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Sample records for karen burns grogan

  1. 3. Brian Grogan, Photographer February 1995 BUILDING 990, EAST AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Brian Grogan, Photographer February 1995 BUILDING 990, EAST AND NORTH SIDES. - Presidio of San Francisco, Flammable Storage Building Submarine Mine Depot, Fort Point vicinity, Long Avenue, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  2. Karen Avetovich

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shifman, M.

    2013-06-01

    I was never a student of Karen Avetovich (Karen, as everyone called him behind his back) and never collaborated with him. I've never worked on Reggeistics - the area of high-energy physics that was close to his heart. For an understandable reason - a thirty-year age difference - I couldn't be his close friend. And yet I decided to write a few kind words about Ter-Martirosyan for a reason which will soon become clear...

  3. Health Information in Karen (Sgaw Karen): MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sgaw Karen (Karen) Multimedia Healthy Roads Media How you get HIV/AIDS - English Sgaw Karen (Karen) PDF Healthy Roads Media How you get HIV/AIDS - English Sgaw Karen (Karen) Multimedia Healthy Roads Media ...

  4. Memories of Karen Avetovich

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevzorov, Roman

    2013-06-01

    Karen Avetovich Ter-Martirosyan (K.A.) was at once my teacher, scientific adviser, and collaborator. My communication with K.A. enormously influenced my life and career; he helped me to establish the basic values and principles that I try to follow in my everyday life and research activities...

  5. a Few Lines about Karen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smorodinskaya, Noemi

    2013-06-01

    Karen had tons of amazing students, and it's unfortunate that they could not contribute to this collection. They would have a lot of marvelous stories to tell, since they spent so many days and nights at Karen's house, enjoying Bella Artemievna's hospitality and kindness. Karen was a difficult person, with many eccentricities, but at the same time he was very kind and forgiving. When people he knew had troubles, he always did whatever he could to help them. I should add, however, that due to the many tragedies he had experienced in his family life, Karen's threshold for what counted as troubles was unusually high, and what others perceived as major problems struck him as the minor complications of everyday life...

  6. Talking about Books: Karen Hesse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Cathy; Gwyn, Linda; Koblitz, Dick; O'Connor, Anne; Pierce, Kathryn Mitchell; Wolf, Susan

    1999-01-01

    Presents an interview with Karen Hesse, author of 12 books of fiction for young, middle, and older readers, and winner of the 1998 Newbery Award. Offers an overview of Hesse's books, organized into picture books, transition chapter books, and novels. Presents a discussion of the themes found in her books, highlighting children's discussion…

  7. Karen Avetovich Ter-Martirosyan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shifman, M.

    2013-06-01

    One can say that Karen Avetovich Ter-Martirosyan was one of the stars in the brilliant constellation of theoretical physicists dating back to the golden era of Soviet physics: a disciple of Yakov Frenkel and Lev Landau, he was one of the creators of the theory of (soft) strong interactions at high energies...

  8. An Interview with Karen Glover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, June

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Karen Glover of Georgia Tech, a key person behind the planning of the Access Services Conference held last fall, and now going into its second year. Glover started working in libraries as a part-time library assistant at her local public library during her high school years. She later became a Circulation…

  9. Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... doing so puts you in danger as well. Chemical and Electrical Burns For chemical and electrical burns, call 911 or your local ... the power source has been turned off. For chemical burns: Dry chemicals should be brushed off the ...

  10. Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... are burns treated? In many cases, topical antibiotics (skin creams or ointments) are used to prevent infection. For third-degree burns and some second-degree ones, immediate blood transfusion and/or extra fluids ... is skin grafting? There are two types of skin grafts. ...

  11. [Burns].

    PubMed

    Arai, Takao

    2016-02-01

    Burns extending deep into the skin and those affecting a wide surface area trigger various responses in the body and pose a serious threat to life. Therefore, the degree of severity needs to be determined accurately, and appropriate transfusion and local management should be provided accordingly. Systematic and meticulous management that considers not just the risk of death but also functional prognosis is essential from the early stage of burn injuries. Such management requires comprehensive care by a medical team concerning infections, nutrition and rehabilitation. This article outlines the current status of intensive care for severe burns. PMID:26915244

  12. Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... to your body's tissues caused by heat, chemicals, electricity, sunlight, or radiation. Scalds from hot liquids and ... to infections because they damage your skin's protective barrier. Treatment for burns depends on the cause of ...

  13. Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Surgery . 18th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 22. Holmes JH, Heimbach DM. Burns. In: Brunicardi FC, Andersen DK, Billiar TR, et al, eds. Schwartz's Principles of Surgery . 9th ed. New ...

  14. Speaking Personally--With Karen Cator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Journal of Distance Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an interview by Gary E. Miller, executive director emeritus of Penn State World Campus, the online distance education campus of The Pennsylvania State University, with Karen Cator, director of the Office of Educational Technology in the United States Department of Education. She brings to the position a mix of corporate and…

  15. A Q & A with Karen Hughes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chronicle of Higher Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an excerpt from the interview of Karen Hughes, under secretary of state for public diplomacy and public affairs. Hughes discusses the Bush administration's effort to attract foreign students to the United States and to send American students overseas. She also talks about what American colleges and universities can do to help.

  16. The Errors of Karen Franklin's Pretextuality

    PubMed Central

    Cantor, James M.

    2012-01-01

    In her recent article, Hebephilia: Quintessence of Diagnostic Pretextuality (published in Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 2010), Karen Franklin expands on her previous argument that psychologists and psychiatrists should not diagnose as abnormal hebephilia, the sexual preference for early pubescent children. She supports her argument with a series of claims about the contents of the empirical literature and the scientists who produced it. The present document provides fact-checking of those claims, revealing that Franklin's conclusions are based largely on demonstrable falsehoods. PMID:22745581

  17. 77 FR 26766 - Karen L. Blyth: Debarment Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Karen L. Blyth: Debarment Order AGENCY: Food and Drug... under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act) debarring Karen L. Blyth for a period of 20.... FDA bases this order on a finding that Ms. Blyth was convicted, as defined in section 306(l)(1)(B)...

  18. Keystone characteristics that support cultural resilience in Karen refugee parents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, Susan G.

    2015-08-01

    This participatory action research study used the conceptual framework of social-ecological resilience to explore how Karen (pronounced Ka·rén) refugee parents re-construct cultural resilience in resettlement. The funds of knowledge approach helped to define essential knowledge used by Karen parents within their own community. Framing this study around the concept of resilience situated it within an emancipatory paradigm: refugee parents were actors choosing their own cultural identity and making decisions about what cultural knowledge was important for the science education of their children. Sustainability science with its capacity to absorb indigenous knowledge as legitimate scientific knowledge offered a critical platform for reconciling Karen knowledge with scientific knowledge for science education. Photovoice, participant observation, and semi-structured interviews were used to create visual and written narrative portraits of Karen parents. Narrative analysis revealed that Karen parents had constructed a counter-narrative in Burma and Thailand that enabled them to resist assimilation into the dominant ethnic culture; by contrast, their narrative of life in resettlement in the U.S. focused on the potential for self-determination. Keystone characteristics that contributed to cultural resilience were identified to be the community garden and education as a gateway to a transformed future. Anchored in a cultural tradition of farming, these Karen parents gained perspective and comfort in continuity and the potential of self-determination rooted in the land. Therefore, a cross-cultural learning community for Karen elementary school students that incorporates the Karen language and Karen self-sustaining knowledge of horticulture would be an appropriate venue for building a climate of reciprocity for science learning.

  19. Caring for the Karen. A newly arrived refugee group.

    PubMed

    Power, David V; Moody, Emily; Trussell, Kristi; O'Fallon, Ann; Chute, Sara; Kyaw, Merdin; Letts, James; Mamo, Blain

    2010-04-01

    Since 2004, Minnesota has seen an influx of refugees from Burma. Many of these newcomers came from the Karen state and spent time in refugee camps in Thailand before resettling in the United States. To better understand the health needs of this population, the authors of this article conducted chart reviews at a St. Paul family medicine clinic that serves a number of Karen refugees and reviewed formal data from the Minnesota Department of Health's Refugee Health Program. Here, they briefly describe this community, the cultural issues that could affect health care providers' ability to care for Karen patients, and the health concerns of these refugees. PMID:20481169

  20. Author! Author! Noted Writer of Historical Fiction: Karen Cushman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2004-01-01

    This article gives a brief biography of author Karen Cushman, best known for the attention to detail and thorough research that goes into her historical novels. Her first two novels, "Catherine, Called Birdy" and "The Midwife's Apprentice" were both Newbery Medal winners. A selected bibliography, as well as a list of related resources, is also…

  1. Writing from the Inside Out: A "Chat" with Karen Cushman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKindley, Elizabeth Madrid

    1998-01-01

    Interviews Newbery Medal winning author of children's books Karen Cushman about her personal writing process and history. Discusses her early writing experiences, changes at age 50 through which she became an author of children's books, her inner journey as she brings a story to life, and her special writing place and time to muse and do careful…

  2. Post-Arrival Health Screening in Karen Refugees in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Paxton, Georgia A.; Sangster, Katrina J.; Maxwell, Ellen L.; McBride, Catherine R. J.; Drewe, Ross H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To document the prevalence of nutritional deficiencies, infectious diseases and susceptibility to vaccine preventable diseases in Karen refugees in Australia. Design Retrospective audit of pathology results. Setting Community based cohort in Melbourne over the period July 2006–October 2009. Participants 1136 Karen refugee children and adults, representing almost complete local area settlement and 48% of total Victorian Karen humanitarian intake for the time period. Main Outcome Measures Prevalence of positive test results for refugee health screening, with breakdown by age group (<6 years, 6–11 years, 12–17 years, 18 years and older). Results Overall prevalence figures were: anaemia 9.2%, microcytosis 19.1%, iron deficiency 13.1%, low vitamin B12 1.5%, low folate 1.5%, abnormal thyroid function tests 4.4%, vitamin D<50 nmol/L 33.3%, hypocalcaemia 7.4%, raised alkaline phosphatase 5.2%, abnormal liver transaminases 16.1%, hepatitis B surface antigen positive 9.7%, hepatitis B surface antibody positive 49.5%, isolated hepatitis B core antibody positive 9.0%, hepatitis C positive 1.9%, eosinophilia 14.4%, Schistosoma infection 7%, Strongyloides infection 20.8%, malaria 0.2%, faecal parasites 43.4%. Quantiferon-gold screening was positive in 20.9%. No cases of syphilis or HIV were identified. Serological immunity to vaccine preventable diseases was 87.1% for measles, 95% for mumps and 66.4% for rubella; 56.9% of those tested had seroimmunity to all three. Conclusions Karen refugees have high rates of nutritional deficiencies and infectious diseases and may be susceptible to vaccine preventable diseases. These data support the need for post-arrival health screening and accessible, funded catch-up immunisation. PMID:22693599

  3. The Role of Digital Literacy Practices on Refugee Resettlement: The Case of Three Karen Brothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilhooly, Daniel; Lee, Eunbae

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the social and cultural uses of digital literacies by adolescent immigrants to cope with their new lives in the United States. This case study focuses on three adolescent ethnic Karen brothers. Two years of participant observations in their home and Karen community, accompanied by formal and informal interviews, served as the…

  4. Assessment of the Psychosocial Development of Children Attending Nursery Schools in Karen Refugee Camps in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanaka, Akiko

    2013-01-01

    The Karen, an ethnic minority group in Burma, have experienced a prolonged state of exile in refugee camps in neighboring Thailand because of ethnic conflict in their home country. Nursery schools in the three largest Karen refugee camps aim to promote the psychosocial development of young children by providing a child-centered, creative,…

  5. Researchers and the translational reality. Interview with Karen Aboody.

    PubMed

    Aboody, Karen

    2012-11-01

    Karen Aboody has first-hand experience of taking a potential therapy from the laboratory into clinical trials. Here, she shares with us the challenges and rewards of going from bench to bedside, and why all biomedical researchers need to know what it takes to make the transition if they want the best chance of seeing their discoveries used to help patients. Karen Aboody received her MD at Mount Sinai School of Medicine, and completed her post-doctoral training in Molecular Neurogenetics at Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School. After gaining experience in pathology, gene therapy and biotechnology, she joined City of Hope (COH) in 2003 to head a translational research laboratory focused on therapeutic stem cell applications for invasive and metastatic solid tumors. In 2010, she received US FDA approval for a first-in-human clinical trial for neural stem cell-mediated therapy for high-grade glioma patients. This Phase I study is ongoing at COH, supported by NCI/NIH funding. In 2010, she received an US$18 million California Institute of Regenerative Medicine Disease Team Award to develop a second-generation enzyme/prodrug stem cell-mediated brain tumor therapy for clinical trials that may also have applications for other metastatic cancers. Honors include the 2000 AANS Young Investigator Award, and 2008 ASGCT Outstanding New Investigator Award. She recently founded a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company, TheraBiologics Inc., to support clinical development of neural stem cell-mediated cancer therapies. PMID:23210812

  6. "Can I Ask That?": Perspectives on Perinatal Care After Resettlement Among Karen Refugee Women, Medical Providers, and Community-Based Doulas.

    PubMed

    LaMancuso, Kate; Goldman, Roberta E; Nothnagle, Melissa

    2016-04-01

    This study characterized the perspectives of Karen refugee women in Buffalo, NY, their medical providers, and Karen interpreters/doulas on perinatal care for Karen women in resettlement. In-depth qualitative interviews with Karen women (14), Karen doulas/interpreters and key informants (8), and medical providers (6) were informed by the social contextual model and focused on women's questions about and opinions of perinatal care in Buffalo and on providers' experiences caring for Karen patients. Karen women expressed gratitude for and understanding of perinatal care in Buffalo, and providers described Karen patients as agreeable but shy. Karen doulas offered an alternative view that exposed women's many questions and concerns, and described how doula training empowered them as patients' advocates. Low self-efficacy, trauma histories, and cultural expectations may contribute to Karen women's seeming agreeability. Doulas/interpreters possess insider knowledge of women's concerns and facilitate communication between patients and the care team. PMID:25724151

  7. Burning Issue: Handling Household Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... hot objects or liquid, fire, friction, the sun, electricity, or certain chemicals. Each year, about a half- ... infant or elderly. the burn was caused by electricity, which can lead to “invisible” burns. Burns Burns ...

  8. Biomass Burning

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-07-27

    Projects:  Biomass Burning Definition/Description:  Biomass Burning: This data set represents the geographical and temporal distribution of total amount of biomass burned. These data may be used in general circulation models (GCMs) and ...

  9. The Case of Three Karen Refugee Women and Their Children: Literacy Practices in a Family Literacy Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quadros, Sabrina; Sarroub, Loukia K.

    2016-01-01

    The lack of research about the Karen, one of 135 ethnic groups from Myanmar limits literacy educators charged with educating this refugee population in public schools. In this case study the authors explore the literacy practices of Karen families when at school and in their homes and within an ESL family literacy program. The case of these…

  10. An Education Rooted in Two Worlds: The Karen of Northern Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odochao, Jonni; Nakashima, Douglas; Vaddhanaphuti, Chayan

    2006-01-01

    In Karen culture, the family is traditionally the basic unit for the education of the child. In the early 1970s, when Jonni Odochao began to notice that children could not relate to their elders or respect them, he surmised that the problem stemmed from the modern education system and its increasing influence upon youth values, behaviour and ways…

  11. Engaged Teaching and Learning with Adult Karen Refugees in a Service-Learning Site

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smolen, Lynn Atkinson; Zhang, Wei; Detwiler, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a case study of a service-learning project connected to a TESOL (teaching English to speakers of other languages) teacher preparation program. The case study explored the teacher candidates' experiences teaching English to Karen refugees from Myanmar (Burma) in a midwestern city in the United States. The teacher…

  12. Unbalanced Nature, Unbounded Bodies, and Unlimited Technology: Ecocriticism and Karen Traviss' Wess'har Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Heather I.

    2010-01-01

    While nature is often claimed to be a space of harmonized balance or an antidote to the chaos of the modern world, we need a more grounded assessment of nature as endlessly changing and much less predictable than we like to assume. In this essay, I explore Karen Traviss' provocative exploration of unbalanced nature and unbounded bodies in her…

  13. The influence of administrative leadership: an interview with Dr Karen S. Hill.

    PubMed

    Hill, Karen S; Adams, Jeffrey M

    2015-01-01

    This department highlights nursing leaders who have demonstrated a commitment to patient care leadership and innovation in practice, policy, research, education, and theory. This interview profiles Karen Hill, DNP, RN, NEA-BC, FACHE, FAAN, chief operating officer and chief nursing officer of Baptist Health in Lexington, Kentucky, and editor-in-chief of the Journal of Nursing Administration. PMID:25479168

  14. Newbery Medal Winner Karen Hesse Brings Billie Jo's Voice "Out of the Dust."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendershot, Judy; Peck, Jackie

    1999-01-01

    Describes an interview with children's author Karen Hesse, discussing such things as how she chose writing as a career, her use of figurative language and her skillful crafting of dialog, where her book ideas come from, and her latest projects. (SR)

  15. Partners in a Great Adventure: Karen Bersche--Alliance Library System, East Peoria, IL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 2005

    2005-01-01

    As early as junior high school, after she had gone to see The Music Man and came out idolizing Marian, Karen Bersche knew she was destined for librarianship. But she didn't get around to it until after she got a degree in counseling, started her family, and opened her own daycare center. She has more than made up for lost time since, first as…

  16. Biomass Burning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Joel S.; Cofer, Wesley R., III; Pinto, Joseph P.

    1993-01-01

    Biomass burning may be the overwhelming regional or continental-scale source of methane (CH4) as in tropical Africa and a significant global source of CH4. Our best estimate of present methane emissions from biomass burning is about 51.9 Tg/yr, or 10% of the annual methane emissions to the atmosphere. Increased frequency of fires that may result as the Earth warms up may result in increases in this source of atmospheric methane.

  17. Principles & Practices Board remains a valuable resource to members. Interview by Karen Hackett.

    PubMed

    McCue, J P

    1986-01-01

    In this interview, Joseph P. McCue, FHFMA, CPA, chairman of HFMA's Principles & Practices Board, discusses the history and activity of the Board since its start in 1975. According to McCue, the Board was originally formed to address the technical accounting and reporting questions unique to the healthcare industry, and nothing has changed HFMA's opinion that such a mission is still important--the necessity for a P&P Board is as acute now as it was in 1975. The interviewer is Karen Hackett, CMPA, an HFMA staff liaison with the Board. PMID:10274786

  18. The meaning and value of traditional occupational practice: a Karen woman's story of weaving in the United States.

    PubMed

    Smith, Yda J; Stephenson, Stephanie; Gibson-Satterthwaite, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    This case study sought to understand the meaning of restoring traditional weaving as an occupation among Karen women from Burma who now live in an urban city in the United States and to examine the impact of weaving on their daily lives in terms of identity, empowerment, social support, and opportunities for entrepreneurship. The story of one Karen woman, Paw Law Eh, is described. Her story exemplifies the negative consequences of restricted access to familiar and meaningful daily activities, or "occupations", the relationship between occupation and self-identity, how participation in valued occupations can enhance social networks, and the restorative effects that are possible when engagement in meaningful occupations are maintained or restored. Her story demonstrates that occupational therapists have the skills and opportunity to contribute significantly to the well-being of Karen women by supporting the restoration of the occupation of weaving. PMID:23531562

  19. Burning rubber

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-09-01

    Mario Andretti, look out You are about to be surpassed in the burning rubber category by a joint venture between Oxford Energy Company and General Electric. The two companies are building the first whole tire-to-energy facility in the US in Modesto, California. This $41 million facility does not require tires to be shredded prior to incineration; it has the capacity to burn 700 tires per minute. The electricity generated will be provided to a utility company. Oxford says there are two billion waste tires on the ground and this number is increasing by 220 million a year. Of that amount, only 18 million a year are recycled.

  20. "I'm Telling You ... The Language Barrier Is the Most, the Biggest Challenge": Barriers to Education among Karen Refugee Women in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Paula G.; Razee, Husna; Richters, Juliet

    2012-01-01

    This article examines factors influencing English language education, participation and achievement among Karen refugee women in Australia. Data were drawn from ethnographic observations and interviews with 67 participants between 2009 and 2011, collected as part of a larger qualitative study exploring the well-being of Karen refugee women in…

  1. Burning Man

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cech, Scott J.

    2006-01-01

    Former Baltimore cop and teacher Ed Burns isn't a masochist. The writer-producer for "The Wire," a critically applauded HBO series about life and death on the streets of Baltimore, is just feverishly trying to save public schools. He thinks American education is hopelessly screwed up, but that it's also the country's only hope. So it makes sense…

  2. Weaving Colors into a White Landscape: Unpacking the Silences in Karen Hesse's Children's Novel "Out of the Dust"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    The children's novel "Out of the Dust" (Hesse, 1997) is an evocative portrayal of the drought and dust storms that devastated Midwestern farms in the 1930s. Through the voice of her 13-year-old narrator, Karen Hesse intertwines history and free verse poetry to create what many readers find to be a moving depiction of the Oklahoma Dustbowl…

  3. Burning vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Chadha, Priyanka; Hobday, Dorian; Fitzgerald O'Connor, Edmund; D'Cruz, David

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of a 69-year-old man who was found collapsed close to a heat source and admitted to hospital for severe sepsis. He was also found to have widespread blistering and ulceration of his right leg; however, a history was unobtainable due to reduced consciousness levels. The leg lesions had the initial appearance of mixed depth burns and a management plan was made to transfer the patient to a burns unit for debridement. It was subsequently noted that the patient had a previous diagnosis of seropositive erosive rheumatoid arthritis. A biopsy of the leg lesion was performed and a diagnosis of rheumatoid vasculitis confirmed. Treatment with systemic steroids, intravenous antibiotics and intravenous immunoglobulin therapy for severe hypogammaglobulinaemia was started, and the patient was not transferred for surgical debridement. Rheumatoid vasculitis is a rare and extremely serious complication of rheumatoid arthritis that can manifest in a number of ways, occasionally mimicking other conditions. This case is essential to raise awareness of rare, severe rheumatoid vasculitis and of the potential for its misdiagnosis as a mixed depth burn. PMID:27118745

  4. Medicinal plants from swidden fallows and sacred forest of the Karen and the Lawa in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many ecosystem services provided by forests are important for the livelihoods of indigenous people. Sacred forests are used for traditional practices by the ethnic minorities in northern Thailand and they protect these forests that are important for their culture and daily life. Swidden fallow fields are a dominant feature of the agricultural farming landscapes in the region. In this study we evaluate and compare the importance of swidden fallow fields and sacred forests as providers of medicinal plants among the Karen and Lawa ethnic minorities in northern Thailand. Methods We made plant inventories in swidden fallow fields of three different ages (1–2, 3–4, 5–6 years old) and in sacred forests around two villages using a replicated stratified design of vegetation plots. Subsequently we interviewed the villagers, using semi-structured questionnaires, to assess the medicinal use of the species encountered in the vegetation survey. Results We registered a total of 365 species in 244 genera and 82 families. Of these 72(19%) species in 60(24%) genera and 32(39%) families had medicinal uses. Although the sacred forest overall housed more species than the swidden fallow fields, about equal numbers of medicinal plants were derived from the forest and the fallows. This in turn means that a higher proportion (48% and 34%) of the species in the relatively species poor fallows were used for medicinal purposes than the proportion of medicinal plants from the sacred forest which accounted for 17–22%. Of the 32 medicinal plant families Euphorbiaceae and Lauraceae had most used species in the Karen and Lawa villages respectively. Conclusion Sacred forest are important for providing medicinal plant species to the Karen and Lawa communities in northern Thailand, but the swidden fallows around the villages are equally important in terms of absolute numbers of medicinal plant species, and more important if counted as proportion of the total number of species in a

  5. Board development gets straight A's: a rural hospital example. Interview by Karen Gardner.

    PubMed

    Hankinson, M P

    1992-06-01

    Copley Hospital, Morrisville, VT, is living proof that "good things come in small packages." The governing board of this 50-bed rural hospital has not let size stifle its imagination and eagerness to learn. Trustee Mary Paul Hankinson of Hyde Park, VT, has been instrumental in instituting board development activities at the hospital since she began her board tenure in 1979. Hankinson, who has taken a leave from full-time college development work to raise a family, devotes more time to Copley and her governance responsibilities than most salaried employees. As a member of the board's education and evaluation committee and the American Hospital Association's Congress of Hospital Trustees, Hankinson is alert to the educational needs and concerns of her colleagues. She recently spoke with Trustee editor Karen Gardner about the Copley board's sophisticated process for trustee orientation, self-evaluation, and continuing education. PMID:10118428

  6. Board chairman John Makel on cutting services versus diversification. Interview by Karen Gardner.

    PubMed

    Makel, J

    1990-01-01

    John Makel, chairman of the board of the Memorial Health Alliance of Mount Holly, NJ, and vice-president and regional trust office manager, First Fidelity Bank, NA-New Jersey, Moorestown, began his tenure on the board of the Memorial Hospital of Burlington County, NJ, in 1975. He has been chairman of the alliance since 1983. Makel has been involved in diversification and divestment decisions since 1979, when the alliance was formed. It now includes a 402-bed acute care hospital--the Memorial Hospital of Burlington County--a 120-bed long-term care facility, and a home health care agency that makes approximately 70,000 home care visits a year The alliance's 30-member board, under the active leadership of a 13-member executive committee, governs each of the three affiliates. Recently, Trustee managing editor Karen Gardner talked with Makel to learn how the board has approached the difficult decisions involved in cutting services versus diversification. PMID:10103487

  7. Ram Burn Observations (RAMBO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-12-01

    Ram Burn Observations (RAMBO) is a Department of Defense experiment that observes shuttle Orbital Maneuvering System engine burns for the purpose of improving plume models. On STS-107 the appropriate sensors will observe selected rendezvous and orbit adjust burns.

  8. "Here nobody holds your heart": metaphoric and embodied emotions of birth and displacement among Karen women in Australia.

    PubMed

    Niner, Sara; Kokanovic, Renata; Cuthbert, Denise; Cho, Violet

    2014-09-01

    Our objective was to explore the ways in which displaced Karen mothers expressed emotions in narrative accounts of motherhood and displacement. We contextualized and analyzed interview data from an ethnographic study of birth and emotions among 15 displaced Karen mothers in Australia. We found that women shared a common symbolic language to describe emotions centered on the heart, which was also associated with heart "problems." This, along with hypertension, collapsing, or a feeling of surrender were associated responses to extremely adverse events experienced as displaced peoples. A metaphoric schema of emotional terms centered on the heart was connected to embodied expressions of emotion related to illness of the heart. This and other embodied responses were reactions to overwhelming difficulties and fear women endured due to their exposure to political conflict and global inequity. PMID:24599643

  9. Burning Mouth Syndrome and "Burning Mouth Syndrome".

    PubMed

    Rifkind, Jacob Bernard

    2016-03-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is distressing to both the patient and practitioner unable to determine the cause of the patient's symptoms. Burning mouth syndrome is a diagnosis of exclusion, which is used only after nutritional deficiencies, mucosal disease, fungal infections, hormonal disturbances and contact stomatitis have been ruled out. This article will explore the many causes and treatment of patients who present with a chief complaint of "my mouth burns," including symptomatic treatment for those with burning mouth syndrome. PMID:27209717

  10. Burns in diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Maghsoudi, Hemmat; Aghamohammadzadeh, Naser; Khalili, Nasim

    2008-01-01

    CONTEXT AND AIMS: Diabetic burn patients comprise a significant population in burn centers. The purpose of this study was to determine the demographic characteristics of diabetic burn patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective data were collected on 94 diabetic burn patients between March 20, 2000 and March 20, 2006. Of 3062 burns patients, 94 (3.1%) had diabetes; these patients were compared with 2968 nondiabetic patients with burns. Statistical analysis was performed using the statistical analysis software SPSS 10.05. Differences between the two groups were evaluated using Student's t-test and the chi square test. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. RESULTS: The major mechanism of injury for the diabetic patients was scalding and flame burns, as was also the case in the nondiabetic burn patients. The diabetic burn patients were significantly older, with a lower percentage of total burn surface area (TBSA) than the nondiabetic burn population. There was significant difference between the diabetic and nondiabetic patients in terms of frequency of infection. No difference in mortality rate between diabetic and nondiabetic burn patients was observed. The most common organism in diabetic and nondiabetic burn patients was methicillin-resistant staphylococcus. Increasing %TBSA burn and the presence of inhalation injury are significantly associated with increased mortality following burn injury. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetics have a higher propensity for infection. Education for diabetic patients must include caution about potential burn mishaps and the complications that may ensue from burns. PMID:19902035

  11. Building for ambulatory care: Children's Hospital grows with the times. Interview by Karen Gardner.

    PubMed

    Colley, R

    1992-02-01

    The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, a 294-bed regional referral center, was the first dedicated children's hospital established in the United States in 1855. Although 39 percent of its beds are designated for intensive care, in 1985 the hospital's board recognized the necessity of expanding its ambulatory care capacity. Much of the credit for implementation of this vision goes to Roger Colley--a trustee recruited in 1983 for his business acumen. At the time he joined the board, Colley had been president of Betz Laboratories Inc., Philadelphia. In 1988, Colley started his own company--Envirogen--a company dedicated to finding new, innovative and lower-cost technologies for treating toxic and hazardous industrial waste. He is president and CEO of Envirogen, Lawrenceville, NJ. Colley was one of the original members of the hospital's long-range planning committee and served as chairman of the board's building and grounds committee during construction (from 1987-89) of the six-story Richard D. Wood Ambulatory Care Center. He recently spoke with Trustee editor Karen Gardner about the process of building this new facility, which opened in September 1989. PMID:10116268

  12. Pathophysiology of burns.

    PubMed

    Keck, Maike; Herndon, David H; Kamolz, Lars P; Frey, Manfred; Jeschke, Marc G

    2009-01-01

    Burn injury represents a significant problem worldwide. Advances in therapy strategies, based on better understanding of the pathophysiologic responses after burn injury have improved the clinical outcome of patients with burn injuries over the past years. This article describes the present understanding of the pathophysiology of a burn injury including both the local and systemic responses, focusing on the many facets of organ and systemic effects directly resulting from hypovolemia and circulating mediators following burn trauma. PMID:19652939

  13. Clinical forensic evidence in burns: rescuer burns.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pramod; Gopal, Kirun; Ramnani, Sunil

    2006-12-01

    In the literature no systematic study is available on rescuer burn for victims of burn injury. This is a retrospective study of nine patients (five admitted and four outpatients) were treated in this hospital as rescuer burns in 3.5 years. All nine patients were males. Average age of the patient treated on outpatient basis was 47 years (ranging between 44 and 52) and total burn area ranged for 1-4%. Average age of the five patients treated on inpatient basis was 32.6 years (ranging between 30 and 34). The total burn area ranged from 14.5 to 38%. During the period of study, in addition to nine rescuer burns, one patient sustained burn before the rescue attempt due to the victim hugging the rescuer. Based on the study of patterns of burn, these patients were found to have three grades of burn injury: Grade 1--upper extremity involvement only. (A) only one upper extremity involvement, (B) both upper extremities involvement, Grade 2--upper extremity/extremities and face involvement, Grade 3--upper extremity/extremities, face-neck, adjacent chest and lower extremity involvement. PMID:17011132

  14. Burning and Burnout.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Jane

    1981-01-01

    Examines the extended metaphor of "burnout" as it applies to the teaching profession. Examines three ancient Celtic invocations for the better tending of fires, which reveal ways that teachers can burn with enthusiasm without burning out from apathy. (RL)

  15. Burning Rate Emulator

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Burning Rate Emulator is a gas fuel investigation attempting to emulate the burning of solids to improve our understanding of materials''flammability over a wide range of conditions. The approa...

  16. Burns and Fire Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... common among older children. 5 6 7 8 • Tap water burns most often occur in the bathroom and ... Feldman KW, Schaller RT, Feldman JA, McMillon M. Tap water scald burns in children. Pediatrics. 1978; 62(1): ...

  17. First Aid: Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... You can get burned by heat, fire, radiation, sunlight, electricity, chemicals or hot or boiling water. There ... skin. The burned area will be sensitive to sunlight for up to one year, so you should ...

  18. Economics of pediatric burns.

    PubMed

    Bass, Michael J; Phillips, Linda G

    2008-07-01

    Sustaining a burn injury sets in motion a cycle of pain, disfigurement, and a search for survival. In pediatric burns, the injury extends to the parents where fear, ignorance, and helplessness forever change their lives. Pediatric burn injuries are caused by fire, hot liquids, clothing irons, hair curlers, caustic substances like drain cleaner, the grounding of an electrical source, and exposure to radiation. Efficiency in the delivery of pediatric burn care is critical. Maximizing resource utilization means continual self-evaluation and economic analysis of therapeutic modalities. Griffiths et al found that most childhood burns are due to scalds, which can be treated for $1061 per percent burn. Paddock et al reduced the cost of treating superficial pediatric burns and reduced the length of stay in hospital using silver-impregnated gauze over traditional methods. Barrett et al found improved cosmesis of skin grafts using cultured epithelial autografts but at a substantially increased cost. Corpron et al showed that pediatric burn units that treat burns >10% total body surface area and operative treatment of pediatric burns regardless of size generate positive revenue. There is a paucity of evidentiary pediatric burn economic data. More research is needed to address areas of pediatric burn care inefficiency. Improving knowledge of cost in all health care endeavors will create competition and drive down expenditures. PMID:18650705

  19. First Aid: Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Burns KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Burns Print A A A Text Size Scald ... THIS TOPIC Kitchen: Household Safety Checklist Fireworks Safety First Aid: Sunburn Firesetting Fire Safety Burns Household Safety: Preventing ...

  20. California Burn Scars

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Burn Scars Across Southern California     ... California between October 21 and November 18, 2003. Burn scars and vegetation changes wrought by the fires are illustrated in these ... Nov 18, 2003 Images:  California Burn Scars location:  United States region:  ...

  1. Emergent burn care.

    PubMed

    Harvey, J S; Watkins, G M; Sherman, R T

    1984-02-01

    The estimated 32,600,000 fires that occur annually in the United States produce over 300,000 injuries and 7,500 deaths. Ten percent of hospitalized burn victims die as a direct result of the burn. Initial evaluation and management of the burn patient are critical. The history should include the burn source, time of injury, burn environment, and combustible products. The burn size is best estimated by the Lund and Browder chart, and the burn depth is determined by clinical criteria. Pulmonary involvement and circumferential thoracic or extremity burns require detection and aggressive treatment to maintain organ viability. Hospitalization is usually necessary for adults with burns larger than 10% of the total body surface area (TBSA) or children with burns larger than 5% of TBSA. Major burns, those of 25% or more of TBSA or of 10% or more of full thickness, should be considered for treatment at a burn center, as well as children or elderly victims with burns of greater than 10% TBSA. Lactated Ringer's solution, infused at 4 ml/kg/% TBSA, is generally advocated for initial fluid restoration. After the acute phase (48 hours), replacement of evaporative and hypermetabolic fluid loss is necessary. These losses may constitute 3 to 5 liters per day for a 40% to 70% TBSA burn. Blood transfusion is often required because of persistent loss of red blood cells (8% per day for about ten days). Many electrolyte abnormalities may occur in the first two weeks. Pulmonary injury commonly is lethal. Circumoral burns, oropharyngeal burns, and carbonaceous sputum are indicative of inhalation injury, but arterial blood gas determinations, fiberoptic bronchoscopy, and xenon lung scans are useful for confirming the diagnosis. Humidified oxygen, intubation, positive-pressure ventilation, and pulmonary toilet are the mainstays of therapy for inhalation injury. Wound care is initially directed at preservation of vital function by escharotomy, if restrictive eschar impairs ventilatory or

  2. Burns associated with fondues.

    PubMed Central

    Laliberté, D; Beaucage, C; Watts, N

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the causes of burns associated with fondues. DESIGN: Descriptive case series. PATIENTS: All 17 patients admitted to a burn centre between Apr. 1, 1985, and Mar. 31, 1990, whose burns were associated with fondue. Eleven agreed to complete a telephone interview. RESULTS: The age of the 17 patients varied from 2 to 56 (mean 27) years. Two causes were identified: spilling of the contents of the fondue pot and explosion of the fondue fuel when added to the burner during a meal. The telephone interview revealed that eight people other than the respondents were burned during the same accidents. CONCLUSION: Although we identified only badly burned patients the problem may be more extensive. The knowledge of specific causes of burns from handling fondue equipment indicates that preventive action should be undertaken. More epidemiologic information is needed to obtain a precise estimate of the magnitude of this public health problem. PMID:1393897

  3. Burns and epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Berrocal, M

    1997-01-01

    This is a report of the first descriptive analytic study of a group of 183 burn patients, treated in the Burn Unit at the University Hospital of Cartagena, Colombia during the period since January 1985 until December 1990. There is presented experience with the selected group of 24 patients in whom the diagnosis of burn was associated with epilepsy. There is also analysed and described the gravity of the scars sequels, neurological disorders, the complication of the burn and an impact of this problem on the patient, his (her) family and the community. It is very important to report that there was found Neurocisticercosis in 66.6% of the group of burn patients with epilepsy, and it is probably the first risk factor of burn in this group. PMID:9212488

  4. Pediatric cutaneous bleach burns.

    PubMed

    Lang, Cathleen; Cox, Matthew

    2013-07-01

    Bleach is a common household product which can cause caustic injuries. Its effects on mucosal tissues and the eye have been well-described in the literature. However, there is little information published regarding the appearance and effect of bleach on a child's skin. We report three children who sustained chemical burns after contact with bleach. All three children sustained accidental bleach burns while at home, and each child had a distinct brown discoloration to the skin from the injury. All three children had treatment and follow-up for their burns. Two of the children sustained more severe burns, which were extensive and required more time to heal. There was also long-term scarring associated with the severe burns. Like most burns, pain control is required until the injury heals. PMID:23545350

  5. Outpatient burn management.

    PubMed

    Warner, Petra M; Coffee, Tammy L; Yowler, Charles J

    2014-08-01

    Most burn patients have injuries that may be treated on an outpatient basis. Newer silver-based dressings and improved medications for the treatment of pain and pruritus have led to further growth of outpatient care. The final barrier of distance from the burn center will decrease with the growth of telemedicine. It is incumbent for burn centers to develop outpatient guidelines to facilitate this growth of outpatient care. PMID:25085094

  6. Burns in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Virich, G.; Lavy, C.B.D.

    2006-01-01

    Summary Objective: To describe burns seen at the largest hospital in Malawi. Methods: In a prospective study conducted at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre, Malawi, a series of twelve accidental burns was analysed over a four-week period. Results: Hot water was the commonest source of burns (6 out of 12). Open-fire and petroleum lamp accidents were the commonest cause of burns among epileptic patients. Males were affected more than females (male:female ratio = 8:4). Most burns were superficial (11 out of 12). One patient had deep burns requiring grafting. All patients were treated with topical silver sulphadiazine and a combination antibiotic regime. Children aged six yr or under were a major subgroup at risk of suffering burns (7 out of 12) and only one patient was aged over 30 yr. Lack of anti-epileptic medication resulted in potentially avoidable burns in four epileptic patients. Conclusions: There is a need for cheap preventive health promotion measures as well as the provision of simple resources as most burns encountered can be managed effectively by simple measures. PMID:21991045

  7. American Burn Association

    MedlinePlus

    About ABA Governance History Committees & SIGs Awards Membership Past Presidents International Outreach Legislative Agenda Health Policy News and Activities Educational Resources Prevention Posters Awards FAQs Burn Awareness ...

  8. Pediatric facial burns.

    PubMed

    Kung, Theodore A; Gosain, Arun K

    2008-07-01

    Despite major advances in the area of burn management, burn injury continues to be a leading cause of pediatric mortality and morbidity. Facial burns in particular are devastating to the affected child and result in numerous physical and psychosocial sequelae. Although many of the principles of adult burn management can be applied to a pediatric patient with facial burns, the surgeon must be cognizant of several important differences. Facial burns and subsequent scar formation can drastically affect the growth potential of a child's face. Structures such as the nose and teeth may become deformed due to abnormal external forces caused by contractures. Serious complications such as occlusion amblyopia and microstomia must be anticipated and urgently addressed to avert permanent consequences, whereas other reconstructive procedures can be delayed until scar maturation occurs. Furthermore, because young children are actively developing the concept of self, severe facial burns can alter a child's sense of identity and place the child at high risk for future emotional and psychologic disturbances. Surgical reconstruction of burn wounds should proceed only after thorough planning and may involve a variety of skin graft, flap, and tissue expansion techniques. The most favorable outcome is achieved when facial resurfacing is performed with respect to the aesthetic units of the face. Children with facial burns remain a considerable challenge to their caregivers, and these patients require long-term care by a multidisciplinary team of physicians and therapists to optimize functional, cosmetic, and psychosocial outcomes. PMID:18650717

  9. The need for empirically derived permeation data for personal protective equipment: the death of Dr. Karen E. Wetterhahn.

    PubMed

    Blayney, M B

    2001-02-01

    Personal protective equipment (PPE) is an essential component in any occupational health and safety program. The appropriate selection and use of PPE can help prevent or limit exposure to hazardous materials. The inappropriate selection or use of PPE can lead to unnecessary exposure or --with extremely hazardous materials--serious harm including death. In 1997, Dr. Karen E. Wetterhahn died from mercury poisoning resulting from a single exposure to dimethylmercury almost a year before. Her death raised numerous questions as to how this tragedy occurred and what could be done to protect against a chemical as dangerous as dimethylmercury. This article provides a brief review of the case and discusses the glove permeation testing done during the course of the accident investigation. Using this case as an example, the author argues that all recommendations for PPE be based on empirical testing using accepted methods and that this information be readily available. PMID:11217716

  10. Burns and military clothing.

    PubMed

    McLean, A D

    2001-02-01

    Burn injury is a ubiquitous threat in the military environment. The risks during combat are well recognised, but the handling of fuel, oil, munitions and other hot or flammable materials during peacetime deployment and training also imposes an inherent risk of accidental burn injury. Over the last hundred years, the burn threat in combat has ranged from nuclear weapons to small shoulder-launched missiles. Materials such as napalm and white phosphorus plainly present a risk of burn, but the threat extends to encompass personnel in vehicles attacked by anti-armour weapons, large missiles, fuel-air explosives and detonations/conflagrations on weapons platforms such as ships. Large numbers of burn casualties were caused at Pearl Harbor, in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Vietnam, during the Arab/Israeli Wars and in the Falkland Islands conflict. The threat from burns is unlikely to diminish, indeed new developments in weapons seek to exploit the vulnerability of the serviceman and servicewoman to burns. Clothing can be a barrier to some types of burn--both inherently in the properties of the material, but also by trapping air between clothing layers. Conversely, ignition of the clothing may exacerbate a burn. There is hearsay that burnt clothing products within a wound may complicate the clinical management, or that materials that melt (thermoplastic materials) should not be worn if there is a burn threat. This paper explores the incidence of burn injury, the mechanisms of heat transfer to bare skin and skin covered by materials, and the published evidence for the complication of wound management by materials. Even light-weight combat clothing can offer significant protection to skin from short duration flash burns; the most vulnerable areas are the parts of the body not covered--face and hands. Multilayered combat clothing can offer significant protection for short periods from engulfment by flames; lightweight tropical wear with few layers offers little protection. Under

  11. Burning Mouth Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kamala, K A; Sankethguddad, S; Sujith, S G; Tantradi, Praveena

    2016-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is multifactorial in origin which is typically characterized by burning and painful sensation in an oral cavity demonstrating clinically normal mucosa. Although the cause of BMS is not known, a complex association of biological and psychological factors has been identified, suggesting the existence of a multifactorial etiology. As the symptom of oral burning is seen in various pathological conditions, it is essential for a clinician to be aware of how to differentiate between symptom of oral burning and BMS. An interdisciplinary and systematic approach is required for better patient management. The purpose of this study was to provide the practitioner with an understanding of the local, systemic, and psychosocial factors which may be responsible for oral burning associated with BMS, and review of treatment modalities, therefore providing a foundation for diagnosis and treatment of BMS. PMID:26962284

  12. Burning Mouth Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kamala, KA; Sankethguddad, S; Sujith, SG; Tantradi, Praveena

    2016-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is multifactorial in origin which is typically characterized by burning and painful sensation in an oral cavity demonstrating clinically normal mucosa. Although the cause of BMS is not known, a complex association of biological and psychological factors has been identified, suggesting the existence of a multifactorial etiology. As the symptom of oral burning is seen in various pathological conditions, it is essential for a clinician to be aware of how to differentiate between symptom of oral burning and BMS. An interdisciplinary and systematic approach is required for better patient management. The purpose of this study was to provide the practitioner with an understanding of the local, systemic, and psychosocial factors which may be responsible for oral burning associated with BMS, and review of treatment modalities, therefore providing a foundation for diagnosis and treatment of BMS. PMID:26962284

  13. Gunpowder-related burns.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Monzonis, A; Benito-Ruiz, J; Baena-Montilla, P; Mena-Yago, A; de la Cruz-Ferrer, L I

    1992-04-01

    Gunpowder misuse is a frequent cause of burn injury in our area. The injuries are mostly minor lesions which may be treated on an outpatient basis, the more serious injuries need surgical treatment. Experience of the management of these burns is reported by reviewing 123 clinical charts of patients admitted between 1983 and 1990. The most frequent victims are teenage males who are involved mainly in accidents in the street. The most serious burns followed work-related accidents, with a fatal outcome in 47 per cent of the patients. The serious burns are usually deep dermal or full skin thickness. A common pattern affects groins, genitalia, hypogastrium and hands, and are produced when fireworks ignite in the pockets of the patient's trousers. The management of these lesions does not differ from burns caused by other agents, although attention should be paid to the presence of associated lesions, chiefly to eyes, ears and hands, due to the shockwave and shrapnel. PMID:1590935

  14. Coal burning process

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, F.C.; Cowan, T.L.

    1980-02-05

    This process is for devolatilizing coal to produce a volatile hydrocarbon gas leaving a residue of unburned coal. The volatile hydrocarbon gas and other coal or said residual coal are thereafter burned together in a common furnace. The volatilization of the coal may be carried out substantially endothermically, and preferably on the plant site where the burning of the volatilized hydrocarbon takes place together with other coal or the residue coal. The volatile matter is removed from the coal in a volatile state before the residue coal exits from the burner nozzle and then enters the combustion chamber where the volatilized hydrocarbon gas and residue coal are burned together. The removed volatilized hydrocarbon gas can be placed within the same coal burning plant to join with the unburned residual coal, passing to the burner to burn therewith.

  15. Serious occupational burn injuries treated at a regional burn center.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Allison J; McGwin, Gerald; Cross, James M; Smith, Donald R; Birmingham, Barbara R; Rue, Loring W

    2002-01-01

    This article will present the epidemiology of occupational burn injuries among patients admitted to a regional burn center. Patients admitted to University of Alabama at Birmingham University Hospital Burn Center between November 1994 and December 1999 for occupational burn injuries were studied. Descriptive statistics were generated for demographic, clinical, and outcome characteristics. Approximately one-quarter of all burn center admissions had sustained occupational burn injuries. The most common burns were flame, electrical, and scald burns. The most heavily represented occupations were "manufacturing" (19.1%), "electrician" (16.2%), and "laborer" (16.2%). Burn type varied with occupation. Over $16 million in hospital charges was accrued by patients sustaining occupational burn injuries. Understanding the epidemiology of serious burn injuries in the workplace is crucial to directing prevention efforts toward worker groups at highest risk. PMID:12142576

  16. Burn injury in children.

    PubMed

    Zámecníková, I; Stĕtinský, J; Tymonová, J; Kadlcík, M

    2005-01-01

    The authors have analyzed the data files of 580 child patients up to 15 years of age who were hospitalized at the Burn Center of the FNsP Hospital in Ostrava in the years 1999 - 2003. The authors focused on mechanisms of burn injury in relation to the age of a child as well as extent, depth, localization, and local treatment of the injury. The data file was divided to four age groups: up to two years of age, 2 - 5 years of age, 5 - 10 years of age, and 10 - 15 years of age. As regards the mechanisms of injury, the authors have analyzed scalding by hot liquids, burns due to contact with a hot object, burns due to electric current, explosion, and injury caused by burning clothing. Injury by scalding prevails to a very significant degree in the youngest children. In the second age group the incidence of burn following contact with hot objects increases, as does the percentage of children injured by burning of clothing in children aged 5 - 10. The older children have increased prevalence of injuries caused by explosions. The greatest average extent of an injury is from burning of clothing. Most of the areas are burned deeply, localized in more areas of the body, and almost half of the cases required surgical intervention. Scalding comes second in terms of average extent of an injury. More than half of the injured areas are superficial, and areas of injury are different in the individual age groups. We addressed about a fifth of the cases surgically. The explosion of combustible materials caused a smaller extent of injury, on average, taking third place. The injuries were predominantly superficial, most commonly involving the head, trunk, and upper extremities. In none of the cases it was necessary for us to operate. Burn injuries caused by contact with hot objects are of a smaller extent. More than half of the burned areas are deep, localized most commonly in the upper extremities. Surgical intervention was necessary in more than half the cases. In terms of average

  17. Minor burns - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    ... put a thin layer of ointment, such as petroleum jelly or aloe vera, on the burn. The ... is accredited by URAC, also known as the American Accreditation HealthCare Commission (www.urac.org). URAC's accreditation ...

  18. New Fashioned Book Burning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Reports on results of a teacher's experiment in book burning as a lesson accompanying the teaching of Ray Bradbury's "Fahrenheit 451." Discusses student reactions and the purpose of or justification for the experimental lesson. (TB)

  19. Burns (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... you drowsy, or in bed. Don't use fireworks or sparklers. Bathroom Set the thermostat on your ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Fireworks Safety First Aid: Burns First Aid: Sunburn Sun ...

  20. Burn Depth Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Supra Medical Systems is successfully marketing a device that detects the depth of burn wounds in human skin. To develop the product, the companyused technology developed by NASA Langley physicists looking for better ultrasonic detection of small air bubbles and cracks in metal. The device is being marketed to burn wound analysis and treatment centers. Through a Space Act agreement, NASA and the company are also working to further develop ultrasonic instruments for new medical applications.

  1. Burn Depth Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Supra Medical Systems is successfully marketing a device that detects the depth of burn wounds in human skin. To develop the product, the company used technology developed by NASA Langley physicists looking for better ultrasonic detection of small air bubbles and cracks in metal. The device is being marketed to burn wound analysis and treatment centers. Through a Space Act agreement, NASA and the company are also working to further develop ultrasonic instruments for new medical applications

  2. Burn Depth Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Supra Medical Systems is successfully marketing a device that detects the depth of burn wounds in human skin. To develop the product, the company used technology developed by NASA Langley physicists looking for better ultrasonic detection of small air bubbles and cracks in metal. The device is being marketed to burn wound analysis and treatment centers. Through a Space Act agreement, NASA and the company are also working to further develop ultrasonic instruments for new medical applications.

  3. Ball lightning burn.

    PubMed

    Selvaggi, Gennaro; Monstrey, Stan; von Heimburg, Dennis; Hamdi, Mustapha; Van Landuyt, Koen; Blondeel, Phillip

    2003-05-01

    Ball lightning is a rare physical phenomenon, which is not yet completely explained. It is similar to lightning but with different, peculiar characteristics. It can be considered a mix of fire and electricity, concentrated in a fireball with a diameter of 20-cm that most commonly appears suddenly, even in indoor conditions, during a thunderstorm. It moves quickly for several meters, can change direction, and ultimately disappears. During a great storm, a 28-year-old man and his 5-year-old daughter sustained burn wounds after ball lightning came from the outdoors through a chimney. These two patients demonstrated signs of fire and electrical injuries. The father, who lost consciousness, sustained superficial second-degree burn wounds bilaterally on the zygomatic area and deep second-degree burn wounds on his right hand (total body surface area, 4%). His daughter demonstrated superficial second-degree burn wounds on the left part of the face and deep second-degree and third-degree burn wounds (total body surface area, 30%) on the left neck, both upper arms, and the back. In this article, the authors report the first two cases of burn injuries resulting from ball lightning contact indoors. The literature on this rare phenomenon is reviewed to elucidate the nature of ball lightning. Emphasis is placed on the nature of injuries after ball lightning contact, the therapy used, and the long-term complications. PMID:12792547

  4. PBXN-110 Burn Rate Estimate

    SciTech Connect

    Glascoe, E

    2008-08-11

    It is estimated that PBXN-110 will burn laminarly with a burn function of B = (0.6-1.3)*P{sup 1.0} (B is the burn rate in mm/s and P is pressure in MPa). This paper provides a brief discussion of how this burn behavior was estimated.

