained from EDGAR database. Substantial increments of 77% and 61% are observed in anthropogenic CH4 emissions for Pakistan and Afghanistan, respectively, during 1990-2008. Anthropogenic CH4 emissions from enteric fermentation and livestock sectors are found to be the highest. EDGAR data have also identified megacity Lahore, Sukkur, megacity Karachi, Dera Ghazi Khan, megacity Delhi and Ahmedabad as large point sources of CH4 emissions in the region. The emissions from Karachi show the highest increase of 107%, while Lahore is found with the highest annual average emissions of 8.8×10-10 kg m-2 s-1.

  18. A Review of the Status of the Indian Ocean Humpback Dolphin (Sousa plumbea) in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Kiani, Muhammad Shoaib; Van Waerebeek, Koen

    2015-01-01

    Limited historical and new information on Indian Ocean humpback dolphins, Sousa plumbea, in Pakistan are reviewed. Although present along most of the coast, S. plumbea concentrates in the mangrove-lined creek system of the Indus Delta (Sindh), Miani Hor (Sonmiani Bay), Kalmat Lagoon, Gwadar and the Dasht River estuary (Gwater Bay, Jiwani). Other areas of distribution comprise the Karachi coast, Kund Malir, Ormara and Pasni. In the Indus Delta, 46 small-boat surveys conducted monthly (minus July and October) in 2005-2009, documented 112 sightings (439 individuals) in major creeks, smaller channels and nearshore waters. Group sizes ranged from 1-35 animals (mean=3.92±4.60). Groups of 1-10 animals composed 91% of total (27.9% single animals). An encounter rate of 0.07-0.17 dolphins km(-1) lacked a significant trend across survey years. A discovery curve remained steep after 87 dolphins were photo-identified, suggesting the population is vastly larger. In Sonmiani Bay, Balochistan, during 9 survey days in 2011-2012, group sizes ranged from 1-68 animals (mean=11.9±13.59; n=36), totalling 428 dolphins. Incidental entanglements, primarily in gillnets, pollution (especially around Karachi), overfishing and the ship breaking industry in Gaddani, pose major threats. Incidental catches occur along the entire Pakistani coast. Of 106 stranded cetaceans, 24.5% were S. plumbea. Directed takes in Balochistan, driven by demand for bait in shark fisheries, have reportedly declined following dwindling shark stocks. Habitat degradation threats include depletion of prey and increased maritime traffic. Domestic sewage and solid waste pollution are predominant on the Balochistan coast, especially at Miani Hor, Kund Malir, Ormara, Kalmat Lagoon, Pasni, Gwadar and Jiwani. An exhaustive habitat assessment combined with appropriate fishery management is the only way to safeguard the future of S. plumbea in Pakistan. PMID:26555627

  19. Selected organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in urban atmosphere of Pakistan: concentration, spatial variation and sources.

    PubMed

    Nasir, Jawad; Wang, Xiaoping; Xu, Baiqing; Wang, Chuanfei; Joswiak, Daniel R; Rehman, Said; Lodhi, Arifa; Shafiq, Shoaib; Jilani, Rehmatullah

    2014-01-01

    Robust knowledge on the occurrence and distribution of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the atmosphere of low-latitude regions is inevitable to forecast their transportation to pristine ecosystem and assess toxicological impacts upon local biota. Despite the earlier revelation of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in soils/sediments and water bodies in Pakistan, knowledge about atmospheric levels and sources of these POPs remains limited. For the first time, a network of XAD resin-based passive air samplers (PAS) was established across megacities of Pakistan, i.e., Karachi, the coastal city, and Lahore, lying in an agricultural region. Typical geographical locations of the two cities allowed assessing the influence of source regions on the occurrence and distribution patterns of selected POPs. Average concentrations (ng/PAS) in both cities ranged as endosulfan 39-101, DDTs 63-92, HCHs 33-65, heptachlor 10-26, and PCBs 48-61. High concentrations of endosulfan and lindane as observed throughout Lahore were certainly due to their ongoing applications in surrounding agricultural fields. Lower proportions of parental DDTs as compared to their metabolites were observed in both cities, suggesting inputs of DDTs from older or secondary sources. Owing to ultimate discharge of country's agricultural/industrial waste through river streams in to Arabian Sea, the coastal region of Karachi was found potential source of weathered POPs that could be dissipated at regional/global scales by maritime advections. The study contributes to the pool of information on fate and geographical distribution of POPs in subtropical developing countries. PMID:24467173

  20. Mobilizing male opinion leaders’ support for family planning to improve maternal health: a theory-based qualitative study from Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Azmat, Syed Khurram

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Pakistan is a patriarchal society in which male opinion leaders play an important role in determining health-seeking behaviors pertaining to family planning (FP) among their respective communities. This research focuses on cataloguing the perceptions of opinion leaders (clergymen, health professionals, and social workers) about the barriers for using services and practical solutions for promoting FP in the slums of Karachi, Pakistan. Materials and methods A qualitative study using an open-ended, semistructured interview schedule with hypothetical scenarios and in-depth interviews with a purposive sample of 45 opinion leaders (25 mosque imams/clergymen, 12 nonallopathic health professionals, and eight social workers/activists) was conducted in 2006–2007 in Karachi, Pakistan. Transcripts were coded thematically utilizing NVivo by using an adapted constant comparison analysis process as described by Strauss and Corbin. Results Seven key themes were derived from the in-depth interviews. Five themes provide insight into the opinion leaders’ perceptions of barriers to FP and modern contraception methods. Among the barriers religious taboos and cultural pressures were particularly note-worthy. Two themes offered opportunities for more effective development and implementation of FP programs. Conclusion It is evident from the study that opinion leaders in the community and the clergy lack the understanding of the importance of birth spacing. However, because they have a great deal of influence on the community at large, it is imperative to interact with them to build their capacity in order to propagate the messages of FP and improve maternal health and reproductive health in general. PMID:22247617

  1. Association of airborne Aspergillus with asthma exacerbation in Southern Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Zubairi, Ali Bin Sarwar; Azam, Iqbal; Awan, Safia; Zafar, Afia

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposure to airborne fungi has been related with exacerbation of asthma in adults and children leading to increased outpatient, emergency room visits, and hospitalizations. Hypersensitivity to these airborne fungi may be an important initial predisposing factor in the development and exacerbation of asthma. Objective This study was conducted to determine an association between fungal types and spore concentrations with the risk of asthma exacerbation in adults. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted from May 2008 to August 2009 at the Aga Khan University Hospital Karachi, Pakistan. All adult (age?16 years) patients presenting to the hospital with acute asthma exacerbation were enrolled after informed consent. A home survey was conducted for each patient to assess their environmental characteristics. Indoor air samples were also obtained from the patient's home to determine the type and spore concentration of fungi within the week of their enrollment in the study. Results Three hundred and ninety-one patients with an acute asthma exacerbation were enrolled during the study period. The mean age of participants was 46 years (standard deviation, ±18 years) and 247 (63.2%) were females. A trend of higher asthma enrollment associated with higher Aspergillus concentrations was found in two consecutive summers. A total of nineteen types of fungi were found in air samples. Aspergillus spp. was the most frequently isolated fungus with acute asthma exacerbation. Conclusion An association of higher concentration of indoor Aspergillus spp. with asthma exacerbation in adults was observed in this study. PMID:24809014

  2. Highest priority in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Adil, E

    1968-01-01

    Responding to the challenge posed by its population problem, Pakistan's national leadership gave the highest priority to family planning in its socioeconomic development plan. In Pakistan, as elsewhere in the world, the first family planning effort originated in the private sector. The Family Planning Association of Pakistan made a tentative beginning in popularizing family planning in the country. Some clinics were opened and some publicity and education were undertaken to emphasize the need for family limitation. It was recognized soon that the government needed to assume the primarily responsibility if family planning efforts were to be successful. For the 1st plan period, 1955-60, about $10 million was allocated by the central government in the social welfare sector for voluntary family planning. The level of support continued on the same basis during the 2nd plan, 1960-65, but has been raised 4-fold in the 1965-70 scheme of family planning. Pakistan's Family Planning Association continues to play vital collaborative roles in designing and pretesting of prototype publicity material, involvement of voluntary social workers, and functional research in the clinical and public relations fields. The real breakthrough in the program came with the 3rd 5-year plan, 1965-70. High priority assigned to family planning is reflected by the total initial budget of Rs.284 million (about $60,000,000) for the 5-year period. Current policy is postulated on 6 basic assumptions: family planning efforts need to be public relations-oriented; operations should be conducted through autonomous bodies with decentralized authority at all tiers down to the grassroots level, for expeditious decision making; monetary incentives play an important role; interpersonal motivation in terms of life experience of the clientele through various contacts, coupled with mass media for publicity, can produce a sociological breakthrough; supplies and services in all related disciplines should be available at the doorsteps of the people; and training, evaluation, and research should be multidimensional and continuous as an integral part of the program. The Central Family Planning Council as the highest autonomous tier formulated basic policy for the Pakistan program. Planning, evaluation, research, and coordination are its main responsibilities. As ignorance and cultural inertia can be overcome only by personal motivation, individual contacts are of high value. Family planning clinics vary in size and capability according to local requirements. The various categories include full-time clinics, part-time clinics in both urban and rural areas; and IUD camps arranged by family planning officers and operated by mobile teams. The provision of monetary incentives is a vital element in the program. Family planning is no longer taboo in Pakistan. There has been a sociological breakthrough, and inhibitions and reservations are fast disappearing. PMID:12313931

  3. Land contestation in Karachi and the impact on housing and urban development

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Arif

    2015-01-01

    Karachi is one of the world’s fastest growing large cities. This paper describes the complex processes by which land is (formally and informally) made available for housing (and for commercial development), as well as who benefits – and how the low-income majority of Karachi citizens lose out. It also describes what underpins this – especially the political complications in a city that has grown so rapidly, has had fundamental changes in its ethnic composition (and thus also in its politics) and has attracted so many illegal immigrants. The paper describes the changes in formal and informal land markets over the last 50 years and the changing responses by government agencies to housing (and land for housing) issues. Also explored are the connections among land, housing and transport (which include different processes of densification) and the complex politics involved. The paper ends with recommendations for land titling, for changes in transport policies, for better use of land already owned by government agencies, for cross-political party agreement on how to address serious security issues (that are leading to loss of investment) and for increased political effectiveness of Karachi’s active civil society organizations. PMID:26321797

  4. Establishment of a Comprehensive Epilepsy Center in Pakistan: Initial Experiences, Results, and Reflections

    PubMed Central

    Tahir, M. Zubair; Sobani, Zain A.; Quadri, S. A.; Ahmed, S. Nizam; Sheerani, Mughis; Siddiqui, Fowzia; Boling, Warren W.; Enam, Syed Ather

    2012-01-01

    Background. Developing countries, home to 80% of epilepsy patients, do not have comprehensive epilepsy surgery programs. Considering these needs we set up first epilepsy surgery center in Pakistan. Methods. Seventeen teleconferences focused on setting up an epilepsy center at the Aga Khan University (AKU), Karachi, Pakistan were arranged with experts from the University of Alberta Hospital, Alberta, Canada and the University of West Virginia, USA over a two-year period. Subsequently, the experts visited the proposed center to provide hands on training. During this period several interactive teaching sessions, a nationwide workshop, and various public awareness events were organized. Results. Sixteen patients underwent surgery, functional hemispherectomy (HS) was done in six, anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) in six, and neuronavigation-guided selective amygdalohippocampectomy (SAH) using keyhole technique in four patients. Minimal morbidity was observed in ATL and, SAH groups. All patients in SAH group (100%) had Grade 1 control, while only 5 patients (83%) in ATL group, and 4 patients (66%) in HS group had Grade 1 control according to Engel's classification, in average followups of 12 months, 24 months and 48 months for SAH, ATL, and HS, respectively. Conclusion. As we share our experience we hope to set a practical example for economically constrained countries that successful epilepsy surgery centers can be managed with limited resources. PMID:22957232

  5. Crystalline rocks of the Spinatizha area, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, R. D.; Yeats, R. S.; Khan, S. H.; Subhani, A. M.; Bonelli, D.

    During the Cretaceous an andesitic arc developed across south Asia facing the Tethys Ocean. Remnants of this arc are preserved in Iran, Afghanistan, and the Chagai Hills and Kohistan, Pakistan. West of the Chaman fault near Spinatizha, Pakistan (33° 33'N, 66° 23'E) a terrain of crystalline rocks is exposed that links the Chagai Hills portion of this arc with the Kandahar portion of it in Afghanistan. Four units are present. (1) The Spinatizha Metamorphic Complex includes orthogneiss, greenschist, amphibolite, metavolcanics, marble and foliated muscovite granite. Extreme variation in rock type and degree of metamorphism characterises the entire complex. It is the oldest unit west of the Chaman fault in Pakistan. (2) The Bazai Ghar Volcanics consist of weakly deformed tuffs, flow breccias, and other coarse-grained pyroclastics of andesitic-arc type. Andesite flows and at least one silicic welded tuff are also present. The Bazai Ghar Volcanics are everywhere separated from the Spinatizha Metamorphic unit by granitic intrusions and a major fault. (3) Both the above units are intruded by a series of calc-alkaline granitic plutons ranging from diorite to granite. The silicic plutons generally intrude the more mafic ones. The Bazai Ghar Volcanics and related intrusions are probably equivalent to the Cretaceous (?) Sinjrani volcanics and the Cretaceous and younger intrusions of the Chagai Hills. (4) Along the fault zone between the volcanic and metamorphic rocks is a small area of previously unknown clastic sedimentary rocks: conglomerates and slates. The unit is of Palaeogene age but cannot yet be correlated with known units. The Spinatizha crystalline terrain extends south along the Chaman fault into Afghanistan and is covered by the Helmund desert to the west. It is the eastern continuation of the calc-alkaline arc terrain of the Chagai Hills dragged by oroclinal flexing into the Chaman transform zone. To the north it connects with the Kandahar volcanic arc. The metamorphic complex may represent the basement on which the arc terrain rests, only exposed due to strong vertical uplift near the Chaman fault.

  6. Prevalence of drug resistance associated mutations in Plasmodium vivax against sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine in southern Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Pakistan, Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum co-exist and usage of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) against P. falciparum exposes P. vivax to the drug leading to generation of resistant alleles. The main aim of this study was to investigate frequency distribution of drug resistance associated mutations in pvdhfr, pvdhps genes and provide baseline molecular epidemiological data on SP-associated resistance in P. vivax from southern Pakistan. Methods From January 2008 to May 2009, a total of 150 samples were collected from patients tested slide-positive for P. vivax, at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, or its collection units located in Baluchistan and Sindh Province. Nested PCR using pvdhfr and pvdhps specific primers was performed for all samples.91.3% (137/150) of the samples were tested PCR positive of which 87.3% (131/137) were successfully sequenced. Sample sequencing data was analysed and compared against wild type reference sequences. Results In dhfr, mutations were observed at codons F57L, S58R and S117N/T. Novel non-synonymous mutations were observed at codon positions N50I, G114R and E119K while a synonymous mutation was observed at codon position 69Y. In dhps, mutations were observed at codon position A383G and A553G while novel non-synonymous mutations were observed at codon positions S373T, E380K, P384L, N389T, V392D, T393P, D459A, M601I, A651D and A661V. Conclusion This is the first report from southern Pakistan on SP resistance in clinical isolates of P. vivax. Results from this study confirm that diverse drug resistant alleles are circulating within this region. PMID:23890361

  7. Vulnerability of Internally Displaced Children in Disaster Relief Camps of Pakistan: Issues, Challenges, and Way Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirani, Shela Akbar Ali

    2014-01-01

    Pakistan is a developing country with the second highest infant and child mortality rates in South Asia. During the past years this region has undergone several humanitarian emergencies that have negatively affected all the aspects of health and development of young children. During these emergencies relief camps are set up by governmental and…

  8. 75 FR 51615 - Establishment of Pakistan and Afghanistan Support Office

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ...2010 Establishment of Pakistan and Afghanistan Support Office By the authority vested...organization to be known as the Pakistan and Afghanistan Support Office (PASO). Sec. 2...in strengthening the governments in Afghanistan and Pakistan, enhancing the...

  9. Management of wastes from hospitals: A case study in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mustafa; Wang, Wenping; Chaudhry, Nawaz

    2016-01-01

    Proper management of hospital waste is a critical concern in many countries of the world. Pakistan is the sixth most populous country in the world, with one of the highest urbanisation and population growth rates in South Asia. Data and analyses regarding hospital waste management practices in Pakistan are scarce in scientific literature. This study was meant to determine waste management practices at selected hospitals in a major city in Pakistan, Gujranwala. A total of 12 different hospitals were selected for the survey, which involved quantification of waste generation rates and investigation of waste management practices. The results were analysed using linear regression. The weighted average total, general and infectious hospital waste generation rates were found to be 0.667, 0.497 and 0.17?kg?bed-day(-1), respectively. Of the total, 73.85% consisted of general, 25.8% consisted of hazardous infectious and 0.87% consisted of sharps waste. The general waste consisted of 15.76% paper, 13.41% plastic, 21.77% textiles, 6.47% glass, 1.99% rubber, 0.44% metal and 40.17% others. Linear regression showed that waste generation increased with occupancy and decreased with number of beds. Small, private and specialised hospitals had relatively greater waste generation rates. Poor waste segregation, storage and transportation practices were observed at all surveyed hospitals. PMID:26628050

  10. Pakistan foreign policy formulation, 1947-65: an analysis of institutional interaction between American policy making bodies and the Pakistan Army 

    E-print Network

    Soherwordi, Syed Hussain Shaheed

    2010-01-01

    This thesis examines through the use of archives and oral evidence the role of the Pakistan Army in the context of Pakistan’s domestic politics and foreign policy. Its main purpose is to explore the autonomy of the Pakistan ...

  11. Predictable Equilibrium Multichannel Network Characteristizes The Indus River, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carling, Paul

    2015-04-01

    PREDICTABLE EQUILIBRIUM MULTICHANNEL NETWORK CHARACTERIZES THE INDUS RIVER, PAKISTAN Carling, P.A.1, Trieu, H.1, Hornby, D.2, Darby, S.E.1, Sear, D.A.1, Hutton, C.2, Ali, Z.3, Iqbal, I.3 1Geography & Environment, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK; 2GeoData, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK; 3SUPARCO, Karachi, Pakistan The Indus River in Pakistan between Chasma and Taunsa is a 304 river km reach characterised by islands dividing multiple channels. Previously, the behaviour of such channel networks has been considered unpredictable. Crosato & Mosselman (2009) argue that physics-based predictors of channel splitting developed for braided-river bars apply poorly to island-divided rivers and recommend the application of regime theory (Bettess & White, 1983) to predict the number (n) of channels in rivers such as the Indus. The Indus is characterized by two to 11 channels at each cross section with, on average, about four channels being active during the dry season and five during the monsoon. Thus the expansion of the network during the monsoon is slight and is due to reoccupation of channels that are dry during low flows. The network evolves on an annual basis primarily due to bendway progression, whilst avulsions to form major new channels are relatively rare (one or two in the reach per year) and are matched by a similar number of closures. Thus the network structure, if not its shape, is relatively stable year to year. The standard deviation of channel numbers comparing sections throughout the reach is practically identical at c. two channels and there is no significant variation between years. Theory indicates that stable networks have three to four channels, thus the stability in the number of active channels through the annual monsoon and between years accords with the presence of a near-equilibrium reach-scale channel network that demonstrates local disequilibrium when 3 > n > 4, being perturbed by the annual monsoon. Application of the Bettess & White regime theory demonstrates that the river channel network does not respond to monsoon floods (which typically peak at 13,200 m3s-1), but rather it maintains a network that is in near-equilibrium with the 20-year mean annual flow (3090 m3s-1) for a narrow range of channel slopes (2.8 - 2.9 10-4) and a narrow range of total sediment load (120 - 180 mg l-1). Given the stability in n and B (channel width), it can be inferred that channel depths (d) also are relatively stable during the monsoon. Thus despite any minor adjustments in B:d during the annual hydrological cycle, the time-scale for adjustment of the physical network is much longer than the time-scale of the monsoon hydrograph, with the annual excess water being stored and transported across neighbouring floodplains, rather than being conveyed in enlarged channels or in new avulsed channels. The analysis explains the lack of significant channel adjustment following the largest recorded flood in 40 years: 27,100 m3s-1 in 2010.

  12. Food irradiation development in Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, I.

    The large scale trials were held to extend the storage life of potatoes, onions and dry fruits by gamma radiation. It was concluded that radiation preservation of potatoes and onions was much cheaper as compared to conventional methods. A dose of 1 kGy can control the insects in dry fruits and nuts. The consumers' acceptability and market testing performed during the last four years are also conducive to the commercialization of the technology in this country. The Government of Pakistan has accorded clearance for the irradiation of some food items like potatoes, onions, garlic and spices for human consumption. The Pakistan Radiation Services (PARAS), the commercial irradiator (200 Kci) at Lahore, has already started functioning in April, 1987. It is planned to start large scale sterilization of spices by gamma radiation in PARAS shortly.

  13. The Pakistan National Emergency Department Surveillance Study (Pak-NEDS): Introducing a pilot surveillance

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence-based decision making is essential for appropriate prioritization and service provision by healthcare systems. Despite higher demands, data needs for this practice are not met in many cases in low- and middle-income countries because of underdeveloped sources, among other reasons. Emergency departments (EDs) provide an important channel for such information because of their strategic position within healthcare systems. This paper describes the design and pilot test of a national ED based surveillance system suitable for the Pakistani context. Methods The Pakistan National Emergency Department Surveillance Study (Pak-NEDS) was pilot tested in the emergency departments of seven major tertiary healthcare centres across the country. The Aga Khan University, Karachi, served as the coordinating centre. Key stakeholders and experts from all study institutes were involved in outlining data needs, development of the study questionnaire, and identification of appropriate surveillance mechanisms such as methods for data collection, monitoring, and quality assurance procedures. The surveillance system was operational between November 2010 and March 2011. Active surveillance was done 24 hours a day by data collectors hired and trained specifically for the study. All patients presenting to the study EDs were eligible participants. Over 270,000 cases were registered in the surveillance system over a period of four months. Coverage levels in the final month ranged from 91-100% and were highest in centres with the least volume of patients. Overall the coverage for the four months was 79% and crude operational costs were less than $0.20 per patient. Conclusions Pak-NEDS is the first multi-centre ED based surveillance system successfully piloted in a sample of major EDs having some of the highest patient volumes in Pakistan. Despite the challenges identified, our pilot shows that the system is flexible and scalable, and could potentially be adapted for many other low- and middle-income settings. PMID:26690669

  14. Carbon monoxide (CO) emissions and its tropospheric variability over Pakistan using satellite-sensed data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ul-Haq, Zia; Rana, Asim Daud; Ali, Muhammad; Mahmood, Khalid; Tariq, Salman; Qayyum, Zarmina

    2015-08-01

    This study presents major anthropogenic sources of carbon monoxide (CO) in Pakistan and discusses the spatio-temporal variability of tropospheric CO over Pakistan and neighboring regions of Afghanistan, India and Iran for a period from 2003 to 2012 using satellite-sensed (AIRS/AMSU) data. The results show a large spatio-temporal variability of CO over the study region mostly associated with anthropogenic activities such as crop residue burning, vehicular transport, and electricity and energy generation, and local meteorology. The annual mean value of tropospheric CO is observed to be 115 ± 2 ppbv that remains almost steady during the study period with decadal increase of only 2%. Due to more anthropogenic emissions of CO and its transport, the eastern zone shows a higher average value of 122 ± 2 ppbv with 2.7% decadal increase than the western zone (111 ± 3 ppbv with 1.4% decadal increase). Elevated concentrations of CO have been observed over the Indo-Gangetic Basin, Lahore, Karachi, and Delhi. During the study period large fluctuations in CO mean monthly values are found ranging from 99 ppbv to 131 ppbv. The fact that, in spite of a large increase in the CO emissions from 2003 to 2012, its average concentration remains almost stable indicates that a large scale regional transport contributes substantially to the tropospheric CO. Carbon monoxide concentrations exhibit a strong seasonal pattern with maximum amplitude in spring and minimum in autumn. July is found to have the highest decadal increasing trend of 13% followed by August at 8%, whereas May has the highest decreasing trend of -8% followed by November at -4.4%.

  15. Bomb blast injuries: an exploration of patient characteristics and outcome using Pakistan National Emergency Departments Surveillance (Pak-NEDS) data

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Bomb blast injuries result in premature deaths and burdening of healthcare systems. The objective of this study was to explore the characteristics and outcome of patients presenting to the emergency departments in Pakistan with bomb blast injuries. Methods Active surveillance was conducted in seven major emergency departments of Pakistan from November 2010-March 2011. All the sites are tertiary care urban centers. All the patients who presented to the hospital's emergency department (ED) following a bomb blast injury as per self-report or the ambulance personnel were included in the study. Frequency of demographics, injury pattern, and outcomes were calculated. Results A total of 103 patients with bomb blast injuries presented to the selected emergency departments. The median age of patients was 30 years. Around three-fourth of the patients were males (n = 74, 74.7%). Most of the bomb blast patients were seen in Peshawar (n = 41, 39.8%) and Karachi city (n = 31, 30.1%) and the most common mode of arrival was non-ambulance transport (n = 71, 76.3%). Upper limb injuries (n = 12, 40%) were common in the under 18 age group and lower limb injuries (n = 31, 39.2%) in the 18 years and above group. There were a total of 8 (7.7%) deaths reported out of these 103 patients. Conclusion Bomb blast injuries in Pakistan generally affect young males. Non-ambulance transport is the most common way to access emergency departments (ED). Overall ED mortality is high and capturing data during a disaster in an emergency department is challenging. PMID:26692453

  16. Female Suicide Rates in Ghizer, Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Murad M.; Ahmed, Aziz; Khan, Sultan R.

    2009-01-01

    Suicide is an understudied subject in Pakistan. There are many social, legal, and religious sanctions against it. National rates of suicides are not known. We calculated suicide rates of women in the Ghizer District of the remote Northern Areas of Pakistan. During years 2000 to 2004, 49 women committed suicide. Taking average mean population for…

  17. Anatomy Education Faces Challenges in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Memon, Ismail K.

    2009-01-01

    Anatomy education in Pakistan is facing many of the same challenges as in other parts of the world. Roughly, a decade ago, all medical and dental colleges in Pakistan emphasized anatomy as a core basic discipline within a traditional medical science curriculum. Now institutions are adopting problem based learning (PBL) teaching philosophies, and…

  18. Current trends in treatment of obesity in Karachi and possibilities of cost minimization.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Mirza Izhar; Naqvi, Baqir Shyum

    2015-03-01

    Our study finds out drug usage trends in over weight and obese patients without any compelling indications in Karachi, looks for deviations of current practices from evidence based antihypertensive therapeutic guidelines and identifies not only cost minimization opportunities but also communication strategies to improve patients' awareness and compliance to achieve therapeutic goal. In present study two sets were used. Randomized stratified independent surveys were conducted in hospital doctors and family physicians (general practitioners), using pretested questionnaires. Sample size was 100. Statistical analysis was conducted on Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). Opportunities of cost minimization were also analyzed. One the basis of doctors' feedback, preference is given to non-pharmacologic management of obesity. Mass media campaign and media usage were recommended to increase patients awareness and patients' education along with strengthening family support systems was recommended for better compliance of the patients to doctor's advice. Local therapeutic guidelines for weight reduction were not found. Feedbacks showed that global therapeutic guidelines were followed by the doctors practicing in the community and hospitals in Karachi. However, high price branded drugs were used instead of low priced generic therapeutic equivalents. Patient's education is required for better awareness and improving patients' compliance. The doctors found preferring brand leaders instead of low cost options. This trend increases cost of therapy by 0.59 to 4.17 times. Therefore, there are great opportunities for cost minimization by using evidence-based clinically effective and safe medicines. PMID:25796152

  19. Current trends in treatment of hypertension in Karachi and cost minimization possibilities

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Izhar M.; Naqvi, Baqir S.; Qasim, Rao M.; Ali, Nasir

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study finds out drug usage trends in Stage I Hypertensive Patients without any compelling indications in Karachi, deviations of current practices from evidence based antihypertensive therapeutic guidelines and looks for cost minimization opportunities. Methods: In the present study conducted during June 2012 to August 2012, two sets were used. Randomized stratified independent surveys were conducted in doctors and general population - including patients, using pretested questionnaires. Sample sizes for doctors and general population were 100 and 400 respectively. Statistical analysis was conducted on Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). Financial impact was also analyzed. Results: On the basis of patients’ doctors’ feedback, Beta Blockers, and Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors were used more frequently than other drugs. Thiazides and low-priced generics were hardly prescribed. Beta blockers were prescribed widely and considered cost effective. This trend increases cost by two to ten times. Conclusion: Feedbacks showed that therapeutic guidelines were not followed by the doctors practicing in the community and hospitals in Karachi. Thiazide diuretics were hardly used. Beta blockers were widely prescribed. High priced market leaders or expensive branded generics were commonly prescribed. Therefore, there are great opportunities for cost minimization by using evidence-based clinically effective and safe medicines. PMID:26648979

  20. Dengue transmission based on urban environmental gradients in different cities of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khalid, Bushra; Ghaffar, Abdul

    2015-03-01

    This study focuses on the dengue transmission in different regions of Pakistan. For this purpose, the data of dengue cases for 2009-2012 from four different cities (Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Lahore, and Karachi) of the country is collected, evaluated, and compiled. To identify the reasons and regions of higher risk of Dengue transmission, land use classification, analysis of climate covariates and drainage patterns was done. Analysis involves processing of SPOT 5 10 m, Landsat TM 30 m data sets, and SRTM 90 m digital elevation models by using remote sensing and GIS techniques. The results are based on the change in urbanization and population density, analysis of temperature, rainfall, and wind speed; calculation of drainage patterns including stream features, flow accumulation, and drainage density of the study areas. Results suggest that the low elevation areas with calm winds and minimum temperatures higher than the normal, rapid increase in unplanned urbanization, low flow accumulation, and higher drainage density areas favor the dengue transmission. PMID:24817491

  1. Environmental risk factors and hotspot analysis of dengue distribution in Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalid, Bushra; Ghaffar, Abdul

    2015-11-01

    This study is an attempt to find out the factors responsible for sudden dengue outbreak in different cities of Pakistan during 2011. For this purpose, spatio-temporal distribution of dengue in Islamabad, Rawalpindi, Lahore, and Karachi has been taken into account. According to the available data, the factors responsible for this spread includes climate covariates like rainfall, temperature, and wind speed; social covariates like population, and area of locality, and environmental risk factors like drainage pattern and geo-hydrological conditions. Reported dengue cases from localities and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 90 m digital elevation model (DEM) of study areas have been processed for hotspots, regression model and stream density in the localities of high dengue incidence. The relationship of daily dengue incidence with climate covariates during the months of July-October of the study year is analyzed. Results show that each dry spell of 2-4 days provides suitable conditions for the development and survival of dengue vectors during the wet months of July and August in the areas of high stream density and population. Very few cases have been reported in July while higher number of cases reported in the months of August, September, until late October. Hotspot analysis highlights the areas of high dengue incidence while regression analysis shows the relationship between the population and the areas of localities with the dengue incidence.

  2. Environmental risk factors and hotspot analysis of dengue distribution in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khalid, Bushra; Ghaffar, Abdul

    2015-11-01

    This study is an attempt to find out the factors responsible for sudden dengue outbreak in different cities of Pakistan during 2011. For this purpose, spatio-temporal distribution of dengue in Islamabad, Rawalpindi, Lahore, and Karachi has been taken into account. According to the available data, the factors responsible for this spread includes climate covariates like rainfall, temperature, and wind speed; social covariates like population, and area of locality, and environmental risk factors like drainage pattern and geo-hydrological conditions. Reported dengue cases from localities and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 90 m digital elevation model (DEM) of study areas have been processed for hotspots, regression model and stream density in the localities of high dengue incidence. The relationship of daily dengue incidence with climate covariates during the months of July-October of the study year is analyzed. Results show that each dry spell of 2-4 days provides suitable conditions for the development and survival of dengue vectors during the wet months of July and August in the areas of high stream density and population. Very few cases have been reported in July while higher number of cases reported in the months of August, September, until late October. Hotspot analysis highlights the areas of high dengue incidence while regression analysis shows the relationship between the population and the areas of localities with the dengue incidence. PMID:25869291

  3. The determinants of infant mortality in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Agha, S

    2000-07-01

    This study examines factors associated with infant survival in Pakistan. It uses data from the Pakistan Integrated Household Survey 1991, a nationally representative sample survey of the Government of Pakistan, funded by the World Bank. The infant mortality rate was still very high in Pakistan until the early 1990s, at 100 deaths per 1000 live births. The study shows that there is no evidence of a secular decline in infant mortality during the 1980s. Large differentials in infant survival by socio-economic factors and access to water and sanitation indicate that social and gender inequities are the underlying cause of the stagnation of infant mortality in Pakistan. Economic and social policies of earlier decades have resulted in tremendous disparities in wealth and access to resources in Pakistan. The low social, economic and legal status of women is intimately tied to the well-being of their children. Health interventions in Pakistan should be designed to reach the most under-served: women and children. Systematic evaluations of health interventions will be necessary to make informed decisions about health investments in the future. PMID:10832568

  4. Impact of today's media on university student's body image in Pakistan: a conservative, developing country's perspective

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Living in a world greatly controlled by mass media makes it impossible to escape its pervading influence. As media in Pakistan has been free in the true sense of the word for only a few years, its impact on individuals is yet to be assessed. Our study aims to be the first to look at the effect media has on the body image of university students in a conservative, developing country like Pakistan. Also, we introduced the novel concept of body image dissatisfaction as being both negative and positive. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 7 private universities over a period of two weeks in the city of Karachi, Pakistan's largest and most populous city. Convenience sampling was used to select both male and female undergraduate students aged between 18 and 25 and a sample size of 783 was calculated. Results Of the 784 final respondents, 376 (48%) were males and 408 (52%) females. The mean age of males was 20.77 (+/- 1.85) years and females was 20.38 (+/- 1.63) years. Out of these, 358 (45.6%) respondents had a positive BID (body image dissatisfaction) score while 426 (54.4%) had a negative BID score. Of the respondents who had positive BID scores, 93 (24.7%) were male and 265 (65.0%) were female. Of the respondents with a negative BID score, 283 (75.3%) were male and 143 (35.0%) were female. The results for BID vs. media exposure were similar in both high and low peer pressure groups. Low media exposure meant positive BID scores and vice versa in both groups (p < 0.0001) showing a statistically significant association between high media exposure and negative body image dissatisfaction. Finally, we looked at the association between gender and image dissatisfaction. Again a statistically significant association was found between positive body image dissatisfaction and female gender and negative body image dissatisfaction and male gender (p < 0.0001). Conclusions Our study confirmed the tendency of the media to have an overall negative effect on individuals' body image. A striking feature of our study, however, was the finding that negative body image dissatisfaction was found to be more prevalent in males as compared to females. Likewise, positive BID scores were more prevalent amongst females. PMID:21609460

  5. Risk factors for term intrauterine growth retardation: a community-based study in Karachi.

    PubMed Central

    Fikree, F. F.; Berendes, H. W.

    1994-01-01

    Reported are the results of a community-based prospective study in four urban squatter settlements in Karachi that was carried out to assess the incidence of and risk factors for intrauterine growth retardation. The incidence of term intrauterine growth retardation was 24.4% among 738 singleton births. The socioeconomic and biological risk factors that were found to be statistically significant in a bivariate analysis were included in a logistic regression model to assess their independent effects. The major risk factors were low level of maternal education, paternal unemployment, consanguinity, short birth-to-conception intervals, short maternal stature, and low maternal weight. The population risk estimates suggest the desirability of public health interventions to improve maternal weight and birth spacing and of improvements in socioeconomic conditions, especially maternal education. Public education programmes to discourage consanguineous marriages should also be considered. PMID:7923537

  6. Airborne and allergenic fungal spores of the Karachi environment and their correlation with meteorological factors.

    PubMed

    Hasnain, Syed M; Akhter, Tasneem; Waqar, Muhammad A

    2012-03-01

    Airborne fungal spores are well known to cause respiratory allergic diseases particularly bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis, rhino-conjunctivitis and allergic broncho-pulmonary aspergillosis in both adults and children. In order to monitor and analyze airborne fungal flora of the Karachi environment, an aeromycological study was conducted using a Burkard 7-Day Recording Volumetric Spore Trap from January to December 2010. The data recorded from the Spore Trap was further analyzed for percent catch determination, total spores concentration, seasonal periodicities and diurnal variations. Cladosporium spp (44.8%), Alternaria spp. (15.5%), Periconia spp (6.1%), Curvularia spp (2.1%), Stemphylium spp (1.3%) and Aspergillus/Penicillium type (1%) emerged to be major components constituting more than 70% of the airborne fungal flora. Cladosporium, Curvularia and Stemphylium displayed a clear seasonal trend, while there were no clear seasonal trends for other fungal spore types. Diurnal variations were observed to be mainly having daytime maxima. Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient analysis was conducted using various weather parameters. The various fungal types showed a negative correlation with heat index, dew point, wind velocity and wind chill. However, a positive correlation was found with humidity, rain and barometric pressure. In fact, Alternaria, Bipolaris and Periconia showed a negative correlation with temperature, while Cladosporium and Periconia showed a negative correlation with heat index, dew point, wind velocity and wind chill. The barometric pressure was positively correlated with Cladosporium. On the basis of these findings, it can be concluded that a number of fungal spores are present in the atmosphere of Karachi throughout the year, with certain atmospheric conditions influencing the release, dispersion, and sedimentation processes of some genera. It is expected that clinicians will use the identified fungal flora for diagnosis and treatment and/or adopt preventative measures for allergic individuals. PMID:22327332

  7. Highland malaria occurring on Siachen Glacier, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Haider, Ehtesham; Kiani, Ismaa Ghazanfar; Taj, Rizwana; Samiullah

    2013-09-01

    A case of plasmodium vivax malaria presenting at very high altitude of 16,900 feet (5151 meters) is reported. This is the first case of its kind to be observed from such a high altitude from Pakistan. PMID:24601206

  8. Mohammed Ashraf, National Treasure of Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Turner

    1987-01-01

    Focuses on Mohammed Ashraf's traditional Pakistani lacquerwork, describing his techniques and noting distinguished audiences of his craft. Indicates modernization is a threat to the future of traditional crafts in Pakistan. (AEM)

  9. Blasphemy laws and mental illness in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Husain, Muzaffar

    2014-01-01

    There is emerging evidence that individuals who are mentally ill are overrepresented in the group of defendants prosecuted under the blasphemy laws of Pakistan. This article discusses the background of blasphemy legislation in Pakistan, and proposes causal interactions between underlying mental illness in the defendant and prosecution for blasphemy. It sketches possible legal safeguards for such blasphemy defendants with mental illness in mental health legislation. PMID:25237489

  10. In Pakistan, the Problems that Money Can Bring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neelakantan, Shailaja

    2007-01-01

    Over the past four years, Pakistan's higher-education budget has increased more than sevenfold, to about $449-million. While that amounts to only 0.5 percent of Pakistan's gross domestic product, it is a big improvement from the days of barely enough to pay "measly salaries and basic bills." But for students, along with many of Pakistan's most…

  11. Knowledge, perceptions and myths regarding infertility among selected adult population in Pakistan: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The reported prevalence of infertility in Pakistan is approximately 22% with 4% primary and 18% secondary infertility. Infertility is not only a medical but also a social problem in our society as cultural customs and perceived religious dictums may equate infertility with failure on a personal, interpersonal, or social level. It is imperative that people have adequate knowledge about infertility so couples can seek timely medical care and misconceptions can be rectified. We aim to assess the knowledge, perception and myths regarding infertility and suggest ways to improve it. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out by interviewing a sample of 447 adults who were accompanying the patients at two tertiary care hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan. They were interviewed one-on-one with the help of a pretested questionnaire drafted by the team after a thorough literature review and in consultation with infertility specialists. Results The correct knowledge of infertility was found to be limited amongst the participants. Only 25% correctly identified when infertility is pathological and only 46% knew about the fertile period in women's cycle. People are misinformed that use of IUCD (53%) and OCPs (61%) may cause infertility. Beliefs in evil forces and supernatural powers as a cause of infertility are still prevalent especially amongst people with lower level of education. Seeking alternative treatment for infertility remains a popular option for 28% of the participant as a primary preference and 75% as a secondary preference. IVF remains an unfamiliar (78%) and an unacceptable option (55%). Conclusions Knowledge about infertility is limited in the population and a lot of misconceptions and myths are prevalent in the society. Alternative medicine is a popular option for seeking infertility treatment. The cultural and religious perspective about assisted reproductive technologies is unclear, which has resulted in its reduced acceptability. PMID:21970548

  12. Baseline for Monitoring Water Resources Along Kabul and Indus Rivers of Pakistan for Potential Terrorist Contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamidullah, S.; Tariq, S.; Shah, M. T.; Bishop, M. P.; Kamp, U.; Olsenholler, J.

    2002-05-01

    Baseline for Monitoring Water Resources Along Kabul and Indus Rivers of Pakistan for Potential Terrorist Contamination Terrorism has temporarily constrained the dynamism of the world it was enjoying before September 11, 2001, but also has opened avenues for people of all ethnicities, creeds, and professions to join hands in combating it. Scientific efforts to combat terrorism are likely to lead to better use of existing scientific knowledge as well as to discoveries that will increase world organization, interconnectivity, and peace promotion. Afghanistan and surrounding regions are major focal points for current anti-terrorist activities of the USA and its allies, including Pakistan. The United States, Pakistan, and Afghanistan have shared many similar political objectives, as well as differences, in cold war and post-cold-war eras, reflected by variable provisions of material aid. It is well recognized that understanding Afghanistan requires comprehension of the Pakistan situation as well, especially for common resources. Water is paramount because it is absolutely vital, but can be contaminated by internal or cross-border terrorism. The Kabul and Indus rivers originate in the Hindu Kush - Himalaya ranges. The Kabul River flows from Afghanistan into Pakistan, and after irrigating Peshawar basin, joins the Indus. The Indus, after its origin in Tibet and flow through the Indian Himalaya, enters Pakistan and flows south as the irrigation lifeblood of the country. Any terroristic addition of radioactive nuclides or contaminants to either river could dramatically impact the dependent riverine ecologies. Monitoring cells thus need to be established at locations in Afghanistan and Pakistan to assess base-line river variances for possible future contamination by terrorists. This paper presents a general view and the physical and chemical parameters of parts of the two rivers, and of the surrounding underground water in Peshawar Basin, including pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids, major elements, trace elements, heavy metals and oxygen isotopes. Data are mostly within allowed limits of US-EPA for surface and underground water. Oxygen isotopes confirm the dangers of contamination from the Kabul River to underground water. Heavy metals were determined through spectrophotometery, however, modern geophysical methods are cheaper and quicker and can be applied at monitoring stations. With Kabul river and its surroundings as examples, similar theory and practice can be applied to rivers within the United States and other parts of the world.

  13. An overview of poultry industry in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    HUSSAIN, J.; RABBANI, I.; ASLAM, S.; AHMAD, H.A.

    2015-01-01

    The poultry sector is an important and vibrant segment of agriculture in Pakistan with a significant contribution to the national GDP (1.3%). Commercial poultry production in Pakistan started in the 1960’s and has been providing a significant portion of daily proteins to the Pakistani population ever since. During its evolution the industry enjoyed promotional policies of the Government, but has faced several challenges such as disease outbreaks and retail price fluctuations. Despite its important role in the country’s economy, not a single scientific study is available on its evolutionary history. The data available in this regard are scattered and lack reliability. This review is an effort to encompass the history of the overall growth of the poultry industry in Pakistan, its present status (2012 statistics) and future directions and challenges. This article may serve as the basic source of information on Pakistan’s poultry industry achievements. It will also guide poultry experts and policy makers for developing strategic planning for further growth of the industry. PMID:26696690

  14. Nuclear weapons issues in South Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Joeck, N.

    1993-07-02

    This report discusses how the US can play a productive mediating role in South Asia by engaging India and Pakistan in an international forum to manage nuclear weapons, as Edward Teller advocated. India and Pakistan have developed their nuclear capabilities because they fear their neighbors, not because they want to threaten fear their neighbors, not because they want to threaten the US. The appropriate response for the US, therefore, is diplomatic engagement and negotiations. In addition to the international approach, encouragement and facilitation of regional and bilateral interactions will also be important. Formal arms control agreements have been reached, but less formal confidence-building measures, and unilateral security pledges may well be combined to form a more secure strategic environment in South Asia than a nuclear armed confrontation across the porous South Asian border.

  15. Drug-related HIV epidemic in Pakistan: a review of current situation and response and the way forward beyond 2015.

    PubMed

    Bergenstrom, Anne; Achakzai, Baseer; Furqan, Sofia; ul Haq, Manzoor; Khan, Rajwal; Saba, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Pakistan is among four countries in Asia where the estimated number of new HIV infections has been increasing year by year ever since 1990. The Asian Epidemic Modelling (AEM), conducted in 2015, reconfirmed that the use of contaminated injection equipment among people who inject drugs (PWID) remains the main mode of HIV transmission in the country. The estimated number of PWID ranges from 104,804 to 420,000 PWID. HIV prevalence in this population is above 40 % in several cities, including Faisalabad (52.5 %), D.G. Khan (49.6 %), Gujrat (46.2 %), Karachi (42.2 %) and Sargodha (40.6 %), respectively. Harm reduction service delivery is being implemented through a public-private partnership led by the National and Provincial AIDS Control Programmes and Nai Zindagi with funding support from the Global Fund. Current programmatic coverage of the needle and syringe programme, HIV testing and counselling and antiretroviral treatment among PWID remain insufficient to control ongoing transmission of HIV in the country. While opioid substitution therapy (OST) is yet to be introduced, significant progress and coordination among various ministries have taken place recently to register buprenorphine in the dosage required for treatment of opioid dependence, and possible introduction of OST will greatly facilitate adherence to antiretroviral treatment among PWID living with HIV. PMID:26471874

  16. Physician migration at its roots: a study on the factors contributing towards a career choice abroad among students at a medical school in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Physician migration, also known as “brain drain,” results from a combination of a gap in the supply and demand in developed countries and a lack of job satisfaction in developing countries. Many push and pull factors are responsible for this effect, with media and internet playing their parts. Large-scale physician migration can pose problems for both the donor and the recipient countries, with a resulting reinforcement in the economic divide between developed and developing countries. The main objectives of our study were to determine the prevalence of migration intentions in medical undergraduates, to elucidate the factors responsible and to analyze the attitudes and practices related to these intentions. Methods This was a cross-sectional, observational, questionnaire-based study, conducted at Dow Medical College of Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, between January, 2012 and May, 2012. A total of 323 students responded completely. The questionnaire consisted of 3 sections, and was aimed at collecting demographic details, determining students’ migratory intentions, evaluating reasons for and against migration and assessing attitudes and practices of students related to these intentions. Results Out of 323 respondents, 195 wanted to pursue their careers abroad, giving a prevalence rate of 60.4% in our sample. United States was the most frequently reported recipient country. The most common reasons given by students who wished to migrate, in descending order, were: lucrative salary abroad followed by quality of training, job satisfaction, better way of life, relatives, more opportunities, better working environment, terrorism in Pakistan, harassment of doctors in Pakistan, desire to settle abroad, more competition in Pakistan, better management, peer pressure, longer working hours in Pakistan, religious reasons, parent pressure, political reasons and favoritism in Pakistan. A considerable number of respondents had already started studying for licensing examinations, and were also planning of gaining clinical experience in their desired country of interest. Conclusion Physician migration is a serious condition that requires timely intervention from the concerned authorities. If considerable measures are not taken, serious consequences may follow, which may pose a threat to the healthcare system of the country. PMID:23241435

  17. Differences in various biochemical and clinical parameters with respect to family history of Non Communicable Diseases in fourth year MBBS students of Karachi, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Basit, Khalid Abdul; Fawwad, Asher; Munir, Muhammad Asadullah; Siddiqui, Iftikhar Ahmed; Siddiqui, Sidra; Basit, Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To observe the differences of various biochemical and clinical parameters with respect to Family History (FH) of Non-communicable Diseases (NCDs) in fourth year Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) students. Methods: This observational study was conducted at Baqai Institute of Diabetology & Endocrinology from December 2013 to January 2014. Total 50 medical students from Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS) participated in the study. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 13 was used to analyze the data. For cross tabulation and mean comparison z-test and t test were applied. Results: Out of 50 subjects, there were 26 (52%) females. Mean age of the study population was 21.56 ± 0.90 years. Mean serum cholesterol levels with positive FH of NCDs was significantly higher than negative FH of NCDs (p=0.005). Mean value of low density lipoprotein (LDL) of positive family history of NCDs was found higher than those with negative FH (p=0.006) being statistically significant. The insulin levels in subjects with positive FH of NCDs were higher than subjects with negative FH of NCDs (p=0.685). However, serum leptin and plasma renin showed no significant difference with the negative FH of NCDs being higher compared to positive FH of NCDs (p=0.068) and (p=0.884) respectively. However, Waist circumference, Body mass index and central obesity in subjects with positive FH of NCDs shows increasing trend but no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05) was observed. Conclusion: In our study of various biochemical and clinical parameters with respect to FH of NCDs, Serum Cholesterol and LDL levels were observed higher and statistically significant. PMID:26430439

  18. Seismological Research Letters Volume 78, Number 6 November/December 2007 601 The city of Karachi, Pakistan (population 14 million), sits close

    E-print Network

    Bilham, Roger

    of the Arabian Sea. It was known to Arab and Portuguese traders who sometimes stopped at the village on the way the Arabian, Indian, and Asian plates (figure 2). The western and north-trending arms of the triple junc- tion discovered active fault, the Sonne fault, indicates that the Arabian plate has been fragmented across

  19. Source rock potential in Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Raza, H.A. )

    1991-03-01

    Pakistan contains two sedimentary basins: Indus in the east and Balochistan in the west. The Indus basin has received sediments from precambrian until Recent, albeit with breaks. It has been producing hydrocarbons since 1914 from three main producing regions, namely, the Potwar, Sulaisman, and Kirthar. In the Potwar, oil has been discovered in Cambrian, Permian, Jurassic, and Tertiary rocks. Potential source rocks are identified in Infra-Cambrian, Permian, Paleocene, and Eocene successions, but Paleocene/Eocene Patala Formation seems to be the main source of most of the oil. In the Sulaiman, gas has been found in Cretaceous and Tertiary; condensate in Cretaceous rocks. Potential source rocks are indicated in Cretaceous, Paleocene, and Eocene successions. The Sembar Formation of Early Cretaceous age appears to be the source of gas. In the Kirthar, oil and gas have been discovered in Cretaceous and gas has been discovered in paleocene and Eocene rocks. Potential source rocks are identified in Kirthar and Ghazij formations of Eocene age in the western part. However, in the easter oil- and gas-producing Badin platform area, Union Texas has recognized the Sembar Formation of Early Cretaceous age as the only source of Cretaceous oil and gas. The Balochistan basin is part of an Early Tertiary arc-trench system. The basin is inadequately explored, and there is no oil or gas discovery so far. However, potential source rocks have been identified in Eocene, Oligocene, Miocene, and Pliocene successions based on geochemical analysis of surface samples. Mud volcanoes are present.