  5. The media glorifying burns: a hindrance to burn prevention.

    PubMed

    Greenhalgh, David G; Palmieri, Tina L

    2003-01-01

    The media have a profound influence on the actions of children and adults. Burns and burn prevention tend to be ignored or even mocked. The purpose of this presentation is to reveal the callousness of the media in its dealings with burns and burn prevention. Printed materials with a relationship to burns, risk of burning, or disrespect for the consequences of burns were collected. The materials were tabulated into four categories: comics, advertisements (ads), articles that made light of burns, and television shows that portrayed behavior that would risk burn injury. Most burn-related materials were found in comics or advertisements. Several comics made light of high-risk behavior with flames, scald injury, contact injury, or burns. In addition, several advertisements showed people on fire or actions that could easily lead to burns. Several articles and televisions shows portrayed high-risk behavior that, in some instances, led to copycat injuries. Flames are frequently used to sell items that target adolescent boys or young men. The high incidence injuries that frequent this population parallel the high-risk behaviors portrayed by the media. The media portrays flames and high-risk behavior for burn injury as being cool, funny, and without consequence. The use of flames on clothing and recreational equipment (skateboards, hot rods) particularly targets the high-risk adolescent male. The burn community should make the media aware of the harm it causes with its callous depiction and glorification of burns. PMID:12792237

  6. A system that 'walks the talk'. Using improved community health status for CEO evaluation and compensation. Interview by Karen Gardner.

    PubMed

    McMeekin, J C; Billings, R W

    1994-04-01

    Crozer-Keystone Health System, with corporate headquarters in Media, PA, is relatively new. The system was formed in 1990 to integrate four hospitals--roughly 1,160 acute care beds--five long-term care facilities, skilled nursing facilities and personal care facilities. According to President and CEO John C. McMeekin, the system comprises "very aggressive" programs in senior wellness, geriatric care, women's and children's health, behavioral medicine and psychiatric substance abuse. And it also has a large managed care organization that was undertaken as part of a joint venture with members of the hospitals' medical staff. The system is still defining itself, and perhaps that's why it has been willing to venture into an area that is virtually unique among health care organizations: using community health status indicators as part of the CEO's annual evaluation and compensation. Recently, Trustee editor Karen Gardner spoke to McMeekin and board Chairman Richard W. Billings about a major community needs assessment project that the system undertook in 1991 and how it is using the results of that study. PMID:10133272

  7. Methamphetamine use and correlates in two villages of the highland ethnic Karen minority in northern Thailand: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The prevalence of methamphetamine use and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) incidence are high in lowland Thai society. Despite increasing social and cultural mixing among residents of highland and lowland Thai societies, however, little is known about methamphetamine use among ethnic minority villagers in the highlands. Methods A cross-sectional survey examined Karen villagers from a developed and a less-developed village on February 24 and March 26, 2003 to evaluate the prevalence and social correlates of methamphetamine use in northern Thailand. Data were collected in face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire. Results The response rate was 79.3% (n = 548). In all, 9.9% (males 17.6%, females 1.7%) of villagers reported methamphetamine use in the previous year. Methamphetamine was used mostly by males and was significantly related to primary or lower education; to ever having worked in town; to having used opium, marijuana, or heroin in the past year; and to ever having been diagnosed with a sexually transmitted infection (STI). Conclusion Since labor migration to towns is increasingly common among ethnic minorities, the prevention of methamphetamine use and of HIV/STI infection among methamphetamine users should be prioritized to prevent HIV in this minority population in Thailand. PMID:19445678

  8. Burning trees and bridges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Joel S.

    1990-01-01

    Most burning of biomass is the result of human activity, and on a global scale it is increasing. Tropospheric concentrations of CO2, CO, CH4, non-methane hydrocarbons, and ozone are all increasing with time; global biomass burning may make an important contribution to this increase and thus to potential global climate change. The nitrogen cycle also can have important climatic effects. Nitrous oxide put into the atmosphere by biomass burning is a greenhouse gas 250 times more powerful (molecule for molecule) than carbon dioxide. Nitric oxide, as well as being a photochemical precursor of ozone, a major pollutant in the troposphere, produces nitric acid, the fastest-growing component of acid rain. Hence, the new bridge in the nitrogen cycle is of more than mere technical interest.

  9. Burning mouth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jimson, Sudha; Rajesh, E; Krupaa, R Jayasri; Kasthuri, M

    2015-04-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a complex disorder that is characterized by warm or burning sensation in the oral mucosa without changes on physical examination. It occurs more commonly in middle-aged and elderly women and often affects the tip of the tongue, lateral borders, lips, hard and soft palate. This condition is probably of multi-factorial origin, often idiopathic, and its etiopathogensis is unknown. BMS can be classified into two clinical forms namely primary and secondary BMS. As a result, a multidisciplinary approach is required for better control of the symptoms. In addition, psychotherapy and behavioral feedback may also help eliminate the BMS symptoms. PMID:26015707

  10. Fast burning propellants

    SciTech Connect

    Colgate, S.A.; Roos, G.E.

    1987-07-21

    A solid or semisolid propellant is described comprising grains of propellant or propellant components bonded together to create voids within the propellant volume. The grains are of near-uniform size and have less than about a 20% size variation between the largest and smallest grains, the voids comprising from about 10% to about 50% of the propellant volume. The grains are bonded together with sufficient strength to substantially delay the fluidization of the propellant by the onset of Taylor unstable burning. The propellant has a rapid burn rate of from about 10 cm sec/sup -1/ to about 10/sup 4/cm sec/sup -1/.

  11. Management of acute burns and burn shock resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Faldmo, L; Kravitz, M

    1993-05-01

    Initial management of minor and moderate, uncomplicated burn injury focuses on wound management and patient comfort. Initial management of patients with major burn injury requires airway support, fluid resuscitation for burn shock, treatment for associated trauma and preexisting medical conditions, management of adynamic ileus, and initial wound treatment. Fluid resuscitation, based on assessment of the extent and depth of burn injury, requires administration of intravenous fluids using resuscitation formula guidelines for the initial 24 hours after injury. Inhalation injury complicates flame burns and increases morbidity and mortality. Electrical injury places patients at risk for cardiac arrest, metabolic acidosis, and myoglobinuria. Circumferential full-thickness burns to extremities compromise circulation and require escharotomy or fasciotomy. Circumferential torso burns compromise air exchange and cardiac return. Loss of skin function places patients at risk for hypothermia, fluid and electrolyte imbalances, and systemic sepsis. The first 24 hours after burn injury require aggressive medical management to assure survival and minimize complications. PMID:8489882

  12. TRIAL BURNS: METHODS PERSPECTIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    When conducting a trial burn, it is necessary to make a number of measurements in order to adequately define the performance of the incinerator. n addition to flue gas emissions for particulate matter, HCl, and selected organics, it is also necessary to measure selected organics ...

  13. The Burn Wound Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Lloyd F.; Chan, Rodney K.

    2016-01-01

    Significance: While the survival rate of the severely burned patient has improved significantly, relatively little progress has been made in treatment or prevention of burn-induced long-term sequelae, such as contraction and fibrosis. Recent Advances: Our knowledge of the molecular pathways involved in burn wounds has increased dramatically, and technological advances now allow large-scale genomic studies, providing a global view of wound healing processes. Critical Issues: Translating findings from a large number of in vitro and preclinical animal studies into clinical practice represents a gap in our understanding, and the failures of a number of clinical trials suggest that targeting single pathways or cytokines may not be the best approach. Significant opportunities for improvement exist. Future Directions: Study of the underlying molecular influences of burn wound healing progression will undoubtedly continue as an active research focus. Increasing our knowledge of these processes will identify additional therapeutic targets, supporting informed clinical studies that translate into clinical relevance and practice. PMID:26989577

  14. Accumulative eschar after burn.

    PubMed

    Ma, Fushun

    2016-02-01

    Eschar formation is a potential sequela of burn injuries. Definitive management may include escharectomy and eschar debridement. After eschar removal, the wound can be covered with a skin graft or reepithelialization. For prolonged refractory eschar on the fingertips, topical use of rb-bFGF after debridement can achieve an optimal outcome. PMID:26862412

  15. The Earth Could Burn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarrow, Ruth

    1982-01-01

    Environmental educators are worried about the ultimate ecological threat--nuclear war, which could burn thousands of square miles, sterilize the soil, destroy 70 percent of the ozone layer letting in lethal ultraviolet rays, and cause severe radiation sickness. Educators must inform themselves, teach others, contact government representatives, and…

  16. TIRES, OPEN BURNING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chapter describes available information on the health effects from open burning of rubber tires. It concentrates on the three known sources of detailed measurements: (1) a small-scale emissions characterization study performed by the U.S. EPA in a facility designed to simulat...

  17. Chemical burn or reaction

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000059.htm Chemical burn or reaction To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Chemicals that touch skin can lead to a reaction on the skin, throughout the body, or both. ...

  18. [Treatment of hydrofluoric acid burns].

    PubMed

    Thiele, B; Winter, U J; Mahrle, G; Steigleder, G K

    1986-01-31

    A chemical-plant worker sustained hydrofluoric acid burns during cleaning procedures. Intra-arterial perfusion and intralesional injections of calcium gluconate solution prevented progression of the burns into deeper tissue layers. PMID:3943470

  19. Biomass Burning Data and Information

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-04-21

    ... of total amount of biomass burned. These data may be used in general circulation models (GCMs) and in photochemical models of the ... Biomass Burning Discipline:  Tropospheric Chemistry Field Campaigns Aerosols Platform:  ...

  20. BURN DATA COORDINATING CENTER (BDCC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Burn Data Coordinating Center (BDCC) began collecting data in 1994 and is currently the largest burn database in the country. Pediatric burn data was added in 1998. The BMS database contains over 2,800 cases supporting clinical research and research on outcomes including empl...

  1. The overall patterns of burns

    PubMed Central

    Almoghrabi, A.; Abu Shaban, N.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Burn patterns differ across the whole world and not only in relation to lack of education, overcrowding, and poverty. Cultures, habits, traditions, psychiatric illness, and epilepsy are strongly correlated to burn patterns. However, burns may also occur because of specific religious beliefs and activities, social events and festivals, traditional medical practices, occupational activities, and war. PMID:22639565

  2. PGN Prescribed Burn Research Summary

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since 1997, we have been studying the effects of prescribed burns conducted during late winter on shortgrass steppe on the Pawnee National Grassland. During 1997 – 2002, we studied burns on the western (Crow Valley) portion of the Pawnee by comparing plant growth on burns conducted by the Forest Ser...

  3. Is proportion burned severely related to daily area burned?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birch, Donovan S.; Morgan, Penelope; Kolden, Crystal A.; Hudak, Andrew T.; Smith, Alistair M. S.

    2014-05-01

    The ecological effects of forest fires burning with high severity are long-lived and have the greatest impact on vegetation successional trajectories, as compared to low-to-moderate severity fires. The primary drivers of high severity fire are unclear, but it has been hypothesized that wind-driven, large fire-growth days play a significant role, particularly on large fires in forested ecosystems. Here, we examined the relative proportion of classified burn severity for individual daily areas burned that occurred during 42 large forest fires in central Idaho and western Montana from 2005 to 2007 and 2011. Using infrared perimeter data for wildfires with five or more consecutive days of mapped perimeters, we delineated 2697 individual daily areas burned from which we calculated the proportions of each of three burn severity classes (high, moderate, and low) using the differenced normalized burn ratio as mapped for large fires by the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity project. We found that the proportion of high burn severity was weakly correlated (Kendall τ = 0.299) with size of daily area burned (DAB). Burn severity was highly variable, even for the largest (95th percentile) in DAB, suggesting that other variables than fire extent influence the ecological effects of fires. We suggest that these results do not support the prioritization of large runs during fire rehabilitation efforts, since the underlying assumption in this prioritization is a positive relationship between severity and area burned in a day.

  4. Longitudinal burn scar quantification.

    PubMed

    Nedelec, Bernadette; Correa, José A; de Oliveira, Ana; LaSalle, Leo; Perrault, Isabelle

    2014-12-01

    Quantitative studies of the clinical recovery of burn scars are currently lacking. Previous reports validate the objective, precise, diagnostic capabilities of high-frequency ultrasound to measure thickness, the Cutometer(®) to measure pliability and the Mexameter(®) to measure erythema and pigmentation of scars. Thus, we prospectively quantified clinical characteristics of patient-matched, after burn hypertrophic scar (HSc), donor site scar (D) and normal skin (N) using these instruments. One investigator measured 3 sites (HSc, D, N) in 46 burn survivors at 3, 6, and 12 months after-burn. A mixed model regression analysis, adjusting p-values for multiplicity of testing, was used to compare means among sites and time points. Participants were 41.2±13.5 years old, 87% males, predominantly Caucasian, with an average of 19.5% body surface area burned. HSc thickness decreased significantly between 3 and 6, 6 and 12, and 3 and 12 months (all p<0.0001), but remained thicker than D and N skin (all p<0.0001). Pliability differed significantly between HSc, D and N sites at all time points (all p<0.0001), with HSc and D increasing between 3 and 12 months (p<0.05) but not reaching normal. HSc and D sites were significantly more erythematous than normal skin (p<0.05) at 3 and 6 months but D sites approached normal by 12 months. The only time points at which pigmentation significantly differed were the HSc and D sites at 6 months. Thickness, pliability, erythema and pigmentation of N skin remained similar over the 12 months. We found that post-burn HSc thickness, pliability and erythema differed significantly from D and N skin at 3, 6, and 12 months and does not return to normal by 12 months after-injury; however, significant improvements towards normal can be expected. Donor sites are redder than normal skin at 3 and 6 months but can be expected to return to normal by 12 months. Although the color of HSc and D sites change markedly with time these color changes are

  5. Chemical Debridement of Burns

    PubMed Central

    Levenson, Stanley M.; Kan, Dorinne; Gruber, Charles; Crowley, Leo V.; Lent, Richard; Watford, Alvin; Seifter, Eli

    1974-01-01

    The development of effective, non-toxic (local and systemic) methods for the rapid chemical (enzymatic and non-enzymatic) debridement of third degree burns would dramatically reduce the morbidity and mortality of severely burned patients. Sepsis is still the major cause of death of patients with extensive deep burns. The removal of the devitalized tissue, without damage to unburned skin or skin only partially injured by burning, and in ways which would permit immediate (or very prompt) skin grafting, would lessen substantially the problems of sepsis, speed convalescence and the return of these individuals to society as effective human beings, and would decrease deaths. The usefulness and limitations of surgical excision for patients with extensive third degree burns are discussed. Chemical debridement lends itself to complementary use with surgical excision and has the potential advantage over surgical excision in not requiring anesthesia or a formal surgical operation. The authors' work with the chemical debridement of burns, in particular the use of Bromelain, indicates that this approach will likely achieve clinical usefulness. The experimental studies indicate that rapid controlled debridement, with minimal local and systemic toxicity, is possible, and that effective chemotherapeutic agents may be combined with the Bromelain without either interfering with the actions of the other. The authors believe that rapid (hours) debridement accomplished by the combined use of chemical debriding and chemotherapeutic agents will obviate the possibility of any increase in infection, caused by the use of chemical agents for debridement, as reported for Paraenzyme21 and Travase.39,48 It is possible that the short term use of systemic antibiotics begun just before and continued during, and for a short time after, the rapid chemical debridement may prove useful for the prevention of infection, as appears to be the case for abdominal operations of the clean-contaminated and

  6. 40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411 Section 49.10411 Protection of... for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a) Beginning... obtain approval of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning permits....

  7. [Chemical and electrical burns].

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Raymond

    2002-12-15

    Chemical burns are less frequent in routine practice, but could be very serious owing to the complexity and severity of their actions. Influx of casualty after a civil disaster (industrial explosion) or military (war or terrorism) is possible. The action of these agents could be prolonged and deep. In addition to the skin, respiratory lesions and general intoxication could be observed. The urgent local treatment rely essentially on prolonged washing. Prevention and adequate emergency care could limit the serious consequences of these accidents. Accidents (thermal burns or electrisations) due to high or low voltage electricity are frequent. The severity is linked with the affected skin but especially with internal lesions, muscular, neurological or cardiac lesions. All cases of electrisation need hospital care. Locally, the lesions are often deep with difficult surgical repairs and often require amputation. Aesthetic and functional sequela are therefore frequent. Secondary complications could appear several months after the accident: cataract, dysesthesia and hypotonia. PMID:12621941

  8. Burns and beauty nails

    PubMed Central

    Bélanger, Richard E; Marcotte, Marie-Eve; Bégin, François

    2013-01-01

    A case involving a five-month-old girl brought to the emergency department with burns over her abdomen is described. The child was reported to have spilled two small bottles of beauty nail adhesive on her clothes while her mother was preparing dinner. After undressing the infant, the mother discovered several lesions on the child’s abdomen and quickly sought medical attention. Given the unusual circumstances of the presentation, the child was hospitalized for both treatment and supervision. The beauty nail adhesive contained cyanoacrylate. In addition to its well-appreciated adhesive capacity, cyanoacrylate, in the presence of cotton or other tissues, is known to produce an exothermic reaction that may cause burns. Cyanoacrylate-based products, due to their possible adverse effects, should be kept away from children as advised. Odd injuries should always raise concerns about the possibility of inflicted injury. PMID:24421671

  9. Coal burning arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    Wormser, A.F.

    1981-03-03

    Pyrolyzing pulverized coal to form char and volatiles, separating the char from the volatiles, burning the char in heattransfer relationship with a stoichiometric excess of air, forming thereby ash and a mixture of gases, the excess of air being chosen to produce in the ash a temperature below the fusion temperature thereof, separating the mixture of gases from the ash , and thereafter burning the volatiles in the mixture of gases. Also, coal burning apparatus which comprises, in combination a spouted bed pyrolyzer, a fluidized bed combustor, a first cyclone , a second cyclone, and an afterburner, the pyrolyzer being connected to accept pulverized coal and to discharge char to the combustor and gaseous materials with entrained particulate material to the first cyclone, the first cyclone being connected to deliver gases to the afterburner, the combustor being connected to accept also a combustion supporting gas and to deliver to the second cyclone gaseous materials with entrained particulate material, and the second cyclone being connected to deliver gaseous material to the afterburner.

  10. Burns caused by carburetors.

    PubMed

    Still, Joseph; Law, Edward; Orlet, Hermann; Wilson, Joan

    2003-01-01

    During a 10-year period 4645 patients were admitted to the Joseph M. Still Burn Center with acute burns. Of these, 83 (1.79%) were caused by carburetor-related accidents. There were 79 males and 4 females. Ages ranged from 10 to 72 years. Burn size ranged from 1 to 97.5% (mean, 12.3%). There was one death in the group. Eighteen patients required only topical care; 65 patients required a total of 108 operations for debridement and grafting. Length of stay ranged from 1 to 63 days (mean, 11 days). The mechanism of injury was usually the same; in 81 cases the accident occurred while someone was pouring gasoline into a carburetor. In 63 cases the vehicle was an automobile or pickup truck. Explosions resulted in 12 instances; in 65 instances fires were started. These injuries are serious, expensive, fairly common, and may be life threatening. Proper handling of gasoline is stressed. Newer vehicles have fuel injector systems, which may gradually eliminate the problem over time, because pouring gasoline is not required. PMID:12543992

  11. Interview with a quality leader--Karen Davis, executive director of The Commonwealth Fund. Interview by Lecia A. Albright.

    PubMed

    Davis, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Karen Davis is president of The Commonwealth Fund, a national philanthropy engaged in independent research on health and social policy issues. Dr. Davis is a nationally recognized economist, with a distinguished career in public policy and research. Before joining the Fund, she served as chairman of the Department of Health Policy and Management at The Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, where she also held an appointment as professor of economics. She served as deputy assistant secretary for health policy in the Department of Health and Human Services from 1977 to 1980, and was the first woman to head a U.S. Public Health Service agency. Before her government career, Ms. Davis was a senior fellow at the Brookings Institution in Washington, DC; a visiting lecturer at Harvard University; and an assistant professor of economics at Rice University. A native of Oklahoma, she received her PhD in economics from Rice University, which recognized her achievements with a Distinguished Alumna Award in 1991. Ms. Davis is the recipient of the 2000 Baxter-Allegiance Foundation Prize for Health Services Research. In the spring of 2001, Ms. Davis received an honorary doctorate in human letters from John Hopkins University. In 2006, she was selected for the Academy Health Distinguished Investigator Award for significant and lasting contributions to the field of health services research in addition to the Picker Award for Excellence in the Advancement of Patient Centered Care. Ms. Davis has published a number of significant books, monographs, and articles on health and social policy issues, including the landmark books HealthCare Cost Containment, Medicare Policy, National Health Insurance: Benefits, Costs, and Consequences, and Health and the War on Poverty. She serves on the Board of Visitors of Columbia University, School of Nursing, and is on the Board of Directors of the Geisinger Health System. She was elected to the Institute of Medicine (IOM) in 1975; has served two

  12. Acoustic emission strand burning technique for motor burning rate prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, W. N.

    1978-01-01

    An acoustic emission (AE) method is being used to measure the burning rate of solid propellant strands. This method has a precision of 0.5% and excellent burning rate correlation with both subscale and large rocket motors. The AE procedure burns the sample under water and measures the burning rate from the acoustic output. The acoustic signal provides a continuous readout during testing, which allows complete data analysis rather than the start-stop clockwires used by the conventional method. The AE method helps eliminate such problems as inhibiting the sample, pressure increase and temperature rise, during testing.

  13. Burning Mouth Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Klasser, Gary D; Grushka, Miriam; Su, Nan

    2016-08-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is an enigmatic, misunderstood, and under-recognized painful condition. Symptoms associated with BMS can be varied, thereby providing a challenge for practitioners and having a negative impact on oral health-related quality of life for patients. Management also remains a challenge for practitioners because it is currently only targeted for symptom relief without a definitive cure. There is an urgent need for further investigations to determine the efficacy of different therapies because this is the only way viable therapeutic options can be established for patients with this chronic and painful syndrome. PMID:27475513

  14. Complicated Burn Resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Harrington, David T

    2016-10-01

    More than 4 decades after the creation of the Brooke and Parkland formulas, burn practitioners still argue about which formula is the best. So it is no surprise that there is no consensus about how to resuscitate a thermally injured patient with a significant comorbidity such as heart failure or cirrhosis or how to resuscitate a patient after an electrical or inhalation injury or a patient whose resuscitation is complicated by renal failure. All of these scenarios share a common theme in that the standard rule book does not apply. All will require highly individualized resuscitations. PMID:27600129

  15. Marginally Stable Nuclear Burning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strohmayer, Tod E.; Altamirano, D.

    2012-01-01

    Thermonuclear X-ray bursts result from unstable nuclear burning of the material accreted on neutron stars in some low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). Theory predicts that close to the boundary of stability oscillatory burning can occur. This marginally stable regime has so far been identified in only a small number of sources. We present Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations of the bursting, high- inclination LMXB 4U 1323-619 that reveal for the first time in this source the signature of marginally stable burning. The source was observed during two successive RXTE orbits for approximately 5 ksec beginning at 10:14:01 UTC on March 28, 2011. Significant mHz quasi- periodic oscillations (QPO) at a frequency of 8.1 mHz are detected for approximately 1600 s from the beginning of the observation until the occurrence of a thermonuclear X-ray burst at 10:42:22 UTC. The mHz oscillations are not detected following the X-ray burst. The average fractional rms amplitude of the mHz QPOs is 6.4% (3 - 20 keV), and the amplitude increases to about 8% below 10 keV.This phenomenology is strikingly similar to that seen in the LMXB 4U 1636-53. Indeed, the frequency of the mHz QPOs in 4U 1323-619 prior to the X-ray burst is very similar to the transition frequency between mHz QPO and bursts found in 4U 1636-53 by Altamirano et al. (2008). These results strongly suggest that the observed QPOs in 4U 1323-619 are, like those in 4U 1636-53, due to marginally stable nuclear burning. We also explore the dependence of the energy spectrum on the oscillation phase, and we place the present observations within the context of the spectral evolution of the accretion-powered flux from the source.

  16. SystemBurn

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2012-08-30

    SystemBurn is a tool for creating a synthetic computational load for the purpose of measuring how much power a computer will draw under that type of load. The loads include fundamental library function calls like matrix multiply, memory copies, fourier transforms, bit manipulation, I/O, network packet transfers, and some code contrived to cause the processor to dray more or less power. The code produces some diagnostic and progress output, but the actual measurements would bemore » recorded from the power panels within the computer room.« less

  17. Vitamin C in Burn Resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Julie A; Rowan, Matthew P; Driscoll, Ian R; Chung, Kevin K; Friedman, Bruce C

    2016-10-01

    The inflammatory state after burn injury is characterized by an increase in capillary permeability that results in protein and fluid leakage into the interstitial space, increasing resuscitative requirements. Although the mechanisms underlying increased capillary permeability are complex, damage from reactive oxygen species plays a major role and has been successfully attenuated with antioxidant therapy in several disease processes. However, the utility of antioxidants in burn treatment remains unclear. Vitamin C is a promising antioxidant candidate that has been examined in burn resuscitation studies and shows efficacy in reducing the fluid requirements in the acute phase after burn injury. PMID:27600125

  18. [Burns caused by paint thinner].

    PubMed

    Benbrahim, A; Jerrah, H; Diouri, M; Bahechar, N; Boukind, E H

    2009-12-31

    Flame deriving from paint thinner is not a rare cause of burns in Morocco and we thus considered it useful to conduct an epidemiological survey of paint thinner flame burns (PTFB) in the National Burns Centre (NBC) in the Ibn-Rochd University Hospital Centre in Casablanca, Morocco. The research covered the 10-month period from September 2007 to June 2008.The aim of our work was to present the characteristic features of such burns in order to prevent them by increasing public knowledge regarding the risks involved in using paint thinner, i.e. burns in particular. During the period in question, we colligated 17 cases of PTFB out of a total number of 356 patients admitted to the NBC for acute burns of all aetiologies. The patients' average was 32 yr and they were nearly all male (16 men/1 woman), with past histories of drug addiction and/or delinquency. They were all of low-level socioeconomic class and lived mainly in shanty towns. The burn was often secondary to street violence (92% of the cases).The mean burn surface area was 23% and the burns were often deep and located mainly in the upper limbs and the trunk. PMID:21991179

  19. Burns: Treatment and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Burd, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Burns can cause extensive and devastating injuries of the head and neck. Prevention of the initial injury must always be a priority, but once an injury has occurred, then prevention of progression of the damage together with survival of the patient must be the immediate goals. The acute care will have a major influence on the subsequent scarring, reconstructive need, and long-term outcome. In the majority of cases, the reconstruction will involve restoration of form and function to the soft tissues, and the methods used will depend very much on the extent of scarring locally and elsewhere in the body. In nearly all cases, a significant improvement in functional and aesthetic outcomes can be achieved, which, in conjunction with intensive psychosocial rehabilitation, can lead to high-quality patient outcomes. With the prospect of facial transplantation being a clinical reality, the reconstructive spectrum has opened up even further, and, with appropriate reconstruction and support, no patient should be left economically deprived or socially isolated after a burn injury. PMID:22550448

  20. Burning mouth syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gurvits, Grigoriy E; Tan, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is a debilitating medical condition affecting nearly 1.3 million of Americans. Its common features include a burning painful sensation in the mouth, often associated with dysgeusia and xerostomia, despite normal salivation. Classically, symptoms are better in the morning, worsen during the day and typically subside at night. Its etiology is largely multifactorial, and associated medical conditions may include gastrointestinal, urogenital, psychiatric, neurologic and metabolic disorders, as well as drug reactions. BMS has clear predisposition to peri-/post menopausal females. Its pathophysiology has not been fully elucidated and involves peripheral and central neuropathic pathways. Clinical diagnosis relies on careful history taking, physical examination and laboratory analysis. Treatment is often tedious and is aimed at correction of underlying medical conditions, supportive therapy, and behavioral feedback. Drug therapy with alpha lipoic acid, clonazepam, capsaicin, and antidepressants may provide symptom relief. Psychotherapy may be helpful. Short term follow up data is promising, however, long term prognosis with treatment is lacking. BMS remains an important medical condition which often places a recognizable burden on the patient and health care system and requires appropriate recognition and treatment. PMID:23429751

  1. 40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021 Section 49.11021 Protection of... burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a) Beginning January 1, 2007, a person must apply for... under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning permits....

  2. 40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021 Section 49.11021 Protection of... burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a) Beginning January 1, 2007, a person must apply for... under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning permits....

  3. 40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021 Section 49.11021 Protection of... burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a) Beginning January 1, 2007, a person must apply for... under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning permits....

  4. 40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021 Section 49.11021 Protection of... burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a) Beginning January 1, 2007, a person must apply for... under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning permits....

  5. Global burned area and biomass burning emissions from small fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randerson, J. T.; Chen, Y.; van der Werf, G. R.; Rogers, B. M.; Morton, D. C.

    2012-12-01

    In several biomes, including croplands, wooded savannas, and tropical forests, many small fires occur each year that are well below the detection limit of the current generation of global burned area products derived from moderate resolution surface reflectance imagery. Although these fires often generate thermal anomalies that can be detected by satellites, their contributions to burned area and carbon fluxes have not been systematically quantified across different regions and continents. Here we developed a preliminary method for combining 1-km thermal anomalies (active fires) and 500 m burned area observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to estimate the influence of these fires. In our approach, we calculated the number of active fires inside and outside of 500 m burn scars derived from reflectance data. We estimated small fire burned area by computing the difference normalized burn ratio (dNBR) for these two sets of active fires and then combining these observations with other information. In a final step, we used the Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3) biogeochemical model to estimate the impact of these fires on biomass burning emissions. We found that the spatial distribution of active fires and 500 m burned areas were in close agreement in ecosystems that experience large fires, including savannas across southern Africa and Australia and boreal forests in North America and Eurasia. In other areas, however, we observed many active fires outside of burned area perimeters. Fire radiative power was lower for this class of active fires. Small fires substantially increased burned area in several continental-scale regions, including Equatorial Asia (157%), Central America (143%), and Southeast Asia (90%) during 2001-2010. Globally, accounting for small fires increased total burned area by approximately by 35%, from 345 Mha/yr to 464 Mha/yr. A formal quantification of uncertainties was not possible, but sensitivity

  6. Global Burned Area and Biomass Burning Emissions from Small Fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randerson, J. T.; Chen, Y.; vanderWerf, G. R.; Rogers, B. M.; Morton, D. C.

    2012-01-01

    In several biomes, including croplands, wooded savannas, and tropical forests, many small fires occur each year that are well below the detection limit of the current generation of global burned area products derived from moderate resolution surface reflectance imagery. Although these fires often generate thermal anomalies that can be detected by satellites, their contributions to burned area and carbon fluxes have not been systematically quantified across different regions and continents. Here we developed a preliminary method for combining 1-km thermal anomalies (active fires) and 500 m burned area observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to estimate the influence of these fires. In our approach, we calculated the number of active fires inside and outside of 500 m burn scars derived from reflectance data. We estimated small fire burned area by computing the difference normalized burn ratio (dNBR) for these two sets of active fires and then combining these observations with other information. In a final step, we used the Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3) biogeochemical model to estimate the impact of these fires on biomass burning emissions. We found that the spatial distribution of active fires and 500 m burned areas were in close agreement in ecosystems that experience large fires, including savannas across southern Africa and Australia and boreal forests in North America and Eurasia. In other areas, however, we observed many active fires outside of burned area perimeters. Fire radiative power was lower for this class of active fires. Small fires substantially increased burned area in several continental-scale regions, including Equatorial Asia (157%), Central America (143%), and Southeast Asia (90%) during 2001-2010. Globally, accounting for small fires increased total burned area by approximately by 35%, from 345 Mha/yr to 464 Mha/yr. A formal quantification of uncertainties was not possible, but sensitivity

  7. Oral Rehydration Therapy in Burn Patients

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-04-24

    Burn Any Degree Involving 20-29 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 30-39 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 40-49 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 50-59 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 60-65 Percent of Body Surface

  8. Burn Teams and Burn Centers: The Importance of a Comprehensive Team Approach to Burn Care

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mousawi, Ahmed M.; Mecott-Rivera, Gabriel A.; Jeschke, Marc G.; Herndon, David N.

    2009-01-01

    Synopsis Advances in burn care have been colossal, but while extra work is needed, it is clear that the organized effort of burn teams can continue making improvements in survival rates and quality of life possible for patients. Burn patients are unique, representing the most severe model of trauma,33 and hence this necessitates treatment in the best facilities available for that endeavor. Burn centers have developed to meet these intricate needs but can only function productively and most efficiently through well organized, multifaceted, patient-centered teams in areas of clinical care and research. PMID:19793550

  9. Burning crude oil without pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houseman, J.

    1979-01-01

    Crude oil can be burned at drilling sites by two-stage combustion process without producing pollution. Process allows easier conformance to strict federal or state clean air standards without installation of costly pollution removal equipment. Secondary oil recovery can be accomplished with injection of steam heating by burning oil.

  10. Animal models in burn research.

    PubMed

    Abdullahi, A; Amini-Nik, S; Jeschke, M G

    2014-09-01

    Burn injury is a severe form of trauma affecting more than 2 million people in North America each year. Burn trauma is not a single pathophysiological event but a devastating injury that causes structural and functional deficits in numerous organ systems. Due to its complexity and the involvement of multiple organs, in vitro experiments cannot capture this complexity nor address the pathophysiology. In the past two decades, a number of burn animal models have been developed to replicate the various aspects of burn injury, to elucidate the pathophysiology, and to explore potential treatment interventions. Understanding the advantages and limitations of these animal models is essential for the design and development of treatments that are clinically relevant to humans. This review aims to highlight the common animal models of burn injury in order to provide investigators with a better understanding of the benefits and limitations of these models for translational applications. While many animal models of burn exist, we limit our discussion to the skin healing of mouse, rat, and pig. Additionally, we briefly explain hypermetabolic characteristics of burn injury and the animal model utilized to study this phenomena. Finally, we discuss the economic costs associated with each of these models in order to guide decisions of choosing the appropriate animal model for burn research. PMID:24714880

  11. Animal Models in Burn Research

    PubMed Central

    Abdullahi, A.; Amini-Nik, S.; Jeschke, M.G

    2014-01-01

    Burn injury is a severe form of trauma affecting more than two million people in North America each year. Burn trauma is not a single pathophysiological event but a devastating injury that causes structural and functional deficits in numerous organ systems. Due to its complexity and the involvement of multiple organs, in vitro experiments cannot capture this complexity nor address the pathophysiology. In the past two decades, a number of burn animal models have been developed to replicate the various aspects of burn injury; to elucidate the pathophysiology and explore potential treatment interventions. Understanding the advantages and limitations of these animal models is essential for the design and development of treatments that are clinically relevant to humans. This review paper aims to highlight the common animal models of burn injury in order to provide investigators with a better understanding of the benefits and limitations of these models for translational applications. While many animal models of burn exist, we limit our discussion to the skin healing of mouse, rat, and pig. Additionally, we briefly explain hypermetabolic characteristics of burn injury and the animal model utilized to study this phenomena. Finally, we discuss the economic costs associated with each of these models in order to guide decisions of choosing the appropriate animal model for burn research. PMID:24714880

  12. Aztreonam pharmacokinetics in burn patients.

    PubMed Central

    Friedrich, L V; White, R L; Kays, M B; Brundage, D M; Yarbrough, D

    1991-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of aztreonam in eight adult patients with severe burn injuries (total body surface area burn, 49% +/- 21% [mean +/- standard deviation]) were studied. The time of initiation of study following burn injury was 7.0 +/- 1.4 days. Four patients at first dose and at steady state were studied. Aztreonam concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography, and a two-compartment model was used to fit the data. No significant differences in any pharmacokinetic parameters between first dose and steady state were observed. Volume of distribution of the central compartment after first dose (0.14 liters/kg) and volume of distribution at steady state (0.31 liters/kg) were approximately 30% higher than those reported for other patient populations. Total drug clearance and renal drug clearance when normalized to creatinine clearance (CLCR) were similar to those previously reported for other critically ill patients. CLCR was strongly correlated with renal drug clearance (r = 0.94) and total drug clearance (r = 0.95). The extent and degree of burn (percent second or third degree burn) were poorly correlated with all pharmacokinetic parameters with the exception of the volume of distribution at steady state, which was correlated with both total body surface area burn (r = 0.95) and percent second degree burn (r = 0.83). Aztreonam pharmacokinetics are altered as a result of thermal injury; however, CLCR can be used to assess the clearance of aztreonam in burn patients. PMID:2014982

  13. 30 CFR 816.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine... extinguishing operations. (b) No burning or burned coal mine waste shall be removed from a permitted...

  14. 30 CFR 816.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine... extinguishing operations. (b) No burning or burned coal mine waste shall be removed from a permitted...

  15. 30 CFR 816.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine... extinguishing operations. (b) No burning or burned coal mine waste shall be removed from a permitted...

  16. Smartphones and burn size estimation: "Rapid Burn Assessor".

    PubMed

    Kamolz, L P; Lumenta, D B; Parvizi, D; Dirnberger, J; Owen, R; Höller, J; Giretzlehner, M

    2014-06-30

    Estimation of the total body surface area burned (%TBSA) following a burn injury is used in determining whether to transfer the patient to a burn center and the required fluid resuscitation volumes. Unfortunately, the commonly applied methods of estimation have revealed inaccuracies, which are mostly related to human error. To calculate the %TBSA (quotient), it is necessary to divide the burned surface area (Burned BSA) (numerator in cm2) by the total body surface area (Total BSA) (denominator in cm2). By using everyday objects (eg. credit cards, smartphones) with well-defined surface areas as reference for estimations of Burned BSA on the one hand and established formulas for Total BSA calculation on the other (eg. Mosteller), we propose an approximation method to assess %TBSA more accurately than the established methods. To facilitate distribution, and respective user feedback, we have developed a smartphone app integrating all of the above parameters, available on popular mobile device platforms. This method represents a simple and ready-to-use clinical decision support system which addresses common errors associated with estimations of Burned BSA (=numerator). Following validation and respective user feedback, it could be deployed for testing in future clinical trials. This study has a level of evidence of IV and is a brief report based on clinical observation, which points to further study. PMID:26170784

  17. Fires and Burns Involving Home Medical Oxygen

    MedlinePlus

    ... nfpa.org Fires and Burns Involving Home Medical Oxygen The air is normally 21% oxygen. Oxygen is not flammable, but fire needs it to burn. ¾ When more oxygen is present, any fire that starts will burn ...

  18. Rehabilitation of the burn patient

    PubMed Central

    Procter, Fiona

    2010-01-01

    Rehabilitation is an essential and integral part of burn treatment. It is not something which takes place following healing of skin grafts or discharge from hospital; instead it is a process that starts from day one of admission and continues for months and sometimes years after the initial event. Burns rehabilitation is not something which is completed by one or two individuals but should be a team approach, incorporating the patient and when appropriate, their family. The term ‘Burns Rehabilitation’ incorporates the physical, psychological and social aspects of care and it is common for burn patients to experience difficulties in one or all of these areas following a burn injury. Burns can leave a patient with severely debilitating and deforming contractures, which can lead to significant disability when left untreated. The aims of burn rehabilitation are to minimise the adverse effects caused by the injury in terms of maintaining range of movement, minimising contracture development and impact of scarring, maximising functional ability, maximising psychological wellbeing, maximising social integration PMID:21321643

  19. Burns treatment in ancient times.

    PubMed

    Pećanac, Marija; Janjić, Zlata; Komarcević, Aleksandar; Pajić, Milos; Dobanovacki, Dusanka; Misković, Sanja Skeledzija

    2013-01-01

    Discovery of fire at the dawn of prehistoric time brought not only the benefits to human beings offering the light and heat, but also misfortune due to burns; and that was the beginning of burns treatment. Egyptian doctors made medicines from plants, animal products and minerals, which they combined with magic and religious procedures. The earliest records described burns dressings with milk from mothers of male babies. Goddess Isis was called upon to help. Some remedies and procedures proved so successful that their application continued for centuries. The Edwin Smith papyrus (1500 BC) mentioned the treatment of burns with honey and grease. Ebers Papyrus (1500 BC) contains descriptions of application of mud, excrement, oil and plant extracts. They also used honey, Aloe and tannic acid to heal burns. Ancient Egyptians did not know about microorganisms but they knew that honey, moldy bread and copper salts could prevent infections from dirt in burns healing. Thyme, opium and belladona were used for pain relief. In the 4th century BC, Hippocrates recorded that Greek and Roman doctors used rendered pig fat, resin and bitumen to treat burns. Mixture of honey and bran, or lotion of wine and myrrh were used by Celsus. Honey was also known in Ayurveda (Indian medicine) time. Ayurvedic records Characa and Sushruta included honey in their dressing aids to purify sores and promote the healing. Burn treatment in Chinese medicine was traditional. It was a compilation of philosophy, knowledge and herbal medicine. The successful treatment of burns started in recent time and it has been made possible by better knowledge of the pathophysiology of thermal injuries and their consequences, medical technology advances and improved surgical techniques. PMID:23888738

  20. Immunosuppression of the burned patient.

    PubMed

    Robins, E V

    1989-12-01

    The burn patient is highly susceptible to infection due to the loss of the skin as a barrier to microorganisms. Immune defenses are activated in response to the burn injury; however, some of these defenses are altered. Neutrophil chemotaxis is compromised by decreased perfusion caused by hypovolemia and the formation of microthrombi. Chemotaxis and phagocytosis are dependent on complement components that are reduced in a large burn wound. Neutrophil intracellular killing power is reduced as oxygen delivery to the wound is decreased. Humoral immunity is altered with the drop in IgG levels. Cell-mediated immunity is depressed and T cell lymphocyte counts are deceased. Suppressor T cells are generated. Specific sources of infection for the burn patient include the patient's own bacterial flora; hospital personnel; respiratory equipment; and catheters, both urinary and intravascular. The best control for burn wound infection is the closure of the wound by early excision and grafting. When lack of donor sites prohibits this surgical therapy, control centers on the environment and wound care techniques. The selection of wound topical antibiotics on the basis of visual inspection and surface culturing assists in the prevention of burn wound sepsis. When wound sepsis does occur, systemic antibiotics are instituted. Although burn wound sepsis is an obvious cause of death for the burn patient, it is not the primary cause. Increasing sophistication in fluid resuscitation and in intensive care therapy has resulted in patients living beyond the initial insult and the following few days. Burn patient mortality is now associated with a syndrome presenting clinically as sepsis but without any identifiable septic source.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2697225

  1. Burn Safety Awareness on Playgrounds: Thermal Burns from Playground Equipment

    MedlinePlus

    ... realize is that today’s newer materials, such as plastics and rubbers, also have the potential to become ... child receiving serious second‐degree burns from a plastic slide. I only have to worry about metal ...

  2. Protocolized Resuscitation of Burn Patients.

    PubMed

    Cancio, Leopoldo C; Salinas, Jose; Kramer, George C

    2016-10-01

    Fluid resuscitation of burn patients is commonly initiated using modified Brooke or Parkland formula. The fluid infusion rate is titrated up or down hourly to maintain adequate urine output and other endpoints. Over-resuscitation leads to morbid complications. Adherence to paper-based protocols, flow sheets, and clinical practice guidelines is associated with decreased fluid resuscitation volumes and complications. Computerized tools assist providers. Although completely autonomous closed-loop control of resuscitation has been demonstrated in animal models of burn shock, the major advantages of open-loop and decision-support systems are identifying trends, enhancing situational awareness, and encouraging burn team communication. PMID:27600131

  3. Colloids in Acute Burn Resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Cartotto, Robert; Greenhalgh, David

    2016-10-01

    Colloids have been used in varying capacities throughout the history of formula-based burn resuscitation. There is sound experimental evidence that demonstrates colloids' ability to improve intravascular colloid osmotic pressure, expand intravascular volume, reduce resuscitation requirements, and limit edema in unburned tissue following a major burn. Fresh frozen plasma appears to be a useful and effective immediate burn resuscitation fluid but its benefits must be weighed against its costs, and risks of viral transmission and acute lung injury. Albumin, in contrast, is less expensive and safer and has demonstrated ability to reduce resuscitation requirements and possibly limit edema-related morbidity. PMID:27600123

  4. [Reconstructions after periorbital burn injuries].

    PubMed

    Klett, A; Rebane, R

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays burn patients who also have periocular symptoms are usually treated by reconstructive surgeons and the role of the ophthalmic surgeon has decreased.Although periocular complications occur in a minority of burned patients, they pose a greater challenge in surgical and non-surgical treatment. Chemical, electrical and thermal burns can lead to disfiguring scar formations and delayed treatment can lead to devastating ocular complications. Achieving a successful reconstruction requires a comprehensive approach, entailing many advanced techniques with an emphasis on preserving function and balancing intricate aesthetic requirements. The theory is illustrated in this article with clinical examples. PMID:23345146

  5. Several Flame Balls Burning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Structure of Flameballs at Low Lewis Numbers (SOFBALL) experiments aboard the space shuttle in 1997 a series of sturningly successful burns. This sequence was taken during STS-94, July 12, 1997, MET:10/08:18 (approximate). It was thought these extremely dim flameballs (1/20 the power of a kitchen match) could last up to 200 seconds -- in fact, they can last for at least 500 seconds. This has ramifications in fuel-spray design in combustion engines, as well as fire safety in space. The SOFBALL principal investigator was Paul Ronney, University of Southern California, Los Angeles. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations planned for the International Space Station. (925KB, 9-second MPEG spanning 10 minutes, screen 320 x 240 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) A still JPG composite of this movie is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300186.html.

  6. Burning coal's waste

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, J.M.; Duffy, T.J.

    1988-07-01

    In an old Pennsylvania coal valley, growing fresh produce and eliminating ancient waste piles both depend on a fluidized bed boiler cogeneration plant. The builders of a complex now nearing completion at Archbald, however, will soon begin to turn two of the waste piles, called culm banks, into economic assets. Culm will burn although it has a low, variable heat content. The project combines several recently developed technologies to use culm as fuel for a fluidized bed boiler cogeneration plant that will heat a hydroponic greenhouse. What makes the venture economically viable are the products that will be sold: 23 mw of electricity to the local utility and fresh produce to meet burgeoning demands in East Coast supermarkets. For instance, if the ''salad plant'' were completely devoted to growing lettuce, 3 million heads could be harvested in 11 hydroponic seasons a year. The owners, Archbald Power Corp., chose a 271 acre stie that had been mined for anthracite by both open pit and deep shaft methods.

  7. 40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021 Section 49.11021 Protection of... Reservation, Oregon § 49.11021 Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and..., 2007, a person must apply for and obtain approval of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry...

  8. 40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411 Section 49.10411 Protection of... Tribe of Idaho § 49.10411 Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and... person must apply for and obtain approval of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and...

  9. 40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411 Section 49.10411 Protection of... Tribe of Idaho § 49.10411 Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and... person must apply for and obtain approval of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and...

  10. 40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411 Section 49.10411 Protection of... Tribe of Idaho § 49.10411 Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and... person must apply for and obtain approval of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and...

  11. 40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411 Section 49.10411 Protection of... Tribe of Idaho § 49.10411 Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and... person must apply for and obtain approval of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and...

  12. Phoenix Society for Burn Survivors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Learn More For First Responders & Medical Professionals Phoenix Society is the leader in connecting the burn recovery ... It can be a... Continue Reading The Phoenix Society, Inc. 1835 RW Berends Dr. SW Grand Rapids, ...

  13. Burns, hypertrophic scar and galactorrhea.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Hamid; Nourizad, Samad; Momeni, Mahnoush; Rahbar, Hosein; Momeni, Mazdak; Farhadi, Khosro

    2013-07-01

    An 18-year-old woman was admitted to Motahari Burn Center suffering from 30% burns. Treatment modalities were carried out for the patient and she was discharged after 20 days. Three to four months later she developed hypertrophic scar on her chest and upper limbs. At the same time she developed galactorrhea in both breasts and had a disturbed menstrual cycle four months post-burn. On investigation, we found hyperprolactinemia and no other reasons for the high level of prolactin were detected.She received treatment for both the hypertrophic scar and the severe itching she was experiencing. After seven months, her prolactin level had decreased but had not returned to the normal level. It seems that refractory hypertrophic scar is related to the high level of prolactin in burns patients. PMID:23456048

  14. Burning wastes in steam boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Feeley, F.G.

    1984-01-01

    A review of the advantages and precautions in the burning of a wide variety of industrial wastes is presented. The reasons for burning industrial wastes are economics and pollution control. The incineration of the following industrial wastes is discussed: pulp cooking liquors, wood wastes, coffee grounds and other biomass, pitch and tars, gases, and miscellaneous solid fuels. Boiler cycles and types are also discussed. (RCK)

  15. Regimes of Helium Burning

    SciTech Connect

    Timmes, F. X.; Niemeyer, J. C.

    2000-07-10

    The burning regimes encountered by laminar deflagrations and Zeldovich von Neumann Doering [ZND] detonations propagating through helium-rich compositions in the presence of buoyancy-driven turbulence are analyzed. Particular attention is given to models of X-ray bursts that start with a thermonuclear runaway on the surface of a neutron star and to the thin-shell helium instability of intermediate-mass stars. In the X-ray burst case, turbulent deflagrations propagating in the lateral or radial direction encounter a transition from the distributed regime to the flamelet regime at a density of {approx}108 g cm-3. In the radial direction, the purely laminar deflagration width is larger than the pressure scale height for densities smaller than {approx}106 g cm-3. Self-sustained laminar deflagrations traveling in the radial direction cannot exist below this density. Similarly, the planar ZND detonation width becomes larger than the pressure scale height at {approx}107 g cm-3, suggesting that steady state, self-sustained detonations cannot come into existence in the radial direction. In the thin helium shell case, turbulent deflagrations traveling in the lateral or radial direction encounter the distributed regime at densities below {approx}107 g cm-3 and the flamelet regime at larger densities. In the radial direction, the purely laminar deflagration width is larger than the pressure scale height for densities smaller than {approx}104 g cm-3, indicating that steady state laminar deflagrations cannot form below this density. The planar ZND detonation width becomes larger than the pressure scale height at {approx}5x10{sup 4} g cm-3, suggesting that steady state, self-sustained detonations cannot come into existence in the radial direction. (c) 2000 The American Astronomical Society.

  16. Scald Burns From Hair Braiding.

    PubMed

    Meizoso, Jonathan P; Ramaley, Stephen R; Ray, Juliet J; Allen, Casey J; Guarch, Gerardo A; Varas, Robin; Teisch, Laura F; Pizano, Louis R; Schulman, Carl I; Namias, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Only one previous case report has described scald burns secondary to hair braiding in pediatric patients. The present case study is the largest to date of scald burns as a result of hair braiding in children and adults. Charts of all 1609 female patients seen at a single burn center from 2008 to 2014 were retrospectively reviewed to identify patients with scald burns attributed to hair braiding. Demographics, injury severity, injury patterns, and complications were analyzed. Twenty-six patients (1.6%) had scald burns secondary to hair braiding with median TBSA 3%. Eighty-five percent of patients were pediatric with median age 8 years. Injury patterns were as follows: back (62%), shoulder (31%), chest (15%), buttocks (15%), abdomen (12%), arms (12%), neck (12%), and legs (4%). No patients required operative intervention. Three patients were admitted to the hospital. Two patients required time off from school for 6 and 10 days post burn for recovery. Complications included functional limitations (n = 2), hypertrophic scarring (n = 1), cellulitis requiring antibiotics (n = 1), and anxiety requiring medical/psychological therapy (n = 2). This peculiar mechanism of injury not only carries inherent morbidity that includes the risks of functional limitations, infection, and psychological repercussions but also increases usage of resources through hospital admissions and multiple clinic visits. Further work in the form of targeted outreach programs is necessary to educate the community regarding this preventable mechanism of injury. PMID:26594857

  17. Erosive burning of solid propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Merrill K.

    1993-01-01

    Presented here is a review of the experimental and modeling work concerning erosive burning of solid propellants (augmentation of burning rate by flow of product gases across a burning surface). A brief introduction describes the motor design problems caused by this phenomenon, particularly for low port/throat area ratio motors and nozzleless motors. Various experimental techniques for measuring crossflow sensitivity of solid propellant burning rates are described, with the conclusion that accurate simulation of the flow, including upstream flow development, in actual motors is important since the degree of erosive burning depends not only on local mean crossflow velocity and propellant nature, but also upon this upstream development. In the modeling area, a brief review of simplified models and correlating equations is presented, followed by a description of more complex numerical analysis models. Both composite and double-base propellant models are reviewed. A second generation composite model is shown to give good agreement with data obtained in a series of tests in which composite propellant composition and heterogeneity (particle size distribution) were systematically varied. Finally, the use of numerical models for the development of erosive burning correlations is described, and a brief discussion of scaling is presented.

  18. Nitramine propellants. [gun propellant burning rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, N. S.; Strand, L. D. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    Nitramine propellants without a pressure exponent shift in the burning rate curves are prepared by matching the burning rate of a selected nitramine or combination of nitramines within 10% of burning rate of a plasticized active binder so as to smooth out the break point appearance in the burning rate curve.

  19. 30 CFR 817.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine... extinguishing operations. (b) No burning or unburned coal mine waste shall be removed from a permitted...

  20. 30 CFR 817.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine... extinguishing operations. (b) No burning or unburned coal mine waste shall be removed from a permitted...

  1. 30 CFR 817.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine... extinguishing operations. (b) No burning or unburned coal mine waste shall be removed from a permitted...

  2. How to manage burns in primary care.

    PubMed Central

    Waitzman, A. A.; Neligan, P. C.

    1993-01-01

    Burns are common injuries; more than 200,000 occur in Canada annually. Nearly all burn injuries can be managed on on outpatient basis. Appropriate treatment depends on burn depth, extent, and location. Special types of burns, such as chemical, tar, and electrical injuries, need specific management strategies. Prevention through education is important to reduce the incidence of burns. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8268745

  3. Review of Burn Research for Year 2014.

    PubMed

    Sen, Soman; Palmieri, Tina; Greenhalgh, David

    2015-01-01

    Management of burn injuries requires treatments and interventions from many disciplines. Worldwide, burn patients suffer from physical and psychological challenges that impact their lives socially and economically. In this review, we will highlight a handful of the numerous articles published in multiple areas of burn care. The areas of burn care addressed in the article are: epidemiology; burn resuscitation, critical care, and infection; nutrition and metabolism; pain and rehabilitation; prevention and firefighter safety; psychology; and reconstruction and wounds. PMID:26204384

  4. Burning mouth syndrome: Current concepts.

    PubMed

    Nasri-Heir, Cibele; Zagury, Julyana Gomes; Thomas, Davis; Ananthan, Sowmya

    2015-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic pain condition. It has been described by the International Headache Society as "an intra-oral burning or dysesthetic sensation, recurring daily for more than 2 h/day for more than 3 months, without clinically evident causative lesions." BMS is frequently seen in women in the peri-menopausal and menopausal age group in an average female/male ratio of 7:1. The site most commonly affected is the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. The patient may also report taste alterations and oral dryness along with the burning. The etiopathogenesis is complex and is not well-comprehended. The more accepted theories point toward a neuropathic etiology, but the gustatory system has also been implicated in this condition. BMS is frequently mismanaged, partly because it is not well-known among healthcare providers. Diagnosis of BMS is made after other local and systemic causes of burning have been ruled out as then; the oral burning is the disease itself. The management of BMS still remains a challenge. Benzodiazepines have been used in clinical practice as the first-line medication in the pharmacological management of BMS. Nonpharmacological management includes cognitive behavioral therapy and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). The aim of this review is to familiarize healthcare providers with the diagnosis, pathogenesis, and general characteristics of primary BMS while updating them with the current treatment options to better manage this group of patients. PMID:26929531

  5. Developing a trial burn plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Walter S.; Wong, Tony; Williams, Gary L.; Brintle, David G.

    1991-04-01

    The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) was designed to ensure that incineration facilities which treat hazardous wastes operate in an environmentally responsible manner. Under the requirements of RCRA, a trial burn must be conducted in order to obtain a fmalized operating permit. A trial burn is a test which determines whether an incinerator is capable of meeting or exceeding RCRA performance standards. If the standards are met, then the trial burn should identify the operating conditions necessary to ensure the incinerator's ability to meet or exceed the performance standards throughout the life of the permit. Development of the trial burn must incorporate interests of both the permit writer and the applicant. The permit writer wishes to obtain sufficient data necessary to establish the final permit conditions. The applicant wishes to obtain a final permit which allows the greatest flexibility of incinerator operating parameters. The areas of interest to be discussed, which allow the applicant and permit writer to achieve their goals, include understanding the problem, selecting a waste feed, choosing the principal organic hazardous constituents (POHCs), determining operating conditions, choosing appropriate sampling methods, and obtaining representative samples (QAIQC). The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of what is required to develop a trial burn plan.

  6. Telemedicine and burns: an overview

    PubMed Central

    Atiyeh, B.; Dibo, S.A.; Janom, H.H..

    2014-01-01

    Summary Access to specialized burn care is becoming more difficult and is being restricted by the decreasing number of specialized burn centers. It is also limited by distance and resources for many patients, particularly those living in poverty or in rural medically underserved communities. Telemedicine is a rapidly evolving technology related to the practice of medicine at a distance through rapid access to remote medical expertise by telecommunication and information technologies. Feasibility of telemedicine in burn care has been demonstrated by various centers. Its use facilitates the delivery of care to patients with burn injuries of all sizes. It allows delivery of acute care and can be appropriately used for a substantial portion of the long-term management of patients after a burn by guiding less-experienced surgeons to treat and follow-up patients more appropriately. Most importantly, it allows better effective triage which reduces unnecessary time and resource demanding referrals that might overwhelm system capacities. However, there are still numerous barriers to the implementation of telemedicine, including technical difficulties, legal uncertainties, limited financial support, reimbursement issues, and an inadequate evidence base of its value and efficiency. PMID:26170782

  7. Droplet burning at zero G

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, F. A.

    1978-01-01

    Questions of the importance and feasibility of performing experiments on droplet burning at zero gravity in Spacelab were studied. Information on the physics and chemistry of droplet combustion, with attention directed specifically to the chemical kinetics, heat and mass transfer, and fluid mechanics of the phenomena involved, are presented. The work was divided into three phases, the justification, the feasibility, and the conceptual development of a preliminary design. Results from the experiments performed revealed a few new facts concerning droplet burning, notably burning rates in excess of theoretical prediction and a phenomenon of flash extinction, both likely traceable to accumulation of carbon produced by gas-phase pyrolysis in the fuel-rich zone enclosed by the reaction surface. These experiments also showed that they were primarily due to timing difficulties.

  8. Burn Control Mechanisms in Tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, M. A.; Stacey, W. M.

    2015-11-01

    Burn control and passive safety in accident scenarios will be an important design consideration in future tokamak reactors, in particular fusion-fission hybrid reactors, e.g. the Subcritical Advanced Burner Reactor. We are developing a burning plasma dynamics code to explore various aspects of burn control, with the intent to identify feedback mechanisms that would prevent power excursions. This code solves the coupled set of global density and temperature equations, using scaling relations from experimental fits. Predictions of densities and temperatures have been benchmarked against DIII-D data. We are examining several potential feedback mechanisms to limit power excursions: i) ion-orbit loss, ii) thermal instability density limits, iii) MHD instability limits, iv) the degradation of alpha-particle confinement, v) modifications to the radial current profile, vi) ``divertor choking'' and vii) Type 1 ELMs. Work supported by the US DOE under DE-FG02-00ER54538, DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  9. Burn Control Mechanisms in Tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Maxwell; Stacey, Weston

    2013-10-01

    Burn control and passive safety in accident scenarios will be an important design consideration in future tokamaks, especially those used as a neutron source for fusion-fission hybrid reactors, such as the Subcritical Advanced Burner Reactor (SABR) concept. At Georgia Tech, we are developing a new burning plasma dynamics code to investigate passive safety mechanisms that could prevent power excursions in tokamak reactors. This code solves the coupled set of balance equations governing burning plasmas in conjunction with a two-point SOL-divertor model. Predictions have been benchmarked against data from DIII-D. We are examining several potential negative feedback mechanisms to limit power excursions: i) ion-orbit loss, ii) thermal instabilities, iii) the degradation of alpha-particle confinement resulting from ripples in the toroidal field, iv) modifications to the radial current profile, v) ``divertor choking'' and vi) Type 1 ELMs.

  10. Floor furnace burns to children.

    PubMed

    Berger, L R; Kalishman, S

    1983-01-01

    Three children with grid-like second-degree burns of their extremities from contact with floor furnace registers prompted an examination of this thermal hazard. Average temperature of the gratings was 294 degrees F (146 degrees C), with a range of 180 degrees to 375 degrees F (82.2 degrees to 191 degrees C). All of the furnaces tested were positioned at the entrance to bedrooms and had so little clearance that it was impossible to walk around them without contact with their surface. Infants and toddlers are at particular risk: 1 or 2 seconds of exposure would be expected to produce a serious burn. Suggestions for preventing burns from floor furnaces include turning them off when young children are at home; installing barrier gates to prevent children from coming in contact with the registers; and developing a surface coating or replacement grate with less hazardous thermal properties. PMID:6848984

  11. Nutrition in Burns: Galveston Contributions

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Noe A.; Jeschke, Marc G.; Williams, Felicia N.; Kamolz, Lars-Peter; Herndon, David N.

    2013-01-01

    Aggressive nutrition support is recommended following severe burn injury. Initially, such injury results in a prolonged and persistent hypermetabolic response mediated by a 10- to 20-fold elevation in plasma catecholamines, cortisol, and inflammatory mediators. This response leads to twice-normal metabolic rates, whole-body catabolism, muscle wasting, and severe cachexia. Thus, it is relevant to review the literature on nutrition in burns to adjust/update treatment. Failure to meet the increased substrate requirements may result in impaired wound healing, multiorgan dysfunction, increased susceptibility to infection, and death. Therefore, aggressive nutrition support is essential to ensure adequate burn care, attenuate the hypermetabolic response, optimize wound healing, minimize devastating catabolism, and reduce morbidity and mortality. Here, the authors provide nutrition recommendations gained from prospective trials, retrospective analyses, and expert opinions based on the authors' practices in Galveston, Texas, and Vienna, Austria. PMID:21975669

  12. Future Therapies in Burn Resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Hodgman, Erica I; Subramanian, Madhu; Arnoldo, Brett D; Phelan, Herb A; Wolf, Steven E

    2016-10-01

    Since the 1940s, the resuscitation of burn patients has evolved with dramatic improvements in mortality. The most significant achievement remains the creation and adoption of formulae to calculate estimated fluid requirements to guide resuscitation. Modalities to attenuate the hypermetabolic phase of injury include pharmacologic agents, early enteral nutrition, and the aggressive approach of early excision of large injuries. Recent investigations into the genomic response to severe burns and the application of computer-based decision support tools will likely guide future resuscitation, with the goal of further reducing mortality and morbidity, and improving functional and quality of life outcomes. PMID:27600132

  13. Tongue protrusion in burned bodies.

    PubMed

    Bohnert, Michael; Hejna, Petr

    2016-09-01

    Protrusion of the tongue is a common, though often neglected finding in fire fatalities. According to a study recently published by Bernitz et al., it is an indicator of vital burning. This statement has been doubted repeatedly. Retrospective analysis of 61 fire fatalities from our own autopsy material did not show any statistically significant increased incidence of tongue protrusion in deaths with vital exposure to heat. Similarly, there was no correlation with the degree of destruction by the fire in general or the extent of cervical burning. Further prospective studies seem to be necessary also with regard to the pathophysiological processes. PMID:26987317

  14. Conducting a Prescribed Burn and Prescribed Burning Checklist

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grasslands of the central Great Plains developed with periodic fire. Prescribed burning is an important tool for managing grasslands to maintain desirable species composition, increase grazing livestock performance, maintain productivity, and control invasive weeds. The safe and effective use of pre...

  15. Surgical excision of the burn wound.

    PubMed

    Mosier, Michael J; Gibran, Nicole S

    2009-10-01

    Early excision of the burn eschar has been one of the most significant advances in modern burn care. Historical advances in understanding of the pathophysiology of burn injury and the systemic inflammatory response fueled by the burn wound, and refinements in the techniques of tangential and fascial excision, have led to earlier excision and grafting of the burn wound with improvements in morbidity and mortality. Efforts to control blood loss, and good operative planning and attention to special areas, can lead to the safe excision and grafting of large burns. PMID:19793556

  16. Demographics of pediatric burns in Vellore, India.

    PubMed

    Light, Timothy D; Latenser, Barbara A; Heinle, Jackie A; Stolpen, Margaret S; Quinn, Keely A; Ravindran, Vinitha; Chacko, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The American Burn Association, Children's Burn Foundation, and Christian Medical College in Vellore, India have partnered together to improve pediatric burn care in Southern India. We report the demographics and outcomes of burns in this center, and create a benchmark to measure the effect of the partnership. A comparison to the National Burn Repository is made to allow for generalization and assessment to other burn centers, and to control for known confounders such as burn size, age, and mechanism. Charts from the pediatric burn center in Vellore, India were retrospectively reviewed and compared with data in the American Burn Association National Burn Registry (NBR) for patients younger than 16 years. One hundred nineteen pediatric patients with burns were admitted from January 2004 through April 2007. Average age was 3.8 years; average total body surface area burn was 24%: 64% scald, 30% flame, 6% electric. Annual death rate was 10%, with average fatal total body surface area burn was 40%. Average lengths of stay for survivors was 15 days. Delay of presentation was common (45% of all patients). Thirty-five of 119 patients received operations (29%). Flame burn patients were older (6.1 years vs 2.6 years), larger (30 vs 21%), had a higher fatality rate (19.4 vs 7.7%), and more of them were female (55 vs 47%) compared with scald burn patients. Electric burn patients were oldest (8.3 years) and all male. When compared with data in the NBR, average burn size was larger in Vellore (24 vs 9%). The mortality rate was higher in Vellore (10.1 vs 0.5%). The average mortal burn size in Vellore was smaller (40 vs 51%). Electric burns were more common in Vellore (6.0 vs 1.6%). Contact burns were almost nonexistent in Vellore (0.9 vs 13.1%). The differences in pediatric burn care from developing health care systems to burn centers in the US are manifold. Nonpresentation of smaller cases, and incomplete data in the NBR explain many of the differences. However, burns at this

  17. Understanding and managing burn pain: Part 2.

    PubMed

    Connor-Ballard, Patricia A

    2009-05-01

    Despite advances in treatment of burn injuries and their consequent pain, wound care is the main source of the pain associated with burn injury. This two-part article explores burn pain and its treatment from a nursing perspective. Last month, Part 1 provided an overview of burn injury and addressed the wound care-related causes of burn pain, as well as its assessment and treatment. Part 2, presented here, provides a more in-depth discussion of pain management; topical medications and the psychological aspects of burn pain are also discussed. PMID:19411907

  18. Epidemiology of U.K. military burns.

    PubMed

    Foster, Mark Anthony; Moledina, Jamil; Jeffery, Steve L A

    2011-01-01

    The authors review the etiology of U.K. military burns in light of increasing hybrid warfare. Analysis of the nature of these injured personnel will provide commanders with the evidence to plan for on-going and future operations. Case notes of all U.K. Armed Forces burn injured patients who were evacuated to the Royal Centre for Defence Medicine were reviewed. Demographics, burn severity, pattern, and mortality details were included. There were 134 U.K. military personnel with burns requiring return to the United Kingdom during 2001-2007. The median age was 27 (20-62) years. Overall, 60% of burns seen were "accidental." Burning waste, misuse or disrespect of fuel, and scalds were the most prevalent noncombat burns. Areas commonly burned were the face, legs, and hands. During 2006-2007 in the two major conflicts, more than 59% (n = 36) of the burned patients evacuated to the United Kingdom were injured during combat. Burns sustained in combat represent 5.8% of all combat casualties and were commonly associated with other injuries. Improvised explosive device, minestrike, and rocket-propelled grenade were common causes. The mean TBSA affected for both groups was 5% (1-70). The majority of combat burn injuries have been small in size. Greater provision of flame retardant equipment and clothing may reduce the extent and number of combat burns in the future. The numbers of noncombat burns are being reduced by good military discipline. PMID:21422938

  19. Antibiotics and the burn patient.

    PubMed

    Ravat, François; Le-Floch, Ronan; Vinsonneau, Christophe; Ainaud, Pierre; Bertin-Maghit, Marc; Carsin, Hervé; Perro, Gérard

    2011-02-01

    Infection is a major problem in burn care and especially when it is due to bacteria with hospital-acquired multi-resistance to antibiotics. Moreover, when these bacteria are Gram-negative organisms, the most effective molecules are 20 years old and there is little hope of any new product available even in the distant future. Therefore, it is obvious that currently available antibiotics should not be misused. With this aim in mind, the following review was conducted by a group of experts from the French Society for Burn Injuries (SFETB). It examined key points addressing the management of antibiotics for burn patients: when to use or not, time of onset, bactericidia, combination, adaptation, de-escalation, treatment duration and regimen based on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of these compounds. The authors also considered antibioprophylaxis and some other key points such as: infection diagnosis criteria, bacterial inoculae and local treatment. French guidelines for the use of antibiotics in burn patients have been designed up from this work. PMID:20510518

  20. The Burn-Out Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Ruth Christ

    1979-01-01

    An article is presented on the "burn-out" of parents, particularly those of autistic children (i.e., the exhaustion of their psychological and/or physical resources as a result of long and intense caring for their children), along with the comments and responses of five parents and professionals. (DLS)

  1. Suicidal burn in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Chan, R C; Burd, A

    2012-09-01

    The aim of our study is to review our experience in the management of patients who sustained burns associated with suicidal attempts over a 10-year period. In particular, we look into the outcome and incidence of self-harm/suicide after discharge among the survivors. Thirty-one patients with median age 36 years, ranging from 10 to 74, were included. Twenty-three (74%) were males and eight (26%) were females. Nearly three quarters (74%) of our patients had a known history of psychiatric illness: 11 had known history of substance abuse; 3 of them had drug-induced psychosis; 6 had schizophrenia; 5 had depression; 4 had personality disorders; 1 had pathological gambling and another one had adjustment disorder. Relationship problems and work/financial difficulties were the commonest reason for the suicidal attempts. Self-inflicted flame burn was the most frequent (39%; 12 patients) method of burning. Six patients (19%) died. The remaining 25 patients healed and were discharged. Seventeen patients required ICU care. The median length of stay in ICU was 7 days. The overall median length of stay was 35 days. The median follow up time for those survived is 63 months. Only 4 of these patients had further suicidal/parasuicidal attempts. Despite the high mortality, once these patients survived the initial injury, they are unlikely to commit suicide again. Thus, we believe that aggressive resuscitation should therefore be advocated for all suicidal burn patients. PMID:22360959

  2. Suppressants for lowering propellant binder burning rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, W. W.

    1972-01-01

    Addition of boron compound to lower burning rate of solid propellant binder is reported. Chemical reactions involved in propellant binder modification are described. Advantages of method for lowering burning rate are analyzed.

  3. A review of hydrofluoric acid burn management.

    PubMed

    McKee, Daniel; Thoma, Achilleas; Bailey, Kristy; Fish, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid (HF) causes a unique chemical burn. Much of the current treatment knowledge of HF burns is derived from case reports, small case series, animal studies and anecdotal evidence. The management can be challenging because clinical presentation and severity of these burns vary widely. Plastic surgeons managing burn patients must have a basic understanding of the pathophysiology, the range of severity in presentation and the current treatment options available for HF burns. The present article reviews the current understanding of the pathophysiology and systemic effects associated with severe HF burns. Furthermore, it distinguishes between minor and life-threatening HF burns and describes several of the basic techniques that are available to treat patients with HF burns. PMID:25114621

  4. Burns - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Burns URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/languages/burns.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  5. BIOMASS BURNING AND THE PRODUCTION OF METHANE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biomass burning and its environmental implications have also become important research elements of the International Geosphere-Bio sphere Program and the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry Project. he production of atmospheric methane (CH4) by biomass burning will be asse...

  6. Effects of agricultural burning on nesting waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fritzell, E.K.

    1975-01-01

    Agricultural burning in an intensively farmed region within Manitoba's pothole district is shown to affect the nesting activities of ground-nesting ducks. All species, except Blue-winged Teal (Anas discors), preferred unburned nest cover, although success was higher in burned areas, where predators may have exerted less influence. Attitudes of farmers, burning chronology, and nest destruction by fires are also reported.

  7. Car radiator burns: a prevention issue.

    PubMed

    Rabbitts, Angela; Alden, Nicole E; Conlin, Tara; Yurt, Roger W

    2004-01-01

    Scald burns continue to be the major cause of injury to patients admitted to the burn center. Scald burns occurring from car radiator fluid comprise a significant subgroup. Although manufacturer warning labels have been placed on car radiators, these burns continue to occur. This retrospective review looks at all patients admitted to our burn center who suffered scald burns from car radiator fluid to assess the extent of this problem. During the study period, 86 patients were identified as having suffered scald burns as a result of contact with car radiator fluid. Seventy-one percent of the burn injuries occurred in the summer months. The areas most commonly burned were the head and upper extremities. Burn prevention efforts have improved greatly over the years; however, this study demonstrates that scald burns from car radiator fluid continue to cause physical, emotional, and financial devastation. The current radiator warning labels alone are not effective. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration has proposed a new federal motor vehicle safety standard to aid in decreasing the number of scald burns from car radiators. The results of this study were submitted to the United States Department of Transportation for inclusion in a docket for federal legislation supporting these safety measures. PMID:15353940

  8. 50 CFR 35.10 - Controlled burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM WILDERNESS PRESERVATION AND MANAGEMENT General Rules § 35.10 Controlled burning. Controlled burning will be permitted on wilderness units when such burning will contribute to the maintenance of the wilderness resource and values in the unit; however, any fire in a wilderness area...

  9. 50 CFR 35.10 - Controlled burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM WILDERNESS PRESERVATION AND MANAGEMENT General Rules § 35.10 Controlled burning. Controlled burning will be permitted on wilderness units when such burning will contribute to the maintenance of the wilderness resource and values in the unit; however, any fire in a wilderness area...

  10. 50 CFR 35.10 - Controlled burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM WILDERNESS PRESERVATION AND MANAGEMENT General Rules § 35.10 Controlled burning. Controlled burning will be permitted on wilderness units when such burning will contribute to the maintenance of the wilderness resource and values in the unit; however, any fire in a wilderness area...

  11. 50 CFR 35.10 - Controlled burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM WILDERNESS PRESERVATION AND MANAGEMENT General Rules § 35.10 Controlled burning. Controlled burning will be permitted on wilderness units when such burning will contribute to the maintenance of the wilderness resource and values in the unit; however, any fire in a wilderness area...

  12. 50 CFR 35.10 - Controlled burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM WILDERNESS PRESERVATION AND MANAGEMENT General Rules § 35.10 Controlled burning. Controlled burning will be permitted on wilderness units when such burning will contribute to the maintenance of the wilderness resource and values in the unit; however, any fire in a wilderness area...

  13. Epidemiology of burns in Malaga, Spain.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Morales, E; Gálvez-Alcaraz, L; Fernández-Crehuet-Navajas, J; Gómez-Gracia, E; Salinas-Martínez, J M

    1997-06-01

    The incidence of burns in the province of Malaga, Spain, was determined by means of a descriptive, cross-sectional, population-based study, and the individual, social and environmental conditions of the patients were analysed. Five hundred families (1846 persons), selected by a three-stage, stratified sampling, were interviewed in their homes. Five hundred and six burns were found in 406 persons (1.25 burns/person); 89.5 per cent of these were in an urban environment and 10.5 per cent in a rural environment. Eighteen and a half per cent of the sample had burnt themselves only once and 4.7 per cent more than once. The burns affected 23.3 per cent of the population, although the majority were of little clinical importance. The risk of burns is greater in the urban environment than in the rural environment, with burns occurring most often in the home (65.8 per cent), and especially in the kitchen. The most frequent burns involve hot liquids with special risk from cooking oil. The other burns (in the strict sense of the word, proper burns or true burns), were primarily caused by contact. The incidence was higher in women (33.0 vs. 21.1 per cent), with burns occurring mostly on the hands. Only 21.9 per cent of the burns received the correct first aid after the accident. PMID:9248642

  14. 30 CFR 816.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... accordance with a plan approved by the regulatory authority and the Mine Safety and Health Administration... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal...

  15. 30 CFR 816.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... accordance with a plan approved by the regulatory authority and the Mine Safety and Health Administration... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal...

  16. 30 CFR 817.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... accordance with a plan approved by the regulatory authority and the Mine Safety and Health Administration... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal...

  17. 30 CFR 817.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... accordance with a plan approved by the regulatory authority and the Mine Safety and Health Administration... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal...

  18. 14 ways to burn more calories every day

    MedlinePlus

    ... you burn, and the healthier you will be. Alternative Names Weight loss - burning calories; Overweight - burning calories; Obesity - burning calories References American College of Sports Medicine. Energy Expenditure in Different Modes of Exercise. Available at: ...

  19. Physical and psychiatric recovery from burns.

    PubMed

    Stoddard, Frederick J; Ryan, Colleen M; Schneider, Jeffrey C

    2014-08-01

    Burn injuries pose complex biopsychosocial challenges to recovery and improved comprehensive care. The physical and emotional sequelae of burns differ, depending on burn severity, individual resilience, and stage of development when they occur. Most burn survivors are resilient and recover, whereas some are more vulnerable and have complicated outcomes. Physical rehabilitation is affected by orthopedic, neurologic, and metabolic complications and disabilities. Psychiatric recovery is affected by pain, mental disorders, substance abuse, and burn stigmatization. Individual resilience, social supports, and educational or occupational achievements affect outcomes. PMID:25085093

  20. Management of post burn hand deformities

    PubMed Central

    Sabapathy, S. Raja; Bajantri, Babu; Bharathi, R. Ravindra

    2010-01-01

    The hand is ranked among the three most frequent sites of burns scar contracture deformity. One of the major determinants of the quality of life in burns survivors is the functionality of the hands. Burns deformities, although largely preventable, nevertheless do occur when appropriate treatment is not provided in the acute situation or when they are part of a major burns. Reconstructive procedures can greatly improve the function of the hands. Appropriate choice of procedures and timing of surgery followed by supervised physiotherapy can be a boon for a burns survivor. PMID:21321661

  1. Unfavourable results in acute burn management

    PubMed Central

    Bilwani, P. K.

    2013-01-01

    An etiology based classification has been devised to innumerate all possible unfavorable results (complications) which may occur during acute burn management. Various factors, right from the onset of burns, may affect the final outcome. These factors, starting from the onset of burns till the occurrence of complication, have been discussed in details. Unfavorable results in regional burns (chest, limb, eye, ear, and hand) have been discussed. Unfavorable results in various chemical burns have been described with necessary precautions to prevent. Various septic complications have been narrated and their prevention is also discussed. PMID:24501478

  2. Burn Resuscitation in the Austere Environment.

    PubMed

    Peck, Michael; Jeng, James; Moghazy, Amr

    2016-10-01

    Intravenous (IV) cannulation and sterile IV salt solutions may not be options in resource-limited settings (RLSs). This article presents recipes for fluid resuscitation in the aftermath of burns occurring in RLSs. Burns of 20% total body surface area (TBSA) can be resuscitated, and burns up to 40% TBSA can most likely be resuscitated, using oral resuscitation solutions (ORSs) with salt supplementation. Without IV therapy, fluid resuscitation for larger burns may only be possible with ORSs. Published global experience is limited, and the magnitude of burn injuries that successfully respond to World Health Organization ORSs is not well-described. PMID:27600127

  3. Acute assessment and management of burn injuries.

    PubMed

    Purdue, Gary F; Arnoldo, Brett D; Hunt, John L

    2011-05-01

    Burns are ubiquitous injuries in modern society, with virtually all adults having sustained a burn at some point in their lives. The skin is the largest organ of the body, basically functioning to protect self from non-self. Burn injury to the skin is painful, resource-intensive, and often associated with scarring, contracture formation, and long-term disability. Larger burns are associated with morbidity and mortality disproportionate to their initial appearance. Electrical and chemical burns are less common injuries but are often associated with significant morbidity. PMID:21624716

  4. Ultrasonic technique for characterizing skin burns

    DOEpatents

    Goans, Ronald E.; Cantrell, Jr., John H.; Meyers, F. Bradford; Stambaugh, Harry D.

    1978-01-01

    This invention, a method for ultrasonically determining the depth of a skin burn, is based on the finding that the acoustical impedance of burned tissue differs sufficiently from that of live tissue to permit ultrasonic detection of the interface between the burn and the underlying unburned tissue. The method is simple, rapid, and accurate. As compared with conventional practice, it provides the important advantage of permitting much earlier determination of whether a burn is of the first, second, or third degree. In the case of severe burns, the usual two - to three-week delay before surgery may be reduced to about 3 days or less.

  5. Hydrofluoric acid burns of the eye.

    PubMed

    McCulley, J P; Whiting, D W; Petitt, M G; Lauber, S E

    1983-06-01

    A case of hydrofluoric acid (HF) burns of the eye is reported and a review is presented of our investigation into the mechanism of HF toxicity in ocular tissues. A number of therapeutic procedures that have been successful in the treatment of HF skin burns were studied in the rabbit for use in the eye. Immediate single irrigation with water, normal saline or isotonic magnesium chloride solution is the most effective therapy for ocular HF burns. Extrapolation of other skin burn treatments to use in the eye is unacceptable due to the toxicity of these agents in normal eyes and the additive damage caused in burned eyes. PMID:6886845

  6. Burns related to sunbed use.

    PubMed

    Hemington-Gorse, S J; Slattery, M A; Drew, P J

    2010-09-01

    The quest for a year round tan has led to an increase in the use of artificial tanning devices, namely sunbeds. There has been much debate in the press recently regarding the dangers of sunbed use and calls for tighter regulation of the industry, particularly the licensing of unmanned tanning salons. The dangers of sunbed use have long been recognised and the body of evidence linking sunbed use to skin malignancy is growing, in fact this month the Lancet published a review from the International Agency for Research on Cancer classifying UV emitting tanning devices as carcinogenic to humans. At the Welsh Centre for Burns and Plastic Surgery we noticed a rise in the number of patients presenting with burns related to sunbed use and present our data surrounding this injury over the last 6 years. PMID:20171016

  7. Atmospheric Effects of Biomass Burning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.

    2000-01-01

    Biomass fires are both natural and anthropogenic in origin. The natural trigger is lightning, which leads to mid- and high-latitude fires and episodes of smoke and pollution associated with them. Lightning is also prominent in tropical regions when the dry season gives way to the wet season and lightning in convective systems ignites dry vegetation. Atmospheric consequences of biomass fires are complex. When considering the impacts of fires for a given ecosystem, inputs of fires must be compared to other process that emit trace gases and particles into the atmosphere. Other processes include industrial activity, fires for household purposes and biogenic sources which may themselves interact with fires. That is, fires may promote or restrict biogenic processes. Several books have presented various aspects of fire interactions with atmospheric chemistry and a cross-disciplinary review of a 1992 fire-oriented experiment appears in SAFARI: The Role of southern African Fires in Atmospheric and Ecological Environments. The IGAC/BIBEX core activity (see acronyms at end of Chapter) has sponsored field campaigns that integrate multiple aspects of fires ground-based measurements with an ecological perspective, atmospheric measurements with chemical and meteorological components, and remote sensing. This Chapter presents two aspects of biomass fires and the environment. Namely, the relationship between biomass burning and ozone is described, starting with a brief description of the chemical reactions involved and illustrative measurements and interpretation. Second, because of the need to observe biomass burning and its consequences globally, a summary of remote sensing approaches to the study of fires and trace gases is given. Examples in this Chapter are restricted to tropical burning for matters of brevity and because most burning activity globally is within this zone.

  8. Candidemia in major burns patients.

    PubMed

    Renau Escrig, Ana I; Salavert, Miguel; Vivó, Carmen; Cantón, Emilia; Pérez Del Caz, M Dolores; Pemán, Javier

    2016-06-01

    Major burn patients have characteristics that make them especially susceptible to candidemia, but few studies focused on this have been published. The objectives were to evaluate the epidemiological, microbiological and clinical aspects of candidemia in major burn patients, determining factors associated with a poorer prognosis and mortality. We conducted a retrospective observational study of candidemia between 1996 and 2012 in major burn patients admitted to the La Fe University Hospital, Valencia, Spain. The study included 36 episodes of candidemia in the same number of patients, 55.6% men, mean age 37.33 years and low associated comorbidity. The incidence of candidemia varied between 0.26 and 6.09 episodes/1000 days stay in the different years studied. Candida albicans was the most common species (61.1%) followed by Candida parapsilosis (27.8%). Candidemia by C. krusei, C. glabrata or C. tropicalis were all identified after 2004. Central vascular catheter (CVC) was established as a potential source of candidemia in 36.1%, followed by skin and soft tissues of thermal injury (22.2%) and urinary tract (8.3%). Fluconazole was used in 19 patients (52.7%) and its in vitro resistance rate was 13.9%. The overall mortality was 47.2%, and mortality related to candidemia was 30.6%. Factors associated with increased mortality were those related to severe infection and shock. CVC was the most usual focus of candidemia. Fluconazole was the most common antifungal drug administered. The management of candidemia in major burn patients is still a challenge. PMID:26931414

  9. Occupational Burns Treated in Emergency Departments

    PubMed Central

    Reichard, Audrey A.; Konda, Srinivas; Jackson, Larry L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite reported declines, occupational burn injuries remain a workplace safety concern. More severe burns may result in costly medical treatment and long-term physical and psychological consequences. Methods We used the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System—Occupational Supplement to produce national estimates of burns treated in emergency departments (EDs). We analyzed data trends from 1999 to 2008 and provided detailed descriptions of 2008 data. Results From 1999 to 2008 there were 1,132,000 (95% CI: ±192,300) nonfatal occupational burns treated in EDs. Burn numbers and rates declined approximately 40% over the 10 years. In 2008, men and younger workers 15–24 years old had the highest rates. Scalds and thermal burns accounted for more than 60% of burns. Accommodation and food service, manufacturing, and construction industries had the largest number of burns. Conclusions Despite declining burn rates, emphasis is needed on reducing burn hazards to young food service workers and using job specific hazard analyses to prevent burns. PMID:25678457

  10. Nanofiber applications for burn care.

    PubMed

    Hromadka, Michael; Collins, James B; Reed, Courtney; Han, Li; Kolappa, Kamal K; Cairns, Bruce A; Andrady, Tony; van Aalst, John A

    2008-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a growing field of manufactured materials with sizes less than 1 mum, and it is particularly useful in the field of medicine because these applications replicate components of a cell's in vivo environment. Nanofibers, which mimic collagen fibrils in the extracellular matrix (ECM), can be created from a host of natural and synthetic compounds and have multiple properties that may be beneficial to burn wound care. These properties include a large surface-area-to-volume ratio, high porosity, improved cell adherence, proliferation and migration, and controlled in vivo degradation rates. The large surface area of nanofiber mats allows for increased interaction with compounds and provides a mechanism for sustained release of antibiotics, analgesics, or growth factors into burn wounds; high porosity allows diffusion of nutrients and waste. Improved cell function on these scaffolds will promote healing. Controlled degradation rates of these scaffolds will promote scaffold absorption after its function is no longer required. The objective of this article is to review the current literature describing nanofibers and their potential application to burn care. PMID:18779672

  11. Pre-hospital care in burn injury

    PubMed Central

    Shrivastava, Prabhat; Goel, Arun

    2010-01-01

    The care provided to the victims of burn injury immediately after sustaining burns can largely affect the extent and depth of the wound. Although standard guidelines have been formulated by various burn associations, they are still not well known to public at large in our country. In burn injuries, most often, the bystanders are the first care providers. The swift implementation of the measures described in this article for first aid in thermal, chemical, electrical and inhalational injuries in the practical setting, within minutes of sustaining the burn, plays a vital role and can effectively reduce the morbidity and mortality to a great extent. In case of burn disasters, triage needs to be carried out promptly as per the defined protocols. Proper communication and transport from the scene of the accident to the primary care centre and onto the burn care facility greatly influences the execution of the management plans PMID:21321651

  12. Game-based mass casualty burn training.

    PubMed

    Kurenov, Sergei N; Cance, William W; Noel, Ben; Mozingo, David W

    2009-01-01

    An interactive, video game-based training module, Burn Center, was developed to simulate the real-life emergency events of a mass casualty disaster scenario, involving in 40 victims.The game contains two components - triage and resuscitation. The goal of the triage game is to correctly stabilize, sort, tag and transport burn victims during a mass casualty event at a busy theme park. After complete the triage component, the player will then take on the role of a burn care provider, balancing the clinical needs of multiple burn patients through a 36-hour resuscitation period, using familiar computer-simulated hospital devices. Once complete, players of Burn Center will come away with applicable skills and knowledge of burn care, for both field triage and initial resuscitation of the burn patients. PMID:19377134

  13. [Burns care following a nuclear incident].

    PubMed

    Bargues, L; Donat, N; Jault, P; Leclerc, T

    2010-09-30

    Radiation injuries are usually caused by radioactive isotopes in industry. Detonations of nuclear reactors, the use of military nuclear weapons, and terrorist attacks represent a risk of mass burn casualties. Ionizing radiation creates thermal burns, acute radiation syndrome with pancytopenia, and a delayed cutaneous syndrome. After a latency period, skin symptoms appear and the depth of tissue damages increase with dose exposure. The usual burn resuscitation protocols have to be applied. Care of these victims also requires assessment of the level of radiation, plus decontamination by an experienced team. In nuclear disasters, the priority is to optimize the available resources and reserve treatment to patients with the highest probability of survival. After localized nuclear injury, assessment of burn depth and surgical techniques of skin coverage are the main difficulties in a burn centre. Training in medical facilities and burn centres is necessary in the preparation for management of the different types of burn injuries. PMID:21991218

  14. Burn Severity Mapping in Australia 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinley, R.; Clark, J.; Lecker, J.

    2012-07-01

    In 2009, the Victoria Department of Sustainability and Environment estimated approximately 430,000 hectares of Victoria Australia were burned by numerous bushfires. Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) teams from the United States were deployed to Victoria to assist local fire managers. The U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (USGS/EROS) and U.S. Forest Service Remote Sensing Applications Center (USFS/RSAC) aided the support effort by providing satellite-derived "soil burn severity " maps for over 280,000 burned hectares. In the United States, BAER teams are assembled to make rapid assessments of burned lands to identify potential hazards to public health and property. An early step in the assessment process is the creation of a soil burn severity map used to identify hazard areas and prioritize treatment locations. These maps are developed primarily using Landsat satellite imagery and the differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) algorithm.

  15. One world one burn rehabilitation standard.

    PubMed

    Serghiou, M A; Niszczak, J; Parry, I; Li-Tsang, C W P; Van den Kerckhove, E; Smailes, S; Edgar, D

    2016-08-01

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO) burns are a huge global health problem resulting in death and devastation to those who survive large burns as they are faced with significant functional limitations that prevent purposeful and productive living. Members of the International Society for Burn Injuries (ISBI) Rehabilitation Committee conducted a needs assessment survey in order to characterize how burn rehabilitation is implemented worldwide and how the international burn rehabilitation community can help improve burn rehabilitation in identified geographic locations which need assistance in rehabilitating burn survivors successfully. The results of this survey indicated that poor and in some cases resource limited environments (RLEs) around the world seem to lack the financial, educational and material resources to conduct burn rehabilitation successfully. It appears that there are vast discrepancies in the areas of education, training and capacity to conduct research to improve the care of burn survivors as evidenced by the variation in responses between the RLEs and developed countries around the globe. In some cases, the problem is not knowledge, skill and ability to practice burn rehabilitation, but rather having the resources to do so due to financial difficulties. PMID:27161089

  16. Assault by burning in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Das, Kishore Kumar; Khondokar, M Sazzad; Quamruzzaman, M; Ahmed, Syed Shamsuddin; Peck, Michael

    2013-02-01

    Assault by burning in Dhaka, Bangladesh, occurs in a variety of forms, resulting from various causes and motives. A total of 311 cases of intentional burns from the Burn Unit of Dhaka Medical College Hospital from April 2004 to May 2011 (6 years) were studied by retrospective and prospective observational review. The majority of victims (68%) were female. Concentrated sulphuric acid was the most commonly used chemical for attack. Disfigurement was the principal complication (mortality, 4%). Dowry-related issues, divorce and other marital quarrels were frequent backgrounds for assault by burning. Kerosene oil was used to ignite 78 girls or young women, most often related to conflicts over dowry (mortality 97%). A total of 102 victims (32%) in all burn groups were attacked because of dowry-related issues. Intentional contact burns were often inflicted on domestic servants. Although physical morbidity and mortality were not reported in contact and other types of burns, psychological disturbances were reported in all victims. A few victims had been assaulted prior to receiving burns, and fractures and deformities were also present on examination at the time of presentation for burn treatment. Ophthalmic injury, with frequent visual impairment, was very common in cases of chemical attack. Legal and social support for victims and their families are frequently inadequate to compensate for losses. Clearly, more attention in our community should be focussed on the prevention of burn assaults, adequate compensation and medical care for victims, as well as speedy retribution for perpetrators. PMID:22551741

  17. Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... breathing Dark, black-stained mucus Voice changes Wheezing First Aid Before giving first aid, it is important to determine what type of ... the person away from exposed wires before starting first aid. You will also need to prevent shock . If ...

  18. Burn sepsis: bacterial interference with Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Levenson, S M; Gruber, D K; Gruber, C; Watford, A; Seifter, E

    1981-05-01

    The pathogenicity of several strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa for burned rats (3 degrees scald burns, 20% body surface) following topical application of the bacteria to the burn within 1 hour after burning was established. Following this, it was demonstrated that purposeful infection of such 3 degrees scald burns of rats by a strain of Ps. aeruginosa of low virulence (JB-77) protects the rats from the lethal effect of subsequent (48-hour) topical contamination of the burn by a highly virulent strain of Ps. aeruginosa (VA-134) (p less than 0.001). This finding was confirmed in a similar experiment beginning with germfree rats. When the challenge with the highly virulent Ps. aeruginosa strain was 24 hours (rather than 48 hours) after the burning and topical contamination of the burn with the low virulence strain of Ps. aeruginosa, there was little protection (p N.S.). When burned rats were given the low virulence strain of Ps. aeruginosa by gavage right after burning, there was not protection to subsequent (48 hours) challenge by topical application of the highly virulent strain of Ps. aeruginosa to the burn (11/12 vs 12/12 dying). Our finding that purposeful infection of a 3 degrees burn of rats (conventional and also germfree) by a strain of Ps. aeruginosa of low virulence protects from the lethal effect of subsequent (48-hour) topical contamination of the burn by a highly virulent strain of Ps. aeruginosa is due, we believe, to direct bacterial interference between the two strains of pseudomonas. PMID:6785444

  19. Oxgen-burning hydrodynamics. 1: Steady shell burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnett, David

    1994-06-01

    With new hydrodynamic techniques, the relatively fast evolutionary stages of a star prior to core collapse may be explicitly computed in two spatial dimensions, with a treatment of the microphysics (e.g., nuclear reactions, equation of state, neutrino cooling) which is comparable to typical one-dimensional simulations. The nature of shell oxygen burning in a massive star, prior to core collapse, is used as a first example; it is of particular interest because it is (1) the region in which Ni-56 will be produced by the supernova shock, (2) the region of the 'mass cut', which will separate the collapsed core from the ejected mantle, (3) the site of much of the explosive nucleosynthesis, and (4) a suggested source of symmetry breaking to drive mixing instabilities which were observed in SN 1987A. The nature of the shell burning affects the size of the core which will collapse. The method is illustrated on this test case, and the character of the convection is examined.

  20. Carbon Monoxide from Biomass Burning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This pair of images shows levels of carbon monoxide at the atmospheric pressure level of 700 millibars (roughly 12,000 feet in altitude) over the continent of South America, as observed by the Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) sensor flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. Data for producing the image on the left were acquired on March 3, 2000, and for the image on the right on September 7, 2000. Blue pixels show low values, yellows show intermediate values, and the red to pink and then white pixels are progressively higher values. In the lefthand image (March 3), notice the fairly low levels of carbon monoxide over the entire continent. The slightly higher equatorial values are the result of burning emissions in sub-Saharan Africa that are convected at the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and spread by the trade winds. Also, notice the effect of the elevated surface topography across the Andes Mountains running north to south along the western coastline. (In this region, white pixels show no data.) In the righthand image (September 7), a large carbon monoxide plume is seen over Brazil, produced primarily by biomass burning across Amazonia and lofted into the atmosphere by strong cloud convection. The generally higher carbon monoxide levels as compared to March are both the result of South American fire emissions and the transport of carbon monoxide across the Atlantic Ocean from widespread biomass burning over Southern Africa. These images were produced using MOPITT data, which are currently being validated. These data were assimilated into an atmospheric chemical transport model using wind vectors provided by the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). Although there is good confidence in the relative seasonal values and geographic variation measured by MOPITT, that team anticipates their level of confidence will improve further with ongoing intensive validation campaigns and comparisons with in situ and ground

  1. Tropospheric Ozone and Biomass Burning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandra, Sushil; Ziemke, J. R.; Bhartia, P. K.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper studies the significance of pyrogenic (e.g., biomass burning) emissions in the production of tropospheric ozone in the tropics associated with the forest and savanna fires in the African, South American, and Indonesian regions. Using aerosol index (Al) and tropospheric column ozone (TCO) time series from 1979 to 2000 derived from the Nimbus-7 and Earth Probe TOMS measurements, our study shows significant differences in the seasonal and spatial characteristics of pyrogenic emissions north and south of the equator in the African region and Brazil in South America. In general, they are not related to the seasonal and spatial characteristics of tropospheric ozone in these regions. In the Indonesian region, the most significant increase in TCO occurred during September and October 1997, following large-scale forest and savanna fires associated with the El Nino-induced dry season. However, the increase in TCO extended over most of the western Pacific well outside the burning region and was accompanied by a decrease in the eastern Pacific resembling a west-to-east dipole about the date-line. The net increase in TCO integrated over the tropical region between 15 deg N and 15 deg S was about 6-8 Tg (1 Tg = 10(exp 12) gm) over the mean climatological value of about 72 Tg. This increase is well within the range of interannual variability of TCO in the tropical region and does not necessarily suggest a photochemical source related to biomass burning. The interannual variability in TCO appears to be out of phase with the interannual variability of stratospheric column ozone (SCO). These variabilities seem to be manifestations of solar cycle and quasibiennial oscillations.

  2. Actinide Burning in CANDU Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Hyland, B.; Dyck, G.R.

    2007-07-01

    Actinide burning in CANDU reactors has been studied as a method of reducing the actinide content of spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors, and thereby decreasing the associated long term decay heat load. In this work simulations were performed of actinides mixed with natural uranium to form a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel, and also mixed with silicon carbide to form an inert matrix (IMF) fuel. Both of these fuels were taken to a higher burnup than has previously been studied. The total transuranic element destruction calculated was 40% for the MOX fuel and 71% for the IMF. (authors)

  3. On our need to move beyond folk medicine: A commentary on Karen Gubb's paper, "Psychosomatics today: a review of contemporary theory and practice".

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, Richard M

    2013-02-01

    In her thoughtful review and synthesis, Karen Gubb overstimates the breadth of resurgent interest among psychoanalysts in psychosomatic medicine. Such a modest revival as there has been reflects primarily the activity of a few authors and editors. Still, after several decades of inactivity following the intense excitement about this subject during the 1940s and 1950s, there has been some renewal of interest, primarily in Europe and among a small group in the United States. The golden age of psychoanalytic psychosomatics came to an end with the failure to find evidence in support of the promising but overly simplistic specificity theories, especially those of Franz Alexander. If we were going to better understand the complex relations between bodily states (including illnesses) and mental phenomena new theories and modes of investigation would be required. Many apparently new theories have been put forward over the past few decades. Of these, Gubb focuses her attention on two that relate somatic illness to failures in linguistic or symbolic elaboration, that is, to failures in the working over or binding of somatic excitations by the mental apparatus. These theories share the attractive feature that they seem consistent with the claim that psychosomatically ill patients are impaired in their language capacities, being unable to put feelings into words (alexithymia) and unable to move to abstract from concrete thinking (pensée opératoire). While apparently new, when closely examined these theories turn out to be but minor variations of one of Freud's own fundamental theories of mind/body, the one explicated in The Interpretation of Dreams and based upon the neurological model of the reflex arc as known in the 19th century. We know too much today about neuronal functioning, brain operations, and the importance of our subtle interactions with others to be satisfied with a superannuated scientific model. If we analysts are to lay claim to a science beyond a quaint

  4. The consequences of global biomass burning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Joel S.

    1991-01-01

    Global biomass burning encompasses forest burning for land clearing, the annual burning of grasslands, the annual burning of agricultural stubble and waste after harvests, and the burning of wood as fuel. These activities generate CO2, CH4 and other hydrocarbons, CO, H2, NO, NH3, and CH3Cl; of these, CO, CH4 and the hydrocarbons, and NO, are involved in the photochemical production of tropospheric O3, while NO is transformed to NO2 and then to nitric acid, which falls as acid rain. Biomass burning is also a major source of atmospheric particulates and aerosols which affect the transmission of incoming solar radiation and outgoing IR radiation through the atmosphere, with significant climatic effects.

  5. Training and burn care in rural India

    PubMed Central

    Chamania, Shobha

    2010-01-01

    Burn care is a huge challenge in India, having the highest female mortality globally due to flame burns. Burns can happen anywhere, but are more common in the rural region, affecting the poor. Most common cause is flame burns, the culprit being kerosene and flammable flowing garments worn by the women. The infrastructure of healthcare network is good but there is a severe resource crunch. In order to bring a positive change, there will have to be more trained personnel willing to work in the rural areas. Strategies for prevention and training of burn team are discussed along with suggestions on making the career package attractive and satisfying. This will positively translate into improved outcomes in the burns managed in the rural region and quick transfer to appropriate facility for those requiring specialised attention. PMID:21321647

  6. Long term mortality in burned children

    PubMed Central

    Stamboulian, Daniel; Lede, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Studies about risk factors for mortality in burn children are scarce and are even less in the follow up of this population across time. Usually, after complete event attendance, children are not follow-up as risk patients, burn injury affects all facets of life. Integration of professionals from different disciplines has enabled burn centers to develop collaborative methods of assessing the quality of care delivered to patients with burns. In this editorial we comment the paper of Duke et al. The authors highlight the importance of maintaining a long-term monitoring of children who suffered burns. The importance of this original study is to promote the reconsideration of clinical guides of long-term follow-up of burn patients. PMID:26835375

  7. Long term mortality in burned children.

    PubMed

    Rosanova, María Teresa; Stamboulian, Daniel; Lede, Roberto

    2015-07-01

    Studies about risk factors for mortality in burn children are scarce and are even less in the follow up of this population across time. Usually, after complete event attendance, children are not follow-up as risk patients, burn injury affects all facets of life. Integration of professionals from different disciplines has enabled burn centers to develop collaborative methods of assessing the quality of care delivered to patients with burns. In this editorial we comment the paper of Duke et al. The authors highlight the importance of maintaining a long-term monitoring of children who suffered burns. The importance of this original study is to promote the reconsideration of clinical guides of long-term follow-up of burn patients. PMID:26835375

  8. [Abnormality in bone metabolism after burn].