  20. Prevalence and risk factors of kidney disease in urban Karachi: baseline findings from a community cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is being increasingly recognized as a leading public health problem. However, there are limited data available with respect to prevalence of CKD in Pakistan, a developing South Asian country. The study presents the baseline findings of prevalence and risk factors for adult kidney disease in a Pakistani community cohort. Methods A total of 667 households were enrolled between March 2010 and August 2011 including 461 adults, aged 15 and older. Mild kidney disease was defined as estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) ?60 ml/min with microalbuminuria ? 30 mg/dl and moderate kidney disease was defined as eGFR <60 ml/min (with or without microalbuminuria). Results The overall prevalence of kidney disease was 16.6% with 8.6% participants having mild kidney disease and 8% having moderate kidney disease. Age was significantly associated with kidney disease (p?

  1. Potential Risk of Cross-Infection by Tourniquets: A Need for Effective Control Practices in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Mehmood, Zara; Mubeen, Syed Muhammad; Afzal, Muhammad Shehzad; Hussain, Zainab

    2014-01-01

    Background: Tourniquets used repeatedly on patients for blood sampling are a potential source of nosocomial infections. They harbor numerous microorganisms, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The aim of this study was to investigate tourniquets for the presence of microorganisms and to ascertain the infection control practices of health care workers. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2012 on 100 samples of tourniquets collected from public and private sector hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan. The samples were cultured, and pathogenic microorganisms were identified and tested for methicillin resistance. A questionnaire was administered simultaneously to 100 health care workers who had used the tourniquets. Descriptive data are represented as frequencies and percentages. Ethical considerations were taken into account. Results: The total colonization rate was 51%, with no bacterial growth in 17/40 and 32/60 samples from public and private sector hospitals, respectively. S. aureus was isolated from 12 (42%) private sector hospital samples and 10 (43%) public sector hospital samples. Although MRSA was found in more samples from public than private sector hospitals, the difference was not statistically significant. Nevertheless, 90% of all elastic and 41% of all rubber tourniquets harbored microorganisms (P < 0.001). Although 96% of health care workers agreed that hospital staff and fomites can transmit infection, none identified tourniquets as a potential source. When asked whether tourniquets appeared clean before use, 66% agreed, and only 25% considered that tourniquets should be washed or cleaned before use. Conclusions: Tourniquets are a potential reservoir and vehicle for the spread of nosocomial infections, including MRSA. Health care workers have inadequate knowledge about infection control procedures and personal hygiene for disinfecting reusable items. PMID:25317294

  2. Monitoring health implications of pesticide exposure in factory workers in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khan, Dilshad Ahmed; Hashmi, Imran; Mahjabeen, Wajiha; Naqvi, Tatheer A

    2010-09-01

    The study aimed to determine the hazardous health effects of pesticides exposure in the factory workers by measuring plasma cholinesterase (PChE), pesticides residues, and renal and hepatic biochemical markers. In addition, we also assessed the knowledge, attitudes, and safety practices adopted by the industrial workers. The study was conducted in three different sizes of factories located in Lahore (large), Multan (medium), and Karachi (small) in Pakistan. Total 238 adult males consisting of 184 pesticide industrial workers (exposed group) from large-sized (67), medium-sized (61), small-sized (56) industrial formulation factories, and 54 controls (unexposed) were included in the study. All the participants were male of aged 18 to 58 years. PChE levels were estimated by Ellmann's method. Plasma pesticides residue analysis was performed by using reverse phase C-18 on high-performance liquid chromatograph and GC with NPD detector. Plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatinine, urea, and gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT) were measured on Selectra E auto analyzer. Plasma and C-reactive protein was analyzed by Immulite 1000. The results revealed a significant decrease in plasma post exposure PChE levels (<30%) as compared to baseline in the workers of small (29%) and medium (8%) industrial units (p < 0.001). Plasma cypermethrin, endosulfan, imidacloprid, thiodicarb, carbofuran, and methamidophos levels were found to be higher than allowable daily intake. Serum AST, ALT, creatinine GGT, malondialdehyde, total antioxidant, and CRP were significantly raised among the workers of small and medium pesticide formulation factories as compared to large industrial unit and controls (p < 0.001). The study demonstrated that unsafe practices among small- and medium-sized pesticides industrial workers cause significant increase in pesticide exposure, oxidative stress, and derangement of hepatic and renal function. PMID:19669582

  3. Development of agriculture biotechnology in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Zafar, Yusuf

    2007-01-01

    Agriculture plays an important role in the national economy of Pakistan, where most of the rapidly increasing population resides in rural areas and depends on agriculture for subsistence. Biotechnology has considerable potential for promoting the efficiency of crop improvement, food production, and poverty reduction. Use of modern biotechnology started in Pakistan since 1985. Currently, there are 29 biotech centers/institutes in the country. However, few centers have appropriate physical facilities and trained manpower to develop genetically modified (GM) crops. Most of the activities have been on rice and cotton, which are among the top 5 crops of Pakistan. Biotic (virus/bacterial/insect) and abiotic (salt) resistant and quality (male sterility) genes have already been incorporated in some crop plants. Despite acquiring capacity to produce transgenic plants, no GM crops, either produced locally or imported, have been released in the country. Pakistan is signatory to the World Trade Organization, Convention on Biological Diversity, and Cartagena protocols. Several legislations under the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights have been promulgated in the country. National Biosafety Guidelines have been promulgated in April 2005. The Plant Breeders Rights Act, Amendment in Seed Act-1976, and Geographical Indication for Goods are still passing through discussion, evaluation, and analysis phases. Meanwhile, an illegal GM crop (cotton) has already sneaked into farmer's field. Concerted and coordinated efforts are needed among various ministries for implementation of regulation and capacity building for import/export and local handling of GM crops. Pakistan could easily benefit from the experience of Asian countries, especially China and India, where conditions are similar and the agriculture sector is almost like that of Pakistan. Thus, the exchange of information and experiences is important among these nations. PMID:17955999

  4. Distribution of global insolation over Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Raja, I.A.; Twidell, J.W. )

    1990-01-01

    There are only five observatories measuring global insolation in Pakistan, which cannot represent the solar climate of the country. However 37 observatories, distributed fairly well over the entire country, record sunshine. Therefore insolation-sunshine empirical equations are developed to estimate global insolation over Pakistan. Three neighboring observatories for which the insolation-sunshine records are available are also included in the study. Monthly and yearly maps are constructed, for daily global insolation, based on data for 40 locations. The isolines are compared with the results obtained in India and with world solar insolation maps.

  5. High HIV Incidence among Persons Who Inject Drugs in Pakistan: Greater Risk with Needle Sharing and Injecting Frequently among the Homeless

    PubMed Central

    Samo, Rab Nawaz; Altaf, Arshad; Agha, Ajmal; Pasha, Omrana; Rozi, Shafquat; Memon, Ashraf; Azam, Saleem; Blevins, Meridith; Vermund, Sten H.; Shah, Sharaf Ali

    2013-01-01

    Background The incidence of HIV among persons who inject drugs (PWIDU) has fallen in many nations, likely due to successes of clean needle/syringe exchange and substance abuse treatment and service programs. However in Pakistan, prevalence rates for PWID have risen dramatically. In several cities, prevalence exceeded 20% by 2009 compared to a 2003 baseline of just 0.5%. However, no cohort study of PWID has ever been conducted. Methods We enrolled a cohort of 636 HIV seronegative PWID registered with three drop-in centers that focus on risk reduction and basic social services in Karachi. Recruitment began in 2009 (March to June) and PWID were followed for two years. We measured incidence rates and risk factors associated with HIV seroconversion. Results Incidence of HIV was 12.4 per 100 person-years (95% exact Poisson confidence interval [CI]: 10.3–14.9). We followed 474 of 636 HIV seronegative persons (74.5%) for two years, an annual loss to follow-up of <13 per 100 person years. In multivariable Cox regression analysis, HIV seroconversion was associated with non-Muslim religion (Adjusted risk ratio [ARR]?=?1.7, 95%CI:1.4, 2.7, p?=?0.03), sharing of syringes (ARR?=?2.3, 95%CI:1.5, 3.3, p<0.0001), being homeless (ARR?=?1.7, 95%CI:1.1, 2.5, p?=?0.009), and daily injection of drugs (ARR?=?1.1, 95%CI:1.0, 1.3, p?=?0.04). Conclusions Even though all members of the cohort of PWID were attending risk reduction programs, the HIV incidence rate was very high in Karachi from 2009–2011. The project budget was low, yet we were able to retain three-quarters of the population over two years. Absence of opiate substitution therapy and incomplete needle/syringe exchange coverage undermines success in HIV risk reduction. PMID:24358123

  6. Lithosphere, crust and basement ridges across Ganga and Indus basins and seismicity along the Himalayan front, India and Western Fold Belt, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravi Kumar, M.; Mishra, D. C.; Singh, B.

    2013-10-01

    Spectral analysis of the digital data of the Bouguer anomaly of North India including Ganga basin suggest a four layer model with approximate depths of 140, 38, 16 and 7 km. They apparently represent lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB), Moho, lower crust, and maximum depth to the basement in foredeeps, respectively. The Airy's root model of Moho from the topographic data and modeling of Bouguer anomaly constrained from the available seismic information suggest changes in the lithospheric and crustal thicknesses from ˜126-134 and ˜32-35 km under the Central Ganga basin to ˜132 and ˜38 km towards the south and 163 and ˜40 km towards the north, respectively. It has clearly brought out the lithospheric flexure and related crustal bulge under the Ganga basin due to the Himalaya. Airy's root model and modeling along a profile (SE-NW) across the Indus basin and the Western Fold Belt (WFB), (Sibi Syntaxis, Pakistan) also suggest similar crustal bulge related to lithospheric flexure due to the WFB with crustal thickness of 33 km in the central part and 38 and 56 km towards the SE and the NW, respectively. It has also shown the high density lower crust and Bela ophiolite along the Chamman fault. The two flexures interact along the Western Syntaxis and Hazara seismic zone where several large/great earthquakes including 2005 Kashmir earthquake was reported. The residual Bouguer anomaly maps of the Indus and the Ganga basins have delineated several basement ridges whose interaction with the Himalaya and the WFB, respectively have caused seismic activity including some large/great earthquakes. Some significant ridges across the Indus basin are (i) Delhi-Lahore-Sargodha, (ii) Jaisalmer-Sibi Syntaxis which is highly seismogenic. and (iii) Kachchh-Karachi arc-Kirthar thrust leading to Sibi Syntaxis. Most of the basement ridges of the Ganga basin are oriented NE-SW that are as follows (i) Jaisalmer-Ganganagar and Jodhpur-Chandigarh ridges across the Ganga basin intersect Himalaya in the Kangra reentrant where the great Kangra earthquake of 1905 was located. (ii) The Aravalli Delhi Mobile Belt (ADMB) and its margin faults extend to the Western Himalayan front via Delhi where it interacts with the Delhi-Lahore ridge and further north with the Himalayan front causing seismic activity. (iii) The Shahjahanpur and Faizabad ridges strike the Himalayan front in Central Nepal that do not show any enhanced seismicity which may be due to their being parts of the Bundelkhand craton as simple basement highs. (iv) The west and the east Patna faults are parts of transcontinental lineaments, such as Narmada-Son lineament. (v) The Munghyr-Saharsa ridge is fault controlled and interacts with the Himalayan front in the Eastern Nepal where Bihar-Nepal earthquakes of 1934 has been reported. Some of these faults/lineaments of the Indian continent find reflection in seismogenic lineaments of Himalaya like Everest, Arun, Kanchenjunga lineaments. A set of NW-SE oriented gravity highs along the Himalayan front and the Ganga and the Indus basins represents the folding of the basement due to compression as anticlines caused by collision of the Indian and the Asian plates. This study has also delineated several depressions like Saharanpur, Patna, and Purnia depressions.

  7. Status of Project Management Education in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arain, Faisal Manzoor; Tipu, Syed Awais Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    Emerging contractual delivery systems, collaborative partnerships, new management initiatives, and global product markets require professionals and students to have a broader awareness of construction methods and project management issues. This paper presents the state of the project management education in Pakistan. The analysis is based on…

  8. Polarisation of Social Studies Textbooks in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaidi, Syed Manzar Abbas

    2011-01-01

    This article looks at the evolution of the social studies curricula in Pakistan, which are of critical importance in shaping the outlook of many young Pakistanis, who are affected by this polarised discourse. The author argues that this trend of polarisation springing from dynamics of education also effectively contributes to a widening social…

  9. Food safety challenges--a Pakistan's perspective.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Biological, chemical, and physical contamination of foods is a terrifying threat for the health and economic growth in developing societies. Rampantly available literature on foodborne illnesses especially diarrhea among children exclusively depicts the intensified disease burden associated with foodborne illness in the underdeveloped economies. Prevalence of many pathogens in several foods is commonplace in Pakistan. Precise estimates for foodborne illnesses in Pakistan are hard to make because of the absence of any monitoring, surveillance, and infection control. Poor processing and storage of milk, cereal grains, and nuts are a major cause of aflatoxin contamination and mold proliferation. Numerous studies manifest a multitude of foods to be contaminated with heavy metals. Escalating population growth limits the economic potential of the individual and the state through a tendency among the traders and manufacturers to intentionally debase food commodities offered for sale to make profit at the cost of their quality and safety. Therefore, a growing trend of adulteration in foods during the recent past, particularly adulteration of milk, poses a pressing challenge for the government. This review is a concerted attempt to elucidate the prevailing food safety scenario in Pakistan. Information derived from local and related international studies will be presented to clearly depict a picture of food safety in Pakistan. It is proposed that an extensive food safety infrastructure leading to a safer supply of foods needs to be devised, designed, and implemented. PMID:24915401

  10. On the Dynamics of Extreme Meteorological Droughts during Pakistan Summer Monsoon by Focusing the Anomalous States of Upper Troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, S.; Koike, T.; Nishii, K.

    2012-12-01

    The lack of summer monsoon sometimes brings severe droughts in many parts of the world including South Asian countries like Pakistan. Human life and economy in Pakistan considerably depends on the summer monsoon. So, an essential question arises "how can we contribute better to manage the water resources during drought conditions for the societal needs". To address the concern as a hydrologist, we need to develop a basis of the scientific understanding of the different contrast of the climatology during extremely dry rainfall events over Pakistan region. However, compared to other regional studies i.e. Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) and South-East Asian Monsoon (SEAM), the basis of the thermodynamical structure and the processes associated with upper tropospheric conditions during the climatological mean Pakistan Summer Monsoon (PSM) and its extreme events have not been addressed deeply yet and need to be investigated, because it is immensely vital for the hydrologist as a first step to develop the basis of scientific understanding. By data analysis, an attempt has been made to accomplish this objective. Firstly, the climatological tropospheric conditions and the associated processes from pre-monsoon phase to the PSM mature phase are investigated. During the PSM mature phase (mid July), the climatological-mean structure of the atmosphere favors convective activity compared to the pre-monsoon phase (late June) with weakening of the subsidence in the upper troposphere and also with increasing of incoming moisture flux in the lower troposphere from Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal around Pakistan. Specifically, in the upper troposphere, the upper-level subsidence and convergence observed over Pakistan during pre-monsoon phase shifts and reallocates to the northwest of Pakistan during mature phase, which results in weakening of the subsidence just over Pakistan, and then the PSM mature phase initiated. Secondly, comparing the PSM mature phase climatological mean characteristics, the characteristics of the extremely dry PSM events are investigated by focusing their common anomalous tropospheric conditions observed during the period 1979-2008. We found that the extremely dry PSM events were closely related with the anomalous state of upper tropospheric cyclonic circulation northwest of Pakistan and the associated cold temperature anomaly around Pakistan. This anomalous state of upper tropospheric cyclonic circulation is accompanied with the anomalous upper level convergence around Pakistan, which anomalously weakens the climatological mean PSM trough to suppress the PSM activities. We found two possibilities i.e. Matsuno-Gill type atmospheric response from the tropics and/or the Rossby wave train along the Asian Jet to trigger, reinforce, and maintain the upper-tropospheric cyclonic circulation. In summary, the strong convection anomalies resulting in severe drought events over the PSM region are suggested to be induced by both the tropical and extratropical processes. However what (i.e. source) triggers the circulation anomaly from the tropics and/or extratropics is unknown at the moment, which needs further investigations to reach a definite conclusion. Further, if hydrologist gets a prediction signal in advance, the integrated water resources management (IWRM) will be much more effective for the region.

  11. MAHFIL: A Quarterly of South Asian Literature, Spring-Summer 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coppola, Carlo, Ed.

    This volume contains both literature from South Asia and articles about South Asian literature. The first article consists of an interview with a leading Pakistani poet, N.M. Rashed, who discusses modern Urdu literature. Other articles are: "Five 'Dangerous' Books"--on censorship in East Pakistan--by P. Sarkar; "Baluchi Language and Literature"…

  12. Hunza Landslide and Monsoon Flooding in Pakistan Call for International Attention to Transboundary Natural Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargel, J. S.; Fink, W.; Furfaro, R.; Leonard, G. J.; Patterson, M.; Glims, Gaphaz

    2010-12-01

    Two major disasters in Pakistan and innumerable lesser disasters throughout the Himalaya-Karakoram region in 2010 highlight geologic events and extreme weather (perhaps climate change) in affecting the well being of whole nations and commerce and relations between nations. Two chief events in Pakistan include the Jan. 4 rockslide into the Hunza River and the subsequent formation of a natural dam lake (Lake Gojal); and the monsoon precipitation-fed flooding across the Indus Basin. The first event severed Pakistan’s major land link with China. The second event devastated Pakistan’s national land-based transportation infrastructure and agriculture and displaced millions of people. In a country plagued by monsoon-driven floods, the lack of catastrophic breakout of Lake Gojal is welcome. Satellite-based monitoring shows the spillway to be eroding more rapidly (but not alarmingly) under August’s monsoon peak flow. Similar events have occurred before in the region and will occur again. These mega-events in Pakistan should be an alert for all of South Asia, as climate change increases or shifts the hazard environment, encroaching development and urbanization increases the vulnerabilities, and as improved capacity for trans-national commerce breaks down the Himalayan barrier and both promotes new opportunities and possible conflicts. 2010's natural mega-calamities in Pakistan and widespread landsliding and flooding elsewhere in South Asia underscores the subcontinent’s need for a thorough field-, remote sensing-, and modeling-based assessment of the disaster potential related to landslides, glacier surges, extreme monsoon precipitation events, natural glacier and landslide dam lake outbursts, and unseasonal snow melting. The Himalayan-Karakoram region is remarkable for its heterogeneous responses to climate change. For instance, some areas are undergoing rapid glacier recession and stagnation; others are undergoing glacier growth. We take the instance of the rockslide-formed Lake Gojal and of the region’s glacier dynamics seen by satellite to show the promise of remote sensing to address disaster management and hazard identification. However, the biggest role of remote sensing should be in the identification of hazard-prone situations, such as areas where landslides or the development of dangerous glacier lakes is likely. Increased satellite surveillance and deployment of air- and land surface-borne sensor platforms, and in some cases surface or subsurface watercraft, may aid the characterization of the landscape, identify geologic and climatic instabilities, and identify vulnerabilities among the people and infrastructure. A broad-based remote sensing program should fit within a coherent regional/international approach to the key related issues of natural hazards, water resources, urban planning, food security, hydropower, and environmental conservation. Notably, these issues all are interlinked to transboundary hydrology and climate change.

  13. Exploring environmental literacy in low-literate communities of Pakistan: A descriptive study to recommend strategies for planning environmental education programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daudi, Sabiha Shafique

    2000-10-01

    The widely accepted definition of environmental education as stated by The Tbilisi Declaration of 1978 focuses on developing an environmentally literate citizenry which is capable of working "...individually and collectively toward solutions of current [environmental] problems and the prevention of new ones". The two basic tenets of environmental literacy are further defined in this study as the ability to understand environmental problems and the ability to address those environmental problems in a responsible manner. Acquisition of knowledge has also been considered an important element when developing environmental literacy programs. However, a large sector of the world population is non- or low-literate and communication is through channels other than the written word. The challenge for environmental educators is to reach the low-literate learners who have not had many opportunities to participate in formal education activities through established institutions. The purpose of this study was to describe levels of environmental literacy in communities with varying levels of formal literacy in two cities, Karachi and Islamabad, Pakistan to determine the role formal literacy plays in enhancing environmental literacy and decision making in relation to age, sex, location, number of years spent in formal education, and the socio-economic status (SES) of adult learners. Based on the outcomes, recommendations were made for designing effective programs to ensure involvement of low-literate communities in established decision-making processes through relevant program planning. This study suggested strategies to program planners and environmental educators for designing programs that reach low-literate communities, highlight local environmental concerns, and empower these communities in addressing local environmental issues. A purposive sample was identified from the constituencies of five non-governmental organizations in Karachi and Islamabad, Pakistan. Two instruments, one to measure levels of formal literacy, and the other to assess environmental literacy of the participants at the nominal, functional, and operational levels, were developed for this study. Negligible correlations were found between environmental literacy and the demographic or "external" variables of age, sex, location, number of years participants had spent in formal education institutions, socio-economic status, and formal literacy. However, some low and moderate positive correlations were found between formal literacy and age, sex, location, number of years participants had spent in formal education institutions, and socio-economic status of the participants. No correlations were found between environmental literacy and formal literacy indicating that the ability to read and write did not relate to environmental literacy or awareness in the participants.

  14. Mapping human health risks from exposure to trace metal contamination of drinking water sources in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Bhowmik, Avit Kumar; Alamdar, Ambreen; Katsoyiannis, Ioannis; Shen, Heqing; Ali, Nadeem; Ali, Syeda Maria; Bokhari, Habib; Schäfer, Ralf B; Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah

    2015-12-15

    The consumption of contaminated drinking water is one of the major causes of mortality and many severe diseases in developing countries. The principal drinking water sources in Pakistan, i.e. ground and surface water, are subject to geogenic and anthropogenic trace metal contamination. However, water quality monitoring activities have been limited to a few administrative areas and a nationwide human health risk assessment from trace metal exposure is lacking. Using geographically weighted regression (GWR) and eight relevant spatial predictors, we calculated nationwide human health risk maps by predicting the concentration of 10 trace metals in the drinking water sources of Pakistan and comparing them to guideline values. GWR incorporated local variations of trace metal concentrations into prediction models and hence mitigated effects of large distances between sampled districts due to data scarcity. Predicted concentrations mostly exhibited high accuracy and low uncertainty, and were in good agreement with observed concentrations. Concentrations for Central Pakistan were predicted with higher accuracy than for the North and South. A maximum 150-200 fold exceedance of guideline values was observed for predicted cadmium concentrations in ground water and arsenic concentrations in surface water. In more than 53% (4 and 100% for the lower and upper boundaries of 95% confidence interval (CI)) of the total area of Pakistan, the drinking water was predicted to be at risk of contamination from arsenic, chromium, iron, nickel and lead. The area with elevated risks is inhabited by more than 74 million (8 and 172 million for the lower and upper boundaries of 95% CI) people. Although these predictions require further validation by field monitoring, the results can inform disease mitigation and water resources management regarding potential hot spots. PMID:26312405

  15. Community Based Rehabilitation: Information Accumulation & Exchange. South Asian Research Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, M.

    This paper reviews research and evaluates information gathered on disabilities and service development in South Asia, especially India and Pakistan. The concept of "community-based rehabilitation" (CBR), which stresses the need for rehabilitation efforts rooted in the context of local cultural concepts, is discussed. The paper emphasizes the…

  16. Crop Residue Burning: A Threat to South Asian Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ramesh P.; Kaskaoutis, Dimitris G.

    2014-09-01

    For more than 2 decades, crop residues in Punjab, a region spanning northwestern India and eastern Pakistan, have been burned during October and November to ready fields for the next year's planting. This practice poses a serious threat to air quality in South Asia.

  17. Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/11: Cooperative Environmental Monitoring in the Coastal Regions of India and Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Rajen, Gauray

    1999-06-01

    The cessation of hostilities between India and Pakistan is an immediate need and of global concern, as these countries have tested nuclear devices, and have the capability to deploy nuclear weapons and long-range ballistic missiles. Cooperative monitoring projects among neighboring countries in South Asia could build regional confidence, and, through gradual improvements in relations, reduce the threat of war and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. This paper discusses monitoring the trans-border movement of flow and sediment in the Indian and Pakistani coastal areas. Through such a project, India and Pakistan could initiate greater cooperation, and engender movement towards the resolution of the Sir Creek territorial dispute in their coastal region. The Joint Working Groups dialogue being conducted by India and Pakistan provides a mechanism for promoting such a project. The proposed project also falls within a regional framework of cooperation agreed to by several South Asian countries. This framework has been codified in the South Asian Seas Action Plan, developed by Bangladesh, India, Maldives, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. This framework provides a useful starting point for Indian and Pakistani cooperative monitoring in their trans-border coastal area. The project discussed in this paper involves computer modeling, the placement of in situ sensors for remote data acquisition, and the development of joint reports. Preliminary computer modeling studies are presented in the paper. These results illustrate the cross-flow connections between Indian and Pakistani coastal regions and strengthen the argument for cooperation. Technologies and actions similar to those suggested for the coastal project are likely to be applied in future arms control and treaty verification agreements. The project, therefore, serves as a demonstration of cooperative monitoring technologies. The project will also increase people-to-people contacts among Indian and Pakistani policy makers and scientists. In the perceptions of the general public, the project will crystallize the idea that the two countries share ecosystems and natural resources, and have a vested interest in increased collaboration.

  18. Drifting continents and endemic goitre in northern Pakistan.

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, A G

    1990-01-01

    Although Baltistan, north east Pakistan, is in a region of iodine deficiency disorders, the distribution of goitre within the district, according to age and sex, has not been clearly defined. To establish the prevalence of the condition and to measure the reported difference in prevalence in the north and south of the district thyroid size was assessed in new patients attending the Aman clinic, Khapalu, and outlying areas between April and September from 1981 to 1986. Samples of potable water collected from villages were analysed for iodine (as iodide) concentrations in Britain. Population weighted prevalences were: in the north in males 20.4%, in females 28.1% and in the south in males 13.9%, in females 21.2%. There was an overall deficiency of iodine in the water (mean iodine (as iodide) concentrations (north) 11.0 nmol/l (1.4 micrograms/l), (south) 11.8 nmol/l (1.5 micrograms/l) (95% confidence interval -0.7 to 0.9). The differences followed the Main Karakoram Thrust, suggesting a geological goitrogen in the north, which might be minerals containing ions such as BF4- and SO3F-, and molybdenite and calcium, which are present in rocks in Baltistan. A new hypothesis for the genesis of endemic goitre is proposed--that is, that continents on crustal plates drift across the earth and collide, one plate sliding under the other and melting, giving rise to characteristic mineral assemblages in the overlying rocks. As the minerals weather out they enter the diet of the local population, where in the presence of iodine deficiency they produce or enhance iodine deficiency disorders. Despite the current iodised oil campaign by the Pakistani government with Unicef a long term working iodisation programme is still urgently needed. PMID:2372605

  19. Depression among hospitalized and non-hospitalized gonadal cancer patients in tertiary care public hospitals in Karachi.

    PubMed

    Yousaf, Tahira; Zadeh, Zainab Fotowwat

    2015-03-01

    The study aimed at determining the differences in the levels of depression between hospitalized and non-hospitalized Gonadal cancer patients in tertiary care public hospitals in Karachi. The present study was conducted at the Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre and Civil Hospital, Karachi, from July to October 2009. One hundred adult patients diagnosed with Gonadal cancer volunteered for the study. Cases with any other co-morbidity were excluded. Urdu version of Siddiqui Shah Depression Scale (SSDS) was administered. Purposive and snowball sampling methods were used for data collection. The ages of participants in the sample ranged from 20 to 27 years with the mean age of 23.85 years. The participants belonged to the lower and middle classes. Out of the 30 hospitalized gonadal cancer patients 40% were moderately depressed and 60% were severely depressed, whereas out of 70 non-hospitalized gonadal cancer patients 74.3% were mildly depressed, 24.3% were moderately depressed and only 1.4% were severely depressed, which clearly indicated that the depression level of hospitalized gonadal cancer patients was high as compared to non-hospitalized gonadal cancer patients. PMID:25772968

  20. Hypertensive patients’ readiness to use of mobile phones and other information technological modes for improving their compliance to doctors’ advice in Karachi

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Mirza Izhar; S. Naqvi, Baqir; Ahmed, Iqbal; Ali, Nasir

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the use of information technology (IT) & electronic media for improving compliance rate to doctors’ advice in hypertensive patients in Karachi. Methods: Total 400 persons (200 males & 200 females) were randomly selected in six districts of Karachi. Data was collected through a pretested questionnaire. Following was sample criteria: age above 15 years, living in Karachi and ambulatory. Persons admitted in a hospital, individuals who were doing some physical activity during survey e.g. exercise, labor work etc., individual in stressed condition, non-cooperative individuals – not willing to get BP checked and fill questionnaire, and pregnant women were excluded. Those who did not sign the consent form were also excluded. SPSS was used for data analysis and descriptive statistics was employed for sensitivity analysis. Results: For healthcare awareness, people look for health programs on radio and TV channels. Short Message Service (SMS) and phone are highly appreciated by patients for reminders. To increase compliance to doctors’ advice, less educated people prefer phone calls over SMS whereas educated individuals favor SMS. Although price of medicine has not emerged as a major contributing factor for non-compliance, discount on medicinal products is highly appreciated by the patients. Conclusion: The study concludes that there is a widespread awareness of high blood pressure in the sample population of Karachi e.g. 72.5%. People consider reminder message system i.e. Calls and Short Messaging Service (SMS) would help them in improving compliance to doctors’ advice. PMID:25878606

  1. Hydrocarbon prospects of southern Indus basin, Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Quadri, V.U.N.; Shuaib, S.M.

    1986-06-01

    The Southern Indus basin extends approximately between lat. 23/sup 0/ and 28/sup 0/31'N, and from long. 66/sup 0/E to the eastern boundary of Pakistan. Of the 55 exploratory wells drilled (1955-1984), 27 were based on results of multifold seismic surveys. Five commercial oil discoveries and one gas discovery in Cretaceous sands, three gas discoveries in Paleocene limestone or sandstone, and one gas-condensate discovery from lower Eocene limestone prove that hydrocarbons are present. The main hydrocarbon fairways are Mesozoic tilted fault blocks. Tertiary reefal banks, and drape and compressional anticlines. Older reservoirs are accessible toward the east and northeast, and younger mature source rocks are to the west, including offshore, of the Badin block oil field area. The Indus offshore basin reflects sedimentation associated with Mesozoic rifting of the Pakistan-Indian margin, superimposed by a terrigenous clastic depositional system comprised of deltas, shelves, and deep-sea fans of the Indus River.

  2. Makran Mountain Range, Iran and Pakistan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The long folded mountain ridges and valleys of the coastal Makran Ranges of Iran and Pakistan (26.0N, 63.0E) illustrate the classical Trellis type of drainage pattern, common in this region. The Dasht River and its tributaries is the principal drainage network for this area. To the left, the continental drift of the northward bound Indian sub-continent has caused the east/west parallel ranges to bend in a great northward arc.

  3. An overview of smoking practices in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Noreen; Siddiqui, Saad

    2015-01-01

    Smoking remains a major player in morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is a matter of immense public health importance as single leading cause of preventable deaths. The aim of this study was to assess smoking practices that prevail across Pakistan & Attitude of people towards this issue. We conducted an extensive search on major databases as well as search of bibliography of published literature for studies assessing Attitudes and Practices of tobacco smoking that prevail across Pakistan. Data from available studies was abstracted and utilized in preparation of this manuscript. After screening of 613 articles, we were able to identify 22 studies matching our criteria for inclusion. Majority of studies reported adolescence as time of initiation. Average national prevalence was 21.6%. A significant portion of smokers comprised of females. The prevalence of smoking in healthcare professionals ranged from 32 – 37%. Passive smoking was a major contributor of tobacco exposure. Prevalence of ‘Shisha’ use was 33%. Smoking continues to be a major Public Health issue in Pakistan. The prevalence in healthcare professionals and adolescents is alarming. Adequate measures need to be taken to ensure its control. PMID:26101513

  4. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Rai, Mohammad A; Khanani, Mohammad R; Warraich, Haider J; Hayat, Abbas; Ali, Syed H

    2008-06-01

    Crimean-Congo virus, the causative agent of Crimean-Congo Virus Fever (CCVF) is endemic in Pakistan. Cases are documented sporadically ever year, mostly at and around the time of Eid-ul-Adha, an Islamic festival, celebrated on day 10 through 13 of the 12th month of each lunar calendar year. At this time of the year in Pakistan, livestock are brought down to the urban areas from the rural parts of the country. Animals are housed in open spaces and private houses until they are slaughtered during the 3 days of Eid-ul-Adha. This allows the CCHF virus, which is carried by a tick that inhabits the animal hide, to be transmitted through unprotected contact with live animals as well as through contact with animal blood subsequent to its slaughter. In this report, a typical case of CCVF is described that was encountered in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. A number of issues pertaining to the management of recurrent outbreaks of CCVF in the country are discussed. PMID:18428123

  5. Mapping vulnerability to climate change and its repercussions on human health in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pakistan is highly vulnerable to climate change due to its geographic location, high dependence on agriculture and water resources, low adaptive capacity of its people, and weak system of emergency preparedness. This paper is the first ever attempt to rank the agro-ecological zones in Pakistan according to their vulnerability to climate change and to identify the potential health repercussions of each manifestation of climate change in the context of Pakistan. Methods A climate change vulnerability index is constructed as an un-weighted average of three sub-indices measuring (a) the ecological exposure of each region to climate change, (b) sensitivity of the population to climate change and (c) the adaptive capacity of the population inhabiting a particular region. The regions are ranked according to the value of this index and its components. Since health is one of the most important dimensions of human wellbeing, this paper also identifies the potential health repercussions of each manifestations of climate change and links it with the key manifestations of climate change in the context of Pakistan. Results The results indicate that Balochistan is the most vulnerable region with high sensitivity and low adaptive capacity followed by low-intensity Punjab (mostly consisting of South Punjab) and Cotton/Wheat Sindh. The health risks that each of these regions face depend upon the type of threat that they face from climate change. Greater incidence of flooding, which may occur due to climate variability, poses the risk of diarrhoea and gastroenteritis; skin and eye Infections; acute respiratory infections; and malaria. Exposure to drought poses the potential health risks in the form of food insecurity and malnutrition; anaemia; night blindness; and scurvy. Increases in temperature pose health risks of heat stroke; malaria; dengue; respiratory diseases; and cardiovascular diseases. Conclusion The study concludes that geographical zones that are more exposed to climate change in ecological and geographic terms- such as Balochistan, Low-Intensity Punjab, and Cotton-Wheat Sindh -also happen to be the most deprived regions in Pakistan in terms of socio-economic indicators, suggesting that the government needs to direct its efforts to the socio-economic uplift of these lagging regions to reduce their vulnerability to the adverse effects of climate change. PMID:22938568

  6. Faunistics of Tiger Beetles (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae) from Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Rafi, Muhammad Ather; Jürgen, Wiesner; Matin, Muhammad Abdul; Zia, Ahmed; Sultan, Amir; Naz, Falak

    2010-01-01

    The present biogeographic distribution of tiger beetle fauna is an attempt to register all modern taxa from Pakistan. It includes 55 taxa under 14 genera and 11 subgenera. Three species, Cylindera (Eriodera) albopunctata (Chaudoir 1852), Cicindela viridilabris (Chaudoir 1852) and Neocollyris (Neocollyris) redtenbacheri (Horn 1894) are recorded from Pakistan for the first time. PMID:20874597

  7. Education Reform in Pakistan: Building for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hathaway, Robert M., Ed.

    2005-01-01

    Washington seems to be in a season of worrying--some might say "obsessing"--about the education system in Pakistan. The 9/11 Commission, whose final report has become a fixture on the bestseller lists, has highlighted the links between international terrorism and Pakistan's religious seminaries, or "madaris", and recommended that the United States…

  8. Enabling Syndromic Surveillance in Pakistan Ross Maciejewski1*

    E-print Network

    Maciejewski, Ross

    .., "Forecasting Hotspot ­ A Predictive Analytics Approach," IEEE Transactions on Visualization and ComputerEnabling Syndromic Surveillance in Pakistan Ross Maciejewski1* , Shehzad Afzal2 , Adam J. Fairfield model of patient hospital visits with respect to diseases and syndromes within Pakistan. Our first

  9. Combining Education and Work; Experiences in Asia and Oceania: Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Ministry of Education, Islamabad (Pakistan).

    In Pakistan, academic education is a luxury. Instead, education must be geared to production, solving practical problems, and promoting national development. Since 1951, Pakistan has attempted to bring work and education together and to throw off the structural and attitudinal restrictions of a foreign educational system which strangled tradition,…

  10. A Study of Students' Attitude Towards Virtual Education in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussain, Irshad

    2007-01-01

    Virtual education paradigm has been developing as a form of distance education to provide education across the boundaries of a nation and/or country. It imparts education through information and communication technologies. In Pakistan the Virtual University of Pakistan imparts it. The main objective of the study was to evaluate the students'…

  11. Trends, Issues and Challenges in English Language Education in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shamim, Fauzia

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to critically examine the trends, issues and challenges in policy and practice of English language education in Pakistan. This is done first by historically reviewing the English language education policies since Pakistan's independence in 1947, looking particularly at policy objectives, implementation strategies and outcomes, and…

  12. Factors affecting the process of obtaining informed consent to surgery among patients and relatives in a developing country: results from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Jahan, F; Roshan, R; Nanji, K; Sajwani, U; Warsani, S; Jaffer, S

    2014-09-01

    Efforts have been made in Pakistan to create ethical guidelines for research and medical practice. This study explored the perceptions of and factors affecting the process of obtaining informed consent to surgery among inpatients and families at a tertiary-care hospital in Karachi. A random sample of 400 post-surgery adult patients answered a pre-tested, structured questionnaire. Overall, 233 patients (58.3%) had signed the surgery consent form themselves, while 167 relatives (41.7%) had signed on behalf of the patient. Perceived factors significantly associated with patients not signing the consent form themselves were: language used (adjusted OR = 4.6), medical terminology used (aOR = 2.7), insufficient time allocation (aOR = 3.8), cultural/traditional reasons (aOR = 1.5) and low education (aOR = 2.4). Inappropriate timing for taking consent and not being informed/asked about consent were not statistically significant factors. Health-care practitioners should encourage patients to sign the consent form themselves. PMID:25343470

  13. Evidence for the recurrence of large-magnitude earthquakes along the Makran coast of Iran and Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, W.D.; Alt, J.N.; Cluff, L.S.; Plafker, G.

    1979-01-01

    The presence of raised beaches and marine terraces along the Makran coast indicates episodic uplift of the continental margin resulting from large-magnitude earthquakes. The uplift occurs as incremental steps similar in height to the 1-3 m of measured uplift resulting from the November 28, 1945 (M 8.3) earthquake at Pasni and Ormara, Pakistan. The data support an E-W-trending, active subduction zone off the Makran coast. The raised beaches and wave-cut terraces along the Makran coast are extensive with some terraces 1-2 km wide, 10-15 m long and up to 500 m in elevation. The terraces are generally capped with shelly sandstones 0.5-5 m thick. Wave-cut cliffs, notches, and associated boulder breccia and swash troughs are locally preserved. Raised Holocene accretion beaches, lagoonal deposits, and tombolos are found up to 10 m in elevation. The number and elevation of raised wave-cut terraces along the Makran coast increase eastward from one at Jask, the entrance to the Persian Gulf, at a few meters elevation, to nine at Konarak, 250 km to the east. Multiple terraces are found on the prominent headlands as far east as Karachi. The wave-cut terraces are locally tilted and cut by faults with a few meters of displacement. Long-term, average rates of uplift were calculated from present elevation, estimated elevation at time of deposition, and 14C and U-Th dates obtained on shells. Uplift rates in centimeters per year at various locations from west to east are as follows: Jask, 0 (post-Sangamon); Konarak, 0.031-0.2 (Holocene), 0.01 (post-Sangamon); Ormara 0.2 (Holocene). ?? 1979.

  14. Munazza's story: Understanding science teaching and conceptions of the nature of science in Pakistan through a life history study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halai, Nelofer

    In this study I have described and tried to comprehend how a female science teacher understands her practice. Additionally, I have developed some understanding of her understanding of the nature of science. While teaching science, a teacher projects messages about the nature of science that can be captured by observations and interviews. Furthermore, the manner is which a teacher conceptualizes science for teaching, at least in part, depends on personal life experiences. Hence, I have used the life history method to understand Munazza's practice. Munazza is a young female science teacher working in a private, co-educational school for children from middle income families in Karachi, Pakistan. Her stories are central to the study, and I have represented them using a number of narrative devices. I have woven in my own stories too, to illustrate my perspective as a researcher. The data includes 13 life history interviews and many informal conversations with Munazza, observations of science teaching in classes seven and eight, and interviews with other science teachers and administrative staff of the school. Munazza's personal biography and experiences of school and undergraduate courses has influenced the way she teaches. It has also influenced the way she does not teach. She was not inspired by her science teachers, so she has tried not to teach the way she was taught science. Contextual factors, her conception of preparation for teaching as preparation for subject content and the tension that she faces in balancing care and control in her classroom are some factors that influence her teaching. Munazza believes that science is a stable, superior and value-free way of knowing. In trying to understand the natural world, observations come first, which give reliable information about the world leading inductively to a "theory". Hence, she relies a great deal on demonstrations in the class where students "see" for themselves and abstract the scientific concept from the activity. I believe this inquiry is significant because it has led to a better understanding of a science teacher's practice and her conceptions of the nature of science in a school in Pakistan. Moreover, the study has utilized research methods that advocates a more equitable researcher-researched relationship.

  15. The burden of headache disorders in Pakistan: methodology of a population-based nationwide study, and questionnaire validation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Large geographical gaps in our knowledge of the prevalence and burden of headache disorders include Pakistan, a country with major problems of poverty, illiteracy and security. We report implementation in this country of standard methods developed by Lifting The Burden (LTB) for population-based burden-of-headache studies. Methods We surveyed six locations from the four provinces: Lahore and Multan (Punjab), Karachi and Sukkur (Sindh), Abbottabad (Khyber Pakhtunkhwa) and Gwadar (Baluchistan). We randomly selected rural and urban households in each, which were visited by trained non-medical interviewers from the same locations. One randomly selected adult member (18–65 years) of each household was interviewed using LTB’s structured questionnaire translated into Urdu, the national language. Validation was performed among patients and accompanying attendants in three (urban and rural) medical facilities. After responding to the questionnaire, these participants were re-interviewed and diagnosed by a neurologist (gold standard). Results The survey was completed by 4,223 respondents (1,957 [46.3%] male, 2,266 [53.7%] female, 1,443 [34.2%] urban, 2,780 [65.8%] rural, mean age 34.4?±?11.0 years). The participation rate was 89.5%. There were 180 participants (46.1% male, 53.9% female, 41.7% urban, 58.3% rural, mean age 39.4?±?14.2 years) in the validation sample, of whom 147 (81.7%) reported headache in the last year. The questionnaire was 100% sensitive in screening for headache and for headache on ?15 days/month, and showed good agreement with the gold-standard diagnoses (kappa?=?0.77). It was relatively insensitive for TTH. The questionnaire’s default diagnosis of probable MOH when medication overuse accompanied headache on ?15 days/month was not supported by evidence of causation in most cases seen by the neurologist. In public-health terms, precise diagnosis in these cases matters less than reliably detecting the coexistence of these disorders. Conclusion In conclusion, the methods developed by LTB were applied successfully in Pakistan, despite problems unique to this country. PMID:23967900

  16. Does academic assessment system type affect levels of academic stress in medical students? A cross-sectional study from Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Madiha; Asim, Hamna; Edhi, Ahmed Iqbal; Hashmi, Muhammad Daniyal; Khan, Muhammad Shahjahan; Naz, Farah; Qaiser, Kanza Noor; Qureshi, Sidra Masud; Zahid, Mohammad Faizan; Jehan, Imtiaz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Stress among medical students induced by academic pressures is on the rise among the student population in Pakistan and other parts of the world. Our study examined the relationship between two different systems employed to assess academic performance and the levels of stress among students at two different medical schools in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods A sample consisting of 387 medical students enrolled in pre-clinical years was taken from two universities, one employing the semester examination system with grade point average (GPA) scores (a tiered system) and the other employing an annual examination system with only pass/fail grading. A pre-designed, self-administered questionnaire was distributed. Test anxiety levels were assessed by The Westside Test Anxiety Scale (WTAS). Overall stress was evaluated using the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Results There were 82 males and 301 females while four did not respond to the gender question. The mean age of the entire cohort was 19.7±1.0 years. A total of 98 participants were from the pass/fail assessment system while 289 were from the GPA system. There was a higher proportion of females in the GPA system (85% vs. 59%; p<0.01). Students in the pass/fail assessment system had a lower score on the WTAS (2.4±0.8 vs. 2.8±0.7; p=0.01) and the PSS (17.0±6.7 vs. 20.3±6.8; p<0.01), indicating lower levels of test anxiety and overall stress than in students enrolled in the GPA assessment system. More students in the pass/fail system were satisfied with their performance than those in the GPA system. Conclusion Based on the present study, we suggest governing bodies to revise and employ a uniform assessment system for all the medical colleges to improve student academic performance and at the same time reduce stress levels. Our results indicate that the pass/fail assessment system accomplishes these objectives. PMID:26112353

  17. 3 CFR 13550 - Executive Order 13550 of August 18, 2010. Establishment of Pakistan and Afghanistan Support Office

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2010. Establishment of Pakistan and Afghanistan Support Office 13550 Order 13550...13550 Establishment of Pakistan and Afghanistan Support Office By the authority...organization to be known as the Pakistan and Afghanistan Support Office (PASO). Sec....

  18. Reefal petroleum prospects possible in Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Quadri, V.N.; Quadri, S.M.G.J.

    1996-03-25

    Carbonate buildups including reefs and banks have proven to be prolific hydrocarbon reservoirs in the US, Canada, Mexico, North Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Middle East. Seismic interpretation, particularly of high quality marine data, and geological analyses, including petrographic studies of selected formations, reveal a broad spectrum of possible reefal prospects in formations of different ages in Pakistan. However, the region with good seismic that provides good recognition of possible reefal buildups remains to date devoid of well confirmation. Oil and Gas Development Corp. of Pakistan formed the technical services department in 1976 for a systematic scientific review of all exploration data and basin analysis. In 1985 this department was renamed offshore department, with responsibility for all offshore exploration. This article is based on the department`s work in collaboration with geoscientists from Russia, the US, Norway, and Canada covering the area shown. Four major types of carbonate buildups, easily recognized from seismic interpretation, include: barrier buildups that are linear with relatively deep water on both sides during deposition; pinnacle buildups that are roughly equidimensional and were surrounded by deep water during deposition; shelf margin buildups that are linear with deep water on one side and shallow water on the other; and patch buildups that form in shallow water either in close proximity to shelf margins, or over broad shallow seas.