    PubMed

    Gong, X; Xie, W G

    2016-08-20

    Burn causes bone metabolic abnormality in most cases, including the changes in osteoblasts and osteoclasts, bone mass loss, and bone absorption, which results in decreased bone mineral density. These changes are sustainable for many years after burn and even cause growth retardation in burned children. The mechanisms of bone metabolic abnormality after burn include the increasing glucocorticoids due to stress response, a variety of cytokines and inflammatory medium due to inflammatory response, vitamin D deficiency, hypoparathyroidism, and bone loss due to long-term lying in bed. This article reviews the pathogenesis and regularity of bone metabolic abnormality after burn, the relationship between bone metabolic abnormality and burn area/depth, and the treatment of bone metabolic abnormality, etc. and discusses the research directions in the future. PMID:27562160

  9. How to manage a minor burn.

    PubMed

    Rowley-Conwy, Gabrielle

    2016-07-20

    Rationale and key points This article outlines the technique for dressing a minor burn. The nurse should be aware of national burn care referral guidance, and have the knowledge and skills to establish the severity and extent of a burn. The nurse should also be able to determine whether referral to a regional specialist centre is required. » The extent and severity of a burn determines its ongoing management. » The burn wound requires regular evaluation, since its appearance and management needs can change over time. » Competence in general wound care is essential for nurses undertaking this procedure. Reflective activity 'How to' articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: » The classification of burn depth and guidelines for specialist referral. » How you think this article will change your practice. Subscribers can update their reflective accounts at rcni.com/portfolio. PMID:27440365

  10. Incidence of cardiac events in burned patients.

    PubMed

    Meyers, David G; Hoestje, Sara M; Korentager, Richard A

    2003-06-01

    Given the increased level of adrenergic stimulation in burn patients, it would be expected that they would experience an increased incidence of cardiac arrhythmias and other cardiac events. We performed a retrospective chart review of 56 acute burn patients matched by age, length of hospital stay, and sex to 56 trauma patients, all of whom had been continuously monitored electrocardiographically. Burn and trauma patients were similar in injury severity, admission laboratory values, and prior history of cardiopulmonary diseases. Arrhythmias were noted in 34% of burn patients and 28% of trauma patients. One myocardial infarction and six deaths occurred in burn patients. No myocardial infarctions or deaths were observed in trauma patients. A past history of cardiopulmonary disease increased the risk of myocardial infarction or death by 6.6 times. Cardiac arrhythmias and other events are relatively infrequent and benign in burn patients and are similar to those experienced by other patients with acute injuries. PMID:12781616

  11. Recovery trajectories after burn injury in young adults: does burn size matter?

    PubMed

    Ryan, Colleen M; Lee, Austin; Kazis, Lewis E; Schneider, Jeffrey C; Shapiro, Gabriel D; Sheridan, Robert L; Meyer, Walter J; Palmieri, Tina; Pidcock, Frank S; Reilly, Debra; Tompkins, Ronald G

    2015-01-01

    The impact of burn size on mortality is well known, but the association of burn size with the trajectories of long-term functional outcomes remains poorly studied. This prospective multi-center study included burned adults ages 19 to 30 years who completed the Young Adult Burn Outcome Questionnaire at initial baseline contact, 2 weeks, and at 6 and 12 months after initial questionnaire administration. Non-burned adults of comparable ages also completed the questionnaire as a reference group. The association between functional recovery and TBSA burned was analyzed longitudinally using generalized linear models with the generalized estimation equation technique. Functional status was characterized in 15 domains: physical function, fine motor function, pain, itch, social function limited by physical function, perceived appearance, social function limited by appearance, sexual function, emotion, family function, family concern, satisfaction with symptom relief, satisfaction with role, work reintegration, and religion. Scores were standardized to a mean of 50 and a SD of 10 based on non-burned controls. There were 153 burned and 112 non-burned subjects with a total of 620 questionnaires. TBSA burned was 11 ± 14% (mean ± SD); 31% had face involvement and 57% had hand involvement. The lag time from burn injury to questionnaire administration was on average 7 ± 7.7 months, with a maximum of 36 months. Lower recovery levels were associated with increasing burn size for physical function, pain, itch, work reintegration, emotion, satisfaction with symptom relief, satisfaction with role, family function, and family concern (P value ranged from .04-<.0001). No significant differences in recovery levels were found with increasing burn size for fine motor function, social function limited by physical function, sexual function, and religion; these areas tracked toward the age-matched non-burned group regardless of burn size. Perceived appearance and social function limited by

  12. Nonoperative management of pediatric burn injuries.

    PubMed

    Pizano, Louis R; Corallo, Joseph P; Davies, Jennifer

    2008-07-01

    There are an estimated 1.2 million burn injuries per year in the United States, one third of which occur in children. Most of these injuries will be treated nonoperatively, frequently in an outpatient setting. This article aims to provide the practitioner with a understanding of the pathophysiology of burn injuries, a guide to the initial assessment of the patient, and management recommendations for nonoperative treatment of the burned pediatric patient. PMID:18650703

  13. Comparison of tokamak burn cycle options

    SciTech Connect

    Ehst, D.A.; Brooks, J.N.; Cha, Y.; Evans, K. Jr.; Hassanein, A.M.; Kim, S.; Majumdar, S.; Misra, B.; Stevens, H.C.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental confirmation of noninductive current drive has spawned a number of suggestions as to how this technique can be used to extend the fusion burn period and improve the reactor prospects of tokamaks. Several distinct burn cycles, which employ various combinations of Ohmic and noninductive current generation, are possible, and we will study their relative costs and benefits for both a commerical reactor as well as an INTOR-class device. We begin with a review of the burn cycle options.

  14. [Burning oral sensation: when is really BMS?].

    PubMed

    Spadari, Fracesco; Garagiola, Umberto; Dzsida, Eszter; Azzi, Lorenzo; Kálmán, Fanni Sára

    2015-12-01

    The aims and purposes of this systematic review of the international literature are to discuss and clarify some considerations on Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS). Over the last 40 years, many researchers have addressed this disease clinically or experimentally. Thus, the etiology and pathogenesis of BMS remain unclear. We analyzed the etiopathogenesis of Burning Mouth Syndrome and of the burning oral sensation and currently, we could not find a consensus on the diagnosis and classification of BMS. Further studies are required to better understand the pathogenesis of BMS, and a "Gold Standard" classification is required because not every burning sensation in the mouth is BMS. PMID:26863819

  15. [Primary care and assessment of extended burn].

    PubMed

    Shimamoto, Minoru; Kawai, Makoto; Yamamoto, Yasuhiro

    2005-12-01

    Extended burn is a severe trauma makes patients easily critical status without appropriate cure and assessment. In order to ride out hypovolemic shock, it is necessary to manage the internal water, the state of respiration and wound treatment and assess the depth of burn wound. Initialy we assess the burned area and it's depth, then we calculate the amount of water which will be necessary on acute phase for the patient We will resect the part of deep dermal burn immediately to reduce the causes of infection. The patient will need a graft operation as soon as we can to avoid the severe infection. PMID:16869125

  16. Renal failure in burn patients: a review

    PubMed Central

    Emara, S.S.; Alzaylai, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Burn care providers are usually challenged by multiple complications during the management of acute burns. One of the most common complications worldwide is renal failure. This article reviews the various aspects of renal failure management in burn patients. Two different types of renal failures develop in these patients. The different aetiological factors, incidence, suspected prognosis, ways of diagnosing, as well as prevention methods, and the most accepted treatment modalities are all discussed. A good understanding and an effective assessment of the problem help to reduce both morbidity and mortality in burn management. PMID:23966893

  17. ISS Update: Burning and Suppression of Solids

    NASA Video Gallery

    ISS Update Commentator Pat Ryan interviews Paul Ferkul, Principal Investigator for the Burning and Suppression of Solids (BASS) experiment, about performing combustion experiments in microgravity. ...

  18. Aeromonas hydrophila in a burn patient.

    PubMed

    Yasti, Ahmet Cinar; Otan, Emrah; Doganay, Mutlu; Kama, Nuri A

    2009-01-01

    Infectious consequences are still a major problem and leading cause of mortality in burn patients. Among others, aeromonads need special concern because they mimic pseudomonal infections; however, they have a more rapid progression with considerable mortality if undiagnosed promptly. Here, we present a major burn case extinguished with tap water pooled in a tank. With the possibility of aeromonal infection in mind, the patient underwent aggressive debridement with proper antibiotic medication, which resulted in a successful patient management. Aeromonads should always be kept in mind in burn cases that contacted with tanked water or soil after the burn. PMID:19692919

  19. Burn site groundwater interim measures work plan.

    SciTech Connect

    Witt, Jonathan L.; Hall, Kevin A.

    2005-05-01

    This Work Plan identifies and outlines interim measures to address nitrate contamination in groundwater at the Burn Site, Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico. The New Mexico Environment Department has required implementation of interim measures for nitrate-contaminated groundwater at the Burn Site. The purpose of interim measures is to prevent human or environmental exposure to nitrate-contaminated groundwater originating from the Burn Site. This Work Plan details a summary of current information about the Burn Site, interim measures activities for stabilization, and project management responsibilities to accomplish this purpose.

  20. High burn rate solid composite propellants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manship, Timothy D.

    High burn rate propellants help maintain high levels of thrust without requiring complex, high surface area grain geometries. Utilizing high burn rate propellants allows for simplified grain geometries that not only make production of the grains easier, but the simplified grains tend to have better mechanical strength, which is important in missiles undergoing high-g accelerations. Additionally, high burn rate propellants allow for a higher volumetric loading which reduces the overall missile's size and weight. The purpose of this study is to present methods of achieving a high burn rate propellant and to develop a composite propellant formulation that burns at 1.5 inches per second at 1000 psia. In this study, several means of achieving a high burn rate propellant were presented. In addition, several candidate approaches were evaluated using the Kepner-Tregoe method with hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HTPB)-based propellants using burn rate modifiers and dicyclopentadiene (DCPD)-based propellants being selected for further evaluation. Propellants with varying levels of nano-aluminum, nano-iron oxide, FeBTA, and overall solids loading were produced using the HTPB binder and evaluated in order to determine the effect the various ingredients have on the burn rate and to find a formulation that provides the burn rate desired. Experiments were conducted to compare the burn rates of propellants using the binders HTPB and DCPD. The DCPD formulation matched that of the baseline HTPB mix. Finally, GAP-plasticized DCPD gumstock dogbones were attempted to be made for mechanical evaluation. Results from the study show that nano-additives have a substantial effect on propellant burn rate with nano-iron oxide having the largest influence. Of the formulations tested, the highest burn rate was a 84% solids loading mix using nano-aluminum nano-iron oxide, and ammonium perchlorate in a 3:1(20 micron: 200 micron) ratio which achieved a burn rate of 1.2 inches per second at 1000

  1. Spectral Hole Burning via Kerr Nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Anwar Ali; Abdul Jabar, M. S.; Jalaluddin, M.; Bacha, Bakht Amin; Iftikhar, Ahmad

    2015-10-01

    Spectral hole burning is investigated in an optical medium in the presence of Doppler broadening and Kerr nonlinearity. The Kerr nonlinearity generates coherent hole burning in the absorption spectrum. The higher order Kerr nonlinearity enhances the typical lamb dip of the hole. Normal dispersion in the hole burning region while Steep anomalous dispersion between the two hole burning regions also enhances with higher order Kerr effect. A large phase shift creates large delay or advancement in the pulse propagation while no distortion is observed in the pulse. These results provide significant steps to improve optical memory, telecom devices, preservation of information and image quality. Supported by Higher Education Commission (HEC) of Pakistan

  2. ISBI Practice Guidelines for Burn Care.

    PubMed

    Isbi Practice Guidelines Committee

    2016-08-01

    Practice guidelines (PGs) are recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of diseases and injuries, and are designed to define optimal evaluation and management. The first PGs for burn care addressed the issues encountered in developed countries, lacking consideration for circumstances in resource-limited settings (RLS). Thus, the mission of the 2014-2016 committee established by the International Society for Burn Injury (ISBI) was to create PGs for burn care to improve the care of burn patients in both RLS and resource-abundant settings. An important component of this effort is to communicate a consensus opinion on recommendations for burn care for different aspects of burn management. An additional goal is to reduce costs by outlining effective and efficient recommendations for management of medical problems specific to burn care. These recommendations are supported by the best research evidence, as well as by expert opinion. Although our vision was the creation of clinical guidelines that could be applicable in RLS, the ISBI PGs for Burn Care have been written to address the needs of burn specialists everywhere in the world. PMID:27542292

  3. Uniform-burning matrix burner

    DOEpatents

    Bohn, Mark S.; Anselmo, Mark

    2001-01-01

    Computer simulation was used in the development of an inward-burning, radial matrix gas burner and heat pipe heat exchanger. The burner and exchanger can be used to heat a Stirling engine on cloudy days when a solar dish, the normal source of heat, cannot be used. Geometrical requirements of the application forced the use of the inward burning approach, which presents difficulty in achieving a good flow distribution and air/fuel mixing. The present invention solved the problem by providing a plenum with just the right properties, which include good flow distribution and good air/fuel mixing with minimum residence time. CFD simulations were also used to help design the primary heat exchanger needed for this application which includes a plurality of pins emanating from the heat pipe. The system uses multiple inlet ports, an extended distance from the fuel inlet to the burner matrix, flow divider vanes, and a ring-shaped, porous grid to obtain a high-temperature uniform-heat radial burner. Ideal applications include dish/Stirling engines, steam reforming of hydrocarbons, glass working, and any process requiring high temperature heating of the outside surface of a cylindrical surface.

  4. A radical way to burn

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley, S.

    1996-08-01

    By manipulating chamber geometries as well as engine cycle pressures and timing, engineers are exploiting a long-obscure technology known as activated radical combustion. Piston-driven internal combustion engines generally come in two varieties: compression-ignited diesels and spark-ignited gasoline power plants. There, is however, a third way to initiate burning of the fuel-air mixture. The technique--variously called radical ignition (RI), activated radical (AR) combustion, Toyota-Soken combustion, and active thermo-atmosphere combustion--is not exactly new, but only recently have engineers begun to exploit the process in practical power plants. These new units include a lightweight two-stroke racing-motorcycle engine, truck diesels with reduced soot output, and lean-burn spark-ignited car engines. This long-obscure combustion process is based on a range of specialized chemical kinetic and physical acoustic techniques developed over decades. Engineers manipulate fundamental combustion parameter such as chamber geometries, valving and porting configurations, and engine cycle pressures and timing to foster the formation of certain highly reactive chemical species that lower the fuel-air mixture`s flash point so that even modest compression make sit self-ignite. These chemical initiators are then retained into the next cycle to start combustion, allowing the engineer to run stably with no spark.

  5. Electrical burns of the abdomen.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Rakesh Kumar; Kumar, Ritesh

    2013-09-01

    A 35-year-old male farmer came in contact with 11,000 volts high tension electric wire and sustained full thickness burn wounds over scapula, upper limb and anterior abdominal wall along with perforation of the intestine. Patient was initially managed conservatively in general surgery ward and was referred to us after 3 days with necrosis of the burned skin and muscles over the shoulder and abdomen. Patient was initially managed conservatively and then thorough debridement of the necrotic skin over the left shoulder and upper arm was done and the area was split skin grafted. Patient developed enterocutaneous fistula, which healed over a period of 8 weeks. The granulating wound over the abdomen was also skin grafted and patient was discharged after 18 days. About 4 months, after the discharge patient presented with ventral hernia. Repair of ventral hernia by synthetic mesh application and reconstruction of the abdominal wall with a free tensor fascia lata flap was done over the mesh, but the flap failed. Then after debridement two random pattern transposition skin flaps, one from the right upper and another from the left lower abdomen were transposed over the abdominal wound and donor area was skin grafted. Patient was discharged after 17 days. PMID:24459356

  6. Furnance for burning flammable particles

    SciTech Connect

    Comtois

    1985-10-08

    There is disclosed a furnace for burning wooden wastes and, more specifically, sawdust and/or barks. The furnace is provided with an oil burner required for starting the fire. The draught from the oil burner fan is directed within a perforated box, located in the combustion chamber of the furnace, and the sawdust or the barks or other wooden particles fall, according to a measured flow, over the perforated box. The sawdust is first alighted by the oil burner flame, and combustion thereafter builds up thanks to the draught from the perforated box. This box draught comprises a vertically-upwardly-oriented vector, for alighting the wood particles before the latter reach the box, and a horizontal vector extending toward the interior of the furnace to force the burning particles away from the side wall of the furnace. The system includes measured flow feeding system for the sawdust and/or the bark, and having a pair of flap-doors to prevent the escape of smoke from the furnace.

  7. Managing burn patients in a fire disaster: Experience from a burn unit in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Mashreky, S. R.; Bari, S.; Sen, S. L.; Rahman, A.; Khan, T. F.; Rahman, F.

    2010-01-01

    Although burn disaster is not a frequent event, with urbanisation and industrialisation, burn disaster is becoming an emerging problem in Bangladesh. On 3 June 2010, a fire disaster killed 124 people in Neemtali, Dhaka, Bangladesh. This paper narrates the management of burn patients of this disaster in the burn unit of Dhaka Medical College Hospital. The burn unit managed 192 burn victims of the disaster. Forty-two victims were admitted and 150 of them received primary care at the emergency room and were sent back home. Ten patients among 42 in-patients died. The in-patient mortality was 23.8%. Burn unit in Dhaka Medical College Hospital is the only burn management centre in Bangladesh. Proper planning and coordinated effort by all sectors and persons concerned were the key elements in this successful management. PMID:21321648

  8. How Disabling Are Pediatric Burns? Functional Independence in Dutch Pediatric Patients with Burns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Disseldorp, Laurien M.; Niemeijer, Anuschka S.; Van Baar, Margriet E.; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen A.; Mouton, Leonora J.; Nieuwenhuis, Marianne K.

    2013-01-01

    Although the attention for functional outcomes after burn injury has grown over the past decades, little is known about functional independence in performing activities of daily living in children after burn injury. Therefore, in this prospective cohort study functional independence was measured by burn care professionals with the WeeFIM[R]…

  9. Human ecology, land use and biomass burning in DRC, Central Africa, using GIS and remote-sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazadi, S.; Kobayashi, S.

    2007-05-01

    Four major vegetation types are shown to be the dominant ecosystems over Kayamba County in the Congo (DRC). Covering about 76.6% of the County total area, savanna is the largest land cover type, and the marshlands (grass formations over waterlogged soils) the second (12.9% of the area). This amounts to 89.5% of the County lands being covered with herbaceous vegetations, compared to a very weak proportion of forests cover (10.5%). Open water bodies are rare, covering only 1.1 km2 (0.04%) of the County territory. They consist mostly of small ponds in the vast marshlands along the main rivers. Kayamba is thus shown to be a savanna area, with large expanse of wetlands and scattered patches of various types of tropical rainforests (natural or man-made forests, and sparse woodlands). Rain fed agriculture (slash and burn in the forests, or shifting cultivation in the savanna) is shown to be the main life-sustaining human activity among the Luba of Kayamba County. Its full dependence on the natural elements (especially the rainfall) makes it easily affected by any variability in the climatic regimes. Hunting, fishing and gathering provide a supplement to the daily food intake. This lifestyle compares to that of other tropical rainforest dwellers (e.g. the Kayapo Indian in Brazil or the Karen in Thailand). A strong village dynamics (permanent relocations in the North and the Center, new villages built at important crossways, or splitting followed by relocation along main arteries in the South), more likely in response to the need for a new economy-oriented way of life in the County is also observed, pointing to the need for more investigation in relation with the possible development of this area. Biomass burning in Kayamba is either planned (bushfire hunting) or accidental (uncontrolled fires from field debris burning), occurring exclusively during the peak of the dry season (June-July). The seasonal bushfires regime is analyzed and discussed. It is shown that of the

  10. Gas fireplace contact burns in young children.

    PubMed

    Zettel, Julie C; Khambalia, Amina; Barden, Wendy; Murthy, Trisha; Macarthur, Colin

    2004-01-01

    Contact burns from domestic appliances are common in young children. Recently, gas fireplaces have been recognized as a potential cause of contact burns in young children. We sought to quantify the frequency of gas fireplace contact burns in young children, to identify the etiology of contact, to describe the clinical presentation, and to describe clinical outcomes. Children with gas fireplace contact burn injuries presenting to The Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto (1999-2002) were identified using three data sources: the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program Database, the Burn Unit Registry, and the Rehabilitation Services Database. Demographic, clinical, and outcomes data were collected on all children. During the 4-year study period, 27 children presented to the hospital because of a gas fireplace contact burn (approximately 9% of all contact burns). The median age of the children was 14 months (range, 8-36 months), with 16 boys (59%). Most children were burned in their own home. With regard to etiology, 10 children (37%) lost their balance near the fireplace, 2 (7%) walked too close to the glass front, and 8 (30%) touched the glass front out of curiosity. Almost half (44%) of the children burned the palms and digits of both hands. The median total burn surface area was 1% (range, 0.2-2.5%). In total, 30% of children were admitted to hospital, and 11% required skin grafts. All children had full wound closure after 4 to 43 days. Given the etiology of these burns (loss of balance or curiosity), passive prevention, such as barriers or changes in the composition of glass panels, may be the most effective approach to combat them. PMID:15534461

  11. Update on current therapeutic approaches in burns.

    PubMed

    Shirani, K Z; Vaughan, G M; Mason, A D; Pruitt, B A

    1996-01-01

    Burn injury results in a rapid loss of intravascular volume as wound edema forms, which reduces the circulating blood volume and generates the need for fluid therapy to combat hypovolemia. Fluid resuscitation of a burn patient is usually carried out with isotonic, sodium- and chloride-containing fluids, such as lactated Ringer's solution. The initial 24 h resuscitation volume is based on the burn size and body weight of the patient. Following a successful resuscitation, the burn patient develops stereotypic neurohormonal and metabolic responses that, depending on the extent of injury, last for several weeks or months. Breathing of incomplete products of combustion by the fire victim produces inhalation injury, the incidence of which rises with increasing burn size and the severity of which is proportional to the duration of exposure. Systemic hypoxia from carbon monoxide toxicity causes early death; chemical airway injury increases mortality and predisposes to subsequent pneumonia that further reduces survival. The diagnosis of inhalation injury is made by bronchoscopy and/or xenon scan and therapy involves support of ventilation. Thermal destruction of the cutaneous mechanical barrier and the presence of nonviable avascular burn eschar as well as impairment of other host defenses render the burn patient susceptible to local as well as systemic infections. Care following resuscitation is focused on topical antimicrobial therapy, burn wound excision, and wound closure by grafting. Nutritional support and the prevention and control of infection are constant themes in burn patient management. A progressive improvement in general care of the acutely injured patient, prevention of shock, effective means of maintaining organ function, prevention and control of burn wound and other infections, and physiologically based metabolic support have significantly increased burn patient survival in recent decades. PMID:8821097

  12. Epidemiology of hospitalized burns patients in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chien, Wu-Chien; Pai, Lu; Lin, Chao-Cheng; Chen, Heng-Chang

    2003-09-01

    Previous studies based on either single hospital data or sampling of specific groups of hospitalized burns victims in Taiwan have provided only minimal epidemiological information. The study is designed to provide additional data on the epidemiology of hospitalized burns patients in Taiwan. Data were obtained from the Burn Injury Information System (BIIS), which brings together information supplied by 34 contracted hospitals. The study time course spanned a 2-year period from July 1997 to June 1999. Patient characteristics (age, sex, education level, etc.), causes and severity of injuries, and medical care measures were explored. A total of 4741 patients were registered with BIIS over the study period. The majority of hospitalized patients (67%) were male. The age distribution of burns patients showed peaks occurring at the age groups of 0-5 and 35-44 years. Over the time course of a day, burn injuries occurred more frequently from 10:00 to 12:00 h and 16:00 to 18:00 h. Injuries suspected as the result of suicide, homicide or child abuse accounted for 4.8% of hospitalized cases. More than 48% of the burns occurred in the home. The leading type of burn injury was scalding, followed by naked flame, explosion, electrical burns, and chemical burns due to caustic or corrosive substances. The mean percent total body surface area (%TBSA) for adults was 19%, and for young children was 12%. The average length of hospital stay was 18 days. In conclusion, children under 5 years and adults between 35 and 44 years of age are two high-risk groups for burn injuries. Corresponding to meal preparation time, hot substances such as boiling water, hot soup, etc. are the most common agents responsible for scalds. Prevention programs for reducing the risk of burn injuries during cooking and eating are required, especially for parents with young children. PMID:12927984

  13. Geographic Access to Burn Center Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Matthew B.; Kramer, C. Bradley; Nelson, Jason; Rivara, Frederick P.; Gibran, Nicole S.; Concannon, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Context The delivery of burn care is a resource-intensive endeavor that requires specialized personnel and equipment. The optimal geographic distribution of burn centers has long been debated; however, the current distribution of centers relative to geographic area and population is unknown. Objective To estimate the proportion of the US population living within 1 and 2 hours by rotary air transport (helicopter) or ground transport of a burn care facility. Design and Setting A cross-sectional analysis of geographic access to US burn centers utilizing the 2000 US census, road and speed limit data, the Atlas and Database of Air Medical Services database, and the 2008 American Burn Association Directory. Main Outcome Measure The proportion of state, regional, and national population living within 1 and 2 hours by air transport or ground transport of a burn care facility. Results In 2008, there were 128 self-reported burn centers in the United States including 51 American Burn Association–verified centers. An estimated 25.1% and 46.3% of the US population live within 1 and 2 hours by ground transport, respectively, of a verified burn center. By air, 53.9% and 79.0% of the population live within 1 and 2 hours, respectively, of a verified center. There was significant regional variation in access to verified burn centers by both ground and rotary air transport. The greatest proportion of the population with access was highest in the northeast region and lowest in the southern United States. Conclusion Nearly 80% of the US population lives within 2 hours by ground or rotary air transport of a verified burn center; however, there is both state and regional variation in geographic access to these centers. PMID:19861669

  14. National programme for prevention of burn injuries

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, J. L.; Makhija, L. K.; Bajaj, S. P.

    2010-01-01

    The estimated annual burn incidence in India is approximately 6-7 million per year. The high incidence is attributed to illiteracy, poverty and low level safety consciousness in the population. The situation becomes further grim due to the absence of organized burn care at primary and secondary health care level. But the silver lining is that 90% of burn injuries are preventable. An initiative at national level is need of the hour to reduce incidence so as to galvanize the available resources for more effective and standardized treatment delivery. The National Programme for Prevention of Burn Injuries is the endeavor in this line. The goal of National programme for prevention of burn injuries (NPPBI) would be to ensure prevention and capacity building of infrastructure and manpower at all levels of health care delivery system in order to reduce incidence, provide timely and adequate treatment to burn patients to reduce mortality, complications and provide effective rehabilitation to the survivors. Another objective of the programme will be to establish a central burn registry. The programme will be launched in the current Five Year Plan in Medical colleges and their adjoining district hospitals in few states. Subsequently, in the next five year plan it will be rolled out in all the medical colleges and districts hospitals of the country so that burn care is provided as close to the site of accident as possible and patients need not to travel to big cities for burn care. The programme would essentially have three components i.e. Preventive programme, Burn injury management programme and Burn injury rehabilitation programme. PMID:21321659

  15. National programme for prevention of burn injuries.

    PubMed

    Gupta, J L; Makhija, L K; Bajaj, S P

    2010-09-01

    The estimated annual burn incidence in India is approximately 6-7 million per year. The high incidence is attributed to illiteracy, poverty and low level safety consciousness in the population. The situation becomes further grim due to the absence of organized burn care at primary and secondary health care level. But the silver lining is that 90% of burn injuries are preventable. An initiative at national level is need of the hour to reduce incidence so as to galvanize the available resources for more effective and standardized treatment delivery. The National Programme for Prevention of Burn Injuries is the endeavor in this line. The goal of National programme for prevention of burn injuries (NPPBI) would be to ensure prevention and capacity building of infrastructure and manpower at all levels of health care delivery system in order to reduce incidence, provide timely and adequate treatment to burn patients to reduce mortality, complications and provide effective rehabilitation to the survivors. Another objective of the programme will be to establish a central burn registry. The programme will be launched in the current Five Year Plan in Medical colleges and their adjoining district hospitals in few states. Subsequently, in the next five year plan it will be rolled out in all the medical colleges and districts hospitals of the country so that burn care is provided as close to the site of accident as possible and patients need not to travel to big cities for burn care. The programme would essentially have three components i.e. Preventive programme, Burn injury management programme and Burn injury rehabilitation programme. PMID:21321659

  16. Burn Incidence and Treatment in the U.S.

    MedlinePlus

    ... burn centers Over 60% of the estimated U.S. acute hospitalizations related to burn injury were admitted to 128 burn centers. Such centers now average over 200 annual admissions for burn injury and skin disorders ... other 4,500 U.S. acute care hospitals average less than 3 burn admissions ...

  17. The Ocular Surface Chemical Burns

    PubMed Central

    Baradaran-Rafii, Alireza; Djalilian, Ali R.

    2014-01-01

    Ocular chemical burns are common and serious ocular emergencies that require immediate and intensive evaluation and care. The victims of such incidents are usually young, and therefore loss of vision and disfigurement could dramatically affect their lives. The clinical course can be divided into immediate, acute, early, and late reparative phases. The degree of limbal, corneal, and conjunctival involvement at the time of injury is critically associated with prognosis. The treatment starts with simple but vision saving steps and is continued with complicated surgical procedures later in the course of the disease. The goal of treatment is to restore the normal ocular surface anatomy and function. Limbal stem cell transplantation, amniotic membrane transplantation, and ultimately keratoprosthesis may be indicated depending on the patients' needs. PMID:25105018

  18. Alkali burns from wet cement.

    PubMed Central

    Peters, W. J.

    1984-01-01

    When water is added to the dry materials of Portland cement calcium hydroxide is formed; the wet cement is caustic (with a pH as high as 12.9) and can produce third-degree alkali burns after 2 hours of contact. Unlike professional cement workers, amateurs are usually not aware of any danger and may stand or kneel in the cement for long periods. As illustrated in a case report, general physicians may recognize neither the seriousness of the injury in its early stages nor the significance of a history of prolonged contact with wet cement. All people working with cement should be warned about its dangers and advised to immediately wash and dry the skin if contact does occur. Images Fig. 1 PMID:6561052

  19. Protect the Ones You Love: Burns Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bicycle Safety Pedestrian Safety Home and Recreational Safety Child Abuse and Neglect Prevention Youth Violence Prevention Burn Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... help them live to their full potential. Knowing how to prevent leading causes of child injury, like burns, is a step toward this ...

  20. Topical antimicrobials for burn wound infections.

    PubMed

    Dai, T; Huang, Y Y; Sharma, S K; Hashmi, J T; Kurup, D B; Hamblin, M R

    2010-06-01

    Throughout most of history, serious burns occupying a large percentage of body surface area were an almost certain death sentence because of subsequent infection. A number of factors such as disruption of the skin barrier, ready availability of bacterial nutrients in the burn milieu, destruction of the vascular supply to the burned skin, and systemic disturbances lead to immunosuppression combined together to make burns particularly susceptible to infection. In the 20th century the introduction of antibiotic and antifungal drugs, the use of topical antimicrobials that could be applied to burns, and widespread adoption of early excision and grafting all helped to dramatically increase survival. However the relentless increase in microbial resistance to antibiotics and other antimicrobials has led to a renewed search for alternative approaches to prevent and combat burn infections. This review will cover patented strategies that have been issued or filed with regard to new topical agents, preparations, and methods of combating burn infections. Animal models that are used in preclinical studies are discussed. Various silver preparations (nanocrystalline and slow release) are the mainstay of many approaches but antimicrobial peptides, topical photodynamic therapy, chitosan preparations, new iodine delivery formulations, phage therapy and natural products such as honey and essential oils have all been tested. This active area of research will continue to provide new topical antimicrobials for burns that will battle against growing multidrug resistance. PMID:20429870

  1. Burn Injury and Explosions: An Australian Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Increasingly (but not exclusively), terrorist activity and the use of explosive devices have enjoyed the focus of the global media. This paper aims to bring a range of issues to attention, to highlight how burn injuries are sustained in such incidents and why burn injuries (and thus burn disasters) are so complicated to manage. Materials and Methods: The author's experience with burn injury caused during explosions and his involvement in burn disaster situations has been summarized to form the basis of the article. This has been expanded upon with discussion points which provide a strategy for planning for such events and by a broad sample of the literature. Results: Several strategies are suggested to facilitate planning for burn disasters and to illustrate to those not directly involved why forward planning is pivotal to success when these incidents occur. Conclusions: Disasters generating large numbers of burn-injured are relatively frequent. Explosive devices are widespread in their use both in military and increasingly in civilian fields. Encompassing a large range of aetiologies, geographical sites, populations, and resources; burn disaster management is difficult and planning essential. PMID:19834533

  2. Bubble bath burns: an unusual case

    PubMed Central

    Nizamoglu, Metin; Tan, Alethea; El-Muttardi, Naguib

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We present an unusual case of flash burn injury in an adolescent following accidental combination of foaming bath bubbles and tea light candle flame. There has not been any reported similar case described before. This serves as a learning point for public prevention and clinicians managing burn injuries. PMID:27583271

  3. How Does the Freezer Burn Our Food?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Shelly J.; Lee, Joo Won

    2009-01-01

    Freezer burn is a common problem that significantly affects the color, texture, and flavor of frozen foods. Food science students should be able to clearly explain the causes and consequences of freezer burn. However, it is difficult to find a modern, detailed, accurate, yet concise, explanation of the mechanism and factors influencing the rate of…

  4. Crusted scabies in the burned patient.

    PubMed

    Berg, Jais Oliver; Alsbjørn, Bjarne

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to describe a case of crusted scabies (CS) in a burned patient, which was primarily undiagnosed and led to a nosocomial outbreak in the burn unit; 2) to analyze and discuss the difficulties in diagnosing and treating this subset of patients with burn injury; and 3) to design a treatment strategy for future patients. Case analysis and literature review were performed. The index patient had undiagnosed crusted scabies (sive Scabies norvegica) with the ensuing mite hyperinfestation when admitted to the department with minor acute dermal burns. Conservative healing and autograft healing were impaired because of the condition. Successful treatment of the burns was only accomplished secondarily to scabicide treatment. An outbreak of scabies among staff members indirectly led to diagnosis. CS is ubiquitous, and diagnosis may be difficult. This is the first report of a burned patient with CS in the English language literature. CS is also highly contagious and may lead to a nosocomial outbreak. Furthermore, CS seems to have a detrimental impact on the burned patient's course of treatment. A scabicide treatment is necessary to guarantee successful treatment of the burns. PMID:21427595

  5. Bubble bath burns: an unusual case.

    PubMed

    Nizamoglu, Metin; Tan, Alethea; El-Muttardi, Naguib

    2016-01-01

    We present an unusual case of flash burn injury in an adolescent following accidental combination of foaming bath bubbles and tea light candle flame. There has not been any reported similar case described before. This serves as a learning point for public prevention and clinicians managing burn injuries. PMID:27583271

  6. Burns: an update on current pharmacotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Yesinia; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Radhakrishnan, Ravi S.; Herndon, David N.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The world-wide occurrence of burn injuries remains high despite efforts to reduce injury incidence through public awareness campaigns and improvements in living conditions. In 2004, almost 11 million people experienced burns severe enough to warrant medical treatment. Advances over the past several decades in aggressive resuscitation, nutrition, excision, and grafting have reduced morbidity and mortality. Incorporation of pharmacotherapeutics into treatment regimens may further reduce complications of severe burn injuries. Areas covered Severe burn injuries, as well as other forms of stress and trauma, trigger a hypermetabolic response that, if left untreated, impedes recovery. In the past two decades, use of anabolic agents, beta adrenergic receptor antagonists, and anti-hyperglycemic agents has successfully counteracted post-burn morbidities including catabolism, the catecholamine-mediated response, and insulin resistance. Here we review the most up-to-date information on currently used pharmacotherapies in the treatment of these sequelae of severe burns and the insights that have expanded our understanding of the pathophysiology of severe burns. Expert opinion Existing drugs offer promising advances in the care of burn injuries. Continued gains in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms driving the hypermetabolic response will enable the application of additional existing drugs to be broadened to further attenuate the hypermetabolic response. PMID:23121414

  7. A ring burn--electric or contact?

    PubMed

    Attalla, M F; el-Ekiabi, S; Al-Baker, A

    1990-02-01

    A circumferential band of deep burn affecting the ring finger sustained by a car electrician is presented. Although it was caused by short circuiting the car battery by a metal spanner and the ring he was wearing, the injury was purely a contact burn. PMID:2322399

  8. A Better Way to Burn Wood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robison, Rita

    1979-01-01

    Wood pyrolysis is a process that burns wood without air, producing gas and oil that are then burned for heat. Now being tested at Maryville College, Tennessee, the process is expected to cut fuel costs, solve a waste disposal problem, and produce charcoal for sale. (Author/MLF)

  9. Burning--Gravitational, Chemical, and Nuclear.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Goronwy Tudor

    1991-01-01

    Energy problems that incorporate power generation in hydroelectric, fossil-fuel burning, and nuclear power stations are presented. The burning process and the energy released are discussed. Practice problems and solutions, a summary of various energy units and conversion factors, and lists of thought-provoking energies and powers are included. (KR)

  10. [Scalp burns due to hair bleach].

    PubMed

    Wagenblast, Lene

    2011-02-28

    We present two cases of scalp burn or possible chemical reaction due to use of hair highlight products. One case was treated with serial excision of the scarred bald area after the burn, and the other case was treated with implantation of expanders and subsequent excision of the bald area. PMID:21362396

  11. Burn moulage made easy (and cheap).

    PubMed

    Swan, Nanci A

    2013-01-01

    Moulage is one of the key factors in suspending disbelief for those participating in a simulation scenario. Transforming a mannequin into a simulated patient with burns seems like an overwhelming task. Techniques for using makeup and toilet paper to make blisters and burns are presented. PMID:23702856

  12. Equations for Composite-Propellant Burning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strand, L. D.; Cohen, N. S.

    1983-01-01

    Reported study of composite-propellant burning summarizes recent advances in understanding behavior of propellant formulations based on ammonium perchlorate (AOP), binder, and aluminum in various proportions and particle size distributions. Approach presented incorporates adapted version of earlier model for monopropellant AP. Objective is to predict burning-rate characteristics of composite propellants at high pressure.

  13. Shivlilik burns: injuries resulting from traditional celebrations

    PubMed Central

    Gündüz, Metin; Çiftçi, İlhan; Sekmenli, Tamer

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In Konya, Turkey, the community celebrates the traditional ceremony of Shivlilik, which occurs on the first day of the seventh month in the lunar-based Hijri calendar. In the evening, people light bonfires of tires in the streets, and children and young people attempt to jump over the flames. Flame burns regularly occur due to falling. Attention should be given to preventing injuries such as these that are caused by social and regional customs. Methods: This retrospective study was carried out using data from the Konya Education and Research Hospital Burn Unit. Patients admitted to our hospital between June, 2009, and May, 2012, was evaluated. Results: Eleven patients were admitted to hospital with flame burns caused by jumping over fires on the days when the traditional Shivlilik ceremony was celebrated. The clinical data evaluated included the patient’s age and sex, the depth of the burn injury, the total burned surface area (TBSA), and the distribution of the burn areas. Conclusions: Serious flame burns occur because of the traditional Shivlilik ceremony. We must promote some changes in this ceremony in order to prevent these burns. PMID:26550532

  14. In-Situ Burning of Spilled Oil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Alan A.

    1991-01-01

    Reviews in-situ burning with particular emphasis on how it can be applied in water-related oil spill situations. Presents and discusses the use of nomograms and development of techniques cited for safe and effective ignition and controlled burning of spilled oil. Includes representative oil spill scenarios and possible responses. (15 references)…

  15. Topical Antimicrobials for Burn Wound Infections

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Tianhong; Huang, Ying-Ying; Sharma, Sulbha K.; Hashmi, Javad T.; Kurup, Divya B.; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    Throughout most of history, serious burns occupying a large percentage of body surface area were an almost certain death sentence because of subsequent infection. A number of factors such as disruption of the skin barrier, ready availability of bacterial nutrients in the burn milieu, destruction of the vascular supply to the burned skin, and systemic disturbances lead to immunosuppression combined together to make burns particularly susceptible to infection. In the 20th century the introduction of antibiotic and antifungal drugs, the use of topical antimicrobials that could be applied to burns, and widespread adoption of early excision and grafting all helped to dramatically increase survival. However the relentless increase in microbial resistance to antibiotics and other antimicrobials has led to a renewed search for alternative approaches to prevent and combat burn infections. This review will cover patented strategies that have been issued or filed with regard to new topical agents, preparations, and methods of combating burn infections. Animal models that are used in preclinical studies are discussed. Various silver preparations (nanocrystalline and slow release) are the mainstay of many approaches but antimicrobial peptides, topical photodynamic therapy, chitosan preparations, new iodine delivery formulations, phage therapy and natural products such as honey and essential oils have all been tested. This active area of research will continue to provide new topical antimicrobials for burns that will battle against growing multi-drug resistance. PMID:20429870

  16. Validation of the burns itch questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Van Loey, N E; Hofland, H W; Hendrickx, H; Van de Steenoven, J; Boekelaar, A; Nieuwenhuis, M K

    2016-05-01

    Itch (pruritus) is a common multidimensional complaint after burn that can persist for months to years. A questionnaire able to investigate itch and its consequences is imperative for clinical and research purposes. The current study investigated the factor structure, internal consistency and construct validity of the Burns Itch Questionnaire (BIQ), a questionnaire particularly focusing on itch in the burns population. The BIQ was completed by 195 respondents at 3 months after burn. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was performed to investigate the factor structure. EFA showed the BIQ comprised three latent factors: itch severity, sleep interference and daily life interference. This was re-evaluated in a confirmatory factor analysis that yielded good fit indices after removing two items. The three subscales showed to have high internal consistency (.89) and were able to distinguish between patients with severe and less severe complaints. In conclusion, the BIQ showed to be useful in persons suffering from itch following burns. PMID:26778706

  17. Fungal infections in burns: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Struck, M F; Gille, J

    2013-09-30

    Burn wound infections remain the most important factor limiting survival in burn intensive care units. Large wound surface, impaired immune systems, and broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy contribute to the growth of opportunistic fungal species. Faced with challenging fluid resuscitation, wound excision and cardiopulmonary stabilization, mycosis in burns are likely to be underestimated. Diagnostic performance can sometimes be delayed because clinical signs are unspecific and differentiation between colonization and infection is difficult. Therapeutic measures range from infection prophylaxis over treatment with antifungal agents towards radical amputation of infected limbs. New methods of early and reliable detection of fungal organisms, as well as the use of novel antifungal substances, are promising but require wider establishment to confirm the beneficial effects in burn patients. This review aims to highlight the main important aspects of fungal infections in burns including incidence, infection control, diagnostic and therapeutic approaches, prognosis and outcomes. PMID:24563641

  18. Fungal infections in burns: a comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Struck, M.F.; Gille, J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Burn wound infections remain the most important factor limiting survival in burn intensive care units. Large wound surface, impaired immune systems, and broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy contribute to the growth of opportunistic fungal species. Faced with challenging fluid resuscitation, wound excision and cardiopulmonary stabilization, mycosis in burns are likely to be underestimated. Diagnostic performance can sometimes be delayed because clinical signs are unspecific and differentiation between colonization and infection is difficult. Therapeutic measures range from infection prophylaxis over treatment with antifungal agents towards radical amputation of infected limbs. New methods of early and reliable detection of fungal organisms, as well as the use of novel antifungal substances, are promising but require wider establishment to confirm the beneficial effects in burn patients. This review aims to highlight the main important aspects of fungal infections in burns including incidence, infection control, diagnostic and therapeutic approaches, prognosis and outcomes. PMID:24563641

  19. Fatal rhabdomyolysis in a flame burn patient.

    PubMed

    Lazarus, D; Hudson, D A

    1997-08-01

    Rhabdomyolysis due to flame burns is not well described. A case of fatal rhabdomyolysis in an epileptic patient who sustained 65 per cent body surface area, very deep, flame burns is described. It appears as if the sustained muscle compression from the restrictive, circumferential eschar was the major factor in the aetiology of the rhabdomyolysis. Despite aggressive fluid management, the patient died of acute renal failure and adult respiratory distress syndrome. We have subsequently identified three other cases of pigmenturia occurring following burns. It would seem as if rhabdomyolysis following extensive full thickness burns may be more common than previously suggested. Fluid requirements are in excess of those proposed by traditional protocols. Rhabdomyolysis in flame burn patients indicates a poor prognosis. PMID:9426917

  20. Sexual Function Following Burn Injuries: Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Pandya, Atisha A; Corkill, Helen A; Goutos, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    Sexual function is a profound facet of the human personality. Burns due their sudden and devastating nature can have longstanding effects on intimate function by virtue of physical sequelae as well as alterations in body image and perceived desirability. A considerable number of patients encounter problems with intimate function in burns rehabilitation; nevertheless, the topic appears to be poorly addressed in specialist centers worldwide. Review of the literature suggests that a number of parameters can affect the quality of sexual life following burn injuries including age at the time of injury, location, and severity of the burn as well as coping mechanisms employed by the individual survivor. Addressing issues of intimacy relies on awareness, education, and a holistic approach on behalf of the multidisciplinary team members and, to this effect, recommendations are made on managing sexual function concerns in burns rehabilitation. PMID:25423439

  1. The cost of post-burn scarring.

    PubMed

    Mirastschijski, U; Sander, J T; Zier, U; Rennekampff, H O; Weyand, B; Vogt, P M

    2015-09-30

    Deep burns lead to scarring and contractures for which there is little or no published data on treatment costs. The purpose of this study was to fill this gap by analysing treatment costs for burn sequelae. To do this, German-DRG for in-patient treatment was collected from the Burn Centre Lower Saxony. DRG-related T95.-coding served as a tool for burn-associated sequelae. Data on scar occurrence, plastic-reconstructive surgery and sick leave were collected by a questionnaire. The findings showed that 44.6% patients reported post-burn scarring and 31% needed surgical intervention. The expected risk for readmission was significantly higher (p=0.0002) with scars compared to without. Significantly higher costs for pressure garments were noted for scarred patients (p=0.04). No differences were found for ointments, silicone dressings or pain medication. Treatment costs for patients with scars were 5.6 times higher compared with no scar assessed by G-DRG. No differences were stated subsuming multiple readmissions for post-burn treatment per individual. Significantly higher costs (p=0.03) were noted for patients with burn sequelae other than scars with regard to individual readmissions. It has been revealed that treatment of scars causes higher costs than for other burn sequelae because of multiple surgical interventions. To reduce post-burn scarring and costs, specialized burn centres provide optimal and state-of-the-art treatment. As well as this, more emphasis should be laid on promoting research for the development of novel anti-scarring therapies. PMID:27279810

  2. Kitchen Cooking Burns a Real Danger for Kids

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160530.html Kitchen Cooking Burns a Real Danger for Kids Establish a ' ... this burn accident was not an isolated case. Cooking burns are common among American children, but can ...

  3. Threshold age and burn size associated with poor outcomes in the elderly after burn injury.

    PubMed

    Jeschke, Marc G; Pinto, Ruxandra; Costford, Sheila R; Amini-Nik, Saeid

    2016-03-01

    Elderly burn care represents a vast challenge. The elderly are one of the most susceptible populations to burn injuries, but also one of the fastest growing demographics, indicating a substantial increase in patient numbers in the near future. Despite the need and importance of elderly burn care, survival of elderly burn patients is poor. Additionally, little is known about the responses of elderly patients after burn. One central question that has not been answered is what age defines an elderly patient. The current study was conducted to determine whether there is a cut-off age for elderly burn patients that is correlated with an increased risk for mortality and to determine the burn size in modern burn care that is associated with increased mortality. To answer these questions, we applied appropriate statistical analyses to the Ross Tilley Burn Centre and the Inflammatory and Host Response to Injury databases. We could not find a clear cut-off age that differentiates or predicts between survival and death. Risk of death increased linearly with increasing age. Additionally, we found that the LD50 decreases from 45% total body surface area (TBSA) to 25% TBSA from the age of 55 years to the age of 70 years, indicating that even small burns lead to poor outcome in the elderly. We therefore concluded that age is not an ideal to predictor of burn outcome, but we strongly suggest that burn care providers be aware that if an elderly patient sustains even a 25% TBSA burn, the risk of mortality is 50% despite the implementation of modern protocolized burn care. PMID:26803373

  4. [Quantification of crop residue burned areas based on burning indices using Landsat 8 image].

    PubMed

    Ma, Jian-hang; Song, Kai-shar; Wen, Zhi-dan; Shao, Tian-tian; Li, Bo-nan; Qi, Cai

    2015-11-01

    Crop residue burning leads to atmospheric pollution and is an enormous waste of crop residue resource. Crop residue burning can be monitored timely in large regions as the fire points can be recognized through remotely sensed image via thermal infrared bands. However, the area, the detailed distribution pattern and especially the severity of the burning areas cannot be derived only by the thermal remote sensing approach. The burning index, which was calculated with two or more spectral bands at where the burned and unburned areas have distinct spectral characteristics, is widely used in the forest fire investigation. However its potential application for crop residue burning evaluation has not been explored. With two Landsat 8 images that cover a part of the Songnen Plain, three burning indices, i.e., the normalized burned ratio (NBR), the normalized burned ratio incorporating the thermal band (NBRT), and the burned area index (BAI), were used to classify the crop residue burned and unburned areas. The overall classification accuracies were 91.9%, 92.3%, and 87.8%, respectively. The correlation analysis between the indices and the crop residue coverage indicated that the NBR and NBRT were positively correlated with the crop residue coverage (R2 = 0.73 and 0.64, respectively) with linear regression models, while the BAI was exponentially correlated with the crop residue coverage (R2 = 0.68). The results indicated that the use of burning indices in crop residue burning monitoring could quantify crop residue burning severity and provide valuable data for evaluating atmospheric pollution. PMID:26915202

  5. MORBIDITY AND SURVIVAL PROBABILITY IN BURN PATIENTS IN MODERN BURN CARE

    PubMed Central

    Jeschke, Marc G.; Pinto, Ruxandra; Kraft, Robert; Nathens, Avery B.; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Gamelli, Richard L.; Gibran, Nicole S.; Klein, Matthew B.; Arnoldo, Brett D.; Tompkins, Ronald G.; Herndon, David N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Characterizing burn sizes that are associated with an increased risk of mortality and morbidity is critical because it would allow identifying patients who might derive the greatest benefit from individualized, experimental, or innovative therapies. Although scores have been established to predict mortality, few data addressing other outcomes exist. The objective of this study was to determine burn sizes that are associated with increased mortality and morbidity after burn. Design and Patients Burn patients were prospectively enrolled as part of the multicenter prospective cohort study, Inflammation and the Host Response to Injury Glue Grant, with the following inclusion criteria: 0–99 years of age, admission within 96 hours after injury, and >20% total body surface area burns requiring at least one surgical intervention. Setting Six major burn centers in North America. Measurements and Main Results Burn size cutoff values were determined for mortality, burn wound infection (at least two infections), sepsis (as defined by ABA sepsis criteria), pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and multiple organ failure (DENVER2 score >3) for both children (<16 years) and adults (16–65 years). Five-hundred seventy-three patients were enrolled, of which 226 patients were children. Twenty-three patients were older than 65 years and were excluded from the cutoff analysis. In children, the cutoff burn size for mortality, sepsis, infection, and multiple organ failure was approximately 60% total body surface area burned. In adults, the cutoff for these outcomes was lower, at approximately 40% total body surface area burned. Conclusions In the modern burn care setting, adults with over 40% total body surface area burned and children with over 60% total body surface area burned are at high risk for morbidity and mortality, even in highly specialized centers. PMID:25559438

  6. Suicidal burns in Samarkand burn centers and their consequences

    PubMed Central

    Shakirov, B.M.; Ahmedov, Y.M.; Hakimov, E.A.; Tagaev, K.R.; Karabaev, B.H.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Suicide is a global public health problem, particularly in Asia where few countries with large populations have high suicide rates accounting for the majority of the world’s suicides. During a 14-year period, 76 individuals, aged 17 to 66 years, committed suicide from 1995 to 2008 and were included in this report. Data was collected on each patient including, age, sex, place of injury, patient occupation, accommodation, psychiatric illness, suicidal motives, flammable substances used, place of burn, season of the year, and total body surface area (TBSA) burnt. Most suicidal cases (55 out of 76) had a history of depressive episodes and emotional unstable disorders, and 18 of them had a known history of psychiatric illness. In 5 cases alcohol intoxication was present at the moment of suicide, and 3 patients had chronic alcohol dependence together with basic psychiatric disease. It is also evident from this study that the causes of suicide in females are mainly socio-economical and psychological. PMID:24799853

  7. Biomass burning a driver for global change

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, J.S.; Cofer, W.R. III; Cahoon, D.R. Jr.; Winstead, E.L.