  19. Indian psychiatry and research in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Haroon Rashid

    2010-01-01

    In Asian culture, there is much stigmatization attached on having mental health problems and seeking help from a mental health expert. It is therefore, not surprising, that this stigmatization results in the refutation of the subsistence of a psychiatric problem in an individual and his family but also produces obstruction to help-seeking desires. To get a clear picture of the existence of psychiatric issues in the population, various research projects addressing psychiatric issues in children, women, and elderly are conducted both in Pakistan and India. A significant input has been taken from research conducted in India combating disaster management. In addition, public awareness programs are organized to provide information about common psychiatric disorders in children, adults, women, and the elderly.-Furthermore, psychiatric patients and their families are educated for the management of mental heath problems related to marriage, pregnancy, birth and hazards of smoking & substance abuse in young adults. Keeping in view the similarity in cultural background, treatment models, family structure, and psychosocial factors, collaborative research studies should be encouraged leading to improvement in psychiatric care of the patients both in India and Pakistan. PMID:21836720

  20. Induced abortions and unintended pregnancies in pakistan.

    PubMed

    Sathar, Zeba; Singh, Susheela; Rashida, Gul; Shah, Zakir; Niazi, Rehan

    2014-12-01

    During the past decade, unmet need for family planning has remained high in Pakistan and gains in contraceptive prevalence have been small. Drawing upon data from a 2012 national study on postabortion-care complications and a methodology developed by the Guttmacher Institute for estimating abortion incidence, we estimate that there were 2.2 million abortions in Pakistan in 2012, an annual abortion rate of 50 per 1,000 women. A previous study estimated an abortion rate of 27 per 1,000 women in 2002. After taking into consideration the earlier study's underestimation of abortion incidence, we conclude that the abortion rate has likely increased substantially between 2002 and 2012. Varying contraceptive-use patterns and abortion rates are found among the provinces, with higher abortion rates in Baluchistan and Sindh than in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Punjab. This suggests that strategies for coping with the other wise uniformly high unintended pregnancy rates will differ among provinces. The need for an accelerated and fortified family planning program is greater than ever, as is the need to implement strategies to improve the quality and coverage of postabortion services. PMID:25469930

  1. Indian psychiatry and research in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhry, Haroon Rashid

    2010-01-01

    In Asian culture, there is much stigmatization attached on having mental health problems and seeking help from a mental health expert. It is therefore, not surprising, that this stigmatization results in the refutation of the subsistence of a psychiatric problem in an individual and his family but also produces obstruction to help-seeking desires. To get a clear picture of the existence of psychiatric issues in the population, various research projects addressing psychiatric issues in children, women, and elderly are conducted both in Pakistan and India. A significant input has been taken from research conducted in India combating disaster management. In addition, public awareness programs are organized to provide information about common psychiatric disorders in children, adults, women, and the elderly.-Furthermore, psychiatric patients and their families are educated for the management of mental heath problems related to marriage, pregnancy, birth and hazards of smoking & substance abuse in young adults. Keeping in view the similarity in cultural background, treatment models, family structure, and psychosocial factors, collaborative research studies should be encouraged leading to improvement in psychiatric care of the patients both in India and Pakistan. PMID:21836720

  2. Hydrology of mountainous areas in the upper Indus Basin, Northern Pakistan with the perspective of climate change.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Zulfiqar; Hafeez, Mohsin; Ahmad, Iftikhar

    2012-09-01

    Mountainous areas in the northern Pakistan are blessed by numerous rivers that have great potential in water resources and hydropower production. Many of these rivers are unexploited for their water resource potential. If the potential of these rivers are explored, hydropower production and water supplies in these areas may be improved. The Indus is the main river originating from mountainous area of the Himalayas of Baltistan, Pakistan in which most of the smaller streams drain. In this paper, the hydrology of the mountainous areas in northern Pakistan is studied to estimate flow pattern, long-term trend in river flows, characteristics of the watersheds, and variability in flow and water resource due to impact of climate change. Eight watersheds including Gilgit, Hunza, Shigar, Shyok, Astore, Jhelum, Swat, and Chitral, Pakistan have been studied from 1960 to 2005 to monitor hydrological changes in relation to variability in precipitation, temperature and mean monthly flows, trend of snow melt runoff, analysis of daily hydrographs, water yield and runoff relationship, and flow duration curves. Precipitation from ten meteorological stations in mountainous area of northern Pakistan showed variability in the winter and summer rains and did not indicate a uniform distribution of rains. Review of mean monthly temperature of ten stations suggested that the Upper Indus Basin can be categorized into three hydrological regimes, i.e., high-altitude catchments with large glacierized parts, middle-altitude catchments south of Karakoram, and foothill catchments. Analysis of daily runoff data (1960-2005) of eight watersheds indicated nearly a uniform pattern with much of the runoff in summer (June-August). Impact of climate change on long-term recorded annual runoff of eight watersheds showed fair water flows at the Hunza and Jhelum Rivers while rest of the rivers indicated increased trends in runoff volumes. The study of the water yield availability indicated a minimum trend in Shyok River at Yogo and a maximum trend in Swat River at Kalam. Long-term recorded data used to estimate flow duration curves have shown a uniform trend and are important for hydropower generation for Pakistan which is seriously facing power crisis in last 5 years. PMID:22109645

  3. Emigration dynamics from and within South Asia.

    PubMed

    Shah, N M

    1995-01-01

    This review of current knowledge about emigration dynamics from and within South Asia (Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka) opens with a brief history of the three phases of emigration from the area since the 1830s (plantation labor; postindependence to the UK, US, Canada, and Australia; and labor migration to the oil-exporting countries). The influence of the creation of Pakistan and Bangladesh is also covered as are British colonial and commonwealth policies. It is noted that migration data are incomplete and that India exhibits an ambivalence about collecting such information. The discussion then turns to emigration since 1970 and considers permanent migration from South Asia to the traditional receivers; South Asian asylum seekers in Europe; South Asian refugees, illegal migrants, migrant workers (flows and destinations), the stock of contract migrant workers (and their characteristics); returnee migrant workers; and skill levels. Analysis is provided of macro level determinants of emigrations such as gross national product (level and growth), the general demographic and social situation, labor force growth and structure, poverty and inequality, and internal and international migration. Environmental factors causing displacement in Southern Asia include floods, cyclones, river bank erosion, drought, and desertification. Global warming could displace millions of people in the region, and development projects have contributed to displacement. The remainder of the report covers political and ethnic factors, micro-factors influencing migration decision-making, the policies of sending and receiving countries, the consequences of emigration, and the potential for migration in the future. PMID:12347011

  4. Causes of blindness and visual impairment in Pakistan. The Pakistan national blindness and visual impairment survey

    PubMed Central

    Dineen, B; Bourne, R R A; Jadoon, Z; Shah, S P; Khan, M A; Foster, A; Gilbert, C E; Khan, M D

    2007-01-01

    Objective To determine the causes of blindness and visual impairment in adults (?30 years old) in Pakistan, and to explore socio?demographic variations in cause. Methods A multi?stage, stratified, cluster random sampling survey was used to select a nationally representative sample of adults. Each subject was interviewed, had their visual acuity measured and underwent autorefraction and fundus/optic disc examination. Those with a visual acuity of <6/12 in either eye underwent a more detailed ophthalmic examination. Causes of visual impairment were classified according to the accepted World Health Organization (WHO) methodology. An exploration of demographic variables was conducted using regression modeling. Results A sample of 16?507 adults (95.5% of those enumerated) was examined. Cataract was the most common cause of blindness (51.5%; defined as <3/60 in the better eye on presentation) followed by corneal opacity (11.8%), uncorrected aphakia (8.6%) and glaucoma (7.1%). Posterior capsular opacification accounted for 3.6% of blindness. Among the moderately visually impaired (<6/18 to ?6/60), refractive error was the most common cause (43%), followed by cataract (42%). Refractive error as a cause of severe visual impairment/blindness was significantly higher in rural dwellers than in urban dwellers (odds ratio (OR) 3.5, 95% CI 1.1 to 11.7). Significant provincial differences were also identified. Overall we estimate that 85.5% of causes were avoidable and that 904?000 adults in Pakistan have cataract (<6/60) requiring surgical intervention. Conclusions This comprehensive survey provides reliable estimates of the causes of blindness and visual impairment in Pakistan. Despite expanded surgical services, cataract still accounts for over half of the cases of blindness in Pakistan. One in eight blind adults has visual loss from sequelae of cataract surgery. Services for refractive errors need to be further expanded and integrated into eye care services, particularly those serving rural populations. PMID:17229806

  5. Pattern of fall injuries in Pakistan: the Pakistan National Emergency Department Surveillance (Pak-NEDS) study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background We aimed to analyse the frequency and patterns of fall-related injuries presenting to the emergency departments (EDs) across Pakistan. Methods Pakistan National Emergency Departments surveillance system collected data from November 2010 to March 2011 on a 24/7 basis using a standardized tool in seven major EDs (five public and two private hospitals) in six major cities of Pakistan. For all patients presenting with fall-related injuries, we analysed data by intent with focus on unintentional falls. Simple frequencies were run for basic patient demographics, mechanism of falls, outcomes of fall injuries, mode of arrival to ED, investigations, and procedures with outcomes. Results There were 3335 fall-related injuries. In cases where intent was available, two-thirds (n = 1186, 65.3%) of fall injuries were unintentional. Among unintentional fall patients presenting to EDs, the majority (76.9%) were males and between 15-44 years of age (69%). The majority of the unintentional falls (n = 671, 56.6%) were due to slipping, followed by fall from height (n = 338, 28.5%). About two-thirds (n = 675, 66.6%) of fall injuries involved extremities, followed by head/neck (n = 257, 25.4%) and face (n = 99, 9.8%). Most of the patients were discharged from the hospital (n = 1059, 89.3%). There were 17 (1.3%) deaths among unintentional fall cases. Conclusion Falls are an important cause of injury-related visits to EDs in Pakistan. Most of the fall injury patients were men and in a productive age group. Fall injuries pose a burden on the healthcare system, especially emergency services, and future studies should therefore focus on safety measures at home and in workplaces to reduce this burden. PMID:26691821

  6. Integrated reservoir characterization for the Mazari oil field, Pakistan 

    E-print Network

    Ashraf, Ejaz

    1994-01-01

    This thesis describes a field study performed on the Mazari oil field located in Sind province, Pakistan. We used an integrated reservoir characterization technique to incorporate the geological, petrophysical, and reservoir performance data...

  7. Energy conservation and thermal comfort in buildings in northern Pakistan

    E-print Network

    Sullivan, Gregory Patrick

    1995-01-01

    The Hunza Valley, a remote area of mountainous northern Pakistan, is undergoing rapid change culturally, socially, and architecturally. Many of these changes are linked to the exchange of information and commerce facilitated ...

  8. Structural engineering for northern Pakistan : indigenous architecture and earthquake resistance

    E-print Network

    Su, Jimmy Chi-yi

    1995-01-01

    In the Fall of 1993, a joint project began between architectural designers and engineers, for the design of houses in Karimabad, located in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. This thesis records the author's involvement as ...

  9. Daughters of Eve : violence against women in Pakistan

    E-print Network

    Noor, Muhammad Jehanzeb, 1982-

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct extensive research on domestic violence against women in Pakistan and to present the results in a comprehensive document. Some of the issues investigated through fieldwork and covered ...

  10. Science Education Reforms in Pakistan: Science Education Project II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tahir, Alyas Qadeer

    2002-01-01

    Describes reform efforts in science education in Pakistan through the early 70s until now. Focuses on the Science Education Project-II. Indicates expected outcomes such as physical facilities, scholarship programs, staff development, and curriculum improvement. (Author/KHR)

  11. Marketing problems of farmers in Punjab, Pakistan : a case study 

    E-print Network

    Islam, Qamar-ul

    1987-01-01

    The incentives which encouraged the author to undertake this research work stem from the need for such work. First of all, comparatively little information is available within or outside Pakistan concerning the origins and ...

  12. Beggarization: Beggary as an Organized Crime in Pakistan

    E-print Network

    Azam, Nadia

    2011-12-12

    Abstract This research analyzes beggary as an organized crime, or beggarization, in Pakistan, focusing on economic, religious, and political trends enabling the growth of this lucrative industry. Economic factors include the economic viability...

  13. Progress in the Gondwanan Carboniferous-Permian palynology and correlation of the Nilawahan Group of the Salt Range, Pakistan: A brief review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jan, Irfan U.

    2014-02-01

    This paper comprises of two sections. The first section describes challenges in the Carboniferous-Permian Gondwanan stratigraphic palynology, and progress in techniques such as presence of the `rare-marine intervals', and `radiometric dating' in some Gondwanan successions, e.g., South Africa, Australia and South America, as tools to confidently calibrate these palynozones. The second section describes developments in the palynological work on the Carboniferous-Permian Nilawahan Group of the Salt Range, Pakistan, and summarises their correlation with the coeval succession of the Gondwana continents and with the Russian/International stages.

  14. Contending Identities of Pakistan and The Issue of Democratic Governance

    E-print Network

    Khan, Ijaz

    2006-01-01

    extremists as natural choice for alliance/usage as tools of foreign policy due to its own religious identity basis, its perception of India as a Hindu State, which has not accepted Pakistan as an independent state deep down. The United States also... not representing the correct ethnic identities that make up Pakistan, nevertheless represents the lesser evil to a unitary state structure. On current reports of a proposed constitutional amendment to increase the powers of provinces a columnist identified...

  15. Child health inequalities and its dimensions in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Murtaza, Fowad; Mustafa, Tajammal; Awan, Rabia

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Poverty and inequality in health is pervasive in Pakistan. The provisions and conditions of health are very dismal. A significant proportion of the population (16.34%) of Pakistan is under 5 years, but Pakistan is in the bottom 5% of countries in the world in terms of spending on health and education. It is ranked the lowest in the world with sub-Sahara Africa in terms of child health equality. The objective of this study was to examine child health inequalities in Pakistan. Materials and Methods: We analyzed data from Pakistan Integrated Household Survey/Household Integrated Economic Survey 2001–2002, collected by the Pakistan Bureau of Statistics, Government of Pakistan. Coverage of diarrhea and immunization were used as indicators of child health. Stata 11.0 was used for data analysis. Descriptive statistics including frequency distribution and proportions for categorical variables and mean for continuous variables were computed. Results: Children under 5 years of age account for about 16.34% of the total population, 11.76% (2.5 million) of whom suffered from diarrhea in 1-month. The average duration of a diarrheal episode was 7 days. About 72% of the children who had diarrhea lived in a house without pipe-borne water supply. Around 22% children who had diarrhea had no advice or treatment. More than one-third of the households had no toilet in the house, and only 29% of the households were connected with pipe-borne drinking water. About 7.73% (1.6 million) children had never been immunized. The main reason for nonimmunization was parents’ lack of knowledge and of immunization. Conclusion: Child health inequalities in Pakistan are linked with several factors such as severe poverty, illiteracy, lack of knowledge, and awareness of child healthcare, singularly inadequate provision of health services, and poor infrastructure. PMID:26392798

  16. Stem Cell Research in Pakistan; Past, Present and Future

    PubMed Central

    Zahra, Sayeda Anum; Muzavir, Sayed Raheel; Ashraf, Sadia; Ahmad, Aftab

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Stem cells have proved to have great therapeutic potential as stem cell treatment is replacing traditional ways of treatment in different disorders like cancer, aplastic anemia, stroke, heart disorders. The developed and developing countries are investing differently in this area of research so research output and clinical translation of research greatly vary among developed and developing countries. Present study was done to investigate the current status of stem cells research in Pakistan and ways to improve it. Results Many advanced countries (USA, UK and Canada etc.) are investing heavily in stem cell research and treatment. Different developing countries like Iran, Turkey and India are also following the developed countries and investing a lot in stem cells research. Pakistan is also making efforts in establishing this field to get desired benefits but unfortunately the progress is at very low pace. If Government plays an active role along with private sector, stem cell research in Pakistan can be boosted up. The numbers of publications from Pakistan are very less compared to developed and neighboring countries and Pakistan also has very less number of institutes working in this area of research. Conclusions Stem cells research is at its initial stages in Pakistan and there is great need to bring Government, academia and industry together so they could make serious efforts to promote research in this very important field. This will help millions of patients suffering from incurable disorders and will also reduce economic loss. PMID:26019749

  17. Impacts of a nuclear war in South Asia on rice production in Mainland China

    E-print Network

    Robock, Alan

    Impacts of a nuclear war in South Asia on rice production in Mainland China Lili Xia & Alan Robock+Business Media B.V. 2012 Abstract A regional nuclear war between India and Pakistan with a 5 Tg black carbon agricultural simulation model to simulate regional nuclear war impacts on rice yield in 24 provinces in China

  18. Anthracobunids from the Middle Eocene of India and Pakistan Are Stem Perissodactyls

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Lisa Noelle; Seiffert, Erik R.; Clementz, Mark; Madar, Sandra I.; Bajpai, Sunil; Hussain, S. Taseer; Thewissen, J. G. M.

    2014-01-01

    Anthracobunidae is an Eocene family of large mammals from south Asia that is commonly considered to be part of the radiation that gave rise to elephants (proboscideans) and sea cows (sirenians). We describe a new collection of anthracobunid fossils from Middle Eocene rocks of Indo-Pakistan that more than doubles the number of known anthracobunid fossils and challenges their putative relationships, instead implying that they are stem perissodactyls. Cranial, dental, and postcranial elements allow a revision of species and the recognition of a new anthracobunid genus. Analyses of stable isotopes and long bone geometry together suggest that most anthracobunids fed on land, but spent a considerable amount of time near water. This new evidence expands our understanding of stem perissodactyl diversity and sheds new light on perissodactyl origins. PMID:25295875

  19. Anthracobunids from the middle eocene of India and pakistan are stem perissodactyls.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Lisa Noelle; Seiffert, Erik R; Clementz, Mark; Madar, Sandra I; Bajpai, Sunil; Hussain, S Taseer; Thewissen, J G M

    2014-01-01

    Anthracobunidae is an Eocene family of large mammals from south Asia that is commonly considered to be part of the radiation that gave rise to elephants (proboscideans) and sea cows (sirenians). We describe a new collection of anthracobunid fossils from Middle Eocene rocks of Indo-Pakistan that more than doubles the number of known anthracobunid fossils and challenges their putative relationships, instead implying that they are stem perissodactyls. Cranial, dental, and postcranial elements allow a revision of species and the recognition of a new anthracobunid genus. Analyses of stable isotopes and long bone geometry together suggest that most anthracobunids fed on land, but spent a considerable amount of time near water. This new evidence expands our understanding of stem perissodactyl diversity and sheds new light on perissodactyl origins. PMID:25295875

  20. Assessment of hydrocarbons concentration in marine fauna due to Tasman Spirit oil spill along the Clifton beach at Karachi coast.

    PubMed

    Siddiqi, Hina A; Ansari, Fayyaz A; Munshi, Alia B

    2009-01-01

    On 27 July 2003, Tasman Spirit spilled 31,000 tonnes of crude oil into the sea at the Karachi coast. This disaster badly affected the marine life (Flora and Fauna.) Present research has been proposed to ascertain the level of Polycyclic Aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contamination in different fisheries including Fishes, Crustaceans; Crabs and Shrimps, Mollusks and Echinoderms along with passing time. Heavier components of crude oil such as Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) appear to cause most damages as these are relatively unreactive and persist in water. High concentrations of toxic PAHs were observed in all the fisheries and shellfishes caught form oil-impacted area. In this study fishes were found most contaminated than shellfishes i.e. summation operator 16 PAH = 1821.24 microg/g and summation operator 1164.34 microg/g, respectively. Naphthalene was found in the range of 0.042-602.23 microg/g. Acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene and anthracene were detected in the range 0.008-80.03 microg/g, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo(a)anthracene and chrysene 0.0008-221.32 microg/g, benzo(b) fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene and benzo(a) pyrene 0.0005-7.71 microg/g, benzo(g,h,i)perylene and indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene 0.02-503.7 microg/g. Dibenzo(a,h)anthracenre was not detected in any specie. PMID:18302003

  1. A contemporary architectural quest and synthesis : Kamil Khan Mumtaz in Pakistan

    E-print Network

    Ansari, Zarminae

    1997-01-01

    This thesis looks at an important Pakistani architect's work and philosophy as a possible direction or approach for contemporary architecture in Pakistan. Although there are more prolific builders in Pakistan, Kamil Khan ...

  2. 75 FR 71079 - Determination on Use of Cooperative Threat Reduction Funds in Pakistan and Afghanistan Under...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ...Use of Cooperative Threat Reduction Funds in Pakistan and Afghanistan Under Section 1308 of the National Defense Authorization...funds for the implementation of CTR programs in Pakistan and Afghanistan will permit the United States to take [[Page...

  3. K-means cluster analysis and seismicity partitioning for Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Khaista; Burton, Paul W.; Weatherill, Graeme A.

    2014-07-01

    Pakistan and the western Himalaya is a region of high seismic activity located at the triple junction between the Arabian, Eurasian and Indian plates. Four devastating earthquakes have resulted in significant numbers of fatalities in Pakistan and the surrounding region in the past century (Quetta, 1935; Makran, 1945; Pattan, 1974 and the recent 2005 Kashmir earthquake). It is therefore necessary to develop an understanding of the spatial distribution of seismicity and the potential seismogenic sources across the region. This forms an important basis for the calculation of seismic hazard; a crucial input in seismic design codes needed to begin to effectively mitigate the high earthquake risk in Pakistan. The development of seismogenic source zones for seismic hazard analysis is driven by both geological and seismotectonic inputs. Despite the many developments in seismic hazard in recent decades, the manner in which seismotectonic information feeds the definition of the seismic source can, in many parts of the world including Pakistan and the surrounding regions, remain a subjective process driven primarily by expert judgment. Whilst much research is ongoing to map and characterise active faults in Pakistan, knowledge of the seismogenic properties of the active faults is still incomplete in much of the region. Consequently, seismicity, both historical and instrumental, remains a primary guide to the seismogenic sources of Pakistan. This study utilises a cluster analysis approach for the purposes of identifying spatial differences in seismicity, which can be utilised to form a basis for delineating seismogenic source regions. An effort is made to examine seismicity partitioning for Pakistan with respect to earthquake database, seismic cluster analysis and seismic partitions in a seismic hazard context. A magnitude homogenous earthquake catalogue has been compiled using various available earthquake data. The earthquake catalogue covers a time span from 1930 to 2007 and an area from 23.00° to 39.00°N and 59.00° to 80.00°E. A threshold magnitude of 5.2 is considered for K-means cluster analysis. The current study uses the traditional metrics of cluster quality, in addition to a seismic hazard contextual metric to attempt to constrain the preferred number of clusters found in the data. The spatial distribution of earthquakes from the catalogue was used to define the seismic clusters for Pakistan, which can be used further in the process of defining seismogenic sources and corresponding earthquake recurrence models for estimates of seismic hazard and risk in Pakistan. Consideration of the different approaches to cluster validation in a seismic hazard context suggests that Pakistan may be divided into K = 19 seismic clusters, including some portions of the neighbouring countries of Afghanistan, Tajikistan and India.

  4. Teacher Education in Pakistan: Analysis of Planning Issues in Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunzai, Zohra Nisar

    2009-01-01

    This article focuses on the status of teacher education and early childhood education in Pakistan. The paper analyzes planning issues in early childhood teacher education by examining education policies and existing practices in early childhood teacher education in Pakistan. Initiatives taken at public and private levels in Pakistan are also…

  5. Potential for Expatriate Involvement with Handicapped Children in the N.W.F.P. of Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, M.

    The North West Frontier Province of Pakistan plans to improve services and facilities for handicapped children and is encouraging expatriates to bring their skills to Pakistan. Staff of current institutions are either untrained or have received short courses of training within Pakistan. There are currently about five expatriates working in the…

  6. journals, especially in mathematics and engineering, as well as boosting the impact of their research outside Pakistan.

    E-print Network

    Lin, Juhn-Jong

    the asking of questions that autocratic regimes frequently dislike answering. This must change. Pakistan of their research outside Pakistan. Second, human capital matters. One concern raised by the report published as Pakistan's schools improve. For the time being, the more important point is that Pakistan has opened up

  7. India, Pakistan's nuclear weapons: All the pieces in place

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, D.; Zamora, T. )

    1989-06-01

    As a result of West German investigations into a series of illegal exports of sensitive nuclear technology, evidence is mounting that both countries have even more extensive nuclear weapons research, development, and production programs than previously thought. These investigations and other recent public revelations indicate the following: (1) India probably decided several years ago to acquire the know-how to make a thermonuclear weapon as a hedge against Pakistan's growing nuclear ability, and to be prepared to test such a device within a few months of a Pakistani nuclear test. (2) Both India and Pakistan have imported beryllium a material useful in designing smaller, lighter, and more-sophisticated nuclear weapons. India is also producing beryllium in its own facilities. (3) Pakistan has acquired sophisticated tritium-processing equipment from West Germany, and India is building a plant that will be able to produce large amounts of tritium. (4) Pakistan is reported to have perfected the design of a nuclear aerial bomb for its US-supplied F-16 attack aircraft, and India has apparently been working of design of a nuclear aerial bomb since 1984. India is reportedly preparing to test an intermediate-range ballistic missile with a range of 1,500 miles; in February, Pakistan said it had test-fired two short-range missiles.

  8. An assessment of knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) towards diabetes and diabetic retinopathy in a suburban town of Karachi

    PubMed Central

    Memon, Muhammad Saleh; Shaikh, Sikander Ali; Shaikh, Abdul Rashid; Fahim, Muhammad Faisal; N. Mumtaz, Seema; Ahmed, Nadeem

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP) towards diabetes and diabetic retinopathy in the general population of Bin Qasim Town (BQ), Karachi. Methods: An observational, cross-sectional study was approved by Research Ethical Committee of Al-Ibrahim Eye Hospital. It included every third household by stratified sampling in each Union Council of (BQ) Town, in the months of May to July 2013. The interview Questionnaire included 43 questions, of qualitative and quantitative aspects, which were awarded 56 scoring points. SPSS version 20.0 was used to analyze the data. Results: Six hundred ninety two adults one from each household were interviewed. Of the total respondents, 271 (39.2%) had diabetes. Lowest mean knowledge score (5.28 ± 6.09) was seen in illiterate respondents. Male’s Mean Knowledge score (7.61 ± 6.600) was better than female’s (5.46 ± 6.21) with P <0.001. Over all mean score of Attitudes towards diabetes was 5.43 ± 2.57. It was higher (6.62 ± 2.03) in diabetic respondents as compared with non-diabetic respondents (4.70 ± 2.59) with p < 0.000. In Practice module majority of the respondents (69.9%) did not exercise, 49% took high caloric snacks between meals and 87% ate outside home once a month, 56.8% diabetics visited ophthalmologist for routine eye examination; but only 9.2% asked for retinal examination. Conclusion: Lack of knowledge of diabetes was found in the surveyed community, more marked in females, illiterate and the individuals not having diabetes. PMID:25878640

  9. Abnormally high formation pressures, Potwar Plateau, Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Shah, S.H.A.; Malik, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormally high formation pressures in the Potwar Plateau of north-central Pakistan are major obstacles to oil and gas exploration. Severe drilling problems associated with high pressures have, in some cases, prevented adequate evaluation of reservoirs and significantly increased drilling costs. Previous investigations of abnormal pressure in the Potwar Plateau have only identified abnormal pressures in Neogene rocks. We have identified two distinct pressure regimes in this Himalayan foreland fold and thrust belt basin: one in Neogene rocks and another in pre-Neogene rocks. Pore pressures in Neogene rocks are as high as lithostatic and are interpreted to be due to tectonic compression and compaction disequilibrium associated with high rates of sedimentation. Pore pressure gradients in pre-Neogene rocks are generally less than those in Neogene rocks, commonly ranging from 0.5 to 0.7 psi/ft (11.3 to 15.8 kPa/m) and are most likely due to a combination of tectonic compression and hydrocarbon generation. The top of abnormally high pressure is highly variable and doesn't appear to be related to any specific lithologic seal. Consequently, attempts to predict the depth to the top of overpressure prior to drilling are precluded.

  10. Radiological implications of granite of northern Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Asghar, M; Tufail, M; Sabiha-Javied; Abid, A; Waqas, M

    2008-09-01

    Granite is an igneous rock that contains natural radioactivity of primordial radionuclides. In Pakistan, granite is distributed in a vast area called the Ambela Granitic Complex (AGC) in North West Frontier Province (NWFP). Granite is a hard rock that exists in different colours and is used to decorate floors, kitchen counter tops, etc. The use of granite in a building as a decor material is a potential source of radiation dose; therefore, natural radioactivity has been measured in 20 granite samples of the AGC with an HPGe (high purity germanium) based gamma ray spectrometer. The average specific activities and their range (given in parentheses) for primordial radionuclides (40)K, (226)Ra and (232)Th were 1218 (899-1927), 659 (46-6120) and 598 (92-3214) Bq kg(-1), respectively. The measured activity concentrations were used for the assessment of hazard indices and radiation dose which were evaluated based on the permissible limits defined for these parameters. The measured specific activities and the derived quantities, hazard indices and radiation dose, have been compared with those given in the literature for these parameters. PMID:18714139

  11. Evaluation of immune response to Hepatitis B vaccine in health care workers at a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan: an observational prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Zeeshan, Mohammad; Jabeen, Kauser; Ali, Anita Nausheen Akbar; Ali, Ailia Wilayat; Farooqui, Saadia Z; Mehraj, Vikram; Zafar, Afia

    2007-01-01

    Background Seroconversion rates reported after Hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination globally ranges from 85–90%. Health care workers (HCWs) are at high risk of acquiring HBV and non responders' rates after HBV vaccination were not reported previously in Pakistani HCWs. Therefore we evaluated immune response to HBV vaccine in HCWs at a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods Descriptive observational study conducted at Aga Khan University from April 2003 to July 2004. Newly HBV vaccinated HCWs were evaluated for immune response by measuring serum Hepatitis B surface antibody (HBsAb) levels, 6 weeks post vaccination. Results Initially 666 employees were included in the study. 14 participants were excluded due to incomplete records. 271 (41%) participants were females and 381(59%) were males. Majority of the participants were young (<25–39 years old), regardless of gender. Out of 652 HCWs, 90 (14%) remained seronegative after six weeks of post vaccination. The percentage of non responders increased gradually from 9% in participants of <25, 13% in 25–34, 26% in 35–49, and 63% in >50 years of age. Male non responders were more frequent (18%) than female (8%). Conclusion Seroconversion rate after HBV vaccination in Pakistani HCWs was similar to that reported in western and neighboring population. HCWs with reduced immune response to HBV vaccine in a high disease prevalent population are at great risk. Therefore, it is crucial to check post vaccination HBsAb in all HCWs. This strategy will ensure safety at work by reducing nosocomial transmission and will have a cost effective impact at an individual as well as at national level, which is very much desired in a resource limited country. PMID:17961205

  12. The Tribe Scymnini (Coccinellidae: Coleoptera) From Sindh Province, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Muhammad; Perveen, Rukhsana; Naqvi, Arif-Un-Nisa; Ahmed, Khalil; Raza, Ghulam; Hussain, Ishtiaq

    2015-01-01

    Coccinellids are important natural enemies of aphids, scale insects, mealybugs, whiteflies, jassids and mites. They are being augmented or conserved for population reduction of different agricultural crop pests in the concept of Integrated Pest Management throughout the world. The genera and species in the tribe Scymnini known from Pakistan are revised and redescribed. Two genera including two subgenera and six species among which three species are newly reported, is therefore, a new addition to Coccinellid fauna of Pakistan. Keys to all taxa, descriptions of the higher taxa, species diagnoses, synonymies, and distribution records are included. PMID:26454480

  13. The tribe Scymnini (Coccinellidae: Coleoptera) from Sindh Province, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ali, Muhammad; Perveen, Rukhsana; Naqvi, Arif-Un-Nisa; Ahmed, Khalil; Raza, Ghulam; Hussain, Ishtiaq

    2015-01-01

    Coccinellids are important natural enemies of aphids, scale insects, mealybugs, whiteflies, jassids and mites. They are being augmented or conserved for population reduction of different agricultural crop pests in the concept of Integrated Pest Management throughout the world. The genera and species in the tribe Scymnini known from Pakistan are revised and redescribed. Two genera including two subgenera and six species among which three species are newly reported, is therefore, a new addition to Coccinellid fauna of Pakistan. Keys to all taxa, descriptions of the higher taxa, species diagnoses, synonymies, and distribution records are included. PMID:26454480

  14. Ambulance use in Pakistan: an analysis of surveillance data from emergency departments in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The utilization of ambulances in low- and middle-income countries is limited. The aim of this study was to ascertain frequency of ambulance use and characteristics of patients brought into emergency departments (EDs) through ambulance and non-ambulance modes of transportation. Methods The Pakistan National Emergency Departments Surveillance (Pak-NEDS) was a pilot active surveillance conducted in seven major tertiary-care EDs in six main cities of Pakistan between November 2010 and March 2011. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was performed to investigate the factors associated with ambulance use. Results Out of 274,436 patients enrolled in Pak-NEDS, the mode of arrival to the ED was documented for 94. 9% (n = 260,378) patients, of which 4.1% (n = 10,546) came to EDs via ambulances. The mean age of patients in the ambulance group was significantly higher compared to the mean age of the non-ambulance group (38 ± 18.4 years versus 32.8 ± 14.9 years, p-value < 0.001). The most common presenting complaint in the ambulance group was head injury (12%) while among non-ambulance users it was fever (12%). Patients of all age groups were less likely to use an ambulance compared to those >45 years of age (p-value < 0.001) adjusted for gender, cities, hospital type, presenting complaint group and disposition. The adjusted odds ratio of utilizing ambulances for those with injuries was 3.5 times higher than those with non-injury complaints (p-value < 0.001). Patients brought to the ED by ambulance were 7.2 times more likely to die in the ED than non-ambulance patients after adjustment for other variables in the model. Conclusion Utilization of ambulances is very low in Pakistan. Ambulance use was found to be more among the elderly and those presenting with injuries. Patients presenting via ambulances were more likely to die in the ED. PMID:26689242

  15. Phytoecological evaluation with detail floristic appraisal of the vegetation arround Malam Jabba, Swat, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Rashid, Abdur; Swati, Mohammad Farooq; Sher, Hassan; Al-Yemeni, Mohammad N

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the present status of plant communities and their possible association with the habitat in Malam Jabba, Swat, Pakistan. Methods A study on the phytoecology was conducted in various ecologically important sites of Malam Jabba, Swat, Pakistan from 2002 to 2004. The altitude of these sites ranged from 1?200 m to 3?200 m. Quadrat method was used for evaluation of plants communities and the data on these attributes was converted to relative values. The plant communities were named after 3 leading species with highest importance values. Biological spectrum of the flora based on the life form was prepared by following Raunkiar's life form classes. Results The floristic composition and structure of the study area were found to be 200 species belonging to 75 families. Asteraceae, Lamiaceae and Poaceae were important families in the study area. The biological spectrum showed that therophytic and hemicrytophytic life form and micro-nonophyllous leaf sizes were dominant in the area. The air and soil temperatures were decreasing with increasing elevation. Both the air and soil temperatures were relatively higher in south slopes than on the northeast slopes. The vegetation analysis of the area indicated eleven plant communities around the area. The present vegetation is the relics of moist temperate coniferous forest in the area. The communities reflect highly deteriorated conditions. Both the structure and composition of the surrounding vegetation were associated with the types of habitats. Conclusions The conservation of the remaining populations of the reported communities will be best achieved by proper time of sustainable harvesting. It is only possible with the participation of local communities. PMID:23569814

  16. South Africa

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Red Tide Strands South African Rock Lobsters     View Larger Image ... in South Africa's Western Cape province, about 1000 tons of rock lobsters beached themselves during February 2002, when the decay of dense ...

  17. Qualitative Inquiry into Local Education Administration in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komatsu, Taro

    2009-01-01

    The level of educational development in Pakistan is low. A decentralisation reform was introduced in 2000 to improve the delivery of basic education by designating the local government body with primary responsibility for administering it. A qualitative field study on local education administration at the North West Frontier Province found…

  18. Gender Representation in the Public Sector Schools Textbooks of Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullah, Hazir; Skelton, Christine

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines gender biases in school textbooks after a decade long effort by the ministry of education (MoE) Pakistan and international organisation (IOs) to eliminate all forms of gender inequality in education. The intention underpinning these initiatives was to nurture a view of gender equality based consciousness through the…

  19. Strategic Framework for Teacher Education and Professional Development: Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Agency for International Development, 2006

    2006-01-01

    It is common to find well-crafted and coherent policy designs failing to attain desired results in developing counties. Pakistan is no exception. Despite having taken a significant number of initiatives in a quest to further its Teacher Professional Development (TPD) objectives, progress remains less than satisfactory. While a number of studies…

  20. Early Childhood Teacher Education in Pakistan: Time for Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zada, Khan

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a critical account of early childhood education (ECE) in Pakistan. It moves from a general review of the benefits of ECE to focus on the issues and challenges connected to the professional development of early childhood teachers. It highlights problems encountered in developing practitioners who are highly skilled in the…

  1. Science and Technology in School Curricula. Case Study 5: Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Science, Technical and Environmental Education.

    A series of case studies were undertaken by UNESCO to probe more deeply into the adequacy of science, mathematics, and technology curricula to meet national needs, and their appropriateness in relation to the rapidly-evolving nature of science and technology themselves. This fifth study, from Pakistan, has focused on the following 4 major areas:…

  2. Competencies Needed for Future Academic Librarians in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahmood, Khalid

    2002-01-01

    The changing environment of academic libraries in Pakistan demands new competencies for future academic librarians. This study defines and validates competencies for entry-level professionals keeping in view the needs of the next five years. Top-level library managers of selected universities and post-graduate level colleges participated in the…

  3. Eradication of Illiteracy in Pakistan: An Analysis 1947-87.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khawaja, Sarfraz

    1988-01-01

    Traces the changes in policy towards illiteracy in Pakistan from 1947-1987. Notes changes in the definition of literacy and the changes in emphases and objectives in policy statements. Suggests why the problem of illiteracy has not been solved. (JOW)

  4. Technology and Distance Education: Sharing Experience in Sindh, Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panhwar, Farzana

    Female literacy in Pakistan is among the lowest in the world. In 1981, the literacy rate was 16 percent for females, and 7.3 percent for rural women. Distance education can effect many social changes. Females would be the main beneficiaries because it is not socially acceptable for girls to leave home for education; parents do not like…

  5. A socioeconomic survey of kidney vendors in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, Syed Ali Anwar; Ali, Bux; Mazhar, Farida; Zafar, Mirza Naqi; Rizvi, Syed Adibul Hasan

    2007-11-01

    In recent years, Pakistan has emerged as one of the largest centres for commerce and tourism in renal transplantation. Kidney vendors belong to Punjab in eastern Pakistan, the agricultural heartland, where 34% people live below poverty line. We report results of a socioeconomic and health survey of 239 kidney vendors. The mean age was 33.6 +/- 7.2 years (M:F 3.5:1). Mean nephrectomy period was 4.8 +/- 2.3 years. Ninety per cent of the vendors were illiterate. Sixty-nine per cent were bonded labourers who were virtual slaves to landlords, labourers 12%, housewives 8.5% and unemployed 11%. Monthly income was $US15.4 +/- 8.9 with 2-11 dependents per family. Majority (93%), vended for debt repayment with mean debt of $1311.4 +/- 819. The mean agreed sale price was $1737 +/- 262. However, they received $1377 +/- 196 after deduction for hospital and travel expenses. Postvending 88% had no economic improvement in their lives and 98% reported deterioration in general health status. Future vending was encouraged by 35% to pay off debts and freedom from bondage. This study gives a snapshot of kidney vendors from Pakistan. These impoverished people, many in bondage, are examples of modern day slavery. They will remain exploited until law against bondage is implemented and new laws are introduced to ban commerce and transplant tourism in Pakistan. PMID:17645418

  6. Library Web Sites in Pakistan: An Analysis of Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qutab, Saima; Mahmood, Khalid

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate library web sites in Pakistan, to analyse their content and navigational strengths and weaknesses and to give recommendations for developing better web sites and quality assessment studies. Design/methodology/approach: Survey of web sites of 52 academic, special, public and national libraries in…

  7. The Changing Perspective of Art Education in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Muhammad Sher Ali

    2014-01-01

    The development of art education in Pakistan over the last five decades is explored through three major phases: Arts as traditional crafts together with proficiency in painting and calligraphy. Such skills; somewhat existed in academies but, were then transferred through apprenticeship system. Arts in the academies; the first turning point, that…

  8. Effective Use of Action-Oriented Studies in Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, M.

    1991-01-01

    This article summarizes results from action-oriented studies carried out at the Mental Heath Centre in Peshawar, Pakistan, dealing with such topics as attitudes toward disability, casual integration, and trends in polio paralysis. The article also considers problems associated with the dissemination of special education and rehabilitation research…

  9. Kiran Libraries for Children in Prison in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shinji, Tajima

    2009-01-01

    In Pakistan, there are 7,000 children in 70 jails. From observations on why children commit crime, the author offers that the core cause is poverty; 99 per cent of young prisoners belong to deprived sections of society. They do not have access to education; living in prison is difficult; the degrading and harsh treatment adversely affects the…

  10. Acquisition of Scientific Literature in Developing Countries. 3: Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haider, Syed Jalaluddin

    1989-01-01

    Summarizes the development of science and technology in Pakistan and the existing library resources in science and technology. The organization of acquisitions work is described, including acquisitions policy, book selection, financial support, procurement of books and periodicals, import restrictions, book order work, and gifts and exchanges.…

  11. Stitching Footballs: Voices of Children in Sailkot, Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcus, Rachel; Husselbee, David; Shah, Faiz; Harper, Annie; Ali, Bahar

    This report details a situation analysis of children working in football stitching around Sialkot, Pakistan. The analysis (1) examined the reasons that children work and the probable impact of eradicating children's involvement and phasing out home-based production and (2) determined a baseline for monitoring changes in children's and families'…

  12. A Long-Term Investment in Pakistan: Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunzai, Zohra Nisar

    2006-01-01

    Despite the enormous demand for early childhood education care and education, it remains a privilege for young children in most of the world's nine high population countries, known as the E-9 group (Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Nigeria and Pakistan), according to a report published by UNESCO (2003). The World…

  13. Time and Opportunity To Learn in Pakistan's Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reimers, Fernando

    This paper challenges the current conventional policy view of time as a critical resource for learning. After reviewing literature on the subject, the paper analyzes the contribution of instructional time to learning using data from primary schools in Pakistan. The principal finding reported in this paper is that the amount of contact time between…

  14. The Molecular Basis of Retinal Dystrophies in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Muhammad Imran; Azam, Maleeha; Ajmal, Muhammad; Collin, Rob W. J.; den Hollander, Anneke I.; Cremers, Frans P. M.; Qamar, Raheel

    2014-01-01

    The customary consanguineous nuptials in Pakistan underlie the frequent occurrence of autosomal recessive inherited disorders, including retinal dystrophy (RD). In many studies, homozygosity mapping has been shown to be successful in mapping susceptibility loci for autosomal recessive inherited disease. RDs are the most frequent cause of inherited blindness worldwide. To date there is no comprehensive genetic overview of different RDs in Pakistan. In this review, genetic data of syndromic and non-syndromic RD families from Pakistan has been collected. Out of the 132 genes known to be involved in non-syndromic RD, 35 different genes have been reported to be mutated in families of Pakistani origin. In the Pakistani RD families 90% of the mutations causing non-syndromic RD and all mutations causing syndromic forms of the disease have not been reported in other populations. Based on the current inventory of all Pakistani RD-associated gene defects, a cost-efficient allele-specific analysis of 11 RD-associated variants is proposed, which may capture up to 35% of the genetic causes of retinal dystrophy in Pakistan. PMID:24705292

  15. Perspectives of Aacademic Activities in Universities in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Akhtar; Tariq, Riaz H.; Topping, Keith J.

    2013-01-01

    The article explores perspectives on academic activities in public sector universities in Pakistan. Seven Pakistani universities yielded 290 teachers and 568 students in the sample. Factor analysis indicated five main factors in both teacher and student data sets. Both teachers and students were dissatisfied with the performance of the…

  16. Simulating the Afghanistan-Pakistan opium supply chain

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, Jennifer H; MacKerrow, Edward P; Merritt, Terence M

    2010-04-08

    This paper outlines an opium supply chain using the Hilmand province of Afghanistan as exemplar. The opium supply chain model follows the transformation of opium poppy seed through cultivation and chemical alteration to brown heroin base. The purpose of modeling and simulating the Afghanistan-Pakistan opium supply chain is to discover and test strategies that will disrupt this criminal enterprise.

  17. The Gateway Paper--preventive and promotive programs in Pakistan and health reforms in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Nishtar, Sania

    2006-12-01

    Pakistan's public health interventions include a range of programs lead by the federal government with implementation arms at the provincial and district levels. Some of the programs are disease specific such as the respective programs on HIV/AIDS, Malaria, Tuberculosis, non-communicable diseases and Hepatitis; others are specific to life cycle domains such as in the case of maternal and child health whereas still others such as the National Program for Family Planning and Primary Healthcare and the National Expanded Program for Immunization are cross-cutting. Although these programs have contributed to improving health outcomes at intermediate outcomes level, a number of critical impediments to maximizing their impact have been noted. These include lack of integration, institutional impediments to the implementation of programs with particular reference to problems at the federal/provincial level and unrealized implications of federal programs at the provincial level are amongst the foremost. These have been further compounded by the addition of another service delivery tier in Pakistan's health system through the introduction of the devolution initiative. Furthermore, the unsustainable and under-utilized BHUs which serve as the service delivery base of these programs add to the problems. The Gateway Paper makes a number of recommendations to obviate these issues such as recommendations to integrate programs, strengthen surveillance systems, and with reference to obviating issues to implementation, emphasis is laid on decentralizing decision-making and central control, institutionalizing managerial audit, and prioritizing specific governance and management reforms. The Paper also stresses on the need for establishing a national coordination mechanism for fostering federal/provincial harmony and ensuring the creation of appropriate counterpart institutional arrangements in the provinces and districts. Recommendations on restructuring BHUs at a management, oversight, quality related and community participation level will play a vital role in determining the manner in which the efficiency of these public health programs can be enhanced. PMID:17595833

  18. Governance and Higher Education in Pakistan: What Roles Do Boards of Governors Play in Ensuring the Academic Quality Maintenance in Public Universities versus Private Universities in Pakistan?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usman, Sidra

    2014-01-01

    There are major structural issues in the higher education system in Pakistan leading to poor governance of institutions and questionable quality of education. This paper looks at the differences in the role of boards of governors in maintaining quality of education in both the public and the private sector universities in Pakistan. After having…

  19. Literacy, Income Generation, and Poverty Alleviation in Sindh Pakistan and Its Impact on Economic Development, Human Resource Development in Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panhwar, Farzana

    Rural poverty in Sindh, Pakistan, has been artificially created by low prices of wheat, fixed by the federal government's price control board. Agriculture and agro-based industries account for 80 percent of the country's labor force. Among the consequences of this price control are low margins of profit to the farming community; low capacity to…

  20. Motivational determinants among physicians in Lahore, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Human resource crises in developing countries have been identified as a critical aspect of poor quality and low accessibility in health care. Worker motivation is an important facet of this issue. Specifically, motivation among physicians, who are an important bridge between health systems and patients, should be considered. This study aimed to identify the determinants of job motivation among physicians, a neglected perspective, especially in developing countries. Methods A stratified random sample of 360 physicians was selected from public primary, public secondary and public and private tertiary health facilities in the Lahore district, Pakistan. Pretested, semi-structured, self-administered questionnaires were used. For the descriptive part of this study, physicians were asked to report their 5 most important work motivators and demotivators within the context of their current jobs and in general. Responses were coded according to emergent themes and frequencies calculated. Of the 30 factors identified, 10 were classified as intrinsic, 16 as organizational and 4 as socio-cultural. Results Intrinsic and socio-cultural factors like serving people, respect and career growth were important motivators. Conversely, demotivators across setups were mostly organizational, especially in current jobs. Among these, less pay was reported the most frequently. Fewer opportunities for higher qualifications was a demotivator among primary and secondary physicians. Less personal safety and poor working conditions were important in the public sector, particularly among female physicians. Among private tertiary physicians financial incentives other than pay and good working conditions were motivators in current jobs. Socio-cultural and intrinsic factors like less personal and social time and the inability to financially support oneself and family were more important among male physicians. Conclusion Motivational determinants differed across different levels of care, sectors and genders. Nonetheless, the important motivators across setups in this study were mostly intrinsic and socio-cultural, which are difficult to affect while the demotivators were largely organizational. Many can be addressed even at the facility level such as less personal safety and poor working conditions. Thus, in resource limited settings a good strategic starting point could be small scale changes that may markedly improve physicians' motivation and subsequently the quality of health care. PMID:20618962

  1. Association Between Grading of Oral Submucous Fibrosis With Frequency and Consumption of Areca Nut and Its Derivatives in a Wide Age Group: A Multi-centric Cross Sectional Study From Karachi, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Hosein, Mervyn; Mohiuddin, Sidra; Fatima, Nazish

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a chronic, premalignant condition of the oral mucosa and one of the commonest potentially malignant disorders amongst the Asian population. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of etiologic factors with: age, frequency, duration of consumption of areca nut and its derivatives, and the severity of clinical manifestations. Methods: A cross-sectional, multi centric study was conducted over 8 years on clinically diagnosed OSMF cases (n = 765) from both public and private tertiary care centers. Sample size was determined by World Health Organization sample size calculator. Consumption of areca nut in different forms, frequency of daily usage, years of chewing, degree of mouth opening and duration of the condition were recorded. Level of significance was kept at P ? 0.05. Results: A total of 765 patients of OSMF were examined, of whom 396 (51.8%) were male and 369 (48.2%) female with a mean age of 29.17 years. Mild OSMF was seen in 61 cases (8.0%), moderate OSMF in 353 (46.1%) and severe OSMF in 417 (54.5%) subjects. Areca nut and other derivatives were most frequently consumed and showed significant risk in the severity of OSMF (P ? 0.0001). Age of the sample and duration of chewing years were also significant (P = 0.012). Conclusions: The relative risk of OSMF increased with duration and frequency of areca nut consumption especially from an early age of onset. PMID:26473161

  2. Second generation HIV surveillance in Pakistan: policy challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Munro, Michelle; Holte-McKenzie, Merydth; Ahmed, Sadia; Archibald, Chris P; Blanchard, James F; Thompson, Laura H

    2013-09-01

    From 2004 to 2011, the Canada-Pakistan HIV/AIDS Surveillance Project (HASP) worked with government and non-government partners in Pakistan to design and implement an HIV second generation surveillance (SGS) system. Insights into the development of scalable cost effective surveillance methodologies, implementation, use of data for HIV prevention and human rights were gained over the course of HASP. An ideal SGS system would be affordable, able to be implemented independently by local partners and produce data that could be readily applied in policy and programmes. Flexibility in design and implementation is important to ensure that any SGS system is responsive to information needs, political changes and changes in key population dynamics and HIV epidemics. HASP's mapping methodology is innovative and widely accepted as best practice, but sustainability of the SGS system it developed is a challenge. PMID:23220785

  3. Polio in Pakistan: Social constraints and travel implications.

    PubMed

    Mushtaq, Asim; Mehmood, Sajid; Rehman, Muhammad Ateeq Ur; Younas, Asma; Rehman, Muhammad Saif Ur; Malik, Muhamamd Faheem; Hyder, Muhammad Zeeshan

    2015-01-01

    The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) in Pakistan has faced failure despite being implemented successfully. Polio cases were successfully reduced by 99% until 2005. However, thereafter, new polio cases were registered, which continue to rise annually. This repeat polio outbreak has placed the country on watch by the World Health Organization (WHO) due to travelers, and Hajj and Umrah pilgrims. The present report reviews the published literature for determining the social constraints to the polio eradication initiative in Pakistan. Religion, politics, awareness, insecurity, inequity, governance, and social responsibility have been identified as key social factors in the failure of any vaccination campaign. Possible interventions have been proposed, which include effectively using modern mass media and educating vaccinators on the social and cultural background of the target community. PMID:26324410

  4. Makran Mountain Range, Indus River Valley, Pakistan, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The enormous geologic pressures exerted by continental drift can be very well illustrated by the long northward curving parallel folded mountain ridges and valleys of the coastal Makran Range of Pakistan (27.0N, 66.0E). As a result of the collision of the northward bound Indian sub-continent into the Asian Continent, the east/west parallel range has been bent in a great northward arc and forming the Indus River valley at the interface of the collision.