    1995-03-01

    Recent research has identified another biospheric process that has instantaneous and longer term effects on the production of atmospheric gases: biomass burning. Biomass burning includes the burning of the world`s vegetation-forests, savannas. and agricultural lands, to clear the land and change its use. Only in the past decade have researchers realized the important contributions of biomass burning to the global budgets of many radiatively and chemically active gases - carbon dioxide, methane, nitric oxide, tropospheric ozone, methyl chloride - and elemental carbon particulates. International field experiments and satellite data are yielding a clearer understanding of this important global source of atmospheric gases and particulates. It is seen that in addition to being a significant instantaneous global source of atmospheric gases and particulates, burning enhances the biogenic emissions of nitric oxide and nitrous oxide from the world`s soils. Biomass burning affects the reflectivity and emissivity of the Earth`s surface as well as the hydrological cycle by changing rates of land evaporation and water runoff. For these reasons, it appears that biomass burning is a significant driver of global change. 20 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Digitisation of the total burn surface area.

    PubMed

    Berry, M G; Goodwin, T I; Misra, R R; Dunn, K W

    2006-09-01

    The assessment of surface area of the body affected by a burn (TBSA) has long been estimated with manual charts. Initial assessment of burned patients is made frequently by clinicians with limited experience producing significant errors. Paper copies of burn charts are unwieldy, subject to loss and tend towards overestimation. Thus, a simple method of calculation, recording and transmission via email or telemedicine may produce benefits in both initial treatment and data recording. Although computer-based systems have been reported previously none have entered routine clinical practice in the UK. We devised a PC-based program, "Burn Calculator", whereby digital transcription of the burn allows automatic area calculation allowing not only a rapid, accurate figure for determination of fluid resuscitation, but also the potential for rapid electronic transmission. It also calculates fluid requirements to minimise errors during resuscitation. This initial pilot study compared figures from 50 paper charts with those from Burn Calculator to determine its accuracy and reproducibility. Previously reported variations in TBSA estimation were confirmed, as was the tendency towards TBSA underestimation resulting from transcription of a three-dimensional clinical situation to a two-dimensional representation. Burn Calculator showed high correlation (r=0.9850; p<0.0001) and reproducibility (R=0.9957) that would simplify assessment and referral plus facilitate data collection, interpretation and research. PMID:16844301

  9. Pediatric burn wound impetigo after grafting.

    PubMed

    Aikins, Kimberly; Prasad, Narayan; Menon, Seema; Harvey, John G; Holland, Andrew J A

    2015-01-01

    Modern burn care techniques have reduced the risk of infection of the acute burn wound, resulting in more rapid healing and a lower incidence of graft loss. Secondary breakdown may still occur. The loss of epithelium in association with multifocal superficial abscesses and ulceration has been termed burns impetigo. This may result in considerable morbidity and require prolonged treatment. The events preceding development, the impact on the patient, and the ideal treatment appear unclear and poorly reported. In 5 years, between 2006 and 2011, 406 pediatric burns were treated with skin grafts, with 7% developing burns impetigo. Time to resolution ranged from 5 to 241 days: the mean time to complete healing was greatest with conservative management (96 days), followed by antibacterial dressings (37 days), oral antibiotics (36 days), topical steroids (16 days), and oral antibiotics in combination with topical steroids (13.5 days). Burns impetigo resulted in significant morbidity, requiring multiple visits to the treatment center and prolonged symptoms. Delay in diagnosis and treatment resulted in worse outcomes. Prompt consideration of burns impetigo should occur when postgraft patients present with suggestive clinical signs and treatment with oral antibiotics plus topical steroids should be considered. PMID:24823337

  10. Electrothermal ring burn from a car battery.

    PubMed

    Sibley, Paul A; Godwin, Kenneth A

    2013-08-01

    Despite prevention efforts, burn injuries among auto mechanics are described in the literature. Electrothermal ring burns from car batteries occur by short-circuiting through the ring when it touches the open terminal or metal housing. This article describes a 34-year-old male auto mechanic who was holding a wrench when his gold ring touched the positive terminal of a 12-volt car battery and the wrench touched both his ring and the negative terminal. He felt instant pain and had a deep partial-thickness circumferential burn at the base of his ring finger. No other soft tissues were injured. He was initially managed conservatively, but after minimal healing at 3 weeks, he underwent a full-thickness skin graft. The graft incorporated well and healed by 4 weeks postoperatively. He had full range of motion. The cause of ring burns has been controversial, but based on reports similar to the current patient's mechanism, they are most likely electrothermal burns. Gold, a metal with high thermal conductivity, can heat up to its melting point in a matter of seconds. Many treatments have been described, including local wound care to split- and full-thickness skin grafts. Because most burns are preventable, staff should be warned and trained about the potential risks of contact burns. All jewelry should be removed, and the live battery terminal should be covered while working in the vicinity of the battery. PMID:23937760

  11. [Burns, new challenges to take on].

    PubMed

    Galí-Llàcer, Rosa; Sena-Fernández, Beatriz; Leyva-Moral, Juan Manuel

    2009-04-01

    This article concerns a transversal descriptive study which shows the characteristics of burns treated in a Primary Health Care Center in an urban environment in Barcelona from 19 July 2005 unti 11 August 2007 (N=93). Patients younger than 15 were excluded from this study. 88% (82; CI of 95% 81,47-94,59) of the burns treated were caused by a thermal agent. Kitchen cooking oil ranks first as the cause of burns (24; 27%, CI of 95% 17,99-36,01). 70% of the burns studied had signs of superficial skin damage (65, CI of 95% 60,70-79,30). 61% (57; CI of 95% 51,70-70,30) of these burns were located on upper extremities The average recorded body surface burned was 0.0076% (median = 0,005%, range = 0,0001-0,5000%). The greatest number of wounds were observed among men aged 31 to 45 (17%; 16; CI of 95% 9,38-24,62). Educational health programs which focus on prevention of, and first aid care for, burns are needed. Studies like this one may prove useful when starting preventive or educational strategies. PMID:19554895

  12. [Evaluation and first aid of burned patients].

    PubMed

    Wassermann, Daniel

    2002-12-15

    First cares of burned patients depend of an accurate evaluation of the injury severity. Total body surface area burned can be estimated taking into account the fact that the area of one hand face is equivalent to 1% of the total body surface (TBS) of the individual. Second-degree burns are characterized by the occurrence of phlyctena, third-degree burns appear like adhering necrosis without any sensibility. Smoke inhalation injuries are frequent and can be recognized on the presence of tare deposits inside the mouse and on the respiratory conducts. Taking care of the patient begins with making the victim safe from the thermal aggression. Then, cooling the burn is to be performed. The emergency medical care consists in securing respiratory function, and, as early as possible, in beginning perfusions of Ringer Lactate Lavoisier exceeding 20 mL/kg during the first post-burn hours for patient suffering of burns exceeding 10% of the total body area. Pain must be controlled using preferentially morphine or related products. Transport to the specialized unit, in case of severe injury, will be performed assuring thermal comfort, wound protection and vital function monitoring. PMID:12621940

  13. Reconstruction following head and neck burns.

    PubMed

    Neale, H W; Billmire, D A; Carey, J P

    1986-01-01

    Burn reconstruction of the head and neck must first start with special care to this anatomic area in the early acute phase, with appropriate early débridement and coverage with sheet grafts of medium thickness into unit facial orientation. Postoperative garment and mask splinting, will help lessen the hypertrophic scar formation that frequently follows facial burns and skin coverage. Carefully planned reconstruction of these areas is indicated, with priority given first to the neck, then to the periorbital area, and then to perioral areas. Principles of scalp, ear, nasal, and cheek reconstruction following burns of the face are carefully outlined. The unit concept of burn scar resurfacing of the face has been the mainstay of our treatment. We have emphasized skin coverage of the face from similar donor site areas. The emotional and psychological effects of facial scarring secondary to severe burns are crippling to patients. Although numerous reconstructive surgical procedures may lessen the deformity, ultimately burn patients realize that their burn scars are permanent and no surgeon can give them back their original facial appearance. These patients need strong and continued support and reassurance from their physicians and nursing professional staff to maintain their self-identity and confidence. PMID:3514059

  14. Burn injuries caused by air bag deployment.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, D; Noah, E M; Fuchs, P; Pallua, N

    2001-03-01

    Automobile air bags have gained acceptance as an effective measure to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with motor vehicle accidents. As more cars have become equipped with them, new problems have been encountered that are directly attributable to the deployment of the bag itself. An increasing variety of associated injuries has been reported, including minor burns. We present two automobile drivers who were involved in front-impact crashes with air bag inflation. They sustained superficial and partial-thickness burns related to the deployment. The evaluation of these cases shows mechanisms involved in burn injuries caused by the air bag system. Most of the burns are chemical and usually attributed to sodium hydroxide in the aerosol created during deployment. Also direct thermal burns from high-temperature gases or indirect injuries due to the melting of clothing, as well as friction burns from physical contact are possible. However, the inherent risks of air bag-related burns are still outweighed by the benefits of preventing potentially life-threatening injuries. PMID:11226663

  15. Infections in critically ill burn patients.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, F; Mas, D; Rubio, M; Garcia-Hierro, P

    2016-04-01

    Severe burn patients are one subset of critically patients in which the burn injury increases the risk of infection, systemic inflammatory response and sepsis. The infections are usually related to devices and to the burn wound. Most infections, as in other critically ill patients, are preceded by colonization of the digestive tract and the preventative measures include selective digestive decontamination and hygienic measures. Early excision of deep burn wound and appropriate use of topical antimicrobials and dressings are considered of paramount importance in the treatment of burns. Severe burn patients usually have some level of systemic inflammation. The difficulty to differentiate inflammation from sepsis is relevant since therapy differs between patients with and those without sepsis. The delay in prescribing antimicrobials increases morbidity and mortality. Moreover, the widespread use of antibiotics for all such patients is likely to increase antibiotic resistance, and costs. Unfortunately the clinical usefulness of biomarkers for differential diagnosis between inflammation and sepsis has not been yet properly evaluated. Severe burn injury induces physiological response that significantly alters drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. These alterations impact antimicrobials distribution and excretion. Nevertheless the current available literature shows that there is a paucity of information to support routine dose recommendations. PMID:27013315

  16. Prevention-oriented epidemiology of burns in Ardabil provincial burn centre, Iran.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi Bazargani, H; Arshi, S; Ekman, R; Mohammadi, R

    2011-05-01

    In preventing burns, it is essential to know how they occur and which population groups, environments and heating appliances can be targeted for prevention work. The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiological characteristics of burns leading to hospitalisation in the northwest of Iran with a focus on the pre-event phase of injury. Between 2007 and 2008, 237 burn victims hospitalised in Ardabil provincial burn centre were enrolled into a descriptive study. A questionnaire was filled in during hospital stay for all patients, with a focus on obtaining information necessary for prevention purposes. Males constituted 56% of victims. Mean age was 22 years. The most severe burns occurred between the ages of 18 and 32 years, and were mainly flame related. Both in case of flame and non-flame burns, women suffered more severe burns and mortality than men. However, with respect to non-flame burns of which most were scalds, the majority of the severe cases involved children under the age of 5 years. More than 80% of burns occurred at home. The kitchen was the main place of injury in 47% of cases, followed by living rooms in 28%. Nearly 45% of burns were scalds and 47% were flame burns. The main container was the samovar in 37%, followed by kettles in 32% and pots in 22%. The overturning of a container was the major mechanism of contact with hot liquids in 86%. Bumping into a container was the main scenario of a scald injury, constituting nearly 70% of the cases. The difference between flame and non-flame burns in the distribution of burns in extremities was not statistically significant, but head and neck burns were 3.7 times more likely to be caused by flame. The two most important injury patterns, more common among women, were getting burned while using a camping gas stove or while refilling the chamber of kerosene-burning appliances without first extinguishing them. Domestic burns among children and young women are a priority in injury-prevention programmes

  17. Pediatric scalp burns: hair today, gone tomorrow?

    PubMed

    Menon, Seema; Jacques, Madeleine; Harvey, John G; Holland, Andrew J A

    2015-01-01

    Scalp burns in the pediatric population appear relatively uncommon, with most reported cases occurring in adults secondary to electrical burns. We reviewed our experience with the management of these injuries in children. A retrospective review was conducted at our institution from March 2004 to July 2011. Scalp burns were defined as any burn crossing over the hairline into the scalp region. During the 7-year 4-month study, there were 107 scalp burns, representing 1.8% of the 6074 burns treated at our institution during that time. The cause was scald in 97, contact in 4, flame in 3, friction in 2, and chemical in 1. The majority (n = 93, 87%) appeared superficial to mid-dermal, with an average time to complete healing of 10.3 days. The remaining 14 cases (13%) were mid-dermal to full thickness, with an average time to complete healing of 50.8 days. Grafting was required in 12 cases (11%). The mean time to grafting was 4 weeks (range, 2 weeks to 2.5 months). The main complication of scalp burns was alopecia, which occurred in all grafted sites as well as in 4 patients treated conservatively. There were no other complications after grafting and no cases of graft loss. In our pediatric series, scalp burns were most commonly caused by scald injuries and were superficial to mid-dermal in depth. These generally healed rapidly but occasionally resulted in alopecia. The management of deep dermal and full-thickness scalp burns remains challenging in children, with the decision to graft often delayed. PMID:24823325

  18. Post-burn scars and scar contractures

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Arun; Shrivastava, Prabhat

    2010-01-01

    The mortality and morbidity from burns have diminished tremendously over the last six to seven decades. However, these do not truly reflect whether the victim could go back to society as a useful person or not and lead a normal life because of the inevitable post-burn scars, contractures and other deformities which collectively have aesthetic and functional considerations. This article gives an overview of the post-burn scars and scar contractures, especially their prevention, minimisation and principles of management. PMID:21321660

  19. Radiofrequency Ablation Complicated by Skin Burn

    PubMed Central

    Huffman, S.D.; Huffman, N.P.; Lewandowski, Robert J.; Brown, Daniel B.

    2011-01-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) ablation has been increasingly utilized as a minimally invasive treatment for primary and metastatic liver tumors, as well as tumors in the kidneys, bones, and adrenal glands. The development of high-current RF ablation has subsequently led to an increased risk of thermal skin injuries at the grounding pad site. The incidence of skin burns in recent studies ranges from 0.1–3.2% for severe skin burns (second-/third-degree), and from 5–33% for first-degree burns.1–3 PMID:22654258

  20. Monitoring End Points of Burn Resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Daniel M; Matthews, Marc R

    2016-10-01

    This article discusses commonly used methods of monitoring and determining the end points of resuscitation. Each end point of resuscitation is examined as it relates to use in critically ill burn patients. Published medical literature, clinical trials, consensus trials, and expert opinion regarding end points of resuscitation were gathered and reviewed. Specific goals were a detailed examination of each method in the critical care population and how this methodology can be used in the burn patient. Although burn resuscitation is monitored and administered using the methodology as seen in medical/surgical intensive care settings, special consideration for excessive edema formation, metabolic derangements, and frequent operative interventions must be considered. PMID:27600124

  1. [Major Burn Trauma Management and Nursing Care].

    PubMed

    Lo, Shu-Fen

    2015-08-01

    Major burn injury is one of the most serious and often life-threatening forms of trauma. Burn patients not only suffer from the physical, psychological, social and spiritual impacts of their injury but also experience considerable changes in health-related quality of life. This paper presents a review of the literature on the implications of previous research and clinical care guidelines related to major burn injuries in order to help clinical practice nurses use evidence-based care guidelines to respond to initial injury assessments, better manage the complex systemic response to these injuries, and provide specialist wound care, emotional support, and rehabilitation services. PMID:26242439

  2. Hypnosis for the treatment of burn pain.

    PubMed

    Patterson, D R; Everett, J J; Burns, G L; Marvin, J A

    1992-10-01

    The clinical utility of hypnosis for controlling pain during burn wound debridement was investigated. Thirty hospitalized burn patients and their nurses submitted visual analog scales (VAS) for pain during 2 consecutive daily wound debridements. On the 1st day, patients and nurses submitted baseline VAS ratings. Before the next day's would debridement, Ss received hypnosis, attention and information, or no treatment. Only hypnotized Ss reported significant pain reductions relative to pretreatment baseline. This result was corroborated by nurse VAS ratings. Findings indicate that hypnosis is a viable adjunct treatment for burn pain. Theoretical and practical implications and future research directions are discussed. PMID:1383302

  3. [Prospective methods of combat burn injury treatment].

    PubMed

    Ivchenko, E V; Golota, A S; Krassiĭ, A B; Sechin, A A

    2014-11-01

    The current article briefly reviews the projects of development of combat burn injury treatment as they have been presented in the US Armed Forces Institute of Regenerative Medicine 2013 annual report. Eleven projects have been reviewed, in particular: P12 polypeptide for limiting burn injury progression, gamma keratose gelfor enhancement skin cell survival, starch-polyurethane iodophor dressing effective against the most common burn infection, microorganisms, autologous stem and progenitor cells for single cell cytotransplantation by "skin gun" spray device or 3D skin bioprinting, a bioreactor for skin autotransplant expansion. PMID:25816683

  4. Interaction of Burning Metal Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreizin, Edward L.; Berman, Charles H.; Hoffmann, Vern K.

    1999-01-01

    Physical characteristics of the combustion of metal particle groups have been addressed in this research. The combustion behavior and interaction effects of multiple metal particles has been studied using a microgravity environment, which presents a unique opportunity to create an "aerosol" consisting of relatively large particles, i.e., 50-300 micrometer diameter. Combustion behavior of such an aerosol could be examined using methods adopted from well-developed single particle combustion research. The experiment included fluidizing relatively large (order of 100 micrometer diameter) uniform metal particles under microgravity and igniting such an "aerosol" using a hot wire igniter. The flame propagation and details of individual particle combustion and particle interaction have been studied using a high speed movie and video-imaging with cameras coupled with microscope lenses to resolve individual particles. Interference filters were used to separate characteristic metal and metal oxide radiation bands form the thermal black body radiation. Recorded flame images were digitized and employed to understand the processes occurring in the burning aerosol. The development of individual particle flames, merging or separation, and extinguishing as well as induced particle motion have been analyzed to identify the mechanisms governing these processes. Size distribution, morphology, and elemental compositions of combustion products were characterized and used to link the observed in this project aerosol combustion phenomena with the recently expanded mechanism of single metal particle combustion.

  5. TIGER Burned Brightly in JAMIC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Sandra L.; Kashiwagi, Takashi

    2001-01-01

    The Transition From Ignition to Flame Growth Under External Radiation in 3D (TIGER- 3D) experiment, which is slated to fly aboard the International Space Station, conducted a series of highly successful tests in collaboration with the University of Hokkaido using Japan's 10-sec JAMIC drop tower. The tests were conducted to test engineering versions of advanced flight diagnostics such as an infrared camera for detailed surface temperature measurements and an infrared spectroscopic array for gas-phase species concentrations and temperatures based on detailed spectral emissions in the near infrared. Shown in the top figure is a visible light image and in the bottom figure is an infrared image at 3.8 mm obtained during the microgravity tests. The images show flames burning across cellulose samples against a slow wind of a few centimeters per second (wind is from right to left). These flow velocities are typical of spacecraft ventilation systems that provide fresh air for the astronauts. The samples are ignited across the center with a hot wire, and the flame is allowed to spread upwind and/or downwind. As these images show, the flames prefer to spread upwind, into the fresh air, which is the exact opposite of flames on Earth, which spread much faster downwind, or with the airflow, as in forest fires.

  6. Interaction of Burning Metal Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreizin, Edward L.; Berman, Charles H.; Hoffmann, Vern K.

    1999-01-01

    Physical characteristics of the combustion of metal particle groups have been addressed in this research. The combustion behavior and interaction effects of multiple metal particles has been studied using a microgravity environment, which presents a unique opportunity to create an "aerosol" consisting of relatively large particles, i.e., 50-300 m diameter. Combustion behavior of such an aerosol could be examined using methods adopted from well-developed single particle combustion research. The experiment included fluidizing relatively large (order of 100 m diameter) uniform metal particles under microgravity and igniting such an "aerosol" using a hot wire igniter. The flame propagation and details of individual particle combustion and particle interaction have been studied using a high speed movie and video-imaging with cameras coupled with microscope lenses to resolve individual particles. Interference filters were used to separate characteristic metal and metal oxide radiation bands from the thermal black body radiation. Recorded flame images were digitized and various image processing techniques including flame position tracking, color separation, and pixel by pixel image comparison were employed to understand the processes occurring in the burning aerosol. The development of individual particle flames, merging or separation, and extinguishment as well as induced particle motion have been analyzed to identify the mechanisms governing these processes. Size distribution, morphology, and elemental compositions of combustion products were characterized and used to link the observed in this project aerosol combustion phenomena with the recently expanded mechanism of single metal particle combustion.

  7. Global biomass burning. Atmospheric, climatic, and biospheric implications

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    Biomass burning is a significant source of atmospheric gases and, as such, may contribute to global climate changes. Biomass burning includes burning forests and savanna grasslands for land clearing, burning agricultural stubble and waste after harvesting, and burning biomass fuels. The chapters in this volume include the following topics: remote sensing of biomass burning from space;geographical distribution of burning; combustion products of burning in tropical, temperate and boreal ecosystems; burning as a global source of atmospheric gases and particulates; impacts of biomass burning gases and particulates on global climate; and the role of biomass burning on biodiversity and past global extinctions. A total of 1428 references are cited for the 63 chapters. Individual chapters are indexed separately for the data bases.

  8. Burning mouth syndrome: an enigmatic disorder.

    PubMed

    Javali, M A

    2013-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic oral pain or burning sensation affecting the oral mucosa, often unaccompanied by mucosal lesions or other evident clinical signs. It is observed principally in middle-aged patients and postmenopausal women and may be accompanied by xerostomia and altered taste. Burning mouth syndrome is characterized by an intense burning or stinging sensation, preferably on the tongue or in other areas of mouth. This disorder is one of the most common, encountered in the clinical practice. This condition is probably of multifactorial origin; however the exact underlying etiology remains uncertain. This article discusses several aspects of BMS, updates current knowledge about the etiopathogenesis and describes the clinical features as well as the diagnosis and management of BMS patients. PMID:24096230

  9. On burning a lump of coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Serrano, Ana; Visser, Matt

    2016-06-01

    Burning something, (e.g. the proverbial lump of coal, or an encyclopaedia for that matter), in a blackbody furnace leads to an approximately Planck emission spectrum with an average entropy/information transfer of approximately 3.9 ± 2.5 bits per emitted photon. This quantitative and qualitative result depends only on the underlying unitarity of the quantum physics of burning, combined with the statistical mechanics of blackbody radiation. The fact that the utterly standard and unitarity preserving process of burning something (in fact, burning anything) nevertheless has an associated entropy/information budget, and the quantitative size of that entropy/information budget, is a severely under-appreciated feature of standard quantum statistical physics.

  10. Burns in childhood: an epidemiological survey.

    PubMed

    Pegg, S P; Gregory, J J; Hogan, P G; Mottarelly, I W; Walker, L F

    1978-08-01

    The epidemiology of 382 burns admitted to the Royal Children's Hospital, Brisbane, is reviewed. Accidents due to burn trauma are disproportionately common among children when compared with adults, and during childhood years make up a sizable proportion of all injuries. In addition to the immediate physical trauma, there can be severe psychological consequences as well as severe disturbances to family life. Seventy per cent of the children in this series were normal active children less than four years of age, who were too young to learn that certain things are dangerous, and for this group preventative measures must be directed towards the parents. Possible methods of prevention of burns in children are discussed, and it is tragic that the very traits that make young children so engaging also lead them to accidental burn injuries. Their only hope of prevention lies in increased parental concern. PMID:282865

  11. Adulterated Kerosene Burn Disaster: the Nigeria Experience

    PubMed Central

    Olugbenga, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    Summary A major kerosene explosion disaster occurred in oil-producing Nigeria in October 2001. One hundred and twenty-five burn patients were treated at the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital in a 25-day period of 12/10/01 to 6/11/01. All but two of the patients sustained fire/flame burns resulting from hurricane lantern and cooking stove explosions in home or enclosed environments. In a scene reminiscent of petrol bomb explosions, most burns were extensive, covering the face, chest, and abdomen. Burns were relatively deep because the clothing was usually perfused with the splashed fuel. Severity was greater in females than males, as they were more in contact with lamps and cooking stoves in the household. Almost 50% of the patients required hospitalization upwards of 3 weeks. PMID:21990977

  12. Radioactivity released from burning gas lantern mantles.

    PubMed

    Luetzelschwab, J W; Googins, S W

    1984-04-01

    Gas lantern mantles contain thorium to produce incandescence when lantern fuel is burned on the mantle. Although only thorium is initially present on the mantle, the thorium daughters build up, some over a period of weeks and some over a period of years, and significant quantities of these daughters are present when the mantle is used. Some of these daughters are released when the lantern fuel is burned on the mantle. The amounts of radioactivity released during burning is studied by measuring the gamma radiation emitted by the daughters. Results of this study show that some of the radium (224Ra and 228Ra) and more than half the 212Pb and 212Bi is released during the first hour of a burn. The actual amounts release depend on the age of the mantle. PMID:6706595

  13. Burn injuries during paint thinner sniffing.

    PubMed

    Ho, W S; To, E W; Chan, E S; King, W W

    1998-12-01

    Thinner sniffing is popular among school children in Asian countries because it is readily available at low cost. Besides its toxicity to major organs, thinner inhalation is associated with various burn accidents. Four teenagers were admitted to the Burns Unit of the Prince of Wales Hospital over the period of 1996-1997. They sustained 3-25% TBSA flame burn and two of them had inhalation injuries as a result of the ignition of a cigarette during thinner sniffing. None of them had evidence of thinner intoxication as shown by blood tests. In the management of their acute burn injuries, their hidden social and family problems were explored. With the cooperation of different disciplines, early psychosocial intervention was given and their behavioral and psychological disturbances were successfully managed. PMID:9915679

  14. Erosive Burning Study Utilizing Ultrasonic Measurement Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furfaro, James A.

    2003-01-01

    A 6-segment subscale motor was developed to generate a range of internal environments from which multiple propellants could be characterized for erosive burning. The motor test bed was designed to provide a high Mach number, high mass flux environment. Propellant regression rates were monitored for each segment utilizing ultrasonic measurement techniques. These data were obtained for three propellants RSRM, ETM- 03, and Castor@ IVA, which span two propellant types, PBAN (polybutadiene acrylonitrile) and HTPB (hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene). The characterization of these propellants indicates a remarkably similar erosive burning response to the induced flow environment. Propellant burnrates for each type had a conventional response with respect to pressure up to a bulk flow velocity threshold. Each propellant, however, had a unique threshold at which it would experience an increase in observed propellant burn rate. Above the observed threshold each propellant again demonstrated a similar enhanced burn rate response corresponding to the local flow environment.

  15. Topical Pain Relievers May Cause Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Topical Pain Relievers May Cause Burns Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... ts If you've ever rubbed a topical pain reliever—a cream, gel or other product applied to ...

  16. NASA's MISR Instrument Sees Arizona Wildfires Burn

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation from NASA’s Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument on the Terra spacecraft show the Wallow and Horseshoe 2 Fires burning in Arizona mid-morning (local time) on Jun...

  17. Predictors of insulin resistance in pediatric burn injury survivors 24 to 36 months post-burn

    PubMed Central

    Chondronikola, Maria; Meyer, Walter J.; Sidossis, Labros S.; Ojeda, Sylvia; Huddleston, Joanna; Stevens, Pamela; Børsheim, Elisabet; Suman, Oscar E.; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Herndon, David N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Burn injury is a dramatic event with acute and chronic consequences including insulin resistance. However, factors associated with insulin resistance have not been previously investigated. Purpose To identify factors associated with long-term insulin resistance in pediatric burn injury survivors. Methods The study sample consisted of 61 pediatric burn injury survivors 24 to 36 months after the burn injury, who underwent an oral glucose tolerance test. To assess insulin resistance, we calculated the area under the curve for glucose and insulin. The diagnostic criteria of the American Diabetes Association were used to define individuals with impaired glucose metabolism. Additional data collected include body composition, anthropometric measurements, burn characteristics and demographic information. The data were analyzed using multivariate linear regression analysis. Results Approximately 12% of the patients met the criteria for impaired glucose metabolism. After adjusting for possible confounders, burn size, age and percent body fat were associated with the area under the curve for glucose (p<0.05 for all). Time post-burn and lean mass were inversely associated with the area under the curve for glucose (p<0.05 for both). Similarly, older age predicted higher insulin area under the curve. Conclusion A significant proportion of pediatric injury survivors suffer from glucose abnormalities 24–36 months post-burn. Burn size, time post-burn, age, lean mass and adiposity are significant predictors of insulin resistance in pediatric burn injury survivors. Clinical evaluation and screening for abnormal glucose metabolism should be emphasized in patients with large burns, older age and survivors with high body fat. PMID:24918945

  18. Coal-burning magnetohydrodynamic power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Kessler, R.; Hals, F. )

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, coal-burning magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) electric power generation technology is described, and its economic and environmental advantages are discussed. advanced MHD/steam plants can achieve efficiencies of 55%-60% with less environmental intrusion than form conventional coal-burning steam plants. The national program for development of MHD power generation is outlined and the development status of individual components and subsystems is presented.

  19. Pathophysiologic Response to Burns in the Elderly☆

    PubMed Central

    Jeschke, Marc G.; Patsouris, David; Stanojcic, Mile; Abdullahi, Abdikarim; Rehou, Sarah; Pinto, Ruxandra; Chen, Peter; Burnett, Marjorie; Amini-Nik, Saeid

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decades advancements have improved survival and outcomes of severely burned patients except one population, elderly. The Lethal Dose 50 (LD50) burn size in elderly has remained the same over the past three decades, and so has morbidity and mortality, despite the increased demand for elderly burn care. The objective of this study is to gain insights on why elderly burn patients have had such a poor outcome when compared to adult burn patients. The significance of this project is that to this date, burn care providers recognize the extreme poor outcome of elderly, but the reason remains unclear. In this prospective translational trial, we have determined clinical, metabolic, inflammatory, immune, and skin healing aspects. We found that elderly have a profound increased mortality, more premorbid conditions, and stay at the hospital for longer, p < 0.05. Interestingly, we could not find a higher incidence of infection or sepsis in elderly, p > 0.05, but a significant increased incidence of multi organ failure, p < 0.05. These clinical outcomes were associated with a delayed hypermetabolic response, increased hyperglycemic and hyperlipidemic responses, inversed inflammatory response, immune-compromisation and substantial delay in wound healing predominantly due to alteration in characteristics of progenitor cells, p < 0.05. In summary, elderly have substantially different responses to burns when compared to adults associated with increased morbidity and mortality. This study indicates that these responses are complex and not linear, requiring a multi-modal approach to improve the outcome of severely burned elderly. PMID:26629550

  20. The Local Treatment of Burns With Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Napoli, B.; D’Arpa, N.; Masellis, A.; Masellis, M.

    2005-01-01

    Summary After presenting an analysis of the principal antiseptics used for the local treatment of burns, highlighting their toxicity and the limitations of their antibacterial effectiveness, we describe the therapeutic protocol used in our burns centre (where antibacterial treatment consists exclusively of antibiotics for both local and systemic use). We review the data regarding actual and predicted mortality, and mortality due to septicaemia during the years 2000-2003. PMID:21990992

  1. Infection control in severely burned patients

    PubMed Central

    Coban, Yusuf Kenan

    2012-01-01

    In the last two decades, much progress has been made in the control of burn wound infection and nasocomial infections (NI) in severely burned patients. The continiually changing epidemiology is partially related to greater understanding of and improved techniques for burn patient management as well as effective hospital infection control measures. With the advent of antimicrobial chemotherapeutic agents, infection of the wound site is now not as common as, for example, urinary and blood stream infections. Universal application of early excision of burned tissues has made a substantial improvement in the control of wound-related infections in burns. Additionally, the development of new technologies in wound care have helped to decrease morbidity and mortality in severe burn victims. Many examples can be given of the successful control of wound infection, such as the application of an appropriate antibiotic solution to invasive wound infection sites with simultaneous vacuum-assisted closure, optimal preservation of viable tissues with waterjet debridement systems, edema and exudate controlling dressings impregnated with Ag (Silvercel, Aquacell-Ag). The burned patient is at high risk for NI. Invasive interventions including intravenous and urinary chateterization, and entubation pose a further risk of NIs. The use of newly designed antimicrobial impregnated chateters or silicone devices may help the control of infection in these immunocomprimised patients. Strict infection control practices (physical isolation in a private room, use of gloves and gowns during patient contact) and appropriate empirical antimicrobial therapy guided by laboratory surveillance culture as well as routine microbial burn wound culture are essential to help reduce the incidance of infections due to antibiotic resistant microorganisms. PMID:24701406

  2. Pathophysiologic Response to Burns in the Elderly.

    PubMed

    Jeschke, Marc G; Patsouris, David; Stanojcic, Mile; Abdullahi, Abdikarim; Rehou, Sarah; Pinto, Ruxandra; Chen, Peter; Burnett, Marjorie; Amini-Nik, Saeid

    2015-10-01

    Over the last decades advancements have improved survival and outcomes of severely burned patients except one population, elderly. The Lethal Dose 50 (LD50) burn size in elderly has remained the same over the past three decades, and so has morbidity and mortality, despite the increased demand for elderly burn care. The objective of this study is to gain insights on why elderly burn patients have had such a poor outcome when compared to adult burn patients. The significance of this project is that to this date, burn care providers recognize the extreme poor outcome of elderly, but the reason remains unclear. In this prospective translational trial, we have determined clinical, metabolic, inflammatory, immune, and skin healing aspects. We found that elderly have a profound increased mortality, more premorbid conditions, and stay at the hospital for longer, p < 0.05. Interestingly, we could not find a higher incidence of infection or sepsis in elderly, p > 0.05, but a significant increased incidence of multi organ failure, p < 0.05. These clinical outcomes were associated with a delayed hypermetabolic response, increased hyperglycemic and hyperlipidemic responses, inversed inflammatory response, immune-compromisation and substantial delay in wound healing predominantly due to alteration in characteristics of progenitor cells, p < 0.05. In summary, elderly have substantially different responses to burns when compared to adults associated with increased morbidity and mortality. This study indicates that these responses are complex and not linear, requiring a multi-modal approach to improve the outcome of severely burned elderly. PMID:26629550

  3. Epidemiology and screening of intentional burns in children in a Dutch burn centre.

    PubMed

    Bousema, Sara; Stas, Helene G; van de Merwe, Marjolijn H; Oen, Irma M M H; Baartmans, Martin G A; van Baar, Margriet E

    2016-09-01

    International estimates of the incidence of non-accidental burns (NAB) in children admitted to burn centres vary from 1% to 25%. Hardly any data about Dutch figures exist. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence, treatment and outcome of burns due to suspected child abuse in paediatric burns. We described the process of care and outcome, including the accuracy of the SPUTOVAMO screening tool and examined child, burn and treatment characteristics related to suspicions of child abuse or neglect. A retrospective study was conducted in children aged 0-17 years with a primary admission after burn injuries to the burn centre Rotterdam in the period 2009-2013. Data on patient, injury and treatment characteristics were collected, using the Dutch Burn Repository R3. In addition, medical records were reviewed. In 498 paediatric admissions, suspected child abuse or neglect was present in 43 children (9%). 442 screening questionnaires (89%) were completed. In 52 out of 442 questionnaires (12%) the completed SPUTOVAMO had one or more positive signs. Significant independent predictors for suspected child abuse were burns in the genital area or buttocks (OR=3.29; CI: 143-7.55) and a low socio-economic status (OR=2.52; 95%CI: 1.30-4.90). The incidence of suspected child abuse indicating generation of additional support in our population is comparable to studies with a similar design in other countries. PMID:27211360

  4. Spatial frequency domain imaging of burn wounds in a preclinical model of graded burn severity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, John Quan; Crouzet, Christian; Mai, Tuan; Riola, Kathleen; Uchitel, Daniel; Liaw, Lih-Huei; Bernal, Nicole; Ponticorvo, Adrien; Choi, Bernard; Durkin, Anthony J.

    2013-06-01

    Frequent monitoring of early-stage burns is necessary for deciding optimal treatment and management. Both superficial and full thickness burns are relatively easy to diagnose based on clinical observation. In between these two extremes are superficial-partial thickness and deep-partial thickness burns. These burns, while visually similar, differ dramatically in terms of clinical treatment and are known to progress in severity over time. The objective of this study was to determine the potential of spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) for noninvasively mapping quantitative changes in chromophore and optical properties that may be an indicative of burn wound severity. A controlled protocol of graded burn severity was developed and applied to 17 rats. SFDI data was acquired at multiple near-infrared wavelengths over a course of 3 h. Burn severity was verified using hematoxylin and eosin histology. From this study, we found that changes in water concentration (edema), deoxygenated hemoglobin concentration, and optical scattering (tissue denaturation) to be statistically significant at differentiating superficial partial-thickness burns from deep-partial thickness burns.

  5. Possible risk factors associated with burn wound colonization in burn units of Gaza strip hospitals, Palestine.

    PubMed

    Al Laham, N A; Elmanama, A A; Tayh, G A

    2013-06-30

    The epidemiological pattern and risk factors of burns and burn infections varies widely in different parts of the world. This study aims to determine the epidemiologic pattern of burn injuries and possible risk factors associated with burn infections in burn units of Gaza strip hospitals. A total of 118 patients were included in the study. The data collected included: patient age and gender, the causes, site, degree, and TBSA of the burns, as well as surgical operations, length of hospital stay, and microbiological profile of samples collected from patients, the environment, and from health care staff. Pediatric and adult patients accounted for 72% and 28% respectively. 58.5% of all patients were male and 41.5% were female. The most common etiological factors in children were scalding, while in adults these were open fire and flammable liquids. The mean TBSA was 12% with a range from 1-90%. Second and third degree burns accounted for 78% and 22% respectively. The area of the body most often affected was the torso (39%), followed by the lower limb (29.7%), and upper limb (17.8%). The predominant microorganisms isolated from burn wounds were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter spp. and Staphylococcus spp. The study showed the highest risk groups to be children and males, and enabled us to identify possible risk factors that can help in future efforts toward prevention and minimizing nosocomial infections in burn units of Gaza strip hospitals. PMID:24133399

  6. An effective burn prevention program initiated by a recovered burn patient group.

    PubMed

    Schmeer, S; Stern, N; Monafo, W W

    1986-01-01

    The US death rate from house fires has remained constant during the past 50 years despite a sharp decline in mortality from other fires and causes of burns. The concensus is that smoke alarms can effectively decrease the incidence of this lethal type of burn injury. Our organization of recovered burn patients has focused its efforts around procuring and installing smoke alarms in areas of substandard housing, which predominantly account for house fire deaths and injuries in St. Louis. This effort has resulted in an effective burn prevention program ("Alarms for Life"), which also serves as a model for other communities. PMID:3429488

  7. Burning in Outer Space: Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matkowsky, Bernard; Aldushin, Anatoly

    2000-01-01

    A better understanding of combustion can lead to significant technological advances, such as less polluting, more fuel-efficient vehicles. Unfortunately, gravity can interfere with the study of combustion. Gravity drags down gases that are cooler- and, therefore, denser-than heated gases. This movement mixes the fuel and the oxidizer substance that promotes burning. Because of this mixing, an observer cannot necessarily distinguish what is happening as a result of the natural combustion process and what is caused, by the pull of gravity. To remove this uncertainty, scientists can conduct experiments that simulate the negation of gravity through freefall. This condition is known as a microgravity environment. A micro-gravity experiment may take place in a chamber that is dropped down a hole or from a high-speed drop tower. The experiment also be conducted in an airplane or a rocket during freefall in a parabolic flight path. This method provides less than a minute of microgravity at most. An experiment that requires the prolonged absence of gravity may necessitate the use of an orbiting spacecraft as a venue. However, access to an orbital laboratory is difficult to acquire. High-end computing centers such as the NCCS can provide a practical alternative to operating in microgravity. Scientists can model phenomena such as combustion without gravitys observational interference. The study of microgravity combustion produces important benefits beyond increased observational accuracy. Certain valuable materials that are produced through combustion can be formed with a more uniform crystal structure-and, therefore, improved structural quality-when the pull of gravity is removed. Furthermore, understanding how fires propagate in the absence of gravity can improve fire safety aboard spacecraft.

  8. [The Nutrition Care of Severe Burn Patients].

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yu-Hsiu

    2016-02-01

    In addition to recent advances in burn patient care techniques such as maintaining warm circumambient temperature, the early excision of wounds, and the use of closed dressing, providing nutrition support through early feeding has proven instrumental in greatly increasing the survival rate of burn patients. Severe burns complicated by many factors initiate tremendous physiological stress that leads to postburn hypermetabolism that includes enhanced tissue catabolism, the loss of muscle mass, and decreases in the body's reservoirs of protein and energy. These problems have become the focus of burn therapy. Treating severe burns aims not only to enhance survival rates but also to restore normal bodily functions as completely as possible. Recent research evaluating the application of anabolic agents and immune-enhance formula for severe burns therapy has generated significant controversy. Inadequate caloric intake is one of the main differences among the related studies, with the effect of many special nutrients such as bran acid amides not taken into consideration. Therefore, considering the sufficiency of caloric and protein intake is critical in assessing effectiveness. Only after patients receive adequate calories and protein may the effect of special nutrients such as glutamine and supplements be evaluated effectively. PMID:26813059

  9. [Invasive yeast infections in severely burned patients].

    PubMed

    Renau, Ana Isabel; García-Vidal, Carolina; Salavert, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there are few studies on candidaemia in the severely burned patient. These patients share the same risk factors for invasive fungal infections as other critically ill patients, but have certain characteristics that make them particularly susceptible. These include the loss of skin barrier due to extensive burns, fungal colonisation of the latter, and the use of hydrotherapy or other topical therapies (occasionally with antimicrobials). In addition, the increased survival rate achieved in recent decades in critically burned patients due to the advances in treatment has led to the increase of invasive Candida infections. This explains the growing interest in making an earlier and more accurate diagnosis, as well as more effective treatments to reduce morbidity and mortality of candidaemia in severe burned patients. A review is presented on all aspects of the burned patient, including the predisposition and risk factors for invasive candidiasis, pathogenesis of candidaemia, underlying immunodeficiency, local epidemiology and antifungal susceptibility, evolution and prognostic factors, as well as other non-Candida yeast infections. Finally, we include specific data on our local experience in the management of candidaemia in severe burned patients, which may serve to quantify the problem, place it in context, and offer a realistic perspective. PMID:27395025

  10. Instrumented tube burns: theoretical and experimental observations

    SciTech Connect

    Yarrington, Cole Davis; Obrey, Stephen J; Foley, Timothy J; Son, Steven F

    2009-01-01

    The advent of widely available nanoscale energetic composites has resulted in a flurry of novel applications. One of these applications is the use of nanomaterials in energetic compositions. In compositions that exhibit high sensitivity to stimulus, these materials are often termed metastable intermolecular composites (MIC). More generally, these compositions are simply called nanoenergetics. Researchers have used many different experimental techniques to analyze the various properties of nanoenergetic systems. Among these various techniques, the confined tube burn is a simple experiment that is capable of obtaining much data related to the combustion of these materials. The purpose of this report is to review the current state of the confined tube burn experiment, including the drawbacks of the technique and possible remedies. As this report is intended to focus on the specific experimental technique, data from many different energetic materials, and experimental configurations will be presented. The qualitative and quantitative data that can be gathered using confined tube burn experiments include burning rates, total impulse, pressure rise rate, and burning rate differences between different detector types. All of these measurements lend insight into the combustion properties and mechanisms of specific nanoenergetics. Finally, certain data indicates a more complicated flow scenario which may need to be considered when developing burn tube models.

  11. Antithrombin in the treatment of burn trauma.

    PubMed

    Kowal-Vern, Areta; Orkin, Bruce A

    2016-02-01

    Antithrombin (AT) is a natural anticoagulant with anti-inflammatory properties that has demonstrated value in sepsis, disseminated intravascular coagulation and in burn and inhalation injury. With high doses, AT may decrease blood loss during eschar excision, reducing blood transfusion requirements. There are no human randomized, placebo-controlled studies, which have tested the true benefit of this agent in these conditions. Two main forms of AT are either plasma-derived AT (phAT) and recombinant AT (rhAT). Major ovine studies in burn and smoke inhalation injury have utilized rhAT. There have been no studies which have either translated the basic rhAT research in burn trauma, or determined the tolerance and pharmacokinetics of rhAT concentrate infusions in burn patients. Advantages of rhAT infusions are no risk of blood borne diseases and lower cost. However, the majority of human burn patient studies have been conducted utilizing phAT. Recent Japanese clinical trials have started using phAT in abdominal sepsis successfully. This review examines the properties of both phAT and rhAT, and analyzes studies in which they have been utilized. We believe that it is time to embark on a randomized placebo-controlled multi-center trial to establish the role of AT in both civilian and military patients with burn trauma. PMID:26855890

  12. Antithrombin in the treatment of burn trauma

    PubMed Central

    Kowal-Vern, Areta; Orkin, Bruce A

    2016-01-01

    Antithrombin (AT) is a natural anticoagulant with anti-inflammatory properties that has demonstrated value in sepsis, disseminated intravascular coagulation and in burn and inhalation injury. With high doses, AT may decrease blood loss during eschar excision, reducing blood transfusion requirements. There are no human randomized, placebo-controlled studies, which have tested the true benefit of this agent in these conditions. Two main forms of AT are either plasma-derived AT (phAT) and recombinant AT (rhAT). Major ovine studies in burn and smoke inhalation injury have utilized rhAT. There have been no studies which have either translated the basic rhAT research in burn trauma, or determined the tolerance and pharmacokinetics of rhAT concentrate infusions in burn patients. Advantages of rhAT infusions are no risk of blood borne diseases and lower cost. However, the majority of human burn patient studies have been conducted utilizing phAT. Recent Japanese clinical trials have started using phAT in abdominal sepsis successfully. This review examines the properties of both phAT and rhAT, and analyzes studies in which they have been utilized. We believe that it is time to embark on a randomized placebo-controlled multi-center trial to establish the role of AT in both civilian and military patients with burn trauma. PMID:26855890

  13. Falling clothes irons rarely cause burns.

    PubMed

    Allasio, David; Shanti, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Children's Hospital of Michigan's Burn Center treats approximately three pediatric contact burns annually related to clothes irons, which involve the face, torso, and extremities. These burns leave well-demarcated burn patterns, including the steam holes from the heat plate of the iron. The average age of these children is 15 months. The history given by the parent is that the child pulled the cord of an iron that was on an ironing board or high shelf. It seemed unlikely to the investigators that a falling iron would produce such demarcated burns. A free-standing shelf unit was built with shelf heights of 36, 60, and 72 inches (the height of an ironing board and shelves at home). Three irons of different weights were put in three different positions on each shelf, with the cord dangling. A doll the approximate size of a 15-month old was positioned in front of the shelf. The dangling cord was pulled, and the falling iron was videotaped. The video was edited in freeze frame at the point at which the iron hit the doll. Two hundred seventy falls were recorded. The flat heat plate of the iron never hit the doll. The linear edge of the heat plate hit the doll on only seven falls. This study demonstrates that it is very unlikely for the flat heat plate of a falling iron to contact a toddler-sized doll. Children who allegedly sustain demarcated burns in this manner need to be investigated for nonaccidental injury. PMID:24476991

  14. Investigation of critical burning of fuel droplets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, C. B.; Canada, G. S.; Faeth, G. M.

    1972-01-01

    Measurements were made on the burning of liquid hydrazine, MMH, and UDMH in a combustion gas environment. The experimental range of these tests involved gas temperatures of 1660-2530 K, oxygen concentrations of 0-42% by mass and droplet diameters (employing both droplets and porous spheres) of 0.11-1.91 cm. at atmospheric pressure. A simplified hybrid combustion theory was developed which was found to correlate the present results as well as the experimental measurements of other investigators. Measurements were also made of the monopropellant strand burning rates and liquid surface temperatures of a number of nitrate ester fuels and hydrazine at elevated pressures. The temperature measurements for the nitrate esters were found to be in good agreement with a theoretical model which allowed for gas solubility in the liquid phase at high pressures. Experimental results were also obtained on the burning rates and liquid surface temperatures of a number of paraffin and alcohol fuels burning in air pressures up to 72 atm. For these tests, the fuels were burned from porous spheres in a natural convection environment. Initial findings on a pressurized flat flame burner are also described as well as the design of an oscillatory combustion apparatus to test the response of burning liquid fuels.

  15. Anabolic Effects of Oxandrolone After Severe Burn

    PubMed Central

    Hart, David W.; Wolf, Steven E.; Ramzy, Peter I.; Chinkes, David L.; Beauford, Robert B.; Ferrando, Arny A.; Wolfe, Robert R.; Herndon, David N.

    2001-01-01

    Objective To explore the hypothesis that oxandrolone may reverse muscle catabolism in cachectic, critically ill pediatric burn patients. Summary Background Data Severe burn causes exaggerated muscle protein catabolism, contributing to weakness and delayed healing. Oxandrolone is an anabolic steroid that has been used in cachectic hepatitis and AIDS patients. Methods Fourteen severely burned children were enrolled during a 5-month period in a prospective cohort analytic study. There was a prolonged delay in the arrival of these patients to the burn unit for definitive care. This neglect of skin grafting and nutritional support resulted in critically ill children with significant malnutrition. On arrival, all patients underwent excision and skin grafting and received similar clinical care. Subjects were studied 5 to 7 days after admission, and again after 1 week of oxandrolone treatment at 0.1 mg/kg by mouth twice daily or no pharmacologic treatment. Muscle protein kinetics were derived from femoral arterial and venous blood samples and vastus lateralis muscle biopsies during a stable isotope infusion. Results Control and oxandrolone subjects were similar in age, weight, and percentage of body surface area burned. Muscle protein net balance decreased in controls and improved in the oxandrolone group. The improvement in the oxandrolone group was associated with increased protein synthesis efficiency. Muscle protein breakdown was unchanged. Conclusions In burn victims, oxandrolone improves muscle protein metabolism through enhanced protein synthesis efficiency. These findings suggest the efficacy of oxandrolone in impeding muscle protein catabolism in cachectic, critically injured children. PMID:11303139

  16. Energy Expenditure and Caloric Balance After Burn

    PubMed Central

    Hart, David W.; Wolf, Steven E.; Herndon, David N.; Chinkes, David L.; Lal, Sophia O.; Obeng, Michael K.; Beauford, Robert B.; Mlcak RT, Ronald P.

    2002-01-01

    Objective Resting energy expenditure (REE) is commonly measured in critical illness to determine caloric “demands” and thus nutritive needs. Summary Background Data The purpose of this study was to 1) determine whether REE is associated with clinical outcomes and 2) determine whether an optimal caloric delivery rate based on REE exists to offset erosion of lean mass after burn. Methods From 1995 to 2001, REE was measured by indirect calorimetry in 250 survivors of 10 to 99%TBSA burns. Caloric intake and REE were correlated with muscle protein catabolism, length of stay, ventilator dependence, sepsis, and mortality. From 1998 to 2000, 42 patients (>60%TBSA burns) received continuous enteral nutrition at a spectrum of caloric balance between 1.0x REE kcal/d –1.8x REE kcal/d. Serial body composition was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Lean mass, fat mass, morbidity, and mortality were determined. Results REE/predicted basal metabolic rate correlated directly with burn size, sepsis, ventilator dependence, and muscle protein catabolism (P < .05). Declining REE correlated with mortality (P < .05). 2) Erosion of lean body mass was not attenuated by increased caloric balance, however, fat mass increased with caloric supply (P < .05). Conclusion In surviving burned patients, caloric delivery beyond 1.2 × REE results in increased fat mass without changes in lean body mass. Declining energy expenditure appears to be a harbinger of mortality in severely burned patients. PMID:11753055

  17. Two Droplets Burning Side by Side

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Fiber-Supported Droplet Combustion (FSDC) experiment team got more than twice as many burns have been completed as were originally scheduled for STS-95. This image was taken July 12, 1997, MET:10/08:13 (approximate). As shown here, scientists were able to burn two droplets side by side, more closely mimicking behavior of burning fuel in an engine. This shows ignition of a single drop that subsequently burned while a fan blew through the chamber, giving the scientists data on burning with convection, but no buoyancy -- an important distinction when you're trying to solve a problem by breaking it into parts. FSDC-2 studied fundamental phenomena related to liquid fuel droplet combustion in air. Pure fuels and mixtures of fuels were burned as isolated single and dual droplets with and without forced air convection. The FSDC guest investigator was Forman Williams, University of California, San Diego. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations plarned for the International Space Station. (1.1 MB, 11-second MPEG, screen 320 x 240 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) A still JPG composite of this movie is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300176.html.

  18. Assessment of Electrosurgery Burns in Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Jalali, Seyyed Mehdi; Moradi, Mohammad; Khalaj, Alireza; Pazouki, Alireza; Tamannaie, Zeinab; Ghanbari, Sajjad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Monopolar surgery is applied mostly in major operations, while bipolar is used in delicate ones. Attention must be paid in electrosurgery application to avoid electrical burns. Objectives: We aimed to assess factors associated with electrosurgery burns in cardiac surgery operating rooms. Patients and Methods: This was a case-control study in which two groups of 150 patients undergoing cardiac surgery in Imam Khomeini Hospital were recruited. Several factors like gender, age, operation duration, smoking, diseases, infection, atopia, , immunosuppressive drugs use, hepatic cirrhosis, and pulmonary diseases were compared between the two groups. Patients were observed for 24 hours for development of any burn related to the operation. Data was analyzed using SPSS v.11.5, by Chi square and T-test. Results: Patients in the two groups were similar except for two factors. DM and pulmonary diseases which showed significant differences (P = 0.005 and P = 0.002 respectively). Seventy-five patients from controls and 35 from the study group developed burns, which was significant (P ˂ 0.0001). Conclusions: None of the factors were significantly related to developing burns. The differences between the two groups highlights the importance of systems modifications to lessen the incidence of burns. PMID:26839854

  19. 40 CFR 265.382 - Open burning; waste explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Open burning; waste explosives. 265... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Thermal Treatment § 265.382 Open burning; waste explosives. Open burning of hazardous waste is prohibited except for the open burning and detonation of waste explosives. Waste...

  20. 40 CFR 266.101 - Management prior to burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.101 Management prior to burning. (a) Generators. Generators of hazardous waste that is burned in a boiler or industrial furnace... burned in a boiler or industrial furnace are subject to part 263 of this chapter. (c) Storage...

  1. 40 CFR 266.101 - Management prior to burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.101 Management prior to burning. (a) Generators. Generators of hazardous waste that is burned in a boiler or industrial furnace... burned in a boiler or industrial furnace are subject to part 263 of this chapter. (c) Storage...

  2. 40 CFR 266.101 - Management prior to burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.101 Management prior to burning. (a) Generators. Generators of hazardous waste that is burned in a boiler or industrial furnace... burned in a boiler or industrial furnace are subject to part 263 of this chapter. (c) Storage...

  3. 40 CFR 266.101 - Management prior to burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.101 Management prior to burning. (a) Generators. Generators of hazardous waste that is burned in a boiler or industrial furnace... burned in a boiler or industrial furnace are subject to part 263 of this chapter. (c) Storage...

  4. 40 CFR 266.101 - Management prior to burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.101 Management prior to burning. (a) Generators. Generators of hazardous waste that is burned in a boiler or industrial furnace... burned in a boiler or industrial furnace are subject to part 263 of this chapter. (c) Storage...

  5. Epidemiologic Characteristics of Occupational Burns in Yazd, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mirmohammadi, Seyyed Jalil; Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Kazemeini, Kazem; Mostaghaci, Mehrdad

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Occupational burns are among the important causes of work-related fatalities and absenteeism. Epidemiologic assessment of these injuries is important to define high-risk jobs. We designed this study to evaluate the epidemiology of occupational burns in Yazd, an industrial province in Iran. Methods: This is a prospective study on work-related burns in a 1-year period (2008-2009). A questionnaire was completed for them about the characteristics of the burn injury. Results: Three Hundred and Thirty Eight patients with occupational burns were identified. Their mean age was 29.64 years. Most burn victims were male workers in the metal industry. The most common job was smelting. Most burns were happened in the morning. Thermal burns were observed more than chemical and electrical burns. Mean total body surface area burned was 6.5%. The most common cause of burn was hot fluid, followed by hot object and flame. There was no any significant relationship between burn type, and burn degree or burned body surface. Conclusions: The highest incidence of occupational burns was in 21-30 year-old workers. There was a male preponderance in work-related burns. Metal industry had the most injured workers and among them, smelters were more frequently injured. PMID:23930193

  6. 40 CFR 265.382 - Open burning; waste explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Open burning; waste explosives. 265... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Thermal Treatment § 265.382 Open burning; waste explosives. Open burning of hazardous waste is prohibited except for the open burning and detonation of waste explosives. Waste...

  7. 40 CFR 265.382 - Open burning; waste explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Open burning; waste explosives. 265... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Thermal Treatment § 265.382 Open burning; waste explosives. Open burning of hazardous waste is prohibited except for the open burning and detonation of waste explosives. Waste...

  8. 40 CFR 265.382 - Open burning; waste explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Open burning; waste explosives. 265... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Thermal Treatment § 265.382 Open burning; waste explosives. Open burning of hazardous waste is prohibited except for the open burning and detonation of waste explosives. Waste...

  9. 49 CFR 195.226 - Welding: Arc burns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Welding: Arc burns. 195.226 Section 195.226 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Construction § 195.226 Welding: Arc burns. (a) Each arc burn must be repaired. (b) An arc burn...

  10. 49 CFR 195.226 - Welding: Arc burns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Welding: Arc burns. 195.226 Section 195.226 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Construction § 195.226 Welding: Arc burns. (a) Each arc burn must be repaired. (b) An arc burn...

  11. 49 CFR 195.226 - Welding: Arc burns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Welding: Arc burns. 195.226 Section 195.226 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Construction § 195.226 Welding: Arc burns. (a) Each arc burn must be repaired. (b) An arc burn...

  12. 49 CFR 195.226 - Welding: Arc burns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Welding: Arc burns. 195.226 Section 195.226 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Construction § 195.226 Welding: Arc burns. (a) Each arc burn must be repaired. (b) An arc burn...

  13. 49 CFR 195.226 - Welding: Arc burns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Welding: Arc burns. 195.226 Section 195.226 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Construction § 195.226 Welding: Arc burns. (a) Each arc burn must be repaired. (b) An arc burn...

  14. Orion Burn Management, Nominal and Response to Failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odegard, Ryan; Goodman, John L.; Barrett, Charles P.; Pohlkamp, Kara; Robinson, Shane

    2016-01-01

    An approach for managing Orion on-orbit burn execution is described for nominal and failure response scenarios. The burn management strategy for Orion takes into account per-burn variations in targeting, timing, and execution; crew and ground operator intervention and overrides; defined burn failure triggers and responses; and corresponding on-board software sequencing functionality. Burn-to- burn variations are managed through the identification of specific parameters that may be updated for each progressive burn. Failure triggers and automatic responses during the burn timeframe are defined to provide safety for the crew in the case of vehicle failures, along with override capabilities to ensure operational control of the vehicle. On-board sequencing software provides the timeline coordination for performing the required activities related to targeting, burn execution, and responding to burn failures.

  15. Burned area, active fires and biomass burning - approaches to account for emissions from fires in Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruecker, Gernot; Hoffmann, Anja; Leimbach, David; Tiemann, Joachim; Ng'atigwa, Charles

    2013-04-01

    Eleven years of data from the globally available MODIS burned area and the MODS Active Fire Product have been analysed for Tanzania in conjunction with GIS data on land use and cover to provide a baseline for fire activity in this East African country. The total radiated energy (FRE) emitted by fires that were picked up by the burned area and active fire product is estimated based on a spatio-temporal clustering algorithm over the burned areas, and integration of the fire radiative power from the MODIS Active Fires product over the time of burning and the area of each burned area cluster. Resulting biomass combusted by unit area based on Woosteŕs scaling factor for FRE to biomass combusted is compared to values found in the literature, and to values found in the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED). Pyrogenic emissions are then estimated using emission factors. According to our analysis, an average of 11 million ha burn annually (ranging between 8.5 and 12.9 million ha) in Tanzania corresponding to between 10 and 14 % of Tanzaniás land area. Most burned area is recorded in the months from May to October. The land cover types most affected are woodland and shrubland cover types: they comprise almost 70 % of Tanzania's average annual burned area or 6.8 million ha. Most burning occurs in gazetted land, with an annual average of 3.7 million ha in forest reserves, 3.3 million ha in game reserves and 1.46 million ha in national parks, totalling close to 8.5 million ha or 77 % of the annual average burned area of Tanzania. Annual variability of burned area is moderate for most of the analysed classes, and in most cases there is no clear trend to be detected in burned area, except for the Lindi region were annual burned area appears to be increasing. Preliminary results regarding emissions from fires show that for larger fires that burn over a longer time, biomass burned derived through the FRP method compares well to literature values, while the integration over

  16. Children with burns referred for child abuse evaluation: Burn characteristics and co-existent injuries.

    PubMed

    Pawlik, Marie-Christin; Kemp, Alison; Maguire, Sabine; Nuttall, Diane; Feldman, Kenneth W; Lindberg, Daniel M

    2016-05-01

    Intentional burns represent a serious form of physical abuse that must be identified to protect children from further harm. This study is a retrospectively planned secondary analysis of the Examining Siblings To Recognize Abuse (ExSTRA) network data. Our objective was to describe the characteristics of burns injuries in children referred to Child Abuse Pediatricians (CAPs) in relation to the perceived likelihood of abuse. We furthermore compare the extent of diagnostic investigations undertaken in children referred to CAPs for burn injuries with those referred for other reasons. Within this dataset, 7% (215/2890) of children had burns. Children with burns were older than children with other injuries (median age 20 months vs. 10 months). Physical abuse was perceived as likely in 40.9% (88) and unlikely in 59.1% (127). Scalds accounted for 52.6% (113) and contact burns for 27.6% (60). Several characteristics of the history and burn injury were associated with a significantly higher perceived likelihood of abuse, including children with reported inflicted injury, absent or inadequate explanation, hot water as agent, immersion scald, a bilateral/symmetric burn pattern, total body surface area ≥10%, full thickness burns, and co-existent injuries. The rates of diagnostic testing were significantly lower in children with burns than other injuries, yet the yield of skeletal survey and hepatic transaminases testing were comparable between the two groups. This would imply that children referred to CAPs for burns warrant the same level of comprehensive investigations as those referred for other reasons. PMID:27088728

  17. Are paediatric burns more common in asylum seekers? An analysis of paediatric burn admissions.

    PubMed

    Dempsey, M P; Orr, D J A

    2006-03-01

    The number of asylum seekers in Ireland has increased dramatically over the last 10 years. Based on our impression that the number of children admitted to our burn unit was disproportionately represented by children of asylum seekers we performed an audit to establish (1) what proportion of admissions are from this subgroup and (2) the characteristics of their burns. All paediatric burn admissions from May 2003 to April 2004 were reviewed. Data collected from a retrospective chart review included patient demographics and details of the burn injuries. The National Census of 2002 and the Office of the Refugee Applications Commissioner were consulted for population statistics. Total burn admissions for the period were 126: Irish nationals (n=107), non-national residents (n=2), asylum seekers (n=14) and patients of unknown asylum status (n=3, excluded from study). In the asylum seeker group, the median age was 18.6 months (range 10 months-5.3 years) with the majority less than 2 years (n=11). All burns occurred in the domestic setting. Scalds accounted for 13 cases, one contact burn occurred from a hot grill. The median total body surface area burned was 5.7% (range 1.5-26%). The National Census of 2002 recorded a population of 3,917,203. With less than 12,000 asylum seekers in the country, they comprise only approximately 0.3% of the population yet they account for 11.4% of the burn patients admitted to our unit, p<0.0001. Children of asylum seekers are over-represented in our series of paediatric admissions for burns and are more likely than Irish children to sustain a burn at a younger age and in the domestic setting. This may indicate an increased risk of injury and warrants further investigation. PMID:16448770

  18. Harborview Burns – 1974 to 2009

    PubMed Central

    Engrav, Loren H.; Heimbach, David M.; Rivara, Frederick P.; Kerr, Kathleen F.; Osler, Turner; Pham, Tam N.; Sharar, Sam R.; Esselman, Peter C.; Bulger, Eileen M.; Carrougher, Gretchen J.; Honari, Shari; Gibran, Nicole S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Burn demographics, prevention and care have changed considerably since the 1970s. The objectives were to 1) identify new and confirm previously described changes, 2) make comparisons to the American Burn Association National Burn Repository, 3) determine when the administration of fluids in excess of the Baxter formula began and to identify potential causes, and 4) model mortality over time, during a 36-year period (1974–2009) at the Harborview Burn Center in Seattle, WA, USA. Methods and Findings 14,266 consecutive admissions were analyzed in five-year periods and many parameters compared to the National Burn Repository. Fluid resuscitation was compared in five-year periods from 1974 to 2009. Mortality was modeled with the rBaux model. Many changes are highlighted at the end of the manuscript including 1) the large increase in numbers of total and short-stay admissions, 2) the decline in numbers of large burn injuries, 3) that unadjusted case fatality declined to the mid-1980s but has changed little during the past two decades, 4) that race/ethnicity and payer status disparity exists, and 5) that the trajectory to death changed with fewer deaths occurring after seven days post-injury. Administration of fluids in excess of the Baxter formula during resuscitation of uncomplicated injuries was evident at least by the early 1990s and has continued to the present; the cause is likely multifactorial but pre-hospital fluids, prophylactic tracheal intubation and opioids may be involved. Conclusions 1) The dramatic changes include the rise in short-stay admissions; as a result, the model of burn care practiced since the 1970s is still required but is no longer sufficient. 2) Fluid administration in excess of the Baxter formula with uncomplicated injuries began at least two decades ago. 3) Unadjusted case fatality declined to ∼6% in the mid-1980s and changed little since then. The rBaux mortality model is quite accurate. PMID:22792216

  19. Hot bitumen burns: 92 hospitalized patients.

    PubMed

    Baruchin, A M; Schraf, S; Rosenberg, L; Sagi, A A

    1997-08-01

    Bitumen burns while comprising a small percentage of all types of burns are troublesome. They affect persons engaged in gainful employment which the burns then curtail, as well as requiring special attention because the substance adheres to the skin and is therefore difficult to remove. Ninety-two consecutive patients with such burns who were admitted as in-patients over a 10-year period (1985-1995) have been reviewed. Most of the burns occurred on a worksite and involved active young persons (mean age 29.6 years) the mean size of the burn was 3.87 per cent TBSA, mainly affecting the upper extremities and hands. Mean hospitalization time was 10.6 days. Bitumen burns are fully predictable and can easily be prevented by avoiding unsafe practice and/or equipment. Bitumen is a general term for petroleum-derived substances ranging from true petroleum through so-called mineral tars, to asphalt. Asphalt (Asphaltum) is a semi-solid mixture of several hydrocarbons probably formed by the evaporation of the lighter or more volatile constituents. It is amorphous of low specific gravity, 1-2, with a black or brownish black colour and pitchy lustre. At room temperature it is solid becoming molten and spreadable when heated to 93 degrees C and over. Roofing tars and asphalts are usually heated to temperatures of 232 degrees C to achieve desirable viscosities (e.g. for spraying), whereas lower temperatures are required for the manageable form to pave roads. Notable localities for asphaltum are the island of Trinidad and the Dead Sea region where lake asphaltums were long known to the ancient. Ironically, none of the 92 patients who were treated for bitumen injuries in the 'Soroka' (Beer-Sheba, Israel) and 'Barzilai' (Ashkelon, Israel) Medical Centres (80 and 150 km from the lake respectively) had anything to do with the Dead Sea area. PMID:9426915

  20. Epidemiology of burns throughout the World. Part II: intentional burns in adults.

    PubMed

    Peck, Michael D

    2012-08-01

    A significant number of burns and deaths from fire are intentionally wrought. Rates of intentional burns are unevenly distributed throughout the world; India has a particularly high rate in young women whereas in Europe rates are higher in men in mid-life. Data from hospitalized burn patients worldwide reveal incidence rates for assault by fire and scalds ranging from 3% to 10%. The average proportion of the body surface area burned in an assault by fire or scalds is approximately 20%. In different parts of the world, attempted burning of others or oneself can be attributed to different motives. Circumstances under which assaults occur fall largely into the categories of interpersonal conflict, including spousal abuse, elder abuse, or interactions over contentious business transactions. Contributing social factors to assaults by burning include drug and alcohol abuse, non-constructive use of leisure time, non-participation in religious and community activities, unstable relationships, and extramarital affairs. Although the incidence of self-mutilation and suicide attempts by burning are relatively low, deliberate self-harm carries a significant risk of death, with an overall mortality rate of 65% worldwide. In those who resort to self-immolation, circumstantial themes reflect domestic discord, family dysfunction, and the social ramifications of unemployment. Preventing injurious burn-related violence requires a multifaceted approach, including legislation and enforcement, education, and advocacy. Better standardized assessment tools are needed to screen for risks of abuse and for psychiatric disorders in perpetrators. PMID:22325849

  1. "Fishing for Burn Prevention": a novel approach to burn and fire safety.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, R C; Hansen, S L; Voigt, D W; Paul, C N

    1999-01-01

    "Fishing for Burn Prevention" is an interactive educational burn and fire safety program designed to stimulate family involvement at health fairs, and it provides an alternative to handing out safety information. The program attracts preschoolers through preteens and is staffed by burn center personnel. The design consists of a small pool, a wooden fishing rod, several cutout fish, and hook-and-loop fasteners. Words that will stimulate interaction between the presenter and the participant are written on the fish; these can include "smoke detector," "cool the burn," "fire escape plan," "matches," "grease fire," and "120 degrees F." Providing an interactive, hands-on activity at health fairs can increase burn and fire safety awareness for the entire family. PMID:10613693

  2. Determination of burning area and port volume in complex burning regions of a solid rocket motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kingsbury, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    An analysis of the geometry of the burning in both star-cylindrical port interface regions and regions of partially inhibited slots is presented. Some characteristics parameters are defined and illustrated. Methods are proposed for calculating burning areas which functionally depend only on the total distance burned. According to this method, several points are defined where abrupt changes in geometry occur, and these are tracked throughout the burn. Equations are developed for computing port perimeter and port area at pre-established longitudinal positions. Some common formulas and some newly developed formulas are then used to compute burning surface area and port volume. Some specific results are presented for the solid rocket motor committed to the space shuttle project.

  3. Hematogenous cervical spondylodiscitis after severe burn injury.

    PubMed

    Riedel, G; Becker, S; Steen, M

    2001-12-01

    A 47-year-old man sustained a 31% TBSA burn injury. In spite of early escharectomy and mesh-graft-transplantation the patient suffered a septicaemic phase in the first week, which was treated by a specific antibiotic. Five weeks after the burn injury a cervical spondylodiscitis was diagnosed. Immediate wound debridement, ventral and dorsal spondylodesis with a tricortical bone-graft from the left iliac crest and titanium plates and specific antibiotic therapy led to the stabilization and healing of the cervical spinal column. The spondylodiscitis was microbiologically proved to be hematogenous after spread of Staphylococcus aureus from the blood in the early septicaemic phase. Swab culture from the burn surface wound, infected vertebrae and blood during the septicaemic phase revealed coagulase positive S. aureus. The aetiology, predisposing factors and management of this rare, but recognized, complication of major burns are discussed. Case features of this patient are compared with the single site's reported case of hematogenous cervical spondylodiscitis after severe burn injury. PMID:11718988

  4. Simulation-assisted burn disaster planning.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Heléne; Jonson, Carl-Oscar; Vikström, Tore; Bengtsson, Eva; Thorfinn, Johan; Huss, Fredrik; Kildal, Morten; Sjöberg, Folke

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the Swedish medical systems response to a mass casualty burn incident in a rural area with a focus on national coordination of burn care. Data were collected from two simulations of a mass casualty incident with burns in a rural area in the mid portion of Sweden close to the Norwegian border, based on a large inventory of emergency resources available in this area as well as regional hospitals, university hospitals and burn centres in Sweden and abroad. The simulation system Emergo Train System(®) (ETS) was used and risk for preventable death and complications were used as outcome measures: simulation I, 18.5% (n=13) preventable deaths and 15.5% (n=11) preventable complications; simulation II, 11.4% (n=8) preventable deaths and 11.4% (n=8) preventable complications. The last T1 patient was evacuated after 7h in simulation I, compared with 5h in simulation II. Better national coordination of burn care and more timely distribution based on the experience from the first simulation, and possibly a learning effect, led to a better patient outcome in simulation II. The experience using a system that combines both process and outcome indicators can create important results that may support disaster planning. PMID:23462280

  5. Surrogate burns in deactivation furnace system.

    PubMed

    Shah, J K

    1999-05-14

    The deactivation furnace system at the Deseret Chemical Depot in Utah is designed for processing explosive components from munitions containing nerve and mustard agents. The system was installed during the period of 1989 through 1993. The Utah Division of Solid and Hazardous Waste (UDSHW) required that trial burns be conducted using surrogate chemicals prior to introducing chemical agents into the system. The selected surrogate chemicals were monochlorobenzene and hexachloroethane based on the criteria established by the UDSHW. Three surrogate runs were conducted in October, 1995. The gaseous emissions and liquid and solid effluents were sampled and analyzed using approved EPA methods. The trial burns demonstrated the desirable destruction and removal efficiency for the selected surrogate chemicals. The pollution abatement system demonstrated the desired scrubbing efficiency for acid gases generated during incineration of chlorinated surrogate chemicals. The particulate removal efficiency during the trial burns was also considerably higher than required by regulations. After comprehensive review of the performance of the deactivation furnace system during the surrogate trial burns, UDSHW approved introduction of GB nerve agent into the system to prepare it for agent trial burns. PMID:10334826

  6. Trace gas emissions from burning Florida wetlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cofer, Wesley R., III; Levine, Joel S.; Lebel, Peter J.; Winstead, Edward L.; Koller, Albert M., Jr.; Hinkle, C. Ross

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of biomass burn-produced trace gases were obtained using a helicopter at low altitudes above burning Florida wetlands on November 9, 1987, and from both helicopter and light-aircraft samplings on November 7, 1988. Carbon dioxide normalized emission ratios for carbon monoxide, hydrogen, methane, total nonmethane hydrocarbons, and nitrous oxide were obtained over burning graminoid wetlands consisting primarily of Spartina bakeri and Juncus roemerianus. Some interspersed scrub oak and saw palmetto were also burned. No significant differences were observed in the emission ratios determined for these gases from samples collected over flaming, mixed, and smoldering phases of combustion during the 1987 fire. Combustion-categorized differences in emission ratios were small for the 1988 fire. Combustion efficiency was relatively good (low emission ratios for reduced gases) for both fires. It is believed that the consistently low emission ratios were a unique result of graminoid wetlands fires, in which the grasses and rushes burned rapidly down to standing water and were quickly extinguished. Consequently, the efficiency of the combustion was good and the amount and duration of smoldering combustion was greatly deminished.

  7. Ventilator associated pneumonia in major paediatric burns.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Alan David; Deal, Cailin; Argent, Andrew Charles; Hudson, Donald Anthony; Rode, Heinz

    2014-09-01

    More than three-quarters of deaths related to major burns are a consequence of infection, which is frequently ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP). A retrospective study was performed, over a five-year period, of ventilated children with major burns. 92 patients were included in the study; their mean age was 3.5 years and their mean total body surface area burn was 30%. 62% of the patients sustained flame burns, and 31% scalds. The mean ICU stay was 10.6 days (range 2-61 days) and the mean ventilation time was 8.4 days (range 2-45 days). There were 59 documented episodes of pneumonia in 52 patients with a rate of 30 infections per 1000 ventilator days. Length of ventilation and the presence of inhalational injury correlate with the incidence of VAP. 17.4% of the patients died (n=16); half of these deaths may be attributed directly to pneumonia. Streptococcus pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumanii and Staphylococcus aureus were the most prominent aetiological organisms. Broncho-alveolar lavage was found to be more specific and sensitive at identifying the organism than other methods. This study highlights the importance of implementing strictly enforced strategies for the prevention, detection and management of pneumonia in the presence of major burns. PMID:24468505

  8. Saturday night burns: an increasing problem?

    PubMed

    Bollero, D; Malvasio, V; Gangemi, E N; Giunta, G; Collard, B; Stella, M

    2015-03-31

    In Italy the economic crisis has caused changes in behavior in daily as well as leisure activities. For instance, night clubs have changed both their scenography and what they can offer. From simply providing a place to dance, they can now offer more complex scenography with spectacular fireworks and lit cocktails. While this can be amazing for all of us it can also be another cause of burn injuries. We conducted a retrospective study of all burns patients admitted to the Accident and Emergency Department at CTO Hospital in Turin from 2009 to 2013, after a night clubbing. A total of five patients were identified with an average age of 20 years old: four were burned by flaming cocktails and one was burned by a firework. Two received outpatient treatment, while orotracheal intubation and admission were needed for three, and two required surgical debridement and resurfacing with split skin graft. All patients had permanent sequelae caused by pathologic scarring and/or dyschromia. Our findings show that the risk of burn injuries is higher at weekends, mainly in summer, if all correct safety procedures are not followed. Meanwhile it is important to highlight that the promotion of inappropriate behavior at night clubs during firework displays and the passing of flaming cocktails should be avoided. PMID:26668565

  9. Saturday night burns: an increasing problem?

    PubMed Central

    Bollero, D.; Malvasio, V.; Gangemi, E.N.; Giunta, G.; Collard, B.; Stella, M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary In Italy the economic crisis has caused changes in behavior in daily as well as leisure activities. For instance, night clubs have changed both their scenography and what they can offer. From simply providing a place to dance, they can now offer more complex scenography with spectacular fireworks and lit cocktails. While this can be amazing for all of us it can also be another cause of burn injuries. We conducted a retrospective study of all burns patients admitted to the Accident and Emergency Department at CTO Hospital in Turin from 2009 to 2013, after a night clubbing. A total of five patients were identified with an average age of 20 years old: four were burned by flaming cocktails and one was burned by a firework. Two received outpatient treatment, while orotracheal intubation and admission were needed for three, and two required surgical debridement and resurfacing with split skin graft. All patients had permanent sequelae caused by pathologic scarring and/or dyschromia. Our findings show that the risk of burn injuries is higher at weekends, mainly in summer, if all correct safety procedures are not followed. Meanwhile it is important to highlight that the promotion of inappropriate behavior at night clubs during firework displays and the passing of flaming cocktails should be avoided. PMID:26668565

  10. In Situ Burning of Oil Spills

    PubMed Central

    Evans, David D.; Mulholland, George W.; Baum, Howard R.; Walton, William D.; McGrattan, Kevin B.

    2001-01-01

    For more than a decade NIST conducted research to understand, measure and predict the important features of burning oil on water. Results of that research have been included in nationally recognized guidelines for approval of intentional burning. NIST measurements and predictions have played a major role in establishing in situ burning as a primary oil spill response method. Data are given for pool fire burning rates, smoke yield, smoke particulate size distribution, smoke aging, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content of the smoke for crude and fuel oil fires with effective diameters up to 17.2 m. New user-friendly software, ALOFT, was developed to quantify the large-scale features and trajectory of wind blown smoke plumes in the atmosphere and estimate the ground level smoke particulate concentrations. Predictions using the model were tested successfully against data from large-scale tests. ALOFT software is being used by oil spill response teams to help assess the potential impact of intentional burning. PMID:27500022

  11. Pediatric burns with snap-cap fireworks.

    PubMed

    Karamanoukian, Raffy L; Kilani, Marwa; Lozano, Daniel; Sundine, Michael; Karamanoukian, Hratch L; Delarosa, Jacob; Behnam, Shahdad; Evans, Gregory R D

    2006-01-01

    Snap-caps are marketed as a relatively safe pyrotechnic (explosive) device for children 8 years and older. Individually, the snap-caps pose very little threat because the amount of explosive compounds contained in each is limited to 1 mg. However, the accidental explosion of numerous snap-caps may cause significant burns. This study highlights a series of pediatric patients who presented with severe second- and third-degree burns as a result of accidental explosion of snap-caps. Seven patients with snap-caps-related injuries were treated at the University of California, San Diego Regional Burn Center from January 1996 to April 1999. Study foci included 1) mode and extent of injury, 2) management, 3) associated morbidity, and 4) functional outcome. Six patients (84%) required hospital admission. Four patients (57%) underwent split-thickness skin grafting to repair mean TBSA burns of 4.1% (range, 2-8%). Three patients (43%) received aggressive management of burns with topical medications and dressing changes. The nature and extent of snap-cap injuries support the contention that snap-caps have the potential to harm children to whom they are marketed. PMID:16566570

  12. The epidemiology of geriatric burns in Iran: A national burn registry-based study.

    PubMed

    Emami, Seyed-Abolhassan; Motevalian, Seyed Abbas; Momeni, Mahnoush; Karimi, Hamid

    2016-08-01

    Defining the epidemiology and outcome of geriatric burn patients is critical for specialized burn centers, health-care workers, and governments. Better resource use and effective guidelines are some of the advantages of studies focusing on this aspect. The outcome of these patients serves as an objective criterion for quality control, research, and preventive programs. We used data from the burn registry program in our country. For 2 years, >28,700 burn patients were recorded, 1721 of whom were admitted. Among them, 187 patients were ≥55 years old. Sixty-nine percent of patients were male and 31% female, with a male to female ratio of 2.22:1. The mean±standard deviation (SD) of age was 63.4±8.1. The cause of burns was flame (58.2%) and scalds (20.3%). Most of the burns were sustained at home. The mean duration of hospital stay was 19.5 days (range 3-59 days). The mean (SD) of the total body surface area (TBSA) was 20.3% (8.4%). The median hospital stay (length of stay (LOS)) was 11 days (SD=14). The increase in TBSA was related to a longer LOS (p<0.02). Burn wound infection developed in 44.3% of patients. The presence of inhalation injury was significantly related to mortality (p<0.001). Among the patients, 9% recovered completely, 74.9% recovered partially (requiring further treatment), 1% underwent amputation, and 12.8% died. The lack of insurance coverage did not affect the survival of our geriatric burn patients. However, being alone or single, ignition of clothing, cause of burn, comorbid illnesses, complications following the burn, TBSA, age, and sepsis were positively correlated with mortality. The mean cost of treatment for each patient was about $7450. PMID:27126815

  13. Advanced Burn Life Support for Day-to-Day Burn Injury Management and Disaster Preparedness: Stakeholder Experiences and Student Perceptions Following 56 Advanced Burn Life Support Courses.

    PubMed

    Kearns, Randy D; Ortiz-Pujols, Shiara M; Craig, Christopher K; Gusler, James R; Skarote, Mary Beth; Carter, Jeffery; Rezak-Alger, Amy; Cairns, Charles B; Lofald, Daniel; Hubble, Michael W; Holmes, James H; Lord, Graydon C; Helminiak, Clare; Cairns, Bruce A

    2015-01-01

    Educational programs for clinicians managing patients with burn injuries represent a critical aspect of burn disaster preparedness. Managing a disaster, which includes a surge of burn-injured patients, remains one of the more challenging aspects of disaster medicine. During a 6-year period that included the development of a burn surge disaster program for one state, a critical gap was recognized as public presentations were conducted across the state. This gap revealed an acute and greater than anticipated need to include burn care education as an integral part of comprehensive burn surge disaster preparedness. Many hospital and prehospital providers expressed concern with managing even a single, burn-injured patient. While multiple programs were considered, Advanced Burn Life Support (ABLS), a national standardized educational program was selected to help address this need. The curriculum includes initial care for the burn-injured patient as well as an overview of the burn centers role in the disaster preparedness community. After 4 years and 56 classes conducted across the state, a survey was developed including a section that measured the perceptions of those who completed the ABLS educational program. The study specifically examines questions including whether clinicians perceived changes in their burn care knowledge, skills and abilities, and burn disaster preparedness following completion of the program? including whether clinicians. PMID:25167372

  14. BURN SIZE AND SURVIVAL PROBABILITY IN PEDIATRIC PATIENTS IN MODERN BURN CARE

    PubMed Central

    Kraft, Robert; Herndon, David N; Al-Mousawi, Ahmed M; Williams, Felicia N; Finnerty, Celeste C; Jeschke, Marc G

    2012-01-01

    Background Patient survival following severe burn injury is largely determined by burn size. Modern developments in burn care have tremendously improved survival and outcomes. However, no large analysis on outcomes in pediatric burn patients with current treatment regimen exists. This study was designed to identify the burn size presently associated with significant increases in morbidity and mortality in pediatric burn patients. Methods Single center prospective observational cohort study utilizing the clinical data of severely burned pediatric patients admitted between 1998 and 2009. This study included 952 severely burned pediatric patients with burns over at least 30% of their total body surface area (TBSA). Patients were stratified by burn size in 10% increments, ranging from 30 to 100%, with a secondary assignment made according to the outcome of a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Statistical analysis was performed using Student’s t-test, χ2 test, logistic regression and ROC analysis, as appropriate, with significance set at p<0.05. Findings All groups were comparable in age (age in years: 30–39: 6.1±5.1, 40–49: 7.1±5.2, 50–59: 7.6±5.1, 60–69: 7.2±5.1, 70–79: 8.3±5.9, 80–89: 8.4±5.6, 90–100: 9.6±5.4), and gender distribution (male: 30–39: 68%, 40–49: 64%, 50–59: 65%, 60–69: 59%, 70–79: 71%, 80–89: 62%, 90–100: 82%). Mortality (30–39: 3%, 40–49: 3%, 50–59: 7%, 60–69: 16%, 70–79: 22%, 80–89: 35%, 90–100: 55%), multi-organ failure (30–39: 6%, 40–49: 6%, 50–59: 12%, 60–69: 27%, 70–79: 29%, 80–89: 44%, 90–100: 45%), and sepsis (30–39: 2%, 40–49: 5%, 50–59: 6%, 60–69: 15%, 70–79: 13%, 80–89: 22%, 90–100: 26%), increased significantly (p<0.001) among the groups and at a threshold of 62% TBSA. Comparison of patients with burns larger than 62% with those smaller showed significant differences in inflammatory (Cytokines), acute phase (CRP) and hypermetabolic responses (REE

  15. Work-related burns in Washington State, 1994 to 1998.

    PubMed

    Baggs, James; Curwick, Christy; Silverstein, Barbara

    2002-07-01

    This article describes an investigation of work-related burns in Washington State during 1994-1998. Workers' compensation data were used to describe the general characteristics of burn injuries, estimate industrial claims rates, and compare nonhospitalized and hospitalized burn cases. The completeness of workers' compensation data as a source for surveillance was evaluated. During 1994-1998, a total of 20,213 burn claims were accepted by the workers' compensation system. Hospitalized burn cases represented only 1.5% of burn claims but incurred 55% of the costs. In addition, workers' compensation data underestimated the frequency and rate of burns. Although workers' compensation claims rates decreased during 1994-1998, work-related burns remain a problem in Washington State. Several industries (e.g., roofing, foundries, and aluminum smelting) were identified as priorities for prevention of burn hospitalizations, which incur the greater cost and time loss. PMID:12134534

  16. A clarion to recommit and reaffirm burn rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Richard, Reginald L; Hedman, Travis L; Quick, Charles D; Barillo, David J; Cancio, Leopoldo C; Renz, Evan M; Chapman, Ted T; Dewey, William S; Dougherty, Mary E; Esselman, Peter C; Forbes-Duchart, Lisa; Franzen, Beth J; Hunter, Hope; Kowalske, Karen; Moore, Merilyn L; Nakamura, Dana Y; Nedelec, Bernedette; Niszczak, Jon; Parry, Ingrid; Serghiou, Michael; Ward, R Scott; Holcomb, John B; Wolf, Steven E

    2008-01-01

    Burn rehabilitation has been a part of burn care and treatment for many years. Yet, despite of its longevity, the rehabilitation outcome of patients with severe burns is less than optimal and appears to have leveled off. Patient survival from burn injury is at an all-time high. Burn rehabilitation must progress to the point where physical outcomes parallel survival statistics in terms of improved patient well-being. This position article is a treatise on burn rehabilitation and the state of burn rehabilitation patient outcomes. It describes burn rehabilitation interventions in brief and why a need is felt to bring this issue to the forefront. The article discusses areas for change and the challenges facing burn rehabilitation. Finally, the relegation and acceptance of this responsibility are addressed. PMID:18388581

  17. Integrated Transport Simulation of Burning Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuyama, Atsushi

    2009-02-19

    In order to predict the behavior of burning plasmas and develop optimized operation scenarios of ITER, integrated modeling and simulation of fusion plasmas is indispensable. Transport process is one of the main issues in integrated modeling of burning plasmas. In this lecture, first, aim of the integrated simulation, research activities of integrated modeling, desired features of integrated simulation codes, and the integrated tokamak simulation code, TASK, are briefly described. Then the present role of transport modeling in the integrated modeling is discussed based on the time scale separation. Basic equations of the transport simulation coupled with the equilibrium analysis are explained. Modeling of transport phenomena, comparison of transport models, simulation of internal transport barrier formation are described. After brief discussion of source modeling, an example of burning plasma simulation. Finally remaining issues are discussed and summaries are given.

  18. An overview of burning mouth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Salerno, Carmen; Di Stasio, Dario; Petruzzi, Massimo; Lauritano, Dorina; Gentile, Enrica; Guida, Agostino; Maio, Claudio; Tammaro, Mariasofia; Serpico, Rosario; Lucchese, Alberta

    2016-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is characterised by the presence of a burning sensation in the oral mucosa in the absence of any clinically apparent mucosal sign. It occurs more commonly in older women and often affects the tongue tip and lateral borders, lips, and hard and soft palates. Besides the burning sensation, patients with BMS may complain of unremitting oral mucosal pain, dysgeusia, and xerostomia. The exact pathophysiology of primary BMS remains unknown. A major challenge for the clinician is the treatment of BMS: identifying possible causative factors is the first step, but BMS is often idiopathic. Drug therapy, in addition to behavioural therapy and psychotherapy, may help to eliminate the symptoms. Considering the growing incidence of BMS in older people, further research is required to determine the true efficacy of current management strategies for patients with this disorder. PMID:26709657

  19. Traumatic injuries with deep abrasion: "a burn".

    PubMed

    Castana, O; Dagdelenis, J; Rempelos, G; Paneris, P; Anagiotos, G; Diplas, D; Alexakis, D

    2009-03-31

    This epidemiological study deals with 34 patients with friction burns sustained between January 2007 and January 2008. The age group most affected was that between 21 and 30 yr, with a male predominance. Road traffic accidents were the commonest cause of friction burns (31 patients) and the lower limb was body part most commonly affected. The therapy was mostly conservative (no. 18): 14 patients were treated with a split-thickness skin graft, and just two with flap cover. Friction burns are overlooked in the emergency department because of their association with more critical mechanical injuries. They can be prevented by observing standard safety measures such as special clothing or appropriate equipment, especially as regards motorcycle riders. PMID:21991151

  20. Severe metabolic acidosis following assault chemical burn.

    PubMed

    Roock, Sophie D; Deleuze, Jean-Paul; Rose, Thomas; Jennes, Serge; Hantson, Philippe

    2012-04-01

    Assault chemical burns are uncommon in northern Europe. Besides local toxicity, systemic manifestations are possible after strong acid exposure. A 40-year-old woman was admitted 1 h after a criminal assault with sulfuric acid. The total burned surface area was 35%, third degree. Injury was due to sulfuric acid (measured pH 0.9) obtained from a car battery. Immediate complications were obstructive dyspnea and metabolic acidosis. The admission arterial pH was 6.92, with total bicarbonate 8.6 mEq/l and base deficit 23.4 mEq/l. The correction of metabolic acidosis was achieved after several hours by the administration of bicarbonate and lactate buffers. The patient developed several burns-related complications (sepsis and acute renal failure). Cutaneous projections of strong acids may cause severe metabolic acidosis, particularly when copious irrigation and clothes removal cannot be immediately performed at the scene. PMID:22787349

  1. RECENT ADVANCES IN BIOMARKERS IN SEVERE BURNS

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Castilla, Mireia; Roca, Oriol; Masclans, Joan R.; Barret, Joan P.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The pathophysiology of burn injuries is tremendously complex. A thorough understanding is essential for correct treatment of the burned area and also to limit the appearance of organ dysfunction, which, in fact, is a key determinant of morbidity and mortality. In this context, research into biomarkers may play a major role. Biomarkers have traditionally been considered an important area of medical research: the measurement of certain biomarkers has led to a better understanding of pathophysiology, while others have been used either to assess the effectiveness of specific treatments or for prognostic purposes. Research into biomarkers may help to improve the prognosis of patients with severe burn injury. The aim of the present clinical review is to discuss new evidence of the value of biomarkers in this setting. PMID:26771933

  2. Soil heating and impact of prescribed burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoof, Cathelijne

    2016-04-01

    Prescribed burning is highly uncommon in the Netherlands, where wildfire awareness is increasing but its risk management does not yet include fuel management strategies. A major exception is on two military bases, that need to burn their fields in winter and spring to prevent wildfires during summer shooting practice. Research on these very frequent burns has so far been limited to effects on biodiversity, yet site managers and policy makers have questions regarding the soil temperatures reached during these burns because of potential impact on soil properties and soil dwelling fauna. In March 2015, I therefore measured soil and litter temperatures under heath and grass vegetation during a prescribed burn on military terrain in the Netherlands. Soil and litter moisture were sampled pre- and post-fire, ash was collected, and fireline intensity was estimated from flame length. While standing vegetation was dry (0.13 g water/g biomass for grass and 0.6 g/g for heather), soil and litter were moist (0.21 cm3/cm3 and 1.6 g/g, respectively). Soil heating was therefore very limited, with maximum soil temperature at the soil-litter interface remaining being as low as 6.5 to 11.5°C, and litter temperatures reaching a maximum of 77.5°C at the top of the litter layer. As a result, any changes in physical properties like soil organic matter content and bulk density were not significant. These results are a first step towards a database of soil heating in relation to fuel load and fire intensity in this temperate country, which is not only valuable to increase understanding of the relationships between fire intensity and severity, but also instrumental in the policy debate regarding the sustainability of prescribed burns.

  3. Fungal infections in burns: Diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Capoor, Malini R.; Sarabahi, Sujata; Tiwari, Vinay Kumar; Narayanan, Ravi Prakash

    2010-01-01

    Burn wound infection (BWI) is a major public health problem and the most devastating form of trauma worldwide. Fungi cause BWI as part of monomicrobial or polymicrobial infection, fungaemia, rare aggressive soft tissue infection and as opportunistic infections. The risk factors for acquiring fungal infection in burns include age of burns, total burn size, body surface area (BSA) (30–60%), full thickness burns, inhalational injury, prolonged hospital stay, late surgical excision, open dressing, artificial dermis, central venous catheters, antibiotics, steroid treatment, long-term artificial ventilation, fungal wound colonisation (FWC), hyperglycaemic episodes and other immunosuppressive disorders. Most of the fungal infections are missed owing to lack of clinical awareness and similar presentation as bacterial infection coupled with paucity of mycology laboratories. Expedient diagnosis and treatment of these mycoses can be life-saving as the mortality is otherwise very high. Emergence of resistance in non-albicans Candida spp., unusual yeasts and moulds in fungal BWI, leaves very few fungi susceptible to antifungal drugs, leaving many patients susceptible. There is a need to speciate fungi as far as the topical and systemic antifungal is concerned. Deep tissue biopsy and other relevant samples are processed by standard mycological procedures using direct microscopy, culture and histopathological examination. Patients with FWC should be treated by aggressive surgical debridement and, in the case of fungal wound infection (FWI), in addition to surgical debridement, an intravenous antifungal drug, most commonly amphotericin B or caspofungin, is prescribed followed by de-escalating with voriconazole or itraconazole, or fluconazole depending upon the species or antifungal susceptibility, if available. The propensity for fungal infection increases, the longer the wound is present. Therefore, the development of products to close the wound more rapidly, improvement in

  4. Patch burning: implications on water erosion and soil properties.

    PubMed

    Ozaslan Parlak, Altingul; Parlak, Mehmet; Blanco-Canqui, Humberto; Schacht, Walter H; Guretzky, John A; Mamo, Martha

    2015-05-01

    Patch burning can be a potential management tool to create grassland heterogeneity and enhance forage productivity and plant biodiversity, but its impacts on soil and environment have not been widely documented. In summer 2013, we studied the effect of time after patch burning (4 mo after burning [recently burned patches], 16 mo after burning [older burned patches], and unburned patches [control]) on vegetative cover, water erosion, and soil properties on a patch-burn experiment established in 2011 on a Yutan silty clay loam near Mead, NE. The recently burned patches had 29 ± 8.0% (mean ± SD) more bare ground, 21 ± 1.4% less canopy cover, and 40 ± 11% less litter cover than older burned and unburned patches. Bare ground and canopy cover did not differ between the older burned and unburned patches, indicating that vegetation recovered. Runoff depth from the older burned and recently burned patches was 2.8 times (19.6 ± 4.1 vs. 7.1 ± 3.0 mm [mean ± SD]) greater than the unburned patches. The recently burned patches had 4.5 times greater sediment loss (293 ± 89 vs. 65 ± 56 g m) and 3.8 times greater sediment-associated organic C loss (9.2 ± 2.0 vs. 2.4 ± 1.9 g m) than the older burned and unburned patches. The recently burned patches had increased daytime soil temperature but no differences in soil compaction and structural properties, dissolved nutrients, soil C, and total N concentration relative to older burned and unburned patches. Overall, recently burned patches can have reduced canopy and litter cover and increased water erosion, but soil properties may not differ from older burn or unburned patches under the conditions of this study. PMID:26024270

  5. Filigree burn of lightning: two case reports.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Virendra

    2007-04-01

    Lightning is a powerful natural electrostatic discharge produced during a thunderstorm. The electric current passing through the discharge channels is direct with a potential of 1000 million volts or more. Lightning can kill or injure a person by a direct strike, a side-flash, or conduction through another object. Lightning can cause a variety of injuries in the skin and the cardiovascular, neurological and ophthalmic systems. Filigree burn of lightning is a superficial burn and very rare. Two cases of death from lightning which have this rare finding are reported and discussed. PMID:17520964

  6. The Combustion Phase of Burning Metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, Theodore A.; Wilson, D. B.; Benz, Frank

    1992-01-01

    Glassman's hypothesis and burn ratio are examined for their suitability for predicting the phase of combustion of metals. Neither criterion is validated based on either published property values or experimental evidence. Inconsistencies in published property values and definitions are noted. Computer calculations provide a more appropriate descriptions of the compositions of the combustion products and the adiabatic flame temperature of a burning metal at equilibrium. Dissociation temperatures (and product compositions) for 11 metals are computed using a specified quantity of thermal energy and compared with adiabatic flame temperatures.

  7. How to Recognize a Failed Burn Resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Brownson, Elisha G; Pham, Tam N; Chung, Kevin K

    2016-10-01

    Failed burn resuscitation can occur at various points. Early failed resuscitation will be largely caused by prehospital factors. During resuscitation, failure will present as a patient's nonresponse to adjunctive therapy. Late failure will occur in the setting of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Burn care providers must be vigilant during the resuscitation to identify a threatened resuscitation so that adjunctive therapies or rescue maneuvers can be used to convert to a successful resuscitation. However, when a patient's resuscitative course becomes unsalvageable, transition to comfort care should be taken to avoid prolongation of suffering. PMID:27600128

  8. Biomass Burning Observation Project Science Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinman, KI; Sedlacek, AJ

    2013-09-01

    Aerosols from biomass burning perturb Earth’s climate through the direct radiative effect (both scattering and absorption) and through influences on cloud formation and precipitation and the semi-direct effect. Despite much effort, quantities important to determining radiative forcing such as the mass absorption coefficients (MAC) of light-absorbing carbon, secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation rates, and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity remain in doubt. Field campaigns in northern temperate latitudes have been overwhelmingly devoted to other aerosol sources in spite of biomass burning producing about one-third of the fine particles (PM2.5) in the U.S.

  9. Profile of Children Abused by Burning

    PubMed Central

    Mathangi Ramakrishnan, K.; Mathivanan, Y.; Sankar, J.

    2010-01-01

    Summary In an analysis of paediatric burn admissions to a hospital in India during the years 1992-2007, 9.3% of burn injuries were found to be secondary to abuse. These had valid documented evidence and child neglect was excluded. This incidence of child abuse has been on the rise in the last seven years and was more evident due to careful investigation by a team comprising a plastic surgeon, a paediatrician, a legal expert, a psychologist, and a social worker. As with the incidence reported by many other researchers, most of the injuries were caused by scalding. PMID:21991189

  10. Three-dimensional simulations of burning thermals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aspden, Andy; Bell, John; Woosley, Stan

    2010-11-01

    Flame ignition in type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) leads to isolated bubbles of burning buoyant fluid. As a bubble rises due to gravity, it becomes deformed by shear instabilities and transitions to a turbulent buoyant vortex ring. Morton, Taylor and Turner (1956) introduced the entrainment assumption, which can be applied to inert thermals. In this study, we use the entrainment assumption, suitably modified to account for burning, to predict the late-time asymptotic behaviour of these turbulent buoyant vortex rings in SNe Ia. The theory is validated against three- dimensional simulations with adaptive mesh refinement at effective resolutions up to 4096^3.