  5. Progress Toward Poliomyelitis Eradication - Pakistan, January 2014-September 2015.

    PubMed

    Farag, Noha H; Wadood, Mufti Zubair; Safdar, Rana Muhammad; Ahmed, Nabil; Hamdi, Sabrine; Tangermann, Rudolph H; Ehrhardt, Derek

    2015-01-01

    Since Nigeria reported its last case of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) in July 2014, Pakistan and Afghanistan remain the only two countries where WPV transmission has never been interrupted (1). This report describes actions taken and progress achieved toward polio eradication in Pakistan during January 2014-September 2015 and updates previous reports (2,3). A total of 38 WPV1 cases were reported in Pakistan during January-September 2015,* compared with 243 during the same period in 2014 (an 84% decline). Among WPV1 cases reported in 2015, 32 (84%) occurred in children aged <36 months, nine (32%) of whom had never received oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). Twenty-six (68%) of the 38 reported cases occurred in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) Province. During January-September 2015, WPV1 was detected in 20% (64 of 325) of environmental samples collected, compared with 34% (98 of 294) of samples collected during the same period in 2014. The quality and scope of polio eradication activities improved considerably following the establishment of a national Emergency Operations Center, which coordinated polio eradication partners' activities. All activities are following a National Polio Eradication Emergency Action Plan (4) that includes a rigorous action plan for the polio low transmission season (January-April). The presence of WPV1 in environmental samples in areas where no polio cases are detected highlights the need to improve surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP). Focused efforts to close remaining immunity gaps by locating, tracking, and vaccinating continually missed children and improving coverage with OPV through the routine vaccination program are needed to stop WPV transmission in Pakistan. PMID:26584026

  6. Geographical and temporal variation of injection drug users in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Archibald, Chris P; Shaw, Souradet Y; Emmanuel, Faran; Otho, Suleman; Reza, Tahira; Altaf, Arshad; Musa, Nighat; Thompson, Laura H; Blanchard, James F

    2013-01-01

    Objectives We describe the characteristics of injecting drug users (IDU) in Pakistan in 2006 and 2011, and assess the heterogeneity of IDU characteristics across different cities and years as well as factors associated with HIV infection. Methods Cross-sectional, integrated behavioural-biological surveys of IDU were conducted in 10 cities across Pakistan in 2006 and 2011. Univariate and multivariable analyses were used to describe the differences in HIV prevalence and risk behaviours between cities and over time. Results Large increases in HIV prevalence among injection drug users in Pakistan were observed, with overall HIV prevalence increasing from 16.2% in 2006 to 31.0% in 2011; an increase in HIV prevalence was also seen in all geographic areas except one. There was an increase in risk behaviours between 2006 and 2011, anecdotally related to a reduction in the availability of services for IDU. In 2011, larger proportions of IDU reported injecting several times a day and using professional injectors, and fewer reported always using clean syringes. An increase in the proportion living on the street was also observed and this was associated with HIV infection. Cities differ in terms of HIV prevalence, risk profiles, and healthcare seeking behaviours. Conclusions There is a high prevalence of HIV among injection drug users in Pakistan and considerable potential for further transmission through risk behaviours. HIV prevention programs may be improved through geographic targeting of services within a city and for involving groups that interact with IDU (such as pharmacy staff and professional injectors) in harm reduction initiatives. PMID:23314301

  7. Genetic analysis of peste des petits ruminants virus from Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an endemic and highly contagious disease in small ruminants of Pakistan. Despite the fact that an effective vaccine is available, outbreaks are regularly occurring in the country. Thus so far, the diagnosis has primarily been made based on clinical outcome or serology. This study was carried out to characterize PPRV from an emerging wave of outbreaks from Punjab, Pakistan. Results A total of 32 blood samples from five different flocks were tested with real-time PCR for the presence of PPRV genome. The samples detected positive in real-time PCR (n?=?17) were subjected to conventional PCR for the amplification of the nucleoprotein (N) gene. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequenced N genes (n?=?8) indicated the grouping of all the sequences in lineage IV along with PPRV strains from Asian and Middle East. However, interestingly sequences were divided into two groups. One group of viruses (n?=?7) clustered with previously characterized Pakistani isolates whereas one strain of PPRV was distinct and clustered with Saudi Arabian and Iranian strains of PPRV. Conclusions Results demonstrated in this study expanded the information on the genetic nature of different PPRV population circulating in small ruminants. Such information is essential to understand genetic nature of PPRV strains throughout the country. Proper understanding of these viruses will help to devise control strategies in PPRV endemic countries such as Pakistan. PMID:23537146

  8. Pakistan on the eve of the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Sethi, N

    1999-01-01

    Pakistan is simultaneously facing six major crises as the next century begins. The crises of identity and ideology stem from the fact that Pakistanis are still unable to mutually agree upon who they are as a nation, where they belong, what they believe in, and what they want to do. The crises of law, Constitution, and political system are manifested in the public's disenchantment with the democratic political system. The crisis of economy, on the other hand, is due to Pakistan's total dependence on foreign assistance. The severity of this economic crisis has affected their sovereignty and national security. Moreover, contradicting objectives and concerns causes the crisis of foreign policy. The crisis of civil society is demonstrated in the low turnouts for elections and the continuing deterioration of law and order. Whereas the crises of national security is considered as the culmination of all the other crises mentioned. This article further cites some suggestions on how to resolve these crises, and offers a brief discussion concerning Pakistan's relationship with India. PMID:12295395

  9. India and Pakistan`s nuclear arms race: Out of the closet but not in the street

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, D.

    1993-06-01

    CIA Director James Woolsey testified before the Senate on February 24, 1993, {open_quotes}The arms race between India and Pakistan poses perhaps the most probable prospect for future use of weapons of mass destruction, including nuclear weapons.{close_quotes} Currently, both countries are dependent on relatively crude nuclear bombs that do not appear to have been deployed. According to US officials, because of fears of accidental nuclear detonation, both sides would only assemble their nuclear weapons when absolutely necessary. Nevertheless, according to Woolsey, both nations {open_quotes}could, on short notice, assemble nuclear weapons.{close_quotes} Each has combat aircraft that could deliver these bombs in a crisis. India and Pakistan continue to improve their nuclear weapons. Unless their programs are stopped, they might succeed in moving from large, cumbersome bombs to miniaturized, easily armed and fuzed weapons able to be permanently deployed on attack aircraft or ballistic missiles, which are being developed or sought by both countries.

  10. Neotectonics of the Nanga Parbat Syntaxis, Pakistan, and crustal stacking in the northwest Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Robert W. H.; Prior, David J.; Knipe, Robert J.

    1989-09-01

    The northwest termination of the Himalayan arc is marked by two large antiformal structures, termed syntaxes, and a NW-SE zone of intermediate depth earthquakes which have yielded both strike-slip and thrust-sense fault-plane solutions. This contribution presents new structural data from the Nanga Parbat area, the northern syntaxis, one of the fastest rising portions of the orogen (7 mm yr -1). Our studies show uplift related to syntaxis growth to be accommodated by structures located along its western margin. Fault kinematics in the southern part of the margin indicate NW-directed thrusting along a shear zone and high level cataclastic faults, termed the Liachar thrust zone. This carries amphibolite facies basement rocks out onto Quaternary sediments. Further north along the western margin active faults are dominantly dextral strike-slip, oriented north-south (e.g. the Shahbatot fault). Overprinting relationships suggest that the strike-slip fault zone has migrated southwards into the NW-directed thrust zone. These relationships are consistent with the northwest termination of the arcuate Himalayan thrust belt at a lateral tip generating folding and radial thrust directions. Faulting patterns at Nanga Parbat suggest that this tip zone has migrated southwards. Active faulting is now concentrated in the northwest continuation of the Hazara (southern) syntaxis, along a seismogenic strike-slip and thrust zone. These deep level tips lie on the crustal stacking thrusts which cut through the higher level, SSE-directed thrusts of Pakistan.

  11. Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/18: Maritime Cooperation Between India and Pakistan: Building Confidence at Sea

    SciTech Connect

    SIDDIQA-AGHA,AYESHA

    2000-11-01

    This paper discusses ways in which the navies of both India and Pakistan can cooperate on issues of maritime and naval significance. Although the militaries and navies of the two countries have traditionally seen each other as rivals, international economic developments make cooperation imperative. South Asia requires an approach that can alter the existing hostile images and perceptions. This can be achieved through developing an incremental approach towards confidence building that would allow consistency and help build confidence gradually. The aim is to make confidence building a sustainable activity that would help transform hostile images and build cooperative and nonhostile relationships. This paper proposes a five-step model to suggest what the two navies can do jointly to build confidence, with the ultimate goal of naval arms control. The steps include (1) the Signaling Stage to initiate communication between the two navies, (2) the Warming-Up Stage to build confidence through nonmilitary joint ventures, (3) the Handshake Stage to build confidence between the two navies through military joint ventures, (4) the Problem-Solving Stage to resolve outstanding disputes, and (5) the Final Nod Stage to initiate naval arms control. This model would employ communication, navigation, and remote sensing technologies to achieve success.

  12. Climate change and managing water crisis: Pakistan's perspective.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Mumtaz; Mumtaz, Saniea

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is a global phenomenon manifested mainly through global warming. The International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has reported its negative consequences on natural resources, anthropogenic activities, and natural disasters. The El Nino and La Nina have affected hydrologic regimes and ecosystems. It has been observed that the average temperature in 1995 was 0.4°C higher than that in 1895. By the end of the 21st century, 10% of the area of Bangladesh is likely to be submerged by the sea. Most of the islands of Pacific Ocean will disappear. A major part of Maldives will be submerged. The sea level is expected to rise by 30-150 cm. Extreme events such as floods, cyclones, tsunamis, and droughts have become regular phenomena in many parts of the world. Other adverse impacts are proliferation of water-borne diseases, sea water intrusion, salinization of coastal areas, loss of biodiversity, eco-degradation of watersheds and global glacial decline, and haphazard snow melts/thaws. In turn, these factors have serious effect on water resources. Pakistan is confronting similar climate change. Meteorological data reveal that winter temperatures are rising and summers are getting cooler. Temperature is expected to increase by 0.9°C and 1.5°C by years 2020 and 2050, respectively. Water resources in Pakistan are affected by climate change as it impacts the behavior of glaciers, rainfall patterns, greenhouse gas emissions, recurrence of extreme events such as floods and droughts. Severe floods have occurred in the years 1950, 1956, 1957, 1973, 1976, 1978, 1988, 1992, 2010, 2011, and 2012. Pakistan has faced the worst-ever droughts during the period from 1998 to 2004. Pakistan has surface water potential of 140 million acre feet (MAF) and underground water reserve of 56 MAF. It is one of the most water-stressed countries in the world. The per capita annual availability of water has reduced from 5140 m3 in 1950 to 1000 m3 now. It is fast approaching towards water scarcity. To minimize adverse impacts of climate change on the water crisis in Pakistan, the preparation of integrated national, provincial, and local level master plans encompassing technical, social, environmental, administrative, and financial considerations is necessary. It is imperative to implement two simultaneous approaches of adaptation (living with climate change) and mitigation (addressing negativities of climate change). Salient features are integrated management of watersheds/catchments/water bodies, optimum exploitation of present sources, development of new sources, water conservation, adequate drainage, efficient design of water storage, conveyance, distribution and supply systems, utilization of waste water, and regulation of water quality. PMID:24695031

  13. NEW WINE IN OLD BOTTLES: An Analysis of Pakistan's Conflict in the Pashtun Tribal Areas

    E-print Network

    Khan, Huma

    2008-08-25

    The Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) of Pakistan have regained prominence in recent years because of the U.S.' "war on terror" against Al-Qaeda. The Government of Pakistan, backed by the U.S. and NATO, is involved ...

  14. Exploring Leadership Practices of Principals of Government Elementary Colleges of Education in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bana, Zubeda; Khaki, Jan-e-Alam

    2015-01-01

    This article shares the findings from a case study conducted to explore the leadership practices of Principals of the Government Elementary Colleges of Education across Pakistan. The study focused on how these Principals understood their roles and responsibilities in the context of the changing role of teacher education in Pakistan and in the…

  15. Study on Instructional Paradigms of Virtual Education in Pakistan: A Learners' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussain, Irshad

    2012-01-01

    The present study is aimed at examining instructional paradigms of virtual education in Pakistan. The population of the study consisted of learners from Master of Business Administration (MBA) Program at Virtual University (VU) of Pakistan. The researcher adopted convenient sampling technique and collected data from 600 learners through five-point…

  16. Women's Perspectives of Peace: Unheard Voices from Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habib, Zehra

    2013-01-01

    Pakistan is currently impacted by rampant terrorism and is simultaneously grappling with intrastate ethnic and sectarian violence. The focus of this dissertation was on examining grassroots Pakistani women's perspectives on peace and women's contributions to peace in Pakistan. The study was centered on grassroots women because their…

  17. Exploring English-Language Teachers' Professional Development in Developing Countries: Cases from Syria and Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dayoub, Ruba; Bashiruddin, Ayesha

    2012-01-01

    This paper attempts to present the findings of a study carried out in Pakistan that explored English-language teachers' professional development in developing countries. The main guiding question for the study was: How do English-language teachers at secondary schools learn to teach and develop professionally in Syria and Pakistan? Two cases were…

  18. Scaling up of Life Skills Based Education in Pakistan: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svanemyr, Joar; Baig, Qadeer; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman

    2015-01-01

    Young people between the ages of 10 and 19 make up 23% of Pakistan's population. In Pakistan, young people face many challenges in terms of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) issues. These include early marriage and pregnancy, low use of contraception, use of unsafe abortion, lack of relevant information and poor knowledge about bodily…

  19. Age, Gender and Job Satisfaction among Elementary School Head Teachers in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghazi, Safdar Rehman; Maringe, Felix

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore general job satisfaction of elementary school head teachers in Pakistan with respect to their age and gender. One hundred and eighty head teachers were sampled from government elementary schools of Toba Tek Singh, Punjab, Pakistan, to collect the relevant data using a modified version of the Minnesota…

  20. Can Education Be a Path to Gender Equality in the Labour Market? An Update on Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslam, Monazza; Kingdon, Geeta

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates some of the economic outcomes of education in Pakistan with a view to understanding if education can act as a vehicle for labour market success. Data from a purpose-designed survey of more than 1000 households in Pakistan are utilised. Earnings functions are estimated for agricultural workers, the self-employed and wage…

  1. Islam, Democracy and Citizenship Education: An Examination of the Social Studies Curriculum in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Iftikhar

    2004-01-01

    Since the 1980s the mission of the national citizenship education curriculum in Pakistan has been the Islamization of society. The government curriculum guidelines require textbooks to emphasize Islam as the national ideology of the state of Pakistan. Recognizing the deleterious effect of an exclusivist curriculum on the civic unity of the nation,…

  2. Voices of Strength and Struggle: Women's Coping Strategies against Spousal Violence in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zakar, Rubeena; Zakar, Muhammad Zakria; Kramer, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    This article documents the coping strategies adopted by women victims of spousal violence in Pakistan. By drawing on 21 in-depth interviews conducted in Lahore and Sialkot (Pakistan), we found that the women tried to cope with violence by using various strategies, both emotion focused (e.g., use of religion, placating the husband, etc.) and…

  3. Professional Activities, Needed Competencies and Training Needs of Medical Librarians in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullah, Midrar; Ameen, Kanwal; Bakhtar, Salman

    2011-01-01

    The study aims to explore the professional activities, needed competencies and education/training needs of medical librarians in Pakistan. The following questions guided the study: what are the current professional activities of medical librarians in Pakistan? What is their perception of the competencies needed of medical librarians? And what are…

  4. Equality or Equity: Gender Awareness Issues in Secondary Schools in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halai, Anjum

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on gender awareness issues as a dimension of addressing the wider issue of the quality of education in Pakistan from the perspective of social justice. In Pakistan classrooms, boys and girls learn separately and therefore teachers and others tend to think that there are no gender issues once access is achieved and the learners…

  5. The Mosque Schools in Pakistan: An Experiment in Integrating Nonformal and Formal Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, K. A.

    A wide-ranging study of the centrality of the mosque to Islamic education in Pakistan emphasizes Islamic educational traditions, the historical background of such education, the obstacles to educational improvement in Pakistan, and the attempt to provide universal primary education. Traditionally, the Prophet Mohammad and the Holy Quran have been…

  6. MCH indicators in south Asia.

    PubMed

    Ramji, S

    1997-05-01

    This article presents some statistical indicators of maternal and child health in countries of South Asia, including Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. Statistical tables aggregate data for the entire South Asia region and industrialized countries, for comparative purposes. South Asia has about 22% of world population, 33% of births annually, about 37% of annual global child mortality (CM), and the second highest maternal mortality ratio (MMR). In 1995, Sri Lanka had the lowest CM. Afghanistan had the highest CM. CM in the region was 121, or 15 times more than in industrialized countries. Countries with higher CM rates tended to have higher birthrates. Total fertility rates ranged from 2.4 in Sri Lanka, to 6.6 in Afghanistan. The total fertility rate in the region was 3.9. 29% of births in the region were attended by a trained attendant during 1990-96. Under 10% of births were attended by a trained attendant in Nepal (7%) and Afghanistan (9%). India had the highest proportion of births attended by a trained attendant (34%). Contraceptive prevalence ranged from a low of 2% in Afghanistan, to a high of 66% in Sri Lanka. Contraceptive prevalence for the region was 38%. Female literacy was lowest in Nepal (14%) and Afghanistan (15%). Sri Lanka had the highest female literacy of 87%, followed by India with 38%. Female literacy for the region was 36%. Countries with high fertility rates tended to have high MMRs. MMR was inversely related to contraceptive prevalence rates, presence of trained attendants during delivery, and adult female literacy rates. 90% of the region had coverage with BCG immunization, followed by DPT, OPV, and measles immunization. Maternal tetanus toxoid was 69%. PMID:9332117

  7. Presence and geodynamic significance of Cambro-Ordovician series of SE Karakoram (N Pakistan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolland, Yann; Picard, Christian; Pêcher, Arnaud; Carrio, Elisabeth; Sheppard, Simon M. F.; Oddone, Massimo; Villa, Igor M.

    New geological, geochemical and geochronological data from the Southern Karakoram (NE Pakistan) indicate the presence of several unexpectedly old and well preserved units along the Asian margin: (1) a Precambrian basement, displaying a minimum amphibole Ar-Ar age of 651 Ma; (2) a thick Cambro-Ordovician platform-type sedimentary unit overlying the Precambrian basement. These series are dated by graptolite and crinoid faunas, and are confirmed by concordant 87Sr/ 86Sr and 13C "ages" of the marbles; (3) a dismembered ophiolitic series formed by slices of metagabbros and metabasalts separated by ultramafic lenses (the Masherbrum Greenstone Complex). The occurrence of such Cambro-Ordovician series overlying a Precambrian basement in south-eastern Karakoram similar to the south-western Karakoram shows that the Karakoram constitutes a continuous tectonic block. The petrology and geochemistry of the Masherbrum Greenstone Complex (mineral chemistry, major and trace element and Sr-Nd isotopic data) are indicative of a supra-subductive environment. The presence of LREE-enriched calc-alkaline rocks ?(La/Yb) N = 4.4-5.6; (Nb/La) N = 0.2-0.3; ?Nd 565 = 5.1-7.1? and LREE-depleted tholeiitic rocks ?(La/Yb) N = 0.5-1.3; (Nb/La) N = 0.6-0.9; ?Nd 565 = 5.6-7.8? are consistent with arc and back-arc settings, respectively. A high-Mg andesitic dolerite and an OIB-type metabasalt, with lower ?Nd ratios (?Nd 565 = 0.5 and 4.5) are in accordance with source heterogeneity beneath the arc. The Masherbrum Greenstone Complex, along with other Cambro-Ordovician central-eastern volcanic series give evidence of a tectonic situation governed by micro-plate convergent-divergent systems with occurrence of arc - back-arc settings during the Lower Palaeozoic, comparable to that of the current SW Pacific area.

  8. A question mark on zinc deficiency in 185 million people in Pakistan--possible way out.

    PubMed

    Khalid, Nauman; Ahmed, Anwaar; Bhatti, Muhammad Shahbaz; Randhawa, Muhammad Atif; Ahmad, Asif; Rafaqat, Rabab

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews research published in recent years concerning the effects of zinc deficiency, its consequences, and possible solutions. Zinc is an essential trace element necessary for over 300 zinc metalloenzymes and required for normal nucleic acid, protein, and membrane metabolism. Zinc deficiency is one of the ten biggest factors contributing to burden of disease in developing countries. Populations in South Asia, South East Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa are at greatest risk of zinc deficiency. Zinc intakes are inadequate for about a third of the population and stunting affects 40% of preschool children. In Pakistan, zinc deficiency is an emerging health problem as about 20.6% children are found in the levels of zinc, below 60 ?g/dL. Signs and symptoms caused by zinc deficiency are poor appetite, weight loss, and poor growth in childhood, delayed healing of wounds, taste abnormalities, and mental lethargy. As body stores of zinc decline, these symptoms worsen and are accompanied by diarrhea, recurrent infection, and dermatitis. Daily zinc requirements for an adult are 12-16 mg/day. Iron, calcium and phytates inhibit the absorption of zinc therefore simultaneous administration should not be prescribed. Zinc deficiency and its effects are well known but the ways it can help in treatment of different diseases is yet to be discovered. Improving zinc intakes through dietary improvements is a complex task that requires considerable time and effort. The use of zinc supplements, dietary modification, and fortifying foods with zinc are the best techniques to combat its deficiency. PMID:24499152

  9. Aid and stability in Pakistan: lessons from the 2005 earthquake response.

    PubMed

    Wilder, Andrew

    2010-10-01

    United States foreign assistance to Pakistan has always been driven by security considerations. By 2010, US counter-terrorism and stabilisation objectives resulted in Pakistan becoming the second largest recipient of US foreign aid globally. Given the policy impact of the assumption that aid promotes US security objectives in Pakistan, there is surprisingly little analysis or evidence of its effectiveness in this regard. This paper helps to address this gap by first reviewing the history and assumptions underpinning current US aid and stabilisation policies. It then uses field research on the 2005 earthquake relief efforts in northern Pakistan to assess the impact of the 'War on Terror' on the humanitarian response. In particular, it examines the assumption of influential US policymakers that humanitarian aid following the earthquake was an effective way to promote US security objectives by 'winning hearts and minds'-an assumption that has been used to justify all subsequent major US foreign aid commitments to Pakistan. PMID:20846352

  10. Turmeric use is associated with reduced goitrogenesis: Thyroid disorder prevalence in Pakistan (THYPAK) study

    PubMed Central

    Jawa, Ali; Jawad, Ali; Riaz, Syed Hunain; Assir, Muhammad Zaman Khan; Chaudhary, Abdul Wahid; Zakria, Muhammad; Akram, Javed

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: South Asian population has a particularly high prevalence of thyroid disorders mainly due to iodine deficiency and goitrogen use. There is no data available for prevalence of thyroid disorders in the general population living in nonmountainous regions of Pakistan. Materials and Methods: A total of 2335 residents of Pak Pattan, Punjab, Pakistan were interviewed about demographic, dietary, medical and environmental history as well as screened for goiter. Individuals of all ages and either gender were included. Results: Median age was 34 (10–88) years and 1164 (49.9%) were males. Median monthly income was 49 (3.9–137) USD. Six hundred and sixty-nine (28.7%) subjects had palpable goiter. 77.5% (n = 462) and 22.5% (n = 133) had World Health Organization Grade I and Grade II goiters respectively, further screened by measuring thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). In subjects with TSH <0.4 mg/dL, free T3 and free T4 levels were measured. In 185 goiter subjects when TSH was measured, 50% (n = 93) were euthyroid, 48% (n = 89) were hyperthyroid, and one subject each was hypothyroid and subclinically hyperthyroid. 29/89 hyperthyroid subjects underwent radionuclide scanning. Twelve subjects had heterogeneous uptake consistent with multinodular goiter, 12 subjects had diffuse uptake, two had cold nodules and two had hyperfunctioning single nodules. Goiter was significantly more common among females, unmarried individuals and individuals drinking tube well (subterranean) water. Goiter was less common among those who consumed daily milk, daily ghee (hydrogenated oil), spices, chilies, and turmeric. Discussion: In our study population, goiter was endemic with very high prevalence of hyperthyroidism. Turmeric use was association with reduced goitrogenesis. Further studies to assess iodine sufficiency, thiocyanate exposure and autoimmunity need to be conducted. Masses consuming high goitrogen diets should be educated to incorporate turmeric, spices and green chilies in their cooking recipes, to reduce the risk of goiter development. In addition, use of iodized salt in their daily diet cannot be overemphasized. PMID:25932388

  11. Microbial contamination of drinking water in Pakistan--a review.

    PubMed

    Nabeela, Farhat; Azizullah, Azizullah; Bibi, Roqaia; Uzma, Syeda; Murad, Waheed; Shakir, Shakirullah Khan; Ullah, Waheed; Qasim, Muhammad; Häder, Donat-Peter

    2014-12-01

    Water pollution with pathogenic microorganisms is one of the serious threats to human health, particularly in developing countries. The main objective of this article is to highlight microbial contamination of drinking water, the major factors responsible for microbial contamination, and the resulting health problems in Pakistan. Furthermore, this study will be helpful for researchers and administrative agencies to initiate relevant studies and develop new policies to protect further deterioration of water supply with pathogenic microbes and ensure clean and safe drinking water to the public in Pakistan. In Pakistan, water at the source, in the distribution network, and at the consumer tap is heavily polluted with coliforms and fecal coliforms all over the country. An overview of more than 7,000 water samples reviewed here reveals that an average of over 71 and 58 % samples in the country was contaminated with total coliforms and fecal coliforms, respectively. Drinking water contamination accounts for 20 to 40 % of all diseases in the country, which causes national income losses of Rs 25-58 billion annually (US$0.25-0.58 billion, approximately 0.6-1.44 % of the country's GDP). Improper disposal of industrial and municipal wastes is the most important factor responsible for water pollution in the country followed by cross-contamination due to old and leaking pipes and lack of water filtration and disinfection facilities. There is an urgent need for emergency steps to stop further deterioration of water quality and improve the existing water quality so as to protect the public from widespread waterborne diseases. PMID:25056753

  12. Analyzing Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Diversity in Pakistan by DNA Barcoding

    PubMed Central

    Ashfaq, Muhammad; Hebert, Paul D. N.; Mirza, Jawwad H.; Khan, Arif M.; Zafar, Yusuf; Mirza, M. Sajjad

    2014-01-01

    Background Although they are important disease vectors mosquito biodiversity in Pakistan is poorly known. Recent epidemics of dengue fever have revealed the need for more detailed understanding of the diversity and distributions of mosquito species in this region. DNA barcoding improves the accuracy of mosquito inventories because morphological differences between many species are subtle, leading to misidentifications. Methodology/Principal Findings Sequence variation in the barcode region of the mitochondrial COI gene was used to identify mosquito species, reveal genetic diversity, and map the distribution of the dengue-vector species in Pakistan. Analysis of 1684 mosquitoes from 491 sites in Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa during 2010–2013 revealed 32 species with the assemblage dominated by Culex quinquefasciatus (61% of the collection). The genus Aedes (Stegomyia) comprised 15% of the specimens, and was represented by six taxa with the two dengue vector species, Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti, dominant and broadly distributed. Anopheles made up another 6% of the catch with An. subpictus dominating. Barcode sequence divergence in conspecific specimens ranged from 0–2.4%, while congeneric species showed from 2.3–17.8% divergence. A global haplotype analysis of disease-vectors showed the presence of multiple haplotypes, although a single haplotype of each dengue-vector species was dominant in most countries. Geographic distribution of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus showed the later species was dominant and found in both rural and urban environments. Conclusions As the first DNA-based analysis of mosquitoes in Pakistan, this study has begun the construction of a barcode reference library for the mosquitoes of this region. Levels of genetic diversity varied among species. Because of its capacity to differentiate species, even those with subtle morphological differences, DNA barcoding aids accurate tracking of vector populations. PMID:24827460

  13. Discrimination in the Pakistan labour market: myth and reality.

    PubMed

    Mohiuddin, Y

    1991-01-01

    This paper examines what author calls a fundamental form of sex discrimination in Pakistan: the fact that women's extensive participation in the labor force is ignored by economic planners. While wage and job discrimination are the most common forms of sex discrimination in Europe and North America, in Pakistan sex discrimination revolves around the divergence between the myth that women do not work and the reality that women's labor force participation is high. Because of the myth that women do not work, women are overlooked by the same planning process that could serve to enhance their productivity. The paper is divided into 5 sections: 1) the introduction; 2) an examination of the myth concerning women's labor force participation and its underlying reasons; 3) an analysis of the extent of women's participation in the labor force in rural and urban settings; 4) a discussion of the extent of wage and occupational discrimination in Pakistan; and 5) a discussion of the policy implications. While official figures calculate the labor force activity of rural women and urban women to be between 3%-10.7% and 3.5%-4.7%, respectively, the author explains that the figures are closer to 55% and 25% (and this does not include women's participation in the informal sector). The author identifies 4 reasons that perpetuate the myth that women do not work: 1) women are physically hidden from view, a seclusion institutionalized by the practice of purdah (the veil); 2) the middle-class ideal of a nonworking wife; 3) the perception that only paid labor counts as work; and 4) the failure of statistics to capture the true extent of women's participation. PMID:12285316

  14. Seroprevalence of Pediatric Malaria in Quetta, Balochistan, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, K; Shafee, M; Khan, N; Jan, S; Tareen, AM; Khan, MA

    2013-01-01

    Background Malaria is one of the most devastating protozoal diseases in under developing countries like Pakistan where health facilities are scarce. It is the second most frequently reported disease with 4.5 million suspected cases in Pakistan. The current study was designed to determine the incidence of pediatric malaria in Quetta, Balochistan. Methods The study was conducted at Children Hospital Quetta (CHQ) during July 2011march 2012. Blood samples were collected from 3418 clinically suspected and were evaluated using thin and thick blood films stained with Giemsa stain. Results Out of 3418 total of 230 (6.72%) children were found positive for any of the malarial parasitic infestation. Plasmodium vivax was observed to be more common 54.34% (n= 125/230) than P. falciparum 44.78% (n = 103/230). Male children were 65.21% (150/230) i.e. two times more commonly affected than female 34.78% (80/230) children. The prevalence among age groups was 7.41% (n = 89/1200) in preschool-aged children aged 1-5 years, 7.11% (n = 75/1054) in school-aged children aged 6—10 years while 6.78% (n = 46/678) in 11-15 years-old children, and 6.66% (n = 20/300) in >15 year-olds children. Peak prevalence was noted in summer and mild in winter. Mixed infection of (0.86%: 2/230) P. vivax and P. falciparum was also observed in two cases although no case of P. malariae or P. ovale infection was seen during entire study. Conclusion The results reflect the higher prevalence of malaria in Quetta, Pakistan that poses a significant health threat and requires urgent attention of high-ups to launch programme to control the disease in the area. PMID:23914251

  15. Outcomes of cataract surgery in Pakistan: results from The Pakistan National Blindness and Visual Impairment Survey

    PubMed Central

    Bourne, Rupert; Dineen, Brendan; Jadoon, Zahid; Lee, Pak S; Khan, Aman; Johnson, Gordon J; Foster, Allen; Khan, Daud

    2007-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the outcomes of cataract surgery in Pakistan. Methods Cross?sectional, nationally representative sample of 16?507 adults (aged ?30?years). Each underwent interview, logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution visual acuity (VA), autorefraction, examination of optic disc. Those with <6/12 VA on presentation underwent best?corrected VA and dilated biomicroscopic ocular examination. Results 1317 subjects (633 men) had undergone surgery in one or both eyes. Of the 1788 operated eyes, 1099 (61%) had undergone intracapsular cataract extraction (ICCE) and 607 (34%) extracapsular surgery with an intraocular lens (ECCE+IOL). Presenting VA: 275 (15.4%) eyes: 6/12 or better; 253 (14.1) <6/12 ?6/18; 632 (35.3%) 6/18 to 6/60; 85 (4.8%): 6/60 to 3/60; 528 (29.5%): <3/60. With “best” refractive correction, these values were: 563 (31.5%), 332 (18.6%), 492 (27.5%), 61 (3.4%), 334 (18.7%), respectively. Of the 1498 eyes with VA ?6/12 on presentation, 352 (23.5%) were the result of coincident disease, 800 (53.4%) refractive error and 320 (21.4%) operative complications. Eye camp surgery (OR 1.72, p?=?0.002), ICCE (OR 3.78; p<0.001), rural residence (OR 1.36, p?=?0.01), female gender (OR 1.55, p<0.001) and illiteracy (OR 2.44, p<0.001) were associated with VA of <6/18. More recent ICCE surgeries were associated with a poorer outcome. The ratio of ECCE+IOL:ICCE in the last 3?years was 1.2:1, compared with 1:3.3 ?4?years before the survey. Conclusion Almost a third of cataract operations result in a presenting VA of <6/60, which could be halved by appropriate refractive correction. This study highlights the need for an improvement in quality of surgery with a more balanced distribution of services. PMID:17151060

  16. Solar and Wind Resource Assessments for Afghanistan and Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Renne, D. S.; Kelly, M.; Elliott, D.; George, R.; Scott, G.; Haymes, S.; Heimiller, D.; Milbrandt, A.; Cowlin, S.; Gilman, P.; Perez, R.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has recently completed the production of high-resolution wind and solar energy resource maps and related data products for Afghanistan and Pakistan. The resource data have been incorporated into a geospatial toolkit (GsT), which allows the user to manipulate the resource information along with country-specific geospatial information such as highway networks, power facilities, transmission corridors, protected land areas, etc. The toolkit allows users to then transfer resource data for specific locations into NREL's micropower optimization model known as HOMER.

  17. Health burden of skin lesions at low arsenic exposure through groundwater in Pakistan. Is river the source?

    SciTech Connect

    Fatmi, Zafar; Azam, Iqbal; Ahmed, Faiza; Kazi, Ambreen; Gill, Albert Bruce; Kadir, Muhmmad Masood; Ahmed, Mubashir; Ara, Naseem; Janjua, Naveed Zafar

    2009-07-15

    A significant proportion of groundwater in south Asia is contaminated with arsenic. Pakistan has low levels of arsenic in groundwater compared with China, Bangladesh and India. A representative multi-stage cluster survey conducted among 3874 persons {>=}15 years of age to determine the prevalence of arsenic skin lesions, its relation with arsenic levels and cumulative arsenic dose in drinking water in a rural district (population: 1.82 million) in Pakistan. Spot-urine arsenic levels were compared among individuals with and without arsenic skin lesions. In addition, the relation of age, body mass index, smoking status with arsenic skin lesions was determined. The geographical distribution of the skin lesions and arsenic-contaminated wells in the district were ascertained using global positioning system. The total arsenic, inorganic and organic forms, in water and spot-urine samples were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The prevalence of skin lesions of arsenic was estimated for complex survey design, using surveyfreq and surveylogistic options of SAS 9.1 software.The prevalence of definitive cases i.e. hyperkeratosis of both palms and soles, was 3.4 per 1000 and suspected cases i.e. any sign of arsenic skin lesions (melanosis and/or keratosis), were 13.0 per 1000 among {>=}15-year-old persons in the district. Cumulative arsenic exposure (dose) was calculated from levels of arsenic in water and duration of use of current drinking water source. Prevalence of skin lesions increases with cumulative arsenic exposure (dose) in drinking water and arsenic levels in urine. Skin lesions were 2.5-fold among individuals with BMI <18.5 kg/m{sup 2}. Geographically, more arsenic-contaminated wells and skin lesions were alongside Indus River, suggests a strong link between arsenic contamination of groundwater with proximity to river.This is the first reported epidemiological and clinical evidence of arsenic skin lesions due to groundwater in Pakistan. Further investigations and focal mitigation measures for arsenic may be carried out alongside Indus River.

  18. A qualitative exploration of Pakistan’s street children, as a consequence of the poverty-disease cycle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Street children are a global phenomenon, with an estimated population of around 150 million across the world. These children include those who work on the streets but retain their family contacts, and also those who practically live on the streets and have no or limited family contacts. In Pakistan, many children are forced to work on the streets due to health-related events occurring at home which require children to play a financially productive role from an early stage. An explanatory framework adapted from the poverty-disease cycle has been used to elaborate these findings. Methods This study is a qualitative study, and involved 19 in-depth interviews and two key informant interviews, conducted in Rawalpindi, Pakistan, from February to May 2013. The data was audio taped and transcribed. Key themes were identified and built upon. The respondents were contacted through a gatekeeper ex-street child who was a member of the street children community. Results We asked the children to describe their life stories. These stories led us to the finding that street children are always forced to attain altered social roles because health-related problems, poverty, and large family sizes leave them no choice but to enter the workforce and earn their way. We also gathered information regarding high-risk practices and increased risks of sexual and substance abuse, based on the street children’s increased exposure. These children face the issue of social exclusion because diseases and poverty push them into a life full of risks and hazards; a life which also confines their social role in the future. Conclusion The street child community in Pakistan is on the rise. These children are excluded from mainstream society, and the absence of access to education and vocational skills reduces their future opportunities. Keeping in mind the implications of health-related events on these children, robust inter-sectoral interventions are required. PMID:24661542

  19. Seismically reactivated Hattian slide in Kashmir, Northern Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Jean F.

    2009-07-01

    The Pakistan 2005 earthquake, of magnitude 7.6, caused severe damage on landscape and infrastructure, in addition to numerous casualties. The event reactivated Hattian Slide, creating a rock avalanche in a location where earlier mass movements had happened already, as indicated by satellite imagery and ground investigation. The slide originated on Dana Hill, in the upper catchment area of Hattian on Karli Stream, a tributary of Jhelum River, Pakistan, and buried the hamlet Dandbeh and several farms nearby. A natural dam accumulated, impounding two lakes, the larger one threatening parts of downstream Hattian Village with flooding. An access road and artificial spillways needed to be constructed in very short time to minimize the flooding risk. As shown by this example, when pointing out the risk of large-scale damage to population and infrastructure by way of hazard indication maps of seismically active regions, and preparing for alleviation of that risk, it is advisable to consider the complete Holocene history of the slopes involved.

  20. Resistance of polio to its eradication in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This study is based on EPI (Expanded Program on Immunization) immunization surveys and surveillance of polio, its challenges in immunization and the way forward to overcome these challenges. Methods Several Government documents, survey reports and unpublished program documents were studied and online search was made to find information on EPI Pakistan. SPSS 16 and Microsoft Excel 2007 were used for the statistical analysis. Results Immunization against polio is higher in urban areas as compared to rural areas. Marked variation in vaccination has been observed in different provinces of Pakistan in the last decade. Secondly 10-20% of the children who have received their first dose of trivalent polio vaccine were deprived of their 2nd and 3rd dose because of poor performance of EPI and Lack of information about immunization. Conclusion In spite of numerous successes, such as the addition of new vaccines and raising immunization to over 100% in some areas, EPI is still struggling to reach its polio eradication goals. Inadequate service delivery, lack of information about immunization and limited number of vaccinators were found to be the key reason for poor performance of immunization and for large number of cases reported each year due to the deficiency of second and third booster dose. PMID:21962145

  1. Moving Pakistan into the Global Community via Networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Arshad

    2007-04-01

    The knowledge economies are the key enablers for the creation of jobs, fast economic development, wealth generation and prosperity to masses. Developing countries have started feeling the need to rapidly develop their knowledge base through investments in Information Communication Technologies (ICT) infrastructure and human resource development as a means for facilitating competitiveness. To meet this challenge, emerging technologies offer excellent opportunities for collaborative efforts across the globe among academia, research institutions and industry to ensure that local economy could reap the benefits of economic prosperity. Government of Pakistan at its highest level recognizes that information and knowledge are the driving forces for the economic growth today and we all witness a new era in communications that would not only revolutionize this sector but undoubtedly lays the foundation for connectivity for our future generations. An efficient, low-cost, broadband and high-speed communication system, employing state-of-the-art technologies across the whole spectrum, is a key pillar of the knowledge society. This paper highlights the major initiatives taken by Pakistan in revolutionizing the Internet access to its people. Case study in establishing international collaborations of Pakistani academia with internationally renowned research centers bring about a practical solution in bridging knowledge divide across developing nations and the key role it can play in human resource development by providing access to dispersed laboratory facilities at minimal cost.

  2. South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of South Africa was acquired on May 14, 2000, by NASA's Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, or MODIS. The image was produced using a combination of the sensor's 250-m and 500-m resolution visible wavelength bands. As part of the opening ceremony to begin the joint U.S.-South Africa SAFARI Field Experiment, NASA presented print copies of this image as GIFts to Dr. Ben Ngubane, Minister of Arts, Science and Technology, and Honorable Advocate Ngoaka Ramathlodi, Premier of the Northern Province, South Africa. The area shown in this image encompasses seven capital cities and a number of the region's distinctive geological features can be seen clearly. Toward the northern (top) central part of the image, the browns and tans comprise the Kalahari Desert of southern Botswana. The Tropic of Capricorn runs right through the heart of the Kalahari and the Botswanan capital city of Gaborone sits on the Limpopo River, southeast of the Kalahari. Along the western coastline of the continent is the country of Namibia, where the Namib Desert is framed against the sea by the Kaokoveld Mountains. The Namibian capital of Windhoek is obscured by clouds. Looking closely in the center of the image, the Orange River can be seen running from east to west, demarcating the boundary between Namibia and South Africa. On the southwestern corner of the continent is the hook-like Cape of Good Hope peninsula and Cape Town, the parliamentary capital of South Africa. Running west to east away from Cape Town are the Great Karroo Mountains. The shadow in this image conveys a sense of the very steep grade of the cliffs along the southern coast of South Africa. Port Elizabeth sits on the southeasternmost point of South Africa, and a large phytoplankton bloom can be seen in the water about 100 miles east of there. Moving northward along the east coast, the Drakensberg Mountains are visible. The two small nations of Lesotho and Swaziland are in this region, completely contained within South Africa's boundaries. In the upper righthand corner of the image is the Bay of Maputo, where sits Maputo, the capital of Mozambique. Fires are visible in the northeast corner of the image, near Maputo. Just north of Maputo is where the Limpopo River empties into the Indian Ocean. Tracing the Limpopo inland back toward the west, this river defines the northern boundary of South Africa with both Zimbabwe and Botswana. Johannesburg, the commercial capital of South Africa, can be seen as the greyish pixels in the northeastern region of the country. The country's legislative capital, Pretoria, is about 50 miles north of Johannesburg and 250 miles west of Maputo, in the heart of the Northern Province (formerly known as Transvaal). (Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Group, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center)

  3. Searching for South Asian intelligence: psychometry in British India, 1919-1940.

    PubMed

    Setlur, Shivrang

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the introduction and development of intelligence testing in British India. Between 1919 and 1940 experimenters such as C. Herbert Rice, Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis, and Venkatrao Vithal Kamat imported a number of intelligence tests, adapting them to suit a variety of South Asian languages and contexts. Charting South Asian psychometry's gradual move from American missionary efforts toward the state, this paper argues that political reforms in the 1920s and 1930s affected how psychometry was "indigenized" in South Asia. Describing how approaches to race and caste shifted across instruments and over time, this paper charts the gradual recession, within South Asian psychometry, of a "race" theory of caste. Describing some of the ways in which this "late colonial" period affected the postcolonial landscape, the paper concludes by suggesting potential lines for further inquiry into the later career of intelligence testing in India and Pakistan. PMID:25183435

  4. A Woman and an Election: Benazir Bhutto, Islam & Parliamentary Democracy in Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Susan Hill

    1989-01-01

    Provides a teaching unit about Benazir Bhutto, Prime Minister of Pakistan, and her role in her nation's current history. Encourages students to understand the complexity of race, class, and gender in an Islamic society. (DB)

  5. Biostratigraphy and microfacies of the cretaceous sediments in the Indus Basin, Pakistan 

    E-print Network

    Khan, Suleman

    2013-11-28

    In this thesis I document the biostratigraphy of two Cretaceous sections in Pakistan, the Chichali Nala Section and the Moghal Kot Section. Furthermore, I document the stratigraphy of the so-called Oceanic Anoxic Events ...

  6. Genomic Epidemiology of Vibrio cholerae O1 Associated with Floods, Pakistan, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Muhammad Ali; Mutreja, Ankur; Thomson, Nicholas; Baker, Stephen; Parkhill, Julian; Dougan, Gordon; Bokhari, Habib

    2014-01-01

    In August 2010, Pakistan experienced major floods and a subsequent cholera epidemic. To clarify the population dynamics and transmission of Vibrio cholerae in Pakistan, we sequenced the genomes of all V. cholerae O1 El Tor isolates and compared the sequences to a global collection of 146 V. cholerae strains. Within the global phylogeny, all isolates from Pakistan formed 2 new subclades (PSC-1 and PSC-2), lying in the third transmission wave of the seventh-pandemic lineage that could be distinguished by signature deletions and their antimicrobial susceptibilities. Geographically, PSC-1 isolates originated from the coast, whereas PSC-2 isolates originated from inland areas flooded by the Indus River. Single-nucleotide polymorphism accumulation analysis correlated river flow direction with the spread of PSC-2. We found at least 2 sources of cholera in Pakistan during the 2010 epidemic and illustrate the value of a global genomic data bank in contextualizing cholera outbreaks. PMID:24378019

  7. SURVEY OF STYLET BEARING NEMATODES ASSOCIATED WITH DATE PALM IN KHUZDAR DISTRICT, BALOCHISTAN, PAKISTAN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surveys were conducted during September and October 2002 to identify the stylet-bearing nematodes associated with date palm in Khuzdar district, Balochistan, Pakistan. The nematodes recorded were Tylenchus sp., Merlinius sp., Helicotylenchus indicus, Psilenchus hilarulus, Aphelenchoides sp., Meloido...

  8. Dengue fever in Pakistan: a paradigm shift; changing epidemiology and clinical patterns.

    PubMed

    Haider, Zahra; Ahmad, Farina Zia; Mahmood, Asif; Waseem, Tariq; Shafiq, Irfan; Raza, Tanzeem; Qazi, Javaria; Siddique, Nasir; Humayun, Malik Asif

    2015-11-01

    Dengue fever has huge public health implications and affects over 100 million people worldwide. This review pictures the current situation of Dengue in Pakistan and presents a review of published literature. Pakistan has seen recurrent epidemics of Dengue Fever recently. Unfortunately, these epidemics are becoming more severe in their clinical manifestation. Pakistan experienced large epidemics of dengue fever during 2008, 2010 and 2011 affecting thousands of people and claiming hundreds of deaths. A comparison of data during these epidemics indicates a shift from mild to a more severe disease, which could be interpreted as an epidemiologic transition pattern in the country. Expansion of Dengue in Pakistan seems to be multifactorial, including the climate change, frequent natural disasters, vector resistance to insecticides and lack of resources. This highlights the need for rigorous vector control. Continuing education of primary care physicians is crucial for early appropriate management to reduce mortality. PMID:26342006

  9. High prevalence of West Nile virus in equines from the two provinces of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Zohaib, A; Saqib, M; Beck, C; Hussain, M H; Lowenski, S; Lecollinet, S; Sial, A; Asi, M N; Mansoor, M K; Saqalein, M; Sajid, M S; Ashfaq, K; Muhammad, G; Cao, S

    2015-07-01

    This study describes the first large-scale serosurvey on West Nile virus (WNV) conducted in the equine population in Pakistan. Sera were collected from 449 equids from two provinces of Pakistan during 2012-2013. Equine serum samples were screened using a commercial ELISA kit detecting antibodies against WNV and related flaviviruses. ELISA-positive samples were further investigated using virus-specific microneutralization tests (MNTs) to identify infections with Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), WNV and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). Anti-WNV antibodies were detected in 292 samples by ELISA (seroprevalence 65.0%) and WNV infections were confirmed in 249 animals by MNT. However, there was no animal found infected by JEV or TBEV. The detection of WNV-seropositive equines in Pakistan strongly suggests a widespread circulation of WNV in Pakistan. PMID:25358382

  10. Pakistan and Water: New Pressures on Global Security and Human Health

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The Indus River is the major source of water for the more than 180 million people of Pakistan. A rapidly increasing population over the past 60 years has created new pressures on water that was once a plentiful resource for the health and development of the country. Rising tensions between India and Pakistan, which share the Indus flow, may lead to violent confrontation in an already volatile part of the globe. The recent flooding, which affected more than 20 million people, drew attention to poor management of the rivers of Pakistan. Public health has the scientific knowledge and professional capacity to help develop water management practices that could improve population health in Pakistan. PMID:21421956

  11. Incentive and coordination issues in the mobile banking industry of Pakistan

    E-print Network

    Ali, Tughral Turab

    2014-01-01

    With the introduction of Branch less Banking regulations in 2008 by the State Bank of Pakistan a new opportunity for banks and telecoms was created to service the needs of the 85% of Pakistanis who lacked any formal or ...

  12. Faunal responses to oxygen gradients on the Pakistan margin: A comparison of foraminiferans, macrofauna and megafauna

    E-print Network

    Levin, Lisa

    Oxygen minimum zone Benthos Arabian Sea Biodiversity Deep sea a b s t r a c t The Pakistan Margin between the two sides of the Arabian Sea. This difference probably reflects the slightly higher oxygen

  13. Faunal responses to oxygen gradients on the Pakistan margin: A comparison of foraminiferans, macrofauna and megafauna

    E-print Network

    Whitcraft, Christine

    : Hypoxia Oxygen minimum zone Benthos Arabian Sea Biodiversity Deep sea a b s t r a c t The Pakistan Margin between the two sides of the Arabian Sea. This difference probably reflects the slightly higher oxygen

  14. Reconnaissance geology in Upper Chitral, Baroghil and Karambar districts (northern Karakorum, Pakistan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaetani, Maurizio; Angiolini, Lucia; Nicora, Alda; Sciunnach, Dario; Le Fort, Patrick; Tanoli, Seifnullah; Khan, Asif

    1996-12-01

    During the summer of 1992 a geological expedition crossed the northern Karakorum range in northern Pakistan, from the Chitral to Karambar valleys, from the villages of Mastuj to Imit. Some of the areas visited were geologically unknown. A number of structural units were crossed, belonging to the Karakorum block or to other crustal blocks north of it. They are: (a) the axial batholith, in which three plutonic bodies have been identified, and (b) the northern sedimentary belt (NSB), in which three major tectonostratigraphic units form thrust stacks dipping to the north. Their internal stratigraphy and structural style are partly different. The most complete contains a crystalline basement, transgressed by a marine succession during the Early Ordovician. The youngest strata are represented by the Reshun conglomerate, of inferred Cretaceous age. The northernmost unit of the NSB is tightly folded, whereas the central one forms a monocline. Vertical faults, mainly strike-slip, dissect the thrusted slabs. Metamorphic deformation is absent or reaches only the anchizone in the studied sector of the Karakorum NSB. To the north of the Karakorum proper there are several other tectonic units, separated by vertical faults. They are, from south to north: (a) the Taš Kupruk zone, with metavolcanics of basaltic to latibasaltic composition; (b) the Atark unit, mostly consisting of massive carbonate rocks of Mesozoic age; and (c) the Wakhan slates which consist of a thick widespread succession of dark slates, metasiltites and sandstones. The fine-grained elastic rocks are supposed to be Palaeozoic to Early Triassic in age. The Wakhan slates are intruded by plutons belonging to the East Hindu Kush batholith, from which a single K/Ar age on muscovite gave a Jurassic age.

  15. Reconnaissance geology in Upper Chitral, Baroghil and Karambar districts (northern Karakorum, Pakistan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaetani, Maurizio; Fort, Patrick Le; Tanoli, Seifnullah; Angiolini, Lucia; Nicora, Alda; Sciunnach, Dario; Khan, Asif

    During the summer of 1992 a geological expedition crossed the northern Karakorum range in northern Pakistan, from the Chitral to Karambar valleys, from the villages of Mastuj to Imit. Some of the areas visited were geologically unknown. A number of structural units were crossed, belonging to the Karakorum block or to other crustal blocks north of it. They are: (a) the axial batholith, in which three plutonic bodies have been identified, and (b) the northern sedimentary belt (NSB), in which three major tectonostratigraphic units form thrust stacks dipping to the north. Their internal stratigraphy and structural style are partly different. The most complete contains a crystalline basement, transgressed by a marine succession during the Early Ordovician. The youngest strata are represented by the Reshun conglomerate, of inferred Cretaceous age. The northernmost unit of the NSB is tightly folded, whereas the central one forms a monocline. Vertical faults, mainly strike-slip, dissect the thrusted slabs. Metamorphic deformation is absent or reaches only the anchizone in the studied sector of the Karakorum NSB. To the north of the Karakorum proper there are several other tectonic units, separated by vertical faults. They are, from south to north: (a) the Taš Kupruk zone, with metavolcanics of basaltic to latibasaltic composition; (b) the Atark unit, mostly consisting of massive carbonate rocks of Mesozoic age; and (c) the Wakhan slates which consist of a thick widespread succession of dark slates, metasiltites and sandstones. The fine-grained clastic rocks are supposed to be Palaeozoic to Early Triassic in age. The Wakhan slates are intruded by plutons belonging to the East Hindu Kush batholith, from which a single K/Ar age on muscovite gave a Jurassic age.

  16. Psychosocial Factors of Antenatal Anxiety and Depression in Pakistan: Is Social Support a Mediator?

    PubMed Central

    Waqas, Ahmed; Raza, Nahal; Lodhi, Haneen Wajid; Muhammad, Zerwah; Jamal, Mehak; Rehman, Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Pregnancy is generally viewed as a time of fulfillment and joy; however, for many women it can be a stressful event. In South Asia it is associated with cultural stigmas revolving around gender discrimination, abnormal births and genetic abnormalities. Methodology This cross-sectional study was done at four teaching hospitals in Lahore from February, 2014 to June, 2014. A total of 500 pregnant women seen at hospital obstetrics and gynecology departments were interviewed with a questionnaire consisting of three sections: demographics, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Social Provisions Scale (SPS). Pearson’s chi-squared test, bivariate correlations and multiple linear regression were used to analyze associations between the independent variables and scores on the HADS and SPS. Results Mean age among the 500 respondents was 27.41 years (5.65). Anxiety levels in participants were categorized as normal (145 women, 29%), borderline (110, 22%) or anxious (245, 49%). Depression levels were categorized as normal (218 women, 43.6%), borderline (123, 24.6%) or depressed (159, 31.8%). Inferential analysis revealed that higher HADS scores were significantly associated with lower scores on the SPS, rural background, history of harassment, abortion, cesarean delivery and unplanned pregnancies (P < .05). Social support (SPS score) mediated the relationship between the total number of children, gender of previous children and HADS score. Women with more daughters were significantly more likely to score higher on the HADS and lower on the SPS, whereas higher numbers of sons were associated with the opposite trends in the scores (P < .05). Conclusion Because of the predominantly patriarchal sociocultural context in Pakistan, the predictors of antenatal anxiety and depression may differ from those in developed countries. We therefore suggest that interventions designed and implemented to reduce antenatal anxiety and depression should take into account these unique factors. PMID:25629925

  17. Dorcatherium majus, a Study of Upper Dentition from the Lower and Middle Siwaliks of Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farooq, Umar; Akbar Khan, Muhammad; Akhtar, Muhammad; Majid Khan, Abdul

    Dorcatherium majus, comparatively a large tragulid is studied from the Lower and Middle Siwaliks of Pakistan. D. majus is only found from the fresh water deposits along the foot hills of Himalayas. A number of localities are thoroughly visited from the Potwar Plateau of northern Pakistan and collected worth describing specimens of D. majus. Eight specimens are described in this study and all belong to the upper dentition of D. majus.

  18. Environmental impact assessment (EIA): an overlooked instrument for sustainable development in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Rashid; Sattar, Ayesha; Iqbal, Zafar; Imran, Muhammad; Nadeem, Raziya

    2012-04-01

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is a policy tool used for evaluating a project proposal from physical and socioeconomic environmental perspectives. Its aim is to reduce the impact of development on environment, hence, ensuring environmental sustainability. It is mandatory to submit an Environmental Impact Statement before starting a mega project as required by Environmental Protection Act of 1997 and Environmental Policy of Pakistan. Public consultation plays a key role in an EIA system, identifying the likely aspects and impacts of a development activity. This aspect has been ignored in effective enactment of environmental legislation in Pakistan. Sufficient legislative instruments are there to support EIA system in the country but the agencies responsible for the enforcement of environmental regulations have failed to do so. The current research gives an insight into the actual status of EIA system in Pakistan along with the feedback of EIA specialists and university teachers of the concerned departments. A new index has been devised on the basis of questionnaire response to work out the overall performance of EIA system in Pakistan or any other country. The weaknesses and deficiencies of each EIA stage have been worked out for Pakistan and elaborated with the help of the controversial Zero point Interchange Project in the capital city of Pakistan. PMID:21887481

  19. Consanguinity and Its Sociodemographic Differentials in Bhimber District, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Jabeen, Nazish

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Kashmiri population in the northeast of Pakistan has strong historical, cultural and linguistic affinities with the neighbouring populations of upper Punjab and Potohar region of Pakistan. However, the study of consanguineous unions, which are customarily practised in many populations of Pakistan, revealed marked differences between the Kashmiris and other populations of northern Pakistan with respect to the distribution of marriage types and inbreeding coefficient (F). The current descriptive epidemiological study carried out in Bhimber district of Mirpur division, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan, demonstrated that consanguineous marriages were 62% of the total marriages (F=0.0348). First-cousin unions were the predominant type of marriages and constituted 50.13% of total marital unions. The estimates of inbreeding coefficient were higher in the literate subjects, and consanguinity was witnessed to be rising with increasing literacy level. Additionally, consanguinity was observed to be associated with ethnicity, family structure, language, and marriage arrangements. Based upon these data, a distinct sociobiological structure, with increased stratification and higher genomic homozygosity, is expected for this Kashmiri population. In this communication, we present detailed distribution of the types of marital unions and the incidences of consanguinity and inbreeding coefficient (F) across various sociodemographic strata of Bhimber/Mirpuri population. The results of this study would have implication not only for other endogamous populations of Pakistan but also for the sizeable Kashmiri community immigrated to Europe. PMID:25076667

  20. Russia`s Great Game in a nuclear South Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Pilat, J.F.; Taylor, T.T.

    1998-12-31

    Lost in the noise of Pakistan`s nuclear weapon tests in the western Baluchistan desert on 28 and 30 May was a surprising diplomatic move by Russia. On 23 May, Russia became the first state to express its willingness to recognize India as a nuclear-weapon state, provided that India commits itself to the international nonproliferation regime. Russia`s Ambassador to India, Albert Chernyshev, stated in the days after the Indian but before the Pakistani nuclear tests that ``India proclaimed itself a nuclear weapons power. One now hopes that India will behave as a nuclear weapons power by acting responsibly. Every nuclear weapons state has some rights. But for getting recognition it must have some obligations. Once it is ready to show these obligations by joining the nonproliferation regime, its recognition as a nuclear weapons power will follow.`` Russia`s Great Game in South Asia in pursuit of short-term economic and other interests appears to be a serious obstacle on the path to dealing effectively with the South Asian nuclear crisis. Grave damage to security, stability and nonproliferation has already resulted from India`s and Pakistan`s actions, but the situation does not have to spiral out of control. It is imperative that the international community respond appropriately to this challenge. The international community is at a crossroads and Russia`s actions will be critical. Will it be willing to go beyond the narrow economic and political calculations reflected in its diplomatic posturing, and take actions that will serve its long-term interests by bridging differences with other great powers in order to demonstrate to India that it has not chosen the right path. If Russia decides it can gain from India`s current, perilous path and blocks or otherwise frustrates appropriate responses, the nuclear danger on the subcontinent will escalate and the global regimes to promote nonproliferation and to ban testing will be seriously, perhaps fatally, weakened with unpredictable regional and global effects.

  1. Satellite Data Give Snapshot of the 2005 Pakistan Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, Satoshi; Tobita, Mikio; Sato, Hiroshi P.; Ozawa, Shinzaburo; Une, Hiroshi; Koarai, Mamoru; Nakai, Hiroyuki; Fujiwara, Midori; Yarai, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Takuya; Hayashi, Fumi

    2006-02-01

    While it is well-known that the collision of the Indian subcontinent with the Eurasian continent forms the Himalayas, the real-time spatial crustal movement of these plates is difficult to observe. However, scientists can witness a part of this process of the formation of the Himalayas through an eye in space: synthetic aperture radar (SAR). From the European Space Agency's Envisat, a satellite with SAR, the details of crustal deformation resulting from a major earthquake-a chance snapshot of the growth of the Himalayas-has been captured. Envisat's SAR has provided important data about the northern Pakistan earthquake (M7.6) of 8 October 2005, which occurred in the Kashmir region in the northwestern part of the Himalayas.

  2. Devonian palaeobiogeographic affinities of Afghanistan and surrounding areas (Iran, Pakistan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mistiaen, B.; Brice, D.; Hubert, B. L. M.; Pinte, E.

    2015-04-01

    Palaeozoic (Devonian) outcrops in Afghanistan and neighbouring countries (Iran, Pakistan) are numerous but very sparsely distributed, and poorly known. The first interpretation, based on rare or poor data considered these North Gondwanan terranes as poorly connected and some authors have suggested the presence of large oceanic domains in palaeogeographical models. Increase in knowledge, especially of the distribution of main fossils groups, and also some lithological similarities, allow a review of the preliminary models and the identification of connections between the different terranes. For example the presence of Fistuliporid Bryozoan beds or rich Receptaculites levels in different sections of the three countries, especially in the Dasht-e Nawar and Central Iran areas, allows the preliminary models to be reviewed and the connections among the different terranes to be clarified.

  3. Protecting Pakistan's health during the global economic crisis.

    PubMed

    Jooma, R; Khan, A; Khan, A A

    2012-03-01

    The world is facing an unprecedented global economic crisis, with many countries needing to reconsider their level of health care spending. This paper explores the many consequences of the global economic turndown on Pakistan's health, including reduced government and donor spending and increased poverty with the consequent diversion of funds away from health. Nevertheless, these challenges may provide opportunities not only to mitigate the adverse effects of the economic crisis but also to institute some much-needed reforms that may not receive political support during more affluent times. Our suggestions focus on setting priorities based on the national disease burden, prioritizing prevention interventions, demanding results, curbing corruption, experimenting with innovative funding mechanisms, advocating for increased funding by presenting health spending as an investment rather than an expense and by selected recourse to civil society interventions and philanthropy to bridge the gap between available and needed resources. PMID:22574485

  4. Copper, lead, zinc, antimony, and arsenic in Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Max Gregg

    1975-01-01

    Copper localities that merit geological investigation are found in the western Chasai District, in North Waziristan Agency, and in the Salt Range in Mianwali and Sargodha Districts. No high-grade deposits have been .reported from these ,areas and if deposits are developed they will likely be low-grade, high-tonnage, disseminated deposits. Those localities reported from Chitral State are too remote and inaccessible to be of interest now. All lead localities found to date are of minor importance; there has been small production at one .locality in Chasai District and in the southern part of the Hazara District. Zinc, antimony, and arsenic are sparse in Pakistan and no important localities of these metals are reported.

  5. Vespidae (Hymenoptera) of the Pothwar region of Punjab, Pakistan .

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Junaid Ali; Bodlah, Imran; Carpenter, James M; Naeem, Muhammad; Ahmad, Munir; Bodlah, Muhammad Adnan

    2015-01-01

    Six genera and nine species of Eumeninae (Eumenes punctatus de Saussure, E. papillarius (Christ), Delta dimidiatipenne (de Saussure), D. p. pyriforme (Fabricius), D. esuriens (Fabricius), Rhynchium brunneum (Fabricius), Anterhynchium abdominale (Illiger), Antepipona sibilans (Cameron), Allorhynchium argentatum (Fabricius)) , two genera and six species of Polistinae (Polistes wattii (Cameron), P. olivaceus (De Geer), P. rothneyi carletoni van der Vecht, P. indicus Stolfa), Ropalidia brevita Das & Gupta, R. cyathiformis (Fabricius), and one genus and four species of Vespinae (Vespa basalis Smith, V, orientalis Linnaeus, V, tropica (Linnaeus), V. velutina Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau) are recorded from Pothwar region. Eumenes punctatus and E. papillarius are newly recorded from Pakistan. An illustrated keys to subfamilies, genera and species are given.  PMID:25661959

  6. Mother's milk and pseudoscientific breastmilk testing in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Mull, D S

    1992-06-01

    In urban squatter settlements and rural villages of Pakistan, human breastmilk is regarded as a potential source of destruction as well as of nurturance. Though it is highly valued as crucial for infant survival, it is also thought susceptible to becoming tainted in many ways: by a 'shadow' from the spirit world; by 'evil eye' or black magic due to others' envy; by the effects of a new pregnancy; by the mother's illness or 'weakness'; by her exposure to excessive cold or heat; by her dietary indiscretions. In any of these circumstances, women may stop breastfeeding to prevent illness in the nursing child. Sometimes the stoppage is temporary, brief, and has no serious consequences. When the mother is pregnant, however, it is permanent. Further, if a child is sickly, cries a great deal, has prolonged diarrhea, or seems reluctant to suck, mothers frequently become alarmed and suspect irreversible breastmilk 'poisoning'. In the latter case, a folk healer has traditionally been consulted to test the milk's quality, but in recent years pathology laboratories have increasingly taken on this function in all of the major cities in Pakistan. Not only does the mother stop breastfeeding while the milk is being tested, but often she is unable or unwilling to resume nursing even if the milk is eventually pronounced safe to drink. This manifestation of inappropriate, child-endangering technology has gained acceptance partly because of maternal anxieties heightened by commercially-driven pressures to be 'modern' and partly because of its congruence with traditional ideas surrounding breastmilk, many of which have classical antecedents. PMID:1641686

  7. Optimum predictors of therapeutic outcome in HCV patients in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Hafsa; Raza, Abida; Irfan, Javaid

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) constitutes a major public health issue in Pakistan. Interferon ? and ribavirin is used widely in routine practice in HCV infected patients in Pakistan.Treatment prediction is an important tool in therapy management. The present study aims to evaluate trends of predictive variables of treatment outcome in patients with different genotypes. The analysis comprised of 921 patients infected with different HCV genotypes. All the patients received IFN ?-2b combined with ribavirin for 24 weeks. Overall, 60.2% patients achieved Sustained virologic response (SVR). In females sustained virologic response (SVR) was higher in age group <40 years (77.2%) than ?40-50years (60%) but in male SVR was almost equal in both age groups. We also found higher SVR with low pretreatment viral load (72.4%, P?

  8. Measurements and analysis of air quality in Islamabad, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasheed, Anjum; Aneja, Viney P.; Aiyyer, Anantha; Rafique, Uzaira

    2014-06-01

    Ambient air quality of Islamabad, Pakistan, reveals that annual average mass concentration of particulate matter (PM2.5) (˜45 to ˜95 µg m-3) and nitric oxide (NO) (˜41 to ˜120 µg m-3) exceeds the Pakistan's National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS). The annual ozone (O3) concentration is within the permissible limits; however, some of the hourly concentration exceeds the NEQS mostly during the summer months. Correlation studies suggest that carbon monoxide (CO) has a significant (p-value ? 0.01) positive correlation with NO and NOy'; whereas, with O3, a significant (p-value ? 0.01) negative correlation is observed. The regression analysis estimates the background CO concentration to be ˜300 to ˜600 ppbv in Islamabad. The higher ratio of CO/NO (˜10) suggests that mobile sources are the major contributor to NO concentration. On the other hand, the ratio analysis of sulfur dioxide (SO2)/NO for Islamabad (˜0.011) indicates that the point sources are contributing to SO2 in the city. NO and SO2 correlation indicates contribution of direct sulfur emission sources. Ratios of [CO] to [NO] and [SO2] to [NO], based on ambient air quality measurements, provide a test for emission inventories. The ratios of these pollutants in the available Islamabad emission inventories are consistent with ambient values for these pollutants. The correlation of PM2.5 and NO suggests that a fraction of secondary PM2.5 is produced by chemical conversion of NO into nitrates. The regional background O3 concentration for Islamabad has been determined to be ˜31 ppbv. This study suggests that there is an increase in O3 concentration with increases in photochemical conversion of NO to reservoir NOy' species.

  9. Successful Community Midwives in Pakistan: An Asset-Based Approach

    PubMed Central

    Mumtaz, Zubia; Levay, Adrienne V.; Bhatti, Afshan

    2015-01-01

    In response to the low levels of skilled birth attendance in rural Pakistan, the government introduced a new cadre of community midwives (CMWs) in 2006. Assessments to-date have found that these CMWs have yet to emerge as significant providers for a number of sociocultural, geographic and financial reasons. However, a small number of CMWs have managed to establish functional practices in the private sector in conservative, infrastructure-challenged rural contexts. With an objective to highlight “what are the successful CMWs doing right given their context?” this paper adopts an asset-based approach to explore the experiences of the Pakistani CMWs who have managed to overcome the barriers and practice. We drew upon ethnographic data that was collected as part of a larger mixed methods study conducted in 2011–2012 in districts Jhelum and Layyah, Pakistan. Thirty eight CMWs, 45 other health care providers, 20 policymakers, 78 women, 35 husbands and 23 older women were interviewed. CMW clinics and practices were observed. Our data showed that only eight 8 out of 38 CMWs sampled were active providers. Poverty as a push factor to work and intrinsic individual-level characteristics that enabled the CMWs to respond successfully to the demands of the midwifery profession in the private sector emerged as the two key themes. Household poverty pushed the CMWs to work in this perceived low-status occupation. Their families supported them since they became the breadwinners. The successful CMWs also had an intrinsic sense of what was required to establish a private practice; they exhibited professionalism, had strong business sense and provided respectful maternity care. The study provides insight into how the program might improve its functioning by adapting its recruitment criteria to ensure selection of right candidates. PMID:26333067

  10. Evaluation of Pakistan wheat germplasms for stripe rust resistance using molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Sobia, Tabassum; Muhammad, Ashraf; Chen, XianMing

    2010-09-01

    Wheat production in Pakistan is seriously constrained due to rust diseases and stripe rust (yellow) caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, which could limit yields. Thus development and cultivation of genetically diverse and resistant varieties is the most sustainable solution to overcome these diseases. The first objective of the present study was to evaluate 100 Pakistan wheat cultivars that have been grown over the past 60 years. These cultivars were inoculated at the seedling stage with two virulent stripe rust isolates from the United States and two from Pakistan. None of the wheat cultivars were resistant to all tested stripe rust isolates, and 16% of cultivars were susceptible to the four isolates at the seedling stage. The data indicated that none of the Pakistan wheat cultivars contained either Yr5 or Yr15 genes that were considered to be effective against most P. striiformis f. sp. tritici isolates from around the world. Several Pakistan wheat cultivars may have gene Yr10, which is effective against isolate PST-127 but ineffective against PST-116. It is also possible that these cultivars may have other previously unidentified genes or gene combinations. The second objective was to evaluate the 100 Pakistan wheat cultivars for stripe rust resistance during natural epidemics in Pakistan and Washington State, USA. It was found that a higher frequency of resistance was present under field conditions compared with greenhouse conditions. Thirty genotypes (30% of germplasms) were found to have a potentially high temperature adult plant (HTAP) resistance. The third objective was to determine the genetic diversity in Pakistan wheat germplasms using molecular markers. This study was based on DNA fingerprinting using resistance gene analog polymorphism (RGAP) marker analysis. The highest polymorphism detected with RGAP primer pairs was 40%, 50% and 57% with a mean polymorphism of 36%. A total of 22 RGAP markers were obtained in this study. RGAP, simple sequence repeat (SSR) and sequence tagged site (STS) markers were used to determine the presence and absence of some important stripe rust resistance genes, such as Yr5, Yr8, Yr9, Yr15 and Yr18. Of the 60 cultivars analyzed, 17% of cultivars showed a RGAP marker band for Yr9 and 12% of cultivars exhibited the Yr18 marker band. No marker band was detected for Yr5, Yr8 and Yr15, indicating a likely absence of these genes in the tested Pakistan wheat cultivars. Cluster analysis based on molecular and stripe rust reaction data is useful in identifying considerable genetic diversity among Pakistan wheat cultivars. The resistant germplasms identified with 22 RGAP markers and from the resistance evaluations should be useful in developing new wheat cultivars with stripe rust resistance. PMID:21104373

  11. Unroofing history of a suture zone in the Himalaya of Pakistan by means of fission-track annealing ages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zeitler, P.K.; Tahirkheli, R.A.K.; Naeser, C.W.; Johnson, N.M.

    1982-01-01

    The uplift history of the Swat Valley and Hazara region of northwestern Pakistan has been established using 22 fission-track dates on apatite, zircon and sphene. A major fault, the Main Mantle Thrust (MMT) strikes east-west across the Swat Valley, separates regions of markedly differing fission-track age regimesm, and may be a suture zone separating an extinct island arc terrane on the north from the Indian plate to the south. Fission-track ages ranging from about 55 to 58 m.y. for sphene, 18 to 53 m.y. for zircon, and 9 to 17 m.y. for apatite were obtained from the region north of the MMT. To the south the fission-track age ranges are 20 to 25 m.y. for sphene, 17 to 26 m.y. for zircon, and 16 to 23 m.y. for apatite. Disparate zircon and sphene ages on each side of the MMT imply different cooling histories for each side of the fault prior to 15 m.y. Similar apatite ages on both sides of the fault imply similar cooling histories during the past 15 m.y. This may indicate that faulting ceased by 15 m.y. Mean uplift rates have been derived from the fission-track data using mainly the mineral-pair method. Uplift rates in the region north of the MMT increased from 0.07 to 0.20 mm/yr during the period 55 to 15 m.y. South of the fault, uplift rates averaged in excess of 0.70 mm/yr for the period 25 to 15 m.y. During the past 15 m.y. uplift across the MMT in the Swat Valley showsno discontinuities, ranging from 0.16 mm/yr in the south to 0.39 mm/yr in the north. A plausible interpretation for the fission-track uplift data has the MMT verging to the south with overthrusting taking place at a depth between 3.5 and 6.0 km, juxtaposing two terranes that were originally separated by a substantial, but unknown distance. In this model, regional uplift followed cessation of faulting just prior to 15 m.y. ?? 1982.

  12. Anatomy of success in oil and gas exploration in Pakistan, 1915--94

    SciTech Connect

    Quadri, V.N.; Quadri, S.M.G.J.

    1996-05-13

    Pakistan, flanked by Iran, Afghanistan, China, and India, is the size of Texas and Louisiana combined. The Indus and Baluchistan basins cover 80% of Pakistan`s total area. The country also has 230,000 sq km of marine Exclusive Economic Zone. The law regarding E and P activity was promulgated in 1986, replacing the previous Petroleum (Production) Rules of 1949. As a result of the new Petroleum Policy implemented in March 1994 and streamlining of the bid review and award process, acreage leased including reconnaissance during 1994 was 355,541 sq km onshore and 120,640 sq km offshore, with the number of operating groups also a record high of 46. Although complex and disturbed as a result of collision tectonics, Pakistan`s geology is as fascinating as the surface geomorphology, from the complex compressional thrusted to the relatively simple extensional rifted, salt related to transform fault associated, the reefs, too, all impressive traps for petroleum, at times almost textbook examples. However, domestic oil production at yearend 1994 was about 53,251 b/d of oil and 1.7 bcfd of gas. Oil and gas have been found in the Potwar/Upper Indus basin and Lower Indus basin, and mainly gas with one gas/condensate discovery in the Sulaiman/Middle Indus basin. This article attempts to present brief case history outlines of typical, significant oil and gas discoveries of Pakistan 1915--94 with respect to the two main productive basins, their source and reservoir sequences, in order to determine the anatomy of success in exploration in Pakistan.

  13. Prospects of gold mineralization in the Gilgit-Baltistan Province of Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, M. T.; Khan, S. D.; Tahirkheli, T.; Ahmad, L.; Miandad, S.; Rehman, A. U.; Ali, L.

    2012-12-01

    Gilgit-Baltistan province is the northern most province of Pakistan having its eastern, northern and western boarders with India, China and Afghanistan respectively. The geology of this province is unique as it has the spectacular tectonic entities of Asiatic plate (AP), Indian plate (IP) and the Kohistan-Ladakh arc (KLA). The Northern Suture Zone (NSZ) or Main Karakoram Thrust (MKT) separate the KLA from AP in the north while the Maim Mantle Thrust (MMT) separate the KLA from IP in the south. These different tectonic events have generated various types of igneous and metamorphic rocks in the form of gigantic mountain chains in the region. Considering the metallogenic provinces related to such types of tectonic environments world over, it can be suggested that the Gigit-Baltistan province may have the potential for the occurrence of economic mineral deposits. The present study is the follow-up of the previous studies for exploration of gold and base metals conducted by the Austrominerals and the Pakistan Mineral Development Corporation (PMDC) in the region. On the basis of PMDC extensive stream sediments geochemical survey of the province and delineated number of anomalous catchment areas for gold mineralization. In order to find the source bed-rock of gold, we have identified various alteration zones in these catchment areas by applying Remote sensing techniques by using both multispectral (LANDSAT, ASTER and Geoeye) and hyperspectral (Hyperion) data. Most of the alteration zones were found in steep high altitude inaccessible terrains. During this study, few of the accessible alteration zones in Golo Das, Bagrot valley, Shigri Bala, Machulu and Ranthak areas were selected for geological filed work and collection of proper samples from the alteration zones and host rocks for the identification of possible gold mineralization. In all these localities, the alteration zones are present along shear zones where the sulfide mineralization commonly occurs in the form of mainly pyrite and chalcopyrite with subordinate amount of bornite and tetrahedrite. Surface leaching of these phases to malachite, azurite and limonite is common. Quartz veining, silicification, carbonization and at places brecciation are the common features of these alteration zones. The concentrations of gold were found in the range of 3ppb to 112ppb, <5- 95ppb, 1ppb to 545ppb, 1ppb to 385 and 1ppb to 318ppb in the alteration zones of Golo Das, Bagrot valley, Shigri Bala, Machulu and Ranthak areas respectively. The barren rock samples have generally <5ppb gold. This is indicative of the multi-times enrichment of gold in the alteration zones. The sulfide mineralization along with gold in the alteration zones could be attributed to the hydrothermal/epithermal activity involving meteoric, igneous and or metamorphic fluid individually or mixture of these. The occurrence of dioritic intrusions (igneous fluid source) and the transitional dilated zones (metamorphic fluid source) on the major reactivated thrust fault (i.e., NSZ) in the vicinity of these alteration zones strengthen these observations. However, isotopic studies are underway to solve this problem. This study suggests that the alteration zones in the studied areas have the potential to be explored in detail for possible economical gold mineralization.

  14. Concordance between Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL-10) and Pakistan Anxiety and Depression Questionnaire (PADQ), in a rural self-motivated population in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Syed, Hammad Raza; Zachrisson, Henrik Daae; Dalgard, Odd Steffen; Dalen, Ingvild; Ahlberg, Nora

    2008-01-01

    Background There have been no previous studies conducted in Pakistan comparing the concordance of any well established Western anxiety/depression screening instrument with an indigenous scale, in a community based setting. Methods Participants (n = 1040) in the present study were recruited from the six villages of our interest from the district Gujarat of Pakistan, using a convenient sampling technique. Interview versions of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist 10-item version (HSCL-10) and the Pakistani Anxiety and Depression Questionnaire (PADQ) were used to observe the pattern of anxiety and depression among the participants. Results The internal consistency of HSCL-10 and PADQ were 0.86 and 0.84 respectively. Exploratory factor analysis found evidence for both a one-dimensional (distress) and a two-dimensional (anxiety and depression) solution for the HSCL-10, but only a one-dimensional (distress) solution for the PADQ. The HSCL-10 and PADQ found to be moderately to highly correlated (r = 0.62, p < 0.0001, 0.73 after correction for attenuation). Conclusion HSCL-10 has shown good screening abilities in a rural setting in Pakistan, and moderate to good concordance with an indigenous instrument measuring psychological distress. The HSCL-10 can therefore be used as a screening instrument, both in clinical and epidemiological settings in Pakistan, and for Pakistani immigrants living in Western societies. PMID:18647394

  15. Promoting Space Education and Awareness in Pakistan- Initiatives, Achievements, Challenges and Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagirani, Aisha

    With about 180 million inhabitants, Pakistan is the sixth most populous and the 34th largest country in the world in terms of area. Pakistan's economy, which is pre-dominantly based on agriculture, is the 26th largest in the world in terms of purchasing power parity and 45th largest in terms of nominal GDP. Pakistan is counted among the Next Eleven (N11) countries that have the potential to become the world's largest economies in the 21st century. Despite considerable potential to develop into a stable, moderate and democratic state, major challenges of internal security, poor agricultural productivity, inadequate infrastructure, food insecurity, insufficient health and educational facilities, depletion of natural resources, rapid environmental degradation and recurring natural disasters have burdened the country and have hampered sustainable development of Pakistan. Space technology applications offer a cost-effective means of addressing many of the above mentioned issues and have made impressive advances in the last few years in different countries in the region. Unfortunately, for various reasons, Pakistan has not been able to fully exploit the benefits of space technology and its applications to meet the challenges she faces. One of the reasons is lack of awareness and understanding by planners, decision-makers and users about the potential benefits of space technology in planning and implementation of developmental plans as well as good governance. Similarly, Pakistan's space program enjoys little public support due, primarily, to lack of awareness of the benefits space offers and the ubiquitousness of space applications in modern life. There is thus an acute need to create awareness and educate all segments of the society and stakeholders in Pakistan about the potential benefits of space technology and its applications. In the past ten years, many initiatives have been taken to promote space education and awareness for students as well as decision-makers in Pakistan. These include establishment of space science departments in universities, developing space-specific educational institutes, cooperation and collaboration between universities and SUPARCO, outreach to schools, and holding of short courses, seminars and symposia. To create awareness among the general public, efforts are being made to air programs on the electronic media. This paper covers achievements of Pakistan in promoting space education and awareness in the country and the related issues and impediments to pursue these programs.

  16. Evaluative Study of M.A. Education Programmes of Teacher Education at Higher Education Level in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fatima, Jabeen; Naseer Ud Din, Muhammad

    2010-01-01

    The study was aimed at evaluating the MA Education Programme of teacher education in Pakistan. Post-graduate teacher's training institutes in Pakistan grant the Master of Education (MA/M.Ed.), Master of Philosophy (M.Phil) and Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D) post-graduate degrees in the field of education to enhance the careers and accelerate the…

  17. Smoking behavior among 14-17 year old students: a comparison between Pakistan and the UK.

    PubMed

    Husain, M O; Duddu, V; Husain, M; Drury, A; Chaudhry, N; Husain, N

    2012-01-01

    Smoking is a major public problem concern the world over. It is one of the major preventable causes of premature death and disease in the world. Fourteen to seventeen year olds are among a vulnerable group of individuals in society and susceptible to cigarette smoking. Older students act as role models to younger pupils and could influence smoking behavior. In a cross-sectional study we compared the differences in smoking between high school students in Pakistan and the United Kingdom. A self-administered anonymous questionnaire, adapted from a WHO questionnaire about tobacco smoking, was distributed to the students. In the UK, 235 participants were recruited; 16% (n = 38) were regular smokers. In Pakistan, 350 participants were recruited; 17% (n = 58) were regular smokers. In both countries males were significantly more likely to smoke. Reasons for smoking varied between the UK and Pakistan. In the UK, the majority smoked for recreational or social purposes and in Pakistan peer pressure played the major role. Beliefs regarding smoking were similar between the two countries. The lifetime prevalence of smoking was higher in the UK, but more students in Pakistan smoked daily. There were important differences in the smoking patterns between the two countries, which have potential public health implications. PMID:23082573

  18. Pharmaceuticals--strategic considerations in health reforms in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Nishtar, Sania

    2006-12-01

    Pharmaceuticals are critical to the functioning of healthcare systems which require a sustainable supply of quality, efficacious, and safe essential medicines. With this as a context, the Gateway Paper in its capacity as a suggested roadmap for health reforms within Pakistan stressed on the need for a pharmaceutical policy to be directed towards improving people's access to medicines; within this framework a number of issues have been highlighted. Weaknesses in the current legislation on drugs, in particular gaps, which have emerged contemporaneously with reference to the post WTO situation and the technology boom, have been discussed and the incongruity between the drug policies and policies in the other sectors addressed. The Gateway Paper makes a strong case to establish a statutory semi-autonomous drug regulatory authority in order to ensure stricter implementation of the Drug Law, which needs to be amended to bridge the current gaps. The paper lays emphasis on a formal quality assurance mechanism and the need to build capacity to implement regulation in this regard. Lack of clarity in the current pricing formula has been flagged as a key issue and the need highlighted to develop a pricing formula that is predictable, transparent and acceptable to the stakeholders, yet one that does not create access and affordability issues for the poor and disadvantaged. The paper addresses gaps in the process of drug registration in Pakistan and stresses on the need to redefine its scope and ensure its stricter enforcement. Unethical market practices and irrational use of drugs have been discussed and the need for transparently implementing standard operating procedures for drug selecting, procurement, storage, dispensing and rational prescribing and the introduction of appropriate evidence based education, managerial and regulatory interventions in this regard, highlighted. The myriad of reasons which lead to the shortage of drugs and to the mushrooming of spurious, counterfeit and sub-standard drugs in the market have also been the subject of discussion as have been issues relating to the present size and utilization of the National Essential Drug List. PMID:17595837

  19. Benthic Nitrogen Loss in the Arabian Sea Off Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Sokoll, Sarah; Holtappels, Moritz; Lam, Phyllis; Collins, Gavin; Schlüter, Michael; Lavik, Gaute; Kuypers, Marcel M. M.

    2012-01-01

    A pronounced deficit of nitrogen (N) in the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the Arabian Sea suggests the occurrence of heavy N-loss that is commonly attributed to pelagic processes. However, the OMZ water is in direct contact with sediments on three sides of the basin. Contribution from benthic N-loss to the total N-loss in the Arabian Sea remains largely unassessed. In October 2007, we sampled the water column and surface sediments along a transect cross-cutting the Arabian Sea OMZ at the Pakistan continental margin, covering a range of station depths from 360 to 1430?m. Benthic denitrification and anammox rates were determined by using 15N-stable isotope pairing experiments. Intact core incubations showed declining rates of total benthic N-loss with water depth from 0.55 to 0.18?mmol?N?m?2?day?1. While denitrification rates measured in slurry incubations decreased from 2.73 to 1.46?mmol?N?m?2?day?1 with water depth, anammox rates increased from 0.21 to 0.89?mmol?N?m?2?day?1. Hence, the contribution from anammox to total benthic N-loss increased from 7% at 360?m to 40% at 1430?m. This trend is further supported by the quantification of cd1-containing nitrite reductase (nirS), the biomarker functional gene encoding for cytochrome cd1-Nir of microorganisms involved in both N-loss processes. Anammox-like nirS genes within the sediments increased in proportion to total nirS gene copies with water depth. Moreover, phylogenetic analyses of NirS revealed different communities of both denitrifying and anammox bacteria between shallow and deep stations. Together, rate measurement and nirS analyses showed that anammox, determined for the first time in the Arabian Sea sediments, is an important benthic N-loss process at the continental margin off Pakistan, especially in the sediments at deeper water depths. Extrapolation from the measured benthic N-loss to all shelf sediments within the basin suggests that benthic N-loss may be responsible for about half of the overall N-loss in the Arabian Sea. PMID:23226143

  20. Liberalising trade in health services: constraints and prospects for South Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Khatun, Fahmida; Ahamad, Mazbahul

    2015-01-01

    This paper attempts to examine the prospects and challenges associated with liberalising trade in health services in five South Asian countries, namely Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Country-specific secondary information, a brief literature review of empirical studies and debriefing sessions with key stakeholders are employed to explore the issues related to liberalising health services trade. The health sectors in India, Nepal and Pakistan are scheduled under General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) classification, whereas those in Bangladesh and Sri Lanka are not. In Bangladesh, there is opportunity for investment in joint venture hospitals under Mode 3. Nonetheless, India is the largest trader in health services under all four modes. In Sri Lanka, cross-border trade in healthcare services is found to be insignificant. Moreover, expertise in eye treatment in Nepal could also attract foreign investment in medical services under Mode 3. In contrast, Pakistan exhibits no potential under Mode 4, because of a lack of healthcare professionals. In this view, the prospects of trade in health services within the South Asian region under the four GATS modes are constrained by infrastructural, regulatory, perception-related, logistical and cultural problems. Considering the level of development and commercial opportunities, regional integration in the health sector could be explored in such areas as telemedicine, medical tourism, cross-border investment and capacity building of health personnel. These developments call for stronger and pro-active government-to-government collaboration in the South Asian Association of Regional Cooperation (SAARC) region in a transparent and accountable manner. PMID:23852984

  1. The tectonic development of south-central Asia and the paleogeographic setting of its hydrocarbon resources

    SciTech Connect

    Scotese, C.R. ); Tyrell, W.W. Jr. ); Maher, K.A. )

    1990-05-01

    The countries of south-central Asia (Afghanistan to Thailand) are made up of fragments of Gondwana that collided with the southern margin of Eurasia during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic. The Cimmerian terranes (Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan, Qiang Tang, and Burma-Malaya) rifted away from Gondwana beginning in the Late Carboniferous and were accreted to Asia during the Late Triassic-Jurassic. The Lhasa terrane, presumably also derived from Gondwana, was accreted during the Late Jurassic. By the Early Cretaceous, India-Madagascar had separated from Africa and from Australia-Antarctica. In the middle Cretaceous, India rapidly rifted away from Madagascar, and during the early Eocene collided with Asia giving rise to the Tibetam Plateau and the mountain belts from Afghanistan through Burma. The sedimentary basins and petroleum provinces adjacent to and south of these collision zones are best understood when viewed in the context of their tectonic history and paleogeographic setting. About 7 billion bbl of oil and 50 tcf of gas have been discovered in south-central Asia, mostly in Cenozoic deltaic sandstones or marine carbonate reservoirs in rift (Cambay), passive margin (Bombay shelf), and foreland basins (Assam, Indux, Potwar, Bengal) in India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, and in a fore-arc setting in Burma. Source rocks are mostly Paleogene shale, but some Paleozoic and Mesozoic sources be present in Pakistan. New exploration is underway or will begin soon in India, Bangladesh, Nepal, and Burma.

  2. Professional Travel in Pakistan Pakistan is located in the South Asia and is bordered by China to the north, Afghanistan and Iran on the

    E-print Network

    Chen, Deming

    language is Urdu, however, English is the official language and commonly spoken. Religion is a very status. · Be sure to study the business card before placing it into your business card holder Gift Giving · If invited to a Pakistani's home, bring the hostess a small gift such as flowers or good quality chocolates

  3. Achievements of the FIGO Initiative for the Prevention of Unsafe Abortion and its Consequences in South-Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Shahida; Begum, Ferdousi; Tank, Jaydeep; Chaudhury, Pushpa; Yasmin, Haleema; Dissanayake, Mangala

    2014-07-01

    Since 2008, the FIGO Initiative for the Prevention of Unsafe Abortion and its Consequences has contributed to ensuring the substitution of sharp curettage by manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) and medical abortion in selected hospitals in participating countries of South-Southeast Asia. This initiative facilitated the registration of misoprostol in Pakistan and Bangladesh, and the approval of mifepristone for "menstrual regulation" in Bangladesh. The Pakistan Nursing Council agreed to include MVA and medical abortion in the midwifery curriculum. The Bangladesh Government has approved the training of nurses and paramedics in the use of MVA to treat incomplete abortion in selected cases. The Sri Lanka College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, in collaboration with partners, has presented a draft petition to the relevant authorities appealing for them to liberalize the abortion law in cases of rape and incest or when lethal congenital abnormalities are present. Significantly, the initiative has introduced or strengthened the provision of postabortion contraception. PMID:24743025

  4. A brief review on dengue molecular virology, diagnosis, treatment and prevalence in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Dengue virus infection is a serious health problem infecting 2.5 billion people worldwide. Dengue is now endemic in more than 100 countries, including Pakistan. Each year hundreds of people get infected with dengue in Pakistan. Currently, there is no vaccine available for the prevention of Dengue virus infection due to four viral serotypes. Dengue infection can cause death of patients in its most severity, meanwhile many antiviral compounds are being tested against dengue virus infection to eradicate this disease but still there is a need to develop an efficient, low-cost and safe vaccine that can target all the four serotypes of dengue virus. This review summarizes dengue molecular virology, important drug targets, prevalence in Pakistan, diagnosis, treatment and medicinal plant inhibitors against dengue. PMID:22929369

  5. Spatio-temporal variations of b-value in and around north Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Khaista; Ali, Asghar; Ahmed, Sajjad; Ali, Wajid; Ali, Aamir; Khan, Muhammad Younis

    2015-10-01

    The seismotectonic structure of north Pakistan has been formed by ongoing collision between the Eurasian and Indian plates. North Pakistan and the adjoining areas experienced many large earthquakes in the past, which resulted in considerable damages and loss of life. A magnitude-homogenous earthquake catalogue for north Pakistan and its surrounding areas for the instrumental period from 1964 to 2007 is used for analysis. We presented seismicity picture of the Hindukush-Pamir-Karakoram (HPK), Kohistan Island Arc (KIA) and Hazara-Kashmir-Himalayas (HKH) using various histograms and time series plots of the dataset. The b-value for each accreted domain is derived separately and investigated through a process of mutual correlation. Our computed temporal variation of b-value in Hazara region shows a significant decrease prior to 2005 Kashmir earthquake.

  6. The Tasman Spirit oil spill: implications for regulatory change in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Mian, Saima; Bennett, Suzan

    2009-07-01

    An oil spill in July 2003 from the tanker Tasman Spirit attracted considerable public and media attention in Pakistan. This paper focuses on the experience of a developing country such as Pakistan in dealing with a major oil spill and its impact on bringing about change in the national regulatory framework. A major outcome has been the ratification of the International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage 1992, which came into force in March 2006 in Pakistan. The convention provides a compensation mechanism for victims incurring oil pollution damages from maritime casualties involving oil laden ships. Several additional changes are still required to improve the country's ability to cope with marine oil spills. These include the development of a comprehensive domestic regulatory framework, implementation of an effective contingency plan, and capacity building of all relevant agencies. PMID:19178550

  7. Genetic diversity of circulating Saffold viruses in Pakistan and Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Naeem, Asif; Hosomi, Takushi; Nishimura, Yorihiro; Alam, Muhammad Masroor; Oka, Tomoichiro; Zaidi, Syed Sohail Zahoor; Shimizu, Hiroyuki

    2014-09-01

    Human cardioviruses or Saffold viruses (SAFVs) of the family Picornaviridae are newly emerging viruses whose genetic and phenotypic diversity are poorly understood. We report here the full genome sequence of 11 SAFV genotypes from Pakistan and Afghanistan, along with a re-evaluation of their genetic diversity and recombination. We detected 88 SAFV from stool samples of 943 acute flaccid paralysis cases using reverse transcriptase-PCR targeting the 5' untranslated region (UTR). Further characterization based on complete VP1 analysis revealed 71 SAFVs belonging to 11 genotypes, including three previously unidentified genotypes. SAFV showed high genetic diversity and recombination based on phylogenetic, pairwise distance distributions and recombination mapping analyses performed herein. Phylogenies based on non-structural and UTRs were highly incongruent indicating frequent recombination events among SAFVs. We improved the SAFV genotyping classification criteria by determining new VP1 thresholds based on the principles used for the classification of enteroviruses. For genotype assignment, we propose a threshold of 23 and 10?% divergence for VP1 nucleotide and amino acid sequences, respectively. Other members of the species Theilovirus, such as Thera virus and Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus, are difficult to classify in the same species as SAFV, because they are genetically distinct from SAFV, with 41-56?% aa pairwise distances. The new genetic information obtained in this study will improve our understanding of the evolution and classification of SAFV. PMID:24899154

  8. Geodynamic Implications for the 8 October 2005 North Pakistan Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Prosanta K.; Mohanty, S.; Mohanty, M.