  11. Addition agents effects on hydrocarbon fuels burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larionov, V. M.; Mitrofanov, G. A.; Sakhovskii, A. V.

    2016-01-01

    Literature review on addition agents effects on hydrocarbon fuels burning has been conducted. The impact results in flame pattern and burning velocity change, energy efficiency increase, environmentally harmful NOx and CO emission reduction and damping of self-oscillations in flow. An assumption about water molecules dissociation phenomenon existing in a number of practical applications and being neglected in most explanations for physical- chemical processes taking place in case of injection of water/steam into combustion zone has been noted. The hypothesis about necessity of water dissociation account has been proposed. It can be useful for low temperature combustion process control and NOx emission reduction.

  12. Methane production from global biomass burning

    SciTech Connect

    Wei Min Hao; Ward, D.E.

    1993-11-20

    Emissions of methane from various sources of biomass burning are determined quantitatively for tropical, temperate, and boreal regions. About 85% of the total CH{sub 4} is emitted in the tropical area, which is mainly the result of shifting cultivation, fuelwood use, and deforestation. Methane emissions from biomass burning may have increased by at least 9% during the last decade because of increases in tropical deforestation and the use of fuelwood. Changes in land use practices and population growth in the tropics are possible causes of the increase of atmospheric CH{sub 4} concentration. 31 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  13. Epidemiology of childhood burns in the burn unit of Ain Shams University in Cairo, Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Badawy, A; Mabrouk, A R

    1998-12-01

    Childhood burns in Egypt are a significant problem, especially in families of low socioeconomic status. These families live in overcrowded flats, which lack proper hygiene and tend to use kerosene stoves, which lack any safety measures. Three hundred and five burned children presented to the burn unit of Ain Shams University over a 20 month period. Proportionately more boys than girls were injured. There was an increase in the incidence between the ages of 4 to 6 years. Scalds formed 56.7% of the cause of burns, while 38.6% were due to flame. In 3 and 1.6% the cause of burn was electrical and chemical, respectively. 20 patients were victims of industrial accidents showing a major problem of entrance of children between 8-15 years of lower socioeconomic class into the labor force. 87.2% of the patients had minor burns while 13 children (4.3%) died of the consequences of burns during the period of the study. PMID:9915673

  14. Sources of black carbon in aerosols: fossil fuel burning vs. biomass burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The uncertainty in black carbon (BC) analysis and our inability to directly quantify the BC sources in the atmosphere has led to the uncertainty in compiling a regional or global BC emission inventory attributed to biomass burnings. We initiate this study to demonstrate a new approach, which quantifies the source of BC in the atmosphere between biomass and fossil fuel burnings. We applied the newly developed multi-element scanning thermal analysis (MESTA) technology to quantify BC and organic carbon (OC), respectively, in aerosol samples. MESTA can also separate BC from OC for subsequent radiocarbon analyses. Because fossil fuel has been depleted of radiocarbon and biomass has radiocarbon of the modern atmospheric level, we can quantify the sources of BC between fossil fuel and biomass burnings. We sampled the PM2.5 in the ambient air of central Tallahassee and its rural areas during the May-June (prescribed burning) and Nov-Dec (non-burning) periods. The results indicate that biomass burning contributed 89×1% and 67×2% of BC, respectively, during May-June and Nov.-Dec. periods. The rest of PM2.5 BC was contributed from fossil fuel burning. The radiocarbon contents of the OC was 103.42×0.55 percent modern carbon (pmC), which is consistent with the current atmospheric level with a trace of the bomb radiocarbon remained from the open atmosphere nuclear testing.

  15. Effect of Topical Platelet-Rich Plasma on Burn Healing After Partial-Thickness Burn Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ozcelik, Umit; Ekici, Yahya; Bircan, Huseyin Yuce; Aydogan, Cem; Turkoglu, Suna; Ozen, Ozlem; Moray, Gokhan; Haberal, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Background To investigate the effects of platelet-rich plasma on tissue maturation and burn healing in an experimental partial-thickness burn injury model. Material/Methods Thirty Wistar albino rats were divided into 3 groups of 10 rats each. Group 1 (platelet-rich plasma group) was exposed to burn injury and topical platelet-rich plasma was applied. Group 2 (control group) was exposed to burn injury only. Group 3 (blood donor group) was used as blood donors for platelet-rich plasma. The rats were killed on the seventh day after burn injury. Tissue hydroxyproline levels were measured and histopathologic changes were examined. Results Hydroxyproline levels were significantly higher in the platelet-rich plasma group than in the control group (P=.03). Histopathologically, there was significantly less inflammatory cell infiltration (P=.005) and there were no statistically significant differences between groups in fibroblast development, collagen production, vessel proliferations, or epithelization. Conclusions Platelet-rich plasma seems to partially improve burn healing in this experimental burn injury model. As an initial conclusion, it appears that platelet-rich plasma can be used in humans, although further studies should be performed with this type of treatment. PMID:27262706

  16. Effect of Topical Platelet-Rich Plasma on Burn Healing After Partial-Thickness Burn Injury.

    PubMed

    Ozcelik, Umit; Ekici, Yahya; Bircan, Huseyin Yuce; Aydogan, Cem; Turkoglu, Suna; Ozen, Ozlem; Moray, Gokhan; Haberal, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND To investigate the effects of platelet-rich plasma on tissue maturation and burn healing in an experimental partial-thickness burn injury model. MATERIAL AND METHODS Thirty Wistar albino rats were divided into 3 groups of 10 rats each. Group 1 (platelet-rich plasma group) was exposed to burn injury and topical platelet-rich plasma was applied. Group 2 (control group) was exposed to burn injury only. Group 3 (blood donor group) was used as blood donors for platelet-rich plasma. The rats were killed on the seventh day after burn injury. Tissue hydroxyproline levels were measured and histopathologic changes were examined. RESULTS Hydroxyproline levels were significantly higher in the platelet-rich plasma group than in the control group (P=.03). Histopathologically, there was significantly less inflammatory cell infiltration (P=.005) and there were no statistically significant differences between groups in fibroblast development, collagen production, vessel proliferations, or epithelization. CONCLUSIONS Platelet-rich plasma seems to partially improve burn healing in this experimental burn injury model. As an initial conclusion, it appears that platelet-rich plasma can be used in humans, although further studies should be performed with this type of treatment. PMID:27262706

  17. Global biomass burning - Atmospheric, climatic, and biospheric implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Joel S.

    1991-01-01

    On a global scale, the total biomass consumed by annual burning is about 8680 million tons of dry material; the estimated total biomass consumed by the burning of savanna grasslands, at 3690 million tons/year, exceeds all other biomass burning (BMB) components. These components encompass agricultural wastes burning, forest burning, and fuel wood burning. BMB is not restricted to the tropics, and is largely anthropogenic. Satellite measurements indicate significantly increased tropospheric concentrations of CO and ozone associated with BMB. BMB significantly enhances the microbial production and emission of NO(x) from soils, and of methane from wetlands.

  18. Inflammatory pain in experimental burns in man.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, J L

    2000-06-01

    Human experimental pain models are important tools in pain research. The primary aims of pain research in normal man is 1) to provide insight in pain mechanisms, 2) to provide a rational basis for clinical trials of pain relieving interventions, and 3) to confirm the anti-nociceptive effects demonstrated in animal models. Most often clinical pain is due to tissue damage leading to acute inflammation and hyperalgesia, but only few human pain models have examined pain responses in injured tissues. Therefore, models with controlled and reversible tissue trauma are needed. The human burn model is an example of such a model, and several groups have performed studies of analgesics and pain mechanisms based on the model. The thesis aims to provide a critical review of the human burn model as a tool in pain research, and to give suggestions for development of the model and future research. The pain and inflammatory responses to superficial thermal burns in skin have been studied in healthy volunteers. Burns have the potential for releasing most of the inflammatory and chemical mediators that produce sensitisation and excitation of nociceptors, and the intense nociceptive input during injury produces sensitisation of central neurones in the nociceptive pathway. Pain and hyperalgesia have been evaluated in the model by thermal, various mechanical, and electrical stimuli. The different methods of pain assessments are discussed to clarify the underlying neural mechanisms, the questions that can be addressed by the measurements, and the discrepancies in results between studies. Inflammation has been evaluated in the model by skin erythema intensity, area of flare, and blister formation. The major determinant of skin erythema intensity is the amount of blood in the most superficial part of the dermis, and burn-induced erythema may be primarily due to congestion of capillary loops and postcapillary venules. The area of flare may be used to evaluate the efferent function of heat

  19. Healing the Burn: Advances in Burn Treatment Technology Aim to Save Lives, Lessen Pain and Scarring.

    PubMed

    Allen, Summer E

    2016-01-01

    When brothers Jamie and Glen Selby, aged 5 and 7, arrived at the Shriners Burns Institute in Denver, Colorado, in July 1983, more than 97% of their skin had been destroyed by a fire they had accidentally started while playing in an abandoned house. The boys were so badly burned that their outlook was grim-a 6-year-old friend who was also in the fire died from his injuries?but Jamie and Glen were lucky. Not only did they survive, but they were also some of the first patients to benefit from a new burn treatment nicknamed test-tube skin. PMID:27414631

  20. Burn prevention in Zambia: a targeted epidemiological approach.

    PubMed

    Heard, Jason P; Latenser, Barbara A; Liao, Junlin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess primary burn prevention knowledge in a rural Zambian population that is disproportionately burdened by burn injuries. A 10-question survey was completed by youths, and a 15-question survey was completed by adults. The survey was available in both English and Nyanja. The surveys were designed to test their knowledge in common causes, first aid, and emergency measures regarding burn injuries. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore relationships between burn knowledge, age, school, and socioeconomic variables. A burn prevention coloring book, based on previous local epidemiological data, was also distributed to 800 school age youths. Five hundred fifty youths and 39 adults completed the survey. The most significant results show knowledge deficits in common causes of burns, first aid treatment of a burn injury, and what to do in the event of clothing catching fire. Younger children were more likely to do worse than older children. The adults performed better than the youths, but still lack fundamental burn prevention and treatment knowledge. Primary burn prevention data from the youths and adults surveyed demonstrate a clear need for burn prevention and treatment education in this population. In a country where effective and sustainable burn care is lacking, burn prevention may be a better investment to reduce burn injury than large investments in healthcare resources. PMID:23292574

  1. Burning mouth syndrome: a review and update.

    PubMed

    Silvestre, Francisco J; Silvestre-Rangil, Javier; López-Jornet, Pía

    2015-05-16

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is mainly found in middle aged or elderly women and is characterized by intense burning or itching sensation of the tongue or other regions of the oral mucosa. It can be accompanied by xerostomia and dysgeusia. The syndrome generally manifests spontaneously, and the discomfort is typically of a continuous nature but increases in intensity during the evening and at night. Although BMS classically has been attributed to a range of factors, in recent years evidence has been obtained relating it peripheral (sensory C and/or trigeminal nerve fibers) or central neuropathic disturbances (involving the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system). The differential diagnosis requires the exclusion of oral mucosal lesions or blood test alterations that can produce burning mouth sensation. Patient management is based on the avoidance of causes of oral irritation and the provision of psychological support. Drug treatment for burning sensation in primary BMS of peripheral origin can consist of topical clonazepam, while central type BMS appears to improve with the use of antidepressants such as duloxetine, antiseizure drugs such as gabapentin, or amisulpride. PMID:25952601

  2. Pathogenic alteration in severe burn wounds.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yang; Xie, Bing; Ben, DaoFeng; Lv, KaiYang; Zhu, ShiHui; Lu, Wei; Tang, HongTai; Cheng, DaSheng; Ma, Bing; Wang, GuangYi; Xiao, ShiChu; Wang, GuangQing; Xia, ZhaoFan

    2012-02-01

    The present study aims to define the trend of time related changes with local bacterial alteration of bacterial resistance in severe burns in our burn center during a 12-year period. Retrospective analysis of microbiological results on severely burned wounds between 1998 and 2009 was carried out. A study of 3615 microbial isolates was performed. Staphylococcus aureus was the most commonly isolated pathogen (38.2%) followed by A. baumannii (16.2%), Streptococcus viridans (11.4%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10.4%), coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS, 9.2%). The species ratios of S. aureus and A. baumannii increased significantly from 1st to 8th week of hospitalization, while those of Streptococcus viridans, P. aeruginosa and coagulase-negative staphylococci decreased during the same period. Bacterial resistance rates were compared between the periods 1998-2003 and 2004-2009. Vancomycin remained as the most sensitive antibiotic in S. aureus including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). It was very likely that the majority of infections caused by Streptococcus viridans, P. aeruginosa and coagulase-negative staphylococci occurred in the early stage of burn course and the majority of infections caused by A. baumannii occurred 4 weeks after admission. The use of different antibiotics was probably the major contributor to these trends. PMID:22100426

  3. Ghrelin receptor controls obesity by fat burning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emerging evidence show that brown fat in the body produces heat to burn energy, thus prompting weight loss. Ghrelin is the only known hormone which increases appetite and promotes weight gain. We have reported that mice that lack the receptor which mediates the functions of ghrelin are lean. Our fu...

  4. Controlling Transistor Temperature During Burn-In

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, B. C.

    1986-01-01

    Boiling refrigerant provides simple temperature control for newly manufactured power transistors. Heat-transfer liquid is Fluorinert FC-77 (or equivalent). Liquid boils at 100 degrees C, which is specified temperature at which transistor cases should be maintained during burn-in with this technique.

  5. Pain insensitivity syndrome misinterpreted as inflicted burns.

    PubMed

    van den Bosch, Gerbrich E; Baartmans, Martin G A; Vos, Paul; Dokter, Jan; White, Tonya; Tibboel, Dick

    2014-05-01

    We present a case study of a 10-year-old child with severe burns that were misinterpreted as inflicted burns. Because of multiple injuries since early life, the family was under suspicion of child abuse and therefore under supervision of the Child Care Board for 2 years before the boy was burned. Because the boy incurred the burns without feeling pain, we conducted a thorough medical examination and laboratory testing, evaluated detection and pain thresholds, and used MRI to study brain morphology and brain activation patterns during pain between this patient and 3 healthy age- and gender-matched controls. We found elevated detection and pain thresholds and lower brain activation during pain in the patient compared with the healthy controls and reference values. The patient received the diagnosis of hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IV on the basis of clinical findings and the laboratory testing, complemented with the altered pain and detection thresholds and MRI findings. Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy IV is a very rare congenital pain insensitivity syndrome characterized by the absence of pain and temperature sensation combined with oral mutilation due to unawareness, fractures, and anhidrosis caused by abnormalities in the peripheral nerves. Health care workers should be aware of the potential presence of this disease to prevent false accusations of child abuse. PMID:24733875

  6. CHARACTERIZATION OF EMISSIONS FROM BURNING INCENSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary objective of this study was to improve the characterization of particulate matter emissions from burning incense. Emissions of particulate matter were measured for 23 different types of incense using a cyclone/filter method. Emission rates for PM2.5 (particulate matte...

  7. EMISSIONS FROM BURNING CABINET MAKING SCRAPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an initial determination of differences in missions when burning ordinary cordwood compared to kitchen cabinet making scraps. he tests were performed in an instrumented woodstove testing laboratory on a stove that simulated units observed in use at a k...

  8. Face Allotransplantation and Burns: a Review

    PubMed Central

    A, Arno; JP, Barret; RA, Harrison; MG, Jeschke

    2012-01-01

    Burns may represent one of the main indications for face allotransplantation. Severely disfigured faces featuring a devastating appearance and great functional impairments are not only seen as burn sequelae, but also occur as a result of other traumatic injuries, oncological surgical resections, benign tumors (e.g., neurofibromatosis), and major congenital malformations. To date, sixteen human face composite tissue allotransplantations have been performed with success. Despite the initial scepticism about its applicability, due mainly to ethical and technical reasons, the previous worldwide cases and their associated positive outcomes –including acceptable immunosuppressive regimens, excellent aesthetic and functional results, and good psychological acceptance by the recipient- , enable the conclusion that face composite tissue allotransplantation has become another therapeutic strategy in the reconstructive surgical armamentarium, which bears special consideration when dealing with severely disfigured burned patients. The aim of this review is to describe the basics of face composite tissue allotransplantation and give an overview of some of the cases performed until now, with special attention paid to debating the pros and cons of its applicability in burn patients. PMID:22274632

  9. FEASIBILITY OF BURNING COAL IN CATALYTIC COMBUSTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study, showing that pulverized coal can be burned in a catalytic combustor. Pulverized coal combustion in catalytic beds is markedly different from gaseous fuel combustion. Gas combustion gives uniform bed temperatures and reaction rates over the ent...

  10. Burning Mississippi: Letters Home, Hollywood History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarrow, Michael

    1989-01-01

    Recollects summer 1964, when hundreds of civil rights workers went to Mississippi to aid Black voter registration. Points out that the movie "Mississippi Burning" ignores the courageous struggle of Mississippi Blacks and, instead, presents a disempowering version of history focusing on violent White males (the Klan and the FBI). (SV)

  11. Face allotransplantation and burns: a review.

    PubMed

    Arno, Anna; Barret, J P; Harrison, Rachael A; Jeschke, Marc G

    2012-01-01

    Burns may represent one of the main indications for face allotransplantation. Severely disfigured faces featuring a devastating appearance and great functional impairments are not only seen as burn sequelae but also occur as a result of other traumatic injuries, oncological surgical resections, benign tumors (eg, neurofibromatosis), and major congenital malformations. To date, 20 human face composite tissue allotransplants have been performed with success. Despite the initial scepticism about its applicability, due mainly to ethical and technical reasons, the previous worldwide cases and their associated positive outcomes, including acceptable immunosuppressive regimens, excellent aesthetic and functional results, and good psychological acceptance by the recipient, enable the conclusion that face composite tissue allotransplantation has become another therapeutic strategy in the reconstructive surgical armamentarium, which bears special consideration when dealing with severely disfigured burned patients. The aim of this review is to describe the basics of face composite tissue allotransplantation and give an overview of some of the cases performed until now, with special attention paid to debating the pros and cons of its applicability in burn patients. PMID:22274632

  12. Accidental radioisotope burns - Management of late sequelae.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Bipin T; Thomas, Shaji; Nair, Balakrishnan; Mathew, P C; Sebastian, Paul

    2010-09-01

    Accidental radioisotope burns are rare. The major components of radiation injury are burns, interstitial pneumonitis, acute bone marrow suppression, acute renal failure and adult respiratory distress syndrome. Radiation burns, though localized in distribution, have systemic effects, and can be extremely difficult to heal, even after multiple surgeries. In a 25 year old male who sustained such trauma by accidental industrial exposure to Iridium192 the early presentation involved recurrent haematemesis, pancytopenia and bone marrow suppression. After three weeks he developed burns in contact areas in the left hand, left side of the chest, abdomen and right inguinal region. All except the inguinal wound healed spontaneously but the former became a non-healing ulcer. Pancytopenia and bone marrow depression followed. He was treated with morphine and NSAIDs, epidural buprinorphine and bupivicaine for pain relief, steroids, antibiotics followed by wound excision and reconstruction with tensor fascia lata(TFL) flap. Patient had breakdown of abdominal scar later and it was excised with 0.5 cm margins up to the underlying muscle and the wound was covered by a latissimis dorsi flap. Further scar break down and recurrent ulcers occurred at different sites including left wrist, left thumb and right heel in the next two years which needed multiple surgical interventions. PMID:21321664

  13. The after-harvest burning question?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Allowing the sugarcane post-harvest residue blanket to remain on the field often reduces ratoon crop yields in temperate climates such as Louisiana. This article outlines the progress of our residue management research focused on reducing the need for burning in Louisiana sugarcane production. Some ...

  14. Reclaiming body image: the hidden burn.

    PubMed

    Willis-Helmich, J J

    1992-01-01

    At the age of 4, I incurred a major burn injury that left 45% of my body with permanent scars. Normal clothing covers most of the scars. I was able to reclaim a positive body image through a gradual process of verbal and "body" disclosure. As an adult, I joined a burn survivors' self-help group; as a result of talking with other burn survivors, my self expectations increased. Later, I joined a facilitated group in which nudity and personal growth were the norm. In this group, I was the only person who had experienced a major physical trauma. I replaced my strongly held beliefs that others could not accept my unclothed, burn-injured body with the belief that some persons can, and I came to a personal understanding of why others could not. Fun, exercise, and relaxation led to a reclamation of positive feelings about my unclothed body and allowed my femininity and the character of my body image to emerge and become integrated. PMID:1572860

  15. Studies of droplet burning and extinction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, F. A.

    1995-01-01

    A project on droplet combustion, pursued jointly with F. L. Dryer of Princeton University, has now been in progress for many years. The project involves experiments on the burning of single droplets in various atmospheres, mainly at normal atmospheric pressure and below, performed in drop towers and designed to be performed aboard space-based platforms such as the Space Shuttle or the Space Station and currently manifest for Spacelab in the MSL-1 flight of the Space Shuttle in April of 1997. It also involves numerical computations on droplet burning, performed mainly at Princeton, and asymptotic analyses of droplet burning, performed mainly at UCSD. The focus of the studies rests primarily on time-dependent droplet-burning characteristics and on extinction phenomena. The presentation to be given here concerns the recent research on application of asymptotic methods to investigation of the flame structure and extinction of alcohol droplets. These theoretical studies are relevant to the second of the proposed space-flight tests and are currently investigating the extent to which combustion of alcohols can be described by four-step reduced chemistry similar to that which has achieved a good degree of success for alkane flames. These studies have progressed to a point at which a number of definite conclusions can now be stated. These conclusions and the reasoning that led to them are outlined.

  16. Burns B. Crookston: Life and Legacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fried, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Burns B. Crookston was a man ahead of his times. He left a legacy to the student affairs profession that inspired the practice of student development education. His writings described a role for higher education in training students to become active citizens by learning about leadership, decision making, and conflict resolution in democratic…

  17. Complex Burn Region Module (CBRM) update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Carl L.; Jenkins, Billy

    1991-01-01

    Presented here is a Complex Burn Region Module (CBRM) update for the Solid Rocket Internal Ballistics Module (SRIBM) Program for the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) design/performance assessments. The goal was to develop an improved version of the solid rocket internal ballistics module program that contains a diversified complex region model for motor grain design, performance prediction, and evaluation.

  18. Analysis of antibiotic consumption in burn patients.

    PubMed

    Soleymanzadeh-Moghadam, Somayeh; Azimi, Leila; Amani, Laleh; Rastegar Lari, Aida; Alinejad, Faranak; Rastegar Lari, Abdolaziz

    2015-01-01

    Infection control is very important in burn care units, because burn wound infection is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality among burn patients. Thus, the appropriate prescription of antibiotics can be helpful, but unreasonable prescription can have detrimental consequences, including greater expenses to patients and community alike. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of antibiotic therapy on the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. 525 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii and Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from 335 hospitalized burn patients. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed after identification the strains. The records of patients were audited to find the antibiotic used. The results indicated that P. aeruginosa is the most prevalent Gram-negative bacteria. Further, it showed a relation between abuse of antibiotics and emergence of antibiotic resistance. Control of resistance to antibiotics by appropriate prescription practices not only facilitates prevention of infection caused by multi-drug resistant (MDR) microorganisms, but it can also decrease the cost of treatment. PMID:26124986

  19. Fatal accidental burns in married women.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Virendra; Tripathi, Chandra Bhal

    2003-09-01

    Burning incidents amongst women are a major concern in India as it has become pervasive throughout all social strata and geographical areas. They may be homicidal, suicidal or accidental in nature. Here, in the study, the main objective is to present the different epidemiological and medicolegal aspects of accidental burns in the married women. In a cohort of 152 burned wives, 70 (46%) were accidental victims and these cases were analyzed accordingly for their different medicolegal and epidemiological aspects. Data were collected from personal interview and from examining the different documents related to death. In this series, most of the women were illiterate Hindu housewives hailing from joint families (i.e. multigenerational groups of related individuals living under a single roof) of rural community. The majority (60%) of the affected wives were 16-25 years of age at the time of the accident and sustained less than 90% total body surface area burn injury. Most had the survival period more than 1 day, and more than half of them died of septicaemia. PMID:14568773

  20. Electric field effects on droplet burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patyal, Advitya; Kyritsis, Dimitrios; Matalon, Moshe

    2015-11-01

    The effects of an externally applied electric field are studied on the burning characteristics of a spherically symmetric fuel drop including the structure, mass burning rate and extinction characteristics of the diffusion flame. A reduced three-step chemical kinetic mechanism that reflects the chemi-ionization process for general hydrocarbon fuels has been proposed to capture the production and destruction of ions inside the flame zone. Due to the imposed symmetry, the effect of the ionic wind is simply to modify the pressure field. Our study thus focuses exclusively on the effects of Ohmic heating and kinetic effects on the burning process. Two distinguished limits of weak and strong field are identified, highlighting the relative strength of the internal charge barrier compared to the externally applied field, and numerically simulated. For both limits, significantly different charged species distributions are observed. An increase in the mass burning rate is noticed with increasing field in either limit with negligible change in the flame temperature. Increasing external voltages pushes the flame away from the droplet and causes a strengthening of the flame with a reduction in the extinction Damkhöler number.

  1. Burned in: Fueling the Fire to Teach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Audrey A.; Reynolds, Luke

    2011-01-01

    Almost half of new teachers leave the profession within their first year. New teachers need support, mentoring, encouragement, and, most importantly, hope in order to survive the challenges of their first years of teaching. "Burned In" features essays from today's most visionary educators, including Jim Burke, Peter Elbow, James Loewen, Gregory…

  2. Reactive burn models and ignition & growth concept

    SciTech Connect

    Menikoff, Ralph S; Shaw, Milton S

    2010-01-01

    Plastic-bonded explosives are heterogeneous materials. Experimentally, shock initiation is sensitive to small amounts of porosity, due to the formation of hot spots (small localized regions of high temperature). This leads to the Ignition and Growth concept, introduced by Lee and Tarver in 1980, as the basis for reactive burn models. A homogeneized burn rate needs to account for three mesoscale physical effects (i) the density of burnt hot spots, which depends on the lead shock strength; (ii) the growth of the burn fronts triggered by hot spots, which depends on the local deflagration speed; (iii) a geometric factor that accounts for the overlap of deflagration wavelets from adjacent hot spots. These effects can be combined and the burn model defined by specifying the reaction progress variable {lambda}(t) as a function of a dimensionless reaction length {tau}{sub hs}(t)/{ell}{sub hs}, rather than by xpecifying an explicit burn rate. The length scale {ell}{sub hs} is the average distance between hot spots, which is proportional to [N{sub hs}(P{sub s})]{sup -1/3}, where N{sub hs} is the number density of hot spots activated by the lead shock. The reaction length {tau}{sub hs}(t) = {line_integral}{sub 0}{sup t} D(P(t'))dt' is the distance the burn front propagates from a single hot spot, where D is the deflagration speed and t is the time since the shock arrival. A key implementation issue is how to determine the lead shock strength in conjunction with a shock capturing scheme. They have developed a robust algorithm for this purpose based on the Hugoniot jump condition for the energy. The algorithm utilizes the time dependence of density, pressure and energy within each cell. The method is independent of the numerical dissipation used for shock capturing. It is local and can be used in one or more space dimensions. The burn model has a small number of parameters which can be calibrated to fit velocity gauge data from shock initiation experiments.

  3. Generation of crystalline silica from sugarcane burning.

    PubMed

    Le Blond, Jennifer S; Horwell, Claire J; Williamson, Ben J; Oppenheimer, Clive

    2010-07-01

    Sugarcane leaves contain amorphous silica, which may crystallise to form crystalline silica polymorphs (cristobalite or quartz), during commercial sugarcane harvesting where sugarcane plants are burned. Respirable airborne particulate containing these phases may present an occupational health hazard. Following from an earlier pilot study (J. S. Le Blond, B. J. Williamson, C. J. Horwell, A. K. Monro, C. A. Kirk and C. Oppenheimer, Atmos. Environ., 2008, 42, 5558-5565) in which experimental burning of sugarcane leaves yielded crystalline silica, here we report on actual conditions during sugarcane burning on commercial estates, investigate the physico-chemical properties of the cultivated leaves and ash products, and quantify the presence of crystalline silica. Commercially grown raw sugarcane leaf was found to contain up to 1.8 wt% silica, mostly in the form of amorphous silica bodies (with trace impurities e.g., Al, Na, Mg), with only a small amount of quartz. Thermal images taken during several pre-harvest burns recorded temperatures up to 1056 degrees C, which is sufficient for metastable cristobalite formation. No crystalline silica was detected in airborne particulate from pre-harvest burning, collected using a cascade impactor. The sugarcane trash ash formed after pre-harvest burning contained between 10 and 25 wt% SiO(2), mostly in an amorphous form, but with up to 3.5 wt% quartz. Both quartz and cristobalite were identified in the sugarcane bagasse ash (5-15 wt% and 1-3 wt%, respectively) formed in the processing factory. Electron microprobe analysis showed trace impurities of Mg, Al and Fe in the silica particles in the ash. The absence of crystalline silica in the airborne emissions and lack of cristobalite in trash ash suggest that high temperatures during pre-harvest burning were not sustained long enough for cristobalite to form, which is supported by the presence of low temperature sylvite and calcite in the residual ash. The occurrence of quartz and

  4. Total intravenous anesthesia for major burn surgery

    PubMed Central

    Cancio, Leopoldo C; Cuenca, Phillip B; Walker, Stephen C; Shepherd, John M

    2013-01-01

    Total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) is frequently used for major operations requiring general anesthesia in critically ill burn patients. We reviewed our experience with this approach. Methods: During a 22-month period, 547 major burn surgeries were performed in this center’s operating room and were staffed by full-time burn anesthesiologists. The records of all 123 TIVA cases were reviewed; 112 records were complete and were included. For comparison, 75 cases were selected at random from a total of 414 non-TIVA general anesthetics. Some patients had more than one operation during the study: as appropriate for the analysis in question, each operation or each patient was entered as an individual case. For inter-patient analysis, exposure to 1 or more TIVAs was used to categorize a patient as member of the TIVA group. Results: Excision and grafting comprised 78.2% of the operations. 14 TIVA regimens were used, employing combinations of 4 i.v. drugs: ketamine (K, 91 cases); i.v. methadone (M, 62); fentanyl (F, 58); and propofol (P, 21). The most common regimens were KM (34 cases); KF (26); KMF (16); and K alone (8). Doses used often exceeded those used in non-burn patients. TIVA was preferred for those patients who were more critically ill prior to surgery, with a higher ASA score (3.87 vs. 3.11). Consistent with this, inhalation injury (26.7 vs. 1.6%), burn size (TBSA, 36.3 vs. 15.8%), and full-thickness burn size (FULL, 19.8 vs. 6.5%) were higher in TIVA than in non-TIVA patients. Despite this, intraoperative pressor use was as common in TIVA as in non-TIVA cases (23.9 vs. 22.7%). Conclusions: TIVA was used in patients whose inhalation injury rate and TBSA were greater than those of non-TIVA patients. TIVA cases were not associated with increased hemodynamic instability. TIVA is a viable approach to general anesthesia in critically ill burn patients. PMID:23638329

  5. Diabetes mellitus and burns. Part II-outcomes from burn injuries and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Goutos, Ioannis; Nicholas, Rebecca Spenser; Pandya, Atisha A; Ghosh, Sudip J

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is an increasingly prevalent comorbidity in patients presenting to burn facilities. Diabetic patients tend to be older and present in a delayed manner with deeper injuries predominantly affecting the lower limb. Morbidity from burns is higher in this cohort including a longer length of hospital stay, greater need for surgical interventions and increased rate of infective complications. Nevertheless, there seems to be little effect of diabetes on associated mortality. The second part of this review article concentrates on the epidemiological profile of diabetic burn patients and the effect of the disease on morbidity and mortality. In addition, we present a review of therapeutic adjuncts, which may hold promise for the future management of this cohort of burn patients. PMID:26064798

  6. Mechanical hole-burning spectroscopy: Demonstration of hole burning in the terminal relaxation regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xiangfu; McKenna, Gregory B.

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a mechanical spectral hole-burning (MSHB) scheme that is analogous to dielectric and magnetic spectral hole-burning techniques. Previous dielectric nonresonant spectral hole-burning experiments have been performed close to the glass temperatures of glass-forming materials and interpreted in terms of dynamic heterogeneity. The present study focuses on polymeric systems far above the glass temperature and in the terminal (reptation) regime. Theoretically, we examine Kaye-Bernstein-Kearsley-Zapas and Bernstein-Shokooh nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive models, which do not invoke an explicit heterogeneous dynamics for the relaxation response, to study MSHB, and find that both models fail to capture the subtle mechanical holes observed in the experiments. Experimentally, we successfully burned mechanical holes and show that the hole intensities vary as a function of “waiting time” and pump amplitude. The results suggest that MSHB is a potentially powerful tool with which to examine the dynamics of complex fluids.

  7. Burns in mobile home fires--descriptive study at a regional burn center.

    PubMed

    Mullins, Robert F; Alarm, Badrul; Huq Mian, Mohammad Anwarul; Samples, Jancie M; Friedman, Bruce C; Shaver, Joseph R; Brandigi, Claus; Hassan, Zaheed

    2009-01-01

    Death from fires and burns are the sixth most common cause of unintentional injury death in the United States. More than (3/4) of burn deaths occurring in the United States are in the home. Mobile home fires carry twice the death rate as other dwellings. The aim of the study was to describe the characteristics of deaths and injuries in mobile home fire admitted in a regional Burn Center and to identify possible risk factors. A cross-sectional retrospective study was carried out among all burn patients admitted to a regional Burn Center between January 2002 and December 2004 (3469 patients). The study included patients who suffered a burn injury from a mobile home fire. The demographic characteristics of the patients, location of mobile home, associated inhalation injury, source of fire, comorbidity of the victims, employment status, insurance status, family history of burns, and outcomes of the treatment were incorporated in a data collection record. There were 65 burn patients in mobile home fires admitted to the Burn Center during the studied period. The average age of the patients was 39 years (ranging from 2 to 81 years, SD=16.06), 77% were male, 67% were white, and 79% were the residents in the suburban areas of Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, and Florida. The average TBSA of burns was about 21% (ranging from 1 to 63%, SD=17.66), 63% of the patients had associated inhalation, three inhalation injury only, and 69% patients required ventilator support. The average length of stay per TBSA percentage of burn was 1.01 days (P=0.00), controlling for age, preexisting medical comorbidities, and inhalation injury. About 88% of the patients had preexisting medical comorbid conditions, 74% were smokers, 64% reported as alcoholic, and 72% had at least some form of health insurance coverage. In 40% of the cases, the cause of the fire was unknown, 31% were caused by accidental explosions, such as electric, gasoline, or kerosene appliances, and 29% were due to other

  8. Symmetrically converging plane thermonuclear burn waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charakhch'yan, A. A.; Khishchenko, K. V.

    2013-10-01

    Five variants of a one-dimensional problem on synchronous bilateral action of two identical drivers on opposite surfaces of a plane layer of DT fuel with the normal or five times greater initial density, where the solution includes two thermonuclear burn waves propagating to meet one another at the symmetry plane, are simulated. A laser pulse with total absorption of energy at the critical density (in two variants) and a proton bunch that provides for a nearly isochoric heating (in three variants) are considered as drivers. A wide-range equation of state for the fuel, electron and ion heat conduction, self-radiation of plasma and plasma heating by α-particles are taken into account. In spite of different ways of ignition, various models of α-particle heat, whether the burn wave remains slow or transforms into the detonation wave, and regardless of way of such a transformation, the final value of the burn-up factor depends essentially on the only parameter Hρ0, where H is the half-thickness of the layer and ρ0 is the initial fuel density. This factor is about 0.35 at Hρ0 ≈ 1 g cm-2 and about 0.7 at Hρ0 ≈ 5 g cm-2. The expansion stage of the flow (after reflecting the burn or detonation wave from the symmetry plane) gives the main contribution in forming the final values of the burn-up factor and the gain at Hρ0 ≈ 1 g cm-2 and increases them approximately two times at Hρ0 ≈ 5 g cm-2. In the case of the proton driver, the final value of the gain is about 200 at Hρ0 ≈ 1 g cm-2 and about 2000 at Hρ0 ≈ 5 g cm-2. In the case of the laser driver, the above values are four times less in conformity with the difference between the driver energies.

  9. Additional historical solid rocket motor burns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedemann, Carsten; Homeister, Maren; Oswald, Michael; Stabroth, Sebastian; Klinkrad, Heiner; Vörsmann, Peter

    2009-06-01

    The use of orbital solid rocket motors (SRM) is responsible for the release of a high number of slag and Al 2O 3 dust particles which contribute to the space debris environment. This contribution has been modeled for the ESA space debris model MASTER (Meteoroid and Space Debris Terrestrial Environment Reference). The current model version, MASTER-2005, is based on the simulation of 1076 orbital SRM firings which mainly contributed to the long-term debris environment. SRM firings on very low earth orbits which produce only short living particles are not considered. A comparison of the modeled flux with impact data from returned surfaces shows that the shape and quantity of the modeled SRM dust distribution matches that of recent Hubble Space Telescope (HST) solar array measurements very well. However, the absolute flux level for dust is under-predicted for some of the analyzed Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) surfaces. This indicates that some past SRM firings are not included in the current event database. Thus it is necessary to investigate, if additional historical SRM burns, like the retro-burn of low orbiting re-entry capsules, may be responsible for these dust impacts. The most suitable candidates for these firings are the large number of SRM retro-burns of return capsules. This paper focuses on the SRM retro-burns of Russian photoreconnaissance satellites, which were used in high numbers during the time of the LDEF mission. It is discussed which types of satellites and motors may have been responsible for this historical contribution. Altogether, 870 additional SRM retro-burns have been identified. An important task is the identification of such missions to complete the current event data base. Different types of motors have been used to de-orbit both large satellites and small film return capsules. The results of simulation runs are presented.

  10. Acute and Perioperative Care of the Burn-Injured Patient

    PubMed Central

    Bittner, Edward A.; Shank, Erik; Woodson, Lee; Martyn, J.A. Jeevendra

    2016-01-01

    Care of burn-injured patients requires knowledge of the pathophysiologic changes affecting virtually all organs from the onset of injury until wounds are healed. Massive airway and/or lung edema can occur rapidly and unpredictably after burn and/or inhalation injury. Hemodynamics in the early phase of severe burn injury are characterized by a reduction in cardiac output, increased systemic and pulmonary vascular resistance. Approximately 2–5 days after major burn injury, a hyperdynamic and hypermetabolic state develops. Electrical burns result in morbidity much higher than expected based on burn size alone. Formulae for fluid resuscitation should serve only as guideline; fluids should be titrated to physiologic end points. Burn injury is associated basal and procedural pain requiring higher than normal opioid and sedative doses. Operating room concerns for the burn-injured patient include airway abnormalities, impaired lung function, vascular access, deceptively large and rapid blood loss, hypothermia and altered pharmacology. PMID:25485468

  11. PCDD and PCDF Emissions from Simulated Sugarcane Field Burning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The emissions from simulated sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) field burns were sampled and analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs and PCDFs). Sugarcane leaves from Hawaii and Florida were burned in a manner simulating the natural physical dimensions and biomass densit...

  12. Toddlers at High Risk of Chemical Eye Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_160258.html Toddlers at High Risk of Chemical Eye Burns: Study Access to household cleaning products ... and 2 years have relatively high rates of chemical eye burns, with everyday cleaners a common cause, ...

  13. Characterization of burn injuries using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbab, M. Hassan; Dickey, Trevor C.; Winebrenner, Dale P.; Chen, Antao; Mourad, Pierre D.

    2011-03-01

    The accuracy rates of the clinical assessment techniques used in grading burn injuries remain significantly low for partial thickness burns. In this paper, we present experimental results from terahertz characterization of 2nd and 3rd degree burn wounds induced on a rat model. Reflection measurements were obtained from the surface of both burned and normal skin using pulsed terahertz spectroscopy. Signal processing techniques are described for interpretation of the acquired terahertz waveform and differentiation of burn wounds. Furthermore, the progression of burn injuries is shown by comparison between acute characterization and 72-hours survival studies. While the water content of healthy and desiccated skin has been considered as a source of terahertz signal contrast, it is demonstrated that other biological effects such as formation of post-burn interstitial edema as well as the density of the discrete scattering structures in the skin (such as hair follicles, sweat glands, etc.) play a significant role in the terahertz response of the burn wounds.

  14. PCDD AND PCDF EMISSIONS FROM SIMULATED SUGARCANE FIELD BURNING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The emissions from simulated sugarcane field burns were sampled and analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs and PCDFs). Sugarcane leaves from Hawaii and Florida were burned in a manner simulating the natural physical dimensions and biomass density fou...

  15. Discovery Performs Terminal Initiation Burn - Duration: 79 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    The terminal initiation burn, a left Orbital Maneuvering System engine firing that gave Discovery one last big push toward the space station, took place Feb. 26, 2011 at 10:33 a.m. The burn lasted ...

  16. Burns functional disabilities among burn survivors: a study in Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Agbenorku, Pius

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To determine the types of functional disabilities in adult and paediatric burns survivors, with specific emphasis on potential risk and socio-economic factors of burn disabilities present in Ghana. Patients and Methods: The descriptive study was carried out in Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana from May 2011 to April 2012. Burn survivors who came for follow-up visits after been discharged home and had functional disability were the participants of the study. They were physically examined and interviewed using a pre-tested questionnaire after their informed consent/or that of their parents (in the cases of paediatrics burns survivors) was sought. Results: A total of 70 participants consented for the study. Their ages ranged from 8/12 – 78 years, with a mean age of 12±1.7 years. Majority (60.0%, N=42) of the participants had third degree burns. The nature of disabilities of participants were mostly scar contractures (42.9%, N=30) of which 36.7% (N=11) had impeded arm elevation; 23.3% (N=7) could not fold the palm or move the digits. From the multiple regression analysis risk factors for burn victim to have disability were paediatric age (OR=11.1, P=0.043), third degree of burn (OR=6.2, P=0.001) and anatomical part affected (OR=18.3, P=0.031). Socio-economic factors that affected burn disability victims were nuclear family compensation (OR=4.2, P=0.021), community mockery/stigmatization (OR=0.1, P=0.052) and caretakers time and finance (OR=5.2, P=0.033). Conclusion: The commonest functional disabilities recorded were scar contractions of the axilla region which had impeded the ability of the patients to lift the arm. Risk factors for burns disability included childhood age, third degree of burn incurred and anatomical part affected. Social factors influencing the lives of burn survivors with disability were good family and negative community interactions. Significant economical factors recorded were caretakers’ time and financial constrains. PMID

  17. Demographic Comparison of Burn Emergency Only Visits and Admissions in an Urban Burn Center.

    PubMed

    Kowal-Vern, Areta; Bokhari, Faran; Poulakidas, Stathis

    2016-01-01

    There are few publications about demographics of Emergency Department (ED) burn patient visits. The purpose of this study was to compare ED only burn patients with admitted patients in an urban burn center. This was a retrospective review (1999 to 2014) of a burn unit patient registry. Patients were seen either in the Emergency Room or Trauma Bay (ED-TB) by staff, who determined whether the patient required admission or not. During this period, of the 5936 burn injury ED-TB encounters, there were 3754 (63%) admissions and 2182 (37%) ED-TB only (evaluation and discharge) visits. The median age was 30 years, and the %TBSA in the ED-TB only versus admitted patients was 1% vs 4% TBSA, P < .0001. Both groups had mainly scalding injuries in the kitchen. The majority of the ED-TB only patients presented with upper extremity burns (40%), whereas admitted patients had burns in multiple areas (49%). Most of the ED-TB only patients (73%) came to the hospital themselves, 23% were transferred from other hospitals, and 2% each, direct from the scene and clinic. In contrast, 53% of admitted patients were transferred from other hospitals, 29% came in on their own, and 11% were brought in direct from the scene, or from the burn clinic (7%), P = .0001. This review suggests that the main reason for non-admission of ED-TB only patients was the severity of injury; ED-TB only patients had a significantly less severe %TBSA (P < .0001), and fewer comorbidities compared to admitted patients. PMID:25423441

  18. [Prevention and treatment strategy for burn wound sepsis in children].

    PubMed

    Niu, Xihua; Li, Xiaoling

    2016-02-01

    Wound sepsis is one of the main causes of death in patients with severe burn and trauma. The high incidence of burn wound sepsis in children is attributed to their imperfect immune system function, poor resistance against infection, and the weakened skin barrier function after burn. The key to reduce the mortality of pediatric patients with burn wound sepsis is to enhance the understanding of its etiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and diagnostic criteria, in order to improve its early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26902271

  19. Do burn patients need burn specific multidisciplinary outpatient aftercare: research results.

    PubMed

    Van Loey, N E; Faber, A W; Taal, L A

    2001-03-01

    In a cross-sectional study of patients 12-24 months after a burn injury, the need for a multidisciplinary burn specific outpatient clinic was examined in relation to aftercare consumption, physical and psychological problems. Four hundred and twenty nine patients were assessed by means of three self-report questionnaires: IES, SCL(PTSD-SL) and BSHS-SV-S. Results indicated that the current aftercare providers are almost exclusively medical doctors and that a quarter of the patients are dissatisfied with received aftercare. However, dissatisfaction about current aftercare was not the only criterion to determine whether patients wanted burn-specific aftercare. The severity of psychological and physical problems predicted interest in a multi-disciplinary outpatient clinic. Self-reported psychological and physical problems were found to be related to one another. Univariate logistic regression outcomes suggested that patients with serious psychological and physical problems are more likely to express interest in a burn-specific outpatient clinic, but that, in a multivariate regression analysis, physical problems and psychological problems measured on the SCL(PTSD-SLEEP) do not contribute to the prediction of the interest in a burn-specific outpatient clinic anymore once symptoms of PTSD are taken care of. Results suggest that psychological aftercare for burn patients needs to be improved. Possible steps to improve aftercare to meet patients' needs are discussed. PMID:11226643

  20. 30 CFR 56.6903 - Burning explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Burning explosive material. 56.6903 Section 56... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements § 56.6903 Burning explosive material. If explosive material is suspected of burning at the...

  1. 30 CFR 56.6903 - Burning explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Burning explosive material. 56.6903 Section 56... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements § 56.6903 Burning explosive material. If explosive material is suspected of burning at the...

  2. 30 CFR 56.6903 - Burning explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Burning explosive material. 56.6903 Section 56... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements § 56.6903 Burning explosive material. If explosive material is suspected of burning at the...

  3. 30 CFR 56.6903 - Burning explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Burning explosive material. 56.6903 Section 56... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements § 56.6903 Burning explosive material. If explosive material is suspected of burning at the...

  4. 30 CFR 56.6903 - Burning explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Burning explosive material. 56.6903 Section 56... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements § 56.6903 Burning explosive material. If explosive material is suspected of burning at the...

  5. 40 CFR 49.133 - Rule for agricultural burning permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rule for agricultural burning permits... agricultural burning permits. (a) What is the purpose of this section? This section establishes a permitting program for agricultural burning within the Indian reservation to control emissions of particulate...

  6. 40 CFR 49.133 - Rule for agricultural burning permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rule for agricultural burning permits... agricultural burning permits. (a) What is the purpose of this section? This section establishes a permitting program for agricultural burning within the Indian reservation to control emissions of particulate...

  7. 40 CFR 49.133 - Rule for agricultural burning permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rule for agricultural burning permits... Rules for Application to Indian Reservations in Epa Region 10 § 49.133 Rule for agricultural burning... agricultural burning within the Indian reservation to control emissions of particulate matter and other...

  8. 40 CFR 49.133 - Rule for agricultural burning permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rule for agricultural burning permits... agricultural burning permits. (a) What is the purpose of this section? This section establishes a permitting program for agricultural burning within the Indian reservation to control emissions of particulate...

  9. 40 CFR 49.133 - Rule for agricultural burning permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rule for agricultural burning permits... agricultural burning permits. (a) What is the purpose of this section? This section establishes a permitting program for agricultural burning within the Indian reservation to control emissions of particulate...