    2010-01-01

    We propose here that the 8 October 2005 North Pakistan earthquake occurred beneath the wedge-top of Balakot Formation in the Hazara-Kashmir syntaxial area. Slip occurred along the Muzaffarabad thrust, a southeast extended part of the Indus-Kohistan seismic zone. Tectonic loading of the high-density wedge/thrust sheet between the wedge-top and the descending Indian lithosphere coupled with continued flexural tectonics provoked this earthquake. The obliquely converging Indian plate along with block rotations led to development of a pinned zone around Northwestern Syntaxis of the Himalayas. Strain adjustment related to the rotational deformation processes resulted in the buckling of the more competent rock-units sandwiched between the less competent rock-units around the Hazara-Kashmir syntaxis. The western limb of the buckled unit gave rise to the development of thrusts and associated oblique slip in the inner arc of the competent rock-unit. The observations demonstrate reactivated tectonic movement along the growing fracture-tip of the buried Riasi thrust.

  9. Emergency blood transfusion services after the 2005 earthquake in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Mujeeb, S A; Jaffery, S H

    2007-01-01

    Background On 8 October 2005, an earthquake measuring 7.6 on the Richter Scale struck the Himalayan region of Kashmir and Hazara divisions, killing an estimated 73?000 people. Soon after, a situation and response analysis of the emergency blood transfusion services was carried out in the affected areas to ascertain specific needs and suggest appropriate measures to assist in the disaster plan. Method A semistructured questionnaire, complete with a checklist and participatory observation method, was used to collect data between 12 and 20 October 2005. Study sites were Abbotabad, Mansehra and Muzzafarabad in Pakistan, and interviewees were surgeons and blood bank personnel. Results Of the seven major hospitals in the area, 3 (43%) had a functional blood transfusion service. Although supply of voluntary blood was abundant, shortage of individual blood groups was noted at each centre. Quality assurance standards were either non?existent or inadequate. Only three blood banks had refrigerators, but with limited storage capacities. A complete breakdown of infrastructure coupled with frequent power failures posed a serious threat to safety of the blood. The continued aftershocks added to the problems. Although initial estimates of blood requirement were high, actual demand noted later was much lower. Discussion Timely establishment of blood banks in disaster areas, is a challenging task. Mobile blood banks can be advantageous in such situations. Organisation at a national level for blood transfusion services and development of a minimum standard of quality assurance in normal times should ensure safe emergency blood transfusion services when disaster strikes. PMID:17183037

  10. Epidote from the Zard Mountains, Kharan, Balochistan, Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Lowers, Heather; Betterton, William K.

    2013-01-01

    The authors received two unusual crystals of epidote from Rock Currier, Jewel Tunnel Imports, in 2012. The mineral specimens were collected at Zard Mountain (Zard Koh), in the central part of the Ruskoh Mountains (Rusk Koh), west of Kharan, Balochistan, Pakistan (written communication, Rock Currier, 2013). The epidote locality was most likely discovered in 2010. These epidote crystals were unusual in both form and composition. The large crystals were flat tabular and pseudohexagonal in shape which is an uncommon crystal form for a monoclinic mineral (fig. 1). Other specimens from the same locality have been described as pseudo-octahedral in shape. The two crystals range in size from 5.5 to 6.5 centimeters (2.2 to 2.6 inches) and are slightly magnetic. The epidote crystals have a core matrix that resembles a weathered igneous rock. Some micro brown- to reddish-titanite crystals were observed under a binocular microscope on the surface and core areas of the crystals (figs. 2 and 3). Other minerals observed in the core areas include feldspar, biotite, and quartz. The crystals display evidence of cluster-growth with points of attachment to other crystals. The epidotes were most likely collected in pockets of a weathered igneous-skarn deposit.

  11. Pfcrt Gene in Plasmodium falciparum Field Isolates from Muzaffargarh, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Sahar, Sumrin; Tanveer, Akhtar; Ali, Akbar; Bilal, Hazrat; Muhammad Saleem, Rana

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was to identify the prevalence of different species of Plasmodium and haplotypes of pfcrt in Plasmodium falciparum from the selected area. Methods: Overall, 10,372 blood films of suspected malarial patients were examined microscopically from rural health center Sinawan, district Muzaffargarh, Pakistan from November 2008 to November 2010. P. falciparum positive samples (both whole blood and FTA blood spotted cards) were used for DNA extraction. Nested PCR was used to amplify the pfcrt (codon 72–76) gene fragment. Sequencing was carried out to find the haplotypes in the amplified fragment of pfcrt gene. Result: Over all slide positivity rate (SPR), P. vivax and P. falciparum positivity rate was 21.40 %, 19.37 % and 2.03% respectively. FTA blood spotted cards were equally efficient in the blood storage for PCR and sequencing. Analysis of sequencing results of pfcrt showed only one type of haplotype SagtVMNT (AGTGTAATGAATACA) from codon 72–76 in all samples. Conclusion: The results show high prevalence of CQ resistance and AQ resistant genes. AQ is not recommended to be used as a partner drug in ACT in this locality, so as to ward off future catastrophes. PMID:26623432

  12. Analytical characterization of Salicornia bigelovii seed oil cultivated in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Farooq; Bhanger, M I; Nasir, M Khalil A; Ismail, Sarwat

    2002-07-17

    Seeds of Salicornia bigelovii (hybrid variety sos-10) were collected from five coastal areas of Pakistan on the Arabian Sea. Hexane-extracted oil content was 27.2-32.0%. Results of other physical and chemical parameters of the extracted oil were as follows: iodine value, 128.0-130.5; refractive index (40 degrees C), 1.4680-1.4695; unsaponifiable matter, 1.63-2.00%; saponification value, 178.6-189.0; density (30 degrees C), 0.9036-0.9074. Tocopherols (alpha, gamma, and delta) in the oil ranged up to 200 mg/kg. The S. bigelovii seed oil was found to contain high levels of linoleic acid (74.66-79.49%) and less oleic acid (12.33-16.83%). Saturated fatty acids, palmitic and stearic acids, ranged from 7 to 8.50% and from 1.24 to 1.69%, respectively. Linolenic acid (C(18:3) omega-3) was found within the range of 1.50-2.31%. The induction period (Rancimat, 20 L/h, 120 degrees C) of the crude oil was 1.40-1.70 h. Specific extinctions at 232 and 270 nm were 1.90-2.40 and 0.40-0.62, respectively. Many parameters of S. bigelovii seed oil were quite compatible with those of safflower oil. PMID:12105947

  13. Infectious diseases in the aftermath of monsoon flooding in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Baqir, Maryam; Sobani, Zain A; Bhamani, Amyn; Bham, Nida Shahab; Abid, Sidra; Farook, Javeria; Beg, M Asim

    2012-01-01

    Pakistan is ranked 9th in terms of flood-affected countries worldwide. In the summer of 2010, the northern province of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa received more than 312 mm of rain in a 56 hour period. This resulted in over 1 600 deaths across the region. In addition, over 14 million people were directly affected by this record-breaking deluge. Flood affected regions serve as ideal breeding grounds for pathogens, leading to the spread of diseases. The poor standards of hygiene in camps set up for individuals displaced by the floods also contribute to this. It is essential that those involved in relief efforts are aware of the epidemiology of diseases that have historically seen a sudden upsurge after natural disasters. Keeping this in mind, we conducted a simple review of literature. An extensive literature search was conducted using the PubMed data base and online search engines. Articles published in the last 20 years were considered along with some historical articles where a background was required. Seven major diseases were identified to increase substantially in the aftermath of natural disasters. They were then classified into acute and sub-acute settings. Diarrhea, skin & eye infections and leptospirosis were identified in the acute setting while malaria, leishmaniasis, respiratory infections and hepatitis were identified in the sub-acute setting. PMID:23569839

  14. Pakistan: Asia-Pacific energy series, country report

    SciTech Connect

    Gazdar, M.N.

    1992-03-01

    As part of our continuing assessment of Asia-Pacific energy markets, the Energy Program has embarked on a series of country studies that discuss in detail the structure of the energy sector in each major country in the region. The country studies also provide the reader with an overview of the economic and political situation in the various countries. We have particularly highlighted petroleum and gas issues in the country studies and have attempted to show the foreign trade implications of oil and gas trade. Finally, to the greatest extent possible, we have provided the latest available statistics -- often from unpublished and disparate sources that are unavailable to most readers. Staff members have traveled extensively in -- and at times have lived in -- the countries under review and have held discussions with senior policymakers in government and industry. Thus, these reports provide not only information but also the latest thinking on energy issues in the various countries. This report summarizes the energy and economic situation in Pakistan.

  15. Structural model of the Balkassar area, Potwar Plateau, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, Shahid; Akhter, Gulraiz; Bibi, Sehrish

    2015-11-01

    Balkassar is an important hydrocarbon producing area of the Potwar Plateau, Pakistan. Two-dimensional seismic reflection data of the area revealed tectonically controlled, distinct episodes of (1) normal faulting in the basement followed by (2) reverse faulting in the cover sequence. Himalayan orogeny and associated diapirism of the Precambrian Salt Range Formation have produced many salt-cored anticlines in the Potwar Plateau, and one such salt-cored anticline is present in the Balkassar. This anticline has NE-SW-oriented axis, and both the SE and NW limbs are bounded by reverse faults. The basement normal faults indicate Jurassic rifting and splitting of Pangaea. We interpret reverse faults with dip angles of about 60°-75° in the cover sequence, having both hinterland and foreland vergence. Both NW- and SE-dipping faults are present in contrast to the only southward-directed thrusts of previous models. Duplexes and triangle zones, which are common in the northern part of the Potwar Plateau, are not developed in the Balkassar area due to comparatively less crustal shortening in the area. The present interpretation can help in understanding the complex structures in other parts of the Potwar Plateau for hydrocarbons exploration and also in deformed foreland basins worldwide that display similar characteristics but are considered to be dominated by low-angle thrust tectonics.

  16. Non-Life Threatening Maternal Morbidity: Cross Sectional Surveys from Malawi and Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Zafar, Shamsa; Jean-Baptiste, Rachel; Rahman, Atif; Neilson, James P.; van den Broek, Nynke R.

    2015-01-01

    Background For more accurate estimation of the global burden of pregnancy associated disease, clarity is needed on definition and assessment of non-severe maternal morbidity. Our study aimed to define maternal morbidity with clear criteria for identification at primary care level and estimate the distribution of and evaluate associations between physical (infective and non-infective) and psychological morbidities in two different low-income countries. Methods Cross sectional study with assessment of morbidity in early pregnancy (34%), late pregnancy (35%) and the postnatal period (31%) among 3459 women from two rural communities in Pakistan (1727) and Malawi (1732). Trained health care providers at primary care level used semi-structured questionnaires documenting signs and symptoms, clinical examination and laboratory tests which were bundled to reflect infectious, non-infectious and psychological morbidity. Results One in 10 women in Malawi and 1 in 5 in Pakistan reported a previous pregnancy complication with 1 in 10 overall reporting a previous neonatal death or stillbirth. In the index pregnancy, 50.1% of women in Malawi and 53% in Pakistan were assessed to have at least one morbidity (infective or non-infective). Both infective (Pakistan) and non-infective morbidity (Pakistan and Malawi) was lower in the postnatal period than during pregnancy. Multiple morbidities were uncommon (<10%). There were marked differences in psychological morbidity: 26.9% of women in Pakistan 2.6% in Malawi had an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Score (EPDS) > 9. Complications during a previous pregnancy, infective morbidity (p <0.001), intra or postpartum haemorrhage (p <0.02) were associated with psychological morbidity in both settings. Conclusions Our findings highlight the need to strengthen the availability and quality of antenatal and postnatal care packages. We propose to adapt and improve the framework and criteria used in this study, ensuring a basic set of diagnostic tests is available, to ensure more robust assessment of non-severe maternal morbidity. PMID:26390124

  17. The pediatric disease spectrum in emergency departments across Pakistan: data from a pilot surveillance system

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background There is an increasing number of urgently ill and injured children being seen in emergency departments (ED) of developing countries. The pediatric disease burden in EDs across Pakistan is generally unknown. Our main objective was to determine the spectrum of disease and injury among children seen in EDs in Pakistan through a nationwide ED-based surveillance system. Methods Through the Pakistan National Emergency Department Surveillance (Pak-NEDS), data were collected from November 2010 to March 2011 in seven major tertiary care centers representing all provinces of Pakistan. These included five public and two private hospitals, with a collective annual census of over one million ED encounters. Results Of 25,052 children registered in Pak-NEDS (10% of all patients seen): 61% were male, 13% under 5 years, while almost 65% were between 10 to < 16 years. The majority (90%) were seen in public hospital EDs. About half the patients were discharged from the EDs, 9% admitted to hospitals and only 1.3% died in the EDs. Injury (39%) was the most common presenting complaint, followed by fever/malaise (19%) and gastrointestinal symptoms (18%). Injury was more likely in males vs. females (43% vs. 33%; p < 0.001), with a peak presentation in the 5-12 year age group (45%). Conclusions Pediatric patients constitute a smaller proportion among general ED users in Pakistan. Injury is the most common presenting complaint for children seen in the ED. These data will help in resource allocation for cost effective pediatric ED service delivery systems. Prospective longer duration surveillance is needed in more representative pediatric EDs across Pakistan. PMID:26691052

  18. South Asia Water Resources Workshop: An effort to promote water quality data sharing in South Asia

    SciTech Connect

    RAJEN,GAURAV; BIRINGER,KENT L.; BETSILL,J. DAVID

    2000-04-01

    To promote cooperation in South Asia on environmental research, an international working group comprised of participants from Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and the US convened at the Soaltee Hotel in Kathmandu, Nepal, September 12 to 14, 1999. The workshop was sponsored in part by the Cooperative Monitoring Center (CMC) at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, through funding provided by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nonproliferation and National Security. The CMC promotes collaborations among scientists and researchers in regions throughout the world as a means of achieving common regional security objectives. In the long term, the workshop organizers and participants are interested in the significance of regional information sharing as a means to build confidence and reduce conflict. The intermediate interests of the group focus on activities that might eventually foster regional management of some aspects of water resources utilization. The immediate purpose of the workshop was to begin the implementation phase of a project to collect and share water quality information at a number of river and coastal estuary locations throughout the region. The workshop participants achieved four objectives: (1) gaining a better understanding of the partner organizations involved; (2) garnering the support of existing regional organizations promoting environmental cooperation in South Asia; (3) identifying sites within the region at which data is to be collected; and (4) instituting a data and information collection and sharing process.

  19. Lithofacies Associations and Depositional Environments of the Neogene Molasse succession, Pishin Belt, northwestern Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasi, A.; Kassi, A.; Friis, H.; Umar, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Pishin Belt is a NE-SW trending mixed flysch and molasse basin, situated at the northwestern part of Pakistan, bordered by Afghan Block of the Eurasian Plate in the west and Indian Plate in the east. Western boundary of the belt is marked by the well-known Chaman Transform Fault, whereas the Zhob Valley Thrust and Muslim Bagh-Zhob Ophiolite mark the eastern boundary. The Belt is divisible into six tectono-stratigraphic zones bounded by major thrusts. Muslim Bagh-Zhob Ophiolite is the base and Zone-I of this belt. Zone-II comprises shallow marine and flysch successions of the Eocene Nisai Formation and Oligocene Khojak Formation. The Early to Middle Miocene Dasht Murgha group comprises Zone-III, the Late Miocene-Pliocene Malthanai formation comprises Zone-IV, the Pleistocene Bostan Formation makes Zone-V, and the flat-laying Holocene deposits of the Zhob Valley comprise Zone-VI. The Neogene molasse successions of the Pishin Belt include the Dasht Murgha group, Malthanai formation and Bostan Formation; these are mostly composed of sandstone, claystone and conglomerate lithologies. Sandstones have been classified as lithic arenites and their QFL values suggest quartzolithic composition. Twelve distinct lithofacies have been recognized in the succession and thus grouped into four types of facies associations. Lithofacies include clast-supported massive gravel (Gcm), clast-supported crudely bedded gravel (Gh), cross-stratified conglomerate (Gt and Gp), trough cross-stratified sandstone (St), planar cross-stratified sandstone (Sp), ripple cross-laminated sandstone (Sr), horizontally stratified sandstone (Sh), low-angle cross-stratified sandstone (Sl), massive sandstones (Sm), massive mudstone and siltstone (Fm) and paleosol carbonate (P). The lithofacies associations include channel facies association (CHA), crevasse-splay facies association (CSA), natural-levee facies association (LVA) and floodplain facies association (FPA). The lithofacies associations suggest that the Dasht Murgha group was deposited by a sandy braided to mixed-load high-sinuosity fluvial system, the Malthanai formation by a mixed-load high-sinuosity fluvial system and Bostan Formation by gravelly braided channels of a coalescing alluvial fan system. We propose that prolonged and continued collision of the Indian Plate with the Afghan Block of the Eurasian Plate resulted in the closure of the Katawaz Remnant Ocean (the southwestern extension of the Neo-Tethys) in the Early Miocene. Uplifted orogens of the Muslim Bagh-Zhob Ophiolite and marine successions of the Nisai and Khojak formations served as the major source terrains for the Miocene through Holocene molasse succession in the south and southeast verging successive thrust-bound foreland basins at the outer most extremity of the Pishin Belt.

  20. Petrography and provenance of the Early Permian Fluvial Warchha Sandstone, Salt Range, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazi, Shahid; Mountney, Nigel P.

    The Warchha Sandstone of the Salt Range of Pakistan is a continental succession that accumulated as part of a meandering, fluvial system during Early Permian times. Several fining-upward depositional cycles are developed, each of which is composed of conglomerate, cross-bedded sandstone and, in their upper parts, bioturbated siltstone and claystone units with distinctive desiccation cracks and carbonate concretions. Clast lithologies are mainly of plutonic and low-grade metamorphic origin, with an additional minor sedimentary component. Textural properties of the sandstone are fine- to coarse-grained, poorly to moderately sorted, sub-angular to sub-rounded, and with generally loose packing. Based on modal analyses, the sandstone is dominantly a feldspathoquartzose (arkose to sub-arkose). Detrital constituents are mainly composed of monocrystalline quartz, feldspars (more K-feldspar than plagioclase) and various types of lithic clasts. XRD and SEM studies indicate that kaolinite is the dominant clay mineral and that it occurs as both allogenic and authigenic forms. However, illite, illite-smectite mixed layer, smectite and chlorite are also recognised in both pores and fractures. Much of the kaolinite was likely derived by the severe chemical weathering of previously deposited basement rocks under the influence of a hot and humid climate. Transported residual clays deposited as part of the matrix of the Warchha Sandstone show coherent links with the sandstone petrofacies, thereby indicating the same likely origin. Illite, smectite and chlorite mainly occur as detrital minerals and as alteration products of weathered acidic igneous and metamorphic rocks. Based primarily on fabric relationship, the sequence of cement formation in the Warchha Sandstone is clay (generally kaolinite), iron oxide, calcareous and siliceous material, before iron-rich illite and occasional mixed layer smectite-illite and rare chlorite. Both petrographic analysis and field characteristics of the sandstone indicate that the source areas were characterised by uplift of a moderate to high relief continental block that was weathered under the influence of hot and humid climatic conditions. The rocks weathered from the source areas included primary granites and gneisses, together with metamorphic basement rocks and minor amounts of sedimentary rocks. Regional palaeogeographic reconstructions indicate that much of the Warchha Sandstone detritus was derived from the Aravalli and Malani ranges and surrounding areas of the Indian Craton to the south and southeast, before being transported to and deposited within the Salt Range region under the influence of a semi-arid to arid climatic regime.

  1. Emerald mineralization and metasomatism of amphibolite, khaltaro granitic pegmatite - Hydrothermal vein system, Haramosh Mountains, Northern Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laurs, B.M.; Dilles, J.H.; Snee, L.W.

    1996-01-01

    Emerald mineralization is found within 0.1- to 1-m-thick hydrothermal veins and granitic pegmatites cutting amphibolite within the Nanga Parbat - Haramosh massif, in northern Pakistan. The amphibolite forms a sill-like body within garnet-mica schist, and both are part of a regional layered gneiss unit of Proterozoic (?) age. The 40Ar/39Ar data for muscovite from a pegmatite yield a plateau age of 9.13 ?? 0.04 Ma. Muscovite from mica schist and hornblende from amphibolite yield disturbed spectra with interpreted ages of 9 to 10 Ma and more than 225 Ma, respectively, which indicate that peak Tertiary metamorphism reached 325 to 550??C prior to 10 Ma. Pegmatites were emplaced after peak metamorphism during this interval and are older than pegmatites farther south in the massif. At Khaltaro, simply zoned albite-rich miarolitic pegmatites and hydrothermal veins containing various proportions of quartz, albite, tourmaline, muscovite, and beryl are associated with a 1- to 3-m-thick heterogeneous leucogranite sill, that is locally albitized. The pegmatites likely crystallized at 650 to 600??C at pressures of less than 2 kbar. Crystals of emerald form within thin (0.20, 0.54-0.89 wt%), to pale blue beryl (<0.07, 0.10-0.63%), to colorless beryl (<0.07, 0.07-0.28%). The amphibolite is metasomatized in less than 20-cm-wide selvages that are symmetrically zoned around veins or pegmatites. A sporadic inner zone containing F-rich biotite, tourmaline, and fluorite, with local albite, muscovite, quartz, and rare beryl, gives way to an intermediate zone containing biotite and fluorite with local plagioclase and quartz, and to an outer zone of amphibolite containing sparse biotite and local quartz. The inner and intermediate zones experienced gains of K, H, F, B, Li, Rb, Cs, Be, Ta, Nb, As, Y and Sr, and losses of Si, Mg, Ca, Fe, Cr, V and Sc. The outer alteration zone has gained F, Li, Rb, Cs, and As. Oxygen isotope analyses of igneous and hydrothermal minerals indicate that a single fluid of magmatic origin with ??18OH2O = 8??? produced the pegmatite-vein system and hydrothermal alteration at temperatures between 550 and 400??C. The formation of emerald results from introduction of HF-rich magmatic-hydrothermal fluids into the amphibolite, which caused hydrogen ion metasomatism and released Cr and Fe into the pegmatite-vein system.

  2. The effect of private tubewells on income and income inequality in rural Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhiyu; Huang, Qiuqiong; Giordano, Mark

    2015-08-01

    Since the introduction of private tubewells in rural Pakistan, farmers have increasingly used groundwater to supplement canal water for irrigation and improve the reliability of the water supply. Farmers obtain groundwater either from their own tubewells or from other well owners. This paper examines the effect of private tubewells on rural income, both in terms of income level and income distribution since it may differ across farmers with different irrigation status (only canal water, canal water and groundwater from own tubewell, and canal water and purchased groundwater). The results show that private tubewells work to enhance rural income and reduce income inequality in rural Pakistan.

  3. SOUTH CAROLINA COOPERATIVE FISH

    E-print Network

    Jodice, Patrick

    National Wildlife Refuge, South Carolina #12;South Carolina Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research UnitSOUTH CAROLINA COOPERATIVE FISH AND WILDLIFE RESEARCH UNIT 2011 Annual Report The South Carolina Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit is growing and expanding its staff and research program

  4. Distribution and dynamics of mangrove forests of South Asia.

    PubMed

    Giri, Chandra; Long, Jordan; Abbas, Sawaid; Murali, R Mani; Qamer, Faisal M; Pengra, Bruce; Thau, David

    2015-01-15

    Mangrove forests in South Asia occur along the tidal sea edge of Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. These forests provide important ecosystem goods and services to the region's dense coastal populations and support important functions of the biosphere. Mangroves are under threat from both natural and anthropogenic stressors; however the current status and dynamics of the region's mangroves are poorly understood. We mapped the current extent of mangrove forests in South Asia and identified mangrove forest cover change (gain and loss) from 2000 to 2012 using Landsat satellite data. We also conducted three case studies in Indus Delta (Pakistan), Goa (India), and Sundarbans (Bangladesh and India) to identify rates, patterns, and causes of change in greater spatial and thematic details compared to regional assessment of mangrove forests. Our findings revealed that the areal extent of mangrove forests in South Asia is approximately 1,187,476 ha representing ?7% of the global total. Our results showed that from 2000 to 2012, 92,135 ha of mangroves were deforested and 80,461 ha were reforested with a net loss of 11,673 ha. In all three case studies, mangrove areas have remained the same or increased slightly, however, the turnover was greater than the net change. Both, natural and anthropogenic factors are responsible for the change and turnover. The major causes of forest cover change are similar throughout the region; however, specific factors may be dominant in specific areas. Major causes of deforestation in South Asia include (i) conversion to other land use (e.g. conversion to agriculture, shrimp farms, development, and human settlement), (ii) over-harvesting (e.g. grazing, browsing and lopping, and fishing), (iii) pollution, (iv) decline in freshwater availability, (v) floodings, (vi) reduction of silt deposition, (vii) coastal erosion, and (viii) disturbances from tropical cyclones and tsunamis. Our analysis in the region's diverse socio-economic and environmental conditions highlights complex patterns of mangrove distribution and change. Results from this study provide important insight to the conservation and management of the important and threatened South Asian mangrove ecosystem. PMID:24735705

  5. Physical activity patterns among South-Asian adults: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ranasinghe, Chathuranga D; Ranasinghe, Priyanga; Jayawardena, Ranil; Misra, Anoop

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) has many beneficial physical and mental health effects. Physical inactivity is considered the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality. At present there are no systematic reviews on PA patterns among South Asian adults residing in the region. The present study aims to systematically evaluate studies on PA patterns in South Asian countries. A five-staged comprehensive search of the literature was conducted in Medline, Web of Science and SciVerse Scopus using keywords 'Exercise', 'Walking', 'Physical activity', 'Inactivity', 'Physical Activity Questionnaire', 'International Physical Activity Questionnaire', 'IPAQ', 'Global Physical Activity Questionnaire' and 'GPAQ', combined with individual country names. The search was restricted to English language articles conducted in humans and published before 31st December 2012. To obtain additional data a manual search of the reference lists of articles was performed. Data were also retrieved from the search of relevant web sites and online resources. The total number of hits obtained from the initial search was 1,771. The total number of research articles included in the present review is eleven (India-8, Sri Lanka-2, Pakistan-1). In addition, eleven country reports (Nepal-3, Bangladesh-2, India-2, Sri Lanka-2, Bhutan-1, Maldives-1) of World Health Organization STEPS survey from the South-Asian countries were retrieved online. In the research articles the overall prevalence of inactivity was as follows; India (18.5%-88.4%), Pakistan (60.1%) and Sri Lanka (11.0%-31.8%). STEPS survey reports were available from all countries except Pakistan. Overall in majority of STEPS surveys females were more inactive compared to males. Furthermore, leisure related inactivity was >75% in studies reporting inactivity in this domain and people were more active in transport domain when compared with the other domains. In conclusion, our results show that there is a wide variation in the prevalence of physical inactivity among South-Asian adults within and between countries. Furthermore, physical inactivity in South Asian adults was associated with several socio-demographic characteristics. Majority of South Asian adults were inactive during their leisure time. These Factors need to be considered when planning future interventions and research aimed at improving PA in the region. PMID:24119682

  6. DNA Barcoding of Bemisia tabaci Complex (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Reveals Southerly Expansion of the Dominant Whitefly Species on Cotton in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Ashfaq, Muhammad; Hebert, Paul D. N.; Mirza, M. Sajjad; Khan, Arif M.; Mansoor, Shahid; Shah, Ghulam S.; Zafar, Yusuf

    2014-01-01

    Background Although whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci complex) are an important pest of cotton in Pakistan, its taxonomic diversity is poorly understood. As DNA barcoding is an effective tool for resolving species complexes and analyzing species distributions, we used this approach to analyze genetic diversity in the B. tabaci complex and map the distribution of B. tabaci lineages in cotton growing areas of Pakistan. Methods/Principal Findings Sequence diversity in the DNA barcode region (mtCOI-5?) was examined in 593 whiteflies from Pakistan to determine the number of whitefly species and their distributions in the cotton-growing areas of Punjab and Sindh provinces. These new records were integrated with another 173 barcode sequences for B. tabaci, most from India, to better understand regional whitefly diversity. The Barcode Index Number (BIN) System assigned the 766 sequences to 15 BINs, including nine from Pakistan. Representative specimens of each Pakistan BIN were analyzed for mtCOI-3? to allow their assignment to one of the putative species in the B. tabaci complex recognized on the basis of sequence variation in this gene region. This analysis revealed the presence of Asia II 1, Middle East-Asia Minor 1, Asia 1, Asia II 5, Asia II 7, and a new lineage “Pakistan”. The first two taxa were found in both Punjab and Sindh, but Asia 1 was only detected in Sindh, while Asia II 5, Asia II 7 and “Pakistan” were only present in Punjab. The haplotype networks showed that most haplotypes of Asia II 1, a species implicated in transmission of the cotton leaf curl virus, occurred in both India and Pakistan. Conclusions DNA barcodes successfully discriminated cryptic species in B. tabaci complex. The dominant haplotypes in the B. tabaci complex were shared by India and Pakistan. Asia II 1 was previously restricted to Punjab, but is now the dominant lineage in southern Sindh; its southward spread may have serious implications for cotton plantations in this region. PMID:25099936

  7. Tectonic exhumation of the Nanga Parbat massif, northern Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, Mary S.; Spencer, David A.; West, David P.

    1995-06-01

    Structural analysis in the Nanga Parbat region of northern Pakistan indicates that extensional deformation has been, in part, responsible for the exhumation of gneissic rocks of the Indian plate basement complex that dominates the Nanga Parbat massif. This massif has been mapped as a syntaxis at the boundary between the Indian and Asian plates in the northwest Himalaya and has received recent attention for evidence of rapid exhumation within the last 10 Ma. Field work along the Main Mantle Thrust (MMT) and within the Indian plate rocks in the area between Babusar Pass and Toshe Gali, southwest of the peak of Nanga Parbat, provided us with evidence from shear fabrics and a shallowly WSW-plunging stretching lineation for a dominant phase of extensional deformation. During this deformation rock of the Kohistan sequence and the Indian plate cover sequence moved to the WSW relative to rocks of the Indian plate basement including the Nanga Parbat gneiss. A post-metamorphic ductile shear fabric pervades the MMT contact, the Indian plate cover sequence below the MMT, but decreases in intensity in the Indian plate basement and the Nanga Parbat gneiss. Using 39Ar/ 40Ar geochronology of hornblendes we have constrained the age of pre-deformational, amphibolite facies metamorphism to be ? 40-56 Ma. Published cooling ages from the Babusar Pass region further document that the extensional deformation was completed by ˜ 20 Ma. We interpret this ductile, extensional shear as the mechanism responsible for significant tectonic exhumation of the gneissic and granitic rocks of the Nanga Parbat massif.

  8. Analysis of uterine rupture at university teaching hospital Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, Nousheen; Yousfani, Sajida

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the risk factors, management modalities, fetomaternal outcome of uterine rupture cases at University teaching hospital in Pakistan. Methods: This retrospective descriptive study was conducted at the Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences (LUMHS) for a period of one year from January 1st to December 31st 2012. Main outcome measures were frequency, age, parity, booking status, risk factors, management modalities, fetal and maternal mortality associated with uterine rupture. The data was collected on pre-designed proforma analysed using SPSS Version 16 statistical package. Results: The frequency of ruptured uteri was calculated to be 0.67%, giving a ratio of 1:148 deliveries. Highest incidence was found in age group 25-30 (44.26%) with mean age of 30.36 years. and parity group 2-3 (57.37%) with mean parity 4.08. The risk factors for ruptured uterus include Caesarean section 43(70.49%), injudicious use of oxytocin 33(54.09%), obstructed labour 15 (24.59%) and multiparty 18 (29.50%). Repair of uterus was performed in 47(77.04%) cases. Maternal case fatality was 5(8.19%), while foetal wastage was 51 (83.60%). Conclusion: This study confirms the existence of a serious preventable obstetric problem, with significant maternal mortality and foetal wastage. Integrated efforts include Health education, focused antenatal care, skilled attendance, avoidance of injudicious use of oxytocin, and need of hospital based deliveries in patients with caesarean section which should be intensified to reduce this drastic obstetrical complication. PMID:26430430

  9. Occurrence of Aflatoxins Contamination in Brown Rice from Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    ASGHAR, Muhammad Asif; IQBAL, Javed; AHMED, Aftab; KHAN, Mobeen Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background The objective of this study was to determine the distribution of an economically–important class of mycotoxins, the aflatoxins (AFs) in Pakistani Brown Rice. Methods A total of 262 of brown rice samples were collected from different vendors during July 2006 to June 2011. Samples were analyzed for the occurrence of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), B2 (AFB2), G1 (AFG1) and G2 (AFG2) by thin layer chromatography (TLC) technique. Results AFB1 was detected in 250 (95.4%) samples, whereas AFB2 was detected in 20 (7.6%) samples. Furthermore, AFG1 and AFG2 were not found in any sample. The contamination range of AFB1 and AFB2 was found 1.07–24.65 ?g/kg and 0.52–2.62 ?g/kg, respectively. Total AFs were quantified in 250 (95.4%) samples with an average of 3.89 ?g/kg and contamination range was noted to be between 1.07–27.27 ?g/kg. The overall results indicated that in 12 (4.6%) samples, AFs were not found within detectable limits. Furthermore, in 188 (71.7%) samples, AFs level was found below than maximum tolerated levels (MTL) as recommended by the European Union (4 ?g/kg). Moreover, in 61 (23.3%) samples, AFs range was found between 4–20 ?g/kg, which were fit for human consumption as per MTL (20 ?g/kg) assigned by USA (FDA and FAO) and Pakistan (PSQCA). While only one sample (27.27 ?g/kg) exceeded the above mention regulation limits. Conclusion Low level of AFs occurs frequently in brown rice, and can be improved using proper harvesting practices, storage and transportation conditions. The small quantities of AFs warrant performing further investigation, monitoring and routine analysis on regular basis. PMID:25988088

  10. Gender: shaping personality, lives and health of women in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Gender norms determine the status of Pakistani women that influence their life including health. In Pakistan, the relationship between gender norms and health of women is crucial yet complex demanding further analysis. This paper: determines the reasons for reiteration of gender roles; describes the societal processes and mechanisms that reproduce and reinforce them; and identifies their repercussions on women’s personality, lives and health especially reproductive health. Methods As part of a six-country study titled ‘Women’s Empowerment in Muslim Contexts’, semi-structured group discussions (n?=?30) were conducted with women (n?=?250) who were selected through snowballing from different age, ethnic and socio-economic categories. Discussion guidelines were used to collect participant’s perceptions about Pakistani women’s: characteristics, powers, aspirations, needs and responsibilities; circumstances these women live in such as opportunities, constraints and risks; and influence of these circumstances on their personality, lifestyle and health. Results The society studied has constructed a ‘Model’ for women that consider them ‘Objects’ without rights and autonomy. Women’s subordination, a prerequisite to ensure compliance to the constructed model, is maintained through allocation of lesser resources, restrictions on mobility, seclusion norms and even violence in cases of resistance. The model determines women’s traits and responsibilities, and establishes parameters for what is legitimate for women, and these have implications for their personality, lifestyle and health, including their reproductive behaviours. Conclusion There is a strong link between women’s autonomy, rights, and health. This demands a gender sensitive and a, right-based approach towards health. In addition to service delivery interventions, strategies are required to counter factors influencing health status and restricting access to and utilization of services. Improvement in women’s health is bound to have positive influences on their children and wider family’s health, education and livelihood; and in turn on a society’s health and economy. PMID:24690271

  11. Nappe structure in a crustal scale duplex in Swat, Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, R.D.; Snee, L.W.; Rosenberg, P.S.

    1985-01-01

    In the internal zone of thrust belts of continental collision orogens like the Himalaya metamorphic rocks of deep origin record penetrative ductile deformation. In Swat, Pakistan, this zone between the Indus suture and the sedimentary fold-and-thrust belt is narrower and tectonically simpler than elsewhere along the Himalayan orogenic belt. Here the authors have recognized large overturned, orthogneiss cored nappes of 15 km half wavelength. These are defined by para-amphibolite marker beds found in upright stratigraphic section above and in overturned section below the gneissic cores. They distinguish premetamorphic granite porphyry and tourmaline granite intruded into quartzose metasediments as gneissic cores of the nappes and a surrounding sequence of quartzites, amphibolites, and carbonates that were either deposited unconformably above the cores or premetamorphically thrust over them. Metamorphic isogrades cut across the nappe and /sup 40/Ar//sup 39/Ar hornblende dates indicate that metamorphic culmination occurred around 37-40 Ma at about 550/sup 0/C and at depths of about 20 km. These structures thus appear to predate the recognized age of metamorphism and thrusting of crystalline rocks on the MCT in the central Himalaya. They represent an early deep burial of the leading edge of the Indian shield by ophiolite slabs of oceanic lithosphere and/or the Kohistan island arc. By 30 Ma metamorphic temperatures (/sup 40/Ar//sup 39/Ar muscovite) had dropped to 320/sup 0/C, and the nappes were rising through the crust on underlying thrusts. The entire structure is very similar to that of the internal zone of the Alps, but such features have not previously been described in the Himalaya.

  12. Sex preference in South Asia: Sri Lanka an outlier.

    PubMed

    Abeykoon, A T

    1995-09-01

    At a 1994 symposium on sex preference in Asia, represented countries were grouped as follows: a) rapid fertility decline, strong son preference, and abnormal sex ratio at birth (China, Taiwan, and the Republic of Korea); b) rapid fertility decline, no son preference, and normal sex ratio at birth (Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and Thailand); and c) slow fertility decline, strong son preference, and normal sex ratio at birth (Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan). This article reviews the factors responsible for strong son preference in Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan and the reasons for the lack of son preference in Sri Lanka. Abnormal sex ratios are attributed to sex-selective abortions. Sex preference in South Asia results in excessive mortality of female children. Mention is made of a higher mortality risk of daughters in Indian households with more older female children. Bairagi is cited for his evidence that in Bangladesh daughters having older sisters have a higher mortality risk. In Pakistan survey results indicate that sons are preferred. Numerous authors are cited for evidence suggesting that fertility might be lower if son preference were reduced. Rajaretnam and Deshpande are cited for findings that contraceptive prevalence in south India would increase by about 12% in high-prevalence areas and about 25% in low-prevalence areas in the absence of sex preference. Bourne and Walker and Das Gupta are identified as authors providing evidence that increased economic opportunities for women, increased women's status, and increased value placed on women's work would reduce the desire for sons. Cain argues for better old-age security and better access to food and medical care. Abeykoon has shown that weakened son preference in Sri Lanka occurred over a 20-year period as improvements were made in women's status. Parents in Sri Lanka give greater value to the small-family norm than to the sex of the child. A slight preference was found in 1975 and 1992. Discrimination in food and medical care in Sri Lanka was apparent only prior to 1962. Sri Lankan women have experienced rapid expansion of literacy and educational attainment, improved life expectancy, and wide economic involvement. Women in Sri Lanka are also less vulnerable to oppression within the family. PMID:12290695

  13. Institutional and Regulatory Economics of Electricity Market Reforms: the Evidence from India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, and Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Bipulendu

    Five South Asian countries-- India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal and Sri Lanka -- embarked on electricity market reforms in the 1990's. The dissertation uses the framework of New Institutional Economics to assess the effects on electricity sector performance of both observables elements of reform (i.e. privatization, unbundling, establishment of independent regulatory agencies etc.) as well as the unobservable elements (informal beliefs, habit, norms and culture of the actors involved in reforms). The first part of the dissertation -- econometric analysis of the relationship between observable electricity market reform measures and performance indicators -- finds that for the most part electricity market reforms in South Asia are having a positive impact on the performance of the sector. This is particularly the case for reforms that have increased private sector participation in generation and distribution and have vertically unbundled utilities into generation, transmission and distribution entities. Many of the reforms are positively correlated with higher tariffs, indicating a cost to the consumers from the reforms. The relationship between independent regulation and performance indicators , however, is not established. The second part of the dissertation - analytical narrative of the reform experiences of Gujarat and Nepal -- examines the informal elements (such as beliefs, norms, culture) that motivate behavior and explains how and why reform outcomes differed in these two places. The dissertation finds that the strength of formal institutions rules and the nature of social norms and customs have a significant influence on the outcome of reforms. Aided by the strength of its formal institutional framework and more evolved social norms and customs that encouraged people to follow formal rules, reforms in the Indian state of Gujarat were a success. The weakness of the formal institutional framework and the predominance of relation-based norms and customs in Nepal that led to limited compliance with formal rules, by contrast, limited the success of power sector reforms there. Efforts to reform the electricity sector in South Asia undertaken by governments with the assistance of development agencies such as the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank have focused to a large extent on getting the content of electricity market reform measures such as unbundling, privatization, and establishment of a power market right. The analysis in this dissertation suggests that such measures will be more successful in places with relatively robust formal rule based systems. Countries that are planning to carry out significant reforms in the electricity sector will benefit from the explicit consideration of the informal norms, habits and customs of the actors that will be affected by the reforms.

  14. The epidemic of HIV/AIDS in developing countries; the current scenario in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    HIV (Human Immunodeficiency virus) causes (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) AIDS, in which the immune system of body totally fails to develop any defense against the foreign invaders. Infection with HIV occurs by transfer of blood, semen, and breast milk. HIV/AIDS is a global problem and it results nearly 25 million deaths worldwide. Developing countries like Pakistan have issues regarding Public Health. Currently, epidemic of HIV/AIDS is established in Pakistan and there is a threat of an expanded HIV/AIDS outbreak in the country. The major reason is that population is engaging in high-risk practices, low awareness about HIV/AIDS, and treacherous blood transfusion practices. A supplementary threat to Pakistan is India because both sharing a border and India is facing a rapidly growing HIV/AIDS epidemic. Local NGOs, National and International organizations are warning that in near future Pakistan may experiences bad situation regarding HIV/AIDS. In the present article we focused current situation of surveillance of HIV/AIDS, its virology, genotype, diagnostics, high-risk groups, reasons of vulnerability in Pakistani population, and the role of different national and international organizations in this situation. PMID:21838892

  15. Presence of Virulent Newcastle Disease Virus in Vaccinated Chickens in Farms in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Rehmani, Shafqat Fatima; Wajid, Abdul; Bibi, Tasra; Nazir, Bushra; Mukhtar, Nadia; Hussain, Abid; Lone, Nazir Ahmad; Yaqub, Tahir

    2015-01-01

    One year after a virulent Newcastle disease virus (vNDV) outbreak in Pakistan, the causative strain was present in vaccinated chickens of multiple farms despite the existence of high-average NDV-specific antibody titers (>4.75 log2). The data suggest a possible role of vaccinated birds as reservoirs of vNDV. PMID:25694525

  16. Situation Report--Hong Kong, Malawi, Pakistan, Panama, Philippines, Ryukyu Islands (Okinawa), Sabah, Sarawak.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in eight foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Hong Kong, Malawi, Pakistan, Panama, Philippines, Ryukyu Islands (Okinawa), Sabah, and Sarawak. Information is provided where appropriate and available, under two topics, general background and family planning…

  17. Public-Private Partnership in Education: A Ray of Hope for Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahmood, Sehba

    2013-01-01

    Pakistani children and education face continuous challenges as a result of human callousness and natural forces. These ordeals are more extreme than in many other parts of the world; however, the disadvantages do not end there. An additional, less explored, issue is the effect of class distinction in the Pakistan school system. The majority of…

  18. Employment and Learning Outcomes of LIS Graduates: A Case of Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warraich, Nosheen Fatima; Ameen, Kanwal

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the perceptions of Library and Information Science (LIS) graduates about their learning outcomes in the Master of Library and Information Science (MLIS) programme at the University of the Punjab and their employment outcomes in the marketplace. Why do LIS graduates choose librarianship as a profession in Pakistan? What is their…

  19. Traditional Healing Practices Sought by Muslim Psychiatric Patients in Lahore, Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farooqi, Yasmin Nilofer

    2006-01-01

    This research explored the type of traditional healing practices sought by Muslim psychiatric patients treated at public hospitals of Lahore city, Pakistan. The sample comprised 87 adult psychiatric patients (38% male and 62% female). The patients self-reported on the Case History Interview Schedule that they had sought diverse traditional healing…

  20. Role of Non-Governmental Organizations for the Development of Basic Education in Punjab, Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iqbal, Javed

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the general working structure of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and to examine the services and facilities provided by NGOs for basic education in Punjab, Pakistan. The population comprised 112 NGOs working for the promotion of basic education in Punjab, 3980 teachers working in basic education…

  1. Department of State Advancing Democracy, Human Rights and Rule of Law in Pakistan

    E-print Network

    Azevedo, Ricardo

    Department of State Advancing Democracy, Human Rights and Rule of Law in Pakistan URL: http://www Training and Technical Assistance Program for Law Enforcement Task Forces FY 2015 Competitive Grant and Services Administration Strengthening and Improving the HIV Care Continuum within Ryan White HIV

  2. Exploring Factors Affecting Girls' Education at Secondary Level: A Case of Karak District, Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suleman, Qaiser; Aslam, Hassan Danial; Habib, Muhammad Badar; Yasmeen, Kausar; Jalalian, Mehrdad; Akhtar, Zaitoon; Akhtar, Basreen

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the factors that affect girls' education at secondary school level in Karak District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (Pakistan). All the female heads, teachers and students serving and studying at secondary school level in Karak District constituted the population of the study. The study was delimited to only 30 girls' secondary schools in…

  3. Evaluation of Curriculum at the Primary Level in Light of Education Policies and Plans in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perveen, Shahida

    2011-01-01

    The paper is based on a research conducted to evaluate the curriculum at the primary level in the light of education policies and plans in Pakistan. The article discusses the objectives of the curriculum at the primary level and analyzes different education policies and plans regarding the achievements of objectives. Results revealed that the…

  4. Complete genome sequence of a recent panzootic virulent Newcastle disease virus from Pakistan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Complete genome sequence of a new strain of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) (chicken/Pak/Lahore-611/2013) is reported. The strain was isolated from a vaccinated chicken flock in Pakistan in 2013 and has panzootic features. The genome is 15192 nucleotides in length and is classified as sub-genotype V...

  5. Resilience and Academic Achievement of Male and Female Secondary Level Students in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarwar, Muhammad; Inamullah, Hafiz; Khan, Naeemullah; Anwar, Nadeem

    2010-01-01

    Resilience is the ability to succeed despite barriers that make it difficult for the students to succeed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between resilience and academic achievement of secondary level students of Gujranwala, Pakistan. A Resilience scale was used to collect data. The sample consisted of 127 secondary…

  6. Is Skill Training a Good Investment for the Poor? The Evidence from Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janjua, Shehryar

    2011-01-01

    Technical and vocational skills development (TVSD) has received pronounced emphasis in planning and policy texts in Pakistan over the last decade. Several positive outcomes are typically ascribed to TVSD, ranging from purely economic (increased productivity, competitiveness and economic growth) to social (improved employment, poverty-reduction and…

  7. A Critical Analysis of School Enrollment and Literacy Rates of Girls and Women in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latif, Amna

    2009-01-01

    Since Pakistan's inception in 1947, the government has made continuous efforts to provide free, universal, basic education to its citizens. This is evidenced by educational plans, policies, and five-year education sector reforms, including partnerships with international agencies and developed countries. However, these efforts have not yielded any…

  8. Madrasas and Pakistan's Education Agenda: Western Media Misrepresentation and Policy Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClure, Kevin R.

    2009-01-01

    Evidence suggests that there is a link between certain madrasas in Pakistan and militant Islamic fundamentalism. However, this link has been inflated by Western media in an attempt to indict madrasas as the genesis of violent Islamic radicalism. The following study draws upon recent research and overlooked historical narratives, demonstrating that…

  9. An Inquiry into Conflict Management Strategies: Study of Higher Education Institutions in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Din, Siraj ud; Khan, Bakhtiar; Bibi, Zainab

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to gain an insight into the conflict management strategies (CMS) of faculty in the higher education institutions (HEIs) of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. To achieve the above mentioned purpose, survey method was used with the help of questionnaire. In this research, impact of CMS was assessed on the negative…

  10. HRM Practices in Public and Private Universities of Pakistan: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iqbal, Muhammad Zafar; Arif, Muhammad Irfan; Abbas, Furrakh

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the HRM practices of public and private universities in Punjab province of Pakistan. The data for the study was collected through a questionnaire comprising 30 items mainly related to job definition, training and development, compensation, team work, employee's participation and performance appraisal. The…

  11. Islam through the History and Culture of Pakistan. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad Project, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, William E.

    This project introduces a syllabus for studying comparative politics among Canada, Pakistan, and Japan. Students learn that comparative politics provides an understanding of how different political systems operate and the importance of culture in understanding politics. Three functions are addressed in the course: system functions, process…

  12. The Status of Primary School Buildings in the Rural Villages of Pakistan, 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussain, Farhat; Eastmond, Jefferson N.

    An April-May 1976 nationwide sample of more than 800 schools in rural Pakistan provides data to form composite pictures of the typical boys school and girls school. An observation checklist records such aspects as: (1) government ownership of building; (2) structural soundness and maintenance of walls, roof, veranda, steps, floors, windows; (3)…

  13. The Impact of Tertiary Education on Development of Moderate Society in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atika, Samrana

    2010-01-01

    The study aimed to find out the impact of tertiary education on development of moderate Islamic society in Pakistan. The population of the study constituted of all the teachers engaged on teaching and all the students studying in the colleges. The study was delimited to the area of public sector college education. Cluster sampling technique was…

  14. Urban Men's Knowledge and Perceptions regarding Sexually Transmitted Infections in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammad Mir, Ali; Reichenbach, Laura; Wajid, Abdul

    2009-01-01

    In a pioneering study undertaken in Pakistan, urban men's sexual behaviors, perceptions and knowledge regarding sexually transmitted infections including HIV/AIDS were determined by employing both qualitative and quantitative research methods. Focus group discussions were carried out initially and followed by a structured cross sectional survey…

  15. Pathological and phylogenetic characterization of Newcastle disease viruses from Israel and Pakistan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Newcastle disease (ND) is a devastating disease of poultry worldwide caused by virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). New strains of NDV frequently emerge, creating challenges for disease control. Since 2012, NDV strains of new genotype VIIi have been reported in Israel and Pakistan, b...

  16. Conflicts in Higher Education and Perceived Quality of Education: Empirical Evidence from Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukhtar, Uzma; Islam, Zohurul; Siengthai, Sununta

    2011-01-01

    Both public and private universities in Pakistan are playing vital role in developing human resources as per sectoral demand. It is observed that conflict in the public universities occur more frequently than in the past and as a result, has an impact on educational outcomes in terms of qualified potential human resources. This is a study of some…

  17. Provision of Educational Technology at Secondary School Level in North West Frontier Province Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akhtar, Sajjad Hayat

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The study looked into a descriptive research to evaluate the use of educational technology at secondary school level North West Frontier Province (Pakistan). The study has defined the availability, usefulness, problems, emerging trends and status of educational technology. The main focus of the study was the utilization and availability…

  18. First report of ratoon stunt of sugarcane caused by Leifsonia xyl. subsp. xyli in Pakistan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During a survey of the sugarcane crop in the area of Faisalabad, Sargodha and the Dera Ghazi Khan Division of the Punjab province of Pakistan from 2007 to 2010, symptoms consistent with ratoon stunting, including stunted growth and reddening of the vascular bundles at the nodal regions were observed...

  19. Morphometric comparisons of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) populations from Iran, USA and Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Lashkari, Mohammadreza; Hentz, Matthew G.

    2015-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), vector of citrus greening disease pathogen, Huanglongbing (HLB), is considered the most serious pest of citrus in the world. Prior molecular based studies have hypothesized a link between the D. citri in Iran and the USA (Florida). The purpose of this study was to collect morphometric data from D. citri populations from Iran (mtCOI haplotype-1), Florida (mtCOI haplotype-1), and Pakistan (mtCOI haplotype-6), to determine whether different mtCOI haplotypes have a relationship to a specific morphometric variation. 240 samples from 6 ACP populations (Iran—Jiroft, Chabahar; Florida—Ft. Pierce, Palm Beach Gardens, Port St. Lucie; and Pakistan—Punjab) were collected for comparison. Measurements of 20 morphological characters were selected, measured and analysed using ANOVA and MANOVA. The results indicate differences among the 6 ACP populations (Wilks’ lambda = 0.0376, F = 7.29, P < 0.0001). The body length (BL), circumanal ring length (CL), antenna length (AL), forewing length (WL) and Rs vein length of forewing (RL) were the most important characters separating the populations. The cluster analysis showed that the Iran and Florida populations are distinct from each other but separate from the Pakistan population. Thus, three subgroups can be morphologically discriminated within D. citri species in this study, (1) Iran, (2) USA (Florida) and (3) Pakistan population. Morphometric comparisons provided further resolution to the mtCOI haplotypes and distinguished the Florida and Iranian populations. PMID:26038715

  20. A Study of the Rapid Growth of "O" and "A" Levels of Education in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishfaq, Umbreen

    2009-01-01

    The major purpose of this study was to investigate the views of students, parents and teachers regarding the rapid growth of ordinary "O" and advanced "A" level education systems and its implications for Pakistan. The main objective of study was to identify the importance of and social acceptance of "O" and…

  1. Burn injury characteristics: findings from Pakistan National Emergency Department Surveillance Study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Burn injury is an important yet under-researched area in Pakistan. The objective of this study was to determine the characteristics and associated outcomes of burn injury patients presenting to major emergency departments in Pakistan. Methods Pakistan National Emergency Department Surveillance (Pak-NEDS) was a pilot active surveillance conducted between November 2010 and March 2011. Information related to patient demographics, mode of arrival, cause of burn injury, and outcomes was analyzed for this paper. Data were entered using Epi Info and analyzed using SPSS v.20. Ethical approval was obtained from all participating sites. Results There were 403 burn injury patients in Pak-NEDS, with a male to female ratio 2:1. About 48.9% of the burn injury patients (n = 199) were between 10 - 29 years of age. There was no statistically significant difference between unintentional and intentional burn injury patients except for body part injured (p-value 0.004) and ED disposition (p-value 0.025). Among 21 patients who died, most were between 40 - 49 years of age (61.9%) and suffered from fire burns (81%). Conclusion Burn injuries are a burden on emergency rooms in Pakistan. We were able to demonstrate the significant burden of burn injuries that is not addressed by specialized burn centers. PMID:26692165

  2. Socio-Economic Affects of Floods on Female Teachers in Jampur (Pakistan)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buzdar, Muhammad Ayub; Ali, Akhtar

    2011-01-01

    Women are major affected segment of society in any disaster in under developed countries. Floods of 2010, in Pakistan, affected more than 17 million people. Ultimately, it created several social, psychological and financial problems for affected females. The current paper aimed to study the socio-economic affects of floods on female teachers of…

  3. Literacy for Women and Their Participation in the Labour Force in Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panhwar, Farzana

    In rural Pakistan, agricultural land is owned by men and they use family labor, including women. Women usually transact no cash from cradle to grave. There is no social support for high achievement in their lives. The illiteracy rate among women is very high, especially in rural areas, where only 7.3 percent of women are literate. Poor…

  4. Successful Leadership Practices of Head Teachers for School Improvement: Some Evidence from Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salfi, Naseer Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The main purpose of this study is to identify the successful leadership practices of head teachers for school improvement at secondary level in Pakistan. Design/methodology/approach: The study was descriptive (survey type) in nature. It was conducted on a sample of 351 secondary school head teachers, 702 elementary and secondary school…

  5. A New Vision of Professional Development for Tertiary Teachers in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaudary, Imran Anjum

    2011-01-01

    Professional development for tertiary teachers in Pakistan is problematic. In most cases, it does not exist; and if it does, it is very brief, sporadic and traditional, and is conveyed off-site through top-down teacher training strategies. The Pakistani tertiary education sector is predominantly public in nature and consists of two main wings: the…

  6. Development of Community Based Rehabilitation in Pakistan: Bringing Mental Handicap into Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, M.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews the history of services for people with mental disabilities in Pakistan, with emphasis on the development of outreach projects based on principles of community-based rehabilitation. Strategies are suggested that build on existing realities and strengths of families and communities. Promising examples from Bangladesh are cited. (Author/DB)

  7. Tick-borne diseases of bovines in Pakistan: major scope for future research and improved control.

    PubMed

    Jabbar, Abdul; Abbas, Tariq; Sandhu, Zia-ud-Din; Saddiqi, Hafiz A; Qamar, Muhammad F; Gasser, Robin B

    2015-01-01

    Ticks and tick-borne diseases (TBDs) affect the productivity of bovines in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, leading to a significant adverse impact on the livelihoods of resource-poor farming communities. Globally, four main TBDs, namely anaplasmosis, babesiosis, theileriosis, and cowdriosis (heartwater) affect bovines, and the former three are of major economic importance in bovines in Pakistan. Given that the livestock sector has become an integral part of Pakistan's economy and a large number of dairy cattle are being imported into the country, in order to meet an increasing demand of milk and milk products, it is timely to review current status of bovine TBDs in Pakistan and to identify gaps in the knowledge of TBDs and their control. Although there has been a recent increase in the number of studies of TBDs in this country, information on their prevalence, distribution, tick vectors, and control is limited. This article provides a brief background on key bovine TBDs and ticks and reviews the current status of bovine TBDs in Pakistan to identify gaps in knowledge and understanding of these diseases, propose areas for future research and draw attention to the need for improved tools for the diagnosis and control of TBDs in this country. PMID:25994588

  8. Relationship among School Size, School Culture and Students' Achievement at Secondary Level in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad Salfi, Naseer; Saeed, Muhammad

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to determine the relationship among school size, school culture and students' achievement at secondary level in Pakistan. Design/methodology/approach: The study was descriptive (survey type). It was conducted on a sample of 90 secondary school head teachers and 540 primary, elementary and high school teachers working in…

  9. Education and Economic Growth in Pakistan: A Cointegration and Causality Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afzal, Muhammad; Rehman, Hafeez Ur; Farooq, Muhammad Shahid; Sarwar, Kafeel

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the cointegration and causality between education and economic growth in Pakistan by using time series data on real gross domestic product (RGDP), labour force, physical capital and education from 1970-1971 to 2008-2009 were used. Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) Model of Cointegration and the Augmented Granger Causality…

  10. Community Management of Intellectual Disabilities in Pakistan: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirza, I.; Tareen, A.; Davidson, L. L.; Rahman, A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Pakistan has one of the highest reported rates of childhood intellectual disabilities (ID) in the world. Prevalence estimates vary from 19.1/1000 for serious ID to 65/1000 for mild ID. Methods: We surveyed carers of persons with ID (n = 100) using quantitative and qualitative instruments. We conducted in-depth interviews of carers (n =…

  11. SPECIAL PROBLEMS REPORT, ADULT EDUCATION PROGRAMS FOR RURAL POPULATION IN PAKISTAN AND SUGGESTIONS FOR THEIR IMPROVEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ALI KHAN, ANSAR

    THE AUTHOR DISCUSSES THE NEED FOR FUNCTIONAL, SEQUENTIAL PROGRAMS OF LITERACY, VOCATIONAL, LIBERAL, POLITICAL, AND HUMAN RELATIONS EDUCATION IN RURAL AREAS OF PAKISTAN. PROBLEMS AND CHALLENGES ARE SEEN IN THE OCCUPATIONAL CASTE SYSTEM, FAMILY STRUCTURES, ATTITUDES TOWARD THE EDUCATION OF BOYS AND GIRLS, POOR MEANS OF TRANSPORTATION AND…

  12. 75 FR 67015 - Unexpected Urgent Refugee And Migration Needs Resulting From Flooding InPakistan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-01

    ....) THE WHITE HOUSE, WASHINGTON, September 3, 2010 [FR Doc. 2010-27673 Filed 10-29-10; 8:45 am] Billing... Migration Needs Resulting From Flooding InPakistan Memorandum for the Secretary of State By the authority...) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962 (the ``Act''), as amended (22 U.S.C....

  13. From LAMP to Koha: Case Study of the Pakistan Legislative Assembly Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafi-Ullah, Farasat; Qutab, Saima

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to elaborate the library data migration process from LAMP (Library Automation Management Program) to the open source software Koha's (2.2.8 Windows based) Pakistani flavour PakLAG-Koha in six legislative assembly libraries of Pakistan. Design/methodology/approach: The paper explains different steps of the data migration…

  14. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials in Pakistan. April-June 1969. Vol. 3, No. 2, 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saad, Ismail, Comp.

    A 136-item bibliography covering April-June 1969 with English abstracts of books and articles in English and Indic languages provides information on various aspects of education in Pakistan. Significant emphasis is placed on sections dealing with libraries; teachers; and general, elementary, and secondary education. Briefer sections deal with (1)…

  15. Selected Bibliography and Abstracts of Educational Materials in Pakistan. Volume 4, Number 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saad, Ismail, Ed.

    This selected list of 121 citations on the public education system of Pakistan is annotated to give the description and appropriate level of each document. Entries are arranged according to 33 major topics: 1) education administration, organization, and finance; 2) educational history, educational philosophy; 3) educational development,…

  16. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials in Pakistan; July-September 1969, Volume 3, Number 3, 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saad, Ismail, Comp.

    This 123-item bibliography with English abstracts of recent books and articles on various aspects of Pakistan education includes a special section on new education policy. Emphasis is placed on elementary, secondary, and higher education, history of education, literature for children, science education, sociology, teacher training, and women's…

  17. Causes of the Decline of Education in Pakistan and Its Remedies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghazi, Safdar Rehman; Ali, Riasat; Khan, Muhammad Saeed; Hussain, Shaukat; Fatima, Zakia Tanzeela

    2010-01-01

    Low literacy rate and poor quality of education are the major drawbacks of the educational system in Pakistan. Our education is influenced by a number of factors that cause this downfall. Some of them are more prominent, such as low enrollment and high dropout rate at the primary level, different standards of education, low budget allocation for…

  18. Higher Education in Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan after 9/11: Problems and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Syed Hafeez; Junaid, Fatima A.

    2010-01-01

    The troubled state of affairs in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) of Pakistan portends serious repercussions and grave consequences, destined to affect education particularly higher education in the entire tribal belt. Ironically, no extensive study has been conducted, to investigate those dimensions of FATA higher education which…

  19. Crisis Preparedness and Response for Schools: An Analytical Study of Punjab, Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Javed, Muhammad Latif; Niazi, Hamid Khan

    2015-01-01

    This research study aims to analyze the Preparedness and Response to crises in School Education department at secondary level in Punjab, Pakistan. This was done through the experiences and views of District Education Officers (DEOs), Head of Schools and Secondary School Teachers (SST). The purpose of the study was not only to examine preparedness…

  20. INEE Minimum Standards: A Tool for Education Quality Assessment in Afghan Refugee Schools in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qahir, Katayon

    2007-01-01

    This article details a pilot Minimum Standards assessment in Afghan refugee schools supported by the International Rescue Committee's Female Education Program in the North West Frontier Province of Pakistan. A set of specifically selected, contextualized indicators, based on the global INEE Minimum Standards, served as a tool for teachers and…

  1. Aiding Education in Conflict: The Role of International Education Providers Operating in Afghanistan and Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmer, Adele; Stoddard, Abby; DiDomenico, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Amid rising violence against civilian aid operations in insecure environments, attacks on the education sector pose a unique set of challenges for international aid actors. In recent years incidents of violence targeting the education sector in Afghanistan and the conflict-affected areas of Pakistan have increased. This article synthesizes recent…

  2. Statistical Analysis of Different Socio Economic Factors Affecting Education of N-W.F.P (Pakistan)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, Atta Ur; Uddin, Salah

    2009-01-01

    A data of students in the urban and rural area institutions of N-W.F.P (Pakistan) and control group was collected to examine the different socio-economic factor which affects our education system. The logistic regression was applied to analyze the data and to select a parsimonious model. The response variable for the study is literate (illiterate)…

  3. Study of probabilistic modeling of stratospheric ozone fluctuations over Pakistan and China regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jan, Bulbul; Zai, M. Ayub Khan Yousuf; Abbas, Shaheen; Hussain, Shabbir; Ali, Muhammad; Ansari, M. Rashid Kamal

    2014-03-01

    Stratospheric ozone has an essential role in terrestrial life particularly in climatic variability and protects earth biosphere from the harmful UV radiations. The present study investigates the variation of the stratospheric ozone layer over Pakistan and China for the period from 1984 to 2010. For this purpose a probability distribution approach is applied. In this regard the adequacy of Normal, Gamma and Log-Normal distributions are tested with the help of Kolmogorov-Smirnov D-test. It is found that most of the months, Pakistan region follow Log-normal while China region exhibits Normal probaility distribution. In addition, mean and standard deviations of monthly ozone are also calculated. It gives more eminence to stratospheric ozone variability behavior. Furthermore, trend models are used to compute the ozone variations for the above mentioned regions.Most of the months show increasing trend except the decreasing trend in Februery and May for Pakistan and Januray and September for China. Trend analysis contributes the economic development and hydrological planning. This research is a part of a larger research project which compares the climatic variability of Pakistan with the climatic variability of neighboring countries and the other countries of the region which are considered important in this regard. Such comparisons will appear in other communications.

  4. Mathematics Achievement in Middle School Level in Pakistan: Findings from the First National Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tayyaba, Saadia

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The general objective of this paper is to investigate the mathematics achievement of middle grade students in Pakistan. Specifically: to determine whether mathematics achievement varies systematically across students and schools; to what extent the mathematics curriculum and frameworks are implemented in schools; to what extent gender and…

  5. Intentional and unintentional poisoning in Pakistan: a pilot study using the Emergency Departments surveillance project

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Acute poisoning is one of the most common reasons for emergency department visits around the world. In Pakistan, the epidemiological data on poisoning is limited due to an under developed poison information surveillance system. We aim to describe the characteristics associated with intentional and unintentional poisoning in Pakistan presenting to emergency departments. Methods The data was extracted from the Pakistan National Emergency Department Surveillance (Pak-NEDS) which was an active surveillance conducted between November 2010 and March 2011. All patients, regardless of age, who presented with poisoning to any of Pakistan's seven major tertiary care centers' emergency departments, were included. Information about patient demographics, type of poisoning agent, reason for poisoning and outcomes were collected using a standard questionnaire. Results Acute poisoning contributed to 1.2% (n = 233) of patients with intentional and unintentional injuries presenting to EDs of participating centers. Of these, 68% were male, 54% were aged 19 to 44 and 19% were children and adolescents (<18 years). Types of poisoning included chemical/gas (43.8%), drug/medicine (27%), alcohol (16.7%) and food/plant (6%). In half of all patients the poisoning was intentional. A total of 11.6% of the patients were admitted and 6.6% died. Conclusion Poisoning causes more morbidity and mortality in young adults in Pakistan compared to other age groups, half of which is intentional. Improving mental health, regulatory control for hazardous chemicals and better access to care through poison information centers and emergency departments will potentially help control the problem. PMID:26691609

  6. Sympatric species distribution, genetic diversity and population structure of Haemonchus isolates from domestic ruminants in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Tanveer; Periasamy, Kathiravan; Nadeem, Asif; Babar, Masroor Ellahi; Pichler, Rudolf; Diallo, Adama

    2014-12-15

    Haemonchus species are major gastro-intestinal parasites affecting ruminants across the world. The present study aimed to assess the sympatric species distribution, genetic diversity, population structure and frequency of ?-tubulin isotype 1 alleles associated with benzimidazole resistance. Internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) sequences revealed three sympatric species of Haemonchus, H. contortus, H. placei and H. longistipes with 12 distinct genotypes circulating among ruminant hosts in Pakistan. High genetic variability was observed in Pakistani Haemonchus isolates at nicotine amide dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4) and cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene loci. Intra-population diversity parameters were higher in H. contortus isolates than H. placei. Phylogenetic analysis of ND4 and COI sequences did not reveal clustering of haplotypes originating from a particular host indicating high rate of gene flow among Haemonchus parasites infecting sheep, goat and cattle in Pakistan. ND4 and COI haplotypes from Pakistan were compared to sequences of Haemonchus isolates from 11 countries to elucidate the population structure. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) plot of pairwise FST derived from 531 ND4 haplotypes revealed clustering together of H. contortus from Pakistan, China, Malaysia and Italy while the isolates from Yemen and United States were found to be genetically distinct. With respect to H. placei, isolates from Pakistan were found to be genetically differentiated from isolates of other countries. The tests for selective neutrality revealed negative D statistics and did not reveal significant deviations in Pakistani Haemonchus populations while significant deviation (P < 0.05) was observed in Brazilian and Chinese H. contortus populations. Median Joining (MJ) network of ND4 haplotypes revealed Yemenese H. contortus being closer to H. placei cluster. ?-tubulin isotype 1 genotyping revealed 7.86% frequency of Y allele associated with benzimidazole resistance at F200Y locus in Pakistani Haemonchus isolates. PMID:25468018

  7. Financial wellness awareness: A step closer to achieve Millennium Development Goals for Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Rehman, Rehana; Katpar, Shahjahan; Khan, Rakhshaan; Hussain, Mehwish

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore financial wellness (FW) awareness amongst public and private sector medical college students of Karachi. Methods: A cross sectional questionnaire based survey was conducted on medical students from 3 public and 5 private sector medical colleges of Karachi from February 2011 to December 2011. All ethnic groups having age range of 18-23 years were included. A questionnaire tailored from wellness wheel evaluated the responses of FW on a four point Likert’s scale ranging from 0-3(never, sometimes, mostly, and always). Factor analysis explored common FW factors among both public and private sector medical college (MC) students. Results: Private MC Students were better in terms of making short and long terms financial goals compared to students in public sector. The students of public MC were more focused to make and restricting to given budgets (p=0.05). The FW element of keeping savings in bank account was responded more by private MC candidates (P < 0.0001) but was spent thrift as well (P < 0.0001). Factor analysis revealed two factors; ‘Financial Security Wellness’ which was better in Private MC Students (p=0.001) and ‘Care towards Expenses Wellness” in which results were not significant. Conclusion: Both groups of medical college students lacked FW awareness element in terms of caring towards financial expenses. The awareness of importance of financial security was practiced better by private MC students in terms of making short and long term financial goals and keeping savings in bank accounts. They were however deficient in the knowledge of making and restricting themselves to budgets. PMID:25878613

  8. Risk factors associated with birth defects at a tertiary care center in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Birth defects are defined as those conditions that are substantially determined before or during birth and which are recognizable in early life. They are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in infants. The main objective of the study was to determine the association of certain risk factors with birth defects occurring in pediatric patients seeking care in Civil Hospital, Karachi. Methods This was a prospective, cross-sectional study conducted at Department of Pediatrics: Units I, II and III of Civil Hospital Karachi, which is a tertiary care hospital located in the city center. These units provide care to pediatric patients from all over the country, with majority belonging to a low socioeconomic background. All infants with at least one birth defect were approached and their mothers interviewed. Demographics of both the mother and the infant were noted. Questions regarding possible exposure to risk factors were asked. Infants who were not accompanied by their mothers were excluded from the study. Results A total of 587 out of 669 infants completed the study successfully. Of these, defects related to urogenital system (19.9%) were the commonest, followed by those related to eye (16.9%), musculoskeletal system (12.9%), body wall defects (12.3%), oral cavity (12.1%), central nervous system (10.9%), gastrointestinal tract (3.2%), cardiovascular system (2.7%) and those related to ear, nose and throat (1.2%). Conclusion 669(4.1%) out of a total of 16,394 pediatric patients visiting the hospital during our study were identified as having at least one birth defect. The commonest ones were those related to the eye and the urogenital system. The main factors that influence the occurrence can be grouped into maternal, socioeconomic, nutritional and educational. PMID:23217204

  9. Study of the evolution of legislation on offences relating to religion in British India and their implications in contemporary Pakistan 

    E-print Network

    Nazir, Farhana Anthony

    2014-07-04

    The offence of blasphemy and its implications is one of the critical issues in Pakistan today. This research examines the historical setting and gradual amendment of blasphemy laws and their impact on religious communities ...

  10. 75 FR 52712 - Notice of Decision To Issue Permits for the Importation of Fresh Mango Fruit From Pakistan Into...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ... published a notice \\1\\ in the Federal Register on June 17, 2010 (75 FR 34422, Docket No. APHIS-2010- 0065... weeds via the importation of fresh mango fruit from Pakistan. DATES: Effective Date: August 27,...

  11. 75 FR 52712 - Notice of Decision To Issue Permits for the Importation of Fresh Mango Fruit From Pakistan Into...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ...designated phytosanitary measures will be sufficient to mitigate the risks of introducing or disseminating plant pests or noxious weeds via the importation of fresh mango fruit from Pakistan. DATES: Effective Date: August 27, 2010. FOR FURTHER...

  12. Selected Bibliography and Abstracts of Educational Materials in Pakistan. Volume 14, Number 1, 1980. Period Covered January-March 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saad, Geti, Comp.

    This annotated bibliography cites newspaper articles, government publications, and journal articles dealing with education in Pakistan. Items listed were published between January and March 1980. Topics covered include the following: educational administration, organization and financing; childhood education; curriculum; educational goals,…

  13. Ethnomedicine use in the war affected region of northwest Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background North-West of Pakistan is bestowed with medicinal plant resources due to diverse geographical and habitat conditions. The traditional use of plants for curing various diseases forms an important part of the region’s cultural heritage. The study was carried out to document medicinal plants used in Frontier Region (FR) Bannu, an area affected by the “War on Terror”. Methods Fieldwork was carried out in four different seasons (spring, autumn, summer and winter) from March 2012 to February 2013. Data on medicinal plants was collected using structured and semi-structured questionnaires from 250 respondents. The voucher specimens were collected, processed and identified following standard methods. Results Of the 107 species of ethnomedicinal plants reported, fifty percent species are herbaceous. The majority of the reported species were wild (55%) but a substantial proportion are cultivated (29%). For most of the plant species (34%), leaves are the most commonly used part in the preparation of ethnomedicines. The most common use of species is for carminative purposes (14 species), with the next most common use being for blood purification (11 species). The main methods used in the preparation of ethnomedicinal recipes involves grinding and boiling, and nearly all the remedies are taken orally along with ingredients such as water, milk or honey for ease of ingestion. Traditional healers prepare plant remedies using one or more plants. There was a significant correlation (r2?=?0.95) between the age of local people and the number of plants known to them, which indicates that in the coming 20 years, an approximate decrease of 75% in the indigenous knowledge may be expected. Conclusion Traditional medicines are important to the livelihoods of rural communities in the region affected by the Global war on Terrorism. The medicinal recipes are indigenous; however, there is a threat to their future use on account of rapid modernization and terrorist activities. Documentation of medicinal plants and recipes may help in the conservation of the regional indigenous medicinal knowledge for future generations and to provide a baseline for further studies. PMID:24484608

  14. Latinos in the South.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Emily Elliott, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue contains five articles about the growing Latino population in the South and its impact on communities, particularly in rural areas. "Social Capital of Mexican Communities in the South" (Ruben Hernandez-Leon, Victor Zuniga) argues that, to understand and advocate for Mexican newcomer communities in the South, scholars,…

  15. Run-based multi-model interannual variability assessment of precipitation and temperature over Pakistan using two IPCC AR4-based AOGCMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmat, U.; Athar, H.

    2015-09-01

    The interannual variability of precipitation and temperature is derived from all runs of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) fourth Assessment Report (AR4)-based two Atmospheric Oceanic General Circulation Model (AOGCM) simulations, over Pakistan, on an annual basis. The models are the CM2.0 and CM2.1 versions of Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL)-based AOGCM. Simulations for a recent 22-year period (1979-2000) are validated using Climate Research Unit (CRU) and NCEP/NCAR datasets over Pakistan, for the first time. The study area of Pakistan is divided into three regions: all Pakistan, northern Pakistan, and southern Pakistan. Bias, root mean square error, one sigma standard deviation, and coefficient of variance are used as validation metrics. For all Pakistan and northern Pakistan, all three runs of GFDL-CM2.0 perform better under the above metrics, both for precipitation and temperature (except for one sigma standard deviation and coefficient of variance), whereas for southern Pakistan, third run of GFDL-CM2.1 perform better expect for the root mean square error for temperature. A mean and variance-based bias correction is applied to bias in modeled precipitation and temperature variables. This resulted in a reduced bias, except for the months of June, July, and August, when the reduction in bias is relatively lower.

  16. Challenges in delivery of skilled maternal care – experiences of community midwives in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Maternal mortality ratio in Pakistan remains high at 276 per 100000 live births (175 in the urban areas and 319 in rural) with a mother dying as a result of giving birth every 20 minutes. Despite the intervening years since the Safe Motherhood Initiative launch and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), there have been few improvements in MDGs 4 and 5 in Pakistan. A key underlying reason is that only 39% of the births are attended by skilled birth attendants. Pakistan, like many other developing countries has been struggling to make improvements in maternal and neonatal health, amongst other measures, which include a nationwide health infrastructure network. Recently, government of Pakistan revised its maternal and newborn health program and introduced a new cadre of community based birth attendants, called community midwives (CMW), trained to conduct home-based deliveries. There is limited research available on field experiences of community midwives as maternal health care providers. Formative research was designed and conducted in a rural district of Pakistan with the objective of exploring role of CMWs as home based skilled service providers and the challenges they face in provision of skilled maternal care. Methods A qualitative research using content analysis was conducted in one rural district (Attock) of Pakistan. Focus group discussions were conducted with CMWs and other community based health workers as LHWs and LHSs, focusing on the role of CMWs in the existing primary health care infrastructure. Results Results of this study reveal that the community midwives are struggling for survival in rural areas as maternal care providers as they are inadequately trained, lack sufficient resources to deliver services in their catchment areas and lack facilitation for integration in district health system. Conclusions CMWs face many challenges in the field related to the communities' attitude and the health system. With adequate training and facilitation by health department, CMWs have potential to play a vital role in reducing burden of maternal morbidity and in achieving significant gains in improving maternal and child health. PMID:24499344

  17. Understanding care and feeding practices: building blocks for a sustainable intervention in India and Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Lingam, Raghu; Gupta, Pallavi; Zafar, Shamsa; Hill, Zelee; Yousafzai, Aisha; Iyengar, Sharad; Sikander, Siham; Haq, Zaeem ul; Mehta, Shilpa; Skordis-Worrel, Jolene; Rahman, Atif; Kirkwood, Betty

    2014-01-01

    Undernutrition and inadequate stimulation both negatively influence child health and development and have a long-term impact on school attainment and income. This paper reports data from India and Pakistan looking at how families interact, play with, and feed children; their expectations of growth and development; and the perceived benefits, consequences, opportunities, and barriers of adopting recommended feeding and developmental behaviors. These data were collected as part of formative research for the Sustainable Program Incorporating Nutrition and Games (SPRING) trial. This trial aims to deliver an innovative, feasible, affordable, and sustainable intervention that can achieve delivery at a scale of known effective interventions that maximize child development, growth, and survival and improve maternal psychosocial well-being in rural India and Pakistan. PMID:24392960

  18. Assessing a thematic condom advertising campaign on condom use in urban Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Agha, Sohail; Beaudoin, Christopher E

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to assess communication processes involving a thematic condom advertising campaign in Pakistan in 2009. To evaluate the social marketing campaign for Touch condoms, the authors conducted a nationally representative survey of 1,606 men married to women aged 15-49 years. About 15% of urban married men were aware of Touch advertising. After controlling for a range of other variables including daily television viewership, confirmed awareness of Touch advertising was associated with a higher level of belief in the effectiveness of condoms, reduced embarrassment in negotiating condom use, reduced embarrassment in purchasing condoms, increased discussion of family planning, and increased use of condoms and other contraceptive methods. The findings have implications for the further development and dissemination of contraceptive advertising in Pakistan, as well as the broader construction of scientific knowledge on how advertising can influence contraceptive and other critical health behaviors in other contexts. PMID:22272557

  19. Books vs bombs? Humanitarian development and the narrative of terror in Northern Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ali, Nosheen

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the role of humanitarian discourse and development in reconfiguring the contemporary culture of empire and its war on terror. It takes as its point of entry the immensely popular biographical tale, Three Cups of Tea, which details how the American mountaineer Greg Mortenson has struggled to counter terrorism in Northern Pakistan through the creation of schools. Even as this text appears to provide a self-critical and humane perspective on terrorism, the article argues that it constructs a misleading narrative of terror in which the realities of Northern Pakistan and Muslim life-worlds are distorted through simplistic tropes of ignorance, backwardness and extremism, while histories of US geopolitics and violence are erased. The text has further facilitated the emergence of a participatory militarism, whereby humanitarian work helps to reinvent the military as a culturally sensitive and caring institution in order to justify and service the project of empire. PMID:20607902

  20. Recovery of Schistosoma haematobium ovum from Labeo rohita: first report from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ayaz, M M; Nazir, M M; Lashari, M H; Akhtar, S; Khosa, M A; Aziz, M; Zahid, H; Ali, S; Muneeb, M; Malik, A; Haider, S; Zafar, Z

    2015-09-01

    Schistosomiasis, also known as bilharzia, is a parasitic disease caused by trematodes from the genus Schistosoma that can infect humans and animals. S. mansoni, S. japonicum, and S. mekongi all causes intestinal schistosomiasis except S. haematobium that causes urinary schistosomiasis. It is only specie which effects urinary system, it can affect liver, heart, lungs also but very rarely. Schistosoma haematobium is endemic to over 50 countries in Africa and the Middle East and Western Asia and may be fatal in HIV positive people. A number of reports from the African countries like Nigeria have been reported. A few cases are reported but in Pakistan it has never been reported before in native people. It is first time reported in Pakistan in the intestine of Rahu (Labeo rohita). The purpose of this study is to elaborate the approach of zoonotic agent by various other routes including the commonly available fish. PMID:26695198

  1. Recovering from disasters: a study of livelihoods in post-quake villages in northern Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khan, Kashif Saeed; Shanmugaratnam, Nadarajah; Nyborg, Ingrid L P

    2015-04-01

    The October 2005 earthquake in northern Pakistan severely affected the livelihoods of 1.5 million people. With the destruction of material assets and communications infrastructure, the quake had a devastating impact on people's way of life in this remote mountainous region. This paper explores livelihood revival interventions undertaken during the earthquake response, and considers how differentiated livelihood outcomes were achieved. In addressing this objective the paper examines livelihood rehabilitation schemes in terms of structural aspects, working strategies, key factors, strengths of interventions and the role of human agency in influencing livelihood trajectories of quake-affected communities. Primary data for this study was gathered in northern Pakistan between October 2008 and January 2009. The study identifies structural shortcomings and strengths of the programmes attempting to revive the livelihoods of poor and vulnerable households. It identifies how households in two villages made the most of opportunities to improve their lives and move towards favourable outcomes. PMID:25442035

  2. The health workforce crisis in Pakistan: a critical review and the way forward.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Muhammad Ahmed; Mukhtar, Fatima; Wazir, Salim; Gilani, Irum; Gorar, Zulfikar; Shaikh, Babar Tasneem

    2014-01-01

    Today, the developing world suffers due to the health "workforce crisis." The World Health Report 2006 uses this term to study the current scenario in the developing countries. Human resource planning is a critical activity within the broader sectoral planning, especially when it comes to the health sector. Pakistan faces an acute shortage of different cadres of healthcare workers, which is bound to escalate further because of the high population growth rate, inequitable distribution and out-migration of the healthcare workforce. In the wake of ongoing reforms in the health sector of Pakistan, it is suggested that for the strengthening of health systems, there ought to be a serious thought process involved for developing a human resource plan for the health sector that responds to the needs of the population and the disease burden. A national strategy is imperative to retain, train and incentivize the health workforce. PMID:25576749

  3. Movements of people, ideas, trade, and technology: Toward a peaceful coexistence of India and Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, S.; Das, S.

    1998-03-01

    The potential exists for peaceful and constructive bilateral relations between India and Pakistan. Domestic developments in both countries, the changing global economic and political environment, and structural changes in regional trading patterns have created new opportunities for replacing traditional Indian and Pakistani perceptions of hostility and suspicion with mutual understanding and trust. This substitution process can be accelerated by increasing people-to-people contact, the free flow of information, and economic and technological cooperation between the two neighbors. Nonmilitary confidence building measures could create conditions for an incremental reduction on tensions between India and Pakistan. A popular consciousness for enhanced bilateral cooperation is growing. This process could be strengthened by identifying and exploring new areas of mutually beneficial cooperation that could pave the way for peace.

  4. Sustainable Food Security in the Mountains of Pakistan: Towards a Policy Framework.

    PubMed

    Rasul, Golam; Hussain, Abid

    2015-01-01

    The nature and causes of food and livelihood security in mountain areas are quite different to those in the plains. Rapid socioeconomic and environmental changes added to the topographical constraints have exacerbated the problem of food insecurity in the Hindu Kush-Himalayan (HKH) region. In Pakistan, food insecurity is significantly higher in the mountain areas than in the plains as a result of a range of biophysical and socioeconomic factors. The potential of mountain niche products such as fruit, nuts, and livestock has remained underutilized. Moreover, the opportunities offered by globalization, market integration, remittances, and non-farm income have not been fully tapped. This paper analyzes the opportunities and challenges of food security in Pakistan's mountain areas, and outlines a framework for addressing the specific issues in terms of four different types of area differentiated by agro-ecological potential and access to markets, information, and institutional services. PMID:26178902

  5. South Asia transboundary water quality monitoring workshop summary report.

    SciTech Connect

    Betsill, Jeffrey David; Littlefield, Adriane C.; Luetters, Frederick O.; Rajen, Gaurav

    2003-04-01

    The Cooperative Monitoring Center (CMC) promotes collaborations among scientists and researchers in several regions as a means of achieving common regional security objectives. To promote cooperation in South Asia on environmental research, an international working group made up of participants from Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and the United States convened in Kathmandu, Nepal, from February 17-23,2002. The workshop was held to further develop the South Asia Transboundary Water Quality Monitoring (SATWQM) project. The project is sponsored in part by the CMC located at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico through funding provided by the US. Department of State, Regional Environmental Affairs Office, American Embassy, Kathmandu, Nepal, and the National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) Office of Nonproliferation and National Security. This report summarizes the SATWQM project, the workshop objectives, process and results. The long-term interests of the participants are to develop systems for sharing regional environmental information as a means of building confidence and improving relations among South Asian countries. The more immediate interests of the group are focused on activities that foster regional sharing of water quality data in the Ganges and Indus River basins. Issues of concern to the SATWQM network participants include studying the impacts from untreated sewage and industrial effluents, agricultural run-off, salinity increases in fresh waters, the siltation and shifting of river channels, and the environmental degradation of critical habitats such as wetlands, protected forests, and endangered aquatic species conservation areas. The workshop focused on five objectives: (1) a deepened understanding of the partner organizations involved; (2) garnering the support of additional regional and national government and non-government organizations in South Asia involved in river water quality monitoring; (3) identification of sites within the region at which water quality data are to be collected; (4) instituting a data and information collection and sharing process; and, (5) training of partners in the use of water quality monitoring equipment.

  6. Beyond Kargil: The technology of peace in India-Pakistan border relations

    SciTech Connect

    Tahir-Kheli, S.; Biringer, K.L.

    2000-01-12

    The potential for cooperation between India and Pakistan is substantial. Topics as widely varying as national security, the environment and trade hold the potential for improved bilateral relations. This paper looks at a few areas in which monitoring technology could contribute to enhancing cooperative border agreements between the two nations. The goal of the paper is not to provide prescriptive solutions to regional problems, but to expand the number of options being considered for improving Indian-Pakistan relations. Many of the impediments to bilateral progress are a result of a history of conflict and mistrust. By utilizing technical monitoring and inspections, each side can begin to replace suspicion and doubt with knowledge and information useful in making informed political, economic and military decisions. At the same time, technical monitoring and inspections can build confidence through common interactions. India and Pakistan have pledged to resolve their disputes, including Kashmir, through dialogue. Implementation of that pledge is influenced by a number of factors, including changes in the political systems and the fortunes of the leadership. Events of the past year and a half have severely tested these two governments' ability to move forward along a constructive and positive path. Testing of new missile systems both preceded and followed testing of nuclear weapons in May 1998. Both countries disregarded subsequent international displeasure as they proceeded to openly declare their respective nuclear capability. Their brief engagement with each other in February 1999 and movement toward a rapprochement diluted international condemnation of their nuclear activity. Within a recent period of nine months however, progress in the dialogue has been stalled first by the Pakistani move in Kashmir in May 1999, then by the Indian election in the summer of 1999 and most recently by the military coup in Pakistan.

  7. 'E-learning' modalities in the current era of Medical Education in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Jawaid, Masood; Aly, Syed Moyn

    2014-09-01

    There are a number of e-Learning modalities, some or all of which may be used throughout a medical, dental, nursing or any other health related undergraduate curriculum. The purpose of this paper is to briefly describe what e-learning is along with some of the modalities, their common advantages and limitations. This publication ends with practical implications of these modalities for Pakistan. PMID:25225547

  8. Dead on arrival in a low-income country: results from a multicenter study in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background This study assessed the characteristics of dead on arrival (DOA) patients in Pakistan. Methods Data about the DOA patients were extracted from Pakistan National Emergency Department Surveillance study (Pak-NEDS). This study recruited all ED patients presenting to seven tertiary care hospitals during a four-month period between November 2010 and March 2011. This study included patients who were declared dead-on-arrival by the ED physician. Results A total of 1,557 DOA patients (7 per 1,000 visits) were included in the Pak-NEDS. Men accounted for two-thirds (64%) of DOA patients. Those aged 20-49 years accounted for about 46% of DOA patients. Nine percent (n = 72) of patients were brought by ambulance, and most patients presented at a public hospital (80%). About 11% of DOA patients had an injury. Factors significantly associated (p < 0.05) with ambulance use were men (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.72), brought to a private hospital (OR = 2.74), and being injured (aOR = 1.89). Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was performed on 6% (n = 42) of patients who received treatment. Those brought to a private hospital were more likely to receive CPR (aOR = 2.81). Conclusion This study noted a higher burden of DOA patients in Pakistan compared to other resourceful settings (about 1 to 2 per 1,000 visits). A large proportion of patients belonging to productive age groups, and the low prevalence of ambulance and CPR use, indicate a need for improving the prehospital care and basic life support training in Pakistan. PMID:26689125

  9. The 2010 Pakistan floods: high-resolution simulations with the WRF model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viterbo, Francesca; Parodi, Antonio; Molini, Luca; Provenzale, Antonello; von Hardenberg, Jost; Palazzi, Elisa

    2013-04-01

    Estimating current and future water resources in high mountain regions with complex orography is a difficult but crucial task. In particular, the French-Italian project PAPRIKA is focused on two specific regions in the Hindu-Kush -- Himalaya -- Karakorum (HKKH)region: the Shigar basin in Pakistan, at the feet of K2, and the Khumbu valley in Nepal, at the feet of Mount Everest. In this framework, we use the WRF model to simulate precipitation and meteorological conditions with high resolution in areas with extreme orographic slopes, comparing the model output with station and satellite data. Once validated the model, we shall run a set of three future time-slices at very high spatial resolution, in the periods 2046-2050, 2071-2075 and 2096-2100, nested in different climate change scenarios (EXtreme PREcipitation and Hydrological climate Scenario Simulations -EXPRESS-Hydro project). As a prelude to this study, here we discuss the simulation of specific, high-intensity rainfall events in this area. In this paper we focus on the 2010 Pakistan floods which began in late July 2010, producing heavy monsoon rains in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Sindh, Punjab and Balochistan regions of Pakistan and affecting the Indus River basin. Approximately one-fifth of Pakistan's total land area was underwater, with a death toll of about 2000 people. This event has been simulated with the WRF model (version 3.3.) in cloud-permitting mode (d01 14 km and d02 3.5 km): different convective closures and microphysics parameterization have been used. A deeper understanding of the processes responsible for this event has been gained through comparison with rainfall depth observations, radiosounding data and geostationary/polar satellite images.

  10. Addressing disparities in maternal health care in Pakistan: gender, class and exclusion

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background After more than two decades of the Safe Motherhood Initiative and Millennium Development Goals aimed at reducing maternal mortality, women continue to die in childbirth at unacceptably high rates in Pakistan. While an extensive literature describes various programmatic strategies, it neglects the rigorous analysis of the reasons these strategies have been unsuccessful, especially for women living at the economic and social margins of society. A critical gap in current knowledge is a detailed understanding of the root causes of disparities in maternal health care, and in particular, how gender and class influence policy formulation and the design and delivery of maternal health care services. Taking Pakistan as a case study, this research builds upon two distinct yet interlinked conceptual approaches to understanding the phenomenon of inequity in access to maternal health care: social exclusion and health systems as social institutions. Methods/Design This four year project consists of two interrelated modules that focus on two distinct groups of participants: (1) poor, disadvantaged women and men and (2) policy makers, program managers and health service providers. Module one will employ critical ethnography to understand the key axes of social exclusion as related to gender, class and zaat and how they affect women’s experiences of using maternal health care. Through health care setting observations, interviews and document review, Module two will assess policy design and delivery of maternal health services. Discussion This research will provide theoretical advances to enhance understanding of the power dynamics of gender and class that may underlie poor women’s marginalization from health care systems in Pakistan. It will also provide empirical evidence to support formulation of maternal health care policies and health care system practices aimed at reducing disparities in maternal health care in Pakistan. Lastly, it will enhance inter-disciplinary research capacity in the emerging field of social exclusion and maternal health and help reduce social inequities and achieve the Millennium Development Goal No. 5. PMID:22871056

  11. ‘E-learning’ modalities in the current era of Medical Education in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Jawaid, Masood; Aly, Syed Moyn

    2014-01-01

    There are a number of e-Learning modalities, some or all of which may be used throughout a medical, dental, nursing or any other health related undergraduate curriculum. The purpose of this paper is to briefly describe what e-learning is along with some of the modalities, their common advantages and limitations. This publication ends with practical implications of these modalities for Pakistan. PMID:25225547

  12. Patients' opinion of pharmacists and their roles in health care system in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Muhammad Umair; Khan, Abdul Nabeel; Ahmed, Farrukh Rafiq; Feroz, Zeeshan; Rizvi, Syed Ata; Shah, Shahjahan; Hussain, Rahat; Adil, Zeeshan

    2013-01-01

    Background Pharmacist–patient association is a decisive component in improving health care system. To offer patient centred services, the pharmacists need to fully understand patients' perspectives and views to meet their needs and expectations. Purpose To evaluate patients' perception of pharmacist and pharmacy practice in Pakistan. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted between July and September 2012 on patients attended out-patient clinic in a teaching hospital of Pakistan. By using raosoft sample size calculator, questionnaires were distributed to a sample of 376 patients. Questionnaire included different section which evaluated the demographic information, frequency and reason of interaction, perception and choice of pharmacy. Statistical analysis was done by using SPSS (v.17). Results A total of 301, out of 376, surveys returned giving a response rate of 80%. 51.8% (n = 156) participants interacted with pharmacist on regular basis. The major reasons of interaction were drug alternative and drug availability queries (41.5%, n = 125 and 26.2%, n = 79). The finding also showed that 84.1% (n = 253) of participants agreed that pharmacists are important part of health care system. Interestingly, all the patients (n = 301) either agreed or strongly agreed that discount was the major influencing factor on their choice of pharmacy. Conclusion The patients' perception of pharmacist in Pakistan was generally positive but their understanding is very primitive as majority of the patients are unaware of pharmaceutical care services. However, they are more devoted to witness such services being practiced in Pakistan. This transition in practice could be brought into certainty by proactive involvement of pharmacists in community setup. PMID:24396248

  13. Parameterization of 18th January 2011 earthquake in Dalbadin Region, Southwest Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafiq-Ur-Rehman; Azeem, Tahir; Abd el-aal, Abd el-aziz Khairy; Nasir, Asma

    2013-12-01

    An earthquake of magnitude 7.3 Mw occurred on 18th January 2011 in Southwestern Pakistan, Baluchistan province (Dalbadin Region). The area has complex tectonics due to interaction of Indian, Eurasian and Arabian plates. Both thrust and strike slip earthquakes are dominant in this region with minor, localized normal faulting events. This earthquake under consideration (Dalbadin Earthquake) posed constraints in depth and focal parameters due to lack of data for evaluation of parameters from Pakistan, Iran or Afghanistan region. Normal faulting mechanism has been proposed by many researchers for this earthquake. In the present study the earthquake was relocated using the technique of travel time residuals. Relocated coordinates and depth were utilized to calculate the focal mechanism solution with outcome of a dominant strike slip mechanism, which is contrary to normal faulting. Relocated coordinates and resulting mechanism are more reliable than many reporting agencies as evaluation in this study is augmented by data from local seismic monitoring network of Pakistan. The tectonics in the area is governed by active subduction along the Makran Subduction Zone. This particular earthquake has strike slip mechanism due to breaking of subducting oceanic plate. This earthquake is located where oceanic lithosphere is subducting along with relative movements between Lut and Helmand blocks. Magnitude of this event i.e. Mw = 7.3, re evaluated depth and a previous study of mechanism of earthquake in same region (Shafiq et al., 2011) also supports the strike slip movement.