  10. Burn injuries in children and the use of biological dressings.

    PubMed

    Hartstein, Bonnie; Gausche-Hill, Marianne; Cancio, Leopoldo C

    2013-08-01

    Burns represent a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in children. In this article, a case discussion will serve as a platform for discussing the evaluation and treatment of burns in children. Use of various burn dressings such as hydrocolloids, polyurethane films, hydrogels, biosynthetic skin dressing, and biological dressings will be discussed. PMID:23925256

  11. Infection prevention and treatment in patients with major burn injuries.

    PubMed

    Rowley-Conwy, G

    Infection is a significant challenge in burn care, particularly for those patients who have major burn injuries. This article aims to review the literature and establish best practice in prevention and treatment of infection in patients with major burns. The article considers the causes and clinical features of wound infection, and examines systemic and local methods of prevention and treatment. PMID:21138123

  12. Initial evaluation and management of the critical burn patient.

    PubMed

    Vivó, C; Galeiras, R; del Caz, Ma D P

    2016-01-01

    The major improvement in burn therapy is likely to focus on the early management of hemodynamic and respiratory failures in combination with an aggressive and early surgical excision and skin grafting for full-thickness burns. Immediate burn care by first care providers is important and can vastly alter outcomes, and it can significantly limit burn progression and depth. The goal of prehospital care should be to cease the burning process as well as prevent future complications and secondary injuries for burn shock. Identifying burn patients appropriate for immediate or subacute transfer is an important step in reducing morbidity and mortality. Delays in transport to Burn Unit should be minimized. The emergency management follows the principles of the Advanced Trauma Life Support Guidelines for assessment and stabilization of airway, breathing, circulation, disability, exposure and environment control. All patients with suspected inhalation injury must be removed from the enclosure as soon as possible, and immediately administer high-flow oxygen. Any patient with stridor, shortness of breath, facial burns, singed nasal hairs, cough, soot in the oral cavity, and history of being in a fire in an enclosed space should be strongly considered for early intubation. Fibroscopy may also be useful if airway damage is suspected and to assess known lung damage. Secondary evaluation following admission to the Burn Unit of a burned patient suffering a severe thermal injury includes continuation of respiratory support and management and treatment of inhalation injury, fluid resuscitation and cardiovascular stabilization, pain control and management of burn wound. PMID:26724246

  13. Nutrition in the severely burned child.

    PubMed

    Solomon, J R

    1981-01-01

    Adequate nutrition in the severely burned child often determines the morbidity and mortality and its supervision demands a high priority in the management of the burn injury. A disciplined, detailed programme is required, but this is often neglected. The hypermetabolism experienced in the severe burn may require a calorie intake up to 2 1/2 times normal, and in the growing child, with extra requirements, a negative balance can easily eventuate if careful management is not instituted. A daily metabolic plan provides firstly, the basic calories and protein per kilogram depending on age as for a normal child and, secondly additional requirements depending on the surface area of the burn. With such a programme the weakness of treating all children, whatever their age, on the same formula related only to surface area burn, is overcome. Parenteral nutrition is commenced as soon as the shock phase has been controlled and is continued until enteral intake by gastric tube is sufficient to cover the requirements. Such tube feeding requires the selection of an isotonic liquid diet so as so limit the possibility of diarrhoea. Isocal (Mead Johnson) has been found generally acceptable. Gradually as the patient recovers, oral intake is introduced and the child returns home on a normal nutritional diet, expectantly without weight loss and even with some weight gain, which befits any normal child under treatment for some months. Preburn nutrition, disease and infection, hyperthermia, hypothermia, evaporative water loss, active exercise, psychological well being, social state, early skin cover and limitation of stress are important aspects affecting metabolism and require careful supervision and management. The limitation of metabolism is as important as increasing the caloric intake and this is exemplified at the time of operation, which should be as nonstressful as possible. Every two weeks an adjusted assessment is made of the burned area still to be grafted and the caloric

  14. Hyperspectral Imaging for Burn Depth Assessment in an Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Michael S.; Babchenko, Oksana; Lujan-Hernandez, Jorge; Nobel, Lisa; Ignotz, Ronald; Lalikos, Janice F.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Differentiating between superficial and deep-dermal (DD) burns remains challenging. Superficial-dermal burns heal with conservative treatment; DD burns often require excision and skin grafting. Decision of surgical treatment is often delayed until burn depth is definitively identified. This study’s aim is to assess the ability of hyperspectral imaging (HSI) to differentiate burn depth. Methods: Thermal injury of graded severity was generated on the dorsum of hairless mice with a heated brass rod. Perfusion and oxygenation parameters of injured skin were measured with HSI, a noninvasive method of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, at 2 minutes, 1, 24, 48 and 72 hours after wounding. Burn depth was measured histologically in 12 mice from each burn group (n = 72) at 72 hours. Results: Three levels of burn depth were verified histologically: intermediate-dermal (ID), DD, and full-thickness. At 24 hours post injury, total hemoglobin (tHb) increased by 67% and 16% in ID and DD burns, respectively. In contrast, tHb decreased to 36% of its original levels in full-thickness burns. Differences in deoxygenated and tHb among all groups were significant (P < 0.001) at 24 hours post injury. Conclusions: HSI was able to differentiate among 3 discrete levels of burn injury. This is likely because of its correlation with skin perfusion: superficial burn injury causes an inflammatory response and increased perfusion to the burn site, whereas deeper burns destroy the dermal microvasculature and a decrease in perfusion follows. This study supports further investigation of HSI in early burn depth assessment. PMID:26894016

  15. Burn size determines the inflammatory and hypermetabolic response

    PubMed Central

    Jeschke, Marc G; Mlcak, Ronald P; Finnerty, Celeste C; Norbury, William B; Gauglitz, Gerd G; Kulp, Gabriela A; Herndon, David N

    2007-01-01

    Background Increased burn size leads to increased mortality of burned patients. Whether mortality is due to inflammation, hypermetabolism or other pathophysiologic contributing factors is not entirely determined. The purpose of the present study was to determine in a large prospective clinical trial whether different burn sizes are associated with differences in inflammation, body composition, protein synthesis, or organ function. Methods Pediatric burned patients were divided into four burn size groups: <40% total body surface area (TBSA) burn, 40–59% TBSA burn, 60–79% TBSA burn, and >80% TBSA burn. Demographic and clinical data, hypermetabolism, the inflammatory response, body composition, the muscle protein net balance, serum and urine hormones and proteins, and cardiac function and changes in liver size were determined. Results One hundred and eighty-nine pediatric patients of similar age and gender distribution were included in the study (<40% TBSA burn, n = 43; 40–59% TBSA burn, n = 79; 60–79% TBSA burn, n = 46; >80% TBSA burn, n = 21). Patients with larger burns had more operations, a greater incidence of infections and sepsis, and higher mortality rates compared with the other groups (P < 0.05). The percentage predicted resting energy expenditure was highest in the >80% TBSA group, followed by the 60–79% TBSA burn group (P < 0.05). Children with >80% burns lost the most body weight, lean body mass, muscle protein and bone mineral content (P < 0.05). The urine cortisol concentration was highest in the 80–99% and 60–79% TBSA burn groups, associated with significant myocardial depression and increased change in liver size (P < 0.05). The cytokine profile showed distinct differences in expression of IL-8, TNF, IL-6, IL-12p70, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor (P < 0.05). Conclusion Morbidity and mortality in burned patients is burn size dependent, starts at a 60% TBSA burn and is due to an

  16. Severe burn on 81% of body surface after sun tanning.

    PubMed

    Sforza, Marcos; Andjelkov, Katarina; Zaccheddu, Renato

    2013-07-01

    We report herein the case of a 42-year-old woman who presented to the Burns Unit with 81% of her body surface severely burned following sun bathing, after applying fig leaf tea as a tanning agent. The patient was hospitalized for 13 days in a Burns Intensive Care Unit, and was discharged for an ambulatory follow-up. The treatment of such burns does not differ from any conventional treatment for heat- induced second-degree burns. The physiopathology of the phytophotodermatitis induced by such homemade tanning solutions rich in psoralen is discussed in detail. PMID:23884685

  17. [Intravenous drop of calcium gluconate for phosphorus burns].

    PubMed

    Hu, A J

    1993-07-01

    20 patients with phosphor burn (TBSA 2%-75%) were cured by i.v. drop of calcium gluconate combined with other therapies including eschar conservation. Our experimental data showed that dogs with burn by spreading 85% phosphoric acid and napalm locally increased the level of plasma phosphorus and pathological damages to the heart, lung, kidney and etc were similar to those previously reported phosphorus burns. Intravenous drop of calcium gluconate after phosphate burn reduced the level of plasma phosphorus to normal rapidly and lessened the visceral damages. We consider that i.v. drop of calcium gluconate can accelerate the elimination of phosphorus, and prevent phosphorus poisoning after phosphorus burns. PMID:8313772

  18. Clinical review: The critical care management of the burn patient

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Between 4 and 22% of burn patients presenting to the emergency department are admitted to critical care. Burn injury is characterised by a hypermetabolic response with physiologic, catabolic and immune effects. Burn care has seen renewed interest in colloid resuscitation, a change in transfusion practice and the development of anti-catabolic therapies. A literature search was conducted with priority given to review articles, meta-analyses and well-designed large trials; paediatric studies were included where adult studies were lacking with the aim to review the advances in adult intensive care burn management and place them in the general context of day-to-day practical burn management. PMID:24093225

  19. A retrospective review of burn dressings on a porcine burn model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue-Qing; Kravchuk, Olena; Kimble, Roy M

    2010-08-01

    This is a study to compare wound healing among three types of dressings on a porcine model with deep-dermal-partial-thickness burns. The burns in this study were from eight animal trials conducted in the past for other purposes and only burns with a uniform pale appearance that had served as controls in original experiments were selected. In total, there were 57 burns in 33 pigs, using one of following three dressings: Acticoat (Silver) (3 trials), Jelonet (Gauze) (3 trials), and Solosite Gel/Jelonet (Gel/Gauze) (2 trials). The wound healing assessments included wound re-epithelialisation during a 6-week period, clinical and histological scar assessments at week 6 after burn. Of all wound healing/scar assessments, only re-epithelialisation showed statistical difference between dressings. Earlier re-epithelialisation was observed in Gel/Gauze dressings compared to Silver and/or Gauze dressings. However, this study revealed huge variation in wound healing outcome between 3 trials within both Silver and/or Gauze dressings, supported by significant differences on re-epithelialisation, clinical and histological scar measurements. In addition, it was found that larger animals healed better than smaller ones, based on weights from 21 pigs. Of all dressings, Silver delivers the best protection for wound colonization/infection. Wound colonization/infection was found to confine wound healing and lead to thinner RND in scars. From this study, we cannot find enough evidence to suggest the beneficial effect of one dressing(s) over others on burn wound healing outcome on a porcine model with small deep-dermal-partial-thickness burns with a relative small sample size. PMID:19864074

  20. Open air refuse burning video: Proton Dan the science man explores open air refuse burning

    SciTech Connect

    Eastburn, M.D.; Sipple, J.L.; Deramo, A.R.

    1999-07-01

    The goal of this video is to educate school children to the potential hazards of open air trash burning; to demonstrate alternative ways to dispose of trash; and to motivate students to take action to change the behavior of their parents with regard to trash burning. The burning of household trash, although illegal, is still a common practice in rural areas of Delaware. Enforcement has been difficult because the practice is often performed at night and is done across a wide rural area that is difficult to patrol on a continuing basis. The prohibition on trash burning (revised Regulation 13 of The Delaware Code of Regulations Governing The Control of Air Pollution) has been in effect since 1968, but the public has been slow to comply because trash burning has been practiced for many generations and because much of the public is unaware of the environmental impacts and/or the human health risks. This video may be valuable for other States to use as a public outreach tool regarding their problems with open air refuse burning. The focus of the video is a 7th grade science class is given various assignments relating to Earth Day and preservation of natural resources. Two children in particular are given the assignment to research and report on the hazards of open air trash burning and are asked to investigate alternative ways to dispose of refuse. Upon brainstorming how to find information on the topic, the kids decide to contact the host of a popular children's science show on broadcast television named Proton Dan the Science Man (a fictitious character and show based on Bill Nye the Science Guy). The host then invites the kids to the studio where he films his show and takes them through the topic. The TV host character takes the children to several external locations like a landfill, recycling centers, etc..

  1. Pain Part 8: Burning Mouth Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Beneng, Kiran; Renton, Tara

    2016-04-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a rare but impactful condition affecting mainly post-menopausal women resulting in constant pain and significant difficulty with eating, drinking and daily function. The aetiology of BMS remains an enigma. Recent evidence suggests it likely to be neuropathic in origin, the cause of which remains unknown. There is no cure for this condition and the unfortunate patients remain managed on a variety of neuropathic pain medication, salivary substitutes and other non-medical interventions that help the patient 'get through the day'. Some simple strategies can assist both clinician and patient to manage this debilitating condition. CPD/Clinical Relevance: The dental team will recognize patients presenting with burning mouth syndrome. They are difficult patients to manage and are often referred to secondary care and, ultimately, depend on their general medical practitioners for pain management. PMID:27439272

  2. Explosive helium burning at constant pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, M.-A.; Hanawa, T.; Sugimoto, D.

    The results of numerical calculations of nucleosynthesis under adiabatic conditions, i.e., when the only heat exchange with the external regions takes place through neutrinos, are reported. Attention is focused on explosive burning associated with shell flashes, assuming that nuclear energy is deposited in a mass element, followed by expansion and density decrease. Consideration is given to three cases, the shell flash near the surface of a degenerate star, to nuclear burning concentrated in a small region of a star, and to the heat energy being deposited in intermediate layers. A reaction network of 181 nuclear species was constructed and the thermodynamic evolution was calculated assuming constant pressure and adiabatic conditions. The final products of the reactions of H-1 to Cu-62 were projected to by O-16, Mg-24, Si-28, S-32, Ca-40, Ti-44, Cr-48, and Fe-52.

  3. An idiosyncratic history of burn scars.

    PubMed

    Petro, Jane A

    2015-03-01

    The history of burn scars can best be found in military medical history. The care of wounded soldiers documented in the Illiad reflected the trauma of the weapons of war, arrow, spear, sword, and ax. The introduction of gunpowder in the 14th century, increasingly sophisticated explosives, and in modern times, petroleum-driven vehicles, including airplanes, created a new subset of wounds requiring attention and post-survival scars challenging the quality of survival. This article selects from among a myriad of examples of modern military treatments as they relate to those survivors. Larrey, with Napolean's Grand Army, Sir Harold Gilles during and following World War I, and the Boston area preparation and response to the Cocoanut Grove Fire in 1942 are the principle topics examined. Recent modern interventions, related to the survival of horrific blast and burn injuries, with modern wound care and scar manipulation techniques provide context to the current ability to modify healing and scars. PMID:25922950

  4. Biomass Burning Emissions from Fire Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ichoku, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of the emission source strengths of different (particulate and gaseous) atmospheric constituents is one of the principal ingredients upon which the modeling and forecasting of their distribution and impacts depend. Biomass burning emissions are complex and difficult to quantify. However, satellite remote sensing is providing us tremendous opportunities to measure the fire radiative energy (FRE) release rate or power (FRP), which has a direct relationship with the rates of biomass consumption and emissions of major smoke constituents. In this presentation, we will show how the satellite measurement of FRP is facilitating the quantitative characterization of biomass burning and smoke emission rates, and the implications of this unique capability for improving our understanding of smoke impacts on air quality, weather, and climate. We will also discuss some of the challenges and uncertainties associated with satellite measurement of FRP and how they are being addressed.

  5. Modeling Deep Burn TRISO particle nuclear fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besmann, T. M.; Stoller, R. E.; Samolyuk, G.; Schuck, P. C.; Golubov, S. I.; Rudin, S. P.; Wills, J. M.; Coe, J. D.; Wirth, B. D.; Kim, S.; Morgan, D. D.; Szlufarska, I.

    2012-11-01

    Under the DOE Deep Burn program TRISO fuel is being investigated as a fuel form for consuming plutonium and minor actinides, and for greater efficiency in uranium utilization. The result will thus be to drive TRISO particulate fuel to very high burn-ups. In the current effort the various phenomena in the TRISO particle are being modeled using a variety of techniques. The chemical behavior is being treated utilizing thermochemical analysis to identify phase formation/transformation and chemical activities in the particle, including kernel migration. Density functional theory is being used to understand fission product diffusion within the plutonia oxide kernel, the fission product's attack on the SiC coating layer, as well as fission product diffusion through an alternative coating layer, ZrC. Finally, a multiscale approach is being used to understand thermal transport, including the effect of radiation damage induced defects, in a model SiC material.

  6. 'Tertiary' nuclear burning - Neutron star deflagration?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michel, F. Curtis

    1988-01-01

    A motivation is presented for the idea that dense nuclear matter can burn to a new class of stable particles. One of several possibilities is an 'octet' particle which is the 16 baryon extension of alpha particle, but now composed of a pair of each of the two nucleons, (3Sigma, Delta, and 2Xi). Such 'tertiary' nuclear burning (here 'primary' is H-He and 'secondary' is He-Fe) may lead to neutron star explosions rather than collapse to a black hole, analogous to some Type I supernovae models wherein accreting white dwarfs are pushed over the Chandrasekhar mass limit but explode rather than collapse to form neutron stars. Such explosions could possibly give gamma-ray bursts and power quasars, with efficient particle acceleration in the resultant relativistic shocks. The new stable particles themselves could possibly be the sought-after weakly interacting, massive particles (WIMPs) or 'dark' matter.

  7. Burn Scar Near the Hanford Nuclear Reservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) image pair shows 'before and after' views of the area around the Hanford Nuclear Reservation near Richland, Washington. On June 27, 2000, a fire in the dry sagebrush was sparked by an automobile crash. The flames were fanned by hot summer winds. By the day after the accident, about 100,000 acres had burned, and the fire's spread forced the closure of highways and loss of homes. These images were obtained by MISR's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera. Compare the area just above and to the right of the line of cumulus clouds in the May 15 image with the same area imaged on August 3. The darkened burn scar measures approximately 35 kilometers across. The Columbia River is seen wending its way around Hanford. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/JPL, MISR Science Team

  8. Atmospheric Effects of Biomass Burning in Madagascar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aikin, Arthur C.; Hoegy, Walter R.; Ziemke, Jerry R.; Thorpe, Arthur; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Simultaneous tropospheric ozone and aerosols observed using the TOMS satellite instrument are reported for Madagascar during the 1979 through 1999 time period Ozone observations made using the TOMS tropospheric ozone convective-cloud differential method show that the tropospheric ozone amount associated with Madagascar has an average monthly value of 30 DU (Dobson units). The average value is enhanced by 10 to 15 DU in October This maximum coincides with the time of maximum biomass area burning in Madagascar and parts of southern Africa. The aerosol index derived from TOMS is examined for correlation with biomass burning in Madagascar and southern Africa. There is good correlation between a satellite observation derived fire index for different parts of Madagascar, tropospheric ozone and the TOMS aerosol index in the same geographical area. Aerosols from fires were found to reach their peak in November and to persist over Madagascar until sometime in December.

  9. Analysis of Parallel Burn Without Crossfeed TSTO RLV Architectures and Comparison to Parallel Burn With Crossfeed and Series Burn Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Garrett; Phillips, Alan

    2002-01-01

    There are currently three dominant TSTO class architectures. These are Series Burn (SB), Parallel Burn with crossfeed (PBw/cf), and Parallel Burn without crossfeed (PBncf). The goal of this study was to determine what factors uniquely affect PBncf architectures, how each of these factors interact, and to determine from a performance perspective whether a PBncf vehicle could be competitive with a PBw/cf or SB vehicle using equivalent technology and assumptions. In all cases, performance was evaluated on a relative basis for a fixed payload and mission by comparing gross and dry vehicle masses of a closed vehicle. Propellant combinations studied were LOX: LH2 propelled orbiter and booster (HH) and LOX: Kerosene booster with LOX: LH2 orbiter (KH). The study conclusions were: 1) a PBncf orbiter should be throttled as deeply as possible after launch until the staging point. 2) a detailed structural model is essential to accurate architecture analysis and evaluation. 3) a PBncf TSTO architecture is feasible for systems that stage at mach 7. 3a) HH architectures can achieve a mass growth relative to PBw/cf of < 20%. 3b) KH architectures can achieve a mass growth relative to Series Burn of < 20%. 4) center of gravity (CG) control will be a major issue for a PBncf vehicle, due to the low orbiter specific thrust to weight ratio and to the position of the orbiter required to align the nozzle heights at liftoff. 5 ) thrust to weight ratios of 1.3 at liftoff and between 1.0 and 0.9 when staging at mach 7 appear to be close to ideal for PBncf vehicles. 6) performance for all vehicles studied is better when staged at mach 7 instead of mach 5. The study showed that a Series Burn architecture has the lowest gross mass for HH cases, and has the lowest dry mass for KH cases. The potential disadvantages of SB are the required use of an air-start for the orbiter engines and potential CG control issues. A Parallel Burn with crossfeed architecture solves both these problems, but the

  10. Light absorption by biomass burning source emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yuan; Engling, Guenter; Moosmüller, Hans; Arnott, W. Patrick; Chen, L.-W. Antony; Wold, Cyle E.; Hao, Wei Min; He, Ke-bin

    2016-02-01

    Black carbon (BC) aerosol has relatively short atmospheric lifetimes yet plays a unique and important role in the Earth's climate system, making it an important short-term climate mitigation target. Globally, biomass burning is the largest source of BC emissions into the atmosphere. This study investigated the mass absorption efficiency (MAE) of biomass burning BC generated by controlled combustion of various wildland fuels during the Fire Laboratory at Missoula Experiments (FLAME). MAE values derived from a photoacoustic spectrometer (∼7.8 m2/g at a wavelength of 532 nm) were in good agreement with those suggested for uncoated BC when the emission ratios of organic carbon (OC) to elemental carbon (EC) were extremely low (i.e., below 0.3). With the increase of OC/EC, two distinct types of biomass smoke were identified. For the first type, MAE exhibited a positive dependence on OC/EC, while the overestimation of the light absorption coefficient (babs) by a filter-based method was less significant and could be estimated by a nearly constant correction factor. For the second type, MAE was biased low and correlated negatively with OC/EC, while the overestimation of babs by the filter-based method was much more significant and showed an apparent OC/EC dependence. This study suggests that BC emission factors determined by the commonly used thermal-optical methods might be sustantially overestimated for some types of biomass burning emissions. Our results also indicate that biomass burning emissions may include some liquid-like organics that can significantly bias filter-based babs measurements.

  11. Contact radiator burn subsequent to spinal anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Sever, C; Aysal, B K; Sahin, C; Kulahci, Y

    2012-06-30

    An unusual case is reported in which a patient sustained a third-degree burn of the plantar surface of the right foot as the result of contact with a heating radiator. This occurred when the patient fell asleep in his hospital bed after knee surgery. Spinal anaesthesia is easy to perform, and the risk factors, though present, are not serious. Such accidents are not infrequent and care should be taken to prevent them. PMID:23233830

  12. Assessing burn severity using satellite time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veraverbeke, Sander; Lhermitte, Stefaan; Verstraeten, Willem; Goossens, Rudi

    2010-05-01

    In this study a multi-temporal differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBRMT) is presented to assess burn severity of the 2007 Peloponnese (Greece) wildfires. 8-day composites were created using the daily near infrared (NIR) and mid infrared (MIR) reflectance products of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Prior to the calculation of the dNBRMT a pixel-based control plot selection procedure was initiated for each burned pixel based on time series similarity of the pre-fire year 2006 to estimate the spatio-temporal NBR dynamics in the case that no fire event would have occurred. The dNBRMT is defined as the one-year post-fire integrated difference between the NBR values of the control and focal pixels. Results reveal the temporal dependency of the absolute values of bi-temporal dNBR maps as the mean temporal standard deviation of the one-year post-fire bi-temporal dNBR time series equaled 0.14 (standard deviation of 0.04). The dNBRMT's integration of temporal variability into one value potentially enhances the comparability of fires across space and time. In addition, the dNBRMT is robust to random noise thanks to the averaging effect. The dNBRMT, based on coarse resolution imagery with high temporal frequency, has the potential to become either a valuable complement to fine resolution Landsat dNBR mapping or an imperative option for assessing burn severity at a continental to global scale.

  13. [Myocardial depression in the burn patient].

    PubMed

    Carrillo-Esper, Raúl; Sánchez-Zúñiga, Martín de Jesús

    2006-01-01

    Myocardial depression and heart failure are frequent complications in critically ill burn patients. The physiopathology is complex and involves the activation of inflammatory pathways, ischemia-reperfusion, oxidative stress and endothelial lesion. Diagnosis should be made early by means of hemodynamic monitoring. Treatment is accomplished by inotropics that act on different pathways of the contractile function and immune response associated with antioxidants and allopurinol. PMID:16887086

  14. Burns - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... 繁體中文) French (français) Hindi (हिन्दी) Japanese (日本語) Korean (한국어) Russian (Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) ... 火傷のケア - 日本語 (Japanese) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Korean (한국어) Burn Care 화상 관리 - 한국어 (Korean) Bilingual ...

  15. Cytokine expression profile over time in burned mice

    PubMed Central

    Finnerty, Celeste C; Przkora, Rene; Herndon, David N; Jeschke, Marc G

    2009-01-01

    The persistent inflammatory response induced by a severe burn increases patient susceptibility to infections and sepsis, potentially leading to multi-organ failure and death. In order to use murine models to develop interventions that modulate the post-burn inflammatory response, the response in mice and the similarities to the human response must first be determined. Here we present the temporal serum cytokine expression profiles in burned in comparison to sham mice and human burn patients. Male C57BL/6 mice were randomized to control (n=47) or subjected to a 35% TBSA scald burn (n=89). Mice were sacrificed 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 48 hours and 7, 10, and 14 days post-burn; cytokines were measured by multi-plex array. Following the burn injury, IL-6, IL-1β, KC, G-CSF, TNF, IL-17, MIP-1α, RANTES, and GM-CSF were increased, p<0.05. IL-2, IL-3, and IL-5 were decreased, p<0.05. IL-10, IFN-γ, and IL-12p70 were expressed in a biphasic manner, p<0.05. This temporal cytokine expression pattern elucidates the pathogenesis of the inflammatory response in burned mice. Expression of 11 cytokines were similar in mice and children, returning to lowest levels by post-burn day 14, confirming the utility of the burned mouse model for development of therapeutic interventions to attenuate the post-burn inflammatory response. PMID:19019696

  16. Opioid-induced hyperalgesia and burn pain.

    PubMed

    Holtman, Joseph R; Jellish, W Scott

    2012-01-01

    The treatment of pain produced during the management of burn injury has been an ongoing problem for physicians caring for these patients. The main therapeutic option for analgesia has been the repeated and prolonged use of opioids. The adverse effects of opioids are well known but the long term use of opioids which produces tolerance with accompanying dose escalation and dependence is most problematic. Another potentially important consequence of opioid exposure that sometimes masks as tolerance is that of opioid induced hyperalgesia. This syndrome is manifest as enhanced pain, sensitivity and loss of analgesic efficacy in patients treated with opioids who actually become sensitized to painful stimuli. This article focuses on the treatment of burn pain and how current analgesic therapies with opioids may cause hyperalgesia and affect the adequacy of treatment for burn pain. This article also provides possible modalities to help therapeutically manage these patients and considers future analgesic strategies which may help to improve pain management in this complicated patient population. PMID:23143613

  17. Operation Redwing. Project 4. 1. Chorioretinal burns

    SciTech Connect

    Fixott, R.; Pickering, J.E.; Williams, D.B.; Brown, D.V.L.; Rose, H.W.

    1985-09-01

    This Redwing project was designed to furnish supplemental information on the requirements for protection against retinal burns, using both rabbits and monkeys as experimental animals. Chorioretinal burns were produced by various segments of the thermal pulse. This was accomplished by two series of time-fractionating shutters. The first group, the early closing shutters, were open at time zero and closed at increasing intervals of time. The second series, the delayed-opening shutters, were closed at time zero and subsequently opened for preselected time increments during the flash. The feasibility of protection by fixed-density optical filters was explored. Two types of protective electronic shutters were field tested. Additional objectives were to: (1) determine whether blink reflexes would prevent chorioretinal burns; (2) ascertain which portions of the time-intensity pulse can produce thermal injury to the retina and choroid of the eye; (3) determine the time required for blink reflex in rabbits and monkeys exposed to the extreme light intensity of the nuclear detonations; (4) explore the feasibility of ocular protection by means of fixed-density optical filters or combinations of filters; and (5) tests, under field conditions, protective shutter devices that are in the developmental state and are designed to close more rapidly than the blink reflex.

  18. Studies of the Turbulent Burning Velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bray, K. N. C.

    1990-11-01

    A laminar flamelet model of pre-mixed turbulent combustion is described in which a characteristic length scale hat{L}y controls the flamelet surface-to-volume ratio. An analysis, based on the Bray-Moss-Libby model of turbulent combustion, leads to the conclusion that hat{L}y/l is proportional to the ratio of the laminar burning velocity to the turbulence velocity u', where l is the integral length scale of the turbulence. A fractal flame model and an analysis of experimental time series data both support this conclusion. Several different theories for the turbulent burning velocity are shown to be equivalent to each other and to be generalizations of the classical theory of Kolmogorov, Petrovski & Piskonov. A method of characteristics analysis confirms the resulting expression. This expression, containing only one disposable constant which must be of order unity, is compared with a published correlation of a large amount of experimental data. This leads to an experimental determination of the ratio of effective to true laminar burning velocities, as a function of Karlovitz number, which shows satisfactory agreement with results of strained laminar flame calculations.

  19. Paediatric suicidal burns: A growing concern.

    PubMed

    Segu, Smitha; Tataria, Rachana

    2016-06-01

    An alarming rise in rates of paediatric population committing self-immolation acts is a growing social and medical problem. In recent times there seems to be a rising concern in paediatric population. A study was conducted at a government tertiary care burn centre over 5 years in paediatric age group of <18 years who had committed self-immolation. Demographic data, aetiology, burn severity, associated illnesses, treatment and outcomes of the patients were collected with preventive strategies. Of total 89 patients, 12 patients were below 12 years (children) and 77 between 12-18 years (adolescent) with female preponderance. Majority belonged to lower middle and upper lower class families. Most had deep partial thickness burns. Psychiatric and personality disorder were found in 24.03% and 31.46% patients respectively. Kerosene was the main agent chosen to inflict injury. The average length of hospital stay was 19.8 days. The crude mortality rate observed was 38.2%. With cultural and socio-economic changes children and adolescents are exposed to increased levels of stress and peer pressure leaving them vulnerable. A multidisciplinary care involving medical, psychological and social support is required. Identifying children at risk and proper counselling and support can form an important strategy at prevention rather than cure. PMID:26803366

  20. A Model For The Burning of Teflon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Jess M.; Wilson, D. Bruce; Beeson, Harold D.; Fries, Joseph (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Teflon has been identified as suitable material for use in oxygen-enriched atmospheres because of its low specific enthalpy of combustion that is, less than 1500 cal/gram. However, once ignited, Teflon burns in a heterogeneous reaction until total consumption or depletion of oxygen occurs. A model is developed for the burning of Teflon in pure, high-pressure oxygen, 3.4 to 68.9 MPa. The Teflon polymer chain dissociates via monomer units due to pyrolysis. These monomer units diffuse to the surface due to free convection. The model consists of coupled mass and energy balances for the polymer and an energy balance for the free convection of product gases. The model is used to obtain appropriate kinetic parameters for the dissociation and surface reactions. The model is validated against experimental measurements of Teflon discs supported on aluminum rods (2216) at oxygen pressures of 3.4, 6.8, 34.4, and 68.9 MPa. The model simulates the temperature distribution in the product gases above burning Teflon.

  1. Hospital Bioterrorism Planning and Burn Surge

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Brent; Cairns, Charles B.; Rich, Preston B.; Hultman, C. Scott; Charles, Anthony G.; Jones, Samuel W.; Schmits, Grace L.; Skarote, Mary Beth; Holmes, James H.; Cairns, Bruce A.

    2014-01-01

    On the morning of June 9, 2009, an explosion occurred at a manufacturing plant in Garner, North Carolina. By the end of the day, 68 injured patients had been evaluated at the 3 Level I trauma centers and 3 community hospitals in the Raleigh/Durham metro area (3 people who were buried in the structural collapse died at the scene). Approximately 300 employees were present at the time of the explosion, when natural gas being vented during the repair of a hot water heater ignited. The concussion from the explosion led to structural failure in multiple locations and breached additional natural gas, electrical, and ammonia lines that ran overhead in the 1-story concrete industrial plant. Intent is the major difference between this type of accident and a terrorist using an incendiary device to terrorize a targeted population. But while this disaster lacked intent, the response, rescue, and outcomes were improved as a result of bioterrorism preparedness. This article discusses how bioterrorism hospital preparedness planning, with an all-hazards approach, became the basis for coordinated burn surge disaster preparedness. This real-world disaster challenged a variety of systems, hospitals, and healthcare providers to work efficiently and effectively to manage multiple survivors. Burn-injured patients served as a focus for this work. We describe the response, rescue, and resuscitation provided by first responders and first receivers as well as efforts made to develop burn care capabilities and surge capacity. PMID:24527874

  2. Hospital bioterrorism planning and burn surge.

    PubMed

    Kearns, Randy D; Myers, Brent; Cairns, Charles B; Rich, Preston B; Hultman, C Scott; Charles, Anthony G; Jones, Samuel W; Schmits, Grace L; Skarote, Mary Beth; Holmes, James H; Cairns, Bruce A

    2014-01-01

    On the morning of June 9, 2009, an explosion occurred at a manufacturing plant in Garner, North Carolina. By the end of the day, 68 injured patients had been evaluated at the 3 Level I trauma centers and 3 community hospitals in the Raleigh/Durham metro area (3 people who were buried in the structural collapse died at the scene). Approximately 300 employees were present at the time of the explosion, when natural gas being vented during the repair of a hot water heater ignited. The concussion from the explosion led to structural failure in multiple locations and breached additional natural gas, electrical, and ammonia lines that ran overhead in the 1-story concrete industrial plant. Intent is the major difference between this type of accident and a terrorist using an incendiary device to terrorize a targeted population. But while this disaster lacked intent, the response, rescue, and outcomes were improved as a result of bioterrorism preparedness. This article discusses how bioterrorism hospital preparedness planning, with an all-hazards approach, became the basis for coordinated burn surge disaster preparedness. This real-world disaster challenged a variety of systems, hospitals, and healthcare providers to work efficiently and effectively to manage multiple survivors. Burn-injured patients served as a focus for this work. We describe the response, rescue, and resuscitation provided by first responders and first receivers as well as efforts made to develop burn care capabilities and surge capacity. PMID:24527874

  3. [Psychosocial nursing care patient with major burns].

    PubMed

    Callejas Herrero, Aurea; Cuadrado Rodríguez, Cristina; Peña Lorenzo, Alicia; Díez Sanz, Ma Jesús

    2014-02-01

    We must consider the patient as a human being from a holistic point of view; that is, not only from a physical point of view, but also from a mental emotional and spiritual perspective (not to be confused with religion). A patient with major burns is seen as a critical patient by the physician, and for him the most important issue is the survival of the patient. It is when the patient is admitted in the Burns Unit when the long and not easy road to recovery begins, in the understanding this is a new way to integrate, feel and ultimately learn to live again. The role of nursing during this journey will be vital. The prompt and better recovery of the patient will largely depend on the link established between nurse and patient, as well as his/her integration in the new life that awaits him. The following topics are developed in this article: Emotional evolution during his stage in the Burns Unit. Psychoemotional nursing care (fear, pain, image change, long hospital stay, resources). Management of the self-protection measures of the nursing staff to maintain its own emotional stability. PMID:24738175

  4. Cytomegalovirus Colitis in a Burn Patient.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Jeff T; Zieger, Madeline; Sood, Rajiv

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of cytomegalovirus in the burn population is high. However, its role in the clinical management of burn patients is still being defined. This report documents a 41-year-old man who developed cytomegalovirus (CMV) colitis after being admitted with a 72% burn. Before the administration of ganciclovir, the authors had difficulty controlling his quantitative wound cultures with serial debridements, topical agents, and systemic antibiotics for known pathogens, which led to graft loss. After the ganciclovir was given, his quantitative wound cultures improved without changing the authors' topical agents or systemic antibiotics and had improved graft take. Whether CMV infection alone contributed to an increased morbidity in this patient or the combination of bacteria/fungal infection with CMV led to a synergistic effect is still not clearly understood. CMV may have contributed to a dysfunction in his cell mediated immunity, which, in turn, lowered the bacterial and fungal load necessary to cause graft loss. Patients who continue to do poorly despite adequate treatment for known pathogens may need to be screened for CMV and treated. PMID:26056763

  5. Burning Heptane Droplets on STS-94

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Fuel ignites and burns in the Droplet Combustion Experiment (DCE) on STS-94 on July 11, 1997. This round of experiments burned heptane droplets in 1/2 atmosphere pressure consisting of oxygen and helium. During this mission, scientists have seen for the first time droplets which stop burning due to heat loss by radiation. From these data, the investigators hope to understand the physical and chemical processes that take place in droplet combustion in different environments, including conditions under which the flames extinguish, the chemistry of the combustion reaction, and the production of pollutants such as nitrogen oxides and soot particles. The DCE was designed to investigate the fundamental combustion aspects of single, isolated droplets under different pressures and ambient oxygen concentrations for a range of droplet sizes varying between 2 and 5 mm. The DCE principal investigator was Forman Williams, University of California, San Diego. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations plarned for the International Space Station.(983KB, 9-second MPEG, screen 320 x 240 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) A still JPG composite of this movie is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300172.html.

  6. U.S. BURNING PLASMA ORGANIZATION ACTIVITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond J. Fonck

    2009-08-11

    The national U.S. Burning Plasma Organization (USBPO) was formed to provide an umbrella structure in the U.S. fusion science research community. Its main purpose is the coordination of research activities in the U.S. program relevant to burning plasma science and preparations for participation in the international ITER experiment. This grant provided support for the continuing development and operations of the USBPO in its first years of existence. A central feature of the USBPO is the requirement for broad community participation in and governance of this effort. We concentrated on five central areas of activity of the USBPO during this grant period. These included: 1) activities of the Director and support staff in continuing management and development of the USBPO activity; 2) activation of the advisory Council; 3) formation and initial research activities of the research community Topical Groups; 4) formation of Task Groups to perform specific burning plasma related research and development activities; 5) integration of the USBPO community with the ITER Project Office as needed to support ITER development in the U.S.

  7. Evidence of erosive burning in shuttle solid rocket motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, C. L.

    1983-01-01

    Known models of Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) performance have failed to produce pressure-time traces which accurately matched actual motor performance, especially during the first 5 seconds after ignition and during the last quarter of web burn time. Efforts to compensate for these differences in model reconstruction and actual performance resulted in resorting to the use of a Burning Anomaly Rate Function (BARF). It was suspected that propellant erosive burning was primarily responsible for the variation of model from actual results. The three dimensional Hercules Grain Design and Internal Ballistics Evaluation Program was made operational and slightly modified and an extensive trial and error effort was begun to test the hypothesis of erosive burning as an explanation of the burning anomaly. It was found that introduction of erosive burning (using Green's erosive burning equation) over portions of the aft segment grain and above a threshold gas Mach number did, in fact, give excellent agreement with the actual motor trace.

  8. Burn wound healing and treatment: review and advancements.

    PubMed

    Rowan, Matthew P; Cancio, Leopoldo C; Elster, Eric A; Burmeister, David M; Rose, Lloyd F; Natesan, Shanmugasundaram; Chan, Rodney K; Christy, Robert J; Chung, Kevin K

    2015-01-01

    Burns are a prevalent and burdensome critical care problem. The priorities of specialized facilities focus on stabilizing the patient, preventing infection, and optimizing functional recovery. Research on burns has generated sustained interest over the past few decades, and several important advancements have resulted in more effective patient stabilization and decreased mortality, especially among young patients and those with burns of intermediate extent. However, for the intensivist, challenges often exist that complicate patient support and stabilization. Furthermore, burn wounds are complex and can present unique difficulties that require late intervention or life-long rehabilitation. In addition to improvements in patient stabilization and care, research in burn wound care has yielded advancements that will continue to improve functional recovery. This article reviews recent advancements in the care of burn patients with a focus on the pathophysiology and treatment of burn wounds. PMID:26067660

  9. Burn assault with paint thinner ignition: an unexpected burn injury caused by street children addicted to paint thinner.

    PubMed

    Kulahci, Yalcin; Sever, Celalettin; Noyan, Nurettin; Uygur, Fatih; Ates, Alpay; Evinc, Rahmi; Oksuz, Sinan; Sahin, Cihan; Yuksel, Fuat

    2011-01-01

    The frequency of assault by burning among all burn patients varies from country to country. Assault by burning, although uncommon, is a serious form of trauma and a significant source of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this retrospective study was to identify the epidemiologic features, current etiological factors, and the mortality of nine patients admitted to our burn unit between January 1999 and January 2009 after unexpected burn assault by paint thinner ignition caused by street children addicted to paint thinner. The circumstances of this injury and preventive measures are discussed. PMID:21422944

  10. Disasters; the 2010 Haitian earthquake and the evacuation of burn victims to US burn centers.

    PubMed

    Kearns, Randy D; Holmes, James H; Skarote, Mary Beth; Cairns, Charles B; Strickland, Samantha Cooksey; Smith, Howard G; Cairns, Bruce A

    2014-09-01

    Response to the 2010 Haitian earthquake included an array of diverse yet critical actions. This paper will briefly review the evacuation of a small group of patients with burns to burn centers in the southeastern United States (US). This particular evacuation brought together for the first time plans, groups, and organizations that had previously only exercised this process. The response to the Haitian earthquake was a glimpse at what the international community working together can do to help others, and relieve suffering following a catastrophic disaster. The international response was substantial. This paper will trace one evacuation, one day for one unique group of patients with burns to burn centers in the US and review the lessons learned from this process. The patient population with burns being evacuated from Haiti was very small compared to the overall operation. Nevertheless, the outcomes included a better understanding of how a larger event could challenge the limited resources for all involved. This paper includes aspects of the patient movement, the logistics needed, and briefly discusses reimbursement for the care provided. PMID:24411582

  11. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in burning and non-burning coal waste piles.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Joana; Silva, Tais; Mendonca Filho, Joao Graciano; Flores, Deolinda

    2012-01-15

    The coal waste material that results from Douro Coalfield exploitation was analyzed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for the identification and quantification of the 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), defined as priority pollutants. It is expected that the organic fraction of the coal waste material contains PAHs from petrogenic origin, and also from pyrolytic origin in burning coal waste piles. The results demonstrate some similarity in the studied samples, being phenanthrene the most abundant PAH followed by fluoranthene and pyrene. A petrogenic contribution of PAHs in unburned samples and a mixture of PAHs from petrogenic and pyrolytic sources in the burning/burnt samples were identified. The lowest values of the sum of the 16 priority PAHs found in burning/burnt samples and the depletion LMW PAHs and greater abundance of HMW PAHs from the unburned coal waste material relatively to the burning/burnt material demonstrate the thermal transformation attributed to the burning process. The potential environmental impact associated with the coal waste piles are related with the release of petrogenic and pyrolytic PAHs in particulate and gaseous forms to soils, sediments, groundwater, surface water, and biodiversity. PMID:22119194

  12. Development of a Consistent and Reproducible Porcine Scald Burn Model.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Christine J; Kempf, Margit; Kimble, Roy; Cuttle, Leila

    2016-01-01

    There are very few porcine burn models that replicate scald injuries similar to those encountered by children. We have developed a robust porcine burn model capable of creating reproducible scald burns for a wide range of burn conditions. The study was conducted with juvenile Large White pigs, creating replicates of burn combinations; 50°C for 1, 2, 5 and 10 minutes and 60°C, 70°C, 80°C and 90°C for 5 seconds. Visual wound examination, biopsies and Laser Doppler Imaging were performed at 1, 24 hours and at 3 and 7 days post-burn. A consistent water temperature was maintained within the scald device for long durations (49.8 ± 0.1°C when set at 50°C). The macroscopic and histologic appearance was consistent between replicates of burn conditions. For 50°C water, 10 minute duration burns showed significantly deeper tissue injury than all shorter durations at 24 hours post-burn (p ≤ 0.0001), with damage seen to increase until day 3 post-burn. For 5 second duration burns, by day 7 post-burn the 80°C and 90°C scalds had damage detected significantly deeper in the tissue than the 70°C scalds (p ≤ 0.001). A reliable and safe model of porcine scald burn injury has been successfully developed. The novel apparatus with continually refreshed water improves consistency of scald creation for long exposure times. This model allows the pathophysiology of scald burn wound creation and progression to be examined. PMID:27612153

  13. Burn prevention in Zambia: a work in progress.

    PubMed

    Heard, Jason P; Latenser, Barbara A; Liao, Junlin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess both burn prevention knowledge and the effectiveness of educational intervention in alleviating the current knowledge deficit in Zambian youth. In one rural Zambian district, a burn prevention program was implemented in June 2011. Children at two elementary schools completed a 10-question survey that aimed to assess knowledge regarding burn injuries. After completing the survey, children received a burn and fire safety presentation and a burn prevention coloring book. Children were reassessed in May 2012 using the same survey to determine program efficacy and knowledge retention. Burn knowledge assessments were also completed for children at other schools who did not receive the burn prevention program in 2011. Logistic regression analysis was used for statistical adjustment for confounding variables. Between June 2011 and May 2012, 2747 children from six schools were assessed for their burn knowledge, with 312 of them resurveyed after educational intervention since initial survey. Reassessed children performed significantly better on three questions after controlling for confounders. They did better on five questions but their performance on these failed to achieve statistical significance. Children performed significantly worse on one concept about first aid treatment of a burn. A majority of the children demonstrated knowledge deficit in three concepts, even after educational intervention. There is a large variation in first burn knowledge survey performance of children from different schools, with inconsistency between concepts. With half the questions, knowledge deficit did not improve with advancement in school grade. Low- and moderate-income countries (LMICs) face the largest burns burden. With the lack of adequate burn care facing LMICs, burn injury prevention is of particular importance in those countries. This study shows that burn educational intervention could be effective in reducing burn knowledge deficit; however

  14. Solar burn reactivation induced by methotrexate.

    PubMed

    DeVore, Kelli J

    2010-04-01

    Solar burn reactivation, a rare and idiosyncratic drug reaction, has been reported with the use of a variety of drugs. This reaction is believed to be the result of exposure to ultraviolet light during the subsiding phase of an acute inflammatory reaction. It affects areas of the body that have been previously sunburned. We describe a 16-year-old girl who was receiving treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia and experienced a second-degree solar burn reactivation reaction to methotrexate. The patient had a mild sunburn on her face and shoulders the day she went to the oncology clinic for her interim maintenance chemotherapy with vincristine 1.5 mg/m(2)/dose and methotrexate 100 mg/m(2)/dose. Three days later, she returned to the clinic with a 2-day history of fever (burn reactivation reaction. She was admitted to the children's hospital and treated with sodium bicarbonate, acetaminophen with codeine, ondansetron, and silvadene cream. On hospital day 3, the patient's methotrexate level decreased to less than 0.1 mM. The sunburn continued to heal, and after a 14-day hospital stay, complicated by a streptococcal infection, grade 3 mucositis, bacteremia, and mild gastritis and duodenitis, the patient recovered and was discharged. Use of the Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale indicated a probable relationship (score of 6) between the patient's solar burn reactivation and methotrexate. Although methotrexate-induced solar burn reactivation is rare, clinicians should be aware of this potential adverse reaction and consider delaying administration of methotrexate

  15. Mortality rates among 5321 patients with burns admitted to a burn unit in China: 1980-1998.

    PubMed

    Jie, Xiao; Baoren, Cai

    2003-05-01

    A retrospective study was conducted on 5321 burn patients hospitalized in a burn center in Jinzhou, China during the period 1980-1998. Of the 5321 patients, 57.8% were between 15 and 44 years old and 3.4% were > or =60 years old. Ninety-six percent had burns covering less than half of body surface area and 31.7% had only full thickness skin burn. The number of patients in the 1990s was three times that of the 1980s. Overall mortality rate was 0.86%. LA(50) for total body burn area (TBSA) and only full thickness skin burn (FTSB) was 94 and 87%, respectively. The high survival rate, may relate primarily to the low percentages of older patients and of patients with severe burns. Inhalation injuries, infection and MOD are the main causes of deaths in our patients and would be key targets to improve clinical care and in future study. PMID:12706617

  16. Interim Status Closure Plan Open Burning Treatment Unit Technical Area 16-399 Burn Tray

    SciTech Connect

    Vigil-Holterman, Luciana R.

    2012-05-07

    This closure plan describes the activities necessary to close one of the interim status hazardous waste open burning treatment units at Technical Area (TA) 16 at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Facility), hereinafter referred to as the 'TA-16-399 Burn Tray' or 'the unit'. The information provided in this closure plan addresses the closure requirements specified in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Part 265, Subparts G and P for the thermal treatment units operated at the Facility under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act. Closure of the open burning treatment unit will be completed in accordance with Section 4.1 of this closure plan.

  17. Suicide by burning: a retrospective review of the Akron Regional Burn Center.

    PubMed

    Krummen, D M; James, K; Klein, R L

    1998-03-01

    At the Akron Regional Burn Center from January 1978 through March 1995, 36 cases of attempted suicide by burning were identified in 34 patients. The overall incidence rate was 1 per cent of all burn center admissions to this institution. Of these patients, 21 of 34 were male and 13 of 34 were female. There were 10 of 34 lethal cases. A high incidence of prior psychiatric illness was identified. In all, 22 of 34 patients had a prior psychiatric diagnosis. Depression was the most common psychiatric diagnosis by history. The method most commonly used was a flame with the addition of a flammable liquid. These results are presented, discussed and compared to a review of the literature on the topic. PMID:9625241

  18. Burn injuries in eastern Zambia: impact of multidisciplinary teaching teams.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Dianna; Heard, Jason; Latenser, Barbara A; Quinn, Keely Y; van Bruggen, Jaap; Jovic, Goran

    2011-01-01

    The American Burn Association/Children's Burn Foundation (ABA/CBF) sponsors teams who offer burn education to healthcare providers in Zambia, a sub-Saharan country. The goals of this study are 1) to acquire burn-patient demographics for the Eastern Province, Zambia and 2) to assess the early impact of the ABA/CBF-sponsored burn teams. This is a retrospective chart review of burn patients admitted in one mission hospital in Katete, Zambia, July 2002 to June 2009. July 2002 to December 2006 = data before ABA/CBF burn teams and January 2007 to June 2009 = burn care data during/after burn outreach. There were 510 burn patients hospitalized, male:female ratio 1.2:1. Average age = 15.6 years, with 44% younger than 5 years. Average TBSA burned = 11% and mean fatal TBSA = 25%. Average hospital length of stay = 16.9 days survivors and 11.6 days nonsurvivors. Most common mechanisms of burn injuries: flame (52%) and scald (41%). Ninety-two patients (18%) died and 23 (4.5%) left against medical advice. There were 191 (37.4%) patients who underwent 410 surgical procedures (range 1-13/patient). There were 138 (33.7%) sloughectomies, 118 (28.7%) skin grafts, 39 (9.5%) amputations, and 115 (28.1%) other procedures. Changes noted in the 2007 to 2009 time period: more patients had burn diagrams (48.6 vs 27.6%, P < .001), received analgesics (91 vs 84%, P = .05), resuscitation fluid (56 vs 49%, P = not significant [NS]), topical antimicrobials (40 vs 37%, P = NS), underwent skin grafting (35.5 vs 25.1%, P = NS), and underwent any operative intervention (40.6 vs 35.2%, P = NS), compared with patients treated between 2002 and 2006. This study represents the largest, most comprehensive burn data set for a sub-Saharan region in Africa. There has been a statistically significant improvement in documentation of burn size as well as administration of analgesics, validating the efficacy of the ABA/CBF-sponsored burn teams. Continued contact with burn teams may lead to increased use of

  19. Proposing "the burns suite" as a novel simulation tool for advancing the delivery of burns education.

    PubMed

    Sadideen, Hazim; Wilson, David; Moiemen, Naiem; Kneebone, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Educational theory highlights the importance of contextualized simulation for effective learning. We explored this concept in a burns scenario in a novel, low-cost, high-fidelity, portable, immersive simulation environment (referred to as distributed simulation). This contextualized simulation/distributed simulation combination was named "The Burns Suite" (TBS). A pediatric burn resuscitation scenario was selected after high trainee demand. It was designed on Advanced Trauma and Life Support and Emergency Management of Severe Burns principles and refined using expert opinion through cognitive task analysis. TBS contained "realism" props, briefed nurses, and a simulated patient. Novices and experts were recruited. Five-point Likert-type questionnaires were developed for face and content validity. Cronbach's α was calculated for scale reliability. Semistructured interviews captured responses for qualitative thematic analysis allowing for data triangulation. Twelve participants completed TBS scenario. Mean face and content validity ratings were high (4.6 and 4.5, respectively; range, 4-5). The internal consistency of questions was high. Qualitative data analysis revealed that participants felt 1) the experience was "real" and they were "able to behave as if in a real resuscitation environment," and 2) TBS "addressed what Advanced Trauma and Life Support and Emergency Management of Severe Burns didn't" (including the efficacy of incorporating nontechnical skills). TBS provides a novel, effective simulation tool to significantly advance the delivery of burns education. Recreating clinical challenge is crucial to optimize simulation training. This low-cost approach also has major implications for surgical education, particularly during increasing financial austerity. Alternative scenarios and/or procedures can be recreated within TBS, providing a diverse educational immersive simulation experience. PMID:23877145

  20. [Integration of burn treatment and rehabilitation for a child with extremely severe burn].

    PubMed

    Li, Hongming; Zhang, Jiaping; Chen, Jian; Song, Huapei; Liu, Qiushi; Fan, Xin; Peng, Yizhi; Wu, Jun

    2015-04-01

    This article reports the successful experience of integration of burn treatment and rehabilitation for a child suffering from 91% TBSA flame burn injury (with 60% TBSA full-thickness injury, 30% TBSA deep partial-thickness injury, and 1% TBSA superficial partial-thickness injury), severe inhalation injury, severe burn shock, stress ulcer, gastrointestinal bleeding and atelectasis of the right upper lung. The patient was given effective fluid infusion against shock, treatment for gastrointestinal bleeding, and other effective supportive treatment for functions of various organs after being admitted to our burn ward. When vital signs became stable at 30 hours post injury, bedside rehabilitation was begun. On post injury day (PID) 4, escharectomy was performed for both lower limbs, followed by microskin grafting and allogeneic skin covering. On PID 10, invasive infection of multi-drug resistant bacteria was found with accompanied high fever, and at the same time allograft began to disintegrate, with dissolution of large area of eschar, leading to a raw surface reaching 86% TBSA. Following debridement, dressing, application of compound polymyxin B ointment, temporary covering of wounds with porcine acellular dermal matrix, adjustment of antibiotics, patient's condition was finally stabilized. From PID 28 on, split-thickness skin grafting was conducted 7 times, and the raw surface of 75% TBSA involving the upper and lower limbs and trunk was successfully covered. At the same time, our rehabilitation team launched comprehensive rehabilitation measures comprising active exercise, occupational therapy, prevention of scar formation, organ function training and psychological intervention. Finally, the patient was able to walk unaided and fed herself when the wounds were almost entirely healed in 3 months after injury. Oriented forwards functional rehabilitation, strong cooperation between team members, and synchronous effective implementation of burn treatment and