  14. Current status of information literacy instruction practices in medical libraries of Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Ullah, Midrar; Ameen, Kanwal

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The research explored the current practices of information literacy (IL) instruction in medical libraries of Pakistan. Methods: A semi-structured questionnaire was mailed to the head librarians of all 114 academic medical libraries in Pakistan. It investigated the types of IL instruction provided, topics covered, methods of delivery and assessment, level of integration in the curriculum, and level of collaboration with teaching staff. Results: The study revealed that 74% of the respondents had offered some types of IL instruction in their institutions during the previous year, ranging from library orientation to research-level skills. IL instruction is typically only offered to new students or first-time library users or on demand. A majority of the respondents developed IL instruction programs without faculty involvement. Librarians were primarily responsible for offering IL instruction in medical institutions. Face-to-face instruction in computer labs or lecture halls and individual instruction at reference desks were identified as the most common IL instruction delivery methods. The data indicated that oral feedback, written feedback, and searching in a computer lab were the most popular assessment methods that medical librarians used. Conclusion: IL instruction activities in medical libraries of Pakistan are in their infancy. Medical librarians also lack systematic approaches to IL instruction. Implications: Medical librarians need to develop educational partnerships with faculty for integrating IL instruction into the mainstream curriculum. PMID:25349546

  15. Access to Essential Medicines in Pakistan: Policy and Health Systems Research Concerns

    PubMed Central

    Zaidi, Shehla; Bigdeli, Maryam; Aleem, Noureen; Rashidian, Arash

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Inadequate access to essential medicines is a common issue within developing countries. Policy response is constrained, amongst other factors, by a dearth of in-depth country level evidence. We share here i) gaps related to access to essential medicine in Pakistan; and ii) prioritization of emerging policy and research concerns. Methods An exploratory research was carried out using a health systems perspective and applying the WHO Framework for Equitable Access to Essential Medicine. Methods involved key informant interviews with policy makers, providers, industry, NGOs, experts and development partners, review of published and grey literature, and consultative prioritization in stakeholder’s Roundtable. Findings A synthesis of evidence found major gaps in essential medicine access in Pakistan driven by weaknesses in the health care system as well as weak pharmaceutical regulation. 7 major policy concerns and 11 emerging research concerns were identified through consultative Roundtable. These related to weaknesses in medicine registration and quality assurance systems, unclear and counterproductive pricing policies, irrational prescribing and sub-optimal drug availability. Available research, both locally and globally, fails to target most of the identified policy concerns, tending to concentrate on irrational prescriptions. It overlooks trans-disciplinary areas of policy effectiveness surveillance, consumer behavior, operational pilots and pricing interventions review. Conclusion Experience from Pakistan shows that policy concerns related to essential medicine access need integrated responses across various components of the health systems, are poorly addressed by existing evidence, and require an expanded health systems research agenda. PMID:23717442

  16. Contribution of GJB2 mutations to hearing loss in the Hazara Division of Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Bukhari, Ihtisham; Mujtaba, Ghulam; Naz, Sadaf

    2013-01-01

    Mutations of GJB2, which encodes connexin 26, are the most common cause of hereditary hearing loss in many human populations. This study was initiated to determine the prevalence of GJB2 mutations in individuals with hearing loss from the Hazara Division in Pakistan. We recruited 70 participants with nonsyndromic deafness segregating as an apparently recessive trait and directly sequenced the GJB2 coding region from their DNA. The homozygous mutations c.71 G?A (p.W24X), c.104 T?G (p.I35S), and c.35delG (p.G12VfsX1) were identified as the cause of hearing loss in three participants (4.28%); in populations from other areas of Pakistan, frequencies of 6–7% have been observed. The mutations c.104 T?G and c.35delG were identified in Pakistan for the first time. These results confirm the low prevalence of GJB2 mutations in Hazara and suggest that mutations in other genes may play a significant role in the etiology of deafness in this population. PMID:23504403

  17. Subfamily Coleoscirinae (Acari: Trombidiformes: Cunaxidae), with Description of One New Species from Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Bashir, Muhammad Hamid; Afzal, Muhammad; Ashfaq, Muhammad; Ali, Shaukat; Kamran, Muhammad; Honey, Sabyan Faris

    2014-01-01

    The Coleoscirinae (Acari: Trombidiformes: Cunaxidae) from Pakistan are summarized in this paper. Two species of Scutascirus Den Heyer (S. pirgus Chaudhri and Akbar and S. tactus Chaudhri and Akbar), ten species of Coleoscirus Berlese (C. baptos (Chaudhri and Akbar), C. carex (Inayatullah and Shahid), C. carnus Muhammad and Chaudhri, C. comis Muhammad and Chaudhri, C. disparis Muhammad and Chaudhri, C. irroratus Muhammad and Chaudhri, C. mardi (Inatullah and Shahid), C. raviensis Afzal, Ashfaq and Khan, C. tobaensis Bashir, Afzal, Ashfaq, and Khan, and C. trudus Bashir, Afzal and Akbar), and three species of Pseudobonzia Smiley (P. ashfaqi Bashir, Afzal and Akbar, P. numida Chaudhri and Akbar, and P. parilus Chaudhri) have been previously reported. One new species of Pseudobonzia, Pseudobonzia bakeri sp. n., is herein described and illustrated. A key to the genera of the subfamily and keys to the species in each genus are given to incorporate the new species from Pakistan. Distribution records of all known species in Pakistan are also given. PMID:25368038

  18. The 2010 Pakistan Flood and Russian Heat Wave: Teleconnection of Hydrometeorological Extremes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, William K. M.; Kim, Kyu-Myong

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, preliminary results are presented showing that the two record-setting extreme events during 2010 summer (i.e., the Russian heat wave-wildfires and Pakistan flood) were physically connected. It is found that the Russian heat wave was associated with the development of an extraordinarily strong and prolonged extratropical atmospheric blocking event in association with the excitation of a large-scale atmospheric Rossby wave train spanning western Russia, Kazakhstan, and the northwestern China-Tibetan Plateau region. The southward penetration of upper-level vorticity perturbations in the leading trough of the Rossby wave was instrumental in triggering anomalously heavy rain events over northern Pakistan and vicinity in mid- to late July. Also shown are evidences that the Russian heat wave was amplified by a positive feedback through changes in surface energy fluxes between the atmospheric blocking pattern and an underlying extensive land region with below-normal soil moisture. The Pakistan heavy rain events were amplified and sustained by strong anomalous southeasterly flow along the Himalayan foothills and abundant moisture transport from the Bay of Bengal in connection with the northward propagation of the monsoonal intraseasonal oscillation.

  19. An evaluation framework for effective public participation in EIA in Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Nadeem, Obaidullah; Fischer, Thomas B.

    2011-01-15

    Evaluating the effectiveness of public participation in EIA related decisions is of crucial importance for developing a better understanding of overall EIA effectiveness. This paper aims to contribute to the professional debate by establishing a country specific evaluation framework for Pakistan, which, it is suggested, could also potentially be used in other developing countries. The framework is used to evaluate performance of public participation in EIA in terms of 40 attributes for four selected projects from the province of Punjab. The evaluation is based on interviews with stakeholders, review of EIA reports as well as public hearing proceedings and environmental approval conditions. The evaluation of the selected projects revealed an overall weak influence of public participation on substantive quality of EIA and on the final decision. Overall, EIA public participation has succeeded in providing a more egalitarian environment. Furthermore, it appears fair to say that sufficient time for submitting written comments on EIA reports as well as for raising concerns during public hearings had been given. Also, public consultation was significantly contributing to educating participants. Despite some impediments, it is argued that public participation in EIA is gradually gaining ground in Pakistan. Recommendations to enhance EIA public participation effectiveness in Pakistan include applying a more proactive approach which should take place before EIA is conducted and before site selection for development projects is happening.

  20. DNA barcode analysis of butterfly species from Pakistan points towards regional endemism

    PubMed Central

    Ashfaq, Muhammad; Akhtar, Saleem; Khan, Arif M; Adamowicz, Sarah J; Hebert, Paul D N

    2013-01-01

    DNA barcodes were obtained for 81 butterfly species belonging to 52 genera from sites in north-central Pakistan to test the utility of barcoding for their identification and to gain a better understanding of regional barcode variation. These species represent 25% of the butterfly fauna of Pakistan and belong to five families, although the Nymphalidae were dominant, comprising 38% of the total specimens. Barcode analysis showed that maximum conspecific divergence was 1.6%, while there was 1.7–14.3% divergence from the nearest neighbour species. Barcode records for 55 species showed <2% sequence divergence to records in the Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD), but only 26 of these cases involved specimens from neighbouring India and Central Asia. Analysis revealed that most species showed little incremental sequence variation when specimens from other regions were considered, but a threefold increase was noted in a few cases. There was a clear gap between maximum intraspecific and minimum nearest neighbour distance for all 81 species. Neighbour-joining cluster analysis showed that members of each species formed a monophyletic cluster with strong bootstrap support. The barcode results revealed two provisional species that could not be clearly linked to known taxa, while 24 other species gained their first coverage. Future work should extend the barcode reference library to include all butterfly species from Pakistan as well as neighbouring countries to gain a better understanding of regional variation in barcode sequences in this topographically and climatically complex region. PMID:23789612

  1. Identification of an Australian-like dicot-infecting mastrevirus in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Kraberger, Simona; Mumtaz, Huma; Claverie, Sohini; Martin, Darren P; Briddon, Rob W; Varsani, Arvind

    2015-03-01

    Although members of five distinct viral species in the genus Mastrevirus (family Geminiviridae) infect dicotyledonous plants in Australia, in the remainder of the world, only a single dicot-infecting mastrevirus, chickpea chlorotic dwarf virus (CpCDV) has ever been identified. This virus has been found infecting leguminous hosts in Africa, the Middle East and the Indian subcontinent. To further explore the diversity of CpCDV in Pakistan, ten full mastrevirus genome sequences from chickpea and lentil plants were determined. Eight of these genomes were from previously described CpCDV strains and included the first reported strain D and H isolates in Pakistan. Two other genomes derived from infected chickpea plants are more closely related to dicot-infecting mastreviruses found in Australia than they are to CpCDV. These two divergent genomes shared less than 75 % genome-wide nucleotide sequence identity with other characterised mastreviruses and therefore are likely to belong to a second species of dicot-infecting mastreviruses outside of Australia. We propose naming this species Chickpea yellow dwarf virus. We discuss how the presence of chickpea yellow dwarf virus (CpYDV) in Pakistan weakens the hypothesis that Australia is the geographical origin of the dicot-infecting mastreviruses. PMID:25537086

  2. Frequency of ICD-10 psychiatric diagnosis in children with intellectual disability in Lahore, Pakistan & Caregivers Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Imran, Nazish; Azeem, Muhammad Waqar; Sattar, Ahsan; Bhatti, Mohammad Riaz

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Association between Intellectual disability (ID) and psychiatric disorders in children & adolescents is well established but there is a paucity of published studies from Pakistan on this topic. The main aim of the study was to assess the frequency of ICD-10 psychiatric diagnosis in the hospital outpatient sample of children with ID in Lahore, Pakistan as well as to find out which challenging behaviors, caregivers find difficult to manage in this setup. Methods: Socio-demographic information was collected, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised & ICD-10 diagnostic criteria was used to assess children (age range 6 – 16 years) with suspected ID along with identification of behaviors found to be difficult to manage by caregivers. Results: 150 children were assessed with mean age of 10.7 years (males 70 %). Majority (72%) had mild ID while 18.7% and 9.3% had moderate and severe ID respectively. Thirty percent of children met the criteria for any psychiatric diagnosis, the most common being Oppositional Defiant Disorder (14%) and Hyperkinetic Disorders (10%). Verbal and physical aggression, school difficulties, socialization problems, inappropriate behaviors (e.g. disinhibition), sleep & feeding difficulties were the significant areas identified by the caregivers as a cause of major concern. Conclusions: Significantly high prevalence of ICD-10 psychiatric diagnosis in children with ID was found in Lahore, Pakistan. Support services for these children should be responsive not only to the needs of the child, but also to the needs of the family. PMID:26101476

  3. Terrorism in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Wang, Soon Joo; Choi, Jin Tae; Arnold, Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    South Korea has experienced > 30 suspected terrorism-related events since 1958, including attacks against South Korean citizens in foreign countries. The most common types of terrorism used have included bombings, shootings, hijackings, and kidnappings. Prior to 1990, North Korea was responsible for almost all terrorism-related events inside of South Korea, including multiple assassination attempts on its presidents, regular kidnappings of South Korean fisherman, and several high-profile bombings. Since 1990, most of the terrorist attacks against South Korean citizens have occurred abroad and have been related to the emerging worldwide pattern of terrorism by international terrorist organizations or deranged individuals. The 1988 Seoul Olympic Games provided a major stimulus for South Korea to develop a national emergency response system for terrorism-related events based on the participation of multiple ministries. The 11 September 2001 World Trade Center and Pentagon attacks and the 2001 United States of America (US) anthrax letter attacks prompted South Korea to organize a new national system of emergency response for terrorism-related events. The system is based on five divisions for the response to specific types of terrorist events, involving conventional terrorism, bioterrorism, chemical terrorism, radiological terrorism, and cyber-terrorism. No terrorism-related events occurred during the 2002 World Cup and Asian Games held in South Korea. The emergency management of terrorism-related events in South Korea is adapting to the changing risk of terrorism in the new century. PMID:15074497

  4. Factors Associated with Low Birth Weight of Children Among Employed Mothers in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Jafree, Sara Rizvi; Zakar, Rubeena; Zakar, Muhammad Zakria

    2015-09-01

    Evidence shows that Pakistan has an increasing rate of children with low birth weight (LBW). Employed mothers in paid work (EMPW) in the country have predominantly been disadvantaged in terms of access to education and low-income employment; with negative consequences on maternal and child health. The objective of this study was to determine socio-demographic characteristics of EMPW and identify the association between maternal employment and child birth weight in Pakistan. Secondary data from the Pakistan Demographic Health Survey (PDHS) conducted for the year 2006-2007 was used. PDHS is a nationally representative household survey. Relevant data needed from the PDHS data file were coded and filtered. The sample size of EMPW with at least one child born in the last 5 years was 2,515. Data was analyzed by using SPSS. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to see the association between EMPW characteristics and LBW. Findings confirm that the majority of EMPW in Pakistan are illiterate, poor, employed in unskilled work, and belonging to rural regions. Multivariate regression analysis revealed statistical association between EMPW and LBW among mothers who did not receive prenatal care from unskilled healthcare provider (AOR 1.92; 95% CI 1.12-3.30), had lack of access to information such as radio (AOR 1.88; 95% CI 1.28-2.77), during pregnancy did not receive calcium (AOR 1.19; 95% CI 1.05-1.34), and iron (AOR 1.33; 95% CI 1.05-1.69), had experienced headaches during pregnancy (AOR 1.41; 95% CI 1.12-1.76), and were not paid in cash for their work (AOR 1.41; 95% CI 1.04-1.90). EMPW in Pakistan, especially in low-income jobs and rural regions, need urgent support for healthcare awareness, free supplementation of micronutrients and frequent consultation with trained practitioner during the prenatal period. Long-term mobilization of social structure and governance is needed to encourage maternal health awareness, hospital deliveries, and formal sector employment for EMPW. PMID:25656725

  5. 3. SOUTH SIDE. Edwards Air Force Base, South Base ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. SOUTH SIDE. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing & Control Blockhouse for 10,000-foot Track, South of Sled Track at midpoint of 20,000-foot track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  6. 10. BUILDING: SECOND FLOOR (East Section), VIEW SOUTH: EAST, SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. BUILDING: SECOND FLOOR (East Section), VIEW SOUTH: EAST, SOUTH AND WEST WALLS OF COLD STORAGE, ALSO SHOWING REMNANTS OF COOLING PIPES - Boston Beer Company, 225-249 West Second Street, South Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  7. Crop-specific seasonal estimates of irrigation water demand in South Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biemans, H.; Siderius, C.; Mishra, A.; Ahmad, B.

    2015-08-01

    Especially in the Himalayan headwaters of the main rivers in South Asia, shifts in runoff are expected as a result of a rapidly changing climate. In recent years, our insight in these shifts and their impact on water availability has increased. However, a similar detailed understanding of the seasonal pattern in water demand is surprisingly absent. This hampers a proper assessment of water stress and ways to cope and adapt. In this study, the seasonal pattern of irrigation water demand resulting from the typical practice of multiple-cropping in South Asia was accounted for by introducing double-cropping with monsoon-dependent planting dates in a hydrology and vegetation model. Crop yields were calibrated to the latest subnational statistics of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Nepal. The representation of seasonal land use and more accurate cropping periods lead to lower estimates of irrigation water demand compared to previous model-based studies, despite the net irrigated area being higher. Crop irrigation water demand differs sharply between seasons and regions; in Pakistan, winter (Rabi) and summer (Kharif) irrigation demands are almost equal, whereas in Bangladesh the Rabi demand is ~ 100 times higher. Moreover, the relative importance of irrigation supply vs. rain decreases sharply from west to east. Given the size and importance of South Asia, improved regional estimates of food production and its irrigation water demand will also affect global estimates. In models used for global water resources and food-security assessments, processes like multiple-cropping and monsoon-dependent planting dates should not be ignored.

  8. 56. SOUTH ENTRANCE DOORS WITH RESTORED FANLIGHT, LOOKING SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. SOUTH ENTRANCE DOORS WITH RESTORED FANLIGHT, LOOKING SOUTH - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  9. Language in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesthrie, Rajend, Ed.

    This collection of 24 papers focuses on language and society in South Africa. Part 1, "The Main Language Groupings," includes (1) "South Africa: A Sociolinguistic Overview" (R. Mesthrie); (2) "The Khoesan Languages" (A. Traill); (3) "The Bantu Languages: Sociohistorical Perspectives" (Robert K. Herbert and Richard Bailey); (4) "Afrikaans:…

  10. Active faulting south of the Himalayan Front: Establishing a new plate boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeats, Robert S.; Thakur, V. C.

    2008-06-01

    New tectonic uplifts south of the Salt Range Thrust and Himalayan Front Thrust (HFT) represent an outward step of the plate boundary from the principal tectonic displacement zone into the Indo-Gangetic Plain. In Pakistan, the Lilla Anticline deforms fine-grained overbank deposits of the Jhelum River floodplain 15 km south of the Salt Range. The anticline is overpressured in Eocambrian non-marine strata. In northwest India south of Dehra Dun, the Piedmont Fault (PF) lies 15 km south of the HFT. Coalescing fans derived from the Himalaya form a piedmont (Old Piedmont Zone) 15-20 km wide east of the Yamuna River. This zone is uplifted as much as 15-20 m near the PF, and bedding is tilted 5-7° northeast. Holocene thermoluminescence-optically-stimulated luminescence dates for sediments in the Old Piedmont Zone suggest that the uplift rate might be as high as several mm/a. The Old Piedmont Zone is traced northwest 200 km and southeast another 200 km to the Nepal border. These structures, analogous to protothrusts in subduction zones, indicate that the Himalayan plate boundary is not a single structure but a series of structures across strike, including reactivated parts of the Main Boundary Thrust north of the range front, the HFT sensu stricto, and stepout structures on the Indo-Gangetic Plain. Displacement rates on all these structures must be added to determine the local India-Himalaya convergence rate.

  11. Levels, profile and distribution of Dechloran Plus (DP) and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in the environment of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Syed, Jabir Hussain; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Li, Jun; Wang, Yan; Xu, Yue; Zhang, Gan; Jones, Kevin C

    2013-11-01

    No scientific data is available on emerging contaminants including Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) and Dechloran Plus (DP) levels in the environment in Pakistan. Levels of PBDEs and DP were determined in the soil, sediment and atmospheric samples along the stretch of River Ravi in Punjab Province. Average concentrations of ?PBDEs in atmosphere, soils and sediments were 36 pg m(-3), 40 ng g(-1) and 640 ng g(-1). BDE-209 was the most abundant PBDE congener, showing that deca-BDE accounts for most of the total PBDE emitted in the environment of Pakistan. Total DP levels were calculated as 88 pg m(-3), 0.8 ng g(-1) and 1.9 ng g(-1) in air, soil and sediment samples, respectively. The lower average fractions of anti-DP showed significant differences to those of the technical mixtures, indicating the lack of DP production source in Pakistan. PMID:24120307

  12. FCPS training in the specialty of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation for physicians in Pakistan: The option less known.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Ahmad Zaheer

    2016-01-01

    There has been a growing demand for rehabilitation services in Pakistan in recent years, likely due to increasing prevalence of disability. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (PM&R) is a branch of medicine which deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of functional impairments resulting from neuro-musculoskeletal disorders. Physiatrists are physicians who specialize in the specialty of PM&R. College of Physicians and Surgeons of Pakistan started FCPS training in PM&R in the late 1990s. There are various training institutes within and outside Pakistan which are accredited for FCPS training in PM&R. There is a huge vacuum in this specialty in the country likely due to lack of awareness among health care providers. It is considered to be the specialty of the future due to its rapid growth potential, opportunities for sub specializations and unique skills. PMID:26712190

  13. Cooperative Mmonitoring Center Occasional Paper/5: Propspects of Conventional Arms Control in South Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Amit; Kamal, Nazir

    1998-11-01

    The intensely adversarial relationship between India and Pakistan is marked by military rivalry, mutual distrust, and suspicion. The most dividing disagreement has been over the Kashmir region. An inability to discuss the Kashmir issue has prevented discussion on other important issues. Since there is little prospect of detente, at least in the near-term, the question is whether this rivalry can be contained by other means, such as arms control approaches. Conventional arms control has been applied flexibly and successfully in some regions to reduce threat-perceptions and achieve reassuring military stability. Some lessons from other international models might be applied to the India/Pakistan context. This paper discusses the status of conventional arms control in South Asia, the dominant Indian and Pakistani perceptions about arms control, the benefits that could be derived from arms control, as well as the problems and prospects of arms control. It also discusses existing conventional arms control agreements at the regional and global levels as well as the potential role of cooperative monitoring technology.

  14. The tectonic evolution of the Kohistan-Karakoram collision belt along the Karakoram Highway transect, north Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Searle, M. P.; Khan, M. Asif; Fraser, J. E.; Gough, S. J.; Jan, M. Qasim

    1999-12-01

    The Kohistan arc terrane comprises an intra-oceanic island arc of Cretaceous age separating the Indian plate to the south from the Karakoram (Asian) plate to the north within the Indus suture zone of north Pakistan. The intra-oceanic arc volcanics (Chalt, Dras Group) were built on a foundation of dominantly mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB)-related amphibolites of the Kamila Group. The subarc magma chamber is represented by multiple intrusions of a huge gabbro-norite complex (Chilas complex), which includes some ultramafic assemblages of residual mantle harzburgite and dunite, layered cumulates, and hornblendites cut by late stage dikes of hornblende + plagioclase pegmatites. The Chilas complex norites intrude the Gilgit metasediments of lower amphibolite and greenschist facies in northern Kohistan, which also form xenolithic roof pendants within the top of the Chilas complex. Along the southern margin of Kohistan, Jijal and Sapat complex ultramafics (dunites, harzburgites and websterites) form remnant suprasubduction zone ophiolitic mantle rocks along the hanging wall of the Main Mantle Thrust, the Cretaceous obduction plane along which Kohistan was emplaced onto Indian plate rocks. Garnet granulites of the Jijal complex, formed at 12-14 kbars, represent original magmatic lower crustal rocks subducted to depths of at least 45 km and metamorphosed during high-pressure and high-temperature subduction of earlier arc-related rocks. Obduction of the Sapat ophiolite and Kohistan arc occurred between ˜75 and 55 Ma. The closure of the Shyok suture zone separating Kohistan from the Karakoram plate must have occurred prior to 75 Ma, the age of the Jutal basic dikes which crosscut the closure-related fabrics, mainly late north directed backthrusting in the lower Hunza valley. Andean-type granitoid (gabbrodiorite-granodiorite-granite) emplacement along the Kohistan-Ladakh batholith ended at the time of India-Asia collision, ˜ 60-50 Myr ago. Postcollisional crustal thickening along the Karakoram led to multiple episodes of metamorphism from latest Cretaceous and throughout the Tertiary. Sillimanite grade metamorphism in Hunza was actually pre-India-Asia collision and may have resulted from the earlier Kohistan collision. Localized and sporadic crustal melting episodes across northern Kohistan (Indus confluence and Parri granite sheets) and the southern Karakoram (Hunza dikes and Sumayar and Mango Gusar leucogranites) occurred from 51 to 9 Ma and culminated in the huge Baltoro monzogranite-leucogranite intrusion 25-21 Myr ago. A vast network of leucogranitic and pegmatitite dikes containing gem quality aquamarine + muscovite ± tourmaline ± garnet ± biotite quartz are younger than 5 Ma and form the final phase of intrusion in the Haramosh area and parts of the southern Karakoram area.

  15. Systematic status of true katydids Sathrophyllia (Orthoptera, Tettigonioidea, Pseudophyllinae) from Pakistan, with description of two new species

    PubMed Central

    Sultana, Riffat; Panhwar, Waheed Ali; Wagan, Muhammad Saeed; Khatri, Imran

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The genus Sathrophyllia Stål, 1874 from Pakistan is reviewed with four species recorded. The diagnostic characters are given and two new species Sathrophyllia saeedi sp. n. and Sathrophyllia irshadi sp. n. are described. In addition to that Sathrophyllia nr. rugosa (Linnaeus, 1758) and Sathrophyllia femorata (Fabricius, 1787) are re-described. Further information on the distribution and ecology of the species is given and a key to studied species of Sathrophyllia is presented. Sathrophyllia femorata (Fabricius, 1787) and Sathrophyllia rugosa (Linnaeus, 1758) are recorded from Rawalakot (KPK) and Tharparker (Sindh), Pakistan for first the time. PMID:25610332

  16. View looking south out the door opening from the south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking south out the door opening from the south side of the rotunda extension onto the "dog house" or vestibule positioned where the west Verandah of the south wing turns ninety degrees and continues along the south wall of the central pavilion. - U. S. Naval Asylum, Biddle Hall, Gray's Ferry Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  17. Strategic Program for Biodiversity and Water Resource Management and Climate Change Adaptation in Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sher, Hassan; Aldosari, Ali

    2014-05-01

    Population pressure, climate change and resulting extreme weather scenarios, armed con?ict and economic pressure have put the situation of Pakistan's biodiversity at risk. Melting glaciers, deforestation, erosion, landslides and depletion of agricultural areas are aggravating the regulation of water ?ow in Pakistan. In Pakistan agro-biodiversity is central to human survival and play vital role in the economy of the country. It contributes 21% to the GDP, employs 45% of the labor force and contributes 71% of the export earnings. Agro- biodiversity in Pakistan is greatly affected by short term climate variability and could be harmed signi?cantly by long-term climate change. As the duration of crop growth cycle is related to temperature, an increase in temperature will speed up crop growth and shorten the duration between sowing and harvesting. This shortening could have an adverse effect on productivity of crops. The present assessment also revealed that hydrological cycle is also likely to be in?uenced by global warming. Since the agricultural crops are heavily dependent on the water, and water resources are inextricably linked with climate; therefore, the projected climate change has serious implications for water resources of the country. The freshwater resources, in Pakistan, are based on snow- and glacier-melt and monsoon rains, both being highly sensitive to climate change. The country speci?c current information strongly suggests that: decrease in glacier volume and snow cover leading to alterations in the seasonal ?ow pattern of Indus River System; increased annual ?ows for a few decades followed by decline in ?ows in subsequent years; increase in the formation and burst of glacial lakes; higher frequency and intensity of extreme climate events coupled with irregular monsoon rains causing frequent ?oods and droughts; and greater demand of water due to higher evapotranspiration rates at elevated temperatures. These trends will have large impact on the spatial and temporal distribution of water resources on annual and inter-annual basis in the country. To address the impact of climate change on ago-biodiversity and water resources, the present study was initiated with the aim to increase awareness to adapt to changing water resources situation due to climate change. Secondly to build climate change resilience into Pakistan agriculture system and also to enhance the understanding of climate change issues by farmers, and policy makers to enable them to make informed decision. Our assessment revealed a gap in our knowledge on the climate change vulnerability of mountain agro-biodiversity and institutional setups, as well as lack of policy imperatives to address the issues. Therefore, the 2014 generally assembly of EGU will provide a forum for our further understanding of the relevant scienti?c and geopolitical issues. This forum will not only establish a social network for future collaborative research but will also enable us to devise better strategies for both biodiversity and water-resource management and climate change adaptation.

  18. Nuclear deterrence in South Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Hagerty, D.T.

    1995-12-31

    Did India and Pakistan nearly fight a nuclear war in 1990? In a provocative 1993 article, Seymour M. Hersh claims that they did. During a crisis with India over the rapidly escalating insurgency in Kashmir, Pakistan openly deployed its main armored tank units along the Indian border and, in secret, placed its nuclear-weapons arsenal on alert. As a result, the Bush Administration became convinced that the world was on the edge of a nuclear exchange between Pakistan and India. Universe of cases is admittedly small, but my argument is supported by recent research indicating that preemptive attacks of any kind have been historically rarer than conventionally believed. The nuclear era has seen two instances of preventive attacks against nuclear facilities-the 1981 Israeli bombing of Iraq`s Osirak nuclear facility and the allied coalition`s 1991 air war against Iraq-but both of these actions were taken without fear of nuclear reprisal. In situations where nuclear retaliation has been a possibility, no leader of nuclear weapon state has chosen to launch a preemptive first strike. 97 refs.

  19. Individual and Area Level Factors Associated with Prenatal, Delivery, and Postnatal Care in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Budhwani, Henna; Hearld, Kristine Ria; Harbison, Hanne

    2015-10-01

    This research examines individual and area level factors associated with maternal health care utilization in Pakistan. The 2012-2013 Pakistan Demographic and Health Surveys data was used to model five outcomes: prenatal care within the first trimester, four plus prenatal visits, birth attendance by a skilled attendant, birth in a medical facility, and receipt of postnatal care. Less than half of births were to mothers receiving prenatal care in the first trimester, and approximately 57 % had trained personnel at delivery. Over half were born to mothers who received postnatal care. Evidence was found to support the positive effect of individual level variables, education and wealth, on the utilization of maternal health care across all five measures. Although, this study did not find unilateral differences between women residing in rural and urban settings, rural women were found to have lower odds of utilizing prenatal services as compared to mothers in urban environments. Additionally, women who cited distance as a barrier, had lower odds of receiving postnatal health care, but still engaged in prenatal services and often had a skilled attendant present at delivery. The odds of utilizing prenatal care increased when women resided in an area where prenatal utilization was high, and this variability was found across measures across provinces. The results found in this paper highlight the uneven progress made around improving prenatal, delivery, and postnatal care in Pakistan; disparities persist which may be attributed to factors both at the individual and community level, but may be addressed through a consorted effort to change national policy around women's health which should include the promotion of evidence based interventions such as incentivizing health care workers, promoting girls' education, and improving transportation options for pregnant women and recent mothers with the intent of ultimately lowering the Maternal Mortality Rate as recommended in the U.N.'s Millennium Development Goal 5. PMID:25874879

  20. Confidence building measures at sea:opportunities for India and Pakistan.

    SciTech Connect

    Vohra, Ravi Bhushan Rear Admiral; Ansari, Hasan Masood Rear Admiral

    2003-12-01

    The sea presents unique possibilities for implementing confidence building measures (CBMs) between India and Pakistan that are currently not available along the contentious land borders surrounding Jammu and Kashmir. This is due to the nature of maritime issues, the common military culture of naval forces, and a less contentious history of maritime interaction between the two nations. Maritime issues of mutual concern provide a strong foundation for more far-reaching future CBMs on land, while addressing pressing security, economic, and humanitarian needs at sea in the near-term. Although Indian and Pakistani maritime forces currently have stronger opportunities to cooperate with one another than their counterparts on land, reliable mechanisms to alleviate tension or promote operational coordination remain non-existent. Therefore, possible maritime CBMs, as well as pragmatic mechanisms to initiate and sustain cooperation, require serious examination. This report reflects the unique joint research undertaking of two retired Senior Naval Officers from both India and Pakistan, sponsored by the Cooperative Monitoring Center of the International Security Center at Sandia National Laboratories. Research focuses on technology as a valuable tool to facilitate confidence building between states having a low level of initial trust. Technical CBMs not only increase transparency, but also provide standardized, scientific means of interacting on politically difficult problems. Admirals Vohra and Ansari introduce technology as a mechanism to facilitate consistent forms of cooperation and initiate discussion in the maritime realm. They present technical CBMs capable of being acted upon as well as high-level political recommendations regarding the following issues: (1) Delimitation of the maritime boundary between India and Pakistan and its relationship to the Sir Creek dispute; (2) Restoration of full shipping links and the security of ports and cargos; (3) Fishing within disputed areas and resolution of issues relating to arrest and repatriation of fishermen from both sides; and (4) Naval and maritime agency interaction and possibilities for cooperation.

  1. Evaluation techniques in Punjab, Pakistan: eight years of reforms in health professional education.

    PubMed

    Khan, Junaid Sarfraz; Biggs, John S G; Mubbashar, Malik Hussain

    2011-01-01

    Pakistan, the most populated country in the WHO Eastern Mediterranean region has a population of over 170 million, spread over five provinces and four federally administered areas. It has a growth rate of 1.9%. Punjab is the most populous and developed province with an estimated population in 2010 of 81 million. In 2008, Punjab's development index of 0.60 and a literacy rate of 80% were the highest in the country. In Pakistan, the number of doctors and nurses has risen from 48 to 71 per 100,000 and from 16 to 30 per 100,000, respectively between 1990 and 2003. The major challenge, still, is the imbalance of the population to health-care workers ratio. At the time of creation of Pakistan, King Edward Medical College was the only fully functioning medical college. Over the years, as a result of health reform initiatives, a number of government medical colleges were established in the country. University of Health Sciences, Lahore was established in 2002, having sole jurisdiction over all medical, dental and allied health institutes in the province with the aim of moving medical education towards an outcome-based patient and community-oriented competency-driven system. This paper attempts to clarify how initiatives and reforms in the evaluation process have helped the UHS realise its aims. Evaluation in all branches of higher education has long been taken as a means to an end. The focus of UHS on teacher-training, introduction of behavioural sciences as a compulsory subject and setting up an outcome-based evaluation process, has established a knowledge-acquisition medical education atmosphere. The challenges in the future relate to sustainability through capacity-building and staying abreast with the Best Evidence Medical Education practices worldwide, implementing them to fit our local needs and resources. PMID:22830173

  2. PATTERN OF CONSANGUINITY AND INBREEDING COEFFICIENT IN SARGODHA DISTRICT, PUNJAB, PAKISTAN.

    PubMed

    Hina, Saira; Malik, Sajid

    2015-11-01

    Consanguinity is widespread in Pakistan. The majority of studies on consanguinity in Pakistan have been carried out in urban metropolitan areas, and data on rural populations are scarce. The present cross-sectional study was conducted in Sargodha district, upper Punjab, Pakistan where the majority of the population reside in rural areas. A random sample of 1800 married females belonging to six tehsils of Sargodha district was obtained and differentials in consanguinity rates and inbreeding coefficient (F) were investigated. The consanguinity rate was calculated to be 56.72% and the inbreeding coefficient was 0.0348. First cousin unions had the highest representation (49.11% of all marriages), and marriages up to distantly related/Biradari constituted 67.94% of all marriages. Among the six tehsils, consanguinity rates ranged from 50.38% in Bhalwal to 62.88% in Sillanwali. A high rate of consanguinity was observed in subjects speaking the Punjabi language, those with self-arranged/arranged-love marriages and those engaged in professional jobs. With respect to the occupation of husbands the highest consanguinity rate was found among landowners (77.59%; F=0.0539) and businessmen (62.62%; F=0.0377). However, consanguinity did not appear to be associated with rural/urban origin or literacy level. The data showed a wide variation in consanguinity rate and inbreeding coefficient across socio-demographic strata in the Sargodha district population. A comparison of Sargodha with other populations of Punjab also showed regional heterogeneity in the pattern of consanguinity, warranting further studies. PMID:25299747

  3. Genetic diversity of Newcastle disease virus in Pakistan: a countrywide perspective

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the most deadly diseases of poultry around the globe. The disease is endemic in Pakistan and recurrent outbreaks are being reported regularly in wild captive, rural and commercial poultry flocks. Though, efforts have been made to characterize the causative agent in some of parts of the country, the genetic nature of strains circulating throughout Pakistan is currently lacking. Material and methods To ascertain the genetics of NDV, 452 blood samples were collected from 113 flocks, originating from all the provinces of Pakistan, showing high mortality (30–80%). The samples represented domesticated poultry (broiler, layer and rural) as well as wild captive birds (pigeons, turkeys, pheasants and peacock). Samples were screened with real-time PCR for both matrix and fusion genes (1792 bp), positive samples were subjected to amplification of full fusion gene and subsequent sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Results The deduced amino acid sequence of the fusion protein cleavage site indicated the presence of motif (112RK/RQRR?F117) typical for velogenic strains of NDV. Phylogenetic analysis of hypervariable region of the fusion gene indicated that all the isolates belong to lineage 5 of NDV except isolates collected from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) province. A higher resolution of the phylogenetic analysis of lineage 5 showed the distribution of Pakistani NDV strains to 5b. However, the isolates from KPK belonged to lineage 4c; the first report of such lineage from this province. Conclusions Taken together, data indicated the prevalence of multiple lineages of NDV in different poultry population including wild captive birds. Such understanding is crucial to underpin the nature of circulating strains of NDV, their potential for interspecies transmission and disease diagnosis and control strategies. PMID:23721461

  4. A probable role of blood lead levels on some haematological parameters in traffic police, Lahore, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shafaat Yar; Arshad, Muhammad; Arshad, Najma; Shafaat, Shazia; Tahir, Hafiz Muhammad

    2013-12-01

    The impact of elevated blood lead level on some haematological parameters was studied in the field force of Lahore traffic police, in Pakistan. The blood samples were tested for total leucocytes count (TLC) and differential leucocytes count in the persons with high and low blood lead levels. The TLC and percentage of neutrophils and eosinophils were observed as being significantly elevated in the policemen. No significant change was observed in the percentage of lymphocytes, while the percentage of monocytes was observed as being significantly less in the field force of traffic police. PMID:24311624

  5. Molecular epidemiology and viral load of HCV in different regions of Punjab, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is highly infectious pathogen which is responsible for causing Hepatitis around 200 million individuals worldwide. In Pakistan, 4.7% of HCV prevalence has been reported and HCV genotype 3a has been found to be the major source of infection in Pakistan but still there is lack of information on distribution of HCV genotypes and viral load in various geographical regions of Pakistan. Therefore, current study was designed to determine distribution of HCV genotypes as well viral load in different areas of Punjab province of Pakistan. Findings A total of 995 serum samples were taken from those individuals in which antibodies against HCV were detected through ELISA, from different regions of Punjab i.e. Lahore 317(31.85%), Faisalabad 70(7.03%), Gujranwala 129(12.96%), Gujrat 106(10.65%), Sialkot 94(9.44%), Sargodha 60(6.03%), Mandibaha-ud-din 135(13.56%), Jhang 86(8.64%). Qualitative PCR was performed to determine viral load and genotyping was performed using Nested PCR. Chi-square test was used to determine the age and sex-wise prevalence of HCV. Out of 995 samples, 888 samples were found positive for HCV RNA. In all regions, genotype 3a showed highest prevalence (82.81%) followed by genotype 1 (3.41%), mixed genotypes (2.41%), genotype 2 (0.50%), genotype 5 (0.1%) and unclassified genotypes (10.75%). Viral load in 29.5% patients infected with genotype 3a was less than 600,000 IU/mL, while it was between 600,000-800,000 IU/mL in 27.9% patients and 25.22% patients had more than 800,000 IU/mL viral load. Conclusion HCV genotype 3a is the most prevalent genotype in various regions of Punjab. Viral load of HCV patients in these different regions of Punjab are reported for the first time. Moreover, based upon these results the Patients having viral load below 800,000 IU/mL would be expected to show better response of anti-HCV therapy. PMID:24512668

  6. Unmasking childhood tuberculosis in Pakistan: efforts to improve detection and management.

    PubMed

    Amanullah, F; Malik, A A

    2015-12-01

    Childhood tuberculosis (TB) is getting increasing global attention, as tuberculous infection and TB disease in children indicate ongoing transmission in the community. In this note from the field, we highlight issues in child TB detection, management and prevention; child TB underdiagnosis, under-reporting and lack of integration with the National TB Programme are the main challenges faced in rural settings in Pakistan. We provide examples of solutions to overcome some of these challenges and enable early TB diagnosis, effective management and disease prevention in children. PMID:26564541

  7. The 2010 Pakistan Flood and the Russia Heat Wave: Teleconnection of Extremes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, William K.; Kim, K. M.

    2010-01-01

    The Pakistan flood and the Russia heat wave/Vvild fires of the summer of2010 were two of the most extreme, and catastrophic events in the histories of the two countries occurring at about the same time. To a casual observer, the timing may just be a random coincidence of nature, because the two events were separated by long distances, and represented opposite forces of nature, i.e., flood vs. drought, and water vs. fire. In this paper, using NASA satellite and NOAA reanalysis data, we presented observation evidences that that the two events were indeed physically connected.

  8. Epidemiology and Management Cost of Myocardial Infarction in North Punjab, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Riffat; Jahan, Nusrat; Hanif, Atif

    2015-01-01

    Background: Coronary heart disease (CHD) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in Pakistan. The temporal trends in the risk factors for myocardial infarction (MI) and the impact of socioeconomic status on these risk factors remain ambiguous. Objectives: The objectives of the present analysis were to investigate the potential association between various risk factors and MI in North Punjab, Pakistan, and to assess the status of the control of the risk factors associated with MI in this population. Patients and Methods: The present study included 515 patients admitted to the coronary care units or equivalent cardiology wards of the participating hospitals between 2011 and 2012 in North Punjab, Pakistan. The analysis was focused on identifying the socioeconomic status, lifestyle, family history of MI, and risk factors (i.e. hypertension, diabetes, smoking, and hyperlipidemia). A structured questionnaire was designed to collect data. The lipid profile was recorded from the investigation chart of every patient. For statistical analysis, the Kruskal Wallis, Mann-Whitney U, Wilcoxon, and chi-square tests were used. Results: MI was common in the males at the age of 41 - 60 years as compared to the females (P = 0.015). Patients with a positive parental history of CHD experienced MI at a younger age (P = 0.0001) at a body mass index (BMI) ? 25 kg/m2. Sedentary lifestyle (70%) and smoking (60%) had a male predominance. Hypertension accounted for nearly 37%, hyperlipidemia 26%, and diabetes 19.4% of the rural and urban subjects (P < 0.01). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased (up to 34 mg/dl), while low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and hypertension increased with age. The mean monthly cost of medicines and physicians’ fees per patient was 2381.132 Pakistani Rupees (24.24 USD). Conclusions: Higher BMI, positive family history, smoking, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes were the strong predictors of MI in North Punjab, Pakistan. Preventive efforts are needed to start early in life and continue throughout the life course. PMID:26421164

  9. Surface Rupture and Slip Distribution Resulting from the 2013 M7.7 Balochistan, Pakistan Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitman, N. G.; Gold, R. D.; Briggs, R. W.; Barnhart, W. D.; Hayes, G. P.

    2014-12-01

    The 24 September 2013 M7.7 earthquake in Balochistan, Pakistan, produced a ~200 km long left-lateral strike-slip surface rupture along a portion of the Hoshab fault, a moderately dipping (45-75º) structure in the Makran accretionary prism. The rupture is remarkably continuous and crosses only two (0.7 and 1.5 km wide) step-overs along its arcuate path through southern Pakistan. Displacements are dominantly strike-slip, with a minor component of reverse motion. We remotely mapped the surface rupture at 1:5,000 scale and measured displacements using high resolution (0.5 m) pre- and post-event satellite imagery. We mapped 295 laterally faulted stream channels, terrace margins, and roads to quantify near-field displacement proximal (±10 m) to the rupture trace. The maximum near-field left-lateral offset is 15±2 m (average of ~7 m). Additionally, we used pre-event imagery to digitize 254 unique landforms in the "medium-field" (~100-200 m from the rupture) and then measured their displacements compared to the post-event imagery. At this scale, maximum left-lateral offset approaches 17 m (average of ~8.5 m). The width (extent of observed surface faulting) of the rupture zone varies from ~1 m to 3.7 km. Near- and medium-field offsets show similar slip distributions that are inversely correlated with the width of the fault zone at the surface (larger offsets correspond to narrow fault zones). The medium-field offset is usually greater than the near-field offset. The along-strike surface slip distribution is highly variable, similar to the slip distributions documented for the 2002 Denali M7.9 earthquake and 2001 Kunlun M7.8 earthquake, although the Pakistan offsets are larger in magnitude. The 2013 Pakistan earthquake ranks among the largest documented continental strike-slip displacements, possibly second only to the 18+ m surface displacements attributed to the 1855 Wairarapa M~8.1 earthquake.

  10. Pakistan's kidney trade: an overview of the 2007 'Transplantation of Human Organs and Human Tissue Ordinance.' To what extent will it curb the trade?

    PubMed

    Raza, Mohsen; Skordis-Worrall, Jolene

    2012-01-01

    Pakistan has the unenviable reputation for being one of the world's leading 'transplant tourism' destinations, largely the buying and selling of kidneys from its impoverished population to rich international patients. After nearly two decades of pressure to formally prohibit the trade, the Government of Pakistan promulgated the 'Transplantation of Human Organs and Human Tissue Ordinance' (THOTO) in 2007. This was then passed by Senate and enshrined in law in March 2010. This paper gives a brief overview of the organ trade within Pakistan and analyses the criteria of THOTO in banning the widespread practise. It then goes on to answer: 'To what extent will THOTO succeed in curbing Pakistan's kidney trade?' This is aided by the use of a comparative case study looking at India's failed organ trade legislation. This paper concludes THOTO has set a strong basis for curbing Pakistan's kidney trade. However, for this to be successfully achieved, it needs to be implemented with strong and sustained political will, strict and efficient enforcement as well as effective monitoring and evaluation. Efforts are needed to tackle both 'supply' and 'demand' factors of Pakistan's kidney trade, with developed countries also having a responsibility to reduce the flow of citizens travelling to Pakistan to purchase a kidney. PMID:22352117

  11. South African Particulates

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... Extensive burning of grass and shrubland for land management and agriculture comprises a principal source of these aerosols. ... 2000 - Airborne particulates over South Africa. project:  MISR category:  gallery date:  ...

  12. Ladybugs of South Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Images of the 79 species of Coccinellidae occurring in South Dakota are presented in taxonomic order. Information on each species includes genus-species name, sub-familial classification, and lengths and widths....

  13. Bibliography on tropical rain forests and the global carbon cycle: Volume 2, South Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Flint, E.P.; Richards, J.F.

    1989-02-01

    This bibliography covers the literature on tropical rain forests,tropical deforestation, land-use change, tropical forest conversion, and shifting cultivation in South Asia (predominantly India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh but also including contributions in Burma, Ceylon, Malaysia, and Sri Lanka). It covers not only rain-forest ecosystems but also other ecosystems that border, derive from, or influence rain forests. The literature included was selected because of its contribution to understanding the global carbon cycle, changes in that cycle, and rain forests' role in that cycle. Journal articles, books, and reports from 1880 to 1988 are included. The more than 4200 entries of this bibliography are ordered alphabetically by author and are indexed by subject and author.

  14. Situation Analysis of Teacher Education in Pakistan: Towards a Strategic Framework for Teacher Education and Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Agency for International Development, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The quality of education provided by the public sector in Pakistan has been poor due to low levels of teacher competence, lack of classroom-based support for teachers, poor quality of textbooks and learning materials, lack of systems to assess student learning outcomes, uneven supervision, insufficient resources for critical teaching and learning…

  15. PUBLISHED ONLINE: 15 JANUARY 2012 | DOI: 10.1038/NGEO1373 Stickslip advance of the Kohat Plateau in Pakistan

    E-print Network

    Bilham, Roger

    or more Mw 8 earthquakes. In contrast, in the westernmost Himalaya, the Indian Plate slips aseismically Plateau in Pakistan S. P. Satyabala1 , Zhaohui Yang2 and Roger Bilham2 * Throughout most of the Himalaya, slip of the Indian Plate is restrained by friction on the interface between the plate and the overlying

  16. Comparative virulence and molecular diversity of stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) collections from Pakistan and United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information on virulence and molecular diversity of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst) is a pre-requisite for mitigating the substantial yield losses caused by the stripe rust pathogen in Pakistan, the United States and other countries of the world. This study was undertaken to analyze both v...

  17. Development of Teacher Leadership: A Multi-Faceted Approach to Bringing about Improvements in Rural Elementary Schools in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Takbir

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a school improvement initiative undertaken by a private university in Pakistan. The Whole School Improvement Programme, designed with the purpose to improve the quality of education appropriate to children and teachers of poor communities, is being implemented in selected elementary schools. Central to the program is…

  18. School or Madrassa? Parents' Choice and the Failure of State-Run Education in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Jehanzaib

    2012-01-01

    Two major assumptions have dominated much of the discourse on Islamic schools in Pakistan since the rise of the Taliban in the 1990s and following the US attack on Afghanistan in October 2001. First, the Pakistani state-run education system is failing. Because of the poor quality of education at public schools, parents choose to send their…

  19. Challenging the Myths about "Madaris" in Pakistan: A National Household Survey of Enrolment and Reasons for Choosing Religious Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cockcroft, Anne; Andersson, Neil; Milne, Deborah; Omer, Khalid; Ansari, Noor; Khan, Amir; Chaudhry, Ubaid Ullah

    2009-01-01

    There is speculation about madaris in Pakistan as sources of terrorists and about levels and reasons for enrolment, but a dearth of empirical data. We studied madarsah enrolment among 53,960 representative households; 853 focus groups of parents discussed enrolment choices. In 2004, 2.6% of all children (3.8% of school-going children) aged 5-9…

  20. Characterization of Ascochyta rabiei for population structure, mating type and pathogenic variability from Pakistan and United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chickpea production is greatly hampered by blight causing fungal pathogen Ascochyta rabiei (AR) in chickpea growing regions of the world. Genetic variability and mating type frequency of thirty-two AR isolates from six geographical regions of Pakistan were compared with a US-AR population. Pakistani...